WorldWideScience

Sample records for related medical disciplines

  1. Disability rights in Higher Education Programs: The case of medical schools and other health-related disciplines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liasidou, Anastasia; Mavrou, Katerina

    2017-10-01

    Recognising and respecting the human rights of persons with disabilities constitutes an integral element of a democratic society. This caveat has been long articulated in health professionals' rhetoric on the importance of embedding a human rights discourse in the protection and promotion of individual and global health. Having signed and ratified the International Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD), state parties are expected to educate doctors and other health professionals to understand the human rights dimension of disability. This article is concerned with exploring the extent to which the programmes and curriculum outlines in medical schools and other health-related academic disciplines are informed by concerns about promoting disability rights education. Further, it discusses some future directions for monitoring the implementation of a disability rights discourse and suggests some ways in which a rights-based approach to disability can be incorporated in higher education programmes and curricula for health-related disciplines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Awareness of family medicine discipline among clinical medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Awareness of family medicine discipline among clinical medical students of Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria. ... Introduction: Undergraduate medical education requires the studying of a wide range of medical specialties to produce the future workforce of the healthcare system. Family medicine (FM), a relatively new ...

  3. Veterinary Medical Genetics: A Developing Discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Womack, James E.; Templeton, Joe W.

    1978-01-01

    Areas that will influence the development of veterinary medical genetics as a clinical discipline are discussed, some critical research areas of immediate concern are suggested, and misconceptions held by many practicing veterinarians which must be corrected at the level of veterinary education are identified. (JMD)

  4. Medical Geology: a globally emerging discipline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunnell, J.E.; Finkelman, R.B.; Centeno, J.A.; Selinus, O. [Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington, DC (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Medical Geology, the study of the impacts of geologic materials and processes on animal and human health, is a dynamic emerging discipline bringing together the geoscience, biomedical, and public health communities to solve a wide range of environmental health problems. Among the Medical Geology described in this review are examples of both deficiency and toxicity of trace element exposure. Goiter is a widespread and potentially serious health problem caused by deficiency of iodine. In many locations the deficiency is attributable to low concentrations of iodine in the bedrock. Similarly, deficiency of selenium in the soil has been cited as the principal cause of juvenile cardiomyopathy and muscular abnormalities. Overexposure to arsenic is one of the most widespread Medical Geology problems affecting more than one hundred million people in Bangladesh, India, China, Europe, Africa and North and South America. The arsenic exposure is primarily due to naturally high levels in groundwater but combustion of mineralized coal has also caused arsenic poisoning. Dental and skeletal fluorosis also impacts the health of millions of people around the world and, like arsenic, is due to naturally high concentrations in drinking water and, to a lesser extent, coal combustion. Other Medical Geology issues described include geophagia, the deliberate ingestion of soil, exposure to radon, and ingestion of high concentrations of organic compounds in drinking water. Geoscience and biomedical/public health researchers are teaming to help mitigate these health problems as well as various non-traditional issues for geoscientists such as vector-borne diseases.

  5. [The analysis of the theses for the scientific degree in "forensic medicine" and related medical disciplines defended during the period from 2010 till 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetisov, V A; Gusarov, A A; Kuprina, T A

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to analyze the results of research reported in the theses for the degree in "forensic medicine" defended in different dissertation committees during the 5 year period (from 2010 till 2014) and to summarize and compartmentalize the main research areas in which the authors carried out their study and thereby make the data obtained more readily available for the wide circles of readers. A total of 55 theses for the scientific degree in "forensic medicine" (14.03.05) were defended during the period from 2010 till 2014 including 18 (32.7%) ones for the degree in two disciplines, the second being either "pathological anatomy" (n=6) or "stomatology" (n=4). Despite the great variety of the problems resolved in the studies conducted during the five year period, the subject matter of most research was on the whole consistent with the main lines of activities of the institutions with which the degree-seeking workers were affiliated. The same refers to the choice of the tutors and scientific advisers. the authors emphasize the necessity of centralized planning of research in compliance with the list of priority investigations having practical significance and coordination of cooperative studies carried out based on the state bureau of forensic medical expertise (SBFME) and departments of forensic medical expertise of medical universities.

  6. A Spiral And Discipline-Oriented Curriculum In Medical Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilhjelm, Jens E.; Hanson, Lars G.; Henneberg, Kaj-Åge

    2011-01-01

    This contribution describes and evaluates an experimental combination of a spiral and discipline-oriented curriculum implemented in the bachelor’s and master’s program in Medicine and Technology. The implementation in the master’s program is in the form of a study line in Medical Imaging and Radi......This contribution describes and evaluates an experimental combination of a spiral and discipline-oriented curriculum implemented in the bachelor’s and master’s program in Medicine and Technology. The implementation in the master’s program is in the form of a study line in Medical Imaging...... and Radiation Physics containing three disciplines: Imaging modalities, Radiation therapy and Image processing. The two imaging courses in the bachelor’s program and the first imaging course in the master’s program follow a spiral curriculum in which most disciplines are encountered in all courses...

  7. The Social Structure of Criminalized and Medicalized School Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramey, David M.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the author examines how school- and district-level racial/ethnic and socioeconomic compositions influence schools' use of different types of criminalized and medicalized school discipline. Using a large data set containing information on over 60,000 schools in over 6,000 districts, the authors uses multilevel modeling and a…

  8. Career-related correlates of self-discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuBrin, A J

    2001-08-01

    An investigation was made of the relationship between scores on the Self-discipline Questionnaire and self-ratings on four career-related variables among a sample of 325 working adults. The Self-discipline Questionnaire was previously published in a trade book and is based on characteristics of self-disciplined people culled from the literature. Scores for self-discipline were significantly correlated with years of formal education, salary, and self-perceptions of career success and frequency of goal accomplishment.

  9. Parents' experience of flooding in discipline encounters: Associations with discipline and interplay with related factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorber, Michael F; Mitnick, Danielle M; Slep, Amy M Smith

    2016-06-01

    In family psychology, the term flooding refers to the feeling of being overwhelmed by a family member's behavior in a manner that undermines an organized response. In the present investigation we first aimed to clarify the role of flooding in overreactive and lax discipline. The second study aim was to more fully establish the position of parental flooding in its nomological network given the relative paucity of research on parental flooding. Maternal discipline and physiological responses, as well as child behavior, were observed in laboratory discipline encounters with 97 mother-toddler dyads. Mothers then rated the extent to which they experienced flooding in response to their children's behavior and emotion displays during the immediately preceding discipline encounters. Mothers' experience of negative emotion was assessed via video-mediated recall. Flooding was positively associated with both overreactive and lax discipline; this association did not reflect confounding by mothers' experience of negative emotion. Flooding was further associated with mothers' experienced negative emotion and heart rate reactivity, as well as child misbehavior and negative emotion displays. The flooding-overreactive discipline association was concentrated in those mothers who exhibited greater increases in heart rate and greater vagal withdrawal, and whose children misbehaved more during the discipline encounter. The present results suggest the incremental validity of flooding in predicting discipline practices, as well as the strong fit of flooding in its nomological network. Parents' self-recognition of flooding may ultimately prove useful in parenting interventions as a signal to trigger compensatory techniques. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Directing Discipline: State Medical Board Responsiveness to State Legislatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillvis, Denise F; McGrath, Robert J

    2017-02-01

    State medical boards are increasingly responsible for regulating medical and osteopathic licensure and professional conduct in the United States. Yet, there is great variation in the extent to which such boards take disciplinary action against physicians, indicating that some boards are more zealous regulators than others. We look to the political roots of such variation and seek to answer a simple, yet important, question: are nominally apolitical state medical boards responsive to political preferences? To address this question, we use panel data on disciplinary actions across sixty-four state medical boards from 1993 through 2006 and control for over-time changes in board characteristics (e.g., composition, independence, budgetary status), regulatory structure, and resources. We show that as state legislatures become more liberal [conservative], state boards increasingly [decreasingly] discipline physicians, especially during unified government and in the presence of highly professional legislatures. Our conclusions join others in emphasizing the importance of state medical boards and the contingent nature of political control of state regulation. In addition, we emphasize the roles that oversight capacity and strategy play in offsetting concerns regarding self-regulation of a powerful organized interest. Copyright © 2017 by Duke University Press.

  11. Cognitive Style in Relation to Various Disciplines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saracho, Olivia, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    The 11 chapters of this theme issue explore important issues that relate cognitive style to educational concerns. They link cognitive style with reading comprehension, parental teaching, family qualities, teaching, distance learning, strategic learning, socialization, and athletic performance. (SLD)

  12. A Spiral And Discipline-Oriented Curriculum In Medical Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilhjelm, Jens E.; Hanson, Lars G.; Henneberg, Kaj-Åge

    2011-01-01

    and Radiation Physics containing three disciplines: Imaging modalities, Radiation therapy and Image processing. The two imaging courses in the bachelor’s program and the first imaging course in the master’s program follow a spiral curriculum in which most disciplines are encountered in all courses...

  13. Factors Affecting Performance of Undergraduate Students in Construction Related Disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olatunji, Samuel Olusola; Aghimien, Douglas Omoregie; Oke, Ayodeji Emmanuel; Olushola, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Academic performance of students in Nigerian institutions has been of much concern to all and sundry hence the need to assess the factors affecting performance of undergraduate students in construction related discipline in Nigeria. A survey design was employed with questionnaires administered on students in the department of Quantity Surveying,…

  14. Neuroimmune pharmacology as a sub-discipline of immunology in the medical school curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Guy A

    2011-03-01

    This article provides a description of a proposed sub-module and attendant syllabus for inclusion of neuroimmune pharmacology as a sub-discipline of an immunology course that is offered to medical students during the first year of medical school. Neuroimmune pharmacology is an area of study that integrates fundamental concepts in pharmacology, immunology, neuroscience, and infectious disease. This convergent disciplinary area is of increasing importance to the foundational training of medical students, especially in view of the recognition that a variety of neuropathological processes such as demyelinating disease, drug abuse, and viral encephalitis has an immunological component. A lecture sub-module that addresses this convergent topic is proposed for inclusion as a sub-discipline of an immunology course offered as a component of a Scientific Foundations curriculum that takes place during the first 6 months of medical school. It is proposed to revisit the neuroimmune pharmacology topic area in a more clinical setting during the subsequent 14 months of study when medical students would be presented with an organ system-based curriculum. In this instructional model, basic science teaching faculty would interface with clinical faculty in presenting the topical block material in the context of different organ systems. Discussion of clinical cases related to neuroimmune pharmacology would be integrated into the organ system-based curriculum in order to highlight a translational relevance to medical practice.

  15. A Spiral And Discipline-Oriented Curriculum In Medical Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilhjelm, Jens E.; Hanson, Lars G.; Henneberg, Kaj-Åge

    2011-01-01

    on their intuitive understanding of the subject. The program was evaluated in terms of the progression in scientific demands in exam from course to course and in terms of the pattern of course selection by the students. The analysis was based on 96 students. The pattern of course selection was found to follow...... and Radiation Physics containing three disciplines: Imaging modalities, Radiation therapy and Image processing. The two imaging courses in the bachelor’s program and the first imaging course in the master’s program follow a spiral curriculum in which most disciplines are encountered in all courses......, but in a gradually more advanced manner. The remaining courses in the master’s program follow a discipline-oriented curriculum. From a practical point of view, the spiral course portfolio works well in an undergraduate environment, where the courses involved are to be taken by all students and in the order planned...

  16. Maternal Sensitivity Moderates the Relation between Negative Discipline and Aggression in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alink, Lenneke R. A.; Mesman, Judi; van Zeijl, Jantien; Stolk, Mirjam N.; Juffer, Femmie; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Koot, Hans M.

    2009-01-01

    Three models regarding the relation between maternal (in)sensitivity, negative discipline, and child aggression were examined in a sample of 117 mother-child pairs with high scores on child externalizing behavior: (1) Sensitivity and discipline are uniquely related to child aggression (the additive model); (2) the relation between discipline and…

  17. Medical informatics as a discipline at the beginning of the 21st century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talmon, J. L.; Hasman, A.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To analyse the present situation of the discipline medical informatics and to propose actions for change. METHODS: Evaluation of the current situation mainly based on anecdotal evidence. RESULTS: The difference between the scientific and the engineering aspects of medical informatics get

  18. Disciplining the children – ways of doing it, standpoints and generational relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saša Poljak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Parents use different ways of disciplining the children in the family. The purpose of the research is to study ways, attitudes and intergenerational relations between disciplining the children in the family. One hundred and three parents appraised their ways of children disciplining, their attitudes towards the ways of disciplining, the context of experiencing, modes of implementing discipline and ways of disciplining of their mother and father when they were 10 years old. More than half of the parents describe the use of at least one of the ways of physical punishment respectively, at least one of the ways of psychical violence as a way of disciplining children in the family. Punishment ways of disciplining are connected with the experience of spousal conflict in the family, ineffectiveness, stress and the impulsive way of a response due to children disciplining. The acceptability of punishment and non-punishment ways of disciplining are positively connected with the frequency of use of this ways of disciplining. The research presented here shows a possibility that the use of a certain way of disciplining children in the family does not necessarily have a connection with a similar disciplining experience in the childhood. Corporal punishment is connected with the experience of other ways of punitive disciplining in the childhood, especially with the ways of disciplining used by mother.

  19. [Dermatology in Cambodia: Sustainable establishment of a medical discipline].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendick, Ch

    2015-05-01

    After almost 25 years of dictatorship and civil war, in the mid 1990s, Cambodia was in dire need of improvement of its medical infrastructure on all levels. Attention had already been focused on establishing primary care services such as emergency surgery, paediatrics and gynaecology/obstetrics; however dermatovenereology services had so far not been addressed. Using a comprehensive approach aiming at sustainable development, German, French and Cambodian institutions worked together to identify four core areas in need of improvement: postgraduate training, development of skin clinics, quality management, and integration of dermatology services into the health insurance scheme. Since 2005, this "Masterplan Dermatology" was financially supported by the Centre for International Migration and Development (CIM) based in Frankfurt am Main and Else Kröner Fresenius-Stiftung (EKFS) based in Bad Homburg auf der Höhe. Significant improvements have been made due to the efforts of the above institutions with the support of the donors; however challenges of this complex endeavor still remain.

  20. Trend of Medical Tourism Publications: An Attempt to Explore the Involved Academic Disciplines and Interests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokni, Ladan; Park, Sam-Hun

    2018-02-01

    Medical tourism suffers from the lack of a consensus regarding the involved categories. This study aimed to address this gap from the academic disciplines and publications perspective. Totally 1954 citations were identified through a formula of keyword search of SCOPUS. In order to classify the various subject areas, we followed the international standard classification of education (ISCED) developed by UNESCO. Moreover, the trends of publications were identified based on their popularity between 2000 and 2017. The category with the most interests on publication about medical tourism was 'health and welfare', followed by 'social science'. Even though various disciplines were involved in the medical tourism, it seems that a downward trend has been experienced since 2015. The identified key trends of medical tourism publications will benefit researchers exploring the categories of medical tourism or health travel. The results contribute to advance the state of knowledge from the academic perspective.

  1. Master of Science (MSc) Program in Radiation Biology: An Interdepartmental Course Bridging the Gap between Radiation-Related Preclinical and Clinical Disciplines to Prepare Next-Generation Medical Scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combs, Stephanie E; Kessel, Carmen; Wilkens, Jan J; Multhoff, Gabriele; Schmid, Thomas E; Vaupel, Peter; Trott, Klaus-Rüdiger; Berberat, Pascal; Atkinson, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    Radiation biology is a highly interdisciplinary field at the interface of biology, physics, and medicine. It is characterized by rapid advances in biological and technical knowledge. The potential for using these advances to optimize medical care, radiation protection, and related fields can be exploited only with complementary activities to support the education of young academics. A small number of academic institutions have committed resources into radiation-related courses and curricula; however, few offer a comprehensive interdepartmental research and training program. At the Technical University of Munich (TUM), a full Master of Science (MSc) course in radiation biology has been established. This article describes the TUM MSc radiation biology program, discusses the scope of the field, the teaching goals, and the interdisciplinary curriculum. Detailed information on the full MSc program can be found continuously updated at www.radonc.med.tum.de/masterradiationbiology.

  2. Reciprocal relations between parents' physical discipline and children's externalizing behavior during middle childhood and adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansford, Jennifer E; Criss, Michael M; Laird, Robert D; Shaw, Daniel S; Pettit, Gregory S; Bates, John E; Dodge, Kenneth A

    2011-02-01

    Using data from two long-term longitudinal projects, we investigated reciprocal relations between maternal reports of physical discipline and teacher and self-ratings of child externalizing behavior, accounting for continuity in both discipline and externalizing over time. In Study 1, which followed a community sample of 562 boys and girls from age 6 to 9, high levels of physical discipline in a given year predicted high levels of externalizing behavior in the next year, and externalizing behavior in a given year predicted high levels of physical discipline in the next year. In Study 2, which followed an independent sample of 290 lower income, higher risk boys from age 10 to 15, mother-reported physical discipline in a given year predicted child ratings of antisocial behavior in the next year, but child antisocial behavior in a given year did not predict parents' use of physical discipline in the next year. In neither sample was there evidence that associations between physical discipline and child externalizing changed as the child aged, and findings were not moderated by gender, race, socioeconomic status, or the severity of the physical discipline. Implications for the reciprocal nature of the socialization process and the risks associated with physical discipline are discussed.

  3. Relations between harsh discipline from teachers, perceived teacher support, and bullying victimization among high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banzon-Librojo, Lorelie Ann; Garabiles, Melissa R; Alampay, Liane Peña

    2017-06-01

    This study examined how the experience of harsh discipline from teachers is related to students' experience of bullying victimization in a Philippine high school. Respondents were 401 first- to fourth-year high school students of an urban public school in the Philippines. Using structural equation modeling, a hypothesized model with direct associations between harsh discipline and bullying victimization, and an indirect path via students' perception of teacher support, was tested. The data adequately fit the model and showed that experiences of harsh teacher discipline predicted higher bullying victimization and students' negative perception of teacher support. There were no significant indirect effects. The findings suggest that school discipline strategies may have repercussions on students' behaviors and relationships, highlighting the teacher's role in modeling and setting norms for acceptable behaviors. Future studies can examine further how teachers' harsh or positive discipline behaviors relate to bullying. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Quantifying discipline practices using absolute versus relative frequencies: clinical and research implications for child welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindhiem, Oliver; Shaffer, Anne; Kolko, David J

    2014-01-01

    In the parent intervention outcome literatures, discipline practices are generally quantified as absolute frequencies or, less commonly, as relative frequencies. These differences in methodology warrant direct comparison as they have critical implications for study results and conclusions among treatments targeted at reducing parental aggression and harsh discipline. In this study, we directly compared the absolute frequency method and the relative frequency method for quantifying physically aggressive, psychologically aggressive, and nonaggressive discipline practices. Longitudinal data over a 3-year period came from an existing data set of a clinical trial examining the effectiveness of a psychosocial treatment in reducing parental physical and psychological aggression and improving child behavior (N = 139). Discipline practices (aggressive and nonaggressive) were assessed using the Conflict Tactics Scale. The two methods yielded different patterns of results, particularly for nonaggressive discipline strategies. We suggest that each method makes its own unique contribution to a more complete understanding of the association between parental aggression and intervention effects.

  5. Forming of educational motivation of students to direction of preparation «Health of a man» in the process of study of medical and biological disciplines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babich N.L.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The features of forming of educational motivation of students are considered in the process of study of disciplines of medical and biological disciplines. 73 students took part in research. The analysis of publications is resulted in relation to determination of category vehicle of the probed problem, classification of educational reasons; motivational technologies of studies; correlation of reasons of educational activity of students. It is certain and grounded pedagogical terms of forming positive educational motivation of students on the example of study of discipline «Anatomy of timber-toe by bases of sporting morphology». It is recommended in the process of study of the rich in content modules of discipline to make examples of widespread diseases of the different systems and organs. It is set that the noted examples allow directly to influence on forming of educational motivation of students.

  6. The influence of academic discourses on medical students' identification with the discipline of family medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Charo; López-Roig, Sofía; Pawlikowska, Teresa; Schweyer, François-Xavier; Bélanger, Emmanuelle; Pastor-Mira, Maria Angeles; Hugé, Sandrine; Spencer, Sarah; Lévasseur, Gwenola; Whitehead, Ian; Tellier, Pierre-Paul

    2015-05-01

    To understand the influence of academic discourses about family medicine on medical students' professional identity construction during undergraduate training. The authors used a multiple case study research design involving international medical schools, one each from Canada, France, Spain, and the United Kingdom (UK). The authors completed the fieldwork between 2007 and 2009 by conducting 18 focus groups (with 132 students) and 67 semistructured interviews with educators and by gathering pertinent institutional documents. They carried out discursive thematic analyses of the verbatim transcripts and then performed within- and cross-case analyses. The most striking finding was the diverging responses between those at the UK school and those at the other schools. In the UK case, family medicine was recognized as a prestigious academic discipline; students and faculty praised the knowledge and skills of family physicians, and students more often indicated their intent to pursue family medicine. In the other cases, family medicine was not well regarded by students or faculty. This was expressed overtly or through a paradoxical academic discourse that stressed the importance of family medicine to the health care system while decrying its lack of innovative technology and the large workload-to-income ratio. Students at these schools were less likely to consider family medicine. These results stress the influence of academic discourses on medical students' ability to identify with the practice of family medicine. Educators must consider processes of professional identity formation during undergraduate medical training as they develop and reform medical education.

  7. [Family medicine as a medical specialty and an academic discipline in the medical students' assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krztoń-Królewiecka, Anna; Jarczewska, Dorota Łucja; Windak, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Family medicine has been recognized as the key element of a good health care system. Despite the significance of the family physician's role the number of medical students choosing to train in family medicine has been declining in recent years. The aim of this study was to describe opinions about family medicine and family medicine teaching among medical students. A cross sectional study with an anonymous questionnaire was carried out. The study population was all sixth-year students in Faculty Medicine of Jagiellonian University Medical College, who completed family medicine course in winter semester of academic year 2012/2013. 111 students filled in the questionnaire. The response rate was 84.1%. Less than one third of respondents (30.6%) considered family medicine as a future career choice. Almost all students recognized responsibility of the family doctor for the health of community. 52% of respondents agreed that the family doctor is competent to provide most of the health care an individual may require. Experience from family medicine course was according to the students the most important factor influencing their opinions. Medical students appreciate the social role of family doctors. Family medicine teachers should not only pass on knowledge, but they also should encourage medical students to family medicine as a future career choice.

  8. THE ALGORITHM OF THE CASE FORMATION DURING THE DEVELOPMENT OF CLINICAL DISCIPLINES IN MEDICAL SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey A. Garanin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to develop the algorithm of formation of the case on discipline «Clinical Medicine». Methods. The methods involve the effectiveness analysis of the self-diagnosed levels of professional and personal abilities of students in the process of self-study. Results. The article deals with the organization of independent work of students of case-method, which is one of the most important and complex active learning methods. When implementing the method of case analysis in the educational process the main job of the teacher focused on the development of individual cases. While developing the case study of medical character the teacher needs to pay special attention to questions of pathogenesis and pathological anatomy for students’ formation of the fundamental clinical thinking allowing to estimate the patient’s condition as a complete organism, taking into account all its features, to understand the relationships of cause and effect arising at development of a concrete disease, to master new and to improve the available techniques of statement of the differential diagnosis. Scientific novelty and practical significance. The structure of a medical case study to be followed in the development of the case on discipline «Clinical Medicine» is proposed. Unification algorithm formation cases is necessary for the full implementation of the introduction in the educational process in the higher medical school as one of the most effective active ways of learning – method of case analysis, in accordance with the requirements that apply to higher professional education modern reforms and, in particular, the introduction of new Federal State Educational Standards. 

  9. Subject and discipline-specific publication trends in South African medical research, 1996�2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahir S. Pillay

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Medical and health sciences institutions and organisations are faced with challenges in resource allocation for research and publishing. The aim of this study was to retrospectively analyse South African publication trends in medicine to provide guidance for future strategic planning in academic medicine. We used the Scimago database spanning the years 1996–2011 to analyse South African publication outputs in a number of categories in medicine, as defined in the Scopus database. The data reveal a number of significant growth areas but also reveal areas that should potentially be growing but remain static. In some areas, growth has aligned with the expectations of health and disease trends, but other areas, in which growth would have been expected, have remained static. Interesting features are also revealed when the data are compared with those of other developed and developing countries. For 1996–2011, South African medical publication output ranked 33 in the world based on the number of publications, but 28 based on the h-index. Interestingly, whilst South Africa produced less than 25% of the output of India, the h-index for South Africa is 153 compared with 145 for India. South Africa’s medical publication output has steadily increased over the 14-year period but the number of citations per document has declined. This analysis provides a useful strategic overview for medical institutions and government funding organisations to guide the allocation of research budgets and resources in a discipline- or category-specific manner to influence research outputs.

  10. Quantifying Discipline Practices Using Absolute vs. Relative Frequencies: Clinical and Research Implications for Child Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindhiem, Oliver; Shaffer, Anne; Kolko, David J.

    2014-01-01

    In the parent intervention outcome literatures, discipline practices are generally quantified as absolute frequencies or, less commonly, as relative frequencies. These differences in methodology warrant direct comparison as they have critical implications for study results and conclusions among treatments targeted at reducing parental aggression and harsh discipline. In this study, we directly compared the absolute frequency method and the relative frequency method for quantifying physically aggressive, psychologically aggressive, and nonaggressive discipline practices. Longitudinal data over a 3-year period came from an existing data set of a clinical trial examining the effectiveness of a psychosocial treatment in reducing parental physical and psychological aggression and improving child behavior (N = 139; Kolko et al., 2009). Discipline practices (both aggressive and nonaggressive) were assessed using the Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS; Straus et al., 1998). The two methods yielded different patterns of results, particularly for nonaggressive discipline strategies. We suggest that each method makes its own unique contribution to a more complete understanding of the association between parental aggression and intervention effects. PMID:24106146

  11. Reporting transfusion-related acute lung injury by clinical and preclinical disciplines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Anna L.; van de Weerdt, Emma K.; Goudswaard, Eline J.; Binnekade, Jan M.; Zwaginga, Jaap J.; Beckers, Erik A. M.; Zeerleder, Sacha S.; van Kraaij, Marian G. J.; Juffermans, Nicole P.; Vlaar, Alexander P. J.

    2017-01-01

    Disciplines involved in diagnosing transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) report according to a "one-hit" theory. However, studies showed that patients with an underlying condition are at increased risk of the development of TRALI. We investigated whether accumulating evidence on the

  12. Understanding Preemptive Parenting: Relations with Toddlers' Misbehavior, Overreactive and Lax Discipline, and Praise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Carey Bernini; Slep, Amy M. Smith; O'Leary, Susan G.

    2009-01-01

    The relations among preemptive parenting (i.e., a hypothetical set of strategies parents can use prior to child misbehavior that serves to prevent or avoid undesirable child behaviors), dysfunctional discipline, and praise were examined. Forty mother-toddler (M age = 26.15 months, SD = 5.60) dyads interacted in a standard laboratory task designed…

  13. Research Article Abstracts in Two Related Disciplines: Rhetorical Variation between Linguistics and Applied Linguistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suntara, Watinee; Usaha, Siriluck

    2013-01-01

    The previous studies on abstracts (e.g., Santos, 1996; Samraj, 2002; Pho, 2008) illustrate that disciplinary variation in research article abstracts is discernible. However, the studies of abstracts from two related disciplines are still limited. The present study aimed to explore the rhetorical moves of abstracts in the fields of linguistics and…

  14. Current status of medical and veterinary entomology in France: endangered discipline or promising science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuisance, Dominique; Antoine Rioux, Jean

    2004-09-01

    Following alarming statements (French Senate, Académie des Sciences) on the present situation concerning entomology and systematics in France, the Conseil Général Vétérinaire designated one of us (D.C.) to carry out a survey on the status of medical and veterinary entomology (MVE) with respect to research orientations and university curricula. Around 100 participants, including scientists, teachers and several directors of research and educational bodies, were interviewed and filled in questionnaires for this survey. On the basis of the results, it was concluded that the deterioration of MVE in France is associated with: (1) the hasty reorganisation of training and research in the life sciences, leading to the disappearance of several disciplines. Hence, the postgraduate DEA degree in entomology was eliminated, and even the name 'entomology' no longer appears in teaching programmes or on research contracts; (2) France's withdrawal from action research programmes in developing countries. Although these programmes were efficient in controlling outbreaks of major endemic diseases, integrated pest and vector management programmes have been replaced by basic health care ('Health for everyone in 2000') and vaccination programmes; (3) the general shift from field to laboratory research, focused mainly on molecular mechanisms. The survey results confirmed generally acknowledged trends concerning many points and highlighted several specific problems, such as the disappearance of systematics experts. Several potential solutions are proposed.

  15. Discipline Admonished

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Peter Marcus

    2016-01-01

    the discipline. Today, most stocktakers argue, International Relations has moved beyond great debate — the very symbol of the discipline — and is undergoing fragmentation. For some scholars, fragmentation is caused by the lack of any great structuring debate and a proliferation of less-than-great theories......The International Relations discipline has recently witnessed a wave of stocktakings and they surprisingly often follow the narrative that the discipline once revolved around all-encompassing great debates, which, either neatly or claustrophobically depending on the stocktaker, organized....... To others, fragmentation is a result of the divisive great debates themselves. When stocktakers portray fragmentation as novelty, however, they neglect the prominent historical record of this fragmentation narrative. By rereading stocktaking exercises from the 1940s to today, this article argues...

  16. Measuring Reasoning about Teaching for Graduate Admissions in Psychology and Related Disciplines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Sternberg

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Teaching- and teaching-evaluation skills are critically important to professional success in psychology and related disciplines. We explored the possibility of measuring reasoning-about-teaching skills as a supplementary measure for admissions in psychology and related behavioral-sciences disciplines. We tested 103 students for their reasoning about teaching and their reasoning about research, as well as for their cognitive- (abstract reasoning and educational skills. We found that women performed better than men on our reasoning-about-teaching measure, and that factorially, our reasoning-about-teaching measure clustered with our reasoning-about-research measures but not with our measures of abstract cognitive reasoning and educational skills.

  17. Reciprocal Relations Between Parents’ Physical Discipline and Children’s Externalizing Behavior During Middle Childhood and Adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Lansford, Jennifer E.; Criss, Michael M.; Laird, Robert D.; Daniel S Shaw; Pettit, Gregory S.; Bates, John E.; Dodge, Kenneth A.

    2011-01-01

    Using data from two long-term longitudinal projects, we investigated reciprocal relations between maternal reports of physical discipline and teacher and self ratings of child externalizing behavior, accounting for continuity in both discipline and externalizing over time. In Study 1, which followed a community sample of 562 boys and girls from age 6–9, high levels of physical discipline in a given year predicted high levels of externalizing behavior in the next year, and externalizing behavi...

  18. Child language and parent discipline mediate the relation between family income and false belief understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, Virginia; Logan, Jessica A R; Blosser, Daniel F; Duffy, Kaylin

    2017-06-01

    Achieving false belief understanding is an important cognitive milestone that allows children to understand that thoughts and reality can differ. Researchers have found that low-income children score significantly lower than middle-income children on false belief understanding but have not examined why this difference exists. We hypothesized that children's language and parent discipline mediate the income-false belief relation. Participants were 174 3- to 6-year-olds. False belief understanding was significantly correlated with family income, children's vocabulary, parents' self-reported discussion of children's behavior, discussion of emotions, and power assertion. Family income had a significant indirect effect on false belief understanding through children's vocabulary and parent discipline when examined independently, but only through children's vocabulary when using parallel multiple mediation. This study contributes to our knowledge of individual differences in false belief understanding. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Reciprocal Relations Between Harsh Discipline and Children's Externalizing Behavior in China: A 5-Year Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meifang; Liu, Li

    2017-02-01

    This research examined the overtime reciprocal relations between maternal and paternal harsh discipline and children's externalizing behavior. Seven hundred two father-mother dyads of children (6-9 years of age at baseline) completed measures of parental harsh discipline and children's externalizing behavior at five time points, 1 year apart. Autoregressive latent trajectory models revealed that maternal and paternal corporal punishment predicted subsequent children's externalizing behavior (parent-driven effects), whereas children's externalizing behavior predicted subsequent maternal and paternal psychological aggression (child-driven effects). The parent-driven effects became stronger, whereas the child-driven effects were equally strong across time. Furthermore, the parent-driven effects for corporal punishment were found for both boys and girls, whereas the child-driven effects for psychological aggression were found only for boys. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  20. [The construction of a medical discipline and its challenges: Orthopedics in Switzerland during the 19th and 20th centuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaba, Mariama

    2015-07-01

    During the 19th century, numerous figures, with different qualifications, claimed to practice orthopedics: doctors, surgeons, inventors of equipment and instruments, and other empiricists. They performed certain types of techniques, massages, surgical operationsand/or fitted prostheses. The polysemous notion of orthopedics had created conflicts of interest that would reach their height at the end of the 19th century. The integration of orthopedics into the training at the university level enhanced its proximity to surgery, a discipline that has dominated the so-called modern medicine. During the 20th century, various medical branches defend the legitimacy of certain orthopedic practices, thereby threating to a degree the title itself of this specialization. By examining the challenges that have shaped the history of orthopedics in Switzerland, this article also seeks to shed light on the strategies that were implemented in adopting a medical and technical discipline within a transforming society.

  1. Branding your medical practice with effective public relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trent, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    Whether you think of it as your image, your standing in the community, or your reputation, your medical practice is also a brand. While many organizations, companies, products, and services are known for specific attributes that make them stand out from competitors, most use a combination of marketing disciplines to communicate who and what they are to their customers, consumers, and patients. Public relations is often considered the most powerful, cost-effective, and efficacious of the marketing disciplines, surpassing advertising, promotion, and direct mail in molding and developing brands. Your practice can benefit from a well-crafted branding public relations program.

  2. Is International Relations still an American social science discipline in Latin America?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael A. Duarte Villa

    Full Text Available Abstract Over the last 40 years, investigations have shown the discipline of International Relations to reproduce the American influence on its methods, paradigms, and institutional dynamics. This article explores the case for the Latin American community, based on the survey data from the Teaching, Research, and International Politics project (TRIP 2014 developed by the Institute for the Theory and Practice of International Relations of the College of William and Mary, Virginia (USA. TRIP evaluated International Relations communities in 32 countries around the world. The article aims to answer two main questions: (i is American influence still dominant over epistemological, methodological, paradigmatic, and institutional representative terms in Latin American International Relations communities, as has been considered in the past? (ii Is there in the region any contestation to this supposed influence? Primarily, the present article shows an affirmative answer for the first issue. Therefore, and most importantly, the data analysis shows upcoming local pressures rooted in American influence, especially on its epistemic and paradigmatic terms. The data strengthens the miscegenation tendency on its epistemological and paradigmatic aspects, which underlines a lack of consensus over the structure of American dominance over the discipline of International Relations in Latin America, especially if one observes the most numerous and structured group in the region: the Brazilian International Relations community.

  3. Differences in the Students' Perceptions on the Teaching of Neuroanatomy in a Medical Curriculum Organized by Disciplines and an Integrated Medical Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arantes, Mavilde; Barbosa, Joselina; Ferreira, Maria Amélia

    2017-01-31

    On the subject of curriculum reform, most European medical schools are moving away from an educational approach consisting of discipline-based courses to an integrated curriculum. The aim of this study was to compare, in the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Porto, Portugal, the teaching of neuroanatomy in a medical curriculum organized by disciplines and in an integrated medical curriculum. Two hundred sixty one students who completed the Curricular Unit with a discipline-based approach (Neuroanatomy) and 202 students who completed it with an integrated approach (Morphophysiology of the Nervous System) were asked to complete a questionnaire on their perceptions about the Curricular Unit. Our study showed that students of the Curricular Unit with a discipline-based approach had higher grades and evaluated it higher than students who followed the integrated approach. However, it also showed that students' grades had a significant effect on the evaluation of the curricular unit, with students with higher grades evaluating higher than students with lower grades. Besides, the majority of the students of the Curricular Unit with an integrated approach appreciated this curriculum model and highlighted as a positive point the successful integration of contents covered in the three components of the curricular unit. The curriculum reform led to the integration of neuroanatomy with other disciplines and resulted in a reduction of the teaching hours, a redefinition of the syllabus contents and the students' learning objectives, the introduction of new educational methods and changes in the evaluation system. Our study could not prove conclusively the supremacy of one pedagogic approach to neuroanatomy over the other. Future initiatives to explore different pedagogical models in medical education are needed and should be of major concern to the medical faculty.

  4. Reciprocal Relations Between Parents’ Physical Discipline and Children’s Externalizing Behavior During Middle Childhood and Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansford, Jennifer E.; Criss, Michael M.; Laird, Robert D.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Bates, John E.; Dodge, Kenneth A.

    2010-01-01

    Using data from two long-term longitudinal projects, we investigated reciprocal relations between maternal reports of physical discipline and teacher and self ratings of child externalizing behavior, accounting for continuity in both discipline and externalizing over time. In Study 1, which followed a community sample of 562 boys and girls from age 6–9, high levels of physical discipline in a given year predicted high levels of externalizing behavior in the next year, and externalizing behavior in a given year predicted high levels of physical discipline in the next year. In Study 2, which followed an independent sample of 290 lower income, higher risk boys from age 10–15, mother-reported physical discipline in a given year predicted child ratings of antisocial behavior in the next year, but child antisocial behavior in a given year did not predict parents’ use of physical discipline in the next year. In neither sample was there evidence that associations between physical discipline and child externalizing changed as the child aged, and findings were not moderated by gender, race, socioeconomic status, or the severity of the physical discipline. Implications for the reciprocal nature of the socialization process and the risks associated with physical discipline are discussed. PMID:21262050

  5. History and Guideline of Emergency Medicine Residency Discipline in Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Iran; Review of 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Shojaee

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Since many years ago several problems have been felt in emergency departments (ED of hospitals. In fact, none of physicians in the hospital have accepted the direct responsibility of patients’ management in the EDs and emergency wards of University centers have been managed by residents of various disciplines. Thus, the first line of therapy does not have guardian and several consultants with various specialists have been performed regarding patient’s management. The necessity of physician training was noticed for the first time in 1950 and after 24 years in 1974, the academic emergency medicine was established in United States of America (USA in response to people expectations for overnight accessibility to specialized and quality medical cares. It was performed with foundation of the first period of resident’s training in emergency medicine discipline at University of Cincinnati, Ohio. At beginning, specialists of different fields such as internal medicine, surgery, anesthesia, orthopedics, and neurosurgery initiated the training of emergency medicine residents together which could be responsible to most of referees. Finally, with formal accepting the specialty board in 1978, this field has been officially identified as the 23th discipline in USA. Today the EDs of most hospitals in European and American countries has been managing by emergency medicine specialists which leads to improve the quality of education and treatment, significantly. Also in Iran the request of establishing this major has been presented in the secretariat of the council for graduate medical education for the first time in 1996. This request was approved and principles of its initiating recognized officially by the ministry of health. But, considering to lack of an appropriate infrastructure, it postponed until 2000 that again this discipline was missioned for initiating to the council for graduate medical education by the minister and its outcome was

  6. HIV/AIDS in the visual arts: applying discipline-based art education (DBAE) to medical humanities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapajos, Ricardo

    2003-06-01

    Health professions educators have been systematically attempting to insert the humanities into health professions curricula for over 4 decades, with various degrees of success. Among the several medical humanities, the visual arts seem particularly adequate for the teaching/learning of crucial aspects of medicine. Educational efforts in the arts require, however, a sound pedagogical philosophy of art education. Health professions educators need therefore to be aware of educational frameworks in the arts. Discipline-based art education (DBAE) is a recognised contemporary educational framework for the teaching/learning of the arts, which may be adapted to medical humanities. It is the ultimate objective of this essay to share the experience of applying this educational framework to a course in a medical curriculum. The author describes a course on the representations of HIV/AIDS in the visual arts, with explicit reference to its objectives, content, instructional features and student assessment in the light of DBAE, whose principles and characteristics are described in detail. Discipline-based art education may be applied to medical humanities courses in a medical curriculum. This essay throws light on how this structure may be particularly useful for designing other pedagogically sound art courses in health professions curricula.

  7. Racial Discipline Disproportionality in Montessori and Traditional Public Schools: A Comparative Study Using the Relative Rate Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie E. Brown

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Research from the past 40 years indicates that African American students are subjected to exclusionary discipline, including suspension and expulsion, at rates two to three times higher than their White peers (Children’s Defense Fund, 1975; Skiba, Michael, Nardo, & Peterson, 2002. Although this phenomenon has been studied extensively in traditional public schools, rates of racially disproportionate discipline in public Montessori schools have not been examined. The purpose of this study is to examine racial discipline disproportionality in Montessori public elementary schools as compared to traditional elementary schools. The Relative Rate Index (RRI is used as a measure of racially disproportionate use of out-of-school suspensions (Tobin & Vincent, 2011. Suspension data from the Office of Civil Rights Data Collection was used to generate RRIs for Montessori and traditional elementary schools in a large urban district in the Southeast. While statistically significant levels of racial discipline disproportionality are found in both the Montessori and traditional schools, the effect is substantially less pronounced in Montessori settings. These findings suggest that Montessori schools are not immune to racially disproportionate discipline and should work to incorporate more culturally responsive classroom management techniques. Conversely, the lower levels of racially disproportionate discipline in the Montessori schools suggests that further study of discipline in Montessori environments may provide lessons for traditional schools to promote equitable discipline.

  8. Attitudes towards doping and related experience in Spanish national cycling teams according to different Olympic disciplines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morente-Sánchez, Jaime; Mateo-March, Manuel; Zabala, Mikel

    2013-01-01

    Attitudes towards doping are considered an influence of doping intentions. The aims of the present study were 1) to discover and compare the attitudes towards doping among Spanish national team cyclists from different Olympic disciplines, as well as 2) to get some complementary information that could better explain the context. The sample was comprised of seventy-two cyclists: mean age 19.67±4.72 years; 70.8% males (n = 51); from the different Olympic disciplines of Mountain bike -MTB- (n = 18), Bicycle Moto Cross -BMX- (n = 12), Track -TRA- (n = 9) and Road -ROA- (n = 33). Descriptive design was carried out using a validated scale (PEAS). To complement this, a qualitative open-ended questionnaire was used. Overall mean score (17-102) was 36.12±9.39. For different groups, the data were: MTB: 30.28±6.92; BMX: 42.46±10.74; TRA: 43.22±12.00; ROA: 34.91±6.62, respectively. In relation to overall score, significant differences were observed between MTB and BMX (p = 0.002) and between MTB and TRA (p = 0.003). For the open-ended qualitative questionnaire, the most mentioned word associated with "doping" was "cheating" (48.83% of total sample), with "responsible agents of doping" the word "doctor" (52,77%), and with the "main reason for the initiation in doping" the words "sport achievement" (45.83%). The major proposed solution was "doing more doping controls" (43.05%). Moreover, 48.67% stated that there was "a different treatment between cycling and other sports". This study shows that Spanish national team cyclists from Olympic cycling disciplines, in general, are not tolerant in relation to doping. BMX and Track riders are a little more permissive towards the use of banned substances than MTB and Road. Results from the qualitative open-ended questionnaire showed interesting data in specific questions. These results empower the idea that, apart from maintaining doping controls and making them more efficient, anti-doping education

  9. Attitudes towards doping and related experience in Spanish national cycling teams according to different Olympic disciplines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Morente-Sánchez

    Full Text Available Attitudes towards doping are considered an influence of doping intentions. The aims of the present study were 1 to discover and compare the attitudes towards doping among Spanish national team cyclists from different Olympic disciplines, as well as 2 to get some complementary information that could better explain the context. The sample was comprised of seventy-two cyclists: mean age 19.67±4.72 years; 70.8% males (n = 51; from the different Olympic disciplines of Mountain bike -MTB- (n = 18, Bicycle Moto Cross -BMX- (n = 12, Track -TRA- (n = 9 and Road -ROA- (n = 33. Descriptive design was carried out using a validated scale (PEAS. To complement this, a qualitative open-ended questionnaire was used. Overall mean score (17-102 was 36.12±9.39. For different groups, the data were: MTB: 30.28±6.92; BMX: 42.46±10.74; TRA: 43.22±12.00; ROA: 34.91±6.62, respectively. In relation to overall score, significant differences were observed between MTB and BMX (p = 0.002 and between MTB and TRA (p = 0.003. For the open-ended qualitative questionnaire, the most mentioned word associated with "doping" was "cheating" (48.83% of total sample, with "responsible agents of doping" the word "doctor" (52,77%, and with the "main reason for the initiation in doping" the words "sport achievement" (45.83%. The major proposed solution was "doing more doping controls" (43.05%. Moreover, 48.67% stated that there was "a different treatment between cycling and other sports". This study shows that Spanish national team cyclists from Olympic cycling disciplines, in general, are not tolerant in relation to doping. BMX and Track riders are a little more permissive towards the use of banned substances than MTB and Road. Results from the qualitative open-ended questionnaire showed interesting data in specific questions. These results empower the idea that, apart from maintaining doping controls and making them more efficient, anti-doping education

  10. The Relative Contribution of Subjective Office Referrals to Racial Disproportionality in School Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girvan, Erik J.; Gion, Cody; McIntosh, Kent; Smolkowski, Keith

    2017-01-01

    To improve our understanding of where to target interventions, the study examined the extent to which school discipline disproportionality between African American and White students was attributable to racial disparities in teachers' discretionary versus nondiscretionary decisions. The sample consisted of office discipline referral (ODR) records…

  11. [Work-Related Medical Rehabilitation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethge, M

    2017-02-01

    Work-related medical rehabilitation (WMR) is a strategy to improve work participation in patients with poor work ability. This review summarizes the state of knowledge on WMR. The prevalence of poor work ability and corresponding need for WMR is high (musculoskeletal disorders: 43%; mental disorders: 57%). The meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials in patients with musculoskeletal disorders shows better return to work outcomes after one year in favor of WMR patients than compared to patients participating in usual medical rehabilitation. The amount of work-related measures in rehabilitation was clearly increased during recent years. A direct involvement of the workplace and a closer cooperation with employers and occupational health physicians may further improve the outcomes of WMR. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Race and Ethnicity in School Psychology Publications: A Content Analysis and Comparison to Publications in Related Disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noltemeyer, Amity L.; Proctor, Sherrie L.; Dempsey, Allison

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has examined the quantity and types of diversity-related research in the field of school psychology, revealing gaps in the literature. Extension of this line of research with current data and comparison to related disciplines is needed. This study used content analysis to address these issues, with a specific focus on the racial…

  13. Subject and discipline-specific publication trends in South African medical research, 1996�2011

    OpenAIRE

    Tahir S. Pillay

    2013-01-01

    Medical and health sciences institutions and organisations are faced with challenges in resource allocation for research and publishing. The aim of this study was to retrospectively analyse South African publication trends in medicine to provide guidance for future strategic planning in academic medicine. We used the Scimago database spanning the years 1996–2011 to analyse South African publication outputs in a number of categories in medicine, as defined in the Scopus database. The data reve...

  14. Magic Mountains and Multi-disciplines in International Medical Mobilities; Comment on “Patient Mobility in the Global Marketplace: A Multidisciplinary Perspective”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Mainil

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Medical mobilities offer both opportunities and challenges. This tension follows the same ratio as many other historic fora, but offers at the same time a sustainable equilibrium. Multi-disciplines are, therefore, the key to the medical lifeworld for the global health and well-being of transnational health users around the globe.

  15. Rhode Island Board of Medical Licensure and Discipline: Illustration of the disciplinary process as it pertains to cases involving opioid prescribing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, James V

    Prescription-drug overuse/overdose and misuse is an important and pivotal issue to state medical boards. This is an illustration of how some cases involving overprescribing of opioids have been addressed by the Rhode Island Board of Medical Licensure and Discipline.

  16. Renaissance Scientists: Collaboration across disciplines to meet the world's water-related challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwelle, M. C.

    2014-12-01

    Water is the source for pressures throughout the world as supplies of freshwater become more scarce and stressed. These pressures can be realized through the lens of water science, policy, geopolitics, food security, and even military conflicts. Combined with a boom in global population, these pressures provide wide-reaching problems that need to be addressed presently and in the future across many disciplines including the sciences, engineering, economics, and policy. These issues lead to a complex system of problems that cannot be addressed without a multidisciplinary approach. As we enter a world where regions of water scarcity become the norm, water scientists and engineers need to be at the table - with experts in other fields - shaping solutions in the areas of policy, disaster response, and management. I will argue that, as early-career scientists, there are exciting new challenges that are open, or will be opening, to us as experts in our respective fields. I will also provide my insights and opinions as to what we can do to position ourselves to impact these issues. These beliefs form the basis of the "Renaissance scientist," taking its name from the polymaths of the Renaissance and Enlightenment. The name suggests that we need to not only leverage our own area expertise, but also be able to effectively learn from and communicate with experts in seemingly diverse fields to meet the world's water-related challenges.

  17. Dividing Discipline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Peter Marcus

    2012-01-01

    the periphery of the network—security studies and international political economy in particular—but communication is also divided along the lines of geography and policy/theory. The article concludes that divisions notwithstanding, IR communication remains centered around American, general, and theoretical IR...... than 20,000 articles published in 59 IR journals to construct a network among IR journals and finds a discipline with a center consisting of pedigreed IR journals, albeit closely related to political science. Divisions are identifiable as specialty areas that form clusters of specialized journals along...

  18. Variation in Acceptable Child Discipline Practices by Child Age: Perceptions of Community Norms by Medical and Legal Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Stephanie D; Poplin, Ashlee Burgess; Wang, Eric S; Widaman, Keith F; Runyan, Desmond K

    2016-01-01

    Mandated child abuse reporters may judge specific disciplinary practices as unacceptable for young children, whereas child law professionals arbitrating allegations may be less inclusive. Do the views of these groups diverge, by child age, regarding discipline? Judgments of community norms across a wide range of children's ages were obtained from 380 medical and legal professionals. Because the Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scale (PC-CTS) can be used to assess the epidemiology of child disciplinary behaviors and as a proxy to examine the incidence or prevalence of child abuse, the disciplinary practices described on the PC-CTS were presented as triggers for questions. Significant child age effects were found for disciplinary practices classified as "harsh." The consistencies between legal and medical professionals were striking. Both groups reflected changes in United States norms, as non-physical approaches were the most approved. We conclude that instruments estimating the prevalence of child maltreatment by parent-report should consider modifying how specific disciplinary practices are classified. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Reciprocal Relations between the Trajectories of Mothers' Harsh Discipline, Responsiveness and Aggression in Early Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baydar, Nazli; Akcinar, Berna

    2017-02-18

    Theoretical advances in the study of the development of aggressive behaviors indicate that parenting behaviors and child aggression mutually influence one another. This study contributes to the body of empirical research in this area by examining the development of child aggression, maternal responsiveness, and maternal harsh discipline, using 5-year longitudinal data from a nationally representative sample of Turkish children (n = 1009; 469 girls and 582 boys). Results indicated that: (i) maternal responsiveness and harsh discipline at age 3 were associated with the subsequent linear trajectory of aggression; (ii) reciprocally, aggressive behaviors at age 3 were associated with the subsequent linear trajectories of these two types of parenting behaviors; (iii) deviations from the linear trajectories of the child and mother behaviors tended to be short lived; and, (iv) the deviations of child behaviors from the linear trajectories were associated with the subsequent changes in mother behaviors after age 5. These findings are discussed in the cultural context of this study.

  20. Relations between Tourism and Sport in the Context of Tourism as an Academic Discipline

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jacek Kotus

    2016-01-01

    ...). If so, is such activity still tourism activity? Or perhaps these types of ‘sport-tourist’ activities should be excluded from discussion on tourism as an academic discipline because of their non-tourist character? The author assumes that there is an exploratory and cognitive zone between these two areas of social activity, going beyond both tourism and sport. Tourist activity and sport activity in fact differ from each other.

  1. a Laboratory-Based X-Ray Phase Contrast Imaging Scanner with Applications in Biomedical and Non-Medical Disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, C. K.; Diemoz, P. C.; Endrizzi, M.; Munro, P. R. T.; Szafraniec, M. B.; Millard, T. P.; Speller, R.; Olivo, D. A.

    2014-02-01

    X-ray phase contrast imaging (XPCi) provides a much higher visibility of low-absorbing details than conventional, attenuation-based radiography. This is due to the fact that image contrast is determined by the unit decrement of the real part of the complex refractive index of an object rather than by its imaginary part (the absorption coefficient), which can be up to 1000 times larger for energies in the X-ray regime. This finds applications in many areas, including medicine, biology, material testing, and homeland security. Until lately, XPCi has been restricted to synchrotron facilities due to its demanding coherence requirements on the radiation source. However, edge illumination XPCi, first developed by one of the authors at the ELETTRA Synchrotron in Italy, substantially relaxes these requirements and therefore provides options to overcome this problem. Our group has built a prototype scanner that adapts the edge-illumination concept to standard laboratory conditions and extends it to large fields of view. This is based on X-ray sources and detectors available off the shelf, and its use has led to impressive results in mammography, cartilage imaging, testing of composite materials and security inspection. This article presents the method and the scanner prototype, and reviews its applications in selected biomedical and non-medical disciplines.

  2. Determinants of academic stress and stress-related self- medication ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of self-medication was 31.58 and 29.20 % among pharmacy and medical students, respectively. ... self-medication. Conclusion: Academic stress in undergraduate students in health disciplines is perceived to be high by the students. Examinations, course load and lack of ..... opinion and any grammatical or language errors.

  3. DISCIPLINE OR CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Bulent Tarman

    2016-01-01

    The purposes of this literature review are twofold. Firstly, it explains discipline and causes of students’ misbehavior and classroom management. In this sense, this review focuses on discipline in the conflict of the educational platform elements; and related the philosophic literature. Secondly, this review draws a conclusion by summarizing the opinions and influencing of discipline upon school environment and students’ learning. In this regard, this study discusses two models for dealing w...

  4. ADHD Medication and Substance-Related Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Patrick D; Chang, Zheng; Hur, Kwan; Gibbons, Robert D; Lahey, Benjamin B; Rickert, Martin E; Sjölander, Arvid; Lichtenstein, Paul; Larsson, Henrik; D'Onofrio, Brian M

    2017-09-01

    Substance use disorders are major contributors to excess mortality among individuals with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), yet associations between pharmacological ADHD treatment and substance-related problems remain unclear. This study investigated concurrent and long-term associations between ADHD medication treatment and substance-related events. The authors analyzed 2005-2014 commercial health care claims from 2,993,887 (47.2% female) adolescent and adult ADHD patients. Within-individual analyses compared the risk of substance-related events (i.e., emergency department visits related to substance use disorders) during months in which patients received prescribed stimulant medication or atomoxetine relative to the risk during months in which they did not. In adjusted within-individual comparisons, relative to periods in which patients did not receive ADHD medication, male patients had 35% lower odds of concurrent substance-related events when receiving medication (odds ratio=0.65, 95% CI=0.64-0.67), and female patients had 31% lower odds of concurrent substance-related events (odds ratio=0.69, 95% CI=0.67-0.71). Moreover, male patients had 19% lower odds of substance-related events 2 years after medication periods (odds ratio=0.81, 95% CI=0.78-0.85), and female patients had 14% lower odds of substance-related events 2 years after medication periods (odds ratio=0.86, 95% CI= 0.82-0.91). Sensitivity analyses supported most findings but were less consistent for long-term associations among women. These results provide evidence that receiving ADHD medication is unlikely to be associated with greater risk of substance-related problems in adolescence or adulthood. Rather, medication was associated with lower concurrent risk of substance-related events and, at least among men, lower long-term risk of future substance-related events.

  5. Dealing with the challenge of building a Biochemistry Program in an integrated Medical curriculum. The need for new didactics, new focal interests, and new connections to other disciplines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A. R. B. Castanho

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Teaching in Health Sciences is rapidly evolving. Medical schools, for instance, are increasingly opting for integrated curricula. Biochemistry no longer is considered a discipline by itself; instead, Biochemistry is a part of a wider universe of knowledge integrated in modulus. These modulus often relate to physiological human body systems or the concept of Organic and Functional Systems. In either case, the bridging between Biochemistry, Histology, Anatomy, Physiology, and Pharmacology is largely explored. This bridging is a challenge in Biochemistry teaching. A second challenge adds to this: the way new generations of students perceive communication is much different than the way knowledge is communicated in classrooms. Modern forms of information exchange are multimedia, fast and interactive; lectures are traditionally descriptive, use classical expositive didactics and highlight detailed disciplinary matters. How to cope with the new challenges in the Biochemistry classroom will be addressed. A new biochemistry textbook, totally conceived for a Biochemistry Program in an integrated curriculum in health sciences at present will be taken as example. The choice of core contents, illustrative examples and the approach to teaching were carefully addressed in light of the new challenges identified above.

  6. DISCIPLINE OR CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulent Tarman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this literature review are twofold. Firstly, it explains discipline and causes of students’ misbehavior and classroom management. In this sense, this review focuses on discipline in the conflict of the educational platform elements; and related the philosophic literature. Secondly, this review draws a conclusion by summarizing the opinions and influencing of discipline upon school environment and students’ learning. In this regard, this study discusses two models for dealing with classroom discipline: psychoanalytic method and behavior modification. Although two models apply different methods for dealing with classroom discipline, this study suggests that, to create a successful classroom management, educators should use both of them instead of applying only the one.

  7. Mothers' Cognitions about Relational Aggression: Associations with Discipline Responses, Children's Normative Beliefs, and Peer Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Nicole E.; Grant, Samantha

    2009-01-01

    Prior research has shown that parental social cognitions are associated with child outcomes such as aggression. The goal of this study was to examine mothers' cognitions about relational aggression, and to explore linkages between mothers' attributions and normative beliefs about aggression and children's competence with peers. Participants…

  8. Discipline as a Source of Public Relations in a Christian School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Brian S.

    2004-01-01

    Christian schools, like all private schools, face the challenge of building and maintaining the confidence of parents and other stakeholders. Their public relations efforts should be rooted in institutional mission and core values, factors that influence parents to elect this educational option. Administrators and others often overlook the fact…

  9. Understanding and Facing Discipline-Related Challenges in the English as a Foreign Language Classroom at Public Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefina Quintero Corzo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Complying with school regulations and teachers' instructions is a basic principle of an excellent class; both novice and experienced teachers face challenging situations when getting into real classrooms, especially those related to classroom management. There are various reasons that explain discipline problems in public schools, as well as varied strategies beginning teachers create and try when coping with those challenges. This article reports an action research study on how this methodology helped a group of teacher-trainees overcome indiscipline in English as a foreign language classrooms at public schools, and align with professional development initiatives which focus on reflection and decision-making processes that the new Colombian policies demand from new teachers seeking a higher quality of education.

  10. Exploring the relation of harsh parental discipline with child emotional and behavioral problems by using multiple informants. The generation R study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenbach, Joreintje D; Ringoot, Ank P; van der Ende, Jan; Verhulst, Frank C; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Hofman, Albert; Jansen, Pauline W; Tiemeier, Henning W

    2014-01-01

    Parental harsh disciplining, like corporal punishment, has consistently been associated with adverse mental health outcomes in children. It remains a challenge to accurately assess the consequences of harsh discipline, as researchers and clinicians generally rely on parent report of young children's problem behaviors. If parents rate their parenting styles and their child's behavior this may bias results. The use of child self-report on problem behaviors is not common but may provide extra information about the relation of harsh parental discipline and problem behavior. We examined the independent contribution of young children's self-report above parental report of emotional and behavioral problems in a study of maternal and paternal harsh discipline in a birth cohort. Maternal and paternal harsh discipline predicted both parent reported behavioral and parent reported emotional problems, but only child reported behavioral problems. Associations were not explained by pre-existing behavioral problems at age 3. Importantly, the association with child reported outcomes was independent from parent reported problem behavior. These results suggest that young children's self-reports of behavioral problems provide unique information on the effects of harsh parental discipline. Inclusion of child self-reports can therefore help estimate the effects of harsh parental discipline more accurately.

