WorldWideScience

Sample records for related pollutant management

  1. NPS pollution related to forest management activities in southern states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnny M. Grace

    2004-01-01

    Road systems on the nation’s public lands are vital links; providing access to perform management prescriptions, fire management, and recreation opportunities. Sediment movement downslope of forest road systems is a concern because these sediments have the potential to reach stream systems. Filter strips and stream side management zones (SMZs) are recommended and...

  2. Pollution management system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    A pollution management system comprises an array of one or more inlets and at least one outlet. The one or more inlets are arranged to collect polluted air and supply said polluted air to a polluted air treatment element. The one or more inlets each comprise a respective inlet sensor for measuring...... a level of pollution at the inlet, and the at least one outlet comprises an outlet sensor for measuring a level of pollution at the outlet. The inlet sensors and the outlet sensor are arranged to provide feedback to the polluted air treatment element....

  3. Towards sustainable pollution management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jern, N. G. W.

    2017-03-01

    It is often overlooked pollution control itself may not be entirely free from adverse impact on the environment if considered from a more holistic perspective. For example mechanised wastewater treatment is energy intensive and so has a carbon footprint because of the need to move air to supply oxygen to the aerobic treatment process. The aerobic treatment process then results in excess bio-sludge which requires disposal and if such is not appropriately performed, then there is risk of surface and groundwater contamination. This presentation explores the changes which have been investigated and are beginning to be implemented in wastewater, sludge, and agro-industrial wastes management which are more environmentally benign. Three examples shall be used to illustrate the discussion. The first example uses the conventional sewage treatment system with a unit process arrangement which converts carbonaceous pollutants from soluble and colloidal forms to particulate forms with an aerobic process before attempting energy recovery with an anaerobic process. Such an arrangement does, however, result in a negative energy balance. This is not withstanding the fact there is potentially more energy in sewage than is required to treat it if that energy can be effectively harvested. The latter can be achieved by removing the carbonaceous pollutants before the aerobic process and thereby using the aerobic process for polishing instead of treating. The carbonaceous pollutants so recovered then becomes the feed for the anaerobic process. Unfortunately conventional anaerobic sludge digestion only removes 35-45% of the organic material fed. Since biogas production (and hence energy recovery) is linked to the amount of organic material which can be degraded anaerobically, the effectiveness of the anaerobic digestion process needs to be improved. Contrary to a commonly held belief wherein methanogenesis is the “bottleneck” in anaerobic processes, hydrolysis is in sludge digestion

  4. Thermal treatments of solid wastes. Different strategies for related pollutant management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolella, C.; Convertti, A.; Rovatti, M. [Genoa Univ. (Italy); Boschi, R.; Cozzani, V.; Tognotti, L. [Pisa Univ. (Italy). Dept. of Chemistry Engineering

    1995-12-31

    Thermal treatment of solid wastes present different advantages/disadvantages as far as recovery and emissions concerns. They provide a captive energy source; reduce the quantity of waste to be landfilled; there are limited by-product and pollutant generating problems. Combined treatment of solid wastes (incineration, pyrolysis, gasification) have been considered to evaluate the energy recovery as well as the quality and the amount of pollutants potentially generated by the combined processes. Direct incineration of MSW, RDF or specific industrial wastes represents a viable, definitive, low environmental impact solution for most refuses. Treatment of emissions can be efficiently achieved by dry or wet processes. Nowadays abatement technologies are able to provide emissions within the guidelines of EEC countries. Problems arise when wastes contain large amount of chlorinated compounds (for example PVC) and/or heavy rentals: incineration may be not best way to be pursued. The general aim of the research program carried out by ISTIC (Genova), and Department of Chemical Engineering (Pisa) is to gain fundamental information on pyrolysis of refuse materials and to study the possible industrial application of these processes. Possible solutions have been studied in terms of material and energy balances, in order to verify the feasibility of combined treatments. Here, preliminary results are given on a two-stage process (low temperature pyrolysis (LTP) followed by incineration or gasification/pyrolysis) for treating specific wastes. (author)

  5. Residuals Management and Water Pollution Control Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Public Affairs.

    This pamphlet addresses the problems associated with residuals and water quality especially as it relates to the National Water Pollution Control Program. The types of residuals and appropriate management systems are discussed. Additionally, one section is devoted to the role of citizen participation in developing management programs. (CS)

  6. Management of polluted deposit in lake and river

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Hee; Kim, Eun Jung [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    In this study, the perception and problem of polluted deposit in Korea, which does not have a clear concept of it, were analyzed and the need of a comprehensive polluted deposit management, including the present condition of pollution, assessment, pollution prevention, and disposal of polluted deposit, was presented. Based on the analysis on foreign management system, the framework of polluted deposit management in Korea was provided. 84 refs., 11 figs., 40 tabs.

  7. Neurotoxicity of traffic-related air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Lucio G; Cole, Toby B; Coburn, Jacki; Chang, Yu-Chi; Dao, Khoi; Roqué, Pamela J

    2017-03-01

    The central nervous system is emerging as an important target for adverse health effects of air pollution, where it may contribute to neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders. Air pollution comprises several components, including particulate matter (PM) and ultrafine particulate matter (UFPM), gases, organic compounds, and metals. An important source of ambient PM and UFPM is represented by traffic-related air pollution, primarily diesel exhaust (DE). Human epidemiological studies and controlled animal studies have shown that exposure to air pollution, and to traffic-related air pollution or DE in particular, may lead to neurotoxicity. In particular, air pollution is emerging as a possible etiological factor in neurodevelopmental (e.g. autism spectrum disorders) and neurodegenerative (e.g. Alzheimer's disease) disorders. The most prominent effects caused by air pollution in both humans and animals are oxidative stress and neuro-inflammation. Studies in mice acutely exposed to DE (250-300μg/m 3 for 6h) have shown microglia activation, increased lipid peroxidation, and neuro-inflammation in various brain regions, particularly the hippocampus and the olfactory bulb. An impairment of adult neurogenesis was also found. In most cases, the effects of DE were more pronounced in male mice, possibly because of lower antioxidant abilities due to lower expression of paraoxonase 2. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparative Assessment of Stormwater and Nonpoint Source Pollution Best Management Practices in Suburban Watershed Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeyuan Qiu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Nonpoint source pollution control and stormwater management are two objectives in managing mixed land use watersheds like those in New Jersey. Various best management practices (BMPs have been developed and implemented to achieve both objectives. This study assesses the cost-effectiveness of selected BMPs for agricultural nonpoint source pollution control and stormwater management in the Neshanic River watershed, a typical mixed land use watershed in central New Jersey, USA. The selected BMPs for nonpoint source pollution control include cover crops, prescribed grazing, livestock access control, contour farming, nutrient management, and conservation buffers. The selected BMPs for stormwater management are rain gardens, roadside ditch retrofitting, and detention basin retrofitting. Cost-effectiveness is measured by the reduction in pollutant loads in total suspended solids and total phosphorus relative to the total costs of implementing the selected BMPs. The pollution load reductions for these BMPs are based on the total pollutant loads in the watershed simulated by the Soil and Water Assessment Tool and achievable pollutant reduction rates. The total implementation cost includes BMP installation and maintenance costs. The assessment results indicate that the BMPs for the nonpoint source pollution control are generally much more cost-effective in improving water quality than the BMPs for stormwater management.

  9. Pollution effects on fisheries — potential management activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindermann, C. J.

    1980-03-01

    Management of ocean pollution must be based on the best available scientific information, with adequate consideration of economic, social, and political realities. Unfortunately, the best available scientific information about pollution effects on fisheries is often fragmentary, and often conjectural; therefore a primary concern of management should be a critical review and assessment of available factual information about effects of pollutants on fish and shellfish stocks. A major problem in any such review and assessment is the separation of pollutant effects from the effects of all the other environmental factors that influence survival and well-being of marine animals. Data from long-term monitoring of resource abundance, and from monitoring of all determinant environmental variables, will be required for analyses that lead to resolution of the problem. Information must also be acquired about fluxes of contaminants through resource-related ecosystems, and about contaminant effects on resource species as demonstrated in field and laboratory experiments. Other possible management activities include: (1) encouragement of continued efforts to document clearly the localized and general effects of pollution on living resources; (2) continued pressure to identify and use reliable biological indicators of environmental degradation (indicators of choice at present are: unusually high levels of genetic and other anomalies in the earliest life history stages; presence of pollution-associated disease signs, particularly fin erosion and ulcers, in fish; and biochemical/physiological changes); and (3) major efforts to reduce inputs of pollutants clearly demonstrated to be harmful to living resources, from point sources as well as ocean dumping. Such pollution management activities, based on continuous efforts in stock assessment, environmental assessment, and experimental studies, can help to insure that rational decisions will be made about uses and abuses of coastal

  10. [Airport related air pollution and health effects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iavicoli, Ivo; Fontana, Luca; Ancona, Carla; Forastiere, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Airport is an extremely complex emission source of airborne pollutants that can have a significant impact on the environment. Indeed, several airborne chemicals emitted during airport activities may significantly get worse air quality and increase exposure level of both airport workers and general population living nearby the airports. In recent years airport traffic has increased and consequently several studies investigated the association between airport-related air pollution and occurrence of adverse health effects, particularly on respiratory system, in exposed workers and general population resident nearby. In this context, we carried out a critical evaluation of the studies that investigated this correlation in order to obtain a deeper knowledge of this issue and to identify the future research needs. Results show that the evidence of association between airport-related air pollution and health effects on workers and residents is still limited.

  11. Spatial-Temporal Hotspot Pattern Analysis of Provincial Environmental Pollution Incidents and Related Regional Sustainable Management in China in the Period 1995–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Ding

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Spatial-temporal hotspot pattern analysis of environmental pollution incidents provides an indispensable source of information for the further development of incident prevention measures. In this study, the spatial-temporal patterns of environmental pollution incidents in China in the period of 1995–2012 were analyzed, using the Spatial Getis-Ord statistic and an Improved Prediction Accuracy Index (IAPI. The results show that, in this period, the occurrence of environmental incidents exhibited a dynamic growth pattern but then dropped and continued to drop after the year 2006, which was considered a crucial turning point. Not coincidentally, this corresponds to the year when the State Council issued its National Environmental Emergency Plan, and following the examination of major incidents, special actions were taken to strengthen the control of incidents and emergency responses. The results from Getis-Ord General G statistical analysis show that the spatial agglomeration phenomenon was statistically significant after 1999 and that the level of spatial agglomeration was rising, while the Getis-Ord Gi* statistical analysis reveals that environmental pollution incidents were mainly agglomerated in the Pan Yangtze River Delta and Pan Pearl River Delta regions. Accordingly, the spatial-temporal hotspot pattern based on the IAPI values at the provincial scale could be categorized into: stable hotspots, unstable hotspots, and cold-spot areas. The stable hotspots category was further divided into three subtypes: industrial distribution type, industrial transfer type, and extensive economic growth type. Finally, the corresponding measures for sustainable management were proposed: stable hotspots were classified as essential regions requiring the immediate prevention and control of environmental pollution incidents; unstable hotspots were characterized by their need for ongoing and continual prevention measures, and cold-spots were those areas that

  12. Managing Air Quality - Air Pollutant Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Describes the types of air pollutants, including common or criteria pollutants, and hazardous air pollutants and links to additional information. Also links to resources on other air pollution issues.

  13. Pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dürr, E.; Jaffe, R.; Nonini, D.M.

    2014-01-01

    This essay points to the role of pollution in understanding the social construction of hierarchies and urban space. Conceptualizations of pollution and approaches to waste management always reflect the Zeitgeist and tend to be politically charged. We argue that an ethnographic approach to pollution

  14. Waste management, informal recycling, environmental pollution and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hong; Ma, Mingguo; Thompson, Julian R; Flower, Roger J

    2017-12-08

    With rapid population growth, especially in low-income and middle-income countries, the generation of waste is increasing at an unprecedented rate. For example, annual global waste arising from waste electrical and electronic equipment alone will have increased from 33.8 to 49.8 million tonnes between 2010 and 2018. Despite incineration and other waste treatment techniques, landfill still dominates waste disposal in low-income and middle-income countries. There is usually insufficient funding for adequate waste management in these countries and uptake of more advanced waste treatment technologies is poor. Without proper management, many landfills represent serious hazards as typified by the landslide in Shenzhen, China on 20 December 2015. In addition to formal waste recycling systems, approximately 15 million people around the world are involved in informal waste recycling, mainly for plastics, metals, glass and paper. This review examines emerging public health challenges, in particular within low-income and middle-income countries, associated with the informal sector. While informal recyclers contribute to waste recycling and reuse, the relatively primitive techniques they employ, combined with improper management of secondary pollutants, exacerbate environmental pollution of air, soil and water. Even worse, insufficient occupational health measures expose informal waste workers to a range of pollutants, injuries, respiratory and dermatological problems, infections and other serious health issues that contribute to low life expectancy. Integration of the informal sector with its formal counterparts could improve waste management while addressing these serious health and livelihood issues. Progress in this direction has already been made notably in several Latin American countries where integrating the informal and formal sectors has had a positive influence on both waste management and poverty alleviation. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless

  15. Air Quality and Air Pollution Management in Urban Areas in Less Developed Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, P. V.

    2007-01-01

    The working group will address the complexity of air pollution management in the growing urban sphere in the less developed countries, and will discus and evaluate how Danish and Scandinavian research institutions, universities and private companies can initiate a more progressive role...... in development aid and capacity development in relation to air pollution. For further information on the actions objective, activities and dissemination plan...

  16. Management of Water for Consumption and Pollution in the Yitenga ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    13 sept. 2007 ... Management of Water for Consumption and Pollution in the Yitenga Basin, Burkina Faso - Phase II ... 13, mars 2008. Rapports. Gestion de l'eau de consommation et de la pollution dans le bassin versant de Yitenga : application à l'amélioration des conditions socio-sanitaires des populations et à la lutte ...

  17. Strengthening Coastal Pollution Management in the Wider Caribbean Region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lavieren, van H.; Metcalfe, C.D.; Drouillard, K.; Sale, P.; Gold-Bouchot, G.; Reid, R.; Vermeulen, L.C.

    2011-01-01

    Control of aquatic pollution is critical for improving coastal zone management and for the conservation of fisheries resources. Countries in the Wider Caribbean Region (WCR) generally lack monitoring capacity and do not have reliable information on the levels and distribution of pollutants,

  18. Precarious Labour Relations as a Factor of Social Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Eduardovna Fyodorova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the issue of assessing the extent of precarious labour relations considered by the authors as one of the systemic factors of social pollution. The emergence of the social pollution of the labour sphere is primarily caused by the aspiration of employers to reduce labour costs. It leads to an increasing spread of the use of toxic practices of the personnel management. This article presents the interim results of the monitoring study, implemented by the authors on the basis of the methodology which includes the sociological survey of the employees of Russian enterprises of different economic sectors. In 2014, the authors held a pilot study in order to test the methodological tools of the evaluation of social pollution level in labour sphere including the assessment of the degree of precarious labour relations as well as verification of the hypothesis of this research. Following the results of the pilot study, the sociological survey tools were improved. The survey took place in 2015 among workers of the Sverdlovsk region. The obtained results allow us to identify the toxic elements of labour sphere. These elements are associated with the precarious labour relations and have a negative impact on the physical and psychosocial health of employees. Also, we can make conclusions about the existing trends that reflect the qualitative characteristics of current changes in the relationship between employers and employees. The limitations of the presented results are conditioned by the fact that the monitoring assumes conducting annual surveys for a long period. However, the interim findings are of interest and can be used to find solutions of the problems caused by the increasing precarious labour relations both at the level of enterprise and at the level of regional power.

  19. Managing air pollution impacted forests of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael J. Arbaugh; Trent Proctor; Annie Esperanza

    2009-01-01

    Fuel treatments (prescribed fire and mechanical removal) on public lands in California are critical for reducing fuel accumulation and wildfire frequency and severity and protecting private property located in the wildland–urban interface. Treatments are especially needed in forests impacted by air pollution and subject to climate change. High ambient ozone (O

  20. Indoor Air Pollution: An Energy Management Problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousins, David M.; Kulba, John W.

    1987-01-01

    Energy conservation measures have led to airtight buildings and reduced levels of ventilation resulting in indoor air pollution. Five kinds of contaminants--tobacco smoke, combustion products, microorganisms, organic compounds, and radon--are described, their hazards considered, and countermeasures outlined. (MLF)

  1. Assessment of the biomass related indoor air pollution in Kwale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Indoor air pollution remains an important health problem in some countries. Although research data on this issue is available, routine monitoring in affected areas is limited. The aims of this study were to quantify exposure to biomass- related indoor air pollution; assess the respiratory health of subjects; and ...

  2. Indoor and Outdoor Air Pollution- related Health Problem in Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The health effects of air pollution are generally global problems, but they have, since recently become issues of particular concern for developing countries. This review assessed the situation of air pollution and related health effects in the context of Ethiopia. Methods: The materials reviewed in this publication ...

  3. Fate of airborne metal pollution in soils as related to agricultural management: 2. Assessing the role of biological activity in micro-scale Zn and Pb distributions in A, B and C horizons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez, C.; Labanowski, J.; Jongmans, T.; Bermond, A.; Cambier, P.; Lamy, I.; Oort, van F.

    2010-01-01

    This work assesses relationships between characteristic aggregate microstructures related to biological activity in soils under different long-term land use and the distribution and extractability of metal pollutants. We selected two neighbouring soils contaminated with comparable metal loads by

  4. Managing or Relating?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sproedt, Henrik; Buur, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a case of user-driven innovation. We draw on social capital theory and the concept of complex responsive processes to examine the role of relations for the exchange and generation of knowledge across different knowledge traditions. We argue that innovation as a social phenome...... phenomenon with a high degree of uncertainty and complexity requires more relating and less managing to use conflict as a resource by turning the friction between different knowledge traditions into creative friction....

  5. Traffic-Related Air Pollution and Parkinson's Disease in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritz, Beate; Lee, Pei-Chen; Hansen, Johnni

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Very little is currently known about air pollutants' adverse effects on neurodegenerative diseases even though recent studies have linked particulate exposures to brain pathologies associated with Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. Here we investigate long-term exposure to traffic......-related air pollution and Parkinson's disease. METHODS: In a case-control study of 1,696 Parkinson's disease (PD) patients identified from Danish hospital registries and diagnosed 1996-2009 and 1,800 population controls matched by gender and year of birth we assessed long-term traffic-related air pollutant...

  6. Urban streets functionality as a tool for urban pollution management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey Gozalo, Guillermo; Barrigón Morillas, Juan Miguel; Gómez Escobar, Valentín

    2013-09-01

    Pollution derived from traffic can be considered one of the major problems of modern cities. Although considerable efforts have been devoted to gathering information about pollution and its control, little attention has been paid to the analysis of relationships between pollution distribution and town planning. The existence of these relationships would enable better prediction and prevention of pollution through town planning. In this work, an analysis of one pollutant derived from traffic (urban noise) in 27 cities is presented. Non-parametric tests and ROC analyses were employed, using the equivalent sound level (L(eq)) values as the dependent variable. For the characterization of the pollutant, an alternative concept to accessibility is analyzed: the concept of functionality. Results of statistical inferential analysis showed the existence of significant differences between the sound levels of the different category results, confirming that noise is stratified in the studied cities and that the five categories proposed based in the concept of functionality highlight this noise stratification. Moreover, high sensitivity and low non-specificity were obtained by using ROC analysis. Results of this analysis also showed an overall average value of prediction capacity close to 90%. Therefore, because the proposed categories highlight the noise stratification of the studied pollutant in all the towns studied, the functionality concept can be considered an interesting tool for urban planning and for designing pollution prevention policies. Finally, as traffic is a source of other urban pollutants, the concept of functionality may be a new concept for wide environmental pollution management. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Managing Air Quality - Control Strategies to Achieve Air Pollution Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Considerations in designing an effective control strategy related to air quality, controlling pollution sources, need for regional or national controls, steps to developing a control strategy, and additional EPA resources.

  8. Comparative Assessment of Stormwater and Nonpoint Source Pollution Best Management Practices in Suburban Watershed Management

    OpenAIRE

    Zeyuan Qiu

    2013-01-01

    Nonpoint source pollution control and stormwater management are two objectives in managing mixed land use watersheds like those in New Jersey. Various best management practices (BMPs) have been developed and implemented to achieve both objectives. This study assesses the cost-effectiveness of selected BMPs for agricultural nonpoint source pollution control and stormwater management in the Neshanic River watershed, a typical mixed land use watershed in central New Jersey, USA. The selected BMP...

  9. Coastal Marine Pollution in Dar es Salaam (Tanzania) relative to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The lack of sufficient wastewater treatment facilities is the main cause of current levels of some pollution in the coastal marine environment off Dar es Salaam. The implementation of industrial and municipal wastewater management would greatly improve this situation. The results ..... (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides.

  10. The legal framework to manage chemical pollution in India and the lesson from the Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Brij Mohan; Bharat, Girija K; Tayal, Shresth; Nizzetto, Luca; Larssen, Thorjørn

    2014-08-15

    India's rapid agro-economic growth has resulted into many environmental issues, especially related to chemical pollution. Environmental management and control of toxic chemicals have gained significant attention from policy makers, researchers, and enterprises in India. The present study reviews the policy and legal and non-regulatory schemes set in place in this country during the last decades to manage chemical risk and compares them with those in developed nations. India has a large and fragmented body of regulation to control and manage chemical pollution which appears to be ineffective in protecting environment and human health. The example of POPs contamination in India is proposed to support such a theory. Overlapping of jurisdictions and retrospectively approached environmental policy and risk management currently adopted in India are out of date and excluding Indian economy from the process of building and participating into new, environmentally-sustainable market spaces for chemical products. To address these issues, the introduction of a new integrated and scientifically-informed regulation and management scheme is recommended. Such scheme should acknowledge the principle of risk management rather than the current one based on risk acceptance. To this end, India should take advantage of the experience of recently introduced chemical management regulation in some developed nations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of economic loss from energy-related environmental pollution: a case study of Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Su, Meirong; Liu, Gengyuan; Yang, Zhifeng

    2013-09-01

    With the growth of energy consumption, energy-related environmental pollution has become increasingly serious, which in turn causes enormous economic loss because of public health damage, corrosion of materials, crop yield reduction, and other factors. Evaluating economic loss caused by energy-related environmental pollution can contribute to decision making in energy management. A framework for evaluating economic loss from environmental pollution produced during energy production, transportation, and consumption is proposed in this paper. Regarding SO2, PM10, and solid waste as the main pollutants, economic losses from health damage, materials corrosion, crop yield reduction, and solid waste pollution are estimated based on multiple concentration-response relationships and dose-response functions. The proposed framework and evaluation methods are applied to Beijing, China. It is evident that total economic loss attributable to energy-related environmental pollution fluctuated during 2000-2011 but had a general growth trend, with the highest value reaching 2.3 × 108 CNY (China Yuan) in 2006. Economic loss caused by health damage contributes most to the total loss among the four measured damage types. The total economic loss strongly correlates with the amount of energy consumption, especially for oil and electricity. Our evaluation framework and methods can be used widely to measure the potential impact of environmental pollution in the energy lifecycle.

  12. Impact of traffic-related air pollution on health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubiak-Lasocka, J; Lasocki, J; Siekmeier, R; Chłopek, Z

    2015-01-01

    Road transport contributes significantly to air quality problems through vehicle emissions, which have various detrimental impacts on public health and the environment. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of traffic-related air pollution on health of Warsaw citizens, following the basics of the Health Impact Assessment (HIA) method, and evaluate its social cost. PM10 was chosen as an indicator of traffic-related air pollution. Exposure-response functions between air pollution and health impacts were employed. The value of statistical life (VSL) approach was used for the estimation of the cost of mortality attributable to traffic-related air pollution. Costs of hospitalizations and restricted activity days were assessed basing on the cost of illness (COI) method. According to the calculations, about 827 Warsaw citizens die in a year as a result of traffic-related air pollution. Also, about 566 and 250 hospital admissions due to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, respectively, and more than 128,453 restricted activity days can be attributed to the traffic emissions. From the social perspective, these losses generate the cost of 1,604 million PLN (1 EUR-approx. 4.2 PLN). This cost is very high and, therefore, more attention should be paid for the integrated environmental health policy.

  13. Pathologic analysis of control plans for air pollution management in tehran metropolis: A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narges Salehi Shahrabi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Regarding the importance of air pollution issue for large cities, as Tehran metropolis, many plans, programs, projects and regulations have been developed to manage urban air pollution. However, most of them failed to decline the pollution. The purpose of this study is to pathologically analyze air-pollution control plans in order to offer effective solutions for Tehran metropolis. Methods: A qualitative content analysis and a semi-structured interview with 14 practicing professionals were used to identify key causes and sources of Tehran′s air pollution, to recognize challenges and obstacles towards effective performance of air-pollution control plans in this metropolitan area, and to suggest the most effective controlling solutions. Results: Challenges related to air-pollution control plans can be divided into two major categories: Firstly lack of integrated and organized stewardship and secondly those related to political, economical, social and technical environmental abbreviated as PEST, challenges. For effective control of the Tehran air pollution, the following eight controlling alternatives were identified: Systematization of plan preparation process, organizing the stewardship, standardization and utilization of new technologies and professional experts, cultural and infrastructural development, realization of social justice, developing coordination and controlling mechanisms, improving citizen′s participatory capacity, and focusing on effective management of fuel and energy. Conclusions: Controlling air pollution in Tehran should be considered as a priority for policymakers to make enforcements through applying a systemic cycle of preparation effective and comprehensive plans. Further, implement the enforcements and evaluate the environmental impact of the plans through involving all stakeholders.

  14. Asthma morbidity and ambient air pollution: effect modification by residential traffic-related air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delfino, Ralph J; Wu, Jun; Tjoa, Thomas; Gullesserian, Sevan K; Nickerson, Bruce; Gillen, Daniel L

    2014-01-01

    Ambient air pollution has been associated with asthma-related hospital admissions and emergency department visits (hospital encounters). We hypothesized that higher individual exposure to residential traffic-related air pollutants would enhance these associations. We studied 11,390 asthma-related hospital encounters among 7492 subjects 0-18 years of age living in Orange County, California. Ambient exposures were measured at regional air monitoring stations. Seasonal average traffic-related exposures (PM2.5, ultrafine particles, NOx, and CO) were estimated near subjects' geocoded residences for 6-month warm and cool seasonal periods, using dispersion models based on local traffic within 500 m radii. Associations were tested in case-crossover conditional logistic regression models adjusted for temperature and humidity. We assessed effect modification by seasonal residential traffic-related air pollution exposures above and below median dispersion-modeled exposures. Secondary analyses considered effect modification by traffic exposures within race/ethnicity and insurance group strata. Asthma morbidity was positively associated with daily ambient O3 and PM2.5 in warm seasons and with CO, NOx, and PM2.5 in cool seasons. Associations with CO, NOx, and PM2.5 were stronger among subjects living at residences with above-median traffic-related exposures, especially in cool seasons. Secondary analyses showed no consistent differences in association, and 95% confidence intervals were wide, indicating a lack of precision for estimating these highly stratified associations. Associations of asthma with ambient air pollution were enhanced among subjects living in homes with high traffic-related air pollution. This may be because of increased susceptibility (greater asthma severity) or increased vulnerability (meteorologic amplification of local vs. correlated ambient exposures).

  15. Indoor and Outdoor Air Pollution- related Health Problem in Ethiopia: Review of Related Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tefera, Worku; Asfaw, Araya; Gilliland, Frank; Worku, Alemayehu; Wondimagegn, Mehari; Kumie, Abera; Samet, Jonathan; Berhane, Kiros

    2016-01-01

    The health effects of air pollution are generally global problems, but they have, since recently become issues of particular concern for developing countries. This review assessed the situation of air pollution and related health effects in the context of Ethiopia. The materials reviewed in this publication are published scientific papers from online search engines, unpublished government reports and academic theses/dissertations. In addition, interview data obtained from authorities and experts involved in the management of air quality were analyzed, interpreted and reported in the article. Review of the few studies conducted in Ethiopia showed that average concentrations of PM 2.5 reached as high as 280 µg/m 3 for 24-hour measurements (range: 2,417-12,739 µg/m 3 ). Indoor carbon monoxide (CO) levels were universally higher than regulatory limits for the United States and were found to be much higher among households using traditional stoves and solid biomass fuels. The use of traditional stoves and solid biomass fuels was reported in >95% of the households considered. High average levels of NO 2 (97 ppb) were reported in a large longitudinal study. The ambient PM 10 level was below the WHO guideline values in the majority of the samples. About 50% of the on-road CO samples taken from traffic roads in Addis Ababa were found to be less than the guideline values while the number of motor vehicles in Ethiopia is reported to be increasing by more than 9% per annum. There is a very limited air quality monitoring capacity in the country. The co-ordination between stakeholders in this regard is also inadequate. The limited evidence available on health effects of air pollution indicates that the prevalence of acute respiratory illness among children living in households using crude biomass fuels is significantly higher than the national average figures. The limited evidence reviewed and reported in this article indicates high levels of indoor air pollution and trends of

  16. Environmental policy, legislation and management of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Melody Hoi Yin; Leung, Kenneth Mei Yee; Wong, Stella Wing Yu; Wang, Hong; Yan, Zhen-Guang

    2012-06-01

    Since early 1980s, chemical pollution has become a serious environmental problem in rapidly developing China. This study reviewed the policy and legal framework for monitoring and management of chemical pollutants in China, with reference to the relevant experience in other jurisdictions. Although efforts in environmental monitoring of chemical contamination have been substantially increased over the last decade, China is lagging behind in terms of nationwide monitoring of chemical contamination in human population, and standardization of sampling and analytical protocols. While actively participating in various international treaties and conventions related to pollution control, China also has a very comprehensive set of environmental laws and policies. These include the newly enacted legislation on the control of new chemicals (i.e., China REACH) and the development of a set of National Environmental Standards. In addition to environmental education, these new measures will further enhance the control of chemical pollutants and facilitate effective law enforcement. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Monitoring of air pollution levels related to Charilaos Trikoupis Bridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarigiannis, D A; Handakas, E J; Kermenidou, M; Zarkadas, I; Gotti, A; Charisiadis, P; Makris, K; Manousakas, M; Eleftheriadis, K; Karakitsios, S P

    2017-12-31

    Charilaos Trikoupis bridge is the longest cable bridge in Europe that connects Western Greece with the rest of the country. In this study, six air pollution monitoring campaigns (including major regulated air pollutants) were carried out from 2013 to 2015 at both sides of the bridge, located in the urban areas of Rio and Antirrio respectively. Pollution data were statistically analyzed and air quality was characterized using US and European air quality indices. From the overall campaign, it was found that air pollution levels were below the respective regulatory thresholds, but once at the site of Antirrio (26.4 and 52.2μg/m(3) for PM2.5 and ΡΜ10, respectively) during the 2nd winter period. Daily average PM10 and PM2.5 levels from two monitoring sites were well correlated to gaseous pollutant (CO, NO, NO2, NOx and SO2) levels, meteorological parameters and factor scores from Positive Matrix Factorization during the 3-year period. Moreover, the elemental composition of PM10 and PM2.5 was used for source apportionment. That analysis revealed that major emission sources were sulfates, mineral dust, biomass burning, sea salt, traffic and shipping emissions for PM10 and PM2.5, for both Rio and Antirrio. Seasonal variation indicates that sulfates, mineral dust and traffic emissions increased during the warm season of the year, while biomass burning become the dominant during the cold season. Overall, the contribution of the Charilaos Trikoupis bridge to the vicinity air pollution is very low. This is the result of the relatively low daily traffic volume (~10,000 vehicles per day), the respective traffic fleet composition (~81% of the traffic fleet are private vehicles) and the speed limit (80km/h) which does not favor traffic emissions. In addition, the strong and frequent winds further contribute to the rapid dispersion of the emitted pollutants. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Assessment of the biomass related indoor air pollution in Kwale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relatively high incidences of respiratory illness or symptoms were reported and the spirometry readings suggested impaired lung function in over 80% of respondents. Conclusion: Our results quantify that the use of biomass fuel can give rise to high levels of indoor air pollution. Given that poor lung function contributes to ...

  19. Industrial pollution and the management of river water quality: a model of Kelani River, Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawardena, Asha; Wijeratne, E M S; White, Ben; Hailu, Atakelty; Pandit, Ram

    2017-08-19

    Water quality of the Kelani River has become a critical issue in Sri Lanka due to the high cost of maintaining drinking water standards and the market and non-market costs of deteriorating river ecosystem services. By integrating a catchment model with a river model of water quality, we developed a method to estimate the effect of pollution sources on ambient water quality. Using integrated model simulations, we estimate (1) the relative contribution from point (industrial and domestic) and non-point sources (river catchment) to river water quality and (2) pollutant transfer coefficients for zones along the lower section of the river. Transfer coefficients provide the basis for policy analyses in relation to the location of new industries and the setting of priorities for industrial pollution control. They also offer valuable information to design socially optimal economic policy to manage industrialized river catchments.

  20. Traffic-related air pollution, particulate matter, and autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volk, Heather E; Lurmann, Fred; Penfold, Bryan; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; McConnell, Rob

    2013-01-01

    Autism is a heterogeneous disorder with genetic and environmental factors likely contributing to its origins. Examination of hazardous pollutants has suggested the importance of air toxics in the etiology of autism, yet little research has examined its association with local levels of air pollution using residence-specific exposure assignments. To examine the relationship between traffic-related air pollution, air quality, and autism. This population-based case-control study includes data obtained from children with autism and control children with typical development who were enrolled in the Childhood Autism Risks from Genetics and the Environment study in California. The mother's address from the birth certificate and addresses reported from a residential history questionnaire were used to estimate exposure for each trimester of pregnancy and first year of life. Traffic-related air pollution was assigned to each location using a line-source air-quality dispersion model. Regional air pollutant measures were based on the Environmental Protection Agency's Air Quality System data. Logistic regression models compared estimated and measured pollutant levels for children with autism and for control children with typical development. Case-control study from California. A total of 279 children with autism and a total of 245 control children with typical development. Crude and multivariable adjusted odds ratios (AORs) for autism. Children with autism were more likely to live at residences that had the highest quartile of exposure to traffic-related air pollution, during gestation (AOR, 1.98 [95% CI, 1.20-3.31]) and during the first year of life (AOR, 3.10 [95% CI, 1.76-5.57]), compared with control children. Regional exposure measures of nitrogen dioxide and particulate matter less than 2.5 and 10 μm in diameter (PM2.5 and PM10) were also associated with autism during gestation (exposure to nitrogen dioxide: AOR, 1.81 [95% CI, 1.37-3.09]; exposure to PM2.5: AOR, 2.08 [95

  1. Environmental impacts of stormwater management and pollutant discharges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brudler, Sarah; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    Stormwater management systems are necessary to protect people and assets from flooding and pollution, especially in densely built, sealed urban areas. The possible solutions range from underground pipes and basins, where rain water is often handled together with wastewater, to local and multi...... in runoff are one possible source of (local) environmental impacts, the stormwater management system itself is a source of emissions. Raw material extraction, construction, operation, renewal, and disposal all cause environmental impacts at a more regional or even global scale. These impacts can...... be quantified using life cycle assessment, which on the other hand usually neglects the impacts from local emissions, even though these may potentially be significant. By integrating local emissions into the assessment, we are able to quantify the total environmental impacts of stormwater management solutions...

  2. Population-production-pollution nexus based air pollution management model for alleviating the atmospheric crisis in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, X T; Tong, Y F; Cui, L; Kong, X M; Sheng, Y N; Chen, L; Li, Y P

    2017-07-15

    In recent years, increscent emissions in the city of Beijing due to expanded population, accelerated industrialization and inter-regional pollutant transportation have led to hazardous atmospheric pollution issues. Although a number of anthropogenic control measures have been put into use, frequent/severe haze events have still challenged regional governments. In this study, a hybrid population-production-pollution nexus model (PPP) is proposed for air pollution management and air quality planning (AMP) with the aim to coordinate human activities and environmental protection. A fuzzy-stochastic mixed quadratic programming method (FSQ) is developed and introduced into a PPP for tackling atmospheric pollution issues with uncertainties. Based on the contribution of an index of population-production-pollution, a hybrid PPP-based AMP model that considers employment structure, industrial layout pattern, production mode, pollutant purification efficiency and a pollution mitigation scheme have been applied in Beijing. Results of the adjustment of employment structure, pollution mitigation scheme, and green gross domestic product under various environmental regulation scenarios are obtained and analyzed. This study can facilitate the identification of optimized policies for alleviating population-production-emission conflict in the study region, as well as ameliorating the hazardous air pollution crisis at an urban level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. [Airway metaplasia related to smoking and environmental pollution through sputum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferman-Cano, Floribel; Padilla-Santamaría, Fernando; Moreno-Venegas, Luis; Torner-Aguilar, Carlos Alejandro; Molina-Medina, Miguel Angel

    2018-01-01

    Both environmental pollution and smoking affect the respiratory epithelium, causing cellular adaptation changes. Therefore, this work explores the presence of metaplasia in smokers compared with non-smokers from Mexico City. A prospective cohort study was performed. The sample was performed through a home interview covering the five Mexico City zones delimited to the study and monitoring of air quality. We searched metaplastic cells and inflammation in sputum cytology stained with Papanicolaou technique, and we assessed the air quality in Mexico City. We calculated relative risk (RR) and attributable risk (AR) in relation to the presence of metaplasia and smoking. We performed 1897 home interviews obtaining a final sample of 30 participants. There were no significant differences between smokers and non-smokers with the presence of metaplastic cells (p = 0.269), although the association of metaplastic cells and inflammation showed a significant difference in the non-smokers group (p = 0.010). The RR in association with the presence of metaplasia in sputum cytology and smoking was 1.6, and the RA was 0.2. The air quality in this city has led the population to undergo changes of cellular adaptation in the respiratory epithelium by the simple fact of being exposed to environmental pollution. Metaplastic changes in non-smokers suggest strongly that pollution causes the same effect as smoking.

  4. Geospatial Modeling of Asthma Population in Relation to Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kethireddy, Swatantra R.; Tchounwou, Paul B.; Young, John H.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Alhamdan, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Current observations indicate that asthma is growing every year in the United States, specific reasons for this are not well understood. This study stems from an ongoing research effort to investigate the spatio-temporal behavior of asthma and its relatedness to air pollution. The association between environmental variables such as air quality and asthma related health issues over Mississippi State are investigated using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) tools and applications. Health data concerning asthma obtained from Mississippi State Department of Health (MSDH) for 9-year period of 2003-2011, and data of air pollutant concentrations (PM2.5) collected from USEPA web resources, and are analyzed geospatially to establish the impacts of air quality on human health specifically related to asthma. Disease mapping using geospatial techniques provides valuable insights into the spatial nature, variability, and association of asthma to air pollution. Asthma patient hospitalization data of Mississippi has been analyzed and mapped using quantitative Choropleth techniques in ArcGIS. Patients have been geocoded to their respective zip codes. Potential air pollutant sources of Interstate highways, Industries, and other land use data have been integrated in common geospatial platform to understand their adverse contribution on human health. Existing hospitals and emergency clinics are being injected into analysis to further understand their proximity and easy access to patient locations. At the current level of analysis and understanding, spatial distribution of Asthma is observed in the populations of Zip code regions in gulf coast, along the interstates of south, and in counties of Northeast Mississippi. It is also found that asthma is prevalent in most of the urban population. This GIS based project would be useful to make health risk assessment and provide information support to the administrators and decision makers for establishing satellite clinics in future.

  5. Reconstruction of metal pollution and recent sedimentation processes in Havana Bay (Cuba): A tool for coastal ecosystem management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz-Asencio, M., E-mail: misael@ceac.cu [Centro de Estudios Ambientales de Cienfuegos, Carretera Castillo de Jagua, Cienfuegos, CITMA-Cienfuegos (Cuba); Alvarado, J.A. Corcho [Institute of Radiation Physics (IRA), University Hospital and University of Lausanne, Rue du Grand-Pre 1, 1007 Lausanne (Switzerland); Alonso-Hernandez, C. [Centro de Estudios Ambientales de Cienfuegos, Carretera Castillo de Jagua, Cienfuegos, CITMA-Cienfuegos (Cuba); Quejido-Cabezas, A. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Madrid (Spain); Ruiz-Fernandez, A.C. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico. ICMyL, Mazatlan (Mexico); Sanchez-Sanchez, M.; Gomez-Mancebo, M.B. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Madrid (Spain); Froidevaux, P. [Institute of Radiation Physics (IRA), University Hospital and University of Lausanne, Rue du Grand-Pre 1, 1007 Lausanne (Switzerland); Sanchez-Cabeza, J.A. [Institute of Environmental Science and Technology, and Physics Department, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)

    2011-11-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Past metal pollution in the heavy polluted coastal ecosystem of Havana Bay. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effectiveness of pollution-reduction strategies. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dated environmental archives to reconstruct sedimentation and pollution trends. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Impact of severe climatic events on sedimentation. - Abstract: Since 1998 the highly polluted Havana Bay ecosystem has been the subject of a mitigation program. In order to determine whether pollution-reduction strategies were effective, we have evaluated the historical trends of pollution recorded in sediments of the Bay. A sediment core was dated radiometrically using natural and artificial fallout radionuclides. An irregularity in the {sup 210}Pb record was caused by an episode of accelerated sedimentation. This episode was dated to occur in 1982, a year coincident with the heaviest rains reported in Havana over the XX century. Peaks of mass accumulation rates (MAR) were associated with hurricanes and intensive rains. In the past 60 years, these maxima are related to strong El Nino periods, which are known to increase rainfall in the north Caribbean region. We observed a steady increase of pollution (mainly Pb, Zn, Sn, and Hg) since the beginning of the century to the mid 90s, with enrichment factors as high as 6. MAR and pollution decreased rapidly after the mid 90s, although some trace metal levels remain high. This reduction was due to the integrated coastal zone management program introduced in the late 90s, which dismissed catchment erosion and pollution.

  6. Two dimensions of nitrate pollution management in an agricultural catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachniew, Przemysław; Martinez, Grit; Bar-Michalczyk, Dominika; Kania, Jarosław; Malina, Grzegorz; Michalczyk, Tomasz; Różański, Kazimierz; Witczak, Stanisław; Zięba, Damian; Żurek, Anna J.; Berrini, Anne

    2017-04-01

    The Kocinka River catchment underlain by the karstic-fissured upper Jurrasic Częstochowa aquifer in Southern Poland is the site of an interdisciplinary research aimed at finding solutions to pollution of water resources with nutrients. These efforts are conducted in the framework of the BONUS Soils2Sea project that deals with the development of differentiated environmental management measures based on utilization of the natural ability of soils, groundwater and surface water to remove surplus nutrients. Implementation of these or any other measures for the improvement of water quality depends primarily on the perceptions and attitudes of the major actors, which in turn are a product of the socio-economic, cultural-historical and political development spanning many generations. The problem of the deteriorating water quality is therefore twofold. Understanding the complex natural system consisting of the coupled groundwater and surface water component with a wide spectrum of time lags of pollution transport is only the beginning of the solution. The mitigation policies and measures based on this scientific knowledge have to recognize the equally complex nature of social factors and interactions. Implementation of the European and national policies and legislations has to take into account the regional perspective. Identification of the key stakeholders is in this regard a first step followed by an inquiry into their values, perceptions and motivations through interviews, workshops, etc. Understanding of the socio-cultural, historical, economic and political factors that shape stakeholder actions is a prerequisite for the development of the successful management and mitigation schemes. The process of gaining insights into the environmental and social aspects of nutrient pollution in the Kocinka catchment is partly presented by the documentary film "Soils2Sea: Reducing nutrient loadings into the Baltic Sea" (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LUouES4SeJk).

  7. Traffic-related air pollution is related to interrupter resistance in 4-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eenhuizen, Esther; Gehring, Ulrike; Wijga, Alet H; Smit, Henriette A; Fischer, Paul H; Brauer, Michael; Koppelman, Gerard H; Kerkhof, Marjan; de Jongste, Johan C; Brunekreef, Bert; Hoek, Gerard

    2013-06-01

    Outdoor air pollution has been associated with decrements in lung function and growth of lung function in school-age children. Lung function effects have not been examined in preschoolers, with the exception of one study on minute ventilation in newborns. Our goal was to assess the relationship between long- and short-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution and interrupter resistance in 4-year-old children. Lung function was measured using the interrupter resistance method in children participating in a Dutch birth cohort study. Long-term average air pollution concentrations of fine particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide and soot at the residential address at birth were assessed using land-use regression models. Daily average air pollution concentrations on the day of clinical examination were obtained from the Dutch National Air Quality Monitoring Network. Significant associations were found between long-term average air pollution concentrations and interrupter resistance. Interrupter resistance increased by 0.04 kPa·s·L(-1) (95% CI 0.01-0.07) per interquartile range increase (3.3 μg·m(-3)) in fine particle concentration. Short-term exposure was not associated with interrupter resistance. Long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution was associated with increased interrupter resistance in 4-year-old children, supporting previous birth cohort studies reporting effects of air pollution on subjectively reported respiratory symptoms in preschool children.

  8. Traffic-related air pollution - the health effects scrutinized

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijland, M.E.

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have been published on the health effects associated with exposure to air pollution. Air pollution is acknowledged as a public health risk and air quality regulations are set for specific air pollutants to protect human health. A major pollutant, well known for its adverse health

  9. Intensive management in grasslands causes diffuse water pollution at the farm scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peukert, Sabine; Griffith, Bruce A; Murray, Phillip J; Macleod, Christopher J A; Brazier, Richard E

    2014-11-01

    Arable land use is generally assumed to be the largest contributor to agricultural diffuse pollution. This study adds to the growing evidence that conventional temperate intensively managed lowland grasslands contribute significantly to soil erosion and diffuse pollution rates. This is the first grassland study to monitor hydrological characteristics and multiple pollutant fluxes (suspended sediment [SS] and the macronutrients: total oxidized nitrogen-N [TON], total phosphorus [TP], and total carbon [TC]) at high temporal resolution (monitoring up to every 15 min) over 1 yr. Monitoring was conducted across three fields (6.5-7.5 ha) on the North Wyke Farm Platform, UK. The estimated annual erosion rates (up to 527.4 kg ha), TP losses (up to 0.9 kg ha), and TC losses (up to 179 kg ha) were similar to or exceeded the losses reported for other grassland, mixed land-use, and arable sites. Annual yields of TON (up to 3 kg ha) were less than arable land-use fluxes and earlier grassland N studies, an important result as the study site is situated within a Nitrate Vulnerable Zone. The high-resolution monitoring allowed detailed "system's functioning" understanding of hydrological processes, mobilization- transport pathways of individual pollutants, and the changes of the relative importance of diffuse pollutants through flow conditions and time. Suspended sediment and TP concentrations frequently exceeded water quality guidelines recommended by the European Freshwater Fisheries Directive (25 mg L) and the European Water Framework Directive (0.04 mg soluble reactive P L), suggesting that intensively managed grasslands pose a significant threat to receiving surface waters. Such sediment and nutrient losses from intensively managed grasslands should be acknowledged in land management guidelines and advice for future compliance with surface water quality standards. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of

  10. Traffic-related air pollution and spectacles use in schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadvand, Payam; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Basagaña, Xavier; Alvarez-Pedrerol, Mar; Dalmau-Bueno, Albert; Cirach, Marta; Rivas, Ioar; Brunekreef, Bert; Querol, Xavier; Morgan, Ian G; Sunyer, Jordi

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the association between exposure to traffic-related air pollution and use of spectacles (as a surrogate measure for myopia) in schoolchildren. We analyzed the impact of exposure to NO2 and PM2.5 light absorbance at home (predicted by land-use regression models) and exposure to NO2 and black carbon (BC) at school (measured by monitoring campaigns) on the use of spectacles in a cohort of 2727 schoolchildren (7-10 years old) in Barcelona (2012-2015). We conducted cross-sectional analyses based on lifelong exposure to air pollution and prevalent cases of spectacles at baseline data collection campaign as well as longitudinal analyses based on incident cases of spectacles use and exposure to air pollution during the three-year period between the baseline and last data collection campaigns. Logistic regression models were developed to quantify the association between spectacles use and each of air pollutants adjusted for relevant covariates. An interquartile range increase in exposure to NO2 and PM2.5 absorbance at home was respectively associated with odds ratios (95% confidence intervals (CIs)) for spectacles use of 1.16 (1.03, 1.29) and 1.13 (0.99, 1.28) in cross-sectional analyses and 1.15 (1.00, 1.33) and 1.23 (1.03, 1.46) in longitudinal analyses. Similarly, odds ratio (95% CIs) of spectacles use associated with an interquartile range increase in exposures to NO2 and black carbon at school was respectively 1.32 (1.09, 1.59) and 1.13 (0.97, 1.32) in cross-sectional analyses and 1.12 (0.84, 1.50) and 1.27 (1.03, 1.56) in longitudinal analyses. These findings were robust to a range of sensitivity analyses that we conducted. We observed increased risk of spectacles use associated with exposure to traffic-related air pollution. These findings require further confirmation by future studies applying more refined outcome measures such as quantified visual acuity and separating different types of refractive errors.

  11. Traffic-related air pollution and spectacles use in schoolchildren

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.; Basagaña, Xavier; Alvarez-Pedrerol, Mar; Dalmau-Bueno, Albert; Cirach, Marta; Rivas, Ioar; Brunekreef, Bert; Querol, Xavier; Morgan, Ian G.; Sunyer, Jordi

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the association between exposure to traffic-related air pollution and use of spectacles (as a surrogate measure for myopia) in schoolchildren. Methods We analyzed the impact of exposure to NO2 and PM2.5 light absorbance at home (predicted by land-use regression models) and exposure to NO2 and black carbon (BC) at school (measured by monitoring campaigns) on the use of spectacles in a cohort of 2727 schoolchildren (7–10 years old) in Barcelona (2012–2015). We conducted cross-sectional analyses based on lifelong exposure to air pollution and prevalent cases of spectacles at baseline data collection campaign as well as longitudinal analyses based on incident cases of spectacles use and exposure to air pollution during the three-year period between the baseline and last data collection campaigns. Logistic regression models were developed to quantify the association between spectacles use and each of air pollutants adjusted for relevant covariates. Results An interquartile range increase in exposure to NO2 and PM2.5 absorbance at home was respectively associated with odds ratios (95% confidence intervals (CIs)) for spectacles use of 1.16 (1.03, 1.29) and 1.13 (0.99, 1.28) in cross-sectional analyses and 1.15 (1.00, 1.33) and 1.23 (1.03, 1.46) in longitudinal analyses. Similarly, odds ratio (95% CIs) of spectacles use associated with an interquartile range increase in exposures to NO2 and black carbon at school was respectively 1.32 (1.09, 1.59) and 1.13 (0.97, 1.32) in cross-sectional analyses and 1.12 (0.84, 1.50) and 1.27 (1.03, 1.56) in longitudinal analyses. These findings were robust to a range of sensitivity analyses that we conducted. Conclusion We observed increased risk of spectacles use associated with exposure to traffic-related air pollution. These findings require further confirmation by future studies applying more refined outcome measures such as quantified visual acuity and separating different types of refractive errors. PMID

  12. A Review of Flood-Related Storage and Remobilization of Heavy Metal Pollutants in River Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciszewski, Dariusz; Grygar, Tomáš Matys

    2016-01-01

    Recently observed rapid climate changes have focused the attention of researchers and river managers on the possible effects of increased flooding frequency on the mobilization and redistribution of historical pollutants within some river systems. This text summarizes regularities in the flood-related transport, channel-to-floodplain transfer, and storage and remobilization of heavy metals, which are the most persistent environmental pollutants in river systems. Metal-dispersal processes are essentially much more variable in alluvia than in soils of non-inundated areas due to the effects of flood-sediment sorting and the mixing of pollutants with grains of different origins in a catchment, resulting in changes of one to two orders of magnitude in metal content over distances of centimetres. Furthermore, metal remobilization can be more intensive in alluvia than in soils as a result of bank erosion, prolonged floodplain inundation associated with reducing conditions alternating with oxygen-driven processes of dry periods and frequent water-table fluctuations, which affect the distribution of metals at low-lying strata. Moreover, metal storage and remobilization are controlled by river channelization, but their influence depends on the period and extent of the engineering works. Generally, artificial structures such as groynes, dams or cut-off channels performed before pollution periods favour the entrapment of polluted sediments, whereas the floodplains of lined river channels that adjust to new, post-channelization hydraulic conditions become a permanent sink for fine polluted sediments, which accumulate solely during overbank flows. Metal mobilization in such floodplains takes place only by slow leaching, and their sediments, which accrete at a moderate rate, are the best archives of the catchment pollution with heavy metals.

  13. Relation of meteorological elements and air pollutants to respiratory diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    László Makra

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper determines the characteristic weather types over the Carpathian Basin for the summer – early autumn period (July 15 – October 15 and the winter months (December, January, and February, with the levels of chemical (CO, NO, NO2, NO2/NO, O3, O3max, SO2, PM10 and biological [Ambrosia (ragweed pollen] air pollutants, and with their effect to the respiratory diseases. Based on the ECMWF data set, daily sea-level pressure fields analysed at 00 UTC (Coordinated Universal Time were prepared for each weather type (cluster in order to detect the relation between, on the one hand, the sea-level pressure patterns and, on the other, the levels of the chemical and biological air pollutants as well as the frequency of the respiratory diseases in Szeged. Objective definition of the characteristic weather types occurred by using the methods of Factor Analysis and Cluster Analysis. As a result, in the summer – early autumn period the total patient number is proportional to the mean monthly temperature, the maximum and minimum temperatures; however, respiratory diseases occur more frequently, when relative humidity is low. On the other hand, in the winter months there is no relation between the meteorological variables and the patient numbers.

  14. Effect of Meteorology on the Atmospheric Concentrations of Traffic-Related Pollutants in Erzurum, Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    , Sevda Ocak; , F. Sezer Turalioglu

    2016-01-01

    The studies of the relationship between air pollutants and meteorological factors can provide important information about air pollution. According to proposed statistical model in this study, daily traffic-related pollutant concentrations are not only inşuenced by daily meteorological parameters but also by the pollutant concentration of previous day. In this study, the relationship between daily CO (carbon monoxide), NOX (nitrogen oxides), O3 (ozone) concentration with the pollutant concentr...

  15. Relation between air pollution and allergic rhinitis in Taiwanese schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Yung-Ling

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent findings suggest that exposure to outdoor air pollutants may increase the risk of allergic rhinitis. The results of these studies are inconsistent, but warrant further attention. The objective of the study was to assess the effect of relation between exposure to urban air pollution and the prevalence allergic rhinitis among school children. Methods We conducted a nationwide cross-sectional study of 32,143 Taiwanese school children. We obtained routine air-pollution monitoring data for sulphur dioxide (SO2, nitrogen oxides (NOx, ozone (O3, carbon monoxide (CO, and particles with an aerodynamic diameter of 10 μm or less (PM10. A parent-administered questionnaire provided information on individual characteristics and indoor environments (response rate 92%. Municipal-level exposure was calculated using the mean of the 2000 monthly averages. The effect estimates were presented as odds ratios (ORs per 10 ppb change for SO2, NOx, and O3, 100 ppb change for CO, and 10 μg/m3 change for PM10. Results In two-stage hierarchical model adjusting for confounding, the prevalence of allergic rhinitis was significantly associated with SO2 (adjusted odds ratio (OR = 1.43, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.25, 1.64, CO (aOR = 1.05, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.07, and NOx (aOR = 1.11, 95% CI: 1.08, 1.15. Contrary to our hypothesis, the prevalence of allergic rhinitis was weakly or not related to O3 (aOR = 1.05, 95% CI: 0.98, 1.12 and PM10 (aOR = 1.00, 95% CI: 0.99, 1.02. Conclusion Persistent exposure to NOx, CO, and SO2 may increase the prevalence of allergic rhinitis in children.

  16. Sustainability assessment of stormwater management systems and the importance of pollutants in runoff

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brudler, Sarah; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten; Ammitsøe, Christian

    We develop a method to systematically include impacts caused by runoff discharge into the sustainability assessment of stormwater management systems. By defining priority pollutants and calculating mean concentrations, an average ecotoxicity impact per litre of runoff is calculated. Of all assessed...... substance groups present in runoff, metals cause the highest impacts. To integrate this method into holistic sustainability assessment, we assess the complete life cycle of a complex stormwater management. We show that runoff discharges have a high relative importance: The impacts exceed the combined...

  17. Mapping real-time air pollution health risk for environmental management: Combining mobile and stationary air pollution monitoring with neural network models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Matthew D; Kanaroglou, Pavlos S

    2016-03-01

    Air pollution poses health concerns at the global scale. The challenge of managing air pollution is significant because of the many air pollutants, insufficient funds for monitoring and abatement programs, and political and social challenges in defining policy to limit emissions. Some governments provide citizens with air pollution health risk information to allow them to limit their exposure. However, many regions still have insufficient air pollution monitoring networks to provide real-time mapping. Where available, these risk mapping systems either provide absolute concentration data or the concentrations are used to derive an Air Quality Index, which provides the air pollution risk for a mix of air pollutants with a single value. When risk information is presented as a single value for an entire region it does not inform on the spatial variation within the region. Without an understanding of the local variation residents can only make a partially informed decision when choosing daily activities. The single value is typically provided because of a limited number of active monitoring units in the area. In our work, we overcome this issue by leveraging mobile air pollution monitoring techniques, meteorological information and land use information to map real-time air pollution health risks. We propose an approach that can provide improved health risk information to the public by applying neural network models within a framework that is inspired by land use regression. Mobile air pollution monitoring campaigns were conducted across Hamilton from 2005 to 2013. These mobile air pollution data were modelled with a number of predictor variables that included information on the surrounding land use characteristics, the meteorological conditions, air pollution concentrations from fixed location monitors, and traffic information during the time of collection. Fine particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide were both modelled. During the model fitting process we reserved

  18. Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) pollution prevention program implementation plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Place, B.G., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-12-31

    This plan documents the Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) Pollution Prevention/Waste Minimization (P2/WMin) Program. The subject implementation plan has been updated to reflect the Fiscal Year (FY) 1997 contract structure in which Fluor Daniel Hanford, Inc. (FDH) is the management and integration contractor. The P2/WMin Program scope includes FDH as the principal PHMC contractor, and B&W Hanford Company (BWHC), Duke Engineering & Services Hanford, Inc. (DESH), Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation, (LMHC), Numatec Hanford Corporation (NHC), Rust Federal Services of Hanford, Inc. (RFSH), and DynCorp Tri-Cities Services, Inc. (DYN) as PHMC contractors, as well as subcontracting enterprise companies, such as Fluor Daniel Northwest, Inc. (FDNW), Lockheed Martin Services, Inc. (LMSI), and Rust Federal Services Northwest (RFS), which provide engineering, operation, construction, maintenance, and computer services for the Hanford Site. The P2/WMin Program scope also includes all other subcontractor-affiliated enterprise companies, such as B&W Protec, Inc. (BWP), DE&S Northwest, Inc. (DESNW), and SGN Eurisys Services Corp. (SESC).

  19. [Effect of changing into slippers on the pollution situation in the nuclear medicine management district].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyashita, Makoto; Takahashi, Yoshimasa; Akiyama, Masayuki; Takase, Tadashi; Kato, Kyoichi; Nitta, Masaru; Nakazawa, Yasuo

    2012-01-01

    Changing into slippers when entering the nuclear medicine management district prevented pollution expansion. Accidents involving patients falling occurred in university facilities. It was thought that changing slippers was the cause. The pollution situation was measured in three facilities by using the smear method and the direct technique to examine the effect of changing slippers. The current state was measured. After pollution prevention guidance was continuously done, pollution expansion was measured; three weeks of measurements were compared. Pollution was detected in the first period of weeks at a frequency of 19 times. For the latter period, it was detected 6 times. Half the pollution was in the restroom. Pollution was reduced by doing pollution prevention guidance for the restroom. Patients' falls occur even if they change slippers. Falling accidents can be decreased.

  20. Air pollution, deprivation and health: understanding relationships to add value to local air quality management policy and practice in Wales, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunt, H; Barnes, J; Jones, S J; Longhurst, J W S; Scally, G; Hayes, E

    2017-09-01

    Air pollution exposure reduces life expectancy. Air pollution, deprivation and poor-health status combinations can create increased and disproportionate disease burdens. Problems and solutions are rarely considered in a broad public health context, but doing so can add value to air quality management efforts by reducing air pollution risks, impacts and inequalities. An ecological study assessed small-area associations between air pollution (nitrogen dioxide and particulate matter), deprivation status and health outcomes in Wales, UK. Air pollution concentrations were highest in 'most' deprived areas. When considered separately, deprivation-health associations were stronger than air pollution-health associations. Considered simultaneously, air pollution added to deprivation-health associations; interactions between air pollution and deprivation modified and strengthened associations with all-cause and respiratory disease mortality, especially in 'most' deprived areas where most-vulnerable people lived and where health needs were greatest. There is a need to reduce air pollution-related risks for all. However, it is also the case that greater health gains can result from considering local air pollution problems and solutions in the context of wider health-determinants and acting on a better understanding of relationships. Informed and co-ordinated air pollution mitigation and public health action in high deprivation and pollution areas can reduce risks and inequalities. To achieve this, greater public health integration and collaboration in local air quality management policy and practice is needed.

  1. Study Participation of Dairy Cattle Famers in Pollution Control Management to the Product of Milk

    OpenAIRE

    Hendarto, Eko; Mastuti, Sri

    1999-01-01

    Based on activity, the population on dairy cattle, can be divided into two kinds i.e. pollution around the farm and pollution on the product of milk. In order to eliminate the potency of the pollution, then, the manages to control it is urgently needed. The research was conducted by the farmers in banyumas Regency, Central Java Province, the has aids dairy cattle from government. The aim of the research was to know of participation to pollution control management on the product of milk. Surv...

  2. Modeling personal exposure to traffic related air pollutants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montagne, D.R.

    2015-01-01

    The first part of this thesis is about the VE3SPA project. Land use regression (LUR) models are often used to predict the outdoor air pollution at the home address of study participants, to study long-term effects of air pollution. While several studies have documented that PM2.5 mass measured at a

  3. Trends analysis relating to pollution in Sakumo Lagoon, Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sakumo Lagoon, situated near Accra, is a Ramsar-listed coastal wetland threatened by urban and agricultural waste, being located in an urban area where access to domestic and waste disposal facilities is a major problem. The aim of this study was to assess the pollution status as well as trends, in terms of pollution ...

  4. Behaviours and attitudes in the management of nonpoint source pollution: Ping River Basin, Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Bumbudsanpharoke, Wimolpat

    2010-01-01

    Agricultural nonpoint source pollution is recognised as a major cause of water pollution. The characteristics of nonpoint source pollution suggest that an efficient approach should focus on a source control and hence land-use management. Recently, the concept of Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES) has been advanced as an efficient market-based approach to protect in-stream water quality, while simultaneously supporting agriculture. Farmers can be rewarded for the adoption of certain ‘Best M...

  5. Reproductive anomalies in stenoglossan snails related to pollution from marinas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, B.S.

    1981-02-01

    Over 3090 snails of the dioecious intertidal species Nassarius obsoletus Say were collected from a total of 71 localities. Their reproductive anatomy was examined for a superimposition of male characteristics on to the normal female anatomy, an abnormality called 'imposex'. Imposex was rated numerically in terms of the fraction of the population affected and the intensity of expression in bearer snails. An initial survey of 22 localities in Fairfield and Westport, Connecticut, led to the hypothesis that imposex was related to a substance arising from marinas. This was tested at nine pairs of marina and control localities in Long Island Sound, as well as six pairs along a transect ranging from Rhode Island to Georgia. Imposex scores were significantly higher at the marina locality in every pair. Further confirmation was found in a detailed survey of the estuarine harbor at Southport, Connecticut, which showed that adjacent populations could differ in the amount of imposex to the extent that both the snails and the waters they lived in remained separated by natural or man-made barriers. Imposex has been found in populations of N. obsoletus ranging from Damariscotta, Maine, to Savannah, Georgia, and it has been reported from San Francisco Bay, California. Similar anatomical abnormalities have been reported in at least 27 other species of taenioglossan and stenoglossan snails, extending the range to the Atlantic and Mediterranean coast of Europe and the British Isles. Concern is raised regarding the possible existence of another global pollutant with novel effects on marina biota.

  6. Relation of Immunologic Mechanism of Asthma and Air Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Iván Falcón-Rodríguez

    2017-04-01

    Conclusions: Th1 response could cause low or no association between exposure to pollution and the development of asthma in different cities, which constitutes another limitation in epidemiological studies.

