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Sample records for related behaviors findings

  1. Electroencephalographic findings related with mild cognitive impairment in idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasai, Taeko; Matsuura, Masato; Inoue, Yuichi

    2013-12-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and electroencephalographic (EEG) slowing have been reported as common findings of idiopathic rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) and α-synucleinopathies. The objective of this study is to clarify the relation between MCI and physiological markers in iRBD. Cross-sectional study. Yoyogi Sleep Disorder Center. Thirty-one patients with iRBD including 17 younger patients with iRBD (younger than 70 y) and 17 control patients for the younger patients with iRBD. N/A. Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and n-polysomnogram (PSG) were conducted of all participants. In patients with iRBD, the factors associated with MCI were explored among parameters of REM sleep without atonia (RWA), score of Sniffin' Sticks Test (threshold-discrimination-identification [TDI] score), RBD morbidity, and RBD severity evaluated with the Japanese version of the RBD questionnaire (RBDQ-JP). The younger iRBD group showed significantly lower alpha power during wake and lower MoCA score than the age-matched control group. MCI was detected in 13 of 17 patients (76.5%) on MoCA in this group. Among patients wtih iRBD, the MoCA score negatively correlated with age, proportion of slow wave sleep, TDI score, and EEG spectral power. Multiple regression analysis provided the following equation: MoCA score = 50.871-0.116*age -5.307*log (δ power during REM sleep) + 0.086*TDI score (R² = 0.598, P sleep), and 0.357 for TDI score (F = 9.900, P sleep and olfactory dysfunction, was revealed to be associated with cognitive decline in idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder.

  2. [Socioeconomic differentials in health and health related behaviors: findings from the Korea Youth Panel Survey].

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    Khang, Young-Ho; Cho, Sung-Il; Yang, Seungmi; Lee, Moo-Song

    2005-11-01

    This study examined the socioeconomic differentials for the health and health related behaviors among South Korean middle school students. A nationwide cross-sectional interview survey of 3,449 middle school second-grade students and their parents was conducted using a stratified multi-stage cluster sampling method. The response rate was 93.3%. The socioeconomic position indicators were based on self-reported information from the students and their parents: parental education, father's occupational class, monthly family income, out-of-pocket expenditure for education, housing ownership, educational expectations, educational performance and the perceived economic hardships. The outcome variables that were measured were also based on the self-reported information from the students. The health measures included self-rated health conditions, psychological or mental problems, the feelings of loneliness at school, the overall satisfaction of life and the perceived level of stress. The health related behaviors included were smoking, alcohol drinking, sexual intercourse, violence, bullying and verbal and physical abuse by parents. Socioeconomic differences for the health and health related behaviors were found among the eighth grade boys and girls of South Korea. However, the pattern varied with gender, the socioeconomic position indicators and the outcome measures. The prevalence rates of the overall dissatisfaction with life for both genders differed according to most of the eight socioeconomic position indicators. All the health measures were significantly different according to the perceived economic hardship. However, the socioeconomic differences in the self-rated health conditions and the psychosocial or mental problems were not clear. The students having higher socioeconomic position tended to be a perpetrator of bullying while those students with lower socioeconomic position were more likely to be a victim. The perceived economic hardships predicted the health

  3. The influence of parenting style on health related behavior of children: findings from the ChiBS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philips, Nele; Sioen, Isabelle; Michels, Nathalie; Sleddens, Ester; De Henauw, Stefaan

    2014-07-23

    constructs) and (4) a small negative association between the parenting construct "coercive control" and sleep duration (β = -0.23). The significant but small associations between parenting constructs and the investigated variables suggest that different aspects of parenting style play an important role in the genesis of the health related behavior of children. Overall, our findings suggest that health professionals should encourage parents to apply the more positive parenting constructs i.e., more "structure" and "behavioral control", and less "coercive control". They could, for instance, supervise and manage their child's activities and help their child to achieve certain goals.

  4. The influence of parenting style on health related behavior of children: findings from the ChiBS study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    nurturance” and “coercive control” with sedentary behavior (β = 0.16 for both parent constructs) and (4) a small negative association between the parenting construct “coercive control” and sleep duration (β = −0.23). Conclusion The significant but small associations between parenting constructs and the investigated variables suggest that different aspects of parenting style play an important role in the genesis of the health related behavior of children. Overall, our findings suggest that health professionals should encourage parents to apply the more positive parenting constructs i.e., more “structure” and “behavioral control”, and less “coercive control”. They could, for instance, supervise and manage their child’s activities and help their child to achieve certain goals. PMID:25052905

  5. Children at Risk for Suicide Attempt and Attempt-related Injuries: Findings from the 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    West, Bethany A

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The current study examines the associations between a range of risk factors and reports of suicide attempts, and attempts requiring medical care in a nationally representative study of high school students. The goal is to examine sex differences in the risk factors that are associated with suicide attempts and attempt-related injuries requiring treatment by a health-care provider. Methods: Data from the 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Survey for students in grades 9-12 were used to assess the prevalence and risk factors for suicidal behavior as well as differences in these for boys and girls. Cross-sectional multivariate logistic regression analyses were computed to determine the most important risk factors for suicide attempts and for suicide attempts requiring medical care for the sample overall and also stratified for boys and for girls. Results: Overall, 6.9% of adolescents attempted suicide (9.3% of girls versus 4.6% of boys. Girls were more likely than boys to report a suicide attempt in the past year (Adj.OR=2.89. Among girls, sadness (Adj.OR=5.74, weapon carrying (Adj.OR=1.48, dating violence (Adj.OR=1.60, forced sex (Adj.OR=1.72, and huffing glue (Adj.OR=2.04 were significantly associated with suicide attempts. Among boys, sadness (Adj.OR=10.96, weapon carrying (Adj.OR=1.66, forced sex (Adj.OR=2.60, huffing glue (OR=1.63, hard drug use (Adj.OR=2.18, and sports involvement (Adj.OR=1.52 were significantly associated with suicide attempts. Conclusions: These findings demonstrate similarities and differences in terms of the modifiable risk factors that increase risk for suicide attempts among boys and girls. In terms of the differences between boys and girls, hard drug use and sports involvement may be important factors for suicide prevention strategies that are directed specifically towards boys, while dating violence victimization may be an important risk factor to address for girls. Overall, these findings can help guide prevention

  6. Psychiatric correlates of past year adult bullying behaviors: Findings from the National Epidemiology Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions.

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    McMillan, Katherine A; Thorisdottir, Audur S; Asmundson, Gordon J G

    2016-12-30

    Previous research on bully perpetration and psychiatric outcomes has been limited to examination of lifetime associations and has not included evaluation of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), despite previously reported correlations between PTSD and anger and aggression. The purpose of the present study was to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the association between bullying behaviour and mental disorders within a past-year framework. Data was obtained from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC; n=34,653), a nationally-representative survey of American adults. Cross-tabulations and logistic regression analyses were conducted to evaluate the relationship between bullying behaviour and psychiatric diagnosis. A total of 239 individuals (138 males, 101 females) reported engaging in bullying behaviour within the past-year. Mood, anxiety, substance use, and personality disorders were all more common among bully perpetrators compared to others. Of note, strong associations were found between PTSD and bully perpetration. Findings from the current study demonstrate strong associations between bullying perpetration and mental health concerns. The proximity of bullying behaviors and mental health concerns may be important, suggesting avenues for efforts at intervention and bullying prevention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. An analysis of fat-related and fiber-related behavior in men and women with type 2 diabetes mellitus: key findings for clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrychova, Tereza; Vytrisalova, Magda; Vlcek, Jiri; Smahelova, Alena; Kubena, Ales Antonin

    2013-01-01

    Despite the efforts of health care providers, adherence of patients with type 2 diabetes to the recommended diet is poor. The aim of this study was to describe the eating habits with emphasis on fat and fiber-related behavior (FFB) as well as the relationship between FFB behavior and parameters of diabetes control in men and women with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The subjects in this observational cross-sectional study were 200 patients (54.5% male, mean age 66.2 ± 10.1 years, mean Diabetes Control and Complications Trial [DDCT] glycosylated hemoglobin [HbA1c] 7.6% ± 1.7%) recruited from diabetes outpatient clinics in the Czech Republic. The subjects filled out the Fat- and Fiber-related Diet Behavior Questionnaire. The most recent patient data on diabetes control and drug therapy were derived from patient medical records. Patients tend to modify the dishes they are used to, rather than remove them completely from their diet and replace them by other types of foods. It is easier to perform healthier fat-related behaviors than fiber-related ones. Women scored significantly better than men on the fat-related diet habits summary scale (P = 0.002), as well as on "modify meat" (P = 0.001) and "substitute specially manufactured low-fat foods" (P = 0.045) subscales. A better score on the fat-related diet habits summary scale was significantly associated with higher HbA1c (ρ = -0.248; P = 0.027) and higher waist circumference (ρ = -0.254; P = 0.024) in women. Type 2 diabetes patients are likely to vary in their FFB behavior, and their dietary habits depend on gender. Health care professionals should pay attention to these facts when providing specific education. Emphasis should be placed on how to increase the fiber intake in diabetic patients.

  8. An analysis of fat-related and fiber-related behavior in men and women with type 2 diabetes mellitus: key findings for clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrychova T

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Tereza Hendrychova,1 Magda Vytrisalova,1 Jiri Vlcek,1 Alena Smahelova,2 Ales Antonin Kubena1 1Department of Social and Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Kralove, Charles University in Prague, Czech Republic; 2Diabetology Centre, Department of Gerontology and Metabolism, University Hospital and Faculty of Medicine in Hradec Kralove, Charles University in Prague, Czech Republic Background: Despite the efforts of health care providers, adherence of patients with type 2 diabetes to the recommended diet is poor. The aim of this study was to describe the eating habits with emphasis on fat and fiber-related behavior (FFB as well as the relationship between FFB behavior and parameters of diabetes control in men and women with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: The subjects in this observational cross-sectional study were 200 patients (54.5% male, mean age 66.2 ± 10.1 years, mean Diabetes Control and Complications Trial [DDCT] glycosylated hemoglobin [HbA1c] 7.6% ± 1.7% recruited from diabetes outpatient clinics in the Czech Republic. The subjects filled out the Fat- and Fiber-related Diet Behavior Questionnaire. The most recent patient data on diabetes control and drug therapy were derived from patient medical records. Results: Patients tend to modify the dishes they are used to, rather than remove them completely from their diet and replace them by other types of foods. It is easier to perform healthier fat-related behaviors than fiber-related ones. Women scored significantly better than men on the fat-related diet habits summary scale (P = 0.002, as well as on "modify meat" (P = 0.001 and "substitute specially manufactured low-fat foods" (P = 0.045 subscales. A better score on the fat-related diet habits summary scale was significantly associated with higher HbA1c (ρ = -0.248; P = 0.027 and higher waist circumference (ρ = -0.254; P = 0.024 in women. Conclusion: Type 2 diabetes patients are likely to vary in their FFB behavior, and

  9. Finding related functional neuroimaging volumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Finn Årup; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2004-01-01

    We describe a content-based image retrieval technique for finding related functional neuroimaging experiments by voxelization of sets of stereotactic coordinates in Talairach space, comparing the volumes and reporting related volumes in a sorted list. Voxelization is accomplished by convolving ea...

  10. Health/functioning characteristics, gambling behaviors and gambling-related motivations in adolescents stratified by gambling problem severity: Findings from a high-school survey

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    Yip, Sarah W.; Desai, Rani A.; Steinberg, Marvin A.; Rugle, Loreen; Cavallo, Dana A.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Potenza, Marc N.

    2013-01-01

    In adults, different levels of gambling problem severity are differentially associated with measures of health and general functioning, gambling behaviors and gambling-related motivations. Here we present data from a survey of 2,484 Connecticut high school students, and investigate the data stratifying by gambling problem severity based on DSM-IV criteria for pathological gambling. Problem/pathological gambling was associated with a range of negative functions; e.g., poor academic performance, substance use, dysphoria/depression, and aggression. These findings suggest a need for improved interventions related to adolescent gambling and a need for additional research into the relationship (e.g., mediating factors) between gambling and risk and protective behaviors. PMID:21999494

  11. Electrocardiographic findings related to aging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueda, Shoichi; Yano, Katsuhiko

    1962-12-12

    More than 3000 electrocardiographic tracings for the ABCC-JNIH Adult Health Study Sample were studied to detect any specific abnormalities or nonspecific age changes in relation to possible radiation effects upon the cardiovascular system. The 4 comparison groups were studied with respect to the prevalence of electrocardiographic abnormalities and an electrocardiographic aging index which was defined to evaluate physiological change with age. Statistically significant differences were observed in the following aspects: In males aged 50 to 59, the prevalence of major electrocardiographic abnormalities was highest in the group located nearest the hypocenter. This was not observed in other age groups. In females, the prevalence of QRS high voltage was highest in Group 2 but low in Group 1. This trend was consistent in all age groups. These findings were not fully accounted for by differences in blood pressure, heart size, body weight or serum cholesterol values. In the age trend curve of the electrocardiographic aging index, a difference was observed among comparison groups in both sexes. This difference in electrocardiographic aging index is mainly attributed to T/sub I/ amplitude for males and R/sub II/ amplitude and QRS axis for females. Interpretation of these findings is rather difficult since very little has been known about radiation effects upon the cardiovascular system in humans. Further intensive studies are desired on the basis of the clues suggested in this report. 16 references, 3 figures, 31 tables.

  12. Target oriented relational model finding

    OpenAIRE

    Cunha, Alcino; Macedo, Nuno Filipe Moreira; Guimarães, Tiago Miguel Moreira

    2014-01-01

    Lecture Notes in Computer Science 8411, 2014 Model finders are becoming useful in many software engineering problems. Kodkod is one of the most popular, due to its support for relational logic (a combination of first order logic with relational algebra operators and transitive closure), allowing a simpler specification of constraints, and support for partial instances, allowing the specification of a priori (exact, but potentially partial) knowledge about a problem's solution. However, in ...

  13. Stress, mental health, and job performance among active duty military personnel: findings from the 2002 Department of Defense Health-Related Behaviors Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hourani, Laurel L; Williams, Thomas V; Kress, Amii M

    2006-09-01

    This study examined the extent to which high levels of occupational and family stress were associated with mental health problems and productivity loss among active duty military personnel. We analyzed data from the 2002 Department of Defense Survey of Health-Related Behaviors among Military Personnel, which provided extensive population-based information on 12,756 active duty personnel in all branches of the military worldwide. Military personnel reported higher levels of stress at work than in their family life. The personnel reporting the highest levels of occupational stress were those 25 or younger, those who were married with spouses not present, and women. Personnel with high levels of stress had significantly higher rates of mental health problems and productivity loss than those with less stress. We recommend that prevention and intervention efforts geared toward personnel reporting the highest levels of stress be given priority for resources in this population.

  14. An Investigation of the Academic Information Finding and Re-finding Behavior on the Web

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    Hsiao-Tieh Pu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Academic researchers often need and re-use relevant information found after a period of time. This preliminary study used various methods, including experiments, interviews, search log analysis, sequential analysis, and observation to investigate characteristics of academic information finding and re-finding behavior. Overall, the participants in this study entered short queries either in finding or re-finding phases. Comparatively speaking, the participants entered greater number of queries, modified more queries, browsed more web pages, and stayed longer on web pages in the finding phase. On the other hand, in the re-finding phase, they utilized personal information management tools to re-find instead of finding again using search engine, such as checking browsing history; moreover, they tend to input less number of queries and stayed shorter on web pages. In short, the participants interacted more with the retrieval system during the finding phase, while they increased the use of personal information management tools in the re-finding phase. As to the contextual clues used in re-finding phase, the participants used less clues from the target itself, instead, they used indirect clues more often, especially location-related information. Based on the results of sequential analysis, the transition states in the re-finding phase was found to be more complex than those in the finding phase. Web information finding and re-finding behavior is an important and novel area of research. The preliminary results would benefit research on Web information re-finding behavior, and provide useful suggestions for developing personal academic information management systems. [Article content in Chinese

  15. Relating Stool Microbial Metabolite Levels, Inflammatory Markers and Dietary Behaviors to Screening Colonoscopy Findings in a Racially/Ethnically Diverse Patient Population

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    Kristina M. Bridges

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is the third leading cause of cancer death for both men and women in the United States, yet it is treatable and preventable. African Americans have higher incidence of CRC than other racial/ethnic groups, however, it is unclear whether this disparity is primarily due to environmental or biological factors. Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs are metabolites produced by bacteria in the colon and are known to be inversely related to CRC progression. The aim of this study is to investigate how stool SCFA levels, markers of inflammation in stool and dietary intake relate to colonoscopy findings in a diverse patient population. Stool samples from forty-eight participants were analyzed for SCFA levels and inflammatory markers (lysozyme, secretory IgA, lactoferrin. Additionally, participants completed the National Cancer Institute’s Diet History Questionnaire II (DHQ II to report dietary intake over the past year. Subsequently, the majority of participants underwent screening colonoscopy. Our results showed that African Americans had higher total levels of SCFAs in stool than other racial/ethnic groups, significantly lower intake of non-starchy vegetables and similar inflammatory marker expression and colonoscopy outcomes, compared to others. This work is an initial exploration into the biological and clinical factors that may ultimately inform personalized screening approaches and clinical decision-making to improve colorectal cancer disparities for African Americans.

  16. Relating Stool Microbial Metabolite Levels, Inflammatory Markers and Dietary Behaviors to Screening Colonoscopy Findings in a Racially/Ethnically Diverse Patient Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, Kristina M.; Diaz, Francisco J.; Wang, Zhiwen; Ahmed, Ishfaq; Sullivan, Debra K.; Umar, Shahid; Buckles, Daniel C.; Greiner, K. Allen; Hester, Christina M.

    2018-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third leading cause of cancer death for both men and women in the United States, yet it is treatable and preventable. African Americans have higher incidence of CRC than other racial/ethnic groups, however, it is unclear whether this disparity is primarily due to environmental or biological factors. Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are metabolites produced by bacteria in the colon and are known to be inversely related to CRC progression. The aim of this study is to investigate how stool SCFA levels, markers of inflammation in stool and dietary intake relate to colonoscopy findings in a diverse patient population. Stool samples from forty-eight participants were analyzed for SCFA levels and inflammatory markers (lysozyme, secretory IgA, lactoferrin). Additionally, participants completed the National Cancer Institute’s Diet History Questionnaire II (DHQ II) to report dietary intake over the past year. Subsequently, the majority of participants underwent screening colonoscopy. Our results showed that African Americans had higher total levels of SCFAs in stool than other racial/ethnic groups, significantly lower intake of non-starchy vegetables and similar inflammatory marker expression and colonoscopy outcomes, compared to others. This work is an initial exploration into the biological and clinical factors that may ultimately inform personalized screening approaches and clinical decision-making to improve colorectal cancer disparities for African Americans. PMID:29495356

  17. An organizational assessment of disruptive clinician behavior: findings and implications.

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    Walrath, Jo M; Dang, Deborah; Nyberg, Dorothy

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated registered nurses' (RNs) and physicians' (MD) experiences with disruptive behavior, triggers, responses, and impacts on clinicians, patients, and the organization. Using the Disruptive Clinician Behavior Survey for Hospital Settings, it was found that RNs experienced a significantly higher frequency of disruptive behaviors and triggers than MDs; MDs (45% of 295) and RNs (37% of 689) reported that their peer's disruptive behavior affected them most negatively. The most frequently occurring trigger was pressure from high census, volume, and patient flow; 189 incidences of harm to patients as a result of disruptive behavior were reported. Findings provide organizational leaders with evidence to customize interventions to strengthen the culture of safety.

