WorldWideScience

Sample records for related environmental compounds

  1. Tandem Extraction/Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Protocol for the Analysis of Acrylamide and Surfactant-related Compounds in Complex Aqueous Environmental Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    The development of a liquid chromatography‐mass spectrometry (LC‐MS)‐based strategy for the detection and quantitation of acrylamide and surfactant‐related compounds in aqueous complex environmental samples.

  2. Column liquid chromatography- mass spectrometry: selected techniques in environmental applications for polar pesticides and related compounds.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slobodnik, J.; van Baar, B.L.M.; Brinkman, U.A.T.

    1995-01-01

    A review covering the field of environmental applications of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) is presented. Recent developments and advances are discussed with emphasis on the presently popular thermospray, particle beam and atmospheric pressure ionisation interfaces. Each interface

  3. Environmental contamination and human exposure to dioxin-related compounds in e-waste recycling sites of developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tue, Nguyen Minh; Takahashi, Shin; Subramanian, Annamalai; Sakai, Shinichi; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2013-07-01

    E-waste recycling using uncontrolled processes is a major source of dioxin-related compounds (DRCs), including not only the regulated polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) but also non-regulated brominated and mixed halogenated compounds (PBDD/Fs and PXDD/Fs). Various studies at informal e-waste recycling sites (EWRSs) in Asian developing countries found the soil contamination levels of PCDD/Fs from tens to ten thousand picogram TCDD-equivalents (TEQ) per gram and those of DL-PCBs up to hundreds of picogram TEQ per gram. The air concentration of PCDD/Fs was reported as high as 50 pg TEQ per m(3) in Guiyu, the largest Chinese EWRS. Non-regulated compounds also contributed substantially to the total DL toxicity of the DRC mixtures from e-waste, as evidenced by the high TEQ levels estimated for the currently identifiable PBDD/Fs as well as the large portion of unexplained bioassay-derived TEQ levels in soils/dusts from EWRSs. Considering the high exposure levels estimated for EWRS residents, especially children, comprehensive emission inventories of DRCs from informal e-waste recycling, the identities and toxic potencies of unidentified DRCs released, and their impacts on human health need to be investigated in future studies.

  4. Bronzes and relative compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uehlls, A.

    1987-01-01

    Preparation and the crystal structure of bronzes based on complex oxides of transition (Ti, V, Nb, Ta, Mo, W, Re, Ru and etc.) and alkali metals, as well as oxides of some other elements (Sr, In, La and etc.) are described. Peculiarities of formation of the structure of tetragonal, tungsten, molybdenum, vanadium bronzes and their analogs depending on the chemical composition of these compounds are considered

  5. Environmentally acceptable thread compounds: Requirements defined

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stringfellow, W.D.; Hendriks, R.V.; Jacobs, N.L.

    1993-01-01

    New environmental regulations on thread compounds are now being enforced in several areas with strong maritime tradition and a sensitive environment. These areas include Indonesia, Alaska and portions of Norway. The industry generally recognizes the environmental concerns but, with wider enforcement of regulations imminent, has not been able to define clearly the requirements for environmental compliance. This paper, written in collaboration with The Netherlands State Supervision of Mines, is based on the National Policy on Thread Compounds of The Netherlands. This national policy is representative of policies being followed by other North Sea governments. Similar policies might well be adopted by other governments worldwide. These policies will affect the operator, drilling contractor, and supplier. This paper provides a specific and detailed definition of thread compound requirements by addressing four relevant categories. The categories of interest are regulatory approval, environmental, health, and performance

  6. Environmental risk management for pharmaceutical compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voulvoulis, N [Imperial College London (United Kingdom)

    2004-09-15

    Pharmaceuticals are a highly variable group of organic compounds with the potential to cause harm to aquatic ecosystems and human health. Thousands of tones of pharmacologically active substances are used annually but surprisingly little is known about their ultimate fate in the environment. The data collected to date, rarely provide information on the processes that determine their environmental fate and although they receive considerable pharmacological and clinical testing during development, knowledge of their ecotoxicity is poor. One major concern is that antibiotics found in sewage effluent may cause increased resistance amongst natural bacterial populations. The debate over risks associated with chemicals in the environment represents more than just another disagreement in the scientific community. It has opened the door to a new way of thinking about the onset of uninherited diseases, the nature of scientific investigation, and the role of scientific knowledge in the policymaking process. For example, research evidence on endocrine disruption collected over the last few years has changed dramatically the way we think about chemical risks. In part, this change has also been attributed to the precautionary principle, as a new approach to environmental policy forged in Europe. The term ''precautionary approach'' declares an obligation to control the dangerous substances even before a definitive causal link had been established between the chemicals and health or environmental effects, and represents a radical departure from traditional approaches to risk assessment and particularly risk management, which includes an integration of the assessment, communication and mitigation of risks.

  7. Environmental risk management for pharmaceutical compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voulvoulis, N. [Imperial College London (United Kingdom)

    2004-09-15

    Pharmaceuticals are a highly variable group of organic compounds with the potential to cause harm to aquatic ecosystems and human health. Thousands of tones of pharmacologically active substances are used annually but surprisingly little is known about their ultimate fate in the environment. The data collected to date, rarely provide information on the processes that determine their environmental fate and although they receive considerable pharmacological and clinical testing during development, knowledge of their ecotoxicity is poor. One major concern is that antibiotics found in sewage effluent may cause increased resistance amongst natural bacterial populations. The debate over risks associated with chemicals in the environment represents more than just another disagreement in the scientific community. It has opened the door to a new way of thinking about the onset of uninherited diseases, the nature of scientific investigation, and the role of scientific knowledge in the policymaking process. For example, research evidence on endocrine disruption collected over the last few years has changed dramatically the way we think about chemical risks. In part, this change has also been attributed to the precautionary principle, as a new approach to environmental policy forged in Europe. The term ''precautionary approach'' declares an obligation to control the dangerous substances even before a definitive causal link had been established between the chemicals and health or environmental effects, and represents a radical departure from traditional approaches to risk assessment and particularly risk management, which includes an integration of the assessment, communication and mitigation of risks.

  8. Endocannabinoids, Related Compounds and Their Metabolic Routes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filomena Fezza

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Endocannabinoids are lipid mediators able to bind to and activate cannabinoid receptors, the primary molecular targets responsible for the pharmacological effects of the Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol. These bioactive lipids belong mainly to two classes of compounds: N-acylethanolamines and acylesters, being N-arachidonoylethanolamine (AEA and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG, respectively, their main representatives. During the last twenty years, an ever growing number of fatty acid derivatives (endocannabinoids and endocannabinoid-like compounds have been discovered and their activities biological is the subject of intense investigations. Here, the most recent advances, from a therapeutic point of view, on endocannabinoids, related compounds, and their metabolic routes will be reviewed.

  9. Environmental communication in business relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holgaard, Jette Egelund

    in the way, in which a company organise, communicate and learn in order to succeed in business. The ambition level regarding environmental improvements in each strategy can differ. The three strategies are not mutually exclusive; on the contrary, they supplement and support each other. Empirical data...... is collected by means of environmental reports, qualitative questionnaires, and a case study at Grundfos A/S in Denmark. These data will be discussed in relation to the three strategies of environmental communication. Different trends in environmental communication practise are found, and on this basis......, recommendations are made in order to improve environmental communication in business relations....

  10. Environmental Chemistry Compound Identification Using High ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is a growing need for rapid chemical screening and prioritization to inform regulatory decision-making on thousands of chemicals in the environment. We have previously used high-resolution mass spectrometry to examine household vacuum dust samples using liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-TOF/MS). Using a combination of exact mass, isotope distribution, and isotope spacing, molecular features were matched with a list of chemical formulas from the EPA’s Distributed Structure-Searchable Toxicity (DSSTox) database. This has further developed our understanding of how openly available chemical databases, together with the appropriate searches, could be used for the purpose of compound identification. We report here on the utility of the EPA’s iCSS Chemistry Dashboard for the purpose of compound identification using searches against a database of over 720,000 chemicals. We also examine the benefits of QSAR prediction for the purpose of retention time prediction to allow for alignment of both chromatographic and mass spectral properties. This abstract does not reflect U.S. EPA policy presentation at the Eastern Analytical Symposium.

  11. Improvements in or relating to compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodhead, J.L.

    1983-01-01

    The invention provides a process for the preparation of a dispersible product containing a cerium compound which comprises heating a cerium (IV) oxide hydrate in the presence of a salt to cause deaggregation of aggregated crystallites in the cerium (IV) oxide hydrate and produce a dispersible product containing a cerium compound. (author)

  12. Environmental embrittlement of intermetallic compounds in Fe-Al alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建民; 张瑞林; S.H.YU; 余瑞璜

    1996-01-01

    First,it is proposed that hydrogen atoms occupy the interstitial sites in Fe3Al and FeAl.Then the environmental embrittlement of intermetallic compounds in Fe-Al alloys is studied in the light of calculated valence electron structures and bond energy of Fe3Al and FeAl containing hydrogen atoms.From the analyses it is found that the states of metal atoms will change,in which more lattice electrons will become covalent electrons to bond with hydrogen atoms when the atomic hydrogen diffuses into the intermetallic compounds in Fe-Al alloys,which will result in the decrease of local metallicity in Fe3Al and FeAl.Meanwhile,it is found that the crystal will easily cleave since solute hydrogen bonds with metal atoms and severely anisotropic bonds form.As a conclusion,these factors result in the environmental embrittlement of Fe3Al and FeAl.

  13. Certain Aliphatic Nitramines and Related Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    1944-11-29

    compounds are ruite unstable. It has beer , impossible to prepare N-iodcmifcramines by any synthesis thus far attempted and the N-bromonitramines...end of tb’f. tine the solution v;as soured over 1500 g. of crac3:cd ice end neutralised with about GOO z» ot sodium bicarbonate. After extraction

  14. Clinical breath analysis: Discriminating between human endogenous compounds and exogenous (environmental) chemical confounders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled breath originate from current or previous environmental exposures (exogenous compounds) and internal metabolic anabolic and catabolic) production (endogenous compounds). The origins of certain VOCs in breath presumed to be endogenous ...

  15. In vitro measurement of antithyroid compounds and environmental goitrogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaitan, E; Cooksey, R C; Matthews, D; Presson, R

    1983-04-01

    A specific, sensitive, and reproducible in vitro assay for antithyroid compounds and environmental goitrogens has been used to investigate antithyroid activity (AA) in small samples of water supplying 15 localities in endemic and nonendemic goiter areas of western Colombia. A significant positive correlation was observed between goiter prevalence and AA in water collected from the pipelines of these localities. Samples at the water source showed only borderline significance. No significant correlation was observed in waters between AA and total hardness (ppm) or concentrations of Ca, Mg, sulfates, chlorides, silicates, nitrates, and iodine. AA was also demonstrated by this in vitro assay in well water previously shown experimentally to be goitrogenic and that supplied the endemic goiter district of Candelaria town in western Colombia. In contrast, water from the well supplying the area of lower endemicity was found to possess little AA. These results provide experimental support for epidemiological observations that demonstrate a relationship between the sources of drinking water and goiter prevalence rates, and are consistent with previous findings indicating that organic antithyroid compounds contaminate water supplies in areas where goiter persists despite adequate iodine supplementation.

  16. Safeprops: A Software for Fast and Reliable Estimation of Safety and Environmental Properties for Organic Compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Mark Nicholas; Frutiger, Jerome; Abildskov, Jens

    We present a new software tool called SAFEPROPS which is able to estimate major safety-related and environmental properties for organic compounds. SAFEPROPS provides accurate, reliable and fast predictions using the Marrero-Gani group contribution (MG-GC) method. It is implemented using Python...... as the main programming language, while the necessary parameters together with their correlation matrix are obtained from a SQLite database which has been populated using off-line parameter and error estimation routines (Eq. 3-8)....

  17. The Behavior of Environmentally Friendly Corrosion Preventative Compounds in an Aggressive Coastal Marine Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Eliza L.; Calle, Luz Marina; Curran Jerome C.; Kolody, Mark R.

    2013-01-01

    The shift to use environmentally friendly technologies throughout future space-related launch programs prompted a study aimed at replacing current petroleum and solvent-based Corrosion Preventive Compounds (CPCs) with environmentally friendly alternatives. The work in this paper focused on the identification and evaluation of environmentally friendly CPCs for use in protecting flight hardware and ground support equipment from atmospheric corrosion. The CPCs, while a temporary protective coating, must survive in the aggressive coastal marine environment that exists throughout the Kennedy Space Center, Florida. The different protection behaviors of fifteen different soft film CPCs, both common petroleum-based and newer environmentally friendly types, were evaluated on various steel and aluminum substrates. The CPC and substrate systems were subjected to atmospheric testing at the Kennedy Space Center's Beachside Atmospheric Corrosion Test Site, as well as cyclic accelerated corrosion testing. Each CPC also underwent physical characterization and launch-related compatibility testing . The initial results for the fifteen CPC systems are reported : Key words: corrosion preventive compound, CPC, spaceport, environmentally friendly, atmospheric exposure, marine, carbon steel, aluminum alloy, galvanic corrosion, wire on bolt.

  18. Device for collecting chemical compounds and related methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jill R.; Groenewold, Gary S.; Rae, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    A device for sampling chemical compounds from fixed surfaces and related methods are disclosed. The device may include a vacuum source, a chamber and a sorbent material. The device may utilize vacuum extraction to volatilize the chemical compounds from the fixed surfaces so that they may be sorbed by the sorbent material. The sorbent material may then be analyzed using conventional thermal desorption/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (TD/GC/MS) instrumentation to determine presence of the chemical compounds. The methods may include detecting release and presence of one or more chemical compounds and determining the efficacy of decontamination. The device may be useful in collection and analysis of a variety of chemical compounds, such as residual chemical warfare agents, chemical attribution signatures and toxic industrial chemicals.

  19. Signals of speciation: Volatile organic compounds resolve closely related sagebrush taxa, suggesting their importance in evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deidre M. Jaeger; Justin B. Runyon; Bryce A. Richardson

    2016-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play important roles in the environmental adaptation and fitness of plants. Comparison of the qualitative and quantitative differences in VOCs among closely related taxa and assessing the effects of environment on their emissions are important steps to deducing VOC function and evolutionary importance.

  20. EARTH RESOURCE PROBLEMS AND RELATED ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlitová Erika

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses some of the problems of geology and earth resources management in relation to environmental problems of the technosphere. It deals also with some aspects of environmental monitoring of areas where surveying or mining operations are planned or in progress.

  1. Thermodynamic behavior of glassy state of structurally related compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushal, Aditya Mohan; Bansal, Arvind Kumar

    2008-08-01

    Thermodynamic properties of amorphous pharmaceutical forms are responsible for enhanced solubility as well as poor physical stability. The present study was designed to investigate the differences in thermodynamic parameters arising out of disparate molecular structures and associations for four structurally related pharmaceutical compounds--celecoxib, valdecoxib, rofecoxib, and etoricoxib. Conventional and modulated temperature differential scanning calorimetry were employed to study glass forming ability and thermodynamic behavior of the glassy state of model compounds. Glass transition temperature of four glassy compounds was in a close range of 327.6-331.8 K, however, other thermodynamic parameters varied considerably. Kauzmann temperature, strength parameter and fragility parameter showed rofecoxib glass to be most fragile of the four compounds. Glass forming ability of the compounds fared similar in the critical cooling rate experiments, suggesting that different factors were determining the glass forming ability and subsequent behavior of the compounds in glassy state. A comprehensive understanding of such thermodynamic facets of amorphous form would help in rationalizing the approaches towards development of stable glassy pharmaceuticals.

  2. Microorganisms for efficient production of melatonin and related compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Recombinant microbial cells and methods for producing 5HTP, melatonin and related compounds using such cells are described. More specifically, the recombinant microbial cell may comprise exogenous genes encoding one or more of an L-tryptophan hydroxylase, a 5- hydroxy-L-tryptophan decarboxylyase...

  3. RPP Environmental Permits and Related Documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DEXTER, M.L.

    2001-01-01

    This document contains the current list of environmental permits and related documentation for RPP facilities and activities. Copies of these permits and related approvals are maintained by RPP Environmental. In addition, notices of Correction and Notices of Violation are issued by State and Federal Regulators which are tracked by RPP Environmental to resolve any recently identified deficiencies. A listing of these recent Notices is provided as an attachment to this document. These permits, approval conditions, and recent regulatory agency notices, constitute an important element of the RPP Authorization Envelope. Permits are issued frequently and the reader is advised to check with RPP environmental for new permits or approval conditions. Interpretation of permit or approval conditions should be coordinated with RPP Environmental. This document is updated on a quarterly basis

  4. RPP Environmental Permits and Related Documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DEXTER, M.L.

    2000-01-01

    This document contains the current list of environmental permits and related documentation for RPP facilities and activities. Copies of these permits and related approvals are maintained by RPP Environmental. In addition, Notices of Correction and Notices of Violation are issued by State and Federal Regulators which are tracked by RPP Environmental to resolve any recently identified deficiencies. A listing of these recent Notices is provided as an attachment to this document. These permits, approval conditions, and recent regulatory agency notices, constitute an important element of the RPP Authorization Envelope. Permits are issued frequently and the reader is advised to check with RPP environmental for new permits or approval conditions. Interpretation of permit or approval conditions should be coordinated with RPP Environmental. This document will be updated on a quarterly basis

  5. ENVIRONMENTALISM AND CLASSIC PARADIGMS OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. D. Miniaeva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines an environmentalism integration process into Three classical paradigms of international relations theory (Liberalism, Realism and Marxism into Three classical paradigms of international relations theory (Liberalism, Realism and Marxism. The main purpose of this study is to reveal the result of this integration. Methods used in this article include analysis and comparison of "ecological" paradigms on selected parameters (the nature of international relations, actors, targets, tools, processes. Results of research show that the beginning of the XXI century is distinguished by the development of new types of political concepts that explain interaction of elements in modern international relations in the area of environmental protection. The reason of these changes lies in the phenomena of environmentalism integration into Three paradigms of international relations. However, we cannot say that any of the examined paradigms accumulated all features of environmentalism without their modification. Better to say, it's rather similar to adaptation of environmental ideas. Therefore, to understand modern international relations processes, it is necessary to take into account their environmental element. Purchase on Elibrary.ru > Buy nowDOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2070-7568-2014-3-4

  6. Review of Research on Environmental Public Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunig, James E.

    1977-01-01

    Reviews existing knowledge on the behavior of public relations practitioners in environmental problems, public concern and media coverage of pollution and deterioation of the natural environment. Available from: Public Relations Review, Ray Hiebert, Dean, College of Journalism, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742. (MH)

  7. Mangiferin: a natural miracle bioactive compound against lifestyle related disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Imran, Muhammad; Arshad, Muhammad Sajid; Butt, Masood Sadiq; Kwon, Joong-Ho; Arshad, Muhammad Umair; Sultan, Muhammad Tauseef

    2017-01-01

    The current review article is an attempt to explain the therapeutic potential of mangiferin, a bioactive compound of the mango, against lifestyle-related disorders. Mangiferin (2-?-D-glucopyranosyl-1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxy-9H-xanthen-9-one) can be isolated from higher plants as well as the mango fruit and their byproducts (i.e. peel, seed, and kernel). It possesses several health endorsing properties such as antioxidant, antimicrobial, antidiabetic, antiallergic, anticancer, hypocholesterolemic, ...

  8. ENVIRONMENTALISM AND CLASSIC PARADIGMS OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    D. D. Miniaeva

    2014-01-01

    This article examines an environmentalism integration process into Three classical paradigms of international relations theory (Liberalism, Realism and Marxism) into Three classical paradigms of international relations theory (Liberalism, Realism and Marxism). The main purpose of this study is to reveal the result of this integration. Methods used in this article include analysis and comparison of "ecological" paradigms on selected parameters (the nature of international relations, actors, ta...

  9. 78 FR 48156 - Update to An Inventory of Sources and Environmental Releases of Dioxin-Like Compounds in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-07

    ... Inventory of Sources and Environmental Releases of Dioxin-Like Compounds in the United States for the Years... document entitled, Update to An Inventory of Sources and Environmental Releases of Dioxin-Like Compounds in... the report: An Inventory of Sources and Environmental Releases of Dioxin-Like Compounds in the United...

  10. Accumulation of sulfhydryl compounds in Cereals Seeds unde the influence of environmental pollution with radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedenko, V.S.; Livenskaya, O.A.; Gushcha, N.I.

    1995-01-01

    It is determined that certain cultivars of cereal plants respond to environmental pollution with radionuclides by depression of the sulfhydryl compounds accumulation in the seed complex of metabolic active proteins and low-weight thiols, other cultivars respond by an increase in the content of the above mentioned compounds

  11. Synthesis and anion binding properties of porphyrins and related compounds

    KAUST Repository

    Figueira, Flávio

    2016-12-02

    Over the last two decades the preparation of pyrrole-based receptors for anion recognition has attracted considerable attention. In this regard porphyrins, phthalocyanines and expanded porphyrins have been used as strong and selective receptors while the combination of those with different techniques and materials can boost their applicability in different applications as chemosensors and extracting systems. Improvements in the field, including the synthesis of this kind of compounds, can contribute to the development of efficient, cheap, and easy-to-prepare anion receptors. Extensive efforts have been made to improve the affinity and selectivity of these compounds and the continuous expansion of related research makes this chemistry even more promising. In this review, we summarize the most recent developments in anion binding studies while outlining the strategies that may be used to synthesize and functionalize these type of macrocycles. © 2016 World Scientific Publishing Company.

  12. Biodegradation tests of mercaptocarboxylic acids, their esters, related divalent sulfur compounds and mercaptans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rücker, Christoph; Mahmoud, Waleed M M; Schwartz, Dirk; Kümmerer, Klaus

    2018-04-17

    Mercaptocarboxylic acids and their esters, a class of difunctional compounds bearing both a mercapto and a carboxylic acid or ester functional group, are industrial chemicals of potential environmental concern. Biodegradation of such compounds was systematically investigated here, both by literature search and by experiments (Closed Bottle Test OECD 301D and Manometric Respirometry Test OECD 301F). These compounds were found either readily biodegradable or at least biodegradable to a significant extent. Some related compounds of divalent sulfur were tested for comparison (mercaptans, sulfides, disulfides). For the two relevant monofunctional compound classes, carboxylic acids/esters and mercaptans, literature data were compiled, and by comparison with structurally similar compounds without these functional groups, the influence of COOH/COOR' and SH groups on biodegradability was evaluated. Thereby, an existing rule of thumb for biodegradation of carboxylic acids/esters was supported by experimental data, and a rule of thumb could be formulated for mercaptans. Concurrent to biodegradation, abiotic processes were observed in the experiments, rapid oxidative formation of disulfides (dimerisation of monomercaptans and cyclisation of dimercaptans) and hydrolysis of esters. Some problems that compromise the reproducibility of biodegradation test results were discussed.

  13. Screening compounds for early warnings about environmental pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metcalf, R.L.

    1974-01-01

    A laboratory model ecosystem with a terrestrial-aquatic interface has been used to evaluate the potential environmental effects of nearly 100 micropollutants including insecticides, fungicides, plasticizers, heat transfer agents, flame retardants, pharmaceuticals, industrial chemicals and heavy metals. These have been evaluated largely by radiotracer techniques but atomic absorption spectrometry has also been used. Emphasis has been placed upon degradation pathways in a variety of organisms and upon quantitative data on biodegradation and bioaccumulation. The laboratory model ecosystem has substantial value as an environmental early warning element in evaluating the pollutant potential of various chemicals which may enter into the environment in trace amounts either purposely in various use patterns or accidentally from effluents of manufacture or waste products. (U.S.)

  14. Thermal decomposition of tributylphosphate and some related compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruneau, Christian; Lhomme, Veronique; Brault, Auguste; Chevalier, Gerard; Soyer, Noel.

    1981-04-01

    The difficulties encountered during the processing of effluents released by heat degradation of wastes containing tributylphosphate show the need of a better knowledge of the products released during the reactions involved. A review was made of the uses, properties and toxicity of TBP and three related compounds. Their degradation by heat was studied experimentally in various conditions (atmospheres, temperatures, ...). The analysis of the gaseous, liquid or solid products specified the reaction kineticss occuring in such conditions. A comparison of the results made it possible to assess the hazards from a plant for heat destruction of TBP and to master them according to the various possibilities [fr

  15. Some information needs for air quality modeling. [Environmental effects of sulfur compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, F B

    1975-09-01

    The following topics were considered at the workshop: perturbation of the natural sulfur cycle by human activity; ecosystem responses to a given environmental dose of sulfur compounds; movement of sulfur compounds within the atmosphere; air quality models; contribution of biogenic sulfur compounds to atmospheric burden of sulfur; production of acid rain from sulfur dioxide; meteorological processes; and rates of oxidation of SO/sub 2/ via direct photo-oxidation, oxidation resulting from photo-induced free radical chemistry, and catalytic oxidation in cloud droplets and on dry particles. (HLW)

  16. Environmental remediation: Addressing public concerns through effective community relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, S.; Heywood, J.; Wood, M.B.; Arellano, M.; Pfister, S.

    1998-01-01

    The public's perception of risk drives their response to any potential environmental remediation project. Even if the actual environmental and health risks may be relatively low, public perception of high risk may doom the project to an uphill struggle characterized by heated public meetings, negative media coverage, reluctant regulators, project delays and increased costs. The ultimate Catch 22 in such a case is that the contamination remains in-place until the public drama is concluded. This paper explores the development and implementation of a Community Relations Plan for the clean up of a Manufactured Gas Plant (MGP) site owned and operated by corporate predecessors of Arizona Public Service Company (APS) near the turn of the century. The unique challenges associated with this project were that the former MGP was located in downtown Phoenix at the site of a future federal courthouse. Although the MGP site had been under investigation for some time, the clean-up schedule was driven by a tight courthouse construction schedule. Compounding these challenges were the logistics associated with conducting a large-scale cleanup in a congested, highly visible downtown location. An effective Community Relations Plan can mean the difference between the success and failure of an environmental remediation project. Elements of an effective plan are: identifying key stakeholders and involving them in the project from the beginning; providing timely information and being open and honest about the potential environmental and health risks; involving your company's community relations and media staff; and educating affected company employees. The Community Relations Plan developed for this project was designed to alleviate public concern about potential risks (perceived or real) associated with the project by keeping key stakeholders informed of all activities well in advance

  17. Influence of environmental factors on the concentration of phenolic compounds in leaves of Lafoensia pacari

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Leite Sampaio

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Lafoensia pacari A. St.-Hil., Lythraceae, a plant from the Cerrado known as pacari or dedaleiro, is widely used as an antipyretic, wound healing, anti-inflammatory, antidiarrheal and in the treatment of gastritis and cancer. Notable among the metabolite groups identified in leaves of L. pacari are the polyphenols, such as tannins and flavonoids, related to the pharmacological activities of pacari. Studies on the influence of environmental factors over production of major groups of secondary metabolites in pacari are important because they contribute data for its cultivation and harvest, and establish quantitative parameters of secondary metabolites in the plant drug. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of environmental factors on concentrations of phenolic metabolites in the leaves of L. pacari. Compounds quantified in the leaves were: total phenols, tannins by protein precipitation, hydrolysable tannins, total flavonoids, ellagic acid and mineral nutrients, while soil fertility was also analyzed, all over a period of one year. The data were analyzed using multivariate analysis, and the results suggest that metabolite concentrations in the leaves of this plant are influenced by seasonal factors, in particular the temperature and foliar micronutrients (Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn.

  18. Influence of environmental factors on the concentration of phenolic compounds in leaves of Lafoensia pacari

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Leite Sampaio

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Lafoensia pacari A. St.-Hil., Lythraceae, a plant from the Cerrado known as pacari or dedaleiro, is widely used as an antipyretic, wound healing, anti-inflammatory, antidiarrheal and in the treatment of gastritis and cancer. Notable among the metabolite groups identified in leaves of L. pacari are the polyphenols, such as tannins and flavonoids, related to the pharmacological activities of pacari. Studies on the influence of environmental factors over production of major groups of secondary metabolites in pacari are important because they contribute data for its cultivation and harvest, and establish quantitative parameters of secondary metabolites in the plant drug. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of environmental factors on concentrations of phenolic metabolites in the leaves of L. pacari. Compounds quantified in the leaves were: total phenols, tannins by protein precipitation, hydrolysable tannins, total flavonoids, ellagic acid and mineral nutrients, while soil fertility was also analyzed, all over a period of one year. The data were analyzed using multivariate analysis, and the results suggest that metabolite concentrations in the leaves of this plant are influenced by seasonal factors, in particular the temperature and foliar micronutrients (Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn.

  19. Examination of Environmental Factors Influencing the Emission Rates of Semivolatile Organic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunwoo Lee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Some types of semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs that are emitted from plastics used in building materials and household appliances have been associated with health risks, even at low concentrations. It has been reported that di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP—one of the most commonly used plasticizers—causes asthma and allergic symptoms in children at home. The amount of emitted DEHP, which is classified as a SVOC, can be measured using a microchamber by the thermal desorption test chamber method. To accurately measure the SVOC emission rates, the relation between SVOC and environmental factors should be clarified. Herein, we examined the effects of the temperature, relative humidity, concentration of airborne particles, and flow field in the microchamber on SVOC emission rates. The flow fields inside the microchamber were analyzed via computational fluid dynamics (CFD. The emission rate of SVOC released from PVC flooring increased under high temperatures and at high concentrations of airborne particles but did not depend on the relative humidity. From an evaluation performed using an index of air change efficiency, such as the air age and the coefficient of air change performance, we found that a fixed air exchange rate of 1.5 h−1 in the microchamber is desirable.

  20. Towards integrated environmental quality objectives for several compounds with a potential for secondary poisoning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plassche EJ van de; ACT; VW/RWS-DGW; AIDE

    1994-01-01

    Values are derived which can be used to set integrated environmental quality objectives (limit and target values) for 25 compounds with a potential for secondary poisoning. First, Maximum Permissible Concentrations (MPs) and Negligible Concentrations (NCs) are derived for water, sediment and soil

  1. Volatile Organic Sulfur Compounds of Environmental Interest: Dimethyl Sulfide and Methanethiol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasteen, Thomas G.; Bentley, Ronald

    2004-01-01

    Volatile organic sulfur compounds (VOSCs) have been assigned environmental roles in global warming, acid precipitation, and cloud formation where two important members dimethyl sulfide (CH3)2 S, DMS, and methanethiol, CH3SH, MT, of VOSC group are involved.

  2. Species-specific accumulation of dioxin related compounds in cetaceans collected from Japanese coastal waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kajiwara, N.; Watanabe, M.; Tanabe, S. [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime Univ. (Japan); Amano, M. [Ocean Research Inst., Univ. of Tokyo, Iwate (Japan); Yamada, T. [National Science Museum, Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are extremely hazardous and persistent chemicals identified as contaminants in chlorophenols, herbicides, fly ash and other incineration products. Dioxin-like PCBs including non- and mono-ortho coplanar PCBs are referred to as dioxin related compounds and are evaluated on par with PCDD/Fs in environmental risks since they have a high toxicity, similar to that of PCDD/Fs. These congeners have a range of physicochemical characteristics, which profoundly affect their persistence, environmental distribution, and bioaccumulation in aquatic food chains. Fish-eating wildlife such as marine mammals are particularly vulnerable to such contamination given their long lives, high trophic level, relative inability to metabolize many persistent organic pollutants (POPs), and the biomagnification of these contaminants in aquatic food chains. However, most studies dealing with PCDDs and PCDFs in marine mammals have been carried out on pinnipeds, and data on PCDD/Fs levels in cetaceans are scarce. The present study is aimed at understanding the recent pattern of contamination by dioxin related compounds including non- and mono-ortho coplanar PCBs and PCDD/Fs in three cetacean species collected from Japanese coastal waters during 1998-2001, and also to discuss the factors determining the accumulation.

  3. Polymers containing borane or carborane cage compounds and related applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, III, Daniel E.; Eastwood, Eric A [Raymore, MO

    2012-06-05

    Polymers comprising residues of borane and/or carborane cage compound monomers having at least one polyalkoxy silyl substituent. Such polymers can further comprise one or more reactive matrices and/or co-monomers covalently bound with the cage compound monomer residues. Methods of making and applications for using such polymers are also disclosed.

  4. Controls on the Environmental Fate of Compounds Controlled by Coupled Hydrologic and Reactive Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hixson, J.; Ward, A. S.; McConville, M.; Remucal, C.

    2017-12-01

    Current understanding of how compounds interact with hydrologic processes or reactive processes have been well established. However, the environmental fate for compounds that interact with hydrologic AND reactive processes is not well known, yet critical in evaluating environmental risk. Evaluations of risk are often simplified to homogenize processes in space and time and to assess processes independently of one another. However, we know spatial heterogeneity and time-variable reactivities complicate predictions of environmental transport and fate, and is further complicated by the interaction of these processes, limiting our ability to accurately predict risk. Compounds that interact with both systems, such as photolytic compounds, require that both components are fully understood in order to predict transport and fate. Release of photolytic compounds occurs through both unintentional releases and intentional loadings. Evaluating risks associated with unintentional releases and implementing best management practices for intentional releases requires an in-depth understanding of the sensitivity of photolytic compounds to external controls. Lampricides, such as 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM), are broadly applied in the Great Lakes system to control the population of invasive sea lamprey. Over-dosing can yield fish kills and other detrimental impacts. Still, planning accounts for time of passage and dilution, but not the interaction of the physical and chemical systems (i.e., storage in the hyporheic zone and time-variable decay rates). In this study, we model a series of TFM applications to test the efficacy of dosing as a function of system characteristics. Overall, our results demonstrate the complexity associated with photo-sensitive compounds through stream-hyporheic systems, and highlight the need to better understand how physical and chemical systems interact to control transport and fate in the environment.

  5. Electronic structure of magnesium diboride and related compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paduani, C. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, UFSC, Florianopolis, CEP 88040-900, SC (Brazil)

    2003-11-01

    The electronic structure of AlB{sub 2}-type diborides and related compounds has been investigated in first-principles calculations with the molecular cluster discrete variational method. For MgB{sub 2} was studied the effect of the lattice relaxation on the total density of states at the Fermi energy (N({epsilon}{sub F})). The results indicated that a contraction of about 2% in the lattice spacings a and c can lead to a slight increase of N({epsilon}{sub F}) for boron. In the MB{sub 2} diborides, M=Al, Ti, V, Cr, Zr, Nb, Mo and Ta, the largest contributions to N({epsilon}{sub F}) is observed for Cr, Mo and Nb. TiB{sub 2} possess the highest chemical stability in the series. The electronic specific heat coefficient {gamma} also is calculated for the diborides. The method is employed to obtain the partial B2p contribution to the total DOS at the Fermi level with the introduction of a monolayer of solute atoms as a substitution for Mg atoms of Na, Al, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Zr, Nb, Mo and Ta in layered superstructures.. /M/B{sub 2}/Mg/B{sub 2}/.. A stronger covalent bonding between boron atoms is identified in these cases. (copyright 2003 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  6. Electronic structure of magnesium diboride and related compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paduani, C.

    2003-01-01

    The electronic structure of AlB 2 -type diborides and related compounds has been investigated in first-principles calculations with the molecular cluster discrete variational method. For MgB 2 was studied the effect of the lattice relaxation on the total density of states at the Fermi energy (N(ε F )). The results indicated that a contraction of about 2% in the lattice spacings a and c can lead to a slight increase of N(ε F ) for boron. In the MB 2 diborides, M=Al, Ti, V, Cr, Zr, Nb, Mo and Ta, the largest contributions to N(ε F ) is observed for Cr, Mo and Nb. TiB 2 possess the highest chemical stability in the series. The electronic specific heat coefficient γ also is calculated for the diborides. The method is employed to obtain the partial B2p contribution to the total DOS at the Fermi level with the introduction of a monolayer of solute atoms as a substitution for Mg atoms of Na, Al, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Zr, Nb, Mo and Ta in layered superstructures.. /M/B 2 /Mg/B 2 /.. A stronger covalent bonding between boron atoms is identified in these cases. (copyright 2003 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  7. Separation methods for acyclovir and related antiviral compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loregian, A; Gatti, R; Palù, G; De Palo, E F

    2001-11-25

    Acyclovir (ACV) is an antiviral drug, which selectively inhibits replication of members of the herpes group of DNA viruses with low cell toxicity. Valaciclovir (VACV), a prodrug of ACV is usually preferred in the oral treatment of viral infections, mainly herpes simplex virus (HSV). Also other analogues such as ganciclovir and penciclovir are discussed here. The former acts against cytomegalovirus (CMV) in general and the latter against CMV retinitis. The action mechanism of these antiviral drugs is presented briefly here, mainly via phosphorylation and inhibition of the viral DNA polymerase. The therapeutic use and the pharmacokinetics are also outlined. The measurement of the concentration of acyclovir and related compounds in biological samples poses a particularly significant challenge because these drugs tend to be structurally similar to endogenous substances. The analysis requires the use of highly selective analytical techniques and chromatography methods are a first choice to determine drug content in pharmaceuticals and to measure them in body fluids. Chromatography can be considered the procedure of choice for the bio-analysis of this class of antiviral compounds, as this methodology is characterised by good specificity and accuracy and it is particularly useful when metabolites need to be monitored. Among chromatographic techniques, the reversed-phase (RP) HPLC is widely used for the analysis. C18 Silica columns from 7.5 to 30 cm in length are used, the separation is carried out mainly at room temperature and less than 10 min is sufficient for the analysis at 1.0-1.5 ml/min of flow-rate. The separation methods require an isocratic system, and various authors have proposed a variety of mobile phases. The detection requires absorbance or fluorescence measurements carried out at 250-254 nm and at lambdaex=260-285 nm, lambdaem=375-380 nm, respectively. The detection limit is about 0.3-10 ng/ml but the most important aspect is related to the sample treatment

  8. Improvements in or relating to calcining reducible compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, E.A.; Peterson, R.S.

    1974-01-01

    Apparatus is described for calcining compounds of uranium compounds to temperatures of up to about 1000 0 C to produce UO 2 powders of uniform quality and having an oxygen content of less than 2.2 atoms of oxygen per atom of uranium. The apparatus comprises discharge and cooling means having an inlet end operatively joined with an air tight seal to a rotating Kiln to receive hot UO 2 powder therefrom without contact with air. (author)

  9. Methodologies for the Extraction of Phenolic Compounds from Environmental Samples: New Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Mahugo Santana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic derivatives are among the most important contaminants present in the environment. These compounds are used in several industrial processes to manufacture chemicals such as pesticides, explosives, drugs and dyes. They also are used in the bleaching process of paper manufacturing. Apart from these sources, phenolic compounds have substantial applications in agriculture as herbicides, insecticides and fungicides. However, phenolic compounds are not only generated by human activity, but they are also formed naturally, e.g., during the decomposition of leaves or wood. As a result of these applications, they are found in soils and sediments and this often leads to wastewater and ground water contamination. Owing to their high toxicity and persistence in the environment, both, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA and the European Union have included some of them in their lists of priority pollutants. Current standard methods of phenolic compounds analysis in water samples are based on liquid–liquid extraction (LLE while Soxhlet extraction is the most used technique for isolating phenols from solid matrices. However, these techniques require extensive cleanup procedures that are time-intensive and involve expensive and hazardous organic solvents, which are undesirable for health and disposal reasons. In the last years, the use of news methodologies such as solid-phase extraction (SPE and solid-phase microextraction (SPME have increased for the extraction of phenolic compounds from liquid samples. In the case of solid samples, microwave assisted extraction (MAE is demonstrated to be an efficient technique for the extraction of these compounds. In this work we review the developed methods in the extraction and determination of phenolic derivatives in different types of environmental matrices such as water, sediments and soils. Moreover, we present the new approach in the use of micellar media coupled with SPME process for the

  10. Dioxin-like activity of environmental compounds in human blood and environmental samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Long, Manhai; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie

    2012-01-01

    and humans. We found that some pesticides, plasticizers and phytoestrogens can activate the AhR, and the combined effect of compounds with no or weak AhR potency cannot be ignored. The significant DL-activity in the wastewater effluent indicates the treatment is not sufficient to prevent contamination...... of surface waters with dioxins. Our results from human studies suggest that the serum DL-activity reflect the complex mixture of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Greenlandic Inuit had lower serum DL-activity level compared to Europeans, probably due to long distance from the dioxin sources and UV...

  11. Evaluating the Relative Environmental Impact of Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Bradshaw, Corey J. A.; Giam, Xingli; Sodhi, Navjot Singh

    2010-01-01

    Environmental protection is critical to maintain ecosystem services essential for human well-being. It is important to be able to rank countries by their environmental impact so that poor performers as well as policy ?models? can be identified. We provide novel metrics of country-specific environmental impact ranks ? one proportional to total resource availability per country and an absolute (total) measure of impact ? that explicitly avoid incorporating confounding human health or economic i...

  12. Current knowledge of soft cheeses flavor and related compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sablé, S; Cottenceau, G

    1999-12-01

    Cheese aroma is the result of the perception of a large number of molecules belonging to different chemical classes. The volatile compounds involved in the soft cheese flavor have received a great deal of attention. However, there has been less work concerning the volatile compounds in the soft smear-ripened cheeses than in the mold-ripened cheeses. This paper reviews the components that contribute to the characteristic flavor in the soft cheeses such as surface-ripened, Camembert-type, and Blue cheeses. The sensory properties and quantities of the molecules in the different cheeses are discussed.

  13. Indirect radiation effects related to the environmental structure of targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frankenberg, D.

    1976-01-01

    It is supposed, that in biological systems there are direct as well as indirect radiation effects. Their contributions to lethal effects depend mainly on two different kinds of structures within irradiated systems: the microscopic energy deposition patterns of radiation and the environmental structures of targets. The approach to determine these contributions of the lethal action of ionizing radiation in yeast cells was, to use chemical compounds, which specifically change the radical spectrum of water radiolysis. The efficiency of such chemical compounds in scavenging specifically water radicals was tested in aqueous solutions of thymine molecules, in which indirect radiation effects occur exclusively. The main result is, that the OH'-radical is by far the most effective radical to destroy thymine molecules. The relative contributions of direct and indirect radiation effects to lethal actions of ionizing radiation was investigated in yeast cells. The radical spectrum of water radiolysis was changed by bubbling the cell suspensions with different gases. The main result is, that there are no lethal radiation effects du to the action of water radicals

  14. Towards integrated environmental quality objectives for several compounds with a potential for secondary poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    van de Plassche EJ; ACT; VW/RWS-DGW; AIDE

    1994-01-01

    Values are derived which can be used to set integrated environmental quality objectives (limit and target values) for 25 compounds with a potential for secondary poisoning. First, Maximum Permissible Concentrations (MPs) and Negligible Concentrations (NCs) are derived for water, sediment and soil based on direct effects on aquatic and soil organisms using extrapolation methods and on possible adverse effects due to secondary poisoning. Two foodchains are taken into account: an aquatic route (...

  15. Evaluating the relative environmental impact of countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Corey J A; Giam, Xingli; Sodhi, Navjot S

    2010-05-03

    Environmental protection is critical to maintain ecosystem services essential for human well-being. It is important to be able to rank countries by their environmental impact so that poor performers as well as policy 'models' can be identified. We provide novel metrics of country-specific environmental impact ranks - one proportional to total resource availability per country and an absolute (total) measure of impact - that explicitly avoid incorporating confounding human health or economic indicators. Our rankings are based on natural forest loss, habitat conversion, marine captures, fertilizer use, water pollution, carbon emissions and species threat, although many other variables were excluded due to a lack of country-specific data. Of 228 countries considered, 179 (proportional) and 171 (absolute) had sufficient data for correlations. The proportional index ranked Singapore, Korea, Qatar, Kuwait, Japan, Thailand, Bahrain, Malaysia, Philippines and Netherlands as having the highest proportional environmental impact, whereas Brazil, USA, China, Indonesia, Japan, Mexico, India, Russia, Australia and Peru had the highest absolute impact (i.e., total resource use, emissions and species threatened). Proportional and absolute environmental impact ranks were correlated, with mainly Asian countries having both high proportional and absolute impact. Despite weak concordance among the drivers of environmental impact, countries often perform poorly for different reasons. We found no evidence to support the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis of a non-linear relationship between impact and per capita wealth, although there was a weak reduction in environmental impact as per capita wealth increases. Using structural equation models to account for cross-correlation, we found that increasing wealth was the most important driver of environmental impact. Our results show that the global community not only has to encourage better environmental performance in less

  16. Evaluating the Relative Environmental Impact of Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Corey J. A.; Giam, Xingli; Sodhi, Navjot S.

    2010-01-01

    Environmental protection is critical to maintain ecosystem services essential for human well-being. It is important to be able to rank countries by their environmental impact so that poor performers as well as policy ‘models’ can be identified. We provide novel metrics of country-specific environmental impact ranks – one proportional to total resource availability per country and an absolute (total) measure of impact – that explicitly avoid incorporating confounding human health or economic indicators. Our rankings are based on natural forest loss, habitat conversion, marine captures, fertilizer use, water pollution, carbon emissions and species threat, although many other variables were excluded due to a lack of country-specific data. Of 228 countries considered, 179 (proportional) and 171 (absolute) had sufficient data for correlations. The proportional index ranked Singapore, Korea, Qatar, Kuwait, Japan, Thailand, Bahrain, Malaysia, Philippines and Netherlands as having the highest proportional environmental impact, whereas Brazil, USA, China, Indonesia, Japan, Mexico, India, Russia, Australia and Peru had the highest absolute impact (i.e., total resource use, emissions and species threatened). Proportional and absolute environmental impact ranks were correlated, with mainly Asian countries having both high proportional and absolute impact. Despite weak concordance among the drivers of environmental impact, countries often perform poorly for different reasons. We found no evidence to support the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis of a non-linear relationship between impact and per capita wealth, although there was a weak reduction in environmental impact as per capita wealth increases. Using structural equation models to account for cross-correlation, we found that increasing wealth was the most important driver of environmental impact. Our results show that the global community not only has to encourage better environmental performance in less

  17. Evaluating the relative environmental impact of countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corey J A Bradshaw

    Full Text Available Environmental protection is critical to maintain ecosystem services essential for human well-being. It is important to be able to rank countries by their environmental impact so that poor performers as well as policy 'models' can be identified. We provide novel metrics of country-specific environmental impact ranks - one proportional to total resource availability per country and an absolute (total measure of impact - that explicitly avoid incorporating confounding human health or economic indicators. Our rankings are based on natural forest loss, habitat conversion, marine captures, fertilizer use, water pollution, carbon emissions and species threat, although many other variables were excluded due to a lack of country-specific data. Of 228 countries considered, 179 (proportional and 171 (absolute had sufficient data for correlations. The proportional index ranked Singapore, Korea, Qatar, Kuwait, Japan, Thailand, Bahrain, Malaysia, Philippines and Netherlands as having the highest proportional environmental impact, whereas Brazil, USA, China, Indonesia, Japan, Mexico, India, Russia, Australia and Peru had the highest absolute impact (i.e., total resource use, emissions and species threatened. Proportional and absolute environmental impact ranks were correlated, with mainly Asian countries having both high proportional and absolute impact. Despite weak concordance among the drivers of environmental impact, countries often perform poorly for different reasons. We found no evidence to support the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis of a non-linear relationship between impact and per capita wealth, although there was a weak reduction in environmental impact as per capita wealth increases. Using structural equation models to account for cross-correlation, we found that increasing wealth was the most important driver of environmental impact. Our results show that the global community not only has to encourage better environmental performance in

  18. Determination of ferulic acid and related compounds by thin layer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The analysis of certain phenolic compounds from plants, and their chemical transformation with microorganisms or isolated enzymes, has application in the food and pharmaceutical industry. The rapid quantitative estimation of ferulic acid by thin layer chromatography is described by measurement of the area of the ...

  19. Environmental impact by toxic compounds from waste treatment; Miljoepaaverkan fraan toxiska aemnen vid hantering av avfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loefblad, Gun; Bisaillon, Mattias; Sundberg, Johan (Profu AB (Sweden))

    2010-07-01

    The study deals with emissions of toxic compounds from waste treatment to the environment with the aim of improving the state of knowledge and to find a way of describing the environmental impact from these substances. Toxicity is one of a number of environmental aspects necessary to address in the planning of waste treatment and in the daily waste treatment routines in order to fulfill the environmental objective A Non-Toxic Environment and other environmental requirements. The study includes waste to incineration, composting and anaerobic digestion. A comparison between methods were made for biological household waste. According to our study, the compounds of importance for waste treatment are metals and persistent organic compounds. These tend to bioaccumulate and enrich in food chains. The substances are important for the environmental objective A Non-Toxic Environment. In a first step the compounds chosen in this study may be suggested for describing toxicity from waste treatment: As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, dioxin, PCB, the phthalate DEHP and the brominated flame retardant HBCDD. Other substances may be added to the list in a next step from up-dated and quality-assured characterisation factors or from other requirements or preferences. There is a limited knowledge on toxic compounds in waste flows and in different environmental compartments. More data are available for metals than for organic substances. There is also a limited knowledge on the fate of the compounds during the waste treatment processes. Most information is found for incineration. During composting and anaerobic digestion the metals will mainly be emitted to the environment by use of the compost and the anaerobic digestion residue. Organic substances will to some extent be degraded during the processes. However, there are gaps of knowledge to fill for the further work on estimating toxic emissions. There is mainly a need for more extensive data on toxic compounds in waste and their variations. A test

  20. [Corrected Title: Solid-Phase Extraction of Polar Compounds from Water] Automated Electrostatics Environmental Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Richard; Rutz, Jeffrey; Schultz, John

    2005-01-01

    A solid-phase extraction (SPE) process has been developed for removing alcohols, carboxylic acids, aldehydes, ketones, amines, and other polar organic compounds from water. This process can be either a subprocess of a water-reclamation process or a means of extracting organic compounds from water samples for gas-chromatographic analysis. This SPE process is an attractive alternative to an Environmental Protection Administration liquid-liquid extraction process that generates some pollution and does not work in a microgravitational environment. In this SPE process, one forces a water sample through a resin bed by use of positive pressure on the upstream side and/or suction on the downstream side, thereby causing organic compounds from the water to be adsorbed onto the resin. If gas-chromatographic analysis is to be done, the resin is dried by use of a suitable gas, then the adsorbed compounds are extracted from the resin by use of a solvent. Unlike the liquid-liquid process, the SPE process works in both microgravity and Earth gravity. In comparison with the liquid-liquid process, the SPE process is more efficient, extracts a wider range of organic compounds, generates less pollution, and costs less.

  1. Synthesis and Activity of Grape Wood Phytotoxins and Related Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Perrin-Cherioux

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of analogues and derivatives of two o-hydroxyphenylacetylenes, eutypine and sterehirsutinal, the main phytotoxins isolated from the culture medium of Eutypa lata and Stereum hirsutum, is reported. Two means of synthesis are described, based on cyclisation, oxidation, oxidative decarboxylation or reduction reactions, and producing o-hydroxyphenylacetylene or benzofuran derivatives. Some of these synthetic compounds were tested on grapevine callus in order to compare their toxicity with the natural analogues.

  2. Synthesis and Activity of Grape Wood Phytotoxins and Related Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    S. Perrin-Cherioux; E. Abou-Mansour; R. Tabacchi

    2004-01-01

    The synthesis of analogues and derivatives of two o-hydroxyphenylacetylenes, eutypine and sterehirsutinal, the main phytotoxins isolated from the culture medium of Eutypa lata and Stereum hirsutum, is reported. Two means of synthesis are described, based on cyclisation, oxidation, oxidative decarboxylation or reduction reactions, and producing o-hydroxyphenylacetylene or benzofuran derivatives. Some of these synthetic compounds were tested on grapevine callus in order to compare t...

  3. Bioaccumulation of photoprotective compounds in copepods: environmental triggers and sources of intra-specific variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagarese, H. E.; García, P.; Diéguez, M. D.; Ferraro, M. A.

    2012-12-01

    Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and temperature are two globally important abiotic factors affecting freshwater ecosystems. Planktonic organisms have developed a battery of counteracting mechanisms to minimize the risk of being damaged by UVR, which respond to three basic principles: avoid, protect, repair. Copepods are among the most successful zooplankton groups. They are highly adaptable animals, capable of displaying flexible behaviors, physiologies, and life strategies. In particular, they are well equipped to cope with harmful UVR. Their arsenal includes vertical migration, accumulation of photoprotective compounds, and photorepair. The preference for a particular strategy is affected by a plethora of environmental (extrinsic) parameters, such as the existence of a depth refuge, the risk of visual predation, and temperature. Temperature modifies the environment (e.g. the lake thermal structure), and animal metabolism (e.g., swimming speed, bioaccumulation of photoprotective compounds). In addition, the relative weight of UVR-coping strategies is also influenced by the organism (intrinsic) characteristics (e.g., inter- and intra-specific variability). The UV absorbing compounds, mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs), are widely distributed among freshwater copepods. Animals are unable to synthesize MAAs, and therefore depend on external sources for accumulating these compounds. Although copepods may acquire MAAs from their food, for the few centropagic species investigated so far, the main source of MAAs are microbial (most likely prokaryotic) organisms living in close association with the copepods. Boeckella gracilipes is a common centropagic copepod in Patagonian lakes. We suspected that its occurrence in different types of lakes, hydrologically unconnected, but within close geographical proximity, could have resulted in different microbial-copepod associations (i.e., different MAAs sources) that could translate into intra-specific differences in the accumulation

  4. Research gaps related to the environmental impacts of electronic cigarettes

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Hoshing

    2014-01-01

    Objective To consider the research gaps related to the environmental impacts of electronic cigarettes due to their manufacture, use and disposal. Methods Literature searches were conducted through December 2013. Studies were included in this review if they related to the environmental impacts of e-cigarettes. Results Scientific information on the environmental impacts of e-cigarette manufacturing, use and disposal is very limited. No studies formally evaluated the environmental impacts of the...

  5. Estradiol and endocrine disrupting compounds adversely affect development of sea urchin embryos at environmentally relevant concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roepke, Troy A.; Snyder, Mark J.; Cherr, Gary N.

    2005-01-01

    Environmental endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) are a wide variety of chemicals that typically exert effects, either directly or indirectly, through receptor-mediated processes, thus mimicking endogenous hormones and/or inhibiting normal hormone activities and metabolism. Little is known about the effects of EDCs on echinoderm physiology, reproduction and development. We exposed developing sea urchin embryos (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus and Lytechinus anamesus) to two known EDCs (4-octylphenol (OCT), bisphenol A (BisA)) and to natural and synthetic reproductive hormones (17β-estradiol (E 2 ), estrone (E 1 ), estriol (E 3 ), progesterone (P 4 ) and 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE 2 )). In addition, we studied two non-estrogenic EDCs, tributyltin (TBT) and o,p-DDD. Successful development to the pluteus larval stage (96 h post-fertilization) was used to define EDC concentration-response relationships. The order of compound potency based on EC 50 values for a reduction in normal development was as follows: TBT L.anamesus > OCT > TBT S. p urpuratus >> E 2 > EE 2 > DDD >> BisA > P 4 > E 1 >> E 3 . The effect of TBT was pronounced even at concentrations substantially lower than those commonly reported in heavily contaminated areas, but the response was significantly different in the two model species. Sea urchin embryos were generally more sensitive to estrogenic EDCs and TBT than most other invertebrate larvae. Stage-specific exposure experiments were conducted to determine the most sensitive developmental periods using blastula, gastrula and post-gastrula (pluteus) stages. The stage most sensitive to E 2 , OCT and TBT was the blastula stage with less overall sensitivity in the gastrula stage, regardless of concentration. Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) were added to the experiments individually and in combination with estrogenic EDCs to interfere with potential receptor-mediated actions. Tamoxifen, a partial ER agonist, alone inhibited development at

  6. Environmental issues related to biomass: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, M.; Ranney, J.W.

    1993-01-01

    With public attention increasingly focused on environmentalism and climate change, there is enormous potential for the commercial use of biomass to accelerate. Renewable feedstocks such as biomass can provide more environmentally balanced sources of energy and other non-food products than fossil fuels. Biomass utilization is in a precarious position, however, with public attention increasingly focused on both its potential and the strength of the challenges it faces. The paper is divided into five sections. Section 2 briefly addresses economic environmental issues. The extent to which externalities are accounted for in the market price of fuels plays a significant role in determining both the ultimate size of biofuel markets and the extent of the environmental benefits of feedstock cultivation and conversion processes. Sections 3 through 4 catalogue the main hazards and benefits that are likely to arise in the large scale commercialization of biomass fuel and note where the major uncertainties lay. Environmental issues arise with the cultivation of each feedstock and with each step in the process of its conversion to fuel. Feedstocks are discussed in Section 3 in terms of three main groups; wastes, energy crops, and traditional agricultural crops. In Section 4, conversion processes are also divided into three groups, on the basis of the end energy carrier; gas, liquid, and solid and electricity. Section 5 is devoted to a conclusion and summary

  7. Role of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP in environmental cycling of poly- and perfluoroalkyl (PFAS compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Hamid

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The role of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP in environmental cycling of the poly- and perfluoroalkyl compounds (PFASs through the aqueous effluent, sludge and air emission has been critically reviewed here. Understanding the role WWTPs can provide better understanding of global cycling of persistent PFASs and assist in formulating relevant environmental policies. The review suggested that, the WWTP effluent is a major source of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs in surface water. Land application of biosolids (treated sludge have shown preferential bioaccumulation of short chain (compounds leading to the occurrence of recalcitrant PFAAs in pristine, remote environments. Research gap exist in terms of fate of polyfluroalkyl compounds (neutral PFASs during wastetwater treatment and in aquatic and terrestrial environemnt. Considering the wide range of commercially available PFASs, measuring only perfluorocarboxylic acid (PFCA and perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA can lead to underestimation total PFAS load derived from WWTPs. Knowledge of the various pathways of PFAS from WWTP to receiving environment, outlined in this study can help to adopt best possible management practices to reduce the release of PFASs from WWTP.

  8. 1-/sup 11/C-D-glucose and related compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiue, C.Y.; Wolf, A.P.

    1982-01-26

    The novel compounds 1-/sup 11/C-D-glucose, 1-/sup 11/C-D-mannose, 1-/sup 11/C-D-galactose, 2-/sup 11/C-D-glucose, 2-/sup 11/C-D-mannose and 2-/sup 11/C-D-galactose which can be used in nuclear medicine to monitor the metabolism of glucose and galactose can be rapidly prepared by reaction of the appropriate aldose substrate with an alkali metal /sup 11/C-labeled cyanide followed by reduction with a Raney alloy in formic acid.

  9. Analytical Methodologies for the Determination of Endocrine Disrupting Compounds in Biological and Environmental Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoraida Sosa-Ferrera

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine-disruptor compounds (EDCs can mimic natural hormones and produce adverse effects in the endocrine functions by interacting with estrogen receptors. EDCs include both natural and synthetic chemicals, such as hormones, personal care products, surfactants, and flame retardants, among others. EDCs are characterised by their ubiquitous presence at trace-level concentrations and their wide diversity. Since the discovery of the adverse effects of these pollutants on wildlife and human health, analytical methods have been developed for their qualitative and quantitative determination. In particular, mass-based analytical methods show excellent sensitivity and precision for their quantification. This paper reviews recently published analytical methodologies for the sample preparation and for the determination of these compounds in different environmental and biological matrices by liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. The various sample preparation techniques are compared and discussed. In addition, recent developments and advances in this field are presented.

  10. Environmental Values related to fish and wildlife lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Bengston

    2000-01-01

    THe purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of key concepts related to environmental values and their importance for public land managers. The following section defines environmental values and discusses their relationship to environmnetal attitudes and beliefs. This is followed by presentation of a broad system for classifying environmental values and...

  11. 78 FR 8964 - Environmental Impact and Related Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-07

    ... Administration 49 CFR Part 622 [Docket No. FTA-2011-0056] RIN 2132-AB03 Environmental Impact and Related... an environmental impact statement. DATES: Effective on February 7, 2013. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION... the list of project types that normally result in the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement...

  12. Environmentally related taxes in OECD countries: issues and strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    Economic instruments, including environmentally related taxes, play an increasing role in the environmental policies of developed countries. This publication addresses the use of environmental taxes and their effectiveness in reducing environmental damage. It finds these taxes are a powerful tool for implementing environmental strategy. It also describes obstacles to increased use of such taxes (e.g. concerns about competitiveness and distributional effects) and suggests ways to overcome such barriers. Particular attention is given to issues and options related to taxes on greenhouse gases. 18 figs., 13 tabs.

  13. Environmental issues related to uranium mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorber, D.M.; Chambers, D.B.

    1983-01-01

    This paper introduces the environmental issues (both real and perceived) associated with uranium exploration, mining, milling, and tailings management. As well, some of the issues pertaining to the closeout of uranium tailings areas are discussed. These issues have received considerable attention in Canada in public inquiries and hearings that have been held across the country. The major conclusions of some of these hearings are also noted

  14. Fully in Silico Calibration of Empirical Predictive Models for Environmental Fate Properties of Novel Munitions Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    constants using several IMC related aromatic amines. To develop QSARs with these data, many possible descriptors were evaluated , ranging from simple to...converted to approximate half-lives to give. The blue symbols are experimental data, obtained with IMC related amino compounds...calibrated “in silico” that predict the hydrolysis behavior of the diverse range of energetic NACs. However, new experimental and computational

  15. Antimutagenic effect of isocyanates and related compounds in escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawazoe, Yutaka; Kato, Masanari

    1982-01-01

    Isocyanates and isothiocyanates have been suggested to inactivate enzymes involved in the metabolic activation of chemical carcinogens and the repair of DNA damage. These compounds decrease the mutability of a tester strain of Escherichia coli B under UV irradiation. This paper deals with the antimutagenicity of acylating agents, including isocyanates and isothiocyanates, and some anti-oxidants which are suspected to be anticarcinogenic. The results can be summarized as follows. (1) The antimutagenic effect observed in the present study operates on UV-induced mutagenesis but not on X-ray-induced mutagenesis. (2) This effect operates only on the wild-type strain, H/r30R, but not on Hs30R deficient in the excision repair system. (3) This effect may function through giving the irradiated cells a greater chance to carry out excision repair by prolonging the lag-period before entry into the S-phase. (4) The carbamoylating ability of isocyanates and isothiocyanates may be responsible for the antimutagenicity, but other type of reactivities may also be involved. These antimutagens also participate in inactivating enzymes relevant to the metabolic activation of mutagens, resulting in a decrease in the frequency of chemically induced mutagenesis. (author)

  16. Gender differences in environmental related behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalen, Hanne Marit; Halvorsen, Bente

    2011-11-15

    This report discusses gender differences in the data collected in the OECD household survey on environmental behaviour. The survey asked a sample of 10 000 respondents from 10 countries (Norway, Sweden, Canada, France, Italy, the Netherlands, the Czech Republic, Mexico, Australia and Korea) concerning household behaviour with respect to five areas: recycling, energy and water saving, organic food consumption and transportation. This report identifies and describes gender differences in behaviour, in underlying preferences and in household characteristics in this data. We use regression analyses to identify and test for significant gender differences in preferences, and we use differences in means to test for gender differences in background variables and the total effect of gender on behaviour. In our estimations, where we test for significant gender differences in preferences, we find many significant differences with respect to several of the explanatory variables affecting behaviour. However, there was no clear pattern for most of these gender differences. The only systematic gender difference we found in the estimations was that the belief that they can actually contribute to a better environment seems to be a more important motivator for environmental friendly behaviour for men than it is for women. There are also many significant differences between the genders in the distribution of key background variables, in particular with respect to income, car ownership, participation in the workforce, education and choice of residence. However, these gender differences in preferences and background variables only result in pronounced gender differences in behaviour to a small degree. The exception is transportation, where gender differences are large and significant. Men have a higher probability of owning a car or a motorcycle than women. And given that the respondent owns a car, men drive significantly more than women. For the rest of the behaviour measured in this

  17. Effect of Environmental Conditions and Toxic Compounds on the Locomotor Activity of Pediculus humanus capitis (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Insaurralde, I; Toloza, A C; Gonzalez-Audino, P; Mougabure-Cueto, G A; Alvarez-Costa, A; Roca-Acevedo, G; Picollo, M I

    2015-09-01

    In this work, we evaluated the effect of environmental variables such as temperature, humidity, and light on the locomotor activity of Pediculus humanus capitis. In addition, we used selected conditions of temperature, humidity, and light to study the effects of cypermethrin and N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET) on the locomotor activity of head lice. Head lice increased their locomotor activity in an arena at 30°C compared with activity at 20°C. When we tested the influence of the humidity level, the locomotor activity of head lice showed no significant differences related to humidity level, both at 30°C and 20°C. Concerning light influence, we observed that the higher the intensity of light, the slower the movement of head lice. We also demonstrated that sublethal doses of toxics may alter locomotor activity in adults of head lice. Sublethal doses of cypermethrin induced hyperactivated responses in adult head lice. Sublethal doses of DEET evocated hypoactivated responses in head lice. The observation of stereotyped behavior in head lice elicited by toxic compounds proved that measuring locomotor activity in an experimental set-up where environmental conditions are controlled would be appropriate to evaluate compounds of biological importance, such as molecules involved in the host-parasite interaction and intraspecific relationships. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Analysis of flavor-related compounds from tabacco using SPME-GC-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, G.B.; Lee, S.G. [Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Taejeon (Korea)

    2001-04-01

    The flavor-related compounds contained in tobacco were analyzed by selected ion monitoring (SIM) method using headspace SPME gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Flavor-related compounds were estragole, pulegone, trans-anethole, safrole, piperonal, eugenol, methyleugenol, coumarin, trans-isoeugenol, trans-methyleugenol and myristicin More than one of the flavor-related compounds were detected in the range of 0.001-1.3 {mu}g/g from all brands of tobacco studied. The recovery was ranged from 89.1 to 102.9% and relative standard deviation was ranged from 2.6 to 25.2%. (author). 19 refs., 4 tabs., 2 figs.