  7. Managing Air Quality - Multi-Pollutant Planning and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Describes how planning controls for multiple pollutants at the same time can save money and time and achieve significant benefits, and how control strategies can address both climate change and air quality.

  8. National Management Measures to Control Nonpoint Source Pollution from Forestry

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report helps forest owners protect lakes and streams from polluted runoff that can result from forestry activities. The report will also help states to implement their nonpoint source control programs.

  9. Management of Ecological-Economic Processes of Pollution Accumulation and Assimilation in the Coastal Zone Marine Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.E. Timchenko

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A model for managing the balance of pollution (getting into the sea with the coastal runoff assimilation and accumulation, based on the negative feedback between the coastal economic system efficiency and penalties for the sea coastal zone pollution is proposed. The model is constructed by the Adaptive Balance of Causes method and is intended for finding a rational balance of profit from the use of assimilative resources of the marine environment and the costs of maintaining its quality. The increase of pollutions in the coastal zone is taken as proportional to the volume of product realization. The decrease of pollution concentration is related to the environment protection activities paid for by the production. The model contains the agents for managing the volume of the economic system generalized production release. The agents control pollution accumulation rate at different ones of the bio-chemical processes resulting in the marine environment natural purification. Scenario analysis of ecological-economic processes in the “Land–Sea” system is carried out, and the dependencies of economic subsystem production profitability on penalty sanctions limiting the pollutant flux getting into the sea are constructed. Sea temperature and water mass dynamics effect on these processes is considered. The scenarios of their intra-annual variability are constructed. It is shown that the sea temperature and near-water wind consideration in the model have a significant effect on marine environment pollution level and production profitability. The conclusion is that the proposed adaptive simulation model “Sea–Land” can be used for forecasting the scenarios of coastal subsystem production processes (the volume of generalized product manufacturing, production cost, profitability in parallel with the forecast of pollution concentration in the sea scenarios.

  10. Development and evaluation of best management practices (BMPS) for highway runoff pollution control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Polluted storm water runoff is commonly transported through Municipal Separate Storm Sewer Systems (MS4s). Currently, : sufficient information is not available on development and evaluation of Best Management Practices (BMPs) within an MS4 : boundary...

  11. HEALTH CARE GUIDE TO POLLUTION PREVENTION IMPLEMENTATION THROUGH ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Health Care Guide to Pollution Prevention Implementation through Environmental Management Systems provides example EMS procedures and forms used in four ISO 14001 EMS certified hospitals. The latest revisions include more EMS hospital case studies, more compliance resources, ...

  12. Contrasting nitrogen and phosphorus budgets in urban watersheds and implications for managing urban water pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbie, Sarah E; Finlay, Jacques C; Janke, Benjamin D; Nidzgorski, Daniel A; Millet, Dylan B; Baker, Lawrence A

    2017-04-18

    Managing excess nutrients remains a major obstacle to improving ecosystem service benefits of urban waters. To inform more ecologically based landscape nutrient management, we compared watershed inputs, outputs, and retention for nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in seven subwatersheds of the Mississippi River in St. Paul, Minnesota. Lawn fertilizer and pet waste dominated N and P inputs, respectively, underscoring the importance of household actions in influencing urban watershed nutrient budgets. Watersheds retained only 22% of net P inputs versus 80% of net N inputs (watershed area-weighted averages, where net inputs equal inputs minus biomass removal) despite relatively low P inputs. In contrast to many nonurban watersheds that exhibit high P retention, these urban watersheds have high street density that enhanced transport of P-rich materials from landscapes to stormwater. High P exports in storm drainage networks and yard waste resulted in net P losses in some watersheds. Comparisons of the N/P stoichiometry of net inputs versus storm drain exports implicated denitrification or leaching to groundwater as a likely fate for retained N. Thus, these urban watersheds exported high quantities of N and P, but via contrasting pathways: P was exported primarily via stormwater runoff, contributing to surface water degradation, whereas N losses additionally contribute to groundwater pollution. Consequently, N management and P management require different strategies, with N management focusing on reducing watershed inputs and P management also focusing on reducing P movement from vegetated landscapes to streets and storm drains.

  13. Contrasting nitrogen and phosphorus budgets in urban watersheds and implications for managing urban water pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, Benjamin D.; Nidzgorski, Daniel A.; Millet, Dylan B.; Baker, Lawrence A.

    2017-01-01

    Managing excess nutrients remains a major obstacle to improving ecosystem service benefits of urban waters. To inform more ecologically based landscape nutrient management, we compared watershed inputs, outputs, and retention for nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in seven subwatersheds of the Mississippi River in St. Paul, Minnesota. Lawn fertilizer and pet waste dominated N and P inputs, respectively, underscoring the importance of household actions in influencing urban watershed nutrient budgets. Watersheds retained only 22% of net P inputs versus 80% of net N inputs (watershed area-weighted averages, where net inputs equal inputs minus biomass removal) despite relatively low P inputs. In contrast to many nonurban watersheds that exhibit high P retention, these urban watersheds have high street density that enhanced transport of P-rich materials from landscapes to stormwater. High P exports in storm drainage networks and yard waste resulted in net P losses in some watersheds. Comparisons of the N/P stoichiometry of net inputs versus storm drain exports implicated denitrification or leaching to groundwater as a likely fate for retained N. Thus, these urban watersheds exported high quantities of N and P, but via contrasting pathways: P was exported primarily via stormwater runoff, contributing to surface water degradation, whereas N losses additionally contribute to groundwater pollution. Consequently, N management and P management require different strategies, with N management focusing on reducing watershed inputs and P management also focusing on reducing P movement from vegetated landscapes to streets and storm drains. PMID:28373560

  14. Identifying and Classifying Pollution Hotspots to Guide Watershed Management in a Large Multiuse Watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Fangli; Kaplan, David; Li, Lifeng; Li, Haifu; Song, Fei; Liu, Haisheng

    2017-03-03

    In many locations around the globe, large reservoir sustainability is threatened by land use change and direct pollution loading from the upstream watershed. However, the size and complexity of upstream basins makes the planning and implementation of watershed-scale pollution management a challenge. In this study, we established an evaluation system based on 17 factors, representing the potential point and non-point source pollutants and the environmental carrying capacity which are likely to affect the water quality in the Dahuofang Reservoir and watershed in northeastern China. We used entropy methods to rank 118 subwatersheds by their potential pollution threat and clustered subwatersheds according to the potential pollution type. Combining ranking and clustering analyses allowed us to suggest specific areas for prioritized watershed management (in particular, two subwatersheds with the greatest pollution potential) and to recommend the conservation of current practices in other less vulnerable locations (91 small watersheds with low pollution potential). Finally, we identified the factors most likely to influence the water quality of each of the 118 subwatersheds and suggested adaptive control measures for each location. These results provide a scientific basis for improving the watershed management and sustainability of the Dahuofang reservoir and a framework for identifying threats and prioritizing the management of watersheds of large reservoirs around the world.

  15. Identifying and Classifying Pollution Hotspots to Guide Watershed Management in a Large Multiuse Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Fangli; Kaplan, David; Li, Lifeng; Li, Haifu; Song, Fei; Liu, Haisheng

    2017-01-01

    In many locations around the globe, large reservoir sustainability is threatened by land use change and direct pollution loading from the upstream watershed. However, the size and complexity of upstream basins makes the planning and implementation of watershed-scale pollution management a challenge. In this study, we established an evaluation system based on 17 factors, representing the potential point and non-point source pollutants and the environmental carrying capacity which are likely to affect the water quality in the Dahuofang Reservoir and watershed in northeastern China. We used entropy methods to rank 118 subwatersheds by their potential pollution threat and clustered subwatersheds according to the potential pollution type. Combining ranking and clustering analyses allowed us to suggest specific areas for prioritized watershed management (in particular, two subwatersheds with the greatest pollution potential) and to recommend the conservation of current practices in other less vulnerable locations (91 small watersheds with low pollution potential). Finally, we identified the factors most likely to influence the water quality of each of the 118 subwatersheds and suggested adaptive control measures for each location. These results provide a scientific basis for improving the watershed management and sustainability of the Dahuofang reservoir and a framework for identifying threats and prioritizing the management of watersheds of large reservoirs around the world. PMID:28273834

  16. Identifying and Classifying Pollution Hotspots to Guide Watershed Management in a Large Multiuse Watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangli Su

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In many locations around the globe, large reservoir sustainability is threatened by land use change and direct pollution loading from the upstream watershed. However, the size and complexity of upstream basins makes the planning and implementation of watershed-scale pollution management a challenge. In this study, we established an evaluation system based on 17 factors, representing the potential point and non-point source pollutants and the environmental carrying capacity which are likely to affect the water quality in the Dahuofang Reservoir and watershed in northeastern China. We used entropy methods to rank 118 subwatersheds by their potential pollution threat and clustered subwatersheds according to the potential pollution type. Combining ranking and clustering analyses allowed us to suggest specific areas for prioritized watershed management (in particular, two subwatersheds with the greatest pollution potential and to recommend the conservation of current practices in other less vulnerable locations (91 small watersheds with low pollution potential. Finally, we identified the factors most likely to influence the water quality of each of the 118 subwatersheds and suggested adaptive control measures for each location. These results provide a scientific basis for improving the watershed management and sustainability of the Dahuofang reservoir and a framework for identifying threats and prioritizing the management of watersheds of large reservoirs around the world.

  17. Community Perceptions of Air Pollution and Related Health Risks in Nairobi Slums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remare Ettarh

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is among the leading global risks for mortality and responsible for increasing risk for chronic diseases. Community perceptions on exposure are critical in determining people’s response and acceptance of related policies. Therefore, understanding people’ perception is critical in informing the design of appropriate intervention measures. The aim of this paper was to establish levels and associations between perceived pollution and health risk perception among slum residents. A cross-sectional study of 5,317 individuals aged 35+ years was conducted in two slums of Nairobi. Association of perceived score and individual characteristics was assessed using linear regression. Spatial variation in the perceived levels was determined through hot spot analysis using ArcGIS. The average perceived air pollution level was higher among residents in Viwandani compared to those in Korogocho. Perceived air pollution level was positively associated with perceived health risks. The majority of respondents were exposed to air pollution in their place of work with 66% exposed to at least two sources of air pollution. Less than 20% of the respondents in both areas mentioned sources related to indoor pollution. The perceived air pollution level and related health risks in the study community were low among the residents indicating the need for promoting awareness on air pollution sources and related health risks.

  18. Coastal Marine Pollution in Dar es Salaam (Tanzania) relative to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Levels of microbial pollution in urban coastal waters off Dar es Salaam were excessive, indicating that water within the port channel was not safe for contact recreation. Seafood from areas adjacent to Msimbazi Creek and the Ocean Road sewer outfall was unfit for human consumption. Conversely, the water quality of Ras ...

  19. Science Shop and NGO activities related to air pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Brodersen, Søsser

    2005-01-01

    The paper describes activities, which these organisations and science shops carry out within the field of air pollution and its analysis, abatement and prevention. The activities have been mapped and analysed through dialogue with a number of these organisations. The activities include activities...

  20. Traffic-related air pollution and otitis media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brauer, Michael; Gehring, Ulrike; Brunekreef, Bert; de Jongste, Johan; Gerritsen, Jorrit; Rovers, Maroeska; Wichmann, Heinz-Erich; Wijga, Alet; Heinrich, Joachim

    BACKGROUND: Otitis media is one of the most common infections in young children. Although exposure to environmental tobacco smoke is a known risk factor associated with otitis media, little information is available regarding the potential association with air pollution. OBJECTIVE: We set out to

  1. Traffic-related air pollution and otitis media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Brauer (Michael); U. Gehring (Ulrike); B. Brunekreef (Bert); J.C. de Jongste (Johan); J. Gerritsen (Jorrit); M.M. Rovers (Maroeska); H.E. Wichmann (Heinz Erich); A.H. Wijga (Alet); J. Heinrich (Joachim)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Otitis media is one of the most common infections in young children. Although exposure to environmental tobacco smoke is a known risk factor associated with otitis media, little information is available regarding the potential association with air pollution. Objective: We set

  2. Chemical pollutants in relation to diseases in fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, E.R. (Chicago Medical School); Sinclair, T.; Keith, L.; Beamer, P.; Hazdra, J.J.; Niar, V.; Callaghan, O.

    1977-01-01

    Studies were conducted on the frequency of oncogenic disease in fishes in polluted waters and interrelationships of human pathogens to aquatic problems. Chemical surveys were made of the polluted Fox River and the pollution-free Canadian Lake of the Woods. A table is presented to show fish diseases in polluted and nonpolluted waters. An experiment on the effects of certain minerals on bluegills showed a deleterious effect on longevity of the fish. The following diseases are discussed with regard to causative organism, symptoms, and incidence: columnaris disease, hemorrhagic disease, Dee (kidney) disease, saprolegnia, black spot, catfish virus disease, lymphocystis, lymphoreticular neoplasms, and hepatoma. To determine the efficiency and toxicity of disinfectants used in the treatment of sewage, minnows were raised in effluent from sewage treatment plants and additionally treated with disinfectants. Polio types 1-3 were present in intestinal tracts of fish raised in effluent that was not disinfected and in fish exposed to effluent treated with bromochloride and ozone. Levels of chlorine used were capable of eliminating a potential health hazard; other treatments such as bromochlorination and ozonation were not able to eliminate this possibility. Studies on the toxicity of vinyl chloride to northern pike showed that the fish were killed rapidly by this chemical. (HLW)

  3. Integrated environmental management model of air pollution control by hybrid model of DPSIR and FAHP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J. Mohammadizadeh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the obstacles due to a DPSIR model combined with fuzzy analytic hierarchy process technique. Hence, to prioritize the responses regarding the driving forces, pressures, states and impacts, the hierarchy of the model is established. Evaluations and prioritization of model results of urban transport situation in Tehran have provided a number of necessary issues for strategic planning to reduce local air pollution and emission of greenhouse gases by prioritizing their effectiveness in the implementation, including; a development and improvement of public transport (R1, b improvement of fuel quality (R2, c improvement of vehicle emission standards (R3, d vehicle inspection (R4, f traffic management (R5. In this study, responses to improve the factors of pressure, stimulus, the current state and the impacts were examined and compared hierarchically. Finally, their priority relative to each other was achieved. Development and improvement of public transport, improvement of the quality of fuel, improvement of vehicle emission standards, vehicle check-up and finally urban traffic management were identified respectively as practical steps to control and reduce air pollution in Tehran.

  4. Reconstruction of metal pollution and recent sedimentation processes in Havana Bay (Cuba): a tool for coastal ecosystem management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Asencio, M; Alvarado, J A Corcho; Alonso-Hernández, C; Quejido-Cabezas, A; Ruiz-Fernández, A C; Sanchez-Sanchez, M; Gómez-Mancebo, M B; Froidevaux, P; Sanchez-Cabeza, J A

    2011-11-30

    Since 1998 the highly polluted Havana Bay ecosystem has been the subject of a mitigation program. In order to determine whether pollution-reduction strategies were effective, we have evaluated the historical trends of pollution recorded in sediments of the Bay. A sediment core was dated radiometrically using natural and artificial fallout radionuclides. An irregularity in the (210)Pb record was caused by an episode of accelerated sedimentation. This episode was dated to occur in 1982, a year coincident with the heaviest rains reported in Havana over the XX century. Peaks of mass accumulation rates (MAR) were associated with hurricanes and intensive rains. In the past 60 years, these maxima are related to strong El Niño periods, which are known to increase rainfall in the north Caribbean region. We observed a steady increase of pollution (mainly Pb, Zn, Sn, and Hg) since the beginning of the century to the mid 90 s, with enrichment factors as high as 6. MAR and pollution decreased rapidly after the mid 90 s, although some trace metal levels remain high. This reduction was due to the integrated coastal zone management program introduced in the late 90 s, which dismissed catchment erosion and pollution. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Environment and Pollution Management of Pollution Volatile Organic Compounds in Cluj-Napoca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Florean

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Pollution negative influences the environmental, human health, buildings and increase the production of waste. We are currently witnessing pollution and degradation in some cases irreversible, of the environment. Environmental issues are extremely complex and cover all sectors. Worldwide, industrial pollution strategies necessary to reduce emissions to the atmosphere hydrocarbons, volatile organic compounds (VOCs and other polluants in urban areas. The highest concentrations of volatile organic compounds of more than 80 mg/m3 occur in densely populated areas. The latest data reported in the residential area of Cluj-Napoca values did not exceed 20 m /m3. However peaks reported VOC concentrations, depending on the season, exceeding the upper limit that according to Law. 104/2011 is 75 μ/m3. It was identified due to increase annual mean concentration of VOCs as, in particular, road traffic exceeding sanitary standards on the main traffic routes within the city. In this paper the results obtained after carrying out an analysis of the average VOC concentration recorded in the city Cluj-Napoca as a result of car traffic. They were pursued average concentrations of VOCs resulting from the combustion of liquid fuels, petrol and diesel type. Analyzing the results obtained are proposed solutions for reducing VOC emissions. The rule under which these solutions have been proposed to reduce the concentration of VOCs took into account the possibility implementation and maintenance costs thereof.

  6. Stigma Management in International Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    that international society is in part constructed through the stigmatization of “transgressive” and norm-violating states and their ways of coping with stigma. Drawing on Erving Goffman, this article shows that states are not passive objects of socialization, but active agents. Stigmatized states cope strategically......This article develops a theoretical approach to stigma in international relations and resituates conventional approaches to the study of norms and international order. Correcting the general understanding that common values and norms are the building blocks of social order, this article claims...... with their stigma and may, in some cases, challenge and even transform a dominant moral discourse. A typology of stigma management strategies is presented: stigma recognition (illustrated by Germany); stigma rejection (illustrated by Austria); and finally counter-stigmatization (illustrated by Cuba). Because...

  7. Water-sediment flow models for river reaches sediment related pollution control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sil, Briti Sundar; Choudhury, Parthasarathi

    2012-07-01

    Hybrid water-sediment flow models for river reaches have been for predicting sediment and sediment related pollutions in water courses. The models are developed by combining sediment rating model and the Muskingum model applicable for a reach. The models incorporate sediment concentration and water discharge variables for a river reach; allow defining downstream sediment rating curve in terms of upstream water discharges. The model is useful in generating sediment concentration graph for a station having no water discharge records. The hybrid models provide forecasting forms that can be used to forecast downstream sediment concentration/water discharges 2kx time unit ahead. The forecasting models are useful for applications in real time namely, in the real time management of sediment related pollution in water courses and in issuing flood warning. Integration of sediment rating model and the Muskingum model increases model parameters and nonlinearity requiring efficient estimation technique for parameter identification. To identify parameters in the hybrid models genetic algorithm (GA) based optimization technique can be used. The new model relies on the Muskingum model, obey continuity requirement and the parameters can be used in the Muskingum model with water discharges to estimate/predict downstream water discharge values. The proposed model formulations are demonstrated for simulating and forecasting sediment concentration and water discharges in the Mississippi River Basin, USA. Model parameters are estimated using non-dominated sorting Genetic Algorithm II (NSGA-II). Model results show satisfactory model performances.

  8. Measures related to traffic planning for air pollution control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumueller, J.; Reuter, U. [Office of Environmental Protection, Stuttgart (Germany). Dept. for Climatology

    1995-12-31

    The immense increase of motor traffic, in the future reinforced by the European market and the opening of boarders to the east countries, requires new efforts in traffic policy. In the city agglomerations the motor traffic is nearly collapsing. The increase of motor traffic is the reason for a considerable degradation of environment, especially by noise and air pollution. For the region of Stuttgart the problems and possibilities of counter-measures are discussed. (author)

  9. Global gray water footprint and water pollution levels related to anthropogenic nitrogen loads to fresh water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mekonnen, Mesfin; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2015-01-01

    This is the first global assessment of nitrogen-related water pollution in river basins with a specification of the pollution by economic sector, and by crop for the agricultural sector. At a spatial resolution of 5 by 5 arc minute, we estimate anthropogenic nitrogen (N) loads to freshwater,

  10. Effects of traffic-related outdoor air pollution on respiratory illness and mortality in children, taking into account indoor air pollution, in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashima, Saori; Yorifuji, Takashi; Tsuda, Toshihide; Ibrahim, Juliani; Doi, Hiroyuki

    2010-03-01

    To evaluate the effects of outdoor air pollution, taking into account indoor air pollution, in Indonesia. The subjects were 15,242 children from 2002 to 2003 Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey. The odds ratios and their confidence intervals for adverse health effects were estimated. Proximity increased the prevalence of acute respiratory infection both in urban and rural areas after adjusting for indoor air pollution. In urban areas, the prevalence of acute upper respiratory infection increased by 1.012 (95% confidence intervals: 1.005 to 1.019) per 2 km proximity to a major road. Adjusted odds ratios tended to be higher in the high indoor air pollution group. Exposure to traffic-related outdoor air pollution would increase adverse health effects after adjusting for indoor air pollution. Furthermore, indoor air pollution could exacerbate the effects of outdoor air pollution.

  11. Developmental Neurotoxicity of Traffic-Related Air Pollution: Focus on Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Lucio G; Chang, Yu-Chi; Cole, Toby B

    2017-06-01

    Epidemiological and animal studies suggest that air pollution may negatively affect the central nervous system (CNS) and contribute to CNS diseases. Traffic-related air pollution is a major contributor to global air pollution, and diesel exhaust (DE) is its most important component. Several studies suggest that young individuals may be particularly susceptible to air pollution-induced neurotoxicity and that perinatal exposure may cause or contribute to developmental disabilities and behavioral abnormalities. In particular, a number of recent studies have found associations between exposures to traffic-related air pollution and autism spectrum disorders (ASD), which are characterized by impairment in socialization and in communication and by the presence of repetitive and unusual behaviors. The cause(s) of ASD are unknown, and while it may have a hereditary component, environmental factors are increasingly suspected as playing a pivotal role in its etiology, particularly in genetically susceptible individuals. Autistic children present higher levels of neuroinflammation and systemic inflammation, which are also hallmarks of exposure to traffic-related air pollution. Gene-environment interactions may play a relevant role in determining individual susceptibility to air pollution developmental neurotoxicity. Given the worldwide presence of elevated air pollution, studies on its effects and mechanisms on the developing brain, genetic susceptibility, role in neurodevelopmental disorders, and possible therapeutic interventions are certainly warranted.

  12. Relation between some environmental pollutants and recurrent spontaneous abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziza A. Saad

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive health is exquisitely sensitive to characteristics of an individual’s environment including physical, biological, behavioral, cultural and socioeconomic factors. This study was launched to elucidate the effect of the exposure to chemical pollutants as aromatic amines viz. (benzidine, mono-acetyl benzidine, diacetyl benzidine, α,β-naphthylamine as well as the biological pollutants e.g., human cytomegalovirus (HCMV as risk factors for recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA through determination of MDA as a marker of oxidative stress and determination of some antioxidant markers. The results of the current study revealed that the aborter mothers were being exposed to environmental pollutants as aromatic amines which were manifested by the presence of benzidine, mono-acetyl-benzidine, di-acetyl-benzidine, α,β-naphthylamine in most of their urine samples, where the level of aromatic amines were more 13.6, 10, 15, and 4-folds than the control group, respectively. Also, the data suggest that in early pregnancy failure there is an increase in markers of oxidative stress and a probable decrease in maternal antioxidant defenses (22 nmol/ml and 17 mg/l, 550 U/l, respectively. Generation of ROS in large quantities, in the first trimester placenta which has limited antioxidant defenses may cause DNA damage, oxidation of protein and lipid resulting in extensive cell death. Also, it was demonstrated that high elevation of HCMV inhibits cytotrophoblasts proliferation, migration invasion and matrix metalloproteins (MMP expression. Obviously, placental toxicological responses are partly due to pharmaco/toxico dynamic responses to the chemicals. Conclusively, the aforementioned findings emphasis that, the exposures to environmental chemical and/or biological risk factors are implicated in the pathogenesis of recurrent spontaneous abortion.

  13. Management Pollution Model for Sustainability Tourism and Fisheries in Coastal Areas of Makassar City

    OpenAIRE

    Hamzah,

    2012-01-01

    HAMZAH. Management Pollution Model for Sustainability Tourism and Fisheries in Coastal Areas of Makassar City. Under direction of ACHMAD FAHRUDIN, HEFNI EFFENDI, ISMUDI MUCHSIN Coastal areas of Makassar have a rapid development growth deployed with various activities including tourism and fisheries. Such resource utilizations have impacted coastal environment particularly its water quality. This research is intended to assess bio-physical condition, water quality, pollution loading, poll...

  14. Macroeconomic analysis of road vehicles related environmental pollution in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Török, Árpád; Török, Ádám

    2014-06-01

    The article aims to examine the relationship between road transport and macro economy, especially the use of fossil energy in transport sector. Nowadays environmental pollution is a key issue on the EU level as well as in Hungary. Lots of effort have been already done in order to decrease emissions in road transport, but a lot more need to be done. The article aims to prove that the only possible solution is technological innovation in order to reach emission reduction target without decline of the GDP. The basic idea is to ensure sustainable development, to decrease environmental pollution in road transport without harming the economy. In the EU and in Hungary road vehicles are powered by fossil fuelled internal combustion engines. This paper aims to analyse the role of the fossil fuel-based road transport sector within the economy with the usage of constant elasticity substitution (CES) production functions. Authors have built CES production function for Hungary. Parameters were calculated based on the validated model.

  15. Adapting an ambient monitoring program to the challenge of managing emerging pollutants in the San Francisco Estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoenicke, Rainer; Oros, Daniel R; Oram, John J; Taberski, Karen M

    2007-09-01

    While over seven million organic and inorganic compounds that have been indexed by the American Chemical Society's Chemical Abstracts Service in their CAS Registry are commercially available, most pollution monitoring programs focus only on those chemical stressors for which regulatory benchmarks exist, and have been traditionally considered responsible for the most significant human and environmental health risks. Until the late 1990s, the San Francisco Estuary Regional Monitoring Program was no exception in that regard. After a thorough external review, the monitoring program responded to the need for developing a pro-active surveillance approach for emerging pollutants in recognition of the fact that the potential for the growing list of widely used chemical compounds to alter the integrity of water is high. We describe (1) the scientific and analytical bases underlying a new surveillance monitoring approach; (2) summarize approaches used and results obtained from a forensic retrospective; (3) present the growing data set on emerging pollutants from surveillance monitoring and related efforts in the San Francisco Bay Area to characterize newly targeted compounds in wastewater streams, sediment, storm water runoff, and biota; and (4) suggest next steps in monitoring program development and applied research that could move beyond traditional approaches of pollutant characterization. Based on the forensic analysis of archived chromatograms and chemical and toxicological properties of candidate compounds, we quantified a variety of synthetic organic compounds which had previously not been targeted for analysis. Flame retardant compounds, pesticides and insecticide synergists, insect repellents, pharmaceuticals, personal care product ingredients, plasticizers, non-ionic surfactants, and other manufacturing ingredients were detected in water, sediment, and/or biological tissue samples. Several of these compounds, especially polybrominated diphenyl ether flame

  16. Health status and air pollution related socioeconomic concerns in urban China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Kaishan; Xu, Mengjia; Liu, Meng

    2018-02-05

    China is experiencing environmental issues and related health effects due to its industrialization and urbanization. The health effects associated with air pollution are not just a matter of epidemiology and environmental science research, but also an important social science issue. Literature about the relationship of socioeconomic factors with the environment and health factors is inadequate. The relationship between air pollution exposure and health effects in China was investigated with consideration of the socioeconomic factors. Based on nationwide survey data of China in 2014, we applied the multilevel mixed-effects model to evaluate how socioeconomic status (represented by education and income) contributed to the relationship between self-rated air pollution and self-rated health status at community level and individual level. The findings indicated that there was a non-linear relationship between the community socioeconomic status and community air pollution in urban China, with the highest level of air pollution presented in the communities with moderate socioeconomic status. In addition, health effects associated air pollution in different socioeconomic status groups were not equal. Self-rated air pollution had the greatest impact on self-rated health of the lower socioeconomic groups. With the increase of socioeconomic status, the effect of self-rated air pollution on self-rated health decreased. This study verified the different levels of exposure to air pollution and inequality in health effects among different socioeconomic groups in China. It is imperative for the government to urgently formulate public policies to enhance the ability of the lower socioeconomic groups to circumvent air pollution and reduce the health damage caused by air pollution.

  17. Indoor and Outdoor Air Pollution- related Health Problem in Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kim

    2010-09-21

    Sep 21, 2010 ... authorities and experts involved in the management of air quality were analyzed, interpreted and reported in the article. Results: Review of the few studies conducted in Ethiopia showed that average concentrations of PM2.5 reached as high as 280 µg/m3 for 24-hour measurements (range: 2,417-12,739 ...

  18. Combustion-related pollutants of polydisperse single-composition aerosols and advection fog formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, R. J.; Liaw, G. S.

    1982-01-01

    The most noticeable effect of air pollution on the properties of the atmosphere is the reduction in visibility, with and without the occurrence of condensation, which frequently accompanies polluted air. The present study concerns the formation of advection fog associated with aerosols, due to combustion-related pollutants, with a polydisperse population distribution and a single composition model. The results show that an aerosol population with high particle concentration-shifted distribution provides a more favorable condition for the formation of dense fog than an aerosol population with a low particle concentration-shifted distribution if the value of the mass concentration of the aerosols is kept constant.

  19. Indoor air pollution: a poverty-related cause of mortality among the children of the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmelin, Anders; Wall, Stig

    2007-11-01

    This article reviews the research on the relation between indoor air pollution exposure and acute respiratory infection (ARI) in children in developing countries. ARI is a cause of death globally, causing approximately 19% of all deaths before the age of 5 years, according to a World Health Organization estimate. Indoor air pollution from biomass fuels, which is strongly poverty related, has long been regarded as an important risk factor for ARI morbidity and mortality. The empirical base for this view is comparatively narrow, with few empirical studies in relation to the magnitude of the global public health importance of the problem. Most existing reports consistently indicate that indoor air pollution is indeed a risk factor for ARI, but studies are generally small and use indirect indicators of pollution, such as use of biomass fuel or type of stove. Exposure assessment for indoor air pollution in developing countries is recognized as a major obstacle because of high cost and infrastructural limitations to chemical pollution sampling. Use of proxy indicators without measurement support may increase the risk of both misclassification of exposure and of confounding by other poverty-related factors. The issue of sufficient sample size further underlines the need for decisions to invest in this research field. Areas where further research is needed also include exploring qualitatively options for interventions that are culturally and economically acceptable to local communities.

  20. Use of ecotoxicity test and ecoscores to improve the management of polluted soils: case of a secondary lead smelter plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foucault, Yann; Durand, Marie-José; Tack, Karine; Schreck, Eva; Geret, Florence; Leveque, Thibaut; Pradere, Philippe; Goix, Sylvaine; Dumat, Camille

    2013-02-15

    With the rise of sustainable development, rehabilitation of brownfield sites located in urban areas has become a major concern. Management of contaminated soils in relation with environmental and sanitary risk concerns is therefore a strong aim needing the development of both useful tools for risk assessment and sustainable remediation techniques. For soils polluted by metals and metalloids (MTE), the criteria for landfilling are currently not based on ecotoxicological tests but on total MTE concentrations and leaching tests. In this study, the ecotoxicity of leachates from MTE polluted soils sampled from an industrial site recycling lead-acid batteries were evaluated by using both modified Escherichia coli strains with luminescence modulated by metals and normalized Daphnia magna and Alivibrio fischeri bioassays. The results were clearly related to the type of microorganisms (crustacean, different strains of bacteria) whose sensitivity varied. Ecotoxicity was also different according to sample location on the site, total concentrations and physico-chemical properties of each soil. For comparison, standard leaching tests were also performed. Potentially phytoavailable fraction of MTE in soils and physico-chemical measures were finally performed in order to highlight the mechanisms. The results demonstrated that the use of a panel of microorganisms is suitable for hazard classification of polluted soils. In addition, calculated eco-scores permit to rank the polluted soils according to their potentially of dangerousness. Influence of soil and MTE characteristics on MTE mobility and ecotoxicity was also highlighted. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. ALGORITHM OF OUTSOURCING RELATIONS MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Arthur Kurbanov

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, domestic and foreign outsourcing practice was widespread. In the transition to outsourcing there are difficulties associated with the practical organization of the interaction between the customer and the performer. An algorithm of management of the relationship with the performer (outsourcer). Particular attention is given to the criteria for evaluation of potential contractors.

  2. Applicability of the environmental relative moldiness index for quantification of residential mold contamination in an air pollution health effects study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kamal, Ali; Burke, Janet; Vesper, Stephen; Batterman, Stuart; Vette, Alan; Godwin, Christopher; Chavez-Camarena, Marina; Norris, Gary

    2014-01-01

    The Near-Road Exposures and Effects of Urban Air Pollutants Study (NEXUS) investigated the impact of exposure to traffic-related air pollution on the respiratory health of asthmatic children in Detroit, Michigan...

  3. Impact of Bicycle Route Type on Exposure to Traffic-Related Air Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    MacNaughton, Piers; Melly, Steven; Vallarino, Jose; Adamkiewicz, Gary; Spengler, John D.

    2014-01-01

    Cyclists are exposed to traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) during their commutes due to their proximity to vehicular traffic. Two of the main components of TRAP are black carbon (BC) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), which have both been causally associated with increased mortality. To assess the impact of cyclists��� exposure to TRAP, a battery-powered mobile monitoring station was designed to sample air pollutants along five bike routes in Boston, Massachusetts. The bike routes were categorized...

  4. Stormwater management criteria for on-site pollution control: a comparative assessment of international practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sage, Jérémie; Berthier, Emmanuel; Gromaire, Marie-Christine

    2015-07-01

    Over the last decade, a growing interest has been shown toward innovative stormwater management practices, breaking away from conventional "end of pipe" approaches (based on conveying water offsite to centralized detention facilities). Innovative strategies, referred to as sustainable urban drainage systems, low impact development (LID) or green infrastructures, advocating for management of runoff as close to its origin as possible, have therefore gained a lot of popularity among practitioners and public authorities. However, while the need for pollution control is generally well accepted, there is no wide agreement about management criteria to be given to developers. This article hence aims to compare these criteria through literature analysis of different state or local stormwater management manuals or guidelines, investigating both their suitability for pollution control and their influence on best management practices selection and design. Four categories of criteria were identified: flow-rate limitations, "water quality volumes" (to be treated), volume reduction (through infiltration or evapotranspiration), and non-hydrologic criteria (such as loads reduction targets or maximum effluent concentrations). This study suggests that hydrologic criteria based on volume reduction (rather than treatment) might generally be preferable for on-site control of diffuse stormwater pollution. Nonetheless, determination of an appropriate management approach for a specific site is generally not straightforward and presents a variety of challenges for site designers seeking to satisfy local requirements in addressing stormwater quantity and quality issues. The adoption of efficient LID solution may therefore strongly depend on the guidance given to practitioners to account for these management criteria.

  5. Evaluation of the relation between groundwater pollution and the pollutant load on surface waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenendijk, P.; Roest, C.W.J.

    1996-01-01

    The importance of the relation between groundwater and surface water is demonstrated by the impact of water quality standards on permissible nitrogen losses at farm level. The effects of the intended fertilization reduction measures on agricultural production justify a thorough examination of the

  6. Group Relations at Work. Solidarity, Conflict, and Relations with Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodson, Randy

    1997-01-01

    Coded data from 83 work ethnographies and a telephone survey of 371 workers found that coworker solidarity generates high job satisfaction and better relations with management. Effects of the quality of coworker relationships equaled or exceeded the effects of job characteristics on satisfaction or management relations. (SK)

  7. Pulmonary rehabilitation improves exercise capacity and dyspnea in air pollution-related respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Naomi; Senjyu, Hideaki; Tanaka, Takako; Asai, Masaharu; Yanagita, Yorihide; Yano, Yudai; Nishinakagawa, Tsuyoshi; Kotaki, Kenji; Kitagawa, Chika; Rikitomi, Naoto; Kozu, Ryo; Honda, Sumihisa

    2014-01-01

    Air pollution in Japan caused respiratory disease, such as chronic bronchitis and asthma, in many individuals in the 1960s. Although air pollution has decreased, many victims of air pollution-related respiratory disease are limited in their activities of daily living because of respiratory symptoms. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of pulmonary rehabilitation in victims of air pollution-related chronic bronchitis or asthma. Subjects were enrolled in a 12-week (2-week inpatient followed by 10-week outpatient) pulmonary rehabilitation program. The program comprised conditioning, strength training, endurance training, and patient education. We assessed the Modified Medical Research Council (MMRC) dyspnea grade, pulmonary function, peripheral muscle force, incremental shuttle walk distance (ISWD), and physical activity at baseline and immediately after the program. Twenty-nine subjects (mean age 74.2 ± 10.1 years, 11 males) completed the program, including 11 subjects with COPD and 18 subjects with asthma. Following rehabilitation, the participants (n = 29) showed significant improvements in MMRC dyspnea grade, vital capacity % predicted, quadriceps force and ISWD (all P rehabilitation is an effective method of improving exercise capacity and dyspnea in officially acknowledged victims of air pollution-related asthma. In conclusion, we recommend that patients with chronic bronchitis or asthma, resulting from exposure to air pollution, are referred for pulmonary rehabilitation.

  8. Indoor metallic pollution related to mining activity in the Bolivian Altiplano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonturbel, Francisco E., E-mail: fonturbel@ug.uchile.cl [Departamento de Ciencias Ecologicas, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Barbieri, Enio [IRD-HSM (Institut de Recherche pour le Developpement), La Paz (Bolivia, Plurinational State of); Herbas, Cristian [Universidad Mayor de San Andres, IGEMA Institute (Instituto de Investigaciones Geologicas y del Medio Ambiente), La Paz (Bolivia, Plurinational State of); Barbieri, Flavia L.; Gardon, Jacques [IRD-HSM (Institut de Recherche pour le Developpement), La Paz (Bolivia, Plurinational State of); Universidad Mayor de San Andres, SELADIS Institute (Instituto de Servicios de Laboratorio para el Diagnostico e Investigacion en Salud), La Paz (Bolivia, Plurinational State of)

    2011-10-15

    The environmental pollution associated with mining and metallurgical activities reaches its greatest extent in several Andean cities and villages. Many locations in this area have accumulated through centuries a large amount of mining wastes, often disregarding the magnitude of this situation. However, in these naturally mineralized regions, there is little information available stating the exact role of mining and metallurgical industries in urban pollution. In this study, we demonstrated that the various metallic elements present in indoor dust (As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Sb, Sn, Zn) had a common origin and this contamination was increased by the proximity to the mines. Lead dust concentration was found at concerning levels for public health. In addition, wrong behaviors such as carrying mining workwear home contributed to this indoor dust pollution. Consequently, the constant exposure of the population could represent a potential health hazard for vulnerable groups, especially children. - Highlights: > We measured polymetallic pollution in household indoor dust from a mining town. > Toxic elements (Pb, As, Cd, Sb) in dust are correlated, suggesting a common origin. > The most polluted houses are within a 1 km radius around the mining center. > Carrying mining workwear home increases indoor pollution. > Lead concentrations in dust represent a serious concern for Public Health (600 {mu}g/g). - In a typical Andean mining city, the urban indoor pollution with toxic metallic elements is directly related to the closeness of the mining activities.

  9. A simplified model of pathogenic pollution for managing beaches ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Existing models for urban runoff water quality and dispersion in the coastal zone are cumbersome for application to everyday management of beach use. A simplified model is therefore proposed and tested using a case study. The model captures the key physical processes involved in mixing and dispersion of pathogenic ...

  10. Childhood incident asthma and traffic-related air pollution at home and school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Rob; Islam, Talat; Shankardass, Ketan; Jerrett, Michael; Lurmann, Fred; Gilliland, Frank; Gauderman, Jim; Avol, Ed; Künzli, Nino; Yao, Ling; Peters, John; Berhane, Kiros

    2010-07-01

    Traffic-related air pollution has been associated with adverse cardiorespiratory effects, including increased asthma prevalence. However, there has been little study of effects of traffic exposure at school on new-onset asthma. We evaluated the relationship of new-onset asthma with traffic-related pollution near homes and schools. Parent-reported physician diagnosis of new-onset asthma (n = 120) was identified during 3 years of follow-up of a cohort of 2,497 kindergarten and first-grade children who were asthma- and wheezing-free at study entry into the Southern California Children's Health Study. We assessed traffic-related pollution exposure based on a line source dispersion model of traffic volume, distance from home and school, and local meteorology. Regional ambient ozone, nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)), and particulate matter were measured continuously at one central site monitor in each of 13 study communities. Hazard ratios (HRs) for new-onset asthma were scaled to the range of ambient central site pollutants and to the residential interquartile range for each traffic exposure metric. Asthma risk increased with modeled traffic-related pollution exposure from roadways near homes [HR 1.51; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.25-1.82] and near schools (HR 1.45; 95% CI, 1.06-1.98). Ambient NO(2) measured at a central site in each community was also associated with increased risk (HR 2.18; 95% CI, 1.18-4.01). In models with both NO(2) and modeled traffic exposures, there were independent associations of asthma with traffic-related pollution at school and home, whereas the estimate for NO(2) was attenuated (HR 1.37; 95% CI, 0.69-2.71). Traffic-related pollution exposure at school and homes may both contribute to the development of asthma.

  11. Causation mechanism analysis for haze pollution related to vehicle emission in Guangzhou, China by employing the fault tree approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Weiqing; Fan, Hongbo; Qiu, Yongfu; Cheng, Zhiyu; Xu, Pingru; Qian, Yu

    2016-05-01

    Recently, China has frequently experienced large-scale, severe and persistent haze pollution due to surging urbanization and industrialization and a rapid growth in the number of motor vehicles and energy consumption. The vehicle emission due to the consumption of a large number of fossil fuels is no doubt a critical factor of the haze pollution. This work is focused on the causation mechanism of haze pollution related to the vehicle emission for Guangzhou city by employing the Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) method for the first time. With the establishment of the fault tree system of "Haze weather-Vehicle exhausts explosive emission", all of the important risk factors are discussed and identified by using this deductive FTA method. The qualitative and quantitative assessments of the fault tree system are carried out based on the structure, probability and critical importance degree analysis of the risk factors. The study may provide a new simple and effective tool/strategy for the causation mechanism analysis and risk management of haze pollution in China. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Melanin- and carotenoid-dependent signals of great tits ( Parus major) relate differently to metal pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauwe, Tom; Eens, Marcel

    2008-10-01

    Due to their high phenotypic plasticity, the expression of secondary sexual characteristics is particularly sensitive to stress. Here, we investigated the expression of two conspicuous visual signals in great tits ( Parus major) in a metal pollution gradient. In three study sites with marked differences in metal contamination (mainly lead, cadmium, copper and zinc), we compared melanin and carotenoid colouration of great tits. While carotenoid colouration (yellow breast) was negatively related to metal pollution, the size of a melanin trait (breast stripe) was larger in the most polluted sites. Environmental pollutants not only affect the expression of conspicuous signals but may even enhance, directly or indirectly, a signal of male quality such as breast stripe. Our results also support the multiple messages hypothesis predicting that different signals highlight different aspects of geno- and phenotypic condition of the bearer.

  13. Exploration of health risks related to air pollution and temperature in three Latin American cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Lankao, P.; Borbor Cordova, M.; Qin, H.

    2013-12-01

    We explore whether the health risks related to air pollution and temperature extremes are spatially and socioeconomically differentiated within three Latin American cities: Bogota, Colombia, Mexico City, Mexico, and Santiago, Chile. Based on a theoretical review of three relevant approaches to risk analysis (risk society, environmental justice, and urban vulnerability as impact), we hypothesize that health risks from exposure to air pollution and temperature in these cities do not necessarily depend on socio-economic inequalities. To test this hypothesis, we gathered, validated, and analyzed temperature, air pollution, mortality and socioeconomic vulnerability data from the three study cities. Our results show the association between air pollution levels and socioeconomic vulnerabilities did not always correlate within the study cities. Furthermore, the spatial differences in socioeconomic vulnerabilities within cities do not necessarily correspond with the spatial distribution of health impacts. The present study improves our understanding of the multifaceted nature of health risks and vulnerabilities associated with global environmental change. The findings suggest that health risks from atmospheric conditions and pollutants exist without boundaries or social distinctions, even exhibiting characteristics of a boomerang effect (i.e., affecting rich and poor alike) on a smaller scale such as areas within urban regions. We used human mortality, a severe impact, to measure health risks from air pollution and extreme temperatures. Public health data of better quality (e.g., morbidity, hospital visits) are needed for future research to advance our understanding of the nature of health risks related to climate hazards.

  14. Effects of canyon geometry on the distribution of traffic-related air pollution in a large urban area: Implications of a multi-canyon air pollution dispersion model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiangwen; Liu, Junfeng; Ban-Weiss, George A.; Zhang, Jiachen; Huang, Xin; Ouyang, Bin; Popoola, Olalekan; Tao, Shu

    2017-09-01

    Street canyons are ubiquitous in urban areas. Traffic-related air pollutants in street canyons can adversely affect human health. In this study, an urban-scale traffic pollution dispersion model is developed considering street distribution, canyon geometry, background meteorology, traffic assignment, traffic emissions and air pollutant dispersion. In the model, vehicle exhausts generated from traffic flows first disperse inside street canyons along the micro-scale wind field generated by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. Then, pollutants leave the street canyon and further disperse over the urban area. On the basis of this model, the effects of canyon geometry on the distribution of NOx and CO from traffic emissions were studied over the center of Beijing. We found that an increase in building height leads to heavier pollution inside canyons and lower pollution outside canyons at pedestrian level, resulting in higher domain-averaged concentrations over the area. In addition, canyons with highly even or highly uneven building heights on each side of the street tend to lower the urban-scale air pollution concentrations at pedestrian level. Further, increasing street widths tends to lead to lower pollutant concentrations by reducing emissions and enhancing ventilation simultaneously. Our results indicate that canyon geometry strongly influences human exposure to traffic pollutants in the populated urban area. Carefully planning street layout and canyon geometry while considering traffic demand as well as local weather patterns may significantly reduce inhalation of unhealthy air by urban residents.

  15. Ambient air pollution exposure and the incidence of related health effects among racial/ethnic minorities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieves, L.A.; Wernette, D.R.

    1997-02-01

    Differences among racial and ethnic groups in morbidity and mortality rates for diseases, including diseases with environmental causes, have been extensively documented. However, documenting the linkages between environmental contaminants, individual exposures, and disease incidence has been hindered by difficulties in measuring exposure for the population in general and for minority populations in particular. After briefly discussing research findings on associations of common air pollutants with disease incidence, the authors summarize recent studies of radial/ethnic subgroup differences in incidence of these diseases in the US. They then present evidence of both historic and current patterns of disproportionate minority group exposure to air pollution as measured by residence in areas where ambient air quality standards are violated. The current indications of disproportionate potential exposures of minority and low-income populations to air pollutants represent the continuation of a historical trend. The evidence of linkage between disproportionate exposure to air pollution of racial/ethnic minorities and low-income groups and their higher rates of some air pollution-related diseases is largely circumstantial. Differences in disease incidence and mortality rates among racial/ethnic groups are discussed for respiratory diseases, cancers, and lead poisoning. Pollutants of concern include CO, Pb, SO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, and particulates.

  16. High Resolution Spatial and Temporal Mapping of Traffic-Related Air Pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Batterman

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle traffic is one of the most significant emission sources of air pollutants in urban areas. While the influence of mobile source emissions is felt throughout an urban area, concentrations from mobile emissions can be highest near major roadways. At present, information regarding the spatial and temporal patterns and the share of pollution attributable to traffic-related air pollutants is limited, in part due to concentrations that fall sharply with distance from roadways, as well as the few monitoring sites available in cities. This study uses a newly developed dispersion model (RLINE and a spatially and temporally resolved emissions inventory to predict hourly PM2.5 and NOx concentrations across Detroit (MI, USA at very high spatial resolution. Results for annual averages and high pollution days show contrasting patterns, the need for spatially resolved analyses, and the limitations of surrogate metrics like proximity or distance to roads. Data requirements, computational and modeling issues are discussed. High resolution pollutant data enable the identification of pollutant “hotspots”, “project-level” analyses of transportation options, development of exposure measures for epidemiology studies, delineation of vulnerable and susceptible populations, policy analyses examining risks and benefits of mitigation options, and the development of sustainability indicators integrating environmental, social, economic and health information.

  17. Cardiovascular health, traffic-related air pollution and noise: are associations mutually confounded? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tétreault, Louis-François; Perron, Stéphane; Smargiassi, Audrey

    2013-10-01

    This review assessed the confounding effect of one traffic-related exposure (noise or air pollutants) on the association between the other exposure and cardiovascular outcomes. A systematic review was conducted with the databases Medline and Embase. The confounding effects in studies were assessed by using change in the estimate with a 10 % cutoff point. The influence on the change in the estimate of the quality of the studies, the exposure assessment methods and the correlation between road noise and air pollutions were also assessed. Nine publications were identified. For most studies, the specified confounders produced changes in estimates noise and pollutants, the quality of the study and of the exposure assessment do not seem to influence the confounding effects. Results from this review suggest that confounding of cardiovascular effects by noise or air pollutants is low, though with further improvements in exposure assessment, the situation may change. More studies using pollution indicators specific to road traffic are needed to properly assess if noise and air pollution are subjected to confounding.

  18. Copper Pollution Increases the Relative Importance of Predation Risk in an Aquatic Food Web.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Kent Kwan

    Full Text Available Although the cascading impact of predators depends critically on the relative role of lethal predation and predation risk, we lack an understanding of how human-caused stressors may shift this balance. Emergent evidence suggests that pollution may increase the importance of predator consumptive effects by weakening the effects of fear perceived by prey. However, this oversimplification ignores the possibility that pollution may also alter predator consumptive effects. In particular, contaminants may impair the consumptive effects of predators by altering density-dependent interactions among prey conspecifics. No study has directly compared predator consumptive and non-consumptive effects in polluted versus non-polluted settings. We addressed this issue by using laboratory mesocosms to examine the impact of sublethal doses of copper on tri-trophic interactions among estuarine predator crabs Cancer productus, carnivorous whelk prey Urosalpinx cinerea, and the basal resource barnacles Balanus glandula. We investigated crab consumptive effects (whelks culled without crab chemical cues, non-consumptive effects (whelks not culled with crab chemical cues, and total effects (whelks culled with crab chemical cues on whelks in copper polluted and non-polluted waters. Realistic copper concentrations suppressed the effects of simulated crab lethal predation (whelk culling by removing density-dependent feeding by whelks. Specifically, reductions in conspecific density occurring in elevated copper levels did not trigger the normal increase in whelk consumption rates of barnacles. Weakened effects of fear were only observed at extremely high copper levels, suggesting consumptive effects were more sensitive to pollution. Thus, pollution may shape communities by altering the roles of predators and interactions among prey.

  19. Spatial resolution requirements for traffic-related air pollutant exposure evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batterman, Stuart; Chambliss, Sarah; Isakov, Vlad

    2014-09-01

    Vehicle emissions represent one of the most important air pollution sources in most urban areas, and elevated concentrations of pollutants found near major roads have been associated with many adverse health impacts. To understand these impacts, exposure estimates should reflect the spatial and temporal patterns observed for traffic-related air pollutants. This paper evaluates the spatial resolution and zonal systems required to estimate accurately intraurban and near-road exposures of traffic-related air pollutants. The analyses use the detailed information assembled for a large (800 km2) area centered on Detroit, Michigan, USA. Concentrations of nitrogen oxides (NOx) due to vehicle emissions were estimated using hourly traffic volumes and speeds on 9700 links representing all but minor roads in the city, the MOVES2010 emission model, the RLINE dispersion model, local meteorological data, a temporal resolution of 1 h, and spatial resolution as low as 10 m. Model estimates were joined with the corresponding shape files to estimate residential exposures for 700,000 individuals at property parcel, census block, census tract, and ZIP code levels. We evaluate joining methods, the spatial resolution needed to meet specific error criteria, and the extent of exposure misclassification. To portray traffic-related air pollutant exposure, raster or inverse distance-weighted interpolations are superior to nearest neighbor approaches, and interpolations between receptors and points of interest should not exceed about 40 m near major roads, and 100 m at larger distances. For census tracts and ZIP codes, average exposures are overestimated since few individuals live very near major roads, the range of concentrations is compressed, most exposures are misclassified, and high concentrations near roads are entirely omitted. While smaller zones improve performance considerably, even block-level data can misclassify many individuals. To estimate exposures and impacts of traffic-related

  20. Childhood incident asthma and traffic-related air pollution at home and school

    OpenAIRE

    MCCONNELL, R; Islam, T; Shankardass, K.; Jerrett, M.; Lurmann, F; Gilliland, F.; Gauderman, J.; Avol, E.; Künzli, N.; Yao, L.; Peters, J; Berhane, K

    2010-01-01

    Background: Traffic-related air pollution has been associated with adverse cardiorespiratory effects, including increased asthma prevalence. However, there has been little study of effects of traffic exposure at school on new-onset asthma. Objectives: We evaluated the relationship of new-onset asthma with traffic-related pollution near homes and schools. Methods: Parent-reported physician diagnosis of new-onset asthma (n = 120) was identified during 3 years of follow-up of a cohort of 2,497 k...

  1. Atmospheric pollution problems and control proposals associated with solid waste management in China: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hezhong; Gao, Jiajia; Hao, Jiming; Lu, Long; Zhu, Chuanyong; Qiu, Peipei

    2013-05-15

    Along with population growth, rapid urbanization and industrialization process, the volume of municipal solid waste (MSW) generation in China has been increasing sharply in the past 30 years and the total amount of MSW yields will continue to increase. Nowadays, due to global warming warrants particular attention throughout the world, a series of air pollutants (including greenhouse gases, odorous gases, PCDD/Fs, heavy metals, PM, etc.) discharged from waste disposal and treatment processes have become one of the new significant emerging air pollution sources, which arousing great concerns about their adverse effects on surrounding ambient air quality and public health. At present, the overall safely disposed ratio of the collected MSW in China is reported at approximately 78% in 2010, and there are mainly three types of MSW disposal methods practiced in China, including landfill, composting and incineration. The characteristics of air pollutants and greenhouse gases discharge vary substantially among different MSW disposal methods. By presenting a thorough review of MSW generation in China and providing a summarization of the current status of MSW disposal methods practices, this review article makes an integrated overview analysis of existing air pollution problems associated with MSW collection, separation, and disposal processes. Furthermore, some comprehensive control proposals to prevent air pollution for improving MSW management of China in the future are put forward. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The development of an ecological approach to manage the pollution risk from highway runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabtree, B; Dempsey, P; Johnson, I; Whitehead, M

    2009-01-01

    In the UK, the Highways Agency is responsible for operating, maintaining and improving the strategic road network in England. One focus of the Highways Agency's ongoing research into the nature and impact of highway runoff is aimed at ensuring that the Highways Agency will meet the requirements of the EU Water Framework Directive. A research programme, undertaken in partnership with the Environment Agency, is in progress to develop a better understanding of pollutants in highway runoff and their ecological impact. The paper presents the outcome of a study to: (1) monitor pollutants in highway runoff under different climate and traffic conditions; (2) develop standards to assess potential ecological risks from soluble pollutants in highway runoff; and (3) develop a model to predict pollutant concentrations in highway runoff. The model has been embedded in a design tool incorporating risk assessment procedures and receiving water standards for soluble and insoluble pollutants--the latter has been developed elsewhere in another project within the research programme. The design tool will be used to support improved guidance on where, and to what level, treatment of runoff is required for highway designers to manage the risk of ecological impact from highway runoff.

  3. MAP3S: studying the transport, transformation, and fate of atmospheric energy-related pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacCracken, M C

    1977-10-01

    The MAP3S research program combines the existing capabilities of DOE national laboratories, sponsored university groups, and contractor organizations to develop, demonstrate, and verify numerical models that will make it possible to accurately simulate the atmospheric transformation of atmospheric energy related (AER) pollutants for use in assessing the various strategies for generating power. Programs aimed at gaining better understanding of the role of fossil fuel combustion in affecting the atmosphere are discussed. These include measurements of chemical and meteorological variables that determine the distribution of pollutant species from fossil-fuel electric power production; to design and execute atmospheric research experiments necessary to understand the mechanisms and related processes that must be included in simulation models; and to develop, demonstrate, and verify the capability to simulate the atmospheric behavior, pollutant concentrations, and precipitation chemistry effects of emissions from fossil-fuel power plants that are relevant to human health and welfare.

  4. Impact of organic pollutants on metal and As uptake by helophyte species and consequences for constructed wetlands design and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guittonny-Philippe, Anna; Masotti, Véronique; Claeys-Bruno, Magalie; Malleret, Laure; Coulomb, Bruno; Prudent, Pascale; Höhener, Patrick; Petit, Marie-Éléonore; Sergent, Michelle; laffont-Schwob, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Various industrial processes and anthropogenic activities in urban areas induce a release of metals, metalloids and organic pollutants. Phytoremediation of co-contaminated waters in constructed wetlands is a promising solution for reducing the impact on natural environments. In order to improve the design and management of constructed wetlands, more knowledge is needed concerning the effect of organic pollutants on plant metal and metalloid uptake. In this study, the effects of a mixture of organic pollutants commonly found in industrial effluents (hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, anionic detergent) on the uptake of ten metals and metalloids (MM), i.e. Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn, by five helophytes having a wide European distribution were studied. Main effects of plant species and pollutant conditions on metal uptake and interactions between factors were determined by a statistical treatment of a microcosm experiment. Overall, the order of element uptake in plants was Fe > Al > Mn > Cr, Ni, Zn, > Cu > As, Cd, Pb, which was consistent with relative concentrations in the rhizosphere environment of microcosms. Larger amounts of metals were retained in belowground biomass of plants than in aboveground parts. Statistical analysis showed that organic pollutants enhanced the accumulation of Mn in whole plants and the retention of Fe in belowground parts, while they reduced the accumulation of Cd, Ni, and Zn in whole plants and the retention of Cu in belowground parts. For the other MM (Al, As, Cr, Pb), effects were variable, depending on the plant species. Among the five plants tested, Carex cuprina generally removed the highest quantities of MM, which was the result of both a high metal accumulation capacity and high biomass production. Nevertheless, no significant proportion of the MM total loading could be removed in plants' aboveground parts.

  5. Roadway related tort liability and risk management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    This workbook provide government employees background information related to tort liability and risk management. Past experience with lawsuits against government entities are summarized. The reasons for the lawsuits and results are analyzed. The obje...

  6. Related Party Transactions and Earnings Management

    OpenAIRE

    Kuan, Linvani; Tower, Greg; Rusmin, Rusmin; Zahn, J-L.W. Mitchell Van der

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the association between related party transactions and earnings man-agement, based on a sample of 50 Indonesian publicly listed companies for the periods ending 2004 and 2005. The hypothesis developed in this study draw on past literature and the tenets of agency theory which suggest that the existence of related party transactions represent potential conflict of interest which may results in earnings management and appropriation by controlling shareholder to minority shar...

  7. Environment and environmental effects of pollution. Model of eco-dashboard – A tool for analysis of environmental management performances

    OpenAIRE

    Martinescu (Oprea), Dana Maria/G; Căpuşneanu, Sorinel/I

    2009-01-01

    This article presents some conceptual approaches to environment and pollution phenomenon, describing the main factors of pollution and their evolution in Romania. There are described the main centers of pollution from the Slatina area. There is presented a definition of eco-dashboard, the main flight specific businesses within the non-ferrous metallurgical industry of Romania and a model for analysis of environmental management performance of this specific field.

  8. Prenatal Exposure to Traffic-related Air Pollution and Child Behavioral Development Milestone Delays in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorifuji, Takashi; Kashima, Saori; Higa Diez, Midory; Kado, Yoko; Sanada, Satoshi; Doi, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that prenatal exposure to outdoor air pollution is associated with unfavorable neurodevelopment in children. We examined associations between prenatal exposure to traffic-related air pollution and child behavioral development milestone delays, using data from a nationwide population-based longitudinal survey in Japan, where the participants were recruited in 2001 and followed. Particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide, and sulfur dioxide concentrations during the 9 months before birth were obtained at the municipality level and assigned to the participants who were born in the corresponding municipality. We analyzed data from singleton births with linked pollution data available (N = 33,911 at the maximum). We used responses to survey questions about age-appropriate behaviors at ages 2.5 and 5.5 years as indicators of behavioral development. We conducted multilevel logistic regression analysis, adjusting for individual and municipality-level variables. Air pollution exposure during gestation was positively associated with the risk of some developmental milestone delays at both ages. Specifically, air pollution was associated with verbal and fine motor development at age 2.5 years, and with behaviors related to inhibition and impulsivity at 5.5 years. In the fully-adjusted models, odds ratios following one-interquartile-range increase in nitrogen dioxide and suspended particulate matter were 1.24 (95% confidence interval: 1.07, 1.43) for inability to compose a two-phrase sentence at ages 2.5 and 1.10 (1.05, 1.16) for inability to express emotions at age 5.5 years, respectively. Prenatal exposure to traffic-related air pollution was associated with behavioral development milestone delays of children in a nationally representative sample in Japan.

  9. Constructed wetlands for water pollution management of aquaculture farms conducting earthen pond culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ying-Feng; Jing, Shuh-Ren; Lee, Der-Yuan; Chang, Yih-Feng; Sui, Hsuan-Yu

    2010-08-01

    This study established farm-scale constructed wetlands integrated to shrimp ponds, using existing earthern pond areas, with a wetland-to-pond ratio of only 0.086 for shrimp culture. The constructed wetlands were used as practice for aquaculture water and wastewater treatment, to regulate the water quality of shrimp ponds and manage pollution from pond effluents. The results of water quality monitoring for influent and effluent showed that constructed wetlands significantly reduced total suspended solids (59 to 72%), turbidity (55 to 65%), chlorophyll a (58 to 72%), 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (29 to 40%), and chemical oxygen demand (13 to 24%) from pond water. The wetland treatment sufficiently regulated water quality of the recirculating shrimp pond, which was significantly (p aquaculture farms (R.O.C. Environmental Protection Administration, 2007). Accordingly, wetland treatment applications were proposed to implement the best management practices to reduce pollution from aquaculture farms in Taiwan.

  10. U.S. EPA Resource Helps Schools Reduce Exposure to Traffic-Related Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    LOS ANGELES--The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency released a document to give schools and parents ideas on how to reduce children's exposure to traffic-related air pollution. When schools are located close to busy roads, students can be exposed to unhe

  11. Environmental Pollution in Relation to Oil Industry: A Case Study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was revealed that variations exist in the concentration level of the heavy metals considered (lead, chromium, cadmium and nickel). Their concentration levels were observed to be relatively higher in soils which have had spillage. Thus, it is evident that the activities of oil industry constitute a threat and if the pollution extent ...

  12. Association of Traffic-Related Air Pollution with Children’s Neurobehavioral Functions in Quanzhou, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shunqin; Zhang, Jinliang; Zeng, Xiaodong; Zeng, Yimin; Wang, Shengchun; Chen, Shuyun

    2009-01-01

    Background With the increase of motor vehicles, ambient air pollution related to traffic exhaust has become an important environmental issue in China. Because of their fast growth and development, children are more susceptible to ambient air pollution exposure. Many chemicals from traffic exhaust, such as carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, and lead, have been reported to show adverse effects on neurobehavioral functions. Several studies in China have suggested that traffic exhaust might affect neurobehavioral functions of adults who have occupational traffic exhaust exposure. However, few data have been reported on the effects on neurobehavioral function in children. Objectives The objective of this study was to explore the association between traffic-related air pollution exposure and its effects on neurobehavioral function in children. Methods This field study was conducted in Quanzhou, China, where two primary schools were chosen based on traffic density and monitoring data of ambient air pollutants. School A was located in a clear area and school B in a polluted area. We monitored NO2 and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 10 μm as indicators for traffic-related air pollution on the campuses and in classrooms for 2 consecutive days in May 2005. The children from second grade (8–9 years of age) and third grade (9–10 years of age) of the two schools (n = 928) participated in a questionnaire survey and manual-assisted neurobehavioral testing. We selected 282 third-grade children (school A, 136; school B, 146) to participate in computer-assisted neurobehavioral testing. We conducted the fieldwork between May and June 2005. We used data from 861 participants (school A, 431; school B, 430) with manual neurobehavioral testing and from all participants with computerized testing for data analyses. Results Media concentrations of NO2 in school A and school B campus were 7 μg/m3 and 36 μg/m3, respectively (p polluted area showed poor performance on

  13. Characterization of Somatic Mutations in Air Pollution-Related Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian-Jun Yu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution has been classified as Group 1 carcinogenic to humans, but the underlying tumorigenesis remains unclear. In Xuanwei City of Yunnan Province, the lung cancer incidence is among the highest in China attributed to severe air pollution generated by combustion of smoky coal, providing a unique opportunity to dissect lung carcinogenesis of air pollution. Here we analyzed the somatic mutations of 164 non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs from Xuanwei and control regions (CR where smoky coal was not used. Whole genome sequencing revealed a mean of 289 somatic exonic mutations per tumor and the frequent C:G → A:T nucleotide substitutions in Xuanwei NSCLCs. Exome sequencing of 2010 genes showed that Xuanwei and CR NSCLCs had a mean of 68 and 22 mutated genes per tumor, respectively (p < 0.0001. We found 167 genes (including TP53, RYR2, KRAS, CACNA1E which had significantly higher mutation frequencies in Xuanwei than CR patients, and mutations in most genes in Xuanwei NSCLCs differed from those in CR cases. The mutation rates of 70 genes (e.g., RYR2, MYH3, GPR144, CACNA1E were associated with patients' lifetime benzo(apyrene exposure. This study uncovers the mutation spectrum of air pollution-related lung cancers, and provides evidence for pollution exposure–genomic mutation relationship at a large scale.