  18. Algorithmic Procedure for Finding Semantically Related Journals.

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    Pudovkin, Alexander I.; Garfield, Eugene

    2002-01-01

    Using citations, papers and references as parameters a relatedness factor (RF) is computed for a series of journals. Sorting these journals by the RF produces a list of journals most closely related to a specified starting journal. The method appears to select a set of journals that are semantically most similar to the target journal. The…

  19. Vitamin D Related Musculoskeletal System Findings

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    Banu Sarıfakıoğlu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The effect of vitamin D on bone metabolism has been well known for a long time. Recently, various hormonal and immunity related effects has have been obtained. Additionally, the deficiency of vitamin D is thought to be related with various pain syndromes. In this study, we aimed to investigate the main musculoskeletal symptoms of patients with vitamin D deficiency admitting to physical medicine and rehabilitation clinics. Materials and Methods: The data were retrospectively investigated in patients with myalgia, arthralgia, regional pain, widespread body pain (WBP and in whom vitamin D levels were measured. Patients over 50 years old and with known osteoporosis/osteomalacia diagnosis, endocrinological pathology, and inflammatory rheumatological disease were excluded. Results: The data of 571 patients were investigated and totally 214 of them were included in the study. There were 178 females (83.2%, 36 males (16.8%. The mean age of the patients was 39.19±9.58 years. Of the patients, 100 (46.7% were in severe deficiency, 68 (31.8% were in deficiency, 46 (21.5% were in insufficient group. The symptoms were regional pain in 65 (30.3%, WBP in 63 (29.4%, arthralgia in 49 (23%, and myalgia in 37 (17.3% patients. Conclusion: Vitamin D deficiency may be encountered as musculoskeletal problems. In the presence of persistent joint-muscle pain, regional pain and fibromiyalgia, vitamin D deficiency should be kept in mind.

  20. Behavioral Indicators and Behaviors Related to Sexting among Undergraduate Students

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    Hudson, Heather K.; Fetro, Joyce V.; Ogletree, Roberta

    2014-01-01

    Background: Empirical studies on sexting are limited, and many sexting studies only assessed sexting behaviors. Few studies have assessed attitudes, subjective norms, or behavioral intentions related to sexting. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess attitudes, subjective norms, behavioral intentions, and behaviors related to sexting…

  1. Perceptions of Popularity-Related Behaviors in the Cyber Context: Relations to Cyber Social Behaviors

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    Michelle F. Wright

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite acknowledging that adolescents are active users of electronic technology, little is known about their perceptions concerning how such technologies might be used to promote their social standing among their peer group and whether these perceptions relate to their cyber social behaviors (i.e., cyber aggression perpetration, cyber prosocial behavior. To address this gap in the literature, the present study included 857 seventh graders (M age: 12.19; 50.8% female from a large Midwestern city in the United States. They completed questionnaires on face-to-face social behaviors, cyber social behaviors, perceived popularity, social preference, and their perceptions of characteristics and activities related to the cyber context which might be used to promote popularity. Findings revealed four activities and characteristics used to improve adolescents’ social standing in the peer group, including antisocial behaviors, sociability, prosocial behaviors, and technology access. Using antisocial behaviors in the cyber context to promote popularity was related to cyber aggression perpetration, while controlling for gender, social preference, and perceived popularity. On the other hand, sociability and prosocial behaviors in the cyber context used to improve popularity as well as technology access were associated with cyber prosocial behavior. A call for additional research is made.

  2. Light intensity physical activity and sedentary behavior in relation to body mass index and grip strength in older adults: cross-sectional findings from the Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders (LIFE) study

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    Background: Identifying modifiable determinants of fat mass and muscle strength in older adults is important given their impact on physical functioning and health. Light intensity physical activity and sedentary behavior are potential determinants, but their relations to these outcomes are poorly un...

  3. Finding peace of mind when there still is so much left undone-A diary study on how job stress, competence need satisfaction, and proactive work behavior contribute to work-related rumination during the weekend.

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    Weigelt, Oliver; Syrek, Christine J; Schmitt, Antje; Urbach, Tina

    2018-05-21

    Unfinished work tasks have been identified as a significant job-related stressor in recent occupational stress research. Extending this research, we examine how and when not finishing one's tasks by the end of the work week affects work-related rumination at the weekend. Drawing on control theory, we examined competence need satisfaction as a mediating mechanism that links unfinished tasks at the end of the work week to work-related rumination at the weekend. Furthermore, we scrutinized whether proactive work behavior within the work week may neutralize the detrimental effects of unfinished tasks on competence need satisfaction and rumination. Using diary methodology, we collected weekly observations from 58 employees at the beginning and at the end of the work week over a period of 12 consecutive weeks, yielding 377 matched observations. Multilevel modeling analyses provided evidence for the assumed indirect effect at the intraindividual level. Higher levels of unfinished tasks were associated with lower levels of competence need satisfaction during the weekend. Competence need satisfaction, in turn, was negatively related to work-related rumination. Proactive work behavior attenuated the detrimental effects of unfinished tasks on competence need satisfaction and rumination at the weekend. These results imply that proactive work behavior facilitates switching off mentally during the weekend as it may restore competence need satisfaction in the face of unfinished tasks. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Behavior and Attitudes under Crisis Conditions: Selected Issues and Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-02-01

    Behavior, and the Intervening Variables." The American Sociologist, 4, 29-34 (1969). Farace , Richard V., Kenneth L. Villard. and L. Edna Rogers, "Family...crisis couldn’t happen here. Farace , Villard and Rogers (1972:12-13) illustrate the point: Another situation which helps support the idea that "those...Effect! the Accident at Three Mile Island; ’Findings to Date,"’ U.S. Nuc Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC. (1980). Farace , Richard V., Edna L

  5. Relationalism or why diplomats find international relations theory strange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    In this conclusion, which reflects critically on the relational approach to diplomacy and its wider consequences, I argue that diplomats are estranged from IR theory and vice versa - because International Relations scholars generally subscribe to substantialism, whereas diplomats tend to think...... by diplomatic scholars). Relationalism takes as its point of departure the idea that social phenomena making up world politics always develop in relation to other social phenomena. Thus, for example, states are not born into' this world as fully developed states that then "exist"; states are made in continuous...... scholarship and diplomatic knowledge and practice are important for how we understand (and construct) world politics, including war, international cooperation, and responses to human and natural catastrophes....

  6. Parenting style, parenting stress, and children's health-related behaviors.

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    Park, Hyunjeong; Walton-Moss, Benita

    2012-07-01

    Parental guidance is critical to the development of children's health-related behaviors. The purpose of this study was to look at the relationship between parenting factors, including parenting style and parenting stress, and children's health-related behaviors. In this descriptive, correlational study, 284 parents of preschool children were interviewed using the Child Rearing Questionnaire and the Korean Parenting Stress Index-Short Form. Parent distress, authoritative and permissive parenting styles, family income, and mother's education were significantly associated with children's health-related behaviors. These findings suggest that higher levels of warmth, characteristics of both parenting styles, may be a critical factor in the development of health-related behaviors.

  7. Finding behavioral and network indicators of brain vulnerability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nava eLevit Binnun

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Resilience research has usually focused on identifying protective factors associated with specific stress conditions (e.g., war, trauma or psychopathologies (e.g., post-traumatic stress disorder. Implicit in this research is the concept that resilience is a global construct, invariant to the unfavorable circumstances or the psychopathologies that may develop (i.e., the mechanisms underlying the resilience of an individual in all cases are expected to be similar. Here we contribute to the understanding of resilience—and its counterpart, vulnerability—by employing an approach that makes use of this invariant quality. We outline two main characteristics that we would expect from indicators of a vulnerable state: that they should appear across disorders regardless of specific circumstances, and that they should appear much before the disorder is evident. Next, we identify two sets of factors that exhibit this pattern of association with psychopathological states. The first was a set of low-level sensory, motor and regulatory irregularities that have been reported across the clinical literature; we suggest that these can serve as behavioral indicators of a vulnerable state. The second was the set of aberrations in network metrics that have been reported in the field of systems neuroscience; we suggest that these can serve as network indicators of a vulnerable state. Finally, we explore how behavioral indicators may be related to network indicators and discuss the clinical and research-related implications of our work.

  8. Relational models for knowledge sharing behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, N.I.; Berends, J.J.; Baalen, P.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we explore the relational dimension of knowledge sharing behavior by proposing a comprehensive theoretical framework for studying knowledge sharing in organizations. This theoretical framework originates from (Fiske, 1991) and (Fiske, 1992) Relational Models Theory (RMT). The RMT

  9. Changing Food Related Behavior Through Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermanssdottir, Sunna; Fisker, Anna Marie; Poulsen, Søren Bolvig

    The aim of the workshop is to explore how designers can work actively and deliberately with changing food related behavior through socially responsible design. There will be focus on the holistic aspect of behavioral food design with active involving of the users experience. The workshop is based...

  10. Trust mediates conservation-related behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia L. Winter; George Cvetkovich

    2010-01-01

    In this article we explore the influence that a perceived connection between a natural resource management agency and individual citizens has upon conservation-related behaviors on public lands, offering an extension of psychology’s examination of environmental behaviors. Our emphasis is upon perceived value similarity and resulting trust between citizens and the USDA...

  11. Impulsivity in self-mutilative behavior: psychometric and biological findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herpertz, S; Sass, H; Favazza, A

    1997-01-01

    This paper examines impulsivity as a central factor in moderate/superficial self-mutilation such as skin-cutting and burning. A sample of 165 subjects were divided into four groups, namely self-mutilators, patients with any modes of impulsive behavior other than self-mutilation, patients without any impulsive behavior, and normal probands. All were administered the 10th version of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory, and the Inventory for the Assessment of Factors of Aggressiveness. They also were interviewed carefully in regards to both impulsive and self-mutilative behavior. A d-fenfluramine challenge test was administered to 36 females and prolactin levels were measured. On the whole results implicate impulsive personality functioning as a major factor in subjects with moderate/superficial self-mutilative behavior whose trait pathology is similar to personality disordered patients with other modes of self-harming impulsive behavior.

  12. Health-related quality of life among people aged ≥65 years with self-reported visual impairment: findings from the 2006-2010 behavioral risk factor surveillance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crews, John E; Chou, Chiu-Fang; Zhang, Xinzhi; Zack, Matthew M; Saaddine, Jinan B

    2014-10-01

    To examine the association between health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and visual impairment among people aged ≥65 years. We used cross-sectional data from the 2006-2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System to examine six HRQoL measures: self-reported health, physically unhealthy days, mentally unhealthy days, activity limitation days, life satisfaction, and disability. Visual impairment was categorized as no, a little, and moderate/severe. We examined the association between self-reported visual impairment and HRQoL using logistic regression accounting for the survey's complex design. People with self-reported moderate/severe visual impairment had more frequent (≥14) physically unhealthy days, mentally unhealthy days, and activity limitation days in the last 30 days compared to those reporting a little or no visual impairment. After controlling for all covariates (age, sex, marital status, race/ethnicity, education, income, diabetes, heart disease, stroke, heart attack, body mass index, leisure time activity, smoking, and medical care cost concerns) and comparing to those with no self-reported visual impairment, people reporting a little visual impairment were more likely to have fair/poor health (odds ratio, OR, 1.2, 95% confidence interval, CI, 1.1-1.3), life dissatisfaction (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.3-2.0), and disability (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.3-1.6), and those with self-reported moderate/severe visual impairment had more fair/poor health (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.6-2.0), life dissatisfaction (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.8-2.9), and disability (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.8-2.2). They also had more frequent physically unhealthy days (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.7-2.1), mentally unhealthy days (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.5-2.1), and activity limitations days (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.6-2.2). Poor HRQoL is strongly associated with the severity of self-reported visual impairment among people aged ≥65 years.

  13. The Association of Health-Related Quality of Life with Severity of Visual Impairment among People Aged 40–64 Years: Findings from the 2006–2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crews, John E.; Chou, Chiu-Fang; Zack, Matthew M.; Zhang, Xinzhi; Bullard, Kai McKeever; Morse, Alan R.; Saaddine, Jinan B.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To examine the association of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) with severity of visual impairment among people aged 40–64 years. Methods We used cross-sectional data from the 2006–2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System to examine six measures of HRQoL: self-reported health, physically unhealthy days, mentally unhealthy days, activity limitation days, life satisfaction, and disability. Visual impairment was categorized as no, a little, or moderate/severe. We examined the association between visual impairment and HRQoL using logistic regression accounting for the survey’s complex design. Results Overall, 23.0% of the participants reported a little difficult seeing, while 16.8% reported moderate/severe difficulty seeing. People aged 40–64 years with moderate/severe visual impairment had more frequent (≥14) physically unhealthy days, mentally unhealthy days, and activity limitation days in the last 30 days, as well as greater life dissatisfaction, greater disability, and poorer health compared to people reporting no or a little visual impairment. After controlling for covariates (age, sex, marital status, race/ethnicity, education, income, state, year, health insurance, heart disease, stroke, heart attack, body mass index, leisure-time activity, smoking, and medical care costs), and compared to people with no visual impairment, those with moderate/severe visual impairment were more likely to have fair/poor health (odds ratio, OR, 2.01, 95% confidence interval, CI, 1.82–2.23), life dissatisfaction (OR 2.06, 95% CI 1.80–2.35), disability (OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.80–2.13), and frequent physically unhealthy days (OR 1.69, 95% CI 1.52–1.88), mentally unhealthy days (OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.66–2.05), and activity limitation days (OR 1.94, 95% CI 1.71–2.20; all p visual impairment among people aged 40–64 years. PMID:27159347

  14. Health-Related Quality of Life Among People Aged ≥65 Years with Self-reported Visual Impairment: Findings from the 2006–2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crews, John E.; Chou, Chiu-Fang; Zhang, Xinzhi; Zack, Matthew M.; Saaddine, Jinan B.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To examine the association between health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and visual impairment among people aged ≥65 years. Methods We used cross-sectional data from the 2006–2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System to examine six HRQoL measures: self-reported health, physically unhealthy days, mentally unhealthy days, activity limitation days, life satisfaction, and disability. Visual impairment was categorized as no, a little, and moderate/severe. We examined the association between self-reported visual impairment and HRQoL using logistic regression accounting for the survey’s complex design. Results People with self-reported moderate/severe visual impairment had more frequent (≥14) physically unhealthy days, mentally unhealthy days, and activity limitation days in the last 30 days compared to those reporting a little or no visual impairment. After controlling for all covariates (age, sex, marital status, race/ethnicity, education, income, diabetes, heart disease, stroke, heart attack, body mass index, leisure time activity, smoking, and medical care cost concerns) and comparing to those with no self-reported visual impairment, people reporting a little visual impairment were more likely to have fair/poor health (odds ratio, OR, 1.2, 95% confidence interval, CI, 1.1–1.3), life dissatisfaction (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.3–2.0), and disability (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.3–1.6), and those with self-reported moderate/severe visual impairment had more fair/poor health (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.6–2.0), life dissatisfaction (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.8–2.9), and disability (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.8–2.2). They also had more frequent physically unhealthy days (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.7–2.1), mentally unhealthy days (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.5–2.1), and activity limitations days (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.6–2.2). Conclusion Poor HRQoL is strongly associated with the severity of self-reported visual impairment among people aged ≥65 years. PMID:24955821

  15. College students' behavioral reactions upon witnessing relational peer aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Ji-In; Bellmore, Amy

    2014-01-01

    With a sample of 228 college students (82.5% females) from the Midwestern United States, individual factors that contribute to emerging adults' behavioral responses when witnessing relational aggression among their peers were explored. The experience of witnessing relational aggression was found to be systematically associated with college students' behavioral responses to relational aggression through two social cognitive processes: normative beliefs about relational aggression and susceptibility to peer influence. The experience of witnessing relational aggression was associated with defending behavior through normative beliefs about relational aggression and both assisting and reinforcing behavior through normative beliefs about relational aggression and susceptibility to peer influence. The experience of witnessing relational aggression was also associated with onlooking behavior through normative beliefs about relational aggression. The findings indicate that exposure to relational aggression as a witness may influence witness responses because of the way such exposure may shape specific social cognitions. The potential for using the study findings for promoting effective witness interventions among college students is discussed. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Chinese Smokers’ Cigarette Purchase Behaviors, Cigarette Prices and Consumption: Findings from the ITC China Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jidong; Zheng, Rong; Chaloupka, Frank J.; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Li, Qiang; Jiang, Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Background While cigarette purchasing behavior has been shown to be linked with certain tobacco use outcomes such as quit intentions and quit attempts, there have been very few studies examining cigarette purchasing behaviors and their impact on cigarette price and consumption in China, the world’s largest cigarette consumer. Objective The goal of this study is to examine the extent and determinants of cost/price-related purchase behaviors, and estimate the impact of these behaviors on cigarette prices paid by Chinese smokers. It also assesses the socio-economic differences in compensatory purchase behaviors, and examines how they influence the relationship between purchase behaviors, cigarette prices, and cigarette consumption. Methods Multivariate analyses using the general estimating equations (GEE) method were conducted using data from the International Tobacco Control China Survey (the ITC China Survey), a longitudinal survey of adult smokers in seven cities in China: Beijing, Changsha, Guangzhou, Kunming, Shanghai, Shenyang, and Yinchuan. In each city, about 800 smokers were surveyed in each wave. The first three waves - Wave 1 (conducted between March to December 2006), Wave 2 (November 2007 to March 2008) and Wave 3 (May to October 2009 and February to March 2010) - of the ITC China Survey data were used in this analysis. Various aspects of smokers’ self-reported price/cost-related cigarette purchasing behaviors were analyzed. Findings Nearly three-quarters (72%) of smokers surveyed indicated that a major reason they chose their most-used cigarette brand was its low cost/price. Almost half (50.6%) of smokers reported buying in cartons in their most recent cigarette purchase. Smokers with lower income and/or low levels of education were more likely to choose a brand because of its low cost/price. However, those with higher income and/or high levels of education were more likely to buy cartons. Gender and age were also related to type of purchase

  17. Radiographic findings of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The aim of this study is to assess radiographic findings of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws (BRONJ) and to evaluate the efficiency of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and panoramic radiography (PR) by comparing with each other. Materials and Methods: The data of 46 patients treated ...

  18. The Association of Benefit Finding to Psychosocial and Health Behavior Adaptation Among HIV+ Men and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlewood, Rae A.; Vanable, Peter A.; Carey, Michael P.; Blair, Donald C.