  11. Exploring the relation of harsh parental discipline with child emotional and behavioral problems by using multiple informants. The generation R study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joreintje D Mackenbach

    Full Text Available Parental harsh disciplining, like corporal punishment, has consistently been associated with adverse mental health outcomes in children. It remains a challenge to accurately assess the consequences of harsh discipline, as researchers and clinicians generally rely on parent report of young children's problem behaviors. If parents rate their parenting styles and their child's behavior this may bias results. The use of child self-report on problem behaviors is not common but may provide extra information about the relation of harsh parental discipline and problem behavior. We examined the independent contribution of young children's self-report above parental report of emotional and behavioral problems in a study of maternal and paternal harsh discipline in a birth cohort. Maternal and paternal harsh discipline predicted both parent reported behavioral and parent reported emotional problems, but only child reported behavioral problems. Associations were not explained by pre-existing behavioral problems at age 3. Importantly, the association with child reported outcomes was independent from parent reported problem behavior. These results suggest that young children's self-reports of behavioral problems provide unique information on the effects of harsh parental discipline. Inclusion of child self-reports can therefore help estimate the effects of harsh parental discipline more accurately.

  12. Exploring the Relation of Harsh Parental Discipline with Child Emotional and Behavioral Problems by Using Multiple Informants. The Generation R Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenbach, Joreintje D.; Ringoot, Ank P.; van der Ende, Jan; Verhulst, Frank C.; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Hofman, Albert; Jansen, Pauline W.; Tiemeier, Henning W.

    2014-01-01

    Parental harsh disciplining, like corporal punishment, has consistently been associated with adverse mental health outcomes in children. It remains a challenge to accurately assess the consequences of harsh discipline, as researchers and clinicians generally rely on parent report of young children's problem behaviors. If parents rate their parenting styles and their child's behavior this may bias results. The use of child self-report on problem behaviors is not common but may provide extra information about the relation of harsh parental discipline and problem behavior. We examined the independent contribution of young children's self-report above parental report of emotional and behavioral problems in a study of maternal and paternal harsh discipline in a birth cohort. Maternal and paternal harsh discipline predicted both parent reported behavioral and parent reported emotional problems, but only child reported behavioral problems. Associations were not explained by pre-existing behavioral problems at age 3. Importantly, the association with child reported outcomes was independent from parent reported problem behavior. These results suggest that young children's self-reports of behavioral problems provide unique information on the effects of harsh parental discipline. Inclusion of child self-reports can therefore help estimate the effects of harsh parental discipline more accurately. PMID:25120014

  13. Study to assess the compensation and skills of medical library professionals relative to information technology professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weise, F O; McMullen, T D

    2001-07-01

    The study seeks to determine how medical library professionals performing information-technology (IT) roles are compensated and how their positions are designed compared to information technology staff in their institutions. 550 medical library directors in hospital and academic medical libraries were surveyed. The data was then compared to survey data from other compensation studies of the IT industry. There is a gap in compensation between medical library professionals and IT professionals performing similar functions using information technology. Technology-intense library jobs are compensated at higher levels than more traditional jobs. To compete with IT salaries, managers of medical library professionals will need to be ever more cognizant of the employment practices of IT professionals in nonmedical library disciplines. It is typically in the medical library's best interest to ensure that IT-related jobs, accountabilities, and capabilities of the medical library are known and understood by others, especially in the human resources and information technology staff departments.

  14. The relation between antihistamine medication during early ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although many findings provide reassurance about the relative safety of many antihistamine drugs and that any malformation reported is most probably caused by chance, studies are still required to assure fetal safety. As pruritus is sometimes troublesome for pregnant women topical medications like emollients should be ...

  15. Usage of emergency contraception between medical related and non-medical related students.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Khalid, A K

    2009-04-01

    Teenagers and young adultshave the most risk of unplanned pregnancy, due to lack of awareness to see a family planning provider after unprotected sexual intercourse. In addition, nearly one in five physicians is reluctant to provide information regarding Emergency Contraception (EC) to women and this may contribute to their lack of awareness. This study was conducted to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding the use of EC between medical related students compared to non-medical related students. Data collection was done using questionnaires distributed among students in University College Cork (UCC). 93% of medically related students were aware of EC compared to only 73.5% of non-medically related students. Medical related students also were more aware about the mechanism of action and detailed knowledge of EC compared to the non-medical students. This study has proven that medically related students have more detailed knowledge regarding EC compared to non-medical related students. However, there was no significant difference noted regarding the attitude and practice between the two groups.

  16. Medical device-related pressure ulcers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Black JM

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Joyce M Black,1 Peggy Kalowes2 1Adult Health and Illness Department, College of Nursing, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE, 2Nursing Research and Innovation, Long Beach Memorial Miller Children’s & Women’s Hospital, Long Beach, CA, USA Abstract: Pressure ulcers from medical devices are common and can cause significant morbidity in patients of all ages. These pressure ulcers appear in the shape of the device and are most often found from the use of oxygen delivery devices. A hospital program designed to reduce the number of pressure ulcers from medical devices was successful. The program involved the development of a team that focused on skin, the results were then published for the staff to track their performance, and it was found that using foam dressings helped reduce the pressure from the device. The incidence of ulcers from medical devices has remained at zero at this hospital since this program was implemented. Keywords: pressure ulcer, medical device related

  17. [Publication rates of Turkish medical specialty and doctorate theses on Medical Microbiology, Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases disciplines in international journals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipahi, Oğuz Reşat; Caglayan Serin, Derya; Pullukcu, Hüsnü; Tasbakan, Meltem; Köseli Ulu, Demet; Yamazhan, Tansu; Arda, Bilgin; Sipahi, Hilal; Ulusoy, Sercan

    2014-04-01

    Writing a thesis is mandatory for getting a postgraduate medical degree in Turkey. Publication of the results of the thesis in an indexed journal makes the results available to researchers, however publication rate is usually low. The aim of this retrospective observational study was to investigate the publication rate of Turkish Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology, Medical Microbiology specialty theses and Microbiology doctorate theses in international peer-review journals. On August 17th 2007, the thesis database of the Council of Higher Education of the Republic of Turkey (YOK) where all specialization and doctorate theses are recorded obligatorily, was searched for Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology and Medical Microbiology specialty and Microbiology doctorate theses. Assuming that publication of a thesis would last at least six months, theses dated to February 2007 and after were excluded. The publication rate of those theses was found out by searching Science Citation Index-Expanded database for thesis author and supervisor between August 17-September 12, 2007. Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis. Our search yielded a total of 834 theses dated from 1997 to 2007, however 10 of them were excluded, since they were dated to February 2007 or after. It was found that the overall publication rate was 11.4% (94/824). The publication rates for Microbiology doctorate, Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology specialty theses were 13.7% (34/249), 10.7% (33/309) and 10.2% (27/266), respectively, with no statistical significance (p> 0.05). It was determined that nine (9.6%) of the 94 published theses belonged to 1997-2001 period, whereas 85 (80.4%) were in 2002-2007 period (p< 0.05). The probable reason for this increase was thought to be related with the updated criteria of YOK carried out in 2000 for academic promotions, nevertheless the publication rate of the investigated theses in international peer

  18. Theory and practice in medical education – expectations and development of skills experienced by students of human medicine compared with students in other disciplines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piedmont, Silke

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this article is to compare students of human medicine (HM with students specialising in the MINT disciplines (mathematics, computer science, natural sciences and engineering, the humanities and social sciences as well as law and economic sciences with regard to their expectations of their university study and career and the areas of competence where they feel they have been supported by their education. We present in detail issues particularly relevant to prospective physicians, which are discussed with the main focus on the “theoretical and practical orientation of medical education”.Methods: We used the database in the Public Use File of the “11 Student Survey”, a written survey of randomly selected students studying at 25 German tertiary institutions during the 2009/2010 winter term, which was supplied by the Tertiary Education Research working group at the University of Constance. Data on 7536 students was included, of which 488 (6.5% were prospective physicians.Results: Human medicine students have a clear career aim and want to complete their education quickly. They have a far above-average interest in working with and for people. About one student in two is interested in a career in science or research (53% in each case – close to the average for all subjects. Compared with the other disciplines, HM students are most likely to consider their university education to have practical and research relevance and are most likely to feel prepared for their profession. Yet over half of all students (Ø 53.3%; HM 54.5% do not consider their education to have fostered their research skills. MINT students in particular are better able to enhance their skills through independent experimentation, while theory and practice are more likely to be communicated academically in the regular teaching of human medicine. Accordingly, the HM students feel less well supported in some areas of competence required for their later work than

  19. Theory and practice in medical education--expectations and development of skills experienced by students of human medicine compared with students in other disciplines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piedmont, Silke; Robra, Bernt-Peter

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to compare students of human medicine (HM) with students specialising in the MINT disciplines (mathematics, computer science, natural sciences and engineering), the humanities and social sciences as well as law and economic sciences with regard to their expectations of their university study and career and the areas of competence where they feel they have been supported by their education. We present in detail issues particularly relevant to prospective physicians, which are discussed with the main focus on the "theoretical and practical orientation of medical education". We used the database in the Public Use File of the "11th Student Survey", a written survey of randomly selected students studying at 25 German tertiary institutions during the 2009/2010 winter term, which was supplied by the Tertiary Education Research working group at the University of Constance. Data on 7536 students was included, of which 488 (6.5%) were prospective physicians. Human medicine students have a clear career aim and want to complete their education quickly. They have a far above-average interest in working with and for people. About one student in two is interested in a career in science or research (53% in each case - close to the average for all subjects). Compared with the other disciplines, HM students are most likely to consider their university education to have practical and research relevance and are most likely to feel prepared for their profession. Yet over half of all students (Ø 53.3%; HM 54.5%) do not consider their education to have fostered their research skills. MINT students in particular are better able to enhance their skills through independent experimentation, while theory and practice are more likely to be communicated academically in the regular teaching of human medicine. Accordingly, the HM students feel less well supported in some areas of competence required for their later work than students in other disciplines, in developing

  20. The impact of a dedicated training program for oral examiners at a medical school in Germany: a survey among participants from operative and non-operative disciplines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oechsner, Wolfgang; Geiler, Sandra; Huber-Lang, Markus

    2013-07-03

    Oral examinations have been a crucial format in ancient and modern assessment to evaluate and guarantee quality of medical education and thereby to secure patient safety. To achieve a high level of quality in the oral part of the final examination of medical students, a training program for oral examiners at the Medical Faculty of Ulm (Germany) has been established since 2007.However, little is known about the attitude of the examiners in regard to the impact of this training program and of oral examinations as instruments to ensure patient safety. All 367 academic clinicians from operative and non-operative disciplines, attending the one-day examiner training program at the University of Ulm between 2007 and 2012 have been asked to answer an online survey (EvaSys 5.0). Focus of the survey was to find out in which respect the examiners profited from the trainings, if the training effects were discipline-dependent, and to which degree the oral examinations could contribute to patient safety. Statistical analysis was performed using the t-test for independent samples. Results were considered statistically significant when p exam successfully. The majority of participants were convinced that oral examinations using concrete clinical cases could significantly contribute to patient safety, if grading is based on clear criteria and if examinations as well as grading are performed more critically. The impact of the training program was rated significantly stronger by surgeons than by non-surgeons in several categories. These categories included "strengths and weaknesses of oral examinations", "reliability", "validity", "competence in grading", "critical grading", and "departmental improvements" concerning oral examinations. In respect to patient safety, it seems crucial to prevent incompetent candidates from passing the oral examination. The present study indicates the importance to continue and to develop our examiner trainings, with main emphasis on concrete clinical

  1. Racial Discipline Disproportionality in Montessori and Traditional Public Schools: A Comparative Study Using the Relative Rate Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Katie E.; Steele, Aimy S. L.

    2015-01-01

    Research from the past 40 years indicates that Black students in primary and secondary school settings are subjected to exclusionary discipline, including suspension and expulsion, at rates two to three times higher than their White peers (Children's Defense Fund, 1975; Skiba, Michael, Nardo, & Peterson, 2002). Although this phenomenon has…

  2. At crossroads between laboratory disciplines and medical advancements-The Center for Molecular Medicine at the Karolinska University Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terenius, Lars

    2009-04-01

    The Center for Molecular Medicine (CMM) was conceived and built to respond to the challenges presented by the still common chronic diseases such as atherosclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes, allergy, and alcoholism. The Karolinska University Hospital has a proud history of research with developments such as the pacemaker and the gamma-knife. The nearby Karolinska Institutet has a strong presence internationally on the basic sciences. However, the challenges of the "new biology" and the access to the complete human genome, transcriptome, and proteome raised the need for a new research institute that could meet the experimental requirements for translational research. A Foundation was established in 1994 with the goal to build and govern the new enterprise. After an intense fundraising campaign, building could start and CMM (Fig. 1) was inaugurated in 1997. Through more than 10 years of existence, it has evolved into a multidisciplinary research institute with research in four programs, Cardiovascular and Metabolic Diseases, Infection and Immunity, Neuropsychiatric Diseases, and Medical Genetics. Performance parameters have been introduced and scientific impact and relevance are followed annually. Transparency and collaboration between groups (now 28 groups with an approximate total of 400 people engaged in research) and leadership training for junior faculty are means to stimulate "centerness".

  3. Understanding and Facing Discipline-Related Challenges in the English as a Foreign Language Classroom at Public Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quintero Corzo Josefina

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available

    Complying with school regulations and teachers’ instructions is a basic principle of an excellent class; both novice and experienced teachers face challenging situations when getting into real classrooms, especially those related to classroom management. There are various reasons that explain discipline problems in public schools, as well as varied strategies beginning teachers create and try when coping with those challenges. This article reports an action research study on how this methodology helped a group of teacher-trainees overcome indiscipline in English as a foreign language classrooms at public schools, and align with professional development initiatives which focus on reflection and decision-making processes that the new Colombian policies demand from new teachers seeking a higher quality 
    of education.


    Responder a las normas escolares y a las instrucciones de los profesores es un principio básico de una clase excelente. Tanto los profesores novatos como los experimentados enfrentan situaciones problemáticas en las aulas de clase reales, especialmente en relación con la disciplina. Hay varias razones que explican la indisciplina en los colegios públicos y también estrategias variadas que los profesores principiantes crean y ensayan para superar tal reto. Este artículo reporta un estudio de investigación acción que ayudó a un grupo de profesores principiantes a superar la indisciplina en el aula de inglés en colegios públicos y a responder a iniciativas de desarrollo profesional con base en procesos de reflexión y toma de decisiones que las nuevas políticas educativas colombianas demandan de las nuevas generaciones de profesores para mejorar la calidad de la educación.

  4. Uluslararası İlişkiler Disiplininin Oluşumu: İdealizm / Realizm Tartışması ve Disiplinin Özerkliği = Formation of International Relations Discipline: Idealism / Realism Debate and Autonomy of the Discipline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davut ATEŞ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available International Relations discipline has a short history in comparison to other disciplines in social sciences. Even if it is widely accepted that modern international relations had begun with the Treaty of Westphalia in 1648, this kind of relations had been examined within law, history and political science for a long time. Today there is a great consensus that autonomy of the discipline, which began to appear as a separate field only after the First World War, has established. In this article, formative stage of disciplinary and theoretical autonomy of the discipline will be examined in conjunction with idealism/realism debate of the first period; without questioning the validity of assumptions of in this debate it will be tried to clarify how it prepared a framework for the autonomy of the discipline.

  5. International Conference on Bio-Medical Instrumentation and related Engineering and Physical Sciences (BIOMEP 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The International Conference on Bio-Medical Instrumentation and related Engineering and Physical Sciences (BIOMEP 2015) took place in the Technological Educational Institute (TEI) of Athens, Greece on June 18-20, 2015 and was organized by the Department of Biomedical Engineering. The scope of the conference was to provide a forum on the latest developments in Biomedical Instrumentation and related principles of Physical and Engineering sciences. Scientists and engineers from academic, industrial and health disciplines were invited to participate in the Conference and to contribute both in the promotion and dissemination of the scientific knowledge.

  6. Message Journal, Edition 3: What is the topography of the contemporary graphic design / communication landscape in relation to art practice? What occupies the space between disciplines?

    OpenAIRE

    Barber, Craig; Gale, Cathy; Jasper, Daniel; Kaiser, Zachary; Richard, Miles; Roberts, Spencer; Spackman, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    In Message journal edition 3 the refereed submissions explore further the boundaries between contemporary graphic design/communication and art, as well as examining what is occupied within the space between the disciplines. Authors, through written and illustrated submissions, question and investigate the broad nature of graphic design and communication practice and its relationship to art, in relation to both historical and contemporary contexts. The edition debates and illustrates how gr...

  7. Geriatric Cardiology: An Emerging Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodson, John A.; Matlock, Daniel D.; Forman, Daniel E.

    2017-01-01

    Given changing demographics, patients with cardiovascular (CV) disease in developed countries are now older and more complex than even a decade ago. This trend is expected to continue into the foreseeable future; accordingly, cardiologists in practice are encountering patients with a greater number of comorbid illnesses as well as “geriatric conditions” such as cognitive impairment and frailty which complicate management and influence outcomes. Simultaneously, technological advances have widened the therapeutic options available for patients, including those with the most advanced CV disease. In the setting of these changes, geriatric cardiology has recently emerged as a discipline that aims to adapt principles from geriatric medicine into everyday cardiology practice. Accordingly, the tasks of a “geriatric cardiologist” may include both traditional evidence-based CV management plus comprehensive geriatric assessment, medication reduction, team-based coordination of care, and explicit incorporation of patient goals into management. Given that the field is still in its relative infancy, the training pathways and structure of clinical programs in geriatric cardiology are still being delineated. In this review we highlight the rationale behind geriatric cardiology as a discipline, several current approaches by geriatric cardiology programs, and future directions for the field. PMID:27476988

  8. Geriatric Cardiology: An Emerging Discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodson, John A; Matlock, Daniel D; Forman, Daniel E

    2016-09-01

    Given changing demographics, patients with cardiovascular (CV) disease in developed countries are now older and more complex than even a decade ago. This trend is expected to continue into the foreseeable future; accordingly, cardiologists are encountering patients with a greater number of comorbid illnesses as well as "geriatric conditions," such as cognitive impairment and frailty, which complicate management and influence outcomes. Simultaneously, technological advances have widened the therapeutic options available for patients, including those with the most advanced CV disease. In the setting of these changes, geriatric cardiology has recently emerged as a discipline that aims to adapt principles from geriatric medicine to everyday cardiology practice. Accordingly, the tasks of a "geriatric cardiologist" may include both traditional evidence-based CV management plus comprehensive geriatric assessment, medication reduction, team-based coordination of care, and explicit incorporation of patient goals into management. Given that the field is still in its relative infancy, the training pathways and structure of clinical programs in geriatric cardiology are still being delineated. In this review, we highlight the rationale behind geriatric cardiology as a discipline, several current approaches by geriatric cardiology programs, and future directions for the field. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Parental Attributions of Control for Child Behaviour and Their Relation to Discipline Practices in Parents of Children with and Without Developmental Delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Myrthe; Marks Woolfson, Lisa; Hunter, Simon C

    2017-01-01

    Children with developmental delays (DD) are at risk for developing behavior problems. Research suggests that parents' causal attributions for child behavior are related to parenting. This study investigated this association in parents of children with DD compared to parents of typically developing (TD) children. It specifically focused on attributions of child control by separating these from attributions of responsibility, blame and intent, and from attributions of parent control and responsibility. Fifty-one parents of children with DD and 69 parents of TD children completed two questionnaires. The Written Analogue Questionnaire measured causal attributions. The Parenting Scale measured dysfunctional discipline practices. Parents of children with DD viewed the child's role in problematic behavior more positively while also viewing misbehavior as more fixed than parents of TD children. Parents of TD children who viewed their child as more in control over misbehavior used less dysfunctional discipline, but this association was not found for parents of children with DD. The results advance understanding of how parents perceive behavior problems in children with DD and the important role these perceptions play in parental behavior management strategies. More importantly, these perceptions relate to discipline practices differently for parents of children with DD compared to parents of TD children, highlighting that parent interventions should be adapted to the specific needs of parents of children with DD.

  10. Medical device-related pressure ulcers

    OpenAIRE

    Black JM; Kalowes P

    2016-01-01

    Joyce M Black,1 Peggy Kalowes2 1Adult Health and Illness Department, College of Nursing, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE, 2Nursing Research and Innovation, Long Beach Memorial Miller Children’s & Women’s Hospital, Long Beach, CA, USA Abstract: Pressure ulcers from medical devices are common and can cause significant morbidity in patients of all ages. These pressure ulcers appear in the shape of the device and are most often found from the use of ox...

  11. Writing for the Discipline in the Discipline?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzi, Olivier; Grimes, Susan; Rolls, Alistair

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the issue of students' writing skills in the discipline of Engineering and beyond. It is the result of a discussion between three academics from different discipline backgrounds: Teaching and Learning, the Humanities and Engineering. We start with a review of the strategies commonly used to address problems in students'…

  12. Study to assess the compensation and skills of medical library professionals relative to information technology professionals*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weise, Frieda O.; McMullen, Thomas D.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: The study seeks to determine how medical library professionals performing information-technology (IT) roles are compensated and how their positions are designed compared to information technology staff in their institutions. Methods: 550 medical library directors in hospital and academic medical libraries were surveyed. The data was then compared to survey data from other compensation studies of the IT industry. Results: There is a gap in compensation between medical library professionals and IT professionals performing similar functions using information technology. Technology-intense library jobs are compensated at higher levels than more traditional jobs. Conclusions: To compete with IT salaries, managers of medical library professionals will need to be ever more cognizant of the employment practices of IT professionals in nonmedical library disciplines. It is typically in the medical library's best interest to ensure that IT-related jobs, accountabilities, and capabilities of the medical library are known and understood by others, especially in the human resources and information technology staff departments. PMID:11465684

  13. School Discipline, Educational Interest and Pupil Wisdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacAllister, James

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the concept of school discipline will be explored in relation to that of educational interest. Initially, Clark's account of two different kinds of school order (discipline and control) will be explained. The interest-based theory of school discipline advanced by Pat Wilson will thereafter be analysed. It will be argued that both…

  14. Illegibility and lack of information in medical prescriptions: risk factors related to medication errors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Geysa Aguiar; Lourival Alves da Silva Júnior; Marco Antônio Magalhães Ferreira

    2006-01-01

    .... They have multiple causes, amongst them, the prescriptions’ illegibility and lack of information. A study of medical prescriptions was conducted in order to analyze the frequency of risk factors related to medication errors...

  15. Prevalence of Academic Burnout and Its Related Factors among Medical Student in Qom, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Sharif Shad

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Academic burnout negatively affects students and those around them in terms of subjective well-being, psychology, and physiology. This study aims to determine academic burnout and its related factors in students of Qom University of Medical Sciences. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 274 medical students studying in second and higher semesters in Qom University of Medical Sciences, 2015. The samples were selected using stratified sampling method. The Breso et al.'s Academic Burnout Inventory and demographic characteristics questionnaire were completed by students. Data were analyzed using Pearson correlation coefficient and multivariate analysis of variance at significance level of 0.05. Results: The mean age of the subjects was 21.9±3.7 years and the mean score of academic burnout was 1.73±0.64 (range:0-4. According to the results of multivariate analysis of variance, there were statically significant relationships between academic burnout and variables of residence status and interest in the academic discipline (p<0.05. In addition, the results of Pearson correlation coefficient were indicative of an inverse statistical correlation between academic burnout status and the variables of age (r=-166, p<0.0001 and educational status (r=-0.242, p<0.0001. Conclusion: Considering the significant relationship between grade point average and interest in academic discipline with all subscales, planning to create a positive attitude towards academic discipline in students can be a protective factor against academic burnout as well as improvement of educational status.

  16. Frequency, types and severity of medication use-related problems among medical outpatients in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuff, Kazeem B; Tayo, Fola

    2011-06-01

    To determine the frequency, types and severity of medications use-related problems among medical outpatients in a tertiary care setting in southwestern Nigeria. Medical outpatient clinics of a 900-bed Teaching Hospital located in Ibadan, Southwestern Nigeria. A prospective cross-sectional medication use review was conducted by ten pharmacists for 400 randomly selected medical outpatients over a 4 week period at a 900-bed premier teaching hospital located in Ibadan, Nigeria. Severity assessment of medication use-related problems was done by 3 independent assessors with a modified severity index. Frequency, types and severity of medication use-related problems identified through pharmacist-initiated medication use review. Of the 400 randomly selected patients, 324 (81.0%) consented and were interviewed. One hundred and sixty-three (50.3%) of the cohort were males and 161 (49.7%) were females; with mean ages 51.5 ± 17.6 and 52.1 ± 17.4 years respectively. Median no. of drugs prescribed per patient per day was 4 (Minimum-Maximum, 1-7). About 27.5% were self medicating with orthodox (prescription-only and over-the-counter) and/or herbal medicines; and only 14.6% claimed disclosure to their physicians. The proportion of patients self medicating with orthodox medicines was significantly higher (P medication use-related problems were identified from 58.6% of patients, but the highest number (5) was identified among 2.6% of patients. The frequency of medication use-related problems appear strongly related to the number of medicines prescribed (r = 0.71, P = 0.006). The majority of medication use-related problems were ranked as potentially harmful [Inter-rater reliability coefficient: Gwet AC1: 0.7214 (P ≤ 0.001)]. Non-adherence (43.8%), problems associated with self medication (39.3%) and adverse drug reactions (15.6%) were the most frequent. Unauthorized drug holidays (46.5%) and stoppage of prescribed prescription-only medications for local herbs (29.3%) were the

  17. Discipline in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, B J

    1991-12-01

    As pediatricians we have an opportunity and a responsibility to guide parents in the structure of discipline they set up for their children. The major goals of this structure are to help children develop a sense of being both lovable and capable. To feel lovable a child needs an enduring responsive relationship that conveys positive regard. Attending to children promptly, giving individual time daily, acknowledging positive behaviors, and ignoring minor transgressions all help them feel valued. Active listening without judgment demonstrates acceptance of children's feelings. Talking to children without labels or generalizations but with specific feedback about their actions and with congruent emotional tone is respectful and promotes self-esteem. Children also deserve assistance with transitions, thanks, and apologies as appropriate. To feel (and become) capable, children need a consistent structure of routines, good models, respectful instruction, and progressive expectations so that they have an ongoing experience of success. To grow as individuals they need opportunities to make choices relevant to their interests and role-taking opportunities to gain perspective on social interaction. Praise and rewards motivate as well as instruct children, but they also need to experience consequences to their actions. Natural consequences are optimal but parents also need to design logical consequences that are graded, related, prompt, and reasonable for a child's misbehaviors. Consequences are most effective when given after only one request, exactly as clearly promised by the adult involved without interference by others. Time out is one of the most effective consequences for young children when used properly. Physical punishment has multiple negative effects on a child's development, especially if used noncontingently. Intrapersonal and family factors predispose parents to predictable problems in establishing healthy discipline. Pediatricians can play an important role in

  18. [[Selected legal aspects related to medical practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szewczyk, M

    1998-01-01

    The question of the physician's liability, both that of civil as well as penal law nature--is always emotionally approached. Dynamic development of medical and biological sciences as well as technics is the cause of progress but it also gives rise to the increase of hazards or abuses in medical therapy. If we speak of the therapeutic intervention being originally legal we mean that it is carried out in compliance with the principles of medical art. In such circumstances, even though the intervention resulted in negative effects, the intervening physician cannot be made penally liable. Civil law liability, in its turn, may have either ex contractu or ex delictu basis. When the general prerequisites of this kind of liability are present, the intervening physician (Art. 353 or 415 of Civil Code) or the State Treasury (Art. 417 of Civil Code) may be made liable for causing damage, joint and several liability of the physician and the Treasury being also possible (Art. 420 of Civil Code). The carrying out of therapeutic intervention without the law required consent of the patient may lead--on the basis of Polish law--to the physician's civil law liability for the infringement of the patient's personal interests even though the intervention ended in success (Articles 23 and 24 of Civil Code). From the point of view of Polish penal law such situation may cause the physician's penal liability for the offence against freedom (Art. 192 of Penal Code). The euthanatic homicide should be, and in Polish law, is an offence. Considering the potential abuses arising from making the euthanasia legal, penal law whose major function is that of the guarantee nature, must ensure safeguards vis-à-vis life to the utmost limit. Polish Legislator shows, however, full understanding of the extremely difficult and conflict-generating situation in which the individual committing euthanatic homicide may find himself. Hence, in section 2 of Art. 150 of Penal Code the Legislator declared that "in

  19. Realization of educational discipline «Physical culture» in formation of positive relations of children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olhova-Marchuk N.V.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Educational potential of contents of the subject «Physical culture» and its extramural kinds in formation of inter-personalities relations of younger schoolchildren is revealed. The pupils of 1-4 class took part in the experiment. It is exposed that the problem of culture formation of inter-personalities relations needs looking for new methods of its solution. It is proved that formation of inter-personalities relations of younger children is actively realized in the process of physical education.

  20. The relation between antihistamine medication during early ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rabah M. Shawky

    2015-05-11

    May 11, 2015 ... pared to 11% in premature infants not exposed [19]. Also. Diphenhydramine use in early pregnancy was also reported in relation to cleft palate, cleft lip with or without cleft palate, neural tube defects, spina bifida, limb reduction defects and gastroschisis [18,19]. Diphenhydramine has also an oxytocin. 288.

  1. A Multilevel Analysis of Black Male Secondary School Student Discipline and Achievement in Relation to Violence Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garo, Laurie Ann

    2017-01-01

    This study examined school outcomes for Black male secondary school students in relation to neighborhood violence, focusing on Disproportionality in out of school suspension and below-proficiency achievement on selected standardized tests. Grounded in trauma and strain theories, student aggressive response to violence is attributed in part to…

  2. An assessment of the occupational hazards related to medical lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Jennifer S; Lacey, Steven E; Lippert, Julia F; Lopez, Ramon; Franke, John E; Colvard, Michael D

    2011-11-01

    Occupational hazards associated with medical laser applications remain poorly understood and uncharacterized. A literature search was performed using PubMed, and all articles relevant to beam and nonbeam medical laser hazards were reviewed. The Rockwell Laser Industries Laser Accident Database was searched for medical laser injuries and abstracted. Eye injuries, skin burns, injuries related to the onset of fires, and electric shock have been reported in relation to medical laser use. It is probable that both acute and chronic health effects have been experienced by medical personnel as the result of exposure to laser generated air contaminants. Because of the clinical benefits they provide, the growth of laser technologies and applications are anticipated to result in an increase in the number and type of medical personnel with future exposure to laser hazards.

  3. Adalimumab: Another Medication Related to Osteonecrosis of the Jaws?

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Cassoni; Umberto Romeo; Valentina Terenzi; Marco Della Monaca; Oriana Rajabtork Zadeh; Ingrid Raponi; Maria Teresa Fadda; Antonella Polimeni; Valentino Valentini

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The acronym MRONJ has been created in order to identify “Medication-Related Osteonecrosis of the Jaw,” observed after the use of Bisphosphonates, RANK ligand inhibitor, and antiangiogenic medications. Only a case of osteonecrosis of the jaw in a Chron’s disease patient following a course of Bisphosphonate and Adalimumab therapy has been recently described, so that it has been supposed that also this medication could promote manifestation of osteonecrosis. Clinical Case. On August, ...

  4. Medication-related problem type and appearance rate in ambulatory hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drayer Debra K

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hemodialysis (HD patients are at risk for medication-related problems (MRP. The MRP number, type, and appearance rate over time in ambulatory HD patients has not been investigated. Methods Randomly selected HD patients were enrolled to receive monthly pharmaceutical care visits. At each visit, MRP were identified through review of the patient chart, electronic medical record, patient interview, and communications with other healthcare disciplines. All MRP were categorized by type and medication class. MRP appearance rate was determined as the number of MRP identified per month/number of months in study. The number of MRP per patient-drug exposures were determined using: {[(number of patients × (mean number of medications]/(number of months of study} /number of MRP identified. Results were expressed as mean ± standard deviation or percentages. Results Patients were 62.6 ± 15.9 years old, had 6.4 ± 2.0 comorbid conditions, were taking 12.5 ± 4.2 medications, and 15.7 ± 7.2 doses per day at baseline. Medication-dosing problems (33.5%, adverse drug reactions (20.7%, and an indication that was not currently being treated (13.5% were the most common MRP. 5,373 medication orders were reviewed and a MRP was identified every 15.2 medication exposures. Overall MRP appearance rate was 0.68 ± 0.46 per patient per month. Conclusion MRP continue to occur at a high rate in ambulatory HD patients. Healthcare providers taking care of HD patients should be aware of this problem and efforts to avoid or resolve MRP should be undertaken at all HD clinics.

  5. [Research in medical education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringsted, Charlotte Vibeke

    2008-01-01

    of articles on medical education studies indicate a need for improvement of the quality of medical education research in order to contribute to the advancement of educational practice as well as educational research. In particular, there is a need to embed studies in a conceptual theoretical framework......Research in medical education is a relatively new discipline. Over the past 30 years, the discipline has experienced a tremendous growth, which is reflected in an increase in the number of publications in both medical education journals and medical science journals. However, recent reviews...

  6. Exploring the relation of harsh parental discipline with child emotional and behavioral problems by using multiple informants. The generation R study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.D. Mackenbach (Joreintje ); A.P. Ringoot (Ank); J. van der Ende (Jan); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); A. Hofman (Albert); P.W. Jansen (Pauline); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractParental harsh disciplining, like corporal punishment, has consistently been associated with adverse mental health outcomes in children. It remains a challenge to accurately assess the consequences of harsh discipline, as researchers and clinicians generally rely on parent report of

  7. Risk of endometrial cancer in relation to medical conditions and medication use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortuny, Joan; Sima, Camelia; Bayuga, Sharon; Wilcox, Homer; Pulick, Katherine; Faulkner, Shameka; Zauber, Ann G.; Olson, Sara H.

    2009-01-01

    We studied the relation of medical conditions related to obesity and medications used for these conditions with endometrial cancer. We also investigated the association of other medical conditions and medications with risk. This US population-based case-control study included 469 endometrial cancer cases and 467 controls. Information on putative risk factors for endometrial cancer was collected through personal interviews. We asked women about their medical history and medications used for six months or longer and the number of years each medication was taken. Risk was strongly associated with increasing obesity (p for trend <0.001). Among conditions related to obesity, and after adjustment for age, body mass index (BMI), and other risk factors and conditions, uterine fibroids were independently related to an increased cancer risk (adjusted OR= 1.8, 95%CI= 1.2–2.5). Although hypertension was not significantly related to endometrial cancer after adjustment for age and BMI, use of thiazide diuretics was independently associated with an increased risk (OR= 1.8, 95%CI= 1.1–3.0). Anemia was associated with decreased risk (OR= 0.6, 95%CI= 0.5–0.9). Use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs was related to a decreased risk (OR= 0.7, 95%CI= 0.5–0.97). To our knowledge, the observation about thiazide diuretics is novel and requires confirmation in other studies and populations. PMID:19383893

  8. Fostering Self-Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bear, George G.; Duquette, Jeffrey F.

    2008-01-01

    From its inception, a primary goal of public education has been to develop self-discipline among students, best seen as them exhibiting socially and morally responsible behavior. This goal coincides with another important educational imperative, as well as an alternative meaning of the term "discipline": to correct misbehavior to create and…

  9. Medical mistrust is related to lower longitudinal medication adherence among African-American males with HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Sannisha K; Bogart, Laura M; Wagner, Glenn J; Galvan, Frank H; Klein, David J

    2014-01-01

    African-Americans living with HIV show worse health behaviors (e.g. medication adherence) and outcomes (e.g. viral suppression) than do their White counterparts. In a 6-month longitudinal study, we investigated whether medical mistrust among African-American males with HIV (214 enrolled, 140 with longitudinal data) predicted lower electronically monitored antiretroviral medication adherence. General medical mistrust (e.g. suspicion towards providers), but not racism-related mistrust (e.g. belief that providers treat African-Americans poorly due to race), predicted lower continuous medication adherence over time (b=−.08, se=.04, p=.03). Medical mistrust may contribute to poor health outcomes. Intervention efforts that address mistrust may improve adherence among African-Americans with HIV. PMID:25293970

  10. A study of exam related anxiety amongst medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Pahwa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study focuses on pre-examination anxiety amongst medical students & its personality co-relates. Material & Method : 91 medical students were administered Eysenck Personality Questionnaire to determine predominant personality trait if any and Beck′s Anxiety Inventory. Results : There was an increase in anxiety levels prior to exam, more so in females and in students with neuroticism and extraversion temperaments. Conclusion: Anxiety levels increase in medical students prior to exams and are associated with certain personality traits, though the difference is not statistically significant.

  11. Exploring the Relation of Harsh Parental Discipline with Child Emotional and Behavioral Problems by Using Multiple Informants. The Generation R Study

    OpenAIRE

    Mackenbach, Joreintje D; Ringoot, Ank P.; Jan van der Ende; Frank C Verhulst; Vincent W V Jaddoe; Albert Hofman; Jansen, Pauline W.; Tiemeier, Henning W.

    2014-01-01

    Parental harsh disciplining, like corporal punishment, has consistently been associated with adverse mental health outcomes in children. It remains a challenge to accurately assess the consequences of harsh discipline, as researchers and clinicians generally rely on parent report of young children's problem behaviors. If parents rate their parenting styles and their child's behavior this may bias results. The use of child self-report on problem behaviors is not common but may provide extra in...

  12. Experiences of alcohol-related harassment among medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata-Kobayashi, Shizuko; Koyama, Hiroshi; Asai, Atsushi; Noguchi, Yoshinori; Maeno, Tetsuhiro; Fukushima, Osamu; Yamamoto, Wari; Koizumi, Shunzo; Shimbo, Takuro

    2010-12-01

    Although fatal accidents caused by alcohol-related harassment occur frequently among college students, this issue has not been adequately examined. This study set out to investigate the prevalence of alcohol-related harassment among medical students in Japan. A multi-institutional, cross-sectional survey was carried out across seven medical schools in Japan. A self-report anonymous questionnaire was distributed to 1152 medical students; 951 respondents (82.6%) satisfactorily completed it. From the responses, we determined the reported prevalences of the following types of alcohol-related harassment among medical students by senior medical students or doctors: (i) being coerced into drinking alcohol; (ii) being compelled to drink an alcoholic beverage all at once (the ikki drinking game); (iii) being deliberately forced to drink until unconscious, and (iv) being subjected to verbal abuse, physical abuse or sexual harassment in relation to alcohol. The prevalence of becoming a harasser among medical students was also measured. Multivariate regressions were used to assess the associations between experiences of alcohol-related harassment and student characteristics. A total of 821 respondents (86.3%) had experienced alcohol-related harassment and 686 (72.1%) had harassed others. Experiences of the ikki drinking game were frequently reported by both victims (n=686, 72.1% of all respondents) and harassers (n=595, 62.6% of all respondents). In multivariate regression, having an experience of alcohol-related harassment correlated with both being harassed (odds ratio [OR] 14.22, 95% confidence interval [CI] 8.73-23.98) and being a harasser (OR 13.19, 95% CI 8.05-22.34). The presence of senior members of medical college clubs who were regular drinkers also correlated with both being harassed (OR 2.96, 95% CI 1.88-4.67) and being a harasser (OR 2.97, 95% CI 2.06-4.27). Alcohol-related harassment among medical students is common and tends to occur at drinking parties with

  13. Adalimumab: Another Medication Related to Osteonecrosis of the Jaws?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Cassoni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The acronym MRONJ has been created in order to identify “Medication-Related Osteonecrosis of the Jaw,” observed after the use of Bisphosphonates, RANK ligand inhibitor, and antiangiogenic medications. Only a case of osteonecrosis of the jaw in a Chron’s disease patient following a course of Bisphosphonate and Adalimumab therapy has been recently described, so that it has been supposed that also this medication could promote manifestation of osteonecrosis. Clinical Case. On August, 2014, a 63-year-old female with a history of idiopathic arthritis treated with medical treatment with Adalimumab from 2010 to 2013 presented referring pain in the right mandible. Results. This patient presented with nonexposed osteonecrosis of the jaw after placement, on September, 2010, of four titanium fixtures in the mandible. Conclusions. The authors suggest that the biologic therapy with an anti-TNF-α antibody might promote the manifestation of osteonecrosis and compromise oral healing capacity of the bone.

  14. Evaluation of major risk factors related to depression among medical students of NRS medical college.

    OpenAIRE

    Mukhopadhyay Prianka, Sain Sonali, Mandal Nirmal Kumar, Saha Tushar Kanti , Dey Indira, Chattopadhyay Amitava

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives: Medical students experience depression, burnout, and mental illness at a higher rate than general population. A better understanding of related risk factors can help target appropriate support services for them. The aim of the study was to assess the occurrence of depression and identify its risk factors among undergraduate students in a medical College in Kolkata, India. Methodology: A descriptive, cross-sectional study using a two stage, stratified cluster samplin...

  15. Potentially inappropriate medication related to weakness in older acute medical patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Line Due; Andersen, Ove; Hallin, Marianne; Petersen, Janne

    2014-06-01

    The use of potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) is common in the older population. Inappropriate medications as well as polypharmacy expose older people to a greater risk of adverse drug reactions and may result in hospitalizations. To evaluate the prevalence of PIMs among acutely hospitalized patients aged ≥65 years in an acute medical unit, and to investigate the relationship between use of PIMs and weakness. This longitudinal observational study was undertaken in the Acute Medical Unit, Hvidovre Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Denmark. Patients aged ≥65 years admitted to the acute medical unit during the period October to December 2011 were included. Patients were interviewed at admission and at a follow-up visit 30 days after discharge. Data included information about medications, social status, functional status, cognitive status, handgrip strength, health-related quality of life, visual acuity, days of hospitalization, and comorbidities, and was prospectively collected. Polypharmacy was defined as regular use of 5 or more drugs. The Charlson Comorbidity Index was used to categorize comorbidities. The prevalence of PIMs and the association with PIMs and functional status handgrip strength, HRQOL, comorbidities, social demographic data and vision. Seventy-one patients (55 % men) with a median age of 78.7 years participated. The median number of medications was eight per person. Eighty percent were exposed to polypharmacy. PIMs were used by 85 % of patients, and PIMs were associated with low functional status (p = 0.032), low handgrip strength (p = 0.006), and reduced health-related quality of life (p = 0.005), but not comorbidities (p = 0.63), age (p = 0.60), sex (p = 0.53), education (p = 0.94), cognition (p = 0.10), pain (p = 0.46), or visual acuity (p = 0.55). Use of PIMs was very common among older people admitted to an acute medical unit. The use of PIMs is associated with low functional status, low handgrip strength, and reduced health-related

  16. Automatic extraction of relations between medical concepts in clinical texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rink, Bryan; Harabagiu, Sanda; Roberts, Kirk

    2011-01-01

    A supervised machine learning approach to discover relations between medical problems, treatments, and tests mentioned in electronic medical records. A single support vector machine classifier was used to identify relations between concepts and to assign their semantic type. Several resources such as Wikipedia, WordNet, General Inquirer, and a relation similarity metric inform the classifier. The techniques reported in this paper were evaluated in the 2010 i2b2 Challenge and obtained the highest F1 score for the relation extraction task. When gold standard data for concepts and assertions were available, F1 was 73.7, precision was 72.0, and recall was 75.3. F1 is defined as 2*Precision*Recall/(Precision+Recall). Alternatively, when concepts and assertions were discovered automatically, F1 was 48.4, precision was 57.6, and recall was 41.7. Although a rich set of features was developed for the classifiers presented in this paper, little knowledge mining was performed from medical ontologies such as those found in UMLS. Future studies should incorporate features extracted from such knowledge sources, which we expect to further improve the results. Moreover, each relation discovery was treated independently. Joint classification of relations may further improve the quality of results. Also, joint learning of the discovery of concepts, assertions, and relations may also improve the results of automatic relation extraction. Lexical and contextual features proved to be very important in relation extraction from medical texts. When they are not available to the classifier, the F1 score decreases by 3.7%. In addition, features based on similarity contribute to a decrease of 1.1% when they are not available.

  17. Evaluating medical and systemic factors related to maternal and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: This study examined maternal morbidity and mortality and neonatal mortality over a multi-year period from de-identified retrospective medical records at Nyakahanga Designated District Hospital in north-western Tanzania. The study aimed to examine factors related to maternal mortality (MMR) and morbidity in ...

  18. The relationship between patient-related factors and medication ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-09-03

    Sep 3, 2017 ... More than 36 million people are living with HIV globally, with 1.1 million people dying from AIDS-related ... to adherence to therapy among patients living with HIV. (PLWH) receiving ART in a treatment center .... tired as reasons for forgetting to take their medication. The overall logistic regression model was ...

  19. Medication Related Cutaneous Disorders in End Stage Renal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TNHJOURNALPH

    Department of Internal Medicine, University of Port-Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt,. Nigeria. ... post-transplant.Medication related disorders included hypertrichosis due to cyclosporine and minoxidil, gingival hyperplasia due to cyclosporine and steroid acne from ... 5% margin of tolerable error was used to.

  20. The Critical Role of Journal Selection in Scholarly Publishing: A Search for Journal Options in Language-related Research Areas and Disciplines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hacer Hande Uysal

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: With the globalization in academia, pressures on academics to publish internationally have been increasing all over the world. However, participating in global scientific communication through publishing in well-regarded international journals is a very challenging and daunting task particularly for nonnative speaker (NNS scholars. Recent research has pointed out both linguistic and nonlinguistic factors behind the challenges facing NNS scholars in their attempts to publish internationally. Journal selection is suggested to be one of these critical determinants on the way to publication.Purpose of the study: The aim of this article, therefore, is to offer some suggestions about the journal selection process and to provide potential international journal options for especially newcomers to the field and the off-networked peripheral academics who may have limited access to journals. Method: First a framework is offered as guidance for the major points to be considered before deciding for a journal for manuscript subscription. Then, as a result of a search in major international databases, 17 tables are formed consisting international journal options according to their coverage by certain international indexes and according to their focus of interest in specific research areas in the disciplines of language education, applied linguistics, and linguistics. Conclusion: It is hoped that these suggestions and the compiled lists of available journals on specific topics would provide help for especially newcomers to the field and the off-networked peripheral academics who may have limited access to journals in language education and related fields while trying to publish internationally.

  1. Review of the National Research Council report ''Major Facilities for Materials Research and Related Disciplines''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-06-01

    The National Research Council-National Academy of Sciences report on ''Major Facilities for Materials Research and Related Disciplines'' recommends that new facilities and upgrades of existing facilities are very important to the nation. At the request of the Secretary of Energy, the Energy Research Advisory Board has reviewed this report and finds that the Department of Energy is responsible for the majority of these projects to carry out its missions in energy, national defense, and science and technology. Therefore, we recommend that the Department should place a high priority on requesting the new funds necessary to fulfill these responsibilities in the next decade. The energy and defense missions of the Department will be best served by this approach. This responsibility requires strong coordination with other funding agencies through a shared advisory and decision-making process. The review recommends immediate implementation of new capabilities at existing DOE facilities (the neutron experimental halls at Brookhaven and Los Alamos and the new synchrotron insertion devices at Stanford and Brookhaven) as a cost effective way of maintaining the Nation's leading role in neutron scattering and synchrotron radiation research. It also recommends the immediate initiation of non-site-specific research and development for the proposed 6 GeV synchrotron and advanced steady state neutron source. This pre-construction work should be sufficient to ensure that these facilities will be constructed in a timely fashion at design goals and with well identified costs. Other recommendations concern advancing the Nation's leading capabilities in synchrotron produced ultraviolet radiation and spallation neutron research. A budget scenario is developed.

  2. The relation between antihistamine medication during early pregnancy & birth defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabah M. Shawky

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Antihistamines are a group of medications which can inhibit various histaminic actions at one of two histamine receptors (H1 or H2. H1 receptor antagonists are used for the relief of allergic dermatological and nondermatological conditions. We will review classes of antihistamines (H1 antagonists and the relationship between specific antihistamines and specific birth defects. Although many findings provide reassurance about the relative safety of many antihistamine drugs and that any malformation reported is most probably caused by chance, studies are still required to assure fetal safety. As pruritus is sometimes troublesome for pregnant women topical medications like emollients should be tried first in the first trimester of pregnancy. Also pregnant women should be advised to consult their health care provider before taking any medication.

  3. Do medical students require education on issues related to plagiarism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, Joe; Jacob, Molly

    2015-01-01

    In the course of our professional experience, we have seen that many medical students plagiarise. We hypothesised that they do so out of ignorance and that they require formal education on the subject. With this objective in mind, we conducted a teaching session on issues related to plagiarism. As a part of this, we administered a quiz to assess their baseline knowledge on plagiarism and a questionnaire to determine their attitudes towards it. We followed this up with an interactive teaching session, in which we discussed various aspects of plagiarism. We subjected the data obtained from the quiz and questionnaire to bivariate and multivariate analysis. A total of 423 medical students participated in the study. Their average score for the quiz was 4.96±1.67 (out of 10). Age, gender and years in medical school were not significantly associated with knowledge regarding plagiarism. The knowledge scores were negatively correlated with permissive attitudes towards plagiarism and positively correlated with attitudes critical of the practice. Men had significantly higher scores on permissive attitudes compared to women . In conclusion, we found that the medical students' knowledge regarding plagiarism was limited. Those with low knowledge scores tended to have permissive attitudes towards plagiarism and were less critical of the practice. We recommend the inclusion of formal instruction on this subject in the medical curriculum, so that this form of academic misconduct can be tackled.

  4. Anxiety and depression in medical students related to desire for and expectations from a medical career.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaoglu, N; Seker, M

    2010-03-01

    In this article, we aimed to analyse the anxiety and depression levels of medical student's related to their desire for a career in medicine and expectations from that career. In a cross-sectional design, students from the first two years of medical school filled-out a questionnaire consisting of demographics, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scales (HADS) and questions about their medical career decision. The mean anxiety score was 7.66 +/- 3.21 and the mean depression score was 5.77 +/- 3.45. According to cut-off levels, 20.3% of medical students had anxiety, 29.3% had depressive symptoms. Males and second year students had significantly high levels of depression (p Students who were pressured to become doctors and who expected to gain much money were both more anxious and more depressed (p effects on anxiety and depression levels of medical students. Guidance for affected students is important and this is the responsibility of medical educators and faculties.

  5. Visiting Holocaust-Related Sites with Medical Students as an Aid in Teaching Medical Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-López, Esteban; Ríos-Cortés, Rosa

    2016-05-01

    During the Nazi period numerous doctors and nurses played a nefarious role. In Germany they were responsible for the sterilization and killing of disabled persons. Furthermore, the Nazi doctors used concentration camp inmates as guinea pigs in medical experiments for military or racial purposes. A study of the collaboration of doctors with National Socialism exemplifies behavior that must be avoided. Combining medical teaching with lessons from the Holocaust could be a way to transmit Medical Ethics to doctors, nurses and students. The authors describe a study tour with medical students to Poland, to the largest Nazi extermination camp, Auschwitz, and to the city of Krakow. The tour is the final component of a formal course entitled: "The Holocaust, a Reflection from Medicine" at the Autónoma University of Madrid, Spain. Visiting sites related to the Holocaust, the killing centers and the sites where medical experiments were conducted has a singular meaning for medical students. Tolerance, non-discrimination, and the value of human life can be both learnt and taught at the very place where such values were utterly absent.

  6. Disciplina Inglés en la formación cultural de los estudiantes de universidades médicas cubanas English discipline within the cultural education of Cuban medical university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayelín Soler Herrera

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available La disciplina Inglés favorece la formación cultural de los estudiantes de las universidades médicas cubanas. En este trabajo se propone sobrepasar el aprendizaje lingüístico para lograr un mayor entendimiento entre culturas, desde la enseñanza del inglés como lengua extranjera. Lo anterior posibilita que los futuros profesionales respondan cada vez más a las demandas del contexto y del ejercicio de sus carreras dentro y fuera del país.English discipline favors the cultural education of Cuban medical university students. This paper proposes to go beyond the linguistic learning and gain a wider understanding among cultures, from the teaching of English as a foreign language. The latter increases future professionals' response to context and career demands inside the country and abroad.

  7. The Discipline Controversy Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumrind, Diana

    1996-01-01

    Found that neither the authoritative model nor the liberal (permissive) model offers parents an efficacious model of childrearing. Each polarized model contains an element of truth, but each demonizes the other. Argues that within a responsive and supportive parent-child relationship, prudent use of punishment is a necessary tool in discipline.…

  8. Adopted Children and Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Life Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Adopted Children & Discipline Page Content Article Body Some parents are ... Updated 11/21/2015 Source Caring for Your School-Age Child: Ages 5 to 12 (Copyright © 2004 American Academy ...

  9. Using Assertive Discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Debra A.; And Others

    Assertive Discipline (AD) is a modified version of assertion training skills. It is a systematic combination of verbal assertiveness training combined with teachers using everyday rewards and punishments to positively influence relationships and students' behavior. When using the AD model, the teacher must: (1) clearly convey their rules and…

  10. Potentially inappropriate medication related to weakness in older acute medical patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Line Due; Andersen, Ove; Hallin, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    among acutely hospitalized patients aged ≥65 years in an acute medical unit, and to investigate the relationship between use of PIMs and weakness. SETTING: This longitudinal observational study was undertaken in the Acute Medical Unit, Hvidovre Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Denmark. METHOD......, handgrip strength, health-related quality of life, visual acuity, days of hospitalization, and comorbidities, and was prospectively collected. Polypharmacy was defined as regular use of 5 or more drugs. The Charlson Comorbidity Index was used to categorize comorbidities. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE......: The prevalence of PIMs and the association with PIMs and functional status handgrip strength, HRQOL, comorbidities, social demographic data and vision. RESULTS: Seventy-one patients (55 % men) with a median age of 78.7 years participated. The median number of medications was eight per person. Eighty percent were...

  11. Disciplined by the discipline: a social-epistemic fingerprint of the history of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderstraeten, Raf; Vandermoere, Frederic

    2015-06-01

    The scientific system is primarily differentiated into disciplines. While disciplines may be wide in scope and diverse in their research practices, they serve scientific communities that evaluate research and also grant recognition to what is published. The analysis of communication and publication practices within such a community hence allows us to shed light on the dynamics of this discipline. On the basis of an empirical analysis of Isis, we show how the process of discipline-building in history of science has led its practitioners to be socialized and sensitized in relatively strong intra-disciplinary terms--with minimal interdisciplinary openness.

  12. A longitudinal study of the role of children's altruism and forgiveness in the relation between parental aggressive discipline and anxiety of preschoolers in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Sylvia Y C L; Gu, Minmin; Cheung, Andy P S

    2017-03-01

    Using data collected over a 1-year period on a stratified random sample of 368 parents with children studying in nurseries (mean age=3.97years), this study assessed the predictive effects of parental corporal punishment, parental psychological aggression, preschoolers' altruism, and preschoolers' forgiveness on preschoolers' anxiety symptoms in Hong Kong, China. Results of hierarchical regression analyses showed that parental psychological aggression, preschoolers' altruism and preschoolers' forgiveness at Time 1 significantly predicted preschoolers' anxiety at Time 2, when controlling for the initial level of preschoolers' anxiety and important demographic variables that co-vary with preschoolers' anxiety. Moreover, preschoolers' altruism moderated the predictive effect of parental psychological aggression on preschoolers' anxiety symptoms. The study has several significant contributions. First, the study supports the predictive effect of parental aggressive discipline on preschoolers' anxiety. Second, we provide evidence that preschoolers' altruism and forgiveness negatively predict preschoolers' anxiety symptoms. Third, preschoolers' altruism and forgiveness are shown to protect them against parental psychological aggression. A dual-focus approach to intervention and prevention is proposed to reduce aggressive discipline by parents as well as to enhance altruism and forgiveness in children. Parent training programs could be provided to teach parents positive discipline strategies. Home-based or school-based interventions could be designed for preschool children to foster and enhance their altruism and forgiveness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Medical student attitudes toward video games and related new media technologies in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kron, Frederick W; Gjerde, Craig L; Sen, Ananda; Fetters, Michael D

    2010-06-24

    Studies in K-12 and college students show that their learning preferences have been strongly shaped by new media technologies like video games, virtual reality environments, the Internet, and social networks. However, there is no known research on medical students' game experiences or attitudes towards new media technologies in medical education. This investigation seeks to elucidate medical student experiences and attitudes, to see whether they warrant the development of new media teaching methods in medicine. Medical students from two American universities participated. An anonymous, 30-item, cross-sectional survey addressed demographics, game play experience and attitudes on using new media technologies in medical education. Statistical analysis identified: 1) demographic characteristics; 2) differences between the two universities; 3) how video game play differs across gender, age, degree program and familiarity with computers; and 4) characteristics of students who play most frequently. 217 medical students participated. About half were female (53%). Respondents liked the idea of using technology to enhance healthcare education (98%), felt that education should make better use of new media technologies (96%), and believed that video games can have educational value (80%). A majority (77%) would use a multiplayer online healthcare simulation on their own time, provided that it helped them to accomplish an important goal. Men and women agreed that they were most inclined to use multiplayer simulations if they were fun (97%), and if they helped to develop skill in patient interactions (90%). However, there was significant gender dissonance over types of favorite games, the educational value of video games, and the desire to participate in games that realistically replicated the experience of clinical practice. Overall, medical student respondents, including many who do not play video games, held highly favorable views about the use of video games and related new

  14. Medical student attitudes toward video games and related new media technologies in medical education

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    the use of video games and related new media technology in medical education. Significant gender differences in game play experience and attitudes may represent male video game design bias that stresses male cognitive aptitudes; medical educators hoping to create serious games that will appeal to both men and women must avoid this. PMID:20576125

  15. Medical student attitudes toward video games and related new media technologies in medical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kron Frederick W

    2010-06-01

    favorable views about the use of video games and related new media technology in medical education. Significant gender differences in game play experience and attitudes may represent male video game design bias that stresses male cognitive aptitudes; medical educators hoping to create serious games that will appeal to both men and women must avoid this.

  16. Learning styles of medical students change in relation to time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurpinar, Erol; Bati, Hilal; Tetik, Cihat

    2011-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate if any changes exist in the learning styles of medical students over time and in relation to different curriculum models with these learning styles. This prospective cohort study was conducted in three different medical faculties, which implement problem-based learning (PBL), hybrid, and integrated curriculum models. The study instruments were Kolb's Learning Style Inventory (LSI) and a questionnaire describing the students' demographic characteristics. Sample selection was not done, and all first-year students (n = 547) were targeted. This study was designed in two phases. In the first year, the study instruments were delivered to the target group. The next year, the same instruments were delivered again to those who had fully completed the first questionnaire (n = 525). Of these, 455 students had completed the instruments truly and constituted the study group. The majority of the students were assimilators and convergers in both the first and second years. A change in learning style was observed between 2 yr in 46.9% of the students in the integrated curriculum, in 49.3% of the students in the hybrid curriculum, and 56.4% of the students in the PBL curriculum. The least and most changes observed between the learning style groups were in assimilators and divergers, respectively. Curriculum models and other independent variables had no significant effect on the change between learning styles. The learning styles of medical students may change over time. Further followup studies in larger groups are needed to clarify this relation.

  17. WHITE BLOOD CELLS IN POLISH ATHLETES OF VARIOUS SPORTS DISCIPLINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Orysiak

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the diversity of white blood cell (WBC counts and their subsets (neutrophils, lymphocytes and monocytes among competitive athletes of different sports disciplines. The blood samples were collected from 608 healthy, medically examined athletes (181 females and 427 males aged 20.1 ± 5.1 years, who represented five sport disciplines: canoeing, judo, rowing, swimming and volleyball. All blood samples were taken from the antecubital vein in the morning, after overnight fasting, in a seated position. Haematological analyses were conducted using a haematology analyser (ADVIA 120, Siemens. Neutropenia (defined as neutrophil count <2.0 · 10[sup]9[/sup]·L[sup]-1[/sup] was found in athletes of both sexes in each discipline. There was no incident of lymphopenia (defined as a lymphocyte count <1.0 · 10[sup]9[/sup]·L[sup]-1[/sup]. Monocytopenia (defined as a monocyte count <0.2 · 10[sup]9[/sup]·L[sup]-1[/sup] was seen only in male athletes, except judo athletes. Differences in WBC and their subset counts were related to sport disciplines: in volleyball players WBC counts were significantly higher than in athletes of canoeing and rowing (in females; neutrophil counts were the lowest in swimming athletes; lymphocyte counts were lower in athletes of canoeing than in volleyball and swimming, but only in females; monocyte counts were lower in athletes of canoeing than swimming (in females and judo (in males. In women, counts of neutrophils were greater and counts of monocytes were smaller than in men. It seems that prevalence of neutropenia and monocytopenia and differences in WBC counts and their subsets among disciplines could be related to the adaptive response to physical exercise.