  14. Fluid mechanics simulation of fog formation associated with polluted atmosphere produced by energy related fuel combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, R. J.; Liaw, G. S.

    1980-01-01

    It is noted that large quantities of atmospheric aerosols with composition SO4(-2), NO3(-1), and NH4(+1) have been detected in highly industrialized areas. Most aerosol products come from energy-related fuel combustion. Fluid mechanics simulation of both microphysical and macrophysical processes is considered in studying the time dependent evolution of the saturation spectra of condensation nuclei associated with polluted and clean atmospheres during the time periods of advection fog formation. The results demonstrate that the condensation nuclei associated with a polluted atmosphere provide more favorable conditions than condensation nuclei associated with a clean atmosphere to produce dense advection fog, and that attaining a certain degree of supersaturation is not necessarily required for the formation of advection fog having condensation nuclei associated with a polluted atmosphere.

  15. Traffic-related air pollution is related to interrupter resistance in 4-year-old children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eenhuizen, Esther; Gehring, Ulrike; Wijga, Alet H.; Smit, Henriette A.; Fischer, Paul H.; Brauer, Michael; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Kerkhof, Marjan; de Jongste, Johan C.; Brunekreef, Bert; Hoek, Gerard

    Outdoor air pollution has been associated with decrements in lung function and growth of lung function in school-age children. Lung function effects have not been examined in preschoolers, with the exception of one study on minute ventilation in newborns. Our goal was to assess the relationship

  16. A Management State of POPs (Persistent Organic Pollutants) and the Measuring Direction - Centered By-Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jeong Gyu; Lee, Hee Seon [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-12-01

    The chemical materials, DDT and Dioxin, threaten the human health and take the high toxicity on ecosystem and a living thing. Because the chemical materials remain in environment for a long time due to a slow natural decomposition, they are biologically concentrated through the food cycle in ecosystem and have a characteristic to move a long distance. Owing to such toxicity and the characteristics of chemical materials, the world organization named them as Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) and has been actively progressing the international movement to strictly restrict them since the middle of 1990s. POPs regulation agreement, which is on progress centered in UNEP, is facing to the conclusion of the agreement of 2001 year. An agricultural chemical of organic chlorine among 12 POPs indicated by UNEP has been already prohibited in the domestic use and manufacturing or not registered, so the basic research, including search and monitoring if POPs remain or not, is required afterward. Because Dioxin, Puran, Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) among POPs, which are produced as by-products from all kinds of industrial processes, are not raw materials dislike other POPs, their use and manufacturing cannot be only prohibited by the related law but also they have few substitutes. Therefore, they should be applied by the different regulation from the existing toxic chemicals in order to manage the toxicity of the materials. However, the regulation on by-products among POPs is just in the beginning stage, and even the producing source has not been yet confirmed. This study suggests the necessity of the management on Dioxin, Puran, HCB, by-products among POPs, and presents the measuring direction with grasping the domestic and foreign trend of the regulation on the materials. 70 refs., 2 figs., 56 tabs.

  17. Air pollution: what matters most? : Physical, chemical and oxidative properties of air pollution components related to toxic effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhof, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304822426

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have been published on the adverse health effects associated with both short- and long-term exposure to air pollution. Air pollution is a heterogeneous, complex mixture of gases, liquids, and particulate matter (PM). Up to now, PM mass concentration has been the metric of choice to

  18. Socioeconomic position and low birth weight among mothers exposed to traffic-related air pollution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateus Habermann

    Full Text Available Atmospheric pollution is a major public health concern. It can affect placental function and restricts fetal growth. However, scientific knowledge remains too limited to make inferences regarding causal associations between maternal exposure to air pollution and adverse effects on pregnancy. This study evaluated the association between low birth weight (LBW and maternal exposure during pregnancy to traffic related air pollutants (TRAP in São Paulo, Brazil.Analysis included 5,772 cases of term-LBW (<2,500 g and 5,814 controls matched by sex and month of birth selected from the birth registration system. Mothers' addresses were geocoded to estimate exposure according to 3 indicators: distance from home to heavy traffic roads, distance-weighted traffic density (DWTD and levels of particulate matter ≤10 µg/m3 estimated through land use regression (LUR-PM10. Final models were evaluated using multiple logistic regression adjusting for birth, maternal and pregnancy characteristics. We found decreased odds in the risk of LBW associated with DWTD and LUR-PM10 in the highest quartiles of exposure with a significant linear trend of decrease in risk. The analysis with distance from heavy traffic roads was less consistent. It was also observed that mothers with higher education and neighborhood-level income were potentially more exposed to TRAP.This study found an unexpected decreased risk of LBW associated with traffic related air pollution. Mothers with advantaged socioeconomic position (SEP although residing in areas of higher vehicular traffic might not in fact be more expose to air pollution. It can also be that the protection against LBW arising from a better SEP is stronger than the effect of exposure to air pollution, and this exposure may not be sufficient to increase the risk of LBW for these mothers.

  19. Socioeconomic position and low birth weight among mothers exposed to traffic-related air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habermann, Mateus; Gouveia, Nelson

    2014-01-01

    Atmospheric pollution is a major public health concern. It can affect placental function and restricts fetal growth. However, scientific knowledge remains too limited to make inferences regarding causal associations between maternal exposure to air pollution and adverse effects on pregnancy. This study evaluated the association between low birth weight (LBW) and maternal exposure during pregnancy to traffic related air pollutants (TRAP) in São Paulo, Brazil. Analysis included 5,772 cases of term-LBW (registration system. Mothers' addresses were geocoded to estimate exposure according to 3 indicators: distance from home to heavy traffic roads, distance-weighted traffic density (DWTD) and levels of particulate matter ≤10 µg/m3 estimated through land use regression (LUR-PM10). Final models were evaluated using multiple logistic regression adjusting for birth, maternal and pregnancy characteristics. We found decreased odds in the risk of LBW associated with DWTD and LUR-PM10 in the highest quartiles of exposure with a significant linear trend of decrease in risk. The analysis with distance from heavy traffic roads was less consistent. It was also observed that mothers with higher education and neighborhood-level income were potentially more exposed to TRAP. This study found an unexpected decreased risk of LBW associated with traffic related air pollution. Mothers with advantaged socioeconomic position (SEP) although residing in areas of higher vehicular traffic might not in fact be more expose to air pollution. It can also be that the protection against LBW arising from a better SEP is stronger than the effect of exposure to air pollution, and this exposure may not be sufficient to increase the risk of LBW for these mothers.

  20. Atmospheric pollution; Pollution atmospherique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambrozo, J.; Guillossou, G. [EDF-Gas de France, Service des Etudes Medicales, 75 - Paris (France)

    2008-10-15

    The atmosphere is the reservoir of numerous pollutants (nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, carbon oxides, particulates, volatile organic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) from natural origin or anthropogenic origin ( industry, transport, agriculture, district heating). With epidemiologic studies the atmospheric pollution is associated with an increase of respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. At the european level, the technological progress, the legislation have allowed a reduction of pollutant emissions, however these efforts have to be continued because the sanitary impact of atmospheric pollution must not be underestimated, even if the risks appear less important that these ones in relation with tobacco, inside pollution or others factors of cardiovascular risks. Indeed, on these last factors an individual action is possible for the exposure to air pollution people have no control. (N.C.)

  1. Global Gray Water Footprint and Water Pollution Levels Related to Anthropogenic Nitrogen Loads to Fresh Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonnen, Mesfin M; Hoekstra, Arjen Y

    2015-11-03

    This is the first global assessment of nitrogen-related water pollution in river basins with a specification of the pollution by economic sector, and by crop for the agricultural sector. At a spatial resolution of 5 by 5 arc minute, we estimate anthropogenic nitrogen (N) loads to freshwater, calculate the resultant gray water footprints (GWFs), and relate the GWFs per river basin to runoff to calculate the N-related water pollution level (WPL) per catchment. The accumulated global GWF related to anthropogenic N loads in the period 2002-2010 was 13×10(12) m3/y. China contributed about 45% to the global total. Three quarters of the GWF related to N loads came from diffuse sources (agriculture), 23% from domestic point sources and 2% from industrial point sources. Among the crops, production of cereals had the largest contribution to the N-related GWF (18%), followed by vegetables (15%) and oil crops (11%). The river basins with WPL>1 (where the N load exceeds the basin's assimilation capacity), cover about 17% of the global land area, contribute about 9% of the global river discharge, and provide residence to 48% of the global population.

  2. Influence of traffic-related noise and air pollution on self-reported fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jazani, Reza Khani; Saremi, Mahnaz; Rezapour, Tara; Kavousi, Amir; Shirzad, Hadi

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that exposure to environmental pollutions is related to health problems. It is, however, questionable whether this condition affects working performance in occupational settings. The aim of this study is to determine the predictive value of age as well as traffic related air and noise pollutions for fatigue. 246 traffic officers participated in this study. Air pollution data were obtained from the local Air Quality Control Company. A sound level meter was used for measuring ambient noise. Fatigue was evaluated by the MFI-20 questionnaire. The general and physical scales showed the highest, while the reduced activity scale showed the lowest level of fatigue. Age had an independent direct effect on reduced activity and physical fatigue. The average of daytime equivalent noise level was between 71.63 and 88.51 dB(A). In the case of high noise exposure, older officers feel more fatigue than younger ones. Exposure to PM10 and O3 resulted in general and physical fatigue. Complex Interactions between SO2, CO and NO2 were found. Exposure to noise and some components of air pollution, especially O3 and PM10, increases fatigue. The authorities should adopt and rigorously implement environmental protection policies in order to protect people.

  3. Environmental pollutions associated to conflicts in Iraq and related health problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shammari, Ahmed Majeed

    2016-06-01

    Several wars and a 13-year embargo as well as several years of civil war with the recent war on terrorism have cumulatively damaged Iraq's land, air, water, and health infrastructure. The sand particles in Iraq contain toxic substances, which dates back to the pollution caused by military actions that disassemble the desert sands and turn it into light dust. This dust reaches cities as dust storms that effect most Iraqi cities. The presence of depleted uranium (DU) in the Iraqi food chain is documented by measuring the uranium in animals organs in different Iraqi cities with the highest concentration in the south of Iraq. One of the major sites of pollution in Iraq is the Al-twaitha nuclear research site. The nuclear research reactors were destroyed in the 1991 Gulf War. Barrels containing radioactive materials and sources were stolen from the site in the 2003 war. This resulted in considerable radioactive pollution at the site and in its surrounding areas. Soil sample have been found to be contaminated by Cs-137and Co-60. Cancer and birth defects are most associated with the environmental pollution caused by the conflicts. All studies related to this by Iraqi researchers are discussed in this review. From studying the Iraqi scientific publications, we can conclude that Basrah, Baghdad, Faluja, Mosul and Thi-Qar are the most effected cities in Iraq. This review concludes that the presence of a heavily contaminated environment with war related pollutants in most of the Iraqi cities needs much attention and huge effort to reduce the related health problems.

  4. Association between mortality and indicators of traffic-related air pollution in the Netherlands: A cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, G.; Brunekreef, B.; Goldbohm, S.; Fischer, P.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2002-01-01

    Background: Long-term exposure to particulate matter air pollution has been associated with increased cardiopulmonary mortality in the USA. We aimed to assess the relation between traffic-related air pollution and mortality in participants of the Netherlands Cohort study on Diet and Cancer (NLCS),

  5. Traffic-related air pollution and childhood obesity in an Italian birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fioravanti, Sara; Cesaroni, Giulia; Badaloni, Chiara; Michelozzi, Paola; Forastiere, Francesco; Porta, Daniela

    2018-01-01

    Air pollution is associated with several adverse health outcomes in children, such as respiratory illnesses and cognitive development impairment. There are suggestions of an effect of traffic-related air pollution on the occurrence of childhood obesity, but the results are not consistent. The aim of the study is to analyse whether air pollution and vehicular traffic exposure, during the first four years of life, influence obesity- related measures among 4 and 8-year-old children from a prospective birth cohort in Rome. A cohort of newborns, enrolled in 2003-2004 within the GASPII project, was followed at 4 and 8 years of age with parental interviews and clinical examinations. Air pollution was assessed at residential address using Land Use Regression models (for NO2, NOx, PM10, PM2.5, PMcoarse, PM2.5 absorbance and one traffic variable (Total traffic load of all roads in a 100m buffer)). The outcomes under study were body mass index (BMI Z-scores according to WHO recommendations, considered both categorical and continuous) measured at 4 and 8 years, and, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, total and HDL cholesterol measured at 8 years. The associations were evaluated through both cross-sectional and longitudinal approaches, using logistic regression models, Generalized Estimating Equation models (GEE) and linear regression models, as appropriate. Moreover, Inverse Probability Weighting (IPW) methodology was used to account for selection bias at enrolment and at follow-up. A total of 719 infants were enrolled and 581 (80.8%) and 499 (69.4%) were followed at 4 and 8 years, respectively. The prevalence of overweight/obesity was 9.3% and 36.9% at 4 and 8 years. No evidence of an association was found between vehicular traffic and being overweight/obese. Similarly, there was no evidence of an association between exposure to air pollutants and all other ponderal excess parameters. The study shows no association between exposure to vehicular traffic and exposure to

  6. Managing Nonpoint Source Pollution in Western Washington: Landowner Learning Methods and Motivations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Clare M.

    2009-06-01

    States, territories, and tribes identify nonpoint source pollution as responsible for more than half of the Nation’s existing and threatened water quality impairments, making it the principal remaining cause of water quality problems across the United States. Combinations of education, technical and financial assistance, and regulatory measures are used to inform landowners about nonpoint source pollution issues, and to stimulate the use of best management practices. A mail survey of non-commercial riparian landowners investigated how they learn about best management practices, the efficacy of different educational techniques, and what motivates them to implement land management activities. Landowners experience a variety of educational techniques, and rank those that include direct personal contact as more effective than brochures, advertisements, radio, internet, or television. The most important motivations for implementing best management practices were linked with elements of a personal stewardship ethic, accountability, personal commitment, and feasibility. Nonpoint source education and social marketing campaigns should include direct interpersonal contacts, and appeal to landowner motivations of caring, responsibility, and personal commitment.

  7. Can We Manage Nonpoint-Source Pollution Using Nutrient Concentrations during Seasonal Baseflow?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. McCarty

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Nationwide, a substantial amount of resources has been targeted toward improving water quality, particularly focused on nonpoint-source pollution. This study was conducted to evaluate the relationship between nutrient concentrations observed during baseflow and runoff conditions from 56 sites across five watersheds in Arkansas. Baseflow and stormflow concentrations for each site were summarized using geometric mean and then evaluated for directional association. A significant, positive correlation was found for NO–N, total N, soluble reactive P, and total P, indicating that sites with high baseflow concentrations also had elevated runoff concentrations. Those landscape factors that influence nutrient concentrations in streams also likely result in increased runoff, suggesting that high baseflow concentrations may reflect elevated loads from the watershed. The results highlight that it may be possible to collect water-quality data during baseflow to help define where to target nonpoint-source pollution best management practices within a watershed.

  8. An integrated simulation and optimization approach for managing human health risks of atmospheric pollutants by coal-fired power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, C; Cai, X H; Cai, Y P; Guo, H C; Sun, W; Tan, Q; Huang, G H

    2014-06-01

    This research developed a simulation-aided nonlinear programming model (SNPM). This model incorporated the consideration of pollutant dispersion modeling, and the management of coal blending and the related human health risks within a general modeling framework In SNPM, the simulation effort (i.e., California puff [CALPUFF]) was used to forecast the fate of air pollutants for quantifying the health risk under various conditions, while the optimization studies were to identify the optimal coal blending strategies from a number of alternatives. To solve the model, a surrogate-based indirect search approach was proposed, where the support vector regression (SVR) was used to create a set of easy-to-use and rapid-response surrogates for identifying the function relationships between coal-blending operating conditions and health risks. Through replacing the CALPUFF and the corresponding hazard quotient equation with the surrogates, the computation efficiency could be improved. The developed SNPM was applied to minimize the human health risk associated with air pollutants discharged from Gaojing and Shijingshan power plants in the west of Beijing. Solution results indicated that it could be used for reducing the health risk of the public in the vicinity of the two power plants, identifying desired coal blending strategies for decision makers, and considering a proper balance between coal purchase cost and human health risk. A simulation-aided nonlinear programming model (SNPM) is developed. It integrates the advantages of CALPUFF and nonlinear programming model. To solve the model, a surrogate-based indirect search approach based on the combination of support vector regression and genetic algorithm is proposed. SNPM is applied to reduce the health risk caused by air pollutants discharged from Gaojing and Shijingshan power plants in the west of Beijing. Solution results indicate that it is useful for generating coal blending schemes, reducing the health risk of the public

  9. Predicting traffic-related air pollution in Los Angeles using a distance decay regression selection strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jason G; Jerrett, Michael; Beckerman, Bernardo; Wilhelm, Michelle; Ghosh, Jo Kay; Ritz, Beate

    2009-08-01

    Land use regression (LUR) has emerged as an effective means of estimating exposure to air pollution in epidemiological studies. We created the first LUR models of nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOX) for the complex megalopolis of Los Angeles (LA), California. Two-hundred and one sampling sites (the largest sampling design to date for LUR estimation) for two seasons were selected using a location-allocation algorithm that maximized the potential variability in measured pollutant concentrations and represented populations in the health study. Traffic volumes, truck routes and road networks, land use data, satellite-derived vegetation greenness and soil brightness, and truck route slope gradients were used for predicting NOX concentrations. A novel model selection strategy known as "ADDRESS" (A Distance Decay REgression Selection Strategy) was used to select optimized buffer distances for potential predictor variables and maximize model performance. Final regression models explained 81%, 86% and 85% of the variance in measured NO, NO2 and NOX concentrations, respectively. Cross-validation analyses suggested a prediction accuracy of 87-91%. Remote sensing-derived variables were significantly correlated with NOX concentrations, suggesting these data are useful surrogates for modeling traffic-related pollution when certain land use data are unavailable. Our study also demonstrated that reactive pollutants such as NO and NO2 could have high spatial extents of influence (e.g., > 5000 m from expressway) and high background concentrations in certain geographic areas. This paper represents the first attempt to model traffic-related air pollutants at a fine scale within such a complex and large urban region.

  10. Evaluation of air pollution-related risks for Austrian mountain forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smidt, Stefan; Herman, Friedl

    2004-07-01

    The present paper describes air pollution status and evaluation of risks related to effects of phytotoxic pollutants in the Austrian mountain forests. The results are based on Austrian networks (Forest Inventory, Forest Damage Monitoring System, Austrian Bioindicator Grid), the Austrian sample plots of the European networks of the UN-ECE (ICP Forests, Level I and Level II) and interdisciplinary research approaches. Based on the monitoring data and on modelling and mapping of Critical Thresholds, the evaluation of risk factors was possible. Cause-effect relationships between air pollution and tree responses were shown by tree-physiological measurements. Sulfur impact, proton and lead input, concentrations of nitrogen oxides, nitrogen input and ozone were evaluated. The risk was demonstrated at a regional and large-scale national level. Especially the increasing O{sub 3} level and the accumulation of Pb with altitude present most serious risk for mountain forests. - Despite strong reduction of emissions in Europe, pollutants are still a potential stress factor, especially for sensitive mountain forest ecosystems in Austria.

  11. Particulate Air Pollution and Health: Emerging Issues and Research Needs Related to the Development of Air Quality Standards

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick A Hessel; Goldsmith, John R.; H-Erich Wichmann; Wilson, William E; Soskolne, Colin L.

    1997-01-01

    The health effects of particulate air pollution were highlighted at the Eighth Annual Conference of the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology, held in Edmonton, Alberta in August 1996. Despite consistent evidence for adverse respiratory and cardiovascular health effects related to particulate air pollution, there are significant gaps in the knowledge of the mechanisms whereby particulate air pollution affects human health. Questions regarding the appropriate measure of dose for...

  12. Spatial variations in estimated chronic exposure to traffic-related air pollution in working populations: A simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cloutier-Fisher Denise

    2008-07-01

    negligible, based on the relatively short amount of time spent in this microenvironment compared to other locations. We recognize that this may not be the case for pollutants other than NO2. These results represent the first time spatially disaggregated variations in exposure to traffic-related air pollution within a community have been estimated and reported. Conclusion The results suggest that while time spent in the home indoor microenvironment contributes most to between-census tract variation in estimates of annual average exposures to traffic-related NO2, time spent in the work indoor microenvironment contributes most to within-census tract variation, and time spent in transit by vehicle makes a negligible contribution. The SESM has potential as a policy evaluation tool, given input data that reflect changes in pollution levels or work flow patterns due to traffic demand management and land use development policy.

  13. Nutritional-related diseases and management: newspaper ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutritional-related diseases and management: newspaper education and dissemination. ... Important events such as health, politics and other happenings, such as births, marriages and death are also recorded. This investigation identifies the newspapers that have information on health tips, these are Punch, The Nation ...

  14. An expanded conceptual framework for solution-focused management of chemical pollution in European waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munthe, John; Brorström-Lundén, Eva; Rahmberg, Magnus; Posthuma, Leo; Altenburger, Rolf; Brack, Werner; Bunke, Dirk; Engelen, Guy; Gawlik, Bernd Manfred; van Gils, Jos; Herráez, David López; Rydberg, Tomas; Slobodnik, Jaroslav; van Wezel, Annemarie

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes a conceptual framework for solutions-focused management of chemical contaminants built on novel and systematic approaches for identifying, quantifying and reducing risks of these substances. The conceptual framework was developed in interaction with stakeholders representing relevant authorities and organisations responsible for managing environmental quality of water bodies. Stakeholder needs were compiled via a survey and dialogue. The content of the conceptual framework was thereafter developed with inputs from relevant scientific disciplines. The conceptual framework consists of four access points: Chemicals, Environment, Abatement and Society, representing different aspects and approaches to engaging in the issue of chemical contamination of surface waters. It widens the scope for assessment and management of chemicals in comparison to a traditional (mostly) perchemical risk assessment approaches by including abatement- and societal approaches as optional solutions. The solution-focused approach implies an identification of abatement- and policy options upfront in the risk assessment process. The conceptual framework was designed for use in current and future chemical pollution assessments for the aquatic environment, including the specific challenges encountered in prioritising individual chemicals and mixtures, and is applicable for the development of approaches for safe chemical management in a broader sense. The four access points of the conceptual framework are interlinked by four key topics representing the main scientific challenges that need to be addressed, i.e.: identifying and prioritising hazardous chemicals at different scales; selecting relevant and efficient abatement options; providing regulatory support for chemicals management; predicting and prioritising future chemical risks. The conceptual framework aligns current challenges in the safe production and use of chemicals. The current state of knowledge and implementation

  15. Influence of local parameters on the dispersion of traffic-related pollutants within street canyons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karra, Styliani; Malki-Epshtein, Liora; Martin Hyde Collaboration

    2011-11-01

    Ventilation within urban cities and street canyons and the associated air quality is a problem of increasing interest in the last decades. It is important for to minimise exposure of the population to traffic-related pollutants at street level. The residence time of pollutants within the street canyons depends on the meteorological conditions such as wind speed and direction, geometry layout and local parameters (position of traffic lane within the street). An experimental study was carried out to investigate the influence of traffic lane position on the dispersion of traffic-related pollutants within different street canyons geometries: symmetrical (equal building heights on both sides of the street), non-symmetrical (uniform building heights but lower on one side of the street) and heterogeneous (non-uniform building heights on both sides of the street) under constant meteorological conditions. Laboratory experiments were carried out within a water channel and simultaneous measurements of velocity field and concentration scalar levels within and above the street canyons using PIV and PLIF techniques. Traffic -related emissions were simulated using a line emission source. Two positions were examined for all street geometries: line emission source was placed in the centre of the street canyon; line emission source was placed off the centre of the street. TSI Incorporated.

  16. Relative dose factors from long-period point source emissions of atmospheric pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Start, G.E.; Markee, E.H. [Environmental Science Services Administration, ARFRO, Idaho Falls, Idaho (United States)

    1967-07-01

    A new technique for estimating air pollution exposures which result from long-period effluent releases is described. A continuous point source release is approximated by sequential instantaneous point source releases. The total effluent exposure effect of the release is determined from the summed total integrated concentrations from each instantaneous point release. These exposures are expressed as a relative dose factor, the sum of hourly values of total integrated concentration (units-hr/m{sup 3}) . The new method is particularly useful for calculating relative dose factors in regions in which the winds undergo a marked diurnal cycling. The maximum mixing depth concept is adopted to limit vertical dispersion. As a computational simplification, the fields of atmospheric stability and wind within the boundary layer are assumed to have spatical homogeneity during each hourly computational interval. The technique is illustrated for a continuous, ground-level, point source release of effluent. However, elevated, intermittent, multiple point sources can equally well be incorporated in the model. The input data used for illustration is a sequence of the climatically most probable winds and stabilities within the atmospheric boundary layer over the NRTS. The technique has two other important potential applications. If the input data are the current observed meteorological parameters, the technique becomes a real-time method of evaluating the severity and extent of the relative doses resulting from accidental releases of hazardous atmospheric pollutants. When forecast meteorological parameters are considered, a predicted coverage, severity, and accumulation of atmospheric pollution is obtained. (author)

  17. Transport and its energy-related air pollution problems in Bangkok

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boontherawara, N.; Panich, S.; Phiu-Nual, K.

    1995-12-31

    Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) is a major pollutant, followed by carbon monoxide and lead, as the ambient levels of these pollutants all exceed international standards such as those laid down by the World Health Organization (WHO). In order to meet these standards, it is necessary to reduce the emissions of these pollutants by 84.9%, 47.3%, and 13.0% respectively. Ambient air quality in Bangkok will continue to deteriorate to an unacceptable level by the year 2000, if no action is taken over and above implementation of already approved projects (including mass transit projects). Carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions could be reduced by 28 and 22% respectively, with the implementation of Reasonable Technology Measures used to control vehicle emissions alone. These measures include inspection and maintenance programs. Their success is dependent on effective quality control and on the application of stringent standards. However, these measures would have little impact in reducing the emissions of SPM. It can therefore be concluded that Reasonable Technology Measures will be insufficient to address Bangkok`s air pollution problems, without complementary measures to reduce traffic congestion. Implementation of the traffic measures outlined under the Demand-Management Policy Scenario alone will reduce CO and HC emissions by up to 45%. These measures serve to reduce traffic congestion and increase the average travel speed. However, in order to improve air quality to internationally acceptable levels, traffic measures must be implemented in conjunction with the Reasonable Technology Scenario. This will provide an additional reduction of CO and HC emissions by 45%.

  18. Preconceptional and perinatal exposure to traffic-related air pollution and eczema in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chan; Deng, Linjing; Ou, Cuiyun; Yuan, Hong; Chen, Xiang; Deng, Qihong

    2017-02-01

    Evidence linking prenatal exposure to outdoor air pollution with eczema in early childhood is scare, and the role of components of air pollution and exposure timing remains unclear. We investigated the association between exposure to air pollution during preconceptional and perinatal period and the risk of eczema in preschool children. We conducted a prospective cohort study of 2598 children aged 3-6 years in Changsha, China. The prevalence of eczema was assessed by a standardized health questionnaire administered by the parents. Individual exposures to nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2) and particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter≤10μm (PM10) during the 4th-6th and 1st-3rd month before pregnancy, entire pregnancy, and three trimesters were estimated by an inverse distance weighted (IDW) method based on concentrations measured at monitoring stations. Association between childhood eczema and exposure to air pollution was examined by logistic regression models in terms of odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for an interquartile range (IQR) increase in exposure. Life-time prevalence of eczema in preschool children in Changsha was 28.6%. Childhood eczema was associated with traffic-related air pollutant NO2 during 3 months before pregnancy and entire pregnancy with adjusted ORs=1.19 (95% CI: 1.04-1.37) and 1.21 (95% CI: 1.03-1.42) respectively. The highest risk of eczema was observed for the 1st trimester exposure to NO2 [OR=1.26 (95% CI: 1.09-1.46)]. However, no association was detected for SO2 and PM10 exposure during any window. High-level exposure to NO2 during the whole time period significantly increased the effect of NO2 in all windows on eczema risk as compared with low-level exposure. Sensitivity analysis indicated that the association between both preconceptional and perinatal exposure to NO2 and childhood eczema was consistent and robust, and this association was modified by some personal, parental hereditary and indoor

  19. Epigenome-Wide Meta-Analysis of Methylation in Children Related to Prenatal NO2 Air Pollution Exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gruzieva, Olena; Xu, Cheng-Jian; Breton, Carrie V.; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella; Anto, Josep M.; Auffray, Charles; Ballereau, Stephane; Bellander, Tom; Bousquet, Jean; Bustamante, Mariona; Charles, Marie-Aline; de Kluizenaar, Yvonne; den Dekker, Herman T.; Duijts, Liesbeth; Felix, Janine F.; Gehring, Ulrike; Guxens, Monica; Jaddoe, Vincent V. W.; Jankipersadsing, Soesma A.; Merid, Simon Kebede; Kere, Juha; Kumar, Ashish; Lemonnier, Nathanael; Lepeule, Johanna; Nystad, Wenche; Page, Christian Magnus; Panasevich, Sviatlana; Postma, Dirkje; Slama, Remy; Sunyer, Jordi; Soderhall, Cilla; Yao, Jin; London, Stephanie J.; Pershagen, Goran; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Melen, Erik

    BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to air pollution is considered to be associated with adverse effects on child health. This may partly be mediated by mechanisms related to DNA methylation. OBJECTIVES: We investigated associations between exposure to air pollution, using nitrogen dioxide (NO2) as

  20. Applicability of the Environmental Relative Moldiness Index for Quantification of Residential Mold Contamination in an Air Pollution Health Effects Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of the Near-Road Exposures and Effects of Urban Air Pollutants Study (NEXUS) investigating the respiratory health impacts of traffic-related air pollutants on asthmatic children in Detroit, Michigan, residential dust samples were collected to quantify mold exposure. Sett...

  1. Long-term personal exposure to traffic-related air pollution among school children, a validation study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roosbroeck, Sofie van; Wichmann, Janine; Janssen, Nicole A H; Hoek, Gerard; Wijnen, Joop H van; Lebret, Erik; Brunekreef, Bert

    2006-01-01

    Several recent studies suggest an association between long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution and health. Most studies use indicators of exposure such as outdoor air pollution or traffic density on the street of residence. Little information is available about the validity of these

  2. Willingness to pay to avoid health risks from road-traffic-related air pollution and noise across five countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Istamto, Tifanny; Houthuijs, Danny; Lebret, Erik

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a multi-country study to estimate the perceived economic values of traffic-related air pollution and noise health risks within the framework of a large European project. We used contingent valuation as a method to assess the willingness-to-pay (WTP) for both types of pollutants

  3. Risk of Air Pollution in Relation to Cancer in the Nordic Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fauser, Patrik; Ketzel, Matthias; Becker, Thomas

    Seventeen pollutants (particles, heavy metals, inorganic gases and organic compounds) are for the first time analyzed in a screening of the carcinogenic risk at very high resolution and large scale in ambient air in the Nordic countries. Modelled 2010 annual mean air concentrations show no exceed......Seventeen pollutants (particles, heavy metals, inorganic gases and organic compounds) are for the first time analyzed in a screening of the carcinogenic risk at very high resolution and large scale in ambient air in the Nordic countries. Modelled 2010 annual mean air concentrations show...... related to the Danish emissions. Long-range transport is significant except for BaP that originates mostly from residential wood combustion. It is recommended to monitor the influence from residential wood combustion more extensively, and to analyze longer time trends for long-term human exposure....

  4. Predictive modeling of groundwater nitrate pollution using Random Forest and multisource variables related to intrinsic and specific vulnerability: a case study in an agricultural setting (Southern Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Galiano, Victor; Mendes, Maria Paula; Garcia-Soldado, Maria Jose; Chica-Olmo, Mario; Ribeiro, Luis

    2014-04-01

    Watershed management decisions need robust methods, which allow an accurate predictive modeling of pollutant occurrences. Random Forest (RF) is a powerful machine learning data driven method that is rarely used in water resources studies, and thus has not been evaluated thoroughly in this field, when compared to more conventional pattern recognition techniques key advantages of RF include: its non-parametric nature; high predictive accuracy; and capability to determine variable importance. This last characteristic can be used to better understand the individual role and the combined effect of explanatory variables in both protecting and exposing groundwater from and to a pollutant. In this paper, the performance of the RF regression for predictive modeling of nitrate pollution is explored, based on intrinsic and specific vulnerability assessment of the Vega de Granada aquifer. The applicability of this new machine learning technique is demonstrated in an agriculture-dominated area where nitrate concentrations in groundwater can exceed the trigger value of 50 mg/L, at many locations. A comprehensive GIS database of twenty-four parameters related to intrinsic hydrogeologic proprieties, driving forces, remotely sensed variables and physical-chemical variables measured in "situ", were used as inputs to build different predictive models of nitrate pollution. RF measures of importance were also used to define the most significant predictors of nitrate pollution in groundwater, allowing the establishment of the pollution sources (pressures). The potential of RF for generating a vulnerability map to nitrate pollution is assessed considering multiple criteria related to variations in the algorithm parameters and the accuracy of the maps. The performance of the RF is also evaluated in comparison to the logistic regression (LR) method using different efficiency measures to ensure their generalization ability. Prediction results show the ability of RF to build accurate models

  5. Integrated estuary management for diffused sediment pollution in Dapeng Bay and neighboring rivers (Taiwan).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Chung-Yi; Chen, Jen-Jeng; Lee, Chang-Gai; Chiu, Chun-Yen; Lai, Wen-Liang; Liao, Shao-Wei

    2011-02-01

    This work investigated sediment samples collected from Dapeng Bay and three neighboring rivers (Kaoping River, Tungkang River, and Lingbeng River) in southwestern Taiwan, Republic of China. Multivariate statistical analysis techniques, i.e., factor analysis, cluster analysis, and canonical discriminant analysis were used for the evaluation of spatial variations to determine the types of pollution and to identify pollutant sources from neighboring rivers. Factor analysis results showed that the most important latent factors in Dapeng Bay are soil texture, heavy metals, organic matter, and nutrients factors. Contour maps incorporating the factor scores showed heavy metals accumulate along the lakesides, especially on the southeastern banks of the lakes. A cluster analysis was performed using factor scores computed from these latent factors. We then classified these areas into five distinct classes using sampling stations, and we illustrate that in the three river classes, the sediment properties are influenced by industrial and domestic wastewater and agricultural activities (including livestock rearing and farm activities). However, in Dapeng Bay, the rivers were influenced more by complicated biogeochemical processes; these could be identified as a type of pollution. Canonical discriminant analysis illustrated that two constructed discriminant functions made a marked contribution to most of the discriminant variables, and the significant parameters of porosity and Cd, Cr, Al, and Pb content were combined as the "heavy metal factor". The recognition capacities of the two discriminant functions were 82.6% and 17.4%, respectively. It is also likely that the annual mean of the water exchange rate is insufficient (taking about 7 days to eliminate pollutants) and therefore has significantly influenced the carbon and nutrient biogeochemical processes and budgets in the semi-enclosed ecosystem. Thus, the sediment properties are not similar between the lagoon and the

  6. Relational risk and relationship management in facilities management partnerships

    OpenAIRE

    Salonen, Anssi

    2006-01-01

    This dissertation studies facilities management (FM) partnerships and related risks. The study consists of three research phases. The first phase was a qualitative pilot study to gain understanding and form preliminary research questions and propositions. This was conducted through four pilot cases. The second phase of the research process was a qualitative longitudinal case study. In this case work it was possible to investigate the proposed research questions more thoroughly as I worked wit...

  7. Clean air matters: an overview of traffic-related air pollution and pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Dorothée Slovic

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The right to a healthy pregnancy and to giving birth in a safe environment is source of comprehensive research. Decent birth facilities, respect, and no discrimination are already recognized as fundamental rights, but an accurate look at the outdoor environment is required. Air pollution is a dangerous factor to pregnant women and newborns, many of whom highly exposed to traffic-related atmospheric pollutants in urban areas. Such exposure can lead to low birth weight and long-lasting effects, such as respiratory diseases and premature death. Thus, this commentary, based on the analysis of literature, presents the importance of the exposome concept and of epigenetics in identifying the role of the environment for better health conditions of pregnant women and newborns. In the final considerations, this study proposes the deepening of the subject and the mobilization in this regard, with a human rights-based approach to environmental health and to the increased awareness of pregnant women on the risks of air pollution and its effects on health.

  8. The relation between environmental pollution and trade: a panel data analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selahattin Bekmez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Human and environment relations began to change with agricultural revolution at first. This change was followed by the industrial revolution. As a result of the increase in the world's population, production, trade with the industrial revolution, environment has been effected negatively by accelerating the consumption of natural resources. Some of the factors such as industrialization, rapid population growth and excessive consumption of natural resources has been caused environmental pollution. In this context, this paper explains the dilemma between environmental pollution and trade for various countries with different income levels. This study aims to analyze the relationship between environment, economic growth and Trade Openness Rate. For this reason, CO2 emissions per capita, GDP and Trade Openness Rate have been used for the period from 1960 to 2010. The data has been obtained from the World Bank and analyzed by the Panel Data Method. To conclude, Trade Openness Rate of developed countries has a negative effect on the level of CO2 emission while Trade Openness Rate of developing and less developed countries has positive effect. The results may be evidence that the Pollution Haven Hypothesis is still valid for the developing and/or less developed countries.

  9. Clean air matters: an overview of traffic-related air pollution and pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slovic, Anne Dorothée; Diniz, Carmen Simone; Ribeiro, Helena

    2017-02-16

    The right to a healthy pregnancy and to giving birth in a safe environment is source of comprehensive research. Decent birth facilities, respect, and no discrimination are already recognized as fundamental rights, but an accurate look at the outdoor environment is required. Air pollution is a dangerous factor to pregnant women and newborns, many of whom highly exposed to traffic-related atmospheric pollutants in urban areas. Such exposure can lead to low birth weight and long-lasting effects, such as respiratory diseases and premature death. Thus, this commentary, based on the analysis of literature, presents the importance of the exposome concept and of epigenetics in identifying the role of the environment for better health conditions of pregnant women and newborns. In the final considerations, this study proposes the deepening of the subject and the mobilization in this regard, with a human rights-based approach to environmental health and to the increased awareness of pregnant women on the risks of air pollution and its effects on health.

  10. Managing Port-Related Supply Chain Disruptions: A Conceptual Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Shan Loh

    2014-04-01

    This paper synthesizes the current literature into a management model that seeks to target operational deficiencies at ports. The management model is operationalized in three tiers, from the top management level to the front-line employees, with characteristics from risk management, business continuity management and quality management theories. The proposed model serves as a universal guide in assisting port management in managing port-related disruptions and seeks to reduce the occurrences of port-related supply chain disruption threats.

  11. Overview about polluted sites management by mining activities in coastal-desertic zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Arturo; Letelier, María Victoria; Arenas, Franko; Cuevas, Jacqueline; Fuentes, Bárbara

    2016-04-01

    In Chile the main mining operations as well as artisanal and small-scale mining (copper, gold and silver) are located in desert areas. A large number of abandoned polluted sites with heavy metals and metalloids (Hg, Pb, Cu, Sb, As) remain in coastal areas close to human centers. The aim of this work was to identify the best remediation alternatives considering the physic-chemical characteristics of the coastal-desertic soils. The concentrations of above mentioned pollutants as well as soil properties were determined. The results showed variable concentration of the pollutants, highest detected values were: Hg (46.5 mg kg-1), Pb (84.7 mg kg-1), Cu (283.0 mg kg-1), Sb (90 mg kg-1), As (2,691 mg kg-1). The soils characteristic were: high alkalinity with pH: 7.75-9.66, high electric conductivity (EC: 1.94-118 mScm-1), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR: 5.07-8.22) and low permeability of the soils. Coastal-desertic sites are potential sources of pollution for population, and for terrestrial and marine ecosystems. Exposure routes of pollution for the population include: primary, by incidental ingestion and inhalation of soil and dust and secondary, by the ingestion of marine sediments, sea food and seawater. Rehabilitation of coastal-desertic sites, by using techniques like soil washing in situ, chemical stabilization, or phytostabilization, is conditioned by physic-chemical properties of the soils. In these cases the recommendation for an appropriate management, remediation and use of the sites includes: 1) physic chemical characterization of the soils, 2) evaluation of environmental risk, 3) education of the population and 3) application of a remediation technology according to soil characteristic and the planned use of the sites. Acknowledgments: Funding for this study was supported by the Regional Council of Antofagasta under Project Estudio de ingeniería para la remediación de sitios abandonados con potencial presencia de contaminantes identificados en la comuna de

  12. The hidden economic burden of air pollution-related morbidity: evidence from the Aphekom project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanel, Olivier; Perez, Laura; Künzli, Nino; Medina, Sylvia

    2016-12-01

    Public decision-makers commonly use health impact assessments (HIA) to quantify the impacts of various regulation policies. However, standard HIAs do not consider that chronic diseases (CDs) can be both caused and exacerbated by a common factor, and generally focus on exacerbations. As an illustration, exposure to near road traffic-related pollution (NRTP) may affect the onset of CDs, and general ambient or urban background air pollution (BP) may exacerbate these CDs. We propose a comprehensive HIA that explicitly accounts for both the acute effects and the long-term effects, making it possible to compute the overall burden of disease attributable to air pollution. A case study applies the two HIA methods to two CDs-asthma in children and coronary heart disease (CHD) in adults over 65-for ten European cities, totaling 1.89 million 0-17-year-old children and 1.85 million adults aged 65 and over. We compare the current health effects with those that might, hypothetically, be obtained if exposure to NRTP was equally low for those living close to busy roads as it is for those living farther away, and if annual mean concentrations of both PM10 and NO2-taken as markers of general urban air pollution-were no higher than 20 μg/m(3). Returning an assessment of € 0.55 million (95 % CI 0-0.95), the HIA based on acute effects alone accounts for only about 6.2 % of the annual hospitalization burden computed with the comprehensive method [€ 8.81 million (95 % CI 3-14.4)], and for about 0.15 % of the overall economic burden of air pollution-related CDs [€ 370 million (95 % CI 106-592)]. Morbidity effects thus impact the health system more directly and strongly than previously believed. These findings may clarify the full extent of benefits from any public health or environmental policy involving CDs due to and exacerbated by a common factor.

  13. A Case Crossover Study: Air Pollution and Myocard Infarction Related Hospitalizations Relationship. Kocaeli Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur Gunay

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Kocaeli is one of the most industrialized cities of Turkey. Many industrial facilities in terms of air pollution, constitute a risk. Because of Kocaeli’s location, which is on the junction of Turkey’s whole motorway transport, increases the importance of this issue. The purpose of this study is to determine whether or not a relationship between air pollution measurement parameters (SO2 and PM and Myocard Infarction (MI related hospitalizations. METHOD: In this study, the relationship between MI related hospitalizations which occured in Kocaeli in 2004 and measurements of SO2 and PM were investigated. Study was analytical type and case-crossover (CCO design was used. RESULTS: Three hospitals’ (which have coronary intensive care units and which are located in Kocaeli patient records have been searched and a total of 428 MI related hospitalizations have been identified in data collecting phase, and it’s determined that these 428 hospitalizations were involving 417 individuals. Of the 428 hospitalization records, 318 were eligible for CCO analysis criteriae and included to analyze. CONCLUSION: In conclusion by investigating the relationship between MI related hospitalizations and measured SO2 and PM levels in Kocaeli, we found that a 10 μg/m3 increase in SO2 levels, significantly increase the risk of MI in cold season (October-March. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(5.000: 381-388

  14. Spatial and temporal pollutant budget analyses toward the total maximum daily loads management for the Yeongsan watershed in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ki, S J; Lee, Y G; Kim, S W; Lee, Y J; Kim, J H

    2007-01-01

    This paper delivers two issues: water quality in the Yeongsan (YS) watershed which is one of the major watersheds in Korea and new watershed management plans with respect to the total maximum daily loads (TMDL) management. Field studies were conducted to estimate the pollutant loads according to the spatial and temporal distribution based on the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) concentration and the volumetric flow rate (VFR) data from YS watershed. The results of both spatial and temporal analyses show the main pollutant source was originated from the city of Gwangju and the pollutant load from the city to YS watershed was the most out of five cities during this study period. Concerning YS reservoir located downstream of YS watershed, it also shows the worst water quality in the entire watershed during the study period. These results collectively demonstrate that the city of Gwangju is a main region which generates numerous point and non-point pollutant sources and eventually the pollutants are accumulated in YS reservoir. Based on the results, we suggest two different management plans for YS watershed. One is the flow-control approach that is to increase the amount of dam discharge in order to guarantee the river management flow for the midstream region. The other is the mass-control approach that is to dredge the contaminated sediments in YS reservoir for removing pollutants chronically accumulated in the sediment. Simulations for the former and the latter provide the pollution mitigation rate in the watershed up to 6 and 8% for BOD5, respectively. The methodology proposed here for TMDL management can be applied to a wide range of watersheds in Korea.

  15. Three different CPR management models for riverine nitrogen polluters in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arheimer, B.

    1997-12-31

    Sweden has failed in the environmental goal of reducing the nitrogen transport to the Baltic Sea by 50 per cent in ten years, mainly because of the large amounts of nitrogen still leaching from arable land. The riverine nitrogen problem can be formulated in terms of a CPR problem, as the property rights of the river water are undefined and it is possible to free-ride in the maintenance of the resource by polluting it for personal aim. Swedish water management at present is dominated by a command-and-control policy. However, to master the situation, various propositions of changed institutional arrangements for better management of water resources have been presented recently. This chapter describes and discusses three models that have been proposed for water management in the Swedish environmental policy debate: the community model, the negotiation model and the market model. To be economically efficient and ecologically sustainable, all of these models must be in accordance with local environmental, socio-economic and cultural conditions. According to the analysis, the proposed management models have about the same institutional requirements, although the sensitivity to various requirements may differ among the models. In the chapter it is argued that new policy implementation in Sweden should include regional water administration boards, where monitoring and problem analysis are kept within single catchments. Problem solution should be decentralized so that sub basins are managed according to the model most in accordance with local conditions. As long as the various requests for model success are met, different management models may be used in different parts of the same watershed. This may be possible since the overwhelming need of institutional arrangements is about the same for the three proposed management models and, consequently, they do not exclude each other 42 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

  16. Societal costs of air pollution-related health hazards: A review of methods and results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerdtham Ulf-G

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper aims to provide a critical and systematic review of the societal costs of air pollution-related ill health (CAP, to explore methodological issues that may be important when assessing or comparing CAP across countries and to suggest ways in which future CAP studies can be made more useful for policy analysis. The methodology includes a systematic search based on the major electronic databases and the websites of a number of major international organizations. Studies are categorized by origin – OECD countries or non-OECD countries – and by publication status. Seventeen studies are included, eight from OECD countries and nine from non-OECD countries. A number of studies based on the ExternE methodology and the USA studies conducted by the Institute of Transportation are also summarized and discussed separately. The present review shows that considerable societal costs are attributable to air pollution-related health hazards. Nevertheless, given the variations in the methodologies used to calculate the estimated costs (e.g. cost estimation methods and cost components included, and inter-country differences in demographic composition and health care systems, it is difficult to compare CAP estimates across studies and countries. To increase awareness concerning the air pollution-related burden of disease, and to build links to health policy analyses, future research efforts should be directed towards theoretically sound and comprehensive CAP estimates with use of rich data. In particular, a more explicit approach should be followed to deal with uncertainties in the estimations. Along with monetary estimates, future research should also report all physical impacts and source-specific cost estimates, and should attempt to estimate 'avoidable cost' using alternative counterfactual scenarios.

  17. Spatial variations in estimated chronic exposure to traffic-related air pollution in working populations: a simulation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Setton, Eleanor M; Keller, C Peter; Cloutier-Fisher, Denise; Hystad, Perry W

    2008-01-01

    Chronic exposure to traffic-related air pollution is associated with a variety of health impacts in adults and recent studies show that exposure varies spatially, with some residents in a community...

  18. Increased micronuclei and bulky DNA adducts in cord blood after maternal exposures to traffic-related air pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, M.; Wichmann, J.; Autrup, H.

    2009-01-01

    umbilical cords, concurrently collected at the time of planned Caesarean section. Modeled residential traffic density, a proxy measure of traffic-related air pollution exposures, was validated by indoor levels of nitrogen dioxide and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in 42 non-smoking homes. DNA adduct......Exposure to traffic-related air pollution in urban environment is common and has been associated with adverse human health effects. In utero exposures that result in DNA damage may affect health later in life. Early effects of maternal and in utero exposures to traffic-related air pollution were...... for potential confounders and effect modifiers. For the first time increased bulky DNA adducts and MN in cord blood after maternal exposures to traffic-related air pollution are found, demonstrating that these transplacental environmental exposures induce DNA damage in newborns. Given that increased DNA damage...

  19. Individual traffic-related air pollution and new onset adult asthma:A GIS-based pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lysbeck Hansen, Carl; Jensen, Steen Solvang; Baelum, Jesper

    The background for the project is that traffic-related air pollution may provoke the onset of asthma. The objective of this pilot study is to investigate the relation between asthma and wheeze debut and individually estimated exposure to traffic-related air pollutants with a validated exposure...... successfully identified for all study participants (N=33). Using AirGIS traffic-related air pollutant levels from both urban background and street level were estimated for the 10 year study period on an hourly basis. Individual levels of air pollutants in the years preceding debut of asthma or wheeze were...... demonstrated. A tendency towards higher levels of nitrogen oxides exposure during the year prior to debut was seen in wheeze cases. Substantial problems in determining time of onset were encountered. This pilot study successfully demonstrated the feasibility of using AirGIS to study correlations between...

  20. Persistent organic pollutants and related biological responses measured in coastal fish using chemical and biological screening methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tairova, Zhanna; Strand, Jakob; Bossi, Rossana

    2017-01-01

    shorthorn sculpin (Myoxocephalus scorpius) was obtained at the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) polluted site in North West Greenland. Significant differences were detected both in contaminant levels and relative contributions from either polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDD) or polychlorinated dibenzofurans...

  1. A Modeling Investigation of Human Exposure to Select Traffic-Related Air Pollutants in the Tampa Area: Spatiotemporal Distributions of Concentrations, Social Distributions of Exposures, and Impacts of Urban Design on Both

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haofei

    Increasing vehicle dependence in the United States has resulted in substantial emissions of traffic-related air pollutants that contribute to the deterioration of urban air quality. Exposure to urban air pollutants trigger a number of public health concerns, including the potential of inequality of exposures and health effects among population subgroups. To better understand the impact of traffic-related pollutants on air quality, exposure, and exposure inequality, modeling methods that can appropriately characterize the spatiotemporally resolved concentration distributions of traffic-related pollutants need to be improved. These modeling methods can then be used to investigate the impacts of urban design and transportation management choices on air quality, pollution exposures, and related inequality. This work will address these needs with three objectives: 1) to improve modeling methods for investigating interactions between city and transportation design choices and air pollution exposures, 2) to characterize current exposures and the social distribution of exposures to traffic-related air pollutants for the case study area of Hillsborough County, Florida, and 3) to determine expected impacts of urban design and transportation management choices on air quality, air pollution exposures, and exposure inequality. To achieve these objectives, the impacts of a small-scale transportation management project, specifically the '95 Express' high occupancy toll lane project, on pollutant emissions and nearby air quality was investigated. Next, a modeling method capable of characterizing spatiotemporally resolved pollutant emissions, concentrations, and exposures was developed and applied to estimate the impact of traffic-related pollutants on exposure and exposure inequalities among several population subgroups in Hillsborough County, Florida. Finally, using these results as baseline, the impacts of sprawl and compact urban forms, as well as vehicle fleet electrification

  2. A regression-based method for mapping traffic-related air pollution: application and testing in four contrasting urban environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, D J; de Hoogh, C; Gulliver, J; Wills, J; Elliott, P; Kingham, S; Smallbone, K

    2000-05-15

    Accurate, high-resolution maps of traffic-related air pollution are needed both as a basis for assessing exposures as part of epidemiological studies, and to inform urban air-quality policy and traffic management. This paper assesses the use of a GIS-based, regression mapping technique to model spatial patterns of traffic-related air pollution. The model--developed using data from 80 passive sampler sites in Huddersfield, as part of the SAVIAH (Small Area Variations in Air Quality and Health) project--uses data on traffic flows and land cover in the 300-m buffer zone around each site, and altitude of the site, as predictors of NO2 concentrations. It was tested here by application in four urban areas in the UK: Huddersfield (for the year following that used for initial model development), Sheffield, Northampton, and part of London. In each case, a GIS was built in ArcInfo, integrating relevant data on road traffic, urban land use and topography. Monitoring of NO2 was undertaken using replicate passive samplers (in London, data were obtained from surveys carried out as part of the London network). In Huddersfield, Sheffield and Northampton, the model was first calibrated by comparing modelled results with monitored NO2 concentrations at 10 randomly selected sites; the calibrated model was then validated against data from a further 10-28 sites. In London, where data for only 11 sites were available, validation was not undertaken. Results showed that the model performed well in all cases. After local calibration, the model gave estimates of mean annual NO2 concentrations within a factor of 1.5 of the actual mean (approx. 70-90%) of the time and within a factor of 2 between 70 and 100% of the time. r2 values between modelled and observed concentrations are in the range of 0.58-0.76. These results are comparable to those achieved by more sophisticated dispersion models. The model also has several advantages over dispersion modelling. It is able, for example, to provide

  3. Empty Container Management at Ports Considering Pollution, Repair Options, and Street-Turns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norberto Sáinz Bernat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available International trade imbalances make the management of empty containers within shipping networks an important economic and ecological problem. While import-dominated ports accumulate large amounts of empty containers, export-dominated ports need them as transport resources, requiring a repositioning transportation of empty containers on the sea and land side. Acknowledging the importance of the problem, plenty of respective literature has appeared. Since periodic review inventory management systems allow to model the inherent stochasticity of empty container transportation, they have emerged as a major solution approach in the domain. Nevertheless, existing approaches often omit crucial economic and ecological real world conditions determining the success of empty container management. Pollution, repair options, and street-turns are important aspects in this context. In this work, we present new stochastic review policies incorporating a realistic allocation scheme for empty container emissions, realistic maintenance, and repair options as well as street-turns. We analyze the optimality of the proposed polices and evaluate them in a simulation model with metaheuristic parameter search based on extensive real-world data from a major global shipping company operating in Latin America. Results provide insights for academics and practitioners about the economic and ecological impact of the distinct empty container management polices within a shipping network.

  4. Weighted road density: A simple way of assigning traffic-related air pollution exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Nectarios; Cowie, Christine; Gillett, Robert; Marks, Guy B.

    BackgroundExisting traffic variables used for predicting NO 2 in epidemiological studies are either difficult to acquire or explain only a small proportion of the variance. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a new predictor, weighted road density, which combines the maximum amount of information related to traffic into a single variable without the requirement of obtaining traffic counts for a given area. MethodTwo week NO 2 samples were collected using the readings of up to 32 passive samplers on 3 separate rounds between September and December 2006 and again in 2007. Several types of traffic related explanatory variables based on traffic counts, distance to main road and the proposed weighted road density were constructed using GIS software, and tested for association with the NO 2 samplers. Assessment of the best model was based on R2 values, as well as leave-one-out cross validation. ResultsThe weighted road density variable and the density variable based on traffic counts resulted in a similar R2 (0.59) for predicting NO 2, although weighted road density was much easier to construct and outperformed other variables such as distance to main road. ConclusionAs well as being a powerful predictor for use in a land use regression model, weighted road density can be used as a proxy for exposure to traffic-related pollution, for use in circumstances where direct measurements of pollutant levels are not feasible or are not required.

  5. Transformation of nitrogen and distribution of nitrogen-related bacteria in a polluted urban stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Y; Jin, W B; Zhao, Q L; Zhang, G D; Yan, Y; Wan, J

    2009-01-01

    Most researchers focused on either nitrogen species or microbial community for polluted urban stream while ignoring the interaction between them and its effect on nitrogen transformation, which restricted the rational selection of an effective and feasible remediation technology. Taking Buji stream in Shenzhen (China) as target stream, the distribution of nitrogen-related bacteria was investigated by most probable number (MPN) besides analysis of nitrogen species etc. The nitrogen-related bacteria in sediment were 10(2) times richer than those in water. Owing to their faster growth, the MPN of ammonifying bacteria and denitrifying bacteria were 10(5) and 10(2) times higher than those of nitrifying bacteria, respectively. The ammonifying bacteria numbers were significantly related to BOD5 in water, while nitrifying bacteria in sediment correlated well with nitrate in water. Thus, nitrification occurred mainly in sediment surface and was limited by low proportion of nitrifying bacteria. The denitrifying bacteria in sediment had good relationship with BOD5 and nitrite and nitrate in water. Low DO and rich organic compounds were beneficial to denitrification but unfavourable to nitrification. Denitrification was restricted by low nitrite and nitrate concentration. These results could be served as a reference for implementing the remediation scheme of nitrogen polluted urban stream.

  6. Traffic-related air pollution and allergic disease: an update in the context of global urbanization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsten, Christopher; Rider, Christopher F

    2017-04-01

    The review aims to give an update on the literature around traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) and allergic disease in the context of global urbanization, as the most populous countries in the world face severe TRAP exposure challenges. As research continues to show that gene-environment interactions and epigenetics contribute to the TRAP-allergy link, evidence around the links to climate change grows. Greenspace may provide a buffer to adverse effects of traffic on health, overall, but pose risks in terms of allergic disease. The link between traffic-related pollution and allergy continues to strengthen, in terms of supportive observational findings and mechanistic studies. Levels of TRAP across the world, particularly in Asia, continue to dramatically exceed acceptable levels, suggesting that the related adverse health consequences will accelerate. This could be counterbalanced by primary emission control and urban planning. Attention to combined effects of TRAP and allergen exposure is critical to avoiding misleading inferences drawn though examination only of isolated factors.

  7. Temperature-related mortality estimates after accounting for the cumulative effects of air pollution in an urban area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanišić Stojić, Svetlana; Stanišić, Nemanja; Stojić, Andreja

    2016-07-11

    To propose a new method for including the cumulative mid-term effects of air pollution in the traditional Poisson regression model and compare the temperature-related mortality risk estimates, before and after including air pollution data. The analysis comprised a total of 56,920 residents aged 65 years or older who died from circulatory and respiratory diseases in Belgrade, Serbia, and daily mean PM10, NO2, SO2 and soot concentrations obtained for the period 2009-2014. After accounting for the cumulative effects of air pollutants, the risk associated with cold temperatures was significantly lower and the overall temperature-attributable risk decreased from 8.80 to 3.00 %. Furthermore, the optimum range of temperature, within which no excess temperature-related mortality is expected to occur, was very broad, between -5 and 21 °C, which differs from the previous findings that most of the attributable deaths were associated with mild temperatures. These results suggest that, in polluted areas of developing countries, most of the mortality risk, previously attributed to cold temperatures, can be explained by the mid-term effects of air pollution. The results also showed that the estimated relative importance of PM10 was the smallest of four examined pollutant species, and thus, including PM10 data only is clearly not the most effective way to control for the effects of air pollution.

  8. Subclinical responses in healthy cyclists briefly exposed to traffic-related air pollution: an intervention study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Alfred

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous epidemiological studies have demonstrated adverse health effects of a sedentary life style, on the one hand, and of acute and chronic exposure to traffic-related air pollution, on the other. Because physical exercise augments the amount of inhaled pollutants, it is not clear whether cycling to work in a polluted urban environment should be encouraged or not. To address this conundrum we investigated if a bicycle journey along a busy commuting road would induce changes in biomarkers of pulmonary and systematic inflammation in a group of healthy subjects. Methods 38 volunteers (mean age: 43 ± 8.6 years, 26% women cycled for about 20 minutes in real traffic near a major bypass road (road test; mean UFP exposure: 28,867 particles per cm3 in Antwerp and in a laboratory with filtered air (clean room; mean UFP exposure: 496 particles per cm3. The exercise intensity (heart rate and duration of cycling were similar for each volunteer in both experiments. Exhaled nitric oxide (NO, plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6, platelet function, Clara cell protein in serum and blood cell counts were measured before and 30 minutes after exercise. Results Percentage of blood neutrophils increased significantly more (p = 0.004 after exercise in the road test (3.9%; 95% CI: 1.5 to 6.2%; p = 0.003 than after exercise in the clean room (0.2%; 95% CI: -1.8 to 2.2%, p = 0.83. The pre/post-cycling changes in exhaled NO, plasma IL-6, platelet function, serum levels of Clara cell protein and number of total blood leukocytes did not differ significantly between the two scenarios. Conclusions Traffic-related exposure to particles during exercise caused a small increase in the distribution of inflammatory blood cells in healthy subjects. The health significance of this isolated change is unclear.

  9. Aircraft engine exhaust emissions and other airport-related contributions to ambient air pollution: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiol, Mauro; Harrison, Roy M.

    2014-10-01

    Civil aviation is fast-growing (about +5% every year), mainly driven by the developing economies and globalisation. Its impact on the environment is heavily debated, particularly in relation to climate forcing attributed to emissions at cruising altitudes and the noise and the deterioration of air quality at ground-level due to airport operations. This latter environmental issue is of particular interest to the scientific community and policymakers, especially in relation to the breach of limit and target values for many air pollutants, mainly nitrogen oxides and particulate matter, near the busiest airports and the resulting consequences for public health. Despite the increased attention given to aircraft emissions at ground-level and air pollution in the vicinity of airports, many research gaps remain. Sources relevant to air quality include not only engine exhaust and non-exhaust emissions from aircraft, but also emissions from the units providing power to the aircraft on the ground, the traffic due to the airport ground service, maintenance work, heating facilities, fugitive vapours from refuelling operations, kitchens and restaurants for passengers and operators, intermodal transportation systems, and road traffic for transporting people and goods in and out to the airport. Many of these sources have received inadequate attention, despite their high potential for impact on air quality. This review aims to summarise the state-of-the-art research on aircraft and airport emissions and attempts to synthesise the results of studies that have addressed this issue. It also aims to describe the key characteristics of pollution, the impacts upon global and local air quality and to address the future potential of research by highlighting research needs.

  10. Fukushima Health Management Survey and Related Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasumura, Seiji; Abe, Masafumi

    2017-03-01

    After the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011, the Tokyo Electric Power Company Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident occurred. The Fukushima prefectural government decided to launch the Fukushima Health Management Survey; Fukushima Medical University was entrusted to design and implement the survey. The survey process and development is described from the standpoint of its background and aim. An overview of the basic survey and 4 detailed surveys is briefly provided. Issues related to the survey are discussed from the perspective of supporting the Fukushima residents.