  19. Environmental behavior of organotin compounds in the coastal environment of Xiamen, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xinhong; Hong Huasheng; Zhao Dongmei; Hong Liyu

    2008-01-01

    In 2006, organotins pollution were investigated in the coastal environment of Xiamen, China. Six species of organotin compounds including tributyltin, triphenyltin and their degradation compounds were quantified in the dissolved and particulate phases of the water, and in the sediment using GC-FPD. The concentrations of organotin compounds ranged from 2.2 to 160 ng (Sn) L -1 dissolved in the water, 0.14-6.7 ng (Sn) L -1 in suspended particulate matter and nd ∼ 26 ng (Sn) g -1 (dry weight) in the sediment. The highest concentration of total organotin or tributyltin in water was found in a shipyard and at a station near the inlet of the harbor, indicating fresh inputs of antifouling paints to Xiamen's coastal environment. Organotin speciation was performed on sediment cores to investigate contamination trends over the past ten years in the harbor. The results of 210 Pb dating indicated that Xiamen western harbor suffered contamination during 2000. The environmental behavior of organotins such as the enhancement of the microlayer, partitioning between water/suspended particulate matter and between water/sediment are also discussed in this paper

  20. Environmental behavior of organotin compounds in the coastal environment of Xiamen, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Xinhong [State Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science, Environmental Science Research Center, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China)], E-mail: xhwang@xmu.edu.cn; Hong Huasheng; Zhao Dongmei; Hong Liyu [State Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science, Environmental Science Research Center, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China)

    2008-07-01

    In 2006, organotins pollution were investigated in the coastal environment of Xiamen, China. Six species of organotin compounds including tributyltin, triphenyltin and their degradation compounds were quantified in the dissolved and particulate phases of the water, and in the sediment using GC-FPD. The concentrations of organotin compounds ranged from 2.2 to 160 ng (Sn) L{sup -1} dissolved in the water, 0.14-6.7 ng (Sn) L{sup -1} in suspended particulate matter and nd {approx} 26 ng (Sn) g{sup -1} (dry weight) in the sediment. The highest concentration of total organotin or tributyltin in water was found in a shipyard and at a station near the inlet of the harbor, indicating fresh inputs of antifouling paints to Xiamen's coastal environment. Organotin speciation was performed on sediment cores to investigate contamination trends over the past ten years in the harbor. The results of {sup 210}Pb dating indicated that Xiamen western harbor suffered contamination during 2000. The environmental behavior of organotins such as the enhancement of the microlayer, partitioning between water/suspended particulate matter and between water/sediment are also discussed in this paper.

  1. Chlorination of cooling water: a source of chlorine-containing organic compounds with possible environmental significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jolley, R.L.; Gehrs, C.W.; Pitt, W.W. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Chlorination of cooling waters may be a source of environmentally significant pollutants. Many water-soluble chlorine-containing organic compounds of low volatility were found in a sample of cooling water chlorinated to a 2-mg/l chlorine concentration in the laboratory. The compounds were separated and detected using a coupled 36 Cl-tracer--high-resolution liquid chromatographic technique developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for determination of chlorinated organics in process effluents. For a chlorination contact time of 75 min at 25 0 C, the yield of chlorine in the form of chloro-organics amounted to 0.78% of the chlorine dosage. It is estimated that the yield is about 0.5% under typical reaction conditions in the electric power plant cooling system chosen for study. Because chlorine is commonly used to remove slime films from the cooling systems of electric power plants, as a means of maintaining high operational efficiency, it is estimated that several hundred tons of chlorinated organics are produced annually in the nation by this antifoulant process. The chromatographic elution positions of some of the separated constituents correspond to those of compounds separated and partially identified from chlorinated sewage treatment plant effluents. The results of this study indicate the formation of chloro-organics during the chlorination of cooling waters should be thoroughly examined, particularly with respect to their identification and determination of possible toxicological properties

  2. Electron spectroscopy on high-temperature superconductors and related compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knupfer, M.

    1994-01-01

    In the last two classes of materials have been discovered which distinguish themselves due to a transition into the superconducting state at relatively high temperatures. These are the cuprate superconductors and the alkali metal doped fullerenes. In this work the electronic structure of representatives of these materials, undoped and Ca-doped YBa 2 Cu 4 O 8 and A 3 C 60 (A=K, Rb), has been investigated using electron energy-loss spectroscopy and photoemission spectroscopy. (orig.) [de

  3. Studies On An Aerobic Oxidation Of Dibenzothiophene And Related Compounds Using Ruthenium Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morishita Y.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available An aerobic oxidation of dibenzothiophene and related compounds using a catalytic amount of ruthenium chloride in hydrocarbon solvents at 80°C for 20 h gave the corresponding sulfones in almost quantitative yields. The reaction might proceed via autoxidation of solvents to hydroperoxides and the reaction of sulfur compounds with the resulting hydroperoxides.

  4. Estradiol and endocrine disrupting compounds adversely affect development of sea urchin embryos at environmentally relevant concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roepke, Troy A. [Bodega Marine Laboratory, University of California, Davis, POB 247, Bodega Bay, CA 94923 (United States); Snyder, Mark J. [Bodega Marine Laboratory, University of California, Davis, POB 247, Bodega Bay, CA 94923 (United States); Cherr, Gary N. [Bodega Marine Laboratory, University of California, Davis, POB 247, Bodega Bay, CA 94923 (United States) and Departments of Environmental Toxicology and Nutrition, One Shields Avenue, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)]. E-mail: gncherr@ucdavis.edu

    2005-01-26

    Environmental endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) are a wide variety of chemicals that typically exert effects, either directly or indirectly, through receptor-mediated processes, thus mimicking endogenous hormones and/or inhibiting normal hormone activities and metabolism. Little is known about the effects of EDCs on echinoderm physiology, reproduction and development. We exposed developing sea urchin embryos (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus and Lytechinus anamesus) to two known EDCs (4-octylphenol (OCT), bisphenol A (BisA)) and to natural and synthetic reproductive hormones (17{beta}-estradiol (E{sub 2}), estrone (E{sub 1}), estriol (E{sub 3}), progesterone (P{sub 4}) and 17{alpha}-ethynylestradiol (EE{sub 2})). In addition, we studied two non-estrogenic EDCs, tributyltin (TBT) and o,p-DDD. Successful development to the pluteus larval stage (96 h post-fertilization) was used to define EDC concentration-response relationships. The order of compound potency based on EC{sub 50} values for a reduction in normal development was as follows: TBT {sub L.anamesus} > OCT > TBT {sub S.{sub p}}{sub urpuratus} >> E{sub 2} > EE{sub 2} > DDD >> BisA > P{sub 4} > E{sub 1} >> E{sub 3}. The effect of TBT was pronounced even at concentrations substantially lower than those commonly reported in heavily contaminated areas, but the response was significantly different in the two model species. Sea urchin embryos were generally more sensitive to estrogenic EDCs and TBT than most other invertebrate larvae. Stage-specific exposure experiments were conducted to determine the most sensitive developmental periods using blastula, gastrula and post-gastrula (pluteus) stages. The stage most sensitive to E{sub 2}, OCT and TBT was the blastula stage with less overall sensitivity in the gastrula stage, regardless of concentration. Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) were added to the experiments individually and in combination with estrogenic EDCs to interfere with potential receptor

  5. Chemical investigations related to some environmental pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sofany, E.A.

    1997-01-01

    Pesticides represent one the environmental pollutants. The determination of these pesticides in water and soil samples are of major importance. In the fist part of the present work, the assessment and optimization of the determination of certain pesticides by High performance liquid chromatography HPLC and Gas chromatography GC were investigated. When using HPLC, two eluent were used ACN: H 2 O and MeOH: H 2 O with two systems; isocreatic and gradient elution's. The optimum conditions for the measurements of Bromoxynil, Cypermethrin, methomyl, Dimethoat, carbofuran, simazine are gradient elution at a timetable of wavelengths. With GC measurements the ECD detector was found to be the best one for the working pesticides and at oven temperature from 100-160 degree C at range 20 deg./ min. and second rate from 160-280 degree C with rate 4 deg./min. at final time 20 min. The second part is the application of the optimised method on surface water samples from El-manzala lake three pesticides are present; simazine, atrazine and carbofuran. The third part of this work is the treatment of the contaminated water samples using economic adsorbents such as animal bones pyrolysis residue, apricot stone shell, Sm-4 and Sm-7. By using animal bones pyrolysis residue 100% of carbofuran and 60% of simazine and atrazine were removed from solutions at concentration 1 mg/L. 26 tabs., 28 figs., 61 refs

  6. Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric determination of hydrophilic compounds in environmental water by solid-phase extraction with activated carbon fiber felt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawata, K; Ibaraki, T; Tanabe, A; Yagoh, H; Shinoda, A; Suzuki, H; Yasuhara, A

    2001-03-09

    Simple gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric determination of hydrophilic organic compounds in environmental water was developed. A cartridge containing activated carbon fiber felt was made by way of trial and was evaluated for solid-phase extraction of the compounds in water. The hydrophilic compounds investigated were acrylamide, N,N-dimethylacetamide, N,N-dimethylformamide, 1,4-dioxane, furfural, furfuryl alcohol, N-nitrosodiethylamine and N-nitrosodimethylamine. Overall recoveries were good (80-100%) from groundwater and river water. The relative standard deviations ranged from 4.5 to 16% for the target compounds. The minimum detectable concentrations were 0.02 to 0.03 microg/l. This method was successfully applied to several river water samples.

  7. 77 FR 51824 - Environmental and Related Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Project Leader Jennifer Powell (202- 205-3450 or [email protected] ) or Deputy Project Leader Joann Peterson (202-205-3032 or [email protected] ) for... related services, that, to the extent practicable: Estimates the size of the U.S. and global markets for...

  8. Accumulation of 19 environmental phenolic and xenobiotic heterocyclic aromatic compounds in human adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Asimakopoulos, Alexandros G; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2015-05-01

    The extensive use of environmental phenols (e.g., bisphenol A) and heterocyclic aromatic compounds (e.g., benzothiazole) in consumer products as well as widespread exposure of humans to these compounds have been well documented. Biomonitoring studies have used urinary measurements to assess exposures, based on the assumption that these chemicals are metabolized and eliminated in urine. Despite the fact that some of these chemicals are moderately lipophilic, the extent of their accumulation in adipose fat tissues has not been convincingly demonstrated. In this study, human adipose fat samples (N=20) collected from New York City, USA, were analyzed for the presence of environmental phenols, including bisphenol A (BPA), benzophenone-3 (BP-3), triclosan (TCS), and parabens, as well as heterocyclic aromatic compounds, including benzotriazole (BTR), benzothiazole (BTH), and their derivatives. BPA and TCS were frequently detected in adipose tissues at concentrations (geometric mean [GM]: 3.95ng/g wet wt for BPA and 7.21ng/g wet wt for TCS) similar to or below the values reported for human urine. High concentrations of BP-3 were found in human adipose tissues (GM: 43.4; maximum: 4940ng/g wet wt) and a positive correlation between BP-3 concentrations and donor's age was observed. The metabolite of parabens, p-hydroxybenzoic acid (p-HB), also was found at elevated levels (GM: 4160; max.: 17,400ng/g wet wt) and a positive correlation between donor's age and sum concentration of parabens and p-HB were found. The GM concentrations of BTR and BTH in human adipose tissues were below 1ng/g, although the methylated forms of BTR (i.e., TTR and XTR) and the hydrated form of BTH (i.e., 2-OH-BTH) were frequently detected in adipose samples, indicating widespread exposure to these compounds. Our results suggest that adipose tissue is an important repository for BP-3 and parabens, including p-HB, in the human body. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Cognitive Function Related to Environmental Exposure to ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: The towns of Marietta and East Liverpool (EL), Ohio, have been identified as having elevated manganese (Mn) in air due to industrial pollution. Objectives: To evaluate relationships between environmental Mn (Mn-air) exposure and distance from the source and cognitive function in residents of two Ohio towns. Methods: Data were obtained from an EPA-sponsored study comparing two towns exposed to Mn-air (Marietta and EL). A cross-sectional design was used. The same inclusion/exclusion criteria and procedures were applied in the two towns. A neuropsychological screening test battery was administered to study participants (EL=86, Marietta=100) which included Stroop Color Word Test, Animal Naming, Auditory Consonant Trigrams (ACT) and Rey-O. To estimate Mn-air, U.S.EPA’s AERMOD dispersion model was used. Distance from source was calculated based on participants’ residential address and air miles from industrial facility emitting Mn-air. A binary logistic regression model controlling for annual household income was used to examine distance from source and neuropsychological outcomes Results: There were no age, sex, or employment status differences between the two towns. Years education was lower in EL (mean (M)=12.9) than Marietta (M=14.6) and years residency in town were higher in EL (M=47.0) than Marietta (M=36.1). EL participants resided closer to the Mn source than Marietta (M=1.12 vs M=4.75 air miles). Mn-air concentrations were higher in EL (M=0

  10. Environmental properties related to active galactic nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzer, Lianne H.

    There continues to be significant controversy regarding the mechanisms responsible for the initiation of activity in galactic nuclei. It is well understood that the non-thermal energy produced by an AGN is due to accretion onto a supermassive black hole. It has not yet been determined, however, what leads particular galaxies to become active. An accurate exploration into what triggers an AGN demands an analysis of a large sample of galaxies across a diverse set of environments. In this work, we investigate possible environmental influences by carrying out a statistical investigation of galaxy groups. Using the catalogue of Yang et al. (2007), in which groups of galaxies containing between 2 and 20 members with redshifts between 0.01 -- 0.20 were taken from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, we investigate the fraction of active galactic nuclei (AGN) within these groups and compare it to the sample of isolated galaxies also obtained from Yang et al. (2007). After correcting our spectroscopic data for extinction and underlying stellar absorption, we classify the galaxy sample using relevant emission-line ratios. We propose an alternate method for classifying emission-line galaxies, including AGN, which builds upon standard diagnostic utilities used for optical classification and includes uncertainties. Such classification probabilities offer a more robust and consistent method of investigating the effect of group environments with galaxy type. We find our sample to be a fair representation of the local universe by comparing the luminosity function of our entire data set to that of Blanton et al. (2001), Blanton et al. (2003b), and Montero-Dorta & Prada (2009). The evidence also suggests that the luminosity function of galaxies differs between isolated galaxies and galaxies in groups. We find a significant increase in the fraction of AGNs identified in grouped environments. On the other hand, we find a higher fraction of starforming galaxies within isolated systems. We

  11. Phenolic compounds and related enzymes as determinants of sorghum for food use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dicko, M.H.; Gruppen, H.; Traore, A.S.; Voragen, A.G.J.; Berkel, van W.J.H.

    2006-01-01

    Phenolic compounds and related enzymes such as phenol biosynthesizing enzymes (phenylalanine ammonia lyase) and phenol catabolizing enzymes (polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase) are determinants for sorghum utilization as human food because they influence product properties during and after sorghum

  12. Ionization Potentials of Chemical Warfare Agents and Related Compounds Determined with Density Functional Theory

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wright, J

    2000-01-01

    ...) agents at contaminated sites. Reported herein are theoretical ionization potentials for CW agents and their related compounds calculated using density functional theory at the B3LYP/6-311+G(2d,p) level of theory...

  13. Claisen, Cope and Related Rearrangements in the Synthesis of Flavour and Fragrance Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Nowicki

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available A review of the use of the Claisen, Cope and related [3,3]-sigmatropic rearrangements, sequential ("tandem" sigmatropic rearrangements and the "ene" reaction in the syntheses of flavour and fragrance compounds is presented.

  14. Assessment of PDMS-water partition coefficients: implications for passive environmental sampling of hydrophobic organic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiFilippo, Erica L.; Eganhouse, Robert P.

    2010-01-01

    Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) has shown potential as an in situ passive-sampling technique in aquatic environments. The reliability of this method depends upon accurate determination of the partition coefficient between the fiber coating and water (Kf). For some hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs), Kf values spanning 4 orders of magnitude have been reported for polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and water. However, 24% of the published data examined in this review did not pass the criterion for negligible depletion, resulting in questionable Kf values. The range in reported Kf is reduced to just over 2 orders of magnitude for some polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) when these questionable values are removed. Other factors that could account for the range in reported Kf, such as fiber-coating thickness and fiber manufacturer, were evaluated and found to be insignificant. In addition to accurate measurement of Kf, an understanding of the impact of environmental variables, such as temperature and ionic strength, on partitioning is essential for application of laboratory-measured Kf values to field samples. To date, few studies have measured Kf for HOCs at conditions other than at 20 degrees or 25 degrees C in distilled water. The available data indicate measurable variations in Kf at different temperatures and different ionic strengths. Therefore, if the appropriate environmental variables are not taken into account, significant error will be introduced into calculated aqueous concentrations using this passive sampling technique. A multiparameter linear solvation energy relationship (LSER) was developed to estimate log Kf in distilled water at 25 degrees C based on published physicochemical parameters. This method provided a good correlation (R2 = 0.94) between measured and predicted log Kf values for several compound classes. Thus, an LSER approach may offer a reliable means of predicting log Kf for HOCs whose experimental log Kf values are presently unavailable. Future

  15. Neurotoxic effects of perfluoroalkylated compounds: mechanisms of action and environmental relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariussen, Espen

    2012-09-01

    Perfluoroalkylated compounds (PFCs) are used in fire-fighting foams, treatment of clothes, carpets and leather products, and as lubricants, pesticides, in paints and medicine. Recent developments in chemical analysis have revealed that fluorinated compounds have become ubiquitously spread and are regarded as a potential threats to the environment. Due to the carbon-fluorine bond, which has a very high bond strength, these chemicals are extremely persistent towards degradation and some PFCs have a potential for bioaccumulation in organisms. Of particular concern has been the developmental toxicity of PFOS and PFOA, which has been manifested in rodent studies as high mortality of prenatally exposed newborn rats and mice within 24 h after delivery. The nervous system appears to be one of the most sensitive targets of environmental contaminants. The serious developmental effects of PFCs have lead to the upcoming of studies that have investigated neurotoxic effects of these substances. In this review the major findings of the neurotoxicity of the main PFCs and their suggested mechanisms of action are presented. The neurotoxic effects are discussed in light of other toxic effects of PFCs to indicate the significance of PFCs as neurotoxicants. The main findings are that PFCs may induce neurobehavioral effects, particularly in developmentally exposed animals. The effects are, however, subtle and inconclusive and are often induced at concentrations where other toxic effects also are expected. Mechanistic studies have shown that PFCs may affect the thyroid system, influence the calcium homeostasis, protein kinase C, synaptic plasticity and cellular differentiation. Compared to other environmental toxicants the human blood levels of PFCs are high and of particular concern is that susceptible groups may be exposed to a cocktail of substances that in combination reach harmful concentrations.

  16. Statistics and Corporate Environmental Management: Relations and Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henning; Ulhøi, John Parm

    1997-01-01

    Statistical methods have long been used to analyse the macroeconomic consequences of environmentally damaging activities, political actions to control, prevent, or reduce these damages, and environmental problems in the natural environment. Up to now, however, they have had a limited and not very...... specific use in corporate environmental management systems. This paper will address some of the special problems related to the use of statistical techniques in corporate environmental management systems. One important aspect of this is the interaction of internal decisions and activities with conditions...

  17. LOX Gene Transcript Accumulation in Olive (Olea europaea L. Fruits at Different Stages of Maturation: Relationship between Volatile Compounds, Environmental Factors, and Technological Treatments for Oil Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Innocenzo Muzzalupo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The quality of olive oil is influenced by genetic and environmental factors and by the maturation state of drupes, but it is equally affected by technological treatments of the process. This work investigates the possible correlation between olive LOX gene transcript accumulation, evaluated in fruits collected at different stages of maturation, and chemical biomarkers of its activity. During olive fruit ripening, the same genotype harvested from two different farms shows a positive linear trend between LOX relative transcript accumulation and the content of volatile compounds present in the olive oil aroma. Interestingly, a negative linear trend was observed between LOX relative transcript accumulation and the content of volatile compounds present in the olive pastes obtained from olive fruits with and without malaxation. The changes in the olive LOX transcript accumulation reveal its environmental regulation and suggest differential physiological functions for the LOXs.

  18. The relation between proactive environmental strategies and competitive advantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butnariu, A.; Avasilcăi, S.

    2015-11-01

    There are two distinct orientations of the environmental management that companies may adopt: the model of compliance and the strategic model. The strategic model treats environmental expenses as investments that will lead to competitive advantage for the company. Nevertheless, there are few scientific works that prove the relation between corporate environmental investments and competitive advantage. Thereby, in order to bring clarifications about the profound implications of environmental investments, in the first stage of our research we have proposed the hypothesis that the environmental investments would probably lead to competitive advantage by creating capabilities that are mediators of this relation. In the second stage we have tested this hypothesis, using the research method of survey. A questionnaire was sent to managers in textile Romanian industry, and 109 answers were received. The data was analysed using the linear multiple regression method and the results confirm our hypothesis.

  19. Impacts of environmental conditions on the sorption of volatile organic compounds onto tire powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Dong I.; Nam, Kyongphile; Park, Jae W.; Khim, Jee H.; Kim, Yong K.; Kim, Jae Y.

    2008-01-01

    A series of batch tests were performed and the impacts of environmental conditions and phase change on the sorption of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were investigated. Benzene, trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, and ethylbenzene were selected as target VOCs. Sorption of VOCs onto tire powder was well demonstrated by a linear-partitioning model. Water-tire partition coefficients of VOCs (not tested in this study) could be estimated using a logarithmic relationship between observed water-tire partition coefficients and octanol-water partition coefficients of the VOCs tested. The target VOCs did not seem to compete with other VOCs significantly when sorbed onto the tire powder for the range of concentrations tested. The influence of environmental conditions, such as pH and ionic strength also did not seem to be significant. Water-tire partition coefficients of benzene, trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, and ethylbenzene decreased as the sorbent dosage increased. However, they showed stable values when the sorbent dosage was greater than 10 g/L. Air-tire partition coefficient could be extrapolated from Henry's law constants and water-tire partition coefficient of VOCs

  20. Environmental factors affecting the concentration of phenolic compounds in Myrcia tomentosa leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo L. Borges

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Myrcia tomentosa (Aubl. DC., Myrtaceae, found in Central Brazilian Cerrado and popularly known as "goiaba-brava", belongs to the Myrcia genus, which has several species with medicinal properties such as: hypoglycemic, diuretic, hypotensive, antidiarrheal, antimicrobial and antitumor. The present study aimed to analyzed the environmental influence on concentrations of phenolic metabolites in M. tomentosa leaves. Compounds assayed in the leaves were: total phenols, tannins by protein precipitation, hydrolysable tannins and total flavonoids and mineral nutrients, while soil fertility was also analyzed, all over during one year. The results were submitted to Pearson Correlation Analysis and stepwise Multiple Regression Analysis to investigate the relationship between phenolics and environment data. Analysis of variance and Cluster Analysis allowed indicated a high variability in samples from different sites. The results obtained suggests that content of phenolics from M. tomentosa leaves are influenced by environmental factors, particularly some foliar nutrients (N1, Ca1 and Mn1, soil nutrients (Ca s and Ks and Rainfall.

  1. Environmental factors affecting the concentration of phenolic compounds in Myrcia tomentosa leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo L. Borges

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Myrcia tomentosa (Aubl. DC., Myrtaceae, found in Central Brazilian Cerrado and popularly known as "goiaba-brava", belongs to the Myrcia genus, which has several species with medicinal properties such as: hypoglycemic, diuretic, hypotensive, antidiarrheal, antimicrobial and antitumor. The present study aimed to analyzed the environmental influence on concentrations of phenolic metabolites in M. tomentosa leaves. Compounds assayed in the leaves were: total phenols, tannins by protein precipitation, hydrolysable tannins and total flavonoids and mineral nutrients, while soil fertility was also analyzed, all over during one year. The results were submitted to Pearson Correlation Analysis and stepwise Multiple Regression Analysis to investigate the relationship between phenolics and environment data. Analysis of variance and Cluster Analysis allowed indicated a high variability in samples from different sites. The results obtained suggests that content of phenolics from M. tomentosa leaves are influenced by environmental factors, particularly some foliar nutrients (N1, Ca1 and Mn1, soil nutrients (Ca s and Ks and Rainfall.

  2. Impacts of environmental conditions on the sorption of volatile organic compounds onto tire powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Dong I. [Division of R and D Planning and Management, Korea Institute of Environmental Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Nam, Kyongphile [School of Civil, Urban and Geosystem Engineering, College of Engineering, Seoul National University, Gwanak-Ku, 151-742 Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jae W. [Department of Civil Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Khim, Jee H. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yong K. [School of Civil, Urban and Geosystem Engineering, College of Engineering, Seoul National University, Gwanak-Ku, 151-742 Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae Y. [School of Civil, Urban and Geosystem Engineering, College of Engineering, Seoul National University, Gwanak-Ku, 151-742 Seoul (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: jaeykim@snu.ac.kr

    2008-05-01

    A series of batch tests were performed and the impacts of environmental conditions and phase change on the sorption of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were investigated. Benzene, trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, and ethylbenzene were selected as target VOCs. Sorption of VOCs onto tire powder was well demonstrated by a linear-partitioning model. Water-tire partition coefficients of VOCs (not tested in this study) could be estimated using a logarithmic relationship between observed water-tire partition coefficients and octanol-water partition coefficients of the VOCs tested. The target VOCs did not seem to compete with other VOCs significantly when sorbed onto the tire powder for the range of concentrations tested. The influence of environmental conditions, such as pH and ionic strength also did not seem to be significant. Water-tire partition coefficients of benzene, trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, and ethylbenzene decreased as the sorbent dosage increased. However, they showed stable values when the sorbent dosage was greater than 10 g/L. Air-tire partition coefficient could be extrapolated from Henry's law constants and water-tire partition coefficient of VOCs.

  3. Research gaps related to the environmental impacts of electronic cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hoshing

    2014-01-01

    Objective To consider the research gaps related to the environmental impacts of electronic cigarettes due to their manufacture, use and disposal. Methods Literature searches were conducted through December 2013. Studies were included in this review if they related to the environmental impacts of e-cigarettes. Results Scientific information on the environmental impacts of e-cigarette manufacturing, use and disposal is very limited. No studies formally evaluated the environmental impacts of the manufacturing process or disposal of components, including batteries. Four studies evaluated potential exposure to secondhand e-cigarette aerosol, an indication of impacts on indoor air quality. A 2010 survey of six e-cigarette models found that none of the products provided disposal instructions for spent cartridges containing nicotine. Notably, some e-cigarette manufacturers claim their e-cigarettes are ‘eco-friendly’ or ‘green’, despite the lack of any supporting data or environmental impact studies. Some authors argue that such advertising may boost sales and increase e-cigarette appeal, especially among adolescents. Conclusions Little is known about the environmental impacts of e-cigarettes, and a number of topics could be further elucidated by additional investigation. These topics include potential environmental impacts related to manufacturing, use and disposal. The environmental impacts of e-cigarette manufacturing will depend upon factory size and the nicotine extracting method used. The environmental impacts of e-cigarette use will include chemical and aerosol exposure in the indoor environment. The environmental impacts of disposal of e-cigarette cartridges (which contain residual nicotine) and disposal of e-cigarettes (which contain batteries) represent yet another environmental concern. PMID:24732165

  4. Research gaps related to the environmental impacts of electronic cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hoshing

    2014-05-01

    To consider the research gaps related to the environmental impacts of electronic cigarettes due to their manufacture, use and disposal. Literature searches were conducted through December 2013. Studies were included in this review if they related to the environmental impacts of e-cigarettes. Scientific information on the environmental impacts of e-cigarette manufacturing, use and disposal is very limited. No studies formally evaluated the environmental impacts of the manufacturing process or disposal of components, including batteries. Four studies evaluated potential exposure to secondhand e-cigarette aerosol, an indication of impacts on indoor air quality. A 2010 survey of six e-cigarette models found that none of the products provided disposal instructions for spent cartridges containing nicotine. Notably, some e-cigarette manufacturers claim their e-cigarettes are 'eco-friendly' or 'green', despite the lack of any supporting data or environmental impact studies. Some authors argue that such advertising may boost sales and increase e-cigarette appeal, especially among adolescents. Little is known about the environmental impacts of e-cigarettes, and a number of topics could be further elucidated by additional investigation. These topics include potential environmental impacts related to manufacturing, use and disposal. The environmental impacts of e-cigarette manufacturing will depend upon factory size and the nicotine extracting method used. The environmental impacts of e-cigarette use will include chemical and aerosol exposure in the indoor environment. The environmental impacts of disposal of e-cigarette cartridges (which contain residual nicotine) and disposal of e-cigarettes (which contain batteries) represent yet another environmental concern.

  5. The Possibilities of Using Boron Compounds in Environmentally Friendly Furniture Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdi Atılgan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to determine the effects of impregnation with boron compounds and water repellents on the dimensional stability of wood. For this purpose, the test specimens prepared from scotch pine (Pinus sylvestris L. wood which met the requirements of TS 345 and TS 1476 standards procedures were single, double or multi treated according to ASTM D 1413-76 standard procedure with some boron compounds such as boric acid (Ba and borax (Bx, some water repellent materials (WRM such as styrene, methyl methacryrilate, izocyonate, polyethyleneglychol-400 (PEG-400, and some commercial impregnation materials such as Tanalith-CBC (T-CBC, ammonium sulfate (AS, diamonium phosphate (DAP, and vacsol. As a result, secondary treatment with WRM decreases amount of leached material. Water absorption ratio of wood was lowest in the treatment only with WRM, boron compounds and in secondary treatment of PEG-400 with WRM. Order of convenience for dimensional stability was like WRM>(Ba+Bx+WRM>PEG-400+WRM>commercial impregnation materials. Order of convenience for volumetric shrinkage efficiency was like (Ba+Bx+WRM>PEG-400+WRM>AS, DAP, T-CBC. WRM was found more successful in leaching prevention when used as a secondary treatment after PEG-400. So, the wood which will be used in open air and high relative humidity conditions, secondary impregnation with WRM is recommended.

  6. 1992 yearbook of environmental and technology-related law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, M.

    1992-01-01

    The 1992 and sixth edition of this yearbook contains papers on environmental and technology-related law in the European Communities and the Federal Republic of Germany including among other things information on the latest jurisdiction by the European Court of Justice; insurability of environmental damage; scientific aspects of limit values. There are also treatises on non-German and comparative as well as international environmental and technology- related law which deal among other things with atomic and immission protection law and on harmonization and codification from a general point of view. Finally, some papers report on developments of national and European environmental and technology-related law. Three of the fifteen contributions have been abstracted separately. (HSCH) [de

  7. Relational vs. attributive interpretation of nominal compounds differentially engages angular gyrus and anterior temporal lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boylan, Christine; Trueswell, John C; Thompson-Schill, Sharon L

    2017-06-01

    The angular gyrus (AG) and anterior temporal lobe (ATL) have been found to respond to a number of tasks involving combinatorial processing. In this study, we investigate the conceptual combination of nominal compounds, and ask whether ATL/AG activity is modulated by the type of combinatorial operation applied to a nominal compound. We compare relational and attributive interpretations of nominal compounds and find that ATL and AG both discriminate these two types, but in distinct ways. While right AG demonstrated greater positive task-responsive activity for relational compounds, there was a greater negative deflection in the BOLD response in left AG for relational compounds. In left ATL, we found an earlier peak in subjects' BOLD response curves for attributive interpretations. In other words, we observed dissociations in both AG and ATL between relational and attributive nominal compounds, with regard to magnitude in the former and to timing in the latter. These findings expand on prior studies that posit roles for both AG and ATL in conceptual processing generally, and in conceptual combination specifically, by indicating possible functional specializations of these two regions within a larger conceptual knowledge network. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The environmental behavior and chemical fate of energetic compounds (TNT, RDX, tetryl) in soil and plant systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cataldo, D.A.; Harvey, S.D.; Fellows, R.J.

    1993-06-01

    Munitions materials can accumulate or cycle in terrestrial environs at production and manufacturing facilities and thus pose potential heath and environmental concerns. To address questions related to food chain accumulation, the environmental behavior of energetic compounds (2,4,6-trinitrotoluene,TNT; hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine, RDX; 2,4,6-trinitrophenylmethylnitramine, tetryl) was evaluated. Emphasis was placed on determining the potential for soil/plant transfer of munitions residues, translocation and distribution within the plant, the extent to which compounds were metabolized following accumulation, and the chemical nature and form of accumulated residues. Both TNT and tetryl undergo extensive chemical transformation in soil, forming aminodinitrotoluene isomers and N-methyl-2,4,6-trinitroaniline residues, respectively, along with a series of unknowns. After 60 days, only 30% of the amended TNT and 8% of the amended tetryl remained unchanged in the soil. In contrast, 78% of the soil-amended RDX remained unchanged after 60 days. After 60 days, plants grown in soils containing 10 ppm residues contained from 5 μg TNT/g to 600 μg RDX/G fresh wt. tissue. TNT and tetryl residues were primarily accumulated in roots (75%), while RDX was concentrated in leaves and seed. The principal transport form for TNT (root to shoot) was an acid labile conjugate of aminodinitrotoluene; RDX was transported unchanged. On accumulation in roots and leaves, highly polar and non-extractable TNT metabolites dominated, with the aminodinitrotoluene isomers accounting for less than 20% of the residues present. Only a few percent were present as the parent TNT. RDX was partitioned similarly to TNT, with 8 to 30% of the RDX appearing as polar metabolites, 20--50% as parent RDX, and the balance as non-extractable residues. Tetryl was metabolized to N-methyl-2,4,6-trinitroaniline and a variety of polar metabolites

  9. Semantic relations and compound transparency: A regression study in CARIN theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pham Hien

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the CARIN theory of Gagné and Shoben (1997, conceptual relations play an important role in compound interpretation. This study develops three measures gauging the role of conceptual relations, and pits these measures against measures based on latent semantic analysis (Landauer & Dumais, 1997. The CARIN measures successfully predict response latencies in a familiarity categorization task, in a semantic transparency task, and in visual lexical decision. Of the measures based on latent semantic analysis, only a measure orthogonal to the conceptual relations, which instead gauges the extent to which the concepts for the compound’s head and the compound itself are discriminated, also reached significance. Results further indicate that in tasks requiring careful assessment of the meaning of the compound, general knowledge of conceptual relations plays a central role, whereas in the lexical decision task, attention shifts to co-activated meanings and the specifics of the conceptual relations realized in the compound’s modifier family.

  10. International Relations and the environment: practical examples of environmental multilateralism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipa Tiago Gomes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The “environmental crisis” we experience today and the international community’s struggle to develop environmental standards to reach the epic “sustainable development” are widely known topics. What is needed, then, is an urgent and determined practice, which is only possible if international governance is structured, coherent and effective. The optimization of Environmental Multilateralism (the joining of what are considered the “driving forces” of Environmental International Relations: Law, Politics and international Diplomacy contributes greatly to this end. To understand its basic concepts and systems, as for example, its actors, negotiation and implementation of Multilateral Environmental Agreements (MEAs and the carrying out of their Regimes, as well as their development in the United Nations, these are all crucial elements for its improvement and optimization. The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (Rio de Janeiro, 1992 and “its” Conventions are important examples in the history of Environmental Multilateralism, still very up-to-date not only due to the 20th anniversary of the “Rio Conference” but also due to the continuity and importance that the “Rio Conventions” and their Conferences of Parties (COP still have. This papers aims to analyze this area of studies transversal to International Relations and to the Environment, namely by studying the relation between the theory of Environmental Multilateralism and its practice.

  11. Metabolism of arachidonic acid derivatives (prostaglandins and related compounds). Radioimmunological methods to measure certain of these compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sors, Herve.

    1978-06-01

    The detection of prostaglandins, present in tissues at concentrations of about 10 -7 to 10 -11 g/g and able to induce physiological effects at concentrations of the picomole order, sets the analyst a particularly difficult problem. Owing to the complexity of their metabolism, the existence of many structurally similar compounds and the low concentrations present, it is necessary to develop highly specific and sensitive methods. Suitable techniques are: the biological activity test or biotest; gas-liquid chromatogaphy combined with mass spectrometry; the radioimmunological method. The radioimmunological analysis procedure is developed: preparation of immunogens and immunisation; preparation of tracers; treatment of biological samples. The different radioimmunological systems are presented: determination of antiserum affinity constants; dose-response curves and sensitivities; specificities; applications to biological measurements. Some remarks are called for concerning the RIA of prostaglandins: the difficulty of obtaining antisera seems to depend on the nature of the PG, a good anti-PGB or PGFα is easier to get than an anti-PGA or PGE. The analysis of each compound implies the use of a corresponding immunoserum and it is therefore essential to have a range of immunosera in order to study as large a number of biosynthesis derivatives as possible; too many physiological investigations are still viewed in relation to one PG only (often a primary PG) at the expense of other derivatives [fr

  12. Determination of arsenenic compounds in environmental and biological samples with LAMMA and HPLC-ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goessler, W.

    1997-07-01

    Different arsonium salts and alkyl- or aryl arsine sulfides were analyzed with a Laser-Microprobe-Mass-Analyzer (LAMMA-500). The positive-ion spectra of the arsonium salts showed clear signals for the (CH 3 ) 3 AsR + fragment. In the positive-ion spectra of alkyl- or arylarsine sulfides these arsenic compounds the molecular ions R 3 AsS + were never observed, but in most of the spectra the protonated parent compounds R 3 AsSH2 + were present. The negative-ion spectra showed mainly fragments S-n (n = 1, 2, 3, 4) and AsS n (n = 1, 2, 3). Chlorella vulgaris Beijerinck var. vulgaris with a concentration of 13,000 mg As/kg dry mass were analyzed with the LAMMA-500 to identify arsenic compounds. Surprisingly, arsenic could not be detected by the LAMMA technique at these high arsenic concentrations. Electron microscopy of Chlorella cells reveals, that particles adhered at the surface of the cells. Scanning transmission electron microscopy showed a high correlation between the arsenic concentration and the iron concentration in these particles. Algae may protect themselves from high arsenic concentrations, by precipitating FeAsO 4 at the cell surface. Different Chlorella sp. were grown to investigate the arsenic tolerance of Chlorella strains. Chlorella Boehm and Chlorella Kessleri grew better in arsenic-containing than in arsenic-free media. The growth of Chlorella 108 was depressed in high-arsenic media. After harvesting, the algal biomass was extracted and arsenic compounds determined in the extracts with HPLC-ICP-MS. Approximately 98 % of the total arsenic were present as arsenic acid. A method for the simultaneous identification and quantification of arsenocholine, arsenous acid, dimethylarsinic acid, arsenobetaine, methylarsonic acid, and arsenic acid at concentrations below 1 μg/L was developed. The developed HPLC-MPN-ICP-MS system allows the determination of arsenic compounds in urine sample at concentrations of 0.5 μg As/L with a relative standard deviation of

  13. The possible DNA damage induced by environmental organic compounds: The case of Nonylphenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorimotlagh, Zahra; Mirzaee, Seyyed Abbas; Ahmadi, Mehdi; Jaafarzadeh, Neemat; Rahim, Fakher

    2018-08-30

    Human impact on the environment leads to the release of many pollutants that produce artificial compounds, which can have harmful effects on the body's endocrine system; these are known as endocrine disruptors (EDs). Nonylphenol (NP) is a chemical compound with a nonyl group that is attached to a phenol ring. NP-induced H 2 AX is a sensitive genotoxic biomarker for detecting possible DNA damage; it also causes male infertility and carcinogenesis. We attempt to comprehensively review all the available evidence about the different ways with descriptive mechanisms for explaining the possible DNA damage that is induced by NP. We systematically searched several databases, including PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and gray literature, such as Google Scholar by using medical subheading (MeSH) terms and various combinations of selected keywords from January 1970 to August 2017. The initial search identified 62,737 potentially eligible studies; of these studies, 33 were included according to the established inclusion criteria. Thirty-three selected studies, include the topics of animal model (n = 21), cell line (n = 6), human model (n = 4), microorganisms (n = 1), solid DNA (n = 1), infertility (n = 4), apoptosis (n = 6), and carcinogenesis (n = 3). This review highlighted the possible deleterious effects of NP on DNA damage through the ability to produce ROS/RNS. Finally, it is significant to observe caution at this stage with the continued use of environmental pollutants such as NP, which may induce DNA damage and apoptosis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Instant detection and identification of concealed explosive-related compounds: Induced Stokes Raman versus infrared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbasuney, Sherif; El-Sherif, Ashraf F

    2017-01-01

    The instant detection of explosives and explosive-related compounds has become an urgent priority in recent years for homeland security and counter-terrorism applications. Modern techniques should offer enhancement in selectivity, sensitivity, and standoff distances. Miniaturisation, portability, and field-ruggedisation are crucial requirements. This study reports on instant and standoff identification of concealed explosive-related compounds using customized Raman technique. Stokes Raman spectra of common explosive-related compounds were generated and spectrally resolved to create characteristic finger print spectra. The scattered Raman emissions over the band 400:2000cm -1 were compared to infrared absorption using FTIR. It has been demonstrated that the two vibrational spectroscopic techniques were opposite and completing each other. Molecular vibrations with strong absorption in infrared (those involve strong change in dipole moments) induced weak signals in Raman and vice versa. The tailored Raman offered instant detection, high sensitivity, and standoff detection capabilities. Raman demonstrated characteristic fingerprint spectra with stable baseline and sharp intense peaks. Complete correlations of absorption/scattered signals to certain molecular vibrations were conducted to generate an entire spectroscopic profile of explosive-related compounds. This manuscript shades the light on Raman as one of the prevailing technologies for instantaneous detection of explosive-related compounds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Are endocrine disrupting compounds environmental risk factors for autism spectrum disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosa, Amer; Shu, Henry; Sarachana, Tewarit; Hu, Valerie W

    2017-10-23

    Recent research on the etiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has shifted in part from a singular focus on genetic causes to the involvement of environmental factors and their gene interactions. This shift in focus is a result of the rapidly increasing prevalence of ASD coupled with the incomplete penetrance of this disorder in monozygotic twins. One such area of environmentally focused research is the association of exposures to endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) with elevated risk for ASD. EDCs are exogenous chemicals that can alter endogenous hormone activity and homeostasis, thus potentially disrupting the action of sex and other natural hormones at all stages of human development. Inasmuch as sex hormones play a fundamental role in brain development and sexual differentiation, exposure to EDCs in utero during critical stages of development can have lasting neurological and other physiological influences on the developing fetus and, ultimately, the child as well as adult. This review will focus on the possible contributions of EDCs to autism risk and pathogenesis by first discussing the influence of endogenous sex hormones on the autistic phenotype, followed by a review of documented human exposures to EDCs and associations with behaviors relevant to ASD. Mechanistic links between EDC exposures and aberrant neurodevelopment and behaviors are then considered, with emphasis on EDC-induced transcriptional profiles derived from animal and cellular studies. Finally, this review will discuss possible mechanisms through which EDC exposure can lead to persistent changes in gene expression and phenotype, which may in turn contribute to transgenerational inheritance of ASD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Environmental considerations related to mining of nonfuel minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seal, Robert R.; Piatak, Nadine M.; Kimball, Bryn E.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Schulz, Klaus J.; DeYoung,, John H.; Seal, Robert R.; Bradley, Dwight C.

    2017-12-19

    Throughout most of human history, environmental stewardship during mining has not been a priority partly because of the lack of applicable laws and regulations and partly because of ignorance about the effects that mining can have on the environment. In the United States, the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, in conjunction with related laws, codified a more modern approach to mining, including the responsibility for environmental stewardship, and provided a framework for incorporating environmental protection into mine planning. Today, similar frameworks are in place in the other developed countries of the world, and international mining companies generally follow similar procedures wherever they work in the world. The regulatory guidance has fostered an international effort among all stakeholders to identify best practices for environmental stewardship.The modern approach to mining using best practices involves the following: (a) establishment of a pre-mining baseline from which to monitor environmental effects during mining and help establish geologically reasonable closure goals; (b) identification of environmental risks related to mining through standardized approaches; and (c) formulation of an environmental closure plan before the start of mining. A key aspect of identifying the environmental risks and mitigating those risks is understanding how the risks vary from one deposit type to another—a concept that forms the basis for geoenvironmental mineral-deposit models.Accompanying the quest for best practices is the goal of making mining sustainable into the future. Sustainable mine development is generally considered to be development that meets the needs of the present generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. The concept extends beyond the availability of nonrenewable mineral commodities and includes the environmental and social effects of mine development.Global population growth, meanwhile, has

  17. Antileishmanial activities of dihydrochalcones from piper elongatum and synthetic related compounds. Structural requirements for activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermoso, Alicia; Jiménez, Ignacio A; Mamani, Zulma A; Bazzocchi, Isabel L; Piñero, José E; Ravelo, Angel G; Valladares, Basilio

    2003-09-01

    Two dihydrochalcones (1 and 2) were isolated from Piper elongatum Vahl by activity-guided fractionation against extracellular promastigotes of Leishmania braziliensis in vitro. Their structures were elucidated by spectral analysis, including homonuclear and heteronuclear correlation NMR experiments. Derivatives 3-7 and 20 synthetic related compounds (8-27) were also assayed to establish the structural requirements for antileishmanial activity. Compounds 1-11 that proved to be more active that ketoconazol, used as positive control, were further assayed against promastigotes of Leishmania tropica and Leishmania infantum. Compounds 7 and 11, with a C(6)-C(3)-C(6) system, proved to be the most promising compounds, with IC(50) values of 2.98 and 3.65 microg/mL, respectively, and exhibited no toxic effect on macrophages (around 90% viability). Correlation between the molecular structures and antileishmanial activity is discussed in detail.

  18. Volatile trace compounds released from municipal solid waste at the transfer stage: Evaluation of environmental impacts and odour pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Lu, Wenjing; Wang, Hongtao

    2015-12-30

    Odour pollution caused by municipal solid waste is a public concern. This study quantitatively evaluated the concentration, environmental impacts, and olfaction of volatile trace compounds released from a waste transfer station. Seventy-six compounds were detected, and ethanol presented the highest releasing rate and ratio of 14.76 kg/d and 12.30 g/t of waste, respectively. Life cycle assessment showed that trichlorofluoromethane and dichlorodifluoromethane accounted for more than 99% of impact potentials to global warming and approximately 70% to human toxicity (non-carcinogenic). The major contributor for both photochemical ozone formation and ecotoxicity was ethanol. A detection threshold method was also used to evaluate odour pollution. Five compounds including methane thiol, hydrogen sulphide, ethanol, dimethyl disulphide, and dimethyl sulphide, with dilution multiples above one, were considered the critical compounds. Methane thiol showed the highest contribution to odour pollution of more than 90%, as indicated by its low threshold. Comparison of the contributions of the compounds to different environmental aspects indicated that typical pollutants varied based on specific evaluation targets and therefore should be comprehensively considered. This study provides important information and scientific methodology to elucidate the impacts of odourant compounds to the environment and odour pollution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparative fate of an organochlorine, chlordecone, and a related compound, chlordecone-5b-hydro, in soils and plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clostre, Florence; Cattan, Philippe; Gaude, Jean-Marie; Carles, Céline; Letourmy, Philippe; Lesueur-Jannoyer, Magalie

    2015-11-01

    We address the problem of the comparative environmental fate of a pesticide, chlordecone (CLD), and a related compound, chlordecone-5b-hydro (CLD-5b-hydro). We used a large database including data from two types of contaminated volcanic soils, andosol and nitisol, and thirteen crops grown in the French West Indies in historically polluted soils. We performed in-depth statistical analysis of the effect of different parameters (soil type, crop, organ, etc.) on the ratio of CLD-5b-hydro to CLD in both soils and plants. The environmental fate of the two compounds differed depending on the type of soil. Proportionally, more CLD-5b-hydro than CLD was measured in nitisols than in andosols. Compared to CLD, we also found a preferential transfer of CLD-5b-hydro from the soil to the plant. Finally, mobilization of the two compounds differed according to the species of crop but also within the plant, with increasing ratios from the roots to the top of the plant. The properties of the compound played a key role in the underlying processes. Because CLD-5b-hydro is more soluble in water and has a lower K(ow) than CLD, CLD-5b-hydro (1) was more easily absorbed from soils by plants, (2) was less adsorbed onto plant tissues and (3) was transported in greater quantities through the transpiration stream. Due to the amounts of CLD-5b-hydro we measured in some plant parts such as cucurbit fruits, an assessment of the toxicity of this CLD monodechlorinated product is recommended. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. USER principle as relating the human environmental management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kernakis

    2005-01-01

    The environmental variable can be understood as the resulting biosphere space that has suffered the occurrence of pre-biotic, biotic and anthropic processes. This necessary expansion of the environmental frontier allows understand clearly the magnitude the great complexity of the process immersed in the current environmental problematic. This, taking into account the analysis of the reference systems used by the different species to face their interaction with the nature. Hence, it is necessary to evaluate the human referential process of reality, as a responsible specie of the derange shown by the Environmental Mother Eve. The latest hominid development of an Artificial Reference System (ARS) (linguistic symbols), points to the constitution of the casual factor that triggers such an environmental problematic. The expansive dynamics accomplished by the ARS has not always made reference to the natural ambience that created them. The formulation of the Unprivilegeness of Symbolic Endogenous Referents (USER) Principle (Kernakis 1986, 1997), as a necessary epistemological consequence of the Special Relativity from Einstein, entails to the reversion of the local privileges created by the ARS, stating a referential crisis as alternative to a potential environmental collapse. AII these could lead to the most intra-specific understanding with the nature, antonomastical fragmented by the privileges of the ARS. Such integration species-nature would allow to make possible an spontaneous natural-cultural arranging of the environmental balance

  1. Statistics and Corporate Environmental Management: Relations and Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henning; Ulhøi, John Parm

    1997-01-01

    Statistical methods have long been used to analyse the macroeconomic consequences of environmentally damaging activities, political actions to control, prevent, or reduce these damages, and environmental problems in the natural environment. Up to now, however, they have had a limited and not very...... in the external environment. The nature and extent of the practical use of quantitative techniques in corporate environmental management systems is discussed on the basis of a number of company surveys in four European countries.......Statistical methods have long been used to analyse the macroeconomic consequences of environmentally damaging activities, political actions to control, prevent, or reduce these damages, and environmental problems in the natural environment. Up to now, however, they have had a limited and not very...... specific use in corporate environmental management systems. This paper will address some of the special problems related to the use of statistical techniques in corporate environmental management systems. One important aspect of this is the interaction of internal decisions and activities with conditions...

  2. Serum metabolome biomarkers associate low-level environmental perfluorinated compound exposure with oxidative /nitrosative stress in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaofei; Liu, Liangpo; Zhang, Weibing; Zhang, Jie; Du, Xiaoyan; Huang, Qingyu; Tian, Meiping; Shen, Heqing

    2017-10-01

    Previous in vivo and in vitro studies have linked perfluorinated compound (PFC) exposure with metabolic interruption, but the inter-species difference and high treatment doses usually make the results difficult to be extrapolated to humans directly. The best strategy for identifying the metabolic interruption may be to establish the direct correlations between monitored PFCs data and metabolic data on human samples. In this study, serum metabolome data and PFC concentrations were acquired for a Chinese adult male cohort. The most abundant PFCs are PFOA and PFOS with concentration medians 7.56 and 12.78 nM, respectively; in together they count around 81.6% of the total PFCs. PFC concentration-related serum metabolic profile changes and the related metabolic biomarkers were explored by using partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). Respectively taking PFOS, PFOA and total PFC as the classifiers, serum metabolome can be differentiated between the lowest dose group (1st quartile PFCs) and the highest PFC dose group (4th quartile PFCs). Ten potential PFC biomarkers were identified, mainly involving in pollutant detoxification, antioxidation and nitric oxide (NO) signal pathways. These suggested that low-level environmental PFC exposure has significantly adverse impacts on glutathione (GSH) cycle, Krebs cycle, nitric oxide (NO) generation and purine oxidation in humans. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report investigating the association of environmental PFC exposure with human serum metabolome alteration. Given the important biological functions of the identified biomarkers, we suggest that PFC could increase the metabolism syndromes risk including diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Screening plant derived dietary phenolic compounds for bioactivity related to cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, Kevin D; Yamashita, Yoko; O'Donoghue, Helen; Shirasaya, Daishi; Ward, Natalie C; Ashida, Hitoshi

    2018-04-01

    The potential health benefits of phenolic acids found in food and beverages has been suggested from a number of large population studies. However, the mechanism of how these compounds may exert biological effects is less well established. It is also now recognised that many complex polyphenols in the diet are metabolised to simple phenolic acids which can be taken up in the circulation. In this paper a number of selected phenolic compounds have been tested for their bioactivity in two cell culture models. The expression and activity of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in human aortic endothelial cells and the uptake of glucose in muscle cells. Our data indicate that while none of the compounds tested had a significant effect on eNOS expression or activation in endothelial cells, several of the compounds increased glucose uptake in muscle cells. These compounds also enhanced the translocation of the glucose transporter GLUT4 to the plasma membrane, which may explain the observed increase in cellular glucose uptake. These results indicate that simple cell culture models may be useful to help understand the bioactivity of phenolic compounds in relation to cardiovascular protection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Uncertainty related to Environmental Data and Estimated Extreme Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.

    The design loads on rubble mound breakwaters are almost entirely determined by the environmental conditions, i.e. sea state, water levels, sea bed characteristics, etc. It is the objective of sub-group B to identify the most important environmental parameters and evaluate the related uncertainties...... including those corresponding to extreme estimates typically used for design purposes. Basically a design condition is made up of a set of parameter values stemming from several environmental parameters. To be able to evaluate the uncertainty related to design states one must know the corresponding joint....... Consequently this report deals mainly with each parameter separately. Multi parameter problems are briefly discussed in section 9. It is important to notice that the quantified uncertainties reported in section 7.7 represent what might be regarded as typical figures to be used only when no more qualified...

  5. The relative contributions of climatic elements and environmental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this paper was to determine the relative contributions of climatic elements and environmental factors to urban flooding in Awka urban area of Anambra State. Towards achieving this aim, 10 year (2000-2009) meteorological data of temperature and rainfall of the study area were collected from synoptic ...

  6. 78 FR 20074 - Environmental Impact and Related Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration 23 CFR Part 771 Federal Transit Administration 49 CFR Part 622 [Docket No. FHWA-2013-0007] FHWA RIN 2125-AF48 FTA RIN 2132-AB05 Environmental Impact and Related Procedures Correction The correction that appeared on page 15925, Wednesday, March 13...

  7. 78 FR 15925 - Environmental Impact and Related Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration 23 CFR Part 771 Federal Transit Administration 49 CFR Part 622 [Docket No. FHWA-2012-2013] FHWA RIN 2125-AF48 FTA RIN 2132-AB05 Environmental Impact and Related Procedures Correction In proposed rule document 2013-4678 beginning on page 13609 in...

  8. Syringa oblata Lindl var. alba as a source of oleuropein and related compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nenadis, N.; Vervoort, J.J.M.; Boeren, J.A.; Tsimidou, M.Z.

    2007-01-01

    The leaf methanol extract of Syringa oblata Lindl var. alba was investigated as a source of oleuropein and related compounds. The extract had a high total phenol content and a radical scavenging activity similar to that of the respective extract from Olea europaea leaves. HPLC-DAD characterisation

  9. A qualitative study of amlodipine and its related compounds by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, John; Pugh, Jonathan; Dimopoulos-Italiano, Gina; Pike, Richard

    2006-01-01

    A comprehensive structural analysis of amlodipine and certain related compounds was performed by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Triple quadrupole and quadrupole time-of-flight instruments were used to provide collision-induced dissociation and accurate mass measurement for selected product and second-generation product ions. A unique ion rearrangement was observed, which was found to be characteristic of certain dihydropyridines. This study provides a fundamental understanding of the fragmentation of these compounds. The structural elucidation of an unknown impurity is presented as an example. Copyright (c) 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Characterization of pharmaceutically active compounds in Dongting Lake, China: Occurrence, chiral profiling and environmental risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ruixue; Wang, Bin; Lu, Shaoyong; Zhang, Yizhe; Yin, Lina; Huang, Jun; Deng, Shubo; Wang, Yujue; Yu, Gang

    2016-07-01

    Twenty commonly used pharmaceuticals including eight chiral drugs were investigated in Dongting Lake, China. The contamination level was relatively low on a global scale. Twelve pharmaceuticals were identified. The most abundant compound was caffeine followed by diclofenac, DEET, mefenamic acid, fluoxetine, ibuprofen and carbamazepine with mean concentrations from 2.0 to 80.8ngL(-1). Concentrations between East and West Dongting Lake showed spatial difference, with the West Dongting Lake less polluted. The relatively high ratio of caffeine versus carbamazepine (over 50) may indicate there was possible direct discharge of domestic wastewater into the lake. This is the first study presenting a survey allowing for comprehensive analysis of multiclass achiral and chiral pharmaceuticals including beta-blockers, antidepressants and anti-inflammatory drugs in freshwater lake. The enantiomeric compositions presented racemic to weakly enantioselective, with the highest enantiomeric fraction (EF) of 0.63 for fluoxetine. Meanwhile, venlafaxine was identified and evaluated the environment risk in surface water in China for the first time. The results of risk assessment suggested that fluoxetine, venlafaxine and diclofenac acid might pose a significant risk to aquatic organisms in Dongting Lake. The resulting data will be useful to enrich the research of emerging pollutants in freshwater lake and stereochemistry for environment investigations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Alterations in the energy budget of Arctic benthic species exposed to oil-related compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, Gro Harlaug [Akvaplan-niva, Polar Environmental Center, N-9296 Tromso (Norway) and Norwegian College of Fishery Science, University of Tromso, N-9037 Tromso (Norway)]. E-mail: gho@akvaplan.niva.noph; Sva, Eirin [Akvaplan-niva, Polar Environmental Center, N-9296 Tromso (Norway); Carroll, JoLynn [Akvaplan-niva, Polar Environmental Center, N-9296 Tromso (Norway); Camus, Lionel [Akvaplan-niva, Polar Environmental Center, N-9296 Tromso (Norway); De Coen, Wim [Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, University of Antwerp (UA), Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Smolders, Roel [Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, University of Antwerp (UA), Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Environmental Toxicology, VITO, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Overaas, Helene [Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA), CIENS, Gaustadalleen, N-0316 Oslo (Norway); Multiconsult AS, Hoffsveien 1, N-0275 Oslo (Norway); Hylland, Ketil [Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA), CIENS, Gaustadalleen, N-0316 Oslo (Norway); Department of Biology, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1066, Blindern, N-0316 Oslo (Norway)

    2007-06-15

    We studied cellular energy allocation (CEA) in three Arctic benthic species (Gammarus setosus (Amphipoda), Onisimus litoralis (Amphipoda), and Liocyma fluctuosa (Bivalvia)) exposed to oil-related compounds. The CEA biomarker measures the energy budget of organisms by biochemically assessing changes in energy available (carbohydrates, protein and lipid content) and the integrated energy consumption (electron transport system activity (ETS) as the cellular aspect of respiration). Energy budget was measured in organisms subjected to water-accommodated fraction (WAF) of crude oil and drill cuttings (DC) to evaluate whether these compounds affect the energy metabolism of the test species. We observed significantly lower CEA values and higher ETS activity in G. setosus subjected to WAF treatment compared to controls (p {<=} 0.03). Higher CEA value and lower cellular respiration were observed in O. litoralis exposed to DC compared to controls (p = 0.02). No difference in the energy budget of L. fluctuosa was observed between the treatments (p {>=} 0.19). Different responses to oil-related compounds between the three test species are likely the result of differences in feeding and burrowing behavior and species-specific sensitivity to petroleum-related compounds.

  12. Environmental problems relating to uranium mining and milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, F.B.

    1979-01-01

    The regulations of the mining and milling of uranium as they relate to the environment are discussed. The industry is primarily under the jurisdiction of the federal government and administered by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This authority can in some instances be relegated to the states. Certain areas of jurisdiction have been given over to Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) by the courts. The Safe Drinking Water Act is discussed as it relates to in situ leach mining. The role of the Department of Interior in the regulating of uranium mining, as described in the Federal Land Policy Management Act of 1976, is discussed. The requirement for environmental impact statements prior to licensing by the NRC or the individual states is also discussed. Air quality and radioactive waste disposal as they relate to uranium mining are also discussed

  13. Recommendations related to the strategic environmental assessment. Methodological note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Bris, Charlotte; Brivadier, Isabelle; Fournie, Sebastien; Godart, Angelique; Hubert, Severine; Ille, Yann-Mikiel; Le Mitouard, Eric; Phelep, Michele; Delduc, Paul; Poitevin, Florent; Lemaitre, Valery; Bataille, Tristan; Noulin, Alice; Fevre, Cecile; Kervella, Frederic; Orefici, Christine; Rambaud, Lucile; Antoine, Stephanie; Wormser, Veronique; Garrigou, Olivier; Vinay, Catherine; Cretin, Benedicte; Le Saout, Michaele; Pagnucco, Fabrice; Meinier, Yves; Nicolas, Veronique; Thiolliere, Blandine; Guilbert, Sebastien; Billant, Claude; Saingenest, Patrick

    2015-05-01

    This methodological note aims at giving commissioners and project managers of plans, schemes and programmes or other planning documents related to strategic environmental assessment a comprehensive vision of the approach to be adopted, as well as useful advices and operational recommendations. The first part recalls the main principles of environmental assessment, addresses general issues of organisation of the approach, and clarifies its articulation with the plan/scheme/programme elaboration or other approaches such as the assessment of incidences on the Natura 2000 network. The second part addresses the different chapters which are foreseen by the regulation for the environmental report. Some sheets are proposed on SDAGEs (Water Development and Management Master Plans) and PGIRs (flood risk management plans), on SRCs (quarry regional plan) and SAGEs (Water Development and Management Scheme)

  14. Community Relations Plan for Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-01

    The Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) has applied to the California Environmental Protection Agency, Department of Toxic Substances Control (DTSC), for renewal of its Hazardous Waste Handling Facility Permit. A permit is required under Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations. The permit will allow LBL to continue using its current hazardous waste handling facility, upgrade the existing facility, and construct a replacement facility. The new facility is scheduled for completion in 1995. The existing facility will be closed under RCRA guidelines by 1996. As part of the permitting process, LBL is required to investigate areas of soil and groundwater contamination at its main site in the Berkeley Hills. The investigations are being conducted by LBL`s Environmental Restoration Program and are overseen by a number of regulatory agencies. The regulatory agencies working with LBL include the California Environmental Protection Agency`s Department of Toxic Substances Control, the California Regional Water Quality Control Board, the Bay Area Air Quality Management District, the East Bay Municipal Utilities District, and the Berkeley Department of Environmental Health. RCRA requires that the public be informed of LBL`s investigations and site cleanup, and that opportunities be available for the public to participate in making decisions about how LBL will address contamination issues. LBL has prepared this Community Relations Plan (CRP) to describe activities that LBL will use to keep the community informed of environmental restoration progress and to provide for an open dialogue with the public on issues of importance. The CRP documents the community`s current concerns about LBL`s Environmental Restoration Program. Interviews conducted between February and April 1993 with elected officials, agency staff, environmental organizations, businesses, site neighbors, and LBL employees form the basis for the information contained in this document.

  15. Trade Liberalization and Optimal Environmental Policies in Vertical Related Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Shu Lin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper establishes a symmetric two-country model with vertically related markets. In the downstream market, there is one firm in each country selling a homogeneous good, whose production generates pollution, to its home and the foreign markets a la Brander (1981. In the intermediate good market, there is also one upstream firm in each country, supplying the intermediate good only to its own country’s downstream market. The upstream firms can choose either price or quantity to maximize their profits. With this setting, the paper examines the optimal environmental policy and how it is affected by the tariff on the final good. It is found that, under free trade, the optimal final-good output with imperfect intermediate-good market will have the same output level as that with perfect intermediate-good market after imposing the optimal emission tax. The optimal environmental tax is smaller and the optimal environmental policy is less likely to be a green strategy under trade liberalization if the market structure in the intermediate good market is imperfect than perfect competition. On the other hand, the optimal environmental tax is necessarily higher if the upstream firm chooses price than quantity. Moreover, the optimal environmental policy is less likely to be a green strategy under trade liberalization if the upstream firms choose quantity than price to maximize their profits.

  16. Tiger team findings related to DOE environmental restoration activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levitan, W.M.

    1991-01-01

    Tiger Team Assessments were implemented in June 1989 as part of a strategy to ensure that DOE facilities fully comply with Federal, state, local and DOE environment, safety, and health (ES ampersand H) requirements. The Tiger Teams provide the Secretary of Energy with information on current ES ampersand H compliance status of each DOE facility and causes for noncompliance. To date, Tiger Team Assessments have been completed at 25 DOE facilities. With regard to assessments of environmental restoration activities, the performance of DOE facilities was evaluated against the requirements of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended, the National Contingency Plan (NCP), and DOE Order 5400.4, CERCLA Requirements, among others. Five major categories of environmental restoration-related findings were identified: (1) environmental restoration program planning and management (found at 60 percent of the sites assessed); (2) community relations/administrative record (60 percent); (3) characterization of extent of contamination (56 percent); (4) identification and evaluation of inactive waste sites (56 percent); and (5) DOE and NCP requirements for response action studies (44 percent). Primary causal factors for these findings were inadequate procedures, resources, supervision, and policy implementation

  17. Polystyrene Supported Al(OTf)3: an Environmentally Friendly Heterogeneous Catalyst for Friedel-Crafts Acylation of Aromatic Compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boroujeni, Kaveh Parvanak

    2010-01-01

    Stable and non-hygroscopic polystyrene supported aluminium triflate (Ps-Al(OTf) 3 ), which is prepared easily from cheap and commercially available compounds was found to be an environmentally friendly heterogeneous catalyst for Friedel-Crafts acylation of arenes using acid chlorides in the absence of solvent under mild reaction conditions. The catalyst can be reused up to five times after simple washing with dichloromethane

  18. 78 FR 11593 - Environmental Impact and Related Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-19

    ... (EA) or environmental impact statement (EIS) under 23 CFR part 771, the repair or reconstruction of... unusual circumstances include significant environmental impacts, substantial controversy on environmental... the action normally has significant environmental impacts either individually or cumulatively and may...