    2008-01-01

    Psychological and behavioral adaptation to HIV is integral to long-term survival. Although most research on coping with HIV has focused on factors associated with poor adaptation, recent research has expanded to include positive concomitants of adaptation, such as benefit finding. This study examined the occurrence of benefit finding among HIV+ men and women and evaluated the potential relevance of benefit finding to positive health behavior and psychosocial adaptation. HIV+ participants (N = 221) recruited during outpatient care completed self-report assessments of benefit finding, social support, depression, HAART adherence, substance use, and physical activity. In a series of multivariate analyses that controlled for demographic and health status variables, benefit finding was associated with lower depression scores, greater social support, and more physical activity, but showed no association to HAART adherence or substance use. The association of benefit finding to depression was partially mediated by differences in social support. Thus, benefit finding may improve psychological adjustment by motivating patients who experience stress-related growth to seek improved social support. PMID:18157689

  19. Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy in children : CT findings related to prognosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Jae Min; Il, Yim Byung; Kim, Ok Hwa; Kang, Doo Kyoung; Suh, Jung Ho

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate prognosis-related CT findings in hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy. For the purpose of prognosis, 28 children with a clinical history and CT findings suggestive of hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) were restrospectively reviewed. The diagnostic criteria for HIE, as seen on CT scanning, were as follows : 1, ventricular collapse;2, effacement of cortical sulci;3, prominent enhancement of cortical vessels;4, poor differentiation of gray and white matter;5, reversal sign;6, obliteration of perimesencephalic cistern;7, high density on tentorial edge, as seen on precontrast scans;and 8, low density in thalamus, brain stem and basal ganglia. On the basis of clinical outcome, we divided the patients into three groups, as follows:group I(good prognosis);group II(neurologic sequelae), and group III(vegetative state or expire), and among these, compared CT findings. There were thirteen patients in group I, six in group II, and nine in group III. Ventricular collapse, effacement of cortical sulci, and prominent enhancement of cortical vessels were noted in all groups, whereas poor differentiation of gray and white matter, reversal sign, obliteration of perimesencephalic cistern, high density on tentorial edge, on precontrast scan, and low density in brain stem and basal ganglia were observed only in groups II and III. CT findings showed distinct differences between groups in whom prognosis was good, and in whom it was poor. An awareness of poor prognostic CT findings may be clinically helpful in the evaluation of patients with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy

  20. Workplace bullying in Serbia: The relation of self-labeling and behavioral experience with job-related behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Ivana B.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Workplace bullying has been identified as a widespread problem in contemporary organizational research. The aim of the paper was to acquire theoretically based and comparable findings about workplace bullying in Serbia: to explore the behavioral experience and self-labeling approaches (applying the Negative Acts Questionnaire - Revised, NAQ-R and their relationship with job-related behaviors. The sample comprised 1,998 employees. Prevalence rates of workplace bullying based on self-labeling and behavior experience approaches overlap significantly (70% of employees operationally identified as bullied had also labeled themselves as bullied. Both the self-labeling and behavioral experience approach showed significant correlations with job-related behaviors (perceived threat to a total job, absenteeism, intention to leave, and perceived productivity. Previously bullied, presently bullied and non-bullied employees differed significantly on all four job-related behaviors, with large effect size for the intention to leave and medium effect size for the perceived threat to a total job. The findings support combining self-labeling and behavioral experience approaches in workplace bullying research. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179018

  1. International Relations: Understanding the Behavior of Nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zack, David R.; And Others

    In today's world, no nation acts in isolation; the interdependence of nations makes international relations complex and ever-changing. This book is designed to help students understand why nations compete, why they cooperate, and why they sometimes go to war. Chapter 1 examines the behavior of nations and how national interest dictates the…

  2. Neuroimaging findings in pediatric sports-related concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Michael J; Leiter, Jeff; Hall, Thomas; McDonald, Patrick J; Sawyer, Scott; Silver, Norm; Bunge, Martin; Essig, Marco

    2015-09-01

    The goal in this review was to summarize the results of clinical neuroimaging studies performed in patients with sports-related concussion (SRC) who were referred to a multidisciplinar ypediatric concussion program. The authors conducted a retrospective review of medical records and neuroimaging findings for all patients referred to a multidisciplinary pediatric concussion program between September 2013 and July 2014. Inclusion criteria were as follows: 1) age ≤ 19 years; and 2) physician-diagnosed SRC. All patients underwent evaluation and follow-up by the same neurosurgeon. The 2 outcomes examined in this review were the frequency of neuroimaging studies performed in this population (including CT and MRI) and the findings of those studies. Clinical indications for neuroimaging and the impact of neuroimaging findings on clinical decision making were summarized where available. This investigation was approved by the local institutional ethics review board. A total of 151 patients (mean age 14 years, 59% female) were included this study. Overall, 36 patients (24%) underwent neuroimaging studies, the results of which were normal in 78% of cases. Sixteen percent of patients underwent CT imaging; results were normal in 79% of cases. Abnormal CT findings included the following: arachnoid cyst (1 patient), skull fracture (2 patients), suspected intracranial hemorrhage (1 patient), and suspected hemorrhage into an arachnoid cyst (1 patient). Eleven percent of patients underwent MRI; results were normal in 75% of cases. Abnormal MRI findings included the following: intraparenchymal hemorrhage and sylvian fissure arachnoid cyst (1 patient); nonhemorrhagic contusion (1 patient); demyelinating disease (1 patient); and posterior fossa arachnoid cyst, cerebellar volume loss, and nonspecific white matter changes (1 patient). Results of clinical neuroimaging studies are normal in the majority of pediatric patients with SRC. However, in selected cases neuroimaging can provide

  3. Impulsivity traits and addiction-related behaviors in youth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rømer Thomsen, Kristine; Callesen, Mette Buhl; Hesse, Morten

    2018-01-01

    problems to achieve a broad distribution of involvement in addiction-related behaviors. Participants completed the UPPS-P Questionnaire and standardized questionnaires assessing problematic use of substances (alcohol, cannabis, and other drugs) and non-substances (Internet gaming, pornography, and food...... eating and lack of perseverance was associated with problematic use of pornography. Discussion and conclusions We emphasize the role of trait impulsivity across multiple addiction-related behaviors. Our findings in at-risk youth highlight urgency and lack of perseverance as potential predictors...

  4. Changes in attention to an emotional task after sleep deprivation: neurophysiological and behavioral findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfarra, Ramey; Fins, Ana I; Chayo, Isaac; Tartar, Jaime L

    2015-01-01

    While sleep loss is shown to have widespread effects on cognitive processes, little is known about the impact of sleep loss on emotion processes. In order to expand on previous behavioral and physiological findings on how sleep loss influences emotion processing, we administered positive, negative, and neutral affective visual stimuli to individuals after one night of sleep deprivation while simultaneously acquiring EEG event related potential (ERP) data and recording affective behavioral responses. We compared these responses to a baseline testing session. We specifically looked at the late positive potential (LPP) component of the visual ERP as an established sensitive measure of attention to emotionally-charged visual stimuli. Our results show that after sleep deprivation, the LPP no longer discriminates between emotional and non-emotional pictures; after sleep deprivation the LPP amplitude was of similar amplitude for neutral, positive, and negative pictures. This effect was driven by an increase in the LPP to neutral pictures. Our behavioral measures show that, relative to baseline testing, emotional pictures are rated as less emotional following sleep deprivation with a concomitant reduction in emotional picture-induced anxiety. We did not observe any change in cortisol concentrations after sleep deprivation before or after emotional picture exposure, suggesting that the observed changes in emotion processing are independent of potential stress effects of sleep deprivation. Combined, our findings suggest that sleep loss interferes with proper allocation of attention resources during an emotional task. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Tiger team findings related to DOE environmental restoration activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levitan, W.M.

    1991-01-01

    Tiger Team Assessments were implemented in June 1989 as part of a strategy to ensure that DOE facilities fully comply with Federal, state, local and DOE environment, safety, and health (ES ampersand H) requirements. The Tiger Teams provide the Secretary of Energy with information on current ES ampersand H compliance status of each DOE facility and causes for noncompliance. To date, Tiger Team Assessments have been completed at 25 DOE facilities. With regard to assessments of environmental restoration activities, the performance of DOE facilities was evaluated against the requirements of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended, the National Contingency Plan (NCP), and DOE Order 5400.4, CERCLA Requirements, among others. Five major categories of environmental restoration-related findings were identified: (1) environmental restoration program planning and management (found at 60 percent of the sites assessed); (2) community relations/administrative record (60 percent); (3) characterization of extent of contamination (56 percent); (4) identification and evaluation of inactive waste sites (56 percent); and (5) DOE and NCP requirements for response action studies (44 percent). Primary causal factors for these findings were inadequate procedures, resources, supervision, and policy implementation

  6. Ganglionic cysts related to the scapula: MR findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Ae Kyeong; Kim, Sung Moon; Kim, Kyung Sook; Shin, Myung Jin; Chun, Jae Myeung; Ahn, Joong Mo

    1999-01-01

    To evaluate the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging characteristics of ganglionic cysts related to the scapula. We retrospectively reviewed 15 ganglionic cysts diagnosed by MR imaging in 14 patients who subsequently underwent surgical excision (n=8) or needle aspiration (n=1). Five other patients whose lesion-related symptoms were not too severe to manage underwent conservative treatment. We analyzed MR findings with regard to the size, shape and presence of internal septa, the location and signal intensity of the lesion, and associated findings such as change of rotator cuff muscle, labral tear and bone erosion. We also evaluated the presence of tear of rotator cuff tendon, tendinosis, and subacromial enthesophyte. The diameter of ganglionic cysts was 0.5-5.5 (mean, 2.8)cm, and they were round (n=2), ovoid (n=6), or elongated (n=7). Where internal septa were present (n=13), cysts were lobulated. Lesions were located in both scapular and spinoglenoid notches (n=9), only in the scapular notch (n=2), only in the spinoglenoid notch (n=2) or within the bone (n=2). In eleven cases they were very close to the superoposterior aspect of the glenoid labrum (n=11). On T1-weighted images, all lesions were seen to be iso- or hypointense to muscle, while on T2-weighted images, they were hyperintense, resembling joint fluid (n=14), except in one patient with hemorrhage. Associated findings were edema of the infraspinatus muscle (n=4), pressure erosion of the scapular neck (n=1), and labral tear (n=1). A torn supraspinatus tendon (n=2), supraspinatus tendinosis (n=3), and subacromial enthesophyte (n=2) were also present. MR imaging was helpful in diagnosing ganglionic cysts and detecting associated lesions

  7. Neuroimaging for drug addiction and related behaviors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parvaz, M.A.; Alia-Klein, N.; Woicik, P.A.; Volkow, N.D.; Goldstein, R.Z.

    2011-01-01

    In this review, we highlight the role of neuroimaging techniques in studying the emotional and cognitive-behavioral components of the addiction syndrome by focusing on the neural substrates subserving them. The phenomenology of drug addiction can be characterized by a recurrent pattern of subjective experiences that includes drug intoxication, craving, bingeing, and withdrawal with the cycle culminating in a persistent preoccupation with obtaining, consuming, and recovering from the drug. In the past two decades, imaging studies of drug addiction have demonstrated deficits in brain circuits related to reward and impulsivity. The current review focuses on studies employing positron emission tomography (PET), functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and electroencephalography (EEG) to investigate these behaviors in drug-addicted human populations. We begin with a brief account of drug addiction followed by a technical account of each of these imaging modalities. We then discuss how these techniques have uniquely contributed to a deeper understanding of addictive behaviors.

  8. Neuroimaging for drug addiction and related behaviors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parvaz M. A.; Parvaz, M.A.; Alia-Klein, N.; Woicik,P.A.; Volkow, N.D.; Goldstein, R.Z.

    2011-10-01

    In this review, we highlight the role of neuroimaging techniques in studying the emotional and cognitive-behavioral components of the addiction syndrome by focusing on the neural substrates subserving them. The phenomenology of drug addiction can be characterized by a recurrent pattern of subjective experiences that includes drug intoxication, craving, bingeing, and withdrawal with the cycle culminating in a persistent preoccupation with obtaining, consuming, and recovering from the drug. In the past two decades, imaging studies of drug addiction have demonstrated deficits in brain circuits related to reward and impulsivity. The current review focuses on studies employing positron emission tomography (PET), functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and electroencephalography (EEG) to investigate these behaviors in drug-addicted human populations. We begin with a brief account of drug addiction followed by a technical account of each of these imaging modalities. We then discuss how these techniques have uniquely contributed to a deeper understanding of addictive behaviors.

  9. Association Between Substance Use and Gun-Related Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Danhong; Wu, Li-Tzy

    2016-01-01

    Gun-related violence is a public health concern. This study synthesizes findings on associations between substance use and gun-related behaviors. Searches through PubMed, Embase, and PsycINFO located 66 studies published in English between 1992 and 2014. Most studies found a significant bivariate association between substance use and increased odds of gun-related behaviors. However, their association after adjustment was mixed, which could be attributed to a number of factors such as variations in definitions of substance use and gun activity, study design, sample demographics, and the specific covariates considered. Fewer studies identified a significant association between substance use and gun access/possession than other gun activities. The significant association between nonsubstance covariates (e.g., demographic covariates and other behavioral risk factors) and gun-related behaviors might have moderated the association between substance use and gun activities. Particularly, the strength of association between substance use and gun activities tended to reduce appreciably or to become nonsignificant after adjustment for mental disorders. Some studies indicated a positive association between the frequency of substance use and the odds of engaging in gun-related behaviors. Overall, the results suggest a need to consider substance use in research and prevention programs for gun-related violence. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Behavioral symptoms related to cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dillon C

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Carol Dillon,1 Cecilia M Serrano,1 Diego Castro,1 Patricio Perez Leguizamón,1 Silvina L Heisecke,1,2 Fernando E Taragano1 1CEMIC (Centro de Educación Médica e Investigaciones Clínicas University Institute, 2CONICET (Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Técnicas, Buenos Aires, Argentina Abstract: Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS are core features of Alzheimer's disease and related dementias. On one hand, behavioral symptoms in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI can indicate an increased risk of progressing to dementia. On the other hand, mild behavioral impairment (MBI in patients who usually have normal cognition indicates an increased risk of developing dementia. Whatever the cause, all dementias carry a high rate of NPI. These symptoms can be observed at any stage of the disease, may fluctuate over its course, are a leading cause of stress and overload for caregivers, and increase rates of hospitalization and early institutionalization for patients with dementia. The clinician should be able to promptly recognize NPI through the use of instruments capable of measuring their frequency and severity to support diagnosis, and to help monitor the treatment of behavioral symptoms. The aims of this review are to describe and update the construct ‘MBI’ and to revise the reported NPS related to prodromal stages of dementia (MCI and MBI and dementia stages of Alzheimer’s disease and frontotemporal lobar degeneration. Keywords: behavioral or neuropsychiatric symptoms, cognitive impairment, dementia

  11. New Findings in Hydrogen Sulfide Related Corrosion of Concrete Sewers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning; Jensen, Henriette Stokbro; Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild

    2009-01-01

    This paper summarizes major findings of a long-term study of hydrogen sulfide gas (H2S) adsorption and oxidation on concrete and plastic sewer pipe surfaces. The processes have been studied using a pilot-scale setup designed to replicate conditions in a gravity sewer located downstream of a force...... main. H2S related concrete corrosion and odor is often observed at such locations. The experiments showed that the rate of H2S oxidation was significantly faster on concrete pipe surfaces than on plastic pipe surfaces. Steady state calculations based on the kinetic data demonstrated that the gas phase...... H2S concentration in concrete sewers would typically amount to a few percent of the equilibrium concentration calculated from Henrys law. In plastic pipe sewers, significantly higher concentrations were predicted because of the slower adsorption and oxidation kinetics on these surfaces. Finally...

  12. Imaging findings of primary immunoglobulin G4-related cervical lymphadenopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawaguchi, Masaya; Kato, Hiroki; Goshima, Satoshi; Matsuo, Masayuki [Gifu University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Gifu (Japan); Kito, Yusuke [Gifu University School of Medicine, Department of Pathology and Translational Research, Gifu (Japan); Mizuta, Keisuke; Aoki, Mitsuhiro [Gifu University School of Medicine, Department of Otolaryngology, Gifu (Japan); Kato, Keizo [Gifu University School of Medicine, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Sciences, Gifu (Japan)

    2017-11-15

    The purpose of the present study was to assess imaging findings of primary immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related cervical lymphadenopathy. Five consecutive patients with clinically, serologically, and histopathologically confirmed primary IgG4-related cervical lymphadenopathy without any other organ involvement were included. All patients underwent contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT), and four underwent {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET)/CT. We retrospectively reviewed the images and assessed the number, size, location, central necrosis, perinodal infiltration, penetrating vessels, and maximum standardized uptake values (SUVmax) of the enlarged cervical nodes. Thirteen enlarged cervical nodes measuring larger than 10 mm in minimum diameter were identified. The maximum and minimum diameter of enlarged nodes ranged from 1.2 to 3.2 cm (median, 1.8 cm) and from 1.0 to 1.9 cm (median, 1.2 cm), respectively. Lymphadenopathy was unilateral in all patients, and eight enlarged nodes were located at level IB (62%), one at level II (8%), three at level IV (23%), and one at level V (8%). Central necrosis was not seen in any nodes. Perinodal infiltration was seen in only one node (8%), and penetrating vessels were seen in seven nodes (54%). The median SUVmax of nine nodes was 4.45 (range, 2.08-12.44). Eight enlarged nodes (62%) were located in the submandibular region. Central necrosis was not observed in any nodes and perinodal infiltration was observed in one node (8%). (orig.)

  13. Imaging findings of primary immunoglobulin G4-related cervical lymphadenopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawaguchi, Masaya; Kato, Hiroki; Goshima, Satoshi; Matsuo, Masayuki; Kito, Yusuke; Mizuta, Keisuke; Aoki, Mitsuhiro; Kato, Keizo

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess imaging findings of primary immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related cervical lymphadenopathy. Five consecutive patients with clinically, serologically, and histopathologically confirmed primary IgG4-related cervical lymphadenopathy without any other organ involvement were included. All patients underwent contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT), and four underwent 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET)/CT. We retrospectively reviewed the images and assessed the number, size, location, central necrosis, perinodal infiltration, penetrating vessels, and maximum standardized uptake values (SUVmax) of the enlarged cervical nodes. Thirteen enlarged cervical nodes measuring larger than 10 mm in minimum diameter were identified. The maximum and minimum diameter of enlarged nodes ranged from 1.2 to 3.2 cm (median, 1.8 cm) and from 1.0 to 1.9 cm (median, 1.2 cm), respectively. Lymphadenopathy was unilateral in all patients, and eight enlarged nodes were located at level IB (62%), one at level II (8%), three at level IV (23%), and one at level V (8%). Central necrosis was not seen in any nodes. Perinodal infiltration was seen in only one node (8%), and penetrating vessels were seen in seven nodes (54%). The median SUVmax of nine nodes was 4.45 (range, 2.08-12.44). Eight enlarged nodes (62%) were located in the submandibular region. Central necrosis was not observed in any nodes and perinodal infiltration was observed in one node (8%). (orig.)

  14. The Role of Serotonin (5-HT) in Behavioral Control: Findings from Animal Research and Clinical Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, CL; Biskup, CS; Herpertz, S; Gaber, TJ; Kuhn, CM; Hood, SH

    2015-01-01

    The neurotransmitters serotonin and dopamine both have a critical role in the underlying neurobiology of different behaviors. With focus on the interplay between dopamine and serotonin, it has been proposed that dopamine biases behavior towards habitual responding, and with serotonin offsetting this phenomenon and directing the balance toward more flexible, goal-directed responding. The present focus paper stands in close relationship to the publication by Worbe et al. (2015), which deals with the effects of acute tryptophan depletion, a neurodietary physiological method to decrease central nervous serotonin synthesis in humans for a short period of time, on the balance between hypothetical goal-directed and habitual systems. In that research, acute tryptophan depletion challenge administration and a following short-term reduction in central nervous serotonin synthesis were associated with a shift of behavioral performance towards habitual responding, providing further evidence that central nervous serotonin function modulates the balance between goal-directed and stimulus-response habitual systems of behavioral control. In the present focus paper, we discuss the findings by Worbe and colleagues in light of animal experiments as well as clinical implications and discuss potential future avenues for related research. PMID:25991656

  15. Behavioral symptoms related to cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Carol; Serrano, Cecilia M; Castro, Diego; Leguizamón, Patricio Perez; Heisecke, Silvina L; Taragano, Fernando E

    2013-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) are core features of Alzheimer's disease and related dementias. On one hand, behavioral symptoms in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) can indicate an increased risk of progressing to dementia. On the other hand, mild behavioral impairment (MBI) in patients who usually have normal cognition indicates an increased risk of developing dementia. Whatever the cause, all dementias carry a high rate of NPI. These symptoms can be observed at any stage of the disease, may fluctuate over its course, are a leading cause of stress and overload for caregivers, and increase rates of hospitalization and early institutionalization for patients with dementia. The clinician should be able to promptly recognize NPI through the use of instruments capable of measuring their frequency and severity to support diagnosis, and to help monitor the treatment of behavioral symptoms. The aims of this review are to describe and update the construct 'MBI' and to revise the reported NPS related to prodromal stages of dementia (MCI and MBI) and dementia stages of Alzheimer's disease and frontotemporal lobar degeneration.