  11. Storm Water Management for Industrial Activities: Developing Pollution Prevention Plans and Best Management Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-09-01

    out over a wide area. So, small oil and grease spills at hundreds of different facilities within a single city can collectively represent a major...adsorption and absorption. Sorbents adsorb (an attraction to the outer surface of a material) or absorb (taken in by the material like a sponge ) only when... Stormwater Management, Special Report No. 49," American Public Works Association Research Foundation. 1981. Arapahoe County, "Erosion Control

  12. Chemical pollution assessment and prioritisation model for the Upper and Middle Vaal water management areas of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzwairo, B; Otieno, F A O

    2014-12-01

    A chemical pollution assessment and prioritisation model was developed for the Upper and Middle Vaal water management areas of South Africa in order to provide a simple and practical Pollution Index to assist with mitigation and rehabilitation activities. Historical data for 2003 to 2008 from 21 river sites were cubic-interpolated to daily values. Nine parameters were considered for this purpose, that is, ammonium, chloride, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen, pH, fluoride, nitrate, phosphate and sulphate. Parameter selection was based on sub-catchment pollution characteristics and availability of a consistent data range, against a harmonised guideline which provided five classes. Classes 1, 2, 3 and 4 used ideal catchment background values for Vaal Dam, Vaal Barrage, Blesbokspruit/Suikerbosrant and Klip Rivers, respectively. Class 5 represented values which fell above those for Klip River. The Pollution Index, as provided by the model, identified pollution prioritisation monitoring points on Rietspruit-W:K2, Natalspruit:K12, Blesbokspruit:B1, Rietspruit-L:R1/R2, Taaibosspruit:T1 and Leeuspruit:L1. Pre-classification indicated that pollution sources were domestic, industrial and mine effluent. It was concluded that rehabilitation and mitigation measures should prioritise points with high classes. Ability of the model to perform simple scenario building and analysis was considered to be an effective tool for acid mine drainage pollution assessment.

  13. Air pollution, deprivation and health: Understanding relationships to add value to local air quality management policy and practice in Wales, UK

    OpenAIRE

    Brunt, H.; Barnes, J.; Jones, S.; Longhurst, J.; Scally, G.; Hayes, E. T.

    2016-01-01

    Background \\ud Air pollution exposure reduces life expectancy. Air pollution, deprivation and poor-health status combinations can create increased and disproportionate disease burdens. Problems and solutions are rarely considered in a broad public health context, but doing so can add value to air quality management efforts by reducing air pollution risks, impacts and inequalities.\\ud \\ud Methods \\ud An ecological study assessed small-area associations between air pollution (nitrogen dioxide a...

  14. Characteristics of DNA methylation changes induced by traffic-related air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Rui; Jin, Yongtang; Liu, Xinneng; Zhu, Ziyi; Zhang, Yuan; Wang, Ting; Xu, Yinchun

    2016-01-15

    Traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) is a potential risk factor for numerous respiratory disorders, including lung cancer, while alteration of DNA methylation may be one of the underlying mechanisms. However, the effects of TRAP mixtures on DNA methylation have not been investigated. We have studied the effects of brief or prolonged TRAP exposures on DNA methylation in the rat. The exposures were performed in spring and autumn, with identical study procedures. In each season, healthy Wistar rats were exposed to TRAP at for 4 h, 7 d, 14 d, or 28 d. Global DNA methylation (LINE-1 and Alu) and specific gene methylation (p16(CDKN2A), APC, and iNOS) in the DNA from blood and lung tissues were quantified by pyrosequencing. Multiple linear regression was applied to assess the influence of air pollutants on DNA methylation levels. The levels of PM2.5, PM10, and NO2 in the high and moderate groups were significantly higher than in the control group. The DNA methylation levels were not significantly different between spring and autumn. When spring and autumn data were analyzed together, PM2.5, PM10, and NO2 exposures were associated with changes in%5mC (95% CI) in LINE-1, iNOS, p16(CDKN2A), and APC ranging from -0.088 (-0.150, -0.026) to 0.102 (0.049, 0.154) per 1 μg/m(3) increase in the pollutant concentration. Prolonged exposure to a high level of TRAP was negatively associated with LINE-1 and iNOS methylation, and positively associated with APC methylations in the DNA from lung tissues but not blood. These findings show that TRAP exposure is associated with decreased methylation of LINE-1 and iNOS, and increased methylation of p16(CDKN2A) and APC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Concentrations of Pb, Zn, and Cu in Taraxacum spp. in relation to urban pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, C.M.; Lanaras, T.; Sgardelis, S.P.; Pantis, J.D. (Univ. of Thessaloniki (Greece))

    1994-08-01

    The combustion of petroleum fuel and exhaust emissions are major sources of atmospheric pollution in cities which result in the deposition of toxic substances, particularly heavy metals, in the surface layers of soils. Lead in particular enters the environment from the use of tetraethyl lead as an antiknock agent for petrol engines constituting 21% of fine particles emitted from cars burning leaded petrol. Antiwear protectants incorporated in lubricants often contain Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and/or Zn which are also released into the environment by inefficient engines and irresponsible dumping of engine oils. Zn from tyre wear and Cu from diesel engines also add considerably to the environmental metal burden. Lowering of the permitted lead content of petrol and the growing use of unleaded fuel are expected to lead to reductions in the environmental lead burden, however, until unleaded fuel becomes universally accepted lead contamination, particularly of roadside soils and vegetation is a major cause for concern. A direct relationship between car exhaust, the Pb content of needles of Abies alba and reduced growth has been observed and can extend hundreds of metres from major highways. Lead tolerance has been observed in higher plants growing mine waste soils and to a lesser extent on lead-contaminated roadside soils. Automobiles which are responsible for line sources of pollution emissions in rural and suburban areas have a more far-reaching impact on roadside vegetation, already under considerable stress, in urban areas. Information on heavy metal effects on vegetation in urban environments however, are scarce. Modeling and multivariate analysis of a few of the factors involved have provided only limited data related to plant performance in these complex environments. Therefore in this study, the extent of heavy metal pollution by Pb, Zn, Cu and Cd in soils and in dandelion plants in the city of Thessaloniki has been examined. 20 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. The Covariance between Air Pollution Annoyance and Noise Annoyance, and Its Relationship with Health-Related Quality of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Daniel; Dirks, Kim; Welch, David; McBride, David; Landon, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution originating from road traffic is a known risk factor of respiratory and cardiovascular disease (both in terms of chronic and acute effects). While adverse effects on cardiovascular health have also been linked with noise (after controlling for air pollution), noise exposure has been commonly linked to sleep impairment and negative emotional reactions. Health is multi-faceted, both conceptually and operationally; Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQOL) is one of many measures capable of probing health. In this study, we examine pre-collected data from postal surveys probing HRQOL obtained from a variety of urban, suburban, and rural contexts across the North Island of New Zealand. Analyses focus on the covariance between air pollution annoyance and noise annoyances, and their independent and combined effects on HRQOL. Results indicate that the highest ratings of air pollution annoyance and noise annoyances were for residents living close to the motorway, while the lowest were for rural residents. Most of the city samples indicated no significant difference between air pollution- and noise-annoyance ratings, and of all of the correlations between air pollution- and noise-annoyance, the highest were found in the city samples. These findings suggest that annoyance is driven by exposure to environmental factors and not personality characteristics. Analysis of HRQOL indicated that air pollution annoyance predicts greater variability in the physical HRQOL domain while noise annoyance predicts greater variability in the psychological, social and environmental domains. The lack of an interaction effect between air pollution annoyance and noise annoyance suggests that air pollution and noise impact on health independently. These results echo those obtained from objective measures of health and suggest that mitigation of traffic effects should address both air and noise pollution. PMID:27509512

  17. The Covariance between Air Pollution Annoyance and Noise Annoyance, and Its Relationship with Health-Related Quality of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Shepherd

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution originating from road traffic is a known risk factor of respiratory and cardiovascular disease (both in terms of chronic and acute effects. While adverse effects on cardiovascular health have also been linked with noise (after controlling for air pollution, noise exposure has been commonly linked to sleep impairment and negative emotional reactions. Health is multi-faceted, both conceptually and operationally; Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQOL is one of many measures capable of probing health. In this study, we examine pre-collected data from postal surveys probing HRQOL obtained from a variety of urban, suburban, and rural contexts across the North Island of New Zealand. Analyses focus on the covariance between air pollution annoyance and noise annoyances, and their independent and combined effects on HRQOL. Results indicate that the highest ratings of air pollution annoyance and noise annoyances were for residents living close to the motorway, while the lowest were for rural residents. Most of the city samples indicated no significant difference between air pollution- and noise-annoyance ratings, and of all of the correlations between air pollution- and noise-annoyance, the highest were found in the city samples. These findings suggest that annoyance is driven by exposure to environmental factors and not personality characteristics. Analysis of HRQOL indicated that air pollution annoyance predicts greater variability in the physical HRQOL domain while noise annoyance predicts greater variability in the psychological, social and environmental domains. The lack of an interaction effect between air pollution annoyance and noise annoyance suggests that air pollution and noise impact on health independently. These results echo those obtained from objective measures of health and suggest that mitigation of traffic effects should address both air and noise pollution.

  18. The Covariance between Air Pollution Annoyance and Noise Annoyance, and Its Relationship with Health-Related Quality of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Daniel; Dirks, Kim; Welch, David; McBride, David; Landon, Jason

    2016-08-06

    Air pollution originating from road traffic is a known risk factor of respiratory and cardiovascular disease (both in terms of chronic and acute effects). While adverse effects on cardiovascular health have also been linked with noise (after controlling for air pollution), noise exposure has been commonly linked to sleep impairment and negative emotional reactions. Health is multi-faceted, both conceptually and operationally; Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQOL) is one of many measures capable of probing health. In this study, we examine pre-collected data from postal surveys probing HRQOL obtained from a variety of urban, suburban, and rural contexts across the North Island of New Zealand. Analyses focus on the covariance between air pollution annoyance and noise annoyances, and their independent and combined effects on HRQOL. Results indicate that the highest ratings of air pollution annoyance and noise annoyances were for residents living close to the motorway, while the lowest were for rural residents. Most of the city samples indicated no significant difference between air pollution- and noise-annoyance ratings, and of all of the correlations between air pollution- and noise-annoyance, the highest were found in the city samples. These findings suggest that annoyance is driven by exposure to environmental factors and not personality characteristics. Analysis of HRQOL indicated that air pollution annoyance predicts greater variability in the physical HRQOL domain while noise annoyance predicts greater variability in the psychological, social and environmental domains. The lack of an interaction effect between air pollution annoyance and noise annoyance suggests that air pollution and noise impact on health independently. These results echo those obtained from objective measures of health and suggest that mitigation of traffic effects should address both air and noise pollution.

  19. Prenatal and childhood traffic-related air pollution exposure and childhood executive function and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Maria H; Gold, Diane R; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Melly, Steven J; Zanobetti, Antonella; Coull, Brent A; Schwartz, Joel D; Gryparis, Alexandros; Kloog, Itai; Koutrakis, Petros; Bellinger, David C; Belfort, Mandy B; Webster, Thomas F; White, Roberta F; Sagiv, Sharon K; Oken, Emily

    Traffic-related air pollution exposure may influence brain development and function and thus be related to neurobehavioral problems in children, but little is known about windows of susceptibility. Examine associations of gestational and childhood exposure to traffic-related pollution with executive function and behavior problems in children. We studied associations of pre- and postnatal pollution exposures with neurobehavioral outcomes in 1212 children in the Project Viva pre-birth cohort followed to mid-childhood (median age 7.7years). Parents and classroom teachers completed the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Using validated spatiotemporal models, we estimated exposure to black carbon (BC) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in the third trimester of pregnancy, from birth to 3years, from birth to 6years, and in the year before behavioral ratings. We also measured residential distance to major roadways and near-residence traffic density at birth and in mid-childhood. We estimated associations of BC, PM2.5, and other traffic exposure measures with BRIEF and SDQ scores, adjusted for potential confounders. Higher childhood BC exposure was associated with higher teacher-rated BRIEF Behavioral Regulation Index (BRI) scores, indicating greater problems: 1.0 points (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.0, 2.1) per interquartile range (IQR) increase in birth-age 6BC, and 1.7 points (95% CI: 0.6, 2.8) for BC in the year prior to behavioral ratings. Mid-childhood residential traffic density was also associated with BRI score (0.6, 95% CI: 0.1, 1.1). Birth-age 3BC was not associated with BRIEF or SDQ scores. Third trimester BC exposure was not associated with teacher-rated BRI scores (-0.2, 95% CI: -1.1, 0.8), and predicted lower scores (fewer problems) on the BRIEF Metacognition Index (-1.2, 95% CI: -2.2, -0.2) and SDQ total difficulties (-0.9, 95% CI: -1.4, -0.4). PM2.5 exposure was associated

  20. Traffic related air pollution : spatial variation, health effects and mitigation measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkema, M.B.A.

    2011-01-01

    Air pollution is probably the most intensely studied field in today’s environmental health research. The extensive body of literature on health effects associated with air pollution exposure has lead to prioritization of air pollution as public health risk factor and air quality regulations

  1. Some Pollution-Related Attitudes of High School Youth in the United States and Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluhm, Louis Herbert

    This study deals with attitudes toward pollution issues, and the potential for changes in such attitudes. Data were obtained from high school seniors in a small Illinois town which was attempting to solve a severe water pollution problem. Students' pollution attitudes were measured in a bench-mark survey. They were exposed to a speech against…

  2. Invertebrate diversity in relation to chemical pollution in an Umbrian stream system (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallottini, Matteo; Goretti, Enzo; Gaino, Elda; Selvaggi, Roberta; Cappelletti, David; Céréghino, Régis

    2015-07-01

    We used self-organizing maps (SOM, neural network) to bring out patterns of benthic macroinvertebrate diversity in relation to river pollution. Fourteen stations were sampled over various seasons in the Nestore drainage basin (Central Italy) and characterized for macroinvertebrate communities, nutrient and heavy metal concentrations. Physicochemical variables were introduced into a SOM previously trained with macroinvertebrate data. Patterns of communities matched spatial and seasonal changes in environmental conditions, including water chemistry related to economic activities in the catchment. Although our analyses did not allow us to establish the specific effect of any given environmental parameter upon macroinvertebrate community composition based on the field study, they enabled us to map the ecological health of river ecosystems in a readily interpretable manner. Copyright © 2015 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Residential exposure to vehicular traffic-related air pollution during childhood and breast cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shmuel, Shahar; White, Alexandra J; Sandler, Dale P

    2017-11-01

    Some studies have supported an association between traffic-related air pollution exposure and breast cancer risk. However, few studies have considered exposures in early life, which may be a period of increased susceptibility. To examine the association of childhood residential exposure to traffic-related air pollution with breast cancer development. The Sister Study is a prospective cohort of 50,884 initially breast cancer-free women, of whom 42,934 provided information at enrollment about roads and traffic near their primary childhood residence before age 14 as well as relevant covariates. Adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between traffic-related measures at childhood residence and adult incident breast cancer were estimated using Cox regression. During follow-up (mean = 6.3 years), 2,028 breast cancers were diagnosed. Traffic-related characteristics were not consistently associated with breast cancer risk. However, incidence was elevated among women who reported a median/barrier dividing either their primary childhood residential road (aHR = 1.2; 95% CI: 0.9-1.7) or the nearest cross-street (aHR = 1.3; 95% CI: 0.9-1.8, if the cross-street was within 100ft.), and among women whose nearest cross-street had the highest traffic, ≥3 lanes, and/or a median/barrier (aHR = 1.4; 95% CI: 1.0-1.9). Measures of potential exposure to vehicular traffic were not consistently associated with breast cancer risk. However, living during childhood on or near a road with a median or other barrier, which may be a more easily remembered road characteristic than the others assessed, was associated with increased breast cancer risk. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Prenatal and Childhood Traffic-Related Pollution Exposure and Childhood Cognition in the Project Viva Cohort (Massachusetts, USA)

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Maria H.; Gold, Diane R.; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Melly, Steven J.; Zanobetti, Antonella; Coull, Brent A.; Schwartz, Joel D; Gryparis, Alexandros; Kloog, Itai; Koutrakis, Petros; Bellinger, David C.; White, Roberta F.; Sagiv, Sharon K; Oken, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Background: Influences of prenatal and early-life exposures to air pollution on cognition are not well understood. Objectives: We examined associations of gestational and childhood exposure to traffic-related pollution with childhood cognition. Methods: We studied 1,109 mother–child pairs in Project Viva, a prospective birth cohort study in eastern Massachusetts (USA). In mid-childhood (mean age, 8.0 years), we measured verbal and nonverbal intelligence, visual motor abilities, and visual mem...

  5. The Covariance between Air Pollution Annoyance and Noise Annoyance, and Its Relationship with Health-Related Quality of Life

    OpenAIRE

    Shepherd, Daniel; Dirks, Kim; Welch, David; McBride, David; Landon, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution originating from road traffic is a known risk factor of respiratory and cardiovascular disease (both in terms of chronic and acute effects). While adverse effects on cardiovascular health have also been linked with noise (after controlling for air pollution), noise exposure has been commonly linked to sleep impairment and negative emotional reactions. Health is multi-faceted, both conceptually and operationally; Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQOL) is one of many measures capa...

  6. Impact of bicycle route type on exposure to traffic-related air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNaughton, Piers; Melly, Steven; Vallarino, Jose; Adamkiewicz, Gary; Spengler, John D

    2014-08-15

    Cyclists are exposed to traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) during their commutes due to their proximity to vehicular traffic. Two of the main components of TRAP are black carbon (BC) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), which have both been causally associated with increased mortality. To assess the impact of cyclists' exposure to TRAP, a battery-powered mobile monitoring station was designed to sample air pollutants along five bike routes in Boston, Massachusetts. The bike routes were categorized into three types: bike paths, which are separated from vehicle traffic; bike lanes, which are adjacent to traffic; and designated bike lanes, which are shared traffic lanes for buses and cyclists. Bike lanes were found to have significantly higher concentrations of BC and NO2 than bike paths in both adjusted and unadjusted generalized linear models. Higher concentrations were observed in designated bike lanes than bike paths; however, this association was only significant for NO2. After adjusting for traffic density, background concentration, and proximity to intersections, bike lanes were found to have concentrations of BC and NO2 that were approximately 33% higher than bike paths. Distance from the road, vegetation barriers, and reduced intersection density appear to influence these variations. These findings suggest that cyclists can reduce their exposure to TRAP during their commute by using bike paths preferentially over bike lanes regardless of the potential increase of traffic near these routes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Impact of Bicycle Route Type on Exposure to Traffic-Related Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNaughton, Piers; Melly, Steven; Vallarino, Jose; Adamkiewicz, Gary; Spengler, John D.

    2017-01-01

    Cyclists are exposed to traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) during their commutes due to their proximity to vehicular traffic. Two of the main components of TRAP are black carbon (BC) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), which have both been causally associated with increased mortality. To assess the impact of cyclists’ exposure to TRAP, a battery-powered mobile monitoring station was designed to sample air pollutants along five bike routes in Boston, Massachusetts. The bike routes were categorized into three types: bike paths, which are separated from vehicle traffic; bike lanes, which are adjacent to traffic; and designated bike lanes, which are shared traffic lanes for buses and cyclists. Bike lanes were found to have significantly higher concentrations of BC and NO2 than bike paths in both adjusted and unadjusted generalized linear models. Higher concentrations were observed in designated bike lanes than bike paths; however, this association was only significant for NO2. After adjusting for traffic density, background concentration, and proximity to intersections, bike lanes were found to have concentrations of BC and NO2 that were approximately 33% higher than bike paths. Distance from the road, vegetation barriers, and reduced intersection density appear to influence these variations. These findings suggest that cyclists can reduce their exposure to TRAP during their commute by using bike paths preferentially over bike lanes regardless of the potential increase of traffic near these routes. PMID:24840278

  8. Microbial density and diversity in constructed wetland systems and the relation to pollutant removal efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Carvalho, Pedro N; Lv, Tao; Arias, Carlos; Brix, Hans; Chen, Zhanghe

    2016-01-01

    Microbes are believed to be at the core of the wastewater treatment processes in constructed wetlands (CWs). The aim of this study was to assess the microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and Shannon's diversity index (SDI) in the substrate of CWs planted with Phragmites australis, Hymenocallis littoralis, Canna indica and Cyperus flabelliformis, and to relate MBC and SDI to the pollutant removal in the systems. Significant higher MBC was observed in CWs with H. littoralis and C. indica than in CWs with P. australis, and the MBC differed with season and substrate depth. The microbial community in the wetlands included four phyla: Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria, Chloroflexi, and Acidobacteria, with a more diverse community structure in wetlands with C. flabelliformis. The MBC in the substrate and the SDI of the 15-20 cm depth correlated with the removal of biochemical oxygen demand, NH4-N and NO3-N. Our results indicate that substrate SDI and MBC can both be regarded as bioindicators of the pollutant removal ability in CWs.

  9. Impact analysis of traffic-related air pollution based on real-time traffic and basic meteorological information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Long; Yao, Enjian; Yang, Yang

    2016-12-01

    With the rapid development of urbanization and motorization in China, traffic-related air pollution has become a major component of air pollution which constantly jeopardizes public health. This study proposes an integrated framework for estimating the concentration of traffic-related air pollution with real-time traffic and basic meteorological information and also for further evaluating the impact of traffic-related air pollution. First, based on the vehicle emission factor models sensitive to traffic status, traffic emissions are calculated according to the real-time link-based average traffic speed, traffic volume, and vehicular fleet composition. Then, based on differences in meteorological conditions, traffic pollution sources are divided into line sources and point sources, and the corresponding methods to determine the dynamic affecting areas are also proposed. Subsequently, with basic meteorological data, Gaussian dispersion model and puff integration model are applied respectively to estimate the concentration of traffic-related air pollution. Finally, the proposed estimating framework is applied to calculate the distribution of CO concentration in the main area of Beijing, and the population exposure is also calculated to evaluate the impact of traffic-related air pollution on public health. Results show that there is a certain correlation between traffic indicators (i.e., traffic speed and traffic intensity) of the affecting area and traffic-related CO concentration of the target grid, which indicates the methods to determine the affecting areas are reliable. Furthermore, the reliability of the proposed estimating framework is verified by comparing the predicted and the observed ambient CO concentration. In addition, results also show that the traffic-related CO concentration is higher in morning and evening peak hours, and has a heavier impact on public health within the Fourth Ring Road of Beijing due to higher population density and higher CO

  10. Can changing the timing of outdoor air intake reduce indoor concentrations of traffic-related pollutants in schools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNeill, M; Dobbin, N; St-Jean, M; Wallace, L; Marro, L; Shin, T; You, H; Kulka, R; Allen, R W; Wheeler, A J

    2016-10-01

    Traffic emissions have been associated with a wide range of adverse health effects. Many schools are situated close to major roads, and as children spend much of their day in school, methods to reduce traffic-related air pollutant concentrations in the school environment are warranted. One promising method to reduce pollutant concentrations in schools is to alter the timing of the ventilation so that high ventilation time periods do not correspond to rush hour traffic. Health Canada, in collaboration with the Ottawa-Carleton District School Board, tested the effect of this action by collecting traffic-related air pollution data from four schools in Ottawa, Canada, during October and November 2013. A baseline and intervention period was assessed in each school. There were statistically significant (P < 0.05) reductions in concentrations of most of the pollutants measured at the two late-start (9 AM start) schools, after adjusting for outdoor concentrations and the absolute indoor-outdoor temperature difference. The intervention at the early-start (8 AM start) schools did not have significant reductions in pollutant concentrations. Based on these findings, changing the timing of the ventilation may be a cost-effective mechanism of reducing traffic-related pollutants in late-start schools located near major roads. © 2015 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada. Indoor Air published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Reproduced with the permission of the Minister of Health Canada.

  11. Management of combat-related facial injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardassi, Ali; Turki, Senda; Mbarek, Hajer; Hachicha, Amani; Chebbi, Ghassen; Benzarti, Sonia; Abouda, Maher

    2016-12-01

    Combat-related facial injuries involve various lesions of the mouth, the eye sockets and the facial bones. The goal of this study is to precise the particularities of these affections and their therapeutic management. A retrospective study was performed about 56 cases of combat-related facial injuries over a period of 5 years (2010 - 2014). Our study included 56 male patients with an average age of 29 years (20-37). The trauma occurred during a real security intervention in all the cases. It was isolated in 18 cases and associated to other lesions in 38 cases. Clinical examination revealed facial edema (57%), facial cuts and lacerations (74%), broken teeth (14%), nasal deformation (26%), skin defect (16%) and periorbital ecchymosis (32%). The diagnosis retained after clinical examination and imaging exams were:  fractures of the mandible (34 cases), of the eye sockets (18 cases), of the nasal bones (15 cases), parotid gland injury (5 cases) and facial arterial injuries in (24 cases). The treatment was surgical in all the cases: stabilization of fractured segments (43 cases), suture of facial and vascular lacerations (51 cases), reduction of nasal fractures (15 cases), and reposition of teeth dislocations (35 cases). The evolution was good in 34 cases. The functional sequelae noted were ophthalmic (7 cases), dental abnormal occlusions (11 cases), residual trismus (4 cases) and facial palsy in 2 cases. Combat related facial injuries must be diagnosed and treated early to prevent the functional and, sometimes, life-threatening damages dues to those lesions.

  12. Pollution from urban development and setback outfalls as a catchment management measure for river water quality improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Deonie; Haynes, Heather; Arthur, Scott

    2016-04-01

    Urban development causes an increase in fine sediment and heavy metal stormwater pollution. Pollution load estimation theorises that stormwater pollutant load and type are strongly, directly influenced by contributing catchment land use. The research presented investigates the validity of these assumptions using an extensive novel field data set of 53 catchments. This research has investigated the relationships between land use and pollutant concentrations (Cu, Zn, Pb, Ni, Ca, Ba, Sn, Mn) in urban stormwater outfall sediments. Cartographic and aerial photography data have been utilised to delineate the surface and subsurface contributing catchment land use. A zoned sub-catchment approach to catchment characterisation of stormwater pollutant concentration has been defined and tested. This method effectively describes the specific land use influence on pollutant concentrations at the stormwater outfall, showing strong dependency with road length, brake points, impervious area and open space. Road networks and open space are found to influence land use, and thus stormwater pollution, closer to stormwater outfall/receiving waterbody suggesting storage, treatment, assimilation, loss or dilution of the land use influence further away from stormwater outfall. An empirical description has been proposed with which to predict outfall pollutant contributions to the receiving urban waterbody based on catchment land use information. With the definition and quantification of contributing catchment specific fine sediment and urban heavy metal pollutants, the influence of urban stormwater outfall management on the receiving watercourse has been considered. The locations of stormwater outfalls, and their proximity to the receiving waterway, are known as key water quality and river health influences. Water quality benefits from the implementation of stormwater outfalls set back from the receiving waterway banks have been investigated using the catchment case study. Setback outfalls

  13. Traffic-related air pollution is associated with cardio-metabolic biomarkers in general residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shuo; Bo, Liang; Gong, Changyi; Du, Xihao; Kan, Haidong; Xie, Yuquan; Song, Weimin; Zhao, Jinzhuo

    2016-08-01

    The study was conducted to explore the mechanisms linking traffic-related air pollution and cardio-metabolic risk. The participants included 371 men and women aged from 45 to 75 in an urban residential area in Shanghai, China. The participants were divided into four categories (≤50, 51-100, 101-200 and >200 m) according to the residential distance to major road. Additionally, the personal fine particulate matter (PM2.5) was measured from 8:00 am to 6:00 pm to assess the PM2.5 exposure in general residents. Then, the continuous subclinical measurements and biological effects related to cardio-metabolic disorders were detected. The generalized linear regression analysis was applied for estimating the adjusted hazards ratio for cardio-metabolic disorders relative to traffic-related air pollution. The average personal PM2.5 is 111.1 μg/m(3) in the participants living within 50 m to major road, which is significantly higher than the personal PM2.5 (68.2 μg/m(3)) in the participants living more than 200 m away from the major road. The participants living within 50 m to major road compared with those living more than 200 m away have 1.15 times higher of heart rate (HR), 1.95 times higher of fasting insulin, 1.30 times higher of homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), 1.56 times higher of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), 8.39 times higher of interleukin 6 (IL-6), 4.30 times higher of augmentation index (AI), 1.60 times higher of systolic blood pressure (SBP) and 1.91 times higher of diastolic blood pressure (DBP). Contrary to the increase in above biological effects, there were 1.06 times lower of low frequency (LF), 1.05 times lower of high frequency (HF), 2.54 times lower of IL-10, 4.61 times lower of nitric oxide (NO), 1.19 times lower of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and 1.85 times lower of total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC). There was no clear exposure-response relationship can be observed in the fasting glucose, LF

  14. Interdecadal changes of summer aerosol pollution in the Yangtze River Basin of China, the relative influence of meteorological conditions and the relation to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jizhi; Zhang, Xiaoye; Li, Duo; Yang, Yuanqin; Zhong, Junting; Wang, Yaqiang; Che, Haochi; Che, Huizheng; Zhang, Yangmei

    2018-02-19

    Winter is a season of much concern for aerosol pollution in China, but less concern for pollution in the summertime. There are even less concern and larger uncertainty about interdecadal changes in summer aerosol pollution, relative influence of meteorological conditions, and their links to climate change. Here we try to reveal the relation among interdecadal changes in summer's most important circulation system affecting China (East Asian Summer Monsoon-EASM), an index of meteorological conditions (called PLAM, Parameter Linking Air Quality and Meteorological Elements, which is almost linearly related with aerosol pollution), and aerosol optical depth (AOD) in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River (M-LYR) in central eastern China during summertime since the 1960's. During the weak monsoon years, the aerosol pollution load was heavier in the M-LYR and opposite in the strong monsoon years mainly influenced by EASM and associated maintenance position of the anti-Hadley cell around 115°E. The interdecadal changes in meteorological conditions and their associated aerosol pollution in the context of such climate change have experienced four periods since the 1960's, which were a relatively large decreased period from 1961 to 1980, a large rise between 1980 and 1999, a period of slow rise or maintenance from 1999 to 2006, and a relatively rapid rise between 2006 and 2014. Among later three pollution increased periods, about 51%, 25% and 60% of the aerosol pollution change respectively come from the contribution of worsening weather conditions, which are found to be greatly affected by changes in EASM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Soil pollution at outdoor shooting ranges: Health effects, bioavailability and best management practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayiga, A O; Saha, U K

    2016-09-01

    The total lead (Pb) concentrations of the surface soil, sub surface soil, vegetation and surface waters of outdoor shooting ranges are extremely high and above regulatory limits. Lead is dangerous at high concentrations and can cause a variety of serious health problems. Shooters and range workers are exposed to lead dust and can even take Pb dust home to their families while some animals around the shooting range can ingest the Pb bullets. The toxicity of Pb depends on its bioavailability which has been determined to be influenced greatly by the geochemical properties of each site. The bioavailability of Pb in shooting ranges has been found to be higher than other metal contaminated soils probably because of its very low residual Pb (shooting ranges and offsite has been reported in literature. Best management practices to reduce mobility of Pb in shooting ranges involve an integrated Pb management program which has been described in the paper. The adoption of the non-toxic "green bullet" which has been developed to replace Pb bullets may reduce or prevent environmental pollution at shooting ranges. However, the contaminated soil resulting from decades of operation of several shooting ranges still needs to be restored to its natural state. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Pollution prevention opportunity assessment for the SNL/California waste management facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braye, S.; Phillips, N.M. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Environmental Protection Dept.

    1995-01-01

    SNL/California`s waste management facilities, Bldgs. 961 and 962-2, generate a secondary stream of hazardous and radioactive waste. This waste stream is generated mainly during the processing and handling of hazardous, radioactive, and mixed wastes (primary waste stream), which are generated by the laboratories, and when cleaning up spills. The secondary waste stream begins with the removal of a generator`s hazardous, radioactive, and mixed waste from specified collection areas. The waste stream ends when the containers of processed waste are loaded for shipment off-site. The total amount of secondary hazardous waste generated in the waste management facilities from January 1993 to July 1994 was 1,160.6 kg. The total amount of secondary radioactive waste generated during the same period was 1,528.8 kg (with an activity of 0.070 mCi). Mixed waste usually is not generated in the secondary waste stream. This pollution prevention opportunity assessment (PPOA) was conducted using the graded approach methodology developed by the Department of Energy (DOE) PPOA task group. The original method was modified to accommodate the needs of Sandia`s site-specific processes. The options generated for potential hazardous waste minimization, cost savings, and environmental health and safety were the result of a waste minimization team effort. The results of the team efforts are summarized.

  17. Economic Impacts from PM2.5Pollution-Related Health Effects: A Case Study in Shanghai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Rui; Dai, Hancheng; Geng, Yong; Xie, Yang; Masui, Toshihiko; Liu, Zhiqing; Qian, Yiying

    2017-05-02

    PM 2.5 pollution-related diseases cause additional medical expenses and work time loss, leading to macroeconomic impact in high PM 2.5 concentration areas. Previous economic impact assessments of air pollution focused on benefits from environmental regulations while ignoring climate policies. In this study, we examine the health and economic impacts from PM 2.5 pollution under various air pollution control strategies and climate policies scenarios in the megacity of Shanghai. The estimation adopts an integrated model combining a Greenhouse Gas and Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies (GAINS) model, exposure-response functions (ERFs), and a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model. The results show that without control measures, Shanghai's mortality caused by PM 2.5 pollution are estimated to be 192 400 cases in 2030 and the work time loss to be 72.1 h/cap annually. The corresponding GDP values and welfare losses would be approximately 2.26% and 3.14%, respectively. With an estimated control cost of 0.76% of local GDP, Shanghai would gain approximately 1.01% of local GDP through local air pollution control measures and climate policies. Furthermore, the application of multiregional integrated control strategies in neighboring provinces would be the most effective in reducing PM 2.5 concentration in Shanghai, leading to only 0.34% of GDP loss. At the sectoral level, labor-intensive sectors suffer more output loss from PM 2.5 pollution. Sectors with the highest control costs include power generation, iron and steel, and transport. The results indicate that the combination of multiregional integrated air pollution control strategies and climate policies would be cost-beneficial for Shanghai.

  18. Integrating hazardous waste management into a multimedia pollution prevention paradigm. A protoype regulatory program for petroleum refinesments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elcock, D.; Gasper, J.

    1996-12-31

    An emerging trend in environmental regulatory management promises enhanced environmental protection and more flexibility for regulated entities. This trend reflects three concepts. First, regulations designed to reduce one type of environmental pollution (e.g., air pollution) should not increase other types of pollution (e.g. hazardous waste). Second, pollution prevention is an important alternative to end-of-pipe control requirements. Third, offering polluting entities the flexibility of meeting certain performance criteria may produce better environmental results than prescribing specific technologies or approaches. A significant body of literature supports the need to develop regulatory programs that incorporate these concepts. However, there is little evidence that these concepts have been integrated into actual multimedia regulatory programs. Argonne National Laboratory and the U.S. Department of Energy are developing a prototype regulatory program for petroleum refineries that embraces these concepts. The development approach in this case study comprises several steps: (1) identifying and evaluating existing regulations governing petroleum refineries (if any); (2) characterizing expected future operating conditions of refineries; (3) setting goals for the regulatory program; (4) identifying and evaluating options for the program; (5) developing a prototype based on selected options; (6) identifying and addressing implementation issues; and (7) testing the prototype on a pilot basis. The approach being used in the U.S. effort is flexible and can be used in environmental management efforts throughout the Pacific Basin--in both developing and developed countries.

  19. Developing a multi-pollutant conceptual framework for the selection and targeting of interventions in water industry catchment management schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloodworth, J W; Holman, I P; Burgess, P J; Gillman, S; Frogbrook, Z; Brown, P

    2015-09-15

    In recent years water companies have started to adopt catchment management to reduce diffuse pollution in drinking water supply areas. The heterogeneity of catchments and the range of pollutants that must be removed to meet the EU Drinking Water Directive (98/83/EC) limits make it difficult to prioritise areas of a catchment for intervention. Thus conceptual frameworks are required that can disaggregate the components of pollutant risk and help water companies make decisions about where to target interventions in their catchments to maximum effect. This paper demonstrates the concept of generalising pollutants in the same framework by reviewing key pollutant processes within a source-mobilisation-delivery context. From this, criteria are developed (with input from water industry professionals involved in catchment management) which highlights the need for a new water industry specific conceptual framework. The new CaRPoW (Catchment Risk to Potable Water) framework uses the Source-Mobilisation-Delivery concept as modular components of risk that work at two scales, source and mobilisation at the field scale and delivery at the catchment scale. Disaggregating pollutant processes permits the main components of risk to be ascertained so that appropriate interventions can be selected. The generic structure also allows for the outputs from different pollutants to be compared so that potential multiple benefits can be identified. CaRPow provides a transferable framework that can be used by water companies to cost-effectively target interventions under current conditions or under scenarios of land use or climate change. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Assessment of relative exposure of minority and low-income groups to outdoor air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieves, L.A.; Wernette, D.R.

    1996-05-01

    A diverse research effort, conducted by both federal agencies and scholars in academia, has addressed the issue of environmental justice. Recent environmental justice studies have generally focused on the demographics of areas close to hazardous waste facilities; landfills; Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Information System (CERCLIS) sites; and Superfund sites. Recent efforts at the federal and state levels to determine risk-related priorities in allocating resources for research and remediation have found that hazardous wastes present much lower health effect risks than air pollution does. Past research findings, funded in part by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), showed disproportionately high levels of substandard air quality exposure for minority and low-income populations. This study is a continuation of that earlier research.

  1. Cystic Fibrosis-Related Diabetes (CFRD): Daily Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cystic Fibrosis-Related Diabetes (CFRD): Daily Management September 20, 2011 This Web cast is supported by an unrestricted ... Moran, MD Professor, Pediatric Endocrinology University of Minnesota Cystic Fibrosis-Related Diabetes (CFRD): Daily Management September 20, 2011 ...

  2. Investigating the Use Of Portable Air Pollution Sensors to Capture the Spatial Variability Of Traffic-Related Air Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deville Cavellin, Laure; Weichenthal, Scott; Tack, Ryan; Ragettli, Martina S; Smargiassi, Audrey; Hatzopoulou, Marianne

    2016-01-05

    Advances in microsensor technologies for air pollution monitoring encourage a growing use of portable sensors. This study aims at testing their performance in the development of exposure surfaces for nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ozone (O3). In Montreal, Canada, a data-collection campaign was conducted across three seasons in 2014 for 76 sites spanning the range of land uses and built environments of the city; each site was visited from 6 to 12 times, for 20 min, using NO2 and O3 sensors manufactured by Aeroqual. Land-use regression models were developed, achieving R(2) values of 0.86 for NO2 and 0.92 for O3 when adjusted for regional meteorology to control for the fact that all of the locations were not monitored at the same time. A total of two exposure surfaces were then developed for NO2 and O3 as averages over spring, summer, and fall. Validation against the fixed-station data and previous campaigns suggests that Aeroqual sensors tend to overestimate the highest NO2 and O3 concentrations, thus increasing the range of values across the city. However, the sensors suggest a good performance with respect to capturing the spatial variability in NO2 and O3 and are very convenient to use, having great potential for capturing temporal variability.

  3. Time-space modeling of journey-time exposure to traffic-related air pollution using GIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulliver, John; Briggs, David J

    2005-01-01

    Journey-time exposures represent an important, though as yet little-studied, component of human exposure to traffic-related air pollution, potentially with important health effects. Methods for assessing journey-time exposures, either as part of epidemiological studies or for policy assessment, are, however, poorly developed. This paper describes the development and testing of a GIS-based system for modeling human journey-time exposures to traffic-related air pollution: STEMS (Space-Time Exposure Modeling System). The model integrates data on source activity, pollutant dispersion, and travel behavior to derive individual- or group-level exposure measures to atmospheric pollution. The model, which is designed to simulate exposures of people as they move through a changing air pollution field, was developed, validated, and trialed in Northampton, UK. The system currently uses ArcInfo to couple four separate submodels: a source activity/emission model (SATURN), a proprietary atmospheric dispersion model (ADMS-Urban), an empirically derived background air pollution model, and a purposely designed time-activity-based exposure model (TOTEM). This paper describes the structure of the modeling system; presents results of field calibration, validation, and sensitivity analysis; and illustrates the use of the model to analyze journey-time exposures of schoolchildren.

  4. Using QUAL2K Model and river pollution index for water quality management in Mahmoudia Canal, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehab A. Elsayed

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The Mahmoudia Canal is the main source of municipal and industrial water supply for Alexandria (the second largest city in Egypt and many other towns and villages. In recent years, considerable water quality degradation has been observed in the Mahmoudia Canal. This problem has attracted increasing attention from both the public and the Egyptian government. As a result, this study aims at assessing the current seasonal variations in water quality in the Mahmoudia Canal and simulating various water quality management scenarios for the canal. The present research involves the application of the water quality model, QUAL2K, to predict water quality along the Mahmoudia Canal on a seasonal basis for the considered scenarios. Based on the QUAL2K simulations, the River Pollution Index (RPI was used to appraise the conditions of water pollution at the intakes of the twelve water treatment plants (WTPs located along Mahmoudia Canal. The results showed that the QUAL2K model is successfully applied to simulate the water quantity and quality parameters of the Mahmoudia Canal in different seasons. For the current status of the canal, it was found that the highest pollution level occurred in autumn in which effluent water quality at all WTPs along the Mahmoudia Canal was classified as moderately polluted. In the other seasons, effluent water quality was categorized as moderately polluted at most WTPs in the Beheira governorate and negligibly polluted at all WTPs in the Alexandria governorate. Moreover, it was concluded that controlling the Rahawy drain discharge or treating its pollution loads before mixing with the Rosetta Branch may solve water quality problems of the Mahmoudia Canal and allow re-running of the Edko re-use pump station in summer, winter, and spring. However in autumn, additional measures will be required to mitigate pollution levels in the canal.

  5. Monitoring asthma in childhood: management-related issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart L. Rottier

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Management-related issues are an important aspect of monitoring asthma in children in clinical practice. This review summarises the literature on practical aspects of monitoring including adherence to treatment, inhalation technique, ongoing exposure to allergens and irritants, comorbid conditions and side-effects of treatment, as agreed by the European Respiratory Society Task Force on Monitoring Asthma in Childhood. The evidence indicates that it is important to discuss adherence to treatment in a non-confrontational way at every clinic visit, and take into account a patient's illness and medication beliefs. All task force members teach inhalation techniques at least twice when introducing a new inhalation device and then at least annually. Exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke, combustion-derived air pollutants, house dust mites, fungal spores, pollens and pet dander deserve regular attention during follow-up according to most task force members. In addition, allergic rhinitis should be considered as a cause for poor asthma control. Task force members do not screen for gastro-oesophageal reflux and food allergy. Height and weight are generally measured at least annually to identify individuals who are susceptible to adrenal suppression and to calculate body mass index, even though causality between obesity and asthma has not been established. In cases of poor asthma control, before stepping up treatment the above aspects of monitoring deserve closer attention.

  6. Formation of a complex of management decisions on the reduction of environmental pollution during the development of coal mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Gibesova

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The problems of environmental pollution in the conditions of high dust content in the air during the development of coal mines in the territory of the Czech Republic are considered. A mechanism for making managerial decisions was developed using an integrated approach using the new technological process Nastup Tušimice (DNT aimed at eliminating pollutant emissions and managing workers in dusty conditions in mining operations. The recommendations of active and passive measures aimed at reducing dustiness in the process of coal mining have also been developed.

  7. Leaching of nitrate from temperate forests - effects of air pollution and forest management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gundersen, Per; Schmidt, Inger Kappel; Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten

    2006-01-01

    deposition (> 8-10 kg ha(-1) a(-1)). We synthesized the current understanding of factors controlling N leaching in relation to three primary causes of N cycle disruption: (i) Increased N input (air pollution, fertilization, N-2 fixing plants). In European forests, elevated N deposition explains approximately...... half of the variability in N leaching, some of the remaining variability could be explained by differences in N availability or "N status". For coniferous forests, needle N content above 1.4% and (or) forest floor C:N ratio lower than 25 were thresholds for elevated nitrate leaching. At adjacent sites...... conifer forests receive higher N deposition and exhibit higher nitrate loss than deciduous forests; an exception is alder that shows substantial nitrate leaching through N fixation input. Fertilization with N poses limited risk to water quality, when applied to N-limited forests. (ii) Reduced plant uptake...

  8. Adaptive management of watersheds and related resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Byron K.

    2009-01-01

    The concept of learning about natural resources through the practice of management has been around for several decades and by now is associated with the term adaptive management. The objectives of this paper are to offer a framework for adaptive management that includes an operational definition, a description of conditions in which it can be usefully applied, and a systematic approach to its application. Adaptive decisionmaking is described as iterative, learning-based management in two phases, each with its own mechanisms for feedback and adaptation. The linkages between traditional experimental science and adaptive management are discussed.

  9. Air pollution in India and related adverse respiratory health effects: past, present, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khilnani, Gopi C; Tiwari, Pawan

    2018-03-01

    The review describes current status of air pollution in India, summarizes recent research on adverse health effects of ambient and household air pollution, and outlines the ongoing efforts and future actions required to improve air quality and reduce morbidity and mortality because of air pollution in India. Global burden of disease data analysis reveals more than one million premature deaths attributable to ambient air pollution in 2015 in India. More than one million additional deaths can be attributed to household air pollution. Particulate matter with diameter 2.5 μm or less has been causatively linked with most premature deaths. Acute respiratory tract infections, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, exacerbations of preexisting obstructive airway disease and lung cancer are proven adverse respiratory effects of air pollution. Targeting air quality standards laid by WHO can significantly reduce morbidity and mortality because of air pollution in India. India is currently exposed to high levels of ambient and household air pollutants. Respiratory adverse effects of air pollution are significant contributors to morbidity and premature mortality in India. Substantial efforts are being made at legislative, administrative, and community levels to improve air quality. However, much more needs to be done to change the 'status quo' and attain the target air quality standards. VIDEO ABSTRACT: http://links.lww.com/COPM/A24.

  10. Monetary Valuation of PM10-Related Health Risks in Beijing China: The Necessity for PM10 Pollution Indemnity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Hao; Xu, Linyu; Cai, Yanpeng

    2015-08-21

    Severe health risks caused by PM10 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10 μm) pollution have induced inevitable economic losses and have rendered pressure on the sustainable development of society as a whole. In China, with the "Polluters Pay Principle", polluters should pay for the pollution they have caused, but how much they should pay remains an intractable problem for policy makers. This paper integrated an epidemiological exposure-response model with economics methods, including the Amended Human Capital (AHC) approach and the Cost of Illness (COI) method, to value the economic loss of PM10-related health risks in 16 districts and also 4 functional zones in Beijing from 2008 to 2012. The results show that from 2008 to 2012 the estimated annual deaths caused by PM10 in Beijing are around 56,000, 58,000, 63,000, 61,000 and 59,000, respectively, while the economic losses related to health damage increased from around 23 to 31 billion dollars that PM10 polluters should pay for pollution victims between 2008 and 2012. It is illustrated that not only PM10 concentration but also many other social economic factors influence PM10-related health economic losses, which makes health economic losses show a time lag discrepancy compared with the decline of PM10 concentration. In conclusion, health economic loss evaluation is imperative in the pollution indemnity system establishment and should be considered for the urban planning and policy making to control the burgeoning PM10 health economic loss.

  11. Monetary Valuation of PM10-Related Health Risks in Beijing China: The Necessity for PM10 Pollution Indemnity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Hao; Xu, Linyu; Cai, Yanpeng

    2015-01-01

    Severe health risks caused by PM10 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10 μm) pollution have induced inevitable economic losses and have rendered pressure on the sustainable development of society as a whole. In China, with the “Polluters Pay Principle”, polluters should pay for the pollution they have caused, but how much they should pay remains an intractable problem for policy makers. This paper integrated an epidemiological exposure-response model with economics methods, including the Amended Human Capital (AHC) approach and the Cost of Illness (COI) method, to value the economic loss of PM10-related health risks in 16 districts and also 4 functional zones in Beijing from 2008 to 2012. The results show that from 2008 to 2012 the estimated annual deaths caused by PM10 in Beijing are around 56,000, 58,000, 63,000, 61,000 and 59,000, respectively, while the economic losses related to health damage increased from around 23 to 31 billion dollars that PM10 polluters should pay for pollution victims between 2008 and 2012. It is illustrated that not only PM10 concentration but also many other social economic factors influence PM10-related health economic losses, which makes health economic losses show a time lag discrepancy compared with the decline of PM10 concentration. In conclusion, health economic loss evaluation is imperative in the pollution indemnity system establishment and should be considered for the urban planning and policy making to control the burgeoning PM10 health economic loss. PMID:26308020

  12. Association between traffic-related air pollution in schools and cognitive development in primary school children: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunyer, Jordi; Esnaola, Mikel; Alvarez-Pedrerol, Mar; Forns, Joan; Rivas, Ioar; López-Vicente, Mònica; Suades-González, Elisabet; Foraster, Maria; Garcia-Esteban, Raquel; Basagaña, Xavier; Viana, Mar; Cirach, Marta; Moreno, Teresa; Alastuey, Andrés; Sebastian-Galles, Núria; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Querol, Xavier

    2015-03-01

    Air pollution is a suspected developmental neurotoxicant. Many schools are located in close proximity to busy roads, and traffic air pollution peaks when children are at school. We aimed to assess whether exposure of children in primary school to traffic-related air pollutants is associated with impaired cognitive development. We conducted a prospective study of children (n = 2,715, aged 7 to 10 y) from 39 schools in Barcelona (Catalonia, Spain) exposed to high and low traffic-related air pollution, paired by school socioeconomic index; children were tested four times (i.e., to assess the 12-mo developmental trajectories) via computerized tests (n = 10,112). Chronic traffic air pollution (elemental carbon [EC], nitrogen dioxide [NO2], and ultrafine particle number [UFP; 10-700 nm]) was measured twice during 1-wk campaigns both in the courtyard (outdoor) and inside the classroom (indoor) simultaneously in each school pair. Cognitive development was assessed with the n-back and the attentional network tests, in particular, working memory (two-back detectability), superior working memory (three-back detectability), and inattentiveness (hit reaction time standard error). Linear mixed effects models were adjusted for age, sex, maternal education, socioeconomic status, and air pollution exposure at home. Children from highly polluted schools had a smaller growth in cognitive development than children from the paired lowly polluted schools, both in crude and adjusted models (e.g., 7.4% [95% CI 5.6%-8.8%] versus 11.5% [95% CI 8.9%-12.5%] improvement in working memory, p = 0.0024). Cogently, children attending schools with higher levels of EC, NO2, and UFP both indoors and outdoors experienced substantially smaller growth in all the cognitive measurements; for example, a change from the first to the fourth quartile in indoor EC reduced the gain in working memory by 13.0% (95% CI 4.2%-23.1%). Residual confounding for social class could not be discarded completely; however

  13. Association between traffic-related air pollution in schools and cognitive development in primary school children: a prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Sunyer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is a suspected developmental neurotoxicant. Many schools are located in close proximity to busy roads, and traffic air pollution peaks when children are at school. We aimed to assess whether exposure of children in primary school to traffic-related air pollutants is associated with impaired cognitive development.We conducted a prospective study of children (n = 2,715, aged 7 to 10 y from 39 schools in Barcelona (Catalonia, Spain exposed to high and low traffic-related air pollution, paired by school socioeconomic index; children were tested four times (i.e., to assess the 12-mo developmental trajectories via computerized tests (n = 10,112. Chronic traffic air pollution (elemental carbon [EC], nitrogen dioxide [NO2], and ultrafine particle number [UFP; 10-700 nm] was measured twice during 1-wk campaigns both in the courtyard (outdoor and inside the classroom (indoor simultaneously in each school pair. Cognitive development was assessed with the n-back and the attentional network tests, in particular, working memory (two-back detectability, superior working memory (three-back detectability, and inattentiveness (hit reaction time standard error. Linear mixed effects models were adjusted for age, sex, maternal education, socioeconomic status, and air pollution exposure at home. Children from highly polluted schools had a smaller growth in cognitive development than children from the paired lowly polluted schools, both in crude and adjusted models (e.g., 7.4% [95% CI 5.6%-8.8%] versus 11.5% [95% CI 8.9%-12.5%] improvement in working memory, p = 0.0024. Cogently, children attending schools with higher levels of EC, NO2, and UFP both indoors and outdoors experienced substantially smaller growth in all the cognitive measurements; for example, a change from the first to the fourth quartile in indoor EC reduced the gain in working memory by 13.0% (95% CI 4.2%-23.1%. Residual confounding for social class could not be discarded completely

  14. Particulate Air Pollution and Health: Emerging Issues and Research Needs Related to the Development of Air Quality Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick A Hessel

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The health effects of particulate air pollution were highlighted at the Eighth Annual Conference of the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology, held in Edmonton, Alberta in August 1996. Despite consistent evidence for adverse respiratory and cardiovascular health effects related to particulate air pollution, there are significant gaps in the knowledge of the mechanisms whereby particulate air pollution affects human health. Questions regarding the appropriate measure of dose for assessing exposures relevant to health outcomes and the methods used to analyze dose-response data remain unanswered. Health effects have been demonstrated across the range of exposures that have been examined, and further research in low exposure settings is necessary to explore the lower end of the dose-response curve. Although a significant body of literature has been generated, comprehensive risk assessments have not been undertaken. Examination of the chronic effects of particulate air pollution and identification of high risk populations are necessary. Although there are significant unanswered questions regarding the health effects of particulate air pollution, the available information suggests that particulate air pollution at levels consistent with current standards is associated with measurable health effects.

  15. An improved risk-explicit interval linear programming model for pollution load allocation for watershed management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Bisheng; Qian, Xin; Yao, Hong

    2017-11-01

    Although the risk-explicit interval linear programming (REILP) model has solved the problem of having interval solutions, it has an equity problem, which can lead to unbalanced allocation between different decision variables. Therefore, an improved REILP model is proposed. This model adds an equity objective function and three constraint conditions to overcome this equity problem. In this case, pollution reduction is in proportion to pollutant load, which supports balanced development between different regional economies. The model is used to solve the problem of pollution load allocation in a small transboundary watershed. Compared with the REILP original model result, our model achieves equity between the upstream and downstream pollutant loads; it also overcomes the problem of greatest pollution reduction, where sources are nearest to the control section. The model provides a better solution to the problem of pollution load allocation than previous versions.

  16. [Investigation and analysis of heavy metal pollution related to soil-Panax notoginseng system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lu; Mi, Yan-Hua; Lin, Xin; Liu, Da-Hui; Zeng, Min; Chen, Xiao-Yan

    2014-07-01

    In this study, five heavy metals contamination of soil and different parts of Panax notoginseng in the plantation area was investigated. Analysis of heavy metals correlation between the planting soil and P. notoginseng; and the absorption and accumulation characteristics and translocation of soil heavy metals by P. notoginseng plants was revealed. Through field investigation and laboratory analytical methods, analysis of China's 30 different soil P. notoginseng origin and content of heavy metals in five different parts of the P. notoginseng plant content of heavy metals. The results revealed that the soil heavy metals should not be neglected in the plantation area Referring to the national soil quality standards (GB15608-1995), the excessive degree of soil heavy metals pollution showed Hg > As > Cd > Cr in the plantation area, and Pb content of soil was in the scope of the standard. Refer to 'Green Industry Standards for Import and Export of Medical Plants and Preparations', the excessive degree of heavy metals content of P. notoginseng plants showed As > Pb > Cr > Cd, and Hg content of plants was in the scope of the standard. Concentrations of five heavy metals of underground parts of P. notoginseng plants are higher than aboveground, and heavy metals elements are more concentrated in the root, followed by the rhizome of P. notoginseng plants. Heavy metal accumulation characteristics of the different parts of the P. notoginseng of the overall performance is the root > the rhizome > the root tuber > leaves > stems. From the point of view BCF value analysis of various parts of the P. notoginseng plants to absorb heavy metals in soil, BCF values of all samples were less than 1, description P. notoginseng not belong Hyperaccumulator. From the view of transportation and related analysis of the soil-P. notoginseng systems, the rhizome of P. notoginseng and the content of As and Cr in soil was significantly correlated, the root of P. notoginseng and the content of Cd in

  17. Measurement of particle number and related pollutant concentrations in an urban area in South Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agudelo-Castañeda, D. M.; Teixeira, E. C.; Rolim, S. B. A.; Pereira, F. N.; Wiegand, F.

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of the present study was to analyze atmospheric particle number concentration at Sapucaia do Sul, in the Metropolitan Area of Porto Alegre, and associate it with the pollutants NO, NO2, and O3. Measurements were performed in two periods: August to October, in 2010 and 2011. We used the following equipment: the continuous particulate monitor (CPM), the chemiluminescent nitrogen oxide analyzer (AC32M), and the UV photometric ozone analyzer (O342M). Daily and hourly particle number concentrations in fractions PR1.0 (0.3-1.0 μm), PR2.5 (1.0-2.5 μm), and PR10 (2.5-10 μm), and concentrations of pollutants NO, NO2, NOx, and O3 were measured. These data were correlated with meteorological parameters such as wind speed, temperature, relative humidity, and solar radiation. The daily variation of OX (NO2 + O3) and its relation with NO2 were also established. The results obtained for daily particle number concentration (particles L-1) showed that the area of study had higher particle number of PR2.5 and PR1.0 size ranges, with values of 19.5 and 28.51 particles L-1, respectively. Differences in particle number concentrations in PR1 and PR2.5 size ranges were found between weekdays and weekends. The daily variation per hour of concentrations of particle number, NO, and NOx showed peaks during increased traffic flow in the morning and in the evening. NO2 showed peaks at different times, with the first peak (morning) 2 h after the peak of NO, and a second peak in the evening (19:00). This is due to the oxidation of NO and to the photolysis of NO3 formed overnight. Correlation analysis suggests that there may be a relationship between the fine and ultrafine particles and NO, probably indicating that they have similar sources, such as vehicular emissions. In addition, a possible relationship of solar radiation with fine particle number concentrations, as well as with O3 was also observed. The results, too, show an inverse relationship between particle number

  18. Relation of air pollution with epidemiology of respiratory diseases in isfahan, Iran from 2005 to 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidi, Maasoumeh; Ramesht, Mohammad Hossein; Zohary, Moein; Poursafa, Parinaz; Kelishadi, Roya; Rashidi, Zeinab; Rouzbahani, Reza

    2013-12-01

    National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) scientists shows that long-term exposure to air pollutants increases the risk of respiratory diseases such as allergies, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and lung cancer. Children and the elderly are particularly vulnerable to the health effects of ozone, fine particles, and other airborne toxicants. Air pollution factors are considered as one of the underlying causes of respiratory diseases. This study aimed to determine the association of respiratory diseases documented in medical records and air pollution (Map distribution) of accumulation in Isfahan province, Iran. By plotting the prevalence and spatial distribution maps, important differences from different points can be observed. The geographic information system (GIS), pollutant standards index (PSI) measurements, and remote Sensing (RS) technology were used after entering data in the mapping information table; spatial distribution was mapped and distribution of Geographical Epidemiology of Respiratory Diseases in Isfahan province (Iran) was determined in this case study from 2005 to 2009. Space with tracing the distribution of respiratory diseases was scattered based on the distribution of air pollution in the points is an important part of this type of diseases in Isfahan province where air pollution was more abundant. The findings of this study emphasis on the importance of preventing the exposure to air pollution, and to control air pollution product industries, to improve work environmental health, and to increase the health professionals and public knowledge in this regard.

  19. Relation of air pollution with epidemiology of respiratory diseases in isfahan, Iran from 2005 to 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maasoumeh Rashidi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS scientists shows that long-term exposure to air pollutants increases the risk of respiratory diseases such as allergies, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and lung cancer. Children and the elderly are particularly vulnerable to the health effects of ozone, fine particles, and other airborne toxicants. Air pollution factors are considered as one of the underlying causes of respiratory diseases. This study aimed to determine the association of respiratory diseases documented in medical records and air pollution (Map distribution of accumulation in Isfahan province, Iran. By plotting the prevalence and spatial distribution maps, important differences from different points can be observed. Materials and Methods: The geographic information system (GIS, pollutant standards index (PSI measurements, and remote Sensing (RS technology were used after entering data in the mapping information table; spatial distribution was mapped and distribution of Geographical Epidemiology of Respiratory Diseases in Isfahan province (Iran was determined in this case study from 2005 to 2009. Results: Space with tracing the distribution of respiratory diseases was scattered based on the distribution of air pollution in the points is an important part of this type of diseases in Isfahan province where air pollution was more abundant. Conclusion: The findings of this study emphasis on the importance of preventing the exposure to air pollution, and to control air pollution product industries, to improve work environmental health, and to increase the health professionals and public knowledge in this regard.

  20. Traffic-related air pollution exposures and changes in heart rate variability in Mexico City: a panel study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Kyra Naumoff; Cavallari, Jennifer M; Hunt, Megan J Olson; Lazo, Mariana; Molina, Mario; Molina, Luisa; Holguin, Fernando

    2013-01-18

    While air pollution exposures have been linked to cardiovascular outcomes, the contribution from acute gas and particle traffic-related pollutants remains unclear. Using a panel study design with repeated measures, we examined associations between personal exposures to traffic-related air pollutants in Mexico City and changes in heart rate variability (HRV) in a population of researchers aged 22 to 56 years. Participants were monitored for approximately 9.5 hours for eight days while operating a mobile laboratory van designed to characterize traffic pollutants while driving in traffic and "chasing" diesel buses. We examined the association between HRV parameters (standard deviation of normal-to-normal intervals (SDNN), power in high frequency (HF) and low frequency (LF), and the LF/HF ratio) and the 5-minute maximum (or average in the case of PM(2.5)) and 30-, 60-, and 90-minute moving averages of air pollutants (PM(2.5), O(3), CO, CO(2), NO(2), NO(x), and formaldehyde) using single- and two-pollutant linear mixed-effects models. Short-term exposure to traffic-related emissions was associated with statistically significant acute changes in HRV. Gaseous pollutants - particularly ozone - were associated with reductions in time and frequency domain components (α = 0.05), while significant positive associations were observed between PM(2.5) and SDNN, HF, and LF. For ozone and formaldehyde, negative associations typically increased in magnitude and significance with increasing averaging periods. The associations for CO, CO(2), NO(2), and NO(x) were similar with statistically significant associations observed for SDNN, but not HF or LF. In contrast, PM(2.5) increased these HRV parameters. Results revealed an association between traffic-related PM exposures and acute changes in HRV in a middle-aged population when PM exposures were relatively low (14 μg/m(3)) and demonstrate heterogeneity in the effects of different pollutants, with declines in HRV - especially HF

  1. An integrated approach to manage coastal ecosystems and prevent marine pollution effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcelli, Marco; Bonamano, Simone; Carli, Filippo Maria; Giovacchini, Monica; Madonia, Alice; Mancini, Emanuele; Molino, Chiara; Piermattei, Viviana; Manfredi Frattarelli, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    This work focuses an integrated approach based on Sea-Use-Map (SUM), backed by a permanent monitoring system (C-CEMS-Civitavecchia Coastal Environmental Monitoring System). This tool supports the management of the marine coastal area, contributing substantially to ecosystem benefits evaluation and to minimize pollution impacts. Within the Blue Growth strategy, the protection of marine ecosystems is considered a priority for the sustainable growth of marine and maritime sectors. To face this issue, the European MSP and MSFD directives (2014/89/EU; 2008/56/EC) strongly promote the adoption of an ecosystem-based approach, paying particular attention to the support of monitoring networks that use L-TER (long-term ecological research) observations and integrate multi-disciplinary data sets. Although not largely used in Europe yet, the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI), developed in 1979 by NOAA (and promoted by IMO in 2010), can be considered an excellent example of ecosystem-based approach to reduce the environmental consequences of an oil spill event in a coastal area. SUM is an ecosystem oriented cartographic tool specifically designed to support the sustainable management of the coastal areas, such as the selection of the best sites for the introduction of new uses or the identification of the coastal areas subjected to potential impacts. It also enables a rapid evaluation of the benefits produced by marine areas as well as of their anthropogenic disturbance. SUM integrates C-CEMS dataset, geomorphological and ecological features and knowledge on the coastal and maritime space uses. The SUM appliance allowed to obtain relevant operational results in the Civitavecchia coastal area (Latium, Italy), characterized by high variability of marine and coastal environments, historical heritage and affected by the presence of a big harbour, relevant industrial infrastructures, and touristic features. In particular, the valuation of marine ecosystem services based on

  2. Combined effects of road traffic noise and ambient air pollution in relation to risk for stroke?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette; Lühdorf, Pernille; Ketzel, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to road traffic noise and air pollution have both been associated with risk for stroke. The few studies including both exposures show inconsistent results. We aimed to investigate potential mutual confounding and combined effects between road traffic noise and air pollution in association...... to 2009 were identified in national registers and road traffic noise and air pollution were modeled for all addresses. Analyses were done using Cox regression. A higher mean annual exposure at time of diagnosis of 10µg/m(3) nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and 10dB road traffic noise at the residential address...... was found for combination of high noise and high NO2 (IRR=1.28; 95% CI=1.09-1.52). Fatal stroke was positively associated with air pollution and not with traffic noise. In conclusion, in mutually adjusted models road traffic noise and not air pollution was associated ischemic stroke, while only air...