  19. Product-related Environmental Performance Indicators: a systematic literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Issa, Isabela I.; Pigosso, Daniela Cristina Antelmi; McAloone, Tim C.

    2013-01-01

    Ecodesign is a proactive environmental management approach employed in the product development process (PDP) which aims to minimize the environmental impacts caused during products’ life-cycle, improving its environmental performance. The establishment of measurable environmental performance...

  20. Oral cadmium chloride intoxication in mice: Effects of penicillamine, dimercaptosuccinic acid and related compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, O.; Nielsen, J.B.

    1988-01-01

    The antidotal efficacies of chelators during acute cadmium intoxication has previously been examined in experiments where both a soluble cadmium salt and the chelator were administered parenterally. In the present study, PA, DMSA and related compounds were studied as oral antidotes during oral CdCl 2 intoxication. According to the antagonistic effects noted on mortality, peristaltic toxicity and intestinal cadmium uptake, the relative efficacies of the compounds tested were: DMSA>PAD>DMPS>MSA>PA>NAPA. None of the chelators induced major changes in the organ distribution of absorbed cadmium, in particular no increased cerebral deposition of cadmium. This study indicates that, in oral cadmium intoxication in humans, orally administered DMSA would be likely to offer protection against the local toxicity of cadmium in the gastrointestinal tract as well as to reduce the risk of systemic toxicity of absorbed cadmium. (author)

  1. Association between SNPs within candidate genes and compounds related to boar taint and reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moe, Maren; Lien, Sigbjørn; Aasmundstad, Torunn

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Boar taint is an unpleasant odour and flavour of the meat from some uncastrated male pigs primarily caused by elevated levels of androstenone and skatole in adipose tissue. Androstenone is produced in the same biochemical pathway as testosterone and estrogens, which represents...... of this study was to detect SNPs in boar taint candidate genes and to perform association studies for both single SNPs and haplotypes with levels of boar taint compounds and phenotypes related to reproduction. RESULTS: An association study involving 275 SNPs in 121 genes and compounds related to boar taint...... and reproduction were carried out in Duroc and Norwegian Landrace boars. Phenotypes investigated were levels of androstenone, skatole and indole in adipose tissue, levels of androstenone, testosterone, estrone sulphate and 17beta-estradiol in plasma, and length of bulbo urethralis gland. The SNPs were genotyped...

  2. Organochlorine compounds in streambed sediment and in biological tissue from streams and their relations to land use, central Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebler, Joseph B.

    2000-01-01

    Streambed-sediment samples from 13 sites and biological-tissue samples from 11 sites in the Gila River Basin in central Arizona were analyzed for 32 organochlorine compounds in streambed sediment and 28 compounds in biological tissue during 1996 as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment program. The objectives of the study were to determine the occurrence and distribution of organochlorine compounds and their relation to land use. Sampling sites were categorized on the basis of major land uses in the basin or the source of water in the stream. Because land uses were mixed or had changed over time, some land-use categories were combined. Sites were categorized as forest/rangeland (6), forest/urban (1), urban (4), or agricultural/urban (2). Thirteen organochlorine compounds were detected in streambed-sediment samples, and 10 were detected in tissue samples. The number of compounds found in streambed-sediment samples from individual sites ranged from 0 to 10, and the range for individual tissue samples was 0 to 7. Comparison of the number of detections in streambed-sediment samples to the number of detections in tissue samples from particular sites where both were sampled yielded five instances where more compounds were detected in streambed sediment, six instances where more compounds were detected in tissue, and five instances where the number of detections in streambed sediment and tissue were equal. The frequency of detection of particular compounds for sites where both streambed sediment and tissue were sampled resulted in five compounds being detected more frequently in streambed sediment, five more frequently in tissue, and three compounds that were equally frequent in streambed sediment and in tissue. Few contaminants were detected in samples from the forest/rangeland sites; greater numbers of compounds were detected at the urban sites and at the forest/urban site. The greatest number of compounds and the highest concentrations

  3. Group contribution modelling for the prediction of safety-related and environmental properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frutiger, Jerome; Abildskov, Jens; Sin, Gürkan

    warming potential and ozone depletion potential. Process safety studies and environmental assessments rely on accurate property data. Safety data such as flammability limits, heat of combustion or auto ignition temperature play an important role in quantifying the risk of fire and explosions among others......We present a new set of property prediction models based on group contributions to predict major safety-related and environmental properties for organic compounds. The predicted list of properties includes lower and upper flammability limits, heat of combustion, auto ignition temperature, global...... models like group contribution (GC) models can estimate data. However, the estimation needs to be accurate, reliable and as little time-consuming as possible so that the models can be used on the fly. In this study the Marrero and Gani group contribution (MR GC) method has been used to develop the models...

  4. Magnetocaloric effect in “reduced” dimensions: Thin films, ribbons, and microwires of Heusler alloys and related compounds: Magnetocaloric effect in “reduced” dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khovaylo, Vladimir V. [National University of Science and Technology MISiS, Moscow 119049 Russia; ITMO University, St. Petersburg 197101 Russia; Rodionova, Valeria V. [National University of Science and Technology MISiS, Moscow 119049 Russia; Innovation Park and Institute of Physics & Technology, Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University, Kaliningrad 236041 Russia; Shevyrtalov, Sergey N. [Innovation Park and Institute of Physics & Technology, Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University, Kaliningrad 236041 Russia; Novosad, Val [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne IL 60439 USA

    2014-08-19

    Room temperature magnetic refrigeration is an energy saving and environmentally-friendly technology which has developed rapidly from a basic idea to prototype devices. The performance of magnetic refrigerators crucially depends on the magnetocaloric properties and the geometry of the employed refrigerants. Here we review the magnetocaloric properties of Heusler alloys and related compounds with a high surface to volume ratio such as films, ribbons and microwires, and compare them with their bulk counterparts.

  5. Environmental flow assessments in estuaries related to preference of phytoplankton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Z. F.; Sun, T.; Zhao, R.

    2014-01-01

    We developed an approach to assess environmental flows in estuaries related to preference of phytoplankton considering the complex relationship between hydrological modification and biomass in ecosystems. As a first step, a relationship was established between biomass requirements for organisms of primary and higher nutritional levels based on the principle of nutritional energy flow of ecosystem. Then, diagnostic pigments were employed to represent phytoplankton community biomass, which indicated competition between two groups of phytoplankton in the biochemistry process. Considering empirical relationships between diagnostic pigments and critical environmental factors, responses of biomass to river discharges were established based on a convection-diffusion model by simulating distributions of critical environmental factors under action of river discharges and tide currents. Consequently, environmental flows could be recommended for different requirements of fish biomass. In the case study in the Yellow River estuary, May and October were identified as critical months for fish reproduction and growth during dry years. Artificial hydrological regulation strategies should carefully consider the temporal variations of natural flow regime, especially for a high-amplitude flood pulse, which may cause negative effects on phytoplankton groups and higher organism biomass.

  6. Bacteriostatics of volatile organic compounds of Crimean pine and environmental meteorological conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalaya, Elena; Slepykh, Victor; Efimenko, Natalia; Povolotckaia, Nina

    2015-04-01

    Sanitary and hygienic properties of air saturated with volatile organic compounds of plants (VOC) have a fundamental importance for the biosphere. In particular, they make such a feature as the freshness of the air. The energy contained in VOC and made by Earth vegetation can be compared with the energy of lightning discharges in the atmosphere during the year [1]. The influence of natural environment on the dynamics of VOC developed by plants is also of current interest and is, in particular, important for resort study because VOC produced by the vegetation of the resort regions can be seen as a self-contained resort resource [2]. Dynamics of VOC evolution by Crimean pine (Pinus Pallasiana D.Don.) that is the forest forming breed of the resort region Caucasus Mineral Waters (Russia) has been studied by a microbiological method [1]. Dynamics of bacteriostatics was qualified by the extent of oppression of the VOC test- culture (Staphylococcus aureus 209p) of the pine in % in comparison with control. The needles for the experience were selected at noon in the middle of the summer. At the time of the needle selection meteorological indicators were fixed. As the result of the researches we got an empirical equation of dynamics of VOC bacteriostatics of the Crimean pine under the influence of total solar radiation (kW/m2) and relative air humidity (%). The coefficient of the multiple correlation of the VOC bacteriostatics of the Crimean pine, total solar radiation and relative air humidity makes: R=0,83 at the importance of F=7,53>F0 05=3,49. The coefficient of the multiple determination is R2=0,69. The equation is: y = - 35,1020 + 1,7193x + 175,6638p- 0,0181x2 + 0,6054 (xp) - 191,1319p2, where Y - is bacteriostatics (%); x - is relative humidity (%); p - is total solar radiation (kW/m2). The fixed parameters of the equation are: air humidity - 90-30%; total solar radiation - 0.20-1.0 kW/m2; bacteriostatics - 0-61%. The obtained results can be used in the resort study

  7. Miniaturised sample preparation method for the multiresidual determination of regulated organohalogenated pollutants and related compounds in wild bird eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roscales, Jose L; Vicente, Alba; Ramos, Lourdes; Jiménez, Begoña

    2017-08-01

    A simplified, miniaturised matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD)-based method allowing the simultaneous extraction and purification of contaminants belonging to selected families of regulated persistent organic pollutants (POPs), i.e. polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and penta- to octa-polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and related contaminants of emerging concern, such as deca-BDE and Dechlorane Plus (DP), has been proposed. Wild bird eggs were used as biotic fat-containing model matrices. Once optimised, the procedure allowed sample preparation to be accomplished within 30 min, in a single step, and with minimal sample and reagent consumption and waste generation. These features contributed to speeding up and greening the analytical process as compared to the large-scale multistep procedures for these types of analyses. The method was combined with gas chromatography-quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-qMS) for PCB and OCP analysis and with GC-negative ion chemical ionisation-quadrupole mass spectrometry (NCI-qMS) for PBDE and DP determination. The complete analytical method provided satisfactory recoveries of the target compounds (above 83% for all analytes, except for PBDE 209, 63%), although as small an amount of sample as 0.300 g was used. The repeatability of the complete procedure was less than 16% (with the only exception for PCB 153, which looked to be affected by an interference). The limits of detection were in all cases lower than 34 pg g -1 dry weight (as calculated for real samples), demonstrating the feasibility of the proposed procedure for accurate determination of the target compounds in biological samples. The proposed procedure was applied to the analysis of the target POPs in unhatched eggs of wild bird species. Graphical abstract Scheme of the miniaturised methodology proposed for environmental monitoring of POPs and related compounds in wild bird eggs.

  8. Compound-specific isotope records of late-quaternary environmental change in southeastern North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Chad S.; Taylor, Audrey K.; Spencer, Jessica; Jones, Kaylee B.

    2018-02-01

    Reconstructions of late Quaternary paleohydrology are rare from the U.S. Atlantic coastal plain (ACP). Here we present compound-specific hydrogen (δ2Halkane) and carbon (δ13Calkane) isotope analyses of terrestrially-derived n-alkanes from Jones Lake and Singletary Lake in eastern North Carolina spanning the last ∼50,000 years. Combined with pollen, charcoal, and bulk geochemical analyses, the δ2Halkane data indicate arid conditions during the late-Pleistocene, but differing edaphic conditions at the sites perhaps related to differing water table depths. The δ13Calkane data indicate a significant C4 plant component during the late Pleistocene, but other proxies indicate a sparsely-vegetated landscape. The Pleistocene-Holocene transition is marked by rapid fluctuations in δ2Halkane values that are similar to the patterns of Bølling Allerød and Younger Dryas isotope data from Greenland indicating sensitivity of the regional climate to short-lived, high-amplitude climatic events. The δ2Halkane data indicate a mesic early Holocene that supported colonization by Quercus-dominated ecosystems. Evidence of middle Holocene aridity in eastern Tennessee and western North Carolina contrasts with evidence of mesic conditions on the ACP, a geographic pattern similar to modern teleconnected precipitation responses to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. A transition to Pinus-dominated ecosystems ∼5500 cal yr B.P. is accompanied by a large increase charcoal, but is not coincident with any large changes in δ2Halkane values, indicating that hydrologic change was likely not responsible for sustained late-Holocene dominance of Pinus. The lack of a change in middle Holocene hydrology and the spatiotemporally heterogeneous nature of the Quercus-Pinus transition on the ACP indicate prehistoric anthropogenic land management practices may represent the most parsimonious explanation for the regionally pervasive ecological change.

  9. How to tackle chemical communication? Relative proportions versus semiquantitative determination of compounds in lizard chemical secretions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Roa, Roberto; Sáiz, Jorge; Gómara, Belén; López, Pilar; Martín, José

    2018-02-01

    Knowledge about chemical communication in some vertebrates is still relatively limited. Squamates are a glaring example of this, even when recent evidences indicate that scents are involved in social and sexual interactions. In lizards, where our understanding of chemical communication has considerably progressed in the last few years, many questions about chemical interactions remain unanswered. A potential reason for this is the inherent complexity and technical limitations that some methodologies embody when analyzing the compounds used to convey information. We provide here a straightforward procedure to analyze lizard chemical secretions based on gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry that uses an internal standard for the semiquantification of compounds. We compare the results of this method with those obtained by the traditional procedure of calculating relative proportions of compounds. For such purpose, we designed two experiments to investigate if these procedures allowed revealing changes in chemical secretions 1) when lizards received previously a vitamin dietary supplementation or 2) when the chemical secretions were exposed to high temperatures. Our results show that the procedure based on relative proportions is useful to describe the overall chemical profile, or changes in it, at population or species levels. On the other hand, the use of the procedure based on semiquantitative determination can be applied when the target of study is the variation in one or more particular compounds of the sample, as it has proved more accurate detecting quantitative variations in the secretions. This method would reveal new aspects produced by, for example, the effects of different physiological and climatic factors that the traditional method does not show.

  10. Germination of Aspergillus niger conidia is triggered by nitrogen compounds related to L-amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayer, Kimran; Stratford, Malcolm; Archer, David B

    2014-10-01

    Conidial germination is fundamentally important to the growth and dissemination of most fungi. It has been previously shown (K. Hayer, M. Stratford, and D. B. Archer, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 79:6924-6931, 2013, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.02061-13), using sugar analogs, that germination is a 2-stage process involving triggering of germination and then nutrient uptake for hyphal outgrowth. In the present study, we tested this 2-stage germination process using a series of nitrogen-containing compounds for the ability to trigger the breaking of dormancy of Aspergillus niger conidia and then to support the formation of hyphae by acting as nitrogen sources. Triggering and germination were also compared between A. niger and Aspergillus nidulans using 2-deoxy-D-glucose (trigger), D-galactose (nontrigger in A. niger but trigger in A. nidulans), and an N source (required in A. niger but not in A. nidulans). Although most of the nitrogen compounds studied served as nitrogen sources for growth, only some nitrogen compounds could trigger germination of A. niger conidia, and all were related to L-amino acids. Using L-amino acid analogs without either the amine or the carboxylic acid group revealed that both the amine and carboxylic acid groups were essential for an L-amino acid to serve as a trigger molecule. Generally, conidia were able to sense and recognize nitrogen compounds that fitted into a specific size range. There was no evidence of uptake of either triggering or nontriggering compounds over the first 90 min of A. niger conidial germination, suggesting that the germination trigger sensors are not located within the spore. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  11. Microbial communities related to volatile organic compound emission in automobile air conditioning units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diekmann, Nina; Burghartz, Melanie; Remus, Lars; Kaufholz, Anna-Lena; Nawrath, Thorben; Rohde, Manfred; Schulz, Stefan; Roselius, Louisa; Schaper, Jörg; Mamber, Oliver; Jahn, Dieter; Jahn, Martina

    2013-10-01

    During operation of mobile air conditioning (MAC) systems in automobiles, malodours can occur. We studied the microbial communities found on contaminated heat exchanger fins of 45 evaporators from car MAC systems which were operated in seven different regions of the world and identified corresponding volatile organic compounds. Collected biofilms were examined by scanning electron microscopy and fluorescent in situ hybridization. The detected bacteria were loosely attached to the metal surface. Further analyses of the bacteria using PCR-based single-strand conformation polymorphism and sequencing of isolated 16S rRNA gene fragments identified highly divergent microbial communities with multiple members of the Alphaproteobacteriales, Methylobacteria were the prevalent bacteria. In addition, Sphingomonadales, Burkholderiales, Bacillales, Alcanivorax spp. and Stenotrophomonas spp. were found among many others depending on the location the evaporators were operated. Interestingly, typical pathogenic bacteria related to air conditioning systems including Legionella spp. were not found. In order to determine the nature of the chemical compounds produced by the bacteria, the volatile organic compounds were examined by closed loop stripping analysis and identified by combined gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Sulphur compounds, i.e. di-, tri- and multiple sulphides, acetylthiazole, aromatic compounds and diverse substituted pyrazines were detected. Mathematical clustering of the determined microbial community structures against their origin identified a European/American/Arabic cluster versus two mainly tropical Asian clusters. Interestingly, clustering of the determined volatiles against the origin of the corresponding MAC revealed a highly similar pattern. A close relationship of microbial community structure and resulting malodours to the climate and air quality at the location of MAC operation was concluded.

  12. Environmental recovery by destruction of toxic organic compounds using electron beam accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte, C.L; Sampa, M.H.O.; Rela, P.R.; Oikawa, H.

    2001-01-01

    The oxidation process has attracted many researchers because of the capacity to mineralise organic compounds. The most efficient oxidation is the use of OH radicals. There are various methods to generate OH radicals as the use of ozone, hydrogen peroxide and ultra-violet (AOP - Advanced Oxidation Process). The most simple and efficient method for generating OH radicals in situ is the interaction of ionizing radiation with water. The reactive species formed by the water irradiation are the reducing radical's solvated electron and H atoms and the oxidising radical hydroxyl OH. The reactive species will react with organic compounds in the water inducing their decomposition. The use of ionizing radiation has great ecological and technologies advantages, especially when compared to physical-chemical and biological methods. It degrades organic compounds, generating substances that are easily biodegraded without the necessity of adding chemical compounds. The purpose of the radiation treatment is the conversion of these substances to biodegradable compounds; sometimes the complete decomposition is not necessary for this conversion

  13. Dependence of Oak-Related Volatile Compounds on the Physicochemical Characteristics of Barrel-Aged Wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Rodríguez-Rodríguez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the effect of some of the physicochemical characteristics of wines such as volatile acidity, titratable acidity, pH, free SO2 and alcohol content on the accumulation of oak-related volatile compounds in barrel-aged wines, in order to give more light on the contradictory results found by other authors in this respect. For this, three different single variety wines were aged for twelve months in barrels with the same characteristics (same cooperage, wood origin, toasting level and volume, repeating the experiment in two consecutive years. Our results show that the percentage of wine alcohol and its titratable acidity positively correlated with the final concentration of vanillin and guaiacyl compounds in the oak-matured wines and negatively with the cis- and trans-β-methyl-γ-octalactone concentration. Therefore, when studying the effect of oak barrel variables (oak origin and seasoning, size of the barrel, number of uses, etc. on the concentration of oak-related volatile compounds in wine, the effect of the physicochemical variables of the wine, especially titratable acidity and alcohol content, should also be taken into account since the final wine aroma composition will also depend on these characteristics.

  14. Amphetamine-like effects of anorectics and related compounds in pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, S M; Johanson, C E

    1987-06-01

    Four pigeons were trained to discriminate injections of d-amphetamine (AMPH; 2.0 mg/kg i.m.) from saline with responding maintained under a fixed-ratio 30 schedule of food delivery. When drugs used therapeutically as anorectics were tested, they consistently produced greater than 80% of AMPH-appropriate responding. The order of potency for substituting for AMPH was: mazindol greater than AMPH = phenmetrazine = phentermine greater than chlorphentermine = phendimetrazine = diethylpropion greater than clortermine = mefenorex. Other anorectics such as phenylpropanolamine (0.3-30.0 mg/kg) and fenfluramine (1.0-17.0 mg/kg) only substituted partially for AMPH whereas benzphetamine (1.0-100.0 mg/kg) resulted primarily in saline-appropriate responding. Compounds related to AMPH in biochemical mechanism of action or psychomotor stimulant activity also were tested. Methylphenidate (0.1-3.0 mg/kg), piribedil (0.3-17.0 mg/kg) and nisoxetine (0.03-1.0 mg/kg) shared discriminative stimulus properties with AMPH whereas bupropion (1.0-30.0 mg/kg) and propylhexedrine (10.0-100.0 mg/kg) substituted for AMPH in two of three pigeons tested. In contrast, caffeine and fenetylline resulted principally in saline-appropriate responding. Compounds from pharmacological classes not related to AMPH, such as morphine, diazepam and phencyclidine, failed to substitute for AMPH. In general, compounds with anorectic and/or stimulant properties shared discriminative stimulus properties with AMPH.

  15. Synthesis of hydantoin and thiohydantoin related compounds from benzil and study of their cytotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kashem Liton and M. Rabiul Islam

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Condensation of benzil (1 with urea, monophenyl urea and diphenyl urea in the presence of absolute ethanol using 30% aqueous NaOH gave the products 1a, 1b and 1c respectively and also with thiourea, monomethyl thiourea, dimethyl thiourea and diethyl thiourea the products 2a, 2b, 2c and 2d were obtained. Methylation of the product, 2a in the presence of dimethyl formamide (DMF using K2CO3 formed 2. The compounds 1b, 1c, 2b, 2c and 2 showed highly cytotoxic activity and the compounds 1a, 2a, 2d showed relatively low cytotoxic activity against brine shrimp lethality bioassay.

  16. The radiation chemistry of the purine bases within DNA and related model compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadet, J.; Berger, M.; Shaw, A.

    1986-01-01

    Both the direct and indirect effects of ionizing radiations are believed to contribute to the chemical changes induced in cellular DNA. Relevant information on the possible degradation pathways has been provided by studies using DNA model compounds, the major proportion of which have focused on pyrimidine components and sugar derivatives. With the development of powerful analytical tools such as high performance liquid chromatography and soft ionization mass spectrometry techniques, progress has recently been made in the elucidation of the nature of the radiation-induced chemical modifications of purine bases in DNA and related nucleosides and nucleotides. This short review details recent aspects of the radiation-induced degradation of adenine and guanine bases in DNA and its model compounds as the result of both direct and indirect effects. 11 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  17. Optical spectra of phthalocyanines and related compounds a guide for beginners

    CERN Document Server

    Isago, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    This book displays how optical (absorption, emission, and magnetic circular dichroism) spectra of phthalocyanines and related macrocyclic dyes can be varied from their prototypical ones depending on conditions. As these compounds can be involved in colorful chemistry (which might be driven by impurities in solvents), their spectra behave like the sea-god Proteus in their mutability. Therefore, those who have been engaged with phthalocyanines for the first time, including even educated professional researchers and engineers, may have been embarrassed by the deceptive behavior of their compounds and could have, in the worst cases, given up their projects. This book is aimed not merely at reviewing the optical spectra, but also at helping such people, particularly beginners, to figure them out by showing some examples of their prototypical spectra and their variations in several situations. For the purpose of better understanding, the book also provides an introduction to their theoretical backgrounds as graphic...

  18. Long term energy-related environmental issues of copper production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarado, S. [University of Chile, Santiago (Chile). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Maldonado, P.; Barrios, A.; Jaques, I. [University of Chile, Santiago (Chile). Energy Research Program

    2002-02-01

    Primary copper production is a major activity in the mining sector of several countries. However, it is highly energy-intensive and poses important environmental hazards. In the case of Chile, the world's largest copper producer (40% of world total), we examine its energy consumption and energy-related environmental implications over a time horizon of 25 years. Concerning the latter, we focus on greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions, one of the most debated environmental issues. This paper follows up our previous report in which the current situation was analyzed and a particular technical option for improving the energy efficiency and concurrently reducing GHG emissions was discussed. Estimated reference or base (BS) and mitigation (MS) scenarios are developed for the period ending in 2020. The former assesses the energy demand projected in accordance with production forecasts and specific energy consumption patterns (assuming that energy efficiency measures are adopted 'spontaneously') with their resultant GHG emissions, while the latter assumes induced actions intended to reduce emissions by adopting an aggressive policy of efficient energy use. For the year 2020, the main results are: (i) BS, 1214 t of CO{sub 2}/ton of refined copper content (49% lower than in 1994); (ii) MS, 1037 t of CO{sub 2}/t of refined copper content (56% lower than in 1994). CO{sub 2} emissions have been estimated considering both fuel and electricity process requirements. (author)

  19. Long term energy-related environmental issues of copper production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarado, S.; Maldonado, P.; Barrios, A.; Jaques, I.

    2002-01-01

    Primary copper production is a major activity in the mining sector of several countries. However, it is highly energy-intensive and poses important environmental hazards. In the case of Chile, the world's largest copper producer (40% of world total), we examine its energy consumption and energy-related environmental implications over a time horizon of 25 years. Concerning the latter, we focus on greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions, one of the most debated environmental issues. This paper follows up our previous report in which the current situation was analyzed and a particular technical option for improving the energy efficiency and concurrently reducing GHG emissions was discussed. Estimated reference or base (BS) and mitigation (MS) scenarios are developed for the period ending in 2020. The former assesses the energy demand projected in accordance with production forecasts and specific energy consumption patterns (assuming that energy efficiency measures are adopted 'spontaneously') with their resultant GHG emissions, while the latter assumes induced actions intended to reduce emissions by adopting an aggressive policy of efficient energy use. For the year 2020, the main results are: (i) BS, 1214 t of CO 2 /ton of refined copper content (49% lower than in 1994); (ii) MS, 1037 t of CO 2 /t of refined copper content (56% lower than in 1994). CO 2 emissions have been estimated considering both fuel and electricity process requirements. (author)

  20. Atomic and molecular physics of plasma-based environmental technologies for abatement of volatile organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penetrante, B. M.; Hsiao, M. C.; Bardsley, J. N.; Merritt, B. T.; Vogtin, G. E.; Kuthi, A.; Burkhart, C. P.; Bayless, J. R.

    1997-01-01

    Non-thermal plasma techniques represent a new generation of air emission control technology that potentially could treat large-volume emissions containing dilute concentrations of volatile organic compounds. In order to apply non-thermal plasmas in an industrial scale, it is important to establish the electrical power requirements and byproducts of the process.There is a need for reliable data concerning the primary decomposition mechanisms and subsequent chemical kinetics associated with non- thermal plasma processing of volatile organic compounds. There are many basic atomic and molecular physics issues that are essential in evaluating the economic performance of non-thermal plasma reactors. These studies are important in understanding how the input electrical power is dissipated in the plasma and how efficiently it is converted to the production of the plasma species (radicals, ions or electrons) responsible for the decomposition of the volatile organic compounds. This paper will present results from basic experimental and theoretical studies aimed at identifying the reaction mechanisms responsible for the primary decomposition of various types of volatile organic compounds. (authors)

  1. Country-specific chemical signatures of persistent environmental compounds in breast milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krysiak-Baltyn, Konrad; Toppari, J.; Skakkebaek, N.E.

    2010-01-01

    for exposure of the foetus to such agents. Therefore, we undertook a comprehensive ecological study of 121 EDCs, including the persistent compounds dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), pesticides and flame retardants, and non-persistent phthalates, in 68 breast milk samples from Denmark and Finland...

  2. Speciation of organotin compounds in environmental samples by GC-ICPMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vahcic, M.; Milacic, R.; Scancar, J.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Analytical procedure using 15 m GC column was applied for simultaneous speciation of OTCs in various environmental samples. Methyl-, butyl-, phenyl- and octyl- tin species were quantitatively determined. different extraction reagents and conditions were studied. OTCs species were derivatized by NaBEt 4 and extracted into isooctane or hexane. The applied analytical procedure considerably shortened analytical time and enabled simultaneous determination of 12 OTCs in environmental samples. (author)

  3. Iron based superconductors and related compounds synthesized by solid state metathesis and high temperature reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frankovsky, Rainer

    2013-01-01

    The results of this thesis can be divided into three major topics, which can also be seen as different approaches of solid state chemistry to reveal interesting features of known and unknown compounds and to develop alternative synthesis routes. Firstly, known compounds with related structural motifs to the superconducting iron-arsenides were investigated regarding their structural and physical properties. In case of La 3 Pd 4 Ge 4 the influence of Fe doping on the properties was studied, whereas in the series ZrMAs (M=Ti,V) the physical properties have not yet been reported at all and were investigated for the first time. Secondly, an alternative synthesis route has been developed for the synthesis of superconducting LaFeAsO 1-x F x . This solid state metathesis reaction distinctly increased the quality of the samples compared to conventionally prepared products. Furthermore, the reaction pathway was investigated and clarified, which helps to understand the processes during high temperature solid state metathesis reactions in general. Thirdly, this alternative synthesis route was expanded to other systems and new compounds like co-substituted LaFe 1-x Mn x AsO 1-y F y were prepared and thoroughly investigated. This led to a complex study of the interplay of magnetism, electronic and structural conditions and the occurrence of superconducting properties. The investigation and understanding of such complex coherences will probably be decisive for the further understanding of the superconducting mechanism in iron based superconductors.

  4. [Airway metaplasia related to smoking and environmental pollution through sputum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferman-Cano, Floribel; Padilla-Santamaría, Fernando; Moreno-Venegas, Luis; Torner-Aguilar, Carlos Alejandro; Molina-Medina, Miguel Angel

    2018-01-01

    Both environmental pollution and smoking affect the respiratory epithelium, causing cellular adaptation changes. Therefore, this work explores the presence of metaplasia in smokers compared with non-smokers from Mexico City. A prospective cohort study was performed. The sample was performed through a home interview covering the five Mexico City zones delimited to the study and monitoring of air quality. We searched metaplastic cells and inflammation in sputum cytology stained with Papanicolaou technique, and we assessed the air quality in Mexico City. We calculated relative risk (RR) and attributable risk (AR) in relation to the presence of metaplasia and smoking. We performed 1897 home interviews obtaining a final sample of 30 participants. There were no significant differences between smokers and non-smokers with the presence of metaplastic cells (p = 0.269), although the association of metaplastic cells and inflammation showed a significant difference in the non-smokers group (p = 0.010). The RR in association with the presence of metaplasia in sputum cytology and smoking was 1.6, and the RA was 0.2. The air quality in this city has led the population to undergo changes of cellular adaptation in the respiratory epithelium by the simple fact of being exposed to environmental pollution. Metaplastic changes in non-smokers suggest strongly that pollution causes the same effect as smoking.

  5. A Relational Database Model and Tools for Environmental Sound Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuksel Arslan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Environmental sound recognition (ESR has become a hot topic in recent years. ESR is mainly based on machine learning (ML and ML algorithms require first a training database. This database must comprise the sounds to be recognized and other related sounds. An ESR system needs the database during training, testing and in the production stage. In this paper, we present the design and pilot establishment of a database which will assists all researchers who want to establish an ESR system. This database employs relational database model which is not used for this task before. We explain in this paper design and implementation details of the database, data collection and load process. Besides we explain the tools and developed graphical user interface for a desktop application and for the WEB.

  6. The orthorhombic fluorite related compounds Ln/sub 3/RuO/sub 7/, Ln=Nd, Sm and Eu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Berkel, F.P.F.; Ijdo, D.J.W.

    1986-01-01

    Fluorite-related Ru(V) compound with composition Ln/sub 3/RuO/sub 7/ have been found. These compounds with space group Cmcm adopt a superstructure of the cubic fluorite structure with a/sub orth/=2a/sub c/, b/sub orth/=c/sub orth/=a/sub c/√2. These compounds have the same structure as La/sub 3/NbO/sub 7/

  7. Identification of Systemic Acquired Resistance–Related Volatile Organic Compounds and their Role in Plant Immunity

    OpenAIRE

    Bichlmeier, Marlies

    2017-01-01

    Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) is an inducible immune response that depends on ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY1 (EDS1), which is essential for SAR signalling. In contrast to SAR, local resistance remains intact in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) eds1-2 mutant plants in response to Pseudomonas syringae delivering the effector protein AvrRpm1. I utilized the SAR-specific phenotype of the eds1-2 mutant to identify volatile organic compounds (VOCs) related to SAR. To this end, SAR was indu...

  8. Fentanyl-related compounds and derivatives: current status and future prospects for pharmaceutical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardanyan, Ruben S; Hruby, Victor J

    2014-01-01

    Fentanyl and its analogs have been mainstays for the treatment of severe to moderate pain for many years. In this review, we outline the structural and corresponding synthetic strategies that have been used to understand the structure–biological activity relationship in fentanyl-related compounds and derivatives and their biological activity profiles. We discuss how changes in the scaffold structure can change biological and pharmacological activities. Finally, recent efforts to design and synthesize novel multivalent ligands that act as mu and delta opioid receptors and NK-1 receptors are discussed. PMID:24635521

  9. Formation of radical anions of radiosensitizers and related model compounds via electrospray ionization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feketeová, Linda; Albright, Abigail L; Sørensen, Brita Singers

    2014-01-01

    Radiosensitizers are used in radiotherapy to enhance tumour control of radioresistant hypoxic tumours. While the detailed mechanism of radiosensitization is still unknown, the formation of radical anions is believed to be a key step. Thus understanding the ionization reactions of radiosensitizers......, misonidazole and related compounds using a hybrid linear ion trap – Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance mass spectrometer (Finnigan-LTQ-FT). A key finding is that negative electrospray ionization of these radiosensitizers leads to the formation of radical anions, allowing their fragmentation reactions...

  10. Correlation between stereochemistry and optical activity of chiral dimolybdenum tetracarboxylates and related compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klyagina, A.P.; Golovaneva, I.F.; Sadikova, G.G.

    1990-01-01

    Using one-electron model of optical activity sector rules for chiral tetracarboxylates of molybdenum and related compounds are derived. Correlation between the sign of the Cotton effect (CE) of δ-δ * -transition and stereochemistry of this type of binuclear clusters is expressed in the form of hexadecant rule, in which positive sign of CE corresponds to the negative sign of pseudoscalar function xyz(x 2 -y 2 ) of the cluster atoms. Negative sign of CE is predicted for δ-δ * -transition in cis-(L-isoleucine) 2 (NCS) 4 Mo 2

  11. Use of halide transport in epitaxial growth of InP and related compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somogyi, K. [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary). Research Inst. for Technical Physics

    1996-12-31

    In this paper methods and results in the InP (and related) growth practice are reviewed, classified and summarized on the basis of the recent literature. The aim is to show the present place and role of the halogen transport in the epitaxial growth. In the case of InP the importance of the classical hydride method is still high. Though MOVPE technique dominates in the case of growth of the compounds with In content, atomic layer epitaxy and selective area growth are successful with auxiliary application of the halogen transport. Chlorine assisted MOVPE has an increasing role.

  12. Heterocyclic Naphthalimides as New Skeleton Structure of Compounds with Increasingly Expanding Relational Medicinal Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Huo-Hui; Addla, Dinesh; Lv, Jing-Song; Zhou, Cheng-He

    2016-01-01

    Naphthalimide compounds are an important type of nitrogen-containing aromatic heterocycles with cyclic double imides and the naphthalene framework. This π-deficient large conjugated planar structure enables naphthalimide derivatives to readily interact with various biological cations, anions, small molecules and macromolecules such as DNAs, enzymes and recetors in living organism via noncovalent bonds, therefore exhibiting extensive potentiality in relatively medicinal applications. Currently, some naphthalimides as anticancer agents have entered into clinical trials and other naphthalimide-based medicinal developments as potential drugs for treatment of various diseases are actively and unprecedentedly expanding. Naphthalimide-derived artificial ion receptors, fluorescent probes and cell imaging agents are being overwhelmingly investigated and have a diversity of potential applications in real-time detecting ions and biomolecules, understanding biological processes and determining pharmacological and pharmacokinetic properties. All the above mentions have strongly implied that naphthalimide-based derivatives as new skeleton structure of compounds possess increasingly expanding relational medicinal applications, and the related research is becoming a quite attractive active topic and newly rising highlight. Combining with our research and referring other works from literature, this work systematically reviews the current research and development of heterocyclic naphthalimides as anticancer, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antidepressant agents as well as artificial cation and anion receptors, diagnostic agents and pathologic probes, and cell imaging agents for biologically important species. Some rational design strategies, structure-activity relationships and action mechanisms are discussed. The perspectives of the future development of naphthalimide-based medicinal chemistry are also presented.

  13. Health and taste related compounds in strawberries under various irrigation regimes and bio-stimulant application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapur, Burcak; Sarıdaş, Mehmet Ali; Çeliktopuz, Eser; Kafkas, Ebru; Paydaş Kargı, Sevgi

    2018-10-15

    Strawberry has a unique status within the fruit species in terms of health and taste related compounds. This experimental study concerned the application of a bio-stimulant at various drip irrigation levels (IR125, IR100, IR75 and IR50). The effects of the bio-stimulant (seaweed extract) on the eating quality, i.e., the taste-related (TSS, fructose, glucose, sucrose and citric, malic, l-ascorbic acid), and health-related (antioxidant activity, total phenol, myricetin and quercetin) compounds were studied in two strawberry cultivars. The 'Rubygem' with its higher sugar and lower acid content has been more preferable than the 'Kabarla' cultivar. The bio-stimulant contributes to taste by improving the TSS, fructose, sucrose and also to health by increasing the quercetin content of the fruit which is associated to the cardiovascular properties and cancer reducing agents. The experiment conducted revealed significant increases only in the TSS contents and antioxidant activity under the IR50 and IR75 deficit irrigation treatments. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Concentration and distribution of dioxins and related compounds in various human organs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iida, T.; Hirakawa, H.; Hori, T.; Tobiishi, K.; Matsueda, T. [Fukuoka Inst. of Health and Environmental Sciences, Dazaifu, Fukuoka (Japan); Todaka, T. [Japan Food Hygiene Association, Tokyo (Japan); Watanabe, S. [Tokyo Univ. of Agriculture, Tokyo (Japan); Yamada, T. [Keio Univ. School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and non-ortho coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (Non-Co-PCBs) and mono-ortho coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (Mono-Co-PCBs) accumulate in the human body due to their highly lipophilic properties. In recent years, there has been some concern about the potential health effects of dioxins and related chemicals for the general population of humans. Although there exists an enormous amount of data on this subject, most of it is from breast milk and blood, due to ease of collection; information concerning concentrations and distribution in various human organs hardly exists. Therefore, new data concerning various human tissues is required to evaluate the pathophysiological significance of dioxins and related compounds in humans. The aim of this study was to investigate the concentration levels and distribution of dioxins and related compounds in various human organ tissues. We previously reported on the concentration levels in the human liver and adipose tissues from 28 donors. In this paper, we determined the concentrations of dioxin-like isomers in 8 organs, including blood, lungs, liver, bile, spleen, pancreas, kidney and mesentery fat from 20 donors.

  15. Current trends in green liquid chromatography for the analysis of pharmaceutically active compounds in the environmental water compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaaban, Heba; Górecki, Tadeusz

    2015-01-01

    Green analytical chemistry is an aspect of green chemistry which introduced in the late nineties. The main objectives of green analytical chemistry are to obtain new analytical technologies or to modify an old method to incorporate procedures that use less hazardous chemicals. There are several approaches to achieve this goal such as using environmentally benign solvents and reagents, reducing the chromatographic separation times and miniaturization of analytical devices. Traditional methods used for the analysis of pharmaceutically active compounds require large volumes of organic solvents and generate large amounts of waste. Most of them are volatile and harmful to the environment. With the awareness about the environment, the development of green technologies has been receiving increasing attention aiming at eliminating or reducing the amount of organic solvents consumed everyday worldwide without loss in chromatographic performance. This review provides the state of the art of green analytical methodologies for environmental analysis of pharmaceutically active compounds in the aquatic environment with special emphasis on strategies for greening liquid chromatography (LC). The current trends of fast LC applied to environmental analysis, including elevated mobile phase temperature, as well as different column technologies such as monolithic columns, fully porous sub-2 μm and superficially porous particles are presented. In addition, green aspects of gas chromatography (GC) and supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) will be discussed. We pay special attention to new green approaches such as automation, miniaturization, direct analysis and the possibility of locating the chromatograph on-line or at-line as a step forward in reducing the environmental impact of chromatographic analyses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Occurrence and removal of volatile organic compounds (VOC) relative to water treatment plants in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soh Shiau Chian

    2005-01-01

    A solid phase micro extraction technique with determination analysis by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry detector (SPME-GC-MSD) to determine 54 volatile organic compounds (VOC) in drinking water was successfully developed. The optimal conditions lead to mean recoveries of 85 % with the relative standard deviation below 13 %. Limit of detection was ranged from 0.005 μg/ l to 1.121 μg/ l for all VOC. Upon consideration of the complete procedure from sample preparation to instrumental determination, the expanded uncertainty for all VOC under study was in the range of 1.056 to 2.952 μg/ l. The optimised SPME-GC-MSD method was used to determine distributions and occurence of VOC in drinking water for Peninsular Malaysia for one year and a specific study carried out in Semenyih Catchment and Semenyih River Water Treatment Plant. Results from the monitoring programme showed that concentration of VOC ranged from undetectable to 190.9 μg/ l. Chloroform has the highest concentration and was detected in all drinking water samples. Apart from trihalomethanes (THM), other abundant compounds detected were 1,2-dibromoethane, cis and trans-1,3-dichloropropene, 1,2,3-trichloropropane and benzene. This indicated the presence of VOC in drinking water and thus is required to be frequently monitored in order to ensure and maintain drinking water quality. Based on exposure risks assessment, results from this study showed that total cancer risks was the greatest for benzene, followed by 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane, 1,2-dibromomethane, chloroform and dichlorobromomethane. Nevertheless, after considering the frequency of detection factor and alteration of cancer risks that has been done, chloroform contributed the highest cancer risks among other VOC compounds. On a specific study in Semenyih Catchment, the declination of water quality in Semenyih River between 1990 and 2004 to a perturbing stage was due to urbanisation process and industrial growth. Apart from raw water

  17. Compounding Effects of Agricultural Land Use and Water Use in Free-Flowing Rivers: Confounding Issues for Environmental Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardie, Scott A.; Bobbi, Chris J.

    2018-03-01

    Defining the ecological impacts of water extraction from free-flowing river systems in altered landscapes is challenging as multiple stressors (e.g., flow regime alteration, increased sedimentation) may have simultaneous effects and attributing causality is problematic. This multiple-stressor context has been acknowledged in environmental flows science, but is often neglected when it comes to examining flow-ecology relationships, and setting and implementing environmental flows. We examined the impacts of land and water use on rivers in the upper Ringarooma River catchment in Tasmania (south-east Australia), which contains intensively irrigated agriculture, to support implementation of a water management plan. Temporal and spatial and trends in river condition were assessed using benthic macroinvertebrates as bioindicators. Relationships between macroinvertebrate community structure and environmental variables were examined using univariate and multivariate analyses, focusing on the impacts of agricultural land use and water use. Structural changes in macroinvertebrate communities in rivers in the catchment indicated temporal and spatial declines in the ecological condition of some stretches of river associated with agricultural land and water use. Moreover, water extraction appeared to exacerbate impairment associated with agricultural land use (e.g., reduced macroinvertebrate density, more flow-avoiding taxa). The findings of our catchment-specific bioassessments will underpin decision-making during the implementation of the Ringarooma water management plan, and highlight the need to consider compounding impacts of land and water use in environmental flows and water planning in agricultural landscapes.

  18. Compounding Effects of Agricultural Land Use and Water Use in Free-Flowing Rivers: Confounding Issues for Environmental Flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardie, Scott A; Bobbi, Chris J

    2018-03-01

    Defining the ecological impacts of water extraction from free-flowing river systems in altered landscapes is challenging as multiple stressors (e.g., flow regime alteration, increased sedimentation) may have simultaneous effects and attributing causality is problematic. This multiple-stressor context has been acknowledged in environmental flows science, but is often neglected when it comes to examining flow-ecology relationships, and setting and implementing environmental flows. We examined the impacts of land and water use on rivers in the upper Ringarooma River catchment in Tasmania (south-east Australia), which contains intensively irrigated agriculture, to support implementation of a water management plan. Temporal and spatial and trends in river condition were assessed using benthic macroinvertebrates as bioindicators. Relationships between macroinvertebrate community structure and environmental variables were examined using univariate and multivariate analyses, focusing on the impacts of agricultural land use and water use. Structural changes in macroinvertebrate communities in rivers in the catchment indicated temporal and spatial declines in the ecological condition of some stretches of river associated with agricultural land and water use. Moreover, water extraction appeared to exacerbate impairment associated with agricultural land use (e.g., reduced macroinvertebrate density, more flow-avoiding taxa). The findings of our catchment-specific bioassessments will underpin decision-making during the implementation of the Ringarooma water management plan, and highlight the need to consider compounding impacts of land and water use in environmental flows and water planning in agricultural landscapes.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of nanometer sized thermoelectric lead-antimony-silver-tellurium compounds and related materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petri, Denis

    2012-01-01

    The present dissertation deals with different variants of synthesis and processing of nanocrystalline composites of various thermoelectric compounds based on lead telluride including LAST-m (AgPb m SbTe m+2 ), LASTT-m-x (AgPb m-x Sn x SbTe m+2 ), LABST-m-x (AgPb m Sb 1-x Bi x Te m+2 ), doped LAST-m and (PbTe) m (M 15 2 Te 3 ) and the characterization thereof. A new route of manufacturing nanocrystalline composites was developed. The so called co-ball milling-route includes the synthesis of bi- or multinary compounds by conventional solid state melting methods followed by combined milling of appropriate amounts in a planetary ball mill; a process related to the widely used mechanical alloying of elemental powders. The as produced powders were shortly annealed for one hour and a.erwards compacted either at room temperature followed by pressureless sintering or combined application of high pressure and elevated temperatures via spark-plasma-sintering or short-term-sintering. The ball milling yielded micron-sized agglomerates consisting of crystallites with diameters ranging from 10 to 50 nm. These crystallites exhibited complicated internal nanostructures severe crystal defects as a consequence of the high energy processing. During short-term annealing some grain coarsening occured and the crystal defects partly healed, which was confirmed by TEM and HRTEM investigations as well as profile analysis of XRD powder pattern. Local EDX-analysis showed different compositions at every point as a consequence of synthesis and decomposition of the compounds. Measurements of thermopower, electrical and thermal conductivity were carried out and the values of the figure of merit ZT and the powerfactor were calculated. In general the compounds exhibited larger thermopower than corresponding bulk materials, which might be attributed to energy filtering of charge carriers at partly oxidized grain boundaries. Due to enhanced phonon scattering at grain boundarys, nanoscopic

  20. Relational Discrimination by Pigeons in a Go/No-Go Procedure with Compound Stimuli: A Methodological Note

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Heloisa Cursi; Debert, Paula; Barros, Romariz da Silva; McIlvane, William J.

    2011-01-01

    A go/no-go procedure with compound stimuli typically establishes emergent behavior that parallels in structure and typical outcome that of conventional tests for symmetric, transitive, and equivalence relations in normally capable adults. The present study employed a go/no-go compound stimulus procedure with pigeons. During training, pecks to…

  1. Meat-related compounds and colorectal cancer risk by anatomical subsite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Paige E; Lazarus, Philip; Lesko, Samuel M; Cross, Amanda J; Sinha, Rashmi; Laio, Jason; Zhu, Jay; Harper, Gregory; Muscat, Joshua E; Hartman, Terryl J

    2013-01-01

    Since meat may be involved in the etiology of colorectal cancer, associations between meat-related compounds were examined to elucidate underlying mechanisms in a population-based case-control study. Participants (989 cases/1,033 healthy controls) completed a food frequency questionnaire with a meat-specific module. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine associations between meat variables and colorectal cancer; polytomous logistic regression was used for subsite-specific analyses. The following significant positive associations were observed for meat-related compounds: 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (DiMeIQx) and colorectal, distal colon, and rectal tumors; 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) and colorectal and colon cancer tumors; nitrites/nitrates and proximal colon cancer; 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) and rectal cancer; and benzo[a]pyrene and rectal cancer (P-trends cancer and pan-fried red meat and colorectal cancer were found (P-trends cancer; and well-done/charred poultry and colorectal, colon, and proximal colon tumors (P-trends nitrates may be involved in colorectal cancer etiology. Further examination into the unexpected inverse associations between poultry and colorectal cancer is warranted.

  2. Meat-Related Compounds and Colorectal Cancer Risk by Anatomical Subsite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Paige E.; Lazarus, Philip; Lesko, Samuel M.; Cross, Amanda J.; Sinha, Rashmi; Laio, Jason; Zhu, Jay; Harper, Gregory; Muscat, Joshua E.; Hartman, Terryl J.

    2012-01-01

    Since meat may be involved in the etiology of colorectal cancer, associations between meat-related compounds were examined to elucidate underlying mechanisms in a population-based case-control study. Participants (989 cases/1,033 healthy controls) completed a food frequency questionnaire with a meat-specific module. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine associations between meat variables and colorectal cancer; polytomous logistic regression was used for subsite-specific analyses. The following significant positive associations were observed for meat-related compounds: 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (DiMeIQx) and colorectal, distal colon, and rectal tumors; 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) and colorectal and colon cancer tumors; nitrites/nitrates and proximal colon cancer; 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) and rectal cancer; and benzo[a]pyrene and rectal cancer (P-trends meat type, cooking method, and doneness preference, positive associations between red processed meat and proximal colon cancer and pan-fried red meat and colorectal cancer were found (P-trends nitrites, and nitrates may be involved in colorectal cancer etiology. Further examination into the unexpected inverse associations between poultry and colorectal cancer is warranted. PMID:23441608

  3. Reaction kinetics and transformation of carbadox and structurally related compounds with aqueous chlorine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Amisha D; Kim, Jae-Hong; Huang, Ching-Hua

    2006-12-01

    The potential release of carbadox (CDX), a commonly used antibacterial agent in swine husbandry, into water systems is of a concern due to its carcinogenic and genotoxic effects. Until this study, the reactivity of carbadox (possessing quinoxaline N,N'-dioxide and hydrazone moieties) toward aqueous chlorine has yetto be investigated in depth. Chemical reactivity, reaction kinetics, and transformation pathways of carbadox and structurally related compounds with free chlorine under typical water treatment conditions were determined. This study found that only CDX and desoxycarbadox (DCDX), a main metabolite of CDX with no ring N-oxide groups, react rapidly with free chlorine while other structurally related compounds including olaquindox, quindoxin, quinoxaline N-oxide, quinoxaline, and quinoline N-oxide do not. The reaction kinetics of CDX and DCDX with chlorine are highly pH dependent (e.g., the apparent second-order rate constant, kapp, for CDX ranges from 51.8 to 3.15 x 10(4) M(-1)s(-1) at pH 4-11). The high reactivity of CDX and DCDX to chlorine involves deprotonation of their hydrazone N-H moieties where initial chlorine attack results in a reactive intermediate that is further attacked by nucleophiles in the matrix to yield non-chlorinated, hydroxylated, and larger molecular weight byproducts. All of the CDX's byproducts retain their biologically active N-oxide groups, suggesting that they may remain as active antibacterial agents.

  4. Inventory of environmental impact models related to energy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, P.T.; Dailey, N.S.; Johnson, C.A.; Martin, F.M. (eds.)

    1979-02-01

    The purpose of this inventory is to identify and collect data on computer simulations and computational models related to the environmental effects of energy source development, energy conversion, or energy utilization. Information for 33 data fields was sought for each model reported. All of the information which could be obtained within the time alloted for completion of the project is presented for each model listed. Efforts will be continued toward acquiring the needed information. Readers who are interested in these particular models are invited to contact ESIC for assistance in locating them. In addition to the standard bibliographic information, other data fields of interest to modelers, such as computer hardware and software requirements, algorithms, applications, and existing model validation information, are included. Indexes are provided for contact person, acronym, keyword, and title. The models are grouped into the following categories: atmospheric transport, air quality, aquatic transport, terrestrial food chains, soil transport, aquatic food chains, water quality, dosimetry, and human effects, animal effects, plant effects, and generalized environmental transport. Within these categories, the models are arranged alphabetically by last name of the contact person.

  5. Inventory of environmental impact models related to energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, P.T.; Dailey, N.S.; Johnson, C.A.; Martin, F.M.

    1979-02-01

    The purpose of this inventory is to identify and collect data on computer simulations and computational models related to the environmental effects of energy source development, energy conversion, or energy utilization. Information for 33 data fields was sought for each model reported. All of the information which could be obtained within the time alloted for completion of the project is presented for each model listed. Efforts will be continued toward acquiring the needed information. Readers who are interested in these particular models are invited to contact ESIC for assistance in locating them. In addition to the standard bibliographic information, other data fields of interest to modelers, such as computer hardware and software requirements, algorithms, applications, and existing model validation information, are included. Indexes are provided for contact person, acronym, keyword, and title. The models are grouped into the following categories: atmospheric transport, air quality, aquatic transport, terrestrial food chains, soil transport, aquatic food chains, water quality, dosimetry, and human effects, animal effects, plant effects, and generalized environmental transport. Within these categories, the models are arranged alphabetically by last name of the contact person

  6. 78 FR 18562 - Economic and Environmental Principles and Guidelines for Water and Related Land Resources...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-27

    ... COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY Economic and Environmental Principles and Guidelines for Water... the Army to revise the ``Economic and Environmental Principles and Guidelines for Water and Related... Army to revise the ``Economic and Environmental Principles and Guidelines for Water and Related Land...

  7. 32 CFR 536.35 - Unique issues related to environmental claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Unique issues related to environmental claims... issues related to environmental claims. Claims for property damage, personal injury, or death arising in... reported by USARCS to the Environmental Law Division of the Army Litigation Center and the Environmental...

  8. Trend of environmental radiation protection and its current related studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Satoshi

    2011-01-01

    Reviewed are the international trend of environmental radiation protection (ERP), Japanese studies of radiation effects on environmental livings from aspects of ecosystem to molecular level, and the future view. ERP is particularly closed up toward promotion after its first involvement in the general global conference, UN Conference on Environment and Development (1992). International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP) has conducted such actions for the environment as establishing protection essentials for non-human species (2003), organizing Committee 5 (2005), and defining Reference Animals and Plants (2008) where Derived Consideration Reference Levels of 0.1-100 mGy/d are proposed, together with cooperative actions by United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)/Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) and European projects. Japanese NIRS is now enrolled in the project of Environmental Modeling for Radiation Safety-II (IAEA). Major Japanese studies of radiation effects on environmental livings have utilized killifish (medaka: Oryzias latipes), springtail, earthworm, nematode, cultured plant cell (cedar), poplar, etc. Studies of the radiation effect on microcosm consisting of 3 livings have led to establishing a model for mathematical analysis and of 8 livings, have defined 50% affect dose of 5600 Gy gamma-ray. Irradiation of gamma-ray at 1 Gy/d for 5-10 days to the soil has been shown to result in alteration of the composition of natural earth bacterial population by denaturant gradient gel electrophoresis, which being a promising tool for evaluating the alteration of soil composition and function. At molecular levels, transcriptome analysis of various cells from yeast to man, is performed after irradiation of gamma-ray, neutron, heavy particles and others to reveal radiation-induced gene expression; and Hi-CEP (high

  9. Unscrambling cyanobacteria community dynamics related to environmental factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mireia eBertos-Fortis

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Future climate scenarios in the Baltic Sea project an increase of cyanobacterial bloom frequency and duration, attributed to eutrophication and climate change. Some cyanobacteria can be toxic and their impact on ecosystem services is relevant for a sustainable sea. Yet, there is limited understanding of the mechanisms regulating cyanobacterial diversity and biogeography. Here we unravel successional patterns and changes in cyanobacterial community structure using a two-year monthly time-series during the productive season in a 100 km coastal-offshore transect using microscopy and high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragments. A total of 565 cyanobacterial OTUs were found, of which 231 where filamentous/colonial and 334 picocyanobacterial. Spatial differences in community structure between coastal and offshore waters were minor. An epidemic population structure (dominance of a single cluster was found for Aphanizomenon/Dolichospermum within the filamentous/colonial cyanobacterial community. In summer, this cluster simultaneously occurred with opportunistic clusters/OTUs e.g. Nodularia spumigena and Pseudanabaena. Picocyanobacteria, Synechococcus/Cyanobium, formed a consistent but highly diverse group. Overall, the potential drivers structuring summer cyanobacterial communities were temperature and salinity. However, the different responses to environmental factors among and within genera suggest high niche specificity for individual OTUs. The recruitment and occurrence of potentially toxic filamentous/colonial clusters was likely related to disturbance such as mixing events and short-term shifts in salinity, and not solely dependent on increasing temperature and nitrogen-limiting conditions. Nutrients did not explain further the changes in cyanobacterial community composition. Novel occurrence patterns were identified as a strong seasonal succession revealing a tight coupling between the emergence of opportunistic picocyanobacteria and

  10. Existence of carcinine, a histamine-related compound, in mammalian tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flancbaum, L.; Brotman, D.N.; Fitzpatrick, J.C.; Van Es, Theodorus; Kasziba, E.; Fisher, H.

    1990-01-01

    Carcinine (β-alanylhistamine) was synthesized in vitro from histamine and β-alanine. It was detected quantitatively using an HPLC method previously described for the quantification of the related compounds histamine, histidine, carnosine and 3-methylhistamine. Carcinine was identified in several tissues of the rat, guinea pig, mouse and human, and was then shown to be metabolically related in vivo to histamine, histidine, carnosine and 3-methylhistamine through radioisotopic labeling. The results demonstrate that carcinine may be concurrently quantitated using the same HPLC method as that used to measure histamine, histidine, carnosine and 3-methylhistamine. These findings suggest a role for carcinine in the carnosine-histidine-histamine metabolic pathway and the mammalian physiologic response to stress

  11. Review: Groundwater resources and related environmental issues in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Aibing; Zhang, Yilong; Zhang, Eryong; Li, Zhenghong; Yu, Juan; Wang, Huang; Yang, Jianfeng; Wang, Yao

    2018-05-01

    As an important component of water resources, groundwater plays a crucial role in water utilization in China and an irreplaceable role in supporting economic and social development, especially in the northern arid and semi-arid plains and basin areas, which are densely populated and relatively short of surface-water resources. This paper comprehensively reviews and discusses the regional hydrogeological conditions, the temporal and spatial distribution of groundwater, the groundwater quality, and the actuality of groundwater exploitation and utilization in China. Meanwhile, aiming at the environmental problems induced by overexploitation to meet the sharply increasing water demand, this paper puts forward the major tasks for the next few years in terms of groundwater exploitation control, conservation and management.

  12. Experiments related to marine environmental science using a tandem Pelletron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, A.; Hamamoto, S.; Ohtani, Y.; Furuyama, Y.; Taniike, A.; Kubota, N.; Yamauchi, T.; Mimura, H.

    2003-01-01

    Activities related to marine environmental science, which have been made in our laboratory using a 1.7MV Pelletron 5SDH2 accelerator, are reviewed. One is successful application of proton beams to radiation-induced graft polymerization for making amidoxime-type adsorbents that are very effective for collecting doubly charged ions of metal elements, such as uranium and vanadium, abundantly dissolved in seawater. The other is effective application of accelerator analyses to investigation of interaction of tributyltin (TBT) chloride, which had been used in self-polishing antifouling paints and are endocrine disrupter having mutagenicity, with a TBT resistant marine microorganism newly isolated from sediment of a ship's ballast water tank. (author)

  13. Assessment of elements in coal related to environmental concern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diah Dwiana Lestiani; Muhayatun Santoso; Natalia Adventini

    2010-01-01

    National energy consumption increases rapidly in line with the economic growth and population. Indonesian government plans to develop electrical power plant 10 000 MW program to anticipate this matter, first step of which is focused on coal power plant. In this study, coal combustion was assessed on its environmental impact. Determination of trace and toxic elements was applied by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Samples were irradiated in Rabbit System at GA Siwabessy, Serpong, in reactor with neutron flux ~10 13 n.cm -2 .s -1 , then counted using HPGe detector. The method was validated by analysis of standard reference material NIST SRM 1633b coal fly ash. The results showed that Al and Cr concentrations were 2.1 0±0.80 and 7.63±1.45 mg/kg, respectively, and other elements such as Al, Co, Cs, Ce, Fe, K, La, Mn, Na, Sc, Sm, Ti, and V were still in the range of those in other world coals. Comparison the elements in coal with the elements in fly ash and bottom ash for relative enrichment index, mass balance calculation and mass flow estimation using assumption was also carried out to estimate the total emission estimation related the environmental concerned elements. The total emission of As, Co and Cr were in the range of 0.84-2.28 kg/day or equivalent to 0.49-1.23 % of total elemental mass content in coal. This also indicated that these elements were captured 98-99 % before released to the environment. (author)

  14. Effect of the waste products storage on the environmental pollution by toxic organic compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Lewkiewicz-Małysa

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available A permanent deposition of industrial wastes is a method of its neutralization. A storage yard for toxic materials must meet specific site and construction conditions. The storage place region of toxic organic waste materials has to be monitored. The environmental impact of this waste on the groundwater quality, especially the migration of persistent organic pollutants, was discussed on the example of a chemical plant.

  15. Positron Annihilation Studies of High-Temperature Superconductors and Related Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayner, Simon

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. The work described in this thesis is concerned with the study of the electronic structure of the high T_{c} superconductor YBa _2Cu_3O _7 and related oxide compounds using the technique of two dimensional angular correlation of annihilation radiation. These compounds differ widely in their physical properties, ranging from materials such as nickel oxide, which is an insulator, to YBa_2Cu _3O_7 or ReO _3 which are superconducting over a certain temperature range. We have studied some of these compounds with a view to clarifying whether YBa _2Cu_3O_7 possessed a Fermi surface. The numerous theories that have been proposed to explain the observed superconducting phase of these materials can be classified into two main groups. The theories in the first group predict the existence of a quasi two dimensional Fermi surface whereas the remaining models do not but are based on an approach similar to that used to explain the observed electronic structure of the transition monoxides. The data obtained from our study of NiO, CoO and twinned crystals of YBa_2Cu _3O_7 was of low statistics and it was not possible to deduce anything of significance. However, we were able to deduce that, consistent with the predictions of theory, the positron was preferentially annihilating on the copper-oxygen chains. The data obtained from our measurement on untwinned crystals of YBa_2Cu_3 O_7 was of much higher statistics and we found one of clearest imaginable manifestations of a Fermi surface in the form of a ridge in the anisotropy of our data. The ridge is even more apparent in the LCW -folded spectra. The form and profile of the ridge are in substantial agreement with the theoretical predictions of a Gamma-X electron ridge section from the Cu-O chains.

  16. Wine phenolic compounds influence the production of volatile phenols by wine-related lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, I; Campos, F M; Hogg, T; Couto, J A

    2011-08-01

    To evaluate the effect of wine phenolic compounds on the production of volatile phenols (4-vinylphenol [4VP] and 4-ethylphenol [4EP]) from the metabolism of p-coumaric acid by lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus collinoides and Pediococcus pentosaceus were grown in MRS medium supplemented with p-coumaric acid, in the presence of different phenolic compounds: nonflavonoids (hydroxycinnamic and benzoic acids) and flavonoids (flavonols and flavanols). The inducibility of the enzymes involved in the p-coumaric acid metabolism was studied in resting cells. The hydroxycinnamic acids tested stimulated the capacity of LAB to synthesize volatile phenols. Growth in the presence of hydroxycinnamic acids, especially caffeic acid, induced the production of 4VP by resting cells. The hydroxybenzoic acids did not significantly affect the behaviour of the studied strains. Some of the flavonoids showed an effect on the production of volatile phenols, although strongly dependent on the bacterial species. Relatively high concentrations (1 g l(-1) ) of tannins inhibited the synthesis of 4VP by Lact. plantarum. Hydroxycinnamic acids were the main compounds stimulating the production of volatile phenols by LAB. The results suggest that caffeic and ferulic acids induce the synthesis of the cinnamate decarboxylase involved in the metabolism of p-coumaric acid. On the other hand, tannins exert an inhibitory effect. This study highlights the capacity of LAB to produce volatile phenols and that this activity is markedly influenced by the phenolic composition of the medium. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  17. Environmental influences on neural systems of relational complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Layne eKalbfleisch

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Constructivist learning theory contends that we construct knowledge by experience and that environmental context influences learning. To explore this principle, we examined the cognitive process relational complexity (RC, defined as the number of visual dimensions considered during problem solving on a matrix reasoning task and a well-documented measure of mature reasoning capacity. We sought to determine how the visual environment influences RC by examining the influence of color and visual contrast on RC in a neuroimaging task. To specify the contributions of sensory demand and relational integration to reasoning, our participants performed a non-verbal matrix task comprised of color, no-color line, or black-white visual contrast conditions parametrically varied by complexity (relations 0, 1, 2. The use of matrix reasoning is ecologically valid for its psychometric relevance and for its potential to link the processing of psychophysically specific visual properties with various levels of relational complexity during reasoning. The role of these elements is important because matrix tests assess intellectual aptitude based on these seemingly context-less exercises. This experiment is a first step toward examining the psychophysical underpinnings of performance on these types of problems. The importance of this is increased in light of recent evidence that intelligence can be linked to visual discrimination. We submit three main findings. First, color and black-white visual contrast add demand at a basic sensory level, but contributions from color and from black-white visual contrast are dissociable in cortex such that color engages a reasoning heuristic and black-white visual contrast engages a sensory heuristic. Second, color supports contextual sense-making by boosting salience resulting in faster problem solving. Lastly, when visual complexity reaches 2-relations, color and visual contrast relinquish salience to other dimensions of problem

  18. 77 FR 59875 - Environmental Impact and Related Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... repair project that do not typically involve significant environmental impacts. Specifically, the FHWA... damaged facility to address concerns such as safety and environmental impacts. The agencies also seek... kinds of projects and activities described in this paragraph and the environmental impacts of such...