  18. Operational discipline and microenterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Rosales Gómez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to identify the elements of the operational Discipline in the business of micro-enterprises in Coatzacoalcos, Mexico. For the analysis an instrument is designed and applied to 20 companies which fulfill the suggested recommendations in research such as caution in the use of hazardous materials, use of equipment with simple specifications and easily accessible to employees, monitoring of some standard to identify risks, good environmental management, among others. We conclude that despite the findings in the application of the methodology of Operational Discipline, it is generally suffers from many important practices, and can be considered as construction companies of the city of Coatzacoalcos no mandatory environmental care this activity.

  19. Transcending the discipline

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    The international U&U seminar invites PhD work which addresses the discipline of urbanism, and encourages contributions that highlight its trans-disciplinary nature. Urbanism is grounded in various practices, discourses and realities with respect to the city. The seminar will focus on multiple approaches – from historic enquiry to project-led analysis – and cover a wide range of spaces and scales - from territories to neighborhoods, from landscapes to cityscapes. The seminar seeks contributio...

  20. The rod as an instrument of discipline

    OpenAIRE

    Milton Luiz Torres; Centro Universitário Adventista de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP

    2013-01-01

    Both in biblical literature as in ancient extrabiblical literature, the use of the rod appears primarily related to the capacity or to the authority of the one who holds it. It is, above all, an instrument of power. This article investigates the implications of using the rod as a tool of correction and discipline, taking into account the symbolism, culture and literary tradition associated with the use of that instrument of discipline for correction and transformation of those subjected to it...

  1. Altruism across disciplines: one word, multiple meanings

    OpenAIRE

    Clavien, C.; Chapuisat, M.

    2013-01-01

    Altruism is a deep and complex phenomenon that is analysed by scholars of various disciplines, including psychology, philosophy, biology, evolutionary anthropology and experimental economics. Much confusion arises in current literature because the term altruism covers variable concepts and processes across disciplines. Here we investigate the sense given to altruism when used in different fields and argumentative contexts. We argue that four distinct but related concepts need to be distinguis...

  2. Quality Assessment of Medical Apps that Target Medication-Related Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loy, John Shiguang; Ali, Eskinder Eshetu; Yap, Kevin Yi-Lwern

    2016-10-01

    The advent of smartphones has enabled a plethora of medical apps for disease management. As of 2012, there are 40,000 health care-related mobile apps available in the market. Since most of these medical apps do not go through any stringent quality assessment, there is a risk of consumers being misinformed or misled by unreliable information. In this regard, apps that target medication-related problems (MRPs) are not an exception. There is little information on what constitutes quality in apps that target MRPs and how good the existing apps are. To develop a quality assessment tool for evaluating apps that target MRPs and assess the quality of such apps available in the major mobile app stores (iTunes and Google Play). The top 100 free and paid apps in the medical categories of iTunes and Google Play stores (total of 400 apps) were screened for inclusion in the final analysis. English language apps that targeted MRPs were downloaded on test devices to evaluate their quality. Apps intended for clinicians, patients, or both were eligible for evaluation. The quality assessment tool consisted of 4 sections (appropriateness, reliability, usability, privacy), which determined the overall quality of the apps. Apps that fulfilled the inclusion criteria were classified based on the presence of any 1 or more of the 5 features considered important for apps targeting MRPs (monitoring, interaction checker, dose calculator, medication information, medication record). Descriptive statistics and Mann-Whitney tests were used for analysis. Final analysis was based on 59 apps that fulfilled the study inclusion criteria. Apps with interaction checker (66.9%) and monitoring features (54.8%) had the highest and lowest overall qualities. Paid apps generally scored higher for usability than free apps (P = 0.006) but lower for privacy (P = 0.003). Half of the interaction checker apps were unable to detect interactions with herbal medications. Blood pressure and heart rate monitoring apps

  3. Nanoclusters a bridge across disciplines

    CERN Document Server

    Jena, Purusottam

    2010-01-01

    This comprehensive book on Nanoclusters comprises sixteen authoritative chapters written by leading researchers in the field. It provides insight into topics that are currently at the cutting edge of cluster science, with the main focus on metal and metal compound systems that are of particular interest in materials science, and also on aspects related to biology and medicine. While there are numerous books on clusters, the focus on clusters as a bridge across disciplines sets this book apart from others. Delivers cutting edge coverage of cluster science Covers a broad range of topics in

  4. Using Discipline Data to Enhance Equity in School Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Kent; Ellwood, Kathleen; McCall, Lisa; Girvan, Erik J.

    2018-01-01

    There is a longstanding and pressing challenge regarding overuse of exclusionary discipline (e.g., office discipline referrals, suspensions) for students of color and students with disabilities. Moreover, many common efforts to address the problem have not been shown to enhance equity in school discipline. This article describes a promising…

  5. Disciplined care for disciplined patients: experience of hospitalized blind patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamshiri, Mahmood; Mohammadi, Nooredin; Cheraghi, Mohammad Ali; Vehviläinen-Julkunen, Katri; Sadeghi, Tahereh

    2013-01-01

    Blindness is a permanent condition that alters daily life of blind people. Interpretive phenomenology was used to understand lived experiences of the hospitalized blind people. "Disciplined care for disciplined patients" was one of the themes that emerged from the data. Provision of disciplined care can help health care professionals provide a holistic and comprehensive competent care for blind patients.

  6. Administering Discipline Differently: A Foucauldian Lens on Restorative School Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustick, Hilary

    2017-01-01

    Urban school leaders are under increasing pressure--in some cases, under threat of federal investigation (US Department of Education, 2014)--to use alternative models of non-punitive discipline, known generally as positive discipline practices such as restorative discipline (American Psychological Association, 2008; Anfinson, Autumn, Lehr,…

  7. FIXATIONS ON RELATION OF ORTHOGRAPHY WITH THE OTHER DISCIPLINES / IMLÂNIN DIĞER BILIM DALLARIYLA ILISKISI ÜZERINE TESPITLER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Dr. İlhan GENÇ

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Research done in Turkish Language andLiterature, history, Arabic, Farsi languages and literaturehas shown may have an amount of publication of booksthat are rich in quality and a size. That should be bookeddown on. The reason for all this research and effort is tofind me right publications and find out what may reallymean. The publications talked about have not set writingrules and may have not been set to place. In this timebeing different experiances have been earned in the areaof writing rules as in punctuation. In this piece of writingwill be looked at disciplinly with the use of me writingrules of that certain period of time.

  8. Prevalence of examination related anxiety in a private medical college.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Abdul Najeeb; Rasool, Sohail Ataur; Sultan, Ambreen; Tahira, Irum

    2013-01-01

    To assess examination related anxiety among first professional medical students and to determine the factors contributing to this kind of anxiety among them. A cross-sectional study using structured self-administered questionnaire was carried out over 10 days in Frontier Medical and Dental College, Abbottabad, in December 2012, using sample size of 200 students,. Survey questionnaire consisted of twenty questions regarding life style, study style, psychological and social problems, and results were analyzed by Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). A total of 200 students out of 220 (90.90%) filled in the questionnaire. There were 61.50% male and 38.50% female students. The average maximum Examination related Anxiety marked on VAS was 47 +/- 21. Among different factors contributing to exam anxiety, inadequate rest (89%), irrational thoughts (67.50) and excessive course load (60%) were the most important factors reported by the students. Most of the students were aware of anxiety-reduction techniques but seldom implement them. On a VAS, examination, in its own right, has been established as a definite cause of anxiety, although the magnitude is not alarming. Students who regularly participate in class tests and perform well there, are least affected by this anxiety.

  9. Medical student stories of participation in patient care-related activities: the construction of relational identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warmington, Sally; McColl, Geoffrey

    2017-03-01

    Professional identity formation is acknowledged as one of the fundamental tasks of contemporary medical education. Identity is a social phenomenon, constructed through participation in everyday activities and an integral part of every learning interaction. In this paper we report from an Australian ethnographic study into how medical students and patients use narrative to construct their identities. The dialogic narrative analysis employed focused on the production of meaning through the use of language devices in a given context, and the juxtaposition of multiple perspectives. Two stories told by students about their participation in patient care-related activities reveal how identities are constructed in this context through depictions of the relationships between medical students, patients and clinical teachers. These students use the rhetorical functions of stories to characterise doctors and patients in certain ways, and position themselves in relation to them. They defend common practices that circumvent valid consent processes, justified by the imperative to maximise students' participation in patient care-related activities. In doing so, they identify patients as their adversaries, and doctors as allies. Both students are influenced by others' expectations but one reveals the active nature of identity work, describing subtle acts of resistance. These stories illustrate how practices for securing students' access to patients can influence students' emerging identities, with implications for their future disclosure and consent practices. We argue that more collaborative ways of involving medical students in patient care-related activities will be facilitated if students and clinical teachers develop insight into the relational nature of identity work.

  10. Basic research on cancer related to radiation associated medical researches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong In; Hwang, Dae Yong; Bang, Ho Yoon [and others

    2000-12-01

    Basic Research on Cancer related to Radiation Associated Medical Researches including 1. Establishment of animal model of colorectal cancer liver metastasis and measurement of angiogenesis, 2. Tissue expression of Tie-1 and Tie-2 in human colorectal cancer, 3. Enhancement of G2/Mphase Cell Fraction by Adenovirus-mediated p53 Gene Transfer in Ovarian Cancer Cell Lines, 4. Clinical Characteristics of the patients with Non-B Non-C Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Frequency of HBV, HCV and TTV Viremia in these Patients, 5. Significance of serum iron and ferritin in patients with stomach cancer, 6. Telomerase assay for early detection of lung cancer, 7. Study on the Usefulness of Aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 Genotyping for Risk Group of Alcohol-related Cancer Screening, 8. Gene therapy using hepatoma specific promoter, 9. Study on the Influence of DNA repair gene, XRCC1 Genotypes on the Risk of Head and Neck Cancer were performed.

  11. Disciplining Global Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Evans

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the puzzles of the current era is the divide between optimists and pessimists on the question of human rights. The prominence of human rights on the international political agenda sustains the optimist’s hopes for the future, while pessimists point to continued and widespread reports of civil, political, economic, social and cultural violations. This article looks at the tensions and apparent contradictions between these two approaches. Following a discussion on the construction of global human rights discourse(s, the article concludes that the pretensions of law act to mask the socioeconomic normative framework that acts to discipline global society.

  12. Disciplining Global Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Evans

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the puzzles of the current era is the divide between optimists and pessimists on the question of human rights. The prominence of human rights on the international political agenda sustains the optimist’s hopes for the future, while pessimists point to continued and widespread reports of civil, political, economic, social and cultural violations. This article looks at the tensions and apparent contradictions between these two approaches. Following a discussion on the construction of global human rights discourse(s, the article concludes that the pretensions of law act to mask the socioeconomic normative framework that acts to discipline global society.

  13. Medical Specialty Choice and Related Factors of Brazilian Medical Students and Recent Doctors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Correia Lima de Souza

    Full Text Available Choosing a medical specialty is an important, complex, and not fully understood process. The present study investigated the factors that are related to choosing and rejecting medical specialties in a group of students and recent medical doctors.A cross-sectional survey of 1,223 medical students and doctors was performed in Brazil in 2012. A standardized literature-based questionnaire was applied that gathered preferable or rejected specialties, and asked questions about extracurricular experiences and the influence of 14 factors on a Likert-type scale from 0 to 4. Specialties were grouped according to lifestyle categories: controllable and uncontrollable, which were subdivided into primary care, internal medicine, and surgical specialties. Notably, the time period of rejection was usually earlier than the time period of intended choice (p < 0.0001, χ(2 = 107.2. The choice mainly occurred during the internship period in medical school (n = 466; 38.7%. An overall large frequency of participation in extracurricular activities was observed (n = 1,184; 95.8%, which were highly associated with the respective medical area. Orthopedic surgery had the highest correlation with participation in specialty-specific organized groups (OR = 59.9, 95% CI = 21.6-166.3 and psychiatry was correlated with participation in research groups (OR = 18.0, 95% CI = 9.0-36.2. With regard to influential factors in controllable lifestyle specialties, "financial reason" (mean score ± standard deviation: 2.8 ± 1.0; median = 3 and "personal time" (3.1 ± 1.3; median = 4 were important factors. In primary care, these factors were less important (1.7 ± 1.3 and 1.7 ± 1.5, respectively; median = 2 for both, and higher scores were observed for "curricular internship" (3.2 ± 1.1, median = 4 and "social commitment" (2.6 ± 1.3, median = 3.The present findings provide important insights into developing strategies to stimulate interest in specialties based on the needs of the

  14. Are new medical students' specialty preferences gendered? Related motivational factors at a Dutch medical school.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tongeren-Alers, M.L.G. van; Esch, M. van der; Verdonk, P.; Johansson, E.; Hamberg, K.; Lagro-Janssen, T.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Female students currently outnumber male students in most medical schools. Some medical specialties are highly gender segregated. Therefore, it is interesting to know whether medical students have early specialization preferences based on their gender. Consequently, we like to know

  15. All-Russian physical education and sports complex «Ready to work and defense» as a level estimator of medical students’ professional competence in discipline «Physical education»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Sivas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of estimation of students’ professional competence level in “Physical education” is a difficult task to solve. The RWD complex corresponds the demands of the modern pedagogical evaluation and is the universal means of formation of quantitative evaluation of competencies. Analysis of the results shown by students in certain types of tests indicates a relatively weak preparedness for passing the standards of the RWD complex. To create the most favorable conditions for the formation of competence in the discipline “Physical education”  during the development of the educational program it is necessary to include types of the RWD complex among credit requirements and evaluate them in accordance with the score-rating system.

  16. Disciplined structured communications with disciplined runtime adaptation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di Giusto, Cinzia; Perez, Jorge A.

    2015-01-01

    Session types offer a powerful type-theoretic foundation for the analysis of structured communications, as commonly found in service-oriented systems. They are defined upon core programming calculi which offer only limited support for expressing requirements related to runtime adaptation. This is

  17. Nanotoxicology : An Emerging Discipline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin Kumar Jain

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Nanotoxicology refers to the study of the interactions of nanostructures with biological systems with an emphasis on elucidating the relationship between the physical and chemical properties of nanostructures with induction of toxic biological responses. Nanotoxicology is aimed at providing information on the potential toxicological effects, risk assessment and safety evaluation of nanostructured materials on human health. Nanoparticles present possible dangers, both medically and environmentally. They are also able to pass through cell membranes in organisms and their interactions with biological systems are relatively unknown. Animal studies have shown that nanoparticles can penetrate cells and tissues, move through the body and brain and cause biochemical damage. The greater chemical reactivity of nanomaterials result in increased production of reactive oxygen species which may contribute to similar patterns of cell injury and alterations at the molecular level by initiation, propagation and autocatalytic chain reactions. Intracellular signaling activation and inactivation of enzymes, stimulation, secretion and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and nuclear factor activation and alteration are also common events. [Veterinary World 2011; 4(1.000: 35-40

  18. Stereotactic radiosurgery for medically refractory multiple sclerosis-related tremor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, Sudesh S; Niranjan, Ajay; Monaco, Edward A; Flickinger, John C; Lunsford, L Dade

    2017-06-30

    OBJECTIVE Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurodegenerative disease that can lead to severe intention tremor in some patients. In several case reports, conventional radiotherapy has been reported to possibly exacerbate MS. Radiosurgery dramatically limits normal tissue irradiation to potentially avoid such a problem. Gamma Knife thalamotomy (GKT) has been established as a minimally invasive technique that is effective in treating essential tremor and Parkinson's disease-related tremor. The goal in this study was to analyze the outcomes of GKT in patients suffering from medically refractory MS-related tremor. METHODS The authors retrospectively studied the outcomes of 15 patients (mean age 46.5 years) who had undergone GKT over a 15-year period (1998-2012). Fourteen patients underwent GKT at a median maximum dose of 140 Gy (range 130-150 Gy) using a single 4-mm isocenter. One patient underwent GKT at a dose of 140 Gy delivered via two 4-mm isocenters (3 mm apart). The posteroinferior region of the nucleus ventralis intermedius (VIM) was the target for all GKTs. The Fahn-Tolosa-Marin clinical tremor rating scale was used to evaluate tremor, handwriting, drawing, and drinking. The median time to the last follow-up was 39 months. RESULTS After GKT, 13 patients experienced tremor improvement on the side contralateral to surgery. Four patients noted tremor arrest at a median of 4.5 months post-GKT. Seven patients had excellent tremor improvement and 6 had good tremor improvement. Four patients noted excellent functional improvement, 8 noted good functional improvement, and 1 noted satisfactory functional improvement. Three patients experienced diminished tremor relief at a median of 18 months after radiosurgery. Two patients experienced temporary adverse radiation effects. Another patient developed a large thalamic cyst 60 months after GKT, which was successfully managed with Ommaya reservoir placement. CONCLUSIONS Gamma Knife thalamotomy was found to be a minimally

  19. Childhood discipline: challenges for clinicians and parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, J Burton

    2002-10-15

    Although childhood discipline is an important issue for parents, this topic is seldom emphasized by family physicians during well-child examinations. Behavior problems are relatively common but frequently under-recognized by physicians. Opportunities to counsel parents about safe, effective methods of discipline are therefore missed. Discipline should be instructive and age-appropriate and should include positive reinforcement for good behavior. Punishment is only one aspect of discipline and, in order to be effective, it must be prompt, consistent, and fair. Time-out is frequently used to correct younger children, but because it is often enforced improperly, it loses its effectiveness. Corporal punishment is a controversial but common form of discipline that is less effective than some other types of punishment. Its use is linked to child and spouse abuse, as well as to future substance use, violent crime, poor self-esteem, and depression. Despite the possible negative effects of corporal punishment, it is still widely accepted in our society. Since discipline plays an important role in the social and emotional development of children, physicians should be trained to discuss this issue with parents during routine well-child examinations.

  20. Canadian Medical Education Statistics, 1980/81 = Statistiques Relatives a l'enseignement Medical au Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association of Canadian Medical Colleges, Ottawa (Ontario).

    Data for 1980-1981 pertaining to medical education in Canada are presented. Information about Canadian medical schools, population of Canada by province and distribution of medical school openings, tuition, payment scales for post-M.D. clinical trainees, clinical clerkship stipends, and numbers of Canadian medical schools offering instruction in…

  1. Disciplining anthropological demography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Randall

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This study furthers the epistemological development of anthropological demography, and its role in understanding the demography of Europe. Firstly we situate anthropological demography against the context of an evolving world of research in which boundaries between academic disciplines have become much more permeable. This is achieved via an overview of recent theoretical debates about the role and nature of disciplinarity, including interdisciplinarity, multidisciplinarity and transdisciplinarity. Secondly, in order to understand the current state of the art, we sketch out the evolution of anthropological demography, paying particular attention to the different knowledge claims of anthropology and demography. Finally, we flesh out some of the epistemological and theoretical debates about anthropological demography by sketching out the formative research process of our own work on low fertility in the UK.

  2. NUTRIGENOMICS – A NEW BORDELINE BIOMEDICAL DISCIPLINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.Tudose

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nutrigenomics or nutritional genomics is a borderline discipline, a branch of ecogenomics which studies the role of individual genetic polymorphisms and the influence of diet as risk factors for the occurrence of chronic diseases. The interaction of genetic variation with dietary factors led to this new field of research, which relates the role of gene‐ tics to nutritional requirements and nutrition‐mediated susceptibility to chronic diseases. The present paper dis‐ cusses some general considerations on the objectives of nutrigenomics, such as: introducing a personalized nutri‐ tion based on individual genetic variations, identification of specific polymorphisms which, related to specific diets, increase the risk for chronic diseases, genetic testing of individuals and selection of diets appropriate to specific genetic constitutions, creation of new foods to improve consumers health (functional foods or even to heal some metabolic deficiencies (nutraceutics. Eventually, we are debating the most recent trends in nutrigenomics from the point of view of different actors: physicians, researchers, medical health and food authorities, politicians, food industry representatives etc.

  3. Evaluation of major risk factors related to depression among medical students of NRS medical college.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhopadhyay Prianka, Sain Sonali, Mandal Nirmal Kumar, Saha Tushar Kanti , Dey Indira, Chattopadhyay Amitava

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Medical students experience depression, burnout, and mental illness at a higher rate than general population. A better understanding of related risk factors can help target appropriate support services for them. The aim of the study was to assess the occurrence of depression and identify its risk factors among undergraduate students in a medical College in Kolkata, India. Methodology: A descriptive, cross-sectional study using a two stage, stratified cluster sampling technique was used to select a sample of 289 students. Data were collected using a self-administered, anonymous questionnaire based on Becks Depression Inventory II. Results: The mean score of students on depression scale was 10.47±10.39. 22.5 % of students tested positive for some form of depression while 6.2% had severe to extreme depression. The risk factors of depressive symptoms identified were older age, lower family income, students who did not choose admission in MBBS course on their own, had addictions, felt negatively about results, faced difficulty with study course and had relationship issues. Students with relationship issues in their personal lives were 3.7 times more likely to exhibit depressive symptoms than without them. Students who faced difficulty coping with study course were 2.18 times more likely to exhibit depressive symptoms than without them. Conclusion: Academic performance alone doesn’t influence the mental health of students, rather factors like older age, socioeconomic status, role in choice of medical career, negative perception of academic performance, difficulty with study course and relationship issues are also important.

  4. Time Dependent Relative Risks in Life Insurance Medical Underwriting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneepkens, Robert F

    2015-01-01

    Introduction .- Life insurance medicine focuses on mortality hazards in specified periods. People are free to insure their lives for shorter or longer terms. Because the chosen terms range from 1 year to a life time, life insurers have to take into account the fact that the predictive value of risk indicators can and will change over time. The time a risk indicator keeps its predictive value, will be dependent on its biological effects, volatility, and treatability. For a given applicant this implies that the relative hazard (RH) calculated for his/her medical condition should be dependent on the term of the insurance. The main objective of this study is to determine if some commonly used risk indicators - previously used to study age dependency of relative risks - have a predictive value that increases with the observation period. (1) Methods .- This population-based cohort study uses NHANES-data files from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) and the NHANES Linked Mortality Files 2010. Only participants aged 20 to 69 that were examined in mobile examination centers, without a history of some prevalent high risk diseases were included. The observed mortality was compared to the expected mortality in a Generalized Linear Model (GLM) with Poisson error structure with two reference populations, which both can serve as preferred reference for life insurers: The United States Life Tables 2008 (USLT) and the 2008 Valuation Basic Tables (VBT) based on the insured population of 35 US Life insurers. The time dependency of the RHs of the systolic blood pressure (SBP), aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), serum albumin and albuminuria, was assessed, with correction for ethnicity, household income, history of diabetes mellitus, BMI and serum cholesterol. To be able to compare the results with the results of the Age Dependency Study (ADS), the same data, risk indicators, statistical analysis method, and the

  5. Medication-Related Osteonecrosis of the Jaws (MRONJ: Etiological Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Tenore

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Osteonecrosis of the jaws (ONJ is an uncommon but severe bone disease, can be related to various medicaments (MRONJ including bisphosphonates (BRONJ, antiangiogenic and antiresorptive medicaments such as Denosumab (DRONJ, human monoclonal antibody to the receptor activator of nuclear factor-kB ligand. The rise in number in the latest years can be explained with many patients treated with all these drugs, assumed for osteometabolic (i.e osteoporosis, osteogenesis imperfecta or neoplastic diseases (multiple myeloma, metastatic breast, prostate and renal cancer. The onset mechanism of MRONJ is not entirely understood, probably different mechanisms are involved, such as inhibition of the osteoclasts differentiation and function, decrease of the angiogenesis and inflammation/infection of the jaw bones. Some pathogenetic mechanisms are different according to the drugs, for example the cases of the RANK-ligand inhibitor related ONJ may occur without considering the period of medication intake; also the risk of ONJ manifestation after bisphosphonates (BF is not significantly diminished after interrupting the drug therapy, because BF bind to the bone matrix for many years. Drugs currently implicated in osteonecrosis pathology are various, therefore the term ONJ was currently replaced by MRONJ; it is necessary that the anamnestic phase and management of the patients to be more detailed and correct, not only to prevent osteonecrosis but also to plan all necessary treatments before start of the drug therapy.

  6. RIGHT MEDICATION RELATED TO DRUG CENTRALIZED IN RSUD SIDOARJO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aprilia Aprilia

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Centralized drug is a management of the entire drug which is entirely done by nurses to administration to patients. Right medication is the process of right drug administration which is done by nurses based on 6 rights of medication, and wary of side effects. The purpose of this study was to analyze the corelation between centralized drug, team leadership, and nurse`s knowledge with right medication among nurses. Methods.The design of the study was descriptive corelational with cross-sectional approach. The population was inpatient nurses in RSUD Sidoarjo. Total sample was 114 respondents was selected by purposive sampling. The independent variables in this study: centralized drug, team leadership, and nurse`s knowledge. The dependent variable was right medication. Data were collected by using questionnares for independent variables and dependent variable. Data were analyzed by using Binary Logistic Regression with degree of significance α>0,05. Results. Binary Logistic Regression test showed non significance level between centralized drug with right medication (P=0.501, team leadership with right medication (P=0.874, and nurses`s knowledge with right medication (P=0.243. Discussion. This study concluded centralized drug, team leadership, and nurse`s knowledge were good. But, there are nurses that have negative value at right medication, however right medication in RSUD Sidoarjo has majority positive value. Keywords: centralized drug, right medication

  7. Teaching biomedical technology innovation as a discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yock, Paul G; Brinton, Todd J; Zenios, Stefanos A

    2011-07-20

    Recently, universities in the United States and abroad have developed dedicated educational programs in life science technology innovation. Here, we discuss the two major streams of educational theory and practice that have informed these programs: design thinking and entrepreneurship education. We make the case that the process of innovation for new medical technologies (medtech) is different from that for biopharmaceuticals and outline the challenges and opportunities associated with developing a discipline of medtech innovation.

  8. Narrative inquiry: a relational research methodology for medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clandinin, D Jean; Cave, Marie T; Berendonk, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    Narrative research, an inclusive term for a range of methodologies, has rapidly become part of medical education scholarship. In this paper we identify narrative inquiry as a particular theoretical and methodological framework within narrative research and outline its characteristics. We briefly summarise how narrative research has been used in studying medical learners' identity making in medical education. We then turn to the uses of narrative inquiry in studying medical learners' professional identity making. With the turn to narrative inquiry, the shift is to thinking with stories instead of about stories. We highlight four challenges in engaging in narrative inquiry in medical education and point toward promising future research and practice possibilities. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and The Association for the Study of Medical Education.

  9. The discipline of innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drucker, P F

    1998-01-01

    Some innovations spring from a flash of genius. But as Peter Drucker points out in this HBR Classic, most result from a conscious, purposeful search for opportunities. For managers seeking innovation, engaging in disciplined work is more important than having an entrepreneurial personality. Writing originally in the May-June 1985 issue, Drucker describes the major sources of opportunities for innovation. Within a company or industry, opportunities can be found in unexpected occurrences, incongruities of various kinds, process needs, or changes in an industry or market. Outside a company, opportunities arise from demographic changes, changes in perception, or new knowledge. These seven sources overlap, and the potential for innovation may well lie in more than one area at a time. Innovations based on new knowledge, of course, tend to have the greatest effect on the marketplace. But it often takes decades before the ideas are translated into actual products, processes, or services. The other sources of innovation are easier and simpler to handle, yet they still require managers to look beyond established practices. Drucker emphasizes that in seeking opportunities, innovators need to look for simple, focused solutions to real problems. The greatest praise an innovation can receive is for people to say, "This is obvious!" Grandiose ideas designed to revolutionize an industry rarely work. Innovation, like any other endeavor, takes talent, ingenuity, and knowledge. But Drucker cautions that if diligence, persistence, and commitment are lacking, companies are unlikely to succeed at the business of innovation.

  10. Fiscal Discipline in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanhita SUCHARITA

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study broadly attempts to analyze the role of Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management Act in restoring fiscal balance in India. It analyses the need for fiscal rules and constraints in India. The study aims at finding out the major factor behind rising fiscal imbalance in India and to examine whether there is an electoral motive towards high fiscal deficit to GDP ratio or not. It also analyzes the effectiveness of various measures undertaken at the central and state level to inculcate fiscal discipline in the fiscal management. The study also makes an attempt to do a critical in depth reviews of the Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management Act and make an attempt at examining effectiveness and suitability of FRBM Act through a quantitative analysis. It also makes an attempt to suggest improvements in the fiscal monitoring mechanism in India. We employ Ordinary Least Square (OLS method to examine the impact of Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management Act on fiscal deficit in India using the data for the period 1980-81 to 2008-09. The regression results indicates that FRBM Act does not have a significant effect on the Gross Fiscal Deficit (GFD to GDP ratio where as GDP (at factor cost growth rate has a significant negative effect on the GFD to GDP ratio.

  11. Student-Life Stress Level and its Related Factors among Medical Students of Hamadan University of Medical Sciences in 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Roya Nikanjam; Majid Barati; Saeed Bashirian*; Mohammad Babamiri; Ali Fattahi; Alireza Soltanian

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Student-life stress can lead to various negative consequences such as physical illness, mental disorders or exhaustion. The present study was conducted to evaluate the level of student life stress and its related factors among medical students of Hamadan University of Medical Sciences. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study applied multistage random sampling to select 500university students at Hamadan University of Medical Sciences during 2015. The dat...

  12. Relative efficacy of the proposed Space Shuttle antimotion sickness medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hordinsky, J. R.; Schwartz, E.; Beier, J.; Martin, J.; Aust, G.

    1982-07-01

    Space motion sickness has been estimated as affecting between 1/3 and 1/2 of all space flight participants. NASA has at the moment proposed a combination of promethazine and ephedrine ( P/E) and one of scopolamine and dextroamphetamine ( S/D), both given orally, as well as a transdermally applied scopolamine (TAS), as preventive and ameliorative measures. The reported double-blind study tests the early phase actions and efficacy of the transdermal scopolamine (Transderm ™-V of ALZA Corporation) and compares these in detail to the oral medications. Motion sickness resistance was tested by standardized head movements while accelerating at 0.2°/sec 2 to a maximum rotation of 240°/sec, with an intermediate plateau of 10 min at 180°/sec. To permit weighting motion sickness protection against other system influences, cardiovascular, psychological (subjective and objective), and visual parameter changes were documented for the three therapeutic modes. The relative impact of the various modalities on operational and experimental components of space missions is discussed. A comparison to intramuscularly administered promethazine (a backup therapeutic mode suggested for Space Shuttle use) is also included.

  13. Medical adhesive-related skin injuries associated with vascular access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitchcock, Jan; Savine, Louise

    2017-04-27

    Establishing vascular access and preventing infection, both at insertion and during ongoing care is generally the top priority; the maintenance of optimal skin integrity is often a distant secondary consideration. Skin can react to different types of dressings or adhesives, or problems can arise relating to the securement of lines or the development of sensitivities to cleaning solutions. Clearly, these scenarios are not limited to the securement of vascular access devices; however, a patient with a long-term vascular access device may not have other options for vascular access, which makes this a very important and yet largely unrecognised area. A review of the limited literature that existed up to March 2015 showed it was typically concerned with skin tears connected with dressings and removal, and contact irritant dermatitis. The tissue viability team and vascular access team reviewed the current products associated with a typical vascular access dressing to ensure it was fit for purpose and where at all possible had good scientific literature for validation. The team worked proactively to recognise those patients at risk with the early identification of potential medical adhesive-related skin injuries (MARSI). To facilitate this an algorithm was developed that offers a step-by-step approach, clearly outlining what to do to prevent MARSI and its treatment should it develop. These reactions can result from other factors than the dressing alone, and an increase in these kinds of skin reaction in patients who are on chemotherapy regimens is being explored further. Through the implementation of an algorithm, education for both staff and patients and collaborative working between vascular access and tissue viability teams, a reduction in these phenomena has been seen despite an increasing number of at-risk patients.

  14. Inpatient treatment time across disciplines in spinal cord injury rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteneck, Gale; Gassaway, Julie; Dijkers, Marcel; Backus, Deborah; Charlifue, Susan; Chen, David; Hammond, Flora; Hsieh, Ching-Hui; Smout, Randall J.

    2011-01-01

    Background/objective Length of stay (LOS) for rehabilitation treatment after spinal cord injury (SCI) has been documented extensively. However, there is almost no published research on the nature, extent, or intensity of the various treatments patients receive during their stay. This study aims at providing such information on a large sample of patients treated by specialty rehabilitation inpatient programs. Methods Six hundred patients with traumatic SCI admitted to six rehabilitation centers were enrolled. Time spent on various therapeutic activities was documented by each rehabilitation clinician after each patient encounter. Patients were grouped by neurologic level and completeness of injury. Total time spent by each rehabilitation discipline over a patient's stay and total minutes of treatment per week were calculated. Ordinary least squares stepwise regression models were used to identify patient and injury characteristics associated with time spent in rehabilitation treatment overall and within each discipline. Results Average LOS was 55 days (standard deviation 37), during which 180 (106) hours of treatment were received, or 24 (5) hours per week. Extensive variation was found in the amount of treatment received, between and within neurologic groups. Total hours of treatment provided throughout a patient's stay were primarily determined by LOS, which in turn was primarily predicted by medical acuity. Variation in minutes per week of treatment delivered by individual disciplines was predicted poorly by patient and injury characteristics. Conclusions Variations between and within SCI rehabilitation patient groups in LOS, minutes of treatment per week overall, and for each rehabilitation discipline are large. Variation in treatment intensity was not well explained by patient and injury characteristics. In accordance with practice-based evidence methodology, the next step in the SCIRehab study will be to determine which treatment interventions are related with

  15. The relation between antihistamine medication during early pregnancy & birth defects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shawky, Rabah M; Seifeldin, Neveen S

    2015-01-01

    ... women topical medications like emollients should be tried first in the first trimester of pregnancy. Also pregnant women should be advised to consult their health care provider before taking any medication. ^ 2015 Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Ain Shams University. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-N...

  16. Indications, medical conditions and services related to gastrostomy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. To describe South African infants and children requiring gastrostomies in a tertiary hospital, including the indications, medical conditions and health services, during a 5-year period (2005 - 2009). Design. The research design was a retrospective descriptive survey of medical records. Setting. A tertiary paediatric ...

  17. CHARGE syndrome: Relations between behavioral characteristics and medical conditions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervloed, M.P.J.; Boom, M.A.A. van den; Knoors, H.E.T.; Ravenswaaij-Arts, C.M.A. van; Admiraal, R.J.C.

    2006-01-01

    The behaviors and medical problems in 27 persons with CHARGE syndrome were studied, because it was hypothesized that their behavior might be partly dependent on the heterogeneous medical status. With the exception of more tics, cardiac surgery was associated with positive behaviors: less withdrawn

  18. Variables Related to Parental Choice to Medicate Their Autistic Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantareas, Mary; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Comparison of 16 autistic children receiving psychotropic medication with 16 similar nonmedicated children and their parents found that discriminators of the parental decision to medicate or not included: family stress; the child's speaking ability; and irritable, driven, non-goal-directed child behavior. (DB)

  19. Neuroscience discipline science plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Over the past two decades, NASA's efforts in the neurosciences have developed into a program of research directed at understanding the acute changes that occur in the neurovestibular and sensorimotor systems during short-duration space missions. However, the proposed extended-duration flights of up to 28 days on the Shuttle orbiter and 6 months on Space Station Freedom, a lunar outpost, and Mars missions of perhaps 1-3 years in space, make it imperative that NASA's Life Sciences Division begin to concentrate research in the neurosciences on the chronic effects of exposure to microgravity on the nervous system. Major areas of research will be directed at understanding (1) central processing, (2) motor systems, (3) cognitive/spatial orientation, and (4) sensory receptors. The purpose of the Discipline Science Plan is to provide a conceptual strategy for NASA's Life Sciences Division research and development activities in the comprehensive area of neurosciences. It covers the significant research areas critical to NASA's programmatic requirements for the Extended-Duration Orbiter, Space Station Freedom, and exploration mission science activities. These science activities include ground-based and flight; basic, applied, and operational; and animal and human research and development. This document summarizes the current status of the program, outlines available knowledge, establishes goals and objectives, identifies science priorities, and defines critical questions in the subdiscipline areas of nervous system function. It contains a general plan that will be used by NASA Headquarters Program Offices and the field centers to review and plan basic, applied, and operational intramural and extramural research and development activities in this area.

  20. [Factors related to purchasing over-the-counter medications online].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishimoto, Keiko; Yoshida, Takeshi; Fukushima, Noriko

    2009-09-01

    We conducted a Web-based survey of approximately 40,000 Internet users on the purchase of over-the-counter (OTC) medications online in March 2009. The valid response rate was 97.8% and the number of responses was 39,208. The number of people who had purchased OTC medications online was 4,653 (11.9%), prescription medicines 792 (2.0%), and medical contact lenses 1,993 (5.1%). As a result of the multiple logistic regression analysis, independent variables with odds ratios (ORs) >1.5 were experience of purchasing prescription-only medicine online (OR=4.997, 95%CI=4.288-5.824), regular supplement use (OR=2.384, 95%CI=2.233-2.548), experience of purchasing colored contact lenses online (OR=2.206, 95%CI=1.632-2.983), no time to visit drugstores (OR=2.092, 95%CI=1.928-2.270), usage of Web sites of uncertain reliability (OR=1.992, 95%CI=1.857-2.137), and experience of purchasing therapeutic contact lenses online (OR=1.796, 95%CI=1.597-2.020). As some people have purchased prescription-only medicine or medical devices and had problems with drug information sources, the development of awareness of medical and pharmaceutical supplies and health and medical information literacy are key priorities to ensure safe OTC medication sales systems.

  1. The relation between executing of thesis policies and medical student's theses quality in type medical faculties of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolahi A.A

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medical students' thesis is equal to six units, which is mandatory for graduation. The purpose of preparing thesis is to familiarize students with research process, methodology, and scientific report writing skill. Purpose: The objective of this study is to determine the relation between executing of thesis policies and medical students' theses quality in type I medical faculties of Iran Methods: To perform this study first, we randomly chose 36 (Total sample=396 medical students' theses in each 11 medical faculties, which completed in 1998-99 academic year. The original theses were evaluated by using a questionnaire. Second, for evaluation of operationalization of thesis policies we use four criteria including, the presence of performance regulations, the proposals approving process, final approving course and presence of a defence session to evaluate thesis in the same medical faculty. Results: In medical faculties that thesis policies were completed, the score of theses was high. In contrast medical faculties with weak policies had low students’ theses scores. Conclusion: Thesis policies are considered as one of the ways to improve the quality of thesis. it is advise at the same time as we should be plan to provide the effective factors for improvement quality of thesis consider strongly the regulations related thesis should be considerate. Keywords: MEDICAL STUDENTS, THESES, REGULATION, and SCORES

  2. [Children with autism and related contact disorders: medical aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minderaa, R B; Stroink, H; Blom, W; Gunning, W B; van Hemel, J O

    1989-02-04

    In children with infantile autism or atypical pervasive developmental disorders somatic aspects play an important role. A review is presented of important hereditary, pre-, peri- and neonatal factors, findings at neurological examination, specific medical disorders and neurochemical and neurophysiological findings. Results of the medical examination of 15 children with autistic or atypical developmental disorders are presented. It is concluded that extensive medical examination of these children is indicated: in 8 out of 15 children a clinically relevant chromosomal, neurological or biochemical disorder could be detected.

  3. Are new medical students' specialty preferences gendered? Related motivational factors at a Dutch medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tongeren-Alers, Margret; van Esch, Maartje; Verdonk, Petra; Johansson, Eva; Hamberg, Katarina; Lagro-Janssen, Toine

    2011-01-01

    Female students currently outnumber male students in most medical schools. Some medical specialties are highly gender segregated. Therefore, it is interesting to know whether medical students have early specialization preferences based on their gender. Consequently, we like to know importance stipulated to motivational factors. Our study investigates new medical students' early specialization preferences and motivational factors. New students at a Dutch medical school (n = 657) filled in a questionnaire about specialty preferences (response rate = 94%; 69.5% female, 30.5% male). The students chose out of internal medicine, psychiatry, neurology, pediatrics, surgery, gynecology and family medicine, "other" or "I don't know." Finally, they valued ten motivational factors. Forty percent of the medical students reported no specialty preference yet. Taken together, female medical students preferred pediatrics and wished to combine work and care, whereas male students opted for surgery and valued career opportunities. Gender-driven professional preferences in new medical students should be noticed in order to use competencies. Changes in specialty preferences and motivational factors in pre- and post graduates should further assess the role of medical education.

  4. Teacher Race and School Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Constance A.; Hart, Cassandra M. D.

    2017-01-01

    Does having a teacher of the same race make it more or less likely that students are subject to exclusionary school discipline? In this study, the authors analyze a unique set of student and teacher demographic and discipline data from North Carolina elementary schools to examine whether being matched to a same-race teacher affects the rate at…

  5. Utilization of smart phones related medical applications among medical students at King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayedalamin, Zaid; Alshuaibi, Abdulaziz; Almutairi, Osama; Baghaffar, Mariam; Jameel, Tahir; Baig, Mukhtiar

    The present study explored the utility, attitude, and trends regarding Smartphone related Medical Applications (Apps) among medical students of King Abdulaziz University (KAU) Jeddah, Saudi Arabia (SA) and their perceptions of the impact of Medical Apps in their training activities. This survey was conducted at the Faculty of Medicine, Jeddah, and Rabigh campuses, KAU, Jeddah, SA. All participants were medical students of 2nd to 6th year. The data was collected by using an anonymous questionnaire regarding the perception of medical students about Medical Apps on the smart devices and the purpose of installation of the Apps. Additionally examined was the use of different Medical Apps by the students to investigate the impact of Medical Apps on the clinical training/practice. Data was analyzed on SPSS 21. The opinion of 330/460 medical students from all academic years was included in the study with a response rate of 72%. There were 170 (51.5%) males and 160 (48.5%) females with a mean age of 21.26±1.86 years. Almost all participating students 320 (97%) were well aware of Medical Apps for smart devices and 89.1% had installed different applications on their smart devices. The main usage was for either revision of courses (62.4%) or for looking up of medical information (67.3%), followed by preparing for a presentation (34.5%) and getting the medical news (32.1%). Regarding the impact of Medical Apps, most of the students considered these helpful in clinical decision-making, assisting in differential diagnosis, allowing faster access to Evidence-Based Medical practice, saving time and others. The practical use of these Apps was found to be minimal in medical students. Around 73% were occasional users of Medical Apps, and only 27% were using Medical Apps at least once a day. The regular use of Medical Apps on mobile devices is not common among medical students of KAU. Copyright © 2016 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd

  6. Medical discourse, cornerstone of gender relations in contemporary times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez, Dolores

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The concept of gender establishes not only a distinction between biological sex (natural data and the object of biological and medical knowledge and social sex (constructed within and by power relations. As a category of analysis, it also allows us to research the area of tension which governs the mutual construction of both. This construction inevitably pervades language and its capacity to establish categories of thought in cultures. This paper will demonstrate how the conceptual and linguistic category of «Woman» is one of the areas where this mutual construction may be found in the 19th century.

    El concepto de género no establece sólo una distinción entre sexo biológico (dato natural y objeto de conocimiento de la biología y de la medicina y sexo social (construido dentro de y por relaciones de poder. Como categoría de análisis permite también indagar en el espacio de tensión que gobierna la construcción mutua de uno y de otro. Esa construcción pasa sin lugar a duda por el lenguaje y su capacidad de enraizar en la cultura categorías de pensamiento. Este trabajo pretende poner de manifiesto cómo la categoría lingüística y conceptual de la-mujer es uno de los lugares donde en el siglo XIX se encarna esa construcción mutua.

  7. Uses of ionizing radiation and medical-care-related problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smathers, J.B.

    1988-08-01

    The uses of ionizing radiation in medicine are currently undergoing changes due to at least four major influences: (1) the constantly changing public perception of the hazards of radiation, (2) continuing technical innovation and development in equipment, (3) the imposition of diagnosis-related group funding by government health-care funding agencies, and (4) an increase in the average age of the U.S. population. The combined effect of these influences will probably result in a major increase in biplanar fluoroscopic examinations to support nonsurgical approaches such as percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty, percutaneous transluminal neuroembolism, and lithotripsy (the fracturing of kidney stones). As some of these examinations can result in 1.5 h of fluoroscopy, major doses to the patient and to the clinical staff can be expected. In addition, improved diagnostic techniques, such as using positron emission tomography (a combination of biochemistry and positron-emitting isotopes), can be expected to increase the number of small cyclotrons installed in medical centers. Counteracting these increases in radiation exposure is the development of digital radiography, which generally results in a lowering of the dose per diagnostic procedure. In the realm of therapeutic uses, one can expect higher-energy treatment accelerators, more patients being released from the hospital on therapeutic doses of isotopes, and a potential acceptance of neutron therapy as a cancer treatment modality. The latter treatment may take the form of boron capture therapy, 252Cf implant therapy, or external beam therapy using high-energy cyclotrons and the p,Be or the d,Be reaction to create the neutrons.

  8. Pervasive Healthcare as a Scientific Discipline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bardram, Jakob Eyvind

    2008-01-01

    . Methods: The paper presents the research questions, approach, technologies, and methods of pervasive healthcare and discusses these in comparison to those of other related scientific disciplines. Results: A set of central research themes are presented; monitoring and body sensor networks; pervasive...

  9. Discipline and Methodology in Higher Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tight, Malcolm

    2013-01-01

    Higher education research is a multidisciplinary field, engaging researchers from across the academy who make use of a wide range of methodological approaches. This article examines the relation between discipline and methodology in higher education research, analysing a database of 567 articles published in 15 leading higher education journals…

  10. Seesaw Discipline: The Interactive Effect of Harsh and Lax Discipline on Youth Psychological Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, Justin; McKee, Laura G; Forehand, Rex

    2016-02-01

    Although extant research documents the negative consequences of harsh and lax discipline for youth, little empirical attention has been devoted to understanding the impact when parents utilize both strategies. As such, the current study was designed to explore the interaction of harsh and lax discipline on youth internalizing and externalizing symptoms in three developmental periods (early childhood, middle childhood, and adolescence). Participants were 615 parents (55 % female) and one of their 3-to-17 year old children (45 % female). Parents provided reports of their harsh and lax parenting tactics as well as offspring internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Multiple linear regression analyses were utilized to examine the relations between the interaction of harsh and lax parenting on youth symptoms. The interaction between harsh and lax discipline was significantly related to youth internalizing, but not externalizing, problems in the both the young and middle childhood samples and marginally significant in the adolescence sample: Seesaw discipline - a novel construct indicative of high levels of both harsh and lax discipline - was associated with the highest levels of youth internalizing problems. Parents who engage in seesaw parenting have children and adolescents who are more likely to evidence internalizing symptoms. Such findings may inform prevention and intervention efforts that target dysfunctional discipline.

  11. Analgesic-Related Medication Errors Reported to US Poison Control Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eluri, Madhulika; Spiller, Henry A; Casavant, Marcel J; Chounthirath, Thitphalak; Conner, Kristen A; Smith, Gary A

    2017-11-23

    This study investigates the characteristics and trends of medication errors involving analgesic medications. A retrospective analysis was conducted of analgesic-related medication errors reported to the National Poison Data System (NPDS) from 2000 through 2012. From 2000 through 2012, the NPDS received 533,763 reports of analgesic-related medication errors, averaging 41,059 medication errors annually. Overall, the rate of analgesic-related medication errors reported to the NPDS increased significantly by 82.6% from 2000 to 2009, followed by a 5.7% nonsignificant decrease from 2009 to 2012. Among the analgesic categories, rates of both acetaminophen-related and opioid-related medication errors reported to the NPDS increased during 2000-2009, but the opioid error rate leveled off during 2009-2012, while the acetaminophen error rate decreased by 17.9%. Analgesic-related medication errors involved nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (37.0%), acetaminophen (35.5%), and opioids (23.2%). Children five years or younger accounted for 38.8% of analgesics-related medication errors. Most (90.2%) analgesic-related medication errors were managed on-site, rather than at a health care facility; 1.6% were admitted to a hospital, and 1.5% experienced serious medical outcomes, including 145 deaths. The most common type of medication error was inadvertently taking/given the medication twice (26.6%). Analgesic-related medication errors are common, and although most do not result in clinical consequences, they can have serious adverse outcomes. Initiatives associated with the decrease in acetaminophen-related medication errors among young children merit additional research and potential replication as a model combining government policy and multisectoral collaboration.

  12. Learner discipline at school: A comparative educational perspective

    OpenAIRE

    C.C. Wolhunter; S.C. Steyn

    2003-01-01

    Learner discipline constitutes an acute problem in South African schools, especially if it is approached within a Reformational frame of reference. The aim of the research underlying this article was to survey the available subject-related literature on school discipline abroad. The available published research results are largely limited to the United States of America, the United Kingdom and Australia. In these three countries learner discipline in schools constitutes a problem, although it...

  13. Drug-related problems associated with self-medication and medication guided by prescription: A pharmacy-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Abinash; Pradhan, Supriya; Mohapatra, Gurukrushna; Mohapatra, Jigyansa

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to identify and compare the nature of the drug-related problems (DRPs) associated with self-medication and non-self-medication (drug use guided by a prescription). The cross-sectional, observational study was conducted on 1100 adult participants at a convenience sample of six retail private pharmacy counters. The data collection form was based on the Pharmaceutical Care Network Europe version 6.2 classification for DRPs. Descriptive statistics was used to represent the prevalence of DRPs. Chi-square test was used to find out the association between the type of medication and DRPs. Odds ratio (OR) with confidence interval (CI) was computed to find the factors determining the occurrence of DRPs. P self-medication was 18.72%. The prevalence of DRPs was 17.36%. In the self-medication group, the prevalence of DRPs was high (40.78%) as compared to the non-self-medication group (11.97%). DRP related to inappropriate drug dosing was observed in 44.83% and 40.45% subjects in self-medication and non-self-medication group, respectively (P self-medication group were about 5 times likely to have a DRP (OR: 5.06, CI: 3.59-7.14, P Self-medication is associated with a higher risk of various DRPs. Since retail pharmacy outlet is often the first point of contact between the patient and the health care system in a developing country, interventions like drug information activities at the retail pharmacy is likely to bring down the DRPs associated with self-medication.

  14. Are study strategies related to medical licensing exam performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Courtney; Kurz, Terri; Smith, Sherry; Graham, Lori

    2014-11-02

    To examine the relationship between study strategies and performance on a high stakes medical licensing exam entitled the United States Medical Licensing Examination Step 1. The action research project included seventy nine student participants at the Texas A & M Health Science Center College of Medicine during their pre-clinical education. Data collection included pre-matriculation and matriculation academic performance data, standardized exam data, and the Learning and Study Strategies Instrument. Multiple regression analyses were conducted. For both models, the dependent variable was the Step 1 score, and the independent variables included Medical College Admission Test, Undergraduate Grade Point Average, Year 1 Average, Year 2 Average, Customized National Board of Medical Examiners Average, Comprehensive Basic Science Exam score, and Learning and Study Strategy Instrument sub-scores. Model 2 added Comprehensive Basic Science Self-Assessment average. Concentration (Model 1 - β = .264; Model 2 - β = .254) was the only study strategy correlated with Step 1 performance. The other statistically significant predictors were Customized National Board of Medical Examiners Average (β = .315) and Year 2 Average (β = .280) in Model 1 and Comprehensive Basic Science Self-Assessment Average (β = .338) in Model 2. There does appear to be a relationship between the study strategy concentration and Step 1 licensing exam performance. Teaching students to practice and utilize certain techniques to improve concentration skills when preparing for and taking exams may help improve licensing exam scores.

  15. A thirteen year audit of manuscripts related to medical education published in leading medical journals of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathore, Farooq Azam; Waqas, Ahmed; Zia, Ahmed Marjan

    2016-04-01

    To audit the number and type of published articles related to medical education in leading Pakistani biomedical journals. The audit covered the period from January 2001 to December 2013. Journals either indexed in Medline or having an impact factor were selected. The audit was done in two phases. First, articles related to medical education were screened by reading the titles. Then abstracts were studied and articles were placed into several pre-defined categories based on article type and research topic. Data was analysed using SPSS 20. A total of 118 relevant articles were published. Of them, 60(51%) articles were published in the Journal of Pakistan Medical Association, 42(35.6%) in the Journal of College of Physicians and Surgeons Pakistan, 4(3.4%) in Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences, and 12(10.2%) in the Journal of Ayub Medical College. Articles related to curriculum development were 33(28.0 %), teaching 28(23.7%), assessment 29(24.6%), faculty training 5(4.2%), continuous medical education 4(3.4%), ethics 3(2.5%), and others 16(13.6%). There is a need to increase the quality of health profession education research, documentation and audit of the global contribution of Pakistani medical educationists.

  16. Conceptualization of Idle (Laghw) and its relation to medical futility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei Aderyani, Mohsen; Javadi, Mohsen; Nazari Tavakkoli, Saeid; Kiani, Mehrzad; Abbasi, Mahmood

    2016-01-01

    A major debate in medical ethics is the request for futile treatment. The topic of medical futility requires discrete assessment in Iran for at least two reasons. First, the common principles and foundations of medical ethics have taken shape in the context of Western culture and secularism. Accordingly, the implementation of the same guidelines and codes of medical ethics as Western societies in Muslim communities does not seem rational. Second, the challenges arising in health service settings are divergent across different countries. The Quranic concept of idle (laghw) and its derivatives are used in 11 honorable verses of the Holy Quran. Among these verses, the 3rd verse of the blessed Al-Muminūn Surah was selected for its closer connection to the concept under examination. The selected verse was researched in the context of all dictionaries presented in Noor Jami` al-Tafasir 2 (The Noor Collection of Interpretations 2) software. "Idle" is known as any insignificant speech, act, or thing that is not beneficial; an action from which no benefit is gained; any falsehood (that is not stable or realized); an entertaining act; any foul, futile talk and action unworthy of attention; loss of hope; and something that is not derived from method and thought. The word has also been used to refer to anything insignificant. The notes and derived interpretations were placed in the following categories: A) Having no significant benefit (When medical care does not benefit the patient (his body and/or soul and his life in this world and/or the Hereafter), it is wrong to proceed with that medical modality; B) Falsehood (Actions that fail to provide, maintain, and improve health are clearly futile); C) Unworthy of attention (An action that neither improves health nor threatens it is wrong and impermissible).

  17. [Current aspects and problems relating to medical ethics in oncology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joss, R; Schüpfer, M; Schefer, H

    1998-01-07

    A case history of a breast cancer patient is used to exemplify ethical dilemmas in medical oncology: information of a cancer patient and his family, ethical problems with genetic testing, ethical issues with do-not-resuscitate-orders, ethical dilemmas with limited resources, problems with insurance companies, ethical issues in clinical trials and questions in dying patients including physician-assisted suicide and active euthanasia. Medical oncologists have to develop skills in recognizing ethical dilemmas in patient care and must prepare to cope with the many and complex ethical issues in the care of oncology patients.

  18. Technology-related medication errors in a tertiary hospital: a 5-year analysis of reported medication incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaranayake, N R; Cheung, S T D; Chui, W C M; Cheung, B M Y

    2012-12-01

    Healthcare technology is meant to reduce medication errors. The objective of this study was to assess unintended errors related to technologies in the medication use process. Medication incidents reported from 2006 to 2010 in a main tertiary care hospital were analysed by a pharmacist and technology-related errors were identified. Technology-related errors were further classified as socio-technical errors and device errors. This analysis was conducted using data from medication incident reports which may represent only a small proportion of medication errors that actually takes place in a hospital. Hence, interpretation of results must be tentative. 1538 medication incidents were reported. 17.1% of all incidents were technology-related, of which only 1.9% were device errors, whereas most were socio-technical errors (98.1%). Of these, 61.2% were linked to computerised prescription order entry, 23.2% to bar-coded patient identification labels, 7.2% to infusion pumps, 6.8% to computer-aided dispensing label generation and 1.5% to other technologies. The immediate causes for technology-related errors included, poor interface between user and computer (68.1%), improper procedures or rule violations (22.1%), poor interface between user and infusion pump (4.9%), technical defects (1.9%) and others (3.0%). In 11.4% of the technology-related incidents, the error was detected after the drug had been administered. A considerable proportion of all incidents were technology-related. Most errors were due to socio-technical issues. Unintended and unanticipated errors may happen when using technologies. Therefore, when using technologies, system improvement, awareness, training and monitoring are needed to minimise medication errors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Developmental biology, the stem cell of biological disciplines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Scott F

    2017-12-01

    Developmental biology (including embryology) is proposed as "the stem cell of biological disciplines." Genetics, cell biology, oncology, immunology, evolutionary mechanisms, neurobiology, and systems biology each has its ancestry in developmental biology. Moreover, developmental biology continues to roll on, budding off more disciplines, while retaining its own identity. While its descendant disciplines differentiate into sciences with a restricted set of paradigms, examples, and techniques, developmental biology remains vigorous, pluripotent, and relatively undifferentiated. In many disciplines, especially in evolutionary biology and oncology, the developmental perspective is being reasserted as an important research program.

  20. Medication administration errors and related deviations from safe practice: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blignaut, Alwiena J; Coetzee, Siedine K; Klopper, Hester C; Ellis, Suria M

    2017-11-01

    To determine the incidence of medication administration errors, medication administration-related deviations from safe practice as well as factors associated with these errors in medical and surgical units of public hospitals in the Gauteng Province of South Africa. Several studies have been published on the incidence of medication administration errors, but only a few have studied the incidence of medication administration-related deviations from safe practice. Context-specific research on the incidence of medication administration errors and associated factors (patient acuity, bed occupancy, staffing levels, medication administrators' qualifications, dose calculation skills, level of hospital, unit type, medication administration route and interruptions) within the continent of Africa is lacking. A cross-sectional, observational design. Direct observation was conducted incorporating a previously validated checklist based on basic medication guidelines including the five rights, asepsis and medication documentation. In addition, a knowledge test on dose calculations was performed. Medication administration to 315 patients (1847 medications administered) was observed between February-August 2015 in medical and surgical units from eight public hospitals. Twenty-five medication administrators completed dose calculations. In total, 296 medication errors were identified, of which most were wrong-time errors and omissions. Interruptions and patient acuity were significantly associated with wrong-dose and wrong-route errors, respectively. Most medication administration-related deviations from safe practice were related to patient identification or asepsis. Sixteen of 50 dosage calculations were answered incorrectly. Incorrect answers most often occurred in the calculation of parenteral dosages. Medication administration errors, especially wrong-time errors and omissions, are prevalent in public hospitals in the Gauteng Province. Interruptions lower the risk of wrong

  1. Are carer attitudes toward medications related to self-reported medication adherence amongst people with mental illness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deane, Frank P; McAlpine, Elizabeth; Byrne, Mitchell K; Davis, Esther L; Mortimer, Christine

    2017-11-22

    Medication nonadherence among consumers with psychiatric disorders can significantly affect the health and wellbeing of the consumer and their family. Previous research has suggested that carers have an impact on consumer attitudes toward medication and adherence. Yet, how carer attitudes toward medication may be related to consumer attitudes and adherence has received little investigation. This exploratory study aimed to investigate the relationships between carer and consumer attitudes toward medication and consumer adherence behaviour. A cross-sectional survey assessing consumer and carer attitudes toward medication and consumer adherence was conducted amongst 42 consumer-carer dyads. Correlation analyses showed a positive association between consumer and carer attitudes toward medication and between consumer and carer attitudes with adherence. There was a general indication that the greater the difference between consumer and carer attitudes, the lower the level of adherence. Regression analyses revealed that while neither consumer nor carer attitudes were significant predictors of adherence, carer attitudes appeared to have a stronger role in adherence than consumer attitudes. These preliminary results highlight the importance of carer attitudes in relation to patient perceptions and behaviours toward medication, and thus the potential benefits of addressing both consumer and carer attitudes in any intervention for improving adherence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Graduates' Experiences Of, and Attitudes Towards, the Inclusion of Employability-Related Support in Undergraduate Degree Programmes; Trends and Variations by Subject Discipline and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Simon

    2017-01-01

    Enhancing graduate employability is a priority for many stakeholders in higher education and this research explores graduates' experiences of, and attitudes towards, the inclusion of employability-related support in undergraduate degree programmes. A literature review is supplemented by primary research on a targeted sample of 104 graduates from…

  3. The Relation of Student Behavior, Peer Status, Race, and Gender to Decisions about School Discipline Using CHAID Decision Trees and Regression Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Stacy B.; Fireman, Gary D.; Wang, Eugene W.