  16. Loss-of-Fluid Test findings in pressurized water reactor core's thermal-hydraulic behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, M.

    1983-01-01

    This paper summarizes the pressurized water reactor (PWR) core's thermal-hydraulic behavior findings from experiments performed at the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The potential impact of these findings on the safety and economics of PWR's generation of electricity is also discussed. Reviews of eight important findings in the core's physical behavior and in experimental methods are presented with supporting evidence

  17. Finding Relational Associations in HIV Resistance Mutation Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Lothar; Augustin, Regina; Kramer, Stefan

    HIV therapy optimization is a hard task due to rapidly evolving mutations leading to drug resistance. Over the past five years, several machine learning approaches have been developed for decision support, mostly to predict therapy failure from the genotypic sequence of viral proteins and additional factors. In this paper, we define a relational representation for an important part of the data, namely the sequences of a viral protein (reverse transcriptase), their mutations, and the drug resistance(s) associated with those mutations. The data were retrieved from the Los Alamos National Laboratories' (LANL) HIV databases. In contrast to existing work in this area, we do not aim directly for predictive modeling, but take one step back and apply descriptive mining methods to develop a better understanding of the correlations and associations between mutations and resistances. In our particular application, we use the Warmr algorithm to detect non-trivial patterns connecting mutations and resistances. Our findings suggest that well-known facts can be rediscovered, but also hint at the potential of discovering yet unknown associations.

  18. Temperamental correlates of disruptive behavior disorders in young children: preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirshfeld-Becker, Dina R; Biederman, Joseph; Faraone, Stephen V; Violette, Heather; Wrightsman, Jessica; Rosenbaum, Jerrold F

    2002-04-01

    Our objective was to test the hypothesis that temperamental behavioral disinhibition measured in early childhood would be associated with disruptive behavior disorders. We used variables from laboratory-based behavioral observations originally devised to assess behavioral inhibition to construct a theory-based a priori definition of "behavioral disinhibition" in 200 young children at-risk for panic disorder, depression, or both and 84 children of parents without anxiety or major depressive disorder. We then compared behaviorally disinhibited and nonbehaviorally disinhibited children on rates of DSM-III-R disorders and measures of academic and social dysfunction. Behavioral disinhibition was significantly associated with higher rates of disruptive behavior disorders and mood disorders. Children with behavioral disinhibition were significantly more likely than nondisinhibited, noninhibited children to have attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and to have comorbid mood and disruptive behavior disorders. Moreover, disinhibited children had lower Global Assessment of Functioning Scale scores and were more likely to have been in special classes and to have problems with school behavior and leisure activities. These results suggest that behavioral disinhibition may represent a temperamental precursor to disruptive behavior problems, particularly ADHD. Longitudinal studies using behavioral assessments of behavioral disinhibition are needed to confirm these findings.

  19. Perceived Sexual Control, Sex-Related Alcohol Expectancies and Behavior Predict Substance-Related Sexual Revictimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kate; Messman-Moore, Terri; Zerubavel, Noga; Chandley, Rachel B.; DeNardi, Kathleen A.; Walker, Dave P.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Although numerous studies have documented linkages between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and later sexual revictimization, mechanisms underlying revictimization, particularly assaults occurring in the context of substance use, are not well-understood. Consistent with Traumagenic Dynamics theory, the present study tested a path model positing that lowered perceptions of sexual control resulting from CSA may be associated with increased sex-related alcohol expectancies and heightened likelihood of risky sexual behavior, which in turn, may predict adult substance-related rape. Methods Participants were 546 female college students who completed anonymous surveys regarding CSA and adult rape, perceptions of sexual control, sex-related alcohol expectancies, and likelihood of engaging in risky sexual behavior. Results The data fit the hypothesized model well and all hypothesized path coefficients were significant and in the expected directions. As expected, sex-related alcohol expectancies and likelihood of risky sexual behavior only predicted substance-related rape, not forcible rape. Conclusions Findings suggested that low perceived sexual control stemming from CSA is associated with increased sex-related alcohol expectancies and a higher likelihood of engaging in sexual behavior in the context of alcohol use. In turn these proximal risk factors heighten vulnerability to substance-related rape. Programs which aim to reduce risk for substance-related rape could be improved by addressing expectancies and motivations for risky sexual behavior in the context of substance use. Implications and future directions are discussed. PMID:23312991

  20. Sex differences in brain and behavior in adolescence: Findings from the Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gur, Raquel E; Gur, Ruben C

    2016-11-01

    Sex differences in brain and behavior were investigated across the lifespan. Parameters include neurobehavioral measures linkable to neuroanatomic and neurophysiologic indicators of brain structure and function. Sexual differentiation of behavior has been related to organizational factors during sensitive periods of development, with adolescence and puberty gaining increased attention. Adolescence is a critical developmental period where transition to adulthood is impacted by multiple factors that can enhance vulnerability to brain dysfunction. Here we highlight sex differences in neurobehavioral measures in adolescence that are linked to brain function. We summarize neuroimaging studies examining brain structure, connectivity and perfusion, underscoring the relationship to sex differences in behavioral measures and commenting on hormonal findings. We focus on relevant data from the Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort (PNC), a community-based sample of nearly 10,000 clinically and neurocognitively phenotyped youths age 8-21 of whom 1600 have received multimodal neuroimaging. These data indicate early and pervasive sexual differentiation in neurocognitive measures that is linkable to brain parameters. We conclude by describing possible clinical implications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Parents' perfectionism and its relation to child rearing behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greblo, Zrinka; Bratko, Denis

    2014-04-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between parents' perfectionism and self-reported parenting behaviors. The study included 786 parents (417 mothers and 369 fathers) of high school students. Results showed that parents' positive and negative perfectionism were differently related to specific forms of child rearing practices. Namely, positive perfectionism was positively, while negative perfectionism was negatively related to parental acceptance for both mothers and fathers. Mothers' and fathers' negative perfectionism was positively related to parental criticism and permissiveness. In addition, fathers' positive perfectionism was negatively associated with permissive child rearing practices. After controlling for background variables, parents' positive and negative perfectionism explained significant amounts of variance in all self-reported parenting dimensions for fathers and significantly accounted for the variance of parental acceptance and criticism for mothers. According to our findings, parents' perfectionism might have an important role in shaping parenting behaviors. © 2014 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Extrapancreatic findings of IgG4-related disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, T.J.; Ng, Y.L.; Tan, D.; Fong, W.S.; Low, A.S.C.

    2014-01-01

    IgG4-related disease is a systemic fibro-inflammatory condition, which includes autoimmune pancreatitis as part of the disease spectrum. Imaging has been demonstrated to play a major role in the diagnosis of autoimmune pancreatitis. Recognizing the wide spectrum of extrapancreatic manifestations of IgG4-related disease coupled with a high clinical index of suspicion will allow for an accurate and timely diagnosis to be made, thus avoiding unnecessary invasive procedures and ensuring that early effective corticosteroid therapy is commenced. This review aims to serve as a concise reference tool for both clinicians and radiologists in the diagnosis of extrapancreatic IgG4-related disease

  3. An Exploratory Study on the Re-finding Behavior on the Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Tieh Pu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available It is common for users to relocate information previously found on the web. However, their search behaviors in initial finding and the subsequent re-finding may differ due to the dynamic nature and contextual diversity of the web. This study used experiment, observation, interview, and questionnaires to investigate the characteristics of re-finding behavior and compare users’ performance in finding and re-finding. Though not significantly different, the study participants used more search tools, combined various strategies to obtain contextual clues of finding process, utilized more complex search tactics, and had more interactions with search engines used. Findings also show that participants spent less time in re-finding than in finding, yet the cognitive loading and difficulties increased in re-finding. Participants were satisfied with the results obtained in re-finding, but they also claimed that the search performance would be better if the system offered more functions to support recall of previous search results. Participants’ satisfaction with search performance also varied by task type. Based on the findings, this study recommends that re-finding efficiency may be improved by enhancing recall functionalities in browsers and by using personal information management tools. [Article content in Chinese; Extended abstract in English

  4. Olfactory-mediated stream-finding behavior of migratory adult sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrieze, L.A.; Bergstedt, R.A.; Sorensen, P.W.

    2011-01-01

    Stream-finding behavior of adult sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), an anadromous fish that relies on pheromones to locate spawning streams, was documented in the vicinity of an important spawning river in the Great Lakes. Untreated and anosmic migrating sea lampreys were implanted with acoustic transmitters and then released outside the Ocqueoc River. Lampreys swam only at night and then actively. When outside of the river plume, lampreys pursued relatively straight bearings parallel to the shoreline while making frequent vertical excursions. In contrast, when within the plume, lampreys made large turns and exhibited a weak bias towards the river mouth, which one-third of them entered. The behavior of anosmic lampreys resembled that of untreated lampreys outside of the plume, except they pursued a more northerly compass bearing. To locate streams, sea lampreys appear to employ a three-phase odor-mediated strategy that involves an initial search along shorelines while casting vertically, followed by river-water-induced turning that brings them close to the river's mouth, which they then enter using rheotaxis. This novel strategy differs from that of salmonids and appears to offer this poor swimmer adaptive flexibility and suggests ways that pheromonal odors might be used to manage this invasive species.

  5. Hope and the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicidal behavior: replication and extension of prior findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anestis, Michael D; Moberg, Fallon B; Arnau, Randolph C

    2014-04-01

    The interpersonal-psychological theory of suicidal behavior (IPTS; Joiner, 2005) posits that suicidal behavior occurs when an individual has a desire for death (due to the combination of perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness) in addition to an acquired capacity for suicide, which is present when the individual has a low fear of death and high pain tolerance. Previous research has demonstrated an expected negative relation between trait hope and perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness, as well as a more perplexing finding that hope is positively associated with the acquired capability. In a sample of 230 college students, measures of the three components of the IPTS were administered, along with measures of hope, depression, and painful and/or provocative events. Hierarchical regression analyses replicated the previously found associations between hope and burdensomeness and belongingness while controlling for depression and demographic variables. The positive association between hope and acquired capacity was also replicated, but a mediation analysis demonstrated that the effect was statistically accounted for by distress tolerance. The results further support the incremental validity of hope as a consideration in suicide risk assessments and suggest that hope may serve as a protective factor with respect to suicidal desire. © 2013 The American Association of Suicidology.

  6. Body-related self-conscious emotions relate to physical activity motivation and behavior in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castonguay, Andree L; Pila, Eva; Wrosch, Carsten; Sabiston, Catherine M

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the associations between the body-related self-conscious emotions of shame, guilt, and pride and physical activity motivation and behavior among adult males. Specifically, motivation regulations (external, introjected, indentified, intrinsic) were examined as possible mediators between each of the body-related self-conscious emotions and physical activity behavior. A cross-sectional study was conducted with adult men (N = 152; Mage = 23.72, SD = 10.92 years). Participants completed a questionnaire assessing body-related shame, guilt, authentic pride, hubristic pride, motivational regulations, and leisure-time physical activity. In separate multiple mediation models, body-related shame was positively associated with external and introjected regulations and negatively correlated with intrinsic regulation. Guilt was positively linked to external, introjected, and identified regulations. Authentic pride was negatively related to external regulation and positively correlated with both identified and intrinsic regulations and directly associated with physical activity behavior. Hubristic pride was positively associated with intrinsic regulation. Overall, there were both direct and indirect effects via motivation regulations between body-related self-conscious emotions and physical activity (R(2) shame = .15, guilt = .16, authentic pride = .18, hubristic pride = .16). These findings highlight the importance of targeting and understanding self-conscious emotions contextualized to the body and links to motivation and positive health behavior among men. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Dopamine Signaling in reward-related behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Baik, Ja-Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Dopamine (DA) regulates emotional and motivational behavior through the mesolimbic dopaminergic pathway. Changes in DA mesolimbic neurotransmission have been found to modify behavioral responses to various environmental stimuli associated with reward behaviors. Psychostimulants, drugs of abuse, and natural reward such as food can cause substantial synaptic modifications to the mesolimbic DA system. Recent studies using optogenetics and DREADDs, together with neuron-specific or circuit-specifi...

  8. Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment of Depressed Affect among Epileptics: Preliminary Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Gay R.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Evaluated a program where cognitive-behavioral methods were utilized in a structured learning format with clinically depressed epileptics (N=13). Results indicated that cognitive behavioral interventions result in significant decreases in depression and increases in related areas of psychosocial functioning that are maintained over time. (LLL)

  9. Ecstasy Use and Suicidal Behavior among Adolescents: Findings from a National Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jueun; Fan, Bin; Liu, Xinhua; Kerner, Nancy; Wu, Ping

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between ecstasy use and suicidal behavior among adolescents in the United States was examined. Data from the adolescent subsample (ages 12-17, N = 19,301) of the 2000 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse were used in the analyses. Information on adolescent substance use, suicidal behaviors, and related sociodemographic, family,…

  10. Discussing dementia-related behaviors during medical visits for people with Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunsaker, Amanda E; Schmidt, Karen; Lingler, Jennifer H

    2010-05-01

    Research suggests that caregivers appreciate support from primary care physicians (PCPs) regarding dementia care; however, there remains a need for studies examining the role that PCPs play in behavior management. The purpose of this study was to quantitatively characterize the discussion on dementia-related behaviors (DRBs) during PCP visits and compare findings to an independently administered assessment of DRBs exhibited within a period of 4 weeks prior to the PCP visit. Twenty-five PCP visits of persons with dementia, in which caregivers coattended the visit, were audio-recorded and analyzed for occurrence of DRB discussion. Disruptive behaviors were reported by 80% of caregivers via independent assessment, yet discussed in 23% of medical visits. Dementia-related behavior discussion occurred in visits where caregivers independently reported significantly higher behavior frequency and behavior-related burden. Implications of findings for ways PCPs can assist the caregiver in behavior management are discussed.

  11. Discussing Dementia-Related Behaviors During Medical Visits for People With Alzheimer’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunsaker, Amanda E.; Schmidt, Karen; Lingler, Jennifer H.

    2011-01-01

    Research suggests that caregivers appreciate support from primary care physicians (PCPs) regarding dementia care; however, there remains a need for studies examining the role that PCPs play in behavior management. The purpose of this study was to quantitatively characterize the discussion on dementia-related behaviors (DRBs) during PCP visits and compare findings to an independently administered assessment of DRBs exhibited within a period of 4 weeks prior to the PCP visit. Twenty-five PCP visits of persons with dementia, in which caregivers coattended the visit, were audio-recorded and analyzed for occurrence of DRB discussion. Disruptive behaviors were reported by 80% of caregivers via independent assessment, yet discussed in 23% of medical visits. Dementia-related behavior discussion occurred in visits where caregivers independently reported significantly higher behavior frequency and behavior-related burden. Implications of findings for ways PCPs can assist the caregiver in behavior management are discussed. PMID:20147601

  12. Using findings in multimedia learning to inform technology-based behavioral health interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, Ian David; Marsch, Lisa A; Acosta, Michelle C

    2013-09-01

    Clinicians and researchers are increasingly using technology-based behavioral health interventions to improve intervention effectiveness and to reach underserved populations. However, these interventions are rarely informed by evidence-based findings of how technology can be optimized to promote acquisition of key skills and information. At the same time, experts in multimedia learning generally do not apply their findings to health education or conduct research in clinical contexts. This paper presents an overview of some key aspects of multimedia learning research that may allow those developing health interventions to apply informational technology with the same rigor as behavioral science content. We synthesized empirical multimedia learning literature from 1992 to 2011. We identified key findings and suggested a framework for integrating technology with educational and behavioral science theory. A scientific, evidence-driven approach to developing technology-based interventions can yield greater effectiveness, improved fidelity, increased outcomes, and better client service.

  13. Trampoline related injuries in children: risk factors and radiographic findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimek, Peter Michael; Juen, David; Stranzinger, Enno; Wolf, Rainer; Slongo, Theddy

    2013-05-01

    Backyard trampolines are immensely popular among children, but are associated with an increase of trampoline-related injuries. The aim of this study was to evaluate radiographs of children with trampoline related injuries and to determine the risk factors. Between 2003 and 2009, 286 children under the age of 16 with backyard trampoline injuries were included in the study. The number of injuries increased from 13 patients in 2003 to 86 in 2009. The median age of the 286 patients was 7 years (range: 1-15 years). Totally 140 (49%) patients were males, and 146 (51%) females. Medical records and all available diagnostic imaging were reviewed. A questionnaire was sent to the parents to evaluate the circumstances of each injury, the type of trampoline, the protection equipment and the experience of the children using the trampoline. The study was approved by the Institutional Ethics Committee of the University Hospital of Bern. The questionnaires and radiographs of the 104 patients were available for evaluation. A fracture was sustained in 51 of the 104 patients. More than 75% of all patients sustaining injuries and in 90% of patients with fractures were jumping on the trampoline with other children at the time of the accident. The most common fractures were supracondylar humeral fractures (29%) and forearm fractures (25%). Fractures of the proximal tibia occurred especially in younger children between 2-5 years of age. Children younger than 5 years old are at risk for specific proximal tibia fractures ("Trampoline Fracture"). A child jumping simultaneously with other children has a higher risk of suffering from a fracture.

  14. Dopamine signaling in reward-related behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baik, Ja-Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Dopamine (DA) regulates emotional and motivational behavior through the mesolimbic dopaminergic pathway. Changes in DA mesolimbic neurotransmission have been found to modify behavioral responses to various environmental stimuli associated with reward behaviors. Psychostimulants, drugs of abuse, and natural reward such as food can cause substantial synaptic modifications to the mesolimbic DA system. Recent studies using optogenetics and DREADDs, together with neuron-specific or circuit-specific genetic manipulations have improved our understanding of DA signaling in the reward circuit, and provided a means to identify the neural substrates of complex behaviors such as drug addiction and eating disorders. This review focuses on the role of the DA system in drug addiction and food motivation, with an overview of the role of D1 and D2 receptors in the control of reward-associated behaviors.

  15. Dopamine Signaling in reward-related behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ja-Hyun eBaik

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Dopamine (DA regulates emotional and motivational behavior through the mesolimbic dopaminergic pathway. Changes in DAmesolimbic neurotransmission have been found to modify behavioral responses to various environmental stimuli associated with reward behaviors. Psychostimulants, drugs of abuse, and natural rewards such as food can cause substantial synaptic modifications to the mesolimbic DA system. Recent studies using optogenetics and DREADDs, together with neuron-specific or circuit-specific genetic manipulations have improved our understanding of DA signaling in the reward circuit, and provided a means to identify the neural substrates of complex behaviors such as drug addiction and eating disorders. This review focuses on the role of the DA system in drug addiction and food motivation, with an overview of the role of D1 and D2 receptors in the control of reward-associated behaviors.

  16. Edge Localized Modes: resent experimental findings and related issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamiya, K.