  19. Elucidation of endocrine disrupting mechanism of dioxin and related compounds for health risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tohyama, Chiharu [National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    The important point on health risk assessment for dioxins as well as environmental endocrine disruptors is that we should scientifically evaluate whether the actual exposure level from food and environment may pose a threat to human health not only for the present but also for the future generations. We formulated a research project, called CREST project with support from the Japan Science and Technology Agency, in order to obtain experimental evidence for risk assessment as well as for the mechanism of toxicity. We thus investigated the dose-response relationships of certain 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-pdioxin (TCDD)-like compounds for eliciting various endpoints. First, we administered TCDD or coplanar polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) to rats and mice during the sensitive period from fertilization to birth. Second, we studied what kinds of adverse effects could be observed in terms of reproductive/developmental effects, cognitive/learning abilities and immune functions. Third, we focused on the actual toxicity phenotypes found at the whole body and organ/tissue levels by a forward toxicology approach, and tried to narrow down appropriate phenomena, to study the mechanism on the molecular basis by the reverse toxicology approach. In this presentation, I will summarize the outcome of the CREST project.

  20. Impact of phenolic compounds and related enzymes in Sorghum varieties for resistance and susceptibility to biotic and abiotic stresses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dicko, M.H.; Gruppen, H.; Barro, C.; Traore, A.S.; Berkel, van W.J.H.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2005-01-01

    Contents of phenolic compounds and related enzymes before and after sorghum grain germination were compared between varieties either resistant or susceptible to biotic (sooty stripe, sorghum midge, leaf anthracnose, striga, and grain molds) and abiotic (lodging, drought resistance, and photoperiod

  1. Electronic structures of melatonin and related compounds studied by photoelectron spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Kubota, M

    2003-01-01

    Melatonin is a hormone structurally regarded as being composed of a 5-methoxyindole group and an N-ethylacetamide group; its various physiological activities have attracted a great deal of attention recently. The gas phase He(I) photoelectron spectra of melatonin (M) and its related compounds including N-acetylserotonin have been studied with the aid of molecular orbital calculations. The first photoelectron spectral band group of compound M is ascribed to ionizations from the two pi orbitals localized on the methoxyindole group. The second band group is quite complicated and is regarded as being composed of several bands. The lower energy part of the second band group is ascribed to the three orbitals relevant to the third highest occupied pi orbital of 5-methoxyindole and the highest occupied pi and the n sub C sub = sub 0 orbitals of N-ethylacetamide. The interactions among the three orbitals have been found to operate on the basis of the molecular orbital calculations; these interactions depend strongly o...

  2. Electronic structures of melatonin and related compounds studied by photoelectron spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubota, Mari. E-mail: marik@hc.cc.keio.ac.jp; Kobayashi, Tsunetoshi

    2003-02-01

    Melatonin is a hormone structurally regarded as being composed of a 5-methoxyindole group and an N-ethylacetamide group; its various physiological activities have attracted a great deal of attention recently. The gas phase He(I) photoelectron spectra of melatonin (M) and its related compounds including N-acetylserotonin have been studied with the aid of molecular orbital calculations. The first photoelectron spectral band group of compound M is ascribed to ionizations from the two {pi} orbitals localized on the methoxyindole group. The second band group is quite complicated and is regarded as being composed of several bands. The lower energy part of the second band group is ascribed to the three orbitals relevant to the third highest occupied {pi} orbital of 5-methoxyindole and the highest occupied {pi} and the n{sub C=0} orbitals of N-ethylacetamide. The interactions among the three orbitals have been found to operate on the basis of the molecular orbital calculations; these interactions depend strongly on the conformations. The high energy end of the second band group is relevant to the {pi} orbital mainly localized on the 5-methoxyindole group and is ascribed to the fourth highest occupied {pi} orbital of 5-methoxyindole.

  3. Electronic structures of melatonin and related compounds studied by photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Mari.; Kobayashi, Tsunetoshi

    2003-01-01

    Melatonin is a hormone structurally regarded as being composed of a 5-methoxyindole group and an N-ethylacetamide group; its various physiological activities have attracted a great deal of attention recently. The gas phase He(I) photoelectron spectra of melatonin (M) and its related compounds including N-acetylserotonin have been studied with the aid of molecular orbital calculations. The first photoelectron spectral band group of compound M is ascribed to ionizations from the two π orbitals localized on the methoxyindole group. The second band group is quite complicated and is regarded as being composed of several bands. The lower energy part of the second band group is ascribed to the three orbitals relevant to the third highest occupied π orbital of 5-methoxyindole and the highest occupied π and the n C=0 orbitals of N-ethylacetamide. The interactions among the three orbitals have been found to operate on the basis of the molecular orbital calculations; these interactions depend strongly on the conformations. The high energy end of the second band group is relevant to the π orbital mainly localized on the 5-methoxyindole group and is ascribed to the fourth highest occupied π orbital of 5-methoxyindole

  4. Atmospheric emissions in metropolitan France: compounds related to the increase of the greenhouse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This report presents and comments statistical data and indicators on emissions of compounds involved in the greenhouse effect: carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), methane (CH 4 ), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), hydro-fluorocarbon compounds (HFCs), per-fluorocarbon compounds (PFCs), sulphur hexafluoride (SF 6 ). For these compounds, the report indicates and comments world and French emission data, their evolution, and the shares of different sectors and their evolutions. It also comments the evolution of the global warming potential (GWP)

  5. Role of management strategies and environmental factors in determining the emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds from urban greenspaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yuan; Ge, Ying; Gu, Baojing; Min, Yong; Tani, Akira; Chang, Jie

    2014-06-03

    Biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions from urban greenspace have recently become a global concern. To identify key factors affecting the dynamics of urban BVOC emissions, we built an estimation model and utilized the city of Hangzhou in southeastern China as an example. A series of single-factor scenarios were first developed, and then nine multifactor scenarios using a combination of different single-factor scenarios were built to quantify the effects of environmental changes and urban management strategies on urban BVOC emissions. Results of our model simulations showed that (1) annual total BVOC emissions from the metropolitan area of Hangzhou were 4.7×10(8) g of C in 2010 and were predicted to be 1.2-3.2 Gg of C (1 Gg=10(9) g) in our various scenarios in 2050, (2) urban management played a more important role in determining future urban BVOC emissions than environmental changes, and (3) a high ecosystem service value (e.g., lowest BVOC/leaf mass ratio) could be achieved through positive coping in confronting environmental changes and adopting proactive urban management strategies on a local scale, that is, to moderately increase tree density while restricting excessive greenspace expansion and optimizing the species composition of existing and newly planted trees.

  6. Leading product-related environmental performance indicators: a selection guide and database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Issa, Isabela I.; Pigosso, Daniela Cristina Antelmi; McAloone, Tim C.

    2015-01-01

    Ecodesign is a proactive environmental management and improvement approach employed in the product development process, which aims to minimize the environmental impacts caused during a product's life cycle and thus improve its environmental performance. The establishment of measurable environmental...... in the selection and application of environmental performance indicators - a more structured approach is still lacking. This paper presents the efforts made to identify and systematize existing leading product-related environmental performance indicators, based on a systematic literature review, and to develop...

  7. Tyrphostin AG-related compounds attenuate H2O2-induced TRPM2-dependent and -independent cellular responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Shinichiro; Toda, Takahiro; Yonezawa, Ryo; Negoro, Takaharu; Shimizu, Shunichi

    2017-05-01

    TRPM2 is a Ca 2+ -permeable channel that is activated by H 2 O 2 . TRPM2-mediated Ca 2+ signaling has been implicated in the aggravation of inflammatory diseases. Therefore, the development of TRPM2 inhibitors to prevent the aggravation of these diseases is expected. We recently reported that some Tyrphostin AG-related compounds inhibited the H 2 O 2 -induced activation of TRPM2 by scavenging the intracellular hydroxyl radical. In the present study, we examined the effects of AG-related compounds on H 2 O 2 -induced cellular responses in human monocytic U937 cells, which functionally express TRPM2. The effects of AG-related compounds on H 2 O 2 -induced changes in intracellular Ca 2+ concentrations, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation, and CXCL8 secretion were assessed using U937 cells. Ca 2+ influxes via TRPM2 in response to H 2 O 2 were blocked by AG-related compounds. AG-related compounds also inhibited the H 2 O 2 -induced activation of ERK, and subsequent secretion of CXCL8 mediated by TRPM2-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Our results show that AG-related compounds inhibit H 2 O 2 -induced CXCL8 secretion following ERK activation, which is mediated by TRPM2-dependent and -independent mechanisms in U937 cells. We previously reported that AG-related compounds blocked H 2 O 2 -induced TRPM2 activation by scavenging the hydroxyl radical. The inhibitory effects of AG-related compounds on TRPM2-independent responses may be due to scavenging of the hydroxyl radical. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Lead: Aspects of its ecology and environmental toxicity. [physiological effects of lead compound contamination of environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, S. M.

    1973-01-01

    An analysis of lead toxicity in the Hawaiian environment was conducted. It was determined that lead enters the environment as an industrial contaminant resulting from the combustion of leaded gasoline. The amount of lead absorbed by the plants in various parts of the Hawaiian Islands is reported. The disposition of lead in the sediments of canals and yacht basins was investigated. The methods for conducting the surveys of lead content are described. Possible consequences of continued environmental pollution by burning leaded gasoline are discussed.

  9. Occurrence of pharmaceutical compounds in urban wastewater: Removal, mass load and environmental risk after a secondary treatment—A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verlicchi, P.; Al Aukidy, M.; Zambello, E.

    2012-01-01

    This review focuses on 118 pharmaceuticals, belonging to seventeen different therapeutic classes, detected in raw urban wastewater and effluent from an activated sludge system, a usual treatment adopted for urban wastewaters worldwide prior to final discharge into surface water bodies. Data pertaining to 244 conventional activated sludge systems and 20 membrane biological reactors are analysed and the observed ranges of variability of each selected compound in their influent and effluent reported, with particular reference to the substances detected most frequently and in higher concentrations. A snapshot of the ability of these systems to remove such compounds is provided by comparing their global removal efficiencies for each substance. Where possible, the study then evaluates the average daily mass load of the majority of detected pharmaceuticals exiting the secondary treatment step. The final part of the review provides an assessment of the environmental risk posed by their presence in the secondary effluent by means of the risk quotient that is the ratio between the average pharmaceutical concentration measured in the secondary effluent and the predicted no-effect concentration. Finally, mass load rankings of the compounds under review are compared with those based on their risk level. This analysis shows that the highest amounts discharged through secondary effluent pertain to one antihypertensive, and several beta-blockers and analgesics/anti-inflammatories, while the highest risk is posed by antibiotics and several psychiatric drugs and analgesics/anti-inflammatories. These results are reported with a view to aiding scientists and administrators in planning measures aiming to reduce the impact of treated urban wastewater discharge into surface water bodies. - Highlights: ► The review refers to 118 pharmaceuticals occurring in raw and treated wastewaters. ► Data from 264 municipal WWTPs with a CAS or an MBR were analysed. ► The removal rates achieved

  10. Occurrence of pharmaceutical compounds in urban wastewater: Removal, mass load and environmental risk after a secondary treatment-A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verlicchi, P., E-mail: paola.verlicchi@unife.it [Dept. of Engineering, University of Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, I-44122 Ferrara (Italy); Terra and AcquaTech Technopoles, Via Borsari 46, I-44121 Ferrara (Italy); Al Aukidy, M., E-mail: mustafakether.alaukidi@unife.it [Dept. of Engineering, University of Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, I-44122 Ferrara (Italy); Zambello, E., E-mail: elena.zambello@unife.it [Dept. of Engineering, University of Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, I-44122 Ferrara (Italy); Terra and AcquaTech Technopoles, Via Borsari 46, I-44121 Ferrara (Italy)

    2012-07-01

    This review focuses on 118 pharmaceuticals, belonging to seventeen different therapeutic classes, detected in raw urban wastewater and effluent from an activated sludge system, a usual treatment adopted for urban wastewaters worldwide prior to final discharge into surface water bodies. Data pertaining to 244 conventional activated sludge systems and 20 membrane biological reactors are analysed and the observed ranges of variability of each selected compound in their influent and effluent reported, with particular reference to the substances detected most frequently and in higher concentrations. A snapshot of the ability of these systems to remove such compounds is provided by comparing their global removal efficiencies for each substance. Where possible, the study then evaluates the average daily mass load of the majority of detected pharmaceuticals exiting the secondary treatment step. The final part of the review provides an assessment of the environmental risk posed by their presence in the secondary effluent by means of the risk quotient that is the ratio between the average pharmaceutical concentration measured in the secondary effluent and the predicted no-effect concentration. Finally, mass load rankings of the compounds under review are compared with those based on their risk level. This analysis shows that the highest amounts discharged through secondary effluent pertain to one antihypertensive, and several beta-blockers and analgesics/anti-inflammatories, while the highest risk is posed by antibiotics and several psychiatric drugs and analgesics/anti-inflammatories. These results are reported with a view to aiding scientists and administrators in planning measures aiming to reduce the impact of treated urban wastewater discharge into surface water bodies. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The review refers to 118 pharmaceuticals occurring in raw and treated wastewaters. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Data from 264 municipal WWTPs with a CAS or an

  11. The action of sennosides and related compounds on human colon and rectum 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardcastle, J. D.; Wilkins, J. L.

    1970-01-01

    The direct action of intraluminal senna and related compounds on the human colon and rectum has been investigated. Motility was recorded by balloon kymography with recording units inserted into well established transverse colostomies or into the rectum. The motility of the colon was not changed by intraluminal senna glycosides but the introduction of senna previously incubated with faeces or Esch. coli stimulated the colon to peristalt. The peristalsis was similar to that stimulated by rheinanthrone, an oxanthrone produced by chemical hydrolysis and reduction of senna. Both activated senna and rheinanthrone appeared to act in the colon by contact stimulation. No peristaltic response was stimulated in the rectum, either with activated senna or with rheinanthrone. PMID:4929273

  12. Spectroscopy and photophysics of flavin related compounds: Riboflavin and iso-(6,7)-riboflavin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikorska, Ewa; Khmelinskii, Igor; Komasa, Anna; Koput, Jacek; Ferreira, Luis F.V.; Herance, Jose R.; Bourdelande, Jose L.; Williams, Sian L.; Worrall, David R.; Insinska-Rak, MaIgorzata; Sikorski, Marek

    2005-01-01

    The photochemistry and photophysics of isoalloxazines (10-substituted 2,3,4,10-tetrahydro-benzo[g]pteridine-2,4-diones), and especially flavins (7,8-dimethyl substituted isoalloxazines), are of considerable interest due to the biological relevance of these compounds. In this paper we report data concerning the photophysics of riboflavin and iso-(6,7)-riboflavin (10-(2,3,4,5-tetrahydroxypentyl)-6,7-dimethylbenzo[g]pteridine-2,4(3H,10H) -dione), and correlate the spectroscopic observations with theoretical calculations performed using time-dependent density functional theory. On the basis of these calculations the lowest excited singlet and triplet states are both assigned (π,π*) symmetry, and this result is used to explain the relatively low singlet oxygen quantum yields in comparison with alloxazines. Time-resolved emission studies have indicated 6,7-dimethylalloxazine a photodegradation product of iso-(6,7)-riboflavin

  13. The development of the superconducting tetragonal PbO-type FeSe and related compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, M.K. [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Nankang, Taipei (China); Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu (China); Yeh, K.W.; Huang, T.W.; Chen, T.K.; Luo, J.Y.; Ke, C.T.; Rao, S.M.D. [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Nankang, Taipei (China); Hsu, H.C.; Wang, M.J. [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, Taipei (China); Chang, H.H. [Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu (China); Moh, M.H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu (China)

    2010-03-15

    An overview of the recent development of the superconducting FeSe{sub 1-x} and related compounds is presented. Methods to synthesize high purity poly-crystalline samples, single crystals, and thin films with preferred orientation are described. It was found that the effects of chemical doping to the Se-site or Fe-site are rather different. Ionic size of the doping is found to play critical role on the occurrence of superconductivity. We also review the physical properties, including transport, magnetic, and thermal properties. There exist interesting transport anomalies in the resistivity and Hall coefficient at low temperature; and it was found that a structural distortion at low temperature is critical to the occurrence of superconductivity in these materials. However, the exact origin of these observed anomalies are not clear, and the exact pairing symmetry in FeSe-based superconductors is also still in question. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  14. Surface Floating 2D Bands in Layered Nonsymmorphic Semimetals: ZrSiS and Related Compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Topp, Andreas; Queiroz, Raquel; Grüneis, Andreas; Müchler, Lukas; Rost, Andreas W.; Varykhalov, Andrei; Marchenko, Dmitry; Krivenkov, Maxim; Rodolakis, Fanny; McChesney, Jessica L.; Lotsch, Bettina V.; Schoop, Leslie M.; Ast, Christian R.

    2017-12-01

    In this work, we present a model of the surface states of nonsymmorphic semimetals. These are derived from surface mass terms that lift the high degeneracy imposed in the band structure by the nonsymmorphic bulk symmetries. Reflecting the reduced symmetry at the surface, the bulk bands are strongly modified. This leads to the creation of two-dimensional floating bands, which are distinct from Shockley states, quantum well states or topologically protected surface states. We focus on the layered semimetal ZrSiS to clarify the origin of its surface states. We demonstrate an excellent agreement between DFT calculations and ARPES measurements and present an effective four-band model in which similar surface bands appear. Finally, we emphasize the role of the surface chemical potential by comparing the surface density of states in samples with and without potassium coating. Our findings can be extended to related compounds and generalized to other crystals with nonsymmorphic symmetries.

  15. The binding of aluminum to mugineic acid and related compounds as studied by potentiometric titration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Etsuro; Kohdr, Hicham; Mori, Satoshi; Hider, Robert C

    2011-08-01

    The phytosiderophores, mugineic acid (MA) and epi-hydroxymugineic acid (HMA), together with a related compound, nicotianamine (NA), were investigated for their ability to bind Al(III). Potentiometric titration analysis demonstrated that MA and HMA bind Al(III), in contrast to NA which does not under normal physiological conditions. With MA and HMA, in addition to the Al complex (AlL), the protonated (AlLH) and deprotonated (AlLH(-1)) complexes were identified from an analysis of titration curves, where L denotes the phytosiderophore form in which all the carboxylate functions are ionized. The equilibrium formation constants of the Al(III) phytosiderophore complexes are much smaller than those of the corresponding Fe(III) complexes. The higher selectivity of phytosiderophores for Fe(III) over Al(III) facilitates Fe(III) acquisition in alkaline conditions where free Al(III) levels are higher than free Fe(III) levels.

  16. Direct synthesis of polyglycolide and its related compounds. Polyglycolide oyobi kanren kagobutsu no chokusetsu gosei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masuda, T. (National Chemical Laboratory for Industry, Tsukuba (Japan))

    1991-07-01

    This paper describes a direct synthesis utilizing polyglycolide and its related compound, carbon monoxide, and the summary of the latest research. Polyglycolide is a kind of polyester, and synthesized from glycolic acid as the starting material. Because this polymer is decomposed and absorbed in an organism, it is developed as surgical suture in the U.S.A. Polyglycolide has been hitherto synthesized by multi-step method processing from glycolic acid to glycolic acid low grade gaade polymer to glycolide, but in the latest research, polyglycolide was synthesized directly from carbon monoxide and formaldehyde. The polyglycolide thus obtained was observed to have micro-organism decomposability under the decomposition test in active sludge using the modified MITI process. The application field of polyglycolide includes release controlling capsules for agricultural chemicals, herbicides, insecticides, plasticizers, polymer blending constituents, film, thread, packaging material, as well as synthesizing material for glycolic acid. 11 refs., 3 figs.

  17. Environmental accounts. Environmentally related taxes, subsidies and emission permits; Miljoerelaterade skatter, subventioner och utslaeppsraetter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cederlund, Maja; Brolinson, Hanna; Palm, Viveka

    2010-12-15

    Environmental Economic instruments is seen as an important component towards a sustainable society. In Prop. (proposition) 2009/10:155 'Swedish environmental objectives - for a more effective environmental' the Ministry of the Environment says that 'We must therefore work to improve the price signals by internalising external environmental costs and increase the use of economic instruments in environmental policy.' Statistics Sweden have now for the first time quantified the environmental economic instruments, both individually and together. In addition, the results are broken down by industry and for most time series can be presented. The result of this work is presented in this report

  18. Soft antimicrobial agents: synthesis and activity of labile environmentally friendly long chain quaternary ammonium compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsteinsson, Thorsteinn; Másson, Már; Kristinsson, Karl G; Hjálmarsdóttir, Martha A; Hilmarsson, Hilmar; Loftsson, Thorsteinn

    2003-09-11

    A series of soft quaternary ammonium antimicrobial agents, which are analogues to currently used quaternary ammonium preservatives such as cetyl pyridinium chloride and benzalkonium chloride, were synthesized. These soft analogues consist of long alkyl chain connected to a polar headgroup via chemically labile spacer group. They are characterized by facile nonenzymatic and enzymatic degradation to form their original nontoxic building blocks. However, their chemical stability has to be adequate in order for them to have antimicrobial effects. Stability studies and antibacterial and antiviral activity measurements revealed relationship between activity, lipophilicity, and stability. Their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was as low as 1 microg/mL, and their viral reduction was in some cases greater than 6.7 log. The structure-activity studies demonstrate that the bioactive compounds (i.e., MIC for Gram-positive bacteria of <10 microg/mL) have an alkyl chain length between 12 and 18 carbon atoms, with a polar headgroup preferably of a small quaternary ammonium group, and their acquired inactivation half-life must be greater than 3 h at 60 degrees C.

  19. Characterization of pharmaceutically active compounds in Beijing, China: Occurrence pattern, spatiotemporal distribution and its environmental implication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ruixue; Wang, Bin; Yin, Lina; Zhang, Yizhe; Deng, Shubo; Huang, Jun; Wang, Yujue; Yu, Gang

    2017-02-05

    Pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) as an important group of "emerging contaminants" (ECs), have been highlighted and received global attentions in last decade. China has tremendous consumption of PhACs and the most pharmaceutical manufacturers worldwide. In this study, 33 PhACs (19 antibiotics included) were monitored in the Beiyun River basin in Beijing, China. The seasonal occurrence, temporal-spatial distribution and potential source were investigated. The total levels were about 2μgL -1 . Non-antibiotics were more frequently detected. The highest median concentrations were observed for caffeine (558ngL -1 ) and erythromycin (319ngL -1 ). Acetaminophen, erythromycin, diclofenac and N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide showed highly significant seasonal variation, while caffeine, carbamazepine, metoprolol and most sulfonamides were more stable. The burden was most heavy in Qing River in both seasons (up to 4μgL -1 ). Antibiotics from veterinary use accounted for minor contribution in this region. The characteristics and trends were overviewed by comparing with our previous survey. The total level of 15 PhACs dropped significantly by 37% on average from 2013 to 2015. The proportion of caffeine, once a major component in 2013, reduced from 77% to 47%. The burden of these ECs in surface water of Beijing is remarkably reduced, suggesting the overall situation has been improving. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Atomic and molecular physics of plasma-based environmental technologies for abatement of volatile organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penetrante, B.M.; Hsiao, M.C.; Bardsley, J.N.; Merrit, B.T.; Vogtlin, G.E.; Kuthi, A.; Burkhart, C.P.; Bayless, J.R.

    1996-01-01

    Non-thermal plasma techniques represent a new generation of air emission control technology that potentially could treat large-volume emissions containing dilute concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). In order to apply non-thermal in an industrial scale, it is important to establish the electrical power requirements and byproducts of the process. There is a need for reliable data concerning the primary decomposition mechanisms and subsequent chemical kinetics associated with non-thermal plasma processing of VOCs. There are many basic atomic and molecular physics issues that are essential in evaluating the economic performance of non-thermal plasma reactor. These studies are important in understanding how the input electrical power is dissipated in the plasma and how efficiency it is converted to the production of the plasma species (radicals, ions or electrons) responsible for the decomposition of the VOCs. This paper presents results from basic experimental and theoretical studied aimed at identifying the reaction mechanisms responsible for the primary decomposition of various types of VOCs. (Authors)

  1. The Environmental Fluctuations of some Bioactive Nutraceutical Compounds in Zilla spinosa Inhabiting Arid Habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemmat Ibrahim KHATTAB

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Zilla spinosa is one of the dominated woody perennial shrubs widespread in the Egyptian Red sea coastal desert, belonging to family Brassicacea. Z. spinosa is used as a folk medicine and for heating by local people. Z. spinosa inhabits arid habitats exposed to adverse climatic changes which influence the production of the bioactive natural products. The natural secondary products have significant importance for plant acclimatization to the arid habitats beside their significant practical application in medicinal, nutritive and industrial purposes. The accumulation levels of some natural products including phenols, tannins, glucosinolates, flavonoids, saponins, proanthocyanidins and cardiac glycosides were measured in Z. spinosa inhabiting different locations of Wadi Hagul during spring and summer seasons. The results of the current study showed that Z. spinosa grown in the adverse environment has adapted to cope with extreme temperature, water deficit and geoclimate changes especially in summer, by enhancing the accumulation of some antioxidant compounds including phenols, tannins, glucosinolates, flavonoids, saponins, cardiac glycosides, concomitant with increments in the total antioxidant capacity and PAL activity. Consequently, Z. spinosa shrubs inhabiting the arid environment is a promising new source of saponins, glucosinolates, cardiac glycosides, phenols and flavonoids which could participate in drug development and exploration of alternative strategies to increase productivity of wild plants.

  2. Applying real options in investment decisions relating to environmental pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Tyrone T. [Department of International Business, National Dong Hwa University, 1, Sec. 2, Da Hsueh Road, Shou-Feng, Hualien 974, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: tjlin@mail.ndhu.edu.tw; Ko, C.-C. [Department of International Trade, Jin Wen Institute of Technology, Taiwan (China); Yeh, H.-N. [Graduate School of Management, Ming Chuan University, Taiwan (China)

    2007-04-15

    This study focuses on how to assess the optimal environmental investment decisions under economic and ecological uncertainty, and establishes the continuous time model using the real option approach to optimize environmental pollution policy. Unlike traditional cost benefit analysis, this work extends the model of [Pindyck, R.S., 2002. Optimal timing problems in environmental economics. Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control 26(9-10), 1677-1697], and attempts to identify the storage threshold of pollution stocks and the optimal timing for implementing environmental pollution decisions.

  3. The Relation of Environmental Quality and Fishery Sector in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oktavilia, Shanty; Habibah Yusfi, Reikha; Firmansyah; Sugiyanto, FX

    2018-02-01

    The condition of fishery sector is currently stagnating, even tending to decline, which is indicated by the decrease of production in some areas in Indonesia. Environmental degradation in marine waters is due to global climate change and uncontrolled fish exploitation impact on the decline of marine fisheries production. While in aquaculture, the environmental quality is also indicated to influence the production. Nevertheless, the increase of production of both marine and terrestrial fisheries has an effect on the quality of the environment. This study aims to analyze the interrelationship between the influence of environmental quality on the production of fishery sub-sector and the influence of fishery subsector production on environmental quality. This research employs environmental quality data and output of fishery of 34 provinces in Indonesia during 2011-2015. The study finds that output of fishery sector affects the environmental quality, which proves the Environment Kuznets Curve in the fishery sector in Indonesia. Since a certain threshold is achieved, the increase in revenue followed by the increase in environmental quality. The study also finds that the environmental quality has a positive effect on the production of fishery. Implication of the study is the increase of income of fishery households can be encouraged the ability of the community to protect the environment and increases the willingness of households to sacrifice other goods to environmental protection.

  4. Applying real options in investment decisions relating to environmental pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Tyrone T.; Ko, C.-C.; Yeh, H.-N.

    2007-01-01

    This study focuses on how to assess the optimal environmental investment decisions under economic and ecological uncertainty, and establishes the continuous time model using the real option approach to optimize environmental pollution policy. Unlike traditional cost benefit analysis, this work extends the model of [Pindyck, R.S., 2002. Optimal timing problems in environmental economics. Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control 26(9-10), 1677-1697], and attempts to identify the storage threshold of pollution stocks and the optimal timing for implementing environmental pollution decisions

  5. 78 FR 18562 - Economic and Environmental Principles and Requirements for Water and Related Land Resources...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-27

    ... COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY Economic and Environmental Principles and Requirements for Water... ``Economic and Environmental Principles and Guidelines for Water and Related Land Resources Implementation... Secretary of the Army to revise the ``Economic and Environmental Principles and Guidelines for Water and...

  6. 78 FR 31521 - Economic and Environmental Principles and Guidelines for Water and Related Land Resources...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-24

    ... COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY Economic and Environmental Principles and Guidelines for Water... the Army to revise the ``Economic and Environmental Principles and Guidelines for Water and Related.... L. 110-114) directed the Secretary of the Army to revise the ``Economic and Environmental Principles...

  7. Performance of the flow cytometric E-screen assay in screening estrogenicity of pure compounds and environmental samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanparys, Caroline, E-mail: caroline.vanparys@ua.ac.be [Laboratory of Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, University of Antwerp, Antwerp (Belgium); Depiereux, Sophie; Nadzialek, Stephanie [Research Unit in Organismal Biology (URBO), University of Namur (FUNDP), Namur (Belgium); Robbens, Johan; Blust, Ronny [Laboratory of Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, University of Antwerp, Antwerp (Belgium); Kestemont, Patrick [Research Unit in Organismal Biology (URBO), University of Namur (FUNDP), Namur (Belgium); De Coen, Wim [Laboratory of Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, University of Antwerp, Antwerp (Belgium); European Chemicals Agency (ECHA), Helsinki (Finland)

    2010-09-15

    In vitro estrogenicity screens are believed to provide a first prioritization step in hazard characterization of endocrine disrupting chemicals. When applied to complex environmental matrices or mixture samples, they have been indicated valuable in estimating the overall estrogen-mimicking load. In this study, the performance of an adapted format of the classical E-screen or MCF-7 cell proliferation assay was profoundly evaluated to rank pure compounds as well as influents and effluents of sewage treatment plants (STPs) according to estrogenic activity. In this adapted format, flow cytometric cell cycle analysis was used to allow evaluation of the MCF-7 cell proliferative effects after only 24 h of exposure. With an average EC{sub 50} value of 2 pM and CV of 22%, this assay appears as a sensitive and reproducible system for evaluation of estrogenic activity. Moreover, estrogenic responses of 17 pure compounds corresponded well, qualitatively and quantitatively, with other in vitro and in vivo estrogenicity screens, such as the classical E-screen (R{sup 2} = 0.98), the estrogen receptor (ER) binding (R{sup 2} = 0.84) and the ER transcription activation assay (R{sup 2} = 0.87). To evaluate the applicability of this assay for complex samples, influents and effluents of 10 STPs covering different treatment processes, were compared and ranked according to estrogenic removal efficiencies. Activated sludge treatment with phosphorus and nitrogen removal appeared most effective in eliminating estrogenic activity, followed by activated sludge, lagoon and filter bed. This is well in agreement with previous findings based on chemical analysis or biological activity screens. Moreover, ER blocking experiments indicated that cell proliferative responses were mainly ER mediated, illustrating that the complexity of the end point, cell proliferation, compared to other ER screens, does not hamper the interpretation of the results. Therefore, this study, among other E-screen studies

  8. Performance of the flow cytometric E-screen assay in screening estrogenicity of pure compounds and environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanparys, Caroline; Depiereux, Sophie; Nadzialek, Stephanie; Robbens, Johan; Blust, Ronny; Kestemont, Patrick; De Coen, Wim

    2010-01-01

    In vitro estrogenicity screens are believed to provide a first prioritization step in hazard characterization of endocrine disrupting chemicals. When applied to complex environmental matrices or mixture samples, they have been indicated valuable in estimating the overall estrogen-mimicking load. In this study, the performance of an adapted format of the classical E-screen or MCF-7 cell proliferation assay was profoundly evaluated to rank pure compounds as well as influents and effluents of sewage treatment plants (STPs) according to estrogenic activity. In this adapted format, flow cytometric cell cycle analysis was used to allow evaluation of the MCF-7 cell proliferative effects after only 24 h of exposure. With an average EC 50 value of 2 pM and CV of 22%, this assay appears as a sensitive and reproducible system for evaluation of estrogenic activity. Moreover, estrogenic responses of 17 pure compounds corresponded well, qualitatively and quantitatively, with other in vitro and in vivo estrogenicity screens, such as the classical E-screen (R 2 = 0.98), the estrogen receptor (ER) binding (R 2 = 0.84) and the ER transcription activation assay (R 2 = 0.87). To evaluate the applicability of this assay for complex samples, influents and effluents of 10 STPs covering different treatment processes, were compared and ranked according to estrogenic removal efficiencies. Activated sludge treatment with phosphorus and nitrogen removal appeared most effective in eliminating estrogenic activity, followed by activated sludge, lagoon and filter bed. This is well in agreement with previous findings based on chemical analysis or biological activity screens. Moreover, ER blocking experiments indicated that cell proliferative responses were mainly ER mediated, illustrating that the complexity of the end point, cell proliferation, compared to other ER screens, does not hamper the interpretation of the results. Therefore, this study, among other E-screen studies, supports the use of

  9. Assessment of Environmental Effects of Ordnance Compounds and their Transformation Products in Coastal Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-12-01

    there was a strong initial increase in bacterial abundance relative to the respective blanks, followed by a depression that took bacterial abundance to...mineralization, as shown by the toxicity tests (see Porewater Toxicity Assessments section) or by the cranberry red coloration of the pore water from the...samples: there was a strong initial increase in bacterial abundance relative to the respective blanks, followed by a depression that took bacterial

  10. Laser gas assisted texturing and formation of nitride and oxynitride compounds on alumina surface: Surface response to environmental dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilbas, B. S.; Ali, H.; Al-Sharafi, A.; Al-Aqeeli, N.

    2018-03-01

    Laser gas assisted texturing of alumina surface is carried out, and formation of nitride and oxynitride compounds in the surface vicinity is examined. The laser parameters are selected to create the surface topology consisting of micro/nano pillars with minimum defect sites including micro-cracks, voids and large size cavities. Morphological and hydrophobic characteristics of the textured surface are examined using the analytical tools. The characteristics of the environmental dust and its influence on the laser textured surface are studied while mimicking the local humid air ambient. Adhesion of the dry mud on the laser textured surface is assessed through the measurement of the tangential force, which is required to remove the dry mud from the surface. It is found that laser texturing gives rise to micro/nano pillars topology and the formation of AlN and AlON compounds in the surface vicinity. This, in turn, lowers the free energy of the textured surface and enhances the hydrophobicity of the surface. The liquid solution resulted from the dissolution of alkaline and alkaline earth metals of the dust particles in water condensate forms locally scattered liquid islands at the interface of mud and textured surface. The dried liquid solution at the interface increases the dry mud adhesion on the textured surface. Some dry mud residues remain on the textured surface after the dry mud is removed by a pressurized desalinated water jet.

  11. HFE C282Y/H63D compound heterozygotes are at low risk of hemochromatosis-related morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurrin, Lyle C; Bertalli, Nadine A; Dalton, Gregory W; Osborne, Nicholas J; Constantine, Clare C; McLaren, Christine E; English, Dallas R; Gertig, Dorota M; Delatycki, Martin B; Nicoll, Amanda J; Southey, Melissa C; Hopper, John L; Giles, Graham G; Anderson, Gregory J; Olynyk, John K; Powell, Lawrie W; Allen, Katrina J

    2009-07-01

    The risk of hemochromatosis-related morbidity is unknown among HFE compound heterozygotes (C282Y/H63D). We used a prospective population-based cohort study to estimate the prevalence of elevated iron indices and hemochromatosis-related morbidity for compound heterozygotes. In all, 31,192 subjects of northern European descent were genotyped for HFE C282Y and H63D. An HFE-genotype stratified random sample of 1,438 subjects, followed for an average of 12 years to a mean age of 65 years, completed questionnaires and gave blood. Clinical examinations were blinded to HFE genotype. A total of 180 (84 males) clinically examined C282Y/H63D participants were compared with 330 (149 males) controls with neither HFE mutation; 132 (65 males) and 270 (122 males), respectively, had serum iron measures at both timepoints. Mean serum ferritin (SF) and transferrin saturation (TS) were significantly greater for male and female compound heterozygotes than for wild-types at baseline and follow-up (all P females who were premenopausal at baseline, where SF was similar in both genotype groups. For subjects with serum measures from both baseline and follow-up, mean SF and TS levels did not change significantly for men or for postmenopausal women, but for premenopausal women SF levels increased from 43 to 109 microg/L for compound heterozygotes and from 35 to 64 microg/L for wild-types (both P female compound heterozygotes had a similar prevalence of hemochromatosis-related morbidity to wild-types. One of 82 males and zero of 95 females had documented iron overload-related disease. For male compound heterozygotes, mean iron indices do not change during middle age but for female compound heterozygotes menopause results in increased mean SF. Although compound heterozygotes might maintain elevated iron indices during middle age, documented iron overload-related disease is rare.

  12. Trust and cooperation relations in environmental management of Lebanon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbas, Nivine; van der Molen, I.; Nader, M.R.; Lovett, Jonathan Cranidge

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates trust and cooperation in the context of environmental management in Lebanon. Literature already indicated increasing environmental problems in this area that suffered from repeated episodes of armed conflict. The Lebanese government has been faced by many difficulties to

  13. LOUISIANA ENVIRONMENTAL MODELING SYSTEM FOR HYPOXIA RELATED ISSUES

    Science.gov (United States)

    An environmental assessment tool to evaluate the impacts of nonpoint source (NPS) pollutants discharged from Mississippi River basins into the Gulf of Mexico and to assess their effects on receiving water quality will be described. This system (Louisiana Environmental Modeling S...

  14. Review of the inhibition of biological activities of food-related selected toxins by natural compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Mendel; Rasooly, Reuven

    2013-04-23

    There is a need to develop food-compatible conditions to alter the structures of fungal, bacterial, and plant toxins, thus transforming toxins to nontoxic molecules. The term 'chemical genetics' has been used to describe this approach. This overview attempts to survey and consolidate the widely scattered literature on the inhibition by natural compounds and plant extracts of the biological (toxicological) activity of the following food-related toxins: aflatoxin B1, fumonisins, and ochratoxin A produced by fungi; cholera toxin produced by Vibrio cholerae bacteria; Shiga toxins produced by E. coli bacteria; staphylococcal enterotoxins produced by Staphylococcus aureus bacteria; ricin produced by seeds of the castor plant Ricinus communis; and the glycoalkaloid α-chaconine synthesized in potato tubers and leaves. The reduction of biological activity has been achieved by one or more of the following approaches: inhibition of the release of the toxin into the environment, especially food; an alteration of the structural integrity of the toxin molecules; changes in the optimum microenvironment, especially pH, for toxin activity; and protection against adverse effects of the toxins in cells, animals, and humans (chemoprevention). The results show that food-compatible and safe compounds with anti-toxin properties can be used to reduce the toxic potential of these toxins. Practical applications and research needs are suggested that may further facilitate reducing the toxic burden of the diet. Researchers are challenged to (a) apply the available methods without adversely affecting the nutritional quality, safety, and sensory attributes of animal feed and human food and (b) educate food producers and processors and the public about available approaches to mitigating the undesirable effects of natural toxins that may present in the diet.

  15. Antagonism of immunostimulatory CpG-oligodeoxynucleotides by quinacrine, chloroquine, and structurally related compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macfarlane, D E; Manzel, L

    1998-02-01

    Phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotides containing CpG (CpG-ODN) activate immune responses. We report that quinacrine, chloroquine, and structurally related compounds completely inhibit the antiapoptotic effect of CpG-ODN on WEHI 231 murine B lymphoma cells and inhibit CpG-ODN-induced secretion of IL-6 by WEHI 231. They also inhibit IL-6 synthesis and thymidine uptake by human unfractionated PBMC induced by CpG-ODN. The compounds did not inhibit LPS-induced responses. Half-maximal inhibition required 10 nM quinacrine or 100 nM chloroquine. Inhibition was noncompetitive with respect to CpG-ODN. Quinine, quinidine, and primaquine were much less powerful. Quinacrine was effective even when added after the CpG-ODN. Near-toxic concentrations of ammonia plus bafilomycin A1 (used to inhibit vesicular acidification) did not reduce the efficacy of the quinacrine, but the effects of both quinacrine and chloroquine were enhanced by inhibition of the multidrug resistance efflux pump by verapamil. Agents that bind to DNA, including propidium iodide, Hoechst dye 33258, and coralyne chloride did not inhibit CpG-ODN effect, nor did 4-bromophenacyl bromide, an inhibitor of phospholipase A2. Examination of the structure-activity relationship of seventy 4-aminoquinoline and 9-aminoacridine analogues reveals that increased activity was conferred by bulky hydrophobic substituents on positions 2 and 6 of the quinoline nucleus. No correlation was found between published antimalarial activity and ability to block CpG-ODN-induced effects. These results are discussed in the light of the ability of quinacrine and chloroquine to induce remission of rheumatoid arthritis and lupus erythematosus.

  16. A gender perspective on environmentally related family consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønhøj, Alice; Ølander, Folke

    2007-01-01

    Studies of 'green' consumer behavior have often reported differences in male and female environmental concern and participation. This paper looks into the nature of such differences within the family. Husband-wife differences with regard to family participation in a number of environmentally...... for this could be discerned. Most notably, the division of household and consumption roles within families often made sub-activities of pro-environmental practices the prime responsibility of either one of the partners. Thus, a gender-based inside-outside division of household responsibilities with regard to pro......-environmental practices could be noted. It is suggested that the processes whereby environmentally oriented consumer practices are adopted and transmitted among family members receive closer research attention....

  17. Bioassay standardization for the detection of allelopathic compounds and environmental toxicants using lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateus Salomão Simões

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess different experimental conditions to determine a protocol for bioassays based on seed germination and early seedling growth using lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Grand Rapids as indicator species. This protocol aims to provide support for the standardization of assays of various chemicals such as allelochemicals and environmental toxicants. The following tests were performed: time of germination, temperature, light, solution volume and Petri dish size. For each test (except for time of germination, the influence of the conditions investigated was determined by the endpoints germination percentage, germination speed index, root length, seedling fresh weight and total dry weight. The results showed that variations in the methods altered the results. It is recommended that bioassays using L. sativa L. cv. Grand Rapids be carried out for a minimum period of four days for assessments of both germination and initial growth and that the experimental conditions include a temperature of 20°C, 90-mm Petri dishes or larger, 0.1 mL cypsela solution, and continuous light or 12-hour photoperiod.

  18. Emissions of volatile organic compounds during the ship-loading of petroleum products: Dispersion modelling and environmental concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milazzo, Maria Francesca; Ancione, Giuseppa; Lisi, Roberto

    2017-12-15

    Emissions due to ship-loading of hydrocarbons are currently not addressed neither by the Directive on the integrated pollution prevention or by other environmental regulations. The scope of this study is to point towards the environmental and safety concerns associated with such emissions, even if proper attention has not been given to this issue until now. In order to achieve this goal, the modelling of the emission volatile organic compounds (VOC), due to ship-load operations at refineries has been made by means of the definition of a simulation procedure which includes a proper treatment of the hours of calm. Afterwards, a quantitative analysis of VOC dispersion for an Italian case-study is presented with the primary aims: (i) to develop and verify the validity of the approach for the modelling of the emission sources and of the diffusion of these contaminants into the atmosphere by a proper treatment of the hours of calm and (ii) to identify their contribution to the total VOC emitted in a typical refinery. The calculated iso-concentration contours have also been drawn on a map and allowed the identification of critical areas for people protecting by the adoption of abatement solutions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Determination of bismuth in environmental samples by ICP-MS and basic examination of cell toxicity for their compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Jun; Matsukawa, Takehisa; Chiba, Momoko; Yokoyama, Kazuhito; Terada, Hiroshi; Sugiyama, Hideo

    2011-01-01

    We examined both bismuth content levels in some environmental water samples (tapwater, bottled drinking water and slag obtained by sewage disposal) by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and cultured cell toxicity of their compounds by the MTT assay. For ICP-MS, the conditions examined were addition of internal standard (IS), apparatus condition, and determination range, etc. When we examined an IS, the advantage was not clear that the ICP-MS response of the IS candidate elements was very variable. However, the sample induction rate into ICP-MS is more changeable at any time. Since the correction of analytical results was enabled by the addition of IS, Tl-203 was selected for IS, and was used in this study. The determination lower limit was 11 ppt by using 10 ppb Tl. Bi was detected in a few environmental water samples at 20.4 ppt - 6.8 ppb (0.07-6.83 μg/g original slags), but Bi concentrations of most samples were lower than the determination limit. On the other hand, concerning cell toxicity, the subgallate and free gallic acid affected the lives of cultured cells. Especially, the toxicity of free gallic acid was higher. It has been understood that the toxicity is weakly adjusted by chelating with Bi. (author)

  20. Impact of environmental volatile organic compounds on otitis media in children: Correlation between exposure and urinary metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So Young; Son, Bu-Soon; Park, Hee-Jin; Oh, Seung Ha; Lee, Jun Ho; Suh, Myung-Hwan; Park, Moo Kyun

    2017-02-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) induce inflammatory responses. Tobacco smoke contains numerous VOCs and is a risk factor for otitis media effusion (OME); however, no previous studies have investigated the association between VOCs and OME. We used urinary metabolites and exposure to environmental risk factors to investigate the association between VOC and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure and recurrent OME in children. Children with recurrent OME who visited the Otorhinolaryngology Department of Seoul National University Hospital between November 2014 and June 2015 were prospectively enrolled in the study. Recurrent OME was defined as more than two OME episodes over a 6-month period lasting longer than 2 months. The control group consisted of children without OME in the last year. Demographic information, including age, sex, and previous medical history was obtained, and endoscopic examinations of the tympanic membrane were performed. Urinary concentrations of 1-hydroxypyrene, 2-naphthol, hippuric acid, trans, trans-muconic acid (t,t-MA), mandelic acid, phenyl glyoxylic acid, and methyl hippuric acid were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectroscopy. Environmental factors assessed included house type, age, renovations, the presence of furniture children with OME and 39 controls. Age and sex did not differ between groups. Exposure to passive smoking was significantly more common in the OME group than in the controls (P children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Recent advances in occupational and environmental health hazards of workers exposed to gasoline compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher E. Ekpenyong

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The impact of health and environmental hazards, associated with the constituents of gasoline, on occupationally exposed workers has been recorded over the past few decades. However, the scientific literature on their pathogenic potential remains incomplete, which could affect the current understanding of the associated health risks. This review provides current information based on recently improved research techniques to evaluate gasoline toxicity profiles for humans. Our current knowledge provides insight into the intricate mechanism of gasoline-induced adverse effects, including the formation of reactive metabolites via bio-activation and subsequent generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS and oxidative stress, which are involved in multiple mechanisms that are central to the aetiology of gasoline-induced toxicity. These mechanisms include covalent binding to deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA, leading to oxidative damage, tumor-suppression gene activity, and activation of pro-oncogenes. Furthermore, it results in induction of autoimmunity and local inflammatory responses, disruption of multiple neurotransmitters and immune cell function, derangement of various enzyme activities (e.g., sodiumpotassium adenosine triphosphate (Na+/K+/ATPase activity, cytochrome P450 (CYP450, nitric oxide synthase (NOS, antioxidant enzyme activities, etc., conjugation of bile, and non-specific cell membrane interaction, leading to damage of the membrane lipid bilayer and proteins. Available data suggests that exposure to gasoline or gasoline constituents have the potential to cause different types of illnesses. The data highlights the need to maintain safety measures via suitable research, medical surveillance, regulatory control, life style modification, early detection, and intervention to minimize exposure and manage suspected cases. They also present novel opportunities to design and develop effective therapeutic strategies against gasoline-induced detrimental

  2. Phase relation of LaFe11· 6Si1· 4 compounds annealed at different ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 35; Issue 2. Phase relation of LaFe11.6Si1.4 compounds annealed at different high-temperature and the magnetic property of LaFe11.6−CoSi1.4 compounds. Xiang Chen Yungui Chen Yongbai Tang. Volume 35 Issue 2 April 2012 pp 175-182 ...

  3. Gas chromatography--inductively coupled plasma--time-of-flight mass spectrometry for the speciation analysis of organolead compounds in environmental water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisterkamp, M; Adams, F C

    2001-07-01

    The application of inductively coupled plasma--time-of-flight mass spectrometry for the speciation analysis of organolead compounds in environmental waters is described. Construction of the transfer line was achieved by means of a relatively simple and rapid coupling procedure. Derivatization of the ionic lead species was achieved by in-situ propylation with sodium tetrapropylborate; simultaneous extraction of the derivatized compounds in hexane was followed by separation and detection by capillary gas chromatography hyphenated to inductively coupled plasma-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Detection limits for the different organolead species ranged from 10 to 15 fg (as Pb), corresponding to procedural detection limits between 50 and 75 ng L(-1), on the basis of a 50 mL snow sample, extraction with 200 microL hexane, and subsequent injection of 1 microL of the organic extract on to the column. The accuracy of the system was confirmed by additional analysis of the water samples by capillary gas chromatography coupled with microwave-induced plasma-atomic-emission spectrometry and the analysis of a standard reference material CRM 605 (road dust) with a certified content of trimethyllead.

  4. Regional monitoring of environmental physics climate related anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Askary, Hesham

    2004-11-01

    Scientific communities have been working in creating and enhancing scientific research programs in which in situ and satellite data as well as remote sensing (RS) technologies are being applied to regional environmental issues. These issues include the effects of climate change on regional flooding, droughts and the impact of human activities as they relate to feedbacks on the global climate. More specifically, one needs to evaluate the potential impact of climatological variability on social, economic, and human activities. In addition, the study of their effects on agriculture, forests, local natural ecosystems and water climate-related resources, is most important. Finally, dust storms and other natural events such as droughts can have great local impacts. Approximately half of the dust in today's atmosphere may be the result of changes to the environment caused by human activities, including agriculture, overgrazing, and deforestation. Climate variability may lead to the occurrence of some severe environmental phenomena like dust storms, hurricanes, tornadoes, floods and droughts. Under normal conditions we can detect different dust effects associated with the movement of storms as well as different rain patterns that do not affect much of the surrounding environment either at regional or global scales. On the other hand, under abnormal climatological conditions, high anomalies of precipitation might occur due to the presence of hurricanes or other events, leading to severe flooding events. In this dissertation, we apply time series analysis techniques to remote sensing and in situ data to detect precipitation and dust storm anomalies and study their behavior on regional scales. The first application is the detection and monitoring of dust storms events over parts of the Middle East and Asia. Dust storms cause health and economic hazards. In this thesis dust storms development is examined based on using remote sensing. It utilizes a combination of optical

  5. Cracking the Betel Nut: Cholinergic Activity of Areca Alkaloids and Related Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horenstein, Nicole A; Quadri, Marta; Stokes, Clare; Shoaib, Mohammed; Papke, Roger L

    2017-10-03

    The use of betel quid is the most understudied major addiction in the world. The neuropsychological activity of betel quid has been attributed to alkaloids of Areca catechu. With the goal of developing novel addiction treatments, we evaluate the muscarinic and nicotinic activity of the four major Areca alkaloids: arecoline, arecaidine, guvacoline, and guvacine and four structurally related compounds. Acetylcholine receptors were expressed in Xenopus oocytes and studied with two-electrode voltage clamp. Both arecoline- and guvacoline-activated muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChR), while only arecoline produced significant activation of nicotinic AChR (nAChR). We characterized four additional arecoline-related compounds, seeking an analog that would retain selective activity for a α4* nAChR, with diminished effects on mAChR and not be a desensitizer of α7 nAChR. We show that this profile is largely met by isoarecolone. Three additional arecoline analogs were characterized. While the quaternary dimethyl analog had a broad range of activities, including activation of mAChR and muscle-type nAChR, the methyl analog only activated a range of α4* nAChR, albeit with low potency. The ethyl analog had no detectable cholinergic activity. Evidence indicates that α4* nAChR are at the root of nicotine addiction, and this may also be the case for betel addiction. Our characterization of isoarecolone and 1-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl) ethanone as truly selective α4*nAChR selective partial agonists with low muscarinic activity may point toward a promising new direction for the development of drugs to treat both nicotine and betel addiction. Nearly 600 million people use Areca nut, often with tobacco. Two of the Areca alkaloids are muscarinic acetylcholine receptor agonists, and one, arecoline, is a partial agonist for the α4* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) associated with tobacco addiction. The profile of arecoline activity suggested its potential to be used as a

  6. The relative contributions of climatic elements and environmental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SEJUP

    2013-08-01

    Aug 1, 2013 ... environmental factors to urban flooding in Awka urban area of Anambra State. Towards ... city, while Geoffrey (2001) employed time series analysis ..... Street Flooding in Calabar Municipality, Cross River State in Bisong.

  7. The Relationship between Environmental Relative Moldiness Index Values and Asthma

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — No data generated. This dataset is not publicly accessible because: There was no new data generated. It can be accessed through the following means: None available....

  8. Transport-related lifestyle and environmentally-friendly travel mode choices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    2018-01-01

    . Finally, a multivariate GLM analysis reveals that three behavioral tendencies of importance for transport-related environmental impacts vary significantly and substantially between lifestyle segments: vehicle ownership, everyday travel-mode choice and environmentally-friendly transport innovativeness...

  9. The relation between product innovation and strategic environmental goals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerstlberger, Wolfgang; Pedrosa, Alex; Atlason, Reynir Smari

    2017-01-01

    Innovation management in manufacturing firms including its environmental dimension is currently on top of the political agenda of the European Union. Existing studies only provide limited findings in this research field. By using cross-sectional data, this study investigates firms’ internal capab...... Policies (IPPs). IPPs combine the support of product innovations in general and environmental innovations in particular. Future research could apply mixed-method studies in single or multiple countries which combine different types of data....

  10. Relation of forms of compounds of heavy natural radionuclides in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkhipov, N.P.; Fedorova, T.A.; Fevraleva, L.T.

    1986-01-01

    Results of studying forms of 238 U, 232 Th, 226 Ra, 210 Po, 210 Pb compounds in nonfertilized soils (under control) and in soils fertilized with ammophos containing increased amount of the mentioned radionuclides are given. The study was performed in main-year field experiment with sandy ashen gray soil and leached chernozemic soil. It is shown that a main share of radionuclides in nonfertilized soils is presened with tightly bound compounds and compounds bound with sesquioxide compounds. After 5 years labelled natural radionuclides introduced into the ammophos composition are in a more mobile state as compared with radionuclides in nonfertilized soil and they are presented with acid-soluble and bound with humus compound forms. Systematical application of fertilizers during along-term period results in the concentration increase of heavy natural radionuclides in soil

  11. Effect of Lignocellulose Related Compounds on Microalgae Growth and Product Biosynthesis: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystian Miazek

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae contain valuable compounds that can be harnessed for industrial applications. Lignocellulose biomass is a plant material containing in abundance organic substances such as carbohydrates, phenolics, organic acids and other secondary compounds. As growth of microalgae on organic substances was confirmed during heterotrophic and mixotrophic cultivation, lignocellulose derived compounds can become a feedstock to cultivate microalgae and produce target compounds. In this review, different treatment methods to hydrolyse lignocellulose into organic substrates are presented first. Secondly, the effect of lignocellulosic hydrolysates, organic substances typically present in lignocellulosic hydrolysates, as well as minor co-products, on growth and accumulation of target compounds in microalgae cultures is described. Finally, the possibilities of using lignocellulose hydrolysates as a common feedstock for microalgae cultures are evaluated.

  12. Multivariate analysis of chromatographic retention data as a supplementary means for grouping structurally related compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasoula, S; Zisi, Ch; Sampsonidis, I; Virgiliou, Ch; Theodoridis, G; Gika, H; Nikitas, P; Pappa-Louisi, A

    2015-03-27

    In the present study a series of 45 metabolite standards belonging to four chemically similar metabolite classes (sugars, amino acids, nucleosides and nucleobases, and amines) was subjected to LC analysis on three HILIC columns under 21 different gradient conditions with the aim to explore whether the retention properties of these analytes are determined from the chemical group they belong. Two multivariate techniques, principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant analysis (DA), were used for statistical evaluation of the chromatographic data and extraction similarities between chemically related compounds. The total variance explained by the first two principal components of PCA was found to be about 98%, whereas both statistical analyses indicated that all analytes are successfully grouped in four clusters of chemical structure based on the retention obtained in four or at least three chromatographic runs, which, however should be performed on two different HILIC columns. Moreover, leave-one-out cross-validation of the above retention data set showed that the chemical group in which an analyte belongs can be 95.6% correctly predicted when the analyte is subjected to LC analysis under the same four or three experimental conditions as the all set of analytes was run beforehand. That, in turn, may assist with disambiguation of analyte identification in complex biological extracts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The Occurrence of Flavonoids and Related Compounds in Flower Sections of Papaver nudicaule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Dudek

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoids play an important role in the pigmentation of flowers; in addition, they protect petals and other flower parts from UV irradiation and oxidative stress. Nudicaulins, flavonoid-derived indole alkaloids, along with pelargonidin, kaempferol, and gossypetin glycosides, are responsible for the color of white, red, orange, and yellow petals of different Papaver nudicaule cultivars. The color of the petals is essential to attract pollinators. We investigated the occurrence of flavonoids in basal and apical petal areas, stamens, and capsules of four differently colored P. nudicaule cultivars by means of chromatographic and spectroscopic methods. The results reveal the specific occurrence of gossypetin glycosides in the basal spot of all cultivars and demonstrate that kaempferol glycosides are the major secondary metabolites in the capsules. Unlike previous reports, the yellow-colored stamens of all four P. nudicaule cultivars are shown to contain not nudicaulins but carotenoids. In addition, the presence of nudicaulins, pelargonidin, and kaempferol glycosides in the apical petal area was confirmed. The flavonoids and related compounds in the investigated flower parts and cultivars of P. nudicaule are profiled, and their potential ecological role is discussed.

  14. Role of histidine-related compounds to intracellular buffering in fish skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, H; Dobson, G P; Hoeger, U; Parkhouse, W S

    1985-10-01

    Histidine-related compounds (HRC) were analyzed in fish skeletal muscle as a means of identifying their precise role in intracellular buffering. Fish muscle was used because it contains two functionally and spatially distinct fiber types, red and white. Two fish species, rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) and the Pacific blue marlin (Makaira nigricans), were studied because these species demonstrate widely different activity patterns. Marlin red and white muscle buffer capacity was two times higher than trout with white muscle, buffering being two times greater than red in both species. Buffer capacity was highest in the 6.5-7.5 pH range for all tissues, which corresponded to their high anserine levels. The titrated HRC buffering was greater than the observed HRC buffering, which suggested that not all HRC were available to absorb protons. The HRC contribution to total cellular buffering varied from a high of 62% for marlin white to a low of 7% for trout red. The other principal buffers were found to be phosphate and protein with taurine contributing within red muscle in the 7.0-8.0 pH range. HRC were found to be dominant in skeletal muscle buffering by principally accounting for the buffering capacity differences found between the species and fiber types.

  15. The Effects of an Environmental Studies Course on Selected Variables Related To Environmentally Responsible Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Sebasto, N. J.

    1995-01-01

    Reports that students completing an environmental studies course displayed significant gains when compared with students not completing such a course. These gains were made in acquiring a more internally-oriented locus of control of reinforcement for environmentally responsible behavior, a higher perception of their knowledge of and skill in using…

  16. Bradykinin-related compounds as new drugs for cancer and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, John M; Gera, Lajos; Chan, Daniel C; Bunn, Paul A; York, Eunice J; Simkeviciene, Vitalija; Helfrich, Barbara

    2002-04-01

    Bradykinin (BK) (Arg-Pro-Pro-Gly-Phe-Ser-Pro-Phe-Arg) is an important growth factor for small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) and prostate cancer (PC). These cancers have cells of neuroendocrine origin and express receptors for a variety of neuropeptides. BK receptors are expressed on almost all lung cancer cell lines and on many PC cells. Our very potent BK antagonist B9430 (D-Arg-Arg-Pro-Hyp-Gly-lgl-Ser-D-Igl-Oic-Arg) (Hyp, trans-4-hydroxy-L-proline; Ig1, alpha-2-indanylglycine; Oic, octahydroindole-2-carboxylic acid) is a candidate anti-inflammatory drug but does not inhibit growth of SCLC or PC. When B9430 is dimerized by N-terminal cross-linking with a suberimide linker, the product B9870 is a potent growth inhibitor for SCLC both in vitro and in vivo in athymic nude mice. Daily i.p. injection at 5 mg x kg(-1) day(-1) beginning on day 8 after SCLC SHP-77 cell implantation gave 65% inhibition of tumor growth. B9870 stimulates apoptosis in SCLC by a novel "biased agonist" action. We have also developed new small mimetic antagonists. BKM-570 (F5C-OC2Y-Atmp) (F5C, pentafluorocinnamic acid; OC2Y, O-2,6-dichlorobenzyl tyrosine; Atmp, 4-amino-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine) is very potent for inhibition of SHP-77 growth in nude mice. When injected daily i.p. at 5 mg x kg(-1), M-570 gave 90% suppression of tumor growth. M-570 is more potent than the well-known anticancer drug cisPlatin (60% inhibition) or the recently developed SU5416 (40% inhibition) in this model. M-570 also showed activity against various other cancer cell lines in vitro (SCLC, non-SCLC, lung, prostate, colon, cervix) and inhibited growth of prostate cell line PC3 in nude mice. M-570 and related compounds evidently act in vivo through pathways other than BK receptors. These compounds have clinical potential for treatment of human lung and prostate cancers.

  17. Food transitions in last 50 years and related environmental implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, P.; Reusser, D. E.; Kropp, J. P.

    2012-04-01

    Food production is an important driver for global change processes such as land use change and green-house-gas emissions. We analyzed a global, long term data set on food consumption per country to identify typical patterns of diets for the last 50 years. From changes in these patterns, we derived food transitions on a global scale. Subsequently we assessed the environmental consequences from green-house-gas (GHG) emission and anthropogenic inputs. More specifically, we applied Self Organizing Maps (SOM) to identify the dietary patterns based on supply of 12 food groups from FAOSTAT dataset for a period 1961-2007. Using the data on energy output/input ratio for crop production and agricultural emission, we estimated fossil energy and GHG emission associated with the diets. We found 16 typical consumption patterns consisting of high, moderate, low and lowest calorie supply with varied food compositions. The high calorie diets are associated with a higher supply of cereals, animal-products, vegetable-oils and sugar-sweeteners featuring a total supply greater than 2800 kcal/cap/day. During the last 50 years, we observed food transitions from lower calories diets to higher calories diets. On the one hand, food transition towards affluent diet, sometime with shortcuts, occurred in developing countries. On the other hand, developed countries increased consumption of fruits and vegetables. Some of the developing countries are also stagnated in the low consumption level during the last 50 years. The high calorie diets also embed higher fossil energy (1800-3500 kcal/cap/day) and are associated with higher GHG emissions (3.7-6.1 kg CO2 eq/cap/day). However, their non-CO2 GHG emission intensities per kilo calorie of food are relatively low. Changes in dietary patterns are a part of the global change processes. Identification of past transitions is way to predict possible future transitions. This in turn supports policy processes and negotiations in the fields of climate

  18. HFE C282Y/H63D Compound Heterozygotes Are at Low Risk of Hemochromatosis-Related Morbidity

    OpenAIRE

    Gurrin, Lyle C.; Bertalli, Nadine A.; Dalton, Gregory W.; Osborne, Nicholas J.; Constantine, Clare C.; McLaren, Christine E.; English, Dallas R.; Gertig, Dorota M.; Delatycki, Martin B.; Nicoll, Amanda J.; Southey, Melissa C.; Hopper, John L.; Giles, Graham G.; Anderson, Gregory J.; Olynyk, John K.

    2009-01-01

    The risk of hemochromatosis-related morbidity is unknown among HFE compound heterozygotes (C282Y/H63D). We used a prospective population-based cohort study to estimate the prevalence of elevated iron indices and hemochromatosis-related morbidity for compound heterozygotes. In all, 31,192 subjects of northern European descent were genotyped for HFE C282Y and H63D. An HFE-genotype stratified random sample of 1,438 subjects, followed for an average of 12 years to a mean age of 65 years, complete...

  19. Volatile sulphur compounds in wines related to yeast metabolism and nitrogen composition of grape musts

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira, N.; Mendesa, F.; Pereira, O.; Pinho, P. Guedes de

    2002-01-01

    The influence of nitrogen compounds in grape musts on the content of sulphur compounds of wines was studied. Different vinifications were performed with the addition of methionine (20 mg l−1) and/or cysteine (40 mg l−1) to grape musts before alcoholic fermentation. Six grape musts, with different nitrogen composition, from cultivars of the ‘Vinhos Verdes’ Region, in Portugal, were used. Addition of methionine to grape musts enhanced the content of wines in 3-(methylthio)-1-propanol, ...

  20. Nanomaterial-Based Sensing and Biosensing of Phenolic Compounds and Related Antioxidant Capacity in Food

    OpenAIRE

    Flavio Della Pelle; Dario Compagnone

    2018-01-01

    Polyphenolic compounds (PCs) have received exceptional attention at the end of the past millennium and as much at the beginning of the new one. Undoubtedly, these compounds in foodstuffs provide added value for their well-known health benefits, for their technological role and also marketing. Many efforts have been made to provide simple, effective and user friendly analytical methods for the determination and antioxidant capacity (AOC) evaluation of food polyphenols. In a parallel track, ove...

  1. Teaching Materials for Environmental Related Courses in Agriculture Occupations Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohning, Kermit B.; Stitt, Thomas R.

    The lesson plans were designed to provide the practicing applied biological and agricultural occupations teacher with a series of units setting down a basic foundation in Environmental Education. Nine lesson plans cover (1) ecosystems and agriculture, (2) biotic communities and food chains, (3) energy and nutrient flow, (4) land use and supply,…

  2. Environmental issues related to oil and gas access

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoniuk, T.