    2010-01-01

    Peer nominations and demographic information were collected from a diverse sample of 1493 elementary school participants to examine behavior (overt and relational aggression, impulsivity, and prosociality), context (peer status), and demographic characteristics (race and gender) as predictors of teacher and administrator decisions about…

  4. Parental Attributions of Control for Child Behaviour and Their Relation to Discipline Practices in Parents of Children with and Without Developmental Delays

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobs, Myrthe; Marks Woolfson, Lisa; Simon C. Hunter

    2017-01-01

    Children with developmental delays (DD) are at risk for developing behavior problems. Research suggests that parents? causal attributions for child behavior are related to parenting. This study investigated this association in parents of children with DD compared to parents of typically developing (TD) children. It specifically focused on attributions of child control by separating these from attributions of responsibility, blame and intent, and from attributions of parent control and respons...

  5. Modeling of bubble dynamics in relation to medical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amendt, P.A.; London, R.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Strauss, M. [California Univ., Davis, CA (United States)]|[Israel Atomic Energy Commission, Beersheba (Israel). Nuclear Research Center-Negev] [and others

    1997-03-12

    In various pulsed-laser medical applications, strong stress transients can be generated in advance of vapor bubble formation. To better understand the evolution of stress transients and subsequent formation of vapor bubbles, two-dimensional simulations are presented in channel or cylindrical geometry with the LATIS (LAser TISsue) computer code. Differences with one-dimensional modeling are explored, and simulated experimental conditions for vapor bubble generation are presented and compared with data. 22 refs., 8 figs.

  6. The New American School: Preparation for Post-Industrial Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupchik, Aaron; Monahan, Torin

    2006-01-01

    In this article we consider how broad shifts in social relations over the past 30 years have given rise to new social control regimes in US public schools. We argue that the contemporary mechanisms of control engendered by mass incarceration and post-industrialization have re-shaped school discipline. To illustrate contemporary discipline in the…

  7. Beyond Current Conception of Discipline-Based Art Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, F. Graeme

    1987-01-01

    Argues that social science areas of anthropology and sociology should be incorporated into theory of discipline-based art education (DBAE). Questions recent art-related theory that focuses only on DBAE. Urges sociology of art along with traditional disciplines of DBAE to become more diverse in order to enjoy art to its fullest. (BR)

  8. Medical students' failure experiences and their related factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Eui Ryoung; Chung, Eun Kyung; Oh, Sun A; Chay, Kee Oh; Woo, Young Jong

    2012-09-01

    A considerable number of medical students drop out due to low academic achievement, and these students have a high probability of repeated failure experiences. This study investigated the personal and academic problems of these students to help develop student support systems. First-year (n=146) and second-year (n=119) medical students were asked to complete questionnaires. The questionnaires consisted of personality traits and the students' management of/satisfaction with school life. Students who had already dropped out accounted for 17.4% of the study subjects. The most common reason for dropping out was low academic achievement, and the most difficult part of taking a leave of absence from school was psychological anxiety. The group who dropped out had significantly lower levels of emotional stability, sociability, responsibility, dominance, masculinity, and superiority and more vulnerable mental states compared with those who did not drop out. They also expressed less motivation with regard to medical science and less satisfaction with school life than did the group that did not drop out. Those who dropped out tended not to prepare for exams, and they managed their time ineffectively. They also tried to resolve their difficulties alone and rarely sought help from teachers. More intimate student-teacher relationships should be established, and teachers should be encouraged to meet and interact with their students on a regular basis. Additionally, personality inventories should be used to assist in efforts to understand students, especially to identify hidden social and emotional problems.

  9. Factors related to completeness of medical abortion with mifepristone and misoprostol

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Wen-Xiao; He, Fang-Fang; Shen, Qi; Tao, Xue-Jiao; Zhao, Chu-Chu; Shen, Zhao-Jun; Zhu, Xue-Qiong

    2017-01-01

    Background: Medical abortion that occurs in early pregnancy is generally safe and successful, but incomplete medical abortion can result in complications. This study aimed to examine factors related to completeness of medical abortion with mifepristone and misoprostol, and then to provide a new direction for research into establishing complete abortion with mifepristone and misoprostol. Methods: Sixty-three patients with early pregnancy requesting medical abortion with mifepristone and mis...

  10. Discipline as Institutional Maintenance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasche, Andreas; Hommel, Ulrich; Cornuel, Eric

    Drawing on the case of business school rankings, we study how institutions are maintained and remain persistent despite their contested nature. We argue that rankings as institutions can be maintained through subtle disciplinary practices that freeze power relations in recipient organizations. Our...... of disciplinary effects within business schools which help to stabilize and diffuse the institution....

  11. Technologies for Medical Sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Tavares, João; Barbosa, Marcos; Slade, AP

    2012-01-01

    This book presents novel and advanced technologies for medical sciences in order to solidify knowledge in the related fields and define their key stakeholders.   The fifteen papers included in this book were written by invited experts of international stature and address important technologies for medical sciences, including: computational modeling and simulation, image processing and analysis, medical imaging, human motion and posture, tissue engineering, design and development medical devices, and mechanic biology. Different applications are treated in such diverse fields as biomechanical studies, prosthesis and orthosis, medical diagnosis, sport, and virtual reality.   This book is of interest to researchers, students and manufacturers from  a wide range of disciplines related to bioengineering, biomechanics, computational mechanics, computational vision, human motion, mathematics, medical devices, medical image, medicine and physics.

  12. The Effect of an Energy Audit Service Learning Project on Student Perceptions of STEM Related Disciplines, Personal Behaviors/Actions towards the Environment, and Stewardship Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullo, Michael

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether or not service learning could be considered an alternative teaching method in an environmental science classroom. In particular, the results of this research show whether an energy audit service learning project influenced student environmental awareness (knowledge of environmental issues, problems, and solutions), student personal actions/behaviors towards the environment, student perceptions and attitudes of science related careers, and community partnerships. Haines (2010) defines service learning as “a teaching and learning strategy that integrates meaningful community service with instruction and reflection to enrich the learning experience, teach civic responsibility, and strengthen communities” (p. 16). Moreover, service learning opportunities can encourage students to step out of their comfort zone and learn from hands-on experiences and apply knowledge obtained from lectures and classroom activities to real life situations. To add to the growing body of literature, the results of this study concluded that an energy audit service learning project did not have a measureable effect on student perceptions and attitudes of science related careers as compared to a more traditional teaching approach. However, the data from this study did indicate that an energy audit service learning project increased students personal actions/behaviors towards the environment more than a direct teaching approach.

  13. Incidence of and sequels to medical problems discovered in medical students during study-related activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pols, J; Boendermaker, PM; Muntinghe, H

    2003-01-01

    Purpose Students often act as subjects during practical and clinical skills training sessions. This routine seems to be quite acceptable for them but may present side-effects. Disorders, sometimes of a serious nature, have been discovered in medical students during clinical skills training. Because

  14. Ecoepidemiology--a casuistic discipline describing ecological disturbances and damages in relation to their specific causes: exemplified by chlorinated phenols and chlorophenoxy acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bro-Rasmussen, F; Løkke, H

    1984-12-01

    Ecoepidemiology is a new concept created in analogy to human epidemiology, and aims at the study of ecotoxicological effects at the levels of ecosystems, biological communities, and populations in relation to causative environmental exposures, mostly by chemicals. By way of example, ecoepidemiology is described by presenting an example of unintentional dissipation and possible discharges of chlorophenols and phenoxy acids into the terrestrial environment and--as a more specific case--a marine, aquatic area, viz., the Køge Bay immediately to the south of Copenhagen, Denmark. The examples are illustrative of the complex situation which characterizes most ecoepidemiological cases. Difficulties with which the ecoepidemiologist are confronted are not only the identification of possible causative and confounding chemicals, and the description of ecoepidemiological effects per se, but also the assessment of critical pathways of multimedium pollutants. Biomonitoring, computer-based handling of data from natural localities, and determination of a variety of anthropogenic impact factors are necessary elements of ecoepidemiological studies.

  15. Medical informatics: past, present, future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haux, Reinhold

    2010-09-01

    To reflect about medical informatics as a discipline. To suggest significant future research directions with the purpose of stimulating further discussion. Exploring and discussing important developments in medical informatics from the past and in the present by way of examples. Reflecting on the role of IMIA, the International Medical Informatics Association, in influencing the discipline. Medical informatics as a discipline is still young. Today, as a cross-sectional discipline, it forms one of the bases for medicine and health care. As a consequence considerable responsibility rests on medical informatics for improving the health of people, through its contributions to high-quality, efficient health care and to innovative research in biomedicine and related health and computer sciences. Current major research fields can be grouped according to the organization, application, and evaluation of health information systems, to medical knowledge representation, and to the underlying signal and data analyses and interpretations. Yet, given the fluid nature of many of the driving forces behind progress in information processing methods and their technologies, progress in medicine and health care, and the rapidly changing needs, requirements and expectations of human societies, we can expect many changes in future medical informatics research. Future research fields might range from seamless interactivity with automated data capture and storage, via informatics diagnostics and therapeutics, to living labs with data analysis methodology, involving sensor-enhanced ambient environments. The role of IMIA, the International Medical Informatics Association, for building a cooperative, strongly connected, and research-driven medical informatics community worldwide can hardly be underestimated. Health care continuously changes as the underlying science and practice of health are in continuous transformation. Medical informatics as a discipline is strongly affected by these

  16. Evaluating parallel relational databases for medical data analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rintoul, Mark Daniel; Wilson, Andrew T.

    2012-03-01

    Hospitals have always generated and consumed large amounts of data concerning patients, treatment and outcomes. As computers and networks have permeated the hospital environment it has become feasible to collect and organize all of this data. This raises naturally the question of how to deal with the resulting mountain of information. In this report we detail a proof-of-concept test using two commercially available parallel database systems to analyze a set of real, de-identified medical records. We examine database scalability as data sizes increase as well as responsiveness under load from multiple users.

  17. Method for Surface Scanning in Medical Imaging and Related Apparatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    A method and apparatus for surface scanning in medical imaging is provided. The surface scanning apparatus comprises an image source, a first optical fiber bundle comprising first optical fibers having proximal ends and distal ends, and a first optical coupler for coupling an image from the image...... source into the proximal ends of the first optical fibers, wherein the first optical coupler comprises a plurality of lens elements including a first lens element and a second lens element, each of the plurality of lens elements comprising a primary surface facing a distal end of the first optical...... coupler, and a secondary surface facing a proximal end of the first optical coupler....

  18. Doctrine and Discipline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sevelsted, Anders

    The paper argues that in order to understand central aspects of modern welfare, it is important to pay attention to not only to state and secular politics, but also the religious civil society, and not only the Protestant Ethics of the large confessions (Calvinist, Lutheran, Catholic), but also...... the later 18 th and especially 19 th century developments in (Protestant) doctrines. It is argued that the revival and Holiness movements originating in these centuries have provided important contributions to voluntary social work in terms of 1) ideological legitimation, 2) models for institutions related...

  19. Relations between policy for medical teaching and basic need satisfaction in teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engbers, Rik; Fluit, Cornelia R M G; Bolhuis, Sanneke; Sluiter, Roderick; Stuyt, Paul M J; Laan, Roland F J M

    2015-10-01

    Policy initiatives that aim to elevate the position of medical teaching to that of medical research could influence the satisfaction of three basic psychological needs related to motivation for medical teaching. To explore relations between the satisfaction of three basic psychological needs towards medical teaching and two policy initiatives for medical teaching: (Junior) Principal Lecturer positions [(J)PL positions] and Subsidized Innovation and Research Projects in Medical Education (SIRPMEs). An online questionnaire was used to collect data about medical teaching in the setting of a university hospital. We adapted the Work-related Basic Need Satisfaction scale (Van den Broeck et al. in J Occup Organ Psychol, 83(4):981-1002, 2010), in order to measure feelings of autonomy, competence, and relatedness in teaching. We examined the relations between (J)PL positions and SIRPMEs and the satisfaction of three basic psychological needs. A total of 767 medical teachers participated. The initiatives appear to be related to different beneficial outcomes in terms of feelings of autonomy, competence, and relatedness in medical teaching. Either a (J)PL position is obtained by teachers who feel competent and related towards medical teaching, or obtaining a (J)PL position makes teachers feel more competent and related towards teaching, or these relations could be interacting. Also, either a SIRPME is obtained by teachers who feel competent and autonomous towards medical teaching, or obtaining a SIRPME makes teachers feel more competent and autonomous towards teaching, or these relations could be interacting. Additional research needs to scrutinize the causal or interacting relations further and to determine optimal conditions for these policy initiatives more specifically. Implications for future research are discussed.

  20. Acceptance of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender patients, attitudes about their treatment, and related medical knowledge among osteopathic medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapinski, Jessica; Sexton, Patricia; Baker, Lauren

    2014-10-01

    Limited research exists on the health issues faced by lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) patients, as viewed in the context of osteopathic medical education. A full understanding of current medical students' acceptance of, attitudes toward, and knowledge of these issues could lead to the development and incorporation of curricula focusing on the care of LGBT patients into colleges of osteopathic medicine (COMs). To determine among osteopathic medical students the levels of acceptance of LGBT patients, attitudes toward treating this population, and medically relevant knowledge about their distinct health-related issues. In August 2012, students at 6 COMs were sent an e-mail invitation that contained basic information about the study and a link providing access to an anonymous Web-based survey. Standard scales used in previous studies were compiled and individualized into 130 items for the purposes of the present study. Of the 4112 osteopathic medical students contacted, 1698 (41.3%) entered the survey and 1335 (32.5%) completed it. Two hundred respondents (15%) self-identified as having a sexual orientation on the lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB) spectrum. Although respondents generally had favorable levels of acceptance of LGBT patients and positive attitudes toward treatment of this population, self-identified LGB students had even greater acceptance of LGBT patients (Pacceptance of (P=.008), treatment attitudes toward (P=.001), and relevant medical knowledge (P=.05) pertaining to LGBT patients were noted between respondents from the 6 COMs. The results suggest that even though osteopathic medical students had mostly positive personal attitudes and treatment attitudes toward LGBT patients, some disparities were still present. Also, students lacked adequate knowledge of the unique medical issues faced by the LGBT population. In the future, students should be given more training to effectively treat LGBT patients and their health-related issues. © 2014

  1. Nurses perceptions of the nurse-physician collaboration in relation to medication safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ann Lykkegaard; Nielsen, Lars Peter; Poulsen, Birgitte Klindt

    Background: Medication errors continue to challenge patient safety across health sectors, including psychiatry. Nurses are integral safeguards in the medication process and a growing body of research demonstrates that nurse’s ability to ensure medication safety also depend on organizational factors...... such as hierarchical medical teams and the nurse-physician relationship (NPR). To date, there are no studies of how psychiatric nurses perceive the importance of the NPR in relation to medication issues. Objectives: The objective of this study was to explore psychiatric nurses’ perception of the NPR in relation...... to medication safety and medication management. Methods: A qualitative design using a semi-structured interview guide. The interviews took place in two focus groups consisting of psychiatric nurses (Group 1 (n= 9) and group 2 (n=8)) from two bedwards in a Danish University Hospital. The interviews were carried...

  2. Guide to Geriatric Syndromes: Common and Often Related Medical Conditions in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Urinary Incontinence Related Documents PDF A Guide to Geriatric Syndromes Download Join our e-newsletter! Resources A Guide to Geriatric Syndromes: Common and Often Related Medical Conditions in ...

  3. Genetic epidemiology: an expanding scientific discipline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wyszynski Diego F.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic epidemiology is a relatively new discipline that studies the interaction between genetic and environmental factors in the etiology of human diseases. Taking advantage of genetic markers provided by molecular biological research, complex computerized algorithms, and large databases, the field of genetic epidemiology has undergone significant development over the past 10 years. Using concrete examples from recent scientific literature, this article describes the objectives and methodology of genetic epidemiology.

  4. Time out based discipline strategy for children's non-compliance with cystic fibrosis treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClellan, Catherine B; Cohen, Lindsey L; Moffett, Kathryn

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate a time out based discipline strategy designed to decrease treatment avoidance in children with cystic fibrosis (CF) who displayed non-compliant behaviour to their parents' treatment requests. A single-subject reversal design was used to compare baseline compliance when a time out based discipline strategy was in effect. Outcome measures included observational assessments of compliance, parent ratings of child treatment-related behaviour problems and parent reported preference for the time out strategy. Greater compliance was demonstrated when the time out strategy was in place. Parents reported fewer treatment-related behaviour problems and desired less professional help for these problems upon completion of the study and reported preferring the time out discipline strategy to their typical child management strategy. This discipline strategy represents a practical and appealing brief intervention that is shown to help parents maximise their children's participation in life-extending treatments. This intervention minimises the need for parent-therapist interaction, which may be of particular importance to families of patients with CF who already devote significant time to medical appointments and interventions. The preliminary nature of this data and lack of reversal for one of the participants emphasise the need for additional research to replicate the findings.

  5. Facilitated Nurse Medication-Related Event Reporting to Improve Medication Management Quality and Safety in Intensive Care Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jie; Reale, Carrie; Slagle, Jason M; Anders, Shilo; Shotwell, Matthew S; Dresselhaus, Timothy; Weinger, Matthew B

    Medication safety presents an ongoing challenge for nurses working in complex, fast-paced, intensive care unit (ICU) environments. Studying ICU nurse's medication management-especially medication-related events (MREs)-provides an approach to analyze and improve medication safety and quality. The goal of this study was to explore the utility of facilitated MRE reporting in identifying system deficiencies and the relationship between MREs and nurses' work in the ICUs. We conducted 124 structured 4-hour observations of nurses in three different ICUs. Each observation included measurement of nurse's moment-to-moment activity and self-reports of workload and negative mood. The observer then obtained MRE reports from the nurse using a structured tool. The MREs were analyzed by three experts. MREs were reported in 35% of observations. The 60 total MREs included four medication errors and seven adverse drug events. Of the 49 remaining MREs, 65% were associated with negative patient impact. Task/process deficiencies were the most common contributory factor for MREs. MRE occurrence was correlated with increased total task volume. MREs also correlated with increased workload, especially during night shifts. Most of these MREs would not be captured by traditional event reporting systems. Facilitated MRE reporting provides a robust information source about potential breakdowns in medication management safety and opportunities for system improvement.

  6. Work-related asthma | Jeebhay | Continuing Medical Education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Occupational lung diseases such as asthma, COPD and pneumoconioses caused by exposure to airborne particulates are a major contributor to mortality and disability globally. However, work-related asthma remains under-recognised, poorly managed and inadequately compensated.

  7. Work-related fatigue among medical personnel in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Chun Ho

    2013-10-01

    Conclusion: We identified factors associated with work-related fatigue among hospital workers in Taipei City. These findings can be applied toward on-the-job training and the development of preventive measures for occupational safety in general hospitals.

  8. Smartphone and medical related App use among medical students and junior doctors in the United Kingdom (UK: a regional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payne Karl Frederick

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smartphone usage has spread to many settings including that of healthcare with numerous potential and realised benefits. The ability to download custom-built software applications (apps has created a new wealth of clinical resources available to healthcare staff, providing evidence-based decisional tools to reduce medical errors. Previous literature has examined how smartphones can be utilised by both medical student and doctor populations, to enhance educational and workplace activities, with the potential to improve overall patient care. However, this literature has not examined smartphone acceptance and patterns of medical app usage within the student and junior doctor populations. Methods An online survey of medical student and foundation level junior doctor cohorts was undertaken within one United Kingdom healthcare region. Participants were asked whether they owned a Smartphone and if they used apps on their Smartphones to support their education and practice activities. Frequency of use and type of app used was also investigated. Open response questions explored participants’ views on apps that were desired or recommended and the characteristics of apps that were useful. Results 257 medical students and 131 junior doctors responded, equating to a response rate of 15.0% and 21.8% respectively. 79.0% (n=203/257 of medical students and 74.8% (n=98/131 of junior doctors owned a smartphone, with 56.6% (n=115/203 of students and 68.4% (n=67/98 of doctors owning an iPhone. The majority of students and doctors owned 1–5 medical related applications, with very few owning more than 10, and iPhone owners significantly more likely to own apps (Chi sq, p Conclusions This study found a high level of smartphone ownership and usage among medical students and junior doctors. Both groups endorse the development of more apps to support their education and clinical practice.

  9. Ophthalmologic findings in contact sport disciplines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrione, Paolo; Quaranta, Federico; DE Luca, Valeria; Sperandii, Fabio; Ciminelli, Emanuela; Cantera, Emilia; Fagnani, Federica; Pigozzi, Fabio

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence and the incidence of ocular complications in contact sport disciplines in a large population of professional and amateur athletes over a period of 3 years. We performed a retrospective review of 694 medical records from athletes examinated from 2008 to 2011. The following data were collected during the routine visit for agonistic sports eligibility: medical history, age, weight, years of sport practice, approximate number of matches, head and eyes injuries during and beyond of the match and a through ocular history. All athletes underwent a detailed ophthalmological evaluation. The follow-up of each athlete was carried out during the following routine visit for agonistic sports eligibility. Most common disorders observed were: peripheral retinal degeneration, blepharitis, conjunctival and corneal diseases with a prevalence of 7%, 4%, 7% and 4% respectively. It was observed a positive correlation between peripheral retinal degeneration and age in amateur male boxers. Moreover, we noticed an incidence of 6% of laser therapeutic treatments as a result of retinal holes or degenerations, during the follow-up. Contact sport disciplines did not result in higher prevalence of severe ocular lesion. Both conjuntival diseases and peripheral retinal degenerations represented the ophthalmologic disorders with the higher prevalence in our sample. In particular, peripheral retinal degeneration is remarkable because of the increased risk of retinal detachment. Dyschromatopsie, even if quite rare, should be considered when analysing the reception of shots, since gloves in most cases are either red or blue.

  10. Medical education in substance-related disorders: components and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Guebaly, N; Toews, J; Lockyer, J; Armstrong, S; Hodgins, D

    2000-06-01

    To analyze the process of acquisition by physicians of a body of knowledge and skills in the management of substance abuse. A comprehensive search of English-speaking literature was conducted over 20 years. Articles assessing the outcome of educational strategies in undergraduate, graduate and continuing medical education were examined to determine the targeted sample, the educational strategies involved and the outcomes assessed. Nine studies in undergraduate education, 11 in graduate and 11 in continuing education met the inclusion criteria. They were generally difficult to compare in design, strategy and outcome analysis. Cognitive knowledge and behavioral skills appear to be easier to obtain compared to more complex attitudinal shifts. There is growing consensus in the selection of a combined didactic and interactive educational strategy but few empirical data as to the more cost-effective learning interventions. Training must be reinforced at regular intervals. While the expanding panoply of interventions available to physicians should enhance the perceptions of role legitimacy and treatment optimism, cohort studies across levels of education, specialty groups and across-substance and other addictive behaviors are required to determine cost-effective educational strategies.

  11. Educational and Relational Stressors Associated with Burnout in Korean Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Hye Jung; Kim, Bong-Jo; Lee, So-Jin; Bae, Hwa-Ok

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to examine whether educational stressors and relational stressors are associated with burnout in medical students and to test social support as a moderator between stressors and burnout. A total of 263 medical students attending Gyeongsang National University composed the study sample. A standardized questionnaire was used to investigate educational and relational stressors, three dimensions of burnout, and social support of medical students. The findings showed that overall burnout is very high among Korean medical students, with 9.9% totally burned out. Educational and relational stressors were significantly associated with the risk of burnout in medical students after controlling for socio-demographics and health behaviors. Social support moderated educational and relational stressors on personal accomplishment, but did not moderate stressors on emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. Burnout level is substantially high among Korean medical students. Educational and relational stressors are significantly associated with burnout risk in Korean medical students. Social support had moderated educational and relational stressors on personal accomplishment. The results suggest that more social support for medical students is needed to buffer stressors on and burnout.

  12. Educational and Relational Stressors Associated with Burnout in Korean Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Hye Jung; Kim, Bong-Jo; Lee, So-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to examine whether educational stressors and relational stressors are associated with burnout in medical students and to test social support as a moderator between stressors and burnout. Methods A total of 263 medical students attending Gyeongsang National University composed the study sample. A standardized questionnaire was used to investigate educational and relational stressors, three dimensions of burnout, and social support of medical students. Results The findings showed that overall burnout is very high among Korean medical students, with 9.9% totally burned out. Educational and relational stressors were significantly associated with the risk of burnout in medical students after controlling for socio-demographics and health behaviors. Social support moderated educational and relational stressors on personal accomplishment, but did not moderate stressors on emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. Conclusion Burnout level is substantially high among Korean medical students. Educational and relational stressors are significantly associated with burnout risk in Korean medical students. Social support had moderated educational and relational stressors on personal accomplishment. The results suggest that more social support for medical students is needed to buffer stressors on and burnout. PMID:26508955

  13. Avionics Reliability, Its Techniques and Related Disciplines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-10-01

    faire, la collaboration des diffdrentes administrations et services publics concernds, de mAme qu’une participation des syndicats professionnels 6tait... Professionnels concernds (f abricants do composants et constructeurs d’dquipements civils et militaires). Do mgmo, A l’intdrieur de cheque Groupe do...l’utilisation d’un tel document. La question du statut de ce document s’est naturellenent pos~e immddiatement. 11 oat apparu tr~s vito quun statut do "Isp

  14. Medical Student Stories of Participation in Patient Care-Related Activities: The Construction of Relational Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warmington, Sally; McColl, Geoffrey

    2017-01-01

    Professional identity formation is acknowledged as one of the fundamental tasks of contemporary medical education. Identity is a social phenomenon, constructed through participation in everyday activities and an integral part of every learning interaction. In this paper we report from an Australian ethnographic study into how medical students and…

  15. HIV related renal disease in Africans | Elangovan | IMTU Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Renal disease is becoming an increasingly prevalent entity in human immunodefi ciency virus (HIV)–infected patients, first diagnosed in AIDS patients in 1984. The HIV-related renal disease represents a spectrum of clinical and histological conditions presenting as acute renal failure, chronic renal failure, glomerulopathies, ...

  16. Parenting and Late Adolescent Emotional Adjustment: Mediating Effects of Discipline and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Cliff; Milone, Mary Catherine; Renk, Kimberly

    2011-01-01

    Research suggests that parenting styles are related to the types of discipline parents utilize and that the coupling of parenting styles and discipline techniques are related to child outcomes. Although extant research examines the effects of parenting styles and discipline on child and early adolescent adjustment, less is known about adjustment…

  17. A review of current clinical photography guidelines in relation to smartphone publishing of medical images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Karl F B; Tahim, Arpan; Goodson, Alexander M C; Delaney, Margaret; Fan, Kathleen

    2012-12-01

    The rise in popularity of smartphones has seen a surge in the number of smartphone-specific software applications (apps) available. Among these apps, many are medical and healthcare related, of benefit to both the general public and healthcare staff. With this improved technology comes the ability to display full-colour images and videos, for which medical images could be utilised. We reviewed current clinical photography guidelines in relation to the publishing of medical images in smartphone apps. Of the 5 relevant guidelines, none discussed hand-held electronic media or smartphone app publishing. This creates confusion for clinicians as to how to interpret current guidelines for this purpose. Medical illustrators, clinicians and NHS Trusts need to be aware of the changes in technology and the ethical considerations of allowing medical images to be published within smartphones. We discuss the issues surrounding consent and provide practical tips for obtaining informed consent from patients to publish medical images in smartphone apps.

  18. Power assertive discipline, maternal emotional involvement, and child adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towe-Goodman, Nissa R; Teti, Douglas M

    2008-08-01

    Despite long-standing research, the relations between power assertive discipline and child adjustment continue to be debated. Disentangling disciplinary practices from the parent-child emotional climate may aid understanding of how such parenting practices impact child adjustment. This study explored longitudinal relations between maternal emotional involvement, power assertive discipline, and child adjustment in a sample of 35 mothers of infant, toddler, and preschool-age children. Results indicate that power assertive discipline may differentially impact child adjustment, depending on levels of maternal emotional involvement.

  19. Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tell your child that she will lose her TV time today if she hits, be prepared to turn off the TV for the day. DO NOT make huge threats ... A.D.A.M. follows rigorous standards of quality and accountability. A.D.A.M. is among ...

  20. Analysis of Medical Equipment Management in Relation to the Mandatory Medical Equipment Safety Manager (MESM in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Ishida

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Half a decade has passed since the fifth revision of the medical law and mandatory appointment of a medical equipment safety manager (MESM in hospitals in Japan. During this period, circumstances have changed regarding maintenance of medical equipment (ME. We conducted a survey to examine these changes and the current situation in ME management. Maintenance of ME and related work were found to have increased in many hospitals, but the number of clinical engineering technologists (CETs has only slightly increased. The appointed MESM was a CET or physician in most hospitals. In hospitals where physicians were appointed as the MESM, 81% had operation managers. Many respondents commented that it was difficult for one person to cover all the tasks required by the MESM, due to a lack of knowledge, too much work, or other reasons. This suggests the importance of an operation manager for ME to work under the MESM.

  1. Medical students' perceptions in relation to ethnicity and gender: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seale Clive

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The British medical student population has undergone rapid diversification over the last decades. This study focuses on medical students' views about their experiences in relation to ethnicity and gender during their undergraduate training within the context of the hidden curriculum in one British medical school as part of a wider qualitative research project into undergraduate medical education. Method We interviewed 36 undergraduate medical students in one British Medical School, across all five years of training using a semi-structured interview schedule. We selected them by random and quota sampling, stratified by sex and ethnicity and used the whole medical school population as a sampling frame. Data analyses involved the identification of common themes, reported by means of illustrative quotations and simple counts. Results The students provided information about variations patterned by gender in their motivation and influences when deciding to study medicine. Issues in relation to ethnicity were: gaining independence from parents, perceived limitations to career prospects, incompatibility of some religious beliefs with some medical practices and acquired open-mindedness towards students and patients from different ethnic backgrounds. Despite claiming no experiences of gender difference during medical training, female and male students expressed gender stereotypes, e.g. that women bring particularly caring and sympathetic attitudes to medicine, or that surgery requires the physical strength and competitiveness stereotypically associated with men that are likely to support the continuation of gender differentiation in medical careers. Conclusion The key themes identified in this paper in relation to ethnicity and to gender have important implications for medical educators and for those concerned with professional development. The results suggest a need to open up aspects of these relatively covert elements of student

  2. Medical students' perceptions in relation to ethnicity and gender: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lempp, Heidi; Seale, Clive

    2006-03-08

    The British medical student population has undergone rapid diversification over the last decades. This study focuses on medical students' views about their experiences in relation to ethnicity and gender during their undergraduate training within the context of the hidden curriculum in one British medical school as part of a wider qualitative research project into undergraduate medical education. We interviewed 36 undergraduate medical students in one British Medical School, across all five years of training using a semi-structured interview schedule. We selected them by random and quota sampling, stratified by sex and ethnicity and used the whole medical school population as a sampling frame. Data analyses involved the identification of common themes, reported by means of illustrative quotations and simple counts. The students provided information about variations patterned by gender in their motivation and influences when deciding to study medicine. Issues in relation to ethnicity were: gaining independence from parents, perceived limitations to career prospects, incompatibility of some religious beliefs with some medical practices and acquired open-mindedness towards students and patients from different ethnic backgrounds. Despite claiming no experiences of gender difference during medical training, female and male students expressed gender stereotypes, e.g. that women bring particularly caring and sympathetic attitudes to medicine, or that surgery requires the physical strength and competitiveness stereotypically associated with men that are likely to support the continuation of gender differentiation in medical careers. The key themes identified in this paper in relation to ethnicity and to gender have important implications for medical educators and for those concerned with professional development. The results suggest a need to open up aspects of these relatively covert elements of student culture to scrutiny and debate and to take an explicitly wider view

  3. Alternative Discipline Can Benefit Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mergler, Mary Schmid; Vargas, Karla M.; Caldwell, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Schools across the country are changing how they discipline students by implementing research- and evidence-based disciplinary practices that have yielded positive results for schools and students. These disciplinary practices--known as Restorative Justice, Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports, and social and emotional learning--largely…

  4. Retail design : A new discipline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christiaans, H.H.C.M.; Almendra, R.A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper has the aim to address Retail Design as a new research and education discipline that because of its multidisciplinarity asks for a holistic approach. Although retailing as commerce is timeless, Retail Design is one of the most challenging new fields of design, embracing both design

  5. Eliminating Disparities in School Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishioka, Vicki

    2013-01-01

    Disparities in suspension rates for White, Black, Hispanic, and American Indian students are more often a result of inequitable disciplinary actions than differences in behavior. Exclusionary discipline undermines students' academic achievement by weakening their connection with school and removing them from the classroom. Students who experience…

  6. Construct validity and factor structure of survey-based assessment of cost-related medication burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burcu, Mehmet; Alexander, G Caleb; Ng, Xinyi; Harrington, Donna

    2015-02-01

    Millions of Americans are burdened by out-of-pocket prescription costs. Although many survey measures have been developed to assess this burden, the construct validity and the factor structure of these instruments have not been rigorously assessed. To characterize the factor structure and the construct validity of items assessing cost-related medication burden. We applied exploratory factor and confirmatory factor analyses to the 2009 Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey, focusing on 10 items assessing cost-related mediation burden among a nationally representative sample of community-dwelling Medicare beneficiaries. The fit of competing models was compared using several indices. The study population (N=8777) was predominantly aged over 65 years (83.3%), female (54.4%), and white (84.3%). Two distinct factors were present for the medication cost-reduction strategies: (1) cost-related medication nonadherence and (2) drug-shopping behaviors, not directly impacting medication compliance. The two factors were moderately correlated (r=0.55), highlighting the presence of a 2 distinct but related constructs for cost-related medication burden. An item assessing the use of mail or internet pharmacies did not load well on either factor and may not necessarily measure medication-related cost burden. An item assessing reduced spending on basic needs loaded strongly on the same factor with the cost-related medication nonadherence items, suggesting they together may represent extreme compensatory behaviors that may adversely affect health outcomes. Two distinct constructs were derived from these items examining cost-related medication burden. Although cost-related medication burden is often associated with nonadherence, drug-shopping behaviors that do not directly impact adherence are also important measure of this burden.

  7. The characteristics of psychiatrists disciplined by professional colleges in Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asim Alam

    Full Text Available The identification of health care professionals who are incompetent, impaired, exploitative or have criminal intent is important for public safety. It is unclear whether psychiatrists are more likely to commit medical misconduct offences than non-psychiatrists, and if the nature of these offences is different.The aim of this study was to compare the characteristics of psychiatrists disciplined in Canada and the nature of their offences and disciplinary sentences for the ten years from 2000 through 2009 to other physicians disciplined during that timeframe.Utilizing a retrospective cohort design, we constructed a database of all physicians disciplined by provincial licensing authorities in Canada for the ten years from 2000 through 2009. Demographic variables and information on type of misconduct violation and penalty imposed were also collected for each physician disciplined. We compared psychiatrists to non-psychiatrists for the various outcomes.There were 82 (14% psychiatrists of 606 physicians disciplined in Canada in the ten years from 2000 through 2009, double the national proportion of psychiatrists. Of those disciplined psychiatrists, 8 (9.6% were women compared to 29% in the national cohort. A total of 5 (6% psychiatrists committed at least two separate offenses, accounting for approximately 11% of the total violations. A higher proportion of psychiatrists were disciplined for sexual misconduct (OR 3.62 [95% Confidence Interval [CI] 2.45-5.34], fraudulent behavior (OR 2.32 [95% CI 1.20-4.40] and unprofessional conduct (OR 3.1 [95% CI 1.95-4.95]. As a result, psychiatrists had between 1.85-4.35 greater risk of having disciplinary penalties in almost all categories in comparison to other physicians.Psychiatrists differ from non-psychiatrist physicians in the prevalence and nature of medical misconduct. Efforts to decrease medical misconduct by psychiatrists need to be conducted and systematically evaluated.

  8. Use-related risk analysis for medical devices based on improved FMEA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Long; Shuai, Ma; Wang, Zhu; Li, Ping

    2012-01-01

    In order to effectively analyze and control use-related risk of medical devices, quantitative methodologies must be applied. Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) is a proactive technique for error detection and risk reduction. In this article, an improved FMEA based on Fuzzy Mathematics and Grey Relational Theory is developed to better carry out user-related risk analysis for medical devices. As an example, the analysis process using this improved FMEA method for a certain medical device (C-arm X-ray machine) is described.

  9. [On the relationship of psychosomatic and mind-body medicine: integrative, complementary or alternative disciplines within an evolutionary approach?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunnhuber, Stefan; Michalsen, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    The text outlines the relation between psychosomatic medicine as an established medical discipline and the emerging concept of mind-body medicine from a historical, clinical and epistemological perspective. Limitations and contributions of both disciplines are discussed and the opportunities within the concept of Integrative Medicine are outlined. Whereas psychosomatic medicine is perceived as a form of transformation through a primarily verbal discoursive relationship, mind-body medicine claims healing through increased traditional techniques of the relaxation response, increased awareness, mindfulness, increasing des-identification and health-promoting lifestyle modification. It becomes clear that mind-body medicine seems to be epistemologically the broader theoretical framework, whereas in a clinical context the combination of both disciplines appears to be complementary and synergistic. The connection between psychosomatic medicine and mind-body medicine can make an important and exemplary contribution to the concept of Integrative Medicine. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Information on actual medication use and drug-related problems in older patients: questionnaire or interview?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willeboordse, F.; Gundeken, L.H.; Eijckel, L.P. van der; Schellevis, F.G.; Elders, P.J.M.; Hugtenburg, J.G.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Information on medication use and drug-related problems is important in the preparation of clinical medication reviews. Critical information can only be provided by patients themselves, but interviewing patients is time-consuming. Alternatively, patient information could be obtained with

  11. A qualitative study exploring issues related to medication management in residential aged care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad Nizaruddin, Mariani; Omar, Marhanis-Salihah; Mhd-Ali, Adliah; Makmor-Bakry, Mohd

    2017-01-01

    Globally, the population of older people is on the rise. As families are burdened with the high cost of care for aging members, demand is increasing for medical care and nursing homes. Thus, medication management is crucial to ensure that residents in a care center benefit and assist the management of the care center in reducing the burden of health care. This study is aimed to qualitatively explore issues related to medication management in residential aged care facilities (RACFs). A total of 11 stakeholders comprising health care providers, administrators, caretakers and residents were recruited from a list of registered government, nongovernmental organization and private RACFs in Malaysia from September 2016 to April 2017. An exploratory qualitative study adhering to Consolidated Criteria for Reporting Qualitative Studies was conducted. In-depth interview was conducted with consent of all participants, and the interviews were audio recorded for later verbatim transcription. Observational analysis was also conducted in a noninterfering manner. Three themes, namely medication use process, personnel handling medications and culture, emerged in this study. Medication use process highlighted an unclaimed liability for residents' medication by the RACFs, whereas personnel handling medications were found to lack sufficient training in medication management. Culture of the organization did affect the medication safety and quality improvement. The empowerment of the residents in their medication management was limited. There were unclear roles and responsibility of who manages the medication in the nongovernment-funded RACFs, although they were well structured in the private nursing homes. There are important issues related to medication management in RACFs which require a need to establish policy and guidelines.

  12. The problems of discipline at secondary education

    OpenAIRE

    NÁVORKOVÁ, Miluše

    2016-01-01

    The theme of this bachelor´s thesis is Problems of discipline at secondary education. The aim of this work is to map the problems of school discipline at the students of higher secondary education. The basic terms concerned the problems of discipline, the definitions and analysis of the lack of discipline are being described in the theoretical part. This thesis also tries to find out possible reasons, preventative arrangements and remedy possibilities of the lack of discipline at the students...

  13. Is Primatology an equal-opportunity discipline?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Addessi

    Full Text Available The proportion of women occupying academic positions in biological sciences has increased in the past few decades, but women are still under-represented in senior academic ranks compared to their male colleagues. Primatology has been often singled out as a model of "equal-opportunity" discipline because of the common perception that women are more represented in Primatology than in similar fields. But is this indeed true? Here we show that, although in the past 15 years the proportion of female primatologists increased from the 38% of the early 1990s to the 57% of 2008, Primatology is far from being an "equal-opportunity" discipline, and suffers the phenomenon of "glass ceiling" as all the other scientific disciplines examined so far. In fact, even if Primatology does attract more female students than males, at the full professor level male members significantly outnumber females. Moreover, regardless of position, IPS male members publish significantly more than their female colleagues. Furthermore, when analyzing gender difference in scientific productivity in relation to the name order in the publications, it emerged that the scientific achievements of female primatologists (in terms of number and type of publications do not always match their professional achievements (in terms of academic position. However, the gender difference in the IPS members' number of publications does not correspond to a similar difference in their scientific impact (as measured by their H index, which may indicate that female primatologists' fewer articles are of higher impact than those of their male colleagues.

  14. Is Primatology an equal-opportunity discipline?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addessi, Elsa; Borgi, Marta; Palagi, Elisabetta

    2012-01-01

    The proportion of women occupying academic positions in biological sciences has increased in the past few decades, but women are still under-represented in senior academic ranks compared to their male colleagues. Primatology has been often singled out as a model of "equal-opportunity" discipline because of the common perception that women are more represented in Primatology than in similar fields. But is this indeed true? Here we show that, although in the past 15 years the proportion of female primatologists increased from the 38% of the early 1990s to the 57% of 2008, Primatology is far from being an "equal-opportunity" discipline, and suffers the phenomenon of "glass ceiling" as all the other scientific disciplines examined so far. In fact, even if Primatology does attract more female students than males, at the full professor level male members significantly outnumber females. Moreover, regardless of position, IPS male members publish significantly more than their female colleagues. Furthermore, when analyzing gender difference in scientific productivity in relation to the name order in the publications, it emerged that the scientific achievements of female primatologists (in terms of number and type of publications) do not always match their professional achievements (in terms of academic position). However, the gender difference in the IPS members' number of publications does not correspond to a similar difference in their scientific impact (as measured by their H index), which may indicate that female primatologists' fewer articles are of higher impact than those of their male colleagues.

  15. Emotional intelligence and related factors in medical sciences students of an Iranian university

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lolaty, Hamideh Azimi; Tirgari, Abdolhakim; Fard, Jabbar Heydari

    2014-01-01

    Emotional intelligence has evolved lot of interest in a variety of fields. The aim of this study was to determine the emotional intelligence and its related factors among junior medical sciences students...

  16. Syndromic Surveillance of Norovirus Using over the Counter Sales of Medications related to Gastrointestinal Illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria L Edge

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess whether over-the-counter (OTC sales of gastrointestinal illness (GI-related medications are associated with temporal trends of reportable community viral, bacterial and parasitic infections.

  17. Effects of electroacupuncture on stress-related symptoms in medical students: a randomised controlled pilot study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dias, Marcio; Pagnin, Daniel; de Queiroz Pagnin, Valéria; Reis, Regina Lucia Ribeiro; Olej, Beni

    2012-01-01

    To assess the effects of electroacupuncture on stress-related symptoms-sleep disorders, anxiety, depression and burnout-in medical students, and provide data to inform a power analysis to determinate...

  18. Longitudinal Changes in Total Brain Volume in Schizophrenia: Relation to Symptom Severity, Cognition and Antipsychotic Medication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veijola, J.; Guo, J.Y.; Moilanen, J.S.; Jaaskelainen, E.; Miettunen, J.; Kyllonen, M.; Haapea, M.; Huhtaniska, S.; Alaraisanen, A.; Maki, P.; Kiviniemi, V.; Nikkinen, J.; Starck, T.; Remes, J.J.; Tanskanen, P.; Tervonen, O.; Wink, A.M.; Kehagia, A.; Suckling, J.; Kobayashi, H.; Barnett, J.H.; Barnes, A.; Koponen, H.J.; Jones, P.B.; Isohanni, M.; Murray, G.K.

    2014-01-01

    Studies show evidence of longitudinal brain volume decreases in schizophrenia. We studied brain volume changes and their relation to symptom severity, level of function, cognition, and antipsychotic medication in participants with schizophrenia and control participants from a general population

  19. Communication relating to family members' involvement and understandings about patients' medication management in hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manias, Elizabeth

    2015-10-01

    Many patients with complex health-care needs are prescribed several medications on a daily basis. With admission to hospital, patients are often placed in a vulnerable position. Family members can therefore play an important role in supporting patients in decision making about managing medications and negotiating communication exchange with health professionals. From the perspective of family members, to explore family members' involvement with health professionals and patients about how patients' medications are managed in hospital. Using an ethnographic design, interviews were conducted with family members of patients admitted to hospital who had at least five medications prescribed in hospital. A purposive sampling approach was used for recruitment. A thematic framework process was used for analysis. Interviews took place in four surgical and four medical wards in each of two Australian hospitals. Forty interviews were conducted with family members in relation to their respective relative's medications. Family members tended to participate in passive, rather than active or shared decision-making activities. Those who demonstrated active or shared decision making were extensively involved in managing medications and in addressing problems relating to continuity of care. Communication with health professionals was generally insufficient, despite family members' keenness to speak with them. Improved communication is needed between family members, health professionals and patients in hospitals. Greater attention should be played by health professionals in initiating communication proactively. Family members possessed valuable, unique information about patients' medications that can be utilized to facilitate patient safety. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Drug related medical emergencies in the elderly: role of adverse drug reactions and non-compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, S; Karan, R S; Pandhi, P; Jain, S

    2001-11-01

    Adverse drug reactions and non-compliance are important causes of admissions in the elderly to medical clinics. The contribution of adverse drug reactions and non-compliance to admission by the medical emergency department was analysed. A total of 578 consecutive elderly patients admitted to the medical emergency department were interviewed to determine the percentage of admissions due to adverse drug reactions or non-compliance with medication regimens, their causes, consequences, and predictors. Eighty three (14.4%) of the 578 admissions were drug related: 39 (6.7%) caused by adverse drug reactions and 44 (7.6%) caused by non-compliance with medication. One hundred ninety two (33.2%) patients had a history of non-compliance. Factors associated with an increased risk of admission because of an adverse drug reaction were patients with diabetes or neoplasms, and patients using numerous different medications. Factors associated with a higher risk of hospitalisation because of non-compliance were poor recall of the medication regimen, seeing numerous physicians, female sex, polypharmacy, drug costs, and switching over to non-conventional forms of treatment. Many elderly admissions are drug related, with non-compliance accounting for a substantial fraction of these. Elderly people at high risk of suffering a drug related medical emergency are identified and suitable interventions may be planned by the healthcare policymakers to target them.

  1. Medical Care Expenditure in Suicides From Non-illness-related Causes

    OpenAIRE

    Sohn, Jungwoo; Cho, Jaelim; Moon, Ki Tae; Suh, Mina; Ha, Kyoung Hwa; Kim, Changsoo; Shin, Dong Chun; Jung, Sang Hyuk

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Several epidemiological studies on medical care utilization prior to suicide have considered the motivation of suicide, but focused on the influence of physical illnesses. Medical care expenditure in suicide completers with non-illness-related causes has not been investigated. Methods: Suicides motivated by non-illness-related factors were identified using the investigator’s note from the National Police Agency, which was then linked to the Health Insurance Review and Assessment d...

  2. Medical marijuana policies and hospitalizations related to marijuana and opioid pain reliever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yuyan

    2017-04-01

    Twenty-eight states in the U.S have legalized medical marijuana, yet its impacts on severe health consequences such as hospitalizations remain unknown. Meanwhile, the prevalence of opioid pain reliever (OPR) use and outcomes has increased dramatically. Recent studies suggested unintended impacts of legalizing medical marijuana on OPR, but the evidence is still limited. This study examined the associations between state medical marijuana policies and hospitalizations related to marijuana and OPR. State-level annual administrative records of hospital discharges during 1997-2014 were obtained from the State Inpatient Databases (SID). The outcome variables were rates of hospitalizations involving marijuana dependence or abuse, opioid dependence or abuse, and OPR overdose in 1000 discharges. Linear time-series regressions were used to assess the associations of implementing medical marijuana policies to hospitalizations, controlling for other marijuana- and OPR-related policies, socioeconomic factors, and state and year fixed effects. Hospitalizations related to marijuana and OPR increased sharply by 300% on average in all states. Medical marijuana legalization was associated with 23% (p=0.008) and 13% (p=0.025) reductions in hospitalizations related to opioid dependence or abuse and OPR overdose, respectively; lagged effects were observed after policy implementation. The operation of medical marijuana dispensaries had no independent impacts on OPR-related hospitalizations. Medical marijuana polices had no associations with marijuana-related hospitalizations. Medical marijuana policies were significantly associated with reduced OPR-related hospitalizations but had no associations with marijuana-related hospitalizations. Given the epidemic of problematic use of OPR, future investigation is needed to explore the causal pathways of these findings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Smartphone and medical related App use among medical students and junior doctors in the United Kingdom (UK): a regional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Karl Frederick Braekkan; Wharrad, Heather; Watts, Kim

    2012-10-30

    Smartphone usage has spread to many settings including that of healthcare with numerous potential and realised benefits. The ability to download custom-built software applications (apps) has created a new wealth of clinical resources available to healthcare staff, providing evidence-based decisional tools to reduce medical errors.Previous literature has examined how smartphones can be utilised by both medical student and doctor populations, to enhance educational and workplace activities, with the potential to improve overall patient care. However, this literature has not examined smartphone acceptance and patterns of medical app usage within the student and junior doctor populations. An online survey of medical student and foundation level junior doctor cohorts was undertaken within one United Kingdom healthcare region. Participants were asked whether they owned a Smartphone and if they used apps on their Smartphones to support their education and practice activities. Frequency of use and type of app used was also investigated. Open response questions explored participants' views on apps that were desired or recommended and the characteristics of apps that were useful. 257 medical students and 131 junior doctors responded, equating to a response rate of 15.0% and 21.8% respectively. 79.0% (n=203/257) of medical students and 74.8% (n=98/131) of junior doctors owned a smartphone, with 56.6% (n=115/203) of students and 68.4% (n=67/98) of doctors owning an iPhone.The majority of students and doctors owned 1-5 medical related applications, with very few owning more than 10, and iPhone owners significantly more likely to own apps (Chi sq, pusage of several times a day. Over 24 hours apps were used for between 1-30 minutes for students and 1-20 minutes for doctors, students used disease diagnosis/management and drug reference apps, with doctors favouring clinical score/calculator apps. This study found a high level of smartphone ownership and usage among medical students

  4. Fiscal decentralization and fiscal discipline

    OpenAIRE

    Çakır, Nida

    2006-01-01

    Cataloged from PDF version of article. In this thesis, the effects of fiscal procedures, fiscal centralization and fiscal decentralization, on fiscal discipline are analyzed in a theoretical framework. A model of two optimization problems is established: central government’s optimization problem and local government’s optimization problem representing the two fiscal procedures; fiscal centralization and fiscal decentralization respectively. Comparative static analysis is per...

  5. Regulatory physiology discipline science plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    The focus of the Regulatory Physiology discipline of the Space Physiology and Countermeasures Program is twofold. First, to determine and study how microgravity and associated factors of space flight affect the regulatory mechanisms by which humans adapt and achieve homeostasis and thereby regulate their ability to respond to internal and external signals; and, second, to study selected physiological systems that have been demonstrated to be influenced by gravity. The Regulatory Physiology discipline, as defined here, is composed of seven subdisciplines: (1) Circadian Rhythms, (2) Endocrinology, (3) Fluid and Electrolyte Regulation, (4) Hematology, (5) Immunology, (6) Metabolism and Nutrition, and (7) Temperature Regulation. The purpose of this Discipline Science Plan is to provide a conceptual strategy for NASA's Life Sciences Division research and development activities in the area of regulatory physiology. It covers the research areas critical to NASA's programmatic requirements for the Extended-Duration Orbiter, Space Station Freedom, and exploration mission science activities. These science activities include ground-based and flight; basic, applied, and operational; and animal and human research and development. This document summarizes the current status of the program, outlines available knowledge, establishes goals and objectives, identifies science priorities, and defines critical questions in regulatory physiology. It contains a general plan that will be used by both NASA Headquarters Program Offices and the field centers to review and plan basic, applied, and operational intramural and extramural research and development activities in this area.

  6. A Discipline-Specific Approach to the History of U.S. Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, Valerie K.; Meltzer, David E.

    2017-01-01

    Although much has been said and written about the value of using the history of science in teaching science, relatively little is available to guide educators in the various science disciplines through the educational history of their own discipline. Through a discipline-specific approach to a course on the history of science education in the…

  7. Differences in Moral Judgment on Animal and Human Ethics Issues between University Students in Animal-Related, Human Medical and Arts Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrinder, Joy M; Ostini, Remo; Phillips, Clive J C

    2016-01-01

    Moral judgment in relation to animal ethics issues has rarely been investigated. Among the research that has been conducted, studies of veterinary students have shown greater use of reasoning based on universal principles for animal than human ethics issues. This study aimed to identify if this was unique to students of veterinary and other animal-related professions. The moral reasoning of first year students of veterinary medicine, veterinary technology, and production animal science was compared with that of students in non-animal related disciplines of human medicine and arts. All students (n = 531) completed a moral reasoning test, the VetDIT, with animal and human scenarios. When compared with reasoning on human ethics issues, the combined group of students evaluating animal ethics issues showed higher levels of Universal Principles reasoning, lower levels of Personal Interest reasoning and similar levels of Maintaining Norms reasoning. Arts students showed more personal interest reasoning than students in most animal-related programs on both animal and human ethics issues, and less norms-based reasoning on animal ethics issues. Medical students showed more norms-based reasoning on animal ethics issues than all of the animal-related groups. There were no differences in principled reasoning on animal ethics issues between program groups. This has implications for animal-related professions and education programs showing that students' preference for principled reasoning on animal ethics issues is not unique to animal-related disciplines, and highlighting the need to develop student (and professional) capacity to apply principled reasoning to address ethics issues in animal industries to reduce the risk of moral distress.

  8. Extracting Concepts Related to Homelessness from the Free Text of VA Electronic Medical Records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundlapalli, Adi V; Carter, Marjorie E; Divita, Guy; Shen, Shuying; Palmer, Miland; South, Brett; Durgahee, B S Begum; Redd, Andrew; Samore, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Mining the free text of electronic medical records (EMR) using natural language processing (NLP) is an effective method of extracting information not always captured in administrative data. We sought to determine if concepts related to homelessness, a non-medical condition, were amenable to extraction from the EMR of Veterans Affairs (VA) medical records. As there were no off-the-shelf products, a lexicon of terms related to homelessness was created. A corpus of free text documents from outpatient encounters was reviewed to create the reference standard for NLP training and testing. V3NLP Framework was used to detect instances of lexical terms and was compared to the reference standard. With a positive predictive value of 77% for extracting relevant concepts, this study demonstrates the feasibility of extracting positively asserted concepts related to homelessness from the free text of medical records.

  9. [The prevalence of burnout and the related factors among some medical students in Korea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jaewon; Son, Shill Lee; Kim, Suh Hee; Kim, Hyunsoo; Hong, Jee-Young; Lee, Moo-Sik

    2015-12-01

    This study was conducted to examine the relationship between the prevalence of burnout and its related factors in medical students in Korea. All available medical students in the metropolitan city of Daejeon, Korea, were asked to answer self-administered questionnaires from July 1 to July 26 in 2013. A total of 534 medical students participated. The Maslach Burnout Inventory-Student Survey (MBI-SS) and structured questionnaires on related factors were used. Confirmatory factor analysis and Cronbach's α were used to verify the applicability of the MBI-SS to medical students in Korea. We also performed chi-square test and logistic regression analysis to identify the factors that were associated with burnout. The MBI-SS was reliable and valid in measuring burnout in Korean medical students. Our confirmatory factor analysis approved and explained the appropriateness of the model fit. The prevalence of burnout among medical students was 26.4% (n=141). Suchrates were higher in students who were female, experienced greater levels of depression, had poor academic performance, feared dropping out, and were stressed by the poor quality of the class facilities. The MBI-SS is a valid instrument to measure academic burnout in Korean medical students. Further studies should be performed, because improvements in the mental health of medical students will benefit these doctors-to-be and their future patients.

  10. Health-related quality of life of students from a private medical school in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lins, Liliane; Carvalho, Fernando M; Menezes, Marta S; Porto-Silva, Larissa; Damasceno, Hannah

    2015-11-08

    To assess health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and to describe factors associated with its variation among undergraduate medical students at a Brazilian private medical school. A cross-sectional study in a sample (n=180) of medical students at a private medical school in Salvador, Brazil, stratified by year of medical course. Data about age, sex, year of course, physical activity, sleepiness, headaches, participation in a student loan program supported by the Brazilian government (FIES) and living arrangements were collected using a self-administered form. HRQOL was assessed by using a Brazilian Portuguese version of the SF-36 form. The eight domains of SF-36 and the Physical Component (PCS) and Mental Component (MCS) Summaries scales were calculated. The medical students showed poor HRQOL, mainly because of the mental component. Lower mean scores were found among those with FIES support, females, those suffering from sleepiness, headaches and lacking physical activity. No clear trend was observed in the variation of the SF-36 mean scores according to the year of medical school. However, students in the fifth year of the course had the highest HRQOL mean scores. Health-related quality of life of students at this private medical school was poor, mainly because of its mental component. Lower HRQOL was associated with FIES support, females, sleepiness, headaches and lack of regular physical activity. Higher scores were found among fifth year students.

  11. Learner discipline at school: A comparative educational perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.C. Wolhunter

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Learner discipline constitutes an acute problem in South African schools, especially if it is approached within a Reformational frame of reference. The aim of the research underlying this article was to survey the available subject-related literature on school discipline abroad. The available published research results are largely limited to the United States of America, the United Kingdom and Australia. In these three countries learner discipline in schools constitutes a problem, although it seems to be only relatively minor forms of misbehaviour that dominate. Serious forms of misbehaviour, such as criminal offences are rare. The causes/determinants/correlates of learner-discipline problems can be grouped into five categories: learner-related factors, teacher-related factors, school-related factors, parent-related factors and society-related factors. This discussion draws suggestions from available subject-related literature as to how the discipline issue in schools should be approached. The conclusion is, however, reached that, while worthwhile guidelines can indeed be drawn from available subject-related literature for the correction of deviant behaviour, reference is unfortunately never made to the need of learners to be guided and to be enabled to become followers (disciples of Jesus Christ in the profound sense of the word, especially in a world that does not adhere to Biblical values. True disciples tend to lead disciplined, well-behaved and intentional lives in His service and to His glory. In conclusion, the role of (Christian religion and of values based on religious conviction in the creation of healthy school discipline is explicated.