    2007-01-01

    Edge Localized Mode (ELM) measurements in the tokamaks, including JT-60U, DIII-D, ASDEX-U and JET, are reviewed. An ELMy H-mode operation having Type-I ELMs is nominated as the reference inductive operational scenario for ITER (Q DT =10), which is normally observed for the best performing H-mode in many tokamaks,. However, the ELMs produce pulsed heat and particle fluxes that can lead to a rapid erosion of the divertor plate. It is estimated that the peak heat flux to the divertor would reduce the lifetime of the divertor to several hundred shots in ITER (e.g. an acceptable divertor lifetime could be realized only by an upper limit of ELM energy loss normalized by pedestal stored energy, ΔDW ELM /W ped ∼ 5-6%). Approaches to control the Type-I ELMs, such as '' Ergodization '' on DIII-D, '' Pace making by a shallow pellet injection '' on ASDEX-U, '' Vertical motion '' on TCV, have been successfully demonstrated in many tokamaks. On the other hand, finding alternative scenarios to Type-I ELMy H-mode operation are also a key area of research for current tokamaks. Specifically, '' Quiescent H-mode (QH-mode) '' on DIII-D, ASDEX-U and JT-60U, and '' Grassy ELMs '' on JT-60U demonstrated a high confinement (being comparable to that of Type-I ELMy H-mode plasmas at similar parameters) in the absence of large, ELM induced, transient heat/particle fluxes to the divertor targets. ELM dynamics measurements in the SOL at the midplane show large, rapid variations of the SOL parameters. Recent data from a fast resolved measurements, such as scanning probe, radial interferometer chord, BES and tangentially viewing fast-gated camera at the midplane, suggest a filamentary structure of the perturbation with fast radial propagation in later phases and parallel propagation of the ELM pulse at around the sound speed of pedestal ions. The results are qualitatively consistent with nonlinear ballooning theory, although a more quantitative physics understanding, including detailed

  17. Treatment Effects of a Primary Care Intervention on Parenting Behaviors: Sometimes It's Relative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Anne; Lindhiem, Oliver; Kolko, David

    2017-04-01

    The goal of this brief report is to demonstrate the utility of quantifying parental discipline practices as relative frequencies in measuring changes in parenting behavior and relations to child behavior following intervention. We explored comparisons across methodological approaches of assessing parenting behavior via absolute and relative frequencies in measuring improvements in parent-reported disciplinary practices (increases in positive parenting practices in response to child behavior; decreases in inconsistent discipline and use of corporal punishment) and child behavior problems. The current study was conducted as part of a larger clinical trial to evaluate the efficacy of a collaborative care intervention for behavior problems, ADHD, and anxiety in pediatric primary care practices (Doctor Office Collaborative Care; DOCC). Participants were 321 parent-child dyads (M child age = 8.00, 65 % male children) from eight pediatric practices that were cluster randomized to DOCC or enhanced usual care (EUC). Parents reported on their own discipline behaviors and child behavior problems. While treatment-related decreases in negative parenting were found using both the absolute and relative frequencies of parenting behaviors, results were different for positive parenting behaviors, which showed decreases when measured as absolute frequencies but increases when measured as relative frequencies. In addition, positive parenting was negatively correlated with child behavior problems when using relative frequencies, but not absolute frequencies, and relative frequencies of positive parenting mediated relations between treatment condition and outcomes. Our findings indicate that the methods used to measure treatment-related change warrant careful consideration.

  18. Developing a Behavioral Paradigm for the Performance of Public Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Melvin L.

    2000-01-01

    Provides and supports a definition of public relations as behavior with a mode explaining the difficulty of achieving each behavior and the cost to organizations when the behavior is not achieved. Draws from the literature on ethics, rhetorical theory, public relations management, case studies, and from observation and experience to support this…

  19. RELATION OF COACHING BEHAVIOR AND ROLE AMBIGUITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karamousalidis G.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to investigate the relationship between coaching behavior and role ambiguity in defensive responsibilities using interdependent Greek sport teams. Athlete perceptions of role ambiguity (defense were assessed using a questionnaire developed by Beauchamp, Bray, Eys and Carron (2002 andcoaching behavior was assessed using the Coaching Behavior Questionnaire, (Williams, et. al., 2003. The sample consisted of 409 athletes of basketball, volleyball, handball and soccer. Confirmatory factor analysis provided the construct validity of the questionnaires and correlations among the scales confirmed construct validity. The implications of the results are discussed and future research should continue to investigate the multidimensional models of both coaching behavior and role ambiguity in sport settings.

  20. Phasic or terminal detrusor overactivity in women: age, urodynamic findings and sphincter behavior relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise A. Valentini

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To search for relationships between phasic (P and terminal (T DO with age, urodynamic findings and sphincter behavior during involuntary detrusor contraction in woman. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Urodynamic studies (triple lumen catheter 7F, seated position of 164 successive women referred for LUTS with diagnosis of DO were reviewed. Patients were stratified in 4 sub-groups: pre- (18-44y, peri- (45-54 y, post-menopause (55-74 y and oldest old (≥ 75 y. The urethral sensor was positioned at the level of the maximum urethral closure pressure for sphincter behavior analysis. A variation of at least 5 cmH2O in pressure (detrusor or urethra was chosen to assert DO or sphincter response. Sphincter response was classified as relaxation (re before or during DO, or steady (st. RESULTS: Occurrence of P and TDO was similar: 77 P and 87 T. The PDO group was significantly younger (p = 0.0003. TDO was more frequent in patients with a history of neurological disease. The percentage of PDO remained almost constant in age groups, while that of TDO increased with age from 6.7% to 23.2% (p = 0.0013. Uninhibited contraction occurred at a smaller bladder volume in the P group: 149 ± 95 vs. 221 ± 113 mL (p < 0.0001. Steady sphincter predominated in the TDO subgroup: 45.9% vs. 32.1% and increased significantly in each DO sub-group of ³ 75y. CONCLUSION: Steady sphincter during both P and TDO, and occurrence of TDO appear as specific of aging. The last result could be related to structural changes in the detrusor muscle with aging.

  1. Justice- and fairness-related behaviors in nonhuman primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosnan, Sarah F

    2013-06-18

    A distinctive feature across human societies is our interest in justice and fairness. People will sometimes invest in extremely costly behavior to achieve fair outcomes for themselves and others. Why do people care so much about justice? One way to address this is comparatively, exploring behaviors related to justice and fairness in other species. In this paper, I review work exploring responses to inequity, prosocial behavior, and other relevant behaviors in nonhuman primates in an effort to understand both the potential evolutionary function of these behaviors and the social and ecological reasons for the individual differences in behavior. I also consider how these behaviors relate to human behavior, particularly in the case of experimental studies using games derived from experimental economics to compare nonhuman primates' responses to those of humans in similar experimental conditions. These results emphasize the importance of a comparative approach to better understand the function and diversity of human behavior.

  2. The human likeness dimension of the "uncanny valley hypothesis": behavioral and functional MRI findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheetham, Marcus; Suter, Pascal; Jäncke, Lutz

    2011-01-01

    The uncanny valley hypothesis (Mori, 1970) predicts differential experience of negative and positive affect as a function of human likeness. Affective experience of humanlike robots and computer-generated characters (avatars) dominates "uncanny" research, but findings are inconsistent. Importantly, it is unknown how objects are actually perceived along the hypothesis' dimension of human likeness (DOH), defined in terms of human physical similarity. To examine whether the DOH can also be defined in terms of effects of categorical perception (CP), stimuli from morph continua with controlled differences in physical human likeness between avatar and human faces as endpoints were presented. Two behavioral studies found a sharp category boundary along the DOH and enhanced visual discrimination (i.e., CP) of fine-grained differences between pairs of faces at the category boundary. Discrimination was better for face pairs presenting category change in the human-to-avatar than avatar-to-human direction along the DOH. To investigate brain representation of physical change and category change along the DOH, an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging study used the same stimuli in a pair-repetition priming paradigm. Bilateral mid-fusiform areas and a different right mid-fusiform area were sensitive to physical change within the human and avatar categories, respectively, whereas entirely different regions were sensitive to the human-to-avatar (caudate head, putamen, thalamus, red nucleus) and avatar-to-human (hippocampus, amygdala, mid-insula) direction of category change. These findings show that Mori's DOH definition does not reflect subjective perception of human likeness and suggest that future "uncanny" studies consider CP and the DOH's category structure in guiding experience of non-human objects.

  3. Teacher Behavioral Practices: Relations to Student Risk Behaviors, Learning Barriers, and School Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Andrew; Mcmahon, Susan D.; Coker, Crystal; Keys, Christopher B.

    2016-01-01

    Student behavioral problems pose a myriad of challenges for schools. In this study, we examine the relations among teacher and school-level constructs (i.e., teacher collaboration, supervision/discipline, instructional management), and student-related outcomes (i.e., high-risk behaviors, barriers to learning, student social-behavioral climate).…

  4. Parental influence on children's oral health-related behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poutanen, Raija; Lahti, Satu; Tolvanen, Mimmi; Hausen, Hannu

    2006-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether there are differences between oral health-related knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and behaviors of children and their parents, and to identify the family-related factors associated with children's poor or good oral health-related behavior. The data were gathered by means of questionnaires from 11-12-year-old schoolchildren and their parents who replied without having knowledge of the answers of the others. Differences between subgroups of children were analyzed by cross-tabulation, and the factors related to children's good or poor oral health-related behavior by logistic regression analyses. Parents of children who reported good oral health-related behavior had better knowledge and more favorable behaviors than those of other parents. Predictors for a child's poor oral health-related behavior were the child's poor knowledge, male gender, the parent's frequent consumption of sweets, and the parent's infrequent use of xylitol gum. When a less strict threshold for the child's poor oral health-related behavior was used, more predictors entered the model: the parent's unfavorable use of fluoride toothpaste; among girls, the parent's lack of knowledge; and among children whose mother's occupation level was high, the parent's infrequent use of xylitol gum. The parents of children whose oral health behavior was favorable were more likely to have a high level occupation and favorable oral health-related behaviors. Oral health-related knowledge of children and their parents seems to be associated with children's oral health-related behavior. Parents' behaviors, but not attitudes, were associated with children's oral health behavior.

  5. A meta-analytic investigation of the relation between interpersonal attraction and enacted behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, R Matthew; Kershaw, Christine; Prosser, Julie L

    2018-05-07

    We present a meta-analysis that investigated the relation between self-reported interpersonal attraction and enacted behavior. Our synthesis focused on (a) identifying the behaviors related to attraction; (b) evaluating the efficacy of models of the relation between attraction and behavior; (c) testing the impact of several moderators, including evaluative threat salience, cognitive appraisal salience, and the sex composition of the social interaction; and (d) investigating the degree of agreement between the meta-analytic findings and an ethnographic analysis. Using a multilevel modeling approach, an analysis of 309 effect sizes (N = 5,422) revealed a significant association (z = .20) between self-reported attraction and enacted behavior. Key findings include: (a) that the specific behaviors associated with attraction (e.g., eye contact, smiling, laughter, mimicry) are those behaviors research has linked to the development of trust/rapport; (b) direct behaviors (e.g., physical proximity, talking to), compared with indirect behaviors (e.g., eye contact, smiling, mimicry), were more strongly related to self-reported attraction; and (c) evaluative threat salience (e.g., fear of rejection) reduced the magnitude of the relation between direct behavior and affective attraction. Moreover, an ethnographic analysis revealed consistency between the behaviors identified by the meta-analysis and those behaviors identified by ethnographers as predictive of attraction. We discuss the implications of our findings for models of the relation between attraction and behavior, for the behavioral expressions of emotions, and for how attraction is measured and conceptualized. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Neuroimaging studies of aggressive and violent behavior: current findings and implications for criminology and criminal justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bufkin, Jana L; Luttrell, Vickie R

    2005-04-01

    With the availability of new functional and structural neuroimaging techniques, researchers have begun to localize brain areas that may be dysfunctional in offenders who are aggressive and violent. Our review of 17 neuroimaging studies reveals that the areas associated with aggressive and/or violent behavioral histories, particularly impulsive acts, are located in the prefrontal cortex and the medial temporal regions. These findings are explained in the context of negative emotion regulation, and suggestions are provided concerning how such findings may affect future theoretical frameworks in criminology, crime prevention efforts, and the functioning of the criminal justice system.

  7. Factors associated with Taiwanese lesbians' breast health-care behavior and intentions: Qualitative interview findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya-Ching; Griffiths, Jane; Grande, Gunn

    2017-09-01

    This article presents the qualitative findings of a mixed-methods study that explored factors influencing lesbians' breast health-care behavior and intentions. A total of 37 semi-structured face-to-face interviews were conducted among women who self-identified as lesbians or women who partnered with the same gender who were aged 20 years or above in four areas of Taiwan (North, Central, South, and East Taiwan) between August 2012 and October 2012. Interviews were audio recorded with participants' consent. The interviews were analyzed using constant comparative analysis with Nvivo audio-coding support. Four themes were identified to be strongly associated with the lesbians' breast health-care behavior and their intentions, namely, gender identity, gender role expression, partners' support, and concerns about health-care providers' reactions. Important barriers to the women's breast health-care behavior and intentions were masculine identity ("T-identity" in Taiwan), masculine appearance, concerns about health-care providers' lack of knowledge of multiple gender diversity, and their attitudes toward lesbians. Conversely, their partners' support was a factor facilitating the women's breast health-care behavior and intentions, particularly for the T-identity lesbians. These findings suggest the significance of and need for culturally competent care and are important for improving Taiwanese lesbians' breast health.

  8. Longitudinal Bidirectional Relations between Adolescents' Sympathy and Prosocial Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlo, Gustavo; Padilla-Walker, Laura M.; Nielson, Matthew G.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the importance of understanding sympathy and prosocial behaviors, research on the development of these tendencies in adolescence remains relatively sparse. In the present study, we examined age trends and bidirectional longitudinal relations in sympathy and prosocial behaviors across early to middle adolescents. Participants were 500…

  9. Subjective Relational Experiences and Employee Innovative Behaviors in the Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinarski-Peretz, Hedva; Binyamin, Galy; Carmeli, Abraham

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents two studies that explore the implications of subjective relational experiences (positive regard, mutuality and vitality) on employee engagement in innovative behaviors at work. Data collected at two points in time were used to test two mediation models that link subjective relational experiences and innovative behaviors. The…

  10. Chinese Adolescents' Social Status Goals: Associations with Behaviors and Attributions for Relational Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Michelle F.; Li, Yan; Shi, Junqi

    2014-01-01

    This study examined two social status goals in relation to aggressive and prosocial behaviors as well as attributions for relational aggression among 477 (244 girls) Chinese early adolescents. Findings indicate that, after controlling for each other, the social preference goal was negatively related to self-reported overt aggression, and…

  11. Health-Related Behaviors and Academic Achievement Among High School Students - United States, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasberry, Catherine N; Tiu, Georgianne F; Kann, Laura; McManus, Tim; Michael, Shannon L; Merlo, Caitlin L; Lee, Sarah M; Bohm, Michele K; Annor, Francis; Ethier, Kathleen A

    2017-09-08

    Studies have shown links between educational outcomes such as letter grades, test scores, or other measures of academic achievement, and health-related behaviors (1-4). However, as reported in a 2013 systematic review, many of these studies have used samples that are not nationally representative, and quite a few studies are now at least 2 decades old (1). To update the relevant data, CDC analyzed results from the 2015 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS), a biennial, cross-sectional, school-based survey measuring health-related behaviors among U.S. students in grades 9-12. Analyses assessed relationships between academic achievement (i.e., self-reported letter grades in school) and 30 health-related behaviors (categorized as dietary behaviors, physical activity, sedentary behaviors, substance use, sexual risk behaviors, violence-related behaviors, and suicide-related behaviors) that contribute to leading causes of morbidity and mortality among adolescents in the United States (5). Logistic regression models controlling for sex, race/ethnicity, and grade in school found that students who earned mostly A's, mostly B's, or mostly C's had statistically significantly higher prevalence estimates for most protective health-related behaviors and significantly lower prevalence estimates for most health-related risk behaviors than did students with mostly D's/F's. These findings highlight the link between health-related behaviors and education outcomes, suggesting that education and public health professionals can find their respective education and health improvement goals to be mutually beneficial. Education and public health professionals might benefit from collaborating to achieve both improved education and health outcomes for youths.

  12. Self-Injurious Behavior and Fragile X Syndrome: Findings from the National Fragile X Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symons, Frank J.; Byiers, Breanne J.; Raspa, Melissa; Bishop, Ellen; Bailey, Donald B., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    We used National Fragile X Survey data in order to examine reported self-injurious behavior (SIB) to (a) generate lifetime and point prevalence estimates, (b) document detailed features of SIB (frequency, types, location, severity) in relation to gender, and (c) compare comorbid conditions between matched pairs (SIB vs. no SIB). Results indicate…

  13. Suicide-related behaviors and anxiety in children and adolescents: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Ryan M; Castellanos, Daniel; Pettit, Jeremy W

    2011-11-01

    This paper reviews empirical evidence of the association between suicide-related behaviors and anxiety among children and adolescents. It begins with a review of suicide-related behaviors and anxiety, discusses methodological issues related to measurement, and reviews empirical findings published since the last review of this topic in 1988. Evidence is summarized on four criteria necessary to establish anxiety as a causal risk factor for suicide-related behaviors among children and adolescents. There is consistent evidence for a significant association between anxiety and suicide-related behaviors (Criterion 1). Evidence that the influence of anxiety on suicide-related behaviors is not due to a third variable (Criterion 2) is mixed and hindered by methodological limitations. The literature is also unclear as to whether anxiety temporally precedes suicide-related behaviors (Criterion 3). Finally, this review found no evidence to support or refute anxiety's stability independent of and across instances of suicide-related behaviors (Criterion 4). Theoretical and clinical implications of these findings and directions for future research are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Sex-Related Online Behaviors, Perceived Peer Norms and Adolescents’ Experience with Sexual Behavior: Testing an Integrative Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doornwaard, Suzan M.; ter Bogt, Tom F. M.; Reitz, Ellen; van den Eijnden, Regina J. J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Research on the role of sex-related Internet use in adolescents’ sexual development has often isolated the Internet and online behaviors from other, offline influencing factors in adolescents’ lives, such as processes in the peer domain. The aim of this study was to test an integrative model explaining how receptive (i.e., use of sexually explicit Internet material [SEIM]) and interactive (i.e., use of social networking sites [SNS]) sex-related online behaviors interrelate with perceived peer norms in predicting adolescents’ experience with sexual behavior. Structural equation modeling on longitudinal data from 1,132 Dutch adolescents (Mage T1 = 13.95; range 11-17; 52.7% boys) demonstrated concurrent, direct, and indirect effects between sex-related online behaviors, perceived peer norms, and experience with sexual behavior. SEIM use (among boys) and SNS use (among boys and girls) predicted increases in adolescents’ perceptions of peer approval of sexual behavior and/or in their estimates of the numbers of sexually active peers. These perceptions, in turn, predicted increases in adolescents’ level of experience with sexual behavior at the end of the study. Boys’ SNS use also directly predicted increased levels of experience with sexual behavior. These findings highlight the need for multisystemic research and intervention development to promote adolescents’ sexual health. PMID:26086606

  15. Right brain, left brain in depressive disorders: Clinical and theoretical implications of behavioral, electrophysiological and neuroimaging findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruder, Gerard E; Stewart, Jonathan W; McGrath, Patrick J

    2017-07-01

    The right and left side of the brain are asymmetric in anatomy and function. We review electrophysiological (EEG and event-related potential), behavioral (dichotic and visual perceptual asymmetry), and neuroimaging (PET, MRI, NIRS) evidence of right-left asymmetry in depressive disorders. Recent electrophysiological and fMRI studies of emotional processing have provided new evidence of altered laterality in depressive disorders. EEG alpha asymmetry and neuroimaging findings at rest and during cognitive or emotional tasks are consistent with reduced left prefrontal activity in depressed patients, which may impair downregulation of amygdala response to negative emotional information. Dichotic listening and visual hemifield findings for non-verbal or emotional processing have revealed abnormal perceptual asymmetry in depressive disorders, and electrophysiological findings have shown reduced right-lateralized responsivity to emotional stimuli in occipitotemporal or parietotemporal cortex. We discuss models of neural networks underlying these alterations. Of clinical relevance, individual differences among depressed patients on measures of right-left brain function are related to diagnostic subtype of depression, comorbidity with anxiety disorders, and clinical response to antidepressants or cognitive behavioral therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Investigating Culture-related Aspects of Behavior for Virtual Characters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Endrass, Birgit; André, Elisabeth; Rehm, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, culture-related behaviors are investigated on several channels of communication for virtual characters. Prototypical behaviors were formalized in computational models based on a literature review as well as a corpus analysis, exemplifying the German and Japanese cultures. Therefore...