    1998-01-01

    This presentation discussed the environmental issues that petroleum companies face in northeast British Columbia. Petroleum exploration, development, production, abandonment and transportation activities in the province must follow provincial and federal regulations as well as government policies and guidelines which define environmental assessment, protection, and mitigation standards. A discussion about the regulatory framework in British Columbia can be found in the 'British Columbia Oil and Gas Handbook' which is available on the INTERNET at http://natural.gov.bc.ca/handpubs/oilgashb/bcoghb.htm. It was suggested that companies wishing to conduct drilling or exploration activities in sensitive areas should allow extra time (up to one year) to obtain approval for such activities. British Columbia's environmental setting includes five zones - the Alpine Tundra, the Spruce-Willow-Birch zone, the Engelmannn Spruce-Subalpine Fir forests, the Sub-Boreal Spruce zone, and the Boreal White and Black Spruce zone. Four discrete oil and gas guideline zones with differing standards have been developed. These are: (1) the Northern Rocky Mountains, (2) the Northeastern Slopes, (3) the Southeastern Slopes, and (4) the Northern Plains. A set of interim environmental guidelines are in effect to direct activity away from any sensitive area. Three sub-regional land use planning areas have also been established in the Prince George Forest Region which includes Dawson Creek, Fort St. John and Fort Nelson. Petroleum operators in these regions are obliged to deal with issues regarding aboriginal involvement, stream crossings, access management, and air quality. 40 refs

  3. Geotechnical and environmental problems related to shales in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EJIRO

    Six (6) samples of shale and five (5) water samples from hand-dug wells and boreholes, from different locations within the ... dark grey in colour, blocky, and non-micaceous in most locations. ..... Advances in water treatment and environmental ...

  4. Environmental Externalities Related to Power Production Technologies in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Liselotte Schleisner; Nielsen, Per Sieverts

    1997-01-01

    of the Danish part of the project is to implement the framework for externality evaluation, for three different power plants located in Denmark. The paper will focus on the assessment of the impacts of the whole fuel cycles for wind, natural gas and biogas. Priority areas for environmental impact assessment...

  5. Relating Social Inclusion and Environmental Issues in Botanic Gardens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergou, Asimina; Willison, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Botanic gardens have been evolving, responding to the changing needs of society, from their outset as medicinal gardens of monasteries and university gardens to more recently as organizations that contribute to the conservation of plant genetic resources. Considering that social and environmental issues are deeply intertwined and cannot be tackled…

  6. Cognitive Function Related to Environmental Exposure to Manganese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: The towns of Marietta and East Liverpool (EL), Ohio, have been identified as having elevated manganese (Mn) in air due to industrial pollution. Objectives: To evaluate relationships between environmental Mn (Mn-air) exposure and distance from the source and cognitive...

  7. Health-related disparities: influence of environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olden, Kenneth; White, Sandra L

    2005-07-01

    Racial disparities in health cannot be explained solely on the basis of poverty, access to health care, behavior, or environmental factors. Their complex etiology is dependent on interactions between all these factors plus genetics. Scientists have been slow to consider genetics as a risk factor because genetic polymorphisms tend to be more variable within a race than between races. Now that studies are demonstrating the existence of racial differences in allelic frequencies for multiple genes affecting a single biologic mechanism, the present argument for a significant genetic role in contributing to health disparities is gaining support. Individuals vary, often significantly, in their response to environmental agents. This variability provides a high "background noise" when scientists examine human populations to identify environmental links to disease. This variability often masks important environmental contributors to disease risk and is a major impediment to efforts to investigate the causes of diseases.Fortunately, investments in the various genome projects have led to the development of tools and databases that can be used to help identify the genetic variations in environmental response genes that can lead to such wide differences in disease susceptibility. NIEHS developed the environ-mental genome project to catalog these genetic variants (polymorphisms)and to identify the ones that play a major role in human susceptibility to environmental agents. This information is being used in epidemiologic studies to pinpoint environmental contributors to disease better. The research summarized in this article is critically important for tying genetics and the environment to health disparities, and for the development of a rational approach to gauge environmental threats. Common variants in genes play pivotal roles in determining if or when illness or death result from exposure to drugs or environmental xenobiotics. Most common variants exist in all human

  8. Biological responses to dioxin-like compounds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in eelpout Zoarces viviparus. Contributions to an integrated environmental assessment approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tairova, Zhanna

    This PhD project attempts to link exposure to environmentally persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as dioxin-like compounds (DLCs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to effects in the marine fish eelpout Zoarces viviparus by combining different in vivo and in vitro biomarkers in both...

  9. Final environmental statement related to operation of White Mesa Uranium Project, Energy Fuels Nuclear, Inc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-05-01

    Environmental impact statements are presented under the following headings: the existing environment; mining and milling operations; air quality; land use; mineral resources; soils; radiological impacts; socioeconomic impacts; environmental effects of accidents; monitoring programs; unavoidable adverse environmental impacts; relation between short-term uses of the environment and long-term productivity; irreversible and irretrievable commitments

  10. Blood miRNAs as sensitive and specific biological indicators of environmental and occupational exposure to volatile organic compound (VOC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Mi-Kyung; Ryu, Jae-Chun

    2015-10-01

    To date, there is still shortage of highly sensitive and specific minimally invasive biomarkers for assessment of environmental toxicants exposure. Because of the significance of microRNA (miRNA) in various diseases, circulating miRNAs in blood may be unique biomarkers for minimally invasive prediction of toxicants exposure. We identified and validated characteristic miRNA expression profiles of human whole blood in workers exposed to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and compared the usefulness of miRNA indicator of VOCs with the effectiveness of the already used urinary biomarkers of occupational exposure. Using a microarray based approach we screened and detected deregulated miRNAs in their expression in workers exposed to VOCs (toluene [TOL], xylene [XYL] and ethylbenzene [EBZ]). Total 169 workers from four dockyards were enrolled in current study, and 50 subjects of them were used for miRNA microarray analysis. We identified 467 miRNAs for TOL, 211 miRNAs for XYL, and 695 miRNAs for XYL as characteristic discernible exposure indicator, which could discerned each VOC from the control group with higher accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity than urinary biomarkers. Current observations from this study point out that the altered levels of circulating miRNAs can be a reliable novel, minimally invasive biological indicator of occupational exposure to VOCs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparison of zwitterionic N-alkylaminomethanesulfonic acids to related compounds in the Good buffer series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert D. Long

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Several N-alkyl and N,N-dialkylaminomethanesulfonic acids were synthesized (as zwitterions and/or sodium salts to be tested for utility as biological buffers at lower pH levels than existing Good buffer compounds (aminoalkanesulfonates with a minimum of two carbons between amine and sulfonic acid groups as originally described by Norman Good, and in common use as biological buffers. Our hypothesis was that a shorter carbon chain (one carbon between the amino and sulfonic acid groups should lower the ammonium ion pKa values. The alkylaminomethanesulfonate compounds were synthesized in aqueous solution by reaction of primary or secondary amines with formaldehyde/sodium hydrogensulfite addition compound. The pKa values of the ammonium ions of this series of compounds (compared to existing Good buffers was found to correlate well with the length of the carbon chain between the amino and sulfonate moeties, with a significant decrease in amine basicity in the aminomethanesulfonate compounds (pKa decrease of 2 units or more compared to existing Good buffers. An exception was found for the 2-hydroxypiperazine series which shows only a small pKa decrease, probably due to the site of protonation in this compound (as confirmed by X-ray crystal structure. X-ray crystallographic structures of two members of the series are reported. Several of these compounds have pKa values that would indicate potential utility for buffering at pH levels below the normal physiological range (pKa values in the range of 3 to 6 without aqueous solubility problems – a range that is problematic for currently available Good buffers. Unfortunately, the alkylaminomethanesulfonates were found to degrade (with loss of their buffering ability at pH levels below the pKa value and were unstable at elevated temperature (as when autoclaving – thus limiting their utility.

  12. Environmental radiological surveillance in perspective: the relative importance of environmental media as a function of effluent pathway and radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denham, D.H.

    1977-10-01

    Most published guidelines for environmental surveillance emphasize the collection and analysis of specific media (e.g. air, water, milk, direct radiation) without total regard for the potential dose impact of the radionuclides expected in or actually present in the effluent streams from nuclear facilities. To determine the relative importance of medium/nuclide combinations in environmental surveillance, the experience at major ERDA sites and at operating nuclear power plants was reviewed. Typical release rates for nuclide groupings (tritium, noble gases, radioiodine, mixed fission or activation products, and transuranics) in those effluent streams were followed through various environmental pathways. By using this scheme the environmental medium which is most prominent in the critical dose pathway to man was determined. It was also possible to determine points of short-or long-term contaminant accumulation. Following these calculations, each medium was ranked for a given nuclide/effluent pathway combination providing the relative importance of sampling specific environmental media with emphasis on the radiation dose to a critical population group. Finally, the results of these environmental pathway studies are presented in tabular form to provide ready reference for environmental surveillance program design or evaluation

  13. Environmental radiological surveillance in perspective: the relative importance of environmental media as a function of effluent pathway and radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denham, D.H.

    1977-01-01

    Most published guidelines for environmental surveillance emphasize the collection and analysis of specific media (e.g. air, water, milk, direct radiation) without total regard for the potential dose impact of the radionuclides expected in or actually present in the effluent streams FR-om nuclear facilities. To determine the relative importance of medium/nuclide combinations in environmental surveillance, the experience at major ERDA sites and at operating nuclear power plants was reviewed. Typical release rates for nuclide groupings (tritium, noble gases, radioiodine, mixed fission or activation products, and transuranics) in those effluent streams were followed through various environmental pathways. By using this scheme the environmental medium which is most prominent in the critical dose pathway to man was determined. It was also possible to determine points of short-or long-term contaminant accumulation. Following these combination providing the relative importance of sampling specific environmental media with emphasis on the radiation dose to a critical population group. Finally, the results of these environmental pathway studies are presented in tabular form to provide ready reference for environmental surveillance program design or evaluation

  14. Introducing Environmentally Related Taxes: A Window of Opportunity for China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barde, Jean-Philippe; Andersen, Mikael Skou; Schlegelmilch, Kai

    2009-01-01

    The transition from a strictly planned economy to a socialist market economy which China has undertaken has enabled impressive economic growth rates over more than two decades and has been significant for reducing poverty and increasing standards of living. Environmental challenges such as air...... as a basis for China’s economy is necessary. Sustainable use of energy and raw materials will be required to avoid future bottlenecks for harmonious development and economic growth....

  15. Environmental photobioreactor array (EPBRA) systems and apparatus related thereto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, David; Zegarac, Robert; Lucker, Ben F.; Hall, Christopher; Abernathy, Casey; Carpenter, Joel; Cruz, Jeffrey

    2017-11-14

    A system is described herein that comprises one or more modular environmental photobioreactor arrays, each array containing two or more photobioreactors, wherein the system is adapted to monitor each of the photobioreactors and/or modulate the conditions with each of the photobioreactors. The photobioreactors are also adapted for measurement of multiple physiological parameters of a biomass contained therein. Various methods for selecting and characterizing biomass are also provided. In one embodiment, the biomass is algae.

  16. Synthesis of reference compounds related to Chemical Weapons Convention for verification and drug development purposes – a Brazilian endeavour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcante, S. F. A.; de Paula, R. L.; Kitagawa, D. A. S.; Barcellos, M. C.; Simas, A. B. C.; Granjeiro, J. M.

    2018-03-01

    This paper deals with challenges that Brazilian Army Organic Synthesis Laboratory has been going through to access reference compounds related to the Chemical Weapons Convention in order to support verification analysis and for research of novel antidotes. Some synthetic procedures to produce the chemicals, as well as Quality Assurance issues and a brief introduction of international agreements banning chemical weapons are also presented.

  17. Simultaneous estimation of Ofloxacin and Cefixime in tablet form in presence of the inactive Ofloxacin USP Related compound A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lobna A. Hussein

    2017-06-01

    The suggested method was validated in compliance with the ICH guidelines and was successfully applied for the quantification of Ofloxacin, Cefixime and Ofloxacin Related compound A in their commercial tablets. The method was also statistically compared to reference methods with no significant differences in performance.

  18. Measurements of VOC/SVOC emission factors from burning incenses in an environmental test chamber: influence of temperature, relative humidity, and air exchange rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoukian, A; Buiron, D; Temime-Roussel, B; Wortham, H; Quivet, E

    2016-04-01

    This study investigates the influence of three environmental indoor parameters (i.e., temperature, relative humidity, and air exchange rate) on the emission of 13 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) during incense burning. Experiments have been carried out using an environmental test chamber. Statistical results from a classical two-level full factorial design highlight the predominant effect of ventilation on emission factors. The higher the ventilation, the higher the emission factor. Moreover, thanks to these results, an estimation of the concentration range for the compounds under study can be calculated and allows a quick look of indoor pollution induced by incense combustion. Carcinogenic substances (i.e., benzene, benzo(a)pyrene, and formaldehyde) produced from the incense combustion would be predicted in typical living indoors conditions to reach instantaneous concentration levels close to or higher than air quality exposure threshold values.

  19. Dynamics of growth/mature-related substances in vegetables using specific triple labeled compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamato, Yoichi; Hamano, Megumi; Yamazaki, Hiroko; Miura, Hiroyuki

    2000-01-01

    To progress physiological studies of vegetables, development of biosynthetic method for production of triple labeled compounds was attempted in this study and such method for vegetables using specifically labeled sugars was examined. As a sugar compound, 6-C 14 -glucose (14-CG) and 1-H 3 -glucose (3-HG) were given to culture medium for cells derived from tomato embryonic axis and the changes of these compounds were monitored. Tomato embryonic cells were harvested 20 and 44 hours after the addition of 14-CG or 3-CG into the culture medium the cells. The cells were homogenized and the supernatant after centrifugation was applied onto HPLC. Radio analyzer revealed major two peaks in the chromatography of the sugar fraction from the cells after 20 hours from the addition of 14-CG. One was the peak of glucose, itself and the other was estimated to be that of fructose based on the retention time. Whereas in the elution pattern of the sugar fraction after 44 hours from the addition, a peak of sucrose was found along with the peak of glucose. These results indicate that C 14 in 14-CG but not H 3 in 3-HG was transferred into fructose after the metabolism in tomato. Moreover, in both elution patterns, there was a peak positioned at the same retention time, indicating that the compound in this peak was produced from either of 14-CG or 3-HG. Therefore, it is thought that H 3 and C 14 double-labeled compound could be produced from the cell culture added with both labeled compounds; 14-CG and 3-HG. (M.N.)

  20. [Study of selegiline and related compounds with x-ray diffraction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, K; Böcskei, Z; Török, Z

    1992-09-01

    Selegiline and its parent compounds were studied by X-ray diffraction. It was established that the racemates of primary and secondary amines (p-fluoro-amphetamine, methamphetamine, p-fluoro-methamphetamine) hydrochloride do not form racemic compounds but crystalline as conglomerates, at the same time tertiary amines like selegiline and p-fluoro-selegiline hydrochlorides do. The crystalline structure of five enantiomeric hydrochlorides were determined, the CPhe-C-C-N torsion angle is anti-periplanar in all cases but in p-fluoro-amphetamine where it is gauche.

  1. Hydrothermal synthesis of layered iron-chalcogenide superconductors and related compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pachmayr, Ursula Elisabeth

    2017-01-01

    This thesis provides a new preparative approach to iron-chalcogenide based superconductors. The hydrothermal synthesis of anti-PbO type FeSe, which can be seen as basis structure of the compounds of interest was successfully developed. Along with this, some insights regarding the influence of synthesis parameters were gained featuring a basis for further hydrothermal syntheses of new iron-chalcogenide compounds. The potential of this method, primarily the extension of the so far limited accessibility of iron-chalcogenide based superconductors by solid-state sythesis, was revealed within the present work. The solid-solution FeSe_1_-_xS_x was prepared for the whole substitution range, whereas solid-state synthesis exhibits a solubility limit at x = 0.3. Furthermore, the new compounds [(Li_0_._8Fe_0_._2)OH]FeX (X = Se, S) were synthesized which are exclusively accessible via hydrothermal method. The compounds, where layers of (Li_0_._8Fe_0_._2)OH alternate with FeX layers, feature exceptional physical properties, notably a coexistence of superconductivity and ferromagnetism. They were intensively studied within this work. By combination of solid-state and hydrothermal ion-exchange synthesis even large crystals necessary for subsequent physical measurements are accessible. Apart from these layered iron-chalcogenide superconductors, further compounds which likewise exhibit building blocks of edge-sharing FeSe_4 tetrahedra were found via this synthesis method. The iron selenides A_2Fe_4Se_6 (A = K, Rb, Cs) consist of double chains of [Fe_2Se_3]"1"-, whereas a new compound Na_6(H_2O)_1_8Fe_4Se_8 exhibits [Fe_4Se_8]"6"- 'stella quadrangula' clusters. This structural diversity as well as the associated physical properties of the compounds demonstrates the numerous capabilities of hydrothermal synthesis in the field of iron-chalcogenide compounds. In particular with regard to iron-chalcogenide based superconductors this synthesis strategy is encouraging. It seems probable

  2. Hydrothermal synthesis of layered iron-chalcogenide superconductors and related compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pachmayr, Ursula Elisabeth

    2017-04-06

    This thesis provides a new preparative approach to iron-chalcogenide based superconductors. The hydrothermal synthesis of anti-PbO type FeSe, which can be seen as basis structure of the compounds of interest was successfully developed. Along with this, some insights regarding the influence of synthesis parameters were gained featuring a basis for further hydrothermal syntheses of new iron-chalcogenide compounds. The potential of this method, primarily the extension of the so far limited accessibility of iron-chalcogenide based superconductors by solid-state sythesis, was revealed within the present work. The solid-solution FeSe{sub 1-x}S{sub x} was prepared for the whole substitution range, whereas solid-state synthesis exhibits a solubility limit at x = 0.3. Furthermore, the new compounds [(Li{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.2})OH]FeX (X = Se, S) were synthesized which are exclusively accessible via hydrothermal method. The compounds, where layers of (Li{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.2})OH alternate with FeX layers, feature exceptional physical properties, notably a coexistence of superconductivity and ferromagnetism. They were intensively studied within this work. By combination of solid-state and hydrothermal ion-exchange synthesis even large crystals necessary for subsequent physical measurements are accessible. Apart from these layered iron-chalcogenide superconductors, further compounds which likewise exhibit building blocks of edge-sharing FeSe{sub 4} tetrahedra were found via this synthesis method. The iron selenides A{sub 2}Fe{sub 4}Se{sub 6} (A = K, Rb, Cs) consist of double chains of [Fe{sub 2}Se{sub 3}]{sup 1-}, whereas a new compound Na{sub 6}(H{sub 2}O){sub 18}Fe{sub 4}Se{sub 8} exhibits [Fe{sub 4}Se{sub 8}]{sup 6-} 'stella quadrangula' clusters. This structural diversity as well as the associated physical properties of the compounds demonstrates the numerous capabilities of hydrothermal synthesis in the field of iron-chalcogenide compounds. In particular with regard

  3. Status of health and environmental research relative to coal gasification 1976 to the present

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilzbach, K.E.; Reilly, C.A. Jr. (comps.)

    1982-10-01

    Health and environmental research relative to coal gasification conducted by Argonne National Laboratory, the Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory under DOE sponsorship is summarized. The studies have focused on the chemical and toxicological characterization of materials from a range of process streams in five bench-scale, pilot-plant and industrial gasifiers. They also address ecological effects, industrial hygiene, environmental control technology performance, and risk assessment. Following an overview of coal gasification technology and related environmental concerns, integrated summaries of the studies and results in each area are presented and conclusions are drawn. Needed health and environmental research relative to coal gasification is identified.

  4. Environmental problems related to winter traffic safety conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Hääl, Maire-Liis; Sürje, Peep

    2006-01-01

    The changeable Nordic climate has added problems to road maintenance and the environment to ensure traffic safety under winter conditions. The widespread use of salt (NaCl) for snow and ice removal from roads has resulted in environmental impacts in many areas. Some of the problems associated with the use of NaCl are the corrosion of bridges, road surfaces and vehicles and damage to roadside vegetation and aquatic system that are affected by water from de-iced roads. Accumulation of hard meta...

  5. Hygroscopicity of secondary organic aerosols formed by oxidation of cycloalkenes, monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and related compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Varutbangkul

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of experiments has been conducted in the Caltech indoor smog chamber facility to investigate the water uptake properties of aerosol formed by oxidation of various organic precursors. Secondary organic aerosol (SOA from simple and substituted cycloalkenes (C5-C8 is produced in dark ozonolysis experiments in a dry chamber (RH~5%. Biogenic SOA from monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and oxygenated terpenes is formed by photooxidation in a humid chamber (~50% RH. Using the hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA, we measure the diameter-based hygroscopic growth factor (GF of the SOA as a function of time and relative humidity. All SOA studied is found to be slightly hygroscopic, with smaller water uptake than that of typical inorganic aerosol substances. The aerosol water uptake increases with time early in the experiments for the cycloalkene SOA, but decreases with time for the sesquiterpene SOA. This behavior could indicate competing effects between the formation of more highly oxidized polar compounds (more hygroscopic, and formation of longer-chained oligomers (less hygroscopic. All SOA also exhibit a smooth water uptake with RH with no deliquescence or efflorescence. The water uptake curves are found to be fitted well with an empirical three-parameter functional form. The measured pure organic GF values at 85% RH are between 1.09–1.16 for SOA from ozonolysis of cycloalkenes, 1.01–1.04 for sesquiterpene photooxidation SOA, and 1.06–1.10 for the monoterpene and oxygenated terpene SOA. The GF of pure SOA (GForg in experiments in which inorganic seed aerosol is used is determined by assuming volume-weighted water uptake (Zdanovskii-Stokes-Robinson or 'ZSR' approach and using the size-resolved organic mass fraction measured by the Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer. Knowing the water content associated with the inorganic fraction yields GForg values. However, for each precursor, the GForg values computed from different

  6. A Customizable Multimodality Imaging Compound That Relates External Landmarks to Internal Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semework, Mulugeta

    2015-12-01

    Numerous research and clinical interventions, such as targeting drug deliveries or surgeries and finding blood clots, abscesses, or lesions, require accurate localization of various body parts. Individual differences in anatomy make it hard to use typical stereotactic procedures that rely on external landmarks and standardized atlases. For instance, it is not unusual to incorrectly place a craniotomy in brain surgery. This project was thus performed to find a new and easy method to correctly establish the relationship between external landmarks and medical scans of internal organs, such as specific regions of the brain. This paper introduces an MRI, CT, and radiographically visible compound that can be applied to any surface and therefore provide an external reference point to an internal (eye-invisible) structure. Tested on nonhuman primates and isolated brain scans, this compound showed up with the same color in different scan types, making practical work possible. Conventional, and mostly of specific utility, products such as contrast agents were differentially colored or completely failed to show up and were not flexible. This compound can be customized to have different viscosities, colors, odors, and other characteristics. It can also be mixed with hardening materials such as acrylic for industrial or engineering uses, for example. Laparoscopy wands, electroencephalogram leads, and other equipment could also be embedded with or surrounded by the compound for ease in 3-dimensional visualizations. A pending U.S. patent endorses this invention. © 2015 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  7. An Analytical Approach for Relating Boiling Points of Monofunctional Organic Compounds to Intermolecular Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struyf, Jef

    2011-01-01

    The boiling point of a monofunctional organic compound is expressed as the sum of two parts: a contribution to the boiling point due to the R group and a contribution due to the functional group. The boiling point in absolute temperature of the corresponding RH hydrocarbon is chosen for the contribution to the boiling point of the R group and is a…

  8. Nuclear and nuclear related analytical methods applied in environmental research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popescu, Ion V.; Gheboianu, Anca; Bancuta, Iulian; Cimpoca, G. V; Stihi, Claudia; Radulescu, Cristiana; Oros Calin; Frontasyeva, Marina; Petre, Marian; Dulama, Ioana; Vlaicu, G.

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear Analytical Methods can be used for research activities on environmental studies like water quality assessment, pesticide residues, global climatic change (transboundary), pollution and remediation. Heavy metal pollution is a problem associated with areas of intensive industrial activity. In this work the moss bio monitoring technique was employed to study the atmospheric deposition in Dambovita County Romania. Also, there were used complementary nuclear and atomic analytical methods: Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA), Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES). These high sensitivity analysis methods were used to determine the chemical composition of some samples of mosses placed in different areas with different pollution industrial sources. The concentrations of Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni and Zn were determined. The concentration of Fe from the same samples was determined using all these methods and we obtained a very good agreement, in statistical limits, which demonstrate the capability of these analytical methods to be applied on a large spectrum of environmental samples with the same results. (authors)

  9. Macroeconomic analysis of road vehicles related environmental pollution in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Török, Árpád; Török, Ádám

    2014-06-01

    The article aims to examine the relationship between road transport and macro economy, especially the use of fossil energy in transport sector. Nowadays environmental pollution is a key issue on the EU level as well as in Hungary. Lots of effort have been already done in order to decrease emissions in road transport, but a lot more need to be done. The article aims to prove that the only possible solution is technological innovation in order to reach emission reduction target without decline of the GDP. The basic idea is to ensure sustainable development, to decrease environmental pollution in road transport without harming the economy. In the EU and in Hungary road vehicles are powered by fossil fuelled internal combustion engines. This paper aims to analyse the role of the fossil fuel-based road transport sector within the economy with the usage of constant elasticity substitution (CES) production functions. Authors have built CES production function for Hungary. Parameters were calculated based on the validated model.

  10. Efficacy of Compound Kushen Injection in Relieving Cancer-Related Pain: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-ming Guo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite widespread popular use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM therapies, a rigorous evidence based on the efficacy of compound kushen injection (CKI for cancer-related pain is lacking. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy and safety of compound kushen injection and provided information for current or future research and clinical application. Sixteen trials were identified with a total of 1564 patients. The total pain relief rate of CKI plus chemotherapy is better than chemotherapy except for colorectal cancer. The treatment groups achieved a reduction in the incidences of leukopenia and gastrointestinal, hepatic, and renal functional lesion. However, there is paucity of multi-institutional RCTs evaluating compound kushen injection for cancer pain with adequate power, duration, and sham control. The quantity and quality of RCTs are lower so that we still have to boost the research level through scientific design and normative report.

  11. Data on coffee composition and mass spectrometry analysis of mixtures of coffee related carbohydrates, phenolic compounds and peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana S.P. Moreira

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The data presented here are related to the research paper entitled “Transglycosylation reactions, a main mechanism of phenolics incorporation in coffee melanoidins: inhibition by Maillard reaction” (Moreira et al., 2017 [1]. Methanolysis was applied in coffee fractions to quantify glycosidically-linked phenolics in melanoidins. Moreover, model mixtures mimicking coffee beans composition were roasted and analyzed using mass spectrometry-based approaches to disclose the regulatory role of proteins in transglycosylation reactions extension. This article reports the detailed chemical composition of coffee beans and derived fractions. In addition, it provides gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS chromatograms and respective GC–MS spectra of silylated methanolysis products obtained from phenolic compounds standards, as well as the detailed identification of all compounds observed by electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI-MS analysis of roasted model mixtures, paving the way for the identification of the same type of compounds in other samples.

  12. The decline and revival of environmentally-related taxation in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    2013-01-01

    The EU Energy Taxation Directive's low minimum tax rate for diesel along with a general dieselisation of Europe's vehicle fleet explains why revenues from environmentally-related taxes gradually declined from 1999-2008. After the financial crisis environmentally-related taxation is resuming its...

  13. Health risks from dioxin and related compounds: evaluation of the EPA reassessment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on EPA's Exposure and Human Health Reassessment of TCDD and Related Compounds, National Research Council

    Although the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency presented a comprehensive review of the scientific literature in its 2003 draft reassessment of the risks of dioxin, the agency did not sufficiently quantify...

  14. What Causes Environmental Inequalities and Related Health Effects? An Analysis of Evolving Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruize, Hanneke; Droomers, Mariël; van Kamp, Irene; Ruijsbroek, Annemarie

    2014-01-01

    Early environmental justice studies were exposure-oriented, lacked an integrated approach, and did not address the health impact of environmental inequalities. A coherent conceptual framework, needed to understand and tackle environmental inequalities and the related health effects, was lacking. We analyzed the more recent environmental justice literature to find out how conceptual insights have evolved. The conceptual framework of the WHO Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH) was analyzed for additional explanations for environmental inequalities and the related health effects. This paper points out that recent environmental justice studies have broadened their scope by incorporating a broader set of physical and social environmental indicators, and by focusing on different geographic levels and on health impacts of environmental inequalities. The CSDH framework provided additional elements such as the role of structural determinants, the role of health-related behavior in relation to the physical and social environment, access to health care, as well as the life course perspective. Incorporating elements of the CSDH framework into existing environmental justice concepts, and performing more empirical research on the interactions between the different determinants at different geographical levels would further improve our understanding of environmental inequalities and their health effects and offer new opportunities for policy action. PMID:24886752

  15. What Causes Environmental Inequalities and Related Health Effects? An Analysis of Evolving Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanneke Kruize

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Early environmental justice studies were exposure-oriented, lacked an integrated approach, and did not address the health impact of environmental inequalities. A coherent conceptual framework, needed to understand and tackle environmental inequalities and the related health effects, was lacking. We analyzed the more recent environmental justice literature to find out how conceptual insights have evolved. The conceptual framework of the WHO Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH was analyzed for additional explanations for environmental inequalities and the related health effects. This paper points out that recent environmental justice studies have broadened their scope by incorporating a broader set of physical and social environmental indicators, and by focusing on different geographic levels and on health impacts of environmental inequalities. The CSDH framework provided additional elements such as the role of structural determinants, the role of health-related behavior in relation to the physical and social environment, access to health care, as well as the life course perspective. Incorporating elements of the CSDH framework into existing environmental justice concepts, and performing more empirical research on the interactions between the different determinants at different geographical levels would further improve our understanding of environmental inequalities and their health effects and offer new opportunities for policy action.

  16. Nanotechnology in environmental remediation: degradation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) over visible-light-active nanostructured materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaraj, Rengaraj; Al-Kindy, Salma M Z; Silanpaa, Mika; Kim, Younghun

    2014-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are major pollutants and are considered to be one of the most important contaminants generated by human beings living in urban and industrial areas. Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is a VOC that has been widely used as a gasoline additive to reduce VOC emissions from motor vehicles. However, new gasoline additives like MTBE are having negative environmental impacts. Recent survey reports clearly show that groundwater is often polluted owing to leakage of petroleum products from underground storage tanks. MTBE is highly soluble in water (e.g., 0.35-0.71 M) and has been detected at high concentrations in groundwater. The presence of MTBE in groundwater poses a potential health problem. The documented effects of MTBE exposure are headaches, vomiting, diarrhea, fever, cough, muscle aches, sleepiness, disorientation, dizziness, and skin and eye irritation. To address these problems, photocatalytic treatment is the preferred treatment for polluted water. In the present work, a simple and template-free solution phase synthesis method has been developed for the preparation of novel cadmium sulfide (CdS) hollow microspheres using cadmium nitrate and thioacetamide precursors. The synthesized products have been characterized by a variety of methods, including X-ray powder diffraction, high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (HR-SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and UV-visible diffused reflectance spectroscopy. The HR-SEM measurements revealed the spherical morphology of the CdS microspheres, which evolved by the oriented aggregation of the primary CdS nanocrystals. Furthermore, studies of photocatalytic activity revealed that the synthesized CdS hollow microspheres exhibit an excellent photocatalytic performance in rapidly degrading MTBE in aqueous solution under visible light illumination. These results suggest that CdS microspheres will be an interesting candidate for photocatalytic detoxification studies under visible light

  17. Speciation needs in relation with environmental and biological purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moulin, V.; Ansoborlo, E.; Bion, L.; Doizi, D.; Moulin, C.; Cote, G.; Madic, C.; Van Der Lee, J.

    2004-01-01

    Radionuclides can occur in the environment either through chronic releases of nuclear facilities, or due to incidents or accidents. In order to study their behaviour in the environment (migration, retention, transfer, and in human organisms (metabolism, retention, excretion), it is of prime importance to know their solution chemistry, and more particularly thermodynamic constants, which will allow to determine their speciation. In fact, speciation governs the migration, the bioavailability and the toxicity of elements. Moreover, this knowledge is also of great interest for decorporation or decontamination purposes. In this framework, a CEA working group on speciation has been created in order to share data both on thermodynamic constants and on speciation analytical methods, interesting chemists, environmentalists and biologists. It has been focused, in a first time, on actinides, namely Th, U, Pu, Am, Np, taking into account their most important oxidation states occurring in environmental or biological environments: Th(IV), U(IV, VI), Pu(III, IV, VI), Am(III), Np(IV, V). A particular attention was devoted to the choice of ligands (inorganic and organic) for being the most representative of environmental and biological media. The thermodynamic database used is BASSIST for Base Applied to Speciation in Solution and at Interfaces and Solubility (developed by CEA), in interaction with the code JCHESS. Different examples will be then presented on the selection of data (thermodynamic constants, ligands of interest) through benchmark exercises (case of U(VI), Am(III), Pu(IV)) which will show the lacks or weakness of knowledge. Speciation diagrams will support these discussions. Moreover, analytical methods to determine thermodynamic constants or direct speciation will also be presented and discussed. (author)

  18. Relation between some environmental pollutants and recurrent spontaneous abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziza A. Saad

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive health is exquisitely sensitive to characteristics of an individual’s environment including physical, biological, behavioral, cultural and socioeconomic factors. This study was launched to elucidate the effect of the exposure to chemical pollutants as aromatic amines viz. (benzidine, mono-acetyl benzidine, diacetyl benzidine, α,β-naphthylamine as well as the biological pollutants e.g., human cytomegalovirus (HCMV as risk factors for recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA through determination of MDA as a marker of oxidative stress and determination of some antioxidant markers. The results of the current study revealed that the aborter mothers were being exposed to environmental pollutants as aromatic amines which were manifested by the presence of benzidine, mono-acetyl-benzidine, di-acetyl-benzidine, α,β-naphthylamine in most of their urine samples, where the level of aromatic amines were more 13.6, 10, 15, and 4-folds than the control group, respectively. Also, the data suggest that in early pregnancy failure there is an increase in markers of oxidative stress and a probable decrease in maternal antioxidant defenses (22 nmol/ml and 17 mg/l, 550 U/l, respectively. Generation of ROS in large quantities, in the first trimester placenta which has limited antioxidant defenses may cause DNA damage, oxidation of protein and lipid resulting in extensive cell death. Also, it was demonstrated that high elevation of HCMV inhibits cytotrophoblasts proliferation, migration invasion and matrix metalloproteins (MMP expression. Obviously, placental toxicological responses are partly due to pharmaco/toxico dynamic responses to the chemicals. Conclusively, the aforementioned findings emphasis that, the exposures to environmental chemical and/or biological risk factors are implicated in the pathogenesis of recurrent spontaneous abortion.

  19. Quality of Streams in Johnson County, Kansas, and Relations to Environmental Variables, 2003-07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Teresa J.; Poulton, Barry C.; Graham, Jennifer L.

    2009-01-01

    The quality of streams and relations to environmental variables in Johnson County, northeastern Kansas, were evaluated using water, streambed sediment, land use, streamflow, habitat, algal periphyton (benthic algae), and benthic macroinvertebrate data. Water, streambed sediment, and macroinvertebrate samples were collected in March 2007 during base flow at 20 stream sites that represent 11 different watersheds in the county. In addition, algal periphyton samples were collected twice (spring and summer 2007) at one-half of the sites. Environmental data including water and streambed-sediment chemistry data (primarily nutrients, fecal-indicator bacteria, and organic wastewater compounds), land use, streamflow, and habitat data were used in statistical analyses to evaluate relations between biological conditions and variables that may affect them. This report includes an evaluation of water and streambed-sediment chemistry, assessment of habitat conditions, comparison of biological community attributes (such as composition, diversity, and abundance) among sampling sites, placement of sampling sites into impairment categories, evaluation of biological data relative to environmental variables, and evaluation of changes in biological communities and effects of urbanization. This evaluation is useful for understanding factors that affect stream quality, for improving water-quality management programs, and for documenting changing conditions over time. The information will become increasingly important for protecting streams in the future as urbanization continues. Results of this study indicate that the biological quality at nearly all biological sampling sites in Johnson County has some level of impairment. Periphyton taxa generally were indicative of somewhat degraded conditions with small to moderate amounts of organic enrichment. Camp Branch in the Blue River watershed was the only site that met State criteria for full support of aquatic life in 2007. Since 2003

  20. Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 and Related Compounds in the Treatment of Childhood-Onset Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyrus Vahdatpour

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 (IGF-1 is a neurotrophic polypeptide with crucial roles to play in Central Nervous System (CNS growth, development and maturation. Following interrogation of the neurobiology underlying several neurodevelopmental disorders and Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD, both recombinant IGF-1 (mecasermin and related derivatives, such as (1-3 IGF-1, have emerged as potential therapeutic approaches. Clinical pilot studies and early reports have supported the safety/preliminary efficacy of IGF-1 and related compounds in the treatment of Rett Syndrome, with evidence mounting for its use in Phelan McDermid Syndrome and Fragile X Syndrome. In broader ASD, clinical trials are ongoing. Here, we review the role of IGF-1 in the molecular etiologies of these conditions in addition to the accumulating evidence from early clinical studies highlighting the possibility of IGF-1 and related compounds as potential treatments for these childhood-onset neurodevelopmental disorders.

  1. Relationship with environmental groups, the media and the public: aspects relating to environmental contaminations and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacerda, J.R. de; Kepinski, A.; Almeida, M.J. de; Ferreira, A.L.V.

    1993-01-01

    In this article the Thermonuclear Directorate from FURNAS Centrais Eletricas S.A. looks at the brazilian situation and briefly reviews the relationship with environmental groups and the media. It them deals with nuclear power and public acceptance. In response, through their own programmes and with the support from governmental and non governmental initiatives a Nuclear Protection System Programme was organized. (B.C.A.). 01 fig, 04 tabs

  2. Occurrence and potential crop uptake of emerging contaminants and related compounds in an agricultural irrigation network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Preciado, Diana; Matamoros, Víctor; Bayona, Josep M

    2011-12-15

    Emerging contaminants have received much attention in recent years due to their presence in surface waters, but little attention has been paid to their occurrence in agricultural irrigation waters. This study investigated the occurrence of these compounds in an agricultural irrigation network in northeastern Spain and, for the first time, using two plant uptake models, estimated the concentration of selected micropollutants in crops. The concentration of micropollutants in agricultural irrigation waters ranged from 10 to 5130 ng L(-1) and exhibited some attenuation over the course of the irrigation network. Bromoform, chloroform, diclofenac, caffeine, ibuprofen, naproxen, methyl dihydrojasmonate, galaxolide, butylated hydroxytoluene, and butylated hydroxyanisole were the most abundant contaminants (>200 ng L(-1), on average). The estimated concentration of micropollutants in crops ranged from contaminants detected). Further studies are needed to determine the health implications that the presence of these compounds in fruit and vegetables may have for consumers. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Symptoms of mothers and infants related to total volatile organic compounds in household products

    OpenAIRE

    Farrow, A; Taylor, H; Northstone, K; Golding, J

    2003-01-01

    The authors sought to determine whether reported symptoms of mothers and infants were associated significantly with the use of household products that raised indoor levels of total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs). Data collected from 170 homes within the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC: a large birth cohort of more than 10,000) had determined which household products were associated with the highest levels of TVOCs. The latter data were collected over a period that ...

  4. Occurrence and potential crop uptake of emerging contaminants and related compounds in an agricultural irrigation network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calderón-Preciado, Diana; Matamoros, Víctor; Bayona, Josep M.

    2011-01-01

    Emerging contaminants have received much attention in recent years due to their presence in surface waters, but little attention has been paid to their occurrence in agricultural irrigation waters. This study investigated the occurrence of these compounds in an agricultural irrigation network in northeastern Spain and, for the first time, using two plant uptake models, estimated the concentration of selected micropollutants in crops. The concentration of micropollutants in agricultural irrigation waters ranged from 10 to 5130 ng L −1 and exhibited some attenuation over the course of the irrigation network. Bromoform, chloroform, diclofenac, caffeine, ibuprofen, naproxen, methyl dihydrojasmonate, galaxolide, butylated hydroxytoluene, and butylated hydroxyanisole were the most abundant contaminants (> 200 ng L −1 , on average). The estimated concentration of micropollutants in crops ranged from −1 , with the neutral compounds being the most abundant. Moreover, the predicted data obtained by fate models generally agreed with experimental data. Finally, human exposure to micropollutants through fruit and vegetable consumption was estimated to be 9.8 μg per person and week (Σ 27 contaminants detected). Further studies are needed to determine the health implications that the presence of these compounds in fruit and vegetables may have for consumers.

  5. Occurrence and potential crop uptake of emerging contaminants and related compounds in an agricultural irrigation network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calderon-Preciado, Diana [IDAEA-CSIC, Jordi Girona, 18, E-08034 Barcelona (Spain); Matamoros, Victor, E-mail: victor.matamoros@udg.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Girona, Campus Montilivi, 17071 Girona (Spain); Bayona, Josep M. [IDAEA-CSIC, Jordi Girona, 18, E-08034 Barcelona (Spain)

    2011-12-15

    Emerging contaminants have received much attention in recent years due to their presence in surface waters, but little attention has been paid to their occurrence in agricultural irrigation waters. This study investigated the occurrence of these compounds in an agricultural irrigation network in northeastern Spain and, for the first time, using two plant uptake models, estimated the concentration of selected micropollutants in crops. The concentration of micropollutants in agricultural irrigation waters ranged from 10 to 5130 ng L{sup -1} and exhibited some attenuation over the course of the irrigation network. Bromoform, chloroform, diclofenac, caffeine, ibuprofen, naproxen, methyl dihydrojasmonate, galaxolide, butylated hydroxytoluene, and butylated hydroxyanisole were the most abundant contaminants (> 200 ng L{sup -1}, on average). The estimated concentration of micropollutants in crops ranged from < 1 to 7677 ng kg{sup -1}, with the neutral compounds being the most abundant. Moreover, the predicted data obtained by fate models generally agreed with experimental data. Finally, human exposure to micropollutants through fruit and vegetable consumption was estimated to be 9.8 {mu}g per person and week ({Sigma} 27 contaminants detected). Further studies are needed to determine the health implications that the presence of these compounds in fruit and vegetables may have for consumers.

  6. Potential of mediation for resolving environmental disputes related to energy facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-12-01

    This study assesses the potential of mediation as a tool for resolving disputes related to the environmental regulation of new energy facilities and identifies possible roles the Federal government might play in promoting the use of mediation. These disputes result when parties challenge an energy project on the basis of its potential environmental impacts. The paper reviews the basic theory of mediation, evaluates specific applications of mediation to recent environmental disputes, discusses the views of environmental public-interest groups towards mediation, and identifies types of energy facility-related disputes where mediation could have a significant impact. Finally, potential avenues for the Federal government to encourage use of this tool are identified.

  7. (CaFeAs)10PtzAs8 superconductors and related compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuerzer, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    The main topic of this dissertation is the identification of new compounds, structure determination, and substitution dependent investigation of properties in this new branch of the family of iron arsenide superconductors (Chapter 2). Chapter 2.1 presents the identification of the superconducting compounds and the corresponding structure elucidation identifying two dif-ferent species (CaFeAs) 10 Pt 3 As 8 and (CaFeAs) 10 Pt 4 As 8 in this family (abbreviated as 1038 and 1048 according to their stoichiometry). However, a closer look revealed a more challenging structure chemistry which is covered in Chapter 2.2. The following two Chapters 2.3 and 2.4 are devoted to (CaFeAs) 10 Pt 3 As 8 and more detailed investigations on this parent compound of the new superconductor family. Furthermore, transition metal substitution series (CaFe 1-x M x As) 10 Pt 3 As 8 were synthesized to investigate the resemblance to model systems Ba(Fe 1-x M x ) 2 As x and LaO(Fe 1-x M x )As in the scope of structural changes and superconductivity as described in Chapter 2.5. Initially amazing differences in superconducting properties com-paring 1038 and 1048 compounds are analyzed in Chapter 2.6 establishing an universal dop-ing model in the (CaFe 1-x M x As) 10 Pt z As 8 family. Additionally substituent dependent properties upon rare earth substitution in electron doped (Ca 1-y RE y FeAs) 10 Pt 3 As 8 are investigated in Chapter 2.7, while a detailed study of superconducting properties and magnetism in (Ca 1-y La y FeAs) 10 Pt 3 As 8 by the local μSR technique is presented in Chapter 2.8. In Chapter 2.9 a comparison of direct and electron doping is discussed based on codoping experiments in (Ca 1-y La y Fe 1-x Pt x As) 10 Pt 3 As 8 and (CaFe 1-x Pt x As) 10 Pt 4 As 8 . Finally, in Chapter 2.10 electron doping in stoichiometric 1048 is studied by charge compensation experiments in (Ca 1-y Na y FeAs) 10 Pt 4 As 8 . Chapter 3 is dedicated to a new family of calcium iron arsenides featuring

  8. Environmental pollutants and stroke-related hospital admissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Luiz Fernando Costa; Francisco, Juliana B; Patto, Marielle Beatriz R; Antunes, Angélica M

    2012-07-01

    Some effects of environmental pollution on human health are known, especially those affecting the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. The current study aimed to estimate these effects on the production of hospital admissions for stroke. This was an ecological study using hospital admissions data in São José dos Campos, São Paulo State, Brazil, with diagnosis of stroke, from January 1, 2007, to April 30, 2008. The target pollutants were particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, and ozone. Use of a Poisson linear regression model showed that same-day exposure to particulate matter was associated with hospitalization for stroke (RR = 1.013; 95%CI: 1.001-1.025). An increase of 10 µg/m(3) in this pollutant increased the risk of hospitalization by 12% (RR = 1.137; 95%CI: 1.014-1.276). In the multi-pollutant model, it was thus possible to identify particulate matter as associated with hospitalization for stroke in a medium-sized city like São José dos Campos.

  9. Environmental studies related to additional capacity on the Manicouagan River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guertin, G.; Tremblay, S.; Delagrave, M.

    1989-01-01

    Increasing the capacity of the hydroelectric power plants on the Manicouagan River in Quebec will have the effect of increasing flows in winter and decreasing flows in summer. These changes in flow and in the tidal range at the Manicouagan estuary could have effects on the thermal balance of the reservoirs, ice formation, erosion of river banks, and other effects on wildlife and local populations using the river resources. Studies were undertaken to determine the environmental feasibility of increasing the power plant capacity, the limits of such an increase, and the measures needed to mitigate any adverse effects. The studies concentrated on the effects on the reservoirs and the estuary. It appears that the salmonids in the Manic 5 reservoir will be affected by a lowering of water levels and an accentuation in the tidal range. The reproduction of whitefish and lake charr in the reservoirs will probably be reduced by the lowering of winter flow levels. The effects on the estuary were examined by a combination of oceanographic investigations and hydrodynamic model studies. Invasion of salt water into the estuary during high tide could move upstream during low-flow periods in summer, affecting fish breeding grounds. A minimum flow of 400 m 3 /s is needed upstream of Pointe des Booms to ensure an adequate habitat for survival of larvae of anadramous fish species. The forecast maximum winter flow is not perceived to affect species survival. The effects on commercial fishing would be minimal. 2 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs

  10. On the data processing related to environmental radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Isamu

    1984-01-01

    The monitoring and measurement of environmental radioactivity have been undertaken by many organizations in Japan. The Japan Chemical Analysis Center has been entrusted by the government to gather and edit these measured results. The computer processing of these data started in 1978, and it is expected that by the end of fiscal year 1984, all fallout data since 1957 and all radioactivity monitoring data since 1969 can be registered. The computer programs for processing the data such as the output of tables and figures have also been developed, and the edition of reports has been made. The replacement of the computer and the development of a new processing system capable of handing Kanji (Japanese-Chinese characters) are now scheduled. This document outlines the data system such as the quality, quantity and origin of the measured data and the frequency of report publication. Some results of the analysis of fallout nuclides, space gamma dose rate and the total β-activity in rain are presented. The effects of the nuclear explosion tests in China are very obvious in these figures. A chronological table of the explosion tests in China is also presented. The different effects of time lag at the different places of measurement are also seen. The effects of the presence of nuclear power plants were also investigated at some sites of the plants, but no discernible effect was observed. (Aoki, K.)

  11. Rooting depths of plants relative to biological and environmental factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foxx, T.S.; Tierney, G.D.; Williams, J.M.

    1984-11-01

    In 1981 to 1982 an extensive bibliographic study was completed to document rooting depths of native plants in the United States. The data base presently contains 1034 citations with approximately 12,000 data elements. In this paper the data were analyzed for rooting depths as related to life form, soil type, geographical region, root type, family, root depth to shoot height ratios, and root depth to root lateral ratios. Average rooting depth and rooting frequencies were determined and related to present low-level waste site maintenance

  12. Fragmentation pathways and structural characterization of organophosphorus compounds related to the Chemical Weapons Convention by electron ionization and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Seyed Esmaeil; Saeidian, Hamid; Amozadeh, Ali; Naseri, Mohammad Taghi; Babri, Mehran

    2016-12-30

    For unambiguous identification of Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC)-related chemicals in environmental samples, the availability of mass spectra, interpretation skills and rapid microsynthesis of suspected chemicals are essential requirements. For the first time, the electron ionization single quadrupole and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectra of a series of O-alkyl N-[bis(dimethylamino)methylidene]-P-methylphosphonamidates (Scheme 1, cpd 4) were studied for CWC verification purposes. O-Alkyl N-[bis(dimethylamino)methylidene]-P-methylphosphonamidates were prepared through a microsynthetic method and were analyzed using electron ionization and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry with gas and liquid chromatography, respectively, as MS-inlet systems. General EI and ESI fragmentation pathways were proposed and discussed, and collision-induced dissociation studies of the protonated derivatives of these compounds were performed to confirm proposed fragment ion structures by analyzing mass spectra of deuterated analogs. Mass spectrometric studies revealed some interesting fragmentation pathways during the ionization process, such as McLafferty rearrangement, hydrogen rearrangement and a previously unknown intramolecular electrophilic aromatic substitution reaction. The EI and ESI fragmentation routes of the synthesized compounds 4 were investigated with the aim of detecting and identifying CWC-related chemicals during on-site inspection and/or off-site analysis and toxic chemical destruction monitoring. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Relative effect of environmental factors, information literacy, course

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Computer literacy, as an aspect of information literacy refers to effectiveness in searching for ... study, that researchers in the sciences use ICT facilities in their information .... Human Kinetics and Health Education, Creative Arts, Chemical Engineering, ... Questions were asked to obtain information on the relative effect of.

  14. Environmental distribution of coral-associated relatives of apicomplexan parasites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janouškovec, J.; Horák, Aleš; Barott, K. L.; Rohwer, F. L.; Keeling, P. J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 2 (2013), s. 444-447 ISSN 1751-7362 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : apicomplexan-related lineages * Chromera * coral symbionts * coral reef ecosystem Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 9.267, year: 2013

  15. Synergism studies on some radionuclides of nuclear and environmental importance using phosphonate compounds mixed with oxygen and phosphorous containing neutral compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL-Zahhar, A.Abd El Wahed M.

    1998-01-01

    As solvent extraction is a technique which has been highly developed within various national energy programs because of its suitability as selective separation process for fission products, actinides and other radioactive substances. It is very important to look for to be used as extractants and to study the optimum condition under which these compounds can be used as such. This work aims at studying the use of the carbamoyl phosphonate as an extractant in the extraction of certain elements. Also studying the effect of mixed extraction (possibility of enhancing extraction or synergism) as will as temperature effect on the extraction process and calculating the thermodynamic parameters of the proposed extraction reactions. To compare the extraction behavior of the phosphonate compound with other chelating agents as HTTA and HDEHP , studying the extraction of the same elements with these cheating agents under the same conditions is also one of the objectives of this work. This work also aims at studying the extraction of certain elements in comparable oxidation states. The selected elements; uranium which represents the main pert in the nuclear fuel, cobalt which is produced in the nuclear fission products, europium which is also produced as a fission product and is analog of the trivalent actinides series and chromium which is a corrosion product in the nuclear fuel cycle and is an analogue of transition elements. The work also aims at studying the extraction of the selected elements from different aqueous media of low acidic nature to classify the effect of the aqueous phase on the extraction systems handled

  16. Development and evaluation of a radioimmunoassay for the detection of amphetamine and related compounds in biological fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, P.A.; Bal, T.S.; Law, B.; Moffat, A.C.

    1983-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay has been developed for the detection of amphetamine and its analogues in blood and urine without any pretreatment of the samples. It is based on a commercially available antiserum and a [ 125 I] iodinated derivative of amphetamine. The assay can detect low levels of amphetamine (less than 10 ng ml - 1 ) in very small samples (50 μl) of blood and urine. It is cheap (3 pence per test), rapid, simple to perform and is specific for compounds closely related to amphetamine. A high, positive correlation was obtained (r = 0.93) when results of the analyses of urine samples from volunteers who had ingested amphetamine were compared with those produced by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry. The assay has proved very useful for the detection of amphetamine and closely related compounds in biological fluids. (author)

  17. Variation of Phenolic Content in Globe Artichoke in Relation to Biological, Technical and Environmental Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Lombardo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In Italy, globe artichoke production is prevailingly concentrated in the South and islands, where it provides an important contribution to the agricultural economy. In recent years, there has been a renewed interest in this crop as a promising source of polyphenols, a heterogeneous class of secondary metabolites characterized by various healthy properties well-documented in literature. The phenolic fraction, present in the different artichoke plant parts, varies widely in relation to biotic and abiotic factors. Therefore, the present study aimed at evaluating the variation of phenolic content in globe artichoke in relation to biological, technical and environmental factors. Two field-experiments were carried out in Sicily (South Italy in two representative cultivation areas, in order to examine the effects of genotype, head fraction, season conditions, planting density and arrangement on the globe artichoke phenolic concentration. Both the total polyphenols and the individual phenolic compounds detected were notably genotype- dependent. Particularly, the high level of caffeoylquinic acids (chlorogenic acid, among others and apigenin 7- O-glucuronide, reported respectively by “Violetto di Sicilia” and “Romanesco clone C3”, could be used to encourage globe artichoke fresh consumption. Total polyphenols content also resulted more abundant in specific accumulation sites within the inflorescence, such as the floral stem and receptacle, and for most of genotypes it decreased during the second year in response to the different meteorological conditions. Additionally, total polyphenols content significantly and linearly increased as plant density increased from 1.0 to 1.8 plant m-2 and it significantly increased by 13% passing from single to twin rows plant arrangement.

  18. Variation of Phenolic Content in Globe Artichoke in Relation to Biological, Technical and Environmental Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Mauromicale

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In Italy, globe artichoke production is prevailingly concentrated in the South and islands, where it provides an important contribution to the agricultural economy. In recent years, there has been a renewed interest in this crop as a promising source of polyphenols, a heterogeneous class of secondary metabolites characterized by various healthy properties well-documented in literature. The phenolic fraction, present in the different artichoke plant parts, varies widely in relation to biotic and abiotic factors. Therefore, the present study aimed at evaluating the variation of phenolic content in globe artichoke in relation to biological, technical and environmental factors. Two field-experiments were carried out in Sicily (South Italy in two representative cultivation areas, in order to examine the effects of genotype, head fraction, season conditions, planting density and arrangement on the globe artichoke phenolic concentration. Both the total polyphenols and the individual phenolic compounds detected were notably genotype- dependent. Particularly, the high level of caffeoylquinic acids (chlorogenic acid, among others and apigenin 7- O-glucuronide, reported respectively by “Violetto di Sicilia” and “Romanesco clone C3”, could be used to encourage globe artichoke fresh consumption. Total polyphenols content also resulted more abundant in specific accumulation sites within the inflorescence, such as the floral stem and receptacle, and for most of genotypes it decreased during the second year in response to the different meteorological conditions. Additionally, total polyphenols content significantly and linearly increased as plant density increased from 1.0 to 1.8 plant m-2 and it significantly increased by 13% passing from single to twin rows plant arrangement.

  19. Fermiology of PuCoGa{sub 5} and of related Pu-115 compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oppeneer, P.M. [Department of Physics, Box 530, Uppsala University, S-751 21 Uppsala (Sweden)], E-mail: peter.oppeneer@fysik.uu.se; Shick, A.B. [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, CZ-18221 Prague (Czech Republic); Rusz, J. [Department of Electronic Structures, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, Ke Karlovu 5, CZ-121 16 Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Lebegue, S. [Laboratoire de Cristallographie et de Modelisation des Materiaux Mineraux et Biologiques, CNRS-Universite Henri Poincare, B.P. 239, F-54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Eriksson, O. [Department of Physics, Box 530, Uppsala University, S-751 21 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2007-10-11

    We report computational investigations of the electronic structures of the superconducting Pu-compounds PuCoGa{sub 5} as well as of the non-superconducting compounds PuFeGa{sub 5} and PuNiGa{sub 5}. To capture the localization behavior of the Pu 5f electrons, we apply two computational approaches, which are both rooted in the density-functional theory: the local spin-density approximation (LSDA) and the around mean field (AMF) LSDA+U approach. The latter is applicable to moderately localized 5f electrons while the former is applicable to delocalized 5f electrons. Our LSDA calculations show that the Fermi surfaces of the three Pu-115 compounds are sensitive to the amount of band filling, i.e., the number of electrons of the 3d element. Precisely at the electron filling corresponding to PuCoGa{sub 5} the Fermi surface has a particularly two-dimensional shape. AMF-LSDA+U calculations (with a Coulomb U of about 3 eV and exchange J of 0.6 eV) lead to a non-magnetic ground state for PuCoGa{sub 5}, in which the 5f states are shifted to a higher binding energy, in better agreement with photoemission data. The Fermi surface of PuCoGa{sub 5} computed with the AMF-LSDA+U approach is nonetheless rather two-dimensional and similar to the LSDA Fermi surface. The AMF-LSDA+U approach with a Coulomb U of {approx}3 eV would thus predict an electronic structure for PuCoGa{sub 5} in accord with several experimental data.

  20. The application of nuclear and nuclear-related techniques for environmental pollution studies in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Mong Sinh

    1992-01-01

    The applicability of neutron activation analysis, X-ray fluorescence and other related techniques to environmental samples from Viet Nam has been investigated. Results show that multielemental analysis of environmental samples and the determination of heavy metal pollution in the environment is best performed by a combination of techniques. Preliminary results of studying the environmental pollution associated with solid wastes are reported. 4 refs, 5 figs, 17 tabs

  1. A novel isoindoline, porritoxin sulfonic acid, from Alternaria porri and the structure-phytotoxicity correlation of its related compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, Masayuki; Ohnishi, Keiichiro; Iwase, Noriyasu; Nakajima, Yoshikazu; Tounai, Kenji; Yamashita, Masakazu; Yamada, Yasumasa

    2003-07-01

    Novel zinniol-related compound 3, named porritoxin sulfonic acid, with an isoindoline skeleton was isolated from the culture liquid of Alternaria porri. The structure was determined to be 2-(2"-sulfoethyl)-4-methoxy-5-methyl-6-(3'-methyl-2'-butenyloxy)-2,3-dihydro-1H-isoindol-1-one. The phytotoxic activities of three isoindolines (1-3) were evaluated in a seedling-growth assay against stone leek and lettuce.

  2. X-ray absorption spectroscopy on high-temperature superconductors and related compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellegrin, E.J.H.A.

    1995-07-01

    The electronic structure of the cuprate high-temperature superconductors La 2-x Sr x CuO 4+δ , Tl 2 Ba 2 CaCu 2 O 8 and Tl 2 Ba 2 Ca 2 Cu 3 O 10 has been investigated using polarization-dependent near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (NEXAFS). In addition, La 2-x Sr x NiO 4+δ has been included in the actual study as an isostructural analogue to the La 2-x Sr x CuO 4+δ system. It appears that the electronic structure of these compounds corresponds to that of a p-type doped charge-transfer insulator including electron-electron interactions on the Cu(Ni) sites and a strong hybridization between Cu(Ni) and O atoms. It is concluded that the low-energy excitations in these compounds can be described on the basis of an effective one-band Mott-Hubbard model. The polarization-dependence of the above spectra gives evidence for the strong in-plane character of the intrinsic and the doped holes. The small amount and the doping-dependence of the out-of-plane character of these charge carriers rule out models for a microscopic mechanism of superconductivity based on a large amount of hole states in the corresponding Apex-O2p z /Cu3d 3z 2 -r 2 orbitals. On the other hand, the reduction of this anisotropy in the overdoped compounds together with similar findings in the macroscopic properties seems to indicate a detrimental influence of non-planar orbitals on the superconducting properties. The differences in the energetic ordering and atomic character of the states close to the Fermi level between the undoped compounds La 2 CuO 4+δ , La 2 NiO 4+δ , and NiO have been determined from the NEXAFS data. It is found that these differences can be explained by the different size of the tetragonal crystal field splitting E Z compared to that of the Hund's rule interaction J H in these systems. This gives evidence for the high-spin d 8 ground state of the undoped nickelates (i.e. J H >E Z ). It is suggested that the polarons in La 2-x Sr x NiO 4+δ can be seen as non

  3. Energy-related indoor environmental quality research: A priority agenda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, W.J.; Brager, G.; Burge, H.; Cummings, J.; Levin, H.; Loftness, V.; Mendell, M.J.; Persily, A.; Taylor, S.; Zhang, J.S.

    2002-08-01

    A multidisciplinary team of IEQ and energy researchers has defined a program of priority energy-related IEQ research. This paper describes the methods employed to develop the agenda, and 35 high priority research and development (R&D) project areas related to four broad goals: (1) identifying IEQ problems and opportunities; (2) developing and evaluating energy-efficient technologies for improving IEQ; (3) developing and evaluating energy-efficient practices for improving IEQ; and (4) encouraging or assisting the implementation of technologies or practices for improving IEQ. The identified R&D priorities reflect a strong need to benchmark IEQ conditions in small commercial buildings, schools, and residences. The R&D priorities also reflect the need to better understand how people are affected by IEQ conditions and by the related building characteristics and operation and maintenance practices. The associated research findings will provide a clearer definition of acceptable IEQ that is required to guide the development of technologies, practices, standards, and guidelines. Quantifying the effects of building characteristics and practices on IEQ conditions, in order to provide the basis for development of energy efficient and effective IEQ control measures, was also considered a priority. The development or advancement in a broad range of IEQ tools, technologies, and practices are also a major component of the priority research agenda. Consistent with the focus on ''energy-related'' research priorities, building ventilation and heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems and processes are very prominent in the agenda. Research related to moisture and microbiological problems, particularly within hot and humid climates, is also prominent within the agenda. The agenda tends to emphasize research on residences, small commercial buildings, and schools because these types of buildings have been underrepresented in prior research. Most of

  4. Do Morphemes Matter when Reading Compound Words with Transposed Letters? Evidence from Eye-Tracking and Event-Related Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stites, Mallory C.; Federmeier, Kara D.; Christianson, Kiel

    2017-01-01

    The current study investigates the online processing consequences of encountering compound words with transposed letters (TLs), to determine if TLs that cross morpheme boundaries are more disruptive to reading than those within a single morpheme, as would be predicted by accounts of obligatory morpho-orthopgrahic decomposition. Two measures of online processing, eye movements and event-related potentials (ERPs), were collected in separate experiments. Participants read sentences containing correctly spelled compound words (cupcake), or compounds with TLs occurring either across morpheme boundaries (cucpake) or within one morpheme (cupacke). Results showed that between- and within-morpheme transpositions produced equal processing costs in both measures, in the form of longer reading times (Experiment 1) and a late posterior positivity (Experiment 2) that did not differ between conditions. Findings converge to suggest that within- and between-morpheme TLs are equally disruptive to recognition, providing evidence against obligatory morpho-orthographic processing and in favor of whole-word access of English compound words during sentence reading. PMID:28791313

  5. Quantitative analysis by GC-MS/MS of 18 aroma compounds related to oxidative off-flavor in wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, Christine M; Capone, Dimitra L; Pardon, Kevin H; Black, Cory A; Pomeroy, Damian; Francis, I Leigh

    2015-04-08

    A quantitation method for 18 aroma compounds reported to contribute to "oxidative" flavor in wines was developed. The method allows quantitation of the (E)-2-alkenals ((E)-2-hexenal, (E)-2-heptenal, (E)-2-octenal, and (E)-2-nonenal), various Strecker aldehydes (methional, 2-phenylacetaldehyde, 3-methylbutanal, and 2-methylpropanal), aldehydes (furfural, 5-methylfurfural, hexanal, and benzaldehyde), furans (sotolon, furaneol, and homofuraneol), as well as alcohols (methionol, eugenol, and maltol) in the same analysis. The aldehydes were determined after derivatization directly in the wine with O-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl)hydroxylamine hydrochloride; the formed oximes along with the underivatized aroma compounds were isolated by solid-phase extraction and analyzed by means of GC-MS/MS. The method was used to investigate the effect of different closures (synthetic closures, natural corks, and screw cap) on the formation of oxidation-related compounds in 14 year old white wine. Results showed a significant increase in the concentration of some of the monitored compounds in the wine, particularly methional, 2-phenylacetaldehyde, and 3-methylbutanal.

  6. Effect of environmental factors on Internet searches related to sinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willson, Thomas J; Lospinoso, Joshua; Weitzel, Erik K; McMains, Kevin C

    2015-11-01

    Sinusitis significantly affects the population of the United States, exacting direct cost and lost productivity. Patients are likely to search the Internet for information related to their health before seeking care by a healthcare professional. Utilizing data generated from these searches may serve as an epidemiologic surrogate. A retrospective time series analysis was performed. Google search trend data from the Dallas-Fort Worth metro region for the years 2012 and 2013 were collected from www.google.com/trends for terms related to sinusitis based on literature outlining the most important symptoms for diagnosis. Additional terms were selected based on common English language terms used to describe the disease. Twelve months of data from the same time period and location for common pollutants (nitrogen dioxide, ozone, sulfur dioxide, and particulates), pollen and mold counts, and influenza-like illness were also collected. Statistical analysis was performed using Pearson correlation coefficients, and potential search activity predictors were assessed using autoregressive integrated moving average. Pearson correlation was strongest between the terms congestion and influenza-like illness (r=0.615), and sinus and influenza-like illness (r=0.534) and nitrogen dioxide (r=0.487). Autoregressive integrated moving average analysis revealed ozone, influenza-like illness, and nitrogen dioxide levels to be potential predictors for sinus pressure searches, with estimates of 0.118, 0.349, and 0.438, respectively. Nitrogen dioxide was also a potential predictor for the terms congestion and sinus, with estimates of 0.191 and 0.272, respectively. Google search activity for related terms follow the pattern of seasonal influenza-like illness and nitrogen dioxide. These data highlight the epidemiologic potential of this novel surveillance method. NA. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  7. Reaction of Tris(cyclopentadienyl)uranium compounds with amines, azides, and related ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, R.K.