  3. Trends in relative risk estimates for the association between air pollution and mortality in The Netherlands, 1992-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Paul H; Marra, Marten; Ameling, Caroline B; Janssen, Nicole; Cassee, Flemming R

    2011-01-01

    Daily variations in the levels of air pollution are well known to be associated with daily variations in mortality counts. Given the large number of time-series studies, there is little need for simple replication of these results in additional locations. However, additional analyses of time-series data might be useful in elucidating remaining questions on the role of air pollution on mortality. Because of ongoing issues related to causality, changing toxicity, the difficulty in isolating the independent effects of individual pollutants, the availability of new methods to detect effect thresholds, and questions about the extent to which effects are restricted to frail members of the population, additional analyses of time-series data might be helpful in addressing these issues. We show an example where additional time-series analyses can be helpful in elucidating specific questions in the field of air pollution epidemiology. We analysed daily mortality and air pollution data using Poisson regression in generalised additive models. Air pollution data for the overall period 1992-2006 and for four different periods were analysed to assess the overall risk estimates for the whole period and to assess variability over time for the different effect estimates. We found some statistically significant upward trends, but this was only the case for a few associations without a consistent pattern over the cause-specific deaths. Whether these findings are consistent over time or whether our findings are merely the result of statistical chance can only be elucidated by continuation of monitoring of the relative risks over time in the future. Although these results may indicate that both photochemical and particulate matter air pollution might have become more toxic, the lack of a clear pattern in the results makes these conclusions speculative. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Relation between heat islands and NO 2 pollution in some Japanese cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotoh, Takao

    In Japanese urban areas, NO x air pollution has recently become more and more serious, and a rise in atmospheric temperature has been observed. This correlation was surveyed in 187 locations, where NO 2 concentration monitoring and atmospheric temperature measurement were conducted simultaneously and separately during the same period from 1982 to 1988. The following results were obtained. First, the percentage of areas where NO 2 concentration increased was 72%. Second, the percentage of areas where the correlation coefficient between the annual mean NO 2 concentration and the elapsed years was larger than 0.20, and at the same time the correlaltion coefficient between the annual mean NO 2 concentration and the annual mean atmospheric temperature was larger than 0.20, was 23%. About three-quarters of these areas were in the Tokyo and Osaka megalopolis. Third, in these areas, the relation between the mean NO 2 concentration and the regression coefficient of the change in atmospheric temperature relative to the change of annual mean NO 2 concentration was suspected to be distributed steeply with a reflected point in NO 2 concentration.

  5. Optometry and ophthalmology relations in managed care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettler, D L

    1999-02-01

    Optometrists and Ophthalmologists have a history of difficult professional relationships. This paper discusses common issues both professions face while working under managed care. Managed care initiatives may help to improve the ability of Optomotrists and Ophthalmologists to work together to treat the patient's eye problems.

  6. Manager, Employee and Labour Relations | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Work with the Director Human Resources, Manager, Global Compensation and Manager, HR Business Solutions to develop objectives, set priorities, and plans for the Division and contribute to corporate HR monitoring and reporting. • Provide corporate HR leadership with regards to strategy, policy, design, development, ...

  7. Simulation of Water Environmental Capacity and Pollution Load Reduction Using QUAL2K for Water Environmental Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruibin; Qian, Xin; Yuan, Xingcheng; Ye, Rui; Xia, Bisheng; Wang, Yulei

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, water quality degradation associated with rapid socio-economic development in the Taihu Lake Basin, China, has attracted increasing attention from both the public and the Chinese government. The primary sources of pollution in Taihu Lake are its inflow rivers and their tributaries. Effective water environmental management strategies need to be implemented in these rivers to improve the water quality of Taihu Lake, and to ensure sustainable development in the region. The aim of this study was to provide a basis for water environmental management decision-making. In this study, the QUAL2K model for river and stream water quality was applied to predict the water quality and environmental capacity of the Hongqi River, which is a polluted tributary in the Taihu Lake Basin. The model parameters were calibrated by trial and error until the simulated results agreed well with the observed data. The calibrated QUAL2K model was used to calculate the water environmental capacity of the Hongqi River, and the water environmental capacities of CODCr NH3-N, TN, and TP were 17.51 t, 1.52 t, 2.74 t and 0.37 t, respectively. The results showed that the NH3-N, TN, and TP pollution loads of the studied river need to be reduced by 50.96%, 44.11%, and 22.92%, respectively to satisfy the water quality objectives. Thus, additional water pollution control measures are needed to control and reduce the pollution loads in the Hongqi River watershed. The method applied in this study should provide a basis for water environmental management decision-making. PMID:23222206

  8. Simulation of water environmental capacity and pollution load reduction using QUAL2K for water environmental management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruibin; Qian, Xin; Yuan, Xingcheng; Ye, Rui; Xia, Bisheng; Wang, Yulei

    2012-12-07

    In recent years, water quality degradation associated with rapid socio-economic development in the Taihu Lake Basin, China, has attracted increasing attention from both the public and the Chinese government. The primary sources of pollution in Taihu Lake are its inflow rivers and their tributaries. Effective water environmental management strategies need to be implemented in these rivers to improve the water quality of Taihu Lake, and to ensure sustainable development in the region. The aim of this study was to provide a basis for water environmental management decision-making. In this study, the QUAL2K model for river and stream water quality was applied to predict the water quality and environmental capacity of the Hongqi River, which is a polluted tributary in the Taihu Lake Basin. The model parameters were calibrated by trial and error until the simulated results agreed well with the observed data. The calibrated QUAL2K model was used to calculate the water environmental capacity of the Hongqi River, and the water environmental capacities of COD(Cr) NH(3)-N, TN, and TP were 17.51 t, 1.52 t, 2.74 t and 0.37 t, respectively. The results showed that the NH(3)-N, TN, and TP pollution loads of the studied river need to be reduced by 50.96%, 44.11%, and 22.92%, respectively to satisfy the water quality objectives. Thus, additional water pollution control measures are needed to control and reduce the pollution loads in the Hongqi River watershed. The method applied in this study should provide a basis for water environmental management decision-making.

  9. Simulation of Water Environmental Capacity and Pollution Load Reduction Using QUAL2K for Water Environmental Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulei Wang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, water quality degradation associated with rapid socio-economic development in the Taihu Lake Basin, China, has attracted increasing attention from both the public and the Chinese government. The primary sources of pollution in Taihu Lake are its inflow rivers and their tributaries. Effective water environmental management strategies need to be implemented in these rivers to improve the water quality of Taihu Lake, and to ensure sustainable development in the region. The aim of this study was to provide a basis for water environmental management decision-making. In this study, the QUAL2K model for river and stream water quality was applied to predict the water quality and environmental capacity of the Hongqi River, which is a polluted tributary in the Taihu Lake Basin. The model parameters were calibrated by trial and error until the simulated results agreed well with the observed data. The calibrated QUAL2K model was used to calculate the water environmental capacity of the Hongqi River, and the water environmental capacities of CODCr NH3-N, TN, and TP were 17.51 t, 1.52 t, 2.74 t and 0.37 t, respectively. The results showed that the NH3-N, TN, and TP pollution loads of the studied river need to be reduced by 50.96%, 44.11%, and 22.92%, respectively to satisfy the water quality objectives. Thus, additional water pollution control measures are needed to control and reduce the pollution loads in the Hongqi River watershed. The method applied in this study should provide a basis for water environmental management decision-making.

  10. How chemical pollution becomes a social problem. Risk communication and assessment through regional newspapers during the management of PCB pollutions of the Rhône River (France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comby, Emeline; Le Lay, Yves-François; Piégay, Hervé

    2014-06-01

    The case study of the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) pollutions of the Rhône River (France) offers the possibility of studying criteria for the construction of social problems that result from chemical pollution (2005-2010). We investigated the dynamics of competition that create and define pollution as a social problem and entail its decline. News outlets are crucial for determining how an environmental issue emerges locally or nationally; this study used newspapers to highlight the potential of new outlets as a data source to analyze discourse variability, science-policy-media connections and the hydrosphere. Media coverage was based on a content analysis and textual data analysis of 75 articles. Analytical frameworks such as the Downs Model and the Public Arena Model (Hilgartner and Bosk, 1988) that consider time and stakeholders were tested to determine how human alteration of the hydrosphere can become a social problem and to analyze different communication strategies held by stakeholders. In terms of management, we described the temporal dynamics of the social problem based on the case study and considered an explanation of the selections. We considered the organization of particular stakeholders who define the social problem from its beginning to end by focusing on their discourses, relationships, decision-making and political choices, and scientific studies. Despite some biases, newspapers are useful for retrospectively evaluating the emergence of a social problem in the public arena by describing it through discourse and then understanding the temporal patterns of information. Despite uncertainties and information flow, decisions are made and science is translated to the public. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Calculation of intercepted runoff depth based on stormwater quality and environmental capacity of receiving waters for initial stormwater pollution management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hai-Qin; Liu, Yan; Gao, Xue-Long; Wang, Hong-Wu; Chen, Yi; Cai, Hui-Yi

    2017-11-01

    While point source pollutions have gradually been controlled in recent years, the non-point source pollution problem has become increasingly prominent. The receiving waters are frequently polluted by the initial stormwater from the separate stormwater system and the wastewater from sewage pipes through stormwater pipes. Consequently, calculating the intercepted runoff depth has become a problem that must be resolved immediately for initial stormwater pollution management. The accurate calculation of intercepted runoff depth provides a solid foundation for selecting the appropriate size of intercepting facilities in drainage and interception projects. This study establishes a separate stormwater system for the Yishan Building watershed of Fuzhou City using the InfoWorks Integrated Catchment Management (InfoWorks ICM), which can predict the stormwater flow velocity and the flow of discharge outlet after each rainfall. The intercepted runoff depth is calculated from the stormwater quality and environmental capacity of the receiving waters. The average intercepted runoff depth from six rainfall events is calculated as 4.1 mm based on stormwater quality. The average intercepted runoff depth from six rainfall events is calculated as 4.4 mm based on the environmental capacity of the receiving waters. The intercepted runoff depth differs when calculated from various aspects. The selection of the intercepted runoff depth depends on the goal of water quality control, the self-purification capacity of the water bodies, and other factors of the region.

  12. Noise Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... primarily to one’s overall health. Top of Page Health Effects Noise pollution adversely affects the lives of millions of people. ... its effect, disseminate information to the public regarding noise pollution and its adverse health effects, respond to inquiries on matters related to noise, ...

  13. Emerging pollutants in the environment : A challenge for water resource management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geissen, V.; Mol, J.G.J.; Klumpp, Erwin; Umlauf, Günter; Nadal, M.; Ploeg, van der M.J.; Zee, van der S.E.A.T.M.; Ritsema, C.J.

    2015-01-01

    A significant number of emerging pollutants (EPs) resulting from point and diffuse pollution is present in the aquatic environment. These are chemicals that are not commonly monitored but have the potential to enter the environment and cause adverse ecological and human health effects. According to

  14. Study of diffuse source pollution management for land use and drainage system planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, K; Funaki, T; Honda, S; Sugihara, M

    2001-01-01

    This study aims to clarify the mass balance of pollutants during both dry periods and storm events and to discuss the effects of some strategies such as pollutant removal, land use planning and new drainage systems by simulation. Three subjects are discussed in this paper. First, the amount of pollutants entering Lake Biwa from an urban area have been roughly estimated by using data collected by the local government. Second, many additional samples were collected from road surfaces, house roofs and parking lots to consider the role of land use in pollutant runoff. Third, some ongoing BMP projects in an urban area are introduced. As a result, some ideas on how to solve the problem of diffuse pollution in urban areas have been obtained.

  15. Willingness to pay to avoid health risks from road-traffic-related air pollution and noise across five countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istamto, Tifanny; Houthuijs, Danny; Lebret, Erik

    2014-11-01

    We conducted a multi-country study to estimate the perceived economic values of traffic-related air pollution and noise health risks within the framework of a large European project. We used contingent valuation as a method to assess the willingness-to-pay (WTP) for both types of pollutants simultaneously. We asked respondents how much they would be willing to pay annually to avoid certain health risks from specific pollutants. Three sets of vignettes with different levels of information were provided prior to the WTP questions. These vignettes described qualitative general health risks, a quantitative single health risk related to a pollutant, and a quantitative scenario of combined health risks related to a pollutant. The mean WTP estimates to avoid road-traffic air pollution effects for the three vignettes were: €130 per person per year (pp/y) for general health risks, €80 pp/y for a half year shorter in life expectancy, and €330 pp/y to a 50% decrease in road-traffic air pollution. Their medians were €40 pp/y, €10 pp/y and €50 pp/y, respectively. The mean WTP estimates to avoid road-traffic noise effects for the three vignettes were: €90 pp/y for general health risks, €100 pp/y for a 13% increase in severe annoyance, and €320 pp/y for a combined-risk scenario related to an increase of a noise level from 50 dB to 65 dB. Their medians were €20 pp/y, €20 pp/y and €50 pp/y, respectively. Risk perceptions and attitudes as well as environmental and pollutant concerns significantly affected WTP estimates. The observed differences in crude WTP estimates between countries changed considerably when perception-related variables were included in the WTP regression models. For this reason, great care should be taken when performing benefit transfer from studies in one country to another. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Economic Impacts from PM2.5 Pollution-Related Health Effects in China: A Provincial-Level Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yang; Dai, Hancheng; Dong, Huijuan; Hanaoka, Tatsuya; Masui, Toshihiko

    2016-05-03

    This study evaluates the PM2.5 pollution-related health impacts on the national and provincial economy of China using a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model and the latest nonlinear exposure-response functions. Results show that the health and economic impacts may be substantial in provinces with a high PM2.5 concentration. In the WoPol scenario without PM2.5 pollution control policy, we estimate that China experiences a 2.00% GDP loss and 25.2 billion USD in health expenditure from PM2.5 pollution in 2030. In contrast, with control policy in the WPol scenario, a control investment of 101.8 billion USD (0.79% of GDP) and a gain of 1.17% of China's GDP from improving PM2.5 pollution are projected. At the provincial level, GDP loss in 2030 in the WoPol scenario is high in Tianjin (3.08%), Shanghai (2.98%), Henan (2.32%), Beijing (2.75%), and Hebei (2.60%) and the top five provinces with the highest additional health expenditure are Henan, Sichuan, Shandong, Hebei, and Jiangsu. Controlling PM2.5 pollution could bring positive benefits in two-thirds of provinces. Tianjin, Shanghai, Beijing, Henan, Jiangsu, and Hebei experience most benefits from PM2.5 pollution control as a result of a higher PM2.5 pollution and dense population distribution. Conversely, the control investment is higher than GDP gain in some underdeveloped provinces, such as Ningxia, Guizhou, Shanxi, Gansu, and Yunnan.

  17. Traffic-Related air pollution, noise at school, and behavioral problems in barcelona schoolchildren: A cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Forns (Joan); P. Dadvand (Payam); M. Foraster (Maria); M. Alvarez-Pedrerol (Mar); I. Rivas (Ioar); M. López-Vicente (Mònica); E. Suades-González (Elisabet); R. Garcia-Esteban (Raquel); M. Esnaola (Mikel); M. Cirach (Marta); J. Grellier (James); X. Basagaña (Xavier); X. Querol (Xavier); M. Guxens Junyent (Mònica); M. Nieuwenhuijsen (Mark); J. Sunyer (Jordi)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The available evidence of the effects of air pollution and noise on behavioral development is limited, and it overlooks exposure at schools, where children spend a considerable amount of time. Objective: We aimed to investigate the associations of exposure to traffic-related

  18. (Un)Healthy in the city : Adverse health effects of traffic-related noise and air pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlema, Wilma

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the adverse health effects of urbanity, traffic-related noise and air pollution. We used harmonized data from multiple European cohort studies: LifeLines, HUNT, FINRISK, EPIC-Oxford and KORA. Based on our studies, we concluded that the living environment may be associated with

  19. Simulation of Water Environmental Capacity and Pollution Load Reduction Using QUAL2K for Water Environmental Management

    OpenAIRE

    Yulei Wang; Bisheng Xia; Rui Ye; Xingcheng Yuan; Ruibin Zhang; Xin Qian

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, water quality degradation associated with rapid socio-economic development in the Taihu Lake Basin, China, has attracted increasing attention from both the public and the Chinese government. The primary sources of pollution in Taihu Lake are its inflow rivers and their tributaries. Effective water environmental management strategies need to be implemented in these rivers to improve the water quality of Taihu Lake, and to ensure sustainable development in the region. The aim o...

  20. The Link between Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices in Relation to Atmospheric Haze Pollution in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura De Pretto

    Full Text Available Transboundary haze episodes caused by seasonal forest fires have become a recurrent phenomenon in Southeast Asia, with serious environmental, economic, and public health implications. Here we present a cross-sectional survey conducted among people in Kuala Lumpur and surrounds to assess the links between knowledge, attitudes, and practices in relation to the transboundary haze episodes. Of 305 respondents, 125 were amateur athletes participating in a duathlon event and the remainder were surveyed in an inner-city shopping mall. Across the whole sample, people who possessed more factual information about the haze phenomenon showed significantly higher levels of concern. Duathletes were more knowledgeable than non-duathletes and also more concerned about the negative effects of haze, especially on health. For all people who regularly practice outdoor sports (including people interviewed at the shopping mall, higher levels of knowledge and concerned attitudes translated into a greater likelihood of engaging in protective practices, such as cancelling their outdoor training sessions, while those with greater knowledge were more likely to check the relevant air pollution index on a daily basis. Our results indicate that the provision of accurate and timely information about air quality to residents will translate into beneficial practices, at least among particularly exposed individuals, such as amateur athletes who regularly practice outdoor sports.

  1. Effects of air pollution related respiratory symptoms in school children in industrial areas Rayong, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paradee Asa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The chronic effects of air pollution in school children living near industrial sites were investigated. The respiratory symptoms of 806 school children aged 9-12 years were examined by the American Thoracic Society's Division of Lung Diseases (ATS-DLD-78-C questionnaire during February- August 2013. The selected elementary schools in this survey was based on the distance from Map Ta Phut Industrial Estate, area A within 1 km., area B 5 km. and area C 10 km. Logistic regression techniques were used to assess the association between prevalence of respiratory symptoms and independent variables. The average 24 hrs PM10 and VOCs concentrations from 2011-2014 in area A were significantly higher than in area C (p < 0.05. Relatively, the prevalence of respiratory symptoms in area A were high with odds ratios (OR = 3.41, (95% confidence intervals (CI = 1.70-6.85 and in area B with OR = 1.36, (95% CI = 0.54-3.45, in comparison to area C. The prevalent of non-specific respiratory diseases (NSRD and Persistent Cough and Phlegm (PCP in boy student were higher than girls students with OR=2.17, (95%CI=1.33-3.53, whereas those factors such as age, residential years, home size, parental smoking habits, use of air conditioners and domestic pets were not associated. Exposure to particulate matter and volatile organic compounds arising from Industrial sites was associated with worse respiratory impairments in children.

  2. Traffic-related air pollution and sleep in the Boston Area Community Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Shona C; Schwartz, Joel; Yang, May; Yaggi, H Klar; Bliwise, Donald L; Araujo, Andre B

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about environmental determinants of sleep. We investigated the association between black carbon (BC), a marker of traffic-related air pollution, and sleep measures among participants of the Boston Area Community Health Survey. We also sought to assess the impact of sociodemographic factors, health conditions, and season on associations. Residential 24-h BC was estimated from a validated land-use regression model for 3821 participants and averaged over 1-6 months and 1 year. Sleep measures included questionnaire-assessed sleep duration, sleep latency, and sleep apnea. Linear and logistic regression models controlling for confounders estimated the association between sleep measures and BC. Effect modification was tested with interaction terms. Main effects were not observed between BC and sleep measures. However, in stratified models, males experienced 0.23 h less sleep (95% CI: -0.42, -0.03) and those with low SES 0.25 h less sleep (95% CI: -0.48, -0.01) per IQR increase in annual BC (0.21 μg/m(3)). In blacks, sleep duration increased with annual BC (β=0.34 per IQR; 95% CI: 0.12, 0.57). Similar findings were observed for short sleep (≤5 h). BC was not associated with sleep apnea or sleep latency, however, long-term exposure may be associated with shorter sleep duration, particularly in men and those with low SES, and longer sleep duration in blacks.

  3. Impact of light rail transit on traffic-related pollution and stroke mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun Sug; Sener, Ipek Nese

    2017-03-29

    This paper evaluates the changes in vehicle exhaust and stroke mortality for the general public residing in the surrounding area of the light rail transit (LRT) in Houston, Texas, after its opening. The number of daily deaths due to stroke for 2002-2005 from the surrounding area of the original LRT line (exposure group) and the control groups was analyzed using an interrupted time-series analysis. Ambient concentrations of acetylene before and after the opening of LRT were also compared. A statistically significant reduction in the average concentration of acetylene was observed for the exposure sites whereas the reduction was negligible at the control site. Poisson regression models applied to the stroke mortality data indicated a significant reduction in daily stroke mortality after the opening of LRT for the exposure group, while there was either an increase or a considerably smaller reduction for the control groups. The findings support the idea that LRT systems provide health benefits for the general public and that the reduction in motor-vehicle-related air pollution may have contributed to these health benefits.

  4. Characteristics of environmental pollution related with public complaints in an industrial shipbuilding complex, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jae-Woo; Lee, Myoung-Eun; Lee, Hyeon-Don

    2011-06-01

    The shipbuilding industry of Korea, ranked number one in the world in annual amount of ship orders, has contributed to national economic growth; however, this has resulted in various environmental problems. Characteristics of environmental pollution, such as particulate matters, odor, and noise, which are closely related with public complaints, were evaluated in an industrial shipbuilding complex. The concentrations of PM-10 and TSP were significantly affected by the distance between the measurement site and shipbuilding workplace, as well as the height of the measurement site. Average PM-10 concentrations in the residential area ranged from 40.10 to 44.10 μg/m(3), which were not high in comparison with the ambient air quality standard and those of major cities in Korea. Paint particles could affect a wider area than typical particulate matters due to their generation and transport properties. The properties of odor in the study area were widely affected by the work intensity in shipyards and the temperature. Twenty-five out of total 54 samples collected in the residential area exceeded the dilution factor of 10, which is the tolerable limit adopted in Korea. Noise had an influence on a limited area due to the extinction effect with distance from the shipyards, while severe noise levels higher than 90 dB(A) were frequently found inside the shipyards.

  5. The Link between Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices in Relation to Atmospheric Haze Pollution in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pretto, Laura; Acreman, Stephen; Ashfold, Matthew J; Mohankumar, Suresh K; Campos-Arceiz, Ahimsa

    2015-01-01

    Transboundary haze episodes caused by seasonal forest fires have become a recurrent phenomenon in Southeast Asia, with serious environmental, economic, and public health implications. Here we present a cross-sectional survey conducted among people in Kuala Lumpur and surrounds to assess the links between knowledge, attitudes, and practices in relation to the transboundary haze episodes. Of 305 respondents, 125 were amateur athletes participating in a duathlon event and the remainder were surveyed in an inner-city shopping mall. Across the whole sample, people who possessed more factual information about the haze phenomenon showed significantly higher levels of concern. Duathletes were more knowledgeable than non-duathletes and also more concerned about the negative effects of haze, especially on health. For all people who regularly practice outdoor sports (including people interviewed at the shopping mall), higher levels of knowledge and concerned attitudes translated into a greater likelihood of engaging in protective practices, such as cancelling their outdoor training sessions, while those with greater knowledge were more likely to check the relevant air pollution index on a daily basis. Our results indicate that the provision of accurate and timely information about air quality to residents will translate into beneficial practices, at least among particularly exposed individuals, such as amateur athletes who regularly practice outdoor sports.

  6. Atmospheric pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlesinger, R B

    1992-06-01

    Air pollution has been directly responsible for increases in mortality and morbidity in the general population during periods known as episodes, when pollutant levels were elevated well above those that occur on a regular basis. The major concern today regarding pollution and health is, however, more subtle--namely, whether the lower levels of pollution to which we are exposed daily are harmful to health. It is extremely difficult to relate specific health problems to specific pollutants, because other environmental and lifestyle factors may contribute to decrements in health. Furthermore, people are generally exposed to mixtures of pollutants, making it difficult to extract the effects caused by individual components, or to determine which combinations are the most hazardous. Community air pollution results from various sources: mobile sources, such as vehicles; stationary sources, such as power plants and factories; and indoor sources, such as building material. Complicating the picture is the fact that many chemicals released into the air may react, producing additional secondary pollutants. This article provides an overview of the major air pollutants that may be of concern in terms of public health.

  7. Glyphosate and AMPA, "pseudo-persistent" pollutants under real-world agricultural management practices in the Mesopotamic Pampas agroecosystem, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primost, Jezabel E; Marino, Damián J G; Aparicio, Virginia C; Costa, José Luis; Carriquiriborde, Pedro

    2017-10-01

    In the Pampas, public concern has strongly risen because of the intensive use of glyphosate for weed control and fallow associated with biotech crops. The present study was aimed to evaluate the occurrence and concentration of the herbicide and its main metabolite (AMPA) in soil and other environmental compartments of the mentioned agroecosystem, including groundwater, in relation to real-world agricultural management practices in the region. Occurrence was almost ubiquitous in solid matrices (83-100%) with maximum concentrations among the higher reported in the world (soil: 8105 and 38939; sediment: 3294 and 7219; suspended particulate matter (SPM): 584 and 475 μg/kg of glyphosate and AMPA). Lower detection frequency was observed in surface water (27-55%) with maximum concentrations in whole water of 1.80 and 1.90 μg/L of glyphosate and AMPA, indicating that SPM analysis would be more sensitive for detection in the aquatic ecosystem. No detectable concentrations of glyphosate or AMPA were observed in groundwater. Glyphosate soil concentrations were better correlated with the total cumulative dose and total number of applications than the last spraying event dose, and an increment of 1 mg glyphosate/kg soil every 5 spraying events was estimated. Findings allow to infer that, under current practices, application rates are higher than dissipation rates. Hence, glyphosate and AMPA should be considered "pseudo-persistent" pollutants and a revisions of management procedures, monitoring programs, and ecological risk for soil and sediments should be also recommended. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Long-Term Exposure to Traffic-Related Air Pollution and Risk of Incident Atrial Fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monrad, Maria; Sajadieh, Ahmad; Christensen, Jeppe Schultz

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation is the most common sustained arrhythmia and associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The few studies conducted on short-term effects of air pollution on episodes of atrial fibrillation indicates a positive association, though not consistently...

  9. Pollution Response Score of Tree Species in Relation to Ambient Air Quality in an Urban Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Arideep; Agrawal, Madhoolika

    2016-02-01

    Multivariate statistical techniques were employed on twelve leaf traits in four selected common tree species (Mangifera indica L., Polyalthia longifolia Sonn., Ficus benghalensis L. and Psidium guajava L.) to evaluate their responses with respect to major air pollutants in an urban area. Discriminant analysis (DA) identified chlorophyll/carotenoid ratio, leaf dry matter content, carotenoids, net water content and ascorbic acid as the major discriminating leaf traits, which varied maximally with respect to the pollution status. Pollution response score (PRS), calculated on the basis of discriminate functional coefficient values, increased with an increase in air pollution variables for all the tested species, with the highest increase in P. longifolia and the lowest in F. benghalensis. The study highlights the usefulness of DA for evaluation of plant specific traits and PRS for selection of tolerant species.

  10. Socioeconomic inequalities and exposure to traffic-related air pollution in the city of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateus Habermann

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is a leading public health concern. In addition, poor populations have been reported as showing increased exposure to such pollution. The current study thus aimed to evaluate the socioeconomic status of the population exposed to vehicle-related air pollution in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. The study used data from the 2010 Census on head-of-household’s mean monthly income and the percentage of households connected to the sewage system. Exposure to air pollutants was estimated according to traffic density in the census tract plus a 200m surrounding buffer. The relationship between exposure and socioeconomic variables was analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis test. Exposure increased with increasing socioeconomic status (p < 0.001. The population with the highest socioeconomic status lives in the most polluted areas of the city. However, place of residence alone is not capable of measuring exposure. The study suggests that future epidemiological studies include other indicators of vulnerability.

  11. Understanding enabling capacities for managing the 'wicked problem' of nonpoint source water pollution in catchments: a conceptual framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, James J; Smith, Carl; Bellamy, Jennifer

    2013-10-15

    Nonpoint source (NPS) water pollution in catchments is a 'wicked' problem that threatens water quality, water security, ecosystem health and biodiversity, and thus the provision of ecosystem services that support human livelihoods and wellbeing from local to global scales. However, it is a difficult problem to manage because water catchments are linked human and natural systems that are complex, dynamic, multi-actor, and multi-scalar in nature. This in turn raises questions about understanding and influencing change across multiple levels of planning, decision-making and action. A key challenge in practice is enabling implementation of local management action, which can be influenced by a range of factors across multiple levels. This paper reviews and synthesises important 'enabling' capacities that can influence implementation of local management action, and develops a conceptual framework for understanding and analysing these in practice. Important enabling capacities identified include: history and contingency; institutional arrangements; collaboration; engagement; vision and strategy; knowledge building and brokerage; resourcing; entrepreneurship and leadership; and reflection and adaptation. Furthermore, local action is embedded within multi-scalar contexts and therefore, is highly contextual. The findings highlight the need for: (1) a systemic and integrative perspective for understanding and influencing change for managing the wicked problem of NPS water pollution; and (2) 'enabling' social and institutional arenas that support emergent and adaptive management structures, processes and innovations for addressing NPS water pollution in practice. These findings also have wider relevance to other 'wicked' natural resource management issues facing similar implementation challenges. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Profits from pollutants: Economic feasibility of integrated anaerobic digester and nutrient management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astill, Gregory M; Shumway, C Richard

    2016-12-15

    There has been sustained interest from both environmental regulators and livestock associations to expand the use of anaerobic digester (AD) technology to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. However, the generally profitable practice of codigesting off-farm organic waste could increase nitrogen and phosphorus content to the farm and exacerbate nutrient over-application concerns near large animal operations. We examine the economic feasibility of a broad set of dairy waste management systems composed of two technology groups that mitigate air and water pollution: an AD system that includes either animal waste input or combination animal/off-farm organic waste codigestion input and either compressed natural gas (CNG) or combined heat and power (CHP) output; and a filtration system that includes fiber separation, nutrient separation, and/or water recovery. We conclude that AD setups without codigestion are only economically feasible under limited conditions, but scenarios which use codigestion have the potential to contribute to nutrient over-application without nutrient separation technology. Trends for CNG and CHP match closely. Net present value (NPV) is greatest for AD with CNG scenarios. Estimated NPV for AD with CNG and environmental credits is $1.8 million and $39.7 million for dairies with 1600 and 15,000 wet cow equivalents, respectively. For these firm sizes, the addition of codigestion contributes $4.8 million and $47.3 million, respectively, to estimated NPV. Nutrient separation and water recovery both lead to decreases in scenario NPV with codigestion, but with the right policies, dairy owners may be willing to adopt AD with nutrient separation. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Gestational diabetes mellitus was related to ambient air pollutant nitric oxide during early gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Shih-Chun; Huang, Ching-Chun; Lin, Shio-Jean; Chen, Bing-Yu; Chang, Chang-Chuan; Leon Guo, Yue-Liang

    2017-10-01

    Ambient air pollution has been linked to the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). However, evidence of this association is limited, and no study has examined the effects of nitric oxide (NO). This study investigated the association between air pollution exposure during gestation and GDM. The Taiwan Birth Cohort Study database was used to examine the association between the risk of GDM and all routinely monitored air pollutants among 21,248 women who were pregnant during 2004-2005. We further employed a two-pollutant model for confirming the effect of each pollutant on GDM. After the exclusion criteria were applied, 19,606 women were included in the final analysis. Among them, 378 (1.9%) had been diagnosed as having GDM. These women were older and had higher BMIs than the women without GDM. The risks of GDM onset were significantly associated with NO exposure during the first [adjusted OR (aOR): 1.05, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.02-1.08] and second (aOR: 1.05, 95%CI: 1.02-1.08) trimesters. Under the two-pollutant model, the effect of NO exposure was also significant during the first (aOR: 1.05, 95%CI: 1.02-1.08) and second (aOR: 1.05, 95%CI: 1.02-1.09) trimesters. The results indicated that exposure to higher NO levels during pregnancy increases the risk of GDM. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Collective management of copyright and related rights

    CERN Document Server

    2010-01-01

    In the course of the last decade, collective management organizations (CMOs) have become the nerve centres of copyright licensing in virtually every country. Their expertise and knowledge of copyright law and management have proven essential to make copyright work in the digital age. This book, an extensively revised and updated edition of the only major work on the legal status of CMOs, offers an indepth analysis of the various operating CMO models, their rights and obligations vis-a-vis both users and members, acquisition of legal authority to license, and (most important) the rights to license digital uses of protected material and build (or improve current) information systems to deal with ever more complex rights management and licensing tasks. All the chapters have been updated since the 2005 edition, and a new chapter on multiterritorial licensing has been added. Factors considered include the following: * role of 'families' such as the International Confederation of Societies of Authors and Composers ...

  15. Impact of commuting exposure to traffic-related air pollution on cognitive development in children walking to school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Pedrerol, Mar; Rivas, Ioar; López-Vicente, Mònica; Suades-González, Elisabet; Donaire-Gonzalez, David; Cirach, Marta; de Castro, Montserrat; Esnaola, Mikel; Basagaña, Xavier; Dadvand, Payam; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Sunyer, Jordi

    2017-12-01

    A few studies have found associations between the exposure to traffic-related air pollution at school and/or home and cognitive development. The impact on cognitive development of the exposure to air pollutants during commuting has not been explored. We aimed to assess the role of the exposure to traffic-related air pollutants during walking commute to school on cognitive development of children. We performed a longitudinal study of children (n = 1,234, aged 7-10 y) from 39 schools in Barcelona (Catalonia, Spain) who commuted by foot to school. Children were tested four times during a 12-month follow-up to characterize their developmental trajectories of working memory (d' of the three-back numbers test) and inattentiveness (hit reaction time standard error of the Attention Network Test). Average particulate matter ≤2.5 μm (PM2.5), Black Carbon (BC) and NO2 concentrations were estimated using Land Use Regression for the shortest walking route to school. Differences in cognitive growth were evaluated by linear mixed effects models with age-by-pollutant interaction terms. Exposure to PM2.5 and BC from the commutes by foot was associated with a reduction in the growth of working memory (an interquartile range increase in PM2.5 and BC concentrations decreased the annual growth of working memory by 5.4 (95% CI [-10.2, -0.6]) and 4.6 (95% CI [-9.0, -0.1]) points, respectively). The findings for NO2 were not conclusive and none of the pollutants were associated with inattentiveness. Efforts should be made to implement pedestrian school pathways through low traffic streets in order to increase security and minimize children's exposure to air pollutants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Traffic-related air pollution and noise and children's blood pressure: results from the PIAMA birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilenko, Natalya; van Rossem, Lenie; Brunekreef, Bert; Beelen, Rob; Eeftens, Marloes; Hoek, Gerard; Houthuijs, Danny; de Jongste, Johan C; van Kempen, Elise; Koppelman, Gerard H; Meliefste, Kees; Oldenwening, Marieke; Smit, Henriette A; Wijga, Alet H; Gehring, Ulrike

    2015-01-01

    Elevation of a child's blood pressure may cause possible health risks in later life. There is evidence for adverse effects of exposure to air pollution and noise on blood pressure in adults. Little is known about these associations in children. We investigated the associations of air pollution and noise exposure with blood pressure in 12-year-olds. Blood pressure was measured at age 12 years in 1432 participants of the PIAMA birth cohort study. Annual average exposure to traffic-related air pollution [NO2, mass concentrations of particulate matter with diameters of less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5) and less than 10 µm (PM10), and PM2.5 absorbance] at the participants' home and school addresses at the time of blood pressure measurements was estimated by land-use regression models. Air pollution exposure on the days preceding blood pressure measurements was estimated from routine air monitoring data. Long-term noise exposure was assessed by linking addresses to modelled equivalent road traffic noise levels. Associations of exposures with blood pressure were analysed by linear regression. Effects are presented for an interquartile range increase in exposure. Long-term exposure to NO2 and PM2.5 absorbance were associated with increased diastolic blood pressure, in children who lived at the same address since birth [adjusted mean difference (95% confidence interval) [mmHg] 0.83 (0.06 to 1.61) and 0.75 (-0.08 to 1.58), respectively], but not with systolic blood pressure. We found no association of blood pressure with short-term air pollution or noise exposure. Long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution may increase diastolic blood pressure in children. © The European Society of Cardiology 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  17. Road Traffic Noise Pollution and its Management in Tanjong Malim, Perak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luqmanulhakim Abdul Rahim

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The increasing number of motorized vehicles in the roads especially in the populated area are the major contributor for noise pollution. This research aimed to study the problem of traffic noise in the town of Tanjong Malim, Perak Darul Ridzuan. For this purpose, a total of nine randomly selected research stations covering the main streets, business center, school and the populated areas were randomly selected. Measurement and observation of level of noise parameters have been using the equipment called Integrating Sound Level data logger Extech Instruments Model 407780. The observations made were at least ten minutes for every observation time for the morning (between 8.00 am-10.00 am, noon time (between 12.00 noon-2.00 pm, evening (between 5.00pm-7.00pm and night (between 10:00 pm-12.00malam which covers weekdays and the weekends. The results showed that all value at the all stations is exceeded the standards set by the Department of Environment Malaysia; the noise level 65 dBA for the daytime and 55 dBA for the night-time. Passage area in front of North Gate UPSI recorded the existing Leq 76.6 dBA the highest existing Leq values compared to other nine stations on weekdays observation. Weekend observations recorded value almost similar to the days of the highest noise level recorded in the same way in front of the main door UPSI (74.8 dBA. Various other factors also contribute to traffic noise in the town of Tanjong Malim, such as the proximity of a close to main roads, the higher number of heavy vehicles routing, the estate of vehicle engine and so on. Various mitigation measurement should be considered to negotiate this problem including the sound management aspect, awareness campaign through education, physical construction of natural fortress such as by planting trees between the noise provenance and receiver, efficient traffic management and by law enforcement.

  18. Relational Information Management Data-Base System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storaasli, O. O.; Erickson, W. J.; Gray, F. P.; Comfort, D. L.; Wahlstrom, S. O.; Von Limbach, G.

    1985-01-01

    DBMS with several features particularly useful to scientists and engineers. RIM5 interfaced with any application program written in language capable of Calling FORTRAN routines. Applications include data management for Space Shuttle Columbia tiles, aircraft flight tests, high-pressure piping, atmospheric chemistry, census, university registration, CAD/CAM Geometry, and civil-engineering dam construction.

  19. Lack of data for predicting storm water pollutant removal by post-construction best management practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The project objective was to conduct a detailed literature review of storm water pollutants and mitigation technologies and synthesize : the information so that INDOT can implement project results into standards. Because it is a municipal separate st...

  20. Effective management for acidic pollution in the canal network of the Mekong Delta of Vietnam: a modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phong, Ngo Dang; Hoanh, Chu Thai; Tuong, To Phuc; Malano, Hector

    2014-07-01

    Acidic pollution can cause severe environmental consequences annually in coastal areas overlain with acid sulfate soils (ASS). A water quality model was used as an analytical tool for exploring the effects of water management options and other interventions on acidic pollution and salinity in Bac Lieu, a coastal province of the Mekong Delta. Fifty eight percent of the provincial area is covered by ASS, and more than three-fourths (approximately 175,000 ha) are used for brackish-water shrimp culture. Simulations of acid water propagation in the canal network indicate that the combination of opening the two main sluices along the East Sea of the study area at high tide for one day every week in May and June and widening the canals that connect these sluices to the West Sea allows for adequate saline water intake and minimizes the acidic pollution in the study area. On the other hand, canal dredging in the freshwater ASS area should be done properly as it can create severe acidic pollution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Transboundary river basin management in Europe
    Legal instruments to comply with European water management obligations in case of transboundary water pollution and floods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea M. Keessen

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Although modern European water policy follows a river basin approach where Member States have to cooperate in order to achieve a ‘good status’ of their water bodies, the obligations arising from the European water directives are to be achieved by each Member State individually. This situation creates problems when water pollution and water quantity problems cross borders. It is still unclear whether Member States can be held responsible for not achieving objectives due to causes (partly originating abroad. This article describes some of the legal instruments that water authorities have at their disposal to comply with the European water management obligations in case of transboundary water pollution and floods and thus shape transboundary river management. The article describes instruments to create, implement and enforce transboundary cooperation, and addresses the possibility of transboundary compensation if cooperation fails. Here, the focus is on a civil lawsuit before a domestic court.

  2. Gestational exposure to urban air pollution related to a decrease in cord blood vitamin d levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baïz, Nour; Dargent-Molina, Patricia; Wark, John D; Souberbielle, Jean-Claude; Slama, Rémy; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella

    2012-11-01

    Vitamin D deficiency has been implicated in the increased risk of several diseases. Exposure to air pollution has been suggested as a contributor to vitamin D deficiency. However, studies that have examined the effects of air pollution on vitamin D status are few and have never focused on prenatal life as an exposure window. Our aim was to investigate the associations between gestational exposure to urban air pollutants and 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] cord blood serum level in 375 mother-child pairs of the EDEN birth cohort. The Atmospheric Dispersion Modelling System (ADMS-Urban) pollution model, a validated dispersion model combining data on traffic conditions, topography, meteorology, and background pollution, was used to assess the concentrations of two major urban pollutants, particulate matter less than 10 μm in diameter (PM(10)) and nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)), at the mother's home address during pregnancy. Cord blood samples were collected at birth and were analyzed for levels of 25(OH)D. Maternal exposure to ambient urban levels of NO(2) and PM(10) during the whole pregnancy was a strong predictor of low vitamin D status in newborns. After adjustment, log-transformed 25(OH)D decreased by 0.15 U (P = 0.05) and 0.41 U (P = 0.04) for a 10-μg/m(3) increase in NO(2) and PM(10) pregnancy levels, respectively. The association was strongest for third-trimester exposures (P = 0.0003 and P = 0.004 for NO(2) and PM(10), respectively). Gestational exposure to ambient urban air pollution, especially during late pregnancy, may contribute to lower vitamin D levels in offspring. This could affect the child's risk of developing diseases later in life.

  3. Acute symptoms related to air pollution in urban areas: a study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forouzanfar Mohammad

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The harmful effects of urban air pollution on general population in terms of annoying symptoms are not adequately evaluated. This is in contrast to the hospital admissions and short term mortality. The present study protocol is designed to assess the association between the level of exposure to certain ambient air pollutants and a wide range of relevant symptoms. Awareness of the impact of pollution on the population at large will make our estimates of the pertinent covert burden imposed on the society more accurate. Methods/design A cross sectional study with spatial analysis for the addresses of the participants was conducted. Data were collected via telephone interviews administered to a representative sample of civilians over age four in the city. Households were selected using random digit dialling procedures and randomization within each household was also performed to select the person to be interviewed. Levels of exposure are quantified by extrapolating the addresses of the study population over the air pollution matrix of the city at the time of the interview and also for different lag times. This information system uses the data from multiple air pollution monitoring stations in conjunction with meteorological data. General linear models are applied for statistical analysis. Discussion The important limitations of cross-sectional studies on acute effects of air pollution are personal confounders and measurement error for exposure. A wide range of confounders in this study are controlled for in the statistical analysis. Exposure error may be minimised by employing a validated geographical information system that provides accurate estimates and getting detailed information on locations of individual participants during the day. The widespread operation of open air conditioning systems in the target urban area which brings about excellent mixing of the outdoor and indoor air increases the validity of outdoor pollutants

  4. Long-term traffic air and noise pollution in relation to mortality and hospital readmission among myocardial infarction survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonne, Cathryn; Halonen, Jaana I; Beevers, Sean D; Dajnak, David; Gulliver, John; Kelly, Frank J; Wilkinson, Paul; Anderson, H Ross

    2016-01-01

    There is relatively little evidence of health effects of long-term exposure to traffic-related pollution in susceptible populations. We investigated whether long-term exposure to traffic air and noise pollution was associated with all-cause mortality or hospital readmission for myocardial infarction (MI) among survivors of hospital admission for MI. Patients from the Myocardial Ischaemia National Audit Project database resident in Greater London (n = 1 8,138) were followed for death or readmission for MI. High spatially-resolved annual average air pollution (11 metrics of primary traffic, regional or urban background) derived from a dispersion model (resolution 20 m × 20 m) and road traffic noise for the years 2003-2010 were used to assign exposure at residence. Hazard ratios (HR, 95% confidence interval (CI)) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. Most air pollutants were positively associated with all-cause mortality alone and in combination with hospital readmission. The largest associations with mortality per interquartile range (IQR) increase of pollutant were observed for non-exhaust particulate matter (PM(10)) (HR = 1.05 (95% CI 1.00, 1.10), IQR = 1.1 μg/m(3)); oxidant gases (HR = 1.05 (95% CI 1.00, 1.09), IQR = 3.2 μg/m(3)); and the coarse fraction of PM (HR = 1.05 (95% CI 1.00, 1.10), IQR = 0.9 μg/m(3)). Adjustment for traffic noise only slightly attenuated these associations. The association for a 5 dB increase in road-traffic noise with mortality was HR = 1.02 (95% CI 0.99, 1.06) independent of air pollution. These data support a relationship of primary traffic and regional/urban background air pollution with poor prognosis among MI survivors. Although imprecise, traffic noise appeared to have a modest association with prognosis independent of air pollution. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  5. Air pollution management and control in Latin America and the Caribbean: implications for climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riojas-Rodríguez, Horacio; da Silva, Agnes Soares; Texcalac-Sangrador, José Luis; Moreno-Banda, Grea Litai

    2016-09-01

    To assess the status of the legal framework for air quality control in all countries of Latin America and Caribbean (LAC); to determine the current distribution of air monitoring stations and mean levels of air pollutants in all capital and large cities (more than 100 000 inhabitants); and to discuss the implications for climate change and public policymaking. From January 2015-February 2016, searches were conducted of online databases for legislation, regulations, policies, and air pollution programs, as well as for the distribution of monitoring stations and the mean annual levels of air pollution in all LAC countries. Only 117 cities distributed among 17 of 33 LAC countries had official information on ground level air pollutants, covering approximately 146 million inhabitants. The annual mean of inhalable particles concentration in most of the cities were over the World Health Organization Air Quality Guidelines; notably, only Bolivia, Peru, and Guatemala have actually adopted the guidelines. Most of the cities did not have information on particulate matter of 2.5 microns or less, and only a few measured black carbon. The air quality regulatory framework should be updated to reflect current knowledge on health effects. Monitoring and control of ground level pollutants should be extended and strengthened to increase awareness and protect public health. Using the co-benefits of air pollution control for health and climate as a framework for policy and decision-making in LAC is recommended.

  6. Computer Viruses and Related Threats: A Management Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wack, John P.; Carnahan, Lisa J.

    This document contains guidance for managing the threats of computer viruses, Trojan horses, network worms, etc. and related software along with unauthorized use. It is geared towards managers of end-user groups, managers dealing with multi-user systems, personal computers, and networks. The guidance is general and addresses the vulnerabilities…

  7. Reproduction and survival of tawny owls in relation to persistent organic pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoccoz, Nigel G; Bustnes, Jan O; Bangjord, Georg; Skaare, Jannech Utne

    2009-01-01

    The potential effects of organochlorines (OCs) and brominated flame retardants on reproduction and survival were studied in tawny owls (Strix aluco) in Central Norway over a period of 19 years (1986-2004). Concentrations of 14 OCs and five polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were measured in eggs (n=104), and Principal Component Analysis was used to produce composite measurements of pollutants; i.e. PC1 and PC2, which accounted for 85% of the variation in contaminant concentrations. There was no evidence for adverse associations between pollutants (PC scores) and life-history traits such as clutch size, probability of producing fledglings and survival, when controlling for potentially confounding variables. Moreover, there was no evidence for interactions between pollutants and vole abundance suggesting no synergistic effects of food stress and pollutants on these life-history traits. There was, however, some evidence for a non-linear negative association between p,p'-DDE (1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis (p-chlorophenyl) ethylene) and eggshell thickness. This suggests that the concentrations of pollutants in this ecosystem were too low to affect reproduction and survival in an owl predominantly consuming prey at low trophic levels, but may be sufficient to cause eggshell thinning at the highest concentrations.

  8. Managing IT-related operational risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Ana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Not so long ago, information technology (IT risk occupied a small corner of operational risk - the opportunity loss from a missed IT development deadline. Today, the success of an entire financial institution may lay on managing a broad landscape of IT risks. IT risk is a potential damage to an organization's value, resulting from inadequate managing of processes and technologies. IT risk includes the failure to respond to security and privacy requirements, as well as many other issues such as: human error, internal fraud through software manipulation, external fraud by intruders, obsolesce in applications and machines, reliability issues or mismanagement. The World Economic Forum provides best information about this problem. They rank a breakdown of critical information infrastructure among the most likely core global risks, with 10-20 % likelihood over the next 10 years and potential worldwide impact of $250 billion. Sustained investment in IT - almost $1.2 trillion or 29% of 2006 private-sector capital investment in the U.S. alone fuels growing exposure to IT risk. Greg Hughes, chief strategy officer in Symantec Corp. recently claimed "IT risk management is more than using technology to solve security problems. With proper planning and broad support, it can give an organization the confidence to innovate, using IT to outdistance competitors".

  9. The relation between past exposure to fine particulate air pollution and prevalent anxiety: observational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Melinda C; Kioumourtzoglou, Marianthi-Anna; Hart, Jaime E; Okereke, Olivia I; Laden, Francine; Weisskopf, Marc G

    2015-03-24

    To determine whether higher past exposure to particulate air pollution is associated with prevalent high symptoms of anxiety. Observational cohort study. Nurses' Health Study. 71,271 women enrolled in the Nurses' Health Study residing throughout the contiguous United States who had valid estimates on exposure to particulate matter for at least one exposure period of interest and data on anxiety symptoms. Meaningfully high symptoms of anxiety, defined as a score of 6 points or greater on the phobic anxiety subscale of the Crown-Crisp index, administered in 2004. The 71,271 eligible women were aged between 57 and 85 years (mean 70 years) at the time of assessment of anxiety symptoms, with a prevalence of high anxiety symptoms of 15%. Exposure to particulate matter was characterized using estimated average exposure to particulate matter anxiety symptoms, and residential distance to the nearest major road two years prior to assessment. Significantly increased odds of high anxiety symptoms were observed with higher exposure to PM2.5 for multiple averaging periods (for example, odds ratio per 10 µg/m(3) increase in prior one month average PM2.5: 1.12, 95% confidence interval 1.06 to 1.19; in prior 12 month average PM2.5: 1.15, 1.06 to 1.26). Models including multiple exposure windows suggested short term averaging periods were more relevant than long term averaging periods. There was no association between anxiety and exposure to PM2.5-10. Residential proximity to major roads was not related to anxiety symptoms in a dose dependent manner. Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) was associated with high symptoms of anxiety, with more recent exposures potentially more relevant than more distant exposures. Research evaluating whether reductions in exposure to ambient PM2.5 would reduce the population level burden of clinically relevant symptoms of anxiety is warranted. © Power et al 2015.

  10. Mitochondrial genetic background modifies the relationship between traffic-related air pollution exposure and systemic biomarkers of inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharine Wittkopp

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mitochondria are the main source of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Human mitochondrial haplogroups are linked to differences in ROS production and oxidative-stress induced inflammation that may influence disease pathogenesis, including coronary artery disease (CAD. We previously showed that traffic-related air pollutants were associated with biomarkers of systemic inflammation in a cohort panel of subjects with CAD in the Los Angeles air basin. OBJECTIVE: We tested whether air pollutant exposure-associated inflammation was stronger in mitochondrial haplogroup H than U (high versus low ROS production in this panel (38 subjects and 417 observations. METHODS: Inflammation biomarkers were measured weekly in each subject (≤ 12 weeks, including interleukin-6 (IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, C-reactive protein, interleukin-6 soluble receptor and tumor necrosis factor-soluble receptor II. We determined haplogroup by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Air pollutants included nitrogen oxides (NOx, carbon monoxide (CO, organic carbon, elemental and black carbon (EC, BC; and particulate matter mass, three size fractions (<0.25 µm, 0.25-2.5 µm, and 2.5-10 µm in aerodynamic diameter. Particulate matter extracts were analyzed for organic compounds, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH, and in vitro oxidative potential of aqueous extracts. Associations between exposures and biomarkers, stratified by haplogroup, were analyzed by mixed-effects models. RESULTS: IL-6 and TNF-α were associated with traffic-related air pollutants (BC, CO, NOx and PAH, and with mass and oxidative potential of quasi-ultrafine particles <0.25 µm. These associations were stronger for haplogroup H than haplogroup U. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that mitochondrial haplogroup U is a novel protective factor for air pollution-related systemic inflammation in this small group of subjects.

  11. Decision support model for assessing aquifer pollution hazard and prioritizing groundwater resources management in the wet Pampa plain, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, M Lourdes; Romanelli, Asunción; Massone, Héctor E

    2013-06-01

    This paper gives an account of the implementation of a decision support system for assessing aquifer pollution hazard and prioritizing subwatersheds for groundwater resources management in the southeastern Pampa plain of Argentina. The use of this system is demonstrated with an example from Dulce Stream Basin (1,000 km(2) encompassing 27 subwatersheds), which has high level of agricultural activities and extensive available data regarding aquifer geology. In the logic model, aquifer pollution hazard is assessed as a function of two primary topics: groundwater and soil conditions. This logic model shows the state of each evaluated landscape with respect to aquifer pollution hazard based mainly on the parameters of the DRASTIC and GOD models. The decision model allows prioritizing subwatersheds for groundwater resources management according to three main criteria including farming activities, agrochemical application, and irrigation use. Stakeholder participation, through interviews, in combination with expert judgment was used to select and weight each criterion. The resulting subwatershed priority map, by combining the logic and decision models, allowed identifying five subwatersheds in the upper and middle basin as the main aquifer protection areas. The results reasonably fit the natural conditions of the basin, identifying those subwatersheds with shallow water depth, loam-loam silt texture soil media and pasture land cover in the middle basin, and others with intensive agricultural activity, coinciding with the natural recharge area to the aquifer system. Major difficulties and some recommendations of applying this methodology in real-world situations are discussed.

  12. Effects of long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution on respiratory and cardiovascular mortality in the Netherlands: the NLCS-AIR study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brunekreef, B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/067548180; Beelen, R.M.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/30483100X; Hoek, G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/069553475; Schouten, L.J.; Bausch-Goldbohm, S.; Fischer, P.; Armstrong, B.; Hughes, E.; Jerrett, M.; v.d. Brandt, P.A.

    2009-01-01

    Evidence is increasing that long-term exposure to ambient air pollution is associated with deaths from cardiopulmonary diseases. In a 2002 pilot study, we reported clear indications that traffic-related air pollution, especially at the local scale, was related to cardiopulmonary mortality in a

  13. Long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution and type 2 diabetes prevalence in a cross-sectional screening-study in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkema, M.B.A.; Mallant, S.F.; Gehring, U.; van den Hurk, K.; Alssema, M.J.; van Strien, R.T.; Fischer, P.H.; Nijpels, G.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.; Hoek, G.; Dekker, J.M.; Brunekreef, B.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Air pollution may promote type 2 diabetes by increasing adipose inflammation and insulin resistance. This study examined the relation between long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution and type 2 diabetes prevalence among 50- to 75-year-old subjects living in Westfriesland, the

  14. How air pollution influences clinical management of respiratory diseases. A case-crossover study in Milan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santus Pierachille

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Environmental pollution is a known risk factor for multiple diseases and furthermore increases rate of hospitalisations. We investigated the correlation between emergency room admissions (ERAs of the general population for respiratory diseases and the environmental pollutant levels in Milan, a metropolis in northern Italy. Methods We collected data from 45770 ERAs for respiratory diseases. A time-stratified case-crossover design was used to investigate the association between air pollution levels and ERAs for acute respiratory conditions. The effects of air pollutants were investigated at lag 0 to lag 5, lag 0–2 and lag 3–5 in both single and multi-pollutant models, adjusted for daily weather variables. Results An increase in ozone (O3 levels at lag 3–5 was associated with a 78% increase in the number of ERAs for asthma, especially during the warm season. Exposure to carbon monoxide (CO proved to be a risk factor for pneumonia at lag 0–2 and in the warm season increased the risk of ERA by 66%. A significant association was found between ERAs for COPD exacerbation and levels of sulphur dioxide (SO2, CO, nitrate dioxide (NO2, and particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5. The multipollutant model that includes all pollutants showed a significant association between CO (26% and ERA for upper respiratory tract diseases at lag 0–2. For chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD exacerbations, only CO (OR 1.19 showed a significant association. Conclusions Exposure to environmental pollution, even at typical low levels, can increase the risk of ERA for acute respiratory diseases and exacerbation of obstructive lung diseases in the general population.

  15. How air pollution influences clinical management of respiratory diseases. A case-crossover study in Milan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santus, Pierachille; Russo, Antonio; Madonini, Enzo; Allegra, Luigi; Blasi, Francesco; Centanni, Stefano; Miadonna, Antonio; Schiraldi, Gianfranco; Amaducci, Sandro

    2012-10-18

    Environmental pollution is a known risk factor for multiple diseases and furthermore increases rate of hospitalisations. We investigated the correlation between emergency room admissions (ERAs) of the general population for respiratory diseases and the environmental pollutant levels in Milan, a metropolis in northern Italy. We collected data from 45770 ERAs for respiratory diseases. A time-stratified case-crossover design was used to investigate the association between air pollution levels and ERAs for acute respiratory conditions. The effects of air pollutants were investigated at lag 0 to lag 5, lag 0-2 and lag 3-5 in both single and multi-pollutant models, adjusted for daily weather variables. An increase in ozone (O(3)) levels at lag 3-5 was associated with a 78% increase in the number of ERAs for asthma, especially during the warm season. Exposure to carbon monoxide (CO) proved to be a risk factor for pneumonia at lag 0-2 and in the warm season increased the risk of ERA by 66%. A significant association was found between ERAs for COPD exacerbation and levels of sulphur dioxide (SO(2)), CO, nitrate dioxide (NO(2)), and particulate matter (PM(10) and PM(2.5)). The multipollutant model that includes all pollutants showed a significant association between CO (26%) and ERA for upper respiratory tract diseases at lag 0-2. For chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations, only CO (OR 1.19) showed a significant association. Exposure to environmental pollution, even at typical low levels, can increase the risk of ERA for acute respiratory diseases and exacerbation of obstructive lung diseases in the general population.

  16. Aldehydes in Relation to Air Pollution Sources: A Case Study around the Beijing Olympics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altemose, Brent; Gong, Jicheng; Zhu, Tong; Hu, Min; Zhang, Liwen; Cheng, Hong; Zhang, Lin; Tong, Jian; Kipen, Howard M; Strickland, Pamela Ohman; Meng, Qingyu; Robson, Mark G; Zhang, Junfeng

    2015-05-01

    This study was carried out to characterize three aldehydes of health concern (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein) at a central Beijing site in the summer and early fall of 2008 (from June to October). Aldehydes in polluted atmospheres come from both primary and secondary sources, which limits the control strategies for these reactive compounds. Measurements were made before, during, and after the Beijing Olympics to examine whether the dramatic air pollution control measures implemented during the Olympics had an impact on concentrations of the three aldehydes and their underlying primary and secondary sources. Average concentrations of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acrolein were 29.3±15.1 μg/m3, 27.1±15.7 μg/m3 and 2.3±1.0 μg/m3, respectively, for the entire period of measurements, all being at the high end of concentration ranges measured in cities around the world in photochemical smog seasons. Formaldehyde and acrolein increased during the pollution control period compared to the pre-Olympic Games, followed the changing pattern of temperature, and were significantly correlated with ozone and with a secondary formation factor identified by principal component analysis (PCA). In contrast, acetaldehyde had a reduction in mean concentration during the Olympic air pollution control period compared to the pre-Olympic period and was significantly correlated with several pollutants emitted from local emission sources (e.g., NO2, CO, and PM2.5). Acetaldehyde was also more strongly associated with primary emission sources including vegetative burning and oil combustion factors identified through the PCA. All three aldehydes were lower during the post-Olympic sampling period compared to the before and during Olympic periods, likely due to seasonal and regional effects. Our findings point to the complexity of source control strategies for secondary pollutants.

  17. Combined effects of road traffic noise and ambient air pollution in relation to risk for stroke?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Mette; Lühdorf, Pernille; Ketzel, Matthias; Andersen, Zorana J; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2014-08-01

    Exposure to road traffic noise and air pollution have both been associated with risk for stroke. The few studies including both exposures show inconsistent results. We aimed to investigate potential mutual confounding and combined effects between road traffic noise and air pollution in association with risk for stroke. In a population-based cohort of 57,053 people aged 50-64 years at enrollment, we identified 1999 incident stroke cases in national registries, followed by validation through medical records. Mean follow-up time was 11.2 years. Present and historical residential addresses from 1987 to 2009 were identified in national registers and road traffic noise and air pollution were modeled for all addresses. Analyses were done using Cox regression. A higher mean annual exposure at time of diagnosis of 10 µg/m(3) nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and 10 dB road traffic noise at the residential address was associated with ischemic stroke with incidence rate ratios (IRR) of 1.11 (95% CI: 1.03, 1.20) and 1.16 (95% CI: 1.07, 1.24), respectively, in single exposure models. In two-exposure models road traffic noise (IRR: 1.15) and not NO2 (IRR: 1.02) was associated with ischemic stroke. The strongest association was found for combination of high noise and high NO2 (IRR=1.28; 95% CI=1.09-1.52). Fatal stroke was positively associated with air pollution and not with traffic noise. In conclusion, in mutually adjusted models road traffic noise and not air pollution was associated ischemic stroke, while only air pollution affected risk for fatal strokes. There were indications of combined effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Aldehydes in Relation to Air Pollution Sources: A Case Study around the Beijing Olympics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altemose, Brent; Gong, Jicheng; Zhu, Tong; Hu, Min; Zhang, Liwen; Cheng, Hong; Zhang, Lin; Tong, Jian; Kipen, Howard M.; Strickland, Pamela Ohman; Meng, Qingyu; Robson, Mark G.; Zhang, Junfeng

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to characterize three aldehydes of health concern (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein) at a central Beijing site in the summer and early fall of 2008 (from June to October). Aldehydes in polluted atmospheres come from both primary and secondary sources, which limits the control strategies for these reactive compounds. Measurements were made before, during, and after the Beijing Olympics to examine whether the dramatic air pollution control measures implemented during the Olympics had an impact on concentrations of the three aldehydes and their underlying primary and secondary sources. Average concentrations of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acrolein were 29.3±15.1 μg/m3, 27.1±15.7 μg/m3 and 2.3±1.0 μg/m3, respectively, for the entire period of measurements, all being at the high end of concentration ranges measured in cities around the world in photochemical smog seasons. Formaldehyde and acrolein increased during the pollution control period compared to the pre-Olympic Games, followed the changing pattern of temperature, and were significantly correlated with ozone and with a secondary formation factor identified by principal component analysis (PCA). In contrast, acetaldehyde had a reduction in mean concentration during the Olympic air pollution control period compared to the pre-Olympic period and was significantly correlated with several pollutants emitted from local emission sources (e.g., NO2, CO, and PM2.5). Acetaldehyde was also more strongly associated with primary emission sources including vegetative burning and oil combustion factors identified through the PCA. All three aldehydes were lower during the post-Olympic sampling period compared to the before and during Olympic periods, likely due to seasonal and regional effects. Our findings point to the complexity of source control strategies for secondary pollutants. PMID:25883528

  19. Assessing the resilience of urban areas to traffic-related air pollution: Application in Greater Paris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cariolet, Jean-Marie; Colombert, Morgane; Vuillet, Marc; Diab, Youssef

    2018-02-15

    Recent studies report that outdoor air pollution will become the main environmental cause of premature death over the next few decades (OECD, 2012; WHO, 2014; World Bank, 2016). Cities are considered hot spots and urban populations are particularly exposed. There is therefore an urgent need to adapt urban systems and urban design to tackle this issue. While most European cities have introduced measures to reduce emissions, action is still required to reduce concentrations and exposure, and a holistic approach to urban design is badly needed. The concept of urban resilience, defined by Holling (1987) as the ability of a city to absorb a disturbance while maintaining its functions and structures, may offer a new paradigm for tackling urban air pollution. We propose to adapt the concept of urban resilience to outdoor air pollution. A method has been developed to assess the resilience of an urban area to outdoor air pollution. Three "resilience capacities" have been identified: the capacity of an urban area to decrease air pollution emissions, the capacity to decrease concentrations and the capacity to decrease exposure. The calculation is based on the analysis of urban design, defined as the pattern of buildings as well as the structural elements that define an urban area (urban morphology; transport network, services and land use). For each resilience capacity, indicators are calculated using a Geographic Information System (GIS) and a grid-based approach. This method has been implemented in the Greater Paris area within a 500m grid-cell system. Greater Paris is one of the densest urban areas in Europe and experiences high air pollution levels. The proposed "quick scan" method helps to localize areas where specific action is needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Aldehydes in relation to air pollution sources: A case study around the Beijing Olympics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altemose, Brent; Gong, Jicheng; Zhu, Tong; Hu, Min; Zhang, Liwen; Cheng, Hong; Zhang, Lin; Tong, Jian; Kipen, Howard M.; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; Meng, Qingyu; Robson, Mark G.; Zhang, Junfeng

    2015-05-01

    This study was carried out to characterize three aldehydes of health concern (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein) at a central Beijing site in the summer and early fall of 2008 (from June to October). Aldehydes in polluted atmospheres come from both primary and secondary sources, which limits the control strategies for these reactive compounds. Measurements were made before, during, and after the Beijing Olympics to examine whether the dramatic air pollution control measures implemented during the Olympics had an impact on concentrations of the three aldehydes and their underlying primary and secondary sources. Average concentrations of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acrolein were 29.3 ± 15.1 μg/m3, 27.1 ± 15.7 μg/m3 and 2.3 ± 1.0 μg/m3, respectively, for the entire period of measurements, all being at the high end of concentration ranges measured in cities around the world in photochemical smog seasons. Formaldehyde and acrolein increased during the pollution control period compared to the pre-Olympic Games, followed the changing pattern of temperature, and were significantly correlated with ozone and with a secondary formation factor identified by principal component analysis (PCA). In contrast, acetaldehyde had a reduction in mean concentration during the Olympic air pollution control period compared to the pre-Olympic period and was significantly correlated with several pollutants emitted from local emission sources (e.g., NO2, CO, and PM2.5). Acetaldehyde was also more strongly associated with primary emission sources including vegetative burning and oil combustion factors identified through the PCA. All three aldehydes were lower during the post-Olympic sampling period compared to the before and during Olympic periods, likely due to seasonal and regional effects. Our findings point to the complexity of source control strategies for secondary pollutants.