  17. Substantive and relational effectiveness of organizational conflict behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Euwema, M C; Van de Vliert, E; Bakker, A B

    2003-01-01

    In this observation study the theory of conglomerated conflict behavior is tested. The impact of seven conflict behaviors on substantive and relational conflict outcomes is examined through multiple independent observations of 103 Dutch nurse managers handling a standardized conflict. Results show

  18. Longitudinal relations between adolescents' self-esteem and prosocial behavior toward strangers, friends and family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xinyuan; Padilla-Walker, Laura M; Brown, Michael N

    2017-06-01

    The present study examined age-trends and longitudinal bidirectional relations in self-esteem and prosocial behavior toward strangers, friends, and family over a four-year time period (age 11 to 14). A total of 681 adolescents were recruited in the United States (51% girls, 28% single parent families). A longitudinal panel model was conducted and the results showed that adolescent self-esteem was associated longitudinally with subsequent prosocial behavior toward strangers, and earlier prosocial behavior toward strangers promoted subsequent self-esteem. There were no such bidirectional relations between self-esteem and prosocial behavior toward friends and family. Findings also highlight the complexity of adolescent development of selfesteem and the multidimensional nature of prosocial behavior. Discussion focuses on understanding the dynamic interplay between adolescent selfesteem and prosocial behavior. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Sleep-Related Behaviors and Beliefs Associated With Race/Ethnicity in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandner, Michael A.; Patel, Nirav P.; Jean-Louis, Girardin; Jackson, Nicholas; Gehrman, Philip R.; Perlis, Michael L.; Gooneratne, Nalaka S.

    2013-01-01

    Explore how social factors influence sleep, especially sleep-related beliefs and behaviors. Sleep complaints, sleep hygiene behaviors, and beliefs about sleep were studied in 65 black/African American and white/European American women. Differences were found for snoring and discrepancy between sleep duration and need. Sleep behaviors differed across groups for napping, methods for coping with sleep difficulties, and nonsleep behaviors in bed. Beliefs also distinguished groups, with differences in motivation for sleep and beliefs about sleep being important for health and functioning. These findings have important public health implications in terms of developing effective sleep education interventions that include consideration of cultural aspects. PMID:23862291

  20. REM Sleep Behavior and Motor Findings in Parkinson's Disease: A Cross-sectional Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhimanyu Mahajan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Parkinson's disease (PD represents a major public health challenge that will only grow in our aging population. Understanding the connection between PD and associated prodromal conditions, such as rapid eye movement sleep behavioral disorder (RBD, is critical to identifying prevention strategies. However, the relationship between RBD and severity of motor findings in early PD is unknown. This study aims to examine this relationship. Methods: The study population consisted of 418 PD patients who completed the Movement Disorders Society‐United Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (MDS‐UPDRS and rapid eye movement sleep (REM disorder questionnaires at the baseline visit of the Michael J. Fox's Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative (PPMI. Cross‐sectional analysis was carried out to assess the association between REM Sleep Behavior Screening Questionnaire score and MDS UPDRS‐3 (motor score categories. Correlation with a higher score category was described as “worse motor findings”. A score of 5 on the REM disorder questionnaire was defined as predictive of RBD.Results: Out of the 418 PD patients, 113 (27.0% had RBD. With univariate logistic regression analysis, individuals with scores predictive of RBD were 1.66 times more likely to have worse motor findings (p = 0.028. Even with age, gender, and Geriatric Depression Scale scores taken into account, individuals with scores predictive of RBD were 1.69 times more likely to have worse motor findings (p = 0.025.Discussion: PD patients with RBD symptoms had worse motor findings than those unlikely to have RBD. This association provides further evidence for the relationship between RBD and PD.

  1. Eating disorder behaviors are increasing: findings from two sequential community surveys in South Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillipa J Hay

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evidence for an increase in the prevalence of eating disorders is inconsistent. Our aim was to determine change in the population point prevalence of eating disorder behaviors over a 10-year period. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Eating disorder behaviors were assessed in consecutive general population surveys of men and women conducted in 1995 (n = 3001, 72% respondents and 2005 (n = 3047, 63.1% respondents. Participants were randomly sampled from households in rural and metropolitan South Australia. There was a significant (all p<0.01 and over two-fold increase in the prevalence of binge eating, purging (self-induced vomiting and/or laxative or diuretic misuse and strict dieting or fasting for weight or shape control among both genders. The most common diagnosis in 2005 was either binge eating disorder or other "eating disorders not otherwise specified" (EDNOS; n = 119, 4.2%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In this population sample the point prevalence of eating disorder behaviors increased over the past decade. Cases of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, as currently defined, remain uncommon.

  2. Health-related behaviors and technology usage among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melton, Bridget F; Bigham, Lauren E; Bland, Helen W; Bird, Matthew; Fairman, Ciaran

    2014-07-01

    To examine associations between technology usage and specific health factors among college students. The research employed was a quantitative, descriptive, cross-sectional design; undergraduate students enrolled in spring 2012 general health education courses were recruited to participate. To explore college students' specific technology usage and health-related behaviors, a 28-item questionnaire was utilized. Statistical significant differences of technology usage were found between 3 of the 4 health-related behaviors under study (BMI, sleep, and nutrition) (p technology usage continues to evolve within the college student population, health professionals need to understand its implications on health behaviors.

  3. 75 FR 17953 - Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Review Committee Findings Related to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-08

    ... Repatriation Review Committee Findings Related to the Identity of Cultural Items in the Possession of the.... 3006(c)(3)), reviewed the record and made findings of fact related to the identity of 45 cultural items... Review Committee found that each of the 45 cultural items was both a ``sacred object'' (25 U.S.C. 3001(3...

  4. CREB Overexpression Ameliorates Age-related Behavioral and Biophysical Deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiao-Wen

    Age-related cognitive deficits are observed in both humans and animals. Yet, the molecular mechanisms underlying these deficits are not yet fully elucidated. In aged animals, a decrease in intrinsic excitability of pyramidal neurons from the CA1 sub-region of hippocampus is believed to contribute to age-related cognitive impairments, but the molecular mechanism(s) that modulate both these factors has yet to be identified. Increasing activity of the transcription factor cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) in young adult rodents has been shown to facilitate cognition, and increase intrinsic excitability of their neurons. However, how CREB changes with age, and how that impacts cognition in aged animals, is not clear. Therefore, we first systematically characterized age- and training-related changes in CREB levels in dorsal hippocampus. At a remote time point after undergoing behavioral training, levels of total CREB and activated CREB (phosphorylated at S133, pCREB) were measured in both young and aged rats. We found that pCREB, but not total CREB was significantly reduced in dorsal CA1 of aged rats. Importantly, levels of pCREB were found to be positively correlated with short-term spatial memory in both young and aged rats i.e. higher pCREB in dorsal CA1 was associated with better spatial memory. These findings indicate that an age-related deficit in CREB activity may contribute to the development of age-related cognitive deficits. However, it was still unclear if increasing CREB activity would be sufficient to ameliorate age-related cognitive, and biophysical deficits. To address this question, we virally overexpressed CREB in CA1, where we found the age-related deficit. Young and aged rats received control or CREB virus, and underwent water maze training. While control aged animals exhibited deficits in long-term spatial memory, aged animals with CREB overexpression performed at levels comparable to young animals. Concurrently, aged neurons

  5. Heart rate during conflicts predicts post-conflict stress-related behavior in greylag geese.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia A F Wascher

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Social stressors are known to be among the most potent stressors in group-living animals. This is not only manifested in individual physiology (heart rate, glucocorticoids, but also in how individuals behave directly after a conflict. Certain 'stress-related behaviors' such as autopreening, body shaking, scratching and vigilance have been suggested to indicate an individual's emotional state. Such behaviors may also alleviate stress, but the behavioral context and physiological basis of those behaviors is still poorly understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We recorded beat-to-beat heart rates (HR of 22 greylag geese in response to agonistic encounters using fully implanted sensor-transmitter packages. Additionally, for 143 major events we analyzed the behavior shown by our focal animals in the first two minutes after an interaction. Our results show that the HR during encounters and characteristics of the interaction predicted the frequency and duration of behaviors shown after a conflict. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: To our knowledge this is the first study to quantify the physiological and behavioral responses to single agonistic encounters and to link this to post conflict behavior. Our results demonstrate that 'stress-related behaviors' are flexibly modulated by the characteristics of the preceding aggressive interaction and reflect the individual's emotional strain, which is linked to autonomic arousal. We found no support for the stress-alleviating hypothesis, but we propose that stress-related behaviors may play a role in communication with other group members, particularly with pair-partners.

  6. Sexual orientation disparities in cancer-related risk behaviors of tobacco, alcohol, sexual behaviors, and diet and physical activity: pooled Youth Risk Behavior Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosario, Margaret; Corliss, Heather L; Everett, Bethany G; Reisner, Sari L; Austin, S Bryn; Buchting, Francisco O; Birkett, Michelle

    2014-02-01

    We examined sexual orientation disparities in cancer-related risk behaviors among adolescents. We pooled data from the 2005 and 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys. We classified youths with any same-sex orientation as sexual minority and the remainder as heterosexual. We compared the groups on risk behaviors and stratified by gender, age ( 14 years), and race/ethnicity. Sexual minorities (7.6% of the sample) reported more risk behaviors than heterosexuals for all 12 behaviors (mean = 5.3 vs 3.8; P sexual orientation disparities in analyses by gender, followed by age, and then race/ethnicity; they persisted in analyses by gender, age, and race/ethnicity, although findings were nuanced. Data on cancer risk, morbidity, and mortality by sexual orientation are needed to track the potential but unknown burden of cancer among sexual minorities.

  7. Some current dimensions of the behavioral economics of health-related behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickel, Warren K; Moody, Lara; Higgins, Stephen T

    2016-11-01

    Health-related behaviors such as tobacco, alcohol and other substance use, poor diet and physical inactivity, and risky sexual practices are important targets for research and intervention. Health-related behaviors are especially pertinent targets in the United States, which lags behind most other developed nations on common markers of population health. In this essay we examine the application of behavioral economics, a scientific discipline that represents the intersection of economics and psychology, to the study and promotion of health-related behavior change. More specifically, we review what we consider to be some core dimensions of this discipline when applied to the study health-related behavior change. Behavioral economics (1) provides novel conceptual systems to inform scientific understanding of health behaviors, (2) translates scientific understanding into practical and effective behavior-change interventions, (3) leverages varied aspects of behavior change beyond increases or decreases in frequency, (4) recognizes and exploits trans-disease processes and interventions, and (5) leverages technology in efforts to maximize efficacy, cost effectiveness, and reach. These dimensions are overviewed and their implications for the future of the field discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Bidirectional relations between different forms of prosocial behaviors and substance use among female college student athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Alexandra N; Carlo, Gustavo; Hardy, Sam A; Olthuis, Janine V; Zamboanga, Byron L

    2017-01-01

    Bidirectional, longitudinal relations between alcohol and marijuana use and prosocial behaviors in women college student athletes were examined. Participants were 187 female college students (M age  = 19.87 years; 91% White) who completed questionnaires on their use of marijuana and alcohol, and six forms of prosocial behaviors across 6 years (2004-2010). The findings yield overall evidence that earlier marijuana use predicted lower levels of most specific forms of prosocial behaviors for women athletes in later young adulthood. Early expressions of altruistic behaviors predicted less marijuana use in later young adulthood. Expression of public prosocial behaviors early in young adulthood predicted higher levels of hazardous drinking in late young adulthood. These novel findings have important implications for links between prosocial development and substance use in women college athletes.

  9. CT and MRI findings of cyclosporine-related encephalopathy and hypertensive encephalopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Akira; Hayakawa, Katsumi; Houjyou, Makoto

    2002-01-01

    We present the MRI and CT findings of one child with cyclosporine-related encephalopathy, and one child with hypertensive encephalopathy following cyclosporine-related encephalopathy. The imaging findings were shown well on T2-weighted and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) MR images. Cyclosporine-related encephalopathy was distributed predominantly in the posterior white matter. Hypertensive encephalopathy showed similar changes of CT attenuation, but with wider distribution. These two disorders seem to have the same pathogenesis. (orig.)

  10. [Health and health-related behaviors according to sexual attraction and behavior].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Glòria; Martí-Pastor, Marc; Gotsens, Mercè; Bartoll, Xavier; Diez, Elia; Borrell, Carme

    2015-01-01

    to Describe perceived health, mental health and certain health-related behaviors according to sexual attraction and behavior in the population residing in Barcelona in 2011. Perceived health, mental health, chronic conditions and health-related behaviors were analyzed in 2675 people aged 15 to 64 years. The Barcelona Health Survey for 2011 was used, which included questions on sexual attraction and behavior. Multivariate robust Poisson regression models were fitted to obtain adjusted prevalence ratios. People feeling same-sex attraction reported a higher prevalence of worse perceived and mental health. These people and those who had had sex with persons of the same sex more frequently reported harmful health-related behaviors. Lesbian, gay, transgender and bisexual people may have health problems that should be explored in depth, prevented, and attended. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. Self-regulatory processes mediate the intention-behavior relation for adherence and exercise behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruin, Marijn; Sheeran, Paschal; Kok, Gerjo; Hiemstra, Anneke; Prins, Jan M; Hospers, Harm J; van Breukelen, Gerard J P

    2012-11-01

    Understanding the gap between people's intentions and actual health behavior is an important issue in health psychology. Our aim in this study was to investigate whether self-regulatory processes (monitoring goal progress and responding to discrepancies) mediate the intention-behavior relation in relation to HIV medication adherence (Study 1) and intensive exercise behavior (Study 2). In Study 1, questionnaire and electronically monitored adherence data were collected at baseline and 3 months later from patients in the control arm of an HIV-adherence intervention study. In Study 2, questionnaire data was collected at 3 time points 6-weeks apart in a cohort study of physical activity. Complete data at all time points were obtained from 51 HIV-infected patients and 499 intensive exercise participants. Intentions were good predictors of behavior and explained 25 to 30% of the variance. Self-regulatory processes explained an additional 11% (Study 1) and 6% (Study 2) of variance in behavior on top of intentions. Regression and bootstrap analyses revealed at least partial, and possibly full, mediation of the intention-behavior relation by self-regulatory processes. The present studies indicate that self-regulatory processes may explain how intentions drive behavior. Future tests, using different health behaviors and experimental designs, could firmly establish whether self-regulatory processes complement current health behavior theories and should become routine targets for intervention. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Competitiveness as a moderator of the relation between appearance-related factors and disordered eating behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleien, Jenna L; Bardone-Cone, Anna M

    2016-06-01

    The present study examined competitiveness as a moderator of the relationships between appearance-related factors (i.e., thin-ideal internalization, appearance contingent self-worth) and disordered eating behaviors (i.e., dieting, excessive exercise). Participants were 441 undergraduate females for cross-sectional analyses, with 237 also contributing data longitudinally, 1 year later. Results showed that, in a model including thin-ideal internalization and appearance contingent self-worth and their interactions with competitiveness, thin-ideal internalization (but not appearance contingent self-worth) interacted with competitiveness to identify concurrent levels of both dieting and excessive exercise. Individuals high in both thin-ideal internalization and competitiveness exhibited the highest levels of concurrent dieting and excessive exercise. After controlling for baseline levels of the dependent variables, neither appearance-related factor interacted with competitiveness to predict dieting or excessive exercise. These findings suggest that individuals who are both competitive and accept and strive to achieve the thin ideal may be at risk for disordered eating behaviors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Pregnancy-related Health Behavior of Women with Congenital Heart Disease : Room for Behavioral Change Interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moons, Philip; Budts, Werner; Costermans, Els; Huyghe, Els; Pieper, Petronella G.; Drenthen, Wim

    2009-01-01

    Background. Pregnancy in women with congenital heart disease is associated with maternal and neonatal complications. In order to reduce risks for unfavorable outcomes, pregnant women need to adopt specific health behaviors. We investigated the pregnancy-related health behavior of women with

  14. Blocking Avoidance and Escape Responses: Relations With Clinically Relevant Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Maria Bubna Popovitz

    Full Text Available Abstract: The current study aims to evaluate the possible effects of interrupting problematic clinically relevant behaviors on the percentage of these responses and of clinical improvement-related responses. Two clients were treated with Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP, alternating two conditions (ABAB. On condition A, procedures to the therapist consisted of responding to the clinical improvement responses, and to description of outside of therapeutic setting behaviors, but therapists were advised to ignore problem behaviors emitted in session. During condition B, therapists followed the same procedures, but they were oriented to block (interrupt problematic responses emitted in session. Results suggest increase in the percentage of problem behaviors during condition B. Results are discussed, highlighting the viability of planning the contingent response the therapist emits to clinically relevant behaviors.

  15. Novice drivers' risky driving behavior, risk perception, and crash risk: findings from the DRIVE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivers, Rebecca; Senserrick, Teresa; Boufous, Soufiane; Stevenson, Mark; Chen, Huei-Yang; Woodward, Mark; Norton, Robyn

    2009-09-01

    We explored the risky driving behaviors and risk perceptions of a cohort of young novice drivers and sought to determine their associations with crash risk. Provisional drivers aged 17 to 24 (n = 20 822) completed a detailed questionnaire that included measures of risk perception and behaviors; 2 years following recruitment, survey data were linked to licensing and police-reported crash data. Poisson regression models that adjusted for multiple confounders were created to explore crash risk. High scores on questionnaire items for risky driving were associated with a 50% increased crash risk (adjusted relative risk = 1.51; 95% confidence interval = 1.25, 1.81). High scores for risk perception (poorer perceptions of safety) were also associated with increased crash risk in univariate and multivariate models; however, significance was not sustained after adjustment for risky driving. The overrepresentation of youths in crashes involving casualties is a significant public health issue. Risky driving behavior is strongly linked to crash risk among young drivers and overrides the importance of risk perceptions. Systemwide intervention, including licensing reform, is warranted.

  16. Discussing Dementia-Related Behaviors During Medical Visits for People With Alzheimer’s Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Hunsaker, Amanda E.; Schmidt, Karen; Lingler, Jennifer H.

    2010-01-01

    Research suggests that caregivers appreciate support from primary care physicians (PCPs) regarding dementia care; however, there remains a need for studies examining the role that PCPs play in behavior management. The purpose of this study was to quantitatively characterize the discussion on dementia-related behaviors (DRBs) during PCP visits and compare findings to an independently administered assessment of DRBs exhibited within a period of 4 weeks prior to the PCP visit. Twenty-five PCP vi...