    1989-12-01

    The trivalent uranium compound, (MeC 5 H 4 ) 3 U(thf), serves as a one- or two-electron reducing agent towards azides, RN 3 . These reactions produce either the uranium(IV) azide, (MeC 5 H 4 ) 3 UN 3 , or uranium(V) imides, (MeC 5 H 4 ) 3 UNR. The role of steric and electronic effects upon this reaction has been investigated using several series of azides. For Me 3 XN 3 , the imides are produced when X = C or Si, both products are formed when X = Ge, and the azide is produced when X = Sn. For Ph 3 XN 3 , the azide is produced when X = C or Sn. For Ph 3-x CH 3 N 3 , the imide is produced when x = 2 and both compounds are produced when x = 1. For substituted phenylazides, RC 6 H 4 N 3 , only the imides are produced. The magnetic properties of uranium diimides, [(MeC 5 H 4 ) 3 U] 2 (μ-NRN), were investigated. Several uranium(III) amines, (MeC 5 H 4 ) 3 U(NH 2 R), were produced from (MeC 5 H 4 ) 3 U(thf) and RNH 2 , and NH 3 was found to be a better ligand towards (MeC 5 H 4 ) 3 U than is PMe 3

  8. Phenolic compounds and carotenoids in pumpkin fruit and related traditional products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdunić Gordana M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pumpkin fruit is used in a diet since ancient times especially in rural communities. The major contributory factors of nutritional and medicinal value of pumpkins are carotenoids, polysaccharides, vitamins, minerals, and phenolic compounds. Due to a very large fruit that it is not easy to consume a whole as well as short shelf-life of fresh-cut pumpkin, different ways of conserving and processing are performed. In our study, total carotenoids, total phenolics and individual phenolics in fresh pumpkin and pumpkin traditional products such as sweet in wine, jam and juice, which are typical for northern parts of Serbia, were studied. Total carotenoids ranged from 27.6 μg/g of pumpkin sweet in wine to 86.3 μg/g of fresh fruit, while the amount of total phenolics varied between 93.0 μg GAE/g of pumpkin juice and 905.9 μg GAE/g of fresh fruit. Eight phenolic compounds were identified in the investigated samples and among them phenolic acids dominated. Among flavonoids, flavanon glycoside hesperidin was detected. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 46013

  9. Resourceful Thinking about Printing and Related Industries: Economic Considerations and Environmental Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikina, Suanu Bliss; Thompson, Cynthia Carlton; Blackwell, Elinor

    2010-01-01

    Increasing population, total economic volume, and human consumption levels have resulted in problems of resource shortages, climate change, ozone layer depletion, land regression, and deteriorating environmental pollution. Printing and related industries constitute one of the major sources of environmental pollution due to heavy energy and…

  10. How Do Learners in Developed and Developing Countries Relate to Environmental Issues?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumper, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    The present study was carried out in the framework of earlier research on environmental education for sustainability, using data collected in the ROSE Project. Attention was focused mainly on students' responses to sections and items related to environmental issues, regarding their countries' degree of development. The research questions dealt…

  11. Food-Related Environmental Beliefs and Behaviours among University Undergraduates: A Mixed-Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell-Arvai, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper was to document the food-related environmental beliefs and behaviours of undergraduate university students. More specifically, this research was focussed on determining if environmental sustainability is a consideration in students' food choices, identifying the specific choices and behaviours adopted to reduce…

  12. Antiproliferative activity and interactions with cell-cycle related proteins of the organotin compound triethyltin(IV)lupinylsulfide hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, F; Sparatore, F; Cagnoli, M; Bruzzo, C; Novelli, F; Alama, A

    2001-03-14

    Organotin compounds, particularly tri-organotin, have demonstrated cytotoxic properties against a number of tumor cell lines. On this basis, triethyltin(IV)lupinylsulfide hydrochloride (IST-FS 29), a quinolizidine derivative, was synthesized and developed as a potential antitumor agent. This tin-derived compound exhibited potent antiproliferative effects on three different human cancer cell lines: teratocarcinoma of the ovary (PA-1), colon carcinoma (HCT-8) and glioblastoma (A-172). Cytotoxic activity was assessed by MTT and cell count assays during time course experiments with cell recovery after compound withdrawal. Significant cell growth inhibition (up to 95% in HCT-8 after 72 h of exposure), which also persisted after drug-free medium change, was reported in all the cell lines by both assays. In addition, the cytocidal effects exerted by IST-FS 29 appeared more consistent with necrosis or delayed cell death, rather than apoptosis, as shown by morphologic observations under light microscope, DNA fragmentation analysis and flow cytometry. In the attempt to elucidate whether this compound might affect genes playing a role in G1/S phase transition, the expressions of p53, p21(WAF1), cyclin D1 and Rb, mainly involved in response to DNA-damaging stress, were analyzed by Western blot. Heterogeneous patterns of expression during exposure to IST-FS 29 were evidenced in the different cell lines suggesting that these cell-cycle-related genes are not likely the primary targets of this compound. Thus, the present data seem more indicative of a direct effect of IST-FS-29 on macromolecular synthesis and cellular homeostasis, as previously hypothesized for other organotin complexes.

  13. Relationship Between Consumer Acceptability and Pungency-Related Flavor Compounds of Vidalia Onions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ha-Yeon; Jackson, Daniel; Adhikari, Koushik; Riner, Cliff; Sanchez-Brambila, Gabriela

    2017-10-01

    A consumer study was conducted to evaluate preferences in Vidalia onions, and define consumer acceptability thresholds for commonly analyzed flavor compounds associated with pungency. Two varieties of Vidalia onions (Plethora and Sapelo Sweet) were grown at 3 fertilizer application rates (37.5 and 0; 134.5 and 59.4; and 190 and 118.8 kg/ha of nitrogen and sulfur, respectively), creating 6 treatments with various flavor attributes to use in the study. Bulb soluble solids, sugars, pyruvic acid, lachrymatory factor (LF; propanethial S-oxide), and methyl thiosulfinate (MT) content were determined and compared to sensory responses for overall liking, intensity of the sharp/pungent/burning sensation (SPB), and intent to buy provided by 142 consumers. Onion pyruvate, LF, MT, and sugar content increased as fertilization rate increased, regardless of onion variety. Consumer responses showed participants preferred onions with low SPB, which correlated positively to lower pyruvate, LF and MT concentrations, but showed no relationship to total sugars in the onion bulb. Regression analyses revealed that the majority of consumers (≥55%) found the flavor of Vidalia onions acceptable when the concentrations of LF, pyruvic acid, and MT within the bulbs were below 2.21, 4.83, and 0.43 nmol/mL, respectively. These values will support future studies aimed at identifying the optimal cultivation practices for production of sweet Vidalia onions, and can serve as an industry benchmark for quality control, thus ensuring the flavor of Vidalia onions will be acceptable to the majority of consumers. This study identified the relationship between consumer preferences and commonly analyzed flavor compounds in Vidalia onions, and established thresholds for these compounds at concentrations which the majority of consumers will find desirable. These relationships and thresholds will support future research investigating how cultural practices impact onion quality, and can be used to assist

  14. Formation of emerging DBPs from the chlorination and chloramination of seawater algal organic matter and related model compounds

    KAUST Repository

    Nihemaiti, Maolida

    2014-05-01

    Limited studies focused on reactions occurring during disinfection and oxidation processes of seawater. The aim of this work was to investigate disinfection by-products (DBPs) formation from the chlorination and chloramination of seawater algal organic matter and related model compounds. Simulated algal blooms directly growing in Red Sea, red tide samples collected during an algal bloom event and Hymenomonas sp. monoculture were studied as algal organic matter sources. Experiments were conducted in synthetic seawater containing bromide ion. A variety of DBPs was formed from the chlorination and chloramination of algal organic matter. Brominated DBPs (bromoform, DBAA, DBAN and DBAcAm) were the dominant species. Iodinated DBPs (CIAcAm and iodinated THMs) were detected, which are known to be highly toxic compared to their chlorinated or brominated analogues. Algal organic matter was found to incorporate important precursors of nitrogenous DBPs (N-DBPs), which have been reported to be more toxic than regulated THMs and HAAs. Isotopically-labeled monochloramine (15N- NH2Cl) was used in order to investigate the nitrogen source in N-DBPs. High formation of N-DBPs was found from Hymenomonas sp. sample in exponential growth phase, which was enriched in nitrogen-containing organic compounds. High inorganic nitrogen incorporation was found from the algal samples enriched in humic-like compounds. HAcAms formation was studied from chlorination and chloramination of amino acids. Asparagine, aspartic acid and other amino acids with an aromatic structure were found to be important precursors of HAcAms and DCAN. Factors affecting HAcAms formation (Cl2/ amino acid molar ratio and pH) were evaluated. Studies on the formation kinetics of DCAcAm and DCAN from asparagine suggested a rapid formation of DCAcAm from organic nitrogen (amide group) and a slower incorporation of inorganic nitrogen coming from monochloramine to form DCAN. High amounts of DCAN and DCAcAm were detected from the

  15. The Deployment of Product-Related Environmental Legislation into Product Requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela C. A. Pigosso

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Environmental legislation is increasingly changing its focus from manufacturing-oriented to product-oriented instruments. Compliance with product-related environmental legislation is achieved by the incorporation of environmental requirements into the early phases of the product development process (PDP. Nevertheless, the deployment of product-related environmental legislation into product requirements is still a challenge. This study followed an inductive approach to propose a guideline to support the identification, analysis and deployment of product requirements based on product-related environmental legislation. The guideline is composed of nine steps, clustered into three groups according to their main objective: (A identification of environmental product-related legislation; (B identification of legislative topics to be considered for the deployment of requirements; and (C creation and validation of product requirements. The product requirements deployed are to be considered during the PDP. The guideline was evaluated in an expert consultation in a large manufacturing company, suggesting that it can be used to support the systematization and deployment of product-related environmental requirements.

  16. Interactions of [alpha,beta]-unsaturated carbonyl compounds with the glutathione-related biotransformation system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iersel, van M.L.P.S.

    1998-01-01

    Introduction
    Modulation of glutathione-related biotransformation steps may play a role in important phenomena as anticarcinogenicity and multidrug resistance. Glutathione-related biotransformation comprises three main aspects i.e. glutathione, the

  17. Nanomaterial-Based Sensing and Biosensing of Phenolic Compounds and Related Antioxidant Capacity in Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio Della Pelle

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenolic compounds (PCs have received exceptional attention at the end of the past millennium and as much at the beginning of the new one. Undoubtedly, these compounds in foodstuffs provide added value for their well-known health benefits, for their technological role and also marketing. Many efforts have been made to provide simple, effective and user friendly analytical methods for the determination and antioxidant capacity (AOC evaluation of food polyphenols. In a parallel track, over the last twenty years, nanomaterials (NMs have made their entry in the analytical chemistry domain; NMs have, in fact, opened new paths for the development of analytical methods with the common aim to improve analytical performance and sustainability, becoming new tools in quality assurance of food and beverages. The aim of this review is to provide information on the most recent developments of new NMs-based tools and strategies for total polyphenols (TP determination and AOC evaluation in food. In this review optical, electrochemical and bioelectrochemical approaches have been reviewed. The use of nanoparticles, quantum dots, carbon nanomaterials and hybrid materials for the detection of polyphenols is the main subject of the works reported. However, particular attention has been paid to the success of the application in real samples, in addition to the NMs. In particular, the discussion has been focused on methods/devices presenting, in the opinion of the authors, clear advancement in the fields, in terms of simplicity, rapidity and usability. This review aims to demonstrate how the NM-based approaches represent valid alternatives to classical methods for polyphenols analysis, and are mature to be integrated for the rapid quality assessment of food quality in lab or directly in the field.

  18. Reaction of Tris(cyclopentadienyl)uranium compounds with amines, azides, and related ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosen, R.K.

    1989-12-01

    The trivalent uranium compound, (MeC{sub 5}H{sub 4}){sub 3}U(thf), serves as a one- or two-electron reducing agent towards azides, RN{sub 3}. These reactions produce either the uranium(IV) azide, (MeC{sub 5}H{sub 4}){sub 3}UN{sub 3}, or uranium(V) imides, (MeC{sub 5}H{sub 4}){sub 3}UNR. The role of steric and electronic effects upon this reaction has been investigated using several series of azides. For Me{sub 3}XN{sub 3}, the imides are produced when X = C or Si, both products are formed when X = Ge, and the azide is produced when X = Sn. For Ph{sub 3}XN{sub 3}, the azide is produced when X = C or Sn. For Ph{sub 3-x}CH{sub 3}N{sub 3}, the imide is produced when x = 2 and both compounds are produced when x = 1. For substituted phenylazides, RC{sub 6}H{sub 4}N{sub 3}, only the imides are produced. The magnetic properties of uranium diimides, ((MeC{sub 5}H{sub 4}){sub 3}U){sub 2}({mu}-NRN), were investigated. Several uranium(III) amines, (MeC{sub 5}H{sub 4}){sub 3}U(NH{sub 2}R), were produced from (MeC{sub 5}H{sub 4}){sub 3}U(thf) and RNH{sub 2}, and NH{sub 3} was found to be a better ligand towards (MeC{sub 5}H{sub 4}){sub 3}U than is PMe{sub 3}.

  19. Nanomaterial-Based Sensing and Biosensing of Phenolic Compounds and Related Antioxidant Capacity in Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Pelle, Flavio; Compagnone, Dario

    2018-02-04

    Polyphenolic compounds (PCs) have received exceptional attention at the end of the past millennium and as much at the beginning of the new one. Undoubtedly, these compounds in foodstuffs provide added value for their well-known health benefits, for their technological role and also marketing. Many efforts have been made to provide simple, effective and user friendly analytical methods for the determination and antioxidant capacity (AOC) evaluation of food polyphenols. In a parallel track, over the last twenty years, nanomaterials (NMs) have made their entry in the analytical chemistry domain; NMs have, in fact, opened new paths for the development of analytical methods with the common aim to improve analytical performance and sustainability, becoming new tools in quality assurance of food and beverages. The aim of this review is to provide information on the most recent developments of new NMs-based tools and strategies for total polyphenols (TP) determination and AOC evaluation in food. In this review optical, electrochemical and bioelectrochemical approaches have been reviewed. The use of nanoparticles, quantum dots, carbon nanomaterials and hybrid materials for the detection of polyphenols is the main subject of the works reported. However, particular attention has been paid to the success of the application in real samples, in addition to the NMs. In particular, the discussion has been focused on methods/devices presenting, in the opinion of the authors, clear advancement in the fields, in terms of simplicity, rapidity and usability. This review aims to demonstrate how the NM-based approaches represent valid alternatives to classical methods for polyphenols analysis, and are mature to be integrated for the rapid quality assessment of food quality in lab or directly in the field.

  20. Comparison of the amounts of taste-related compounds in raw and cooked meats from broilers and Korean native chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasena, Dinesh D; Kim, Sun Hyo; Lee, Hyun Jung; Jung, Samooel; Lee, Jun Heon; Park, Hee Bok; Jo, Cheorun

    2014-12-01

    This study was aimed at comparing the taste-related compound content in the breast and leg meat from 100-d-old Korean native chickens (KNC-100) and 32-d-old commercial broilers (CB-32) and determining the changes in these compounds during cooking. Cocks from certified meat-type commercial broiler (Ross) and Korean native chicken (Woorimatdag) strains were raised under similar standard commercial conditions, and a total of 10 birds from each breed were slaughtered at 32 and 100 d of age, which represents their market ages, respectively. Raw and cooked meat samples were prepared separately from the breast and leg and analyzed. The KNC-100 showed significantly higher concentrations of inosine 5'-monophosphate, reducing sugars, glutamic acid, linoleic acid, arachidonic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid than CB-32 did. Additionally, significantly higher inosine 5'-monophosphate, cysteine, arachidonic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid concentrations were observed in the breast meat, whereas the leg meat had higher concentration of glutamic acid, oleic acid, and linoleic acid (P cooking process, except oleic and linoleic acids. We suggest that the higher levels of taste-related compounds present in KNC-100 meat compared with CB-32 meat may result in the unique taste of the former meat, as has been previously reported. In addition, the results of this study may provide useful information for selection and breeding programs. ©2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  1. Lattice parameters and stability of the spinel compounds in relation to the ionic radii and electronegativities of constituting chemical elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brik, Mikhail G; Suchocki, Andrzej; Kamińska, Agata

    2014-05-19

    A thorough consideration of the relation between the lattice parameters of 185 binary and ternary spinel compounds, on one side, and ionic radii and electronegativities of the constituting ions, on the other side, allowed for establishing a simple empirical model and finding its linear equation, which links together the above-mentioned quantities. The derived equation gives good agreement between the experimental and modeled values of the lattice parameters in the considered group of spinels, with an average relative error of about 1% only. The proposed model was improved further by separate consideration of several groups of spinels, depending on the nature of the anion (oxygen, sulfur, selenium/tellurium, nitrogen). The developed approach can be efficiently used for prediction of lattice constants for new isostructural materials. In particular, the lattice constants of new hypothetic spinels ZnRE2O4, CdRE2S4, CdRE2Se4 (RE = rare earth elements) are predicted in the present Article. In addition, the upper and lower limits for the variation of the ionic radii, electronegativities, and their certain combinations were established, which can be considered as stability criteria for the spinel compounds. The findings of the present Article offer a systematic overview of the structural properties of spinels and can serve as helpful guides for synthesis of new spinel compounds.

  2. Noble metal catalyzed aqueous phase hydrogenation and hydrodeoxygenation of lignin-derived pyrolysis oil and related model compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Wei; Ben, Haoxi; Du, Xiaotang; Zhang, Xiaodan; Hu, Fan; Liu, Wei; Ragauskas, Arthur J; Deng, Yulin

    2014-12-01

    Aqueous phase hydrodeoxygenation of lignin pyrolysis oil and related model compounds were investigated using four noble metals supported on activated carbon. The hydrodeoxygenation of guaiacol has three major reaction pathways and the demethylation reaction, mainly catalyzed by Pd, Pt and Rh, produces catechol as the products. The presence of catechol and guaiacol in the reaction is responsible for the coke formation and the catalysts deactivation. As expected, there was a significant decrease in the specific surface area of Pd, Pt and Rh catalysts during the catalytic reaction because of the coke deposition. In contrast, no catechol was produced from guaiacol when Ru was used so a completely hydrogenation was accomplished. The lignin pyrolysis oil upgrading with Pt and Ru catalysts further validated the reaction mechanism deduced from model compounds. Fully hydrogenated bio-oil was produced with Ru catalyst. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Laboratory for Energy-Related Health Research, Davis, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-03-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Survey of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Laboratory for Energy-Related Health Research (LEHR) at the University of California, Davis (UC Davis), conducted November 16 through 20, 1987. The Survey is being conducted by an interdisciplinary team of environmental specialists, led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. Individual team components are being supplied by a private contractor. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with the LEHR. The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation, and is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations at the LEHR and interviews with site personnel. The Survey team developed a Sampling and Analysis Plan to assist in further assessing certain of the environmental problems identified during its on-site activities. The Sampling and Analysis Plan will be executed by a DOE National Laboratory or a support contractor. When completed, the results will be incorporated into the Environmental Survey Interim Report for the LEHR at UC Davis. The Interim Report will reflect the final determinations of the LEHR Survey. 75 refs., 26 figs., 23 tabs

  4. Analysis of Relative Concentration of Ethanol and Other Odorous Compounds (OCs) Emitted from the Working Surface at a Landfill in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong; Lu, Wenjing; Liu, Yanjun; Guo, Hanwen; Xu, Sai; Ming, Zhongyuan; Wang, Hongtao

    2015-01-01

    Estimating odor emissions from landfill sites is a complicated task because of the various chemical and biological species that exist in landfill gases. In this study, the relative concentration of ethanol and other odorous compounds emitted from the working surface at a landfill in China was analyzed. Gas sampling was conducted at the landfill on a number of selected days from March 2012 to March 2014, which represented different periods throughout the two years. A total of 41, 59, 66, 54, 63, 54, 41, and 42 species of odorous compounds were identified and quantified in eight sampling activities, respectively; a number of 86 species of odorous compounds were identified and quantified all together in the study. The measured odorous compounds were classified into six different categories (Oxygenated compounds, Halogenated compounds, Terpenes, Sulfur compounds, Aromatics, and Hydrocarbons). The total average concentrations of the oxygenated compounds, sulfur compounds, aromatics, halogenated compounds, hydrocarbons, and terpenes were 2.450 mg/m3, 0.246 mg/m3, 0.203 mg/m3, 0.319 mg/m3, 0.530 mg/m3, and 0.217 mg/m3, respectively. The relative concentrations of 59 odorous compounds with respect to the concentration of ethyl alcohol (1000 ppm) were determined. The dominant contaminants that cause odor pollution around the landfill are ethyl sulfide, methyl mercaptan, acetaldehyde, and hydrogen sulfide; dimethyl disulfide and dimethyl sulfide also contribute to the pollution to a certain degree. PMID:25769100

  5. Symptoms of mothers and infants related to total volatile organic compounds in household products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrow, Alexandra; Taylor, Hazel; Northstone, Kate; Golding, Jean

    2003-10-01

    The authors sought to determine whether reported symptoms of mothers and infants were associated significantly with the use of household products that raised indoor levels of total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs). Data collected from 170 homes within the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC: a large birth cohort of more than 10,000) had determined which household products were associated with the highest levels of TVOCs. The latter data were collected over a period that approximated 6 mo of pregnancy and the infants' first 6 mo of life. This paper presents (a) the mothers' self-reports of the use of these products in their homes and (b) self-reported medical symptoms of mothers and infants postnatally. Higher TVOC levels were associated with air freshener and aerosol use. Infant diarrhea and earache were statistically significantly associated with air freshener use, and diarrhea and vomiting were significantly associated with aerosol use. Headache experienced by mothers 8 mo after birth was significantly associated with the use of air fresheners and aerosols; maternal depression was significantly associated with the use of air fresheners. The results of the study suggest a link between the use of products that raise indoor levels of TVOCs and an increased risk of certain symptoms among infants and their mothers.

  6. Reactions of the melatonin metabolite N(1)-acetyl-5-methoxykynuramine with carbamoyl phosphate and related compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuesel, Jana T; Hardeland, Rüdiger; Pfoertner, Henrike; Aeckerle, Nelia

    2010-01-01

    N-[2-(6-methoxyquinazolin-4-yl)-ethyl] acetamide (MQA) is a compound formed from the melatonin metabolite N(1)-acetyl-5-methoxykynuramine (AMK). We followed MQA production in reaction systems containing various putative reaction partners, in the absence and presence of hydrogen peroxide and/or copper(II). Although MQA may be formally described as a condensation product of either N(1)-acetyl-N(2)-formyl-5-methoxykynuramine (AFMK) with ammonia, or AMK with formamide, none of these combinations led to substantial quantities of MQA. However, MQA formation was observed in mixtures containing AMK, hydrogen peroxide, hydrogen carbonate and ammonia, or AMK, hydrogen peroxide, copper(II) and potentially carbamoylating agents, such as potassium cyanate or, more efficiently, carbamoyl phosphate. In the presence of hydrogen peroxide, copper(II) and carbamoyl phosphate, MQA was the major product obtained from AMK, but the omission of copper(II) mainly led to another metabolite, 3-acetamidomethyl-6-methoxycinnolinone (AMMC). This was caused by nitric oxide (NO) generated under oxidative conditions from carbamoyl phosphate, as shown by an NO spin trap. MQA formation with carbamoyl phosphate was not due to the possible decomposition product, formamide. The reaction of AMK with carbamoyl phosphate under oxidative conditions, in which inorganic phosphate and water are released and which differs from the typical process of carbamoylation via isocyanate, may be considered as a new physiological route of MQA formation.

  7. Determinants of the Sensory Quality of Półgęsek in Relation to Volatile Compounds and Chemical Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowicka Katarzyna

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the sensory quality of a specific Polish traditional product made from cured and then smoked goose meat (półgęsek in relation to its volatile compounds and chemical composition. In general, the examined samples contained 66.2% water, 12.2% fat, 17.9% protein, 1.8% connective tissue, and 2.3% NaCl. Moreover, 47 volatile compounds were identified and quantified. The typical decomposition products derived from lipid oxidation, amino acid degradation, carbohydrate fermentation and microbial esterification were the main volatiles detected in all the samples. The volatiles generated by the smoking process and the ones originating from spices were also observed. The results of the sensory evaluation indicated that all the samples of the analyzed products were characterized by a high overall quality. Results of the Principal Component Analysis (PCA showed, however, that specific groups of products have their own unique sensory profile. Additionally, the sensory analysis confirmed the significant role of the chemical composition and volatile compounds in the development of the overall quality of półgęsek.

  8. Dietary compound score and risk of age-related macular degeneration in the Age-Related Eye Disease Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purpose: Because foods provide many nutrients, which may interact with each other to modify risk for multifactorial diseases such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD), we sought to develop a composite scoring system to summarize the combined effect of multiple dietary nutrients on AMD risk. Th...

  9. Choose Your Weaponry: Selective Storage of a Single Toxic Compound, Latrunculin A, by Closely Related Nudibranch Molluscs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen L Cheney

    Full Text Available Natural products play an invaluable role as a starting point in the drug discovery process, and plants and animals use many interesting biologically active natural products as a chemical defense mechanism against predators. Among marine organisms, many nudibranch gastropods are known to derive defensive metabolites from the sponges they eat. Here we investigated the putative sequestration of the toxic compound latrunculin A--a 16-membered macrolide that prevents actin polymerization within cellular processes--which has been identified from sponge sources, by five closely related nudibranch molluscs of the genus Chromodoris. Only latrunculin A was present in the rim of the mantle of these species, where storage reservoirs containing secondary metabolites are located, whilst a variety of secondary metabolites were found in their viscera. The species studied thus selectively accumulate latrunculin A in the part of the mantle that is more exposed to potential predators. This study also demonstrates that latrunculin-containing sponges are not their sole food source. Latrunculin A was found to be several times more potent than other compounds present in these species of nudibranchs when tested by in vitro and in vivo toxicity assays. Anti-feedant assays also indicated that latrunculin A was unpalatable to rock pool shrimps, in a dose-dependent manner. These findings led us to propose that this group of nudibranchs has evolved means both to protect themselves from the toxicity of latrunculin A, and to accumulate this compound in the mantle rim for defensive purposes. The precise mechanism by which the nudibranchs sequester such a potent compound from sponges without disrupting their own key physiological processes is unclear, but this work paves the way for future studies in this direction. Finally, the possible occurrence of both visual and chemosensory Müllerian mimicry in the studied species is discussed.

  10. Serum Compounds of Energy Metabolism Impairment Are Related to Disability, Disease Course and Neuroimaging in Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzarino, Giacomo; Amorini, Angela M; Petzold, Axel; Gasperini, Claudio; Ruggieri, Serena; Quartuccio, Maria Esmeralda; Lazzarino, Giuseppe; Di Stasio, Enrico; Tavazzi, Barbara

    2017-11-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is characterized by primary inflammation, demyelination, and progressive neurodegeneration. A biochemical MS feature is neuronal mitochondrial dysfunction, compensated by anaerobic metabolism increase, likely aggravating progression of neurodegeneration. Here, we characterized a pragmatic serum profile of compounds related to mitochondrial energy metabolism of potential clinical use. Blood samples of 518 well characterized (disability, disease course) MS patients and 167 healthy controls were analyzed for serum purines, pyrimidines, creatinine, and lactate. Nine of the 15 compounds assayed, hypoxanthine, xanthine, uric acid, inosine, uracil, β-pseudouridine, uridine, creatinine, and lactate, differed significantly between MS patients and controls (p < 0.0001). Using these nine compounds, a unifying Biomarker Score was calculated. Controls and MS patients had mean Biomarker Scores of 0.4 ± 0.7 and 4.4 ± 1.9, respectively (p < 0.00001). The Biomarker Score was higher in patients with progressive (6.0 ± 1.8 than with relapsing remitting disease course (3.6 ± 1.5, p < 0.00001). High association between the Biomarker Score and increase in disability (EDSS) was also observed. Additionally, in 50 patients who underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), increase in the Biomarker Score correlated to neuroanatomical alterations. These results, obtained in a large cohort of MS patients evaluated for serum metabolic compounds connected to energy metabolism, demonstrated that the Biomarker Score might represent a pragmatic, resource saving, easy to obtain, laboratory tool useful to monitor MS patients and predict at an early stage who will switch from an RR to a progressive disease course. For the first time, it was also clearly shown a link between mitochondrial dysfunction and MRI lesions characteristic of MS.

  11. Serum heavy metals and hemoglobin related compounds in Saudi Arabia firefighters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Malki Abdulrahman L

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Firefighters are frequently exposed to significant concentrations of hazardous materials including heavy metals, aldehydes, hydrogen chloride, dichlorofluoromethane and some particulates. Many of these materials have been implicated in the triggering of several diseases. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of fire smoke exposure on serum heavy metals and possible affection on iron functions compounds (total iron binding capacity, transferrin saturation percent, ferritin, unsaturated iron-binding capacity blood hemoglobin and carboxyhemoglobin,. Subjects and methods Two groups of male firefighter volunteers were included; the first included 28 firefighters from Jeddah city, while the second included 21 firefighters from Yanbu city with an overall age rang of 20–48 years. An additional group of 23 male non-firefighters volunteered from both cities as normal control subjects. Blood samples were collected from all volunteer subjects and investigated for relevant parameters. Results The results obtained showed that there were no statistically significant changes in the levels of serum heavy metals in firefighters as compared to normal control subjects. Blood carboxyhemoglobin and serum ferritin were statistically increased in Jeddah firefighters, (p Conclusion Such results might point to the need for more health protective and prophylactic measures to avoid such hazardous health effects (elevated Blood carboxyhemoglobin and serum ferritin and decreased serum TIBC and UIBC that might endanger firefighters working under dangerous conditions. Firefighters must be under regular medical follow-up through standard timetabled medical laboratory investigations to allow for early detection of any serum biochemical or blood hematological changes.

  12. Determination of steroid hormones and related compounds in filtered and unfiltered water by solid-phase extraction, derivatization, and gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, William T.; Gray, James L.; ReVello, Rhiannon C.; Lindley, Chris E.; Losche, Scott A.; Barber, Larry B.

    2012-01-01

    A new analytical method has been developed and implemented at the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory that determines a suite of 20 steroid hormones and related compounds in filtered water (using laboratory schedule 2434) and in unfiltered water (using laboratory schedule 4434). This report documents the procedures and initial performance data for the method and provides guidance on application of the method and considerations of data quality in relation to data interpretation. The analytical method determines 6 natural and 3 synthetic estrogen compounds, 6 natural androgens, 1 natural and 1 synthetic progestin compound, and 2 sterols: cholesterol and 3--coprostanol. These two sterols have limited biological activity but typically are abundant in wastewater effluents and serve as useful tracers. Bisphenol A, an industrial chemical used primarily to produce polycarbonate plastic and epoxy resins and that has been shown to have estrogenic activity, also is determined by the method. A technique referred to as isotope-dilution quantification is used to improve quantitative accuracy by accounting for sample-specific procedural losses in the determined analyte concentration. Briefly, deuterium- or carbon-13-labeled isotope-dilution standards (IDSs), all of which are direct or chemically similar isotopic analogs of the method analytes, are added to all environmental and quality-control and quality-assurance samples before extraction. Method analytes and IDS compounds are isolated from filtered or unfiltered water by solid-phase extraction onto an octadecylsilyl disk, overlain with a graded glass-fiber filter to facilitate extraction of unfiltered sample matrices. The disks are eluted with methanol, and the extract is evaporated to dryness, reconstituted in solvent, passed through a Florisil solid-phase extraction column to remove polar organic interferences, and again evaporated to dryness in a reaction vial. The method compounds are reacted with

  13. General anesthetic octanol and related compounds activate wild-type and delF508 cystic fibrosis chloride channels

    OpenAIRE

    Marcet, Brice; Becq, Frédéric; Norez, Caroline; Delmas, Patrick; Verrier, Bernard

    2004-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl− channel is defective during cystic fibrosis (CF). Activators of the CFTR Cl− channel may be useful for therapy of CF. Here, we demonstrate that a range of general anesthetics like normal-alkanols (n-alkanols) and related compounds can stimulate the Cl− channel activity of wild-type CFTR and delF508-CFTR mutant.The effects of n-alkanols like octanol on CFTR activity were measured by iodide (125I) efflux and patch-clamp techniques o...

  14. Crystal Growth of ZnSe and Related Ternary Compound Semiconductors by Vapor Transport in Low Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ching-Hua; Ramachandran, N.

    2013-01-01

    Crystals of ZnSe and related ternary compounds, such as ZnSeS and ZnSeTe, will be grown by physical vapor transport in the Material Science Research Rack (MSRR) on International Space Station (ISS). The objective of the project is to determine the relative contributions of gravity-driven fluid flows to the compositional distribution, incorporation of impurities and defects, and deviation from stoichiometry observed in the crystals grown by vapor transport as results of buoyance-driven convection and growth interface fluctuations caused by irregular fluid-flows on Earth. The investigation consists of extensive ground-based experimental and theoretical research efforts and concurrent flight experimentation. The objectives of the ground-based studies are (1) obtain the experimental data and conduct the analyses required to define the optimum growth parameters for the flight experiments, (2) perfect various characterization techniques to establish the standard procedure for material characterization, (3) quantitatively establish the characteristics of the crystals grown on Earth as a basis for subsequent comparative evaluations of the crystals grown in a low-gravity environment and (4) develop theoretical and analytical methods required for such evaluations. ZnSe and related ternary compounds have been grown by vapor transport technique with real time in-situ non-invasive monitoring techniques. The grown crystals have been characterized extensively by various techniques to correlate the grown crystal properties with the growth conditions.

  15. The shaping of environmental concern in product chains: analysing Danish case studies on environmental aspects in product chain relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forman, Marianne; Hansen, Anne Grethe; Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    indirect demand for greening activities. The analysis shows the co-construction of environmental concerns and demands, companies’ environmental practices and technological developments, and their stabilisation in the supply chain. The case studies also point to how the greening of frontrunners might make...... the systems of production, consumption, knowledge and regulation are discussed. The role of boundary objects is discussed with eco-labelling as case. The role of and the impact on the product chain relations are analysed as part of these mechanisms. From the case studies, green innovations in the product...... chain, which the case company represents, are identified. Direct customer and regulatory demands, as well as indirect societal and regulatory demands are mapped, and their role for product chain greening analysed. The case studies point to the importance of customer demand, regulation and potentially...

  16. Several issues related to regional environmental investigation to inland nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Xinshan; Zhang Xiaofeng

    2010-01-01

    Based on the goal of carrying out regional environmental investigation and review of recent environmental investigations toward inland nuclear power plant(NPP) site, and combined with the characteristics between inland and coastal sites, this paper is to make deeply analysis on population distribution, environmental characteristics, feasibility of performing emergency plan, characteristics of received water and external human-induced incident of NPP vicinity, then advance several significant issues related regional environmental investigation to inland sites, and make comparison with the investigation to coastal sites. Meantime, on guarantee of the integrity of collected materials during investigation, this paper also makes several proposals to provide reference for carrying out regional environmental investigation to inland NPP site. (authors)

  17. Relating the environmental impact of consumption to household expenditures. An input-output analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerkhof, Annemarie C.; Nonhebel, Sanderine; Moll, Henri C.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we evaluate the relationships between household expenditures and the environmental impact categories climate change, acidification, eutrophication and smog formation, by combining household expenditures with environmentally extended input-output analysis. Expenditure elasticities are examined with regression analysis, and are compared and interpreted on the basis of insight at the product level. With data from the Netherlands in the year 2000, we find that environmental impact increases with increasing household expenditures, although the degree to which the environmental impact increases differs per impact category. Climate change and eutrophication increase less than proportionally with increasing expenditures. Acidification increases nearly proportionally with increasing expenditures, whereas smog formation increases more than proportionally. It appears that the mix of necessities and luxuries to which an environmental impact is related is essential in explaining the relationship. (author)

  18. Preparation and use of maize tassels' activated carbon for the adsorption of phenolic compounds in environmental waste water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olorundare, O F; Msagati, T A M; Krause, R W M; Okonkwo, J O; Mamba, B B

    2015-04-01

    The determination and remediation of three phenolic compounds bisphenol A (BPA), ortho-nitrophenol (o-NTP), parachlorophenol (PCP) in wastewater is reported. The analysis of these molecules in wastewater was done using gas chromatography (GC) × GC time-of-flight mass spectrometry while activated carbon derived from maize tassel was used as an adsorbent. During the experimental procedures, the effect of various parameters such as initial concentration, pH of sample solution, eluent volume, and sample volume on the removal efficiency with respect to the three phenolic compounds was studied. The results showed that maize tassel produced activated carbon (MTAC) cartridge packed solid-phase extraction (SPE) system was able to remove the phenolic compounds effectively (90.84-98.49%, 80.75-97.11%, and 78.27-97.08% for BPA, o-NTP, and PCP, respectively). The MTAC cartridge packed SPE sorbent performance was compared to commercially produced C18 SPE cartridges and found to be comparable. All the parameters investigated were found to have a notable influence on the adsorption efficiency of the phenolic compounds from wastewaters at different magnitudes.

  19. Research and Development of Methods for Estimating Physicochemical Properties of Organic Compounds of Environmental Concern. Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    involved. Many of the chemicals are insecticides, herbicides, fungicides , or compounds of re- lated structure. Aromatic and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons...Water Partition Coefficients," Proc. 7th British Insecticide and Fungicide Conf., Vol. 1, The Boots Company Ltd., Nottingham, G.B. (1973). 6. Browman...Peniciii um, Pseudomonae, Thiobacillus, Torulop’is, Trichoderma , Micro onospora, Streptomyces Marine Aquatic Achremobacter, Flavobacteriwn, [53] System

  20. Cell protein cross-linking by erbstatin and related compounds | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The scheme depicts a possible mechanism of cross-linking by erbstatin and related analogues. A mechanism of action is proposed which involves initial oxidation to reactive quinone intermediates that subsequently cross-link protein nucleophiles via multiple 1,4-Michael-type additions. Similar alkylation of protein by protein-tyrosine kinase inhibitors, such as herbimycin A, has

  1. A novel familial case of diffuse leukodystrophy related to NDUFV1 compound heterozygous mutations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ortega-Recalde, Oscar; Fonseca, Dora Janeth; Patiño, Liliana Catherine; Atuesta, Juan Jaime; Rivera-Nieto, Carolina; Restrepo, Carlos Martín; Mateus, Heidi Eliana; van der Knaap, Marjo S.; Laissue, Paul

    2013-01-01

    NDUFV1 mutations have been related to encephalopathic phenotypes due to mitochondrial energy metabolism disturbances. In this study, we report two siblings affected by a diffuse leukodystrophy, who carry the NDUFV1 c.1156C>T (p.Arg386Cys) missense mutation and a novel 42-bp deletion. Bioinformatic

  2. Environmental issues related to commercialization of CulnSe{sub 2}- based photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberspacher, C. [UNISUN, Newbury Park, CA (United States); Fthenakis, V.M.; Moskowitz, P.D.

    1996-07-01

    One of the most promising materials for low-cost thin film photovoltaic cells is copper indium selenide (CuInSe{sub 2} or CIS). As with any new material, successful commercialization of CIS photovoltaic (PV) technology will require attention to environmental issues related to the sources of raw materials, their usage, and the disposal and/or recycling of products at the end of their useful life. This paper focuses on three specific environmental issues related to CIS technology: (i) Economics of the use and re-use of materials; (ii) regulations on environmental disposal and waste handling, and (iii) logistics and economics of recycling and disposing of products by industries faced with comparable environmental issues.

  3. Environmental issues related to commercialization of CulnSe2- based photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberspacher, C.; Fthenakis, V.M.; Moskowitz, P.D.

    1996-01-01

    One of the most promising materials for low-cost thin film photovoltaic cells is copper indium selenide (CuInSe 2 or CIS). As with any new material, successful commercialization of CIS photovoltaic (PV) technology will require attention to environmental issues related to the sources of raw materials, their usage, and the disposal and/or recycling of products at the end of their useful life. This paper focuses on three specific environmental issues related to CIS technology: (i) Economics of the use and re-use of materials; (ii) regulations on environmental disposal and waste handling, and (iii) logistics and economics of recycling and disposing of products by industries faced with comparable environmental issues

  4. Effect of DPA and 1-MCP on chemical compounds related to superficial scald of Granny Smith apples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moggia, C.; Moya-Leon, M. A.; Pereira, M.; Yuri, J. A.; Lobos, G. A.

    2010-07-01

    Research was carried out to study the mode of action of diphenylamine (DPA) and 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), on control of superficial scald of Granny Smith apples (Malus domestica Borkh.), and its relation with chemical compounds. Fruit was harvested from a commercial orchard in Chile, 182 and 189 days after full bloom and received the following treatments: DPA (2,000 ppm); 1-MCP (1.2 ppm) and control (no treatment). All fruit was stored for 4 or 6 months at 0 degree centigrade. A completely randomized factorial design was used (2 harvest dates by 3 post harvest treatments). Monthly measurements were made on maturity indices, ethylene production rate (EPR), scald related compounds [a-farnesene (AF), conjugated trienes (CT), total anti-oxidants (AO)], and cell membrane stability. Following 4 and 6 months of storage, plus 7 days at 20 degree centigrade, scald was evaluated. After 6 months, DPA-treated fruit, from both harvests, showed similar firmness, EPR and AO, compared to the control. However, AF and CT were lower, and cell membrane stability higher. Conversely, 1-MCP-treated fruit showed a noticeable EPR suppression and AF inhibition, along with higher firmness, lower CT and AO, compared to the control and DPA. Furthermore, cell membrane stability was superior to that of the control and similar to that of the DPA. Treated fruit (DPA and 1-MCP) showed an important reduction in scald compared to the control. The effect of 1-MCP on the investigated compounds and the reduction in scald, confirms that ethylene plays a major role on its development. (Author) 50 refs.

  5. The Relation between Sustainable Innovation Strategy and Financial Performance Mediated By Environmental Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hariyati Hariyati

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine the relationship of sustainable innovation strategy and financial performance through the mediation environmental performance. The hypothesis in this study is sustainable innovation strategy affect the financial performance which is mediated by environmental performance. This study is quantitative research in the explanatory level. The population of this study is all the manufacturer companies in East Java. The data is collected through questionnaire. The unit of analysis is a business unit. The respondent of this study is the manager of a business unit manufacturing company in East Java. The results showed that the environmental performance mediates partially the relation between sustainable innovation strategy and financial performance.

  6. Reconciling Trade and Environmental Protection in ASEAN-China Relations: More than Political Window Dressing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joern Dosch

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Has the growing pro-environment rhetoric in ASEAN-China relations resulted in the effective mainstreaming of environmental issue into trade agreements and multilateral cooperation frameworks? The article discusses the cases of the ASEAN China Free Trade Area (ACFTA and the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS and argues that there is no shortage of national and regional policy agendas that visibly link trade growth and environmental considerations. However, this nexus is still a weak one in terms of implementation and effectiveness. The most promising initiatives towards an effective reconciliation of trade growth and environmental sustainability are promoted and often driven by foreign donors, most prominently the European Union (EU.

  7. Thermodynamics of volume-collapse transitions in cerium and related compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bustingorry, S.; Jagla, E.A.; Lorenzana, J.

    2005-01-01

    We present a non-linear elastic model of a coherent transition with discontinuous volume change in an isotropic solid. The model reproduces the anomalous thermodynamics typical of coherent equilibrium including intrinsic hysteresis (for a pressure driven experiment) and a negative bulk modulus. The novelty of the model is that the statistical mechanics solution can be easily worked out. We find that coherency leads to an infinite-range density-density interaction, which drives classical critical behavior. The pressure width of the hysteresis loop shrinks with increasing temperature, ending at a critical point at a temperature related to the shear modulus. The bulk modulus softens with a 1/2 exponent at the transition even far from the critical point. Many well known features of the phase diagram of Ce and related systems are explained by the model

  8. Silica-filled tire tread compounds: an investigation into the viscoelastic properties of the rubber compounds and their relation to tire performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maghami, S.

    2016-01-01

    With increasing the global concern for fossil fuel consumption, automotive industry moves toward more efficient vehicles. Tires are of great importance in this respect, as the tire compound material in contact with the road surface and under the cyclic deformation dissipates energy due to its

  9. Review of Brazilian activities related to the thorium fuel cycle and production of thorium compounds at IPEN-CNEN/SP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lainetti, Paulo E.O.; Freitas, Antonio A.; Mindrisz, Ana C.

    2013-01-01

    The Brazilian's interest in the nuclear utilization of thorium has started in the 50's as a consequence of the abundant occurrence of monazite sands. Since the sixties, IPEN-CNEN/SP has performed some developments related to the thorium fuel cycle. The production and purification of thorium compounds was carried out at IPEN for about 18 years and the main product was the thorium nitrate with high purity, having been produced over 170 metric tons of this material in the period, obtained through solvent extraction. The thorium nitrate was supplied to the domestic industry and used for gas portable lamps (Welsbach mantle). Although the thorium compounds produced have not been employed in the nuclear area, several studies were conducted. Therefore, those activities and the accumulated experience are of strategic importance, on one hand due to huge Brazilian thorium reserves, on the other hand by the resurgence of the interest of thorium for the Generation IV Advanced Reactors. This paper presents a review of the Brazilian research and development activities related to thorium technology. (author)

  10. Influence of tryptophan and related compounds on ergot alkaloid formation in Claviceps purpurea (FR.) Tul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erge, D; Schumann, B; Gröger, D

    1984-01-01

    L-Tryptophan did not exert any influence on peptide alkaloid formation in an ergotamine and in an ergosine-accumulating C. purpurea strain. A different picture was observed in a series of related C. purpurea strains. Tryptophan showed a slight stimulatory effect on the ergotoxine producer Pepty 695/S. A blocked mutant of it, designated as Pepty 695/ch which was able to accumulate secoclavines gave similar results. In a high-yielding elymoclavine strain Pepty 695/e, the progeny of the former one, tryptophan up to a concentration of 25 mM stimulated remarkably clavine biosynthesis. Furthermore, tryptophan could overcome the block of synthesis by inorganic phosphate. Increased specific activities of chanoclavine cyclase but not DMAT synthetase were observed in cultures of strain Pepty 695/e supplemented with tryptophan. 5-Methyltryptophan and bioisosteres of tryptophan were ineffective in alkaloid stimulation. These results are compared with those obtained with the grass ergot strain SD 58 and discussed with the relation to other induction phenomena.

  11. Proceedings of the fifth national symposium on environment: focal theme environmental issues related to mining, milling and metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sastry, V.N.; Bapat, V.N.; Desai, M.V.M.

    1996-02-01

    The fifth National Symposium on Environment was held in Calcutta from February 28 to March 1, 1996. It focused on environmental issues related to mining, milling and metallurgy. Some of the topics covered are coal mining and related environmental issues, chromium mining and associated environmental problems, heavy metals especially nuclear materials and the environmental management strategies, arsenic contamination in water in West Bengal areas and radiological issues related to fertilizers and gypsum industries. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately. refs., figs., tabs

  12. Modelling the relative stability of carbon nanotubes exposed to environmental adsorbates and air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnard, Amanda S

    2009-01-01

    In parallel with the development of technological applications for carbon nanotubes, issues related to toxicology and environmental impact are also under increased scrutiny. It is clear from the available literature that the integrity of future carbon nanotube-based devices, our ability to anticipate failure of these devices, and our ability to manage the toxicological and environmental impacts require a detailed understanding of the stability of pure and functionalized carbon nanotubes under a full range of environmental conditions. Motivated by this endeavour, the present study uses a general thermodynamic model to predict the relative stability of carbon nanotubes exposed to a variety of atmospheric adsorbates, and uses them to examine the stability of nanotubes in air, as a function of the relative humidity. In general the results indicate that the adsorption of a sparse coverage of air is thermodynamically favoured, depending on the humidity, and the stability of small diameter nanotubes may be improved by exposure to humid air.

  13. An analysis of students’ cognitive structures in relation to their environmental sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gercek Cem

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the basic aims of environment-related subjects included in the biology curriculum is to raise environmental awareness. Yet, the fact that the concepts taught especially in the context of environmental issues are abstract influences meaningful learning. This, in turn, influences behaviours displayed. Exhibiting students’ cognitive structures in assuring effective and meaningful concept teaching increases the importance of studies conducted. Unavailability of studies in the literature analysing students’ cognitive structures in relation to their sensitivity to the environment demonstrates the importance of this current study. This study aims to analyse students’ cognitive structures in relation to their environmental sensitivity. The study employs survey model- one of the qualitative research designs. The study group was composed of 56 high school students in the 2016-2017 academic year. The study group was formed through purposeful sampling. Word Association Test (WAT was prepared in order to uncover students’ cognitive structures in relation to their environmental sensitivity. Having transcribed the data obtained, they were put to content analysis and were transferred to the medium of computer. The results showed that students’ cognitive structure concerning their environmental sensitivity was divided into categories.

  14. Biological and Pharmacological Activities of Squalene and Related Compounds: Potential Uses in Cosmetic Dermatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-You Fang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Squalene is a triterpene that is an intermediate in the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway. It was so named because of its occurrence in shark liver oil, which contains large quantities and is considered its richest source. However, it is widely distributed in nature, with reasonable amounts found in olive oil, palm oil, wheat-germ oil, amaranth oil, and rice bran oil. Squalene, the main component of skin surface polyunsaturated lipids, shows some advantages for the skin as an emollient and antioxidant, and for hydration and its antitumor activities. It is also used as a material in topically applied vehicles such as lipid emulsions and nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs. Substances related to squalene, including β-carotene, coenzyme Q10 (ubiquinone and vitamins A, E, and K, are also included in this review article to introduce their benefits to skin physiology. We summarize investigations performed in previous reports from both in vitro and in vivo models.

  15. Indole Compounds Related to Auxins and Goitrogens of Woad (Isatis tinctoria L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, M C; Stowe, B B

    1971-03-01

    Five conspicuous indole derivatives are present in leaves and other tissues of woad (Isatis tinctoria L.). They were identified as tryptophan, isatan B, glucobrassicin, neoglucobrassicin, and glucobrassicin-1-sulfonate. The latter three indole glucosinolates are present at levels of at least 260, 69, and 200 milligrams per kilogram fresh weight and were isolated as crystalline salts. Comparison of physical and chemical properties, particularly NMR spectral analysis, confirms that the 1-methoxyglucobrassicin structure suggested for neoglucobrassicin is correct, whereas further evidence for the even more unusual sulfonation of the ring nitrogen in glucobrassicin-1-sulfonate was obtained. Glucobrassicin-1-sulfonate has an enzymic degradation pattern identical to that of glucobrassicin. As it too releases thiocyanate, it must be added to the list of known plant goitrogens. These studies and the techniques described establish woad as exceptionally suitable higher plant material for metabolic studies of indoles related to goitrogens and auxins.

  16. Indole Compounds Related to Auxins and Goitrogens of Woad (Isatis tinctoria L.) 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Malcolm C.; Stowe, Bruce B.

    1971-01-01

    Five conspicuous indole derivatives are present in leaves and other tissues of woad (Isatis tinctoria L.). They were identified as tryptophan, isatan B, glucobrassicin, neoglucobrassicin, and glucobrassicin-1-sulfonate. The latter three indole glucosinolates are present at levels of at least 260, 69, and 200 milligrams per kilogram fresh weight and were isolated as crystalline salts. Comparison of physical and chemical properties, particularly NMR spectral analysis, confirms that the 1-methoxyglucobrassicin structure suggested for neoglucobrassicin is correct, whereas further evidence for the even more unusual sulfonation of the ring nitrogen in glucobrassicin-1-sulfonate was obtained. Glucobrassicin-1-sulfonate has an enzymic degradation pattern identical to that of glucobrassicin. As it too releases thiocyanate, it must be added to the list of known plant goitrogens. These studies and the techniques described establish woad as exceptionally suitable higher plant material for metabolic studies of indoles related to goitrogens and auxins. PMID:16657624

  17. Measurement of volatile organic compounds in suburban Bangkok, Thailand: characteristics and influence from combustion related activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suthawaree, J.; Tajima, Y.; Kato, S.; Khunchornyakong, A.; Sharp, A.; Kajii, Y.

    2009-12-01

    Elucidation of air quality in the suburban area of Bangkok, Thailand is essential in order to achieve effective regulations and mitigation strategies. VOCs plays important role in formation of tropospheric urban ozone. Without overkill NO concentration, transport of O3 precursors into suburban area which add surplus to local O3 formation as well as direct transport of O3 itself results in relatively higher total O3 observed in suburban area rather than urban. Whole air canister sampling was carried out in the suburban Bangkok during 2008, July 2-7. 4 samples per day were collected at 30 min passes 6, 12, 17, 21 hours with sampling time of 1 min. Analysis was achieved by using GC-FID and GC-MS. High concentrations of VOCs detected during the peak periods in the morning and evening are most likely due to vehicular emission. Averaged VOCs concentrations, reveal distinct different between data measured for weekday and weekend which the latter were found with lower concentrations. No difference was found for CFCs which the levels are also comparable to global background level reported by World Meteorological Organization. The most abundance species have found to be propane and toluene with averaged concentration of 3100 and 2891 pptv, respectively. Ratios of benzene over toluene suggest additional concentration owing to industrial emission, of which particularly larger during the weekday. Comparison with C2Cl4 and CH3Cl concentrations obtained for suburban Tokyo reveal relatively higher influence of biomass burning at suburban Bangkok. In order to estimate the role of the different VOCs towards tropospheric ozone formation, ozone formation potential was calculated using maximum incremental reactivity. Toluene was found to contribute the most to O3 production followed by ethylene, m,p-xylene, and propylene.

  18. Distributions of polyhalogenated compounds in Hudson River (New York, USA) fish in relation to human uses along the river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, Lawrence C.

    2011-01-01

    PCBs (as Aroclor concentrations) have been extensively examined in fish along the Hudson River, but other xenobiotic chemicals in fish have had limited assessment. This study determined concentrations and congener distributions of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polybrominated and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs and PCDD/Fs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in smallmouth bass and striped bass taken from a 385 km reach of the Hudson River. Concentrations of PBDEs and PCBs in smallmouth bass, and PCBs in striped bass, were positively related to human uses of the compounds in the basin. Generally low levels of PCDD/Fs were found. One striped bass, however, contained elevated 2,3,7,8-TCDD, indicating exposure to a known source in the adjacent Newark Bay-Passaic River basin. PBDDs were generally below detection. PBDFs were present in four of 18 smallmouth bass, but were not detected in striped bass. Dioxin-like PCBs contribute most to 2,3,7,8-TCDD toxic equivalents in 29 of 30 samples. - Highlights: → In the Hudson River, → PBDEs in smallmouth bass follow human population patterns, but do not for striped bass. → Proximity to known PCB sources govern PCB levels and patterns in fish. → PBDFs were in smallmouth bass but not striped bass. PBDDs were present in one fish. → PCDD/Fs were low in 29 of 30 fish. A 2,3,7,8-TCDD source affected one striped bass. → PCBs contribute most to 2,3,7,8-TCDD toxic equivalents in 29 of 30 samples. - Residues of polyhalogenated compounds in resident and migratory fish from the Hudson River are compared with human uses of the compounds in the river basin.

  19. Candidate PET radioligands for cannabinoid CB{sub 1} receptors: [{sup 18}F]AM5144 and related pyrazole compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zizhong, Li [Center for Translational Neuroimaging, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Gifford, Andrew [Center for Translational Neuroimaging, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Qian, Liu [Center for Drug Discovery, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Thotapally, Rajesh [Center for Drug Discovery, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Yushin, Ding [Center for Translational Neuroimaging, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Makriyannis, Alexandros [Center for Drug Discovery, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Gatley, S John [Center for Translational Neuroimaging, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States) and Center for Drug Discovery, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)

    2005-05-01

    Introduction: The mammalian brain contains abundant G protein-coupled cannabinoid CB{sub 1} receptors that respond to {delta}{sup 9}-tetrahydrocannabinol, the active ingredient of cannabis. The availability of a positron emission tomography (PET) radioligand would facilitate studies of the addictive and medicinal properties of compounds that bind to this receptor. Among the known classes of ligands for CB{sub 1} receptors, the pyrazoles are attractive targets for radiopharmaceutical development because they are antagonists and are generally less lipophilic than the other classes. Methods: A convenient high-yield synthesis of N-(4-[{sup 18}F]fluorophenyl)-5-(4-bromophenyl)-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)- 1H-pyrazole-3-carboxamide (AM5144) was devised by coupling the appropriate pyrazole-3-carboxyl chloride compound with 4-[{sup 18}F]fluoroaniline. The labeled precursor was synthesized from 1-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-4-nitrobenzene in 60% radiochemical yield for 10 min using an improved procedure involving sodium borohydride reduction with cobalt chloride catalysis. The product was purified by HPLC to give a specific activity >400 mCi/{mu}mol and a radiochemical purity >95%, and a PET study was conducted in a baboon. Results: Although the regional uptake of AM5144 in baboon brain was consistent with binding to cannabinoid CB{sub 1} receptors, absolute uptake at <0.003% injected radioactivity per cubic centimeter was lower than the previously reported uptake of the radioiodinated pyrazole AM281. Conclusions: The relatively poor brain uptake of AM5144 and other pyrazole CB{sub 1} receptor ligands is not surprising because of their high lipophilicity as compared with most brain PET radiotracers. However, for nine pyrazole compounds for which rodent data are available, brain uptake and calculated logP values are not correlated. Thus, high logP values should not preclude evaluation of radiotracers for targets such as the CB{sub 1} receptor that may require very lipophilic ligands.

  20. Distributions of polyhalogenated compounds in Hudson River (New York, USA) fish in relation to human uses along the river

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skinner, Lawrence C., E-mail: lxskinne@gw.dec.state.ny.us [New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, 625 Broadway, Albany, NY 12233 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    PCBs (as Aroclor concentrations) have been extensively examined in fish along the Hudson River, but other xenobiotic chemicals in fish have had limited assessment. This study determined concentrations and congener distributions of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polybrominated and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs and PCDD/Fs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in smallmouth bass and striped bass taken from a 385 km reach of the Hudson River. Concentrations of PBDEs and PCBs in smallmouth bass, and PCBs in striped bass, were positively related to human uses of the compounds in the basin. Generally low levels of PCDD/Fs were found. One striped bass, however, contained elevated 2,3,7,8-TCDD, indicating exposure to a known source in the adjacent Newark Bay-Passaic River basin. PBDDs were generally below detection. PBDFs were present in four of 18 smallmouth bass, but were not detected in striped bass. Dioxin-like PCBs contribute most to 2,3,7,8-TCDD toxic equivalents in 29 of 30 samples. - Highlights: > In the Hudson River, > PBDEs in smallmouth bass follow human population patterns, but do not for striped bass. > Proximity to known PCB sources govern PCB levels and patterns in fish. > PBDFs were in smallmouth bass but not striped bass. PBDDs were present in one fish. > PCDD/Fs were low in 29 of 30 fish. A 2,3,7,8-TCDD source affected one striped bass. > PCBs contribute most to 2,3,7,8-TCDD toxic equivalents in 29 of 30 samples. - Residues of polyhalogenated compounds in resident and migratory fish from the Hudson River are compared with human uses of the compounds in the river basin.

  1. Interspecific variations in mangrove leaf litter decomposition are related to labile nitrogenous compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordhaus, Inga; Salewski, Tabea; Jennerjahn, Tim C.

    2017-06-01

    Mangrove leaves form a large pool of carbon, nitrogen and energy that is a major driver of element cycles and detrital food webs inside mangrove forests as well as in adjacent coastal waters. However, there are large gaps in knowledge on the transformation pathways and ultimate fate of leaf nitrogen. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to determine the amount and composition of nitrogenous organic matter and possible species-specific differences during the decomposition of mangrove leaf litter. For that purpose a three month decomposition experiment with litterbags was conducted using leaves of Aegiceras corniculatum, Avicennia alba, Ceriops decandra, Rhizophora apiculata, and Sonneratia caseolaris in the mangrove forest of the Segara Anakan Lagoon, Java, Indonesia. Detrital leaves were analyzed for bulk carbon and total nitrogen (N), stable carbon and nitrogen isotope composition (δ13C, δ15N), total hydrolyzable amino acids (THAA) and total hydrolyzable hexosamines (THHA). Decomposition rates (k d-1) were highest and tM50 values (when 50% of the original mass had been degraded) lowest in S. caseolaris (k = 0.0382 d-1; tM50 = 18 days), followed by A. alba, C. decandra, A. corniculatum, and R. apiculata (k = 0.0098 d-1; tM50 = 71 days). The biochemical composition of detrital leaves differed significantly among species and over time. S. caseolaris and A. alba had higher concentrations of N, THAA and THHA and a lower C/N ratio than the other three species. For most of the species concentrations of N, THAA and THHA increased during decomposition. The hexosamine galactosamine, indicative of bacterial cell walls, was first found in leaves after 5-7 days of decomposition and increased afterwards. Our findings suggest an increasing, but species-specific varying, portion of labile nitrogenous OM and total N in decomposing leaves over time that is partly related to the activity of leaf-colonizing bacteria. Despite a higher relative nitrogen content in the

  2. Responses of peripheral endocannabinoids and endocannabinoid-related compounds to hedonic eating in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteleone, A M; Di Marzo, V; Monteleone, P; Dalle Grave, R; Aveta, T; Ghoch, M El; Piscitelli, F; Volpe, U; Calugi, S; Maj, M

    2016-06-01

    Hedonic eating occurs independently from homeostatic needs prompting the ingestion of pleasurable foods that are typically rich in fat, sugar and/or salt content. In normal weight healthy subjects, we found that before hedonic eating, plasma levels of 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) were higher than before nonhedonic eating, and although they progressively decreased after food ingestion in both eating conditions, they were significantly higher in hedonic eating. Plasma levels of anandamide (AEA), oleoylethanolamide (OEA) and palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), instead, progressively decreased in both eating conditions without significant differences. In this study, we investigated the responses of AEA, 2-AG, OEA and PEA to hedonic eating in obese individuals. Peripheral levels of AEA, 2-AG, OEA and PEA were measured in 14 obese patients after eating favourite (hedonic eating) and non-favourite (nonhedonic eating) foods in conditions of no homeostatic needs. Plasma levels of 2-AG increased after eating the favourite food, whereas they decreased after eating the non-favourite food, with the production of the endocannabinoid being significantly enhanced in hedonic eating. Plasma levels of AEA decreased progressively in nonhedonic eating, whereas they showed a decrease after the exposure to the favourite food followed by a return to baseline values after eating it. No significant differences emerged in plasma OEA and PEA responses to favourite and non-favourite food. Present findings compared with those obtained in our previously studied normal weight healthy subjects suggest deranged responses of endocannabinoids to food-related reward in obesity.

  3. Potential contribution of aromatase inhibition to the effects of nicotine and related compounds on the brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anat eBiegon

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking continues to be a major public health problem, and while smoking rates in men have shown some decrease over the last few decades, smoking rates among girls and young women are increasing. Practically all of the important aspects of cigarette smoking are sexually dimorphic. Women become addicted more easily than men, while finding it harder to quit. Nicotine replacement appears to be less effective in women. This may be linked to the observation that women are more sensitive than men to non-nicotine cues or ingredients in cigarettes. The reasons for these sex differences are mostly unknown. Several lines of evidence suggest that many of the reported sex differences related to cigarette smoking may stem from the inhibitory effects of nicotine and other tobacco alkaloids on estrogen synthesis via the enzyme aromatase (cyp19a gene product. Aromatase is the last enzyme in estrogen biosynthesis, catalyzing the conversion of androgens to estrogens. This review provides a summary of experimental evidence supporting brain aromatase as a potential mediator and/or modulator of nicotine actions in the brain, contributing to sex differences in smoking behavior. Additional research on the interaction between tobacco smoke, nicotine and aromatase may help devise new, sex specific methods for prevention and treatment of smoking addiction.

  4. Evaluation of the patient with an exposure-related disease: the occupational and environmental history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papali, Alfred; Hines, Stella E

    2015-03-01

    Although the process of taking an occupational and environmental history has remained largely the same, the context in which it is done has changed dramatically over recent years. This review examines the role of the occupational and environmental history in the context of the changing nature of medical practice and discusses methods for evaluating patients with contemporary exposure-related respiratory illnesses. Surveillance for occupational lung disease using mnemonic devices, screening questions and the use of structured questionnaires can significantly increase the likelihood and accuracy of detection. Electronic health records likewise can be adapted to include the most important elements of the occupational and environmental history. The emergence of new technologies and industries will lead to respiratory diseases in novel occupational and environmental contexts. Using the methods described herein can make detecting these diseases easier and less time-consuming.

  5. Analysis of Trace Pharmaceuticals and Related Compounds in Municipal Wastewaters by Preconcentration, Chromatography, Derivatization, and Separation Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Camilla Lindholm

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A significant portion of pharmaceuticals and other organic chemicals consumed by people and animals are released into municipal wastewater treatment plants. Most of them are degraded during the wastewater treatment processes, but some of them degrade only partially and may be widely transported and dispersed into the aquatic environment. This is why efficient and fast analytical methods are needed for detection of organic compounds in wastewaters at trace levels. Because wastewaters often consist of complex matrices and high-molecular mass materials, e.g., lignocellulosic biomass, which may bring challenges to the sample preparation procedures, efficient pre-concentration methods such as solid phase extraction (SPE solid phase microextraction (SPME, or single drop microextraction (SDME are needed. The most common analysis methods are gas chromatography (GC and liquid chromatography (LC coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS. The aim of this review is to give an overview of chromatographic and spectroscopic methods when characterizing low- and medium-molecular weight organic pollutants, mainly focusing on pharmaceuticals, biocides, and personal care products in environmental matrices.