  12. First Generation Korean American Parents’ Perceptions of Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunjung; Hong, Seunghye

    2007-01-01

    Nurses not only need to be familiar with the professional guidelines of discipline and but also be aware of variances in styles of acceptable discipline across cultural groups. The goal of this study was to explore cultural influences in relation to (1) first generation Korean American parents’ perceptions of common discipline strategies in the United States and (2) discipline strategies commonly used among first generation Korean American parents. Inductive content analysis was used to analyze interview data from seven first generation Korean American parents. Derived themes indicated that parents considered spanking/hitting and less hugging/kissing as Korean style and time out, using a sticker chart, hugging/kissing, removing/adding privileges, and giving chores as American style. Recent immigrant parents were not familiar with common positive discipline strategies in the United States. As they adapted to the mainstream society, they discontinued what they perceived to be negative aspects of Korean style and adopted positive aspects of American style. They were sensitive to children’s views on discipline and they experienced communication difficulties with children. These findings indicated that Korean American parents’ perceptions on discipline strategies were shaped by living in two cultures and were different from the western viewpoints. PMID:17292135

  13. Toward a general ontology for digital forensic disciplines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karie, Nickson M; Venter, Hein S

    2014-09-01

    Ontologies are widely used in different disciplines as a technique for representing and reasoning about domain knowledge. However, despite the widespread ontology-related research activities and applications in different disciplines, the development of ontologies and ontology research activities is still wanting in digital forensics. This paper therefore presents the case for establishing an ontology for digital forensic disciplines. Such an ontology would enable better categorization of the digital forensic disciplines, as well as assist in the development of methodologies and specifications that can offer direction in different areas of digital forensics. This includes such areas as professional specialization, certifications, development of digital forensic tools, curricula, and educational materials. In addition, the ontology presented in this paper can be used, for example, to better organize the digital forensic domain knowledge and explicitly describe the discipline's semantics in a common way. Finally, this paper is meant to spark discussions and further research on an internationally agreed ontological distinction of the digital forensic disciplines. Digital forensic disciplines ontology is a novel approach toward organizing the digital forensic domain knowledge and constitutes the main contribution of this paper. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  14. Church discipline – semper reformanda in Reformation perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham A. Duncan

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Church discipline – is semper reformanda in a time and space warp? Church discipline has become an anachronism in the life of the Christian faith community. In part, this results from a misunderstanding of the fundamental meaning of the term. Its early emphasis was on spiritual nurture, discipling people into the faith and into a relationship with one another and God. By the time of the Reformation, it took on a legalistic and rigid form that militated against its earlier approach. This resulted from a misunderstanding of key reformers from the Reforming tradition such as John Calvin and John Knox, who were concerned to build up individuals within the Christian community to become responsible members of society. In this way, discipline is transformative of individuals and society. The work of discipline was closely related both to pastoral care and Christian education and offered a corrective to Medieval discipline, where the concept of discipline was distorted when the use of punitive discipline as a last resort was elevated to become the norm. This situation was replicated in the post-Reformation period. Consequently, it now needs to be rehabilitated in the form of discipling or mentorship in order to restore its usefulness as an educative tool in the process of the pilgrimage towards the kingdom of God.

  15. First-generation Korean-American parents' perceptions of discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunjung; Hong, Seunghye

    2007-01-01

    Nurses not only need to be familiar with professional guidelines of discipline and but also need to be aware of variances in styles of acceptable discipline across cultural groups. The goal of this study was to explore cultural influences in relation to (1) first-generation Korean-American parents' perceptions of common discipline strategies in the United States, and (2) discipline strategies commonly used among first-generation Korean-American parents. Inductive content analysis was used to analyze interview data from seven first-generation Korean-American parents. Derived themes indicated that parents considered spanking/hitting and less hugging/kissing as Korean style, and time-out, use of sticker charts, hugging/kissing, removing/adding privileges, and giving chores as American style. Recent immigrant parents were not familiar with common positive discipline strategies in the United States. As they adapted to mainstream society, they discontinued what they perceived to be negative aspects of Korean style and adopted positive aspects of American style. They were sensitive to children's views on discipline, and they experienced communication difficulties with children. These findings indicated that Korean-American parents' perceptions of discipline strategies were shaped by living in two cultures and were different from western viewpoints.

  16. Automatic extraction of semantic relations between medical entities: a rule based approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Abacha Asma

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information extraction is a complex task which is necessary to develop high-precision information retrieval tools. In this paper, we present the platform MeTAE (Medical Texts Annotation and Exploration. MeTAE allows (i to extract and annotate medical entities and relationships from medical texts and (ii to explore semantically the produced RDF annotations. Results Our annotation approach relies on linguistic patterns and domain knowledge and consists in two steps: (i recognition of medical entities and (ii identification of the correct semantic relation between each pair of entities. The first step is achieved by an enhanced use of MetaMap which improves the precision obtained by MetaMap by 19.59% in our evaluation. The second step relies on linguistic patterns which are built semi-automatically from a corpus selected according to semantic criteria. We evaluate our system’s ability to identify medical entities of 16 types. We also evaluate the extraction of treatment relations between a treatment (e.g. medication and a problem (e.g. disease: we obtain 75.72% precision and 60.46% recall. Conclusions According to our experiments, using an external sentence segmenter and noun phrase chunker may improve the precision of MetaMap-based medical entity recognition. Our pattern-based relation extraction method obtains good precision and recall w.r.t related works. A more precise comparison with related approaches remains difficult however given the differences in corpora and in the exact nature of the extracted relations. The selection of MEDLINE articles through queries related to known drug-disease pairs enabled us to obtain a more focused corpus of relevant examples of treatment relations than a more general MEDLINE query.

  17. Multidisciplinarity, Interdisciplinarity, and Bridging Disciplines: A Matter of Process

    OpenAIRE

    Dawn Youngblood

    2007-01-01

    Bridging disciplines have much to teach regarding how to combine analytical tools to tackle problems and questions that cross traditional disciplinary boundaries. This article explores interdisciplinary aspects of two long established bridging disciplines--geography and anthropology--in order to consider what the relatively young undertaking labeled “interdisciplinary studies” can learn from their long existence. It considers the fallacy of nomothetic claim as well as the fruitful production ...

  18. A description of Medical Examiner prescription-related deaths and prescription drug monitoring program data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lev, Roneet; Petro, Sean; Lee, Oren; Lucas, Jonathan; Stuck, Amy; Vilke, Gary M; Castillo, Edward M

    2016-03-01

    The Centers of Disease Control and Prevention have declared prescription drug abuse an epidemic in the United States. However, demographic data correlating prescription-related deaths with actual prescriptions written is not well described. The purpose of this study is to compare toxicology reports on autopsy for prescription-related deaths with Prescription Drug Monitor Program (PDMP) data. This is a retrospective analysis comparing 2013 San Diego Medical Examiner data on 254 unintentional prescription-related deaths obtained for 12 months before death with data from the California PDMP. Data were analyzed on age, sex, whether there was information on the PDMP, types and quantities of prescribed medications, number of pharmacies and providers involved, and whether there was a match between the Medical Examiner toxicology report and data from the PDMP. In 2013, there were 254 unintentional prescription-related deaths; 186 patients (73%) had PDMP data 12 months before death. Ingesting prescription medications with illicit drugs, alcohol, and/or over-the-counter medications accounted for 40% of the unintentional deaths. Opioids were responsible for the majority of single medication deaths (36; 70.6%). The average number of prescriptions was 23.5 per patient, and the average patient used 3 pharmacies and had 4.5 providers. Chronic prescription use was found in 68.8% of patients with PDMP data. The PDMP data highlight important patterns that can provide valuable insight to clinicians making decisions regarding types and amounts of medications they prescribe. Although there is no guaranteed solution to prevent prescription-related deaths, PDMP data can be useful to prevent coprescribing and medication interaction and by following best clinical practices. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Complexity of ambulatory care across disciplines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katerndahl, David; Wood, Robert; Jaén, Carlos Roberto

    2015-06-01

    Complexity of care has implications for quality of care, health costs, medical errors, and patient and physician satisfaction. The objective was to compare complexity of ambulatory care across 14 medical specialties. This secondary analysis uses the 2010 National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey, which used a multistage probability design of primary sampling units throughout U.S. ambulatory practices across 14 specialties. Sampling weights enable results from 29,179 ambulatory visits to represent 878,653,561 visits. Data included symptoms, diagnoses, diagnostic procedures, and treatments provided. Measures of input, output and total encounter complexity and hourly complexity densities were computed. Internal Medicine leads in total input and total encounter complexity with Family Medicine second in total encounter complexity. When duration-of-visit is considered, Family Medicine is the most complex discipline while Internal Medicine is the second most complex. Pediatrics lacks the complexity of Family Medicine and General Internal Medicine, and OB/GYN bears little similarity to Family Medicine or General Internal Medicine. Family Medicine and Internal Medicine encounters are the most complex overall, especially when duration-of-visit is considered. Revaluing payments based on complexity could bring better balance to cognitive and procedural services, and better meet the needs of people receiving insurance under the ACA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Medication Adherence and its Related Factors in Patients with Type II Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Gholamaliei

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Low levels of medication adherence in patients with type 2 diabetes is one of the greatest challenges in the treatment and control of diabetes. This study was designed to determine medication adherence and its related factors in patients with type II diabetes. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 300patients with type 2diabetes records in the health centers of Tuyserkan city were randomly selected in 2015. Data collection instrument was a self-made questionnaire, which consisted of factors related to the medication adherence. Questionnaires were completed after confirmation of validity and reliability, by interviews. To analyze the data, descriptive and inferential statistics (T-test, AnOVA, Simple and multiple linear regression were applied, using SPSS software, version 19. Results: Overall, %26.3 of patients were male and %73.7 were female. Also, %65 of patients were illiterate, %24 had some degree of symptoms, and %59.4 had poor medication adherence. There was a significant relationship between age, education, patient care and treatment expenditure, health care team and health system, therapy-related factors and condition-related factors, beliefs about illness, efficacy, and concerns about drugs and medication adherence (P < 0.05. Conclusions: This study showed that medication adherence in patients with diabetes was not suitable and individual, economical and social factors were influential.Therefore, the role of these factors must be considered when designing intervention programs.

  1. Multiprofessional teamwork in work-related medical rehabilitation for patients with chronic musculoskeletal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Betje; Neuderth, Silke; Gutenbrunner, Christoph; Bethge, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Systematic reviews indicate the effectiveness of multimodal rehabilitation. In Germany this has been shown, in particular, for work-related medical rehabilitation. A recently published guideline on work-related medical rehabilitation supports the dissemination of these programmes. The feasibility of this guideline was examined in a multicentre study. This paper presents findings on the relevance of multiprofessional teamwork for the implementation of successful work-related medical rehabilitation. Focus groups were conducted with 7 inpatient orthopaedic rehabilitation teams and examined using qualitative content analysis. Multiprofessional teamwork emerged inductively as a meaningful theme. All teams described multiprofessional teamwork as a work-related medical rehabilitation success factor, referring to its relevance for holistic treatment of multifactorially impaired patients. Although similar indicators of successful multiprofessional teamwork were named, the teams realized multiprofessional teamwork differently. We found 3 team types, corresponding to multidisciplinary, interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary team models. These types and models constitute a continuum of collaborative practice, which seems to be affected by context-related factors. The significance of multiprofessional teamwork for successful multimodal rehabilitation was underlined. Indicators of ideal multiprofessional teamwork and contextual facilitators were specified. The contingency approach to teamwork, as well as the assumption of multiprofessional teamwork as a continuum of collaborative practice, is supported. Stronger consideration of multiprofessional teamwork in the work-related medical rehabilitation guideline is indicated.

  2. Understanding the relation between medical students' collective and individual trajectories: an application of habitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmer, Dorene F; Devlin, Michael J; Richards, Boyd F

    2017-02-01

    While medical educators typically attend to group trends, groups are made up of unique individuals. An exploration of Bourdieu's concept of habitus, defined as a system of dispositions, may help medical educators think relationally about the collective trajectory of the group and the individual trajectory of each student. We built on our 4‑year, longitudinal study which reported how field, capital, and habitus worked together to explain how medical students, as a group, navigated transitions in undergraduate medical education. In this secondary analysis, we reviewed serial collections of narratives about students' peak learning experiences in medical school (19 students, 5 narratives per student), concentrating on first-person representations of self. We then explored the relation between collective and individual trajectories in three illustrative cases. The social space of undergraduate medical education harmonized students' experience and helped explain the collective trajectory, as evidenced by students' consistent reports of taking initiative and staying open-minded. But individuals were not totally harmonized. They had unique dispositions that influenced their ability to access valued resources and shaped their behaviour. For example, Emily consistently spoke of being driven by her own goals; Zach focused on meeting expectations of authorities; Hilary routinely oriented toward abstract medical knowledge. Habitus provides a useful conceptual lens for thinking relationally about collective and individual trajectories of medical students. Our work may inform faculty as they seek to situate individualized learning within standardized curricula, and is a step toward researching transitions in medical training from a holistic perspective that includes, but is not limited to, individual trajectories.

  3. 25 CFR 900.205 - To what non-medical-related claims against self-determination contractors does FTCA apply?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... THE INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ASSISTANCE ACT Federal Tort Claims Act Coverage General Provisions Non-Medical Related Claims § 900.205 To what non-medical-related claims against self-determination... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false To what non-medical-related claims against self...

  4. The Scholarship of Practice in Applied Disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyken-Segosebe, Dawn

    2017-01-01

    This chapter examines how the scholarship of practice is being used within applied disciplines and offers recommendations for colleges and universities regarding the implementation of the scholarship of practice for the discipline of higher education.

  5. Drug-related problems identified in medication reviews by Australian pharmacists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stafford, Andrew C; Tenni, Peter C; Peterson, Gregory M

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In Australia, accredited pharmacists perform medication reviews for patients to identify and resolve drug-related problems. We analysed the drug-related problems identified in reviews for both home-dwelling and residential care-facility patients. The objective of this study...... was to examine the number and nature of the drug-related problems identified and investigate differences between each type of review. SETTING: Australian patients living at home or in residential care-facilities. METHOD: We collected a nation-wide sample of medication reviews conducted between 1998 and 2005....... These reviews had been self-selected by pharmacists and submitted as part of the reaccreditation process to the primary body responsible for accrediting Australian pharmacists to perform medication reviews. The drug-related problems identified in each review were classified by type and drugs involved. MAIN...

  6. Understanding and Facing Discipline-Related Challenges in the English as a Foreign Language Classroom at Public Schools (Comprensión y tratamiento de los retos asociados a la disciplina en el aula de lengua extranjera en escuelas públicas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero Corzo, Josefina; Ramírez Contreras, Odilia

    2011-01-01

    Complying with school regulations and teachers' instructions is a basic principle of an excellent class; both novice and experienced teachers face challenging situations when getting into real classrooms, especially those related to classroom management. There are various reasons that explain discipline problems in public schools, as well as…

  7. Patients at-risk for cost-related medication nonadherence: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briesacher, Becky A; Gurwitz, Jerry H; Soumerai, Stephen B

    2007-06-01

    Up to 32% of older patients take less medication than prescribed to avoid costs, yet a comprehensive assessment of risk factors for cost-related nonadherence (CRN) is not available. This review examined the empirical literature to identify patient-, medication-, and provider-level factors that influence the relationship between medication adherence and medication costs. We conducted searches of four databases (MEDLINE, CINAHL, Sciences Citations Index Expanded, and EconLit) from 2001 to 2006 for English-language original studies. Articles were selected if the study included an explicit measure of CRN and reported results on covarying characteristics. We found 19 studies with empirical support for concluding that certain patients may be susceptible to CRN: research has established consistent links between medication nonadherence due to costs and financial burden, but also to symptoms of depression and heavy disease burden. Only a handful of studies with limited statistical methods provided evidence on whether patients understand the health risks of CRN or to what extent clinicians influence patients to keep taking medications when faced with cost pressures. No relationship emerged between CRN and polypharmacy. Efforts to reduce cost-related medication nonadherence would benefit from greater study of factors besides the presence of prescription drug coverage. Older patients with chronic diseases and mood disorders are at-risk for CRN even if enrolled in Medicare's new drug benefit.

  8. Student-Life Stress Level and its Related Factors among Medical Students of Hamadan University of Medical Sciences in 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Nikanjam

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Student-life stress can lead to various negative consequences such as physical illness, mental disorders or exhaustion. The present study was conducted to evaluate the level of student life stress and its related factors among medical students of Hamadan University of Medical Sciences. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study applied multistage random sampling to select 500university students at Hamadan University of Medical Sciences during 2015. The data collection tool used in this study was a self-report questionnaire containing two parts: a section on subjects' demographic details and another section for Student-Life Stress Inventory (SLSI. Data were analyzed in SPSS20-using descriptive and inferential statistics, such as independent t-test, Pearson’s correlation test and one-way ANOVA. Results: This study revealed that %57of the students had moderate levels of stress. The most important stressors included self-impose and pressure, and also the most important reactions to stressors included cognitive appraisal and emotional reactions, respectively. There was a significant association between exam stressors and branch, educational level, and mother's and father's education level (P< 0.05. Conclusions: According to the high level of stress in students and the recognition of demographic factors, effective educational interventions can be conducted to reduce stress.

  9. [At the limits of discipline].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadi, Barbara U; Ruhs, August; Löffler-Stastka, Henriette

    2012-01-01

    According to Foucault, in medicine, the paradigm of discipline has outweighed the paradigm of sovereignty for over a hundred years now. It has become clear, however, that within the field of psychiatry, particularly in psychoanalytic and psychotherapeutic research, an interchangeable corpus of knowledge is not sufficient for the treatment of patients. Moreover, it is often the changing relationship between doctor and patient which seems to be crucial to the process and outcome of the treatment. Every treatment-relationship must be understood as a zone of transference. Psychoanalytic research on transference, its potential and pitfalls, therefore, has to be more integrated into the research of psychic disorders.

  10. Review article: New directions in medical education related to anesthesiology and perioperative medicine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bould, M Dylan; Naik, Viren N; Hamstra, Stanley J

    .... There is a substantial amount of relevant literature from other disciplines, such as sociology, psychology, and human factors research, using methodologies that are often unfamiliar to most clinicians...

  11. Effect of medication reconciliation on medication costs after hospital discharge in relation to hospital pharmacy labor costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karapinar-Carkit, F.; Borgsteede, S.D.; Zoer, J.; Egberts, T.C.G.; van den Bemt, P.M.L.A.; van Tulder, M.W.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Medication reconciliation aims to correct discrepancies in medication use between health care settings and to check the quality of pharmacotherapy to improve effectiveness and safety. In addition, medication reconciliation might also reduce costs. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of

  12. Effect of medication reconciliation on medication costs after hospital discharge in relation to hospital pharmacy labor costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Karapinar-Çarkit (Fatma); S.D. Borgsteede (Sander); J. Zoer (Jan); T.C.G. Egberts (Toine); P.M.L.A. van den Bemt (Patricia); M.W. van Tulder (Maurits)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Medication reconciliation aims to correct discrepancies in medication use between health care settings and to check the quality of pharmacotherapy to improve effectiveness and safety. In addition, medication reconciliation might also reduce costs. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the

  13. Medical Care Expenditure in Suicides From Non-illness-related Causes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungwoo Sohn

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Several epidemiological studies on medical care utilization prior to suicide have considered the motivation of suicide, but focused on the influence of physical illnesses. Medical care expenditure in suicide completers with non-illness-related causes has not been investigated. Methods: Suicides motivated by non-illness-related factors were identified using the investigator’s note from the National Police Agency, which was then linked to the Health Insurance Review and Assessment data. We investigated the medical care expenditures of cases one year prior to committing suicide and conducted a case-control study using conditional logistic regression analysis after adjusting for age, gender, area of residence, and socioeconomic status. Results: Among the 4515 suicides motivated by non-illness-related causes, medical care expenditures increased in only the last 3 months prior to suicide in the adolescent group. In the younger group, the proportion of total medical expenditure for external injuries was higher than that in the older groups. Conditional logistic regression analysis showed significant associations with being a suicide completer and having a rural residence, low socioeconomic status, and high medical care expenditure. After stratification into the four age groups, a significant positive association with medical care expenditures and being a suicide completer was found in the adolescent and young adult groups, but no significant results were found in the elderly groups for both men and women. Conclusions: Younger adults who committed suicide motivated by non-illness-related causes had a higher proportion of external injuries and more medical care expenditures than their controls did. This reinforces the notion that suicide prevention strategies for young people with suicidal risk factors are needed.

  14. Predictability of Interruptions During Medication Administration With Related Behavioral Management Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Maree; Weidemann, Gabrielle; Adams, Rebecca; Manias, Elizabeth; Levett-Jones, Tracy; Aguilar, Vicki; Everett, Bronwyn

    2017-04-26

    The aim of this qualitative study was to examine the nature of interruptions during medication administration. Focus groups were conducted with medical/surgical nurses (n = 15), critical care nurses (n = 13), and nurse managers/educators/specialists (n = 6). Most interruptions (78%) were predictable. Nurse-adopted strategies included blocking, engaging, mediating, multitasking, and preventing. Educational content was developed that relates behavioral strategies to respond to predictable and unpredictable interruptions.

  15. An argument for dental hygiene to develop as a discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobban, S J; Edgington, E M; Compton, S M

    2007-02-01

    The practice of dental hygiene was developed to provide oral health education and preventive oral health care, originally for children. It has grown to provide oral health services valued by a broad spectrum of society, but has not attained the desired respect and status accorded to other professional groups. Professional disciplines link actions of practitioners with the science that is the foundation of practice. The purpose of this paper is to examine whether dental hygiene practice could benefit from pursuit of development as a discipline. Literature on professionalization and disciplines, related to dental hygiene in general and the North American context specifically, was retrieved from databases and grey sources, such as organizational reports. Dental hygiene's current characteristics relative to a discipline were examined. Dental hygiene has developed some characteristics of a discipline, such as identifying a metaparadigm that includes concepts of the client, the environment, health/oral health and dental hygiene actions, with a perspective that includes a focus on disease prevention and oral health promotion. However, research production by dental hygienists has been limited, and often not situated within theoretical or conceptual frameworks. Dental hygiene draws its knowledge for practice from a variety of sources. Dental hygiene could strengthen its value to society by prioritizing development of highly skilled researchers to study interventions leading to improved oral outcomes, and transferring that knowledge to practitioners, strengthening links between practice and science. Intentional pursuit of knowledge for practice would lead to dental hygiene's eventual emergence as a professional discipline.

  16. Perspectives on Parent Discipline and Child Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grusec, Joan E.; Danyliuk, Tanya; Kil, Hali; O'Neill, David

    2017-01-01

    Effective discipline involves the use of negative consequences, including reasoning as well as modest levels of power assertion, to discourage unacceptable behavior. A brief history of changing views of discipline is presented and recent positions outlined. Successful discipline requires the imposition of clear and consistent rules, autonomy…

  17. Discipline in chaos: Foucault, dementia and aging in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brijnath, Bianca; Manderson, Lenore

    2008-12-01

    In India, care work for people in late-stage dementia is primarily conducted in the home. Using source material from urban India and drawing on Foucauldian theory, we illustrate the significance of three power/knowledge scripts in this context: social and cultural notions of acceptable, public bodies; medicalized forms of care; and the cultural contexts of the individual caregivers. The caregiver is the embodiment of these discourses and is charged with the task of mapping discipline onto inherently undisciplinable bodies. A tension exists between the caregiver's struggle to contain the unruliness of the person with dementia and, simultaneously, to act as a broker between the world of the care-recipient and the social world. We conclude that although the caregiver is the starting point for the exercise of discipline, the three power/knowledge scripts that inform care work are as much about surveying, routinizing and mobilizing caregivers' bodies as they are about disciplining the bodies of people with dementia.

  18. Medical withdrawals from college for mental health reasons and their relation to academic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meilman, P W; Manley, C; Gaylor, M S; Turco, J H

    1992-03-01

    A collaborative study among the university health service, the dean's office, and the registrar's office examined the academic performance of 77 students who took medical withdrawals for mental health reasons from Dartmouth College during a 3-year period. In 71.4% of the cases, students withdrew from a term in progress; the remainder arranged to withdraw after they had completed a term but before starting a new term. Depression was a major factor in approximately half of the withdrawals. Grade point average improved significantly after return from the withdrawal, with a large jump in individual term averages occurring between the terms immediately preceding and immediately following return. We found no significant difference between the number of students who experienced disciplinary trouble before withdrawal and those who were disciplined afterward. Students who were depressed at the time of withdrawal did not fare as well academically upon return as those students who had not been depressed. The data suggest that procedures for handling mental health withdrawals and readmission are important ways in which the campus counseling center can support the university's academic mission.

  19. Computational Physics Across the Disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespi, Vincent; Lammert, Paul; Engstrom, Tyler; Owen, Ben

    2011-03-01

    In this informal talk, I will present two case studies of the unexpected convergence of computational techniques across disciplines. First, the marriage of neutron star astrophysics and the materials theory of the mechanical and thermal response of crystalline solids. Although the lower reaches of a neutron star host exotic nuclear physics, the upper few meters of the crust exist in a regime that is surprisingly amenable to standard molecular dynamics simulation, albeit in a physical regime of density order of magnitude of orders of magnitude different from those familiar to most condensed matter folk. Computational results on shear strength, thermal conductivity, and other properties here are very relevant to possible gravitational wave signals from these sources. The second example connects not two disciplines of computational physics, but experimental and computational physics, and not from the traditional direction of computational progressively approaching experiment. Instead, experiment is approaching computation: regular lattices of single-domain magnetic islands whose magnetic microstates can be exhaustively enumerated by magnetic force microscopy. There resulting images of island magnetization patterns look essentially like the results of Monte Carlo simulations of Ising systems... statistical physics with the microstate revealed.

  20. A controlled trial of mental illness related stigma training for medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leese Morven

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The evidence base for mental illness related stigma interventions in health care professionals and trainees is underdeveloped. This study aimed to examine the impact of mental illness related stigma training on third year medical students' knowledge, attitudes and behaviour related to people with mental illness. Methods A non-randomised controlled trial was conducted with 110 third year medical students at a medical school in England to determine the effectiveness of a mental illness related stigma training package that targeted their knowledge, attitudes and behaviour. Results We detected a significant positive effect of factual content and personal testimonies training upon an improvement in knowledge, F(1, 61 = 16.3, p = 0.0002. No such difference was determined with attitudes or for behaviour. Conclusions Knowledge, attitudes and behaviour may need to be separately targeted in stigma reduction interventions, and separately assessed. The inter-relationships between these components in mental health promotion and medical education warrant further research. The study next needs to be replicated with larger, representative samples using appropriate evaluation instruments. More intensive training for medical students may also be required.

  1. Examining the application of Web 2.0 in medical-related organisations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Samuel Kai Wah; Woo, Matsuko; King, Ronnel B; Choi, Stephen; Cheng, Miffy; Koo, Peggy

    2012-03-01

    This study surveyed Web 2.0 application in three types of selected health or medical-related organisations such as university medical libraries, hospitals and non-profit medical-related organisations. Thirty organisations participated in an online survey on the perceived purposes, benefits and difficulties in using Web 2.0. A phone interview was further conducted with eight organisations (26.7%) to collect information on the use of Web 2.0. Data were analysed using both quantitative and qualitative approaches. Results showed that knowledge and information sharing and the provision of a better communication platform were rated as the main purposes of using Web 2.0. Time constraints and low staff engagement were the most highly rated difficulties. In addition, most participants found Web 2.0 to be beneficial to their organisations. Medical-related organisations that adopted Web 2.0 technologies have found them useful, with benefits outweighing the difficulties in the long run. The implications of this study are discussed to help medical-related organisations make decisions regarding the use of Web 2.0 technologies. © 2011 The authors. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2011 Health Libraries Group.

  2. [To know, understand and combating medication errors related to computerized physician order entry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vialle, V; Tiphine, T; Poirier, Y; Raingeard, E; Feldman, D; Freville, J-C

    2011-05-01

    The aim of the study is to identify medication errors related to computerized physician order entry in our hospital. At the end of this 1-year study (2008 to 2009), 378 beds were computerized by a business software. Medication errors were identified from notifications sent to the publisher of the software, feedback of health professionals and the analysis of Pharmacists' interventions formulate following prescription errors due to computerization. They were qualified according to the medication error's French dictionary of the French Society of Clinical Pharmacy. Thirty-five categories of medication errors were found. Most of them appear during prescription. Dosage and concentration errors, dose errors, omission errors and drug errors are the most frequent. Three main causes were found: human factor, closely related to the software settings and the quality of user training; communication problems, related to the ergonomics; conception problems, related to intuitiveness and intricacy of the software. These results confirm the existence of medication errors induced by computerized physician order entry systems. They highlight the need to involve initial and ongoing training of users, relevance and scalability of the setup and use of mature and certified software to minimized them. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Specialty Selection and Relative Job Satisfaction of Family Physicians and Medical Specialists in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, Wolfgang; Pichlhöfer, Otto; Haoula, Diana; Schneider, Barbara; Maier, Manfred

    2008-01-01

    Aim To estimate the relative job satisfaction of Austrian family physicians and other specialists with respect to whether or not they obtained training in the desired specialty. Methods In this cross-sectional study, we re-examined the previous data on allocation of medical training posts in Austria. All board-certified physicians practicing in Vienna were surveyed with a 12-item questionnaire. We analyzed the association between respondents’ desired and practiced medical specialty and their answer to the question of whether they thought they would have had greater job satisfaction in a different medical specialty. We also calculated their relative job satisfaction. Results Of 8127 licensed physicians, 2736 (34%) completed the questionnaire in two mailings. Of physicians who completed the questionnaire, 50.3% (43.2% of men) did not obtain the training in their desired specialty and 65.1% stated that they had originally desired a different specialty. There was a significant difference in relative job satisfaction between specialists who got their desired medical specialty (n = 1005) and those who did not (n = 697) (0.95 vs 0.62 of maximum 1, P<0.001). No significant difference in relative job satisfaction was found between family physicians who had originally wanted to become specialists (n = 679) and specialists who had originally wanted to become family physicians (n = 533; 0.89 vs 0.81; P = 0.01; χ2 test). Conclusion A high percentage of family physicians in Austria had originally wanted to become practitioners of a different specialty. Among physicians who did not receive training in their desired medical specialty, family physicians showed a significantly higher relative job satisfaction than specialists. Obtaining the desired medical specialty is a strong predictor of relative job satisfaction among specialists, but not among family physicians. PMID:18581616

  4. Usability flaws of medication-related alerting functions: A systematic qualitative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcilly, Romaric; Ammenwerth, Elske; Vasseur, Francis; Roehrer, Erin; Beuscart-Zéphir, Marie-Catherine

    2015-06-01

    Medication-related alerting functions may include usability flaws that limit their optimal use. A first step on the way to preventing usability flaws is to understand the characteristics of these usability flaws. This systematic qualitative review aims to analyze the type of usability flaws found in medication-related alerting functions. Papers were searched via PubMed, Scopus and Ergonomics Abstracts databases, along with references lists. Paper selection, data extraction and data analysis was performed by two to three Human Factors experts. Meaningful semantic units representing instances of usability flaws were the main data extracted. They were analyzed through qualitative methods: categorization following general usability heuristics and through an inductive process for the flaws specific to medication-related alerting functions. From the 6380 papers initially identified, 26 met all eligibility criteria. The analysis of the papers identified a total of 168 instances of usability flaws that could be classified into 13 categories of usability flaws representing either violations of general usability principles (i.e. they could be found in any system, e.g. guidance and workload issues) or infractions specific to medication-related alerting functions. The latter refer to issues of low signal-to-noise ratio, incomplete content of alerts, transparency, presentation mode and timing, missing alert features, tasks and control distribution. The list of 168 instances of usability flaws of medication-related alerting functions provides a source of knowledge for checking the usability of medication-related alerting functions during their design and evaluation process and ultimately constructs evidence-based usability design principles for these functions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Graduate attributes in the disciplines of Medicine, Dentistry and Veterinary Medicine: a survey of expert opinions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laidlaw, Anita; Guild, Simon; Struthers, Julie

    2009-06-05

    This study was completed as part of a project for the Quality Assurance Agency on the enhancement theme of 'Research teaching linkages: enhancing graduate attributes' in the disciplines of Medicine, Dentistry and Veterinary Medicine. The aims of this investigation were to elucidate a list of desirable research related graduate attributes for the disciplines of Medicine, Dentistry and Veterinary Medicine and provide evidence as to how they could be covered within such curricula. Semi structured interviews, symposium breakout sessions and conference workshops were used to define and rank attributes suggested by curricula design experts from the three disciplines. Students graduating from a BSc Medical Science degree program were surveyed to determine how well they felt the curriculum and associated final year project equipped them with the identified attributes. A list of seven high level attributes which were desirable in graduates wishing to pursue either a professional or research career were identified. 105 students reported that a final year project was particularly effective at developing an understanding of the need to have an inquiring mind and critical appraisal skills whilst other components of their degree course covered team working skills, core knowledge and an understanding of ethics and governance. This study identified desirable attributes from graduates from medical, dental and veterinary degree programs and provides evidence to support the case for student projects helping to achieve both clinical and research related graduate attributes in medical undergraduates. The project also provides a focus for debate amongst those involved in curriculum design as to whether the attributes identified are those desirable in their graduates and to examine their current curriculum to determine coverage.

  6. Graduate attributes in the disciplines of Medicine, Dentistry and Veterinary Medicine: a survey of expert opinions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laidlaw Anita

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was completed as part of a project for the Quality Assurance Agency on the enhancement theme of 'Research teaching linkages: enhancing graduate attributes' in the disciplines of Medicine, Dentistry and Veterinary Medicine. The aims of this investigation were to elucidate a list of desirable research related graduate attributes for the disciplines of Medicine, Dentistry and Veterinary Medicine and provide evidence as to how they could be covered within such curricula. Methods Semi structured interviews, symposium breakout sessions and conference workshops were used to define and rank attributes suggested by curricula design experts from the three disciplines. Students graduating from a BSc Medical Science degree program were surveyed to determine how well they felt the curriculum and associated final year project equipped them with the identified attributes. Results A list of seven high level attributes which were desirable in graduates wishing to pursue either a professional or research career were identified. 105 students reported that a final year project was particularly effective at developing an understanding of the need to have an inquiring mind and critical appraisal skills whilst other components of their degree course covered team working skills, core knowledge and an understanding of ethics and governance. Conclusion This study identified desirable attributes from graduates from medical, dental and veterinary degree programs and provides evidence to support the case for student projects helping to achieve both clinical and research related graduate attributes in medical undergraduates. The project also provides a focus for debate amongst those involved in curriculum design as to whether the attributes identified are those desirable in their graduates and to examine their current curriculum to determine coverage.

  7. Neurocognition, health-related reading literacy, and numeracy in medication management for HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldrop-Valverde, Drenna; Jones, Deborah Lynne; Gould, Felicia; Kumar, Mahendra; Ownby, Raymond L

    2010-08-01

    Successful medication management is an essential ingredient for effective treatment for HIV. Risk factors for poor medication adherence, including neurocognitive impairment and low health literacy, are common in HIV patients. To better understand the most salient risks for poor management of HIV medications, we tested the interrelation of neurocognitive functioning, reading literacy for health related information, and numeracy and their effect on self-management of a simulated HIV medication regimen. Cross-sectional data on 191 HIV-positive men and women recruited from HIV outpatient clinics in South Florida were collected. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted with literacy, numeracy, and neurocognitive scores and suggested that four factors were present representing executive skill, verbal memory, planning, and motor speed. Both the literacy and numeracy scores loaded on the executive factor. Adjusted analyses showed that executive and planning skills were significantly related to medication management. Findings suggest that patients must rely on higher order cognitive skills to successfully navigate medication self-management, and that efforts to simplify health information that merely lowers readability are likely to meet with limited success.

  8. Prevalence of depression and its relation to stress level among medical students in Puducherry, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Ganesh Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Currently, depression among medical students is an important health issue at the global level. There is also a paucity of information on its relation to the stress level. Objective: The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence of depression and its relation to stress level and other factors among medical students. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among medical students at a tertiary care medical institution in Puducherry, coastal south India. Beck Depression Inventory Scale was used for screening of depression and Cohen's Perceived Stress scale to assess perceived stress level. Data on associated factors were collected by self-administered questionnaire. Results: The overall prevalence of depression was found to be 48.4% (215/444. According to the cutoff scores, 229 (51.6% students scored as normal (0–9, 149 (33.6% as mild (10–18, 60 (13.5% as moderate (19–29, 3 (0.7% as severe (30–40, and 3 (0.7% students scored as very severe (>40 depression. Depression was significantly less among those with mild stress (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 0.010 and moderate stress level (adjusted OR = 0.099 compared to severe stress level and those without interpersonal problems (adjusted OR = 0.448. Conclusion: Depression is more common among medical students. Stress coping mechanisms and improvement of interpersonal relationship may help to reduce depressive symptoms among medical students.

  9. TBCC Discipline Overview. Hypersonics Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Scott R.

    2011-01-01

    The "National Aeronautics Research and Development Policy" document, issued by the National Science and Technology Council in December 2006, stated that one (among several) of the guiding objectives of the federal aeronautics research and development endeavors shall be stable and long-term foundational research efforts. Nearly concurrently, the National Academies issued a more technically focused aeronautics blueprint, entitled: the "Decadal Survey of Civil Aeronautics - Foundations for the Future." Taken together these documents outline the principles of an aeronautics maturation plan. Thus, in response to these overarching inputs (and others), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) organized the Fundamental Aeronautics Program (FAP), a program within the NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD). The FAP initiated foundational research and technology development tasks to enable the capability of future vehicles that operate across a broad range of Mach numbers, inclusive of the subsonic, supersonic, and hypersonic flight regimes. The FAP Hypersonics Project concentrates on two hypersonic missions: (1) Air-breathing Access to Space (AAS) and (2) the (Planetary Atmospheric) Entry, Decent, and Landing (EDL). The AAS mission focuses on Two-Stage-To-Orbit (TSTO) systems using air-breathing combined-cycle-engine propulsion; whereas, the EDL mission focuses on the challenges associated with delivering large payloads to (and from) Mars. So, the FAP Hypersonic Project investments are aligned to achieve mastery and intellectual stewardship of the core competencies in the hypersonic-flight regime, which ultimately will be required for practical systems with highly integrated aerodynamic/vehicle and propulsion/engine technologies. Within the FAP Hypersonics, the technology management is further divided into disciplines including one targeting Turbine-Based Combine-Cycle (TBCC) propulsion. Additionally, to obtain expertise and support from outside

  10. Parametrically disciplined operation of a vibratory gyroscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcheglov, Kirill V. (Inventor); Hayworth, Ken J. (Inventor); Challoner, A. Dorian (Inventor); Peay, Chris S. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    Parametrically disciplined operation of a symmetric nearly degenerate mode vibratory gyroscope is disclosed. A parametrically-disciplined inertial wave gyroscope having a natural oscillation frequency in the neighborhood of a sub-harmonic of an external stable clock reference is produced by driving an electrostatic bias electrode at approximately twice this sub-harmonic frequency to achieve disciplined frequency and phase operation of the resonator. A nearly symmetric parametrically-disciplined inertial wave gyroscope that can oscillate in any transverse direction and has more than one bias electrostatic electrode that can be independently driven at twice its oscillation frequency at an amplitude and phase that disciplines its damping to zero in any vibration direction. In addition, operation of a parametrically-disciplined inertial wave gyroscope is taught in which the precession rate of the driven vibration pattern is digitally disciplined to a prescribed non-zero reference value.

  11. Factors related to completeness of medical abortion with mifepristone and misoprostol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wen-Xiao; He, Fang-Fang; Shen, Qi; Tao, Xue-Jiao; Zhao, Chu-Chu; Shen, Zhao-Jun; Zhu, Xue-Qiong

    2017-02-01

    Medical abortion that occurs in early pregnancy is generally safe and successful, but incomplete medical abortion can result in complications. This study aimed to examine factors related to completeness of medical abortion with mifepristone and misoprostol, and then to provide a new direction for research into establishing complete abortion with mifepristone and misoprostol. Sixty-three patients with early pregnancy requesting medical abortion with mifepristone and misoprostol were selected. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression and location of progesterone receptor, estrogen receptor, insulin-like growth factor-1, and vascular endothelial growth factor in chorionic villi among these women. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction was then used to determine the expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA. According to the outcome of medical abortion, the women were divided into either the incomplete medical abortion group (n=34) or the complete medical abortion group (n=29). Immunohistochemical analysis showed that progesterone receptor and estrogen receptor protein expression was not detected in chorionic villi in the two groups. However, compared with the complete abortion group, there was a marked decrease in the expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 and a significant increase in the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (pabortion group. There was no significant difference in mRNA expression between the incomplete and complete abortion groups. The expression of insulin-like growth factor 1 protein and vascular endothelial growth factor protein in chorionic villi may be related to the outcome of medical abortion with mifepristone and misoprostol. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Taiwan LLC.

  12. Anglistics as a Dialogic Discipline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Delanoy

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In my article; dialogue is suggested as a basic direction for Anglistics. Such a perspective results from a normative notion of dialogue based on a set of particular criteria. In general terms; a case is made for (self-critical and respectful confrontation with other viewpoints within and beyond Anglistics to further develop existing positions and to create new forms of co-operation. While in the first two sections this concept is introduced and applied to the discipline of Anglistics; the final section is focussed on an area of major conflict in contemporary ELT debates. In fact; a dialogic approach will be suggested for dealing with two opposite tendencies; one aiming for standardization and the other for a humanistic form of education.

  13. Effective chronic disease management: patients' perspectives on medication-related problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Karen; Smith, Felicity; Dhillon, Soraya

    2007-03-01

    To examine medication-related problems from the perspective of patients with a chronic condition and to identify how they may be supported in managing their medication. Patients prescribed medication for cardiovascular disease were recruited through five general medical surgeries and four community pharmacies in south London. Data were collected in 98 face-to-face interviews in participants' own homes. Interviews were designed to enable a detailed and holistic exploration of medication-related problems from participants' perspectives. Data were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim to allow qualitative analysis. Five broad categories of medication-related problem emerged which were examined in the context of patients' perspectives on, and experiences of, the use of medicines and health services. These were concerns about and management of side effects; differing views regarding the use of medicines; cognitive, practical and sensory problems; lack of information or understanding; and problems with access to, and organisation of, services. All categories of problem had potential implications for the success of therapy in that they created barriers to adherence, access to medication or informed decision-making. The study demonstrated how patients actively engage in decision-making about their medicines in the home, if not in the consultation. The five categories of problem provide a focus for interventions by health professionals to support patients in achieving optimal theory outcomes. They demonstrate the need for a comprehensive approach, spanning patient education to the systems of delivery of care. Within the NHS in Britain, policy and practice initiatives are being designed to achieve this end. Further research should focus on the evaluation of professional practices and service developments in supporting patients in the self-management of their medicines.

  14. [Use of a medical checkup-data to prevent lifestyle-related disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Tetsuji

    2009-11-01

    In Japan, medical check-ups are available under various laws. Medical check-up are available for students in school (School Health Law), for workers(Industrial Safety and Health Law), and for residents over 40 years old (Health and Medical Service Law for the Aged/Elderly). From 1985, citizens' health promotion has been presented twice under the act on building citizen's health. Furthermore, "The act of health promotion for citizens in the twenty-first century (Healthy Japan 21)" was initiated as third health promotion act for citizens starting in 2000. The objectives of this act are decreasing the rate of death in late middle age, extending life, and realizing an improvement in the quality of life. The underlying concept of "Healthy Japan 21" is an emphasis on prevention and the Health Promotion Act was established for this concept. Since then, the policy of health promotion has emphasized prevention and there is a need to change the concepts of medical check-ups to correspond with the emphasis on prevention. Since 2000, the number of overweight people has increased. Therefore, this emphasis may not be succeeding. Fat, the great risk factor for Diabetes, is due to life style choices, for example, dietary habits and lack of exercise. Therefore, individual will is important. It was thought that one of the reason for the increase in the number of overweigh people is insufficient investigation during medical check-up and lack of guidance regarding lifestyle-related diseases. In 2006, the medical system reform-related law mainly concerning aged people was established. The prevention of lifestyle-related diseases is one of the important approaches in this law, and a specialized medical check-up has been initiated starting in April, 2008.

  15. Heliophysics as a Scientific Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greb, K.; Austin, M.; Guhathakurta, M.

    2016-12-01

    Heliophysics is a developing scientific discipline integrating studies of the Sun's variability, the surrounding heliosphere, and climate environments. Over the past few centuries our understanding of how the Sun drives space weather and climate on the Earth and other planets has advanced at an ever-increasing rate. NASA Living With a Star and the UCAR Visiting Scientist Progams sponsor the annual Heliophysics Summer Schools to build the next generation of scientists in this emerging field. The highly successful series of the summer schools (commencing 2007) trains a select group of graduate students, postdoctoral fellows and university faculty to learn and develop the science of heliophysics as a broad, coherent discipline that reaches in space from the Earth's troposphere to the depths of the Sun, and in time from the formation of the solar system to the distant future. Now in its tenth year, the School has resulted in the publication of five Heliophysics textbooks now being used at universities worldwide. The books provide a foundational reference for researchers in space physics, solar physics, aeronomy, space weather, planetary science and climate science, astrophysics, plasma physics,. In parallel, the School also developed the complementary materials that support teaching of heliophysics at both graduate and undergraduate levels. The Jack Eddy Postdoctoral Fellowship Program matches newly graduated postdoctorates with hosting mentors for the purpose of training the next generation researchers needed in heliophysics. The fellowships are for two years, and any U.S. university or research lab may apply to host a fellow. Two major topics of focus for the program are the science of space weather and of the Sun-climate connection. Since the goal of this fellowship program is to train Sun-Earth system researchers, preference is also given to research projects that cross the traditional heliophysics subdomains of the Sun, heliosphere, magnetosphere, and ionosphere

  16. Policy issues related to educating the future Israeli medical workforce: an international perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenbaum, Stephen C; Crome, Peter; Curry, Raymond H; Gershon, Elliot S; Glick, Shimon M; Katz, David R; Paltiel, Ora; Shapiro, Jo

    2015-01-01

    A 2014 external review of medical schools in Israel identified several issues of importance to the nation's health. This paper focuses on three inter-related policy-relevant topics: planning the physician and healthcare workforce to meet the needs of Israel's population in the 21(st) century; enhancing the coordination and efficiency of medical education across the continuum of education and training; and the financing of medical education. All three involve both education and health care delivery. The physician workforce is aging and will need to be replenished. Several physician specialties have been in short supply, and some are being addressed through incentive programs. Israel's needs for primary care clinicians are increasing due to growth and aging of the population and to the increasing prevalence of chronic conditions at all ages. Attention to the structure and content of both undergraduate and graduate medical education and to aligning incentives will be required to address current and projected workforce shortage areas. Effective workforce planning depends upon data that can inform the development of appropriate policies and on recognition of the time lag between developing such policies and seeing the results of their implementation. The preclinical and clinical phases of Israeli undergraduate medical education (medical school), the mandatory rotating internship (stáge), and graduate medical education (residency) are conducted as separate "silos" and not well coordinated. The content of basic science education should be relevant to clinical medicine and research. It should stimulate inquiry, scholarship, and lifelong learning. Clinical exposures should begin early and be as hands-on as possible. Medical students and residents should acquire specific competencies. With an increasing shift of medical care from hospitals to ambulatory settings, development of ambulatory teachers and learning environments is increasingly important. Objectives such as these

  17. Is 'self-medication' a useful term to retrieve related publications in the literature? A systematic exploration of related terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, Ava; Sarayani, Amir; Ashouri, Asieh; Sherafatmand, Mona; Hadjibabaie, Molouk; Gholami, Kheirollah

    2015-01-01

    Self-Medication (SM), i.e. using medications to treat oneself, is a major concern for health researchers and policy makers. The terms "self medication" or "self-medication" (SM terms) have been used to explain various concepts while several terms have also been employed to define this practice. Hence, retrieving relevant publications would require exhaustive literature screening. So, we assessed the current situation of SM terms in the literature to improve the relevancy of search outcomes. In this Systematic exploration, SM terms were searched in the 6 following databases and publisher's portals till April 2012: Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed, Google scholar, ScienceDirect, and Wiley. A simple search query was used to include only publications with SM terms. We used Relative-Risk (RR) to estimate the probability of SM terms use in related compared to unrelated publications. Sensitivity and specificity of SM terms as keywords in search query were also calculated. Relevant terms to SM practice were extracted and their Likelihood Ratio positive and negative (LR+/-) were calculated to assess their effect on the probability of search outcomes relevancy in addition to previous search queries. We also evaluated the content of unrelated publications. All mentioned steps were performed in title (TI) and title or abstract (TIAB) of publications. 1999 related and 1917 unrelated publications were found. SM terms RR was 4.5 in TI and 2.1 in TIAB. SM terms sensitivity and specificity respectively were 55.4% and 87.7% in TI and 84.0% and 59.5% in TIAB. "OTC" and "Over-The-Counter Medication", with LR+ 16.78 and 16.30 respectively, provided the most conclusive increase in the probability of the relevancy of publications. The most common unrelated SM themes were self-medication hypothesis, drug abuse and Zoopharmacognosy. Due to relatively low specificity or sensitivity of SM terms, relevant terms should be employed in search queries and clear definitions of SM applications should

  18. Relaciones entre control social y globalización: fordismo y disciplina. Post-fordismo y control punitivo Relations between social control and globalization: fordism and discipline. Post-Fordism and punitive control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Bergalli

    2005-06-01

    presents the historical, cultural, epistemological and methodological differences between the categories of social control and punitive (State control, linking the latter to continental European tradition. Therefore, the generic reference to the idea of "social regulation", often used in several disciplinary fields, is the object of analysis in relation to that of social control, born and employed within very precise cultural scenario and historical period. In any case, and within multidisciplinary approaches related to globalization of society and control of the population, the author thinks that we should reject any glimmer of application of punishment with an "organizational", controlling" or "regulating" sense that emerges from modern criminal systems. A second part of the work approaches the impact that - in the author's opinion - changes on the notions of time and space have in the field of physical-mathematical disciplines, regarding the control that is to be exercised through means that are traditionally seen as instruments for social control. Therefore, the aim is to explain the distance that separates - in social and legal disciplines - concepts and institutions when it is presumed that both can be eternally suitable for the same ends. That is so because forms of knowledge are absolutely connected and pervaded by phenomena that, coming from societies' economic spheres, cross al their levels. Based on those elements we advance to a third part in the presentation, which is related to globalization and the distinct phenomena resulting from it, especially the approach of changes seen in what can be currently understood as social control.

  19. Patients' webs of relations in the medical landscapes of Central Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kołodziejska-Degórska, Iwona

    2016-08-01

    Village dwellers in Central Ukraine have access to various types of therapy that comprise diverse medical landscapes. Patients' movements within these landscapes are possible thanks to each person's web of relations. Medical landscapes are not fixed, but vary and dynamically change for each person, depending on their fluid and interchanging, hierarchical webs of mutual relations with other people, personal bodies, institutions, discourses, political powers, other non-human organisms, or objects such as medicines. This paper was inspired by the medicoscape concept (Hörbst and Krause 2004 ) as well as Ingold's idea of meshwork analyses of relations between various actors: in this case, patients, healers, a weak state, official healthcare providers, pharmacists and medicinal plants, in the context of patients' therapeutic choices. Self-medication based on herbal remedies is a very important feature of people's medical landscapes in Central Ukraine and usually the first therapy choice for most interlocutors. That is why this paper is focused on the presentation of the means through which people acquire knowledge about medicinal plants, and the ways they interact with plants and plants interact with them. In this way, showing the complexity of villagers' webs of relations is possible. The analysis is based on ethnographic research conducted between 2009 and 2013 in the Vinnytsia region (Central Ukraine).

  20. 78 FR 53702 - Computation of, and Rules Relating to, Medical Loss Ratio; Hearing Cancellation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BL05 Computation of, and Rules Relating to, Medical Loss Ratio; Hearing Cancellation AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Cancellation of a...

  1. Health-Related Quality of Life in Older Persons with Medically Unexplained Symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanssen, D.J.; Lucassen, P.L.; Hilderink, P.H.; Naarding, P.; Oude Voshaar, R.C.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Research on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in older persons with medically unexplained symptoms (MUS) is scarce, and, in contrast with younger patients, interactions with chronic somatic diseases are more complex. DESIGN: In the current study we compared HRQoL between older

  2. Health-Related Quality of Life in Older Persons with Medically Unexplained Symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanssen, Denise J. C.; Lucassen, Peter L. B. J.; Hilderink, Peter H.; Naarding, Paul; Oude Voshaar, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Research on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in older persons with medically unexplained symptoms (MUS) is scarce, and, in contrast with younger patients, interactions with chronic somatic diseases are more complex. Design: In the current study we compared HRQoL between older

  3. The Stanford Medical Youth Science Program: Educational and Science-Related Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crump, Casey; Ned, Judith; Winkleby, Marilyn A.

    2015-01-01

    Biomedical preparatory programs (pipeline programs) have been developed at colleges and universities to better prepare youth for entering science- and health-related careers, but outcomes of such programs have seldom been rigorously evaluated. We conducted a matched cohort study to evaluate the Stanford Medical Youth Science Program's Summer…

  4. 25 CFR 1000.280 - What employees are covered by FTCA for medical-related claims?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Federal Tort Claims § 1000.280 What employees are covered by...: (a) Permanent employees; (b) Temporary employees; (c) Persons providing services without compensation... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What employees are covered by FTCA for medical-related...

  5. 25 CFR 900.192 - What employees are covered by FTCA for medical-related claims?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES CONTRACTS UNDER THE INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND...) Temporary employees; (c) Persons providing services without compensation in carrying out a contract; (d... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What employees are covered by FTCA for medical-related...

  6. Joint effect of alcohol consumption and educational level on alcohol-related medical events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordahl Christensen, Helene; Diderichsen, Finn; Hvidtfeldt, Ulla Arthur

    2017-01-01

    may also play a role. We investigated the joint effect of alcohol consumption and educational level on the rate of alcohol-related medical events.Methods: We pooled seven prospective cohorts from Denmark that enrolled 74,278 men and women age 30–70 years (study period, 1981 to 2009). We measured...... alcohol consumption at baseline using self-administrated questionnaires. Information on highest attained education 1 year before study entry and hospital and mortality data on alcohol-related medical events were obtained through linkage to nationwide registries. We performed analyses using the Aalen...... additive hazards model.Results: During follow-up (1,085,049 person-years), a total of 1718 alcohol-related events occurred. The joint effect of very high alcohol consumption (>21 [>28] drinks per week in women [men]) and low education on alcohol-related events exceeded the sum of their separate effects...

  7. Pediatric nurses' differentiations between acceptable and unacceptable parent discipline behaviors: a Q-study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Grace W K; Gross, Deborah A

    2015-01-01

    Nurses are mandated to report suspected cases of child maltreatment. However, it is unclear how nurses decide what constitutes child abuse or evidence for reporting. It is crucial to examine how nurses define various forms of child maltreatment, including child abuse and its differentiation from physical discipline, to enhance our services to families with young children. The present study examined pediatric nurses' views on acceptable versus unacceptable discipline behaviors to better understand parent behaviors that nurses are likely to deem reportable to child protective services. Using Q methodology, a convenience sample of 48 pediatric nurses from one urban medical center sorted 71 statements related to the behavior or outcome of punishing a child via the Internet application FlashQ. The statements were sorted on a predefined continuum ranging from "Most Unacceptable" to "Most Acceptable." By-person factor analysis was used to uncover groups of nurses with similar sorts and to generate a unique sort that represented the viewpoint of nurses in that group. Two distinct viewpoints were uncovered. Although there was consensus on what constitutes most acceptable and most unacceptable parent behaviors, nurses varied on their endorsement of using physical force as a form of discipline, suggesting a potential for discrepant tendencies to identify and report child abuse. Copyright © 2015 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Plenary Speeches: Is the Second Language Acquisition Discipline Disintegrating?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulstijn, Jan H.

    2013-01-01

    After characterizing the study of second language acquisition (SLA) from three viewpoints, I try to answer the question, raised by DeKeyser (2010), of whether the SLA field is disintegrating. In answering this question, I first propose a distinction between SLA as the relatively fundamental academic discipline and SLA as the relatively applied…

  9. Association of Bariatric Surgery vs Medical Obesity Treatment With Long-term Medical Complications and Obesity-Related Comorbidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, Gunn Signe; Småstuen, Milada Cvancarova; Sandbu, Rune; Nordstrand, Njord; Hofsø, Dag; Lindberg, Morten; Hertel, Jens Kristoffer; Hjelmesæth, Jøran

    2018-01-16

    The association of bariatric surgery and specialized medical obesity treatment with beneficial and detrimental outcomes remains uncertain. To compare changes in obesity-related comorbidities in patients with severe obesity (body mass index ≥40 or ≥35 and at least 1 comorbidity) undergoing bariatric surgery or specialized medical treatment. Cohort study with baseline data of exposures from November 2005 through July 2010 and follow-up data from 2006 until death or through December 2015 at a tertiary care outpatient center, Vestfold Hospital Trust, Norway. Consecutive treatment-seeking adult patients (n = 2109) with severe obesity assessed (221 patients excluded and 1888 patients included). Bariatric surgery (n = 932, 92% gastric bypass) or specialized medical treatment (n = 956) including individual or group-based lifestyle intervention programs. Primary outcomes included remission and new onset of hypertension based on drugs dispensed according to the Norwegian Prescription Database. Prespecified secondary outcomes included changes in comorbidities. Adverse events included complications retrieved from the Norwegian Patient Registry and a local laboratory database. Among 1888 patients included in the study, the mean (SD) age was 43.5 (12.3) years (1249 women [66%]; mean [SD] baseline BMI, 44.2 [6.1]; 100% completed follow-up at a median of 6.5 years [range, 0.2-10.1]). Surgically treated patients had a greater likelihood of remission and lesser likelihood for new onset of hypertension (remission: absolute risk [AR], 31.9% vs 12.4%); risk difference [RD], 19.5% [95% CI, 15.8%-23.2%], relative risk [RR], 2.1 [95% CI, 2.0-2.2]; new onset: AR, 3.5% vs 12.2%, RD, 8.7% [95% CI, 6.7%-10.7%], RR, 0.4 [95% CI, 0.3-0.5]; greater likelihood of diabetes remission: AR, 57.5% vs 14.8%; RD, 42.7% [95% CI, 35.8%-49.7%], RR, 3.9 [95% CI, 2.8-5.4]; greater risk of new-onset depression: AR, 8.9% vs 6.5%; RD, 2.4% [95% CI, 1.3%-3.5%], RR, 1.5 [95% CI, 1.4-1.7]; and

  10. Estimates of Annual Medical Costs of Work-related Low Back Pain in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ITOH, Hiroaki; KITAMURA, Fumihiko; YOKOYAMA, Kazuhito

    2013-01-01

    Little is reported regarding economic burden of work-related low back pain except for the United States. In the present study, annual medical cost of work-related low back pain in Japan was calculated based on the treatment fee per day, a total of days of treatment received for low-back pain of all causes, employment rates, and an estimated number of work-related low-back cases. The analysis indicated that, in 2011, the total annual medical cost for work-related low back pain was 82.14 billion yen, consisting of 26.48 and 55.66 billion yen for inpatients and outpatients, respectively. As well as for 2011, the costs were also estimated for 2008, 2005, and 2002. Whereas the total medical costs of work-related low back pain monotonically increased during 2002–2011, the costs for spine disorder (including spondylosis) have also increased in recent years. Work-related low back pain entails a considerable economic burden to Japanese society. PMID:23955653

  11. Canadian Medical Education Statistics=Statistiques Relatives a l'Enseignement Medical au Canada. 1981/82. Volume 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryten, E.

    Statistics on medical education in Canada are presented for 1981-1982, with English and French explanations and tables of contents. Overall areas of concern include undergraduate medical enrollment, graduate medical enrollment for academic and clinical study, research expenditure levels, type and sources of funds, and opportunities for Canadians…

  12. Increasing the relative weight of noncognitive admission criteria improves underrepresented minority admission rates to medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballejos, Marlene P; Rhyne, Robert L; Parkes, Jay

    2015-01-01

    CONSTRUCT: The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of varying the relative weights of cognitive versus noncognitive admission criteria on the proportion of underrepresented minorities admitted to medical school. It answers the question, "Can medical schools increase the admission rates of underrepresented minority (URM) students by balancing cognitive criteria with the experiences, attributes, and metrics of noncognitive data in the admission process?" U.S. demographics are shifting, and by 2042 ethnic minority groups will make up approximately 50% of the population. Increasing diversity of the U.S. population foreshadows the need to increase the number of physicians from underrepresented minorities to help address healthcare disparities that are on the rise. A cohort of three medical school applicant classes (2007-2009) was used to model the impact on URM admission rates as the relative weights of cognitive and noncognitive admission criteria were varied. This study used the minimum admission standards established for the actual incoming classes. The URM rate of admission to medical school was the outcome. Cognitive criteria included Medical College Admission Test scores and grade point averages. Noncognitive criteria included four categories: background and diversity, interest and suitability for a career in medicine, problem-solving and communication skills, and letters of recommendation. A cohort of 480 applicants from the three applicant classes were enrolled in the study. As the weighting scheme was varied from 50% cognitive/50% noncognitive weights to 35%/65%, the proportion of URM students accepted to medical school increased from 24% (42/177) to 30% (57/193; p noncognitive higher relative to cognitive criteria without compromising admission standards. Challenging conventional practice in the admissions process may improve health disparities and diversify the physician workforce.