  17. Are diet and physical activity patterns related to cigarette smoking in adolescents? Findings from Project EAT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Nicole I; Story, Mary; Perry, Cheryl L; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Hannan, Peter J

    2007-07-01

    An inadequate diet and physical inactivity may compound the many deleterious effects of smoking on health. Some research indicates that smoking behavior is related to other health behaviors, but little research has examined how smoking may be related to dietary intake of key nutrients, consumption of fast food, sedentary lifestyle, or weight status. The purpose of this study was to describe smoking frequency among adolescents and its relationship to physical activity and dietary patterns. The research study employed a cross-sectional, population-based design. Adolescents self-reported cigarette smoking, physical activity, and eating behaviors on the Project EAT (Eating Among Teens) survey and reported dietary intake on a food frequency questionnaire completed in school classrooms. The sample included 4746 middle school and high school students from Minneapolis-St. Paul public schools. Mixed-model regression, which was controlled for sex, race and ethnicity, socioeconomic status, grade level (middle school or high school), and school, was used to examine the association of smoking with diet and physical activity patterns. Overall, reported smoking frequency was inversely related to participating in team sports, eating regular meals, and consuming healthful foods and nutrients. Smoking frequency was directly related to frequency of fast-food and soft drink consumption. Adolescents who smoke cigarettes may be less likely to engage in health-promoting lifestyle behaviors. Interventions are needed to prevent smoking and the unhealthy dietary practices and physical activity behaviors that may be associated with it.

  18. The Co-Development of Relational Aggression and Disruptive Behavior Symptoms from Late Childhood through Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizpitarte, Alazne; Atherton, Olivia E; Robins, Richard W

    2017-09-01

    Researchers have debated whether relational aggression is a developmentally-normative behavior or a sign of some underlying psychopathology. However, due to the dearth of longitudinal studies, we know little about how relational aggression and more severe forms of disruptive behavior co-develop. The present study examined bidirectional associations between relational aggression and two psychiatric disorders, Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) and Conduct Disorder (CD), using data from a longitudinal study of 674 Mexican-origin youth followed from age 10 to 16. Results showed that individuals who engaged in relational aggression tended to increase over time in ODD and CD symptoms, and conversely, individuals exhibiting symptoms of ODD and CD tended to increase in relational aggression. These findings held for boys and girls, for youth born in Mexico and the U.S., and after controlling for physical aggression. Thus, relational aggression seems to be both a developmentally-normative behavior and a predictor of future mental health problems.

  19. Relation of organizational citizenship behavior and locus of control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnipseed, David L; Bacon, Calvin M

    2009-12-01

    The relation of organizational citizenship behavior and locus of control was assessed in a sample of 286 college students (52% men; M age = 24 yr.) who worked an average of 26 hr. per week. Measures were Spector's Work Locus of Control Scale and Podsakoff, et al.'s Organization Citizenship Behavior scale. Hierarchical multiple regressions indicated positive association of scores on work locus of control with scores on each of the four tested dimensions of organizational citizenship, as well as total organizational citizenship behavior.

  20. [Relational frame theory - a theoretical framework for contextual behavioral science].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kensche, M; Schweiger, U

    2015-05-01

    Therapists have to deal with verbal systems and often work with verbal exchange. Therefore, a psychological theory is required, which teaches the therapist how to accomplish this task. The BRT is a theory of human language and cognition that explains how people use their verbal behavior as stimuli in their interrelations and how they act and react, based on the resulting relationships. This behavior is learned very early in the course of language acquisition and functions as a generalized operant. A prerequisite for this is the ability of people to undergo mental simulation. This enables them to construct diverse relational frameworks between individual stimuli. Without relational frameworks, people cannot function. The ability to establish a relational framework is a prerequisite for the formation of rule-governed behavior. Rule-governed behavior economizes complex decision processes, creates interpersonal security and enables dealing with events before they take place. On the other hand, the same properties that enable people to solve problems effectively can also contribute to rigid adherence to rules and experience avoidance. Relational frameworks, once established, outweigh other sources of behavioral regulation. Thus, it can become the basis of psychopathology. Poor contextual control makes it difficult for people to devote flexible, focused and voluntary attention to the present and align their actions with the immediate present. Contextual psychotherapy methods that are based on the BRT start precisely at this point: Targeted establishment of new contingencies in the therapeutic interaction through systematic strengthening of metacognitive mode and through the establishment of new rules that make possible a change in the rule-governed behavior enable undermining of dysfunctional rule-governed behavior and build up desirable behavior. This allows any therapeutic process to be more effective - regardless of the patient's expressed symptoms. © Georg Thieme

  1. Forming Attitudes That Predict Future Behavior: A Meta-Analysis of the Attitude–Behavior Relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasman, Laura R.; Albarracín, Dolores

    2016-01-01

    A meta-analysis (k of conditions = 128; N = 4,598) examined the influence of factors present at the time an attitude is formed on the degree to which this attitude guides future behavior. The findings indicated that attitudes correlated with a future behavior more strongly when they were easy to recall (accessible) and stable over time. Because of increased accessibility, attitudes more strongly predicted future behavior when participants had direct experience with the attitude object and reported their attitudes frequently. Because of the resulting attitude stability, the attitude–behavior association was strongest when attitudes were confident, when participants formed their attitude on the basis of behavior-relevant information, and when they received or were induced to think about one- rather than two-sided information about the attitude object. PMID:16910754

  2. Leadership Behaviors and Its Relation with Principals’ Management Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vali Mehdinezhad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at studying the leadership behaviors reported by principals and observed by teachers and its relationship with management experience of principals. A quantitative method was used in this study. The target population included all principals and teachers of guidance schools and high schools in the Dashtiari District, Iran. A sample consisting of 46 principals and 129 teachers was selected by stratified sampling and simple random sampling methods. A leadership Behavior Description Questionnaire (LBDQ developed by Kozes and Posner (2001 was used for data collection. The obtained data were analyzed using one sample and independent t-test, correlation coefficient and crosstabs pearson Chi-square test. The results showed that teachers describe leadership behaviors of their principals relatively well. However, principals themselves evaluated their leadership behaviors as very well. Comparing between leadership behaviors self-reported by principals and those observed by teachers, a significant difference was found between the views and evaluations of teachers and principals on all components of leadership behaviors of principals, except that regarding empowerment. In fact, principals described their leadership behaviors better and at a more appropriate level than teachers. From the perspective of both teachers and principals, there was no significant relationship between any of the components of leadership behaviors and management experience of principals.

  3. Affective Influences on Energy-Related Decisions and Behaviors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brosch, Tobias, E-mail: tobias.brosch@unige.ch [Department of Psychology, University of Geneva, Geneva (Switzerland); Swiss Center of Affective Sciences, University of Geneva, Geneva (Switzerland); Patel, Martin K. [Energy Group, Institute for Environmental Sciences, University of Geneva, Geneva (Switzerland); Energy Group, Forel Institute, University of Geneva, Geneva (Switzerland); Sander, David [Department of Psychology, University of Geneva, Geneva (Switzerland); Swiss Center of Affective Sciences, University of Geneva, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2014-03-17

    A successful energy transition will depend not only on the development of new energy technologies, but also on changes in the patterns of individual energy-related decisions and behaviors resulting in substantial reductions in energy demand. Across scientific disciplines, most theoretical approaches that try to understand energy-related decisions and behaviors focus mainly on cognitive processes, such as computations of utility (typically economic), the impact of cognitive heuristics, or the role of individual beliefs. While these models already explain important aspects of human decisions and behavior in the energy domain, we argue that an additional consideration of the contributions of emotional processes may be very fruitful for a deeper understanding of the issue. In this contribution, we outline a theoretical perspective on energy-related decisions and behaviors that integrates emotions, elicited by a cognitive-affective appraisal of the relevance of a situation, into a response system driving adaptive decisions and behaviors. We empirically investigate the explanatory power of the model variables to predict intentions to reduce energy use demonstrating that the appraisal–emotion variables are able to account for additional variance that is not explained by two established models focused on cognitive processes (theory of planned behavior and value-belief-norm theory). Finally, we discuss how the appraisal–emotion approach may be fruitfully integrated with other existing approaches and outline some questions for future research.

  4. Affective Influences on Energy-Related Decisions and Behaviors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brosch, Tobias; Patel, Martin K.; Sander, David

    2014-01-01

    A successful energy transition will depend not only on the development of new energy technologies, but also on changes in the patterns of individual energy-related decisions and behaviors resulting in substantial reductions in energy demand. Across scientific disciplines, most theoretical approaches that try to understand energy-related decisions and behaviors focus mainly on cognitive processes, such as computations of utility (typically economic), the impact of cognitive heuristics, or the role of individual beliefs. While these models already explain important aspects of human decisions and behavior in the energy domain, we argue that an additional consideration of the contributions of emotional processes may be very fruitful for a deeper understanding of the issue. In this contribution, we outline a theoretical perspective on energy-related decisions and behaviors that integrates emotions, elicited by a cognitive-affective appraisal of the relevance of a situation, into a response system driving adaptive decisions and behaviors. We empirically investigate the explanatory power of the model variables to predict intentions to reduce energy use demonstrating that the appraisal–emotion variables are able to account for additional variance that is not explained by two established models focused on cognitive processes (theory of planned behavior and value-belief-norm theory). Finally, we discuss how the appraisal–emotion approach may be fruitfully integrated with other existing approaches and outline some questions for future research.

  5. Affective influences on energy-related decisions and behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias eBrosch

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A successful energy transition will depend not only on the development of new energy technologies, but also on changes in the patterns of individual energy-related decisions and behaviors resulting in substantial reductions in energy demand. Across scientific disciplines, most theoretical approaches that try to understand energy-related decisions and behaviors focus mainly on cognitive processes, such as computations of utility (typically economic, the impact of cognitive heuristics, or the role of individual beliefs. While these models already explain important aspects of human decisions and behavior in the energy domain, we argue that an additional consideration of the contributions of emotional processes may be very fruitful for a deeper understanding of the issue. In this contribution, we outline a theoretical perspective on energy-related decisions and behaviors that integrates emotions, elicited by a cognitive-affective appraisal of the relevance of a situation, into a response system driving adaptive decisions and behaviors. We empirically investigate the explanatory power of the model variables to predict intentions to reduce energy use, demonstrating that the appraisal-emotion variables are able to account for additional variance that is not explained by two established models focused on cognitive processes (Theory of Planned Behavior and Value-Belief-Norm Theory. Finally, we discuss how the appraisal-emotion approach may be fruitfully integrated with other existing approaches and outline some questions for future research.

  6. Neighborhood deprivation and smoking and quit behavior among smokers in Mexico: Findings from the ITC Mexico Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, Nancy L.; Thrasher, James F.; de Miera Juárez, Belén Sáenz; Reynales-Shigematsu, Luz Myriam; Santillán, Edna Arillo; Osman, Amira; Siahpush, Mohammad; Fong, Geoffrey T.

    2016-01-01

    Background In high-income countries (HICs), higher neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation is associated with higher levels of smoking. Few studies in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) have investigated the role of the neighborhood environment on smoking behavior. Objective To determine whether neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation is related to smoking intensity, quit attempts, quit success, and smoking relapse among a cohort of smokers in Mexico from 2010–2012. Methods Data were analyzed from adult smokers and recent ex-smokers who participated in Waves 4–6 of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Mexico Survey. Data were linked to the Mexican government’s composite index of neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation, which is based on 2010 Mexican Census data. We used generalized estimating equations to determine associations between neighborhood deprivation and individual smoking behaviors. Findings Contrary to past findings in HICs, higher neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation was associated with lower smoking intensity. Quit attempts showed a U-shaped pattern whereby smokers living in high/very high deprivation neighborhoods and smokers living in very low deprivation neighborhoods were more likely to make a quit attempt than smokers living in other neighborhoods. We did not find significant differences in neighborhood deprivation on relapse or successful quitting, with the possible exception of people living in medium-deprivation neighborhoods having a higher likelihood of successful quitting than people living in very low deprivation neighborhoods (p=0.06). Conclusions Neighborhood socioeconomic environments in Mexico appear to operate in an opposing manner to those in HICs. Further research should investigate whether rapid implementation of strong tobacco control policies in LMICs, as occurred in Mexico during the follow-up period, avoids the concentration of tobacco-related disparities among socioeconomically disadvantaged groups. PMID:25170022

  7. REM sleep behavior disorder in Parkinson disease: association with abnormal ocular motor findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Eun; Yang, Hui June; Yun, Ji Young; Kim, Han-Joon; Lee, Jee-Young; Jeon, Beom S

    2014-04-01

    The anatomical substrates associated with generalized muscle atonia during REM sleep are located on the pontine tegmentum and medial medulla oblongata. We examined whether patients with REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) have abnormal ocular movements suggesting brainstem or cerebellar dysfunction in Parkinson's disease (PD). Cross-sectional survey for the existence of RBD and abnormal ocular movements. Ocular movements were examined by video-oculography (VOG). A total of 202 patients were included in this study. One hundred and sixteen (57.4%) of the 202 patients have clinically probable RBD, and 28 (24.1%) of the 116 with clinically probable RBD patients had abnormal VOG findings suggesting brainstem or cerebellar dysfunction; whereas 86 of the 202 patients did not have clinically probable RBD, and only 7 (8.1%) of the 86 patients had abnormal VOG findings suggesting brainstem or cerebellar dysfunction (P=0.001). This study suggests that the presence of RBD is associated with more severe or extensive brainstem pathology or different distribution of pathology in PD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Role of Objective Numeracy and Fluid Intelligence in Sex-Related Protective Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieckmann, Nathan F; Peters, Ellen; Leon, Juan; Benavides, Martin; Baker, David P; Norris, Alison

    2015-01-01

    A wealth of studies has indicated that greater cognitive ability is related to healthier behaviors and outcomes throughout the lifespan. In the present paper, we focus on objective numeracy (ability with numbers) and present findings from a study conducted in the Peruvian Highlands that examines the relations among formal education, numeracy, other more general cognitive skills, and a sex-related protective behavior (condom use). Our results show a potential unique protective effect of numeracy on this healthprotective behavior even after accounting for measures of fluid intelligence and potential confounding factors. These results add to a growing literature highlighting the robust protective effect on health behaviors of greater cognitive skills that are enhanced through schooling. Challenges for future research will be identifying the causal mechanisms that underlie these effects and translating this knowledge into effective interventions for improving health.

  9. On the Development of a Theory of Traveler Attitude-Behavior Interrelationships : Volume 2. Theoretical and Empirical Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-08-01

    The second volume of this final report presents conceptual and empirical findings which support the development of a theory of traveler attitude-behavior interrelationships. Such a theory will be useful in the design of transport systems and operatin...

  10. Age-Related Differences in Judgments of Inappropriate Behavior are Related to Humor Style Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Jennifer Tehan; Lohani, Monika; Isaacowitz, Derek M.

    2014-01-01

    Identifying social gaffes is important for maintaining relationships. Older adults are less able than young to discriminate between socially appropriate and inappropriate behavior in video clips. One open question is how these social appropriateness ratings relate to potential age differences in the perception of what is actually funny or not. In the present study, young, middle-aged, and older adults were equally able to discriminate between appropriate and inappropriate social behavior in a diverse set of clips relevant to both age groups. However, young and middle-aged adults rated the gaffe clips as funnier than control clips and young adults smiled more during the inappropriate clips than the control clips. Older adults did not show this pattern, suggesting that they did not find the inappropriate clips funny. Additionally, young adults endorsed a more aggressive humor style than middle-aged and older adults and aggressive humor style endorsement mediated age differences in social appropriateness ratings. Results are discussed in terms of possible mechanisms such as cohort differences in humor and developmental prioritization of certain humor styles, as well as the importance of investigating age differences in both abilities and preferences. PMID:25244473

  11. The Relation between Parental Values and Parenting Behavior: A Test of the Kohn Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luster, Tom; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Used data on 65 mother-infant dyads to test Kohn's hypothesis concerning the relation between values and parenting behavior. Findings support Kohn's hypothesis that parents who value self-direction would emphasize supportive function of parenting and parents who value conformity would emphasize their obligations to impose restraints. (Author/NB)

  12. Relations among behavioral and questionnaire measures of impulsivity in a sample of suicide attempters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagge, Courtney L; Littlefield, Andrew K; Rosellini, Anthony J; Coffey, Scott F

    2013-08-01

    Despite the focus on impulsivity within suicide research, it remains unclear the extent to which impulsivity assessments, that purportedly tap similar constructs, show significant overlap in samples of individuals with suicidal behaviors. In a sample of 69 suicide attempters, we took a multitrait, multimethod approach to examine the relation among various questionnaire and behavioral assessments of impulsivity facets. With the exception of urgency and go-stop performance, there was little evidence of concordance between questionnaire and behavioral measures. These findings suggest researchers cannot presume that measures of "impulsivity" assess similar psychological processes and that more nuanced terminology is needed. © 2013 The American Association of Suicidology.

  13. Organizational Religious Behavior among Older African Americans: Findings from the National Survey of American Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Robert Joseph; Chatters, Linda M; Bullard, Kai McKeever; Wallace, John M; Jackson, James S

    2009-07-01

    This study utilizes data from the older African American sub-sample of the National Survey of American Life (n=837) to examine the sociodemographic and denominational correlates of organizational religious involvement among older African Americans. Six measures of organizational religious participation are utilized, including two measures of time allocation for organized religious pursuits. The findings indicate significant gender, region, marital status and denominational differences in organizational religiosity. Of particular note, although older black women generally displayed higher levels of religious participation, older black men spent more hours per week in other activities at their place of worship. The findings are discussed in relation to prior work in the area of religious involvement among older adults. New directions for research on religious time allocation are outlined.

  14. Finding the traces of behavioral and cognitive processes in big data and naturally occurring datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, Alexandra; Griffiths, Thomas L

    2017-10-01

    Today, people generate and store more data than ever before as they interact with both real and virtual environments. These digital traces of behavior and cognition offer cognitive scientists and psychologists an unprecedented opportunity to test theories outside the laboratory. Despite general excitement about big data and naturally occurring datasets among researchers, three "gaps" stand in the way of their wider adoption in theory-driven research: the imagination gap, the skills gap, and the culture gap. We outline an approach to bridging these three gaps while respecting our responsibilities to the public as participants in and consumers of the resulting research. To that end, we introduce Data on the Mind ( http://www.dataonthemind.org ), a community-focused initiative aimed at meeting the unprecedented challenges and opportunities of theory-driven research with big data and naturally occurring datasets. We argue that big data and naturally occurring datasets are most powerfully used to supplement-not supplant-traditional experimental paradigms in order to understand human behavior and cognition, and we highlight emerging ethical issues related to the collection, sharing, and use of these powerful datasets.

  15. Health-related behaviors among pregnant women with hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Maria Bień

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The healthy and unhealthy behaviors of a pregnant woman influence both her own health and that of her unborn child, affecting its future development. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the health-related behaviors of pregnant women with hypertension.   Material i method. The study was performed between November 2011 and February 2012 and included 80 hypertensive pregnant women hospitalized in a high risk pregnancy ward. The study used a diagnostic survey with questionnaires. Results. Statistical analyses showed a correlation between the respondents’ health-related behaviors and their socio-demographic characteristics: exercise was correlated with age (p=0.01, and rest during the day was correlated with support in everyday responsibilities (p<0.00001, and with the respondents’ socio-economic standing (p=0.03. Correlations were also found between healthy eating habits and residence (0.006, education (p=0.05, and sodium intake (p=0.0003, as well as between education and substance use (p=0.0003. Conclusion. Health-related behaviors of pregnant women with hypertension are influenced by their education, support they receive in daily responsibilities, and their socio-economic standing. The diagnosis of hypertension in pregnant women does not necessarily prompt them to discontinue all unhealthy behaviors.