  6. Study of the Cytotoxic and Antifungal Activities of Neolignans 8.O.4´ and Structurally Related Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Matyus

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present work we report the antifungal and cytotoxic activities of a neolignan 8.O.4´series. The most active antifungal compounds show a significant cytotoxic effect which might be related.

  7. Isolating a cytoprotective compound from Ganoderma tsugae: effects on induction of Nrf-2-related genes in endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yu-Shan; Wung, Being-Sun; Lin, Yuan-Chun; Hsieh, Chia-Wen

    2009-08-01

    Ganoderma tsugae is a medicinal fungus with several biological activities. It has long been used as a folk remedy for the promotion of health and longevity in China and other oriental countries. Here, a bioactive fraction of G. tsugae was progressively purified to be enriched in the activity of cytoprotective enzymes. The highest bioactivity was detected in the 20% EtOH-precipitated fraction, which was prepared from submerged fermentation filtrate of G. tsugae. Following further purification by gel filtration chromatography and acetone extraction, the most bioactive fraction, F5-2, was identified as a peptidoglycan-like compound. Extracts of G. tsugae (F5-2) induced heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and thioredoxin reductase-1 (TrxR1) expression in endothelial cells by increasing NF-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) nuclear translocation. Pretreatment with F5-2 increased intracellular glutathione (GSH) and protected against H(2)O(2), suggesting that induction of these antioxidant enzymes is important in protection against oxidative stress. Hence the bioactive peptidoglycan-like compound from G. tsugae might protect endothelial cells.

  8. Environmentally benign graphite intercalation compound composition for exfoliated graphite, flexible graphite, and nano-scaled graphene platelets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhamu, Aruna; Jang, Bor Z.

    2014-06-17

    A carboxylic-intercalated graphite compound composition for the production of exfoliated graphite, flexible graphite, or nano-scaled graphene platelets. The composition comprises a layered graphite with interlayer spaces or interstices and a carboxylic acid residing in at least one of the interstices, wherein the composition is prepared by a chemical oxidation reaction which uses a combination of a carboxylic acid and hydrogen peroxide as an intercalate source. Alternatively, the composition may be prepared by an electrochemical reaction, which uses a carboxylic acid as both an electrolyte and an intercalate source. Exfoliation of the invented composition does not release undesirable chemical contaminants into air or drainage.

  9. Contaminação ambiental por compostos organoestânicos Environmental contamination for organotin compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Flavia Locateli Godoi

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence and the effects of organotin compounds (OTs have been studied since a long time, due to their widespread use and deleterious effects. Some OTs are used as pesticides in crops, or as biocides in antifouling paints, applied in the ship hulls to avoid attachment and growth of tube worms, mussels and barnacles. However, "nontarget" organisms may be exposed, resulting in the poisoning of biological system, originating mutations and sentencing species to extinction. In this work we reported a revision study on the history of OTs and the techniques developed for its assessment and control.

  10. Experience on environmental qualification of safety-related components for Darlington Nuclear Generating Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, A.S.; Kukreti, B.M.

    1987-01-01

    The proliferation of Nuclear Power Plant safety concerns has lead to increasing attention over the Environmental Qualification (EQ) of Nuclear Power Plant Safety-Related Components to provide the assurance that the safety related equipment will meet their intended functions during normal operation and postulated accident conditions. The environmental qualification of these components is also a Licensing requirement for Darlington Nuclear Generating Station. This paper provides an overview of EQ and the experience of a pilot project, in the qualification of the Main Moderator System safety-related functions for the Darlington Nuclear Generating Station currently under construction. It addresses the various phases of qualification from the identification of the EQ Safety-Related Components List, definition of location specific service conditions (normal, adbnormal and accident), safety-related functions, Environmental Qualification Assessments and finally, an EQ system summary report for the Main Moderator System. The results of the pilot project are discussed and the methodology reviewed. The paper concludes that the EQ Program developed for Darlington Nuclear Generating Station, as applied to the qualification of the Main Moderator System, contained all the elements necessary in the qualification of safety-related equipment. The approach taken in the qualification of the Moderator safety-related equipment proves to provide a sound framework for the qualification of other safety-related components in the station

  11. Environmental, health and safety issues related to the production and use of CdTe photovoltaic modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moskowitz, P.D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper examines environmental, health and safety issues associated with the production and use of CdTe photovoltaic modules. Handling of Cd and Te in photovoltaic production can present hazards to health, safety and the environment. Prior recognition of these hazards can allow device manufacturers time to implement appropriate hazard management strategies. The most important health hazards are probably related to chronic low-level exposures to Cd, especially to workers in manufacturing facilities. Because of the long latency period associated with the development of health effects arising from such exposures, and the availability of environmental and biomonitoring protocols, such hazards can be monitored and controlled. The true hazard presented by CdTe is very uncertain because characterizations of its inherent biological toxicity are based on extrapolation of data from other Cd compounds. Technical and institutional mechanisms for the recycling of spent CdTe modules may be needed to ensure public acceptance of this material option and to eliminate expensive disposal costs. (author)

  12. Multimodal aspects of CSR communication related to gender empowerment and environmental protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maier, Carmen Daniela

    Purpose – This paper explores how the multimodal persuasive strategies of CSR communication related to Coca-Cola’s “5 by 20” succeed to highlight the company’s continuous commitment to gender empowerment and environmental protection. Launched in 2010, “5 by 20” is a program designed to empower 5...... million female entrepreneurs throughout the company’s global business system by 2020. The program has recently received 2013 Catalyst Award for its accomplishments. According to the company’s homepage, hundreds of thousands of women around the world are building stronger businesses, families...... and communities due to the implementation of this program. The environmental concerns are embedded in their activities. Approach – Drawing on an interdisciplinary methodological framework related to CSR communication, multimodal discourse analysis, gender theory and environmental communication, the paper proposes...

  13. Environmental Factors Related to Fungal Wound Contamination after Combat Trauma in Afghanistan, 2009-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribble, David R; Rodriguez, Carlos J; Weintrob, Amy C; Shaikh, Faraz; Aggarwal, Deepak; Carson, M Leigh; Murray, Clinton K; Masuoka, Penny

    2015-10-01

    During the recent war in Afghanistan (2001-2014), invasive fungal wound infections (IFIs) among US combat casualties were associated with risk factors related to the mechanism and pattern of injury. Although previous studies recognized that IFI patients primarily sustained injuries in southern Afghanistan, environmental data were not examined. We compared environmental conditions of this region with those of an area in eastern Afghanistan that was not associated with observed IFIs after injury. A larger proportion of personnel injured in the south (61%) grew mold from wound cultures than those injured in the east (20%). In a multivariable analysis, the southern location, characterized by lower elevation, warmer temperatures, and greater isothermality, was independently associated with mold contamination of wounds. These environmental characteristics, along with known risk factors related to injury characteristics, may be useful in modeling the risk for IFIs after traumatic injury in other regions.

  14. Positron lifetimes and distributions in the infinite-layer compound SrCuO2 and related materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishibashi, Shoji; Terada, Norio; Hirabayashi, Masayuki; Ihara, Hideo

    1994-01-01

    We have calculated distributions and lifetimes of positrons in the infinite-layer compound SrCuO 2 and those trapped at possible point defects therein. In the delocalized state, positrons show their density maxima at interstitial sites in the Sr planes and have a significant overlap also with Cu and O atoms. The corresponding positron lifetime is 149 ps. It has been revealed that the Sr vacancy strongly localizes positrons with the binding energy of 2.8 eV and the lifetime of 238 ps, while the O vacancy does not trap positrons. Calculations are also performed on related materials Sr 2 Cu 4 O 6 and Sr 4 Cu 6 O 10 , which are characterized by one-dimensional networks of edge-sharing CuO 4 squares. Positrons are predominantly distributed between these networks in these materials and their corresponding lifetimes are 170-171 ps. (orig.)

  15. Enhancement of protocatechuate decarboxylase activity for the effective production of muconate from lignin-related aromatic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonoki, Tomonori; Morooka, Miyuki; Sakamoto, Kimitoshi; Otsuka, Yuichiro; Nakamura, Masaya; Jellison, Jody; Goodell, Barry

    2014-12-20

    The decarboxylation reaction of protocatechuate has been described as a bottleneck and a rate-limiting step in cis,cis-muconate (ccMA) bioproduction from renewable feedstocks such as sugar. Because sugars are already in high demand in the development of many bio-based products, our work focuses on improving protocatechuate decarboxylase (Pdc) activity and ccMA production in particular, from lignin-related aromatic compounds. We previously had transformed an Escherichia coli strain using aroY, which had been used as a protocatechuate decarboxylase encoding gene from Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae A170-40, and inserted other required genes from Pseudomonas putida KT2440, to allow the production of ccMA from vanillin. This recombinant strain produced ccMA from vanillin, however the Pdc reaction step remained a bottleneck during incubation. In the current study, we identify a way to increase protocatechuate decarboxylase activity in E. coli through enzyme production involving both aroY and kpdB; the latter which encodes for the B subunit of 4-hydroxybenzoate decarboxylase. This permits expression of Pdc activity at a level approximately 14-fold greater than the strain with aroY only. The expression level of AroY increased, apparently as a function of the co-expression of AroY and KpdB. Our results also imply that ccMA may inhibit vanillate demethylation, a reaction step that is rate limiting for efficient ccMA production from lignin-related aromatic compounds, so even though ccMA production may be enhanced, other challenges to overcome vanilate demethylation inhibition still remain.

  16. Mutagenic activities of a chlorination by-product of butamifos, its structural isomer, and their related compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamoshita, Masahiro; Kosaka, Koji; Endo, Osamu; Asami, Mari; Aizawa, Takako

    2010-01-01

    The mutagenic activities of 5-methyl-2-nitrophenol (5M2NP), a chlorination by-product of butamifos, its structural isomer 2-methyl-5-nitrophenol (2M5NP), and related compounds were evaluated by the Ames assay. The mutagenic activities of 5M2NP and 2M5NP were negative or not particularly high. However, those of their chlorinated derivatives were increased in Salmonella typhimurium strain TA100 and the overproducer strains YG1026, and YG1029 in the absence and/or presence of a rat liver metabolic activation system (S9 mix), particularly for YG1029. The mutagenic activities of 6-chloro-2-methyl-5-nitrophenol (6C2M5NP) in YG1029 in the absence and presence of S9 mix were 70000 and 110000 revertants mg(-1), respectively. When nitro functions of 6C2M5NP and 4-chloro-5-methyl-2-nitrophenol (4C5M2NP) were reduced to amino functions, their mutagenic activities were markedly decreased. The mutagenic activities of 5M2NP and 4C5M2NP were lower than those of 2M5NP and 6C2M5NP, respectively. Thus, it was shown that substituent position is a key factor for the mutagenic activities of methylnitrophenols (MNPs) and related compounds. The mutagenic activities of the extracts of 2M5NP in chlorination increased early during the reaction time and then decreased. The main chlorination by-product contributing to the mutagenic activities of the extracts of 2M5NP in chlorination was 6C2M5NP. The results of chlorination of 2M5NP suggested that MNPs were present as their dichlorinated derivatives or further chlorination by-products in drinking water. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The ENDORSE study: Research into environmental determinants of obesity related behaviors in Rotterdam schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Looij-Jansen Petra

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children and adolescents are important target groups for prevention of overweight and obesity as overweight is often developed early in life and tracks into adulthood. Research into behaviors related to overweight (energy balance-related behaviors and the personal and environmental determinants of these behaviors is fundamental to inform prevention interventions. In the Netherlands and in other countries systematic research into environmental determinants of energy balance related behaviors in younger adolescents is largely lacking. This protocol paper describes the design, the components and the methods of the ENDORSE study (Environmental Determinants of Obesity in Rotterdam SchoolchildrEn, that aims to identify important individual and environmental determinants of behaviors related to overweight and obesity and the interactions between these determinants among adolescents. Methods The ENDORSE study is a longitudinal study with a two-year follow-up of a cohort of adolescents aged 12–15 years. Data will be collected at baseline (2005/2006 and at two years follow-up (2007/2008. Outcome measures are body mass index (BMI, waist circumference, time spent in physical activity and sedentary behaviors, and soft drink, snack and breakfast consumption. The ENDORSE study consists of two phases, first employing qualitative research methods to inform the development of a theoretical framework to examine important energy balance related behaviors and their determinants, and to inform questionnaire development. Subsequently, the hypothetical relationships between behavioral determinants, energy balance related behaviors and BMI will be tested in a quantitative study combining school-based surveys and measurements of anthropometrical characteristics at baseline and two-year follow-up. Discussion The ENDORSE project is a comprehensive longitudinal study that enables investigation of specific environmental and individual determinants of

  18. Visitation to Natural Areas on Campus and Its Relation to Place Identity and Environmentally Responsible Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Eva K.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined college students' visits to natural areas on campus and how these visits relate to place identity and environmentally responsible behaviors. The majority (76.5%) of the 115 participants visited the natural areas, and 55.7% of these students visited for a course requirement. Students who lived on campus, were younger, and…

  19. A Systematic Review of Environmental Correlates of Obesity-Related Dietary Behaviors in Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Horst, Klazine; Oenema, A.; Ferreira, I.; Wendel-Vos, W.; Giskes, K.; van Lenthe, F.; Brug, J.

    2007-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the role the environment plays in shaping the dietary behavior of youth, particularly in the context of obesity prevention. An overview of environmental factors associated with obesity-related dietary behaviors among youth is needed to inform the development of interventions. A systematic review of observational…

  20. The Environmental Scanning Function of Public Relations Practitioners and Participation in Management Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dozier, David M.

    Focusing on the concepts of scanning (gathering information about segments of the public, their reactions to the organization, and their opinions about issues important to the organization), decision making, and roles, a study examined the relationship between environmental scanning and the participation of public relations practitioners in…

  1. A systematic review of environmental correlates of obesity-related dietary behaviors in youth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. van der Horst (Klazine); A. Oenema (Anke); A. Ferreira (Isabel); G.C.W. Wendel-Vos (Wanda); K. Giskes (Katrina); F.J. van Lenthe (Frank); J. Brug (Hans)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThere is increasing interest in the role the environment plays in shaping the dietary behavior of youth, particularly in the context of obesity prevention. An overview of environmental factors associated with obesity-related dietary behaviors among youth is needed to inform the

  2. Forecasting the relative influence of environmental and anthropogenic stressors on polar bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd C. Atwood; Bruce G. Marcot; David C. Douglas; Steven C. Amstrup; Karyn D. Rode; George M. Durner; Jeffrey F. Bromaghin

    2016-01-01

    Effective conservation planning requires understanding and ranking threats to wildlife populations. We developed a Bayesian network model to evaluate the relative influence of environmental and anthropogenic stressors, and their mitigation, on the persistence of polar bears (Ursus maritimus). Overall sea ice conditions, affected by rising global...

  3. Quantification of mold contamination in multi-level buildings using the Environmental Relative Moldiness Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the possible use of the Environmental Relative Moldiness Index (ERMI) to quantify mold contamination in multi-level, office buildings. Settled-dust samples were collected in multi-level, office buildings and the ERMI value for each sample de...

  4. Environmental quality rehabilitation relating to the cessation of a thermal plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauna, Gheorghe; Budulan, Pompiliu; Pavel, Adina Mariana

    2004-01-01

    The paper describes the environmental requirements as a result of the IANCA Thermal Plant running on coal, taking out of operation and turning it to better account by selling or dismantling it. Thus, in agreement with the Environmental Protection Law No. 137/29.12.1995- modified and republished on 17.02.2000//Article 15 specifies that when the investment changes its owner or destination or the activities generating an impact on the environment cease to exist, it is mandatory that the former owner develop an environmental study, with a view to establishing the requirements obligations relating to environmental quality restoration in the area the respective activity had an impact on. In the paper will be presented the following issues: environmental obligations resulting from the objective putting out of operation. Legislative specifications; specific works and environmental protection measures: installation, equipment, sub assemblies, spare parts turning to better account; general conditions (prerequisites) for waste management,, categories of waste resulting from the IANCA Thermal Plant dismantling. Its storage and turning to better account. (Author)

  5. Energy saving in Swedish households. The (relative) importance of environmental attitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinsson, Johan; Lundqvist, Lennart J.; Sundstroem, Aksel

    2011-01-01

    The objectives for energy saving in the housing sector set by recent Swedish energy and climate policies are quite demanding. This article uses nation-wide Swedish survey data from 2004 to 2007 to explore the potential for achieving those targets. Earlier findings that socio-economic characteristics such as age, housing type and income are strongly linked to higher propensities to save on heating and hot water usage are confirmed by ordered logistic regression models. However, general environmental attitudes are also found to play a crucial role. When assessing the relative importance of socio-economic factors and environmental attitudes, the effect on energy saving is generally greater for the former than the latter. In addition, important interaction effects are identified. In relative terms, the effect of environmental attitudes is clearly stronger among households in apartment blocks than among those in detached housing, and stronger among households with higher income than among those with lower income. We end by discussing the implications for the selection and targeting of policy measures to tap the energy savings potential in the population. - Highlights: → We use Swedish survey data to analyse the determinants of household energy saving. → Housing type plays a crucial role for individuals' propensity to save energy. → Environmental attitudes are clearly more important in high-income households. → Environmental attitudes are clearly more important for people in apartment blocks.

  6. Emergence of collective action and environmental networking in relation to radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, R.G.; Payne, B.A.

    1985-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between the national environmental movement and nuclear technology in relation to a local emergent group. The historical development of nuclear technology in this conutry has followed a path leading to continued fear and mistrust of waste management by a portion of the population. At the forefront of opposition to nuclear technology are people and groups endorsing environmental values. Because of the antinuclear attitudes of environmentalists and the value orientation of appropriate technologists in the national environmental movement, it seems appropriate for local groups to call on these national groups for assistance regarding nuclear-related issues. A case study is used to illustrate how a local action group, once integrated into a national environmental network, can become an effective, legitimate participant in social change. The formation, emergence, mobilization, and networking of a local group opposed to a specific federal radioactive waste management plan is described based on organizational literature. However, inherent contradictions in defining the local versus national benefits plus inherent problems within the environmental movement could be acting to limit the effectiveness of such networks. 49 refs

  7. Sanskrit Compound Processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anil; Mittal, Vipul; Kulkarni, Amba

    Sanskrit is very rich in compound formation. Typically a compound does not code the relation between its components explicitly. To understand the meaning of a compound, it is necessary to identify its components, discover the relations between them and finally generate a paraphrase of the compound. In this paper, we discuss the automatic segmentation and type identification of a compound using simple statistics that results from the manually annotated data.

  8. Micelle assisted thin-film solid phase microextraction: a new approach for determination of quaternary ammonium compounds in environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyacı, Ezel; Pawliszyn, Janusz

    2014-09-16

    Determination of quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) often is considered to be a challenging undertaking owing to secondary interactions of the analytes' permanently charged quaternary ammonium head or hydrophobic tail with the utilized labware. Here, for the first time, a micelle assisted thin-film solid phase microextraction (TF-SPME) using a zwitterionic detergent 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-1-propanesulfonate (CHAPS) as a matrix modifier is introduced as a novel approach for in-laboratory sample preparation of the challenging compounds. The proposed micelle assisted TF-SPME method offers suppression/enhancement free electrospray ionization of analytes in mass spectrometric detection, minimal interaction of the micelles with the TF-SPME coating, and chromatographic stationary phase and analysis free of secondary interactions. Moreover, it was found that the matrix modifier has multiple functions; when its concentration is found below the critical micelle concentration (CMC), the matrix modifier primarily acts as a surface deactivator; above its CMC, it acts as a stabilizer for QACs. Additionally, shorter equilibrium extraction times in the presence of the modifier demonstrated that micelles also assist in the transfer of analytes from the bulk of the sample to the surface of the coating. The developed micelle assisted TF-SPME protocol using the 96-blade system requires only 30 min of extraction and 15 min of desorption. Together with a conditioning step (15 min), the entire method is 60 min; considering the advantage of using the 96-blade system, if all the blades in the brush are used, the sample preparation time per sample is 0.63 min. Moreover, the recoveries for all analytes with the developed method were found to range within 80.2-97.3%; as such, this method can be considered an open bed solid phase extraction. The proposed method was successfully validated using real samples.

  9. Determination of descriptors for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and related compounds by chromatographic methods and liquid-liquid partition in totally organic biphasic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariyasena, Thiloka C; Poole, Colin F

    2014-09-26

    Retention factors on several columns and at various temperatures using gas chromatography and from reversed-phase liquid chromatography on a SunFire C18 column with various mobile phase compositions containing acetonitrile, methanol and tetrahydrofuran as strength adjusting solvents are combined with liquid-liquid partition coefficients in totally organic biphasic systems to calculate descriptors for 23 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and eighteen related compounds of environmental interest. The use of a consistent protocol for the above measurements provides descriptors that are more self consistent for the estimation of physicochemical properties (octanol-water, air-octanol, air-water, aqueous solubility, and subcooled liquid vapor pressure). The descriptor in this report tend to have smaller values for the L and E descriptors and random differences in the B and S descriptors compared with literature sources. A simple atom fragment constant model is proposed for the estimation of descriptors from structure for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The new descriptors show no bias in the prediction of the air-water partition coefficient for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons unlike the literature values. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Environmental catalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montes Consuelo; Villa, Aida Luz

    1996-01-01

    The term environmental catalysis has been used lately to refer to a variety of applications of the catalysis, those which, they have grouped in the following categories: a) Control of emissions (chimney Gases and gases of the vehicles, Compound Organic Volatile (VOC), Scents, Chlorofluorocarbons) b) Conversion of having undone solids or liquids. C) Selective obtaining of alternating products that replace polluting compounds. d)replacement of catalysis environmentally dangerous And e)Development of catalysts for the obtaining of valuable chemical products without the formation of polluting by-products. In the group of Environmental Catalysis comes working in the first category, Particularly, in the exploration of active catalysts in the decrease of the emissions coming from combustion systems, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides (NOx), N20 and sulfur (SOx). Our fundamental premise is that the molecular meshes are catalytic potential for the development of a technology environmentally clean. These materials understand a class of inorganic compound with unique properties and intimately related with the structure. The net of the molecular meshes consists on tetrahedral configuration atoms (Al,Si, P, etc.) united to each other by oxygen atoms. As a result they are not formed three-dimensional structures alone with channels and cavities but also, with openings bounded by rings that consist of a certain number of tetrahedral atoms

  11. Epidemiologic Tools to Study the Influence of Environmental Factors on Fecundity and Pregnancy-related Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slama, Rémy; Ballester, Ferran; Casas, Maribel; Cordier, Sylvaine; Eggesbø, Merete; Iniguez, Carmen; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Philippat, Claire; Rey, Sylvie; Vandentorren, Stéphanie; Vrijheid, Martine

    2014-01-01

    Adverse pregnancy outcomes entail a large health burden for the mother and offspring; a part of it might be avoided by better understanding the role of environmental factors in their etiology. Our aims were to review the assessment tools to characterize fecundity troubles and pregnancy-related outcomes in human populations and their sensitivity to environmental factors. For each outcome, we reviewed the possible study designs, main sources of bias, and their suggested cures. In terms of study design, for most pregnancy outcomes, cohorts with recruitment early during or even before pregnancy allow efficient characterization of pregnancy-related events, time-varying confounders, and in utero exposures that may impact birth outcomes and child health. Studies on congenital anomalies require specific designs, assessment of anomalies in medical pregnancy terminations, and, for congenital anomalies diagnosed postnatally, follow-up during several months after birth. Statistical analyses should take into account environmental exposures during the relevant time windows; survival models are an appropriate approach for fecundity, fetal loss, and gestational duration/preterm delivery. Analysis of gestational duration could distinguish pregnancies according to delivery induction (and possibly pregnancy-related conditions). In conclusion, careful design and analysis are required to better characterize environmental effects on human reproduction. PMID:24363355

  12. Enhanced anti-tumor activity of a new curcumin-related compound against melanoma and neuroblastoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pastorino Fabio

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sharing the common neuroectodermal origin, melanoma and neuroblastoma are tumors widely diffused among adult and children, respectively. Clinical prognosis of aggressive neuroectodermal cancers remains dismal, therefore the search for novel therapies against such tumors is warranted. Curcumin is a phytochemical compound widely studied for its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties. Recently, we have synthesized and tested in vitro various curcumin-related compounds in order to select new anti-tumor agents displaying stronger and selective growth inhibition activity on neuroectodermal tumors. Results In this work, we have demonstrated that the new α,β-unsaturated ketone D6 was more effective in inhibiting tumor cells growth when compared to curcumin. Normal fibroblasts proliferation was not affected by this treatment. Clonogenic assay showed a significant dose-dependent reduction in both melanoma and neuroblastoma colony formation only after D6 treatment. TUNEL assay, Annexin-V staining, caspases activation and PARP cleavage unveiled the ability of D6 to cause tumor cell death by triggering apoptosis, similarly to curcumin, but with a stronger and quicker extent. These apoptotic features appear to be associated with loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and cytochrome c release. In vivo anti-tumor activity of curcumin and D6 was surveyed using sub-cutaneous melanoma and orthotopic neuroblastoma xenograft models. D6 treated mice exhibited significantly reduced tumor growth compared to both control and curcumin treated ones (Melanoma: D6 vs control: P and D6 vs curcumin P Neuroblastoma: D6 vs both control and curcumin: P . Conclusions Our data indicate D6 as a good candidate to develop new therapies against neural crest-derived tumors.

  13. Brazilian savanna fruits contain higher bioactive compounds content and higher antioxidant activity relative to the conventional red delicious apple.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egle Machado de Almeida Siqueira

    Full Text Available The bioactive compounds content and the antioxidant activity (AA of twelve fruits native to the Cerrado were compared with the Red Delicious apple by means of the antiradical efficiency (using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazil assay/DPPH, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP and the β-carotene/linoleic system. The antiradical efficiency (AE and the kinetic parameters (Efficient concentration/EC50 and time needed to reach the steady state to EC50 concentration/TEC50 of the DPPH curve were also evaluated for comparison with the Trolox equivalent (TE values. A strong, significant and positive correlation was observed between the TE and AE values, whereas a weak and negative correlation was observed between TE and EC50, suggesting that the values of AE and TE are more useful for the determination of antiradical activity in fruits than the widely used EC50. The total phenolic content found in the fruits corresponded positively to their antioxidant activity. The high content of bioactive compounds (flavanols, anthocyanins or vitamin C relative to the apple values found in araticum, cagaita, cajuzinho, jurubeba, lobeira, magaba and tucum corresponded to the high antioxidant activity of these fruits. Flavanols and anthocyanins may be the main bioactive components in these Cerrado fruits. The daily consumption of at least seven of the twelve Cerrado fruits studied, particularly, araticum, cagaita, lobeira and tucum, may confer protection against oxidative stress, and thus, they may prevent chronic diseases and premature aging. The findings of this study should stimulate demand, consumption and cultivation of Cerrado fruits and result in sustainable development of the region where this biome dominates.

  14. Glossary of CERCLA, RCRA and TSCA related terms and acronyms. Environmental Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    This glossary contains CERCLA, RCRA and TSCA related terms that are most often encountered in the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Restoration and Emergency Preparedness activities. Detailed definitions are included for key terms. The CERCLA definitions included in this glossary are taken from the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended and related federal rulemakings. The RCRA definitions included in this glossary are taken from the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and related federal rulemakings. The TSCA definitions included in this glossary are taken from the Toxic Substances and Control Act (TSCA) and related federal rulemakings. Definitions related to TSCA are limited to those sections in the statute and regulations concerning PCBs and asbestos.Other sources for definitions include additional federal rulemakings, assorted guidance documents prepared by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), guidance and informational documents prepared by the US Department of Energy (DOE), and DOE Orders. The source of each term is noted beside the term. Terms presented in this document reflect revised and new definitions published before July 1, 1993.

  15. Eicosanoids and Related Compounds in Plants and Animals (Edited by A. F. Rowley, H. Kuhn, and T. Schewe)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minderhout, Reviewed By Vicky

    2000-04-01

    I was intrigued with the title Eicosanoids and Related Compounds in Plants and Animals because of my interest in eicosanoid biochemistry and the fact that most biochemistry texts cover the mammalian component (briefly) but include nothing on plants or other eukaryotic systems. How do eicosanoids function in plants? I wanted to know. The driving force for this book was the session specifically devoted to Non-Mammalian Eicosanoids at each of the 8th, 9th, and 10th International Conferences on Prostaglandins and Related Compounds. This collection probably represents one of the first attempts to gather a broad cross-section of the work in this field. The editors do not wish to repeat material available in key reviews elsewhere. Instead, they provide a useful bibliography, including books, review articles and important works for further reading. Each chapter incorporates an extensive list of references and the book includes a subject index. The editors, judging by the numbers of recent publications, are active researchers in this field. The book is divided into two sections. The first covers the enzymes and factors involved in the biosynthesis of eicosanoids. There is an introductory chapter on pathways, which includes both animal and plant systems. The next five chapters examine the diversity and evolutionary aspects of several proteins: cyclooxygenases; lipooxygenases, both mammalian and plant; and 5-lipooxygenase-activating-protein. This section concludes with a chapter covering the production of oxygenated fatty acid derivatives that are produced by or are active in fungi, as broadly defined. The second section of the book covers the functional aspects of eicosanoids and related compounds. Two chapters dealing with lipoxygenases in plants are followed by three chapters on eicosanoids in invertebrates, amphibians, and fish. The second section was of the most interest to me personally because I was able find answers to my initial question. How do these eicosanoids

  16. Weed Control in Maize-Cowpea Intercropping System Related to Environmental Resources Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdollah ESKANDARI

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was carried out in Ramhormoz, Iran during the 2008-2009 growing season to investigate the effects of different planting pattern of intercropping on environmental resource consumption and weed biomass. A randomized complete block design (RCBD with three replications was employed to compare the treatments. Treatments included maize sole crop (M, cow pea sole crop (C, within row intercropping (I1, row intercropping (I2 and mix cropping (I3. The density of intercropping was according to replacement design (one maize replaced by three cow pea plants. The results showed that environmental resource consumption was significantly (P?0.05 affected by cropping system, where PAR interception, moisture and nutrients uptake were higher in intercropping systems compared to sole crop systems. Regarding to weed control, intercrops were more effective than sole crops and it was related to lower availability of environmental resources for weeds in intercropping systems.

  17. Formation of organobromine and organoiodine compounds by engineered TiO2 nanoparticle-induced photohalogenation of dissolved organic matter in environmental waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Zhineng; Yin, Yongguang; Wang, Juan; Cao, Dong; Liu, Jingfu

    2018-08-01

    There are increasing concerns about the adverse effects of released engineered nanoparticles and photochemically formed organohalogen compounds (OHCs) on human health and the environment. Herein, we report that titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO 2 NPs) can photocatalytically halogenate dissolved organic matter (DOM) to form a large number of organobromine compounds (OBCs) and organoiodine compounds (OICs), as characterized by negative ion electrospray ionization coupled with Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. Compared with no OHCs produced in control samples in darkness and/or without TiO 2 NPs under sunlight irradiation, various OBCs and OICs were detected in freshwater and seawater under sunlight irradiation for 12h and 24h even in the presence of 1mgL -1 TiO 2 NPs, indicating the photocatalytic roles TiO 2 NPs played in DOM halogenation. Furthermore, TiO 2 NPs could result in the photodegradation of newly formed OHCs, as evidenced by the intensity and the number of some OHCs decreased with reaction time. In addition, many TiO 2 NP-induced OBCs contained two or three bromine atoms, and/or nitrogen and sulfur elements, belonging to lignin-like, tannin-like, unsaturated hydrocarbon and aliphatic compounds. While the OICs were primarily contained one iodine, and very few consisted of nitrogen and sulfur elements, most were lignin-like and tannin-like compounds. Finally, the OBCs in freshwater were found to be formed mainly via a substitution reaction or addition reaction and were accompanied by other reactions such as photooxidation, while the OBCs in seawater and OICs were formed primarily via substitution reactions. Given the abundance of produced OHCs and their toxicity, our findings call for further studies on the exact structure and toxicity of the formed OHCs, taking account the TiO 2 NP-induced DOM photohalogenation in aquatic environments during the evaluation of the environmental effects of engineered TiO 2 NPs. Copyright © 2018

  18. Compensation for environmental asbestos-related diseases in South Africa: a neglected issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ntombizodwa Ndlovu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Environmentally acquired asbestos-related diseases (ARDs are of concern globally. In South Africa, there is widespread contamination of the environment due to historical asbestos mining operations that were poorly regulated. Although the law makes provision for the compensation of occupationally acquired ARDs, compensation for environmentally acquired ARDs is only available through the Asbestos Relief Trust (ART and Kgalagadi Relief Trust, both of which are administered by the ART. This study assessed ARDs and compensation outcomes of environmental claims submitted to the Trusts. Methods: The personal details, medical diagnoses, and exposure information of all environmental claims considered by the Trusts from their inception in 2003 to April 2010 were used to calculate the numbers and proportions of ARDs and compensation awards. Results: There were 146 environmental claimants of whom 35 (23.9% had fibrotic pleural disease, 1 (0.7% had lung cancer, and 77 (52.7% had malignant mesothelioma. 53 (36.3% claimants were compensated: 20 with fibrotic pleural disease and 33 with mesothelioma. Of the 93 (63.7% claimants who were not compensated, 33 had no ARDs, 18 had fibrotic pleural disease, 1 had lung cancer, and 44 had mesothelioma. In addition to having ARDs, those that were compensated had qualifying domestic (33; 62.2% or neighbourhood (20; 37.8% exposures to asbestos. Most of the claimants who were not compensated had ARDs but their exposures did not meet the Trusts’ exposure criteria. Conclusions: This study demonstrates the environmental impact of asbestos mining on the burden of ARDs. Mesothelioma was the most common disease diagnosed, but most cases were not compensated. This highlights that there is little redress for individuals with environmentally acquired ARDs in South Africa. To stop this ARD epidemic, there is a need for the rehabilitation of abandoned asbestos mines and the environment. These issues may not be unique to

  19. Compensation for environmental asbestos-related diseases in South Africa: a neglected issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndlovu, Ntombizodwa; Naude, Jim teWater; Murray, Jill

    2013-01-24

    Environmentally acquired asbestos-related diseases (ARDs) are of concern globally. In South Africa, there is widespread contamination of the environment due to historical asbestos mining operations that were poorly regulated. Although the law makes provision for the compensation of occupationally acquired ARDs, compensation for environmentally acquired ARDs is only available through the Asbestos Relief Trust (ART) and Kgalagadi Relief Trust, both of which are administered by the ART. This study assessed ARDs and compensation outcomes of environmental claims submitted to the Trusts. The personal details, medical diagnoses, and exposure information of all environmental claims considered by the Trusts from their inception in 2003 to April 2010 were used to calculate the numbers and proportions of ARDs and compensation awards. There were 146 environmental claimants of whom 35 (23.9%) had fibrotic pleural disease, 1 (0.7%) had lung cancer, and 77 (52.7%) had malignant mesothelioma. 53 (36.3%) claimants were compensated: 20 with fibrotic pleural disease and 33 with mesothelioma. Of the 93 (63.7%) claimants who were not compensated, 33 had no ARDs, 18 had fibrotic pleural disease, 1 had lung cancer, and 44 had mesothelioma. In addition to having ARDs, those that were compensated had qualifying domestic (33; 62.2%) or neighbourhood (20; 37.8%) exposures to asbestos. Most of the claimants who were not compensated had ARDs but their exposures did not meet the Trusts' exposure criteria. This study demonstrates the environmental impact of asbestos mining on the burden of ARDs. Mesothelioma was the most common disease diagnosed, but most cases were not compensated. This highlights that there is little redress for individuals with environmentally acquired ARDs in South Africa. To stop this ARD epidemic, there is a need for the rehabilitation of abandoned asbestos mines and the environment. These issues may not be unique to South Africa as many countries continue to mine and use

  20. Amperometric screen-printed algal biosensor with flow injection analysis system for detection of environmental toxic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shitanda, Isao [Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki, Noda, Chiba 278-8510 (Japan)], E-mail: shitanda@rs.noda.tus.ac.jp; Takamatsu, Satoshi; Watanabe, Kunihiro; Itagaki, Masayuki [Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki, Noda, Chiba 278-8510 (Japan)

    2009-08-30

    A screen-printed algal biosensor was fabricated for evaluation of toxicity of chemicals. An algal ink was prepared by mixing unicellular microalga Chlorella vulgaris cells, carbon nanotubes and sodium alginate solution. The algal ink was immobilized directly on a screen-printed carbon electrode surface using screen-printing technique. Photosynthetically generated oxygen of the immobilized algae was monitored amperometically. Responses of the algal biosensor to four toxic compounds, 6-chloro-N-ethyl-N-isopropyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine (atrazine) and 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-diethylurea (DCMU) were evaluated as inhibition ratios of the reduction current. The concentrations that gave 50% inhibition of the oxygen reduction current (IC{sup '}{sub 50}) for atrazine and DCMU were 12 and 1 {mu}mol dm{sup -3}, respectively. In comparison with the conventional algal biosensors, in which the algal cells were entrapped in an alginate gel and immobilized on the surface of a transparent indium tin oxide electrode, the present sensor is much smaller and less expensive, with the shorter assay time.

  1. Amperometric screen-printed algal biosensor with flow injection analysis system for detection of environmental toxic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shitanda, Isao; Takamatsu, Satoshi; Watanabe, Kunihiro; Itagaki, Masayuki

    2009-01-01

    A screen-printed algal biosensor was fabricated for evaluation of toxicity of chemicals. An algal ink was prepared by mixing unicellular microalga Chlorella vulgaris cells, carbon nanotubes and sodium alginate solution. The algal ink was immobilized directly on a screen-printed carbon electrode surface using screen-printing technique. Photosynthetically generated oxygen of the immobilized algae was monitored amperometically. Responses of the algal biosensor to four toxic compounds, 6-chloro-N-ethyl-N-isopropyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine (atrazine) and 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-diethylurea (DCMU) were evaluated as inhibition ratios of the reduction current. The concentrations that gave 50% inhibition of the oxygen reduction current (IC ' 50 ) for atrazine and DCMU were 12 and 1 μmol dm -3 , respectively. In comparison with the conventional algal biosensors, in which the algal cells were entrapped in an alginate gel and immobilized on the surface of a transparent indium tin oxide electrode, the present sensor is much smaller and less expensive, with the shorter assay time.

  2. Chronic exposure to chlorophenol related compounds in the pesticide production workplace and lung cancer: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zendehdel, Rezvan; Tayefeh-Rahimian, Raana; Kabir, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Chlorophenols (CPs) and related phenoxyacetic acids (PAs) are pesticide groups contaminated with highly toxic 2, 3, 7, 8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) during production. PAs and CPs exposure is associated with risk of cancer, but the situation regarding lung cancer has not been clearly defined. We proposed a meta-analysis of published researches to evaluate relationship between chronic exposure to PAs and CPs in pesticide production workplaces and the risk of lung cancer. After searching PubMed, Scopus, Scholar Google, Web of Sciences until August 2013, the association between chronic PAs and CPs exposure in production workplace and lung cancer was studied in 15 cohort studies. The standardized mortality rate (SMR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were collected from the papers. We used random or fixed-effects models, Egger test, funnel plot and meta regression in our analysis. Five papers with six reports were included in the final analysis. The standardized mortality rate for lung cancer from the random model was 1.18 (95% CI: 1.03-1.35, p=0.014) with moderate heterogeneity. Publication bias was not found for included studies in meta-analysis (p=0.9). Our findings has strengthen the evidence of lung cancer from chronic exposure to chlorophenol related compounds (PAs, CPs).

  3. Global environmental policy strategies. ''Environment and development'' in north-south relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruckmeier, K.

    1994-01-01

    Global environmental policy has hardly made headway after the United Nations World Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in Rio in June 1992, despite there being no shortage of programmes, institutions, and actors. Obviously, formal structures for political action based on the system of institutions of the United Nations do not suffice. Global environmental policy strategies must reach further, overcoming system-immanent obstacles to sustainable development. This necessitates analyzing the causes of environmental destruction and making a critical evaluation of the relations between the societies of the North and South that received their imprint from development policies. Only after such a preliminary elucidation by interdisciplinary approaches in the light of political and ecological economy and human ecology does an empirical analysis of politically controlled processes in environmental and development policy make sense. The analysis points to strategies for this international political field that rely on non-governmental actors and social movements, and question the traditional European model of an environmental policy determined by government institutions. (orig./UA) [de

  4. Methodical approaches to managing risks for endocrine diseases evolvement in children related to impacts of environmental factors occuring on areas aimed for development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.P. Luzhetskiy

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available It is vital to develop systems of preventing risk-associated pathology due to constantly high levels of endocrine diseases in children exposed to chemicals with trophic effects on endocrine system (lead, cadmium, manganese, chromium, nickel, benzene, phenol, formaldehyde, benzpyrene, chlorine-organic compounds, and nitrates. Applying risk management techniques is one of the most promising trends in prevention of diseases related to environmental impacts. We offer methodical approaches based on system combination of activities at various management levels aimed at improving risk-oriented model of surveillance and control. These approaches enable allowing for detected thropic risk factors in regional social-hygienic monitoring programs, implementing algorithms of case monitoring over exposed children population, and applying contemporary prevention technologies. Social-hygienic monitoring improvement at territorial level implies stricter control and more comprehensive lists of monitored components. This can be achieved by studying compounds which form risks for endocrine system, by working out scientific-methodological grounds for accounting chemical compounds which are trophic for endocrine system, as well as by refining volumes and contents of scheduled inspections performed at high risks objects together with laboratory examination of chemical compounds including those thropic for endocrine system. Local level includes algorithms and schemes of prevention activities aimed at early detection of endocrine disorders related to chemicals impacts. When we give grounds for personified technologies of endocrine diseases prevention (alimentary disorders, physical retardation and obesity related to impacts exerted by chemicals which are trophic for endocrine system we should remember that individual programs choice is based not only on their capacity to eliminate priority compounds determining total chemical load on a person faster but also on

  5. Fusarium graminearum in Stored Wheat: Use of CO2 Production to Quantify Dry Matter Losses and Relate This to Relative Risks of Zearalenone Contamination under Interacting Environmental Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiaitsi, Elsa; Magan, Naresh

    2018-01-01

    Zearalenone (ZEN) contamination from Fusarium graminearum colonization is particularly important in food and feed wheat, especially during post-harvest storage with legislative limits for both food and feed grain. Indicators of the relative risk from exceeding these limits would be useful. We examined the effect of different water activities (aw; 0.95–0.90) and temperature (10–25 °C) in naturally contaminated and irradiated wheat grain, both inoculated with F. graminearum and stored for 15 days on (a) respiration rate; (b) dry matter losses (DML); (c) ZEN production and (d) relationship between DML and ZEN contamination relative to the EU legislative limits. Gas Chromatography was used to measure the temporal respiration rates and the total accumulated CO2 production. There was an increase in temporal CO2 production rates in wetter and warmer conditions in all treatments, with the highest respiration in the 25 °C × 0.95 aw treatments + F. graminearum inoculation. This was reflected in the total accumulated CO2 in the treatments. The maximum DMLs were in the 0.95 aw/20–25 °C treatments and at 10 °C/0.95 aw. The DMLs were modelled to produce contour maps of the environmental conditions resulting in maximum/minimum losses. Contamination with ZEN/ZEN-related compounds were quantified. Maximum production was at 25 °C/0.95–0.93 aw and 20 °C/0.95 aw. ZEN contamination levels plotted against DMLs for all the treatments showed that at ca. 1.0% DML, the risk was high. This type of data is important in building a database for the development of a post-harvest decision support system for relative risks of different mycotoxins. PMID:29462982

  6. Fusarium graminearum in Stored Wheat: Use of CO₂ Production to Quantify Dry Matter Losses and Relate This to Relative Risks of Zearalenone Contamination under Interacting Environmental Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Cela, Esther; Kiaitsi, Elsa; Sulyok, Michael; Medina, Angel; Magan, Naresh

    2018-02-17

    Zearalenone (ZEN) contamination from Fusarium graminearum colonization is particularly important in food and feed wheat, especially during post-harvest storage with legislative limits for both food and feed grain. Indicators of the relative risk from exceeding these limits would be useful. We examined the effect of different water activities (a w ; 0.95-0.90) and temperature (10-25 °C) in naturally contaminated and irradiated wheat grain, both inoculated with F. graminearum and stored for 15 days on (a) respiration rate; (b) dry matter losses (DML); (c) ZEN production and (d) relationship between DML and ZEN contamination relative to the EU legislative limits. Gas Chromatography was used to measure the temporal respiration rates and the total accumulated CO₂ production. There was an increase in temporal CO₂ production rates in wetter and warmer conditions in all treatments, with the highest respiration in the 25 °C × 0.95 a w treatments + F. graminearum inoculation. This was reflected in the total accumulated CO₂ in the treatments. The maximum DMLs were in the 0.95 a w /20-25 °C treatments and at 10 °C/0.95 a w . The DMLs were modelled to produce contour maps of the environmental conditions resulting in maximum/minimum losses. Contamination with ZEN/ZEN-related compounds were quantified. Maximum production was at 25 °C/0.95-0.93 a w and 20 °C/0.95 a w . ZEN contamination levels plotted against DMLs for all the treatments showed that at ca 1.0% DML, the risk was high. This type of data is important in building a database for the development of a post-harvest decision support system for relative risks of different mycotoxins.

  7. Fusarium graminearum in Stored Wheat: Use of CO2 Production to Quantify Dry Matter Losses and Relate This to Relative Risks of Zearalenone Contamination under Interacting Environmental Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Garcia-Cela

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Zearalenone (ZEN contamination from Fusarium graminearum colonization is particularly important in food and feed wheat, especially during post-harvest storage with legislative limits for both food and feed grain. Indicators of the relative risk from exceeding these limits would be useful. We examined the effect of different water activities (aw; 0.95–0.90 and temperature (10–25 °C in naturally contaminated and irradiated wheat grain, both inoculated with F. graminearum and stored for 15 days on (a respiration rate; (b dry matter losses (DML; (c ZEN production and (d relationship between DML and ZEN contamination relative to the EU legislative limits. Gas Chromatography was used to measure the temporal respiration rates and the total accumulated CO2 production. There was an increase in temporal CO2 production rates in wetter and warmer conditions in all treatments, with the highest respiration in the 25 °C × 0.95 aw treatments + F. graminearum inoculation. This was reflected in the total accumulated CO2 in the treatments. The maximum DMLs were in the 0.95 aw/20–25 °C treatments and at 10 °C/0.95 aw. The DMLs were modelled to produce contour maps of the environmental conditions resulting in maximum/minimum losses. Contamination with ZEN/ZEN-related compounds were quantified. Maximum production was at 25 °C/0.95–0.93 aw and 20 °C/0.95 aw. ZEN contamination levels plotted against DMLs for all the treatments showed that at ca. <1.0% DML, there was a low risk of ZEN contamination exceeding EU legislative limits, while at >1.0% DML, the risk was high. This type of data is important in building a database for the development of a post-harvest decision support system for relative risks of different mycotoxins.

  8. Genetic Characterization of Fungi Isolated from the Environmental Swabs collected from a Compounding Center Known to Cause Multistate Meningitis Outbreak in United States Using ITS Sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irshad M. Sulaiman

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A multistate fungal meningitis outbreak started in September of 2012 which spread in 20 states of the United States. The outbreak has been fatal so far, and has affected 751 individuals with 64 deaths among those who received contaminated spinal injections manufactured by a Compounding Center located in Massachusetts. In a preliminary study, Food and Drug Administration (FDA investigated the outbreak in collaboration with Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, state and local health departments, and identified four fungal and several bacterial contaminations in the recalled unopened injection vials. This follow-up study was carried out to assess DNA sequencing of the ITS1 region of rRNA gene for rapid identification of fungal pathogens during public health outbreak investigations. A total of 26 environmental swabs were collected from several locations at the manufacturing premises of the Compounding Center known to have caused the outbreak. The swab samples were initially examined by conventional microbiologic protocols and a wide range of fungal species were recovered. Species-identification of these microorganisms was accomplished by nucleotide sequencing of ITS1 region of rRNA gene. Analysis of data confirmed 14 additional fungal species in the swabs analyzed.

  9. Diurnal flight behavior of Ichneumonoidea (Insecta: Hymenoptera) related to environmental factors in a tropical dry forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Moreno, A; Bordera, S; Leirana-Alcocer, J; Delfín-González, H

    2012-06-01

    The biology and behavior of insects are strongly influenced by environmental conditions such as temperature and precipitation. Because some of these factors present a within day variation, they may be causing variations on insect diurnal flight activity, but scant information exists on the issue. The aim of this work was to describe the patterns on diurnal variation of the abundance of Ichneumonoidea and their relation with relative humidity, temperature, light intensity, and wind speed. The study site was a tropical dry forest at Ría Lagartos Biosphere Reserve, Mexico; where correlations between environmental factors (relative humidity, temperature, light, and wind speed) and abundance of Ichneumonidae and Braconidae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonoidea) were estimated. The best regression model for explaining abundance variation was selected using the second order Akaike Information Criterion. The optimum values of temperature, humidity, and light for flight activity of both families were also estimated. Ichneumonid and braconid abundances were significantly correlated to relative humidity, temperature, and light intensity; ichneumonid also showed significant correlations to wind speed. The second order Akaike Information Criterion suggests that in tropical dry conditions, relative humidity is more important that temperature for Ichneumonoidea diurnal activity. Ichneumonid wasps selected toward intermediate values of relative humidity, temperature and the lowest wind speeds; while Braconidae selected for low values of relative humidity. For light intensity, braconids presented a positive selection for moderately high values.

  10. Relation of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA and Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA and the Importance of Strategic Environmental Assessment in Landscape Planning Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gizem CENGİZ GÖKÇE

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The main goal in the countries which have not completed their development progress is industrialization and development just as soon as possible. Therefore, negative effects of industrialization and development on envi ronment and/or nature cannot be mostly discussed adequately. One of the planning approach instruments that targets sustainability, Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA is used in many countries effectively. But in recent years, that has understood; EIA is an impact assessment instrument that contains defensive preventions only on the basis of projects and this situation has caused some concerns against EIA. In this direction, Strategical Environmental Assessment (SEA exists as the final point of the instruments which are formed to provide sustainable development . In this study; the importance and the requirement of effectively taking a role of landscape architectures that have ecological based job, in the SEA workings which isn’t have got a legal status in Turkey yet, are emphasized by reviewing the relations between EIA and SEA concepts.

  11. Toxic effects on and structure-toxicity relationships of phenylpropanoids, terpenes, and related compounds in Aedes aegypti larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Sandra R L; Silva, Viviane B; Melo, Manuela A; Barbosa, Juliana D F; Santos, Roseli L C; de Sousa, Damião P; Cavalcanti, Sócrates C H

    2010-12-01

    In the search for toxic compounds against Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae, a collection of commercially available aromatic and aliphatic diversely substituted compounds were selected and evaluated. p-Cymene exhibited the highest larvicidal potency LC₅₀ = 51 ppm, whereas 1,8-cineole exhibited the lowest activity value LC₅₀ = 1419 ppm. To aid future work on the search for larvicidal compounds, the structure-toxicity relationships of this collection have been evaluated. The presence of lipophilic groups results in an overall increase in potency. In general, the presence of hydroxyl groups resulted in less potent compounds. However, methylation of such hydroxyls led to an overall increase in potency. The most potent compounds showed comparably good larvicidal activity in A. aegypti larvae as other terpenes, which we assume to be the result of the increased lipophilicity.

  12. Environmental qualification - walkdowns: The documentation of configuration information for safety related components, equipment and systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melmer, J.; Waters, M.

    1995-01-01

    Environmental Qualification walkdowns are conducted to collect field data to verify/validate/document configurations of safety related equipment and systems. This paper describes the process for conducting walkdowns and the justification for using an electronic format. The following are described: a) Background; b) Preparing, executing and processing walkdowns; c) Hardware/software; d) Impact of a paperless system on walkdown execution, maintenance and work planning; e) Other applications for the technology

  13. Human comfort and self-estimated performance in relation to indoor environmental parameters and building features

    OpenAIRE

    Frontczak, Monika Joanna; Wargocki, Pawel

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of the Ph.D. study was to examine occupants’ perception of comfort and self-estimated job performance in non-industrial buildings (homes and offices), in particular how building occupants understand comfort and which parameters, not necessarily related to indoor environments, influence the perception of comfort.To meet the objective, the following actions were taken: (1) a literature survey exploring which indoor environmental parameters (thermal, acoustic, visualenvironmen...

  14. Familial aggregation of gout and relative genetic and environmental contributions: a nationwide population study in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Kuo, Chang-Fu; Grainge, Matthew J.; See, Lai-Chu; Yu, Kuang-Hui; Luo, Shue-Fen; Valdes, Ana M.; Zhang, Weiya; Doherty, Michael

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine familial aggregation of gout and to estimate the heritability and environmental contributions to gout susceptibility in the general population. \\ud \\ud METHODS: Using data from the National Health Insurance (NHI) Research Database in Taiwan, we conducted a nationwide cross-sectional study of data collected from 22 643 748 beneficiaries of the NHI in 2004; among them 1 045 059 individuals had physician-diagnosed gout. We estimated relative risks (RR) of gout in individual...

  15. Motivators and Barriers to Incorporating Climate Change-Related Health Risks in Environmental Health Impact Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, Lyle R.; Alderman, Katarzyna; Connell, Des; Tong, Shilu

    2013-01-01

    Climate change presents risks to health that must be addressed by both decision-makers and public health researchers. Within the application of Environmental Health Impact Assessment (EHIA), there have been few attempts to incorporate climate change-related health risks as an input to the framework. This study used a focus group design to examine the perceptions of government, industry and academic specialists about the suitability of assessing the health consequences of climate change within...

  16. The relative efficiency of market-based environmental policy instruments with imperfect compliance

    OpenAIRE

    Rousseau, Sandra; Proost, Stef

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines to what extent incomplete compliance of environmental regulation mitigates the distortions caused by pre-existing labour taxes. We study the relative cost efficiency of three market-based instruments: emission taxes, tradable permits and output taxes. In a first-best setting and given that monitoring and enforcement is costless, we find that the same utility levels can be reached with and without incomplete compliance. However, allowing for violations makes the policy i...

  17. Status of health and environmental research relative to direct coal liquefaction: 1976 to the present

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, R.H.; Cowser, K.E. (eds.)

    1982-06-01

    This document describes the status of health and environmental research efforts, supported by the US Department of Energy (DOE), to assist in the development of environmentally acceptable coal liquefaction processes. Four major direct coal liquefaction processes are currently in (or have been investigated at) the pilot plant stage of development. Two solvent refined coal processes (SRC-I and -II), H-coal (a catalytic liquefaction process) and Exxon donor solvent (EDS). The Pacific Northwest Laboratory was assigned responsibility for evaluating SRC process materials and prepared comprehensive health and environmental effects research program plans for SRC-I and -II. A similar program plan was prepared for H-coal process materials by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. A program has been developed for EDS process materials by Exxon Research and Engineering Co. The program includes short-term screening of coal-derived materials for potential health and ecological effects. Longer-term assays are used to evaluate materials considered most representative of potential commercial practice and with greatest potential for human exposure or release to the environment. Effects of process modification, control technologies and changing operational conditions on potential health and ecological effects are also being evaluated. These assessments are being conducted to assist in formulating cost-effective environmental research programs and to estimate health and environmental risks associated with a large-scale coal liquefaction industry. Significant results of DOE's health and environmental research efforts relative to coal liquefaction include the following: chemical characterization, health effects, ecological fate and effects, amelioration and risk assessment.

  18. Atmospheric emissions in metropolitan France: compounds related to the increase of the greenhouse effect; Substances relatives a l'accroissement de l'effet de serre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This report presents and comments statistical data and indicators on emissions of compounds involved in the greenhouse effect: carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane (CH{sub 4}), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), hydro-fluorocarbon compounds (HFCs), per-fluorocarbon compounds (PFCs), sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}). For these compounds, the report indicates and comments world and French emission data, their evolution, and the shares of different sectors and their evolutions. It also comments the evolution of the global warming potential (GWP)

  19. Fractal binding and dissociation kinetics of lecithin cholesterol acyl transferase (LCAT), a heart-related compound, on biosensor surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doke, Atul M.; Sadana, Ajit

    2006-05-01

    A fractal analysis is presented for the binding and dissociation of different heart-related compounds in solution to receptors immobilized on biosensor surfaces. The data analyzed include LCAT (lecithin cholesterol acyl transferase) concentrations in solution to egg-white apoA-I rHDL immobilized on a biosensor chip surface.1 Single- and dual- fractal models were employed to fit the data. Values of the binding and the dissociation rate coefficient(s), affinity values, and the fractal dimensions were obtained from the regression analysis provided by Corel Quattro Pro 8.0 (Corel Corporation Limited).2 The binding rate coefficients are quite sensitive to the degree of heterogeneity on the sensor chip surface. Predictive equations are developed for the binding rate coefficient as a function of the degree of heterogeneity present on the sensor chip surface and on the LCAT concentration in solution, and for the affinity as a function of the ratio of fractal dimensions present in the binding and the dissociation phases. The analysis presented provided physical insights into these analyte-receptor reactions occurring on different biosensor surfaces.

  20. [Relationship among glycated compounds, superoxide dismutase activities, and other related analytes in diabetic patients classified by ages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maehata, E; Shimomura, H; Kiyose, H; Hayashi, A; Sakagishi, Y

    1991-07-01

    Among several glycated compounds (GC) which are based on Maillard reaction, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and fructosamine (FRA) have been utilized widely as a markers of diabetes. Recently, glycated albumin (GA) has been pointed out as a new indicator. For the determination of GA, spectrophotometry combined with an affinity column method has been mainly used, however the procedure is complicated. Recently a two-column HPLC method (ion-exchange column and affinity column) has been developed by Shima. We have evaluated a GA analyzer GAA-2000 based on Shima's method. After a series of fundamental and performance evaluation studies, the GAA-2000 was found to be appropriate for our study. Reference values obtained from this equipment were 10.56-16.87%. Correlation coefficients based on GA using diabetic and diabetic nephropathy patient specimens (n = 87) were: FRA (r = 0.944) greater than HbA1c (r = 0.842) greater than Glucose (r = 0.510) Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and lipid peroxidase (LPO) with are produced in relation to active oxygen did not show a good correlation. Although we tried classify the patients according to juvenile (20-39), middle (40-64) and senile (greater than 65) the method of Asada et al., we could not find any distinct tendencies.

  1. Usefulness of High-Frequency Compound Spatial Sonography in the Assessment of Hepatitis B Virus Related Chronic Liver Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyung Soo; Cha, Sang Hoon; Chung, Hwan Hoon; Lee, Ki Yeol; Kim, Baek Hyun; Kim, Kyung Ah; Kim, Yoon Hwan; Park, Cheol Min; Lee, Eung Seok; Byun, Kwan Soo

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the liver parenchyma according to the echo patterns of CSS (compound spatial sonography), and to correlate them with the extent of hepatic fibrosis and the serum aminotransferase level. The CSS images were classified into the following three echo patterns: type I, a normal looking echo: type II, hyperechoic or hypoechoic nodules scattered in a normal-looking echo: type III, a severely heterogeneous echogenic or hypoechoic honeycomb-like echo. The CSS findings were correlated with the histopathology findings in 63 patients with HBV. The serum aminotransferase levels and the occurrence of acute exacerbation in 168 patients with HBV, with and without a progressed parenchymal echo pattern, and who were followed up more than 1-year period, were compared. The interobserver agreement between the two radiologists for assessing the parenchymal echo pattern was scored. The correlation between the CSS pattern and hepatic fibrosis was statistically significant (correlation coefficient = 0.58, p < 0.05). The baseline serum aminotransferase level was not significantly different between the patients with and without a progressed parenchymal echo pattern. However, the rate of acute exacerbation was higher in patients with a progressed parenchymal echo pattern (p < 0.05). The interobserver agreement was good (k statistic = 0.63, 0.78). The liver parenchymal pattern based on the 5-12 MHz CSS is a useful and objective tool for diagnosing and monitoring HBV related chronic liver disease

  2. [Environmental and genetic variables related with alterations in language acquisition in early childhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriano-Gutierrez, A; Colomer-Revuelta, J; Sanjuan, J; Carot-Sierra, J M

    2017-01-01

    A great deal of research has addressed problems in the correct acquisition of language, but with few overall conclusions. The reasons for this lie in the individual variability, the existence of different measures for assessing language and the fact that a complex network of genetic and environmental factors are involved in its development. To review the environmental and genetic variables that have been studied to date, in order to gain a better under-standing of the causes of specific language impairment and create new evidence that can help in the development of screening systems for the early detection of these disorders. The environmental variables related with poorer early child language development include male gender, low level of education of the mother, familial history of problems with language or psychiatric problems, perinatal problems and health problems in early childhood. Bilingualism seems to be a protective factor. Temperament and language are related. Within the genetic factors there are several specific genes associated with language, two of which have a greater influence on its physiological acquisition: FOXP2 and CNTNAP2. The other genes that are most related with specific language disorders are ATP2C2, CMIP, ROBO2, ZNF277 and NOP9. The key to comprehending the development of specific language disorders lies in reaching an understanding of the true role played by genes in the ontogenesis, in the regulation of the different developmental processes, and how this role is modulated by the environment.

  3. Partitioning the Relative Importance of Phylogeny and Environmental Conditions on Phytoplankton Fatty Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Aaron W. E.; Winder, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Essential fatty acids (EFA), which are primarily generated by phytoplankton, limit growth and reproduction in diverse heterotrophs. The biochemical composition of phytoplankton is well-known to be governed both by phylogeny and environmental conditions. Nutrients, light, salinity, and temperature all affect both phytoplankton growth and fatty acid composition. However, the relative importance of taxonomy and environment on algal fatty acid content has yet to be comparatively quantified, thus inhibiting predictions of changes to phytoplankton food quality in response to global environmental change. We compiled 1145 published marine and freshwater phytoplankton fatty acid profiles, consisting of 208 species from six major taxonomic groups, cultured in a wide range of environmental conditions, and used a multivariate distance-based linear model to quantify the total variation explained by each variable. Our results show that taxonomic group accounts for 3-4 times more variation in phytoplankton fatty acids than the most important growth condition variables. The results underscore that environmental conditions clearly affect phytoplankton fatty acid profiles, but also show that conditions account for relatively low variation compared to phylogeny. This suggests that the underlying mechanism determining basal food quality in aquatic habitats is primarily phytoplankton community composition, and allows for prediction of environmental-scale EFA dynamics based on phytoplankton community data. We used the compiled dataset to calculate seasonal dynamics of long-chain EFA (LCEFA; ≥C20 ɷ-3 and ɷ-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid) concentrations and ɷ-3:ɷ-6 EFA ratios in Lake Washington using a multi-decadal phytoplankton community time series. These analyses quantify temporal dynamics of algal-derived LCEFA and food quality in a freshwater ecosystem that has undergone large community changes as a result of shifting resource management practices, highlighting diatoms

  4. Environmental Growth Conditions of Trichoderma spp. Affects Indole Acetic Acid Derivatives, Volatile Organic Compounds, and Plant Growth Promotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto-Jacobo, Maria F.; Steyaert, Johanna M.; Salazar-Badillo, Fatima B.; Nguyen, Dianne Vi; Rostás, Michael; Braithwaite, Mark; De Souza, Jorge T.; Jimenez-Bremont, Juan F.; Ohkura, Mana; Stewart, Alison

    2017-01-01

    Trichoderma species are soil-borne filamentous fungi widely utilized for their many plant health benefits, such as conferring improved growth, disease resistance and abiotic stress tolerance to their hosts. Many Trichoderma species are able to produce the auxin phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and its production has been suggested to promote root growth. Here we show that the production of IAA is strain dependent and diverse external stimuli are associated with its production. In in vitro assays, Arabidopsis primary root length was negatively affected by the interaction with some Trichoderma strains. In soil experiments, a continuum effect on plant growth was shown and this was also strain dependent. In plate assays, some strains of Trichoderma spp. inhibited the expression of the auxin reporter gene DR5 in Arabidopsis primary roots but not secondary roots. When Trichoderma spp. and A. thaliana were physically separated, enhancement of both shoot and root biomass, increased root production and chlorophyll content were observed, which strongly suggested that volatile production by the fungus influenced the parameters analyzed. Trichoderma strains T. virens Gv29.8, T. atroviride IMI206040, T. sp. “atroviride B” LU132, and T. asperellum LU1370 were demonstrated to promote plant growth through volatile production. However, contrasting differences were observed with LU1370 which had a negative effect on plant growth in soil but a positive effect in plate assays. Altogether our results suggest that the mechanisms and molecules involved in plant growth promotion by Trichoderma spp. are multivariable and are affected by the environmental conditions. PMID:28232840

  5. Increasing human Th17 differentiation through activation of orphan nuclear receptor retinoid acid-related orphan receptor γ (RORγ) by a class of aryl amide compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Jing; Fang, Leiping; Zhou, Ling; Wang, Shuai; Xiang, Zhijun; Li, Yuan; Wisely, Bruce; Zhang, Guifeng; An, Gang; Wang, Yonghui; Leung, Stewart; Zhong, Zhong

    2012-10-01

    In a screen for small-molecule inhibitors of retinoid acid-related orphan receptor γ (RORγ), we fortuitously discovered that a class of aryl amide compounds behaved as functional activators of the interleukin 17 (IL-17) reporter in Jurkat cells. Three of these compounds were selected for further analysis and found to activate the IL-17 reporter with potencies of ∼0.1 μM measured by EC₅₀. These compounds were shown to directly bind to RORγ by circular dichroism-based thermal stability experiments. Furthermore, they can enhance an in vitro Th17 differentiation process in human primary T cells. As RORγ remains an orphan nuclear receptor, discovery of these aryl amide compounds as functional agonists will now provide pharmacological tools for us to dissect functions of RORγ and facilitate drug discovery efforts for immune-modulating therapies.