  1. Effects of heavy metal pollution from mining and smelting on enchytraeid communities under different land management and soil conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapusta, Paweł; Sobczyk, Łukasz

    2015-12-01

    We studied enchytraeid communities in several habitats polluted by heavy metals from Zn-Pb mining and smelting activities. We sampled 41 sites that differed in the type of substratum (carbonate rock, metal-rich carbonate mining waste, siliceous sand) and land management (planting Scots pine, topsoiling, leaving to natural succession), and the distance from the smelter. Our main aims were to determine which pollution variables and natural factors most influenced enchytraeid species composition, richness and density, and examine what was the effect of planting Scots pine (reclamation) on enchytraeid communities. The soils harboured on average 1 to 5 enchytraeid species and 700 to 18,300 individuals per square metre, depending on the habitat. These figures were generally lower than those reported from unpolluted regions. Redundancy and multiple regression analyses confirmed the negative impact of heavy metal pollution on both enchytraeid community structure and abundance. Among pollution variables, the distance from the smelter best explained the variation in enchytraeid communities. The concentrations of heavy metals in the soil had less (e.g. total Pb and exchangeable Zn) or negligible (water-soluble forms) explanatory power. Natural soil properties were nearly irrelevant for enchytraeids, except for soil pH, which determined the species composition. Plant species richness was an important explanatory variable, as it positively affected most parameters of enchytraeid community. The results of two-by-two factorial comparisons (planting Scots pine vs. natural succession; carbonate mining waste vs. siliceous sand) suggest that reclamation can improve soil quality for biota, since it increased the diversity and abundance of enchytraeids; this effect was not dependent on the type of substratum. In conclusion, enchytraeids responded negatively to heavy metal pollution and their response was consistent and clear. These animals can be used as indicators of metal toxicity

  2. A concept for planning and management of on-site and centralised municipal wastewater treatment systems, a case study in Bangkok, Thailand. I: pollutant discharge indicators and pollutant removal efficiency functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuzuki, Yoshiaki; Koottatep, Thammarat; Sinsupan, Thitiphon; Jiawkok, Supattra; Wongburana, Chira; Wattanachira, Suraphong; Sarathai, Yuttachai

    2013-01-01

    The concept of pollution load indicators for planning and management of the mixture conditions of centralised and on-site wastewater treatment systems has not been discussed in detail so far. In this paper, pollutant discharge (load) indicators and pollutant removal efficiencies were quantitatively analysed to develop a part of a strategy for planning and management of municipal wastewater treatment systems (WWTSs) under the mixture conditions in Bangkok, Thailand, as a case study. Pollutant discharge indicators of on-site WWTSs were estimated based on the relevant literature. Three kinds of pollutant removal efficiency function at centralised wastewater treatment plants (CWWTPs) were empirically developed for biological oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, total coliforms and faecal coliforms based on the existing CWWTP management data. These results will be integrated into the scenario-based analysis in the second paper in the series. The results will be base datasets, and the concept and estimation methods can be applied for wastewater treatment planning and management in other areas.

  3. School Management Related Knowledge Levels of Primary School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugurlu, Celal Teyyar

    2013-01-01

    The knowledge levels of the teachers affect the qualifications of operations and transactions in schools. School management related knowledge of the teachers is an essential tool to reach the targets of the school. The objective of this study was to determine the school management related knowledge levels of the teachers. Qualitative and…

  4. Exposure of pregnant women to cookstove-related household air pollution in urban and periurban Trujillo, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Helen, Gideon; Aguilar-Villalobos, Manuel; Adetona, Olorunfemi; Cassidy, Brandon; Bayer, Charlene W; Hendry, Robert; Hall, Daniel B; Naeher, Luke P

    2015-01-01

    Although evidence suggests associations between maternal exposure to air pollution and adverse birth outcomes, pregnant women's exposure to household air pollution in developing countries is understudied. Personal exposures of pregnant women (N = 100) in Trujillo, Peru, to air pollutants and their indoor concentrations were measured. The effects of stove-use-related characteristics and ambient air pollution on exposure were determined using mixed-effects models. Significant differences in 48-hour kitchen concentrations of particulate matter (PM2.5), carbon monoxide (CO), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations were observed across fuel types (p < 0.05). Geometric mean PM2.5 concentrations where 112 μg/m(3) (confidence limits [CLs]: 52, 242 μg/m(3)) and 42 μg/m(3) (21, 82 μg/m(3)) in homes where wood and gas were used, respectively. PM2.5 exposure was at levels that recent exposure-response analyses suggest may not result in substantial reduction in health risks even in homes where cleaner burning gas stoves were used.

  5. Scale appropriate modelling to represent dominant pollution processes in agricultural catchments, to underpin management and policy decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Russell; Quinn, Paul

    2014-05-01

    We present the development of scale appropriate modelling techniques to represent dominant pollution processes in agricultural catchments to underpin catchment management and its implications on policy. A quasi-physically based, spatially lumped macro-model (CRAFT), has been developed to assess mitigation options for nitrogen and phosphorus. CRAFT has been developed to use daily time series data of rainfall, stream flow and nutrient concentration data, and can be applied to catchments varying in size from a few hectares to 100s of square kilometres. If stream flow routing is added to the model then potentially larger catchments and sub-daily time steps could be represented. There are two key issues addressed here. Firstly, the model can be used to assess the usefulness of monitoring data collected at a high temporal resolution at considerable expense compared to routine grab sampling. An earlier study in the Frome catchment in southern England collected sub-daily water quality data for more than 12 months at the catchment outlet, comprising: total oxidised nitrogen (TON); soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) and total phosphorus (TP) concentrations. The three data sets have quite different temporal signals relating to flow pathways with different residence times and the importance of runoff events in generating acute pollution. The flexible model structure was therefore developed to include different sources of runoff including overland flow from impervious areas in the catchment, where pollution hotspots will be located (e.g. farmyards). The model has been used to assess the value of collecting high resolution monitoring data, in this case by resampling the Frome sub-daily data to a daily timestep, and comparing these model simulations against those calibrated using all the samples. The usefulness of the high resolution data can be assessed on whether a daily model would undepredict (for example) high nutrient concentrations that can be identified in the sub

  6. ARAMIS a regional air quality model for air pollution management: evaluation and validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soler, M.R.; Gamez, P.; Olid, M.

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this research was to better understand the dynamics of air pollutants and to forecast the air quality over regional areas in order to develop emission abatement strategies for air pollution and adverse health effects. To accomplish this objective, we developed and applied a high resolution Eulerian system named ARAMIS (A Regional Air Quality Modelling Integrated System) over the north-east of Spain (Catalonia), where several pollutants exceed threshold values for the protection of human health. The results indicate that the model reproduced reasonably well observed concentrations, as statistical values fell within Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recommendations and European (EU) regulations. Nevertheless, some hourly O3 exceedances in summer and hourly peaks of NO2 in winter were underestimated. Concerning PM10 concentrations less accurate model levels were obtained with a moderate trend towards underestimation during the day. (Author)

  7. ARAMIS a regional air quality model for air pollution management: evaluation and validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solar, M. R.; Gamez, P.; Olid, M.

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this research was to better understand the dynamics of air pollutants and to forecast the air quality over regional areas in order to develop emission abatement strategies for air pollution and adverse health effects. To accomplish this objective, we developed and applied a high resolution Eulerian system named ARAMIS (A Regional Air Quality Modelling Integrated System) over the north-east of Spain (Catalonia), where several pollutants exceed threshold values for the protection of human health. The results indicate that the model reproduced reasonably well observed concentrations, as statistical values fell within Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recommendations and European (EU) regulations. Nevertheless, some hourly O{sub 3} exceedances in summer and hourly peaks of NO{sub 2} in winter were underestimated. Concerning PM10 concentrations less accurate model levels were obtained with a moderate trend towards underestimation during the day. (Author)

  8. Measuring PM and related air pollutants using low-cost sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerging air quality sensors may play a key role in better characterizing levels of air pollution in a variety of settings There are a wide range of low-cost (sensors on the market, but few have been characterized. If accurate, this new generation of inexpensive sens...

  9. Tussilago farfara L. - a plant relatively resistant to industrial air pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Świeboda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tussilago farfara L. is a species highly resistant to the fumes emitted by the factory of silicophosphate fertilizers and to other kinds of industrial air pollution. The resistance of this species results from the wide ecological amplitude and characteristic anatomical structure of the leaves of this plant.

  10. Macrobenthos off Mahim (Bombay), west coast of India in relation to coastal pollution and aquaculture

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varshney, P.K.; Govindan, K.

    in unpolluted zone. The diversity Index (H) was more at station 3 for polychaetes (1.39) and at station 4 for foraminiferans (0.54). In general, biomass was high during postmonsoon excepting station 1 which was invariably under severe pollution stress throughout...

  11. Overview of the influences of mining-related pollution on the water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Mooi River catchment, in particular the Wonderfonteinspruit (WFS), has been the subject of a large number of studies regarding significant pollution sources, generally attributed to mining in the area. However, very little is known about the hydrochemistry of the surface water of the Klerkskraal, Boskop and Potchefstroom ...

  12. A Review of Flood-Related Storage and Remobilization of Heavy Metal Pollutants in River Systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ciszewski, D.; Matys Grygar, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 227, č. 7 (2016), s. 227-239 ISSN 0049-6979 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-00340S Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : River * Sediment * Heavy metals * Mobilization * Pollution Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry Impact factor: 1.702, year: 2016

  13. Healthcare managers' construction of the manager role in relation to the medical profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Knorring, Mia; Alexanderson, Kristina; Eliasson, Miriam A

    2016-05-16

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to explore how healthcare managers construct the manager role in relation to the medical profession in their organisations. Design/methodology/approach - In total, 18 of Sweden's 20 healthcare chief executive officers (CEOs) and 20 clinical department managers (CDMs) were interviewed about their views on management of physicians. Interviews were performed in the context of one aspect of healthcare management; i.e., management of physicians' sickness certification practice. A discourse analysis approach was used for data analysis. Findings - Few managers used a management-based discourse to construct the manager role. Instead, a profession-based discourse dominated and managers frequently used the attributes "physician" or "non-physician" to categorise themselves or other managers in their managerial roles. Some managers, both CEOs and CDMs, shifted between the management- and profession-based discourses, resulting in a kind of "yes, but […]" approach to management in the organisations. The dominating profession-based discourse served to reproduce the power and status of physicians within the organisation, thereby rendering the manager role weaker than the medical profession for both physician and non-physician managers. Research limitations/implications - Further studies are needed to explore the impact of gender, managerial level, and basic profession on how managers construct the manager role in relation to physicians. Practical implications - The results suggest that there is a need to address the organisational conditions for managers' role taking in healthcare organisations. Originality/value - Despite the general strengthening of the manager position in healthcare through political reforms during the last decades, this study shows that a profession-based discourse clearly dominated in how the managers constructed the manager role in relation to the medical profession on the workplace level in their organisations.

  14. Long-Term Exposure to Traffic-Related Air Pollution and Risk of Incident Atrial Fibrillation: A Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monrad, Maria; Sajadieh, Ahmad; Christensen, Jeppe Schultz; Ketzel, Matthias; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Loft, Steffen; Sørensen, Mette

    2017-03-01

    Atrial fibrillation is the most common sustained arrhythmia and is associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The few studies conducted on short-term effects of air pollution on episodes of atrial fibrillation indicate a positive association, though not consistently. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term impact of traffic-related air pollution on incidence of atrial fibrillation in the general population. In the Danish Diet, Cancer, and Health cohort of 57,053 people 50-64 years old at enrollment in 1993-1997, we identified 2,700 cases of first-ever hospital admission for atrial fibrillation from enrollment to end of follow-up in 2011. For all cohort members, exposure to traffic-related air pollution assessed as nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) was estimated at all present and past residential addresses from 1984 to 2011 using a validated dispersion model. We used Cox proportional hazard model to estimate associations between long-term residential exposure to NO2 and NOx and risk of atrial fibrillation, after adjusting for lifestyle and socioeconomic position. A 10 μg/m(3) higher 10-year time-weighted mean exposure to NO2 preceding diagnosis was associated with an 8% higher risk of atrial fibrillation [incidence rate ratio: 1.08; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01, 1.14] in adjusted analysis. Though weaker, similar results were obtained for long-term residential exposure to NOx. We found no clear tendencies regarding effect modification of the association between NO2 and atrial fibrillation by sex, smoking, hypertension or myocardial infarction. We found long-term residential traffic-related air pollution to be associated with higher risk of atrial fibrillation. Accordingly, the present findings lend further support to the demand for abatement of air pollution. Citation: Monrad M, Sajadieh A, Christensen JS, Ketzel M, Raaschou-Nielsen O, Tjønneland A, Overvad K, Loft S, Sørensen M. 2017. Long-term exposure to traffic-related

  15. Organic micropollutants discharged by combined sewer overflows - Characterisation of pollutant sources and stormwater-related processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Launay, Marie A; Dittmer, Ulrich; Steinmetz, Heidrun

    2016-11-01

    To characterise emissions from combined sewer overflows (CSOs) regarding organic micropollutants, a monitoring study was undertaken in an urban catchment in southwest Stuttgart, Germany. The occurrence of 69 organic micropollutants was assessed at one CSO outfall during seven rain events as well as in the sewage network at the influent of the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and in the receiving water. Several pollutant groups like pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), urban biocides and pesticides, industrial chemicals, organophosphorus flame retardants, plasticisers and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were chosen for analysis. Out of the 69 monitored substances, 60 were detected in CSO discharges. The results of this study show that CSOs represent an important pathway for a wide range of organic micropollutants from wastewater systems to urban receiving waters. For most compounds detected in CSO samples, event mean concentrations varied between the different events in about one order of magnitude range. When comparing CSO concentrations with median wastewater concentrations during dry weather, two main patterns could be observed depending on the source of the pollutant: (i) wastewater is diluted by stormwater; (ii) stormwater is the most important source of a pollutant. Both wastewater and stormwater only play an important role in pollutant concentration for a few compounds. The proportion of stormwater calculated with the conductivity is a suitable indicator for the evaluation of emitted loads of dissolved wastewater pollutants, but not for all compounds. In fact, this study demonstrates that remobilisation of in-sewer deposits contributed from 10% to 65% to emissions of carbamazepine in CSO events. The contribution of stormwater to CSO emitted loads was higher than 90% for all herbicides as well as for PAHs. Regarding the priority substance di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), this contribution varied between 39% and 85%. The PAH

  16. GIS-modeled indicators of traffic-related air pollutants and adverse pulmonary health among children in El Paso, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svendsen, Erik R; Gonzales, Melissa; Mukerjee, Shaibal; Smith, Luther; Ross, Mary; Walsh, Debra; Rhoney, Scott; Andrews, Gina; Ozkaynak, Halûk; Neas, Lucas M

    2012-10-01

    Investigators examined 5,654 children enrolled in the El Paso, Texas, public school district by questionnaire in 2001. Exposure measurements were first collected in the late fall of 1999. School-level and residence-level exposures to traffic-related air pollutants were estimated using a land use regression model. For 1,529 children with spirometry, overall geographic information system (GIS)-modeled residential levels of traffic-related ambient air pollution (calibrated to a 10-ppb increment in nitrogen dioxide levels) were associated with a 2.4% decrement in forced vital capacity (95% confidence interval (CI): -4.0, -0.7) after adjustment for demographic, anthropomorphic, and socioeconomic factors and spirometer/technician effects. After adjustment for these potential covariates, overall GIS-modeled residential levels of traffic-related ambient air pollution (calibrated to a 10-ppb increment in nitrogen dioxide levels) were associated with pulmonary function levels below 85% of those predicted for both forced vital capacity (odds ratio (OR) = 3.10, 95% CI: 1.65, 5.78) and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (OR = 2.35, 95% CI: 1.38, 4.01). For children attending schools at elevations above 1,170 m, a 10-ppb increment in modeled nitrogen dioxide levels was associated with current asthma (OR = 1.56, 95% CI: 1.08, 2.50) after adjustment for demographic, socioeconomic, and parental factors and random school effects. These results are consistent with previous studies in Europe and California that found adverse health outcomes in children associated with modeled traffic-related air pollutants.

  17. Microalgal biofilms on common yew needles in relation to anthropogenic air pollution in urban Prague, Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nováková, Radka; Neustupa, Jiří

    2015-03-01

    Excessive occurrence of microalgae on needles of gymnosperms was reported for the first time in the 1980s from the Scandinavian countries. Since then, it has been repeatedly encountered on needles from various European forest habitats. The abundance of these biofilms has been related to the climatic conditions, such as temperature and precipitation, as well as to the air pollution by nitrogen and sulfur oxides. Urban areas typically have relatively homogenous climates and profound variation in levels of air pollution. Therefore, variation in the occurrence of biofilms in localities within an urban area may be related to local anthropogenic air pollution. We investigated the abundance of biofilms occurring on needles of the common yew (Taxus baccata) in the city of Prague, Czech Republic. The biofilms were composed of algae, fungi and particulate matter. The cover area of the biofilms was marginally explained by a positive influence of short-term maximum atmospheric levels of nitrogen dioxide (NO2). The amounts of the microalgae were also positively influenced by short-term maximum NO2 levels. In addition, high atmospheric levels of particulate matter (PM10) were related to low abundance of algae. The microbial biofilms growing on widely cultivated conifers, such as the common yew, form one of the few commonly occurring natural communities in highly urbanized central areas of temperate European cities. Consequently, we propose that microscopic analysis of biofilms may be used as a rapid and cheap method to collect ecological data. Such data may be used in biomonitoring schemes illustrating the effects of anthropogenic air pollution on natural microcommunities in urban areas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. [Effects of indoor air pollution on asthma and asthma-related symptoms among children in Shenyang city].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ya-nan; Zhao, Yang; Liu, Yu-qin; Liu, Miao-miao; Wang, Da; Ren, Wan-hui; Gao, Feng; Dong, Guang-hui; He, Qin-cheng

    2013-01-01

    To study the effects of indoor air pollution and individual susceptible factors on prevalence of children's asthma and asthma-related symptoms in Shenyang city. On April, 2007, 8733 Han children who were under age of 12 and lived for more than 2 years in Shenyang city, were selected from five administrative areas (one primary school and two kindergartens for each area) through cluster random sampling method. Information on children's general condition, asthma and related symptoms (including stridor, stridor symptoms, persistent cough, persistent phlegm), indoor air pollution, and susceptibility history were obtained by a standard questionnaire from the American Thoracic Society. The effects of indoor air pollution on asthma and asthma-related symptoms was analyzed through χ(2) test. Logistic regression was used to research the effects of risk factors on the prevalence of asthma and asthma-related symptoms of both susceptible and non-susceptible children. Among the 8733 subjects, 4420 (50.6%) were boy and 4313 (49.4%) were girl, with the age of (8.08 ± 2.88) years old. The prevalence of asthma, current asthma, cough, persistent phlegm, stridor and stridor symptom were 6.4% (559 cases), 2.5% (215 cases), 9.6% (836 cases), 4.4% (386 cases), 17.5% (1524 cases) and 2.6% (229 cases) respectively. The prevalence of asthma the boys and girls were among 7.1% (313 cases) and 5.7% (246 cases) (χ(2) = 6.916, P Indoor air pollution is a risk factor of children' s asthma. Family history of asthma and physical susceptible children are high risk to asthma, and susceptible children are easily influenced by other risk factors.

  19. Chronic Traffic-Related Air Pollution and Stress Interact to Predict Biologic and Clinical Outcomes in Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Edith; Schreier, Hannah M. C.; Strunk, Robert C.; Brauer, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Background Previous research has documented effects of both physical and social environmental exposures on childhood asthma. However, few studies have considered how these two environments might interact to affect asthma. Objective This study aimed to test interactions between chronic exposure to traffic-related air pollution and chronic family stress in predicting biologic and clinical outcomes in children with asthma. Method Children with asthma (n = 73, 9–18 years of age) were interviewed ...

  20. Managing Objects in a Relational Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    16-29. [Milton 831 Milton, Jack and Wiederhold,Gio: "Network and Relational Systems in VLSI Design: Contradictory Performance?" IEEE CS DataBase...Also; to be published in proc., MIT press 1987. Defines a formal model with data type constructors, sets, lists, and other goodies ,-jeff Beech,D. and

  1. MANUAL: BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES FOR POLLUTION PREVENTION IN THE SLABSTOCK AND MOLDED FLEXIBLE POLYURETHANE FOAM INDUSTRY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments require EPA to develop standards for major emission sources of 189 hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). EPA has identified the flexible polyurethane foam industry as a large emitter of HAPs and has slated the industry for regulation under Title III, ...

  2. Synthetic/Biosynthetic Phase Transfer Polymers for Pollution Minimization, Remediation, and Waste Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    polymer and model pollutant separation and recovery 7) Contribution to the interdisciplinary research and education of young scientists in biological...N&. 8. 14 NN2 Figure 1. 8trocturs of AWIDAMAB IopolyinRs interaction o rmtydoeyamnu bromide with *olyVsTyrnslOna. and dextrmn sulfate. 7he squi - too

  3. Analysis of Surface Water Pollution Accidents in China: Characteristics and Lessons for Risk Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hong; Zhang, Tongzhu; Liu, Bo; Lu, Feng; Fang, Shurong; You, Zhen

    2016-04-01

    Understanding historical accidents is important for accident prevention and risk mitigation; however, there are no public databases of pollution accidents in China, and no detailed information regarding such incidents is readily available. Thus, 653 representative cases of surface water pollution accidents in China were identified and described as a function of time, location, materials involved, origin, and causes. The severity and other features of the accidents, frequency and quantities of chemicals involved, frequency and number of people poisoned, frequency and number of people affected, frequency and time for which pollution lasted, and frequency and length of pollution zone were effectively used to value and estimate the accumulated probabilities. The probabilities of occurrences of various types based on origin and causes were also summarized based on these observations. The following conclusions can be drawn from these analyses: (1) There was a high proportion of accidents involving multi-district boundary regions and drinking water crises, indicating that more attention should be paid to environmental risk prevention and the mitigation of such incidents. (2) A high proportion of accidents originated from small-sized chemical plants, indicating that these types of enterprises should be considered during policy making. (3) The most common cause (49.8% of the total) was intentional acts (illegal discharge); accordingly, efforts to increase environmental consciousness in China should be enhanced.

  4. Air Pollution Exposure in Relation to the Commute to School: A Bradford UK Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim N. Dirks

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Walking School Buses (WSBs provide a safe alternative to being driven to school. Children benefit from the contribution the exercise provides towards their daily exercise target, it gives children practical experience with respect to road safety and it helps to relieve traffic congestion around the entrance to their school. Walking routes are designed largely based in road safety considerations, catchment need and the availability of parent support. However, little attention is given to the air pollution exposure experienced by children during their journey to school, despite the commuting microenvironment being an important contributor to a child’s daily air pollution exposure. This study aims to quantify the air pollution exposure experienced by children walking to school and those being driven by car. A school was chosen in Bradford, UK. Three adult participants carried out the journey to and from school, each carrying a P-Trak ultrafine particle (UFP count monitor. One participant travelled the journey to school by car while the other two walked, each on opposite sides of the road for the majority of the journey. Data collection was carried out over a period of two weeks, for a total of five journeys to school in the morning and five on the way home at the end of the school day. Results of the study suggest that car commuters experience lower levels of air pollution dose due to lower exposure and reduced commute times. The largest reductions in exposure for pedestrians can be achieved by avoiding close proximity to traffic queuing up at intersections, and, where possible, walking on the side of the road opposite the traffic, especially during the morning commuting period. Major intersections should also be avoided as they were associated with peak exposures. Steps to ensure that the phasing of lights is optimised to minimise pedestrian waiting time would also help reduce exposure. If possible, busy roads should be avoided altogether. By

  5. Simulation and evaluation of pollution load reduction scenarios for water environmental management: a case study of inflow river of Taihu Lake, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruibin; Qian, Xin; Zhu, Wenting; Gao, Hailong; Hu, Wei; Wang, Jinhua

    2014-09-09

    In the beginning of the 21st century, the deterioration of water quality in Taihu Lake, China, has caused widespread concern. The primary source of pollution in Taihu Lake is river inflows. Effective pollution load reduction scenarios need to be implemented in these rivers in order to improve the water quality of Taihu Lake. It is important to select appropriate pollution load reduction scenarios for achieving particular goals. The aim of this study was to facilitate the selection of appropriate scenarios. The QUAL2K model for river water quality was used to simulate the effects of a range of pollution load reduction scenarios in the Wujin River, which is one of the major inflow rivers of Taihu Lake. The model was calibrated for the year 2010 and validated for the year 2011. Various pollution load reduction scenarios were assessed using an analytic hierarchy process, and increasing rates of evaluation indicators were predicted using the Delphi method. The results showed that control of pollution from the source is the optimal method for pollution prevention and control, and the method of "Treatment after Pollution" has bad environmental, social and ecological effects. The method applied in this study can assist for environmental managers to select suitable pollution load reduction scenarios for achieving various objectives.

  6. Comparative Studies on Vehicle Related Policies for Air Pollution Reduction in Ten Asian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiko Hirota

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Asian countries are facing major air pollution problems due to rapid economic growth, urbanization and motorization. Mortality and respiratory diseases caused by air pollution are believed to be endemic in major cities of these countries. Regulations and standards are the first requirement for reducing emissions from both fixed and mobile sources. This paper emphasizes monitoring problems such as vehicle registration systems, inspection and maintenance (I/M systems and fuel quality monitoring systems for vehicles in use. Monitoring problems in developing countries share similar characteristics such as a weakness in government initiatives and inadequate operation of government agencies, which results from a lack of human resources and availability of adequate facilities. Finally, this paper proposes a method to assure air quality improvements under the different shares of emission regulations in these Asian countries and introduces an example of an evaluation method based on a policy survey to improve air quality.

  7. Children's white blood cell counts in relation to developmental exposures to methylmercury and persistent organic pollutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oulhote, Youssef; Shamim, Z; Kielsen, Katrine

    2017-01-01

    Background To explore possible markers of developmental immunotoxicity, we prospectively examined 56 children to determine associations between exposures to methylmercury and persistent organic pollutants since birth and the comprehensive differential counts of white blood cells (WBC) at age 5...... years. Materials and methods Extended differential count included: neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, lymphocytes (includingT cells, NK cells, and B cells), and monocytes. Organochlorine compounds (OCs) including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and pesticides, five perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs...

  8. Early-life exposures to persistent organic pollutants in relation to overweight in preschool children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, Martina; Grandjean, Philippe; Weihe, Pal

    2017-01-01

    Current knowledge on obesogenic effects of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is equivocal. We therefore evaluated the associations between early-life POP exposures and body mass index (BMI) in 444 Faroese children born in 2007–2009. POPs were measured in maternal 2-week postpartum serum and ch...... that requires attention in future prospective analyses. Findings in this recent cohort support a role of maternal exposure to endocrine disruptors in the childhood obesity epidemic....

  9. Spatial and temporal differences in traffic-related air pollution in three urban neighborhoods near an interstate highway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Allison P.; Perkins, Jessica; Zamore, Wig; Levy, Jonathan I.; Brugge, Doug; Durant, John L.

    2014-12-01

    Relatively few studies have characterized differences in intra- and inter-neighborhood traffic-related air pollutant (TRAP) concentrations and distance-decay gradients in neighborhoods along an urban highway for the purposes of exposure assessment. The goal of this work was to determine the extent to which intra- and inter-neighborhood differences in TRAP concentrations can be explained by traffic and meteorology in three pairs of neighborhoods along Interstate 93 (I-93) in the metropolitan Boston area (USA). We measured distance-decay gradients of seven TRAPs (PNC, pPAH, NO, NOX, BC, CO, PM2.5) in near-highway (1 km) in Somerville, Dorchester/South Boston, Chinatown and Malden to determine whether (1) spatial patterns in concentrations and inter-pollutant correlations differ between neighborhoods, and (2) variation within and between neighborhoods can be explained by traffic and meteorology. The neighborhoods ranged in area from 0.5 to 2.3 km2. Mobile monitoring was performed over the course of one year in each pair of neighborhoods (one pair of neighborhoods per year in three successive years; 35-47 days of monitoring in each neighborhood). Pollutant levels generally increased with highway proximity, consistent with I-93 being a major source of TRAP; however, the slope and extent of the distance-decay gradients varied by neighborhood as well as by pollutant, season and time of day. Spearman correlations among pollutants differed between neighborhoods (e.g., ρ = 0.35-0.80 between PNC and NOX and ρ = 0.11-0.60 between PNC and BC) and were generally lower in Dorchester/South Boston than in the other neighborhoods. We found that the generalizability of near-road gradients and near-highway/urban background contrasts was limited for near-highway neighborhoods in a metropolitan area with substantial local street traffic. Our findings illustrate the importance of measuring gradients of multiple pollutants under different ambient conditions in individual near

  10. Respiratory disease in relation to outdoor air pollution in Kanpur, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hai-Ying; Bartonova, Alena; Schindler, Martin; Sharma, Mukesh; Behera, Sailesh N; Katiyar, Kamlesh; Dikshit, Onkar

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of outdoor air pollution on respiratory disease in Kanpur, India, based on data from 2006. Exposure to air pollution is represented by annual emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), particulate matter (PM), and nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) from 11 source categories, established as a geographic information system (GIS)-based emission inventory in 2 km × 2 km grid. Respiratory disease is represented by number of patients who visited specialist pulmonary hospital with symptoms of respiratory disease. The results showed that (1) the main sources of air pollution are industries, domestic fuel burning, and vehicles; (2) the emissions of PM per grid are strongly correlated to the emissions of SO(2) and NO(x); and (3) there is a strong correlation between visits to a hospital due to respiratory disease and emission strength in the area of residence. These results clearly indicate that appropriate health and environmental monitoring, actions to reduce emissions to air, and further studies that would allow assessing the development in health status are necessary.

  11. Relating Performative and Ostensive Management Accounting Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Allan

    2011-01-01

    of this paper is to discuss the methodological opportunities and limitations for ANT researchers who seek to move closer to ostensive research. Design/methodology/approach – The basis for exploring the opportunities and threats stemming from integration at the methodological level is a comparison......Purpose – The methodological debate relating to accounting research using actor-network theory (ANT) has primarily focused on how ANT generates performative studies that significantly differ from ostensive studies. These discussions have in many ways (and for good reasons) distanced performative...... from ostensive research. Recently, however, several scholars have emphasized the interdependencies between ostensive and performative aspects when it comes to knowledge development, thereby underlining the need to coordinate ostensive and performative studies and bring them closer together. The purpose...

  12. Transcriptomic effects-based monitoring for endocrine active chemicals: assessing relative contribution of treated wastewater to downstream pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinović-Weigelt, Dalma; Mehinto, Alvine C; Ankley, Gerald T; Denslow, Nancy D; Barber, Larry B; Lee, Kathy E; King, Ryan J; Schoenfuss, Heiko L; Schroeder, Anthony L; Villeneuve, Daniel L

    2014-02-18

    The present study investigated whether a combination of targeted analytical chemistry information with unsupervised, data-rich biological methodology (i.e., transcriptomics) could be utilized to evaluate relative contributions of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents to biological effects. The effects of WWTP effluents on fish exposed to ambient, receiving waters were studied at three locations with distinct WWTP and watershed characteristics. At each location, 4 d exposures of male fathead minnows to the WWTP effluent and upstream and downstream ambient waters were conducted. Transcriptomic analyses were performed on livers using 15,000 feature microarrays, followed by a canonical pathway and gene set enrichment analyses. Enrichment of gene sets indicative of teleost brain-pituitary-gonadal-hepatic (BPGH) axis function indicated that WWTPs serve as an important source of endocrine active chemicals (EACs) that affect the BPGH axis (e.g., cholesterol and steroid metabolism were altered). The results indicated that transcriptomics may even pinpoint pertinent adverse outcomes (i.e., liver vacuolization) and groups of chemicals that preselected chemical analytes may miss. Transcriptomic Effects-Based monitoring was capable of distinguishing sites, and it reflected chemical pollution gradients, thus holding promise for assessment of relative contributions of point sources to pollution and the efficacy of pollution remediation.

  13. Transcriptomic effects-based monitoring for endocrine active chemicals: Assessing relative contribution of treated wastewater to downstream pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinovic-Weigelt, Dalma; Mehinto, Alvine C.; Ankley, Gerald T.; Denslow, Nancy D.; Barber, Larry B.; Lee, Kathy E.; King, Ryan J.; Schoenfuss, Heiko L.; Schroeder, Anthony L.; Villeneuve, Daniel L.

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated whether a combination of targeted analytical chemistry information with unsupervised, data-rich biological methodology (i.e., transcriptomics) could be utilized to evaluate relative contributions of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents to biological effects. The effects of WWTP effluents on fish exposed to ambient, receiving waters were studied at three locations with distinct WWTP and watershed characteristics. At each location, 4 d exposures of male fathead minnows to the WWTP effluent and upstream and downstream ambient waters were conducted. Transcriptomic analyses were performed on livers using 15 000 feature microarrays, followed by a canonical pathway and gene set enrichment analyses. Enrichment of gene sets indicative of teleost brain–pituitary–gonadal–hepatic (BPGH) axis function indicated that WWTPs serve as an important source of endocrine active chemicals (EACs) that affect the BPGH axis (e.g., cholesterol and steroid metabolism were altered). The results indicated that transcriptomics may even pinpoint pertinent adverse outcomes (i.e., liver vacuolization) and groups of chemicals that preselected chemical analytes may miss. Transcriptomic Effects-Based monitoring was capable of distinguishing sites, and it reflected chemical pollution gradients, thus holding promise for assessment of relative contributions of point sources to pollution and the efficacy of pollution remediation.

  14. Applicability of the Environmental Relative Moldiness Index for Quantification of Residential Mold Contamination in an Air Pollution Health Effects Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Kamal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Near-Road Exposures and Effects of Urban Air Pollutants Study (NEXUS investigated the impact of exposure to traffic-related air pollution on the respiratory health of asthmatic children in Detroit, Michigan. Since indoor mold exposure may also contribute to asthma, floor dust samples were collected in participants homes (n=112 to assess mold contamination using the Environmental Relative Moldiness Index (ERMI. The repeatability of the ERMI over time, as well as ERMI differences between rooms and dust collection methods, was evaluated for insights into the application of the ERMI metric. ERMI values for the standard settled floor dust samples had a mean ± standard deviation of 14.5±7.9, indicating high levels of mold contamination. ERMI values for samples collected from the same home 1 to 7 months apart (n=52 were consistent and without systematic bias. ERMI values for separate bedroom and living room samples were highly correlated (r=0.69, n=66. Vacuum bag dust ERMI values were lower than for floor dust but correlated (r=0.58, n=28. These results support the use of the ERMI to evaluate residential mold exposure as a confounder in air pollution health effects studies.

  15. Individual traffic-related air pollution and new onset adult asthma: A GIS-based pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherson, D.; Lysbeck Hansen, C. (Hospital of Vejle, Dept. of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, (Denmark)); Solvang Jensen, S.; Hertel, O. (Univ. of Aarhus, National Environmental Research Institute (Denmark)); Baelum, J. (Odense Univ. Hospital, Dep. of Occupational and Environmental Medicine (Denmark)); Skadhauge, L. (Haderslev Hospital, Dep. of Occupational and Environmental Medicine (Denmark)); Siersted, H.C. (Odense Univ. Hospital, Dep. of Respiratory Medicine (Denmark)); Omland, OE. (Aalborg Hospital, Dep. of Occupational Medicine (Denmark)); Thomsen, G. (South-West Jutland Hospital Esbjerg, Dep. of Occupational and Environmental Medicine (Denmark)); Sigsgaard, T. (Univ. of Aarhus, Institute of Occupational and Environmental Medicine (Denmark))

    2008-03-15

    The objective of this pilot study is to investigate the relation between asthma and wheeze debut and individually estimated exposure to traffic-related air pollutants with a validated exposure system (AirGIS). A non-smoking cohort with recently acquired asthma or wheeze as well as matched controls was identified from a large cross-sectional study. All residential and working addresses with corresponding time periods for a 10 year period were successfully identified for all study participants (N=33) and exposure estimated for both urban background and street level. Individual levels of air pollutants in the years preceding debut of asthma or wheeze were analyzed using survival analysis. No significant correlations between exposure levels and onset of disease or symptom were demonstrated. A tendency towards higher levels of nitrogen oxides exposure during the year prior to debut was seen in wheeze cases. Substantial problems in determining time of onset were encountered. It is recommended that the analytic methods developed in this pilot study are used in a larger prospective cohort to investigate individual trafficrelated air pollutants as a risk factor for the development of new asthma and wheeze. (au)

  16. Evaluation of Traffic Density Parameters as an Indicator of Vehicle Emission-Related Near-Road Air Pollution: A Case Study with NEXUS Measurement Data on Black Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    An important factor in evaluating health risk of near-road air pollution is to accurately estimate the traffic-related vehicle emission of air pollutants. Inclusion of traffic parameters such as road length/area, distance to roads, and traffic volume/intensity into models such as...

  17. Is there any interaction between domestic radon exposure and air pollution from traffic in relation to childhood leukemia risk?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner, Elvira Vaclavik; Andersen, Claus Erik; Andersen, Helle P.

    2010-01-01

    In a recent population-based case-control study using 2,400 cases of childhood cancer, we found a statistically significant association between residential radon and acute lymphoblastic leukemia risk. Traffic exhaust in the air enhances the risk association between radon and childhood leukemia. We...... of air pollution and traffic density. The relative risk for childhood leukemia in association with a 10(3) Bq/m(3)-years increase in radon was 1.77 (1.11, 2.82) among those exposed to high levels of NOx and 1.23 (0.79, 1.91) for those exposed to low levels of NOx (p (interaction,) 0.17). Analyses...... for different morphological subtypes of leukemia and within different strata of traffic density showed a non-significant pattern of stronger associations between radon and childhood leukemia within strata of higher traffic density at the street address. Air pollution from traffic may enhance the effect of radon...

  18. Assimilative capacity-based emission load management in a critically polluted industrial cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Smaranika; Shiva Nagendra, S M

    2017-09-25

    In the present study, a modified approach was adopted to quantify the assimilative capacity (i.e., the maximum emission an area can take without violating the permissible pollutant standards) of a major industrial cluster (Manali, India) and to assess the effectiveness of adopted air pollution control measures at the region. Seasonal analysis of assimilative capacity was carried out corresponding to critical, high, medium, and low pollution levels to know the best and worst conditions for industrial operations. Bottom-up approach was employed to quantify sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and particulate matter (aerodynamic diameter PM10) emissions at a fine spatial resolution of 500 × 500 m(2) in Manali industrial cluster. AERMOD (American Meteorological Society/U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Regulatory Model), an U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulatory model, was used for estimating assimilative capacity. Results indicated that 22.8 tonnes/day of SO2, 7.8 tonnes/day of NO2, and 7.1 tonnes/day of PM10 were emitted from the industries of Manali. The estimated assimilative capacities for SO2, NO2, and PM10 were found to be 16.05, 17.36, and 19.78 tonnes/day, respectively. It was observed that the current SO2 emissions were exceeding the estimated safe load by 6.7 tonnes/day, whereas PM10 and NO2 were within the safe limits. Seasonal analysis of assimilative capacity showed that post-monsoon had the lowest load-carrying capacity, followed by winter, summer, and monsoon seasons, and the allowable SO2 emissions during post-monsoon and winter seasons were found to be 35% and 26% lower, respectively, when compared with monsoon season. The authors present a modified approach for quantitative estimation of assimilative capacity of a critically polluted Indian industrial cluster. The authors developed a geo-coded fine-resolution PM10, NO2, and SO2 emission inventory for Manali industrial area and further quantitatively estimated its season

  19. Long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution and cardiovascular health in a Greek cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsoulis, Michail; Dimakopoulou, Konstantina; Pedeli, Xanthi; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Gryparis, Alexandros; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Katsouyanni, Klea

    2014-08-15

    Our objective is to evaluate the association of exposure to traffic-related air pollution with the incidence of fatal and non-fatal ischemic heart disease (IHD), stroke and total cardiovascular disease (CVD) events in a Greek cohort. We used data from the European Prospective Investigation on Nutrition and Cancer (EPIC) for 2752 subjects followed from 1997 to 2011, whose residence was in 10 municipalities of the Greater Athens area. Air pollution exposure estimation was based on a spatio-temporal land use regression model linking geo-coded residential addresses to long-term average NO2 and PM10 concentrations. We conducted Cox proportional hazards regression analysis, adjusting for potential confounders. Hazard ratios (HR) above 1 (not all statistically significant) were associated with higher PM10 exposure for all outcomes. Weaker associations were found with NO2 exposure. Specifically, the estimated HR for a CVD event associated with 10 μg/m(3) increase in long-term exposure to PM10 was 1.50 (1.05-2.16, p-value: 0.027). The relationship was more evident for subjects ≤50 years old at recruitment. Associations of PM10 and NO2 exposure with IHD events were found only among women with HRs respectively of 2.24 (0.89-5.64, p-value: 0.086) and 1.54 (1.01-2.37, p-value: 0.046) associated with 10 μg/m(3) increase in the corresponding pollutant. In conclusion, the present study suggests that long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution has an impact on CVD and IHD morbidity, particularly among women and younger subjects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. HIV-related symptoms and management in HIV and antiretroviral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HIV-related symptoms and management in HIV and antiretroviral therapy patients in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: A longitudinal study. ... Overall, the participants reported medications as the most frequently occurring management strategy, with the second being spiritual, and the third being complementary or traditional ...

  1. Crisis Communication and Management: Surviving a Public Relations Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eramo, Eric M.

    2009-01-01

    Crisis management, or crisis communication, is never a good thing for a business to experience. It is, however, a public relations' professional moment to shine and put their honed skills to good use. A good crisis management plan is not only action during the crisis but preparation and reflection. Hiring a PR firm that deals with crisis…

  2. Managing domino effect-related security of industrial areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reniers, Genserik L L; Dullaert, W.; Audenaert, Amaryllis; Ale, B. J.M.; Soudan, K.

    In chemical enterprises, security managers are interested in easy-to-handle and user-friendly decision-support tools, providing them with straightforward information ready for implementation. Therefore, a theoretical conceptualization on how to manage-in a relatively simple way-the prevention and

  3. Integrating air-related health surveillance into air quality management: perceptions and practicalities

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wright, C

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Health surveillance is presently not an integral part of air quality management in South Africa, although ambient air pollution standards are derived from health effects of personal exposure. In a survey to air quality officials and environmental...

  4. The Other Water Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Kathy

    1978-01-01

    Nonpoint source pollution, water pollution not released at one specific identifiable point, now accounts for 50 percent of the nation's water pollution problem. Runoff is the primary culprit and includes the following sources: agriculture, mining, hydrologic modifications, and urban runoff. Economics, legislation, practices, and management of this…

  5. Turbulent times : Consequences for crisis management and related future research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Molen, Irna; Vos, Marita F.; Vos, Marita

    In this chapter, we will address the idea that organisational resilience calls for management across organisational and discipline borders. We will also discuss the need for related applied research and technological development. Finally, we will look into future research design.

  6. 76 FR 28034 - Labor-Management Relations Information Collection Requests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... CONCILIATION SERVICE Labor-Management Relations Information Collection Requests AGENCY: Federal Mediation and... information collection requests. The information collection requests are FMCS forms: Arbitrator's Report and... Request for Arbitration Services (Agency Form R-43). These information collection requests were previously...

  7. The Law of Federal Labor-Management Relations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1999-01-01

    This compilation of cases and materials on labor-management relations is designed to provide primary source materials for students in the Graduate Course and those attending Continuing Legal Education...

  8. The Law of Federal Labor-Management Relations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    This compilation of cases and materials on labor-management relations is designed to provide primary source materials for students in the Graduate Course and those attending Continuing Legal Education...

  9. Relationship between recycling rate and air pollution: Waste management in the state of Massachusetts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giovanis, Eleftherios, E-mail: giovanis95@gmail.com

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • This study examines the relationship between recycling rate of solid waste and air pollution. • Fixed effects Stochastic Frontier Analysis model with panel data are employed. • The case study is a waste municipality survey in the state of Massachusetts during 2009–2012. • The findings support that a negative relationship between air pollution and recycling. - Abstract: This study examines the relationship between recycling rate of solid waste and air pollution using data from a waste municipality survey in the state of Massachusetts during the period 2009–2012. Two econometric approaches are applied. The first approach is a fixed effects model, while the second is a Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA) with fixed effects model. The advantage of the first approach is the ability of controlling for stable time invariant characteristics of the municipalities, thereby eliminating potentially large sources of bias. The second approach is applied in order to estimate the technical efficiency and rank of each municipality accordingly. The regressions control for various demographic, economic and recycling services, such as income per capita, population density, unemployment, trash services, Pay-as-you-throw (PAYT) program and meteorological data. The findings support that a negative relationship between particulate particles in the air 2.5 μm or less in size (PM{sub 2.5}) and recycling rate is presented. In addition, the pollution is increased with increases on income per capita up to $23,000–$26,000, while after this point income contributes positively on air quality. Finally, based on the efficiency derived by the Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA) model, the municipalities which provide both drop off and curbside services for trash, food and yard waste and the PAYT program present better performance regarding the air quality.

  10. Pollution Control and Sustainable Fisheries Management in Southern Songkhla Lake, Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Kunlayanee Pornpinatepong; Sakchai Kiripat; Sinad Treewanchai; Sukampon Chongwilaikasaem; Chotima Pornsawang; Pathomwat Chantarasap; Chantip Chandee; Pornchanok Jantrakul

    2010-01-01

    The major objective of this study was to develop appropriate water quality control policies for a sustainable fishery in Southern Songkhla Lake (Southern Lake) so the impact of water pollution on fishery production in the lake was the first consideration. The three major components of this study were: (i) the identification of the situation and trends in fishery production associated with water quality in the lake, using secondary data and statistical analysis, (ii) the evaluation of technolo...

  11. Emerging pollutants in the environment: A challenge for water resource management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violette Geissen

    2015-03-01

    A combination of regulations and management measures with respect to use/emissions of EPs into the environment, as well as to their occurrence in the environment are fundamental to reach an efficient water resource management.

  12. Research gaps related to forest management and stream sediment in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Christopher J; Lockaby, B Graeme

    2011-02-01

    Water quality from forested landscapes tends to be very high but can deteriorate during and after silvicultural activities. Practices such as forest harvesting, site preparation, road construction/use, and stream crossings have been shown to contribute sediment, nutrients, and other pollutants to adjacent streams. Although advances in forest management accompanied with Best Management Practices (BMPs) have been very effective at reducing water quality impacts from forest operations, projected increases in demand for forest products may result in unintended environmental degradation. Through a review of the pertinent literature, we identified several research gaps related to water yield, aquatic habitat, sediment source and delivery, and BMP effectiveness that should be addressed for streams in the United States to better understand and address the environmental ramifications of current and future levels of timber production. We explored the current understanding of these topics based on relevant literature and the possible implications of increased demand for forest products in the United States.

  13. Political Public Relations − Media and Information Management

    OpenAIRE

    Tomić, Zoran; Grbavac, Ivana

    2016-01-01

    Political public relations, as one of the PR programmes, has slowly created strategies and tactics for communication with the public and the media. Media management and information management are the most important activities of the political public relations. These activities are frequently connected with non-ethical communication, whose aim is media manipulation and manipulation of the public. Media manipulation is well known as communication spin. These activities are created by governm...

  14. Particle Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Health Particle Pollution Public Health Issues Particle Pollution Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Particle pollution — ... see them in the air. Where does particle pollution come from? Particle pollution can come from two ...

  15. Simulating land management options to reduce nitrate pollution in an agricultural watershed dominated by an alluvial aquifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerro, Itsasne; Antigüedad, Iñaki; Srinavasan, Raghavan; Sauvage, Sabine; Volk, Martin; Sanchez-Perez, José Miguel

    2014-01-01

    The study area (Alegria watershed, Basque Country, Northern Spain) considered here is influenced by an important alluvial aquifer that plays a significant role in nitrate pollution from agricultural land use and management practices. Nitrates are transported primarily from the soil to the river through the alluvial aquifer. The agricultural activity covers 75% of the watershed and is located in a nitrate-vulnerable zone. The main objective of the study was to find land management options for water pollution abatement by using model systems. In a first step, the SWAT model was applied to simulate discharge and nitrate load in stream flow at the outlet of the catchment for the period between October 2009 and June 2011. The LOADEST program was used to estimate the daily nitrate load from measured nitrate concentration. We achieved satisfactory simulation results for discharge and nitrate loads at monthly and daily time steps. The results revealed clear variations in the seasons: higher nitrate loads were achieved for winter (20,000 kg mo NO-N), and lower nitrate loads were simulated for the summer (nitrate concentration limit value (50 mg L) set by the European Water Framework Directive. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  16. Towards a Friendly Energy Management Strategy for Hybrid Electric Vehicles with Respect to Pollution, Battery and Drivability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Colin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a generic methodology to incorporate constraints (pollutant emission, battery health, drivability into on-line energy management strategies (EMSs for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs. The integration of each constraint into the EMS, made with the Pontryagin maximum principle, shows a tradeoff between the fuel consumption and the constraint introduced. As state dynamics come into play (catalyst temperature, battery cell temperature, etc., the optimization problem becomes more complex. Simulation results are presented to highlight the contribution of this generic strategy, including constraints compared to the standard approach. These results show that it is possible to find an energy management strategy that takes into account an increasing number of constraints (drivability, pollution, aging, environment, etc.. However, taking these constraints into account increases fuel consumption (the existence of a trade-off curve. This trade-off can be sometimes difficult to find, and the tools developed in this paper should help to find an acceptable solution quickly

  17. Urban green and its relation with air pollution: ecological studies in the Metropolitan area of Rome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto Manes

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Tropospheric ozone (O3 and Particulate Matter (PM have become a major concern in most European cities. In particular, in Italy the O3 concentrations exceed the limits established for the protection of both human health and vegetation. More integrative studies are revealing that urban trees could concretely help in improving air quality, not only because of their well known aesthetic and recreational benefit, but also for their capability to reduce air temperature and to remove air pollutants. This reduction takes place both directly, by dry deposition to plant surfaces and uptake through stomata, and indirectly, by mitigation of the urban heat island intensity by canopy transpiration and building shading, that lowers the activity of chemical reactions that led to the formation of photochemical pollutants in air. This is of particular importance especially for those cities located in the Mediterranean Basin, whose urban vegetation is often characterized by VOC-emitting species that can contribute significantly to the O3 formation and destruction dynamics. The aim of this paper is to present a short review of ecological research performed on vegetation of the metropolitan area of Rome, at different spatial and temporal scale, in order to evaluate the functional role of urban green to monitor and improve urban air quality. In the frame of the project HEREPLUS (EU FP7, all of this information, opportunely integrated with climatic and pollutant data, will be implemented in a GIS and, by the use of geo-statistical methods, the ameliorating effect of urban vegetation will be quantified and mapped.

  18. Air pollution knows no boundaries: defining air catchment areas and making sense of physical and political boundaries in air quality management

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Scott, G

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available to the prevention, control or correction of pollution. • (2) If the investigation contemplated in subsection reveals that the release of a substance into the air from a source in the Republic may have a significant detrimental impact on air quality... Air Pollution Knows No Boundaries Defining Air Catchment Areas & Making Sense of Physical and Political Boundaries in Air Quality Management Greg Scott1, Harold Annegarn2 and Melanie Kneen2 1CSIR Environmentek, Durban 2Dept Geography...

  19. Relating Bioavailability Parameters to the Sorbent Characteristics of PAH Polluted Soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartolome, N.; Hilber, I.; Schulin, R.

    2015-01-01

    to several sorbent characteristics including organic and black carbon content. The results will provide a better understanding of bioavailability of PAHs in soils. Moreover, the outcomes will be discussed regarding to the potential application of chemical proxies in soil pollution risk assessment......Regulation of Hydrophobic Organic Contaminants (HOC) such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil is still based on total concentrations. However, many studies have demonstrated that not all of a pollutant’s content in soil is equally available to organisms (Reichenberg & Mayer 2006...

  20. A Content Analysis on Management and Terms related with Management in the Quran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kürşat ÖZDAŞLI

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Guidelines and principles feeding the system of belief have the power of diverting behaviors of an individual included in that system as well as being able to affect the management style of managers. Therefore, use of the term of management by basic sources of Islamic belief and which other sources it refers to along with the term of management will be helpful in understanding the holistic message given in terms of management in Islamic style, and approaching from a different aspect to the management literature. This study aims to reveal characteristics of management and related terms in basic Islamic sources, and with which words and in what aspects they are associated and used, and to see the perception of the religion of Islam on management. The content analysis conducted in this context included examination of the verses containing the terms of management, administration, leader, directing and steering

  1. Association Between Long-term Exposure to Air Pollution and Biomarkers Related to Insulin Resistance, Subclinical Inflammation, and Adipokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Kathrin; Popp, Anita; Schneider, Alexandra; Breitner, Susanne; Hampel, Regina; Rathmann, Wolfgang; Herder, Christian; Roden, Michael; Koenig, Wolfgang; Meisinger, Christa; Peters, Annette

    2016-11-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) is present long before the onset of type 2 diabetes and results not only from inherited and lifestyle factors but also likely from environmental conditions. We investigated the association between modeled long-term exposure to air pollution at residence and biomarkers related to IR, subclinical inflammation, and adipokines. Data were based on 2,944 participants of the KORA (Cooperative Health Research in the Region Augsburg) F4 study conducted in southern Germany (2006-2008). We analyzed associations between individual air pollution concentration estimated by land use regression and HOMA-IR, glucose, insulin, HbA1c, leptin, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels from fasting samples using multivariable linear regression models. Effect estimates were calculated for the whole study population and subgroups of individuals who did not have diabetes, had prediabetes, or had diabetes. Among all participants, a 7.9 μg/m(3) increment in particulate matter of air pollution and IR in the general population was attributable mainly to individuals with diabetes. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association.

  2. Comparison of air pollution and the prevalence of allergy-related diseases in Incheon and Jeju City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Ho Jeong

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : A high level of air pollutants can increase the number of patients with allergy-related diseases such as asthma and allergic rhinitis (AR. To analyze the association between air pollution and allergic disease, we investigated 2 areas in Korea: Incheon, an industrial area, and Jeju, a non-industrialized area. Methods : Second grade students at elementary schools (11 schools in Incheon and 45 schools in Jeju were examined in a cross-sectional study. A questionnaire was used and a skin prick test was performed. The levels of NO2, CO2, O3, particulate matter (PM PM10/2.5, formaldehyde, tVOCs, and dust mites in the classrooms and grounds were determined. Results : The levels of outdoor CO, PM10, and PM2.5 were significantly higher in Incheon (P&lt;0.01. The levels of indoor CO, CO2, PM10, PM2.5 were significantly higher in Incheon (P&lt;0.01. The prevalence rates of AR symptoms at any time, AR symptoms during the last 12 months, diagnosis of rhinitis at any time, and AR treatment during the last 12 months were significantly higher in Incheon (P&lt;0.01. The prevalence rate of wheezing or whistling at any time, and wheezing during the last 12 months were significantly higher in Incheon (P&lt;0.01. Conclusion : We found that the children living in Incheon, which was more polluted than Jeju, had a higher rate of AR and asthma symptoms compared to children in Jeju. To determine the effect of air pollution on the development of the AR and asthma, further studies are needed.

  3. Process Analysis of Typhoon Related Ozone Pollution over the Pearl River Delta during the PRIDE-PRD2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; Wang, X.; Zhang, Y.

    2014-12-01

    There were two typhoon processes during Campaign PRIDE-PRD2006 in July 2006 and serious ozone pollution episodes occurred before the landing of the typhoons. Chemical transport model CMAQ was employed in this work to simulate the ozone pollution episode related by the typhoon KAEMI. According to the meteorological conditions, the pollution episode could be divided into three phases with the movement of the typhoon, which were (1) far away from the continent; (2) coming close to the continent; (3) before landing. Process analysis was applied to get the contributions of physical and chemical processes for the ozone. It revealed that transport process was dominant during this pollution episode, and the influence of chemical process increased in the second phase. Three typical regions, northern rural area, urban area and Hong Kong area, were selected to study the contribution of each chemical and physical process. In the first phase, the primary process in northern rural area and the urban area was vertical diffusion, accounting for 47% and 46% respectively. In the second phase, the primary process in northern rural area and the urban area was chemical process, accounting for 33% and 31% respectively. In the third phase, the region of high concentration ozone moved southward. For Hong Kong area, the western inflow was prominent as 40%. Sensitivity study showed that urban areas were VOCs-limited regime with decreased ozone concentration when reducing the emission of VOCs. On the contrary, the ozone concentration in downwind rural areas decreased with the reduction of NOx, and the reason may be the decrement of the accumulated precursors.

  4. PUBLIC RELATIONS PROFESSIONALS’ PERCEPTION OF CONFLICT MANAGEMENT AS A MANAGEMENT FUNCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tugce Ertem Eray

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Conflicts are a part of daily life that people encounter at home, work, and in organizations. It is evident that organizational conflicts are becoming more complex. In this respect, it is important for senior executives not to disregard these conflicts and involve public relations professionals in the conflict management processes. Hence, it is expected that public relations professionals become participants in the strategic planning process and that senior management relies on their experience and talents during the strategic planning process of organizations and resolution of issues. Another definition of public relations has emerged over the past years, even though the recent definitions of public relations focus on developing mutually beneficial relationships between organizations and their publics. Glen T. Cameron from University of Missouri defines public relations as management of conflict and competition strategically for the benefit of one’s own organization and, if possible, mutual benefit of organizations and individuals. It is impossible to disregard the influence of public relations professionals on managing the conflicts between an organization and its peers, and hence it is important to conduct further research on their approach to conflict management. With this motive, research questions have been generated based on the data presented by Professor Kenneth Plowman as a result of his analysis of strategic management of public relations in conflict management. Using the semi-structured interview technique, public relations professionals in Turkey were asked to describe their approach to conflict management.

  5. [Countermeasures for priority control of toxic VOC pollution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying; Li, Li-Na; Yang, Chang-Qing; Hao, Zheng-Ping; Sun, Han-Kun; Li, Yao

    2011-12-01

    VOC pollution is worsening, not only affects the environment, air quality, but also directly harm human health, and Chinese relevant departments need to improve control measures. U. S. toxic air pollutants (HAPs) control system was studied, and Chinese environment countermeasures were proposed based on pollution features. U. S. recognized sources of hazardous air pollutants in the Clean Air Act (CAA), and reduced their emissions by industrial regulations and regional policies. In urban areas, VOC occupied a great part of toxic air and were controlled as a major project in U. S. Due to relatively weak management and technical base, China should screen some VOC components for priority pollutant control. The feature of Chinese VOC pollution was described as complex components, industry sources widely distributed, strong regional characteristics and processes, and gradual development of regional pollution. It was suggested to carry out investigation assessment activities, enhance cumulative risk assessment and environmental impact assessment management, and strengthen emergency risk prevention.

  6. Cluster analysis of passive air sampling data based on the relative composition of persistent organic pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiande; Wania, Frank

    2014-03-01

    The development of passive air samplers has allowed the measurement of time-integrated concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) within spatial networks on a variety of scales. Cluster analysis of POP composition may enhance the interpretation of such spatial data. Several methodological aspects of the application of cluster analysis are discussed, including the influence of a dominant pollutant, the role of PAS duplication, and comparison of regional studies. Relying on data from six regional studies in North and South America, Africa, and Asia, we illustrate here how cluster analysis can be used to extract information and gain insights into POP sources and atmospheric transport contributions. Cluster analysis allows classification of PAS samples into those with significant local source contributions and those that represent regional fingerprints. Local emissions, atmospheric transport, and seasonal cycles are identified as being among the major factors determining the variation in POP composition at many sites. By complementing cluster analysis with meteorological data such as air mass back-trajectories, terrain, as well as geographical and socio-economic aspects, a comprehensive picture of the atmospheric contamination of a region by POPs emerges.

  7. Roadside BTEX and other gaseous air pollutants in relation to emission sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truc, Vo Thi Quynh; Kim Oanh, Nguyen Thi

    Hourly concentrations of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m, p-xylenes, and o-xylene (BTEX) plus CO, NO x, SO 2 were monitored at roadsides simultaneously with the traffic volume during the dry season of 2004, in Hanoi, Vietnam. The selected three streets included Truong Chinh (TC) with high traffic volume, Dien Bien Phu (DBP) with low traffic volume, and Nguyen Trai (NT) with high traffic volume running through an industrial estate. BTEX were sampled by SKC charcoal tubes and analyzed by GC-FID. Geometric means of hourly benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m, p-xylenes and o-xylene are, respectively, 65, 62, 15, 43, and 22 μg m -3 in TC street; 30, 38, 9, 26, and 13 μg m -3 in DBP street; and 123, 87, 24, 56, and 30 μg m -3 in NT street. Levels of other gaseous pollutants including CO, NO x, and SO 2, measured by automatic instruments, were low and not exceeding the Vietnam national ambient air quality standards. BTEX levels were comparatively analyzed for different downwind distances (3-50 m) from the street, between peak hours and off-peak hours, as well as between weekdays and weekend. Results of principal component analysis suggest that the gaseous pollutants are associated with different vehicle types.

  8. Lake sediments record prehistoric lead pollution related to early copper production in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompeani, David P; Abbott, Mark B; Steinman, Byron A; Bain, Daniel J

    2013-06-04

    The mining and use of copper by prehistoric people on Michigan's Keweenaw Peninsula is one of the oldest examples of metalworking. We analyzed the concentration of lead, titanium, magnesium, iron, and organic matter in sediment cores recovered from three lakes located near mine pits to investigate the timing, location, and magnitude of ancient copper mining pollution. Lead concentrations were normalized to lithogenic metals and organic matter to account for processes that can influence natural (or background) lead delivery. Nearly simultaneous lead enrichments occurred at Lake Manganese and Copper Falls Lake ∼8000 and 7000 years before present (yr BP), indicating that copper extraction occurred concurrently in at least two locations on the peninsula. The poor temporal coherence among the lead enrichments from ∼6300 to 5000 yr BP at each lake suggests that the focus of copper mining and annealing shifted through time. In sediment younger than ∼5000 yr BP, lead concentrations remain at background levels at all three lakes, excluding historic lead increases starting ∼150 yr BP. Our work demonstrates that lead emissions associated with both the historic and Old Copper Complex tradition are detectable and can be used to determine the temporal and geographic pattern of metal pollution.