  13. Adverse Health Events Related to Self-Medication Practices Among Elderly: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locquet, Médéa; Honvo, Germain; Rabenda, Véronique; Van Hees, Thierry; Petermans, Jean; Reginster, Jean-Yves; Bruyère, Olivier

    2017-05-01

    Older adults often resort to self-medication to relieve symptoms of their current illnesses; however, the risks of this practice are multiplied in old age. In particular, this age group is more vulnerable to adverse drug events because of the physiological changes that occur due to senescence. The aim of the study was to obtain an overview of the adverse health events related to self-medication among subjects aged 60 years and over through a systematic review of the literature. A study of relevant articles was conducted among databases (MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and EBM Reviews-Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews). Eligibility criteria were established and applied by two investigators to include suitable studies. The results and outcomes of interest were detailed in a descriptive report. The electronic search identified 4096 references, and the full texts of 74 were reviewed, of which four were retained in the analysis: three had a cross-sectional design and one prospectively followed elderly subjects. The first study showed a 26.7% prevalence of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) among elders, the second study found a 75% prevalence of side effects, and, finally, a prospective study showed an ADR incidence of 4.5% among self-medicated elders. These studies showed that adverse health events related to self-medication are relatively frequently reported. They also highlighted that analgesics and anti-inflammatory drugs are the most self-medicated products, while vitamins and dietary supplements also appear to be frequently self-administered, but by older individuals. Studies on self-medication in the elderly and its adverse health effects are clearly lacking. There is a need to perform prospective studies on this topic to gain a clear understanding of the extent of this problem and to enhance the awareness of health professionals to better inform seniors.

  14. Prevalence of computerized physician order entry systems-related medication prescription errors: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korb-Savoldelli, Virginie; Boussadi, Abdelali; Durieux, Pierre; Sabatier, Brigitte

    2018-03-01

    The positive impact of computerized physician order entry (CPOE) systems on prescription safety must be considered in light of the persistence of certain types of medication-prescription errors. We performed a systematic review, based on the PRISMA statement, to analyze the prevalence of prescription errors related to the use of CPOE systems. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, DBLP, the International Clinical Trials Registry, the ISI Web of Science, and reference lists of relevant articles from March 1982 to August 2017. We included original peer-reviewed studies which quantitatively reported medication-prescription errors related to CPOE. We analyzed the prevalence of medication-prescription errors according to an adapted version of the National Coordinating Council for Medication Error Reporting and Prevention (NCCMERP) taxonomy and assessed the mechanisms responsible for each type of prescription error due to CPOE. Fourteen studies were included. The prevalence of CPOE systems-related medication errors relative to all prescription medication errors ranged from 6.1 to 77.7% (median = 26.1% [IQR:17.6-42,1]) and was less than 6.3% relative to the number of prescriptions reviewed. All studies reported "wrong dose" and "wrong drug" errors. The "wrong dose" error was the most frequently reported (from 7 to 67.4%, median = 31.5% [IQR:20.5-44.5]). We report the associated mechanism for each type of medication described (those due to CPOE or those occurring despite CPOE). We observed very heterogeneous results, probably due to the definition of error, the type of health information system used for the study, and the data collection method used. Each data collection method provides valuable and useful information concerning the prevalence and specific types of errors related to CPOE systems. The reporting of prescription errors should be continued because the weaknesses of CPOE systems are potential sources of error. Analysis of the mechanisms behind CPOE

  15. Symptoms of Depression and ADHD in Relation to Stimulant Medication Misuse Among College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Kari; Flory, Kate

    2017-07-28

    The misuse of stimulant medications, commonly used for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), is a concern on college campuses. This study sought to examine the relations between the misuse of stimulant medications and symptoms of depression and ADHD. Eight hundred and ninety students ages 18-26 from one public university took a web-based survey including rating scales measuring symptoms of depression and ADHD. The prevalence rate of misuse in the past year was 23%. Symptoms of depression were significantly related to misuse; however, once symptoms of ADHD were included in the analysis, depression was no longer a significant predictor. Further, there was not a significant interaction between ADHD and depression, but symptoms of ADHD were significantly related to misuse. Conclusions/Importance: Results suggest that attention difficulties may be one of the most important factors in predicting stimulant medication misuse. Therefore, prevention efforts to reduce the misuse of stimulant medication would be most successful when targeting students with symptoms of inattention.

  16. Arts-related activities across U.S. medical schools: a follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodenhauser, Paul; Strickland, Mathew A; Gambala, Cecilia T

    2004-01-01

    The authors' 2001 survey of the variety of arts-related activities incorporated by U.S. medical schools revealed expansion far beyond the literary arts introduced three decades ago. A 2002 survey of all U.S. medical schools was designed to assess student involvement in arts-related activities in greater depth. Questionnaires were mailed in summer 2002 to all U.S. medical school deans asking about characteristics of arts-related activities, degree and nature of student participation, and if specific outcomes are assessed. The 65% response rate indicates that over half of U.S. medical schools involve the arts in learning activities. Most include literature, visual arts, performing arts, and/or music. Active participation exceeds passive. Electives typically involve 15-18 students. School-based funding predominates. Assessment for increased well-being, clinical skills, and humanism is rare. Utilization of the arts serves four major functions: (a) enhancement of student well-being, (b) improvement of clinical skills, (c) promotion of humanism, and (d) employment by students as a teaching tool.

  17. Joint effect of alcohol consumption and educational level on alcohol-related medical events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordahl Christensen, Helene; Diderichsen, Finn; Hvidtfeldt, Ulla Arthur

    2017-01-01

    Background: Alcohol-related mortality is more pronounced in lower than in higher socioeconomic groups in Western countries. Part of the explanation is differences in drinking patterns. However, differences in vulnerability to health consequences of alcohol consumption across socioeconomic groups...... may also play a role. We investigated the joint effect of alcohol consumption and educational level on the rate of alcohol-related medical events.Methods: We pooled seven prospective cohorts from Denmark that enrolled 74,278 men and women age 30–70 years (study period, 1981 to 2009). We measured...... alcohol consumption at baseline using self-administrated questionnaires. Information on highest attained education 1 year before study entry and hospital and mortality data on alcohol-related medical events were obtained through linkage to nationwide registries. We performed analyses using the Aalen...

  18. Relative risk analysis in regulating the use of radiation-emitting medical devices. A preliminary application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, E.D.; Banks, W.W.; Altenbach, T.J.; Fischer, L.E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    This report describes a preliminary application of an analysis approach for assessing relative risks in the use of radiation- emitting medical devices. Results are presented on human-initiated actions and failure modes that are most likely to occur in the use of the Gamma Knife, a gamma irradiation therapy device. This effort represents an initial step in a US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) plan to evaluate the potential role of risk analysis in regulating the use of nuclear medical devices. For this preliminary application of risk assessment, the focus was to develop a basic process using existing techniques for identifying the most likely risk contributors and their relative importance. The approach taken developed relative risk rankings and profiles that incorporated the type and quality of data available and could present results in an easily understood form. This work was performed by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for the NRC.

  19. Learner discipline: An Australian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Stewart

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Australian schools by and large are safe schools. Nonetheless discipline problems do exist – including bullying behaviour. For this kind of problem schools should have management policies in place. As traditional behaviour-management practices – including corporal punishment – are largely prohibited in Australian schools, contemporary practices centre on management through supportive school programmes, including appropriate curricula and school-support structures. This article supports the belief that measures such as the exclusion of misbehaving learners should be treated with caution. Measures such as this might not reflect accepted international principles and practices and should only be exercised in the most extreme circumstances. The article also supports the view that it is part of the school’s role to ensure that all learners are aware of the reality that while they have rights, they also have corresponding responsibilities. This awareness is more likely to be achieved in a supportive school culture where each learner is recognised as having unique qualities that can mature and grow in an appropriate learning environment.

  20. Breaking the silence: an HIV-related educational intervention for medical students in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, S; Ray, S; Chitsike, I; Mielke, J; Chingono, A; Mutetwa, S; Gangaidzo, I

    2005-01-01

    A culture of silence surrounding HIV is a major contributor to continued HIV transmission and poor care for people living with HIV/AIDS. To encourage medical leadership in addressing stigma and fear related to HIV at individual and community levels To pilot a mini-course for final year medical students in Zimbabwe that demonstrates stigma-reduction knowledge and skills needed to communicate information about HIV to patients, to address ethical implications of testing versus not testing for HIV, to increase awareness of the medical and preventive benefits of knowing one's HIV status and showing people how to cope with the emotional burden of dealing with HIV everyday. Methods of proven effectiveness for training medical students in ethics and communication skills were used such as presentations by well respected role models and opinion leaders, role-playing, small group discussions, accompanied by materials indicating local resources, in three afternoon teaching sessions. University of Zimbabwe College of Medicine. 60 medical students, six lecturers, two facilitators and a group of actors. Evaluation of the course by students showed appreciation of the course as measured on a scale of one to five for content and usefulness with requests for further inputs into the curriculum; model of mini-course that can be used by other medical schools in the southern Africa region and other areas of emerging HIV epidemics. A brief educational intervention can help medical students to cope with the extraordinary challenge of providing care in high HIV prevalence countries and may contribute towards better leadership in addressing HIV epidemics.

  1. The science of computing shaping a discipline

    CERN Document Server

    Tedre, Matti

    2014-01-01

    The identity of computing has been fiercely debated throughout its short history. Why is it still so hard to define computing as an academic discipline? Is computing a scientific, mathematical, or engineering discipline? By describing the mathematical, engineering, and scientific traditions of computing, The Science of Computing: Shaping a Discipline presents a rich picture of computing from the viewpoints of the field's champions. The book helps readers understand the debates about computing as a discipline. It explains the context of computing's central debates and portrays a broad perspecti

  2. Moderating role of interior amenities on hospital medical directors' patient-related work stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Blossom Yen-Ju; Lin, Yung-Kai; Juan, Chi Wen; Lee, Suhsing; Lin, Cheng-Chieh

    2013-01-01

    Considering hospital medical directors' work stress, this study aims to examine how interior amenities might moderate the effect of work stress on their health. Previous studies have revealed that hospital medical directors-senior physicians in the management positions with high-demand jobs in clinical practices and management-had a lower self-rated health. This was a cross-sectional survey study and 737 hospital medical directors in Taiwan were included. A developed and structured questionnaire covered the dimensions of patient-related work stress (i.e., physician-patient relationship stress and patient condition stress), hospital interior amenities (i.e., indoor plants, aquarium, music, art and exhibitions, and private or personalized spaces that are common or surround the workplace of healthcare professionals), and self-rated health status and health complaints. Hierarchical regressions were performed. Hospital medical directors' physician-patient relationship stresses were found to have more negative effects on their self-reported health status and complaints than do their patient condition stresses; however, only indoor plants were found to have moderating effects on their short-term health complaints (p interior amenities can produce buffering effects on work stress to some extent. Future studies could focus on finding alternatives to relieve hospital medical directors' physician-patient relationship work stresses. Evidence-based design, physicians, privacy and security, satisfaction, work environmentPreferred Citation: Lin, B. Y.-J., Lin, Y.-K., Juan, C.W., Lee, S., Lin, C.-C. (2013). Moderating role of interior amenities on hospital medical directors' patient-related work stresses. Health Environments Research & Design Journal 6(2), pp 77-92.

  3. Formaldehyde-related clinical symptoms reported by medical students during gross anatomy cadaver dissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Pietrzyk

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction . Formaldehyde is a noxious gas used as a tissue preservative of cadavers in autopsy rooms. Therefore, exposure to higher concentrations applies particularly to laboratory staff, anatomists and medical students. Prolonged exposure to formaldehyde is associated with clinical complications. Objective. To assess whether exposure to repeated inhalation of low concentrations of formaldehyde (FA experienced during a gross anatomy course triggers subjective clinical symptoms in medical students. Material and methods . All 198 first-year medical students of the Medical University of Lublin, Poland (28% with allergy history and 72% without allergy history; 69% male and 31% female responded to a questionnaire concerning their subjective FA-related clinical symptoms. Differences in proportions of experienced symptoms between allergic vs. nonallergic, and female vs. males were compared by the Mann-Whitney U test. Results . Even though formaldehyde concentrations in the gross anatomy laboratory were relatively low (0.47–0.57 mg/m3, medical students experienced various reactions (lacrimation in 85.9%, red eyes, dry and itchy eyes, runny nose, sneezing, and headache in > 50% of students, cough in 44%, and dry throat or throat irritation in 42% of students. Among students with a history of allergy, eye, nose, skin and respiratory system symptoms occurred more frequently in comparison to nonallergic students. Female individuals demonstrated higher sensitivity to FA exposure. Conclusions . Exposure to formaldehyde may result in development of clinical symptoms in medical students. Particularly unpleasant symptoms may be experienced by individuals with allergy history. It is necessary to decrease formaldehyde concentrations in the anatomy dissection laboratory.

  4. Identifying medication-related needs of HIV patients: foundation for community pharmacist-based services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yardlee Kauffman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients living with HIV/AIDS have complex medication regimens. Pharmacists within community pharmacy settings can have a role managing patients living with HIV/AIDS. Patients' perspectives surrounding implementation about community pharmacist-based services is needed as limited information is available. Objective: To identify medication-related needs of HIV-infected patients who receive prescriptions from a community pharmacy. To determine patient perspectives and knowledge of community pharmacist-based services. Methods: A qualitative research study involving in-depth, semi-structured interviews with patients was conducted. Inclusion criteria included: HIV positive men and women at least 18 years of age who receive care at a HIV clinic, currently take medication(s and use a community pharmacy for all prescription fills. Patients were recruited from one urban and one rural health center. Patients answered questions about their perceptions and knowledge about the role and value of pharmacy services and completed a demographic survey. The recordings of the interviews were transcribed verbatim and were analyzed using principles of Grounded Theory. Results: Twenty-nine interviews were conducted: 15 participants from the urban site and 14 from the rural site. Five main themes emerged including: patients experience ongoing and varying medication-related needs; patients desire a pharmacist who is caring, knowledgeable and integrated with health care providers; patients expect ready access to drug therapy; patients value an individualized patient encounter, and patients need to be informed that a pharmacist-service exists. Conclusion: Patients with HIV value individualized and personal encounters with pharmacists at time intervals that are convenient for the patient. Patients felt that a one-on-one encounter with a pharmacist would be most valuable when initiating or modifying medication therapy. These patient perspectives can be useful for

  5. Medical Big Data for Research Use: Current Status and Related Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Koichi Benjamin

    2016-09-01

    Advances in the computerization of information and development of technology have mitigated restrictions on handling of a large amount of information. This has resulted in growth of expectations for the use of large-scale databases, or so-called "big data." This is also the case in the field of healthcare. Projects that involve building of the national receipt database (NDB) of medical fee bill (receipt) information and special health check-up information based on the Act on Assurance of Medical Care for Elderly People and the development of medical information databases have been pursued by the national government, and considerable attention has also been focused on researches conducted through the secondary uses of publicly collected data. Aside from these trends, there are numerous projects which collect diagnosis procedure combination (DPC) data to build large-scale databases for research purposes. Following to the ethics guidelines for epidemiologic studies, they collect and analyze anonymized DPC data from cooperating institutions. This communication concentrates on the use of DPC data, and outlines the scale of data currently available for research use. Examples on the use of DPC data will be shown for analysis on the current status of clinical practice from the microscopic perspective and macroscopic analysis of community medical care provision. Additionally, potential for extending studies to long-term outcomes research, limitations and issues related to the use of medical big data will also be discussed.

  6. Health-Related Quality of Life of Future Physicians at a Medical School in the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Anthony A. Domantay

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Medical students are trained to maintain the health of patients, but such training may have undesirable effects on medical students’ personal health. This study therefore aimed to assess the health-related quality of life (HRQOL of medical students and to determine the factors that are associated with the students’ HRQOL. The target population included all students enrolled at the Saint Louis University School of Medicine in Baguio City, Philippines, during school year 2012-2013. The measurements included the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36 questionnaire for HRQOL, Beck Depression Inventory, abbreviated Maslach Burnout Inventory, Perceived Stress Scale, Holmes and Rahe Stress Scale, and self-report items for other exposure variables. A total of 527 medical students participated in the study. The mean scores in all of the eight domains of HRQOL ranged from 51.36 to 85.83. The highest mean scores were along the areas of physical functioning (85.83 and bodily pain (69.20, whereas the lowest mean scores were in the areas of vitality (51.72 and role limitations due to emotional problems (51.36. Depression, stress, and burnout were associated with lower scores in most of the domains of HRQOL. Medical students in our school are generally in a satisfactory state of functional health and well-being, but have a lower level of mental health as compared with physical health.

  7. 42 CFR 409.12 - Nursing and related services, medical social services; use of hospital or CAH facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nursing and related services, medical social... services, medical social services; use of hospital or CAH facilities. (a) Except as provided in paragraph... facilities, and medical social services as inpatient hospital or inpatient CAH services only if those...

  8. Exploring knowledge and attitudes related to pregnancy and preconception health in women with chronic medical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Cynthia H; Velott, Diana L; Weisman, Carol S

    2010-09-01

    Women with chronic medical conditions are at increased risk for pregnancy-related complications, yet little research has addressed how women with diabetes, hypertension, and obesity perceive their pregnancy-associated risks or make reproductive health decisions. Focus groups were conducted with 72 non-pregnant women stratified by chronic condition (diabetes, hypertension, obesity) and by previous live birth. Participants discussed their intention for future pregnancy, preconception health optimization, perceived risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes, and contraceptive beliefs. Four major themes were identified, with some variation across medical conditions and parity: (1) Knowledge about pregnancy risks related to chronic medical conditions was limited; (2) Pregnancy intentions were affected by diabetes and hypertension, (3) Knowledge about optimizing preconception health was limited; and (4) Lack of control over ability to avoid unintended pregnancy, including limited knowledge about how medical conditions might affect contraceptive choices. Women with diabetes and hypertension, but not obesity, were generally aware of increased risk for pregnancy complications, and often expressed less intention for future pregnancy as a result. However, diabetic and hypertensive women had little knowledge about the specific complications they were at risk for, even among those who had previously experienced pregnancy complications. Neither chronic condition nor perceived risk ensured intent to engage in preconception health promotion. We observed knowledge deficits about pregnancy-related risks in women with diabetes, hypertension, and obesity, as well as lack of intent to engage in preconception health promotion and pregnancy planning. These findings have important implications for the development of preconception care for women with chronic medical conditions.

  9. Benchmarking for research-related competencies - a curricular mapping approach at medical faculties in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammerding-Koeppel, Maria; Fritze, Olaf; Giesler, Marianne; Narciss, Elisabeth; Steffens, Sandra; Wosnik, Annette; Griewatz, Jan

    2017-11-16

    Internationally, scientific and research-related competencies need to be sufficiently targeted as core outcomes in many undergraduate medical curricula. Since 2015, standards have been recommended for Germany in the National Competency-based Learning Objective Catalogue in Medicine (NKLM). The aim of this study is to develop a multi-center mapping approach for curricular benchmarking against national standards and against other medical faculties. A total of 277 faculty members from four German medical faculties have mapped the local curriculum against the scientific and research-related NKLM objectives, using consented procedures, metrics, and tools. The amount of mapping citations of each objective is used as indicator for its weighting in the local curriculum. Achieved competency levels after five-year education are compared. All four programs fulfill the NKLM standards, with each emphasizing different sub-competencies explicitly in writing (Scholar: 17-41% of all courses; Medical Scientific Skills: 14-37% of all courses). Faculties show major or full agreement in objective weighting: Scholar 44%, scientific skills 79%. The given NKLM competency level is met or even outperformed in 78-100% of the courses. The multi-center mapping approach provides an informative dataset allowing curricular diagnosis by external benchmarking and guidance for optimization of local curricula.

  10. Operating theatre related syncope in medical students: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitzgerald JEF

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Observing surgical procedures is a beneficial educational experience for medical students during their surgical placements. Anecdotal evidence suggests that operating theatre related syncope may have detrimental effects on students' views of this. Our study examines the frequency and causes of such syncope, together with effects on career intentions, and practical steps to avoid its occurrence. Methods All penultimate and final year students at a large UK medical school were surveyed using the University IT system supplemented by personal approach. A 20-item anonymous questionnaire was distributed and results were analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version 15.0 (Chicago, Illinois, USA. Results Of the 630 clinical students surveyed, 77 responded with details of at least one near or actual operating theatre syncope (12%. A statistically significant gender difference existed for syncopal/near-syncopal episodes (male 12%; female 88%, p Conclusion Our study shows that operating theatre related syncope among medical students is common, and we establish useful risk factors and practical steps that have been used to prevent its occurrence. Our study also highlights the detrimental effect of this on the career intentions of medical students interested in surgery. Based on these findings, we recommend that dedicated time should be set aside in surgical teaching to address this issue prior to students attending the operating theatre.

  11. Occupational health: a discipline out of focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, D

    1993-01-01

    This article first examines three areas of occupational health: the work of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), the work on chemicals of the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), and the International Labour Organization (ILO) Convention and Recommendation on Occupational Health Services. All three areas are criticized, using the notion of a "scientific strategy" which is the use of bodies of scientific knowledge and techniques in approaching occupational health. In the first two areas, it is contended that a misguided scientific strategy has been adopted which is a comment on the role of scientists in policy-making. In the third case, it is argued that the Convention and Recommendation emphasize the remedial aspects of occupational health to the detriment of the preventive side, a reflection of the undue influence of industrial medicine on occupational health. A proper approach to occupational health would make very different demands on science and would employ engineering techniques at the expense of the medical disciplines. As it is, occupational health is out of focus.

  12. Sleep Hygiene Practices and Their Relation to Sleep Quality in Medical Students of Qazvin University of Medical Sciences

    OpenAIRE

    Zohreh Yazdi; Ziba Loukzadeh; Parichehr Moghaddam; Shabnam Jalilolghadr

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Poor quality of sleep is a distressing and worrying condition that can disturb academic performance of medical students. Sleep hygiene practices are one of the important variables that affect sleep quality. The objective of this study was to assess association between sleep hygiene practices and sleep quality of medical students in Qazvin University of Medical Sciences. Methods: In this descriptive-correlational study, a total of 285 ...

  13. Persistence and adherence in multiple sclerosis patients starting glatiramer acetate treatment: assessment of relationship with care received from multiple disciplines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongen, Peter Joseph; Lemmens, Wim A; Hupperts, Raymond; Hoogervorst, Erwin Lj; Schrijver, Hans M; Slettenaar, Astrid; de Schryver, Els L; Boringa, Jan; van Noort, Esther; Donders, Rogier

    2016-01-01

    In multiple sclerosis patients, the persistence of, and adherence to, disease-modifying treatment are often insufficient. The degree of persistence and adherence may relate to the care received from various disciplines. In an observational study of 203 patients treated with glatiramer acetate 20 mg subcutaneous daily, we assess the persistence and adherence in relation to the amount of care received in various disciplines. The frequencies and durations of care per discipline were reported by patients online, as were missed doses and eventual treatment discontinuation. The associations between the care provided by neurologists, nurses, psychologists, pharmacists, and rehabilitative doctors and persistence and adherence were the primary outcomes; the associations between care received from general practitioners, occupational therapists, physiotherapists, social workers, dieticians, home caregivers, informal caregivers, other medical specialists, and other caregivers and persistence and adherence were secondary outcomes. It was found that the 12-month persistence rate was 62% and that 85% of the persistent patients were 95% adherent (missed relationship between adherence and persistence, nonadherence in Q2 was related to discontinuation after Q2 (P=0.0001). We obtained no evidence that, in multiple sclerosis patients, persistence of and adherence to disease-modifying treatment are associated with the amount of neurological, nursing, pharmaceutical, or rehabilitative care. However, findings suggest that the treatment of psychological problems in Q3 may relate to persistence and that home care and informal care may relate to adherence.

  14. Drug-related problems and medication reviews among old people with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, Bettina; Jonsson, Jeanette; Gustafsson, Maria

    2017-06-27

    Drug-related problems, including medication errors and adverse drug events, are common among old people. Due to, for example, greater susceptibility to side effects, people with dementia are even more at risk of drug-related problems. The objectives of this study were to assess the occurrence and character of drug-related problems found among old people with dementia or cognitive impairment. Data from a randomized controlled clinical trial exploring the effects of a pharmacist intervention as part of a hospital ward team in patients 65 years and older with dementia or cognitive impairment were used. The study was conducted between 2012 and 2014 in the orthopedic and medicine wards in two hospitals located in Northern Sweden. Drug-related problems identified in this patient group were classified and described, and associations with different factors were investigated. Clinical pharmacists identified at least one DRP in 66% (140/212) of participants in the intervention group, for a total of 310 DRPs. Ineffective drug/inappropriate drug and unnecessary drug therapy were the most common drug-related problems. Discontinuation of drug therapy was the most common action carried out. Drug-related problems were more common among people prescribed a larger number of drugs and among people with an earlier stroke. Drug-related problems are common among people with dementia and cognitive impairment. Comprehensive medication reviews conducted by clinical pharmacists as part of a health care team might be important to prevent, identify and solve these problems.

  15. Association Between Use of Antithrombotic Medication and Hematuria-Related Complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallis, Christopher J D; Juvet, Tristan; Lee, Yuna; Matta, Rano; Herschorn, Sender; Kodama, Ronald; Kulkarni, Girish S; Satkunasivam, Raj; Geerts, William; McLeod, Anne; Narod, Steven A; Nam, Robert K

    2017-10-03

    Antithrombotic medications are among the most commonly prescribed medications. To characterize rates of hematuria-related complications among patients taking antithrombotic medications. Population-based, retrospective cohort study including all citizens in Ontario, Canada, aged 66 years and older between 2002 and 2014. The final follow-up date was December 31, 2014. Receipt of an oral anticoagulant or antiplatelet medication. Hematuria-related complications, defined as emergency department visit, hospitalization, or a urologic procedure to investigate or manage gross hematuria. Among 2 518 064 patients, 808 897 (mean [SD] age, 72.1 [6.8] years; 428 531 [53%] women) received at least 1 prescription for an antithrombotic agent over the study period. Over a median follow-up of 7.3 years, the rates of hematuria-related complications were 123.95 events per 1000 person-years among patients actively exposed to antithrombotic agents vs 80.17 events per 1000 person-years among patients not exposed to these drugs (difference, 43.8; 95% CI, 43.0-44.6; P hematuria-related complications were 191.61 events per 1000 person-years (difference, 117.3; 95% CI, 112.8-121.8) for those exposed to both an anticoagulant and antiplatelet agent (IRR, 10.48; 95% CI, 8.16-13.45), 140.92 (difference, 57.7; 95% CI, 56.9-58.4) for those exposed to anticoagulants (IRR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.52-1.59), and 110.72 (difference, 26.5; 95% CI, 25.9-27.0) for those exposed to antiplatelet agents (IRR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.29-1.33). Patients exposed to antithrombotic agents, compared with patients not exposed to these drugs, were more likely to be diagnosed as having bladder cancer within 6 months (0.70% vs 0.38%; odds ratio, 1.85; 95% CI, 1.79-1.92). Among older adults in Ontario, Canada, use of antithrombotic medications, compared with nonuse of these medications, was significantly associated with higher rates of hematuria-related complications (including emergency department visits, hospitalizations

  16. Medical students' child oral-health-related knowledge, practices and attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlYousef, Y; Damiano, P; Weber-Gasparoni, K; Qian, F; Murph, J; Nothwehr, F

    2013-11-01

    This study evaluated medical interns' oral health knowledge, and other factors influencing their ability and willingness to perform oral-health-related practices for high-caries-risk children. A 15-item survey was emailed to all eligible graduating fifth-year medical students at King Khalid University Hospital to address these areas of interest. Chi-square statistics and logistic regression models were used to analyse data. One-hundred and twenty-one (49%) usable surveys were returned from two mailings. On questions regarding comfort levels when performing oral-health-related practices on children under age 3, physicians noted high levels of comfort with all specified oral health practices. Regarding satisfaction of students with medical training, the majority of respondents (87.5%) rated their medical training as fair or poor in preparing them for oral health assessments compared to only 35%, 29% and 7% of respondents giving fair or poor ratings to child abuse identification, caring for special needs patients and primary care paediatric practice, respectively. Additionally, although 90% of respondents noted that the role of primary physicians in counselling/referring children with oral health was important, 60% did not agree with the AAPD and AAP guidelines that state that all children should be referred to a dentist by 12 months of age. Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed several statistically significant variables that predict the likelihood of performing various oral-health-related practices. The choice of public-health-oriented future clinical goals, the level of oral health knowledge, how interns rated their oral health training in medical school and the average number of children seen per week, all--to varying degrees--proved important predicator variables for the likelihood of performing them once in practice. More oral-health-related training of medical students seems warranted and could improve their interest in providing oral-health-related

  17. Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender-related content in undergraduate medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obedin-Maliver, Juno; Goldsmith, Elizabeth S; Stewart, Leslie; White, William; Tran, Eric; Brenman, Stephanie; Wells, Maggie; Fetterman, David M; Garcia, Gabriel; Lunn, Mitchell R

    2011-09-07

    Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals experience health and health care disparities and have specific health care needs. Medical education organizations have called for LGBT-sensitive training, but how and to what extent schools educate students to deliver comprehensive LGBT patient care is unknown. To characterize LGBT-related medical curricula and associated curricular development practices and to determine deans' assessments of their institutions' LGBT-related curricular content. Deans of medical education (or equivalent) at 176 allopathic or osteopathic medical schools in Canada and the United States were surveyed to complete a 13-question, Web-based questionnaire between May 2009 and March 2010. Reported hours of LGBT-related curricular content. Of 176 schools, 150 (85.2%) responded, and 132 (75.0%) fully completed the questionnaire. The median reported time dedicated to teaching LGBT-related content in the entire curriculum was 5 hours (interquartile range [IQR], 3-8 hours). Of the 132 respondents, 9 (6.8%; 95% CI, 2.5%-11.1%) reported 0 hours taught during preclinical years and 44 (33.3%; 95% CI, 25.3%-41.4%) reported 0 hours during clinical years. Median US allopathic clinical hours were significantly different from US osteopathic clinical hours (2 hours [IQR, 0-4 hours] vs 0 hours [IQR, 0-2 hours]; P = .008). Although 128 of the schools (97.0%; 95% CI, 94.0%-99.9%) taught students to ask patients if they "have sex with men, women, or both" when obtaining a sexual history, the reported teaching frequency of 16 LGBT-specific topic areas in the required curriculum was lower: at least 8 topics at 83 schools (62.9%; 95% CI, 54.6%-71.1%) and all topics at 11 schools (8.3%; 95% CI, 3.6%-13.0%). The institutions' LGBT content was rated as "fair" at 58 schools (43.9%; 95% CI, 35.5%-52.4%). Suggested successful strategies to increase content included curricular material focusing on LGBT-related health and health disparities at 77 schools (58

  18. Monitoring medication adherence by unannounced pill counts conducted by telephone: reliability and criterion-related validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalichman, Seth C; Amaral, Christina M; Cherry, Chauncey; Flanagan, Jody; Pope, Howard; Eaton, Lisa; Kalichman, Moira O; Cain, Demetria; Detorio, Mervi; Caliendo, Angela; Schinazi, Raymond F

    2008-01-01

    Although demonstrated valid for monitoring medication adherence, unannounced pill counts conducted in patients' homes are costly and logistically challenging. Telephone-based unannounced pill counts offer a promising adaptation that resolves most of the limitations of home-based pill counting. We tested the reliability and criterion-related validity of a telephone-based unannounced pill count assessment of antiretroviral adherence. HIV-positive men and women (N = 89) in Atlanta, Georgia, completed a telephone-based unannounced pill count and provided contemporaneous blood specimens to obtain viral loads; 68 participants also received an immediate second pill count conducted during an unannounced home visit. A high degree of concordance was observed between the number of pills counted on the telephone and in the home (intraclass correlation [ICC] = .981, p criterion-related validity. Unannounced telephone-based pill counts offer a feasible objective method for monitoring medication adherence.

  19. [Asymmetry in international relations, industrial property rights and anti-HIV medication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Couto, Maria Helena; Nascimento, Alvaro César

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyzes the asymmetry in the international relations as refers to the recognition of industrial property rights in the pharmaceutical industry. It focuses on the impact of such relations upon the access to ARV medication, an issue of worldwide interest due to its connection with the development of the nations. Clashing interests and the position taken by some countries in their patent laws point to a scenario less favorable for the access of peripheral countries to anti-HIV/AIDS medication. On the other hand, it seems that the success of the Brazilian STD/AIDS program in negotiating ARV prices will open new possibilities. The solution may be the internal strengthening of the National States and the active role played by the Agencies of the United Nations System in defense of the collective human interests.

  20. Race, Exclusionary Discipline, and Connectedness to Adults in Secondary Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyon, Yolanda; Zhang, Duan; Hazel, Cynthia

    2016-06-01

    This study examines racial differences in students' connectedness to school adults and considers the possibility that disparities in exclusionary discipline practices may reduce all students' sense of connection to educators, not just those who have been disciplined or are from racial groups overrepresented in out-of-school suspensions. Data sources include a self-report survey of secondary school students (n = 29,148) linked to administrative data (n = 107 schools) from a large urban district. Multilevel modeling techniques were used to estimate the relationships between students' racial background, youths' connection to school adults, and school-level racial discipline gaps. Controlling for school racial composition, gender, grade level and other covariates, students of color were significantly less likely to feel connected to school adults than their White peers. Additionally, the racial discipline gap was significantly and negatively associated with connectedness for all students. Results indicate that strategies to improve educational outcomes for youth of color need to attend to relational dynamics between students and school adults. Research findings also suggest that efforts to reduce discipline disparities may improve all students' connectedness. © Society for Community Research and Action 2016.

  1. Stress-buffering effects of social support on maternal discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, P A

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether social support and stress influence maternal discipline of the six-month to three-year-old child with a developmental delay. Ninety-one mothers completed self-administered measures of support, stress, and discipline. Results of multiple regression analyses revealed that the stress and support interaction variable showed a strong trend (p less than .09) in predicting restrictive discipline. The failure of the independent variables, social support and stress, to have significant main effects appeared to be due, in part, to the multicollinearity (r = -.51, p less than .001) of these variables. For subsequent analyses, stress was used as a categorization variable. The total number of subjects was categorized first into two subgroups using a median split--high or low maternal stress--and into two other subgroups based on number of developmental delays. Pearson correlations indicated that social support was inversely related to restrictive discipline for high-stress mothers, but not for low-stress mothers. The positive influence of social support was also found for mothers of children with three to five delays but not for mothers of children with one to two delays. A negative response style of maternal discipline was reduced when the mother felt supported.

  2. Biomedical informatics--a confluence of disciplines?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hasman, A.; Ammenwerth, E.; Dickhaus, H.; Knaup, P.; Lovis, C.; Mantas, J.; Maojo, V.; Martin-Sanchez, F. J.; Musen, M.; Patel, V. L.; Surjan, G.; Talmon, J. L.; Sarkar, I. N.

    2011-01-01

    Biomedical informatics is a broad discipline that borrows many methods and techniques from other disciplines. To reflect a) on the character of biomedical informatics and to determine whether it is multi-disciplinary or inter-disciplinary; b) on the question whether biomedical informatics is more

  3. Interrupting the Psy-Disciplines in Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book offers critical explorations of how the psy-disciplines, Michel Foucault’s collective term for psychiatry, psychology and psycho-analysis, play out in contemporary educational spaces. With a strong focus on Foucault’s theories, it critically investigates how the psy-disciplines continue...

  4. Effective Discipline in the Home and School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Genevieve; Corsini, Raymond J.

    Based originally on the work of the Austrian psychiatrist, Alfred Adler, work which was further developed by Rudolph Dreikurs, this book Dreikurs, this book offers solutions to specific child discipline problems. Part I focuses on effective discipline in the home. These topics are covered: fundamentals of practical parenting; problems of routine…

  5. Perceived discipline, punishment and organizational performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study design was correlational design, and the instrument used for data collection was a questionnaire called Discipline, Punishment and Performance Opinion Questionnaire (DPPOQ). The independent variables of the study were discipline (classified into, persuasion, issuance of query, warning letters & withholding of ...

  6. The Law of Student Discipline in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hee, Tie Fatt

    2008-01-01

    Judicial review of decisions on student discipline is limited in Malaysia. This arises because of the general presumption that in the enforcement of school discipline, educators are able to act in the best interest of the student to maintain a safe learning environment. This article examines the range of disciplinary measures in Malaysian schools…

  7. How Can We Improve School Discipline?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osher, David; Bear, George G.; Sprague, Jeffrey R.; Doyle, Walter

    2010-01-01

    School discipline addresses schoolwide, classroom, and individual student needs through broad prevention, targeted intervention, and development of self-discipline. Schools often respond to disruptive students with exclusionary and punitive approaches that have limited value. This article surveys three approaches to improving school discipline…

  8. Disproportionality in School Discipline in Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastic, Billie

    2017-01-01

    The racial discipline gap--the finding that Black and Latino students are more likely to be disciplined at school than White students, and often more harshly--has implications for students' academic success. This study concluded that differences in students' behavior do not fully explain the disproportionate likelihood that Black students are…

  9. School Discipline Inequities Become a Federal Priority

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehr, Mary Ann

    2010-01-01

    Federal officials are getting the word out that addressing racial disparities in school discipline is a high priority, and they plan to use "disparate-impact analysis" in enforcing school discipline cases--a legal course of action that some civil rights lawyers contend was neglected under the administration of President George W. Bush. In…

  10. School Discipline Feeds the "Pipeline to Prison"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    Unsupported fears of youth violence in schools has led to an expansion of school-based policing and zero tolerance discipline. The historical reality is that America's public schools are very safe, even when located in high crime neighborhoods. Yet, school discipline is becoming increasingly punitive, moving from the schoolhouse to the courthouse.…

  11. Policies/Practices in Public School Discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, William E.; Payne, Tyrone

    1988-01-01

    A survey of 339 teachers (grades K-12) found lack of motivation and poor parental support to be the biggest discipline problems. Nearly 90 percent worked with a stated/written discipline policy. Approximately 75 percent believed that corporal punishment should continue. Verbal reprimands were the most common behavior change method used. (VW)

  12. School Discipline, School Uniforms and Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Chris; Krskova, Hana

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of school discipline in achieving academic performance. The study aims to clarify the role of permissive "vis-à-vis" authoritative teaching styles with an overarching hypothesis that better discipline leads to better academic performance. The authors also probe whether uniformed…

  13. Tweets Speak: Indefinite Discipline in the Age of Twitter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven James May

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article explains how three North American police services have extended technologies of discipline via the monitoring and use of Twitter during and between mega-events such as the 2010 Toronto G20 Summit. Taking as case studies the 2009 Pittsburgh G20 Summit, Toronto's G20 Summit in 2010, and the 2011 Occupy Wall Street protests in New York City, the Twitter-related arrests of activists at these mega-events reveal the ongoing work of maintaining indefinite discipline in North America. Furthermore, this articles shows that any citizen's decision to share, or not to share, information on Twitter (information otherwise often publicly available at any time also falls within the scope of ongoing surveillance of Twitter, where users of the platform find themselves increasingly complicit in the work of their own discipline.

  14. Multidisciplinarity, Interdisciplinarity, and Bridging Disciplines: A Matter of Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawn Youngblood

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Bridging disciplines have much to teach regarding how to combine analytical tools to tackle problems and questions that cross traditional disciplinary boundaries. This article explores interdisciplinary aspects of two long established bridging disciplines--geography and anthropology--in order to consider what the relatively young undertaking labeled “interdisciplinary studies” can learn from their long existence. It considers the fallacy of nomothetic claim as well as the fruitful production of solutions by viewing process (methodology, not domain (academic turf, as the key to interdisciplinary success. Staking claim to interdisciplinarity is shown to be unproductive while finding the need for interdisciplinary approaches and following the mandates of that need strengthens both the disciplines and interdisciplinary studies.

  15. Attitude toward Selfie Taking and its Relation to Body Image and Narcissism in Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Era; Sharma, Payal; Shah, Nilesh; Bharati, Anup; Sonavane, Sushma; Desousa, Avinash

    2018-01-01

    The recent and rapidly popularized social phenomenon of selfie taking has been showing an increasing trend. It is thus imperative to assess the knowledge, attitude, and perception of the groups toward this phenomenon. Selfie taking is associated with younger age groups and hence, we aimed to explore the attitudes toward selfie taking and its relation toward body image and narcissism in medical college students. This was cross-sectional study and had two groups with Group A comprising 92 first year medical students and Group B including 103 postgraduate (PG) medical students from various specialties. They were interviewed in a single session using the scale of attitude toward selfie-taking questionnaire, Body Image Acceptance and Action Questionnaire (BIAAQ), and the narcissistic personality inventory. Scores obtained were computed using basic descriptive statistics and t -test where appropriate. A strong positive favorable trend toward selfie taking was noticed among both groups (A = 56.5%, B = 45.6%). There was no difference in attitude between the two groups, or difference in the gender between those clicking their own selfies regularly within each group. BIAAQ reflected a significant difference among male subjects of the two groups with PG students was more concerned about body image ( P = 0.001), whereas female subjects of both groups showed no such difference. The narcissism traits also showed a significant difference, only when males of both groups were compared again in favor of PG medical students ( P = 0.022). This study revealed that selfie-taking is popular among medical students both in their undergraduate and PG period. Further research in diverse clinical and nonclinical populations is warranted to explore the relation between this phenomenon and body image acceptance or narcissistic traits.

  16. Sleep quality moderates the relation between depression symptoms and problematic cannabis use among medical cannabis users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babson, Kimberly A; Boden, Matthew Tyler; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O

    2013-05-01

    This study sought to extend research on the relation between depression symptoms and problematic cannabis use by evaluating the potential moderating role of perceived sleep quality among medical cannabis users. This employed a cross-sectional design. The sample consisted of 162 adults (mean age = 42.05 years, SD = 14.8; 22% female), with current recommendations from a doctor for medical cannabis, recruited from a medical cannabis dispensary. Consistent with previous research, individuals with heightened depression symptoms had greater problematic cannabis use. In addition, perceived sleep quality moderated this relation, such that depression symptoms differentially related to problematic cannabis use as a function of perceived quality of sleep (ΔR(2) = .03, p = .02). Participants with higher levels of depression and good perceived sleep quality had the greatest rates of problematic cannabis use. These results suggest that individuals with heightened depression may have higher rates of problematic cannabis use, in part, because of the beneficial effects of cannabis in terms of perceived sleep quality.

  17. Ethics in International Business Education: Perspectives from Five Business Disciplines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeClair, Debbie Thorne; Clark, Robert; Ferrell, Linda; Joseph, Gilbert; Leclair, Daniel

    1999-01-01

    Examines international ethics issues and perspectives from the vantage points of five disciplines in business education: economics, management, finance, accounting, and marketing. Finds an underlying theme of management awareness, accountability, and control of ethical decision-making. Suggests some ethics-related curriculum projects. (DB)

  18. Methods of Discipline: What Is Allowed? A Legal Memorandum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolte, M. Chester

    This publication briefly discusses the legal status of various methods of school discipline and related efforts to control the behavior of elementary and secondary school students. Specific topics examined include corporal punishment, suspension, expulsion, exclusion from extracurricular activities, detention, truancy, verbal correction, a variety…

  19. RCDA: Architecting as a Risk and Cost Management Discipline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poort, E.; van Vliet, H.

    2012-01-01

    We propose to view architecting as a risk- and cost management discipline. This point of view helps architects identify the key concerns to address in their decision making, by providing a simple, relatively objective way to assess architectural significance. It also helps business stakeholders to

  20. Conversation: A Discipline for Studying and Teaching the Sunday Lectionary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBrien, Philip J.

    1990-01-01

    Presents a method of teaching liturgical texts, related to the lectionary. Describes Bernard L. Lee's shared homily method based on Hans-Georg Gadamer's hermeneutical movements. Illustrates how Lee's homiletic method can be adapted into a disciplined conversation with the text for use in other religious instruction. (DB)

  1. Visualising Knowledge Structures in Biology: Discipline, Curriculum and Student Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinchin, Ian M.

    2011-01-01

    Concept mapping is discussed as a tool for the visualisation of knowledge structures that can be exploited within biological education. Application of this tool makes it possible to relate the structure of the curriculum to the structure of the discipline, in order to support the development of robust student knowledge structures in ways that…

  2. Student body racial and ethnic composition and diversity-related outcomes in US medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Somnath; Guiton, Gretchen; Wimmers, Paul F; Wilkerson, LuAnn

    2008-09-10

    Many medical schools assert that a racially and ethnically diverse student body is an important element in educating physicians to meet the needs of a diverse society. However, there is limited evidence addressing the educational effects of student body racial diversity. To determine whether student body racial and ethnic diversity is associated with diversity-related outcomes among US medical students. A Web-based survey (Graduation Questionnaire) administered by the Association of American Medical Colleges of 20,112 graduating medical students (64% of all graduating students in 2003 and 2004) from 118 allopathic medical schools in the United States. Historically black and Puerto Rican medical schools were excluded. Students' self-rated preparedness to care for patients from other racial and ethnic backgrounds, attitudes about equity and access to care, and intent to practice in an underserved area. White students within the highest quintile for student body racial and ethnic diversity, measured by the proportion of underrepresented minority (URM) students, were more likely to rate themselves as highly prepared to care for minority populations than those in the lowest diversity quintile (61.1% vs 53.9%, respectively; P < .001; adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.13-1.57). This association was strongest in schools in which students perceived a positive climate for interracial interaction. White students in the highest URM quintile were also more likely to have strong attitudes endorsing equitable access to care (54.8% vs 44.2%, respectively; P < .001; adjusted OR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.15-1.74). For nonwhite students, after adjustment there were no significant associations between student body URM proportions and diversity-related outcomes. Student body URM proportions were not associated with white or nonwhite students' plans to practice in underserved communities, although URM students were substantially more likely than white or nonwhite

  3. State Legislative Recommendations to Promote Fair and Effective School Discipline. NEPC Discipline Resource Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losen, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    This document presents a summary of the larger report "Discipline Policies, Successful Schools, and Racial Justice." State legislation is an important lever for improving the equity of student discipline policies. However, states vary tremendously, and only some provide accurate public reports on school discipline, support effective…

  4. Realization of Interdisciplinary Communications of Fundamental Disciplines and Disciplines of Mathematical Cycle in the Preparation of Future Programmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miсhaеl Lvov

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to interdisciplinary communication in the process of preparation of the future programmers and implementation of the basic principles of these relations in the study of disciplines of professional and practical training and math courses. The article deals with the role of interdisciplinary connections, as well as their function and significance for the formation of cognitive activity, independence and positive learning motivation. The focus is on methodological aspects of realization of interdisciplinary communications at studying basic disciplines of training future programmers and disciplines of mathematical cycle. In particular, the issues of realization of interdisciplinary communications during the study such disciplines as "Computer graphics, computational geometry," "Basics of algorithms and programming", "Programming Technologies" and the course "Analytical geometry and linear algebra", which included in to normative part of the training of programmers. This article describes the theoretical aspects of the implementation of interdisciplinary connections in the study of these disciplines, as well as examples of practical tasks with which these relationships can be implemented most effectively during training

  5. [Attitudes and behavior in relation to smoking among medical students in Casablanca in 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaghba, N; Yassine, N; Sghier, Z; Hayat, L; Elfadi, K; Rahibi, I; Hilali, S; Ech-cherrate, A; Mounaji, F; Benjelloun, H; Bakhatar, A; Bennani Othmani, M; Bahlaoui, A

    2013-05-01

    Smoking is a major public health problem. The doctor should be at the forefront in the fight against tobacco. Our study aims to determine the prevalence of smoking among medical students and to evaluate their attitudes towards this problem. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 736 medical students enrolled in the faculty of medicine and pharmacy of Casablanca in the academic year 2009/2010. The prevalence of smoking was 7.9%. It was significantly higher in men (16% against 3% in women) and varied little from one age group to another (7-8%). The average number of cigarettes smoked per day was eight. More than half of the students (58%) had attempted to quit smoking. The main motivation was the occurrence of certain symptoms (66%). Ex-smokers accounted for 10% of the total. Moroccan anti-smoking law was poorly understood by more than half of our students (72%). The majority was in favor of prohibition of tobacco sales to children (92%) and the training of health professionals to help patients who want to quit smoking (86%). Compared with previous years this study shows a marked decrease in the prevalence of smoking among medical students in Casablanca as well as a better understanding of its ill effects. This is due not only to greater awareness of this problem among medical students but also to the introduction of the teaching of the pathologies related to tobacco. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Children's relative age in class and use of medication for ADHD: a Danish Nationwide Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pottegård, Anton; Hallas, J.; Hernandez, Diaz

    2014-01-01

    BackgroundPrevious studies from North America and Iceland have shown that the youngest children within a grade are up to twice as likely to be diagnosed and treated for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) compared with their older classmates. We aimed to investigate whether younger ag...... on medication use for ADHD among children in Denmark. We postulate that this may be due to the high proportion of relatively young children held back by 1year in the Danish school system and/or a generally low prevalence of ADHD medication use in the country....... in class is associated with an increased probability of being prescribed medication for ADHD among school-aged children in Denmark. MethodsWe followed all Danish children between 2000 and 2012 from 1st through 6th grade (7-12years). Among children who started school on their age-assigned grade level, we...... estimated the prevalence proportion ratio (PPR) of receiving ADHD medication between the youngest children in class (born in October-December) and the oldest in class (born in January-March), specified by grade level, calendar year and gender. As a sensitivity analysis, we added children not on their age...

  7. [Study on the status and quality of sleep-related influencing factors in medical college students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Guo-shuang; Chen, Jing-wu; Yang, Xiu-zhen

    2005-05-01

    To study the status and influencing factors on sleep quality in some medical college students. Stratified sampling, pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI), self-evaluation depression scale (SDS), self-evaluation anxiety scale (SAS) and self-developed questionnaire of influencing factors on the quality of sleep in medical college students were used. Cumulative odds logistic model was performed to analyze the related factors on the quality of sleep. 19.17 percent of the medical college students showed poor quality of sleep and the difference between genders was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Statistically significant (P students and correlation was found between sleep quality and depression or anxiety (P quality of sleep in medical college students would include: worry of sleep, irregular work/rest, worry on examination, stress, relationship with classmates, self-evaluated health condition, environments of the dormitory and late to bed. Influencing factors were identified and comprehensive measures should be taken to improve the quality of sleep.

  8. Content analysis of oncology-related pharmaceutical advertising in a peer-reviewed medical journal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kan Yonemori

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The oncology market represents one of the largest pharmaceutical markets in any medical field, and printed advertising in medical journals is an important channel by which pharmaceutical companies communicate with healthcare professionals. The aim of the present study was to analyze the volume and content of and trends and changes in oncology-related advertising intended for healthcare professionals in a peer-reviewed medical journal. Information that could be included in advertisements to promote drug development and improve treatment strategies for cancer patients is discussed on the basis of the results of the analysis. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Overall, 6,720 advertisements covering 13,039 pages in a leading oncology medical journal published (by the American Society of Clinical Oncology between January 2005 and December 2009 were analyzed. The advertisements targeting pharmaceuticals and clinical trials, in particular, were reviewed. A total of 6,720 advertisements covering 13,039 pages were included in the analysis. For the years 2005-2009, the percentages of total journal pages dedicated to advertising were 24.0%, 45.7%, 49.8%, 46.8%, and 49.8%, respectively. Package insert information and efficacy and safety explanations appeared in more than 80% of advertisements intended for pharmaceutical promotion. From 2005 to 2009, the overall quantity of drug advertisements decreased by approximately 13%, whereas advertisements calling for the enrollment of patients into registration trials increased by approximately 11%. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Throughout the study period, oncology-related pharmaceutical advertisements occupied a considerable number of pages relative to other journal content. The proportion of advertisements on ongoing clinical trials increased progressively throughout the study period.

  9. Content analysis of oncology-related pharmaceutical advertising in a peer-reviewed medical journal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonemori, Kan; Hirakawa, Akihiro; Ando, Masashi; Hirata, Taizo; Yunokawa, Mayu; Shimizu, Chikako; Tamura, Kenji; Fujiwara, Yasuhiro

    2012-01-01

    The oncology market represents one of the largest pharmaceutical markets in any medical field, and printed advertising in medical journals is an important channel by which pharmaceutical companies communicate with healthcare professionals. The aim of the present study was to analyze the volume and content of and trends and changes in oncology-related advertising intended for healthcare professionals in a peer-reviewed medical journal. Information that could be included in advertisements to promote drug development and improve treatment strategies for cancer patients is discussed on the basis of the results of the analysis. Overall, 6,720 advertisements covering 13,039 pages in a leading oncology medical journal published (by the American Society of Clinical Oncology) between January 2005 and December 2009 were analyzed. The advertisements targeting pharmaceuticals and clinical trials, in particular, were reviewed. A total of 6,720 advertisements covering 13,039 pages were included in the analysis. For the years 2005-2009, the percentages of total journal pages dedicated to advertising were 24.0%, 45.7%, 49.8%, 46.8%, and 49.8%, respectively. Package insert information and efficacy and safety explanations appeared in more than 80% of advertisements intended for pharmaceutical promotion. From 2005 to 2009, the overall quantity of drug advertisements decreased by approximately 13%, whereas advertisements calling for the enrollment of patients into registration trials increased by approximately 11%. Throughout the study period, oncology-related pharmaceutical advertisements occupied a considerable number of pages relative to other journal content. The proportion of advertisements on ongoing clinical trials increased progressively throughout the study period.

  10. Understanding Medical Students' Experience with Stress and Its Related Constructs: A Focus Group Study from Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquhar, Julia; Lie, Desiree; Chan, Angelique; Ow, Mandy; Vidyarthi, Arpana

    2017-04-18

    In order to protect medical students from burnout and its untoward psychiatric effects, it is imperative to understand their stress, burnout, coping, and resilience experiences. This study aimed to derive collective definitions from the medical student perspective, to identify common themes of students' experiences, and to distinguish pre-clinical and clinical year students' experiences relating to these four constructs. The authors conducted focus groups of medical students in Singapore across 4 years using a semi-structured question guide. Participants shared their understanding, experiences, and the relationships between stress, burnout, coping, and resilience. Coders independently evaluated construct definitions and derived common themes through an iterative process, and compared transcripts of pre-clinical and clinical year students to determine differences in experience over time. Nine focus groups (54 students, 28 females, mean age 24.3) were conducted. Students identified common definitions for each construct. Nine themes emerged within three domains: (1) relating constructs to personal experience, (2) interrelating stress, burnout, coping, and resilience, and (3) understanding the necessity of stress. Compared to clinical students, pre-clinical students reported theory-based rather than reality-based experiences and exam-induced stress, defined constructs using present rather than future situations, and described constructs as independent rather than interrelated. This sample of medical students in Singapore shares a common understanding of stress, burnout, coping, and resilience, but experiences these uniquely. They perceive a positive role for stress. These findings build upon prior literature, suggesting an interrelationship between stress and its related constructs and adding the novel perspective of students from an Asian country.

  11. Impact of Discipline on Academic Performance of Pupils in Public Primary Schools in Muhoroni Sub-County, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simba, Nicholas Odoyo; Agak, John Odwar; Kabuka, Eric K.

    2016-01-01

    In Muhoroni Sub-County, Kenya, pupils' academic performance has received little attention in relation to discipline. The objectives of this study were to determine the level of discipline and extent of impact of discipline on academic performance among class eight pupils in the sub-county's public primary schools. The study adopted descriptive…

  12. The Patient-Centered Medical Home: How Is It Related to Quality and Equity Among the General Adult Population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reibling, Nadine

    2016-10-01

    This study investigates whether patient-reported characteristics of the medical home are associated with improved quality and equity of preventive care, advice on health habits, and emergency department use. We used adjusted risk ratios to examine the association between medical home characteristics and care measures based on the 2010 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. Medical home characteristics are associated with 6 of the 11 outcome measures, including flu shots, smoking advice, exercise advice, nutrition advice, all advice, and emergency department visits. Educational and income groups benefit relatively equally from medical home characteristics. However, compared with insurance and access to a provider, medical home characteristics have little influence on overall disparities in care. In sum, our findings support that medical home characteristics can improve quality and reduce emergency visits but we find no evidence that medical home characteristics alleviate disparities in care. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. The view of European experts regarding health economics for medical nutrition in disease-related malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freijer, K; Lenoir-Wijnkoop, I; Russell, C A; Koopmanschap, M A; Kruizenga, H M; Lhachimi, S K; Norman, K; Nuijten, M J C; Schols, J M G A

    2015-05-01

    Health-care systems are currently facing tremendous budget constraints resulting in growing pressure on decision makers and health-care providers to obtain the maximum possible health benefits of the resources available. Choices have to be made, and health economics can help in allocating limited health-care resources among unlimited wants and needs. Attempts to achieve cost reductions often focus on severe pathologies and chronic diseases as they commonly represent high health-care expenditures. In this context, awareness of the considerable financial burden caused by disease-related malnutrition (DRM) is lacking. Possibilities of reducing costs by optimising the management of DRM through medical nutrition will mostly not even be taken into account. During a European expert meeting, the total evaluation of medical nutrition was viewed and discussed. The aim of this meeting was to gain an experts' outline of the key issues relating to the health economic assessment of the use of medical nutrition. This article provides a summary of the observations per discussed item and describes the next steps suggested.

  14. [Expectations of relatives of critically ill patients regarding medical information. Qualitative research study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Ovies, A; Álvarez, J; Velayos, C; García, M M; Luengo, M J

    2014-01-01

    To determine and analyse the expectations, needs and experiences of relatives of critically ill patients as regards medical information and the level of their understanding. To find keys for improving communication and to draw up best practices in clinical information. Qualitative research study through semi-structured interviews carried out in a polyvalent adult intensive care unit (ICU) in a University Hospital. relatives of patients who were admitted to the ICU and who were discharged alive from the Unit. Ten interviews were performed taking into account diversification variables such as, type of family relationship with patients, patient age, length of ICU stay, origin, and location at the time of the interview. The results of the analysis of 10 interviews focused on: the subjective position of the family in the ICU (the agonizing wait), what the ICU represents for the family (surveillance and monitoring of a situation between life and death), perceived care (complete delegation of care), and medical information (what and how they expect and what and how they receive it), as much in the first information (sincerity, hope, delicacy) as in the successive. There is divergence between what families expect and what they get as regards medical information. To know the expectations of the families will help to provide higher quality care and more humane treatment in the ICU. Copyright © 2014 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Perceptions and intentions relating to seeking help for depression among medical undergraduates in Sri Lanka: a cross-sectional comparison with non-medical undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarasuriya, Santushi D; Jorm, Anthony F; Reavley, Nicola J

    2015-09-29

    This study attempts to understand whether medical undergraduates in Sri Lanka would seek help for depression. This was done by examining their perceptions and intentions relating to seeking help for depression, using the responses of non-medical undergraduates as the baseline for comparison. Medical (n = 620) and non-medical undergraduates (n = 4050) at the University of Colombo responded to a questionnaire which included a vignette about a depressed undergraduate, a depression measure, an open-ended question examining their intentions to seek help if affected by the problem described in the vignette, and scales examining their perceptions about the helpfulness of various help-seeking options for dealing with the problem. The latter items were also administered among mental health professionals to assess expert opinion on dealing with depression. Logistic regression models were used to examine if medical undergraduates differed from non-medical undergraduates in their rates of depression, help-seeking perceptions and help-seeking intentions. These models were also used to examine if being depressed was associated with differences in the help-seeking perceptions and intentions of medical undergraduates. Medical and non-medical undergraduates did not differ in their odds of being depressed. Overall, the medical undergraduates were more likely to appraise professional help positively. However, they did not differ from non-medical undergraduates in relation to their intentions to seek such help if affected by the problem personally. They were also more likely to indicate their intentions to seek help from parents and family. Furthermore, medical undergraduates who screened positive for Major Depression were less likely to appraise some of the recommended professional and informal help-seeking options as being 'helpful', with only 50 % considering that it was 'unhelpful' to deal with the problem alone. There was also no difference in their help

  16. Sex-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of U.S. medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Erica; Coughlin, Steven S; Elon, Lisa

    2008-08-01

    To understand the personal and clinical safe-sex-related knowledge, attitudes, and practices of U.S. medical students. Sixteen medical schools were selected to survey the class of 2003 based on their characteristics similar to the national average. Students were surveyed at freshman orientation, at entrance to wards, and during their senior year. The primary personal outcome was the response to the question, "Are you currently trying to practice safe sex when sexually involved? (no, not applicable/no, not trying/yes, low priority/yes, high priority)." The primary professional outcomes were answers to: 1) "How relevant do you think talking to patients about safe sex will be in your intended practice? (not at all/somewhat/highly)," and 2) "With a typical general medicine patient, how often do you actually talk about safe sex? (never-rarely/sometimes/usually-always)." A total of 2,316 students provided data, and the response rate was 80%. Personally practicing safe-sex habits was a high priority for 75% of the sexually active, single medical students, especially for women, African Americans, and those earlier in their medical education. Among seniors, 41% reported extensive training in discussing safe sex with patients, and 57% were highly confident about conducting such discussions. Overall, 55% of students believed it would be highly relevant to counsel patients about safe sex (59% of freshmen, 62% of those at entry to wards, and 41% of seniors); 73% answered all four true/false questions on human papillomavirus correctly. About half of U.S. medical students believed that counseling their patients about safe sex will not be highly relevant to their practice. These findings should be considered by those trying to interest a new generation of physicians in helping patients have safe-sex practices.