  6. The relation between lattice parameters of NaCl type U, Np and Pu compounds and their magnetic and binding properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohmichi, Toshihiko; Arai, Yasuo

    1992-01-01

    The lattice parameters of NaCl type uranium, neptunium and plutonium compounds are analyzed using Pauling equation. The numbers of bonding electrons and localized electrons of the compounds are calculated using the single bond radius by Pauling for metalloids and assumed ones for the actinides. The number of bonding electrons per unit bonding length can be correlated linearly with the uranium compounds. The number of localized electrons is found to have a speculative relation with magnetic properties, in particular magnetic moments in ordered state; excluding some compounds, the magnetic moments increase at a gradient of 45 degrees with increasing localized electrons in the range up to about 2.5 and then decrease to zero value roughly at a same gradient with increasing localized electrons. (author)

  7. Changes in salivary microbiota increase volatile sulfur compounds production in healthy male subjects with academic-related chronic stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Dias Nani

    Full Text Available To investigate the associations among salivary bacteria, oral emanations of volatile sulfur compounds, and academic-related chronic stress in healthy male subjects.Seventy-eight healthy male undergraduate dental students were classified as stressed or not by evaluation of burnout, a syndrome attributed to academic-related chronic stress. This evaluation was carried out using the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Student Survey questionnaire. Oral emanations of hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan, and dimethyl sulfide were measured using an Oral Chroma™ portable gas chromatograph. The amounts in saliva of total bacteria and seven bacteria associated with halitosis were quantified by qPCR. The in vitro production of H2S by S. moorei and/or F. nucleatum was also measured with the Oral Chroma™ instrument.The stressed students group showed increased oral emanations of hydrogen sulfide and dimethyl sulfide, together with higher salivary Solobacterium moorei levels (p < 0.05, Mann Whitney test. There were moderate positive correlations between the following pairs of variables: Fusobacterium nucleatum and S. moorei; F. nucleatum and hydrogen sulfide; Tannerella forsythia and F. nucleatum; T. forsythia and S. moorei. These correlations only occurred for the stressed group (p < 0.05, Spearman correlation. The in vitro experiment demonstrated that S. moorei increased H2S production by F. nucleatum (p < 0.05, ANOVA and Tukey's test.The increased amount of S. moorei in saliva, and its coexistence with F. nucleatum and T. forsythia, seemed to be responsible for increased oral hydrogen sulfide in the healthy male stressed subjects.

  8. Staff report on the environmental qualification of safety-related electrical equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-12-01

    The current NRC safety review process for nuclear power plants includes criteria related to the qualification of certain electrical equipment. These criteria require that electrical equipment important to safety must be qualified to function in the environment that might result from various accident conditions. Although such criteria have been applied since the early days of commercial nuclear power, the details of these criteria have been changed over the years. The evolution of environmental qualification of safety-related electrical equipment is described in Appendix A

  9. Bio-active Compounds of Bitter Melon Genotypes (Momordica charantia L. in Relation to Their Physiological Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navam S. Hettiarachchy

    2011-02-01

    protein, most of the essential amino acid contents of Bitter Melon were similar as in soy proteins. Some amino acids such as Alanine, Glycine, and Valanine were relatively higher in Bitter Melon flesh than in soy protein. Phenolics contents of the flesh, seed, and seed coat tissue [SCT] were significantly different [p<0.05] among the four varieties. The four varieties were similar in their antioxidant activities of the flesh tissues; however, they were significantly different in their antioxidant activities in the seed and seed coat tissues [SCT]. Bitter melon varieties IW and CG, tested for antimutagenic effects, both flesh and seed had considerably high activities against benzo[a]pyrene with Salmonella TA98 [92-100% inhibition] and Salmonella TA100 [79-86% inhibition].Conclusion: Based on these studies, Bitter Melon is a good source of phenolic compounds. All four varieties tested showed considerably high antioxidant and antimutagenic activities. Therefore, these natural plant phenolics can be a good source of biologically active compounds that may be applied in many food systems to enhance food values and special nutritional qualities. Further studies will be needed using more genetically diverse varieties to pin point the bioactive and functional compounds and their physiological properties.

  10. Guidelines for the Deployment of Product-Related Environmental Legislation into Requirements for the Product Development Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferraz, Mariana; Pigosso, Daniela Cristina Antelmi; Teixeira, Cláudia Echevenguá

    2013-01-01

    Environmental legislation is increasingly changing its focus from end-of-pipe approaches to a life cycle perspective. Therefore, manufacturing companies are increasingly identifying the need of deploying and incorporating product-related environmental requirements into the product development...... process. This paper presents twelve guidelines, clustered into three groups, to support companies in the identification, analysis and deployment of product requirements from product-related environmental legislation....

  11. MEA 86 Compound data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data file contains the full raw parameter data for the 86 compounds tested in the developmental MEA assay, as well as Area Under the Curve (AUC) calculations...

  12. Motivators and Barriers to Incorporating Climate Change-Related Health Risks in Environmental Health Impact Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilu Tong

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Climate change presents risks to health that must be addressed by both decision-makers and public health researchers. Within the application of Environmental Health Impact Assessment (EHIA, there have been few attempts to incorporate climate change-related health risks as an input to the framework. This study used a focus group design to examine the perceptions of government, industry and academic specialists about the suitability of assessing the health consequences of climate change within an EHIA framework. Practitioners expressed concern over a number of factors relating to the current EHIA methodology and the inclusion of climate change-related health risks. These concerns related to the broad scope of issues that would need to be considered, problems with identifying appropriate health indicators, the lack of relevant qualitative information that is currently incorporated in assessment and persistent issues surrounding stakeholder participation. It was suggested that improvements are needed in data collection processes, particularly in terms of adequate communication between environmental and health practitioners. Concerns were raised surrounding data privacy and usage, and how these could impact on the assessment process. These findings may provide guidance for government and industry bodies to improve the assessment of climate change-related health risks.

  13. Motivators and barriers to incorporating climate change-related health risks in environmental health impact assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Lyle R; Alderman, Katarzyna; Connell, Des; Tong, Shilu

    2013-03-22

    Climate change presents risks to health that must be addressed by both decision-makers and public health researchers. Within the application of Environmental Health Impact Assessment (EHIA), there have been few attempts to incorporate climate change-related health risks as an input to the framework. This study used a focus group design to examine the perceptions of government, industry and academic specialists about the suitability of assessing the health consequences of climate change within an EHIA framework. Practitioners expressed concern over a number of factors relating to the current EHIA methodology and the inclusion of climate change-related health risks. These concerns related to the broad scope of issues that would need to be considered, problems with identifying appropriate health indicators, the lack of relevant qualitative information that is currently incorporated in assessment and persistent issues surrounding stakeholder participation. It was suggested that improvements are needed in data collection processes, particularly in terms of adequate communication between environmental and health practitioners. Concerns were raised surrounding data privacy and usage, and how these could impact on the assessment process. These findings may provide guidance for government and industry bodies to improve the assessment of climate change-related health risks.

  14. Socially related fears following exposure to trauma: environmental and genetic influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collimore, Kelsey C; Asmundson, Gordon J G; Taylor, Steven; Jang, Kerry L

    2009-03-01

    Few studies have examined why socially related fears and posttraumatic stress commonly, but not invariably, co-occur. It may be that only traumata of human agency (e.g., sexual assault), for which there is an interpersonal component, give rise to co-occurring socially related fears. These symptoms might also co-occur because of shared genetic factors. We investigated these issues using a sample of 882 monozygotic and dizygotic twins. No significant differences in socially related fear (i.e., fear of negative evaluation, fear of socially observable arousal symptoms) were found between participants reporting assaultive or nonassaultive trauma. However, significant differences in socially related fear were found when participants were grouped into probable PTSD and no PTSD groups. Participants with probable PTSD exhibited greater socially related fear (i.e., fear of negative evaluation) than those without PTSD. Using biometric structural equation modeling, trauma exposure was best explained by shared and nonshared environmental influences. The fear of socially observable arousal symptoms was influenced by genetic and nonshared environmental influences. Implications and directions for future research are discussed.

  15. 76 FR 70169 - Draft Supplement 2 to Final Environmental Statement Related to the Operation of Watts Bar Nuclear...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ... Environmental Statement Related to the Operation of Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Unit 2; Tennessee Valley Authority... on NUREG-0498, ``Final Environmental Statement, Supplement 2, Related to the Operation of Watts Bar... the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Stephen J. Campbell, Chief, Watts Bar Special Projects Branch...

  16. A new approach to determine the environmental qualification requirements for the safety related equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasnaoui, C.; Parent, G.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of the environmental qualification of safety related equipment is to ensure that the plant defense-in-depth is not compromised by common mode failures following design basis accidents with a harsh environment. A new approach based on safety functions has been developed to determine what safety-related equipment is required to function during and after a design basis accident, as well as their environmental qualification requirements. The main feature of this approach is to use auxiliary safety functions established from safety requirements as credited in the safety analyses. This approach is undertaken in three steps: identification of the auxiliary safety functions of each main safety function; determination of the main equipment groups required for each auxiliary safety function; and review of the safety analyses for design basis accidents in order to determine the credited auxiliary safety functions and their mission times for each accident scenario. Some of the benefits of the proposed approach for the determination of the safety environmental qualification requirements are: a systematic approach for the review of safety analyses based on a safety function check list, and the insurance, with the availability of the safety functions, that Gentilly-2 defense-in-depth would not be compromised by design basis accidents with a harsh environment. (author)

  17. Beyond Precipitation: Physiographic Gradients Dictate the Relative Importance of Environmental Drivers on Savanna Vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo-Bescós, Miguel A.; Muñoz-Carpena, Rafael; Kaplan, David A.; Southworth, Jane; Zhu, Likai; Waylen, Peter R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Understanding the drivers of large-scale vegetation change is critical to managing landscapes and key to predicting how projected climate and land use changes will affect regional vegetation patterns. This study aimed to improve our understanding of the role, magnitude and spatial distribution of the key environmental factors driving vegetation change in southern African savanna, and how they vary across physiographic gradients. Methodology/Principal Findings We applied Dynamic Factor Analysis (DFA), a multivariate times series dimension reduction technique to ten years of monthly remote sensing data (MODIS-derived normalized difference vegetation index, NDVI) and a suite of environmental covariates: precipitation, mean and maximum temperature, soil moisture, relative humidity, fire and potential evapotranspiration. Monthly NDVI was described by cyclic seasonal variation with distinct spatiotemporal patterns in different physiographic regions. Results support existing work emphasizing the importance of precipitation, soil moisture and fire on NDVI, but also reveal overlooked effects of temperature and evapotranspiration, particularly in regions with higher mean annual precipitation. Critically, spatial distributions of the weights of environmental covariates point to a transition in the importance of precipitation and soil moisture (strongest in grass-dominated regions with precipitation950 mm). Conclusions/Significance We quantified the combined spatiotemporal effects of an available suite of environmental drivers on NDVI across a large and diverse savanna region. The analysis supports known drivers of savanna vegetation but also uncovers important roles of temperature and evapotranspiration. Results highlight the utility of applying the DFA approach to remote sensing products for regional analyses of landscape change in the context of global environmental change. With the dramatic increase in global change research, this methodology augurs well for

  18. Human comfort and self-estimated performance in relation to indoor environmental parameters and building features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frontczak, Monika Joanna

    The main objective of the Ph.D. study was to examine occupants’ perception of comfort and self-estimated job performance in non-industrial buildings (homes and offices), in particular how building occupants understand comfort and which parameters, not necessarily related to indoor environments...... and storage, noise level and visual privacy. However, if job performance is considered, then satisfaction with the main indoor environmental parameters should be addressed first as they affected self-estimated job performance to the highest extent. The present study showed that overall satisfaction...... with personal workspace affected significantly the self-estimated job performance. Increasing overall satisfaction with the personal workspace by about 15% would correspond to an increase of self-estimated job performance by 3.7%. Among indoor environmental parameters and building features, satisfaction...

  19. Multimodal aspects of CSR communication related to gender empowerment and environmental protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maier, Carmen Daniela

    Purpose – This paper explores how the multimodal persuasive strategies of CSR communication related to Coca-Cola’s “5 by 20” succeed to highlight the company’s continuous commitment to gender empowerment and environmental protection. Launched in 2010, “5 by 20” is a program designed to empower 5...... as the usual textual focus is extended to a multimodal one. Shedding light on how the multimodal interplay contributes to communicate corporate commitment to gender empowerment and environmental protection, this model can also be employed in order to explore multimodally other areas of CSR communication....... a multimodal analysis model through which it is possible to map and explain the multimodal persuasive strategies employed by the company in their CSR communication. The paper is focused on the analysis of the video series that can be accessed at: http://www.coca-colacompany.com/stories/5by20. Based on a social...

  20. Arsenic concentrations, related environmental factors, and the predicted probability of elevated arsenic in groundwater in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Eliza L.; Low, Dennis J.

    2013-01-01

    Analytical results for arsenic in water samples from 5,023 wells obtained during 1969–2007 across Pennsylvania were compiled and related to other associated groundwater-quality and environmental factors and used to predict the probability of elevated arsenic concentrations, defined as greater than or equal to 4.0 micrograms per liter (µg/L), in groundwater. Arsenic concentrations of 4.0 µg/L or greater (elevated concentrations) were detected in 18 percent of samples across Pennsylvania; 8 percent of samples had concentrations that equaled or exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s drinking-water maximum contaminant level of 10.0 µg/L. The highest arsenic concentration was 490.0 µg/L.

  1. Draft environmental statement related to the Union Carbide Corporation, Gas Hills Uranium Project (Natrona County, Wyoming)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The proposed action is the renewal of Source Material License SUA-648 issued for the operation of the Gas Hills Uranium Project in Wyoming, near Moneta. The project is an acid leach, ion-exchange, and solvent-extraction uranium ore processing mill at an increased capacity of 500,000 tons per year and the construction of two heap leach facilities in Natrona and Fremont Counties for initial processing of low-grade ore. After analysis of environmental impacts and adverse effects, it is the proposed position of NRC that the license be renewed subject to conditions relating to stabilization of the tailings, reclamation, environmental monitoring, evaluation of any future activity not evaluated by NRC, archeological survey, analysis of unexpected harmful effects, and decommissioning

  2. Structural and functional characterization of solute binding proteins for aromatic compounds derived from lignin: p-coumaric acid and related aromatic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Kemin; Chang, Changsoo; Cuff, Marianne; Osipiuk, Jerzy; Landorf, Elizabeth; Mack, Jamey C; Zerbs, Sarah; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Collart, Frank R

    2013-10-01

    Lignin comprises 15-25% of plant biomass and represents a major environmental carbon source for utilization by soil microorganisms. Access to this energy resource requires the action of fungal and bacterial enzymes to break down the lignin polymer into a complex assortment of aromatic compounds that can be transported into the cells. To improve our understanding of the utilization of lignin by microorganisms, we characterized the molecular properties of solute binding proteins of ATP-binding cassette transporter proteins that interact with these compounds. A combination of functional screens and structural studies characterized the binding specificity of the solute binding proteins for aromatic compounds derived from lignin such as p-coumarate, 3-phenylpropionic acid and compounds with more complex ring substitutions. A ligand screen based on thermal stabilization identified several binding protein clusters that exhibit preferences based on the size or number of aromatic ring substituents. Multiple X-ray crystal structures of protein-ligand complexes for these clusters identified the molecular basis of the binding specificity for the lignin-derived aromatic compounds. The screens and structural data provide new functional assignments for these solute-binding proteins which can be used to infer their transport specificity. This knowledge of the functional roles and molecular binding specificity of these proteins will support the identification of the specific enzymes and regulatory proteins of peripheral pathways that funnel these compounds to central metabolic pathways and will improve the predictive power of sequence-based functional annotation methods for this family of proteins. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Radiation-related monitoring and environmental research at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anspaugh, L.R.; Patton, S.E.; Shinn, J.H.; Black, S.C.; Costa, C.F.; Elle, D.R.; Essington, E.H.; Gilbert, R.O.; Gonzalez, D.A.; Hunter, R.B.; Medica, P.A.; McArthur, R.D.; Thompson, C.B.; O'Farrell, T.P.; Romney, E.M.

    1990-01-01

    Beginning with the first nuclear-weapons-related tests at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in 1951, a radiation-related monitoring program was established to determine the levels and distribution of radionuclides released. Primary methods involved survey-meter-equipped field-monitoring teams and placement of film badges and air-sampling devices at fixed locations. Beginning in the mid-1950s, more stringent standards, the results of this monitoring program, and the results of related research programs led to increased engineering efforts to reduce local fallout. With passage of the National Environmental Policy Act and increased concern about possible effects of radiation exposure, environmental activities related to the NTS increased. There is now an extensive monitoring program at the NTS to assess radiological conditions resulting from past tests and from continued testing of nuclear-weapons devices. In populated areas near NTS, there is also a monitoring effort that relies on assistance from local communities. Other efforts include reconstruction of radiation doses received by offsite residents during the 1950s and 1960s, determination of the current inventory and distribution of radionuclides in surface soil, and studies of the movement of radionuclides in the desert ecosystem

  4. Medical Isotopes Production Project: Molybdenum-99 and related isotopes: Environmental Impact Statement, Volume I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-04-01

    This Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) provides environmental and technical information concerning the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) proposal to establish a domestic source to produce molybdenum-99 (Mo-99) and related medical isotopes (iodine-131, xenon-133 and iodine-125). Mo-99, a radioactive isotope of the element molybdenum, decays to form metastable technetium-99 (Tc-99m), a radioactive isotope used thousands of times daily in medical diagnostic procedures in the U.S. Currently, all Mo-99 used in the U.S. is obtained from a single Canadian source. DOE is pursuing the Medical Isotopes Production Project in order to ensure that a reliable supply of Mo-99 is available to the U.S. medical community. Under DOE's preferred alternative, the Chemistry and Metallurgy Research Facility at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and the Annular Core Research Reactor and Hot Cell Facility at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) would be used for production of the medical isotopes. In addition to the preferred alternative, three other reasonable alternatives and a no action alternative are analyzed in detail. The sites for the three reasonable alternatives are LANL, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The analyses in this EIS indicate no significant difference in the potential environmental impacts among the alternatives. Each of the alternatives would use essentially the same technology for the production of the medical isotopes. Minor differences in environmental impacts among alternatives relate to the extent of activity necessary to modify and restart (as necessary) existing reactors and hot cell facilities at each of the sites, the quantities, of low-level radioactive waste generated, how such waste would be managed, and the length of time needed for initial and full production capacity

  5. Elevated Atmospheric Levels of Benzene and Benzene-Related Compounds from Unconventional Shale Extraction and Processing: Human Health Concern for Residential Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Alisa L; Orimoloye, Helen T

    2016-01-01

    The advancement of natural gas (NG) extraction across the United States (U.S.) raises concern for potential exposure to hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). Benzene, a HAP and a primary chemical of concern due to its classification as a known human carcinogen, is present in petroleum-rich geologic formations and is formed during the combustion of bypass NG. It is a component in solvents, paraffin breakers, and fuels used in NG extraction and processing (E&P). The objectives of this study are to confirm the presence of benzene and benzene-related compounds (benzene[s]) in residential areas, where unconventional shale E&P is occurring, and to determine if benzene[s] exists in elevated atmospheric concentrations when compared to national background levels. Ambient air sampling was conducted in six counties in the Dallas/Fort Worth Metroplex with passive samples collected in evacuated 6-L Summa canisters. Samples were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, with sampling performed at variable distances from the facility fence line. Elevated concentrations of benzene[s] in the atmosphere were identified when compared to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Urban Air Toxics Monitoring Program. The 24-hour benzene concentrations ranged from 0.6 parts per billion by volume (ppbv) to 592 ppbv, with 1-hour concentrations from 2.94 ppbv to 2,900.20 ppbv. Benzene is a known human carcinogen capable of multisystem health effects. Exposure to benzene is correlated with bone marrow and blood-forming organ damage and immune system depression. Sensitive populations (children, pregnant women, elderly, immunocompromised) and occupational workers are at increased risk for adverse health effects from elevated atmospheric levels of benzene[s] in residential areas with unconventional shale E&P.

  6. Toxicity Assessment of Atrazine and Related Triazine Compounds in the Microtox Assay, and Computational Modeling for Their Structure-Activity Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Leszczynski

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available The triazines are a group of chemically similar herbicides including atrazine, cyanazine, and propazine, primarily used to control broadleaf weeds. About 64 to 80 million lbs of atrazine alone are used each year in the United States, making it one of the two most widely used pesticides in the country. All triazines are somewhat persistent in water and mobile in soil. They are among the most frequently detected pesticides in groundwater. They are considered as possible human carcinogens (Group C based on an increase in mammary gland tumors in female laboratory animals. In this research, we performed the Microtox Assay to investigate the acute toxicity of a significant number of triazines including atrazine, atraton, ametryne, bladex, prometryne, and propazine, and some of their degradation products including atrazine desethyl, atrazine deisopropyl, and didealkyled triazine. Tests were carried out as described by Azur Environmental [1]. The procedure measured the relative acute toxicity of triazines, producing data for the calculation of triazine concentrations effecting 50% reduction in bioluminescence (EC50s. Quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR were examined based on the molecular properties obtained from quantum mechanical predictions performed for each compound. Toxicity tests yielded EC50 values of 39.87, 273.20, 226.80, 36.96, 81.86, 82.68, 12.74, 11.80, and 78.50 mg/L for atrazine, propazine, prometryne, atraton, atrazine desethyl, atrazine deisopropyl, didealkylated triazine, ametryne, and bladex, respectively; indicating that ametryne was the most toxic chemical while propazine was the least toxic. QSAR evaluation resulted in a coefficient of determination (r2 of 0.86, indicating a good value of toxicity prediction based on the chemical structures/properties of tested triazines.

  7. Quantification of Hydroxylated Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (OH-BDEs), Triclosan, and Related Compounds in Freshwater and Coastal Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerrigan, Jill F; Engstrom, Daniel R; Yee, Donald; Sueper, Charles; Erickson, Paul R; Grandbois, Matthew; McNeill, Kristopher; Arnold, William A

    2015-01-01

    Hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-BDEs) are a new class of contaminants of emerging concern, but the relative roles of natural and anthropogenic sources remain uncertain. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are used as brominated flame retardants, and they are a potential source of OH-BDEs via oxidative transformations. OH-BDEs are also natural products in marine systems. In this study, OH-BDEs were measured in water and sediment of freshwater and coastal systems along with the anthropogenic wastewater-marker compound triclosan and its photoproduct dioxin, 2,8-dichlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. The 6-OH-BDE 47 congener and its brominated dioxin (1,3,7-tribromodibenzo-p-dioxin) photoproduct were the only OH-BDE and brominated dioxin detected in surface sediments from San Francisco Bay, the anthropogenically impacted coastal site, where levels increased along a north-south gradient. Triclosan, 6-OH-BDE 47, 6-OH-BDE 90, 6-OH-BDE 99, and (only once) 6'-OH-BDE 100 were detected in two sediment cores from San Francisco Bay. The occurrence of 6-OH-BDE 47 and 1,3,7-tribromodibenzo-p-dioxin sediments in Point Reyes National Seashore, a marine system with limited anthropogenic impact, was generally lower than in San Francisco Bay surface sediments. OH-BDEs were not detected in freshwater lakes. The spatial and temporal trends of triclosan, 2,8-dichlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, OH-BDEs, and brominated dioxins observed in this study suggest that the dominant source of OH-BDEs in these systems is likely natural production, but their occurrence may be enhanced in San Francisco Bay by anthropogenic activities.

  8. Quantification of Hydroxylated Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (OH-BDEs, Triclosan, and Related Compounds in Freshwater and Coastal Systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill F Kerrigan

    Full Text Available Hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-BDEs are a new class of contaminants of emerging concern, but the relative roles of natural and anthropogenic sources remain uncertain. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs are used as brominated flame retardants, and they are a potential source of OH-BDEs via oxidative transformations. OH-BDEs are also natural products in marine systems. In this study, OH-BDEs were measured in water and sediment of freshwater and coastal systems along with the anthropogenic wastewater-marker compound triclosan and its photoproduct dioxin, 2,8-dichlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. The 6-OH-BDE 47 congener and its brominated dioxin (1,3,7-tribromodibenzo-p-dioxin photoproduct were the only OH-BDE and brominated dioxin detected in surface sediments from San Francisco Bay, the anthropogenically impacted coastal site, where levels increased along a north-south gradient. Triclosan, 6-OH-BDE 47, 6-OH-BDE 90, 6-OH-BDE 99, and (only once 6'-OH-BDE 100 were detected in two sediment cores from San Francisco Bay. The occurrence of 6-OH-BDE 47 and 1,3,7-tribromodibenzo-p-dioxin sediments in Point Reyes National Seashore, a marine system with limited anthropogenic impact, was generally lower than in San Francisco Bay surface sediments. OH-BDEs were not detected in freshwater lakes. The spatial and temporal trends of triclosan, 2,8-dichlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, OH-BDEs, and brominated dioxins observed in this study suggest that the dominant source of OH-BDEs in these systems is likely natural production, but their occurrence may be enhanced in San Francisco Bay by anthropogenic activities.

  9. General anesthetic octanol and related compounds activate wild-type and delF508 cystic fibrosis chloride channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcet, Brice; Becq, Frédéric; Norez, Caroline; Delmas, Patrick; Verrier, Bernard

    2004-03-01

    1. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl(-) channel is defective during cystic fibrosis (CF). Activators of the CFTR Cl(-) channel may be useful for therapy of CF. Here, we demonstrate that a range of general anesthetics like normal-alkanols (n-alkanols) and related compounds can stimulate the Cl(-) channel activity of wild-type CFTR and delF508-CFTR mutant. 2. The effects of n-alkanols like octanol on CFTR activity were measured by iodide ((125)I) efflux and patch-clamp techniques on three distinct cellular models: (1). CFTR-expressing Chinese hamster ovary cells, (2). human airway Calu-3 epithelial cells and (3). human airway JME/CF15 epithelial cells which express the delF508-CFTR mutant. 3. Our data show for the first time that n-alkanols activate both wild-type CFTR and delF508-CFTR mutant. Octanol stimulated (125)I efflux in a dose-dependent manner in CFTR-expressing cells (wild-type and delF508) but not in cell lines lacking CFTR. (125)I efflux and Cl(-) currents induced by octanol were blocked by glibenclamide but insensitive to 4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid, as expected for a CFTR Cl(-) current. 4. CFTR activation by octanol was neither due to cell-to-cell uncoupling properties of octanol nor to an intracellular cAMP increase. CFTR activation by octanol requires phosphorylation by protein kinase-A (PKA) since it was prevented by H-89, a PKA inhibitor. 5. n-Alkanols chain length was an important determinant for channel activation, with rank order of potencies: 1-heptanoloctanoloctanol<1-decanol. Our findings may be of valuable interest for developing novel therapeutic strategies for CF.

  10. A Vegetal Biopolymer-Based Biostimulant Promoted Root Growth in Melon While Triggering Brassinosteroids and Stress-Related Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Lucini

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Plant biostimulants are receiving great interest for boosting root growth during the first phenological stages of vegetable crops. The present study aimed at elucidating the morphological, physiological, and metabolomic changes occurring in greenhouse melon treated with the biopolymer-based biostimulant Quik-link, containing lateral root promoting peptides, and lignosulphonates. The vegetal-based biopolymer was applied at five rates (0, 0.06, 0.12, 0.24, or 0.48 mL plant-1 as substrate drench. The application of biopolymer-based biostimulant at 0.12 and 0.24 mL plant-1 enhanced dry weight of melon leaves and total biomass by 30.5 and 27.7%, respectively, compared to biopolymer applications at 0.06 mL plant-1 and untreated plants. The root dry biomass, total root length, and surface in biostimulant-treated plants were significantly higher at 0.24 mL plant-1 and to a lesser extent at 0.12 and 0.48 mL plant-1, in comparison to 0.06 mL plant-1 and untreated melon plants. A convoluted biochemical response to the biostimulant treatment was highlighted through UHPLC/QTOF-MS metabolomics, in which brassinosteroids and their interaction with other hormones appeared to play a pivotal role. Root metabolic profile was more markedly altered than leaves, following application of the biopolymer-based biostimulant. Brassinosteroids triggered in roots could have been involved in changes of root development observed after biostimulant application. These hormones, once transported to shoots, could have caused an hormonal imbalance. Indeed, the involvement of abscisic acid, cytokinins, and gibberellin related compounds was observed in leaves following root application of the biopolymer-based biostimulant. Nonetheless, the treatment triggered an accumulation of several metabolites involved in defense mechanisms against biotic and abiotic stresses, such as flavonoids, carotenoids, and glucosinolates, thus potentially improving resistance toward plant stresses.

  11. 7 CFR 650.21 - Working relations with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and related State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... recycling and disposal, environmental considerations in land use, Environmental Impact Statements (EIS's... and guidelines, develop agreements for undertaking specific activities or projects of national... projects of multistate significance and mutual advantage. (3) The state conservationist will: (i) Obtain...

  12. Urinary levels of N-nitroso compounds in relation to risk of gastric cancer: findings from the shanghai cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ling; Qu, Yong-Hua; Chu, Xin-Di; Wang, Renwei; Nelson, Heather H; Gao, Yu-Tang; Yuan, Jian-Min

    2015-01-01

    N-Nitroso compounds are thought to play a significant role in the development of gastric cancer. Epidemiological data, however, are sparse in examining the associations between biomarkers of exposure to N-nitroso compounds and the risk of gastric cancer. A nested case-control study within a prospective cohort of 18,244 middle-aged and older men in Shanghai, China, was conducted to examine the association between urinary level of N-nitroso compounds and risk of gastric cancer. Information on demographics, usual dietary intake, and use of alcohol and tobacco was collected through in-person interviews at enrollment. Urinary levels of nitrate, nitrite, N-nitroso-2-methylthiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (NMTCA), N-nitrosoproline (NPRO), N-nitrososarcosine (NSAR), N-nitrosothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (NTCA), as well as serum H. pylori antibodies were quantified in 191 gastric cancer cases and 569 individually matched controls. Logistic regression method was used to assess the association between urinary levels of N-nitroso compounds and risk of gastric cancer. Compared with controls, gastric cancer patients had overall comparable levels of urinary nitrate, nitrite, and N-nitroso compounds. Among individuals seronegative for antibodies to H. pylori, elevated levels of urinary nitrate were associated with increased risk of gastric cancer. The multivariate-adjusted odds ratios for the second and third tertiles of nitrate were 3.27 (95% confidence interval = 0.76-14.04) and 4.82 (95% confidence interval = 1.05-22.17), respectively, compared with the lowest tertile (P for trend = 0.042). There was no statistically significant association between urinary levels of nitrite or N-nitroso compounds and risk of gastric cancer. Urinary NMTCA level was significantly associated with consumption of alcohol and preserved meat and fish food items. The present study demonstrates that exposure to nitrate, a precursor of N-nitroso compounds, may increase the risk of gastric cancer among

  13. Phase stabilities of pyrite-related MTCh compounds (M=Ni, Pd, Pt; T=Si, Ge, Sn, Pb; Ch=S, Se, Te): A systematic DFT study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachhuber, Frederik; Krach, Alexander; Furtner, Andrea; Söhnel, Tilo; Peter, Philipp; Rothballer, Jan; Weihrich, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Pyrite-type and related systems appear for a wide range of binary and ternary combinations of transition metals and main group elements that form Zintl type dumbbell anion units. Those representatives with 20 valence electrons exhibit an extraordinary structural flexibility and interesting properties as low-gap semiconductors or thermoelectric and electrode materials. This work is devoted to the systematic exploration of novel compounds within the class of MTCh compounds (M=Ni, Pd, Pt; T=Si, Ge, Sn, Pb; Ch=S, Se, Te) by means of density functional calculations. Their preferred structures are predicted from an extended scheme of colored pyrites and marcasites. To determine their stabilities, competing binary MT 2 and MCh 2 boundary phases are taken into account as well as ternary M 3 T 2 Ch 2 and M 2 T 3 Ch 3 systems. Recently established stability diagrams are presented to account for MTCh ordering phenomena with a focus on a not-yet-reported ordering variant of the NiAs 2 type. Due to the good agreement with experimental data available for several PtTCh systems, the predictions for the residual systems are considered sufficiently accurate. - Graphical abstract: Compositional and structural stability of MTCh compounds is investigated from first principle calculations. A conceptional approach is presented to study and predict novel stable and metastable compounds and structures of low gap semiconductors with TCh dumbbell units that are isoelectronic and structurally related to pyrite (FeS 2 ). - Highlights: • Study of compositional stability of MTCh vs. M 3 T 2 Ch 2 and M 2 T 3 Ch 3 compounds. • Study of structural stability of known and novel MTCh compounds. • Prediction of novel stable and metastable structures and compounds isoelectronic to pyrite, FeS 2

  14. Comparative proteomics and protein profile related to phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity in germinated Oryza sativa 'KDML105' and Thai brown rice 'Mali Daeng' for better nutritional value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksup, Sarunyaporn; Pongpakpian, Sarintip; Roytrakul, Sittiruk; Cha-Um, Suriyan; Supaibulwatana, Kanyaratt

    2018-01-01

    Brown rice (BR) and germinated brown rice (GBR) are considered as prime sources of carbohydrate and bioactive compounds for more than half of the populations worldwide. Several studies have reported on the proteomics of BR and GBR; however, the proteomic profiles related to the synthesis of bioactive compounds are less well documented. In the present study, BR and GBR were used in a comparative analysis of the proteomic and bioactive compound profiles for two famous Thai rice varieties: Khao Dawk Mali 105 (KDML) and Mali Daeng (MD). The proteomes of KDML and MD revealed differences in the expression patterns of proteins after germination. Total phenolic compound content, anthocyanin contents and antioxidant activity of red rice MD was approximately 2.6-, 2.2- and 9.2-fold higher, respectively, compared to that of the white rice KDML. Moreover, GBR of MD showed higher total anthocyanin content and greater antioxidant activity, which is consistent with the increase expression of several proteins involved in the biosynthesis of phenolic compounds and protection against oxidative stress. Red rice MD exhibits higher nutrient values compared to white rice KDML and the appropriate germination of brown rice could represent a method for improving health-related benefits. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Environmental factors related to water level regulation - a comparative study in northern Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellsten, S.K.

    1997-01-01

    The environmental conditions of the littoral zone were studied in the regulated Lake Ontojaervi and the unregulated Lake Lentua in northern Finland. The general aims of the study were to analyse the environmental factors related to water level regulation in the littoral zone and to produce information for assessing the effects of hydroelectric development in northern lakes. The study was basically carried out by comparing the littoral environments of the two study lakes. The most visible effects of water level regulation were related to the raised water level, which yielded erosion of sandy shores at the beginning of the regulation. Another effect of lake regulation was the altered fluctuation of the water level, which led to bottom instability and increased the size of the frozen and ice penetration zones. The effect of ice penetration was also easy to recognize on the shores of Lake Ontojaervi, where the surface sediment was frozen to a greater depth and across wider areas than in Lake Lentua. Below the freezing zone, the ice just pressed down on the sediment. The shores of Lake Ontojaervi were steeper than those of Lake Lentua, which affected the distribution of bottom types, with sandy bottoms being more common in Lake Lentua than in Lake Ontojaervi. The factors related to site exposure included effective fetch and the shape of the shoreline. The sedimentation level correlated only with the slope and was not predicted by the fetch or shape. The vertical reduction of light was estimated on the basis of water colour. The main environmental factors from the two lakes were used in a discriminant analysis to predict the bottom type distribution of the littoral (r 2 = 0.41). (orig.) 66 refs

  16. Environmental factors related to water level regulation - a comparative study in northern Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellsten, S K [VTT Communities and Infrastructure. Water Engineering and Ecotechnology, Oulu (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    The environmental conditions of the littoral zone were studied in the regulated Lake Ontojaervi and the unregulated Lake Lentua in northern Finland. The general aims of the study were to analyse the environmental factors related to water level regulation in the littoral zone and to produce information for assessing the effects of hydroelectric development in northern lakes. The study was basically carried out by comparing the littoral environments of the two study lakes. The most visible effects of water level regulation were related to the raised water level, which yielded erosion of sandy shores at the beginning of the regulation. Another effect of lake regulation was the altered fluctuation of the water level, which led to bottom instability and increased the size of the frozen and ice penetration zones. The effect of ice penetration was also easy to recognize on the shores of Lake Ontojaervi, where the surface sediment was frozen to a greater depth and across wider areas than in Lake Lentua. Below the freezing zone, the ice just pressed down on the sediment. The shores of Lake Ontojaervi were steeper than those of Lake Lentua, which affected the distribution of bottom types, with sandy bottoms being more common in Lake Lentua than in Lake Ontojaervi. The factors related to site exposure included effective fetch and the shape of the shoreline. The sedimentation level correlated only with the slope and was not predicted by the fetch or shape. The vertical reduction of light was estimated on the basis of water colour. The main environmental factors from the two lakes were used in a discriminant analysis to predict the bottom type distribution of the littoral (r{sup 2} = 0.41). (orig.) 66 refs.

  17. Assessing environmental features related to mental health: a reliability study of visual streetscape images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu-Tzu; Nash, Paul; Barnes, Linda E; Minett, Thais; Matthews, Fiona E; Jones, Andy; Brayne, Carol

    2014-10-22

    An association between depressive symptoms and features of built environment has been reported in the literature. A remaining research challenge is the development of methods to efficiently capture pertinent environmental features in relevant study settings. Visual streetscape images have been used to replace traditional physical audits and directly observe the built environment of communities. The aim of this work is to examine the inter-method reliability of the two audit methods for assessing community environments with a specific focus on physical features related to mental health. Forty-eight postcodes in urban and rural areas of Cambridgeshire, England were randomly selected from an alphabetical list of streets hosted on a UK property website. The assessment was conducted in July and August 2012 by both physical and visual image audits based on the items in Residential Environment Assessment Tool (REAT), an observational instrument targeting the micro-scale environmental features related to mental health in UK postcodes. The assessor used the images of Google Street View and virtually "walked through" the streets to conduct the property and street level assessments. Gwet's AC1 coefficients and Bland-Altman plots were used to compare the concordance of two audits. The results of conducting the REAT by visual image audits generally correspond to direct observations. More variations were found in property level items regarding physical incivilities, with broad limits of agreement which importantly lead to most of the variation in the overall REAT score. Postcodes in urban areas had lower consistency between the two methods than rural areas. Google Street View has the potential to assess environmental features related to mental health with fair reliability and provide a less resource intense method of assessing community environments than physical audits.

  18. Smoking-related knowledge, attitude, social pressure, and environmental constraints among new undergraduates in Chongqing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xianglong; Leung, Doris Yin Ping; Li, Bing; Wang, Pengfei; Zhao, Yong

    2015-01-19

    Smoking has resulted in numerous deaths in China. Data indicate that 21% of college students in China are smokers. This study aimed to examine the smoking-related behaviors of undergraduates, as influenced by knowledge, attitude, social pressure, and environmental constraints. A convenience sampling of 412 fresh undergraduates from two universities in the University Town in Chongqing, China was recruited. Chi-square tests were used to compare the smoking-related variables between smokers and non-smokers. Moreover, logistic regression was used to examine the factors that associated with smoking status in undergraduates. Smokers and non-smokers differ in terms of knowledge, attitudes toward smoking, participation in tobacco promotional activities, and sources of social pressure. Logistic regression model identified that sex, living cost, five smoking-related attitudes of "Smoking is pleasurable, Smoking relaxes me, Smoking makes me look strong, Smoking is a waste of money, Smoking can help me study better", the social pressure "Smoking brings comfort during celebration", and the environmental constraints "How did you get your cigarettes in the past 30 days?" are significantly associated with smoking. The findings provide a better understanding of the epidemic of smoking among fresh undergraduates in Chongqing, China. This study provides more detailed consideration of the implications for the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) policies, especially on restriction of retail sales outlets and tobacco promotion activities near universities in China.

  19. Smoking-Related Knowledge, Attitude, Social Pressure, and Environmental Constraints among New Undergraduates in Chongqing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianglong Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Smoking has resulted in numerous deaths in China. Data indicate that 21% of college students in China are smokers. Objective: This study aimed to examine the smoking-related behaviors of undergraduates, as influenced by knowledge, attitude, social pressure, and environmental constraints. Method: A convenience sampling of 412 fresh undergraduates from two universities in the University Town in Chongqing, China was recruited. Chi-square tests were used to compare the smoking-related variables between smokers and non-smokers. Moreover, logistic regression was used to examine the factors that associated with smoking status in undergraduates. Results: Smokers and non-smokers differ in terms of knowledge, attitudes toward smoking, participation in tobacco promotional activities, and sources of social pressure. Logistic regression model identified that sex, living cost, five smoking-related attitudes of “Smoking is pleasurable, Smoking relaxes me, Smoking makes me look strong, Smoking is a waste of money, Smoking can help me study better”, the social pressure “Smoking brings comfort during celebration”, and the environmental constraints “How did you get your cigarettes in the past 30 days?” are significantly associated with smoking. Conclusions: The findings provide a better understanding of the epidemic of smoking among fresh undergraduates in Chongqing, China. This study provides more detailed consideration of the implications for the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC policies, especially on restriction of retail sales outlets and tobacco promotion activities near universities in China.

  20. Facilitating relative comparisons of health impacts from postulated accidents in environmental impact statements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, C.J.

    1996-01-01

    Current US Department of Energy (DOE) guidance on the performance of accident analyses supported an environmental impact statement (EIS) stresses a graded approach that emphasizes the most important risks, calls for the evaluation of frequencies as well as consequences for severe accident scenarios, and discourages the use of bounding analyses that confound risk comparisons among EIS alternatives. This paper discusses methods in probabilistic risk analysis that were developed and applied in defining accidents and generating radiological source terms for the DOE Draft Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS); publication of the Final WM PEIS is due in late summer 1996. The strengths and shortcomings of the cited probabilistic risk analysis methods used to evaluate facility accidents are addressed, both as they relate to the WM PEIS and as they relate to more general EIS applications. Key guidance is discussed that was developed by DOE and used in shaping the techniques cited herein for application in an EIS. Related perceptions on accidents observed from the public comment process for the WM PEIS are cited. Finally, recommendations are made on the basis of needs as well as lessons learned in implementing the accident analysis for the WM PEIS

  1. Familial aggregation of gout and relative genetic and environmental contributions: a nationwide population study in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chang-Fu; Grainge, Matthew J; See, Lai-Chu; Yu, Kuang-Hui; Luo, Shue-Fen; Valdes, Ana M; Zhang, Weiya; Doherty, Michael

    2015-02-01

    To examine familial aggregation of gout and to estimate the heritability and environmental contributions to gout susceptibility in the general population. Using data from the National Health Insurance (NHI) Research Database in Taiwan, we conducted a nationwide cross-sectional study of data collected from 22 643 748 beneficiaries of the NHI in 2004; among them 1 045 059 individuals had physician-diagnosed gout. We estimated relative risks (RR) of gout in individuals with affected first-degree and second-degree relatives and relative contributions of genes (heritability), common environment shared by family members and non-shared environment to gout susceptibility. RRs for gout were significantly higher in individuals with affected first-degree relatives (men, 1.91 (95% CI 1.90 to 1.93); women, 1.97 (95% CI 1.94 to 1.99)) and also in those with affected second-degree relatives (men, 1.27 (95% CI 1.23 to 1.31); women, 1.40 (95% CI 1.35 to 1.46)). RRs (95% CIs) for individuals with an affected twin, sibling, offspring, parent, grandchild, nephew/niece, uncle/aunt and grandparent were 8.02 (6.95 to 9.26), 2.59 (2.54 to 2.63), 1.96 (1.95 to 1.97), 1.93 (1.91 to 1.94), 1.48 (1.43 to 1.53), 1.40 (1.32 to 1.47), 1.31 (1.24 to 1.39), and 1.26 (1.21 to 1.30), respectively. The relative contributions of heritability, common and non-shared environmental factors to phenotypic variance of gout were 35.1, 28.1 and 36.8% in men and 17.0, 18.5 and 64.5% in women, respectively. This population-based study confirms that gout aggregates within families. The risk of gout is higher in people with a family history. Genetic and environmental factors contribute to gout aetiology, and the relative contributions are sexually dimorphic. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  2. Health and environmental risk-related impacts of actinide burning on high-level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1992-05-01

    The potential health and environmental risk-related impacts of actinide burning for high-level waste disposal were evaluated. Actinide burning, also called waste partitioning-transmutation, is an advanced method for radioactive waste management based on the idea of destroying the most toxic components in the waste. It consists of two steps: (1) selective removal of the most toxic radionuclides from high-level/spent fuel waste and (2) conversion of those radionuclides into less toxic radioactive materials and/or stable elements. Risk, as used in this report, is defined as the probability of a failure times its consequence. Actinide burning has two potential health and environmental impacts on waste management. Risks and the magnitude of high-consequence repository failure scenarios are decreased by inventory reduction of the long-term radioactivity in the repository. (What does not exist cannot create risk or uncertainty.) Risk may also be reduced by the changes in the waste characteristics, resulting from selection of waste forms after processing, that are superior to spent fuel and which lower the potential of transport of radionuclides from waste form to accessible environment. There are no negative health or environmental impacts to the repository from actinide burning; however, there may be such impacts elsewhere in the fuel cycle

  3. Quality and environmental aspects in relation to the application of pulverized fuel ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, J.W. van den

    1991-01-01

    In the Netherlands pulverised coal from different parts of the world is used in 5 coalfired power stations which each have 1 to 3 boilers, which in turn are equipped with various types of burners. This causes a large variation in the composition of the pulverized fuel ash (PFA). The PFA is marketed in several areas, each of which has its own specific quality requirements. These requirements are partially dictated in standard specifications. In order to obtain insight into the quality of the PFA, samples are taken and analysed daily. Rules for certification, concerning the quality and the quality control of PFA for use in concrete in The Netherlands have been agreed upon. The environmental aspects in relation to the application of PFA concern the working conditions and health aspects during processing and the environmental impact when PFA is used as a building material. The Dutch legislation concerning the environmental consequences of the application of PFA and other secondary materials is currently under review. 3 tabs

  4. Environmental, health and safety issues related to commercializing CuInSe{sub 2}-based photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberspacher, C. [UNISUN, Newbury Park, CA (United States); Fthenakis, V.M.; Moskowtiz, P.D. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1996-07-01

    Photovoltaics technology is rapidly evolving towards a new generation of low-cost thin film technologies. One of the most promising materials in this new generation is copper indium selenide (CuInSe{sub 2} or CIS). As with any new material, successful commercialization of CIS photovoltaic (PV) technology will require attention to environmental, health and safety issues, including consideration of the sources, usage, and end-of-product-life disposal and/or recycling of the constituent materials. This work focuses on three specific environmental, health and safety (EH and S) issues related to CIS PV: (1) economics are analyzed to determine their impact on materials use and re-use; (2) Federal and California State environmental disposal and waste handling regulations are analyzed to evaluate their impact on PV module manufacturing and end-of-life module handling; and (3) the logistics and economics of product recycling and waste disposal by industries with comparable EH and S issues are examined to quantify the corresponding options available for handling, disposing of and/or recycling manufacturing by-products and end-of-life modules.

  5. Multiple testing issues in discriminating compound-related peaks and chromatograms from high frequency noise, spikes and solvent-based nois in LC-MS data sets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyangoma, S.O.; Van Kampen, A.A.; Reijmers, T.H.; Govorukhina, N.I; van der Zee, A.G.; Billingham, I.J; Bischoff, Rainer; Jansen, R.C.

    2007-01-01

    Multiple testing issues in discriminating compound-related peaks and chromatograms from high frequency noise, spikes and solvent-based noise in LC-MS data sets.Nyangoma SO, van Kampen AA, Reijmers TH, Govorukhina NI, van der Zee AG, Billingham LJ, Bischoff R, Jansen RC. University of Birmingham.

  6. The economic, energy, and environmental impacts of the Energy-Related Inventions Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, M.A.; Wilson, C.R.; Franchuk, C.A.; Cohn, S.M.; Jones, D.

    1994-07-01

    This report provides information on the economic, energy, and environmental impacts of inventions supported by the Energy-Related Inventions Program (ERIP) -- a program jointly operated by the US Department of Energy and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). It describes the results of the latest in a series of ERIP evaluation projects that have been completed since 1980. The period of interest is 1980 through 1992. The evaluation is based on data collected in 1993 through mail and telephone surveys of 253 program participants, and historical data collected during previous evaluations for an additional 189 participants

  7. Meeting United States re-licensing requirements related to environmental protection using innovative technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taft, E.P.; Winchell, F.C.; Cook, T.C.

    1998-01-01

    Procedure for meeting re-licensing requirements related to environmental protection and an overview of several new and emerging technologies regarding the development of ways to prevent fish passage through hydraulic turbines at hydroelectric power dams is described. Fish mortality and injury has long been a concern in the hydroelectric industry and research and development efforts have been ongoing since the 1970s to prevent fish passage through turbines. Several new and emerging technologies are examined that have the potential for wide-spread cost-effective applications

  8. The economic, energy, and environmental impacts of the Energy-Related Inventions Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.A.; Wilson, C.R.; Franchuk, C.A.; Cohn, S.M.; Jones, D.

    1994-07-01

    This report provides information on the economic, energy, and environmental impacts of inventions supported by the Energy-Related Inventions Program (ERIP) -- a program jointly operated by the US Department of Energy and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). It describes the results of the latest in a series of ERIP evaluation projects that have been completed since 1980. The period of interest is 1980 through 1992. The evaluation is based on data collected in 1993 through mail and telephone surveys of 253 program participants, and historical data collected during previous evaluations for an additional 189 participants.

  9. Incidence of nephrolithiasis in relation to environmental exposure to lead and cadmium in a population study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hara, Azusa; Yang, Wen-Yi; Petit, Thibault; Zhang, Zhen-Yu; Gu, Yu-Mei; Wei, Fang-Fei; Jacobs, Lotte [Studies Coordinating Centre, Research Unit Hypertension and Cardiovascular Epidemiology, KU Leuven Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, University of Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Odili, Augustine N. [Studies Coordinating Centre, Research Unit Hypertension and Cardiovascular Epidemiology, KU Leuven Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, University of Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, College of Health Sciences University of Abuja (Nigeria); Thijs, Lutgarde [Studies Coordinating Centre, Research Unit Hypertension and Cardiovascular Epidemiology, KU Leuven Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, University of Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Nawrot, Tim S. [Centre for Environmental Sciences, University of Hasselt (Belgium); Staessen, Jan A., E-mail: jan.staessen@med.kuleuven.be [Studies Coordinating Centre, Research Unit Hypertension and Cardiovascular Epidemiology, KU Leuven Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, University of Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); R& D Group VitaK, Maastricht University, Maastricht (Netherlands)

    2016-02-15

    Whether environmental exposure to nephrotoxic agents that potentially interfere with calcium homeostasis, such as lead and cadmium, contribute to the incidence of nephrolithiasis needs further clarification. We investigated the relation between nephrolithiasis incidence and environmental lead and cadmium exposure in a general population. In 1302 participants randomly recruited from a Flemish population (50.9% women; mean age, 47.9 years), we obtained baseline measurements (1985–2005) of blood lead (BPb), blood cadmium (BCd), 24-h urinary cadmium (UCd) and covariables. We monitored the incidence of kidney stones until October 6, 2014. We used Cox regression to calculate multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios for nephrolithiasis. At baseline, geometric mean BPb, BCd and UCd was 0.29 µmol/L, 9.0 nmol/L, and 8.5 nmol per 24 h, respectively. Over 11.5 years (median), nephrolithiasis occurred in 40 people. Contrasting the low and top tertiles of the distributions, the sex- and age-standardized rates of nephrolithiasis expressed as events per 1000 person-years were 0.68 vs. 3.36 (p=0.0016) for BPb, 1.80 vs. 3.28 (p=0.11) for BCd, and 1.65 vs. 2.95 (p=0.28) for UCd. In continuous analysis, with adjustments applied for sex, age, serum magnesium, and 24-h urinary volume and calcium, the hazard ratios expressing the risk associated with a doubling of the exposure biomarkers were 1.35 (p=0.015) for BPb, 1.13 (p=0.22) for BCd, and 1.23 (p=0.070) for UCd. In conclusion, our results suggest that environmental lead exposure is a risk factor for nephrolithiasis in the general population. - Highlights: • Prevalence and incidence rates of nephrolithiasis are increasing worldwide. • Lead and cadmium interfere with calcium homeostasis and might cause nephrolithiasis. • Environmental exposure to lead, not cadmium, predicts nephrolithiasis in the population. • Safety standards for environmental lead exposure need to account for nephrolithiasis. • Reducing environmental

  10. Integrating international relations and environmental science course concepts through an interactive world politics simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, K. H.; Kesgin, B.

    2012-12-01

    During the fall 2012 semester, students in two introductory courses at Susquehanna University - EENV:101 Environmental Science and POLI:131 World Affairs - will participate together in an online international relations simulation called Statecraft (www.statecraftsim.com). In this strategy game, students are divided into teams representing independent countries, and choose their government type (democracy, constitutional monarchy, communist totalitarian, or military dictatorship) and two country attributes (industrial, green, militaristic, pacifist, or scientific), which determine a set of rules by which that country must abide. Countries interact over issues such as resource distribution, war, pollution, immigration, and global climate change, and must also keep domestic political unrest to a minimum in order to succeed in the game. This simulation has typically been run in political science courses, as the goal is to allow students to experience the balancing act necessary to maintain control of global and domestic issues in a dynamic, diverse world. This semester, environmental science students will be integrated into the simulation, both as environmental advisers to each country and as independent actors representing groups such as Greenpeace, ExxonMobil, and UNEP. The goal in integrating the two courses in the simulation is for the students in each course to gain both 1) content knowledge of certain fundamental material in the other course, and 2) a more thorough, applied understanding of the integrated nature of the two subjects. Students will gain an appreciation for the multiple tradeoffs that decision-makers must face in the real world (economy, resources, pollution, health, defense, etc.). Environmental science students will link these concepts to the traditional course material through a "systems thinking" approach to sustainability. Political science students will face the challenges of global climate change and gain an understanding of the nature of

  11. Magnesium compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, D.A.

    2007-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 52 percent of U.S. magnesium compounds production in 2006. Dead-burned magnesia was produced by Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties from well brines in Michigan. Caustic-calcined magnesia was recovered from sea-water by Premier Chemicals in Florida; from well brines in Michigan by Martin Marietta and Rohm and Haas; and from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Chemicals. Intrepid Potash-Wendover and Great Salt Lake Minerals recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Magnesium hydroxide was produced from brucite by Applied Chemical Magnesias in Texas, from seawater by SPI Pharma in Delaware and Premier Chemicals in Florida, and by Martin Marietta and Rohm and Haas from their operations mentioned above. About 59 percent of the magnesium compounds consumed in the United States was used for refractories that are used mainly to line steelmaking furnaces. The remaining 41 percent was consumed in agricultural, chemical, construction, environmental and industrial applications.

  12. Evaluation of effectiveness and safety of a herbal compound in primary insomnia symptoms and sleep disturbances not related to medical or psychiatric causes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmieri, Giancarlo; Contaldi, Paola; Fogliame, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    Sleep disturbances and related daytime activities impairment are common diseases nowadays. General practitioners are often the first health care professional asked to alleviate sleep disturbances and primary insomnia symptoms. Beyond a wide class of hypnotic drugs, botanicals can represent an alternative treatment for those kinds of symptoms. The scope of the present study is to evaluate safety and effectiveness of a herbal compound composed of valerian, hop, and jujube (Vagonotte ® ) on primary insomnia symptoms and sleep disturbances not related to medical or psychiatric causes. One hundred and twenty subjects with sleep disturbances symptoms were randomized in two branches of 60 persons each, receiving the herbal compound or placebo at dosage of two pills per day 30 minutes before their scheduled bedtime. All subjects were screened for precise items related to sleep quality and daytime activity at the beginning, after 10 days, and after 20 days of consecutive dietary supplement (or placebo) consumption. The participants remained blind to group assignment until all of them completed the trial. Sleep onset, numbers of nocturnal awakenings, and overall nocturnal slept time were assessed. A statistically significant difference between the two groups emerged. The group receiving the herbal compound showed a lower time of sleep onset compared to placebo group, the same result was obtained for total slept time and night awakenings frequency ( p Botanicals dietary supplement with relaxing and soothing properties can help practitioner to treat primary insomnia, especially when the risk/benefit profile of a patient does not sustain hypnotic drugs prescription. This clinical investigation on safety and effectiveness of a herbal compound made of valerian, hop, and jujube opens interesting perspectives on usage of herbal compound to manage primary insomnia. Further investigations could help in understanding herbal compounds' effectiveness on sleep disturbances.

  13. Handling of Environmental Related Requirements : Awareness and Ability to Act at Small and Medium Sized Electric and Electronic Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Han-Hsuan

    2008-01-01

    Environmental related product requirements are increasing worldwide from government authorities, customers and other stakeholders. For small and medium sized companies manufacturing electric and electronic products it is more difficult compared to bigger companies to meet new product related requirements due to smaller budget, resources and knowledge. This research studies the awareness and ability to act upon changes when small and medium sized companies in Sweden face environmental related ...

  14. Super agonist actions of clothianidin and related compounds on the SAD beta 2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihara, Makoto; Matsuda, Kazuhiko; Shimomura, Masaru; Sattelle, David B; Komai, Koichiro

    2004-03-01

    To compare the actions of clothianidin, a neonicotinoid acting on insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, and related compounds with that of imidacloprid, the compounds were tested on the Drosophila SAD-chicken beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes using two-electrode voltage-clamp electrophysiology. The maximum response of the SAD beta 2 nicotinic receptor to clothianidin was larger than that observed for acetylcholine. Ring breakage of the imidazolidine ring of imidacloprid resulting in the generation of a guanidine group was critical for this super agonist action.

  15. EI Scale: an environmental impact assessment scale related to the construction materials used in the reinforced concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Gilson Morales; Antonio Edésio Jungles; Sheila Elisa Scheidemantel Klein; Juliana Guarda

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to create EI Scal, an environmental impact assessment scal, related to construction materials used in the reinforced concrete structure production. The main reason for that was based on the need to classify the environmental impact levels through indicators to assess the damage level process. The scale allowed converting information to estimate the environmental impact caused. Indicators were defined trough the requirements and classification criteria of impact aspects consid...

  16. Investigating the traffic-related environmental impacts of hydraulic-fracturing (fracking) operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Paul S; Galatioto, Fabio; Thorpe, Neil; Namdeo, Anil K; Davies, Richard J; Bird, Roger N

    2016-01-01

    Hydraulic fracturing (fracking) has been used extensively in the US and Canada since the 1950s and offers the potential for significant new sources of oil and gas supply. Numerous other countries around the world (including the UK, Germany, China, South Africa, Australia and Argentina) are now giving serious consideration to sanctioning the technique to provide additional security over the future supply of domestic energy. However, relatively high population densities in many countries and the potential negative environmental impacts that may be associated with fracking operations has stimulated controversy and significant public debate regarding if and where fracking should be permitted. Road traffic generated by fracking operations is one possible source of environmental impact whose significance has, until now, been largely neglected in the available literature. This paper therefore presents a scoping-level environmental assessment for individual and groups of fracking sites using a newly-created Traffic Impacts Model (TIM). The model produces estimates of the traffic-related impacts of fracking on greenhouse gas emissions, local air quality emissions, noise and road pavement wear, using a range of hypothetical fracking scenarios to quantify changes in impacts against baseline levels. Results suggest that the local impacts of a single well pad may be short duration but large magnitude. That is, whilst single digit percentile increases in emissions of CO2, NOx and PM are estimated for the period from start of construction to pad completion (potentially several months or years), excess emissions of NOx on individual days of peak activity can reach 30% over baseline. Likewise, excess noise emissions appear negligible (fracking water and flowback waste requirements. The TIM model is designed to be adaptable to any geographic area where the required input data are available (such as fleet characteristics, road type and quality), and we suggest could be deployed as a

  17. Environmental Characteristics of Carbonatite and Alkaline Intrusion-related Rare Earth Element (REE) Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seal, R. R., II; Piatak, N. M.

    2017-12-01

    Carbonatites and alkaline intrusions are important sources of REEs. Environmental risks related to these deposit types have been assessed through literature review and evaluation of the geochemical properties of representative samples of mill tailings and their leachates. The main ore mineral in carbonatite deposits is bastnasite [(Ce,La)(CO3)F], which is found with dolomite and calcite ( 65 %), barite (20 - 25 %), plus a number of minor accessory minerals including sulfides such as galena and pyrite. Generally, alkaline intrusion-related REE deposits either occur in layered complexes or with dikes and veins cutting alkaline intrusions. Such intrusions have a more diverse group of REE ore minerals that include fluorcarbonates, oxides, silicates, and phosphates. Ore also can include minor calcite and iron (Fe), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) sulfides. The acid-generating potential of both deposit types is low because of a predominance of carbonate minerals in the carbonatite deposits, the presence of feldspars and minor calcite in alkaline intrusion-related deposits, and to only minor to trace occurrence of potentially acid-generating sulfide minerals. Both deposit types, however, are produced by igneous and hydrothermal processes that enrich high-field strength, incompatible elements, which typically are excluded from common rock-forming minerals. Elements such as yttrium (Y), niobium Nb), zirconium (Zr), hafnium (Hf), tungsten (W), titanium (Ti), tantalum (Ta), scandium (Sc), thorium (Th), and uranium (U) can be characteristic of these deposits and may be of environmental concern. Most of these elements, including the REEs, but with the exception of U, have low solubilities in water at the near-neutral pH values expected around these deposits. Mill tailings from carbonatite deposits can exceed residential soil and sediment criteria for Pb, and leachates from mill tailings can exceed drinking water guidelines for Pb. The greatest environmental challenges, however, are

  18. Evaluating the Environmental Dimension of Material Efficiency Strategies Relating to the Circular Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Walker

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Material efficiency is a key element of new thinking to address the challenges of reducing impacts on the environment and of resource scarcity, whilst at the same time meeting service and functionality demands on materials. Directly related to material efficiency is the concept of the Circular Economy, which is based on the principle of optimising the utility embodied in materials and products through the life-cycle. Although materials such as steel, on account of high recycling rates at end-of-life, are amongst the most ‘circular’ of manufactured materials, significant opportunities for greater material efficiency exist, which are yet to be widely implemented. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA is commonly used to assess the environmental benefits of recovering and recycling materials through the manufacturing supply chain and at end-of-life. Using an example taken from renewable energy generation, this paper explores the correlation between product circularity and the environmental case for strategies designed to improve material efficiency. An LCA-based methodology for accounting for the recovery and reuse of materials from the supply chain and at end-of-life is used as the basis for calculating the carbon footprint benefits of five material efficiency scenarios. The results are compared with a number of proposed material circularity indicators. Two conclusions from this exercise are that (i LCA methodologies based around end-of-life approaches are well placed for quantifying the environmental benefits of material efficiency and circular economy strategies and (ii when applying indicators relating to the circularity of materials these should also be supported by LCA-based studies.

  19. A thesis investigating the impact of energy related environmental factors on domestic window design

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvoy, Michael Edward

    In recent years the extent of glazing in houses has been tightly controlled by the Building Regulations in order to save energy. In addition guidelines derived from passive solar principles prescribe the distribution of domestic windows between elevations according to their orientation. This thesis studies the impact of these energy-related environmental factors on domestic window design. The first of these investigations determined the degree to which limitations on the area and arrangement of windows are significant in terms of daylighting. The experiments measured the effect that passive solar requirements and detailed aspects of window design have on the quality of daylighting in houses. The volume of background ventilation required for domestic accommodation has recently been increased. As a result, in a well-sealed construction, heat loss due to background ventilation becomes a larger part of the total heat loss and larger air movements become a potential cause of draughts. The ventilation experiment sought to establish the impact of these more onerous requirements on comfort within rooms. The third experiment combines these factors and asks the question: Could windows be actively involved in overcoming some of these difficulties by being used to preheat ventilation air in order to diminish the extent of heat loss and to alleviate the problem of cold draughts? Also by designing the window to reclaim heat from the room might it be possible to offset the window's thermal inadequacy? Through analysis of responses to a questionnaire and the use of optimisation techniques, scenarios were suggested for the future modification of windows in relation to energy and health expectations. The conclusions form a commentary on recent and future revisions to the Building Regulations and determine whether or not the Regulations facilitate the environmental engineering of windows as an active component of a building's whole environmental system.

  20. Pesticide mixtures in the Swedish streams: Environmental risks, contributions of individual compounds and consequences of single-substance oriented risk mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavsson, Mikael; Kreuger, Jenny; Bundschuh, Mirco; Backhaus, Thomas

    2017-11-15

    This paper presents the ecotoxicological assessment and environmental risk evaluation of complex pesticide mixtures occurring in freshwater ecosystems in southern Sweden. The evaluation is based on exposure data collected between 2002 and 2013 by the Swedish pesticide monitoring program and includes 1308 individual samples, detecting mixtures of up to 53 pesticides (modal=8). Pesticide mixture risks were evaluated using three different scenarios for non-detects (best-case, worst-case and using the Kaplan-Meier method). The risk of each scenario was analyzed using Swedish Water Quality Objectives (WQO) and trophic-level specific environmental thresholds. Using the Kaplan-Meier method the environmental risk of 73% of the samples exceeded acceptable levels, based on an assessment using Concentration-Addition and WQOs for the individual pesticides. Algae were the most sensitive organism group. However, analytical detection limits, especially for insecticides, were insufficient to analyze concentrations at or near their WQO's. Thus, the risk of the analyzed pesticide mixtures to crustaceans and fish is systematically underestimated. Treating non-detects as being present at their individual limit of detection increased the estimated risk by a factor 100 or more, compared to the best-case or the Kaplan-Meier scenario. Pesticide mixture risks are often driven by only 1-3 compounds. However, the risk-drivers (i.e., individual pesticides explaining the largest share of potential effects) differ substantially between sites and samples, and 83 of the 141 monitored pesticides need to be included in the assessment to account for 95% of the risk at all sites and years. Single-substance oriented risk mitigation measures that would ensure that each individual pesticide is present at a maximum of 95% of its individual WQO, would also reduce the mixture risk, but only from a median risk quotient of 2.1 to a median risk quotient of 1.8. Also, acceptable total risk levels would still