  9. Land use regression modeling of intra-urban residential variability in multiple traffic-related air pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clougherty, Jane E; Wright, Rosalind J; Baxter, Lisa K; Levy, Jonathan I

    2008-05-16

    There is a growing body of literature linking GIS-based measures of traffic density to asthma and other respiratory outcomes. However, no consensus exists on which traffic indicators best capture variability in different pollutants or within different settings. As part of a study on childhood asthma etiology, we examined variability in outdoor concentrations of multiple traffic-related air pollutants within urban communities, using a range of GIS-based predictors and land use regression techniques. We measured fine particulate matter (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and elemental carbon (EC) outside 44 homes representing a range of traffic densities and neighborhoods across Boston, Massachusetts and nearby communities. Multiple three to four-day average samples were collected at each home during winters and summers from 2003 to 2005. Traffic indicators were derived using Massachusetts Highway Department data and direct traffic counts. Multivariate regression analyses were performed separately for each pollutant, using traffic indicators, land use, meteorology, site characteristics, and central site concentrations. PM2.5 was strongly associated with the central site monitor (R2 = 0.68). Additional variability was explained by total roadway length within 100 m of the home, smoking or grilling near the monitor, and block-group population density (R2 = 0.76). EC showed greater spatial variability, especially during winter months, and was predicted by roadway length within 200 m of the home. The influence of traffic was greater under low wind speed conditions, and concentrations were lower during summer (R2 = 0.52). NO2 showed significant spatial variability, predicted by population density and roadway length within 50 m of the home, modified by site characteristics (obstruction), and with higher concentrations during summer (R2 = 0.56). Each pollutant examined displayed somewhat different spatial patterns within urban neighborhoods, and were differently related to

  10. Land use regression modeling of intra-urban residential variability in multiple traffic-related air pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baxter Lisa K

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a growing body of literature linking GIS-based measures of traffic density to asthma and other respiratory outcomes. However, no consensus exists on which traffic indicators best capture variability in different pollutants or within different settings. As part of a study on childhood asthma etiology, we examined variability in outdoor concentrations of multiple traffic-related air pollutants within urban communities, using a range of GIS-based predictors and land use regression techniques. Methods We measured fine particulate matter (PM2.5, nitrogen dioxide (NO2, and elemental carbon (EC outside 44 homes representing a range of traffic densities and neighborhoods across Boston, Massachusetts and nearby communities. Multiple three to four-day average samples were collected at each home during winters and summers from 2003 to 2005. Traffic indicators were derived using Massachusetts Highway Department data and direct traffic counts. Multivariate regression analyses were performed separately for each pollutant, using traffic indicators, land use, meteorology, site characteristics, and central site concentrations. Results PM2.5 was strongly associated with the central site monitor (R2 = 0.68. Additional variability was explained by total roadway length within 100 m of the home, smoking or grilling near the monitor, and block-group population density (R2 = 0.76. EC showed greater spatial variability, especially during winter months, and was predicted by roadway length within 200 m of the home. The influence of traffic was greater under low wind speed conditions, and concentrations were lower during summer (R2 = 0.52. NO2 showed significant spatial variability, predicted by population density and roadway length within 50 m of the home, modified by site characteristics (obstruction, and with higher concentrations during summer (R2 = 0.56. Conclusion Each pollutant examined displayed somewhat different spatial patterns

  11. Home outdoor models for traffic-related air pollutants do not represent personal exposure measurements in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducret-Stich, R.; Delfino, R. J.; Tjoa, T.; Gemperli, A.; Ineichen, A.; Wu, J.; Phuleria, H. C.; Liu, L.-J. S.

    2009-02-01

    Recent studies have used measurements or estimates of traffic-related air pollutants at home or school locations to link associations between exposure and health. However, little is known about the validity of these outdoor concentrations as an estimate for personal exposure to traffic. This paper compares modelled outdoor concentrations at home with personal exposure to traffic air pollution of 63 children in two areas in Los Angeles in 2003/2004. Exposure monitoring consisted of sixteen 10-day monitoring runs, with each run monitoring 4 subjects concurrently with the active personal DataRAM for particulate matter traffic sources were calculated using the CALINE4 model for individual residences. We modelled outdoor concentrations of PM2 5, EC and OC with multilinear regression including GIS and meteorological parameters and adjusted for auto-correlation between repeated measurements. The model fit (R2) for home outdoor estimates was 0.94, 0.74 and 0.80 for PM25, EC and OC, respectively. Comparisons between these outdoor estimates and the personal measurements showed a good agreement for PM25 (R2=0.65-0.70) with a mean bias of -0.7±11.8|ag for the smog receptor area, and 18.9±16.2|ag for the traffic impacted area. However the outdoor estimates were not related to personal exposure for EC (R2=0.01-0.29) and OC (R2=0.03- 0.14). Conclusions: Predictions of outdoor concentrations can be used as approximations of personal exposure to PM25. However, they are not appropriate for estimating personal exposure to traffic-related air pollutants including EC and OC in studies of acute exposure-response relationships.

  12. Traffic-related air pollution and respiratory symptoms among asthmatic children, resident in Mexico City: the EVA cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cortez-Lugo Marlene

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Taffic-related air pollution has been related to adverse respiratory outcomes; however, there is still uncertainty concerning the type of vehicle emission causing most deleterious effects. Methods A panel study was conducted among 147 asthmatic and 50 healthy children, who were followed up for an average of 22 weeks. Incidence density of coughing, wheezing and breathing difficulty was assessed by referring to daily records of symptoms and child's medication. The association between exposure to pollutants and occurrence of symptoms was evaluated using mixed-effect models with binary response and poisson regression. Results Wheezing was found to relate significantly to air pollutants: an increase of 17.4 μg/m3 (IQR of PM2.5 (24-h average was associated with an 8.8% increase (95% CI: 2.4% to 15.5%; an increase of 34 ppb (IQR of NO2 (1-h maximum was associated with an 9.1% increase (95% CI: 2.3% to16.4% and an increase of 48 ppb (IQR in O3 levels (1 hr maximum to an increase of 10% (95% CI: 3.2% to 17.3%. Diesel-fueled motor vehicles were significantly associated with wheezing and bronchodilator use (IRR = 1.29; 95% CI: 1.03 to 1.62, and IRR = 1.32; 95% CI: 0.99 to 1.77, respectively, for an increase of 130 vehicles hourly, above the 24-hour average. Conclusion Respiratory symptoms in asthmatic children were significantly associated with exposure to traffic exhaust, especially from natural gas and diesel-fueled vehicles.

  13. Traffic-related air pollution and respiratory symptoms among asthmatic children, resident in Mexico City: the EVA cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escamilla-Nuñez, Maria-Consuelo; Barraza-Villarreal, Albino; Hernandez-Cadena, Leticia; Moreno-Macias, Hortensia; Ramirez-Aguilar, Matiana; Sienra-Monge, Juan-Jose; Cortez-Lugo, Marlene; Texcalac, Jose-Luis; del Rio-Navarro, Blanca; Romieu, Isabelle

    2008-11-16

    Taffic-related air pollution has been related to adverse respiratory outcomes; however, there is still uncertainty concerning the type of vehicle emission causing most deleterious effects. A panel study was conducted among 147 asthmatic and 50 healthy children, who were followed up for an average of 22 weeks. Incidence density of coughing, wheezing and breathing difficulty was assessed by referring to daily records of symptoms and child's medication. The association between exposure to pollutants and occurrence of symptoms was evaluated using mixed-effect models with binary response and poisson regression. Wheezing was found to relate significantly to air pollutants: an increase of 17.4 microg/m3 (IQR) of PM2.5 (24-h average) was associated with an 8.8% increase (95% CI: 2.4% to 15.5%); an increase of 34 ppb (IQR) of NO2 (1-h maximum) was associated with an 9.1% increase (95% CI: 2.3% to 16.4%) and an increase of 48 ppb (IQR) in O3 levels (1 hr maximum) to an increase of 10% (95% CI: 3.2% to 17.3%). Diesel-fueled motor vehicles were significantly associated with wheezing and bronchodilator use (IRR = 1.29; 95% CI: 1.03 to 1.62, and IRR = 1.32; 95% CI: 0.99 to 1.77, respectively, for an increase of 130 vehicles hourly, above the 24-hour average). Respiratory symptoms in asthmatic children were significantly associated with exposure to traffic exhaust, especially from natural gas and diesel-fueled vehicles.

  14. Non-point Source Pollution Modeling Using Geographic Information System (GIS for Representing Best Management Practices (BMP in the Gorganrood Watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Pasandidehfard

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The most important pollutants that cause water pollution are nitrogen and phosphorus from agricultural runoff called Non-Point Source Pollution (NPS. To solve this problem, management practices known as BMPs or Best Management Practices are applied. One of the common methods for Non-Point Source Pollution prediction is modeling. By modeling, efficiency of many practices can be tested before application. In this study, land use changes were studied from the years 1984 till 2010 that showed an increase in agricultural lands from 516908.52 to 630737.19 ha and expansion of cities from 5237.87 to 15487.59 ha and roads from 9666.07 to 11430.24 ha. Using L-THIA model (from nonpoint source pollution models for both land use categories, the amount of pollutant and the volume of runoff were calculated that showed high growth. Then, the seventh sub-basin was recognized as a critical zone in terms of pollution among the sub-basins. In the end, land use change was considered as a BMP using Multi-Criteria Evaluation (MCE based on which a more suitable land use map was produced. After producing the new land use map, L-THIA model was run again and the result of the model was compared to the actual land use to show the effect of this BMP. Runoff volume decreased from 367.5 to 308.6 M3/ha and nitrogen in runoff was reduced from 3.26 to 1.58 mg/L and water BOD from 3.61 to 2.13 mg/L. Other pollutants also showed high reduction. In the end, land use change is confirmed as an effective BMP for Non-Point Source Pollution reduction.

  15. A framework for managing runoff and pollution in the rural landscape using a Catchment Systems Engineering approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, M E; Quinn, P F; Barber, N J; Jonczyk, J

    2014-01-15

    Intense farming plays a key role in increasing local scale runoff and erosion rates, resulting in water quality issues and flooding problems. There is potential for agricultural management to become a major part of improved strategies for controlling runoff. Here, a Catchment Systems Engineering (CSE) approach has been explored to solve the above problem. CSE is an interventionist approach to altering the catchment scale runoff regime through the manipulation of hydrological flow pathways throughout the catchment. By targeting hydrological flow pathways at source, such as overland flow, field drain and ditch function, a significant component of the runoff generation can be managed in turn reducing soil nutrient losses. The Belford catchment (5.7 km(2)) is a catchment scale study for which a CSE approach has been used to tackle a number of environmental issues. A variety of Runoff Attenuation Features (RAFs) have been implemented throughout the catchment to address diffuse pollution and flooding issues. The RAFs include bunds disconnecting flow pathways, diversion structures in ditches to spill and store high flows, large wood debris structure within the channel, and riparian zone management. Here a framework for applying a CSE approach to the catchment is shown in a step by step guide to implementing mitigation measures in the Belford Burn catchment. The framework is based around engagement with catchment stakeholders and uses evidence arising from field science. Using the framework, the flooding issue has been addressed at the catchment scale by altering the runoff regime. Initial findings suggest that RAFs have functioned as designed to reduce/attenuate runoff locally. However, evidence suggested that some RAFs needed modification and new RAFs be created to address diffuse pollution issues during storm events. Initial findings from these modified RAFs are showing improvements in sediment trapping capacities and reductions in phosphorus, nitrate and suspended

  16. Yes, breast cancer related lymphoedema can be managed | Maree ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of the study was to demonstrate that breast cancer related lymphoedema can be managed by means of Complete Decompression Therapy and consequently improve quality of life. An instrumental case study design was used. The target population was all women with breast cancer related lymphoedema ...

  17. Managing Power Relations in Doctoral Education through Research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research is central to doctoral education in universities around the globe. The ability of a student to successfully complete the doctoral research is largely dependent on the power relations between the student and the supervisor. The purpose of this paper is to discuss how power relations could be managed through ...

  18. Relationship between recycling rate and air pollution: Waste management in the state of Massachusetts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovanis, Eleftherios

    2015-06-01

    This study examines the relationship between recycling rate of solid waste and air pollution using data from a waste municipality survey in the state of Massachusetts during the period 2009-2012. Two econometric approaches are applied. The first approach is a fixed effects model, while the second is a Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA) with fixed effects model. The advantage of the first approach is the ability of controlling for stable time invariant characteristics of the municipalities, thereby eliminating potentially large sources of bias. The second approach is applied in order to estimate the technical efficiency and rank of each municipality accordingly. The regressions control for various demographic, economic and recycling services, such as income per capita, population density, unemployment, trash services, Pay-as-you-throw (PAYT) program and meteorological data. The findings support that a negative relationship between particulate particles in the air 2.5 μm or less in size (PM2.5) and recycling rate is presented. In addition, the pollution is increased with increases on income per capita up to $23,000-$26,000, while after this point income contributes positively on air quality. Finally, based on the efficiency derived by the Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA) model, the municipalities which provide both drop off and curbside services for trash, food and yard waste and the PAYT program present better performance regarding the air quality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Influence of socioeconomic deprivation on the relation between air pollution and beta-agonist sales for asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Olivier; Pedrono, Gaëlle; Filleul, Laurent; Segala, Claire; Lefranc, Agnès; Schillinger, Charles; Rivière, Emmanuel; Bard, Denis

    2009-03-01

    Air pollution triggers asthma attacks hours to days after exposure. It remains unclear whether socioeconomic deprivation modulates these effects. Investigation of these interactions requires adequate statistical power, obtainable by using either a sufficient number of observations or very sensitive indicators of asthma attacks. Using a small-area temporal ecologic approach, we studied the short-term relations between ambient air pollution and sales of short-acting beta-agonist (SABA) drugs, a frequent and specific treatment for control of asthma attacks in children and young adults, and then tested the influence of deprivation on these relations. The study took place in Strasbourg, France in 2004. Health insurance funds provided data on 15,121 SABA sales for patients aged 0 to 39 years. Deprivation was estimated by small geographic areas using an index constructed from census data. Daily average ambient concentrations of particulate matter (particles with an aerodynamic diameter used for statistical analysis. Increased of 10 microg/m(3) in ambient PM(10), NO(2), and O(3) concentrations were associated, respectively, with increases of 7.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 4 to 11.2%), 8.4% (95% CI, 5 to 11.9%), and 1% (95% CI, - 0.3 to 2.2%) in SABA sales. Deprivation had no influence on these relations. The associations observed are consistent with those reported by studies focusing on SABA use. Similar studies in other settings should confirm whether the lack of interaction with deprivation is due to specific local conditions.

  20. Toxicological Properties of Persistent Organic Pollutants and Related Health Effects of Concern for the Arctic Populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie; Ayotte, Pierre

    2003-01-01

    , effects on the reproductive and the neuro-endocrine-immune systems, altered metabolism, and specific organ dysfunction. This chapter gives an introduction to these various health effects and presents possible biomarkers that may be useful to include in epidemiological studies. It also discusses......Summary:  Human exposure to environmental contaminants is ubiquitous and not only limited to individuals living close to the sources of contaminants. Everyone carries a burden of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in their body. The burden of POPs in Arctic peoples has been monitored for some...... years, however, it is only recently that a programme for measuring the potential biological effects of these contaminants has been established: the AMAP Human Health Effects Monitoring Programme.  Body burden data alone are not enough to allow the health risks associated with exposure to environmental...

  1. Biomass Burning Related Pollutions and Their Contributions to the Local Air Quality in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, K. L.; Qin, K.

    2017-09-01

    In this study, we present a quantitative estimation of the impacts of biomass burning emissions from different source regions to the local air quality in Hong Kong in 2014 using global chemistry transport model simulations, sun photometer measurements, satellite observations and local monitoring network data. This study focuses on two major biomass burning pollutants, black carbon aerosols and carbon monoxide (CO). The model simulations of atmospheric black carbon and CO show excellent agreement with sun photometer aerosol optical depth (AOD) measurements, satellite CO columns observations and local monitoring stations data. From the model simulation results, we estimated that biomass burning contributes 12 % of total black carbon and 16 % of atmospheric CO in Hong Kong on annual average. South East Asia shows the largest influence to the black carbon and CO levels in Hong Kong, accounts for 11 % of the total atmospheric black carbon and 8 % of CO. Biomass burning in North East Asia and Africa also show significant impacts to Hong Kong. Elevated levels of atmospheric black carbon aerosols and CO were observed during springtime (March and April) which is mainly due to the enhancement of biomass burning contributions. Black carbon and CO originating from biomass burning sources are estimated to contribute 40 % of atmospheric black carbon and 28 % of CO in Hong Kong during March 2014. An investigation focusing on the biomass burning pollution episode during springtime suggests the intensified biomass burning activities in the Indochinese Peninsula are the major sources of black carbon and CO in Hong Kong during the time.

  2. Air pollution from household solid fuel combustion in India: an overview of exposure and health related information to inform health research priorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Ramaswamy, Padmavathi; Sambandam, Sankar; Thangavel, Gurusamy; Ghosh, Santu; Johnson, Priscilla; Mukhopadhyay, Krishnendu; Venugopal, Vidhya; Thanasekaraan, Vijayalakshmi

    2011-01-01

    Environmental and occupational risk factors contribute to nearly 40% of the national burden of disease in India, with air pollution in the indoor and outdoor environment ranking amongst leading risk factors. It is now recognized that the health burden from air pollution exposures that primarily occur in the rural indoors, from pollutants released during the incomplete combustion of solid fuels in households, may rival or even exceed the burden attributable to urban outdoor exposures. Few environmental epidemiological efforts have been devoted to this setting, however. We provide an overview of important available information on exposures and health effects related to household solid fuel use in India, with a view to inform health research priorities for household air pollution and facilitate being able to address air pollution within an integrated rural–urban framework in the future. PMID:21987631

  3. IMPLEMENTING ACCOUNTABILITY WITHIN A MULTI-POLLUTANT AIR QUALITY MANAGEMENT FRAMEWORK

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2004, the National Research Council (NRC) published a major assessment of air quality management practices: Air Quality Management in the United States. The assessment resulted from a Congressional directive that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency commission the Nationa...

  4. Focus on CSIR research in pollution waste: Resource-directed management of water quality series

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Claassen, Marius

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The promulgation of the National Water Act, 1998 (NWA, Act No. 36 of 1998), various other acts, policies and White Papers gave a new direction to water resources management and specifically management of water quality in South Africa. In terms...

  5. Predicting long-term average concentrations of traffic-related air pollutants using GIS-based information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochadel, Matthias; Heinrich, Joachim; Gehring, Ulrike; Morgenstern, Verena; Kuhlbusch, Thomas; Link, Elke; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Krämer, Ursula

    Global regression models were developed to estimate individual levels of long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollutants. The models are based on data of a one-year measurement programme including geographic data on traffic and population densities. This investigation is part of a cohort study on the impact of traffic-related air pollution on respiratory health, conducted at the westerly end of the Ruhr-area in North-Rhine Westphalia, Germany. Concentrations of NO 2, fine particle mass (PM 2.5) and filter absorbance of PM 2.5 as a marker for soot were measured at 40 sites spread throughout the study region. Fourteen-day samples were taken between March 2002 and March 2003 for each season and site. Annual average concentrations for the sites were determined after adjustment for temporal variation. Information on traffic counts in major roads, building densities and community population figures were collected in a geographical information system (GIS). This information was used to calculate different potential traffic-based predictors: (a) daily traffic flow and maximum traffic intensity of buffers with radii from 50 to 10 000 m and (b) distances to main roads and highways. NO 2 concentration and PM 2.5 absorbance were strongly correlated with the traffic-based variables. Linear regression prediction models, which involved predictors with radii of 50 to 1000 m, were developed for the Wesel region where most of the cohort members lived. They reached a model fit ( R2) of 0.81 and 0.65 for NO 2 and PM 2.5 absorbance, respectively. Regression models for the whole area required larger spatial scales and reached R2=0.90 and 0.82. Comparison of predicted values with NO 2 measurements at independent public monitoring stations showed a satisfactory association ( r=0.66). PM 2.5 concentration, however, was only slightly correlated and thus poorly predictable by traffic-based variables ( rtraffic-related pollutants, and that GIS-based regression models offer a promising

  6. A water quality management strategy for regionally protected water through health risk assessment and spatial distribution of heavy metal pollution in 3 marine reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yinan; Chu, Chunli; Li, Tong; Xu, Shengguo; Liu, Lei; Ju, Meiting

    2017-12-01

    Severe water pollution and resource scarcity is a major problem in China, where it is necessary to establish water quality-oriented monitoring and intelligent watershed management. In this study, an effective watershed management method is explored, in which water quality is first assessed using the heavy metal pollution index and the human health risk index, and then by classifying the pollution and management grade based on cluster analysis and GIS visualization. Three marine reserves in Tianjin were selected and analyzed, namely the Tianjin Ancient Coastal Wetland National Nature Reserve (Qilihai Natural Reserve), the Tianjin DaShentang Oyster Reef National Marine Special Reserve (DaShentang Reserve), and the Tianjin Coastal Wetland National Marine Special Reserve (BinHai Wetland Reserve) which is under construction. The water quality and potential human health risks of 5 heavy metals (Pb, As, Cd, Hg, Cr) in the three reserves were assessed using the Nemerow index and USEPA methods. Moreover, ArcGIS10.2 software was used to visualize the heavy metal index and display their spatial distribution. Cluster analysis enabled classification of the heavy metals into 4 categories, which allowed for identification of the heavy metals whose pollution index and health risks were highest, and, thus, whose control in the reserve is a priority. Results indicate that heavy metal pollution exists in the Qilihai Natural Reserve and in the north and east of the DaShentang Reserve; furthermore, human health risks exist in the Qilihai Natural Reserve and in the BinHai Wetland Reserve. In each reserve, the main factor influencing the pollution and health risk were high concentrations of As and Pb that exceed the corresponding standards. Measures must be adopted to control and remediate the pollutants. Furthermore, to protect the marine reserves, management policies must be implemented to improve water quality, which is an urgent task for both local and national governments. Copyright

  7. Assessment of the biomass related indoor air pollution in Kwale district in Kenya using short term monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majdan, Marek; Svaro, Miroslav; Bodo, Jan; Taylor, Mark; Muendo, Redempta Malinda

    2015-09-01

    Indoor air pollution remains an important health problem in some countries. Although research data on this issue is available, routine monitoring in affected areas is limited. The aims of this study were to quantify exposure to biomass-related indoor air pollution; assess the respiratory health of subjects; and explore the feasibility of routine monitoring in Kwale district, Kenya. We sampled 125 rural houses using short-term monitoring for levels of CO, CO2 and TSP. Additional exposure information was obtained using a checklist. Respiratory health was also assessed using a questionnaire, and electronic spirometer in 172 inhabitants. The overall median levels of CO in the sampled houses on all study sites ranged from 5.9 (IQR 3-14.5) to 10 (5.5-21.2) mg/m3, levels of CO2 ranged from 774 (IQR 724-846) to 839 (IQR 749-961) mg/m3) and the levels of TSP ranged from 295 (IQR 79-853 to 1384 (IQR 557-3110) µg/m(3) which indicates that safe levels recommended by WHO and USEPA could be exceeded. Relatively high incidences of respiratory illness or symptoms were reported and the spirometry readings suggested impaired lung function in over 80% of respondents. Our results quantify that the use of biomass fuel can give rise to high levels of indoor air pollution. Given that poor lung function contributes to public health problems in rural regions of East Africa, such as Kwale in Kenya, our findings create grounds for more detailed investigations of the problem and may provide motivation for community based interventions.

  8. Traffic-Related Air Pollution, Noise at School, and Behavioral Problems in Barcelona Schoolchildren: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forns, Joan; Dadvand, Payam; Foraster, Maria; Alvarez-Pedrerol, Mar; Rivas, Ioar; López-Vicente, Mònica; Suades-Gonzalez, Elisabet; Garcia-Esteban, Raquel; Esnaola, Mikel; Cirach, Marta; Grellier, James; Basagaña, Xavier; Querol, Xavier; Guxens, Mònica; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Sunyer, Jordi

    2016-04-01

    The available evidence of the effects of air pollution and noise on behavioral development is limited, and it overlooks exposure at schools, where children spend a considerable amount of time. We aimed to investigate the associations of exposure to traffic-related air pollutants (TRAPs) and noise at school on behavioral development of schoolchildren. We evaluated children 7-11 years of age in Barcelona (Catalonia, Spain) during 2012-2013 within the BREATHE project. Indoor and outdoor concentrations of elemental carbon (EC), black carbon (BC), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) were measured at schools in two separate 1-week campaigns. In one campaign we also measured noise levels inside classrooms. Parents filled out the strengths and difficulties questionnaire (SDQ) to assess child behavioral development, while teachers completed the attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder criteria of the DSM-IV (ADHD-DSM-IV) list to assess specific ADHD symptomatology. Negative binomial mixed-effects models were used to estimate associations between the exposures and behavioral development scores. Interquartile range (IQR) increases in indoor and outdoor EC, BC, and NO2 concentrations were positively associated with SDQ total difficulties scores (suggesting more frequent behavioral problems) in adjusted multivariate models, whereas noise was significantly associated with ADHD-DSM-IV scores. In our study population of 7- to 11-year-old children residing in Barcelona, exposure to TRAPs at school was associated with increased behavioral problems in schoolchildren. Noise exposure at school was associated with more ADHD symptoms. Forns J, Dadvand P, Foraster M, Alvarez-Pedrerol M, Rivas I, López-Vicente M, Suades-Gonzalez E, Garcia-Esteban R, Esnaola M, Cirach M, Grellier J, Basagaña X, Querol X, Guxens M, Nieuwenhuijsen MJ, Sunyer J. 2016. Traffic-related air pollution, noise at school, and behavioral problems in Barcelona schoolchildren: a cross-sectional study. Environ Health Perspect

  9. Outdoor air Pollution

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Forbes, PBC

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available regions. Ambient air pollution relates to the quality of outdoor air and will be discussed in this chapter, with a focus on the air pollutants which are typically regulated in this context internationally....

  10. Marine Pollution Prevention Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Marine Pollution Prevention Act of 2008 implements the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, including related Protocols (MARPOL)...

  11. [The management of risks related to deaths in geriatrics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béranger, Christophe; Moustache, Bouchaïb

    Caregivers are inevitably exposed to the death of the people they care for as almost all deaths occur in a health or medical-social facility. This generates emotional situations which naturally impact on caregivers in their everyday work. The healthcare manager must take into account this reality in the management of risks related to the issue of death. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. The Network Configuration of an Object Relational Database Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Philip; Harris, W. C.

    2000-01-01

    The networking and implementation of the Oracle Database Management System (ODBMS) requires developers to have knowledge of the UNIX operating system as well as all the features of the Oracle Server. The server is an object relational database management system (DBMS). By using distributed processing, processes are split up between the database server and client application programs. The DBMS handles all the responsibilities of the server. The workstations running the database application concentrate on the interpretation and display of data.

  13. NordicWelfAir - Understanding the link between Air pollution and Distribution of related Health Impacts and Welfare in the Nordic countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Jørgen

    2017-04-01

    Air pollution has serious impacts on human health, wellbeing and welfare. The main challenge is to understand how to regulate air pollution in an optimal way both on global and local scales. Linking the detailed information of the spatio-temporal distribution of air pollution levels and the chemical composition of the atmospheric particles with register data for mortality and morbidity, we have a unique opportunity in the Nordic countries to gain new understanding of the various health impacts from different kinds of air pollution from different kind of sources. This will provide the basic understanding needed for policy making of strategies to optimally reduce the air pollution challenge and to assess the related impacts on the distribution of health impacts and related societal costs and welfare. The large interdisciplinary NordicWelfAir project (http://nordicwelfair.au.dk), funded by NordForsk, will take advantage of the unique Nordic data. The results from the project will be used in both a Nordic as well as global perspective to improve the health and welfare by finding the optimal solutions to societal and public health challenges from air pollution through high-quality research. The results from the research in this project have the potential to act as new international standards in our understanding of health impacts from air pollution for different population groups due to the possibility to integrate the unique data and knowledge of air pollution, register, health, socio-economics, and welfare research in the Nordic countries in a highly interdisciplinary project. The study will provide a Nordic contribution to international research on the topics of environmental equality and justice within the area of air quality related risks, amenities and wellbeing. Acknowledgements This project is funded by NordForsk under the Nordic Programme on Health and Welfare. Project #75007: Understanding the link between air pollution and distribution of related health

  14. A 130 year record of pollution in the Suances estuary (southern Bay of Biscay): Implications for environmental management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irabien, M.J. [Departamento de Mineralogia y Petrologia, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad del Pais Vasco/EHU, Apartado 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain)], E-mail: mariajesus.irabien@ehu.es; Cearreta, A. [Departamento de Estratigrafia y Paleontologia, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad del Pais Vasco/EHU, Apartado 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Leorri, E. [Departamento de Estratigrafia y Paleontologia, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad del Pais Vasco/EHU, Apartado 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Sociedad de Ciencias Aranzadi, Zorroagagaina kalea 11, 20014 Donostia-San Sebastian (Spain); Gomez, J. [Departamento de Ciencias Medicas y Quirurgicas, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Cantabria, Avda Herrera Oria s/n, 39011 Santander (Spain); Viguri, J. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Quimica Inorganica, ETSIIT, Universidad de Cantabria, Avda Los Castros s/n, 39005 Santander (Spain)

    2008-10-15

    Geochemical composition (Al, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cu, Ni, Cr and As) and foraminiferal assemblages in surface and core sediments were determined to assess the current situation and the recent environmental transformation of the Suances estuary (southern Bay of Biscay, Spain). Dating of the historical record has been achieved using isotopic analysis ({sup 210}Pb, {sup 137}Cs) and two benchmark events such as the beginning of the mineral exploitation in the Reocin Pb-Zn deposits and the evolution of the chlor-alkali industry (inputs of Hg). Concentrations of Zn, Pb and Cd in both surface and core samples are remarkably higher than background values, reflecting the existence of significant amounts of polluted materials. The dramatic environmental impact of this pollution is clearly recorded by the change of the foraminiferal assemblages that even reach an afaunal stage during recent decades. Application of two different sets of Sediment Quality Guidelines confirm that they exert potential risk to the environment, and therefore if dredged they should need specific management measures. The results provide a reference database to monitor future environmental changes in the Suances estuary, particularly as regards the contaminated sediment storage and the re-colonization by autochtonous meiofauna.

  15. Planning of water resources management and pollution control for Heshui River watershed, China: A full credibility-constrained programming approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y M; Huang, G; Lu, H W; He, Li

    2015-08-15

    A key issue facing integrated water resources management and water pollution control is to address the vague parametric information. A full credibility-based chance-constrained programming (FCCP) method is thus developed by introducing the new concept of credibility into the modeling framework. FCCP can deal with fuzzy parameters appearing concurrently in the objective and both sides of the constraints of the model, but also provide a credibility level indicating how much confidence one can believe the optimal modeling solutions. The method is applied to Heshui River watershed in the south-central China for demonstration. Results from the case study showed that groundwater would make up for the water shortage in terms of the shrinking surface water and rising water demand, and the optimized total pumpage of groundwater from both alluvial and karst aquifers would exceed 90% of its maximum allowable levels when credibility level is higher than or equal to 0.9. It is also indicated that an increase in credibility level would induce a reduction in cost for surface water acquisition, a rise in cost from groundwater withdrawal, and negligible variation in cost for water pollution control. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Work-related stress management by Finnish enterprises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnunen-Amoroso, Maritta; Liira, Juha

    2014-01-01

    Work-related stress has become one of the major problems in working societies and it increases employees' risk of disease. Its importance has been emphasized also due to its' great socio-economic consequences. Different stress management and worksite interventions have been implemented, however, the actual practices in companies have been assessed little. The purpose of this study was to examine how enterprises in Finland manage work-related stress. An assessment of work-related stress methods was conducted in 40 enterprises acting in the metropolitan area of Finland in May 2010 by a questionnaire. The concept of work-related stress was well known by participants. Enterprises rarely had their own work-related stress management protocol even though all of the workplaces had experienced work-related stress at some point. The collaboration between the workplace and occupational health services varied. Companies easily placed the responsibility for work-related stress assessment and handling on occupational health services. Workplaces have to pay more attention to work-related stress and related issues. The easiest way to do this is to collaborate with occupational health services. Protocols for collaboration should be developed jointly using the available models which have been established as cost-effective.

  17. Distribution and ecological risk assessment of cadmium in water and sediment in Longjiang River, China: Implication on water quality management after pollution accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xue-Min; Yao, Ling-Ai; Ma, Qian-Li; Zhou, Guang-Jie; Wang, Li; Fang, Qiao-Li; Xu, Zhen-Cheng

    2018-03-01

    In early January 2012, the Longjiang River was subjected to a serious cadmium (Cd) pollution accident, which led to negatively environmental and social impacts. A series of measures of emergency treatment were subsequently taken to reduce water Cd level. However, little information was available about the change of Cd level in environmental matrices and long-term effect of this pollution accident to aquatic ecosystem. Thus, this study investigated the distribution of Cd in water and sediment of this river for two years since pollution accident, as well as assessed its ecological risk to aquatic ecosystem of Longjiang River. The results showed that it was efficient for taking emergency treatment measures to decrease water Cd concentration to below the threshold value of national drinking water quality standard of China. There was high risk (HQ > 1) to aquatic ecosystem in some of reaches between February and July 2012, but low or no risk (HQ polluted reaches increased after pollution accident and emergency treatments in 2012, but decreased in 2013. During flood period, the sediment containing high concentration of Cd in Longjiang River was migrated to downstream Liujiang River. Cd content in sediment was reduced to background level after two years of the pollution accident occurrence. The study provides basic information about Cd levels in different media after pollution accident, which is helpful in evaluating the effectiveness of emergency treatments and the variation of ecological risk, as well as in conducting water management and conservation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. An expanded conceptual framework for solution-focused management of chemical pollution in European waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munthe, John; Brorström-Lundén, Eva; Rahmberg, Magnus; Posthuma, Leo; Altenburger, Rolf; Brack, Werner; Bunke, Dirk; Engelen, Guy; Gawlik, Bernd Manfred; van Gils, Jos; Herráez, David López; Rydberg, Tomas; Slobodnik, Jaroslav; van Wezel, Annemarie

    2017-01-01

    Background: This paper describes a conceptual framework for solutions-focused management of chemical contaminants built on novel and systematic approaches for identifying, quantifying and reducing risks of these substances. Methods: The conceptual framework was developed in interaction with

  19. Correlations between short-term mobile monitoring and long-term passive sampler measurements of traffic-related air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Erin A.; Schaal, LaNae; Sasakura, Miyoko; Crampton, Robert; Gould, Timothy R.; Hartin, Kris; Sheppard, Lianne; Larson, Timothy; Simpson, Christopher D.; Yost, Michael G.

    2016-05-01

    with published source profiles of traffic-related air pollutants than features based on the PSD data alone. Short-term mobile monitoring shows promise for capturing long-term spatial patterns of traffic-related air pollution, and is complementary to PSD sampling strategies.

  20. A coupled stochastic inverse-management framework for dealing with nonpoint agriculture pollution under groundwater parameter uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llopis-Albert, Carlos; Palacios-Marqués, Daniel; Merigó, José M.

    2014-04-01

    In this paper a methodology for the stochastic management of groundwater quality problems is presented, which can be used to provide agricultural advisory services. A stochastic algorithm to solve the coupled flow and mass transport inverse problem is combined with a stochastic management approach to develop methods for integrating uncertainty; thus obtaining more reliable policies on groundwater nitrate pollution control from agriculture. The stochastic inverse model allows identifying non-Gaussian parameters and reducing uncertainty in heterogeneous aquifers by constraining stochastic simulations to data. The management model determines the spatial and temporal distribution of fertilizer application rates that maximizes net benefits in agriculture constrained by quality requirements in groundwater at various control sites. The quality constraints can be taken, for instance, by those given by water laws such as the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD). Furthermore, the methodology allows providing the trade-off between higher economic returns and reliability in meeting the environmental standards. Therefore, this new technology can help stakeholders in the decision-making process under an uncertainty environment. The methodology has been successfully applied to a 2D synthetic aquifer, where an uncertainty assessment has been carried out by means of Monte Carlo simulation techniques.

  1. Can mortality displacement mask thresholds in the concentration-response relation between particulate matter air pollution and mortality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Steven

    2011-09-01

    Two critical issues for public health assessment and regulation of exposure to particulate matter air pollution (PM) are whether there is a threshold in the concentration-response relation between PM and mortality and whether there is mortality displacement. In this vein, a number of time-series studies have concluded that a linear relation without a threshold is appropriate for describing the concentration-response relation, and a number of other studies have concluded that the mortality effects of PM exposure cannot be attributed to mortality displacement alone. Using three-state (healthy, frail, dead) population models that incorporate actual time series data from Cook County, Illinois for the period 1987-2000, the author investigates the shape of the concentration-response relation between PM and mortality, as observable from time-series data, in the presence of mortality displacement. It is found that thresholds in the concentration-response relation can be masked, or hidden, by linear concentration-response relations if some of the effect of PM exposure is attributable to mortality displacement. This is an important finding that has implications for studies that have found a linear concentration-response relation appropriate, particularly given the markedly different implications for public health assessment and regulation of a linear versus threshold concentration-response relation.

  2. Relative sensitivity of three endangered fishes, Colorado squawfish, bonytail, and razorback sucker, to selected metal pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhl, Kevin J.

    1997-01-01

    The acute toxicity of four metal pollutants to larval and juvenile stages of endangered Colorado squawfish (Ptychocheilus lucius), bonytail (Gila elegans), and razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus) were determined in a water quality representative of that in the Green River, Utah. The rank order of toxicity (96-hr LC50) of the metals to all species and life stages from most toxic to least toxic was mercury (57–168 μg/liter) > cadmium (78–168 μg/liter) > hexavalent chromium (32,000–123,000 μg/liter) > lead (>170,000 μg/liter). In tests with lead, a precipitate formed in all test solutions and no mortalities occurred in these treatments. The larvae of each species were as sensitive or more sensitive than the juveniles to cadmium, hexavalent chromium, and mercury. Overall, the three species exhibited similar sensitivities to cadmium, hexavalent chromium, and mercury. Comparison of test results for the juveniles with toxicity values reported for other freshwater fishes tested in different water qualities indicates that the endangered fishes are more sensitive to cadmium than other cyprinids and centrarchids and less sensitive than salmonids, whereas their sensitivity to hexavalent chromium and mercury is similar to that of other cyprinids, centrarchids, and salmonids.

  3. Oxidative stress associated with indoor air pollution and sick building syndrome-related symptoms among office workers in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chung-Yen; Ma, Yee-Chung; Lin, Jia-Min; Li, Chung-Yi; Lin, Reuy S; Sung, Fung-Chang

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated whether sick building syndrome (SBS) complaints and indoor air pollution for office workers are associated with oxidative stress indicated by urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG). With informed consent, 389 employees in 87 government offices of 8 high-rise buildings in Taipei city completed self-reported questionnaires on SBS complaints at work in the past month. Urinary 8-OHdG was determined for each study participant and on-site air pollutants were measured for each office in both indoor and outdoor air. The results showed that urinary 8-OHdG had significant associations with volatile organic compounds and carbon dioxide levels in offices, and with urinary cotinine levels. The mean urinary 8-OHdG level was also significantly higher in participants with SBS symptoms than in those without such complaints (6.16 vs. 5.45 mug/g creatinine, p = .047). The mean 8-OHdG increased as the number of SBS symptoms increased. The multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that the adjusted odds ratios (OR) in relation to micrograms per gram creatinine increase in 8-OHdG were statistically significant for eye dryness (1.12), upper respiratory syndrome (1.17) with particularly nose itching (1.25), sneezing (1.51), dry throat (1.21), skin dryness (1.31), and dizziness (1.19). This study indicates that the 8-OHdG level was significantly associated with SBS complaints after controlling for air pollution and smoking. Whether the 8-OHdG can be used as an effective predictor for SBS symptoms deserves further study.

  4. Prenatal and Childhood Traffic-Related Pollution Exposure and Childhood Cognition in the Project Viva Cohort (Massachusetts, USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Maria H; Gold, Diane R; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Melly, Steven J; Zanobetti, Antonella; Coull, Brent A; Schwartz, Joel D; Gryparis, Alexandros; Kloog, Itai; Koutrakis, Petros; Bellinger, David C; White, Roberta F; Sagiv, Sharon K; Oken, Emily

    2015-10-01

    Influences of prenatal and early-life exposures to air pollution on cognition are not well understood. We examined associations of gestational and childhood exposure to traffic-related pollution with childhood cognition. We studied 1,109 mother-child pairs in Project Viva, a prospective birth cohort study in eastern Massachusetts (USA). In mid-childhood (mean age, 8.0 years), we measured verbal and nonverbal intelligence, visual motor abilities, and visual memory. For periods in late pregnancy and childhood, we estimated spatially and temporally resolved black carbon (BC) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposures, residential proximity to major roadways, and near-residence traffic density. We used linear regression models to examine associations of exposures with cognitive assessment scores, adjusted for potential confounders. Compared with children living ≥ 200 m from a major roadway at birth, those living < 50 m away had lower nonverbal IQ [-7.5 points; 95% confidence interval (CI): -13.1, -1.9], and somewhat lower verbal IQ (-3.8 points; 95% CI: -8.2, 0.6) and visual motor abilities (-5.3 points; 95% CI: -11.0, 0.4). Cross-sectional associations of major roadway proximity and cognition at mid-childhood were weaker. Prenatal and childhood exposure to traffic density and PM2.5 did not appear to be associated with poorer cognitive performance. Third-trimester and childhood BC exposures were associated with lower verbal IQ in minimally adjusted models; but after adjustment for socioeconomic covariates, associations were attenuated or reversed. Residential proximity to major roadways during gestation and early life may affect cognitive development. Influences of pollutants and socioeconomic conditions on cognition may be difficult to disentangle.

  5. The relative importance of impacts from climate change vs. emissions change on air pollution levels in the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. B. Hedegaard

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available So far several studies have analysed the impacts of climate change on future air pollution levels. Significant changes due to impacts of climate change have been made clear. Nevertheless, these changes are not yet included in national, regional or global air pollution reduction strategies. The changes in future air pollution levels are caused by both impacts from climate change and anthropogenic emission changes, the importance of which needs to be quantified and compared. In this study we use the Danish Eulerian Hemispheric Model (DEHM driven by meteorological input data from the coupled Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Model ECHAM5/MPI-OM and forced with the newly developed RCP4.5 emissions. The relative importance of the climate signal and the signal from changes in anthropogenic emissions on the future ozone, black carbon (BC, total particulate matter with a diameter below 2.5 μm (total PM2.5 including BC, primary organic carbon (OC, mineral dust and secondary inorganic aerosols (SIA and total nitrogen (including NHx + NOy has been determined. For ozone, the impacts of anthropogenic emissions dominate, though a climate penalty is found in the Arctic region and northwestern Europe, where the signal from climate change dampens the effect from the projected emission reductions of anthropogenic ozone precursors. The investigated particles are even more dominated by the impacts from emission changes. For black carbon the emission signal dominates slightly at high latitudes, with an increase up to an order of magnitude larger, close to the emission sources in temperate and subtropical areas. Including all particulate matter with a diameter below 2.5 μm (total PM2.5 enhances the dominance from emissions change. In contrast, total nitrogen (NHx + NOy in parts of the Arctic and at low latitudes is dominated by impacts of climate change.

  6. H3K9 acetylation change patterns in rats after exposure to traffic-related air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Rui; Jin, Yongtang; Liu, Xinneng; Zhu, Ziyi; Zhang, Yuan; Wang, Ting; Xu, Yinchun

    2016-03-01

    Traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) has been acknowledged as a potential risk factor for numerous respiratory disorders including lung cancer; however, the exact mechanisms involved are still unclear. Here we investigated the effects of TRAP exposure on the H3K9 acetylation in rats. The exposure was performed in both spring and autumn with identical study procedures. In each season, 48 healthy Wistar rats were exposed to different levels of TRAP for 4 h, 7 d, 14 d, and 28 d, respectively. H3K9 acetylation levels in both the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and lung tissues were quantified. Multiple linear regression was applied to assess the influence of air pollutants on H3K9 acetylation levels. The levels of PM2.5, PM10, and NO2 in the tunnel and crossroad groups were significantly higher than in the control group. The H3K9 acetylation levels were not significantly different between spring and autumn. When spring and autumn data were analyzed together, no significant association between the TRAP and H3K9 acetylation was found in 4h exposure window. However, in the 7 d exposure window, PM2.5 and PM10 exposures were associated with changes in H3K9 acetylation ranging from 0.276 (0.053, 0.498) to 0.475 (0.103, 0.848) per 1 μg/m(3) increase in the pollutant concentration. In addition, prolonged exposure of the rats in the tunnel showed that both PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations were positively associated with H3k9 acetylation in both PBMCs and lung tissues. The findings showed that 7-d and prolonged TRAP exposure could effectively increase the H3K9 acetylation level in both PBMCs and lung tissues of rats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. PUBLIC RELATIONS PROFESSIONALS’ PERCEPTION OF CONFLICT MANAGEMENT AS A MANAGEMENT FUNCTION

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eray, Tugce Ertem

    2016-01-01

    .... It is evident that organizational conflicts are becoming more complex. In this respect, it is important for senior executives not to disregard these conflicts and involve public relations professionals in the conflict management processes...

  8. Social Relation between Businessman and Community in Management of Intensive Shrimp Pond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumay Febryano, Indra; Sinurat, James; Lovinia Salampessy, Messalina

    2017-02-01

    Expansion of aquaculture, especially shrimp culture, is the primary cause of deforestation of mangrove along coastal zone. This phenomenon is pretty much related to social relation between businessman of intensive shrimp pond and community around coastal zone. The objective of this research is to explain social relation between businessman and community in managing intensive shrimp pond. This research is a kind of qualitative research and the method used is a case study. The result of this research shows that the behaviour of the majority of businessman of intensive shrimp pond is not accordingly with environmental concerns as they compelled conversion of mangrove and they disposed waste of shrimp pond into the sea. Such kind of behaviour caused degradation of water ecosystem and marginalizing local community. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) which was implemented by businessman of intensive shrimp pond in the area of social, religion, and education can downgrade the coming up of social turbulence. Otherwise, CSR in enabling economic community and environmental management was not conducted yet. CSR in environmental management can be conducted by businessman of intensive shrimp pond by considering the existence of mangrove and pond management and waste in a better way, so that environment around ponds is not polluted and the sustainability of shrimp pond business as well as income of community can be guaranteed. Accordingly with the result of this research, CSR is not only involving businessman of intensive shrimp pond and community, but also involving local government in terms of right and responsibility of citizen as well as management and development of community.

  9. Long term fluctuations of groundwater mine pollution in a sulfide mining district with dry Mediterranean climate: Implications for water resources management and remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraballo, Manuel A; Macías, Francisco; Nieto, José Miguel; Ayora, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Water resources management and restoration strategies, and subsequently ecological and human life quality, are highly influenced by the presence of short and long term cycles affecting the intensity of a targeted pollution. On this respect, a typical acid mine drainage (AMD) groundwater from a sulfide mining district with dry Mediterranean climate (Iberian Pyrite Belt, SW Spain) was studied to unravel the effect of long term weather changes in water flow rate and metal pollutants concentration. Three well differentiated polluting stages were observed and the specific geochemical, mineralogical and hydrological processes involved (pyrite and enclosing rocks dissolution, evaporitic salts precipitation-redisolution and pluviometric long term fluctuations) were discussed. Evidencing the importance of including longer background monitoring stage in AMD management and restoration strategies, the present study strongly advise a minimum 5-years period of AMD continuous monitoring previous to the design of any AMD remediation system in regions with dry Mediterranean climate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Opinions and attitudes on the wastes management, the eco-products consumption and the atmospheric pollution; Opinions et attitudes sur la gestion des dechets, sur la consommation des eco-produits et sur la pollution atmospherique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    This document presents the results of the inquiry on the ''way of life and french aspiration'' concerning the energy. The inquiry was realized at the beginning of 2001 on a sample of 2000 people. The questions dealt with the three following topics: the french attitude facing the atmospheric pollution, consumption and the environment preservation, the opinion on the wastes management. (A.L.B.)

  11. Current Status of Marker Genes of Bacteroides and Related Taxa for Identifying Sewage Pollution in Environmental Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warish Ahmed

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Microbial source tracking (MST endeavors to determine sources of fecal pollution in environmental waters by capitalizing on the association of certain microorganisms with the gastrointestinal tract and feces of specific animal groups. Several decades of research have shown that bacteria belonging to the gut-associated order Bacteroidales, and particularly the genus Bacteroides, tend to co-evolve with the host, and are, therefore, particularly suitable candidates for MST applications. This review summarizes the current research on MST methods that employ genes belonging to Bacteroidales/Bacteroides as tracers or “markers” of sewage pollution, including known advantages and deficiencies of the many polymerase chain reaction (PCR-based methods that have been published since 2000. Host specificity is a paramount criterion for confidence that detection of a marker is a true indicator of the target host. Host sensitivity, or the prevalence of the marker in feces/waste from the target host, is necessary for confidence that absence of the marker is indicative of the absence of the pollution source. Each of these parameters can vary widely depending on the type of waste assessed and the geographic location. Differential decay characteristics of bacterial targets and their associated DNA contribute to challenges in interpreting MST results in the context of human health risks. The HF183 marker, derived from the 16S rRNA gene of Bacteroides dorei and closely related taxa, has been used for almost two decades in MST studies, and is well characterized regarding host sensitivity and specificity, and in prevalence and concentration in sewage in many countries. Other markers such as HumM2 and HumM3 show promise, but require further performance testing to demonstrate their widespread utility. An important limitation of the one-marker-one-assay approach commonly used for MST is that given the complexities of microbial persistence in environmental waters, and

  12. Evaluation of passive samplers for assessment of community exposure to toxic air contaminants and related pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, J Brooks; Fujita, Eric M; Campbell, David E; Zielinska, Barbara

    2011-03-15

    The precision, accuracy, and sampling rates of Radiello and Ogawa passive samplers were evaluated in the laboratory using a flow-through chamber and under field conditions prior to their use in the 2007 Harbor Community Monitoring Study (HCMS), a saturation monitoring campaign in the communities adjacent to the Ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach. Passive methods included Radiello samplers for volatile organic compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, 1,3-butadiene), aldehydes (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein) and hydrogen sulfide, and Ogawa samplers for nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide. Additional experiments were conducted to study the robustness of the passive sampling methods under variable ambient wind speed, sampling duration, and storage time before analysis. Our experimentally determined sampling rates were in agreement with the rates published by Radiello and Ogawa with the following exceptions: we observed a diffusion rate of 22.4 ± 0.1 mL/min for benzene and 37.4 ± 1.5 mL/min for ethylbenzene compared to the Radiello published values of 27.8 and 25.7 mL/min, respectively. With few exceptions, the passive monitoring methods measured one-week average ambient concentrations of selected pollutants with sensitivity and precision comparable to conventional monitoring methods averaged over the same period. Radiello Carbograph 4 VOC sampler is not suitable for the collection of 1,3-butadiene due to backdiffusion. Results for the Radiello aldehyde sampler were inconclusive due to lack of reliable reference methods for all carbonyl compounds of interest.

  13. Breeding biology and relation of pollutants to black skimmers and gull-billed terns in South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blus, Lawrence J.; Stafford, Charles J.

    1980-01-01

    The breeding biology and relation of pollutants to black skimmers (Ryn chops niger) and gull-billed terns (Gelochelidon nilotica) were investigated in South Carolina from 1969 through 1975. With few exceptions, the two species nested together in colonies located on barrier islands. We located 10 colonies, 7 of which were on the Cape Romain National Wildlife Refuge (Cape Romain); references were located that described nesting on seven other islands in South Carolina that no longer support colonies. Gull-billed terns nested from early May through July; the skimmers started later (late May) but also continued later (early September). Both species nested in areas subject to tidal flooding, and the two species persisted in nesting in several colonies despite intense predation by rats and gulls. Estimated reproductive success varied greatly from year to year and colony to colony; success in most colonies seemed low, particularly for the gull-billed tern. Residues of organochlorine pollutants in several eggs seemed of sufficient magnitude to induce adverse effects on reproductivity and eggshell thickness: however, the overall effect of organochlorines appeared negligible. Maximum numbers of nests located in a single year were 790 for the skimmer and 340 for the gull-billed tern: the total breeding population in South Carolina is unknown. Although nesting islands at Cape Romain and Deveaux Bank are sanctuaries for nesting birds, both species will continue to lose nesting habitat as additional sea islands are developed and inhabited by man.

  14. Bioaccumulation of macro- and trace elements by European frogbit (Hydrocharis morsus-ranae L.) in relation to environmental pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polechońska, Ludmiła; Samecka-Cymerman, Aleksandra

    2016-02-01

    The aim of present study was to investigate the level of trace metals and macroelements in Hydrocharis morsus-ranae collected from regions differing in the degree and type of pollution. Concentrations of 17 macro- and microelements were determined in roots and shoots of European frogbit as well as in water and bottom sediments from 30 study sites. Plants differed in concentrations of elements and bioaccumulation capacity depending on the characteristics of dominant anthropogenic activities in the vicinity of the sampling site. Shoots of H. morsus-ranae growing in the vicinity of organic chemistry plants and automotive industry contained particularly high levels of Cd, Co, and S. Plants from area close to heat and power plant, former ferrochrome industry and new highway, were distinguished by the highest concentrations of Cr, Cu, and Pb. European frogbit from both these regions contained more Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, and Zn than plants from agricultural and recreational areas. The concentrations of alkali metals and Co, Fe, and N in H. morsus-ranae were elevated in relation to the natural content in macrophytes irrespectively to their content in the environment. Based on the values of Bioaccumulation and Translocation Factors, European frogbit is an accumulator for Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn and a good candidate for phytoremediation of water polluted with Co, Cu, Hg, K, Mn, and Ni. The amount of Co and Mn removed from water and accumulated in the plant biomass during the vegetation season was considerably high.

  15. Trace Metal Content of Coal Exacerbates Air-Pollution-Related Health Risks: The Case of Lignite Coal in Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittner, Noah; Fadadu, Raj P; Buckley, Heather L; Schwarzman, Megan R; Kammen, Daniel M

    2018-02-20

    More than 6600 coal-fired power plants serve an estimated five billion people globally and contribute 46% of annual CO 2 emissions. Gases and particulate matter from coal combustion are harmful to humans and often contain toxic trace metals. The decades-old Kosovo power stations, Europe's largest point source of air pollution, generate 98% of Kosovo's electricity and are due for replacement. Kosovo will rely on investment from external donors to replace these plants. Here, we examine non-CO 2 emissions and health impacts by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to analyze trace metal content in lignite coal from Obilic, Kosovo. We find significant trace metal content normalized per kWh of final electricity delivered (As (22.3 ± 1.7), Cr (44.1 ± 3.5), Hg (0.08 ± 0.010), and Ni (19.7 ± 1.7) mg/kWh e ). These metals pose health hazards that persist even with improved grid efficiency. We explore the air-pollution-related risk associated with several alternative energy development pathways. Our analysis estimates that Kosovo could avoid 2300 premature deaths by 2030 with investments in energy efficiency and solar PV backed up by natural gas. Energy policy decisions should account for all associated health risks, as should multilateral development banks before guaranteeing loans on new electricity projects.

  16. The Recovery of Two Polluted Subarctic Lakes—Towards Nutrient Management or a Pristine State?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Grönlund

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Two small subarctic lakes were eutrophicated due to wastewater discharge from 1964. In 1975, a wastewater treatment plant was built and a recovery process started. This paper will: (1 compile the 1972–1974, 1978–1980 and 1985–1988 investigation data regarding phosphorous and microalgae for one of the lakes; (2 complement with unpublished data from 1985 and 2003; and (3 introduce a discussion regarding three alternatives for future development of the lakes in their last phase of recovery. In the latest investigation, 2003, the lakes were assessed as almost recovered. They had returned to an oligotrophic state, but not fully to a pre-sewage situation. In the upper lake, more heavily polluted, the total phosphorous levels had decreased from an average of 168 µg P/L in 1972–1974 to an average of 12 µg P/L in 2003. The phytoplankton biomass had decreased twentyfold during the same period, from 11.2 mg/L to 0.6 mg/L. The Secchi depth had increased from 1.3 m to 2.8 m. The low oxygen level in late winter was still not recovered, thereby profoundly affecting residential organisms in the lakes. The low winter oxygen is assumed to remain so for a long time due to phosphorus release from sediments in the lakes.

  17. Research in adaptive management: working relations and the research process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanda C. Graham; Linda E. Kruger

    2002-01-01

    This report analyzes how a small group of Forest Service scientists participating in efforts to implement adaptive management approach working relations, and how they understand and apply the research process. Nine scientists completed a questionnaire to assess their preferred mode of thinking (the Herrmann Brain Dominance Instrument), engaged in a facilitated...

  18. Poverty related difficulties in the management of talipes equinovarus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Discussion: These clubfeet were relatively severe and associated with other abnormalities which made their management much more difficult. There is still some reticence to overcome as for the adhesion to the Ponseti's method of treatment of clubfoot which however appears well adapted to the poor countries like ours.

  19. Beyond the contract: managing risk in supply chain relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, H.C.; Sakaguchi, J.; Kawai, T.

    2013-01-01

    As a consequence of the development of intensified relations with suppliers, for many firms the supply chain has become a significant source of risk exposure. In this paper we examine firms' use of control practices to manage risks associated with intensified collaboration with supply chain

  20. Job Security, Labour-Management Relations and Perceived ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This Study Investigated The Influence Of Technological Innovation On Job Security, Labour-Management Relations And Perceived Workers` Productivity In Industrial Organizations In Nigeria. The Descriptive Ex-Post-Facto Research Method Was Adopted For The Study. A Total Of 321 Respondents Were Selected For The ...

  1. A Balanced Scorecard Approach to Public Relations Management Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleisher, Craig S.; Mahaffy, Darren

    1997-01-01

    Describes a new managerial approach to assessing public relations/communications (PR/C) performance using a "balanced scorecard." Reviews the current state of PR/C management assessment; illustrates the balanced scorecard framework; highlights its strengths and weaknesses; describes the process of applying the scorecard to PR/C units;…

  2. Focus on CSIR research in pollution and waste: Integrated waste management

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Godfrey, Linda K

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Research into integrated waste management is undertaken in view of the impact of increasing populations and a strong national focus on industrial, agricultural and urban growth that is likely to result in the increase of human induced pressures...

  3. Air Quality Management Process Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air quality management are activities a regulatory authority undertakes to protect human health and the environment from the harmful effects of air pollution. The process of managing air quality can be illustrated as a cycle of inter-related elements.

  4. Comparison between various indices of exposure to traffic-related air pollution and their impact on respiratory health in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesaroni, G; Badaloni, C; Porta, D; Forastiere, F; Perucci, C A

    2008-10-01

    To evaluate the association of different indices of traffic-related air pollution (self-report of traffic intensity, distance from busy roads from geographical information system (GIS), area-based emissions of particulate matter (PM), and estimated concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) from a land-use regression model) with respiratory health in adults. A sample of 9488 25-59-year-old Rome residents completed a self-administered questionnaire on respiratory health and various risk factors, including education, occupation, housing conditions, smoking, and traffic intensity in their area of residence. The study used GIS to calculate the distance between their home address and the closest high-traffic road. For each subject, PM emissions in the area of residence as well as estimated NO2 concentrations as assessed by a land-use regression model (R(2) value = 0.69), were available. Generalised estimating equations (GEE) were used to analyse the association between air pollution measures and prevalence of "ever" chronic bronchitis, asthma, and rhinitis taking into account the effects of age, gender, education, smoking habits, socioeconomic position, and the correlation of variables for members of the same family. Three hundred and ninety seven subjects (4% of the study population) reported chronic bronchitis, 472 (5%) asthma, and 1227 (13%) rhinitis. Fifteen per cent of subjects reported living in high traffic areas, 11% lived within 50 m of a high traffic road, and 28% in areas with estimated NO2 greater than 50 microg/m(3). Prevalence of asthma was associated only with self-reported traffic intensity whereas no association was found for the other more objective indices. Rhinitis, on the other hand, was strongly associated with all traffic-related indicators (eg, OR = 1.13, 95% CI: 1.04 to 1.22 for 10 microg/m(3) NO2, especially among non-smokers. Indices of exposure to traffic-related air pollution are consistently associated with an increased risk of rhinitis in

  5. A new online monitoring and management system for accidental pollution events developed for the regional water basin in Ningbo, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gaosheng; Chen, Linlin; Liu, Yuedan; Chon, Taesoo; Ren, Zongming; Wang, Zijian; Zhao, Jianping; Zhao, Yangyong

    2011-01-01

    Due to urgency of the accidental pollution events (APE) on one side and the variability in water quality data on the other side, a new online monitoring and management system (OMMS) was developed for the purpose of sustainable water quality management and human health protection as well. The Biological Early Warning System (BEWS) based on the behavioral responses (behavior strength) of medaka (Oryzias latipes) were built in combination with the physico-chemical factor monitoring system (PFMS) in OMMS. OMMS included a monitoring center and six monitoring stations. Communication between the center and the peripheral stations was conducted by the General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) network transmission complemented by a dial-up connection for use when GPRS was unavailable. OMMS could monitor water quality continuously for at least 30 days. Once APEs occurred, OMMS would promptly notify the administrator to make some follow up decisions based on the Emergency Treatment of APE. Meanwhile, complex behavioral data were analyzed by Self-Organizing Map to properly classify behavior response data before and after contamination. By utilizing BEWS, PFMS and the modern data transmission in combination, OMMS was efficient in monitoring the water quality more realistically.

  6. Pollution and sanitation problems as setbacks to sustainable water resources management in Freetown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallon, Senesie B

    2008-12-01

    The civil conflict in Sierra Leone (1991-2001) caused a dramatic increase in the population of Freetown. This population increase overstretched housing facilities, leading to the creation of camps and many squatter settlements with poor sanitation practices. Overcrowding has become a serious concern in light of the acute water shortage that struck Freetown in May and June 2006. Some of the numerous small water bodies that could have been used to augment the public water supply were contaminated by the disposal of solid and industrial waste and poor sewage management. Improper disposal practices have a direct impact on public health. This paper recommends addressing the policy gap, establishing clear threshold criteria for all water bodies and wastewater discharge, and integrating the above issues in the ongoing review process of draft water sanitation policy. Public education of the negative consequences of poor waste management practices on water quality and public health can also positively affect general sanitation practices

  7. Evaluation of occupational burnout and related factors in industry managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sadaf

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims   Occupational burnout is considered as side effects of occupational  stress. It includes some mental, functional, and personal characteristics in which a person has some symptoms of them. Occupational burnout can be caused in all jobs..it diminishes performance and utilization,   depression and disease. Due to the important role of managers, this study was carried to asses the  occupational burnout in industry managers in Kashan.   Methods   The industrial managers of Kashan at high managerial levels were enrolled in the  survey. Burnout data collected by standard questionnaire of Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI was then analyzed using SPSS-13 software and statistical methods of chi-square, t-test, ANOVA,   and regression analysis.   Results   Between 100 different industrial managers that were involved in this study, 90 persons responded to questionnaire, Include: 16 persons (17.8% were employer,26 persons top manager(28.9%,36 persons (40% middle-manager,12 persons (13.3%high managers.97% were men and mean of age, work hours in week, work years duration respectly were 40.3(±8.26years, 53.4(±20.6 hours, 15.7(±8.7 years. It seems that most people under study had  mild occupational burnout. sever occupational burnout was observed in emotional exhaustion(   3%in severity and10.9% in frequencyand depersonalization( 6.8%in severity and7.8% in  frequency.according to this study age, region, kind of management, month earn didn't relation with burnout . work years duration and number of workers had reveres relation with burnout . direct relation with burnout and work hours was founded.   Conclusion   Despite the low rate of moderate or severe burnout among the managers, further effort is advised to reduce stress in this group and probe them in psycho mental disorders.