  17. Smartphone and medical related App use among medical students and junior doctors in the United Kingdom (UK): a regional survey

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Payne, Karl Frederick Braekkan; Wharrad, Heather; Watts, Kim

    2012-01-01

    ... errors.Previous literature has examined how smartphones can be utilised by both medical student and doctor populations, to enhance educational and workplace activities, with the potential to improve overall patient care...

  18. Smartphone and medical related App use among medical students and junior doctors in the United Kingdom (UK): a regional survey

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Payne, Karl Frederick Braekkan; Wharrad, Heather; Watts, Kim

    2012-01-01

    .... The ability to download custom-built software applications (apps) has created a new wealth of clinical resources available to healthcare staff, providing evidence-based decisional tools to reduce medical...

  19. Concern beliefs in medications: changes over time and medication use factors related to a change in beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiyanbola, Olayinka O; Farris, Karen B; Chrischilles, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Concern belief in medication is a construct that may characterize patients' attitude toward managing medicines, and this could change with time. Understanding the factors that would impact a change in concern beliefs would be helpful in interventions that could reframe patients' perceptions about their medicines. To examine if patient concern beliefs in medications change over time, assess the characteristics of individuals whose beliefs change, and determine what factors might impact a change in patient beliefs. Secondary data analysis using 2 longitudinal studies. The first study was an Internet-based survey of Medicare enrollees pre-post Medicare Part D. The second study was a randomized controlled trial evaluating a medication management intervention among adults with physical limitations. Respondents were classified as those whose beliefs remained stable and those whose beliefs increased and decreased over 2 separate periods. Chi-square analysis examined significant differences across the groups. Multiple linear regressions examined factors that influence changes in patient beliefs. Among older adults, there were differences in perceived health status (χ(2)=26.05, P=.001), number of pharmacies used (χ(2)=17.41, P=.008), and number of medicines used after the start of Medicare Part D. There were no significant differences among adults with physical limitations. Among older adults, having an increased number of medicines over time and reporting a self-reported adverse effect to a physician were positively associated with an increase in concern beliefs in medication. Having an increase in adherence was associated with a decrease in concern beliefs over time. Concern beliefs in medications may contribute independent information about individuals' response to drug programs and policies. Outcomes of medication use may influence patient anxieties about medicines. The instability of patient concerns in medications that occurs with prescription drug coverage changes

  20. Sleep Hygiene Practices and Their Relation to Sleep Quality in Medical Students of Qazvin University of Medical Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdi, Zohreh; Loukzadeh, Ziba; Moghaddam, Parichehr; Jalilolghadr, Shabnam

    2016-01-01

    Poor quality of sleep is a distressing and worrying condition that can disturb academic performance of medical students. Sleep hygiene practices are one of the important variables that affect sleep quality. The objective of this study was to assess association between sleep hygiene practices and sleep quality of medical students in Qazvin University of Medical Sciences. In this descriptive-correlational study, a total of 285 medical students completed a self-administered questionnaire. Demographic data, sleep-wake schedule in weekday and weekend, and sleep duration were collected. Students' sleep quality was assessed by Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Data were analyzed by SPSS Ver 13. Overall, 164 (57.5) of students had poor sleep quality. Mean global PSQI score and average score of four subscales were significantly higher in male than female. Regression analysis showed that male students (β=-0.85, Psleep hygiene practices slept worse. The findings of this study showed that the prevalence of poor sleep quality in medical students is high. Improper sleep hygiene behaviors might be a reason for poor quality of sleep in medical students.

  1. Sleep Hygiene Practices and Their Relation to Sleep Quality in Medical Students of Qazvin University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Yazdi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Poor quality of sleep is a distressing and worrying condition that can disturb academic performance of medical students. Sleep hygiene practices are one of the important variables that affect sleep quality. The objective of this study was to assess association between sleep hygiene practices and sleep quality of medical students in Qazvin University of Medical Sciences. Methods: In this descriptive-correlational study, a total of 285 medical students completed a self-administered questionnaire. Demographic data, sleep-wake schedule in weekday and weekend, and sleep duration were collected. Students' sleep quality was assessed by Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI. Data were analyzed by SPSS Ver 13. Results: Overall, 164 (57.5 of students had poor sleep quality. Mean global PSQI score and average score of four subscales were significantly higher in male than female. Regression analysis showed that male students (β=-0.85, P<0.05, students at senior level (β=-0.81, P<0.05, married students (β=-0.45, P<0.05, and those with improper sleep hygiene practices slept worse. Conclusion: The findings of this study showed that the prevalence of poor sleep quality in medical students is high. Improper sleep hygiene behaviors might be a reason for poor quality of sleep in medical students.

  2. [Analysis of the ethical principles in medical oaths used by medical schools of Argentina in relation to the Hippocratic Oath].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rancich, A M; Gelpi, R J

    1998-01-01

    Medical oaths have consulted the source of all Medical Ethics through centuries. Since the 60s a new consensus on ethics was sought to apply to the new medical problems. The consensus was on the basic principles: beneficence, non-maleficence, justice and respect for the patient's autonomy with its two rules of confidentiality and veracity. The Hippocratic Oath specifies the principles of beneficence and non-maleficence and the rule of confidentiality. They are included in the texts used in different Medical Schools of the United States, Canada and the United Kingdom. The purpose of this analysis is to determine which of those ethical principles are included in the Argentinian Medical Oaths. At present, out of the ten Faculties of Medicine that use a formula, six choose the Declaration of Geneva and the rest use their own texts. No schools use the Hippocratic Oath. Neither of the five different Oaths include the four principles. The rule of confidentiality is the one most frequently mentioned followed by the principles of beneficence and justice. The principles of non-maleficence and of respect for the patient's autonomy, in general, and the rule of veracity, in particular, are not indicated. Revision of the Medical Oaths used in Argentina, is basically for the ethical revision suggested, in order to include all the ethical principles strongly agreed upon.

  3. The Adverse Drug Event Collaborative: a joint venture to measure medication-related patient harm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddon, Mary E; Jackson, Aaron; Cameron, Chris; Young, Mary L; Escott, Linda; Maharaj, Ashika; Miller, Nigel

    2012-01-25

    To measure the extent of patient harm caused by medications (rate of Adverse Drug Events) in three DHBs, using a standardised trigger tool method. Counties Manukau, Capital and Coast and Canterbury DHBs decided to work collaboratively to implement the ADE Trigger Tool (TT). Definitions of ADE were agreed on and triggers refined. A random sample of closed charts (from March 2010 to February 2011) was obtained excluding patients who were admitted for <48 hours, children under the age of 18 and psychiatric admissions. In each DHB trained reviewers scanned these in a structured way to identify any of the 19 triggers. If triggers were identified, a more detailed, though time-limited review of the chart was done to determine whether an ADE had occurred. The severity of patient harm was categorised using the National Coordinating Council for Medication Error Reporting and Prevention Index. No attempt was made to determine preventability of harm and ADEs from acts of omission were excluded. The ADE TT was applied to 1210 charts and 353 ADE were identified, with an average rate of 28.9/100 admissions and 38/1,000 bed days. 94.5% of the ADE identified were in the lower severity scales with temporary harm, however in 5 patients it was considered that the ADE contributed to their death, 9 required an intervention to sustain life and 4 suffered permanent harm. The most commonly implicated drugs were morphine and other opioids, anticoagulants, antibiotics, Non Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) and diuretics. Patients who suffered an ADE were more likely to be female, older with more complex medical illnesses, and have a longer length of stay. The rate of medication-related harm identified by the ADE TT is considerably higher than that identified through traditional voluntary reporting mechanisms. The ADE TT provides a standardised measure of harm over time that can be used to determine trends and the effect of medication safety improvement programmes. This study not

  4. Operating theatre related syncope in medical students: a cross sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamjoom, AAB; Nikkar-Esfahani, A; Fitzgerald, JEF

    2009-01-01

    Background Observing surgical procedures is a beneficial educational experience for medical students during their surgical placements. Anecdotal evidence suggests that operating theatre related syncope may have detrimental effects on students' views of this. Our study examines the frequency and causes of such syncope, together with effects on career intentions, and practical steps to avoid its occurrence. Methods All penultimate and final year students at a large UK medical school were surveyed using the University IT system supplemented by personal approach. A 20-item anonymous questionnaire was distributed and results were analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version 15.0 (Chicago, Illinois, USA). Results Of the 630 clinical students surveyed, 77 responded with details of at least one near or actual operating theatre syncope (12%). A statistically significant gender difference existed for syncopal/near-syncopal episodes (male 12%; female 88%), p theatre. The most prevalent contributory factors were reported as hot temperature (n = 61, 79%), prolonged standing (n = 56, 73%), wearing a surgical mask (n = 36, 47%) and the smell of diathermy (n = 18, 23%). The most frequently reported measures that students found helpful in reducing the occurrence of syncopal episodes were eating and drinking prior to attending theatre (n = 47, 61%), and moving their legs whilst standing (n = 14, 18%). Conclusion Our study shows that operating theatre related syncope among medical students is common, and we establish useful risk factors and practical steps that have been used to prevent its occurrence. Our study also highlights the detrimental effect of this on the career intentions of medical students interested in surgery. Based on these findings, we recommend that dedicated time should be set aside in surgical teaching to address this issue prior to students attending the operating theatre. PMID:19284564

  5. Operating theatre related syncope in medical students: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamjoom, A A B; Nikkar-Esfahani, A; Fitzgerald, J E F

    2009-03-10

    Observing surgical procedures is a beneficial educational experience for medical students during their surgical placements. Anecdotal evidence suggests that operating theatre related syncope may have detrimental effects on students' views of this. Our study examines the frequency and causes of such syncope, together with effects on career intentions, and practical steps to avoid its occurrence. All penultimate and final year students at a large UK medical school were surveyed using the University IT system supplemented by personal approach. A 20-item anonymous questionnaire was distributed and results were analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version 15.0 (Chicago, Illinois, USA). Of the 630 clinical students surveyed, 77 responded with details of at least one near or actual operating theatre syncope (12%). A statistically significant gender difference existed for syncopal/near-syncopal episodes (male 12%; female 88%), p theatre. The most prevalent contributory factors were reported as hot temperature (n = 61, 79%), prolonged standing (n = 56, 73%), wearing a surgical mask (n = 36, 47%) and the smell of diathermy (n = 18, 23%). The most frequently reported measures that students found helpful in reducing the occurrence of syncopal episodes were eating and drinking prior to attending theatre (n = 47, 61%), and moving their legs whilst standing (n = 14, 18%). Our study shows that operating theatre related syncope among medical students is common, and we establish useful risk factors and practical steps that have been used to prevent its occurrence. Our study also highlights the detrimental effect of this on the career intentions of medical students interested in surgery. Based on these findings, we recommend that dedicated time should be set aside in surgical teaching to address this issue prior to students attending the operating theatre.

  6. Identifying patients with cost-related medication non-adherence: a big-data approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, James X; Meltzer, David O

    2016-08-01

    Millions of Americans encounter access barriers to medication due to cost; however, to date, there is no effective screening tool that identifies patients at risk of cost-related medication non-adherence (CRN). By utilizing a big-data approach to combining the survey data and electronic health records (EHRs), this study aimed to develop a method of identifying patients at risk of CRN. CRN data were collected by surveying patients about CRN behaviors in the past 3 months. By matching the dates of patients' receipt of monthly Social Security (SS) payments and the dates of prescription orders for 559 Medicare beneficiaries who were primary SS claimants at high risk of hospitalization in an urban academic medical center, this study identified patients who ordered their outpatient prescription within 2 days of receipt of monthly SS payments in 2014. The predictive power of this information on CRN was assessed using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Among the 559 Medicare patients at high risk of hospitalization, 137 (25%) reported CRN. Among those with CRN, 96 (70%) had ordered prescriptions on receipt of SS payments one or more times in 2014. The area under the Receiver Operating Curve was 0.70 using the predictive model in multivariate logistic regression analysis. With a new approach to combining the survey data and EHR data, patients' behavior in delaying filling of prescription until funds from SS checks become available can be measured, providing some predictive value for cost-related medication non-adherence. The big-data approach is a valuable tool to identify patients at risk of CRN and can be further expanded to the general population and sub-populations, providing a meaningful risk-stratification for CRN and facilitating physician-patient communication to reduce CRN.

  7. Relative accuracy and availability of an Irish National Database of dispensed medication as a source of medication history information: observational study and retrospective record analysis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Grimes, T

    2013-01-27

    WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: The medication reconciliation process begins by identifying which medicines a patient used before presentation to hospital. This is time-consuming, labour intensive and may involve interruption of clinicians. We sought to identify the availability and accuracy of data held in a national dispensing database, relative to other sources of medication history information. METHODS: For patients admitted to two acute hospitals in Ireland, a Gold Standard Pre-Admission Medication List (GSPAML) was identified and corroborated with the patient or carer. The GSPAML was compared for accuracy and availability to PAMLs from other sources, including the Health Service Executive Primary Care Reimbursement Scheme (HSE-PCRS) dispensing database. RESULTS: Some 1111 medication were assessed for 97 patients, who were median age 74 years (range 18-92 years), median four co-morbidities (range 1-9), used median 10 medications (range 3-25) and half (52%) were male. The HSE-PCRS PAML was the most accurate source compared to lists provided by the general practitioner, community pharmacist or cited in previous hospital documentation: the list agreed for 74% of the medications the patients actually used, representing complete agreement for all medications in 17% of patients. It was equally contemporaneous to other sources, but was less reliable for male than female patients, those using increasing numbers of medications and those using one or more item that was not reimbursable by the HSE. WHAT IS NEW AND CONCLUSION: The HSE-PCRS database is a relatively accurate, available and contemporaneous source of medication history information and could support acute hospital medication reconciliation.

  8. Consumers' willingness to pay for pharmacy services that reduce risk of medication-related problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, D C

    2000-01-01

    To measure willingness to pay (WTP) for pharmacists' services directed toward reducing the risk of medication-related problems and to determine factors that have a significant influence on WTP. WTP was measured using a contingent valuation method that involved asking respondents about their maximum WTP for pharmacists' services using a self-administered questionnaire. Respondents' WTP through ex post (out of pocket) and ex ante (insurance premium) methods were measured using three hypothetical scenarios illustrating reductions in the risk of medication-related problems. Logistic regression and semilog regression were performed to evaluate the responses to the survey. Outpatient clinic of Robert Wood Johnson University Hospital and two physician offices located in New Jersey. A convenience sample of 316 patients and/or family members, who visited the study site between March 1 and September 15, 1999, were included. Amounts patients were willing to pay out of pocket or through insurance premiums for pharmacists' services. The mean WTP out of pocket for pharmacy services ranged from $4.02 to $5.48 per prescription, depending on the level of risk reduction. Mean WTP through an increased insurance premium ranged from $28.79 to $36.29 per year. Overall, the average WTP for a pharmacist's consultation was $5.57, and WTP increased by $0.87 as counseling time increased by 1 minute. WTP was sensitive to changes in the magnitude of risk reduction in both ex post and ex ante scenarios. Income was positively related to WTP, but not to the level of statistical significance. Respondents were willing to pay for pharmacists' services that reduce the risk of medication-related problems. Additional investigations to determine the factors that influence WTP for health care professionals' services are warranted.

  9. Working memory-related functional brain patterns in never medicated children with ADHD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Massat

    Full Text Available Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is a pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by 3 clusters of age-inappropriate cardinal symptoms: inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. These clinical/behavioural symptoms are assumed to result from disturbances within brain systems supporting executive functions including working memory (WM, which refers to the ability to transiently store and flexibly manipulate task-relevant information. Ongoing or past medications, co-morbidity and differences in task performance are potential, independent confounds in assessing the integrity of cerebral patterns in ADHD. In the present study, we recorded WM-related cerebral activity during a memory updating N-back task using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI in control children and never medicated, prepubescent children with ADHD but without comorbid symptoms. Despite similar updating performance than controls, children with ADHD exhibited decreased, below baseline WM-related activation levels in a widespread cortico-subcortical network encompassing bilateral occipital and inferior parietal areas, caudate nucleus, cerebellum and functionally connected brainstem nuclei. Distinctive functional connectivity patterns were also found in the ADHD in these regions, with a tighter coupling in the updating than in the control condition with a distributed WM-related cerebral network. Especially, cerebellum showed tighter coupling with activity in an area compatible with the brainstem red nucleus. These results in children with clinical core symptoms of ADHD but without comorbid affections and never treated with medication yield evidence for a core functional neuroanatomical network subtending WM-related processes in ADHD, which may participate to the pathophysiology and expression of clinical symptoms.

  10. The emergent discipline of health web science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luciano, Joanne S; Cumming, Grant P; Wilkinson, Mark D; Kahana, Eva

    2013-08-22

    The transformative power of the Internet on all aspects of daily life, including health care, has been widely recognized both in the scientific literature and in public discourse. Viewed through the various lenses of diverse academic disciplines, these transformations reveal opportunities realized, the promise of future advances, and even potential problems created by the penetration of the World Wide Web for both individuals and for society at large. Discussions about the clinical and health research implications of the widespread adoption of information technologies, including the Internet, have been subsumed under the disciplinary label of Medicine 2.0. More recently, however, multi-disciplinary research has emerged that is focused on the achievement and promise of the Web itself, as it relates to healthcare issues. In this paper, we explore and interrogate the contributions of the burgeoning field of Web Science in relation to health maintenance, health care, and health policy. From this, we introduce Health Web Science as a subdiscipline of Web Science, distinct from but overlapping with Medicine 2.0. This paper builds on the presentations and subsequent interdisciplinary dialogue that developed among Web-oriented investigators present at the 2012 Medicine 2.0 Conference in Boston, Massachusetts.

  11. The Emergent Discipline of Health Web Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The transformative power of the Internet on all aspects of daily life, including health care, has been widely recognized both in the scientific literature and in public discourse. Viewed through the various lenses of diverse academic disciplines, these transformations reveal opportunities realized, the promise of future advances, and even potential problems created by the penetration of the World Wide Web for both individuals and for society at large. Discussions about the clinical and health research implications of the widespread adoption of information technologies, including the Internet, have been subsumed under the disciplinary label of Medicine 2.0. More recently, however, multi-disciplinary research has emerged that is focused on the achievement and promise of the Web itself, as it relates to healthcare issues. In this paper, we explore and interrogate the contributions of the burgeoning field of Web Science in relation to health maintenance, health care, and health policy. From this, we introduce Health Web Science as a subdiscipline of Web Science, distinct from but overlapping with Medicine 2.0. This paper builds on the presentations and subsequent interdisciplinary dialogue that developed among Web-oriented investigators present at the 2012 Medicine 2.0 Conference in Boston, Massachusetts. PMID:23968998

  12. Disciplining the Discipline: Anthropology and the Pursuit of Quality Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Norma

    2004-01-01

    Disciplinary knowledge in anthropology occupies a unique position in relation to quality education: anthropology in education and the anthropology of education. This essay differentiates between anthropology as a field, as a repository of content and disciplinary knowledge (anthropology in education), and anthropology as a tool, as a theoretical…

  13. Parental discipline behaviours and beliefs about their child: associations with child internalizing and mediation relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskey, B J; Cartwright-Hatton, S

    2009-09-01

    Internalizing disorders of childhood are a common and disabling problem, with sufferers at increased risk of subsequent psychiatric morbidity. Several studies have found associations between parenting styles and children's internalizing, although few have considered the role of parental discipline. Parental discipline style may exert an effect on children's internalizing symptoms. Anxiety and depression are reliably found to run in families and parental anxiety has been shown to effect parenting behaviour. This study set out to examine the links between parental anxiety, parental discipline style and child internalizing symptoms. Eighty-eight parents of children aged 4-10 years were recruited through primary schools. All parents completed questionnaires including measures relating to: adult anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory - Trait version, Penn State Worry Questionnaire), parental depression (Beck Depression Inventory - Fastscreen), parental discipline (The Parenting Scale), parenting-related attributions (Parenting Attitudes, Beliefs and Cognitions Scale) and child psychological morbidity (Child Behaviour Checklist 4-18 version). Significant correlations were found between both parental anxiety and child internalizing symptoms with ineffective discipline and negative beliefs about parenting. Particularly strong correlations were found between parental anxiety and child internalizing symptoms with harsh discipline. Parents of anxious/withdrawn children were more likely to hold negative beliefs about their child. The link between parental anxiety and child internalizing symptoms was mediated by harsh discipline. The link between parental anxiety and harsh discipline was mediated by parental beliefs about the child. Discipline style may be an important factor in the relationship between parent anxiety and child internalizing symptoms.

  14. Teacher Effectiveness in Relation to Emotional Intelligence Among Medical and Engineering Faculty Members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajeya Jha

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Studies have revealed that emotional intelligence (EI influences an individual's job performance in terms of organizational commitment and job satisfaction. But prior studies were limited mostly to the corporate sector. Therefore the present study was conducted to understand the correlation between EI and teaching performance in the case of faculty members at medical and engineering colleges, as courses related to these two fields are quite extensive and demanding which often leads to stress among students (Saipanish, 2003; Foster & Spencer, 2003; Schneider, 2007; Ray and Joseph, 2010. A total of 250 faculty members from three medical and four private engineering colleges of Uttar Pradesh, India, participated in the study. Emotional intelligence scale (EIS, 2007, Teacher Effectiveness Scale (TES, 2010 and Teacher Rating Scale (TRS, 2003 were administered to measure the emotional intelligence, self-reported teacher effectiveness and student rated teacher effectiveness of the faculty members respectively. All materials used in the study are constructed and standardized on Indian population. The study revealed a positive correlation between EI and teacher effectiveness, both self-reported and students rated. Among ten components of EI considered in the study; emotional stability, self-motivation, managing relations, self-awareness and integrity emerged as the best predictors of teacher effectiveness. Gender differences on the scores of EI and Teacher Effectiveness was insignificant. The EI and self-reported teacher effectiveness of engineering faculty members were relatively higher than those of medical faculty. However, according to students’ rating there was no significant difference in teacher effectiveness among the two groups. Implications of this research from the perspective of training faculty members are discussed.

  15. Healthcare managers' construction of the manager role in relation to the medical profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Knorring, Mia; Alexanderson, Kristina; Eliasson, Miriam A

    2016-05-16

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to explore how healthcare managers construct the manager role in relation to the medical profession in their organisations. Design/methodology/approach - In total, 18 of Sweden's 20 healthcare chief executive officers (CEOs) and 20 clinical department managers (CDMs) were interviewed about their views on management of physicians. Interviews were performed in the context of one aspect of healthcare management; i.e., management of physicians' sickness certification practice. A discourse analysis approach was used for data analysis. Findings - Few managers used a management-based discourse to construct the manager role. Instead, a profession-based discourse dominated and managers frequently used the attributes "physician" or "non-physician" to categorise themselves or other managers in their managerial roles. Some managers, both CEOs and CDMs, shifted between the management- and profession-based discourses, resulting in a kind of "yes, but […]" approach to management in the organisations. The dominating profession-based discourse served to reproduce the power and status of physicians within the organisation, thereby rendering the manager role weaker than the medical profession for both physician and non-physician managers. Research limitations/implications - Further studies are needed to explore the impact of gender, managerial level, and basic profession on how managers construct the manager role in relation to physicians. Practical implications - The results suggest that there is a need to address the organisational conditions for managers' role taking in healthcare organisations. Originality/value - Despite the general strengthening of the manager position in healthcare through political reforms during the last decades, this study shows that a profession-based discourse clearly dominated in how the managers constructed the manager role in relation to the medical profession on the workplace level in their organisations.

  16. Prevalence of drug-related problems in self-medication in Danish community pharmacies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Rossing

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Drug-related problems are known to be a major problem associated with pharmacotherapy. A broad range of studies, mainly in the area of prescription-only medicines, supports this fact. Only a few studies have evaluated drug-related problems with over-the-counter medicine and the role of community pharmacies in this.Purpose: To quantify drug-related problems in self-medication (use of over-the-counter medicine identified by community pharmacies in Denmark and to document the interventions by pharmacy staff in relation to the identified drug-related problems.Method: A descriptive study mapping drug-related problems in self-medication registered at the counter at a selected number of Danish community pharmacies.Results: Data for 3,868 consecutive customers with requests for over-the-counter (OTC medicines were registered at 39 community pharmacies. The pharmacies registered a total number of 4,324 OTC medicines requests, illustrating that a customer requested 1.1 OTC medicines on average. Drug-related problems (DRPs were identified for 813 customers, equivalent to DRPs for 21.0 % of all customers, presenting symptoms or requesting OTC medicines, and for 20 % of all over-the-counter medicines requests. 1,239 DRPs were registered, corresponding to an average of 1.5 DRPs per customer requesting OTC medicines.Community pharmacies estimated that they solved or partly solved 76.2 % of the detected DRPs; 73 % were solved without involving a general practitioner.Conclusions: DRPs were identified for 21.0 % of the pharmacy customers presenting a symptom or asking for an OTC medicine. The community pharmacy counselled the customers with DRPs more thoroughly than other customers by giving 2.4 pieces of professional advice, compared to an average of 2.1 to customers in general. It is not possible to determine the magnitude of the safety risk involved. Based on the most frequent categories of DRPs, there were risks of insufficient effect, unintended

  17. Relation of perceptions of educational environment with mindfulness among Chinese medical students: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xin; Wu, Daxing; Zhao, Xiaohua; Chen, Junxiang; Xia, Jie; Li, Mulei; Nie, Xueqing; Zhong, Xue

    2016-01-01

    Perceived educational environment influences academic outcomes, such as academic achievement, students' behaviors, well-being, socio-emotional adjustment and explicit self-esteem. Mindfulness is a set of skills that are beneficial to physical and mental health. Recently, it has been increasingly discussed about its usefulness in education, but little research has explored whether mindfulness can predict perceptions of educational environment. The aim of this study was to explore Chinese medical students' perceptions of learning environment and their relationship with mindfulness. Medical students at the Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University (N=431) completed the Chinese version of Dundee Ready Educational Environment Measure (DREEM-C) and the Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulness Skills (KIMS-C). One year later, a subgroup of the cohort (N=231) completed the DREEM-C again. Independent-samples t-test, variance analysis, correlation analysis, and hierarchical multiple regression (HMR) were conducted. DREEM-C total and subscales scores were net positive, but with room for improvement. Perceptions differed in relation to gender, academic year, and age. KIMS-C scores correlated with DREEM-C scores. The predictive effect persisted 1 year later. Medical students had net-positive perceptions about their learning environment. Higher mindfulness scores were associated with greater satisfaction with the environment and this association showed persistence.

  18. Emotional intelligence and related factors in medical sciences students of an Iranian university.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lolaty, Hamideh Azimi; Tirgari, Abdolhakim; Fard, Jabbar Heydari

    2014-03-01

    Emotional intelligence has evolved lot of interest in a variety of fields. The aim of this study was to determine the emotional intelligence and its related factors among junior medical sciences students. The research design was a descriptive - analytic analysis. Based on a census sampling method, the emotional intelligence of 322 junior medical sciences students was evaluated using the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory. This study was done from 2008 to 2009 in the Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. The findings showed that 48.1% and 22.4% of students had effective functioning and enhanced skills in emotional intelligence, respectively, while 29.5% of them needed some interventions in order to enhance the emotional intelligence. The study revealed that the students required intervention in every composite of emotional intelligence. In addition, emotional intelligence was correlated with gender, psychiatric history of the student and his/her family, experience of stressful life events, interest in the field of study, grade of study, and marital status. The results of the present study have shown that the students need some interventions to improve their emotional intelligence.

  19. Exploratory study of factors related to educational scores of first preclinical year medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitticharoon, Chantacha; Srisuma, Sorachai; Kanavitoon, Sawita; Summachiwakij, Sarayut

    2014-03-01

    The relationships among the scores of major subjects taught in the first preclinical year of a Thai medical school, previous academic achievements, and daily life activities are rarely explored. We therefore performed an exploratory study identifying various factors possibly related to the educational scores of these medical students. Questionnaires were sent out to all first preclinical year medical students, with 79.8% being returned (245/307 questionnaires). Positive correlations were revealed between the premedical year grade point average (pre-MD GPA) and anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry scores (R = 0.664, 0.521, and 0.653, respectively, P motivation to study medicine, student satisfaction with biochemistry, and exam performance expectations (R = 0.794, R(2) = 0.630, P < 0.001). In conclusion, pre-MD GPA and the percentage of expected reading are factors involved in producing good academic results in the first preclinical year. Anatomy and biochemistry, but not physiology, scores are influenced by satisfaction.

  20. Relation of perceptions of educational environment with mindfulness among Chinese medical students: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Xu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Perceived educational environment influences academic outcomes, such as academic achievement, students’ behaviors, well-being, socio-emotional adjustment and explicit self-esteem. Mindfulness is a set of skills that are beneficial to physical and mental health. Recently, it has been increasingly discussed about its usefulness in education, but little research has explored whether mindfulness can predict perceptions of educational environment. The aim of this study was to explore Chinese medical students’ perceptions of learning environment and their relationship with mindfulness. Methods: Medical students at the Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University (N=431 completed the Chinese version of Dundee Ready Educational Environment Measure (DREEM-C and the Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulness Skills (KIMS-C. One year later, a subgroup of the cohort (N=231 completed the DREEM-C again. Independent-samples t-test, variance analysis, correlation analysis, and hierarchical multiple regression (HMR were conducted. Results: DREEM-C total and subscales scores were net positive, but with room for improvement. Perceptions differed in relation to gender, academic year, and age. KIMS-C scores correlated with DREEM-C scores. The predictive effect persisted 1 year later. Conclusions: Medical students had net-positive perceptions about their learning environment. Higher mindfulness scores were associated with greater satisfaction with the environment and this association showed persistence.

  1. Ergonomic problems encountered by the medical team related to products used for minimally invasive surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Veelen, M A; Nederlof, E A L; Goossens, R H M; Schot, C J; Jakimowicz, J J

    2003-07-01

    The aim of this study is to gain insight into the problems encountered by the medical team related to products used for minimally invasive surgery. An inventory was made of the problems encountered during 12 endoscopic operations performed in one city hospital (Eindhoven, the Netherlands). After the observation, a questionnaire was distributed to all medical staff involved. All categories of personnel had physical, perceptional, and cognitive problems, especially surgeons, residents, and the sterile operation nurse. The main causes were the positioning of apparatus and staff, work clothing, and the limited reach of apparatus and/or instruments. Of the questionnaires, 80% were returned: 50% of the medical staff experienced perceptional problems and 63% had physical discomfort during the surgical procedure. The diversity of problems observed and/or reported by the staff during minimally invasive surgery decrease the comfort, efficiency, and safety of the operating-room work environment. Therefore, a new design approach is needed for MIS products in order to address the problems that occur with the current equipment.

  2. Association of medication errors with drug classifications, clinical units, and consequence of errors: Are they related?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muroi, Maki; Shen, Jay J; Angosta, Alona

    2017-02-01

    Registered nurses (RNs) play an important role in safe medication administration and patient safety. This study examined a total of 1276 medication error (ME) incident reports made by RNs in hospital inpatient settings in the southwestern region of the United States. The most common drug class associated with MEs was cardiovascular drugs (24.7%). Among this class, anticoagulants had the most errors (11.3%). The antimicrobials was the second most common drug class associated with errors (19.1%) and vancomycin was the most common antimicrobial that caused errors in this category (6.1%). MEs occurred more frequently in the medical-surgical and intensive care units than any other hospital units. Ten percent of MEs reached the patients with harm and 11% reached the patients with increased monitoring. Understanding the contributing factors related to MEs, addressing and eliminating risk of errors across hospital units, and providing education and resources for nurses may help reduce MEs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Role of Teriparatide in Medication-Related Osteonecrosis of the Jaws (MRONJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Dae Kwon

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available While the optimal treatment concept of medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaws (MRONJ is still in debate, several adjunct therapies have been introduced. Among these adjunctive measures, recombinant human parathyroid hormone (rhPTH, teriparatide seems to be the most promising treatment modality. Several studies have presented the beneficial effect of short-term teriparatide; they have shown an improved level of bone markers and radiographic evidence of bone healing. Although clinical validation by a controlled trial with prospective design would be essential, short-term teripratide therapy would be a good treatment option for MRONJ patients with impaired bone remodeling.

  4. Raman spectroscopy for rapid discrimination of Staphylococcus epidermidis clones related to medical device-associated infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samek, O.; Telle, H. H.; Harris, L. G.; Bloomfield, M.; Mack, D.

    2008-06-01

    We report on the potential application of Raman spectroscopy for the fast typing of Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis) strains related to medical device-associated infections. In this study bacterial colonies were directly probed on culture plates and Raman spectra were recorded from volumes containing approximately 10 bacteria. The spectra contain information on the molecular composition of the whole bacteria, such as fatty acids, carbohydrates, proteins and nucleic acids, DNA as well as RNA. We demonstrate the potential to discriminate different S. epidermidis clones, even after only short Raman exposure/collection times.

  5. Burnout and its related Demographic Factors among the Medical Staff working in Hospitals associated with Bushehr University of Medical Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gashmard, Roqayeh; Bagherzadeh, Razieh; Pouladi, Shahnaz; Akaberian, Sherafat

    2015-12-01

    Burnout exerts a significant negative influence on job performance, especially in such difficult jobs as those to be found in the health care industry. This research aimed to evaluate the association between 3 dimensions of burnout and demographic factors among the medical staff working in all of the hospitals associated with Bushehr University of Medical Sciences, Iran. The research detailed herein was a descriptive, analytical cross-sectional study which was conducted on 461 medical staff working in all of the hospitals associated with Bushehr University of Medical Sciences, Iran, from April 2011 to February 2012. The data were collected using a self-response method and include demographic information as well as the Maslach Burnout Inventory. In this study, samples were selected using a stratified random sampling method. The scoring of the burnout questionnaire ranged from 0 (never) to 6 (every day), with the levels of each of the 3 dimensions of burnout (as well as burnout itself) then being categorized as being low, moderate, or high. The data were analyzed using an independent t-test, a chi-square test, ANOVA, and Pearson's correlation coefficient, all in SPSS 18. Most people had experienced moderate levels of burnout (53.6%). With regard to the 3 domains of burnout, 46.4% of the participants had experienced moderate levels of emotional exhaustion, more than half (56.4%) had experienced low levels of depersonalization, and more than half (52.5%), high levels of a diminished sense of accomplishment. Burnout was shown to be statistically significantly associated with gender, place of residence, the condition of that residence, educational level, and being or not being local (p>0.05). The research findings showed that the rate of burnout was moderate among the medical staff working in hospitals associated with Bushehr University of Medical Sciences. Probably, burnout can be reduced in the hospitals' different staff members through better and suitable planning and

  6. Research lacking on school discipline reforms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2017-01-01

    ...: 215-898-9642, katstein@gse.upenn.edu, Penn Graduate School of Education Research lacking on school discipline reforms Thin evidence on causes of and alternatives to suspensions, expulsions September 29, 2016--Since 2011, the Obama...

  7. Leave for illness/accident or in the event of illness of a close relative - New medical certificate templates

    CERN Multimedia

    HR department

    2016-01-01

    Medical certificate templates are now available in the Admin e-guide (follow the “Forms and templates” link):    Medical certificate for illness/accident Medical certificate for a medical examination or treatment Medical certificate in the event of illness of a close relative These templates are provided for the convenience of members of the personnel and their use is recommended but not compulsory. Other forms of medical certificates issued by a medical doctor may also be submitted, provided they contain the same items of information as those given in the templates. More information on the applicable rules and on the way leave is managed at CERN can be found in the Admin e-guide web pages. Human Resources department HR.leave@cern.ch

  8. Racial and ethnic disparities in cost-related medication non-adherence among cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Minjee; Salloum, Ramzi G

    2016-06-01

    Cancer survivors are delaying or avoiding necessary care due to costs, and medication non-adherence is an important aspect of deferred treatment. This study estimates the prevalence of cost-related medication non-adherence (CRN) by race and ethnicity and examines factors associated with CRN among cancer survivors. Using the 2006-2013 National Health Interview Survey, we examine self-reported CRN among cancer survivors compared with cancer-free controls. Descriptive statistics and multiple logistic regression models were used to identify factors associated with CRN among cancer survivors. In a nationally representative sample of 472,542 adults, 10,998 participants reported a history of cancer and 461,544 did not. Among 10,998 cancer survivors, 1397 (12.70 %) reported CRN. Among older cancer survivors, African-Americans were 2.64 times more likely (95 % confidence interval (CI), 1.73 to 4.01) and Hispanics 2.07 times more likely (95 % CI, 1.32 to 3.24) than whites to report CRN. Among younger cancer survivors, Hispanics were 1.61 times more likely (95 % CI, 1.23 to 2.10) than whites to report CRN. Significant racial and ethnic disparities in CRN were evident among cancer survivors. Older African-American and Hispanic overall survivors were more likely to report CRN in the past year compared with non-Hispanic whites. Given increasing prescription drug expenditure, it is important to closely monitor CRN in high-risk subgroups. Racial and ethnic minority groups at high risk for CRN should be counseled on the importance of medication adherence and offered support services to promote medication adherence. Further studies are warranted to establish effective policies and interventions in vulnerable populations.

  9. Early rehospitalization after initial chronic kidney disease educational hospitalization relates with a multidisciplinary medical team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kose, Eiji; An, Taesong; Kikkawa, Akihiko; Hayashi, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    It is well-documented that chronic kidney disease (CKD) often results in end-stage renal failure and puts patients at extremely high risk for developing cardiovascular disease. Educational hospitalization at medical institutions in Japan is important for patients with CKD because it facilitates treatment in earlier stages of CKD when subjective symptoms are not apparent. However, some patients who have achieved their educational targets tend to have poor compliance at home after discharge from the hospital, resulting in rehospitalization shortly. In this study, we examined the factors for early rehospitalization of patients after initial CKD educational hospitalization compared with non-rehospitalized patients. One hundred thirty-seven patients after discharge from CKD educational hospitalization in Japan between March 2011 and December 2012 were included in the analyses. The subjects were classified into two groups: the early rehospitalization group and control group. We adjusted for confounding variables and performed multiple logistic regression analysis with the presence or absence of early rehospitalization as a dependent variable to investigate the association of early rehospitalization with patient background features, laboratory data, vital signs, instruction-related items, and home environment. Study subjects included 22 patients in the early hospitalization group and 115 patients in control group. Multivariable analysis for early rehospitalization indicated that insufficient instruction by physician, pharmacist, and dietitians was independent explanatory variable. Analyzing by Kaplan-Meier method, the probability of non-rehospitalization in the instruction group was significantly higher than that in the non-instruction group. Therefore, we believe it is necessary to involve a competent, multidisciplinary medical team (consisting of physicians, pharmacists, and dietitians) in addressing the early rehospitalization issue in patients with CKD. These findings

  10. Tourism - an academic discipline (discursive article)

    OpenAIRE

    Butowski, Leszek

    2012-01-01

    The article discusses the main methodological dilemmas connected with tourism as a field of academic research. The first part presents tourism as an area of interest in various academic disciplines. The second is a critical discussion on multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary approaches to the study of tourism. The third features an analysis of the methodological standpoints concerning possibilities for the autonomy of tourism as an academic discipline. The summary proposes a model of develo...

  11. Medical Costs and Productivity Costs Related to Voice Symptoms in Colombian Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantor Cutiva, Lady Catherine; Burdorf, Alex

    2015-11-01

    To investigate the medical costs and productivity costs of voice symptoms among teachers and to assess the contribution of the characteristics of voice symptoms, sociodemographic characteristics, health conditions, and work-related factors to these costs. This is a cross-sectional study. In 2012, we conducted a longitudinal study in 12 public schools in Bogotá D.C., Colombia. This study is focused on cross-sectional results obtained in the first stage of the data collection process. Participants filled out a questionnaire on sociodemographics, voice symptoms, work-related conditions, use of health care, productivity loss at work, and sickness absence. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to explore associations among health care use, voice-related absenteeism and productivity loss with duration and severity of voice symptoms, sociodemographic characteristics, health conditions, and work-related factors. In total, 621 Colombian teachers participated in this research, 438 of whom had self-reported voice complaints and who therefore made up the study population. Total medical costs and productivity costs due to presence of voice symptoms among teachers with voice complaints equaled around 37% of their monthly wage. Approximately, 3% of the costs were direct costs for health care use, and 97% were indirect costs for productivity losses. Severity of voice symptoms was significantly associated with health care use and absenteeism. Voice symptoms among teachers have important economic consequences because of health care use, voice-related absenteeism, and productivity loss at work. Copyright © 2015 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Relativity Screens for Misvalued Medical Services: Impact on Noninvasive Diagnostic Radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkrantz, Andrew B; Silva, Ezequiel; Hawkins, C Matthew

    2017-11-01

    In 2006, the AMA/Specialty Society Relative Value Scale Update Committee (RUC) introduced ongoing relativity screens to identify potentially misvalued medical services for payment adjustments. We assess the impact of these screens upon the valuation of noninvasive diagnostic radiology services. Data regarding relativity screens and relative value unit (RVU) changes were obtained from the 2016 AMA Relativity Assessment Status Report. All global codes in the 2016 Medicare Physician Fee Schedule with associated work RVUs were classified as noninvasive diagnostic radiology services versus remaining services. The frequency of having ever undergone a screen was compared between the two groups. Screened radiology codes were further evaluated regarding the RVU impact of subsequent revaluation. Of noninvasive diagnostic radiology codes, 46.0% (201 of 437) were screened versus 22.2% (1,460 of 6,575) of remaining codes (P < .001). Most common screens for which radiology codes were identified as potentially misvalued were (1) high expenditures (27.5%) and (2) high utilization (25.6%). The modality and body region most likely to be identified in a screen were CT (82.1%) and breast (90.9%), respectively. Among screened radiology codes, work RVUs, practice expense RVUs, and nonfacility total RVUs decreased in 20.3%, 65.9%, and 75.3%, respectively. All screened CT, MRI, brain, and spine codes exhibited decreased total RVUs. Policymakers' ongoing search for potentially misvalued medical services has disproportionately impacted noninvasive diagnostic radiology services, risking the introduction of unintended or artificial shifts in physician practice. Copyright © 2017 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Patterns of Exclusionary Discipline by School Typology, Ethnicity, and Their Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noltemeyer, Amity; Mcloughlin, Caven S.

    2010-01-01

    Although exclusionary discipline has been linked to a variety of negative student outcomes, it continues to be utilized by schools. This study investigates two critical variables as they relate to exclusionary discipline: School typology (i.e., urban, rural, suburban) and student ethnicity. Using data from 326 Ohio school districts, a MANCOVA…

  14. Disciplines, Skills and the University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Johan; Young, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Several authors have suggested that the contract between the university and society formulated in the nineteenth century is breaking down, and a new relation between knowledge and society is being installed. This paper investigates what is at stake in this shift by re-visiting the roots of disciplinary knowledge, examining Durkheim's social…

  15. Academic procrastination and related factors in students of Guilan University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MM Chehrzad

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the challenges that students faced during their education is academic procrastination. It means “delay in performing a task”. Since academic procrastination could effect on various aspects of students' personal and social life, by identifying related factors it may be limited. This study aimed to determined academic procrastination and related factors in Students of Guilan University of Medical Sciences in 2015. Methods:  In this cross-sectional study, 459 students of all major programs of Guilan University of Medical Sciences were selected by stratified random sampling method. Data collection scales included three parts of demographic information, academic information and Procrastination Assessment Scale for Students (PASS by Solomon and Rothblum. Data was analyzed with T- Test, ANOVA, multiple regressions by SPSS V. 20.  Result: Most of students were female (72.7%, single (86% and undergraduate (66.6%. Mean score of academic procrastination was 63.3±9.1 and most students (69.5% had moderate procrastination. Academic procrastination had significant difference with gender (p=0.002 and academic level (p=0.03. Also in multiple regression models, gender, program of study  and academic level were main predictors of procrastination.  Females, dental students and postgraduate students had higher level of academic procrastination. Conclusion: There is a moderate academic procrastination in students of Guilan University of Medical Sciences and its relationship with gender, program of study and academic level was observed.  Investigation on causes and appropriate strategies to reduce this behavior is recommended.

  16. Linking scientific disciplines: Hydrology and social sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidl, R.; Barthel, R.

    2017-07-01

    The integration of interdisciplinary scientific and societal knowledge plays an increasing role in sustainability science and more generally, in global change research. In the field of water resources, interdisciplinarity has long been recognized as crucial. Recently, new concepts and ideas about how to approach water resources management more holistically have been discussed. The emergence of concepts such as socio-hydrology indicates the growing relevance of connections between social and hydrological disciplines. In this paper, we determine how well social sciences are integrated with hydrological research by using two approaches. First, we conducted a questionnaire survey with a sample of hydrology researchers and professionals (N = 353) to explore current opinions and developments related to interdisciplinary collaboration between hydrologists and social scientists. Second, we analyzed the disciplinary composition of author teams and the reference lists of articles pertaining to the socio-hydrology concept. We conclude that interdisciplinarity in water resources research is on a promising track but may need to mature further in terms of its aims and methods of integration. We find that current literature pays little attention to the following questions: What kind of interdisciplinarity do different scholars want? What are social scientists' preferred roles and knowledge from a hydrology perspective?

  17. Geocognition Research: An International Discipline (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libarkin, J.

    2009-12-01

    Geocognition and geoscience education research have experienced a dramatic increase in research productivity and graduate student training in the past decade. At this writing, over twelve U.S. graduate programs dedicated to geocognition and geoscience education research exist within geoscience departments, with numerous other programs housed within education. International research programs are experiencing similar increases in these research domains. This insurgence of graduate training opportunities is due in large part to several factors, including: An increased awareness of the importance of Earth Systems Science to public understanding of science, particularly in light of global concern about climate change; new funding opportunities for science education, cognitive science, and geoscience education research; and, engagement of a significant part of the geosciences and education communities in writing new standards for Earth Systems literacy. Existing research programs blend geoscience content knowledge with research expertise in education, cognitive science, psychology, sociology and related disciplines. Research projects reflect the diversity of interests in geoscience teaching and learning, from investigations of pedagogical impact and professional development to studies of fundamental geocognitive processes.

  18. Survey of Anxiety Levels and Its Relation to Students Demographic of Alborz University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Norouzinia

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Today, changing lifestyles, social relations and the advancement of technology causes fear, threats and concerns of different groups in society, especially students. Adverse impact of Anxiety on the efficacy and talents, personality and social identity formation of students, threat to achieve the goals of academic achievement and mental health. The present study was conducted to determine level of anxiety and some of their demographic correlates in the Alborz University of Medical Sciences in 1390. Methods: This study is a descriptive cross sectional study. The study population included all students of the Alborz university. 305 students were selected by stratified random sampling method. The data collection instrument was a demographic questionnaire and standardized Spielberger Anxiety Inventory. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistical methods. Results: Based on our results, 64 percent of students were anxious. Anxiety levels were significantly higher in men than women (p=0.049. The level of anxiety and interesting in medical course (p<0.001, non-academic study (p=0.007 and a major physical illness (p=0.009 had significant correlations with together. Conclusion: Results showed a high percentage of students anxious. Regarding the relation between anxiety and other problems such as depression and other disorders including failure in educational function, social relationships and lifestyle, Training courses on coping skills for anxiety and stress as well as consulting services and further guidance is recommended for them.

  19. Unpacking Exoplanet Detection Using Pedagogical Discipline Representations (PDRs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prather, Edward E.; Chambers, Timothy G.; Wallace, Colin Scott; Brissenden, Gina

    2017-01-01

    Successful educators know the importance of using multiple representations to teach the content of their disciplines. We have all seen the moments of epiphany that can be inspired when engaging with just the right representation of a difficult concept. The formal study of the cognitive impact of different representations on learners is now an active area of education research. The affordances of a particular representation are defined as the elements of disciplinary knowledge that students are able to access and reason about using that representation. Instructors with expert pedagogical content knowledge teach each topic using representations with complementary affordances, maximizing their students’ opportunity to develop fluency with all aspects of the topic. The work presented here examines how we have applied the theory of affordances to the development of pedagogical discipline representation (PDR) in an effort to provide access to, and help non-science-majors engage in expert-like reasoning about, general relativity as applied to detection of exoplanets. We define a pedagogical discipline representation (PDR) as a representation that has been uniquely tailored for the purpose of teaching a specific topic within a discipline. PDRs can be simplified versions of expert representations or can be highly contextualized with features that purposefully help unpack specific reasoning or concepts, and engage learners’ pre-existing mental models while promoting and enabling critical discourse. Examples of PDRs used for instruction and assessment will be provided along with preliminary results documenting the effectiveness of their use in the classroom.

  20. Intergenerational and partner influences on fathers' negative discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capaldi, Deborah M; Pears, Katherine C; Kerr, David C R; Owen, Lee D

    2008-04-01

    Recent studies have found significant but relatively modest associations in parenting across generations, suggesting additional influences on parenting beyond experiences in the family of origin. The present prospective, cross-generational study of at-risk men (Oregon Youth Study) focuses on fathers' negative discipline practices with their 2- to 3-year-old children. The theoretical model is based on a dynamic developmental systems approach to problematic family functioning, which points to the importance of developmental systems, including family risk context and key influential social interactional systems, and emphasizes influence that is directly pertinent to the outcome of interest. Path modeling indicated that the men's poor and harsh discipline practices were predicted by partners' problem behavior (substance use and antisocial behavior) and negative discipline practices, as well as by poor discipline experienced in the family of origin; men's own problem behavior, ages at which they became fathers, and family socioeconomic status were controlled. Findings indicate the importance of focusing on influence dynamics across parents.

  1. Current Controversies on the Pathogenesis of Medication-Related Osteonecrosis of the Jaw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winnie Zee Man Wat

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ was first reported more than a decade ago. Since then, numerous cases have been diagnosed. Currently, there are three groups of drugs related to MRONJ: bisphosphonates, denosumab and anti-angiogenic drugs. As MRONJ can lead to debilitating clinical sequels and limited effective treatment options are available, much research has been done in understanding its pathophysiology. Until now, the exact pathogenesis of MRONJ has not been fully elucidated. While history of invasive dental procedures or local trauma may be present, some cases occur spontaneously without any preceding factors. This review aims to examine and discuss the three main hypotheses for the pathogenesis of MRONJ, namely suppressed bone turnover, cellular toxicity and infection.

  2. The Association Between Potentially Inappropriate Prescribing and Medication-Related Hospital Admissions in Older Patients: A Nested Case Control Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Stelt, C.A.K.; Vermeulen Windsant-van den Tweel, A.M.A.; Egberts, A.C.G.; van den Bemt, P.M.L.A.; Leendertse, A.J.; Hermens, W.A.J.J.; van Marum, R.J.; Derijks, Jeroen

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Medication-related problems can cause serious adverse drug events (ADEs) that may lead to hospitalization of the patient. There are multiple screening methods to detect and reduce potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) and potential prescribing omissions (PPOs). Whether this will

  3. The Association Between Potentially Inappropriate Prescribing and Medication-Related Hospital Admissions in Older Patients : A Nested Case Control Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Stelt, C. A K; Vermeulen Windsant-van den Tweel, A. M A; Egberts, A. C G; van den Bemt, P. M L A; Leendertse, A. J.; Hermens, W. A J J; van Marum, R. J.; Derijks, H. J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Medication-related problems can cause serious adverse drug events (ADEs) that may lead to hospitalization of the patient. There are multiple screening methods to detect and reduce potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) and potential prescribing omissions (PPOs). Whether this will

  4. Resource-oriented coaching for reduction of examination-related stress in medical students: an exploratory randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kötter, Thomas; Niebuhr, Frank

    2016-01-01

    The years spent in acquiring medical education is considered a stressful period in the life of many students. Students whose mental health deteriorates during this long period of study are less likely to become empathic and productive physicians. In addition to other specific stressors, academic examinations seem to further induce medical school-related stress and anxiety. Combined group and individual resource-oriented coaching early in medical education might reduce examination-related stress and anxiety and, consequently, enhance academic performance. Good quality evidence, however, remains scarce. In this study, therefore, we explored the question of whether coaching affects examination-related stress and health in medical students. We conducted a randomized controlled trial. Students who registered for the first medical academic examination in August 2014 at the University of Lübeck were recruited and randomized into three groups. The intervention groups 1 and 2 received a 1-hour psychoeducative seminar. Group 1 additionally received two 1-hour sessions of individual coaching during examination preparation. Group 3 served as a control group. We compared changes in self-rated general health (measured by a single item), anxiety and depression (measured by the hospital anxiety and depression scale), as well as medical school stress (measured by the perceived medical school stress instrument). In order to further investigate the influence of group allocation on perceived medical school stress, we conducted a linear regression analysis. We saw a significant deterioration of general health and an increase in anxiety and depression scores in medical students while preparing for an examination. We found a small, but statistically significant, effect of group allocation on the development of perceived medical school stress. However, we could not differentiate between the effects of group coaching only and group coaching in combination with two sessions of individual

  5. Incidence, severity and preventability of medication-related visits to the emergency department: a prospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zed, Peter J.; Abu-Laban, Riyad B.; Balen, Robert M.; Loewen, Peter S.; Hohl, Corinne M.; Brubacher, Jeffrey R.; Wilbur, Kerry; Wiens, Matthew O.; Samoy, Leslie J.; Lacaria, Katie; Purssell, Roy A.

    2008-01-01

    Background Medication-related visits to the emergency department are an important but poorly understood phenomenon. We sought to evaluate the frequency, severity and preventability of drug-related visits to the emergency department. Methods We performed a prospective observational study of randomly selected adults presenting to the emergency department over a 12-week period. Emergency department visits were identified as drug-related on the basis of assessment by a pharmacist research assistant and an emergency physician; discrepancies were adjudicated by 2 independent reviewers. Results Among the 1017 patients included in the study, the emergency department visit was identified as drug-related for 122 patients (12.0%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 10.1%–14.2%); of these, 83 visits (68.0%, 95% CI 59.0%–76.2%) were deemed preventable. Severity was classified as mild in 15.6% of the 122 cases, moderate in 74.6% and severe in 9.8%. The most common reasons for drug-related visits were adverse drug reactions (39.3%), nonadherence (27.9%) and use of the wrong or suboptimal drug (11.5%). The probability of admission was significantly higher among patients who had a drug-related visit than among those whose visit was not drug-related (OR 2.18, 95% CI 1.46–3.27, p < 0.001), and among those admitted, the median length of stay was longer (8.0 [interquartile range 23.5] v. 5.5 [interquartile range 10.0] days, p = 0.06). Interpretation More than 1 in 9 emergency department visits are due to drug-related adverse events, a potentially preventable problem in our health care system. PMID:18519904

  6. Does endorsement of physical discipline matter? Assessing moderating influences on the maternal and child psychological correlates of physical discipline in African American families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLoyd, Vonnie C; Kaplan, Rachel; Hardaway, Cecily R; Wood, Dana

    2007-06-01

    Using longitudinal data from a subsample of 890 African American families in the Child Development Supplement of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, this study examined whether maternal endorsement of physical discipline moderates the link between (a) maternal psychological distress and spanking frequency and (b) spanking frequency and child depressive symptoms. As predicted, physical discipline administered by nonendorsing mothers was more strongly linked to maternal psychological distress than physical discipline administered by endorsing mothers. Also in keeping with the authors' hypothesis, the relation between spanking frequency and child-reported depressive symptoms was stronger for children of nonendorsing mothers than for children of endorsing mothers. In particular, the positive relation between physical discipline and children's depressive symptoms was significant only for children of nonendorsing mothers. These findings suggest that within-group variation in African American mothers' attitudes about physical discipline partially regulates the conditions under which these mothers use physical discipline and the probability that physical discipline contributes to depressive symptoms in children. Conclusions and implications for future research are discussed.

  7. Effectiveness of work-related medical rehabilitation in cancer patients: study protocol of a cluster-randomized multicenter trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wienert, Julian; Schwarz, Betje; Bethge, Matthias

    2016-07-27

    Work is a central resource for cancer survivors as it not only provides income but also impacts health and quality of life. Additionally, work helps survivors to cope with the perceived critical life event. The German Pension Insurance provides medical rehabilitation for working-age patients with chronic diseases to improve and restore their work ability, and support returning to or staying at work, and thus tries to sustainably avoid health-related early retirement. Past research showed that conventional medical rehabilitation programs do not support returning to work sufficiently and that work-related medical rehabilitation programs report higher return-to-work rates across several health conditions, when compared to medical rehabilitation. Therefore, the current study protocol outlines an effectiveness study of such a program for cancer survivors. To evaluate the effectiveness of work-related medical rehabilitation in cancer patients we conduct a cluster-randomized multicenter trial. In total, 504 rehabilitation patients between 18 and 60 years with a Karnofsky Performance Status of ≥70 %, a preliminary positive social-medical prognosis of employability for at least 3 h/day within the next 6 months and an elevated risk of not returning to work will be recruited in four inpatient rehabilitation centers. Patients are randomized to the work-related medical rehabilitation program or the conventional medical rehabilitation program based on their week of arrival at each rehabilitation center. The work-related medical rehabilitation program comprises additional work-related diagnostics, multi-professional team meetings, an introductory session as well as work-related functional capacity training, work-related psychological groups, and social counseling. All additional components are aimed at the adjustment of the patients' capacity in relation to their individual job demands. Role functioning defines the main study outcome and will be assessed with the EORTC

  8. "On Time and Discipline in Islam" (Analysis Towards Purpose of Islamic Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinasril Amir

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article contains elucidation about punctuality issues and discipline in educational perspective. From the discussion that has been done it can be said that punctuality problems and discipline are very important and vital in building good and advanced of human life, because it is related to the basic, function and purpose of education as well as the teachings of Islam. Punctuality and discipline are a fundamental goal of the educational efforts and Islamic Shari'ah. In Islam, there are many concepts related to punctuality and discipline. They are obedience, self-control and behavior, submission and obedience, as well as support for the values and rules of the understanding, comprehension, awareness and responsibility. Being punctuality and discipline have to be owned and improved in education and life, and in turn, the family, society and the environment should support it in order to achieve the progress. Copyright © 2014 by Al-Ta'lim All right reserved

  9. Ethnic differences in the link between physical discipline and later adolescent externalizing behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansford, Jennifer E.; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Bates, John E.; Pettit, Gregory S.