  8. Statistics and Corporate Environmental Management: Relations and Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henning; Ulhøi, John Parm

    1997-01-01

    Statistical methods have long been used to analyse the macroeconomic consequences of environmentally damaging activities, political actions to control, prevent, or reduce these damages, and environmental problems in the natural environment. Up to now, however, they have had a limited and not very...... specific use in corporate environmental management systems. This paper will address some of the special problems related to the use of statistical techniques in corporate environmental management systems. One important aspect of this is the interaction of internal decisions and activities with conditions...

  9. Weighted road density: A simple way of assigning traffic-related air pollution exposure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rose, Nectarios; Cowie, Christine; Gillett, Robert; Marks, Guy B

    2009-01-01

    .... The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a new predictor, weighted road density, which combines the maximum amount of information related to traffic into a single variable without...

  10. The Link between Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices in Relation to Atmospheric Haze Pollution in Peninsular Malaysia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    De Pretto, Laura; Acreman, Stephen; Ashfold, Matthew J; Mohankumar, Suresh K; Campos-Arceiz, Ahimsa

    2015-01-01

    .... Here we present a cross-sectional survey conducted among people in Kuala Lumpur and surrounds to assess the links between knowledge, attitudes, and practices in relation to the transboundary haze episodes...

  11. Health crises and media relations: relationship management-by-fire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springston, Jeffrey K; Weaver-Lariscy, Ruthann

    2007-01-01

    Media relations is an important function in the operation of any health organization, yet it is often relegated as a simple task function. Such an orientation can be problematic, particularly in times of crisis. This article provides an overview of some of the inherent internal conflicts within health organizations that may mitigate against the best media relations practices in times of crises. The article surveys some of the predominant theoretical models used for crisis management, and suggests directions for the further development of media relations and crisis communication theory and practice.

  12. A process for selecting ecological indicators for application in monitoring impacts to Air Quality Related Values (AQRVs) from atmospheric pollutants. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, G.J.; Breckenridge, R.P.

    1997-01-01

    Section 160 of the Clean Air Act (CAA) calls for measures be taken {open_quotes}to preserve, protect, and enhance air quality in national parks, national wilderness areas, national monuments, national seashores, and other areas of special national or regional natural, recreational, scenic, or historic value.{close_quotes} Pursuant to this, stringent requirement have been established for {open_quotes}Class I{close_quotes} areas, which include most National Parks and Wilderness Areas. Federal Land Managers (FLMs) are charged with the task of carrying out these requirements through the identification of air quality related values (AQRVs) that are potentially at risk from atmospheric pollutants. This is a complex task, the success of which is dependent on the gathering of information on a wide variety of factors that contribute to the potential for impacting resources in Class I areas. Further complicating the issue is the diversity of ecological systems found in Class I areas. There is a critical need for the development of monitoring programs to assess the status of AQRVs in Class I areas with respect to impacts caused by atmospheric pollutants. These monitoring programs must be based on the measurement of a carefully selected suite of key physical, chemical, and biological parameters that serve as indicators of the status of the ecosystems found in Class I areas. Such programs must be both scientifically-based and cost-effective, and must provide the data necessary for FLMs to make objective, defensible decisions. This document summarizes a method for developing AQRV monitoring programs in Class I areas.

  13. Incidence of lesions on Fungiidae corals in the eastern Red Sea is related to water temperature and coastal pollution

    KAUST Repository

    Furby, K.A.

    2014-07-01

    As sea surface temperatures rise and the global human population increases, large-scale field observations of marine organism health and water quality are increasingly necessary. We investigated the health of corals from the family Fungiidae using visual observations in relation to water quality and microbial biogeochemistry parameters along 1300 km of the Red Sea coast of Saudi Arabia. At large scales, incidence of lesions caused by unidentified etiology showed consistent signs, increasing significantly from the northern to southern coast and positively correlated to annual mean seawater temperatures. Lesion abundance also increased to a maximum of 96% near the populous city of Jeddah. The presence of lesioned corals in the region surrounding Jeddah was strongly correlated with elevated concentrations of ammonium and changes in microbial communities that are linked to decreased water quality. This study suggests that both high seawater temperatures and nutrient pollution may play an indirect role in the formation of lesions on corals. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Is there any interaction between domestic radon exposure and air pollution from traffic in relation to childhood leukemia risk?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner, E.V.; Andersen, Claus Erik; Andersen, H.P.

    2010-01-01

    Background: In a recent population-based case-control study using 2,400 cases of childhood cancer, we found a statistically significant association between residential radon and acute lymphoblastic leukemia risk. Hypothesis: Traffic exhaust in the air enhances the risk association between radon...... risk within different strata of air pollution and traffic density. Results: The relative risk for childhood leukemia in association with a 103 Bq/m3-years increase in radon was 1.77 (1.11, 2.82) among those exposed to high levels of NOx and 1.23 (0.79, 1.91) for those exposed to low levels of NOx...... (pinteraction, 0.17). Analyses for different morphological subtypes of leukemia and within different strata of traffic density showed a non-significant pattern of stronger associations between radon and childhood leukemia within strata of higher traffic density at the street address. Interpretation: Air...

  15. Effect of Traffic-Related Air Pollution on Allergic Disease: Results of the Children's Health and Environmental Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Dal Young; Leem, Jong Han; Kim, Hwan Cheol; Kim, Jeong Hee; Hwang, Seung Sik; Lee, Ji Young; Kim, Byoung Ju; Hong, Yun Chul; Hong, Soo Jong; Kwon, Ho Jang

    2015-07-01

    This study evaluated the relationship of living near to main roads to allergic diseases, airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), allergic sensitization, and lung function in Korean children. A total of 5,443 children aged 6-14 years from 33 elementary schools in 10 cities during 2005-2006 were included in a baseline survey of the Children's Health and Environmental Research. We assessed association of traffic-related air pollution (TAP) exposure with the distance to the nearest main road, total road length of main roads and the proportion of the main road area within the 200-m home area. Positive exposure-response relationships were found between the length of the main road within the 200-m home area and lifetime wheeze (adjusted prevalence ratio [PR] for comparison of the longest to the shortest length categories=1.24; 95% CIs, 1.04-1.47; P for trend=0.022) and diagnosed asthma (PR=1.42; 95% CIs, 1.08-1.86; P for trend=0.011). Living less than 75 m from the main road was significantly associated with lifetime allergic rhinitis (AR), past-year AR symptoms, diagnosed AR, and treated AR. The distance to the main road (P for trend=0.001), the length of the main road (P for trend=0.041), and the proportion of the main road area (P for trend=0.006) had an exposure-response relationship with allergic sensitization. A strong inverse association was observed between residential proximity to the main load and lung function, especially FEV1, FEV1/FVC, and FEF₂₅₋₇₅. The length of the main road and the proportion of the main road area were associated with reduced FEV1 in schoolchildren. The results of this study suggest that exposure to traffic-related air pollution may be associated with increased risk of asthma, AR, and allergic sensitization, and with reduced lung function in schoolchildren.

  16. Association between long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution and subclinical atherosclerosis: the REGICOR study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Marcela; Basagaña, Xavier; Aguilera, Inmaculada; Foraster, Maria; Agis, David; de Groot, Eric; Perez, Laura; Mendez, Michelle A; Bouso, Laura; Targa, Jaume; Ramos, Rafael; Sala, Joan; Marrugat, Jaume; Elosua, Roberto; Künzli, Nino

    2013-02-01

    Epidemiological evidence of the effects of long-term exposure to air pollution on the chronic processes of atherogenesis is limited. We investigated the association of long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution with subclinical atherosclerosis, measured by carotid intima media thickness (IMT) and ankle-brachial index (ABI). We performed a cross-sectional analysis using data collected during the reexamination (2007-2010) of 2,780 participants in the REGICOR (Registre Gironí del Cor: the Gerona Heart Register) study, a population-based prospective cohort in Girona, Spain. Long-term exposure across residences was calculated as the last 10 years' time-weighted average of residential nitrogen dioxide (NO2) estimates (based on a local-scale land-use regression model), traffic intensity in the nearest street, and traffic intensity in a 100 m buffer. Associations with IMT and ABI were estimated using linear regression and multinomial logistic regression, respectively, controlling for sex, age, smoking status, education, marital status, and several other potential confounders or intermediates. Exposure contrasts between the 5th and 95th percentiles for NO2 (25 µg/m3), traffic intensity in the nearest street (15,000 vehicles/day), and traffic load within 100 m (7,200,000 vehicle-m/day) were associated with differences of 0.56% (95% CI: -1.5, 2.6%), 2.32% (95% CI: 0.48, 4.17%), and 1.91% (95% CI: -0.24, 4.06) percent difference in IMT, respectively. Exposures were positively associated with an ABI of > 1.3, but not an ABI of < 0.9. Stronger associations were observed among those with a high level of education and in men ≥ 60 years of age. Long-term traffic-related exposures were associated with subclinical markers of atherosclerosis. Prospective studies are needed to confirm associations and further examine differences among population subgroups.

  17. Traffic-related air pollution and health co-benefits of alternative transport in Adelaide, South Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Ting; Nitschke, Monika; Zhang, Ying; Shah, Pushan; Crabb, Shona; Hansen, Alana

    2015-01-01

    Motor vehicle emissions contribute nearly a quarter of the world's energy-related greenhouse gases and cause non-negligible air pollution, primarily in urban areas. Changing people's travel behaviour towards alternative transport is an efficient approach to mitigate harmful environmental impacts caused by a large number of vehicles. Such a strategy also provides an opportunity to gain health co-benefits of improved air quality and enhanced physical activities. This study aimed at quantifying co-benefit effects of alternative transport use in Adelaide, South Australia. We made projections for a business-as-usual scenario for 2030 with alternative transport scenarios. Separate models including air pollution models and comparative risk assessment health models were developed to link alternative transport scenarios with possible environmental and health benefits. In the study region with an estimated population of 1.4 million in 2030, by shifting 40% of vehicle kilometres travelled (VKT) by passenger vehicles to alternative transport, annual average urban PM2.5 would decline by approximately 0.4μg/m(3) compared to business-as-usual, resulting in net health benefits of an estimated 13deaths/year prevented and 118 disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) prevented per year due to improved air quality. Further health benefits would be obtained from improved physical fitness through active transport (508deaths/year prevented, 6569DALYs/year prevented), and changes in traffic injuries (21 deaths and, 960 DALYs prevented). Although uncertainties remain, our findings suggest that significant environmental and health benefits are possible if alternative transport replaces even a relatively small portion of car trips. The results may provide assistance to various government organisations and relevant service providers and promote collaboration in policy-making, city planning and infrastructure establishment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Factors relating to the perceived management of emergency situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkvad Rasmussen, Maria; Tolsgaard, Martin G; Dieckmann, Peter

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study explored individual, team, and setting factors associated with the quality of management of in-hospital emergency situations experienced by former Advanced Life Support (ALS) course participants. METHODS: This study was a survey of former ALS course participants' long...... to apply ALS principles, the team atmosphere and communication. Responders' ratings of quality of management of emergency situations increased with intensity of setting. However, the 'clinical setting' was rated significantly lower as attributor to ability to apply ALS principles compared to 'co...... associated with successful outcome were related to clear role distribution, clear inter-personal communication and attentive listening, as well as respectful behaviour and positive team atmosphere. Although intensity of setting was attributed to ability to apply ALS principles, this did not affect management...

  19. Engineered passive bioreactive barriers: risk-managing the legacy of industrial soil and groundwater pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalin, Robert M

    2004-06-01

    Permeable reactive barriers are a technology that is one decade old, with most full-scale applications based on abiotic mechanisms. Though there is extensive literature on engineered bioreactors, natural biodegradation potential, and in situ remediation, it is only recently that engineered passive bioreactive barrier technology is being considered at the commercial scale to manage contaminated soil and groundwater risks. Recent full-scale studies are providing the scientific confidence in our understanding of coupled microbial (and genetic), hydrogeologic, and geochemical processes in this approach and have highlighted the need to further integrate engineering and science tools.

  20. Long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution and insulin resistance in children: results from the GINIplus and LISAplus birth cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiering, E; Cyrys, J; Kratzsch, J; Meisinger, C; Hoffmann, B; Berdel, D; von Berg, A; Koletzko, S; Bauer, C-P; Heinrich, J

    2013-08-01

    Epidemiological studies that have examined associations between long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution and type 2 diabetes mellitus in adults are inconsistent, and studies on insulin resistance are scarce. We aimed to assess the association between traffic-related air pollution and insulin resistance in children. Fasting blood samples were collected from 397 10-year-old children in two prospective German birth cohort studies. Individual-level exposures to traffic-related air pollutants at the birth address were estimated by land use regression models. The association between air pollution and HOMA of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was analysed using a linear model adjusted for several covariates including birthweight, pubertal status and BMI. Models were also further adjusted for second-hand smoke exposure at home. Sensitivity analyses that assessed the impact of relocating, study design and sex were performed. In all crude and adjusted models, levels of insulin resistance were greater in children with higher exposure to air pollution. Insulin resistance increased by 17.0% (95% CI 5.0, 30.3) and 18.7% (95% CI 2.9, 36.9) for every 2SDs increase in ambient NO2 and particulate matter ≤10 μm in diameter, respectively. Proximity to the nearest major road increased insulin resistance by 7.2% (95% CI 0.8, 14.0) per 500 m. Traffic-related air pollution may increase the risk of insulin resistance. Given the ubiquitous nature of air pollution and the high incidence of insulin resistance in the general population, the associations examined here may have potentially important public health effects despite the small/moderate effect sizes observed.

  1. EPA-developed, patented technologies related to pollution prevention that are available for licensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under the Federal Technology Transfer Act (FTTA), Federal Agencies can patent inventions developed during the course of research. These technologies can then be licensed to businesses or individuals for further development and sale in the marketplace. These technologies primarily relate to contaminant removal in the environment.

  2. In-office management of sport-related concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Erin; Collins, Michael W

    2014-01-01

    The field of sport-related concussion has grown exponentially over the past decade, with more concussion-specific clinics being identified in major hospital systems as well as independent practitioner's offices. To date, there is no standardized in-office protocol for managing ongoing symptoms. The University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC) Sports Concussion Program, established in 2000, is one of the largest programs in the USA, pioneering the way in clinical management, research, and education of sport-related concussion. This report will outline the essential components of a successful concussion clinic, using the UPMC Sports Concussion Program as a case example of best practice. We will share several case studies illustrating the individualized and complex nature of this injury, as well as review important rehabilitation components. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Effects of exposure measurement error in the analysis of health effects from traffic-related air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Lisa K; Wright, Rosalind J; Paciorek, Christopher J; Laden, Francine; Suh, Helen H; Levy, Jonathan I

    2010-01-01

    In large epidemiological studies, many researchers use surrogates of air pollution exposure such as geographic information system (GIS)-based characterizations of traffic or simple housing characteristics. It is important to evaluate quantitatively these surrogates against measured pollutant concentrations to determine how their use affects the interpretation of epidemiological study results. In this study, we quantified the implications of using exposure models derived from validation studies, and other alternative surrogate models with varying amounts of measurement error on epidemiological study findings. We compared previously developed multiple regression models characterizing residential indoor nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)), fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)), and elemental carbon (EC) concentrations to models with less explanatory power that may be applied in the absence of validation studies. We constructed a hypothetical epidemiological study, under a range of odds ratios, and determined the bias and uncertainty caused by the use of various exposure models predicting residential indoor exposure levels. Our simulations illustrated that exposure models with fairly modest R(2) (0.3 to 0.4 for the previously developed multiple regression models for PM(2.5) and NO(2)) yielded substantial improvements in epidemiological study performance, relative to the application of regression models created in the absence of validation studies or poorer-performing validation study models (e.g., EC). In many studies, models based on validation data may not be possible, so it may be necessary to use a surrogate model with more measurement error. This analysis provides a technique to quantify the implications of applying various exposure models with different degrees of measurement error in epidemiological research.

  4. Discussion series on PURPA related topics: load management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sturgeon, J I

    1980-08-01

    The Discussion Series on PURPA Related Topics is composed of five volumes: Metering, Billing, Information to Customers, Load Management Techniques and Master Metering. These reports are based on twenty-five Demonstration and Implementation projects sponsored and directed during the past five years by the US Department of Energy, Office of Utility Systems. Each of the topics bears directly on one or more of the federal standards contained in the Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 (PURPA). This volume, Load Management Techniques, relates primarily to the Time-of-Day rates standard, PURPA IB(d)3. The experiences related in this report deal, in part, with the procedures and equipment which are affected when time-of-day rates are implemented. One goal of this report is to describe how people in a variety of settings have dealt with the many practical issues in load management. Another is to highlight the lessons and summarize the experiences of the Project participants. This report does not stand as a manual nor provide prescriptive guidelines on how to deal with the topic. Rather it offers an account for those charged with the responsibility of implementing PURPA requirements to learn from the insights and problems which occurred during the Rate Demonstration projects.

  5. Data base management in interventional electrophysiology--the relational advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, M A; Siebels, J; Schmitt, C

    1998-12-01

    A relational database was designed to facilitate patient management and storage of complex electrophysiologic data of patients undergoing radiofrequency catheter ablation. The database has to deal with multiple data entries per patient record like radiofrequency current applications and catheters. Due to the complexity of catheter mapping and ablation therapy, the investigators have to handle various data types. Contradictory to a flat-file database, a relational structured database is not limited to a "single record structure". The designed database is built on the relational database programming environment 4th Dimension (ACI). It is implemented on an Apple Macintosh computer system. The relational structure consists of 13 data files and enables an unlimited data entry of multiple items per data field: In 1288 patients 10308 radiofrequency current applications were applied for ablation therapy and 4798 diagnostic or therapeutic catheters were used.

  6. Variation of corneal glycosaminoglycan values of hares in relation to environmental pollution by industrial emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miková, M; Nováková, E

    1979-09-01

    In localities contaminated by industrial emissions a significant decrease in keratan sulfate and chondroitin 4-sulfate occurs in the cornea of the hare. The changes also occur in hares living near small emission sources with a local emission zone; therefore they should not be neglected, especially if the area is used for recreation, as in the case reported here. The decrease in glycosaminoglycan values is more pronounced in adults than in juveniles, because of the length of exposure. Relatively large amounts of keratan sulfate in the glycosaminoglycan fraction correspond to changes expected in a prematurely senescent tissue. Because of the painstaking laboratory work required, assessment of glycosaminoglycans could be used for special bioindication purposes but would not be suitable for routine monitoring.

  7. Impact of air pollution on age and gender related increase in cough reflex sensitivity of healthy children in Slovakia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia eDemoulin-Alexikova

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Numerous studies show higher cough reflex sensitivity (CRS and cough outcomes in children compared to adults and in females compared to males. Despite close link that exists between cough and environment the potential influence of environmental air pollution on age- and gender -related differences in cough has not been studied yet. Purpose. The purpose of our study was to analyse whether the effects of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS from parental smoking and PM10 from living in urban area are implied in age- and gender-related differences in cough outcomes of healthy, non asthmatic children. Assessment of CRS using capsaicin and incidence of dry and wet cough was performed in 290 children (mean age 13.3±2.6 yrs (138 females/152 males.Results. CRS was significantly higher in girls exposed to ETS [22.3 μmol/l (9.8 – 50.2 μmol/l] compared to not exposed girls [79.9 μmol/l (56.4 – 112.2 μmol/l, p=0.02] as well as compared to exposed boys [121.4 μmol/l (58.2 – 253.1 μmol/l, p=0.01]. Incidence of dry cough lasting more than 3 weeks was significantly higher in exposed compared to not exposed girls. CRS was significantly higher in school-aged girls living in urban area [22.0 μmol/l (10.6 – 45.6 μmol/l] compared to school-aged girls living in rural area [215.9 μmol/l (87.3 – 533.4 μmol/l; p=0.003], as well as compared to teenage girls living in urban area [108.8 μmol/l (68.7 – 172.9 μmol/l; p=0.007]. No CRS differences were found between urban and rural boys when controlled for age group. No CRS differences were found between school-aged and teenage boys when controlled for living area. Conclusions. Our results have shown that the effect of ETS on CRS was gender specific, linked to female gender and the effect of PM10 on CRS was both gender and age specific, related to female gender and school-age. We suggest that age and gender related differences in incidence of cough and CRS might be, at least

  8. Pollution of water sources due to poor waste management--the case of Dar-es-Salaam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makule, D E

    2000-01-01

    Pollution of water sources for the city of Dar-es-Salaam originates from haphazard disposal of solid wastes, discharge of untreated or inadequately treated wastewater to water sources, lack of standard sanitary facilities and poor hygienic practices. Contaminated water used for human consumption can lead to serious health problems e.g. cholera, typhoid, skin diseases, etc., which, in turn, leads to reduced working hours/manpower. This has a direct effect to production output which can lead to a deterioration of local community welfare. Having realised this as a problem, the Government of Tanzania stipulated, in its water policy of 1991, the need for protection of water sources. In achieving this goal, proper waste management was singled out to be of vital importance. Due to economic hardships, however, budget allocation by the central Government could not cover the costs needed for proper handling of waste. This left Tanzania with no alternative other than heavy reliance on donor and bilateral organisations for financial support of programmes. Nevertheless, these sources of funds proved to be unreliable for many different reasons. To deal with these problems, the Government currently emphasises involving local community and NGOs, the formation of stakeholder funds and organisations, and involvement of the private sector. Other efforts are intensification of education programmes to create more awareness to the local communities on the need for protection of water sources. Although at its infancy level, the system is showing some signs of improvement.

  9. High-resolution modelling of health impacts and related external cost from air pollution using the integrated model system EVA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Jørgen; Andersen, Mikael Skou; Bønløkke, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    Proceedings from ITM 2015, 34th International Technical Meeting on Air Pollution Modelling and its Application. 4-8 May, 2015, Montpellier, France. 4 pp......Proceedings from ITM 2015, 34th International Technical Meeting on Air Pollution Modelling and its Application. 4-8 May, 2015, Montpellier, France. 4 pp...

  10. Traffic-related air pollution and noise and children's blood pressure : Results from the PIAMA birth cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bilenko, Natalya; van Rossem, Lenie; Brunekreef, Bert; Beelen, Rob; Eeftens, Marloes; Hoek, Gerard; Houthuijs, Danny; de Jongste, Johan C.; van Kempen, Elise; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Meliefste, Kees; Oldenwening, Marieke; Smit, Henriette A.; Wijga, Alet H.; Gehring, Ulrike

    Aims Elevation of a child's blood pressure may cause possible health risks in later life. There is evidence for adverse effects of exposure to air pollution and noise on blood pressure in adults. Little is known about these associations in children. We investigated the associations of air pollution

  11. Traffic-related air pollution and noise and children's blood pressure : Results from the PIAMA birth cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bilenko, Natalya; Van Rossem, Lenie|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/330805436; Brunekreef, Bert|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/067548180; Beelen, Rob; Eeftens, Marloes; Hoek, Gerard; Houthuijs, Danny; De Jongste, Johan C.; Van Kempen, Elise; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Meliefste, Kees; Oldenwening, Marieke; Smit, Henriette A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/067730043; Wijga, Alet H.; Gehring, Ulrike

    2015-01-01

    Aims: Elevation of a child's blood pressure may cause possible health risks in later life. There is evidence for adverse effects of exposure to air pollution and noise on blood pressure in adults. Little is known about these associations in children. We investigated the associations of air pollution

  12. Geobacteraceae community composition is related to hydrochemistry and biodegradation in an iron-reducing aquifer polluted by a neighboring landfill.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, B.; Braster, M.; van Breukelen, B.M.; van Verseveld, H.W.; Westerhoff, H.V.; Roling, W.F.M.

    2005-01-01

    Relationships between community composition of the iron-reducing Geobacteraceae, pollution levels, and the occurrence of biodegradation were established for an iron-reducing aquifer polluted with landfill leachate by using cultivation-independent Geobacteraceae 16S rRNA gene-targeting techniques.

  13. Geobacteraceae community composition is related to hydrochemistry and biodegradetion in an iron-reducing aquifer polluted by a neigbour landfill

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, B; van Breukelen, B.M.; van Verseveld, H.W.; Westerhoff, H.V.; Roling, W.F.M.

    2005-01-01

    Relationships between community composition of the iron-reducing Geobacteraceae, pollution levels, and the occurrence of biodegradation were established for an iron-reducing aquifer polluted with landfill leachate by using cultivation-independent Geobacteraceae 16S rRNA gene-targeting techniques.

  14. Stormwater Runoff Characteristics and Effective Management of Nonpoint Source Pollutants from a Highland Agricultural Region in the Lake Soyang Watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Heon Cho

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The dense highland field area in the upstream region of the Lake Soyang watershed is subject to excessive soil erosion during the wet season. In this study, stormwater runoff from the Lake Soyang watershed was monitored during four rainfall events at 10 locations throughout 2016. The maximum SS concentration at Naedongcheon, which is located in the upper part of the Soyang River, reached 4598 mg/L. The event mean concentration (EMC of SS loads in Naedongcheon ranged from 82.2 mg/L to 926.3 mg/L. We found that, although the first flush events were usually concentrated in highly paved urban areas, a first flush occurred in the agricultural area of the dense highland field region. The first flush phenomenon was identified by a dimensionless cumulative runoff mass and volume curve (M(V curve, and the intensity of the first flush was analyzed by the coefficient of the nonlinear regression model and the FF30 and FF25 values (the fraction of pollution load transported by the first 30% and 25% of runoff, respectively. Nonlinear regression models using the power function were applied to fit the M(V curve, the FF30 values were inversely proportional to the coefficient a of the regression model. A long-term seasonal trend decomposition for monthly turbidity and precipitation was performed for the Lake Soyang. Long-term turbidity trend was approximately coincident with the trend in long-term precipitation. In addition, the present status of the best management practices (BMPs in the upper part of the Soyang River basin was investigated, and a survey of the management and operation of the BMPs was conducted for selected farmers.

  15. Health risks for the population living in the vicinity of an Integrated Waste Management Facility: Screening environmental pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domingo, José L., E-mail: joseluis.domingo@urv.cat [Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, IISPV, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Sant Llorenç 21, 43201 Reus, Catalonia (Spain); Rovira, Joaquim [Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, IISPV, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Sant Llorenç 21, 43201 Reus, Catalonia (Spain); Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Av. Països Catalans 26, 43007 Tarragona, Catalonia (Spain); Vilavert, Lolita; Nadal, Martí [Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, IISPV, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Sant Llorenç 21, 43201 Reus, Catalonia (Spain); Figueras, María J. [Microbiology Unit, School of Medicine, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Sant Llorenç 21, 43201 Reus, Catalonia (Spain); Schuhmacher, Marta [Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, IISPV, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Sant Llorenç 21, 43201 Reus, Catalonia (Spain); Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Av. Països Catalans 26, 43007 Tarragona, Catalonia (Spain)

    2015-06-15

    We performed a screening investigation to assess the human health risks of the Integrated Waste Management Facility (IWMF: mechanical–biological treatment (MBT) plant plus municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI); Ecoparc-3) of Barcelona (Spain). Air concentrations of pollutants potentially released by the MBT plant (VOCs and bioaerosols) and the MSWI (trace elements, PCDD/Fs and PCBs) were determined. Trace elements, PCDD/Fs and PCBs were also analyzed in soil samples. The concentrations of trace elements and bioaerosols were similar to those previously reported in other areas of similar characteristics, while formaldehyde was the predominant VOC. Interestingly, PCDD/F concentrations in soil and air were the highest ever reported near a MSWI in Catalonia, being maximum concentrations 10.8 ng WHO-TEQ/kg and 41.3 fg WHO-TEQ/m{sup 3}, respectively. In addition, there has not been any reduction in soils, even after the closure of a power plant located adjacently. Human health risks of PCDD/F exposure in the closest urban nucleus located downwind the MSWI are up to 10-times higher than those nearby other MSWIs in Catalonia. Although results must be considered as very preliminary, they are a serious warning for local authorities. We strongly recommend to conduct additional studies to confirm these findings and, if necessary, to implement measures to urgently mitigate the impact of the MSWI on the surrounding environment. We must also state the tremendous importance of an individual evaluation of MSWIs, rather than generalizing their environmental and health risks. - Highlights: • Health risks of an Integrated Waste Management Facility in Catalonia are assessed. • PCDD/F exposure near this facility is up to 10-times higher than that near others. • Environmental monitoring of incineration plants should be performed case-by-case. • Since results are very preliminary, confirmatory studies should be conducted.

  16. Water Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, H. J. M.

    1975-01-01

    Deals with water pollution in the following categories: a global view, self purification, local pollution, difficulties in chemical analysis, and remedies for water pollution. Emphasizes the extent to which man's activities have modified the cycles of certain elements. (GS)

  17. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, dust, ... a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  18. Evidence-based management of sport-related concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrea, Michael; Guskiewicz, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Concussion is not only one of the most common injuries encountered by athletes participating in contact and collision sports, but also among the most complex injuries to manage in a sports medicine setting. Over the past two decades, we have made great progress in advancing the basic and clinical science of concussion. These advances have had enormous clinical translational value for developing evidence-based guidelines for management of concussion in sports. Applied clinical research has clarified the defining characteristics of sport-related concussion (SRC) that support new diagnostic criteria. At the same time, major advancements have been realized in the development and validation of clinical tools that allow a more objective and accurate assessment of concussion and performance-based measures of recovery. These tools provide clinicians with a more informed basis for determining an athlete's cognitive and physical fitness to return to competition after concussion. Standardized injury management protocols that systematically prescribe rest, graded activity, and return to play have been adopted in nearly all clinical settings. Herein, we briefly summarize the findings and recommendations from several national and international consensus guidelines and position statements on best practice in the evaluation and management of SRC. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. An export coefficient based inexact fuzzy bi-level multi-objective programming model for the management of agricultural nonpoint source pollution under uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yanpeng; Rong, Qiangqiang; Yang, Zhifeng; Yue, Wencong; Tan, Qian

    2018-02-01

    In this research, an export coefficient based inexact fuzzy bi-level multi-objective programming (EC-IFBLMOP) model was developed through integrating export coefficient model (ECM), interval parameter programming (IPP) and fuzzy parameter programming (FPP) within a bi-level multi-objective programming framework. The proposed EC-IFBLMOP model can effectively deal with the multiple uncertainties expressed as discrete intervals and fuzzy membership functions. Also, the complexities in agricultural systems, such as the cooperation and gaming relationship between the decision makers at different levels, can be fully considered in the model. The developed model was then applied to identify the optimal land use patterns and BMP implementing levels for agricultural nonpoint source (NPS) pollution management in a subcatchment in the upper stream watershed of the Miyun Reservoir in north China. The results of the model showed that the desired optimal land use patterns and implementing levels of best management of practices (BMPs) would be obtained. It is the gaming result between the upper- and lower-level decision makers, when the allowable discharge amounts of NPS pollutants were limited. Moreover, results corresponding to different decision scenarios could provide a set of decision alternatives for the upper- and lower-level decision makers to identify the most appropriate management strategy. The model has a good applicability and can be effectively utilized for agricultural NPS pollution management.

  20. Diagnosis and Management of AIDS-related Diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John F Johanson

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The spectrum of illness associated with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS has been increasing since the initial description in 1981. While virtually all organ systems may be affected, the gastrointestinal tract appears to be a major target. Diarrhea is the most common symptom, affecting up to half of all AIDS patients during the course of their disease. Although diarrhea occurs frequently, its optimal management remains controversial. An extensive evaluation including stool studies and endoscopic biopsies of both the colon and small intestine has been widely recommended to identify all potential pathogenic organisms. An alternative approach is a more limited evaluation consisting of stool and blood cultures followed by symptomatic treatment with antidiarrheal agents if no specific organisms are identified. The clinical presentation of the most common opportunistic pathogens are reviewed, including several recently discovered organisms. Recommendations for treatment are followed by a brief discussion of management strategies used to care for patients with AIDS-related diarrhea.

  1. Management of secondary lymphedema related to breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheifetz, Oren; Haley, Louise

    2010-01-01

    Abstract OBJECTIVE To review recent literature on the management of secondary lymphedema following breast cancer. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE MEDLINE, EMBASE, AMED, PubMed, and the Internet were searched for articles published between 2005 and 2009. Articles were evaluated using Sackett’s levels of evidence. The literature search focused on primary research and systematic reviews. MAIN MESSAGE Secondary lymphedema related to breast cancer is an ongoing challenge. Evidence suggests that there are several safe and beneficial treatments, including complex decongestive therapy, physiotherapy, and exercise. Furthermore, resistive exercises, previously contraindicated on the affected side, have been found to be both beneficial and safe with careful progression and monitoring. Exercise guidelines and patient education topics are presented with a comprehensive reference list for further reading. CONCLUSION Advances in cancer treatment, cancer and exercise research, and lymphedema management require that physicians have a basic understanding of the current evidence to provide appropriate patient education and referral. PMID:21375063

  2. Nocturnal light pollution and underexposure to daytime sunlight: Complementary mechanisms of circadian disruption and related diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolensky, Michael H; Sackett-Lundeen, Linda L; Portaluppi, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Routine exposure to artificial light at night (ALAN) in work, home, and community settings is linked with increased risk of breast and prostate cancer (BC, PC) in normally sighted women and men, the hypothesized biological rhythm mechanisms being frequent nocturnal melatonin synthesis suppression, circadian time structure (CTS) desynchronization, and sleep/wake cycle disruption with sleep deprivation. ALAN-induced perturbation of the CTS melatonin synchronizer signal is communicated maternally at the very onset of life and after birth via breast or artificial formula feedings. Nighttime use of personal computers, mobile phones, electronic tablets, televisions, and the like--now epidemic in adolescents and adults and highly prevalent in pre-school and school-aged children--is a new source of ALAN. However, ALAN exposure occurs concomitantly with almost complete absence of daytime sunlight, whose blue-violet (446-484 nm λ) spectrum synchronizes the CTS and whose UV-B (290-315 nm λ) spectrum stimulates vitamin D synthesis. Under natural conditions and clear skies, day/night and annual cycles of UV-B irradiation drive corresponding periodicities in vitamin D synthesis and numerous bioprocesses regulated by active metabolites augment and strengthen the biological time structure. Vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency are widespread in children and adults in developed and developing countries as a consequence of inadequate sunlight exposure. Past epidemiologic studies have focused either on exposure to too little daytime UV-B or too much ALAN, respectively, on vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency or melatonin suppression in relation to risk of cancer and other, e.g., psychiatric, hypertensive, cardiac, and vascular, so-called, diseases of civilization. The observed elevated incidence of medical conditions the two are alleged to influence through many complementary bioprocesses of cells, tissues, and organs led us to examine effects of the totality of the artificial light

  3. Exposure to Traffic-related Air Pollution During Pregnancy and Term Low Birth Weight: Estimation of Causal Associations in a Semiparametric Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, Amy M.; Mortimer, Kathleen; Hubbard, Alan; Lurmann, Frederick; Jerrett, Michael; Tager, Ira B.

    2012-01-01

    Traffic-related air pollution is recognized as an important contributor to health problems. Epidemiologic analyses suggest that prenatal exposure to traffic-related air pollutants may be associated with adverse birth outcomes; however, there is insufficient evidence to conclude that the relation is causal. The Study of Air Pollution, Genetics and Early Life Events comprises all births to women living in 4 counties in California's San Joaquin Valley during the years 2000–2006. The probability of low birth weight among full-term infants in the population was estimated using machine learning and targeted maximum likelihood estimation for each quartile of traffic exposure during pregnancy. If everyone lived near high-volume freeways (approximated as the fourth quartile of traffic density), the estimated probability of term low birth weight would be 2.27% (95% confidence interval: 2.16, 2.38) as compared with 2.02% (95% confidence interval: 1.90, 2.12) if everyone lived near smaller local roads (first quartile of traffic density). Assessment of potentially causal associations, in the absence of arbitrary model assumptions applied to the data, should result in relatively unbiased estimates. The current results support findings from previous studies that prenatal exposure to traffic-related air pollution may adversely affect birth weight among full-term infants. PMID:23045474

  4. Basin wide Nitrate-Nitrogen pollution of groundwater, Miyakonojo, Japan, with the relation of the regional Groundwater flow system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikami, K.; Shimada, J.; Zikuzono, Y.

    2006-12-01

    Miyakonojo basin is well-known agriculture area in Southern Kyushu, Japan and highly depends on groundwater resources for their everyday use. Local unconfined groundwater aquifer is widely polluted by Nitrate-Nitrogen originated from agriculture. It will become serious problem if this unconfined Nitrate pollution enlarges into the confined aquifer system which is used for local city water source. However, the detailed groundwater flow system between unconfined and confined aquifer system has not been cleared yet. The detailed three dimensional groundwater flow system study has been done by using existing wells in a basin to understand the three dimensional distribution pattern of Nitrate-Nitrogen in the aquifer. The field sampling for unconfined, intermediate and confined groundwater was done in July, 2005 and February, 2006 for about 200 wells to analyze inorganic water chemistry, hydrogen / oxygen stable isotopes and tritium. For the unconfined groundwater, there exists clear difference for the groundwater flow pattern between the eastern and western basin, which is mostly affected by the surface topography. The unconfined groundwater flowed into the confined aquifer at the eastern part of a basin, while in the western part of a basin the unconfined groundwater on a plateau flowed into the confined aquifer somehow, but most part of the unconfined groundwater has been discharge out to small river valleys between plateaus. While for the confined groundwater, the topographic effect has been disappeared and basin scale groundwater flow from the basin margin toward the basin center is dominated. In the unconfined aquifer, basin wide distribution of Nitrate-Nitrogen content has been recognized and it is relatively higher in the western basin where the cattle farming are dominated. While in the confined aquifer, there are some high Nitrate-Nitrogen spots but do not have regional trend. It is considered that some part of the basin has not distributed the welded tuff

  5. Study of physio-psychological effects on traffic wardens due to traffic noise pollution; exposure-effect relation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabraiz, Shamas; Ahmad, Saeed; Shehzadi, Iffat; Asif, Muhammad Bilal

    2015-01-01

    Noise pollution has increased to alarming extent in most of the urban areas in Pakistan. It is assumed even more perilous than air and water pollution due to its direct acute and chronic physio-psychological effects. The objective of this study is to analyze and evaluate the psychological and physiological effects caused by traffic noise on traffic wardens and to find relation type between exposure time and effect. Three wardens check posts near roads were selected for survey in Taxila and Islamabad cities of Pakistan. Survey conducted included noise measurements at aforementioned check posts for one month and Performa based interviews of traffic wardens. Analysis of results showed that noise levels varied between 85-106 dB hence violating OSHA regulations. Major psychological effects found in wardens were aggravated depression 58%, stress 65%, public conflict 71%, irritation and annoyance 54%, behavioral affects 59% and speech interference 56%. Physiological effects found were hypertension 87%, muscle tension 64%, exhaustion 48%, low performance levels 55%, concentration loss 93%, hearing impairment 69%, headache 74% and cardiovascular issue 71%. Relation between exposure time and effects were evaluated by using simple regression test in excel. Percentage of psychological and physiological effects in wardens varied with the exposure time; aggravated depression (R(2) = 0.946, P = 0.133), stress suffering (R(2) = 0.014, P = 0.173), public conflict (R(2) = 0.946, P = 0.133), irritation and annoyance (R(2) = 0.371, P = 0.137), behavioral affects (R(2) = 0.596, P = 0.0616) and speech interference (R(2) = 0.355, P = 0.445), hypertension (R(2) = 0.96, P = 0.00095) and cardiovascular issue (R(2) = 0.775, P = 0.044).

  6. The development of a risk-based approach to managing the ecological impact of pollutants in highway runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabtree, B; Dempsey, P; Johnson, I; Whitehead, M

    2008-01-01

    In the UK, the Highways Agency is responsible for the strategic road network. It is recognised that current design guidance to control pollutants in highway runoff is out of date. A research programme is in progress to develop a better understanding of pollutants in highway runoff and their ecological impact. The paper summarises the outcome of a study to: (1) monitor pollutants in highway runoff under different climate and traffic conditions at 24 sites; (2) develop standards to assess potential ecological risks; and (3) develop a model to predict pollutant concentrations in highway runoff. Data collection and analysis of the resulting data have identified a link between pollutant concentrations and traffic density. A number of pollutants routinely present in highway runoff have been identified as posing the greatest ecological risk. Ecologically based standards for acute impacts have been derived for the soluble form of these pollutants. These standards will be used in conjunction with the model to indicate where runoff treatment may be required to mitigate ecological risk. The model and standards will be used to develop improved design guidance to protect receiving waters from pollutants in highway runoff by identifying where runoff treatment is required, and to what degree. IWA Publishing 2008.

  7. Statistical Estimation of Dose-response Functions of Respiratory Diseases and Societal Costs of Haze-related Air Pollution in Brunei Darussalam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaman, K. A.; Ibrahim, N.

    - The effects on human health resulting from the January to April 1998 haze-related air pollution episode in Brunei Darussalam were analysed for five groups of diseases of the respiratory system. The analysis concentrated on the statistical estimation of dose-response functions which related the number of cases of respiratory diseases to the level of quality of ambient environment as measured by the pollutants standards index (PSI) and other environmental variables. The total number of cases of the five groups of diseases was shown to be significantly related to PSI and temperature. Societal costs were also estimated. The results showed that societal costs were significantly related to PSI, temperature and relative humidity. Societal costs increased with higher PSI and relative humidity but decreased with increasing temperature.

  8. Risk of Misinforming and Message Customization in Customer Related Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitar Grozdanov Christozov

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses applications of the measures of the risk of misinforming and the role of the warranty of misinforming in the context of the informing component of Customer Related Management (CRM issues. This study consists of two parts. Firstly, we propose an approach for customers’ grouping based on their attitude toward assessing product's properties and their expertise on the terminology/domain of the seller’s message describing the product. Also we discuss what the most appropriate personal/group warranty is for each of these group/clusters.

  9. Codes of practice and related issues in biomedical waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moy, D.; Watt, C. [Griffith Univ. (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    This paper outlines the development of a National Code of Practice for biomedical waste management in Australia. The 10 key areas addressed by the code are industry mission statement; uniform terms and definitions; community relations - public perceptions and right to know; generation, source separation, and handling; storage requirements; transportation; treatment and disposal; disposal of solid and liquid residues and air emissions; occupational health and safety; staff awareness and education. A comparison with other industry codes in Australia is made. A list of outstanding issues is also provided; these include the development of standard containers, treatment effectiveness, and reusable sharps containers.

  10. Set organic pollution as an impact category to achieve more comprehensive evaluation of life cycle assessment in wastewater-related issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xinyue; Yang, Jixian; Ma, Fang

    2017-12-13

    For wastewater-related issues (WRI), life cycle assessment (LCA) is often used to evaluate environmental impacts and derive optimization strategies. To promote the application of LCA for WRI, it is critical to incorporate local impact of water pollutants. Organic pollution, a main type of water pollution, has not been given much consideration in current LCA systems. This paper investigates the necessity of setting a regionalized impact category to reflect the local impact of organic pollution. A case study is conducted concerning an upgraded wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in China, which is assumed to meet different sewage control strategies. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) is selected to represent the organic pollution and treated as an individual impact category. CML 2002 is used to quantify the environmental impacts of different strategies. Results show that abnormal LCA results are generated with the traditional eutrophication impact category, and after the introduction of COD, more reasonable LCA results are obtained, making the entire comparison of different control strategies more meaningful and compelling. Moreover, BEES, Ecovalue 08, and Chinese factors are adopted here as different weighting methods. Different weighting results exhibited various trade-offs for the increasingly strict control strategies; the results of BEES and Ecovalue08 underlined the potential environmental burden, but the results of Chinese factors only emphasized the local environmental improvement. It is concluded that setting regionalized impact category for organic pollution can make LCA results more reasonable in wastewater treatment, especially in evaluating Chinese cases because of the serious water pollution caused by large quantities of COD emission.

  11. Health benefits of traffic-related air pollution reduction in different socioeconomic groups: The effect of low-emission zoning in Rome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cesaroni, G.; Boogaard, H.; Jonkers, S.; Porta, D.; Badaloni, C.; Cattani, G.; Forastiere, F.; Hoek, G.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Few studies have assessed the effects of policies aimed to reduce traffic-related air pollution. The aims of this study were to evaluate the impact, in terms of air quality and health effects, of two low-emission zones established in Rome in the period 2001-2005 and to assess the impact

  12. Health benefits of traffic-related air pollution reduction in different socioeconomic groups: the effect of low-emission zoning in Rome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cesaroni, G.; Boogaard, H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314406522; Jonkers, S.; Porta, D.; Badaloni, C.; Cattani, G.; Forastiere, F.; Hoek, G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/069553475

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Few studies have assessed the effects of policies aimed to reduce traffic-related air pollution. The aims of this study were to evaluate the impact, in terms of air quality and health effects, of two low-emission zones established in Rome in the period 2001-2005 and to assess the impact

  13. Integrating atmospheric deposition, soil erosion and sewer transport models to assess the transfer of traffic-related pollutants in urban areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hong, Yi; Bonhomme, Celine; Bout, Bastian Van den; Jetten, V.G.; Chebbo, Ghassan

    2017-01-01

    For the first time, this paper develops an integrated and spatially-distributed modelling approach, linking atmospheric deposition, soil erosion and sewer transport models, to assess the transfer of traffic-related pollutants in urban areas. The modelling system is applied to a small urban catchment

  14. Childhood allergic rhinitis, traffic-related air pollution, and variability in the GSTP1, TNF, TLR2, and TLR4 genes : Results from the TAG Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fuertes, Elaine; Brauer, Michael; MacIntyre, Elaina; Bauer, Mario; Bellander, Tom; von Berg, Andrea; Berdel, Dietrich; Brunekreef, Bert; Chan-Yeung, Moira; Gehring, Ulrike; Herbarth, Olf; Hoffmann, Barbara; Kerkhof, Marjan; Kluemper, Claudia; Koletzko, Sibylle; Kozyrskyj, Anita; Kull, Inger; Heinrich, Joachim; Melen, Erik; Pershagen, Goran; Postma, Dirkje; Tiesler, Carla M. T.; Carlsten, Chris

    Background: Associations between traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) and allergic rhinitis remain inconsistent, possibly because of unexplored gene-environment interactions. Objective: In a pooled analysis of 6 birth cohorts (N-total = 15,299), we examined whether TRAP and genetic polymorphisms

  15. Traffic, asthma and genetics : combining international birth cohort data to examine genetics as a mediator of traffic-related air pollution's impact on childhood asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MacIntyre, Elaina A.; Carlsten, Christopher; MacNutt, Meaghan; Fuertes, Elaine; Melen, Eric; Tiesler, Carla M. T.; Gehring, Ulrike; Kraemer, Ursula; Kluemper, Claudia; Kerkhof, Marjan; Chan-Yeung, Moira; Kozyrskyj, Anita L.; Berdel, Dietrich; Bauer, Carl Peter; Herbarth, Olf; Bauer, Mario; Schaaf, Beate; Koletzko, Sibylle; Pershagen, Goran; Brunekreef, Bert; Heinrich, Joachim; Brauer, Michael

    Associations between traffic-related air pollution and incident childhood asthma can be strengthened by analysis of gene-environment interactions, but studies have typically been limited by lack of study power. We combined data from six birth cohorts on: asthma, eczema and allergic rhinitis to 7/8

  16. Assessing Air Pollutant-Induced, Health-Related External Costs in the Context of Nonmarginal System Changes: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Till M

    2015-08-18

    Marginal analysis is the usual approach to environmental economic assessment, for instance, of health-related external costs due to energy-associated air pollutant emissions. However, nonlinearity exists in all steps of their assessment, i.e., atmospheric dispersion, impact assessment, and monetary valuation. Dedicated assessments thus appear necessary when evaluating large systems or their changes such as in green accounting or the implications of economy-wide energy transitions. Corresponding approaches are reviewed. Tools already exist that allow assessing a marginal change (e.g., one power plant's emissions) for different background emission scenarios that merely need to be defined and implemented. When assessing nonmarginal changes, the top-down approach is considered obsolete, and four variants of the bottom-up approach with different application domains were identified. Variants 1 and 2 use precalculated external cost factors with different levels of sophistication, suitable for energy systems modeling, optimizing for social (i.e., private and external) costs. Providing more reliable results due to more detailed modeling, emission sources are assessed individually or jointly in variants 3 and 4, respectively. Aiming at considering nonlinearity more fully and simultaneously following marginal analysis principles, I propose a variant 3-based approach, subdividing an aggregate (i.e., a nonmarginal change) into several smaller changes. Its strengths and drawbacks, notably the associated effort, are discussed.

  17. Quantifying the impact of traffic-related air pollution on the indoor air quality of a naturally ventilated building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Zheming; Chen, Yujiao; Malkawi, Ali; Adamkiewicz, Gary; Spengler, John D

    2016-01-01

    Improper natural ventilation practices may deteriorate indoor air quality when in close proximity to roadways, although the intention is often to reduce energy consumption. In this study, we employed a CFD-based air quality model to quantify the impact of traffic-related air pollution on the indoor air quality of a naturally ventilated building. Our study found that the building envelope restricts dispersion and dilution of particulate matter. The indoor concentration in the baseline condition located 10m away from the roadway is roughly 16-21% greater than that at the edge of the roadway. The indoor flow recirculation creates a well-mixed zone with little variation in fine particle concentration (i.e., 253nm). For ultrafine particles (indoors with increasing distance from the road is observed due to Brownian and turbulent diffusion. In addition, the indoor concentration strongly depends on the distance between the roadway and building, particle size, wind condition, and window size and location. A break-even point is observed at D'~2.1 (normalized distance from the roadway by the width of the road). The indoor particle concentration is greater than that at the highway where D'air intakes are important to the indoor air quality of existing buildings adjacent to roadways. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Size-fractionated PM10 monitoring in relation to the contribution of endotoxins in different polluted areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traversi, D.; Alessandria, L.; Schilirò, T.; Gilli, G.

    2011-07-01

    Particulate pollution is an environmental concern that is widespread and difficult to resolve. Recently various regulatory improvements around the world have been agreed upon to tackle this problem, especially as related to the fine fraction of particulates, which more closely correlates to human health effects than other fractions. The size-fractionation of inhalable particles and their organic composition represent a new area of research that has been poorly explored thus far. Endotoxins are a type of natural organic compound that can be found in particulate matter. They are correlated with Gram-negative bacterial contamination. Health outcomes associated with exposure to these toxins are not specific and often overlap with the health effects of PM (Particulate Matter) exposure, including asthma, bronchitis, acute respiratory distress syndrome and organic dust toxic syndrome. Very little information is available on the endotoxin distribution in different PM10 size fractions. This study examined PM10 size fractions and their endotoxin content. Sampling was conducted at five different locations: one urban, two rural and two rural sites that were highly influenced by large-scale farm animal production facilities. For each location, six different PM10 fractions were evaluated. PM10 sub-fractions were categorised as follows: PM 10-7.2 (1.15-31.30 μg m -3); PM 7.2-3.0 (1.86-30.73 μg m -3); PM 3.0-1.5 (1.74-13.90 μg m -3); PM 1.5-0.95 (0.24-10.57 μg m -3); PM 0.95-0.49 (1.22-14.33 μg m -3) and PM endotoxin levels determined were: PM 10-7.2 (0.051-5.401 endotoxin units (EU) m -3); PM 7.2-3.0 (0.123-7.801 EU m -3); PM 3.0-1.5 (0.057-1.635 EU m -3); PM 1.5-0.95 (0.040-2.477 EU m -3); PM 0.95-0.49 (0.007-3.159 EU m -3) and PM endotoxins in the coarse fraction. The observed abatement of the PM10 and endotoxin levels was very high (above 1:10) as little as 50 m from the pollution source. This kind of model is useful to both improve our knowledge about PM10 endotoxin

  19. Environmental awareness: the vision of tourists and managers of hotel on the impacts of pollution of beaches tourism in Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Rocha

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Tourism is perceived as an economic, social and cultural phenomenon with important social and environmental impacts. In Brazil, the Rio de Janeiro is a city that receives the most foreign tourists. However its beaches face problems because of pollution. In this context, analysis of the socio environmental awareness of tourists and hotel managers on the quality of Rio's beaches constitutes a factor in the reflection of environmental impacts and, above all, for public policies aimed at tourism. Thus, the objective of this research was to analyze the environmental awareness of tourists and managers of hotels on the impacts of pollution on the beaches of Rio de Janeiro tourism. To do this, they applied semi-structured questionnaires for tourists and managers of hotels. The results showed that tourists arriving in the city are more concerned with enjoying the beauties and the sights than to learn about the environmental conditions of Rio de Janeiro. It could be observed also that the beaches strongly influence the image they have of the city. For this reason, although most of them realize the pollution of beaches, both for aesthetics, as the public health, does not compromise the interest in visiting the Rio de Janeiro nor in attending the beaches for swimming. It is noteworthy that even in hotels that develop strategies that help educate guests, they continue with just tourists perception and do not seek to find out about potential health risks.

  20. Relations between metals (Zn, Pb, Cd and Cu) and glutathione-dependent detoxifying enzymes in spiders from a heavy metal pollution gradient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilczek, Grazyna [Department of Animal Physiology and Ecotoxicology, University of Silesia, Bankowa 9, 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Babczynska, Agnieszka [Department of Animal Physiology and Ecotoxicology, University of Silesia, Bankowa 9, 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Augustyniak, Maria [Department of Animal Physiology and Ecotoxicology, University of Silesia, Bankowa 9, 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Migula, Pawel [Department of Animal Physiology and Ecotoxicology, University of Silesia, Bankowa 9, 40-007 Katowice (Poland)]. E-mail: migula@us.edu.pl

    2004-12-01

    We studied the relations between glutathione-dependent detoxifying enzymes and heavy metal burdens in the web-building spider Agelena labyrinthica (Agelenidae) and the wolf spider Pardosa lugubris (Lycosidae) from five meadow sites along a heavy metal pollution gradient. We assayed the activity of glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and glutathione peroxidases (GPOX, GSTPx), and glutathione (GSH) levels in both sexes. Except for GSH vs Pb content, we found significant correlations between GPOX and GSTPx activity and metal concentrations in females of A. labyrinthica. The highest activity of these enzymes measured in the web-building spiders was found in the individuals from the most polluted sites. In P. lugubris males significant correlations were found between GST and Pb and Zn concentrations, and between GPOX and GSTPx and the concentration of Cu. GST activity was higher in males collected from less polluted areas. Thus, detoxifying strategies against pollutants seemed to be sex-dependent. Actively hunting spiders had higher metal concentrations, maintaining lower activity of detoxifying enzymes and a lower glutathione level. - Capsule: Glutathione-linked enzyme activity in spiders from polluted areas depends on hunting strategy and sex.

  1. Mobile phone tracking: in support of modelling traffic-related air pollution contribution to individual exposure and its implications for public health impact assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    We propose a new approach to assess the impact of traffic-related air pollution on public health by mapping personal trajectories using mobile phone tracking technology in an urban environment. Although this approach is not based on any empirical studies, we believe that this method has great potential and deserves serious attention. Mobile phone tracking technology makes it feasible to generate millions of personal trajectories and thereby cover a large fraction of an urban population. Through analysis, personal trajectories are not only associated to persons, but it can also be associated with vehicles, vehicle type, vehicle speed, vehicle emission rates, and sources of vehicle emissions. Pollution levels can be estimated by dispersion models from calculated traffic emissions. Traffic pollution exposure to individuals can be estimated based on the exposure along the individual human trajectories in the estimated pollution concentration fields by utilizing modelling tools. By data integration, one may identify trajectory patterns of particularly exposed human groups. The approach of personal trajectories may open a new paradigm in understanding urban dynamics and new perspectives in population-wide empirical public health research. This new approach can be further applied to individual commuter route planning, land use planning, urban traffic network planning, and used by authorities to formulate air pollution mitigation policies and regulations. PMID:24188173

  2. Monitoring, Human Health Risk Assessment and Optimized Management for Typical Pollutants in Indoor Air from Random Families of University Staff, Wuhan City, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiyao Chen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 31 workers at a university were randomly selected for indoor environmental monitoring in Wuhan. Two indicators, formaldehyde and total volatile organic compounds (TVOC, and using 139 monitoring points, monitored the indoor environment (including home and workplace as well as the interior space of the main furniture. This study carried out the environmental quality assessment for TVOC based on the dB index method and the health risk assessment of indoor formaldehyde for the university staff receptors and, then focused on health risk in home environment to carry out detailed environmental health management. The results showed that TVOC in the three types of home spaces exceeded about 80% of the national standard. The excessive formaldehyde ratios for kitchens (79%, bedrooms (77% and living rooms (74% were calculated. Formaldehyde health risks all exceeded the United States Environmental Protection Agency, (USEPA acceptable risk threshold. The formaldehyde concentrations in workplaces were about 0.03 mg·m−3. While the risk contribution of the home environment to the total average health risk (0.0014, whether male and female is about 96%. For the adapted and unadapted persons, 90% and 55% of the monitoring points were located within the long-term tolerable range of TVOC decibel application, respectively. Long-term exposure to such an environment can lead to the Sick Building Syndrome (SBS. On the other hand, through comparison of the concentration of pollutants in the interior spaces of furniture and home spaces, it was determined tentatively that the pollutants were mainly concentrated in rarely used furniture. In summary, the air pollution in the studied homes of university staff was much serious than that in workplaces, which showed a need to manage TVOC and formaldehyde pollution by the three means: the purchase of green products, removal of internal pollution from furniture, and creating a good indoor volatile diffusion

  3. Pollution Probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chant, Donald A.

    This book is written as a statement of concern about pollution by members of Pollution Probe, a citizens' anti-pollution group in Canada. Its purpose is to create public awareness and pressure for the eventual solution to pollution problems. The need for effective government policies to control the population explosion, conserve natural resources,…

  4. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution: a cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Zorana J; Hvidberg, Martin; Jensen, Steen S

    2011-01-01

    Short-term exposure to air pollution has been associated with exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), whereas the role of long-term exposures on the development of COPD is not yet fully understood.......Short-term exposure to air pollution has been associated with exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), whereas the role of long-term exposures on the development of COPD is not yet fully understood....

  5. Design of Laser Based Monitoring Systems for Compliance Management of Odorous and Hazardous Air Pollutants in Selected Chemical Industrial Estates at Hyderabad, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhakar, P.; Kalavathi, P.; Ramakrishna Rao, D.; Satyanarayna, M.

    2014-12-01

    Industrialization can no longer sustain without internalization of the concerns of the receiving environment and land-use. Increased awareness and public pressure, coupled with regulatory instruments and bodies exert constant pressure on industries to control their emissions to a level acceptable to the receiving environment. However, when a group of industries come-up together as an industrial estate, the cumulative impacts of all the industries together often challenges the expected/desired quality of receiving environment, requiring stringent pollution control and monitoring measures. Laser remote sensing techniques provide powerful tools for environmental monitoring. These methods provide range resolved measurements of concentrations of various gaseous pollutants and suspended particulate matter (SPM) not only in the path of the beam but over the entire area. A three dimensional mapping of the pollutants and their dispersal can be estimated using the laser remote sensing methods on a continuous basis. Laser Radar (Lidar) systems are the measurements technology used in the laser remote sensing methods. Differential absorption lidar (DIAL) and Raman Lidar technologies have proved to be very useful for remote sensing of air pollutants. DIAL and Raman lidar systems can be applied for range resolved measurements of molecules like SO2, NO2, O3 Hg, CO, C2H4, H2O, CH4, hydrocarbons etc. in real time on a continuous basis. This paper describes the design details of the DAIL and Raman lidar techniques for measurement of various hazardous air pollutants which are being released into the atmosphere by the chemical industries operating in the Bachupally industrial Estate area at Hyderabad, India. The relative merits of the two techniques have been studied and the minimum concentration of pollutants that can be measured using these systems are presented. A dispersion model of the air pollutants in the selected chemical industrial estates at Hyderabad has been developed.

  6. Nitrogen management is essential to prevent tropical oil palm plantations from causing ground-level ozone pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Nick; Lee, James

    2010-05-01

    More than half the world's rainforest has been lost to agriculture since the Industrial Revolution. Among the most widespread tropical crops is oil palm (Elaeis guineensis): global production now exceeds 35 million tonnes per year. In Malaysia, for example, 13% of land area is now oil palm plantation, compared with 1% in 1974. There are enormous pressures to increase palm oil production for food, domestic products, and, especially, biofuels. Greater use of palm oil for biofuel production is predicated on the assumption that palm oil is an ‘‘environmentally friendly'' fuel feedstock. Here we show, using measurements and models, that oil palm plantations in Malaysia directly emit more oxides of nitrogen and volatile organic compounds than rainforest. These compounds lead to the production of ground-level ozone (O3), an air pollutant that damages human health, plants, and materials, reduces crop productivity, and has effects on the Earth's climate. Our measurements show that, at present, O3 concentrations do not differ significantly over rainforest and adjacent oil palm plantation landscapes. However, our model calculations predict that if concentrations of oxides of nitrogen in Borneo are allowed to reach those currently seen over rural North America and Europe, ground-level O3 concentrations will reach 100 parts per billion (109) volume (ppbv) and exceed levels known to be harmful to human health. Our study provides an early warning of the urgent need to develop policies that manage nitrogen emissions if the detrimental effects of palm oil production on air quality and climate are to be avoided.

  7. Supply chain management and relational competitive advantage in footwear industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Luiz Emerenciano Viana

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This work investigated the supply chain management contribution to competitive advantage for companies in the footwear industry, with a primary focus on the inter-organizational relationship analysis. It was used an analysis model developed by Viana (2010, whose main theoretical support is given by relational view (DYER; SINGH, 1998. It is an interpretive multiple case study, including two companies that operate in Ceará State. The data analysis procedure used the constant comparison method, with the Atlas/ti software assistance. In general, it is realized that in the buyers-suppliers relationships prevails the partnership and the main assumptions of supply chain management are applied, which contributes for the relational competitive advantage. In the relationships between enterprises and the government and development institutions, tax incentives are the main resource accessed, which contribute for temporary competitive advantage over competitors that do not have production facilities in the Northeast region as well as lead to a competitive parity situation to competitors that have production facilities in the Northeast region and to the external market competitors.

  8. Managing Anxiety Related to Anaphylaxis in Childhood: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Manassis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. This paper reviews the relationship between anxiety and anaphylaxis in children and youth, and principles for managing anxiety in the anaphylactic child and his or her parents. Methods. A review of the medical literature (Medline was done using the keywords “anxiety,” “anaphylaxis,” and “allergy,” limited to children and adolescents. Findings were organized into categories used in the treatment of childhood anxiety disorders, then applied to managing anxiety in the anaphylactic child. Results. Twenty-four relevant papers were identified. These varied widely in methodology. Findings emphasized included the need to distinguish anxiety-related and organic symptoms, ameliorate the anxiety-related impact of anaphylaxis on quality of life, and address parental anxiety about the child. Conclusion. Children with anaphylaxis can function well despite anxiety, but the physical, cognitive, and behavioral aspects of anxiety associated with anaphylactic risk must be addressed, and parents must be involved in care in constructive ways.

  9. High-resolution modelling of health impacts and related external cost from air pollution over 36 years using the integrated model system EVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Jørgen; Andersen, Mikael S.; Bønløkke, Jakob; Christensen, Jesper H.; Geels, Camilla; Hansen, Kaj M.; Hertel, Ole; Im, Ulas; Jensen, Steen S.; Ketzel, Matthias; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Plejdrup, Marlene S.; Sigsgaard, Torben

    2016-04-01

    A high-resolution assessment of health impacts from air pollution and related external cost has been conducted for Denmark using the integrated EVA model system. The EVA system is based on the impact-pathway methodology, where the site-specific emissions will result, via atmospheric transport and chemistry, in a concentration distribution, which together with detailed population data, is used to estimate the population-level exposure. Using exposure-response functions and economic valuations, the exposure is transformed into impacts on human health and related external costs. In this study we have used a coupling of two chemistry transport models to calculate the air pollution concentration at different domain and scales; the Danish Eulerian Hemispheric Model (DEHM) to calculate the air pollution levels in the Northern Hemisphere with a resolution down to 5.6 km x 5.6 km and the Urban Background Model (UBM) to further calculate the air pollution in Denmark at 1 km x 1 km resolution using results from DEHM as boundary conditions. Both the emission data as well as the population density has been represented in the model system with the same high resolution. Previous health impact assessments related to air pollution have been made on a lower resolution. In this study, the integrated model system, EVA, has been used to estimate the health impacts and related external cost for Denmark at a 1 km x 1 km resolution. New developments of the integrated model system will be presented as well as the development of health impacts and related external costs in Europe and Denmark over a period of 36 years (1979-2014). Acknowledgements This work was funded by: DCE - National Centre for Environment and Energy