    2009-01-01

    Background Parents' use of physical discipline has generated controversy related to concerns that its use is associated with adjustment problems such as aggression and delinquency in children. However, recent evidence suggests that there are ethnic differences in associations between physical discipline and children's adjustment. This study examined race as a moderator of the link between physical discipline and adolescent externalizing behavior problems, extending previous research beyond childhood into adolescence and considering physical discipline at multiple points in time. Methods A representative community sample of 585 children was followed from pre-kindergarten (age 5) through grade 11 (age 16). Mothers reported on their use of physical discipline in the child's first five years of life and again during grades 6 (age 11) and 8 (age 13). Mothers and adolescents reported on a variety of externalizing behaviors in grade 11 including aggression, violence, and trouble at school and with the police. Results A series of hierarchical linear regressions controlling for parents' marital status, socioeconomic status, and child temperament revealed significant interactions between physical discipline during the child's first five years of life and race in the prediction of 3 of the 7 adolescent externalizing outcomes assessed and significant interactions between physical discipline during grades 6 and 8 and race in the prediction of all 7 adolescent externalizing outcomes. Regression slopes showed that the experience of physical discipline at each time point was related to higher levels of subsequent externalizing behaviors for European American adolescents but lower levels of externalizing behaviors for African American adolescents. Conclusions There are race differences in long-term effects of physical discipline on externalizing behaviors problems. Different ecological niches may affect the manner in which parents use physical discipline, the meaning that children

  10. The relation between smoking status and medical conditions among incarcerated adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Donna R; Fallone, Diandra; Martin, Rosemarie A; Stein, L A R; Bock, Beth; Martin, Stephen A; Roberts, Mary B; Lopes, Cheryl E; Clarke, Jennifer J

    2014-01-01

    The rate of smoking among incarcerated adults is more than 3 times that of the general population. Negative health consequences of smoking have prompted many correctional facilities to become tobacco-free. This presents a unique opportunity to examine health conditions associated with motivation to remain tobacco-free after release from prison. We examined this association among individuals who participated in the WISE randomized clinical trial. A total of 247 participants completed a baseline questionnaire asking about illnesses (both smoking-related and non-smoking-related), family history of smoking-related illnesses, demographics, and smoking history. Smoking status was assessed 3 weeks postrelease. Approximately 38% of participants reported having an illness caused by or worsened by smoking and 53.0% reported having "moderate" to "a lot" of concern about their health due to smoking; 22.9% reported having asthma and 26.8% reported hypertension. The adjusted odds of remaining tobacco-free at 3 weeks postrelease from a tobacco-free prison was significant only for individuals with a family history of smoking-related illnesses (odds ratio [OR] = 0.28; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.12-0.68). For individuals with smoking-related conditions, the adjusted odds of remaining tobacco-free was nonsignificant (OR = 1.91; 95% CI, 0.85-4.27). Similarly, the adjusted odds of remaining tobacco-free for participants with non-smoking-related medical conditions was nonsignificant (OR = 0.27; 95% CI, 0.06-1.22). These results offer a first look at understanding health conditions as a motivator to remain tobacco-free after release from prison. Although these findings require additional investigation, these results suggest that providing treatment to prisoners with chronic disease and specifically targeting smoking-related illnesses might be beneficial with regard to smoking cessation success.

  11. Oral and dental manifestations of young asthmatics related to medication, severity and duration of condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersin, Nazan Kocataş; Gülen, Figen; Eronat, Nesrin; Cogulu, Dilsah; Demir, Esen; Tanaç, Remziye; Aydemir, Söhret

    2006-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the caries risk of asthmatics in relation to dental plaque indices, salivary flow rate, pH and buffer capacity, saliva composition and salivary levels of Streptococcus mutans compared with healthy subjects and also to evaluate these parameters within different groups of asthmatics according to their medication, duration and severity of the disease. The study group composed of 106 asthmatics and 100 healthy controls with the same age and social background aged between 6 and 19-years-old. For dental examinations, World Health Organization criteria and for plaque indices the Silness and Löe plaque index was used. All data were analyzed using t-test, chi2-test, Spearman rank correlation, Kruskal- Wallis, Mann-Whitney U-tests and Logistic Regression Analysis with Forward Stepwise Likelihood ratio method. A statistically significant decrease in the salivary flow rate and pH were found in the asthmatic group. The children in the asthmatic group aged between 6 and 10 years had significantly higher caries prevalence compared with the control group at the same age. There was a negative correlation between the duration of medication and the salivary pH and a positive correlation between duration of illness and the salivary levels of S. mutans in the asthmatics. It was found that asthma, through its disease status and its pharmacotherapy, carries some risk factors including decreased salivary flow rate and pH for caries development. It was also demonstrated that the duration of medication and illness had significant influences on the risk of caries in asthmatics.

  12. Side effects related to potentially inappropriate medications in elderly psychiatric patients under everyday pharmacotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefner, Gudrun; Stieffenhofer, Viktoria; Gabriel, Susanne; Palmer, Gerlind; Müller, Kay-Maria; Röschke, Joachim; Hiemke, Christoph

    2015-02-01

    Potentially inappropriate medication (PIM) is suggested to give rise to adverse drug events. To study this suggestion for elderly psychiatric patients, an observational analysis related prescription of PRISCUS PIMs and drug-induced side effects in old aged (≥65 years) psychiatric inpatients and outpatients under conditions of everyday pharmacotherapy. Request forms from a therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) survey and medical files were screened for medication to identify PIMs of the PRISCUS list and assessed using the Udvalg for Kliniske Undersøgelser (UKU) side effect rating scale. From 914 TDM request forms, data were available for 168 patients (64.3 % female). Patients (mean ± SD age 73.0 ± 5.5 years) received by mean 6.4 ± 3.9 drugs per day. More than half of them (53.0 %, n = 89) had at least one PIM, inpatients 0.9 ± 0.8 and outpatients 0.5 ± 0.7. Predominant PIMs were hypnotic drugs (69 %) in inpatients and antipsychotic drugs (35.6 %) in outpatients. The number of PIMs correlated with the total number of drugs administered per day (Spearman correlation coefficient 0.225, p  0.05) with number of PIMs. However, only 6 of 77 patients who took no PRISCUS PIMs but 2 of 3 patients who took 3 PRISCUS PIMs exhibited severe side effects. Though the prevalence for PIMs and side effects was high in old aged psychiatric inpatients and outpatients, PIMs could not be identified as major determinants of overall unwanted side effects. Nevertheless, prescription of PIMs should be minimized, especially of hypnotic drugs, to improve safety.

  13. Stressors and coping resources of Australian kidney transplant recipients related to medication taking: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Jac Kee; Crawford, Kimberley; Manias, Elizabeth; Williams, Allison

    2017-06-01

    To understand the stressors related to life post kidney transplantation, with a focus on medication adherence, and the coping resources people use to deal with these stressors. Although kidney transplantation offers enhanced quality and years of life for patients, the management of a kidney transplant post surgery is a complex process. A descriptive exploratory study. Participants were recruited from five kidney transplant units in Victoria, Australia. From March-May 2014, patients who had either maintained their kidney transplant for ≥8 months or had experienced a kidney graft loss due to medication nonadherence were interviewed. All audio-recordings of interviews were transcribed verbatim and underwent Ritchie and Spencer's framework analysis. Participants consisted of 15 men and 10 women aged 26-72 years old. All identified themes were categorised into: (1) Causes of distress and (2) Coping resources. Post kidney transplantation, causes of distress included the regimented routine necessary for graft maintenance, and the everlasting fear of potential graft rejection, contracting infections and developing cancer. Coping resources used to manage the stressors were first, a shift in perspective about how easy it was to manage a kidney transplant than to be dialysis-dependent and second, receiving external help from fellow patients, family members and health care professionals in addition to using electronic reminders. An individual well-equipped with coping resources is able to deal with stressors better. It is recommended that changes, such as providing regular reminders about the lifestyle benefits of kidney transplantation, creating opportunities for patients to share their experiences and promoting the usage of a reminder alarm to take medications, will reduce the stress of managing a kidney transplant. Using these findings to make informed changes to the usual care of a kidney transplant recipient is likely to result in better patient outcomes. © 2016 John

  14. Nurses' perspectives on how an e-message system supports cross-sectoral communication in relation to medication administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Signe; Nørholm, Vibeke; Andersen, Ove

    2018-01-01

    AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The aim was to describe nurses' perspectives on how an e-message system supports communication between hospital and home care nurses in relation to medication administration. BACKGROUND: Medication administration is a complex process involving a high risk of error. Unclear...... communication and lack of updated information about medication have been identified as the leading cause of medication errors during care transitions. E-message systems are progressively being used to improve information exchange across sectors, yet little is known about their usage for exchange of medication......: The e-message system did not provide the information needed by the home care nurses to ensure safe medication administration after discharge due to (a) limitations of the system, (b) hospital nurses' lack of knowledge about home care nurses' information needs, and (c) hospital nurses' lack of access...

  15. Clinical caring science as a scientific discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehnsfeldt, Arne; Arman, Maria; Lindström, Unni Å

    2017-09-01

    Clinical caring science will be described from a theory of science perspective. The aim of this theoretical article to give a comprehensive overview of clinical caring science as a human science-based discipline grounded in a theory of science argumentation. Clinical caring science seeks idiographic or specific variations of the ontology, concepts and theories, formulated by caring science. The rationale is the insight that the research questions do not change when they are addressed in different contexts. The academic subject contains a concept order with ethos concepts, core and basic concepts and practice concepts that unites systematic caring science with clinical caring science. In accordance with a hermeneutic tradition, the idea of the caring act is based on the degree to which the theory base is hermeneutically appropriated by the caregiver. The better the ethos, essential concepts and theories are understood, the better the caring act can be understood. In order to understand the concept order related to clinical caring science, an example is given from an ongoing project in a disaster context. The concept order is an appropriate way of making sense of the essence of clinical caring science. The idea of the concept order is that concepts on all levels need to be united with each other. A research project in clinical caring science can start anywhere on the concept order, either in ethos, core concepts, basic concepts, practice concepts or in concrete clinical phenomena, as long as no parts are locked out of the concept order as an entity. If, for example, research on patient participation as a phenomenon is not related to core and basic concepts, there is a risqué that the research becomes meaningless. © 2016 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  16. Gender-related explanatory models of depression: a critical evaluation of medical articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarström, A; Lehti, A; Danielsson, U; Bengs, C; Johansson, E E

    2009-10-01

    Although research has consistently shown a higher prevalence of depression among women compared with men, there is a lack of consensus regarding explanatory factors for these gender-related differences. The aim of this paper was to analyse the scientific quality of different gender-related explanatory models of depression in the medical database PubMed. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of PubMed articles. In a database search in PubMed for 2002, 82 articles on gender and depression were selected and analysed with qualitative and quantitative content analyses. In total, 10 explanatory factors and four explanatory models were found. The ISI Web of Science database was searched in order to obtain the citation number and journal impact factor for each article. The most commonly used gender-related explanatory model for depression was the biomedical model (especially gonadal hormones), followed by the sociocultural and psychological models. Compared with the other models, the biomedical model scored highest on bibliometric measures but lowest on measures of multifactorial dimensions and differences within the group of men/women. The biomedical model for explaining gender-related aspects of depression had the highest quality when bibliometric methods were used. However, the sociocultural and psychological models had higher quality than the biomedical model when multifactoriality and intersectionality were analysed. There is a need for the development of new methods in order to evaluate the scientific quality of research.

  17. Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders and Risk Factors among Chinese Medical Staff of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingjing; Cui, Ya; He, Lihua; Xu, Xiangrong; Yuan, Zhiwei; Jin, Xianning; Li, Zhimin

    2017-05-26

    Medical staff in the department of obstetrics and gynecology are a group of professionals reportedly at high risk of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSD), however, little is known about the current status of this problem in China. The aim of this study was to investigate prevalence and risk factors of work-related musculoskeletal disorders among this population in China. A self-developed questionnaire was distributed to 1017 obstetrics and gynecology practitioners to collect information on musculoskeletal symptoms and relevant factors. Prevalence and severity of work-related musculoskeletal disorders in different parts of the body were calculated and the relationship between personal and ergonomic factors and work-related musculoskeletal disorders was analyzed using Chi-square test and unconditional logistic regression models. The results indicated a high prevalence of 85.5% among the subjects, with the shoulder (n = 575, 62.0%), neck (n = 560, 60.3%) and lower back (n = 504, 54.3%) being the three most affected regions. Individual, postural, work-environmental as well as psychosocial factors were recognized to be associated with WMSDs in different body parts. Therefore, attention must be given to the problem of musculoskeletal disorders among Chinese obstetrics and gynecology staff. It is recommended to develop good life habits, improve work environment, adjust work organization as well as train on proper postures in their daily operation.

  18. Museology: an academic discipline or form of cultural activity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Ploşniţa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Museology is the science of museums. Most experts characterize it as an independent applied scientific discipline, which studies how museums develop and optimize their activities to meet the needs of society. The term "museology" was first mentioned in the work by P.L. Martin "Praxix der Naturgeschichte" published in 1869 in Germany. But the determination of the status of museology as a science was first given by J. G. Th. Von Graesse in the article "Museology as a Science" published in the magazine „Zeitschrift für Museologie und Antiquitätenkunde" in 1883. The author announced a new scientific discipline of museology and tried to highlight its research potential. Thus, museology as a science began in 1883. Since 1960s museology is introduced as a scientific discipline in many universities around the world; there were created first centers of museological research, published numerous papers on museums. However, so far, some experts deny the scientific character of museology considering it "a discipline that coordinates a specialized type of cultural activity". In his article, the author analyzes the path of museology in the process of its development as a scientific discipline, identifies the problems of its classification in the system of sciences, and highlights the contributions of some researchers (P. van Mensch, J. Neustupny, T. Šola, Z. Stransky, R. Florescu, etc. to the consolidation of its status of an independent science. In conclusion, the author believes that museology is an academic science, but a relatively young and developing.

  19. Medical Imaging Informatics: Towards a Personalized Computational Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayache, N

    2016-05-20

    Medical Imaging Informatics has become a fast evolving discipline at the crossing of Informatics, Computational Sciences, and Medicine that is profoundly changing medical practices, for the patients' benefit.

  20. Reconstructing the paradigm: teaching across the disciplines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Caroline; Pollack, Alexia

    2004-01-01

    In this article, Caroline Brown, a literature professor who focuses on American and African Diasporic writing, and Alexia Pollack, a biology professor with expertise in neuropharmacology, recount their experiences teaching across the disciplines in one another's respective classrooms, finding points of intersection and divergence, and creating classroom dialogues from the resultant encounters. Central to this process is permitting students to enter discipline-specific discourses from other disciplinary perspectives. In Caroline Brown's first year general education seminar, Examining Consciousness, a course constructed around the study of the representation of the brain through the reading of scientific writings, popular essays, personal narratives, fiction, and poetry, Alexia Pollack presented scientific lectures on neurotransmission, brain organization and structure, with an emphasis on how the brain is affected by drug addiction and organic disease. In Alexia Pollack's undergraduate and graduate courses, Neurobiology and Biology of Learning and Memory, Caroline Brown lectured on the intersection of artistry and science in American literature, tracing the depiction of learning and memory in Realistic, Modern, and Post-Modern novels, and how scientific developments influenced their representation. During these encounters the students were introduced to discipline-specific approaches, which were distinct from the perspectives of their respective classrooms. As a result, larger classroom discussions were created, allowing students to perceive intersecting dimensions of very different disciplines. This conceptual flexibility permitted students to "think outside the box" in order to develop a more complete appreciation of their particular discipline and to recognize its place in the world at large.

  1. Can Discipline Education be Culturally Sensitive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ashley E; Hudnut-Beumler, Julia; Scholer, Seth J

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Inappropriate discipline such as harsh physical punishment is a social determinant of health. The objective was to determine if a brief parent training intervention that teaches discipline strategies is culturally sensitive. Methods English or Spanish-speaking parents of 1-5 year old children viewed a multimedia program that teaches appropriate discipline strategies. The intervention, Play Nicely, was viewed in the exam room before the physician's visit. Parents viewed 4 of 20 discipline strategies of their choosing; the average viewing time was 7 min. Results Of 204 parents eligible to participate, 197 (96 %) completed the study; 41 % were Black, 31 % were White, and 21 % were Hispanic. At least 80 % of parents from each racial/ethnic group reported that the program built their confidence to care for their child, addressed their family needs, explained things in a way they could understand, respected their family values, and was sensitive to their personal beliefs. Overall, 80 % of parents reported that the program answered individual questions. One parent (0.5 %) reported that the program did not respect her family values. Conclusions for Practice Discipline education can be integrated into the pediatric primary care clinic in a way that is family-centered and culturally sensitive for the majority of parents. The results have implications for the development and implementation of population-based parenting programs and the primary prevention of child abuse and violence.

  2. Cost-Related Medication Nonadherence for Older Adults Participating in SNAP, 2013-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Mithuna; Pooler, Jennifer A

    2018-02-01

    To estimate the impact of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) participation on cost-related medication nonadherence (CRN) for older adults in the United States, with a particular focus on those who are food insecure and those threatened by hunger. We used propensity score matching to create matched intervention and comparison groups of SNAP-eligible US adults aged 60 years and older with data from the 2013-2015 National Health Interview Survey. Intervention group participants were identified on the basis of self-reported SNAP participation in the past year. SNAP participants were 4.8 percentage points less likely to engage in CRN than eligible nonparticipants (P SNAP is about twice as large for older adults threatened by hunger (9.1 percentage points; P SNAP may help older adults better afford their medications, conceivably by reducing out-of-pocket food expenditures. When prescribing treatment plans, health systems and payers have a vested interest in connecting older patients to SNAP and other resources that may help address barriers to care.

  3. Some issues of shaping thanatology as a discipline: Ethnological and anthropological perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavićević Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of death studies, choice of topics and aspects of their interpretations were influenced by many factors, both global and local. The former were related to universal processes of medicalization, bureaucratization and professionalization of death and dying, as well as to processes of general secularization of society and culture. The latter were connected with specific and dominant local social and cultural praxes, politics and academic traditions. In this paper we will point out specificities of death studies development in different academic communities. We will also open the question and offer some answers on disciplinary identity of thanatology and, at the end, we will consider possibilities and needs for introducing the discipline in curriculum at different education levels. The aim of the paper is to settle preliminary frames for future investigation; the emphasis is placed on ethnological and anthropological perspective and on English and Serbian language bibliography. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 177028

  4. Comparison of the injury severity and medical history of disease-related versus trauma-related bicyclist fatalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitosugi, Masahito; Koseki, Takeshi; Miyama, Genta; Furukawa, Satoshi; Morita, Satomu

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to clarify the relationship between injury severity and mechanism of death in bicycle fatalities resulting from trauma compared with those resulting from disease, to propose effective measures to prevent fatal bicyclist accidents. Autopsy and accident records were reviewed for bicyclist fatalities who had undergone forensic autopsy at the Dokkyo Medical University School of Medicine between September 1999 and March 2014. Victims' health histories, blood alcohol levels, causes of death, mechanisms of injury, Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) scores and Injury Severity Scores (ISSs) were determined. Fifty-five bicyclists (43 male and 12 female) with a mean age of 62.5±17.3 years were included in this study. Sixteen victims had driven under the influence of alcohol (mean blood concentration of 1.8±0.7 mg/ml). Mean ISS was 32.4 and the chest had the highest mean AIS score (2.6), followed by the head (2.1) and the neck (1.8). Thirty-nine victims (70.9%) had died of trauma and 16 had died of disease. The disease-death victims had significantly higher prevalence of having diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, heart disease or cerebrovascular diseases (50.0% vs. 22.2%, p=0.03) and a lower rate of drunk driving (6.3% vs. 41.0%, p=0.01) than the trauma-death group. All victims who were affected by disease, and 33.3% of trauma-death victims, had fallen on the road without a vehicle collision (p<0.001). The mean ISS of the trauma-death group was significantly higher than that of the disease-death group (44.0 vs. 4.2, p<0.001). Except for facial injuries, the AIS scores were significantly higher in trauma-death victims than in the disease-death group (p<0.005). To effectively reduce bicyclist fatalities, the authors strongly advocate efforts that will increase compliance with drunk driving prohibitions. For victims of fatal bicycle accidents with a medical history of diseases, a forensic autopsy should be performed to establish a

  5. Health care ethics and health law in the Dutch discussion on end of life decisions: a historical analysis of the dynamics and development of both disciplines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kater, L.; Houtepen, Rob; de Vries, Raymond; Widdershoven, Guy

    2003-01-01

    Over the past three or four decades, the concept of medical ethics has changed from a limited set of standards to a broad field of debate and research. We define medical ethics as an arena of moral issues in medicine, rather than a specific discipline. This paper examines how the disciplines of

  6. Pharmacist-led medication review to identify medication-related problems in older people referred to an Aged Care Assessment Team: a randomized comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Rohan A; Martinac, Georgia; Campbell, Stephen; Thorn, Juliet; Woodward, Michael C

    2012-07-01

    Aged Care Assessment Teams (ACATs) in Australia assess the care needs of frail older people. Despite being at high risk of medication-related problems (MRPs), ACAT patients do not routinely receive a comprehensive medication review. The aims of the study were to compare three methods for facilitating a pharmacist-led comprehensive medication review for people referred to an ACAT, and compare MRPs identified via ACAT usual care with those identified via pharmacist-led medication reviews. A prospective, randomized, comparative study involving 80 community-dwelling patients (median age 84 years) referred to an ACAT in Melbourne, Australia, was conducted. Following ACAT assessment (usual care), a clinical pharmacist reviewed all participating patients' ACAT files to identify potential MRPs not identified by the ACAT (medication review method 1). Patients were then randomized into two groups. Group A received information about the Australian government-funded, general practitioner (GP)-initiated Home Medicines Review (HMR) programme, and a letter was sent to their GP recommending an HMR (GPHMR; medication review method 2). Group B patients were referred directly to a clinical pharmacist associated with the ACAT for an ACAT-initiated pharmacist home medicines review (APHMR; medication review method 3); the pharmacist arranged a home visit, obtained a thorough medication history and conducted a comprehensive medication review. The main outcome measures were the proportion of patients who received a pharmacist home visit within 28 days; the number of MRPs identified by ACAT usual care, pharmacist review of ACAT files, and APHMR, and their clinical risk (assessed by a geriatrician-pharmacist panel); and patients', GPs' and ACAT clinicians' opinions about pharmacist medication review. Three hundred patients were referred to the ACAT, and 80 were recruited into the study. Thirty-six of 40 APHMR patients (90.0%) received a pharmacist home visit within 28 days, compared with 7

  7. The relationship between medical students' attitudes towards communication skills learning and their demographic and education-related characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Charlotte; Sheard, Charlotte

    2002-11-01

    The General Medical Council (GMC) has stressed the importance of medical students' attitudes towards learning. However, few studies have explored medical students' attitudes towards communication skills learning. This study explores the relationship between the attitudes of medical students at two different schools and their demographic and education-related characteristics. A total of 490 medical students from the Universities of Nottingham (Years 1 and 2) and Leicester (Year 1) completed the 26-item Communication Skills Attitude Scale (CSAS) and a personal details questionnaire satisfactorily. The relationships between students' attitudes and their demographic and education-related characteristics were analysed separately for Nottingham and Leicester students using both univariate and multivariate statistics. The attitudes of Nottingham and Leicester medical students towards communication skills learning were significantly associated with a number of demographic and education-related characteristics. Both Nottingham and Leicester students with more positive attitudes towards communication skills learning tended to be female, tended to think their communication skills needed improving and tended not to have parents who were doctors. Both Nottingham and Leicester students with more negative attitudes towards communication skills learning tended to think their communication skills did not need improving. The results indicate that medical students' attitudes towards communication skills learning are associated with their demographic and education-related characteristics. These findings have a number of implications for educational practice and further research and these are discussed in this paper.

  8. Differential susceptibility to discipline: the moderating effect of child temperament on the association between maternal discipline and early childhood externalizing problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zeijl, Jantien; Mesman, Judi; Stolk, Mirjam N; Alink, Lenneke R A; van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; Juffer, Femmie; Koot, Hans M

    2007-12-01

    This study investigated the interaction of child temperament and maternal discipline in the prediction of externalizing problems in early childhood. Interaction effects were evaluated in a sample of 227 one- to three-year-old children with relatively high externalizing problems scores on the Child Behavior Checklist/1 1/2-5. Child temperament was reported by the mothers, maternal discipline was observed in a laboratory session, and child outcome measures included both mother-reported externalizing problems and observed physical aggression. Results indicate that children with difficult temperaments are more susceptible to negative discipline (i.e., they showed more externalizing problems) as well as more susceptible to positive discipline (i.e., they showed fewer externalizing problems and less physical aggression), as compared with children with relatively easy temperaments. These findings provide empirical evidence for the differential susceptibility hypothesis and suggest directions for enhancing the effectiveness of interventions aimed at reducing early childhood externalizing problems.

  9. Analysis of Geomagnetic Disturbances and Cosmic Ray Intensity Variations in Relation to Medical Data from Rome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannaropoulou, E.; Papailiou, M.; Mavromichalaki, H.; Tsipis, A.

    2010-07-01

    Over the last few years many studies have been conducted concerning the possible influence of geomagnetic and solar activity and cosmic ray activity on human physiological state and in particular on human cardio - health state. As it is shown the human organism is sensitive to environmental changes and reacts to them through a series of variations of its physiological parameters such as heart rate, arterial systolic and diastolic blood pressure, etc. In this paper daily mean values of heart rate, as they were registered for a group of 2.028 volunteers during medical examinations in the Polyclinico Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy are analyzed in relation to daily cosmic ray intensity variations, as measured by the Neutron Monitor of the University of Athens and daily variations of the geomagnetic indices Dst, Ap and Kp. The results from this study show that geomagnetic activity changes and cosmic rays intensity variations may regulate the human homeostasis.

  10. CYP2D6 phenotypes are associated with adverse outcomes related to opioid medications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    St Sauver JL

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Jennifer L St Sauver,1,2 Janet E Olson,1,3 Veronique L Roger,1,2,4 Wayne T Nicholson,5 John L Black III,3,6 Paul Y Takahashi,7 Pedro J Caraballo,7 Elizabeth J Bell,2 Debra J Jacobson,1,2 Nicholas B Larson,1 Suzette J Bielinski,1,3 1Department of Health Sciences Research, 2Kern Center for the Science of Health Care Delivery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, 3Center for Individualized Medicine, 4Department of Cardiovascular Diseases, 5Department of Anesthesiology and Perioperative Medicine, 6Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, 7Department of Primary Care Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA Background: Variation in the CYP2D6 gene may affect response to opioids in both poor and ultrarapid metabolizers, but data demonstrating such associations have been mixed, and the impact of variants on toxicity-related symptoms (e.g., nausea is unclear. Therefore, we examined the association between CYP2D6 phenotype and poor pain control or other adverse symptoms related to the use of opioids in a sample of primary care patients.Materials and methods: We identified all patients in the Mayo Clinic RIGHT Protocol who were prescribed an opioid medication between July 01, 2013 and June 30, 2015, and categorized patients into three phenotypes: poor, intermediate to extensive, or ultrarapid CYP2D6 metabolizers. We reviewed the electronic health record of these patients for indications of poor pain control or adverse symptoms related to medication use. Associations between phenotype and outcomes were assessed using Chi-square tests and logistic regression.Results: Overall, 257 (25% of RIGHT Protocol participants patients received at least one opioid prescription; of these, 40 (15% were poor metabolizers, 146 (57% were intermediate to extensive metabolizers, and 71 (28% were ultrarapid metabolizers. We removed patients that were prescribed a CYP2D6 inhibitor medication (n=38. After adjusting for age and sex, patients with a poor or ultrarapid

  11. [Nursing as discipline, profession, and labour].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Denise

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this essay is to articulate theoretical-conceptual aspects of nursing as a profession, a scientific discipline, and labour contributing to reflection concerning nursing knowledge and professional practice exercised in the context of collective work in health care. It reviews concepts from sociological theory and epistemology in order to analyze nursing in the context of scientific community, and the sociology of professions, and the work process theories in health care. This paper argues that nursing has the attributes of a profession as well as a scientific discipline, and that the limits of nursing practice need to be historically and socially contextualized. It concludes that as a social practice and discipline, nursing faces scientific and political challenges which demand a permanent process of construction.

  12. Medical doctors' job specification analysis: A qualitative inquiry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hertel-Waszak, Anike

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: A qualitative inquiry was conducted to investigate the qualification requirements of medical doctors in different professional fields and from different perspectives. The inquiry was part of an empirical workplace analysis.Methods: Seventy-four structured interviews were conducted and analyzed to examine critical incidents and behaviors of medical doctors working in different professional fields (clinical theory, clinical practice, practitioner and disciplines, and from three different perspectives (medical doctors, non-medical staff, and patients. In addition, the National Competency-based Catalogue of Learning Objectives for Medical Education (Nationaler Kompetenzbasierter Lernzielkatalog Medizin / NKLM was used. Results: The results revealed eleven relevant competencies, which could be categorized into three superordinate competence clusters: interpersonal, work-related, and self-related. The perspectives of medical doctors and non-medical staff included all eleven competencies. However, the perspective of patients did not include one interpersonal and two self-related competencies. Nearly all of the critical behaviors mentioned are included in the NKLM. However, the NKLM also includes behaviors that were not mentioned in the interviews. Conclusions: The behavior-oriented interviews resulted in a requirement profile that is very similar in structure to other competency models in occupational contexts. Comparisons of the different perspectives predominantly revealed similarities. However, the patient perspective also revealed interesting differences compared to the perspectives of medical doctors and non-medical staff. The behavior-related results of the interviews can be directly used for the development of exercises in selection and personnel development contexts and for potential appraisals specific to different medical disciplines. In future steps, the results of this initial qualitative step are to be replicated and extended

  13. Medical doctors' job specification analysis: A qualitative inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertel-Waszak, Anike; Brouwer, Britta; Schönefeld, Eva; Ahrens, Helmut; Hertel, Guido; Marschall, Bernhard

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: A qualitative inquiry was conducted to investigate the qualification requirements of medical doctors in different professional fields and from different perspectives. The inquiry was part of an empirical workplace analysis. Methods: Seventy-four structured interviews were conducted and analyzed to examine critical incidents and behaviors of medical doctors working in different professional fields (clinical theory, clinical practice, practitioner) and disciplines, and from three different perspectives (medical doctors, non-medical staff, and patients). In addition, the National Competency-based Catalogue of Learning Objectives for Medical Education (Nationaler Kompetenzbasierter Lernzielkatalog Medizin / NKLM) was used. Results: The results revealed eleven relevant competencies, which could be categorized into three superordinate competence clusters: interpersonal, work-related, and self-related. The perspectives of medical doctors and non-medical staff included all eleven competencies. However, the perspective of patients did not include one interpersonal and two self-related competencies. Nearly all of the critical behaviors mentioned are included in the NKLM. However, the NKLM also includes behaviors that were not mentioned in the interviews. Conclusions: The behavior-oriented interviews resulted in a requirement profile that is very similar in structure to other competency models in occupational contexts. Comparisons of the different perspectives predominantly revealed similarities. However, the patient perspective also revealed interesting differences compared to the perspectives of medical doctors and non-medical staff. The behavior-related results of the interviews can be directly used for the development of exercises in selection and personnel development contexts and for potential appraisals specific to different medical disciplines. In future steps, the results of this initial qualitative step are to be replicated and extended using quantitative

  14. Effects of electroacupuncture on stress-related symptoms in medical students: a randomised controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Marcio; Pagnin, Daniel; de Queiroz Pagnin, Valéria; Reis, Regina Lucia Ribeiro; Olej, Beni

    2012-06-01

    To assess the effects of electroacupuncture on stress-related symptoms-sleep disorders, anxiety, depression and burnout-in medical students, and provide data to inform a power analysis to determinate numbers for future trials. Twenty-five students were randomly assigned to an electroacupuncture (n=12) group or control group (n=13) that did not receive treatment. Electroacupuncture was applied at a continuous frequency 2 Hz for 20 min once a week for 8 weeks at sites on the extremities, face, ear and scalp. The outcomes of the students treated with electroacupuncture were compared with those of the control group at the endpoint, controlling the influence of baseline scores. The instruments used were self-administered questionnaires that comprised the validated Portuguese version of the mini-sleep questionnaire (MSQ), the Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI), the Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS), the Beck depression inventory (BDI), the Beck anxiety inventory, the Maslach burnout inventory-student survey (MBI-SS), and World Health Organization quality of life assessment - abbreviated version (WHOQOL-bref). The medical students treated with electroacupuncture showed a significant decrease compared with the control group for MSQ scores (p=0.04) and PSQI (p=0.006). After treatment, 75% students in the electroacupuncture group presented a good sleep quality, compared with 23.1% of the students in the control group. No significant difference on daytime sleepiness was shown by the ESS. The electroacupuncture group showed significant improvement on depressive symptoms (BDI), the emotional exhaustion and cynicism dimensions of burnout (MBI-SS) and physical health (WHOQOL-bref). Electroacupuncture was associated with a significant reduction of stress-related symptoms, but because of the study design the authors cannot say what proportion of the reduction was due to needle stimulation.

  15. Medical care in adolescents and young adult cancer survivors: what are the biggest access-related barriers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keegan, Theresa H.M.; Tao, Li; DeRouen, Mindy C.; Wu, Xiao-Cheng; Prasad, Pinki; Lynch, Charles F.; Shnorhavorian, Margarett; Zebrack, Brad J.; Chu, Roland; Harlan, Linda C.; Smith, Ashley W.; Parsons, Helen M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer survivors experience barriers to utilizing healthcare, but the determinants of cancer-related medical care of AYAs has not been fully explored. Methods We studied factors associated with medical care utilization among 465 AYA cancer survivors in the AYA Health Outcomes and Patient Experience Study (AYA HOPE), a cohort of 15 to 39 year-olds recently diagnosed with germ cell cancer, lymphoma, sarcoma, or acute lymphocytic leukemia. Descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression methods were used. Results Most AYA cancer survivors (95%), who were 15–35 months post diagnosis, received medical care in the past 12 months and 17% were undergoing cancer treatment. In multivariate analyses, compared with AYAs with no cancer-related medical visits in the previous year, AYAs receiving cancer-related care were more likely to currently have health insurance (odds ratio (OR) = 4.9; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.7–13.8) or have had health insurance in the past year (OR= 4.0; 95% CI: 0.99–16.3). Cancer recurrence, lacking employment and negative changes in self-reported general health were associated with ongoing cancer treatment versus other cancer-related medical care. 11% of all AYAs and 25% of AYAs who did not receive medical care in the past 12-months lost health insurance between the initial and follow-up surveys. Conclusion AYA cancer survivors with health insurance were much more likely to receive cancer-related medical care than those without insurance. Implications for Cancer Survivors Despite the need for post-treatment medical care, lacking health insurance is a barrier to receiving any medical care among AYAs. PMID:24408440

  16. Work-related psychosocial hazards among emergency medical responders (EMRS in Mansoura city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman Omar Khashaba

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This research was done to assess levels of psychosocial stress and related hazards [(burnout, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD] among emergency medical responders (EMRs. Materials and Methods: A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted upon (140 EMRs and a comparative group composed of (140 nonemergency workers. The groups studied were subjected to semistructured questionnaire including demographic data, survey for job stressors, Maslach burn out inventory (MBI, Beck depression inventory (BDI, and Davidson Trauma scale for PTSD. Results: The most severe acute stressors among EMRs were dealing with traumatic events (88.57%, followed by dealing with serious accidents (87.8% and young victims (87.14%. Chronic stressors were more commonly reported among EMRs with statistically significant differences (P 0.05. There was increased risk of PTSD for those who had higher stress levels from death of colleagues [odds ratio (OR [95% confidence interval (CI] = 2.2 (0.7-7.6, exposure to verbal or physical assault OR (95% CI = 1.6 (0.5-4.4 and dealing with psychiatric OR (95% CI 1.4 (0.53.7 (P > 0.05 Conclusion: EMRs group had more frequent exposure to both acute and chronic work-related stressors than comparative group. Also, EMRs had higher levels of EE, DP, and PTSD compared with comparative group. EMRs are in need for stress management program for prevention these of stress related hazards on health and work performance.

  17. Work-Related Quality of Life among Medical Residents at a University Hospital in Northeastern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somsila, Nattamon; Chaiear, Naesinee; Boonjaraspinyo, Sirintip; Tiamkao, Somsak

    2015-12-01

    1) To assess work-related quality of life (WRQOL) among medical residents at a university hospital in northeast Thailand. 2) To determine the strength of the association between personal and working condition components and WRQOL among medical residents. A descriptive study was used to describe the WRQOL among medical residents. The study population comprised of all 375 residents affiliated with the university hospital. The Thai version of a self-administered work-related quality of life scale-2 was used for data collection. Testing the reliability revealed a Cronbach's alpha of 0.908. Questionnaires were completed by 259 of 375 (68.3%). The study found that the mean rating by residents for overall WRQOL was 113.8 out of 170 (SD 14.8). Most rated WRQOL as moderate (76.6%). The seven sub-factors were rated as moderate to high for employee engagement and control at work, moderate for home/work interface, general well-being and working conditions, high-moderate for job career satisfaction, and low-moderate for stress at work. Relationships between the personal and working condition components and WRQOL were analyzed using binary logistic regression. Residents in minor specialties had a higher WRQOL than those in major specialties (OR 2.522, 95% CI: 1.37, 4.63). Residents who had less than eight duty shifts/week had a higher WRQOL than those with more than eight duty shifts/week (OR 2.263, 95% CI: 1.16, 4.41). Similarly, residents working with less than 80 hours/week had a higher WRQOL than those working more than 80 hours/week (OR 2.344, 95% CI: 1.17, 4.72). A subgroup analyzes of those working in minor specialties showed the trend that working less than eight shifts/month and working less than 80 hours/week had the potential association with good quality of work-life (QWL). This phenomenon is presented in the subgroup analyses of those working in major specialties. Therefore, working hours and number of shifts might have played important role in contributing good QWL

  18. [A guide to successful public relations for hospitals and emergency medical services].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausserer, J; Schwamberger, J; Preloznik, R; Klimek, M; Paal, P; Wenzel, V

    2014-04-01

    Tragic accidents, e.g. involving celebrity patients or severe incidents in hospital occur suddenly without any advance warning, often produce substantial interest by the media and quickly overburden management personnel involved in both hospitals and emergency medical services. While doctors, hospitals and emergency medical services desire objective media reports, the media promote emotionalized and dramatized reports to ensure maximum attention and circulation. When briefing the media, the scales may quickly tilt from professional, well-deliberated information to unfortunate, often unintended disinformation. Such phenomena may result in continuing exaggerated reports in the tabloid press, which in the presence of aggressive lawyers and a competitive hospital environment can turn into image and legal problems. In this article, several aspects are discussed in order to achieve successful public relations.Interviews should be given only after consultation with the responsible press officer and the director of the respective department or hospital director. Requests for information by the media should always be answered as otherwise one-sided, unintentional publications can result that are extremely difficult to correct later. One should be available to be contacted easily by journalists, regular press conferences should be held and critics should be taken seriously and not be brushed off. Questions by journalists should be answered in a timely manner as journalists are continuously under time pressure and do not understand unnecessary delays. Information for the media should always be provided at the same time, no publication should be given preference and an absolutely current list of E-mail contacts is required. When facing big events a press conference is preferred as many questions can be answered at once. Always be well prepared for an interview or even for just a statement. Each interview should be regarded as an opportunity to put a story forward which you

  19. Contribution of renal impairment to potentially preventable medication-related hospital admissions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leendertse, A.J.; Dijk, E.A. van; Smet, P.A.G.M. de; Egberts, T.C.; Bemt, P.M. van den

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Medication errors and renal impairment contribute to severe adverse drug events, which may lead to hospital admission. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether medication errors and renal impairment contribute to hospital admission and examine these errors for strategies to prevent admissions.

  20. Zero Benefit: Estimating the Effect of Zero Tolerance Discipline Polices on Racial Disparities in School Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    This study estimates the effect of zero tolerance disciplinary policies on racial disparities in school discipline in an urban district. Capitalizing on a natural experiment, the abrupt expansion of zero tolerance discipline policies in a mid-sized urban school district, the study demonstrates that Black students in the district were…

  1. Authorizers Are Not Monolithic on School Discipline: How Charter School Authorizers Differ in School Discipline Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rausch, M. K.; Conlan, S. K.

    2016-01-01

    In theory, authorizers play an important role in decisions regarding charter schools and student discipline, as they are the bodies responsible for protecting the public interest, while balancing school autonomy and accountability. Within public education, a rigorous debate is occurring about student discipline practices, particularly suspensions…

  2. The attractions of medicine: the generic motivations of medical school applicants in relation to demography, personality and achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katona Cornelius

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The motivational and other factors used by medical students in making their career choices for specific medical specialities have been looked at in a number of studies in the literature. There are however few studies that assess the generic factors which make medicine itself of interest to medical students and to potential medical students. This study describes a novel questionnaire that assesses the interests and attractions of different aspects of medical practice in a varied range of medical scenarios, and relates them to demographic, academic, personality and learning style measures in a large group of individuals considering applying to medical school. Methods A questionnaire study was conducted among those attending Medlink, a two-day conference for individuals considering applying to medical school for a career in medicine. The main outcome measure was the Medical Situations Questionnaire, in which individuals ranked the attraction of three different aspects of medical practise in each of nine detailed, realistic medical scenarios in a wide range of medical specialities. As well as requiring clear choices, the questionnaire was also designed so that all of the possible answers were attractive and positive, thereby helping to eliminate social demand characteristics. Factor analysis of the responses found four generic motivational dimensions, which we labelled Indispensability, Helping People, Respect and Science. Background factors assessed included sex, ethnicity, class, medical parents, GCSE academic achievement, the 'Big Five' personality factors, empathy, learning styles, and a social desirability scale. Results 2867 individuals, broadly representative of applicants to medical schools, completed the questionnaire. The four generic motivational factors correlated with a range of background factors. These correlations were explored by multiple regression, and by path analysis, using LISREL to assess direct and

  3. The attractions of medicine: the generic motivations of medical school applicants in relation to demography, personality and achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, I C; Livingston, G; Katona, Cornelius

    2006-02-21

    The motivational and other factors used by medical students in making their career choices for specific medical specialities have been looked at in a number of studies in the literature. There are however few studies that assess the generic factors which make medicine itself of interest to medical students and to potential medical students. This study describes a novel questionnaire that assesses the interests and attractions of different aspects of medical practice in a varied range of medical scenarios, and relates them to demographic, academic, personality and learning style measures in a large group of individuals considering applying to medical school. A questionnaire study was conducted among those attending Medlink, a two-day conference for individuals considering applying to medical school for a career in medicine. The main outcome measure was the Medical Situations Questionnaire, in which individuals ranked the attraction of three different aspects of medical practise in each of nine detailed, realistic medical scenarios in a wide range of medical specialities. As well as requiring clear choices, the questionnaire was also designed so that all of the possible answers were attractive and positive, thereby helping to eliminate social demand characteristics. Factor analysis of the responses found four generic motivational dimensions, which we labelled Indispensability, Helping People, Respect and Science. Background factors assessed included sex, ethnicity, class, medical parents, GCSE academic achievement, the 'Big Five' personality factors, empathy, learning styles, and a social desirability scale. 2867 individuals, broadly representative of applicants to medical schools, completed the questionnaire. The four generic motivational factors correlated with a range of background factors. These correlations were explored by multiple regression, and by path analysis, using LISREL to assess direct and indirect effects upon the factors. Helping People was

  4. The Stanford Medical Youth Science Program: educational and science-related outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crump, Casey; Ned, Judith; Winkleby, Marilyn A

    2015-05-01

    Biomedical preparatory programs (pipeline programs) have been developed at colleges and universities to better prepare youth for entering science- and health-related careers, but outcomes of such programs have seldom been rigorously evaluated. We conducted a matched cohort study to evaluate the Stanford Medical Youth Science Program's Summer Residential Program (SRP), a 25-year-old university-based biomedical pipeline program that reaches out to low-income and underrepresented ethnic minority high school students. Five annual surveys were used to assess educational outcomes and science-related experience among 96 SRP participants and a comparison group of 192 youth who applied but were not selected to participate in the SRP, using ~2:1 matching on sociodemographic and academic background to control for potential confounders. SRP participants were more likely than the comparison group to enter college (100.0 vs. 84.4 %, p = 0.002), and both of these matriculation rates were more than double the statewide average (40.8 %). In most areas of science-related experience, SRP participants reported significantly more experience (>twofold odds) than the comparison group at 1 year of follow-up, but these differences did not persist after 2-4 years. The comparison group reported substantially more participation in science or college preparatory programs, more academic role models, and less personal adversity than SRP participants, which likely influenced these findings toward the null hypothesis. SRP applicants, irrespective of whether selected for participation, had significantly better educational outcomes than population averages. Short-term science-related experience was better among SRP participants, although longer-term outcomes were similar, most likely due to college and science-related opportunities among the comparison group. We discuss implications for future evaluations of other biomedical pipeline programs.

  5. Drug related medical emergencies in the elderly: role of adverse drug reactions and non-compliance

    OpenAIRE

    Malhotra, S; Karan, R; Pandhi, P; Jain, S

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Adverse drug reactions and non-compliance are important causes of admissions in the elderly to medical clinics. The contribution of adverse drug reactions and non-compliance to admission by the medical emergency department was analysed.
METHODS—A total of 578 consecutive elderly patients admitted to the medical emergency department were interviewed to determine the percentage of admissions due to adverse drug reactions or non-compliance with medication regimens, their causes, conse...

  6. Space civil engineering - A new discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeh, Willy Z.; Criswell, Marvin E.

    1991-01-01

    Space Civil Engineering is an emerging engineering discipline that focuses on extending and expanding the Civil Engineering know-how and practice to the development and maintenance of infrastructure on celestial bodies. Space Civil Engineering is presently being developed as a new discipline within the Department of Civil Engineering at Colorado State University under a recently established NASA Space Grant College Program. Academic programs geared toward creating Space Civil Engineering Options at both undergraduate and graduate levels are being formulated. Basic ideas and concepts of the curriculum in the Space Civil Engineering Option at both undergraduate and graduate levels are presented. The role of Space Civil Engineering in the Space Program is discussed.

  7. Vulnerable discipline: experiences of male competitive bodybuilders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørnestad, Jone; Kandal, Øyvind; Anderssen, Norman

    2014-09-01

    The aim was to understand experiences of male competitive bodybuilders from a non-pathologizing perspective. Six male Norwegian competitive bodybuilders were interviewed. The interviews were analysed using a meaning condensation procedure resulting in five themes: being proud of capacity for discipline, seeing a perfectionist attitude as a necessary evil, experiencing recognition within the bodybuilding community, being stigmatized outside the bodybuilding community and going on stage to display a capacity for willpower and discipline. We suggest that bodybuilders may be stigmatized for breaking social norms: by their distinctive appearance, by the way they handle suspected drug use and by challenging gender norms. © The Author(s) 2013.

  8. A possible reconceptualization of food engineering discipline

    OpenAIRE

    Niranjan, Keshavan

    2016-01-01

    Food industry is critical to any nation’s health and well-being; it is also critical to the economic health of a nation, since it can typically constitute over a fifth of the nation’s manufacturing GDP. Food Engineering is a discipline that ought to be at the heart of the food industry. Unfortunately, this discipline is not playing its rightful role today: engineering has been relegated to play the role of a service provider to the food industry, instead of it being a strategic driver for the...

  9. Regimen-Related Distress, Medication Adherence, and Glycemic Control in Rural African American Women With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Doyle M; Lutes, Lesley; Littlewood, Kerry; DiNatale, Emily; Hambidge, Bertha; Schulman, Kathleen; Morisky, Donald E

    2014-08-01

    Regimen-related emotional distress in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with poor glycemic control, but the mediators of this relationship are not well described. This cross-sectional study at baseline examines these relationships, including the specific role of medication adherence in rural African American women. At baseline in the EMPOWER randomized trial, the investigators collected the following data: Regimen-Related Distress (RRD; subscale of the validated Diabetes Distress Scale), diabetes medications, medication adherence using the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale, and hemoglobin A1C (A1C). The study enrolled 189 rural African American women with T2DM (mean age = 53 ± 11 years, A1C = 9.1% ± 1.8%, body mass index = 37.7% ± 8.2%; 61% on insulin); 56% reported elevated RRD (mean ≥ 3.0), and this was associated with significantly lower medication adherence (4.4 vs 6.4, P 2.1; 95% CI = 1.1-4.2; P medication adherence (exp β = 3.3; 95% CI = 1.1-9.6; P medication adherence was a significant mediator of the effects of RRD on A1C. Among rural African American women with T2DM, elevated levels of RRD were common and were associated with higher A1C values, in part via effects on medication adherence. Complex treatment regimens accompanied by psychological distress may be associated with poorer glycemic control. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. The Study Of Anxiety In Medical Students And It’s Relation With Practice of Health Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meshkani Z

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medical education is inherently stressful and demanding to deal with various stressors, which may cause impaired judgment, reduced concentration, lack of self-steam, increased anxiety and depression. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted on 250 medical students from 6 month period to graduation in medical college of Tehran university of Medical sciences in order to assess their anxiety and practice of health behaviors and also the relation between the two variables and some other related factors.. Results: The results of study show that of 6.6% medical students suffer from severe state and 4.9% from trait anxiety. The finding of this study shows that 83.3% of girls and 84.6% of boys have practicing risky health behaviors. No statistical relationships found between, anxiety and practicing health behaviors. The relation between anxiety and health satisfaction was Statistically significant; mental and physical (P<0.001. Conclusion: The information found in this research, can help medical education institute to capitalize an opportunities to help their students in preventing risky behaviors, and different stress management techniques should be taught at medical schools.

  11. Market Discipline and Bank Risk Taking: Evidence from the East Asian Banking Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazelina Sahul Hamid

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The third pillar of the Basel II highlights the role of market discipline in easing the existing pressure on traditional monitoring measures like capital requirement and government supervision. This study test the effectiveness of market discipline in inducing prudential risk management practices among the East Asian banks over the 1995 to 2005 period. Market discipline is measured using information disclosure and interbank deposit holdings. We find that only the latter is an effective market discipline tool. However, the former becomes effective when market concentration is higher. We find that government owned, foreign owned and recapilatised banks are subject to market disciplining when disclosure in taken account but the opposite is true when interbank deposits is taken into account. Finally, we find that banks that disclose more risk related information hold more capital against their non-performing loan. The implications of the findings are discussed.

  12. Resource-oriented coaching for reduction of examination-related stress in medical students: an exploratory randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kötter T

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Thomas Kötter,1 Frank Niebuhr2 1Institute of Social Medicine and Epidemiology, 2Institute of Family Medicine, University of Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany Introduction: The years spent in acquiring medical education is considered a stressful period in the life of many students. Students whose mental health deteriorates during this long period of study are less likely to become empathic and productive physicians. In addition to other specific stressors, academic examinations seem to further induce medical school-related stress and anxiety. Combined group and individual resource-oriented coaching early in medical education might reduce examination-related stress and anxiety and, consequently, enhance academic performance. Good quality evidence, however, remains scarce. In this study, therefore, we explored the question of whether coaching affects examination-related stress and health in medical students.Methods: We conducted a randomized controlled trial. Students who registered for the first medical academic examination in August 2014 at the University of Lübeck were recruited and randomized into three groups. The intervention groups 1 and 2 received a 1-hour psychoeducative seminar. Group 1 additionally received two 1-hour sessions of individual coaching during examination preparation. Group 3 served as a control group. We compared changes in self-rated general health (measured by a single item, anxiety and depression (measured by the hospital anxiety and depression scale, as well as medical school stress (measured by the perceived medical school stress instrument. In order to further investigate the influence of group allocation on perceived medical school stress, we conducted a linear regression analysis.Results: We saw a significant deterioration of general health and an increase in anxiety and depression scores in medical students while preparing for an examination. We found a small, but statistically significant, effect of group allocation on

  13. Population proteomics: an emerging discipline to study metapopulation ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biron, David G; Loxdale, Hugh D; Ponton, Fleur; Moura, Hercules; Marché, Laurent; Brugidou, Christophe; Thomas, Frédéric

    2006-03-01

    Proteomics research has developed until recently in a relative isolation from other fast-moving disciplines such as ecology and evolution. This is unfortunate since applying proteomics to these disciplines has apparently the potential to open new perspectives. The huge majority of species indeed exhibit over their entire geographic range a metapopulation structure, occupying habitats that are fragmented and heterogeneous in space and/or through time. Traditionally, population genetics is the main tool used to studying metatopulations, as it describes the spatial structure of populations and the level of gene flow between them. In this Viewpoint, we present the reasons why we think that proteomics, because of the level of integration it promotes, has the potential to resolve interesting issues specific to metapopulation biology and adaptive processes.

  14. Prevalence of Medication-Related Risks for Falls and Osteoporosis at a Hospital Network: A Post-hoc Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iouri Banakh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: PRO-OSTEO Extend 1was an osteoporosis management study at a Victorian Healthcare service. This post-hoc analysis examined comorbidities and drug-related risks for falls and osteoporosis, and analysed the accuracy of the medication subcomponent of the falls risk assessment tool used at the service. The secondary aim of this analysis was to evaluate the impact of proton pump inhibitors on the success of anti-osteoporosis therapies. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This analysis was part of a two year retrospective cohort study. The falls risk assessment tool medication subsection results, completed by nursing staff, were compared to scores given by the data collection pharmacist based on medical history notes using Mann-Whitney U test. The impact of proton pump inhibitors use on active osteoporosis therapy in patients admitted after a fall was analysed using the Fisher Exact test. Prevalence of medical and medication-related risk factors for osteoporosis and falls was compared between patients with fractures without osteoporosis treatment at admission and patient who were excluded from the primary study due to active osteoporosis therapy, or admission after a fall without a fracture. RESULTS: The falls risk assessment tool completion rate was approximately 80%, with accuracy below 50% P < 0.001. Medications which increase osteoporosis and falls risk were prevalent, with high use of benzodiazepines, opioids, serotonin reuptake inhibitors antidepressants and proton pump inhibitors. The impact of proton pump inhibitors carried a 14% increased relative risk of a fracture in this cohort (P = 0.218. There was also high prevalence of pre-existing fractures, pulmonary disease, heart failure and strokes in the study population. CONCLUSION: Falls risk assessment in relation to medication use is frequently inaccurate and is not done at all for a significant proportion of patients. The use proton pump inhibitors and medication-related risks for falls and

  15. Analysis of medication-related malpractice claims: causes, preventability, and costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, Jeffrey M; Federico, Frank A; Gandhi, Tejal K; Kaushal, Rainu; Williams, Deborah H; Bates, David W

    2002-11-25

    Adverse drug events (ADEs) may lead to serious injury and may result in malpractice claims. While ADEs resulting in claims are not representative of all ADEs, such data provide a useful resource for studying ADEs. Therefore, we conducted a review of medication-related malpractice claims to study their frequency, nature, and costs and to assess the human factor failures associated with preventable ADEs. We also assessed the potential benefits of proved effective ADE prevention strategies on ADE claims prevention. We conducted a retrospective analysis of a New England malpractice insurance company claims records from January 1, 1990, to December 31, 1999. Cases were electronically screened for possible ADEs and followed up by independent review of abstracts by 2 physician reviewers (T.K.G. and R.K.). Additional in-depth claims file reviews identified potential human factor failures associated with ADEs. Adverse drug events represented 6.3% (129/2040) of claims. Adverse drug events were judged preventable in 73% (n = 94) of the cases and were nearly evenly divided between outpatient and inpatient settings. The most frequently involved medication classes were antibiotics, antidepressants or antipsychotics, cardiovascular drugs, and anticoagulants. Among these ADEs, 46% were life threatening or fatal. System deficiencies and performance errors were the most frequent cause of preventable ADEs. The mean costs of defending malpractice claims due to ADEs were comparable for nonpreventable inpatient and outpatient ADEs and preventable outpatient ADEs (mean, $64,700-74,200), but costs were considerably greater for preventable inpatient ADEs (mean, $376,500). Adverse drug events associated with malpractice claims were often severe, costly, and preventable, and about half occurred in outpatients. Many interventions could potentially have prevented ADEs, with error proofing and process standardization covering the greatest proportion of events.

  16. Relation between intelligence, emotional intelligence, and academic performance among medical interns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhashish Nath

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a dearth of research on the correlation between emotional quotient (EQ and intelligence quotient (IQ, and specifically among medical students and interns. So, we in our study aim to find out the correlation between these two variants of intelligence, and their relation to academic performance among medical interns as well as the gender differences between EQ, IQ, and academic performance. Methodology: EQ Test Questionnaire developed by Chadha and Singh was used for testing the EQ of the participants (n=50; males=34, females=16; mean age=24.1 years. IQ was tested by an experienced clinical psychologist using Wechsler’s Adult Intelligence Test. The academic achievement was determined from the percentage of marks secured in tenth standard, 12th standard, and Final MBBS. GraphPad InStat version 3.05 was used for data entry and analysis. Results: A statistically high significant negative correlation was found between EQ and IQ of our total study sample as well as among the male participants. The mean EQ was higher among females and mean IQ among males. The females were academically better than the males and this difference was statistically highly significant. No significant correlation of EQ and IQ to academic performance was found in the total sample group. Conclusion: EQ and IQ are negatively correlated to each other, and there is no significant correlation of EQ and IQ to academic performance. Based on the current findings, further studies need to be built in larger samples. Limitation of the study is a small sample population.

  17. Weisheitsbezogene Kompetenz im medizinischen Kontext [Wisdom-related competence in the medical context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoffmann, Miriam

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available [english] Purpose: Wisdom-related competence supports effective action in complex social situations as they occur in everyday clinical practice. The concept of wisdom-related competence by Stark postulates 13 knowledge and attitude categories which constitute wisdom-related competence. We distinguish wisdom-relevant and wisdom-specific knowledge and attitude dimensions. Using the method of dilemma discussion, a content analysis was performed in order to reveal the level of wisdom-related competence in medical students. Methods: Four complex scenarios were generated according to the criteria of complex situations by Dörner . These scenarios were processed by 15 medical students in an interview. On the basis of the interview transcripts, a content analysis was performed with the help of a specific coding manual. Results: Subjects reached in average only 43% of the theoretical maximum (156.47 of 364 possible points; =61.50. Eight out of 13 categories showed similar mean structures (between =12.53, =6.23 and =16.33, =5.33; theoretical maximum: 28 points; the means of the categories “ontogenetic knowledge”, “contextualism/relativism”, “limitation of one’s own knowledge”, “knowledge about relative indetermination of life course” and “tolerance/acceptance of ambiguity” were much lower (between=7.63, =3.89 and =10.07, =7.12. Additionally, many subjects had lower individual scores for the last scenario (blood transfusion. Conclusion: The results indicate a need for stronger communication of adequate wisdom-related competence (meaning knowledge and attitudes in order to act constructively in complex social situations. [german] Zielsetzung: Weisheitsbezogene Kompetenz bietet wertvolle Hilfestellung zum effektiven Handeln in komplexen sozialen Situationen, wie sie im Klinikalltag auftreten. Das Modell der weisheitsbezogenen Kompetenz nach Stark postuliert 13 Wissens- bzw. Haltungsdimensionen, die weisheitsbezogene Kompetenz

  18. La Disciplina Positiva (Positive Discipline). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education, Urbana, IL.

    This ERIC Digest suggests methods and language that can be used in handling difficult, but common, situations involving young children. The digest explains 12 methods of disciplining children that promote children's self-worth. These methods are: (1) showing children that the reasons for their actions are understood; (2) stating reasons; (3)…

  19. Childrearing Discipline and Violence in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansford, Jennifer E.; Deater-Deckard, Kirby

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the prevalence and country-level correlates of 11 responses to children's behavior, including nonviolent discipline, psychological aggression, and physical violence, as well as endorsement of the use of physical punishment, in 24 countries using data from 30,470 families with 2- to 4-year-old children that participated…

  20. School-Wide Discipline and Classroom Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marr, Mary Beth; Audette, Bob; White, Richard; Ellis, Edward; Algozzine, Bob

    2002-01-01

    Shortages of teachers with specialized skills, coupled with increased difficulty accommodating students with problem behaviors in general education classrooms, create pressures for performance and accountability in schools. Describes improvements in classroom ecology after implementation of a school-wide discipline model. These outcomes were…