  16. Nightmare frequency is related to a propensity for mirror behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Tore; Powell, Russell A; Kuiken, Don

    2013-12-01

    behaviors during wakefulness, while among males nightmares are associated with threat-related mirror behaviors during wakefulness. They thus support the possibility that the association between mirror behaviors and dream-enacting behaviors is due to a common mirror neuron mechanism that underlies mirror behaviors and nightmares and that involves motor, rather than emotional, resonance. These results have implications for understanding the comorbidity of nightmares and other pathological symptoms such as imitative suicidal behaviors, the influence of observational learning on dissociative symptomatology, and the predominance of threat and aggression in the dream enacting behaviors of REM sleep behavior disorder. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. 77 FR 74875 - Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Review Committee Findings Related to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-18

    ... to convene the parties to a dispute relating to the identity and return of cultural items, and to... American Graves Protection and Repatriation Review Committee Findings Related to the Identity and Return of Cultural Items in the Possession of the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology...

  18. Discussion of Extinction-Based Behavioral Sleep Interventions for Young Children and Reasons Why Parents May Find Them Difficult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etherton, Hayley; Blunden, Sarah; Hauck, Yvonne

    2016-11-15

    The majority of behavioral sleep interventions for young children involve extinction procedures where parents must ignore their child's cries for a period. Many parents have difficulties with this, contributing to attrition, non-compliance, and treatment avoidance. Yet why these methods are difficult to implement has rarely been addressed in the literature. This paper discusses seven potential reasons why parents may find extinction sleep interventions difficult: enduring crying, practical considerations, fear of repercussions, misinformation, incongruence with personal beliefs, different cultural practices, and parent wellness. These reasons are discussed in relation to the current literature. Practicing health professionals and sleep researchers could benefit from an awareness of these issues when suggesting extinction interventions and offering alternatives which may be more appropriate for family circumstances and facilitate parental informed choice. © 2016 American Academy of Sleep Medicine

  19. Antisocial Behavior and Depressive Symptoms: Longitudinal and Concurrent Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieno, Alessio; Kiesner, Jeff; Pastore, Massimiliano; Santinello, Massimo

    2008-01-01

    The relations between antisocial behavior and depressive symptoms were examined both longitudinally and concurrently in a sample of Italian early-adolescents. Structural equation modelling was applied to 10-month longitudinal data from a sample of 107 youths (54 girls; mean age at baseline = M = 12.5). Early adolescents completed a questionnaire…

  20. Adolescent antisocial behavior explained by combining stress-related parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Platje, Evelien; Jansen, Lucres M. C.; Vermeiren, Robert R. J. M.; Doreleijers, Theo A. H.; van Lier, Pol A. C.; Koot, Hans M.; Meeus, W.H.J.; Branje, Suzan J. T.; Popma, Arne

    Many stress-related parameters have been associated with antisocial behavior, including low cortisol awakening responses (CAR), as well as low cortisol and alpha-amylase reactivity to stress. These parameters reflect different, yet interrelated components of the stress system, yet it remains to be

  1. Bidirectional Relations between Authoritative Parenting and Adolescents' Prosocial Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Walker, Laura M.; Carlo, Gustavo; Christensen, Katherine J.; Yorgason, Jeremy B.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the bidirectional relations between authoritative parenting and adolescents' prosocial behavior over a 1-year time period. Data were taken from Time 2 and 3 of the Flourishing Families Project, and included reports from 319 two-parent families with an adolescent child (M age of child at Time 2 = 12.34, SD = 1.06, 52% girls).…

  2. Investigating privacy attitudes and behavior in relation to personalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garde - Perik, van de E.M.; Markopoulos, P.; Ruyter, de B.E.R.; Eggen, J.H.; IJsselsteijn, W.A.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents an experimental study of privacy-related attitudes and behaviors regarding a music recommender service based on two types of user modeling: personality traits and musical preferences. Contrary to prior expectations and attitudes reported by participants, personality traits are

  3. Another Look at Gender-Related Differences in Leadership Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winther, Dorothy; Green, Samuel, B.

    1987-01-01

    Examines self-related behavioral differences in terms of broad leadership styles. While male leaders used a more social style than female leaders, both male and female leaders used language that indicated a task-oriented approach to a significantly greater degree when instructing a female rather than a male subordinate. (Author/LHW)

  4. Mediator of moderators: temporal stability of intention and the intention-behavior relation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheeran, Paschal; Abraham, Charles

    2003-02-01

    Intention certainty, past behavior, self-schema, anticipated regret, and attitudinal versus normative control all have been found to moderate intention-behavior relations. It is argued that moderation occurs because these variables produce "strong" intentions. Stability of intention over time is a key index of intention strength. Consequently, it was hypothesized that temporal stability of intention would mediate moderation by these other moderators. Participants (N = 185) completed questionnaire measures of theory of planned behavior constructs and moderator variables at two time points and subsequently reported their exercise behavior. Findings showed that all of the moderators, including temporal stability, were associated with significant improvements in consistency between intention and behavior. Temporal stability also mediated the effects of the other moderators, supporting the study hypothesis. Copyright 2003 Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  5. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy: Nature and Relation to Non-Cognitive Behavioral Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo-Luaces, Lorenzo; Keefe, John R; DeRubeis, Robert J

    2016-11-01

    Since the introduction of Beck's cognitive theory of emotional disorders, and their treatment with psychotherapy, cognitive-behavioral approaches have become the most extensively researched psychological treatment for a wide variety of disorders. Despite this, the relative contribution of cognitive to behavioral approaches to treatment are poorly understood and the mechanistic role of cognitive change in therapy is widely debated. We critically review this literature, focusing on the mechanistic role of cognitive change across cognitive and behavioral therapies for depressive and anxiety disorders. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. A Contextual Behavior Science Framework for Understanding How Behavioral Flexibility Relates to Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm Reed, Kathleen M; Cameron, Amy Y; Ameral, Victoria E

    2017-09-01

    There is a growing literature focusing on the emerging idea that behavioral flexibility, rather than particular emotion regulation strategies per se, provides greater promise in predicting and influencing anxiety-related psychopathology. Yet this line of research and theoretical analysis appear to be plagued by its own challenges. For example, middle-level constructs, such as behavioral flexibility, are difficult to define, difficult to measure, and difficult to interpret in relation to clinical interventions. A key point that some researchers have made is that previous studies examining flexible use of emotion regulation strategies (or, more broadly, coping) have failed due to a lack of focus on context. That is, examining strategies in isolation of the context in which they are used provides limited information on the suitability, rigid adherence, or effectiveness of a given strategy in that situation. Several of these researchers have proposed the development of new models to define and measure various types of behavioral flexibility. We would like to suggest that an explanation of the phenomenon already exists and that we can go back to our behavioral roots to understand this phenomenon rather than focusing on defining and capturing a new process. Indeed, thorough contextual behavioral analyses already yield a useful account of what has been observed. We will articulate a model explaining behavioral flexibility using a functional, contextual framework, with anxiety-related disorders as an example.

  7. Economic Recession and Obesity-Related Internet Search Behavior in Taiwan: Analysis of Google Trends Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ho-Wei; Chen, Duan-Rung

    2018-04-06

    Obesity is highly correlated with the development of chronic diseases and has become a critical public health issue that must be countered by aggressive action. This study determined whether data from Google Trends could provide insight into trends in obesity-related search behaviors in Taiwan. Using Google Trends, we examined how changes in economic conditions-using business cycle indicators as a proxy-were associated with people's internet search behaviors related to obesity awareness, health behaviors, and fast food restaurants. Monthly business cycle indicators were obtained from the Taiwan National Development Council. Weekly Taiwan Stock Exchange (TWSE) weighted index data were accessed and downloaded from Yahoo Finance. The weekly relative search volumes (RSV) of obesity-related terms were downloaded from Google Trends. RSVs of obesity-related terms and the TWSE from January 2007 to December 2011 (60 months) were analyzed using correlation analysis. During an economic recession, the RSV of obesity awareness and health behaviors declined (r=.441, P<.001; r=.593, P<.001, respectively); however, the RSV for fast food restaurants increased (r=-.437, P<.001). Findings indicated that when the economy was faltering, people tended to be less likely to search for information related to health behaviors and obesity awareness; moreover, they were more likely to search for fast food restaurants. Macroeconomic conditions can have an impact on people's health-related internet searches. ©Ho-Wei Wang, Duan-Rung Chen. Originally published in JMIR Public Health and Surveillance (http://publichealth.jmir.org), 06.04.2018.

  8. The role of health-related behaviors in the socioeconomic disparities in oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbah, Wael; Tsakos, Georgios; Sheiham, Aubrey; Watt, Richard G

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the socioeconomic disparities in health-related behaviors and to assess if behaviors eliminate socioeconomic disparities in oral health in a nationally representative sample of adult Americans. Data are from the US Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-1994). Behaviors were indicated by smoking, dental visits, frequency of eating fresh fruits and vegetables and extent of calculus, used as a marker for oral hygiene. Oral health outcomes were gingival bleeding, loss of periodontal attachment, tooth loss and perceived oral health. Education and income indicated socioeconomic position. Sex, age, ethnicity, dental insurance and diabetes were adjusted for in the regression analysis. Regression analysis was used to assess socioeconomic disparities in behaviors. Regression models adjusting and not adjusting for behaviors were compared to assess the change in socioeconomic disparities in oral health. The results showed clear socioeconomic disparities in all behaviors. After adjusting for behaviors, the association between oral health and socioeconomic indicators attenuated but did not disappear. These findings imply that improvement in health-related behaviors may lessen, but not eliminate socioeconomic disparities in oral health, and suggest the presence of more complex determinants of these disparities which should be addressed by oral health preventive policies.

  9. Determining Smoking Cessation Related Information, Motivation, and Behavioral Skills among Opiate Dependent Smokers in Methadone Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooperman, Nina A.; Richter, Kimber P.; Bernstein, Steven L.; Steinberg, Marc L.; Williams, Jill M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Over 80% of people in methadone treatment smoke cigarettes, and existing smoking cessation interventions have been minimally effective. Objective To develop an Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) Model of behavior change based smoking cessation intervention for methadone maintained smokers, we examined smoking cessation related information, motivation, and behavioral skills in this population. Methods Current or former smokers in methadone treatment (n=35) participated in focus groups. Ten methadone clinic counselors participated in an individual interview. A content analysis was conducted using deductive and inductive approaches. Results Commonly known information, motivation, and behavioral skills factors related to smoking cessation were described. These factors included: the health effects of smoking and treatment options for quitting (information); pregnancy and cost of cigarettes (motivators); and coping with emotions, finding social support, and pharmacotherapy adherence (behavioral skills). Information, motivation, and behavioral skills factors specific to methadone maintained smokers were also described. These factors included: the relationship between quitting smoking and drug relapse (information), the belief that smoking is the same as using drugs (motivator); and coping with methadone clinic culture and applying skills used to quit drugs to quitting smoking (behavioral skills). Information, motivation, and behavioral skills strengths and deficits varied by individual. Conclusions Methadone maintained smokers could benefit from research on an IMB Model based smoking cessation intervention that is individualized, addresses IMB factors common among all smokers, and also addresses IMB factors unique to this population. PMID:25559697

  10. The psychosocial and behavioral characteristics related to energy misreporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Jaclyn; Taren, Douglas L; Teixeira, Pedro J; Thomson, Cynthia A; Lohman, Timothy G; Going, Scott B; Houtkooper, Linda B

    2006-02-01

    Energy underreporting occurs in 2% to 85% and overreporting in 1% to 39% of various populations. Efforts are needed to understand the psychosocial and behavioral characteristics associated with misreporting to help improve the accuracy of dietary self-reporting. Past research suggests that higher social desirability and greater eating restraint are key factors influencing misreporting, while a history of dieting and being overweight are more moderately associated. Eating disinhibition, body image, depression, anxiety, and fear of negative evaluation may be related to energy misreporting, but evidence is insufficient. This review will provide a detailed discussion of the published associations among psychosocial and behavioral characteristics and energy misreporting.

  11. BEHAVIOR PRE-SET IN RELATIONS INTERPERSONAL ORGANIZATIONAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newton Fernandes de Ávila

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a study on the behavior and communication, and takes care not only to inform, but to reflect the actions and reactions in a contemporary universe. Thus, to achieve the proposed objective, it sought as methodology, the theoretical framework related to knowledge and communication in organizations. Thus, there was the need of the individual to be constantly learning in order to create and establish close between the action and the ability to push boundaries, not limited knowledge at the thought, but the practical application of communication, permeating the perception and modifying behaviors.

  12. Hide-and-Seek: Narcissism and "Selfie"-Related Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Ah; Sung, Yongjun

    2016-05-01

    While prior research has examined the relationship between narcissism and self-promoting behaviors on social media (e.g., posting selfies), little is known about the extent to which individuals' level of narcissism relates to how involved they are in other people's feedback (e.g., comments and "likes") received on their selfies, or how observant and responsive they are to other people's selfie postings. The present study investigates how narcissism relates to such selfie-related behaviors, as well as overall evaluation of selfie-posting behavior and intention to post selfies in the future. By employing a total of 315 Korean subjects who take and post selfies on social networking sites, the present study indicates that individuals higher in narcissism are more likely to evaluate selfie-posting behavior favorably, be involved in the feedback provided by others, and be observant of other people's selfies. However, level of narcissism did not moderate the relationship between how much one observes others' selfies and the likelihood of providing a comment or "like" on other people's selfies.

  13. Overt and Relational Aggression Participant Role Behavior: Measurement and Relations With Sociometric Status and Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casper, Deborah M; Card, Noel A; Bauman, Sheri; Toomey, Russell B

    2017-09-01

    This study is the first to measure participant role behavior across overt and relational forms of aggression. The Overt and Relational Aggression Participant Role Behavior Scales were designed to measure aggression, assisting, reinforcing, defending, victimization, and outsider behavior during acts of peer aggression in an ethnically diverse sample of 609 adolescents (M age = 12 years). The data fit the hypothesized 12-factor model, and measurement invariance was established across gender. Relational victimization, but not overt victimization, was positively associated with all other relational aggression roles. Each participant role subscale was positively associated with depressive symptoms with the exception of the overt and relational outsider subscales. Future research and intervention efforts should consider overt and relational aggression participant roles, separately. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Research on Adolescence © 2017 Society for Research on Adolescence.

  14. Peer relations, adolescent behavior, and public health research and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosnoe, Robert; McNeely, Clea

    2008-01-01

    Peer relations are central to adolescent life and, therefore, are crucial to understanding adolescents' engagement in various behaviors. In recent years, public health research has increasingly devoted attention to the implications of peer relations for the kinds of adolescent behaviors that have a direct impact on health. This article advocates for a continuation of this trend. With this aim, we highlight key themes in the rich literature on the general developmental significance of adolescent-peer relations, provide an overview of how these themes have been incorporated into public health research and practice, and suggest future avenues for peer-focused public health research that can inform adolescent health promotion in the United States.

  15. A semi-automated methodology for finding lipid-related GO terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Mengyuan; Low, Hong Sang; Wenk, Markus R; Wong, Limsoon

    2014-01-01

    Although semantic similarity in Gene Ontology (GO) and other approaches may be used to find similar GO terms, there is yet a method to systematically find a class of GO terms sharing a common property with high accuracy (e.g., involving human curation). We have developed a methodology to address this issue and applied it to identify lipid-related GO terms, owing to the important and varied roles of lipids in many biological processes. Our methodology finds lipid-related GO terms in a semi-automated manner, requiring only moderate manual curation. We first obtain a list of lipid-related gold-standard GO terms by keyword search and manual curation. Then, based on the hypothesis that co-annotated GO terms share similar properties, we develop a machine learning method that expands the list of lipid-related terms from the gold standard. Those terms predicted most likely to be lipid related are examined by a human curator following specific curation rules to confirm the class labels. The structure of GO is also exploited to help reduce the curation effort. The prediction and curation cycle is repeated until no further lipid-related term is found. Our approach has covered a high proportion, if not all, of lipid-related terms with relatively high efficiency. http://compbio.ddns.comp.nus.edu.sg/∼lipidgo. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.

  16. The Behavioral Pharmacology of Effort-related Choice Behavior: Dopamine, Adenosine and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamone, John D; Correa, Merce; Nunes, Eric J; Randall, Patrick A; Pardo, Marta

    2012-01-01

    For many years, it has been suggested that drugs that interfere with dopamine (DA) transmission alter the “rewarding” impact of primary reinforcers such as food. Research and theory related to the functions of mesolimbic DA are undergoing a substantial conceptual restructuring, with the traditional emphasis on hedonia and primary reward yielding to other concepts and lines of inquiry. The present review is focused upon the involvement of nucleus accumbens DA in effort-related choice behavior. Viewed from the framework of behavioral economics, the effects of accumbens DA depletions and antagonism on food-reinforced behavior are highly dependent upon the work requirements of the instrumental task, and DA-depleted rats show a heightened sensitivity to response costs, especially ratio requirements. Moreover, interference with accumbens DA transmission exerts a powerful influence over effort-related choice behavior. Rats with accumbens DA depletions or antagonism reallocate their instrumental behavior away from food-reinforced tasks that have high response requirements, and show increased selection of low reinforcement/low cost options. Nucleus accumbens DA and adenosine interact in the regulation of effort-related functions, and other brain structures (anterior cingulate cortex, amygdala, ventral pallidum) also are involved. Studies of the brain systems regulating effort-based processes may have implications for understanding drug abuse, as well as symptoms such as psychomotor slowing, fatigue or anergia in depression and other neurological disorders. PMID:22287808

  17. Sex-related variation in human behavior and the brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Melissa

    2010-01-01

    Male and female fetuses differ in testosterone concentrations beginning as early as week 8 of gestation. This early hormone difference exerts permanent influences on brain development and behavior. Contemporary research shows that hormones are particularly important for the development of sex-typical childhood behavior, including toy choices, which until recently were thought to result solely from sociocultural influences. Prenatal testosterone exposure also appears to influence sexual orientation and gender identity, as well as some, but not all, sex-related cognitive, motor and personality characteristics. Neural mechanisms responsible for these hormone-induced behavioral outcomes are beginning to be identified, and current evidence suggests involvement of the hypothalamus and amygdala, as well as interhemispheric connectivity, and cortical areas involved in visual processing. PMID:20724210

  18. Health behaviors and work-related outcomes among school employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeCheminant, James D; Merrill, Ray M; Masterson, Travis

    2015-05-01

    To determine the association between selected health behaviors and work-related outcomes among 2398 school-based employees who voluntarily enrolled in a worksite wellness program. This study presents participants' baseline data collected from a personal health assessment used by Well-Steps, a third-party wellness company. Employees with high levels of exercise, fruit/vegetable consumption, or restful sleep exhibited higher job-performance and job-satisfaction, and lower absenteeism (p job-performance (Prevalence Ratio=1.09; 95% CI=1.05-1.13), job-satisfaction (Prevalence Ratio=1.53; 95% CI=1.30-1.80), and lower absenteeism (Prevalence Ratio=1.16; 95% CI=1.08-1.325). Further, number of co-occurring health behaviors influenced other satisfaction and emotional health outcomes. Selected healthy behaviors, individually or co-occurring, are associated with health outcomes potentially important at the worksite.

  19. Containment-emergency-sump performance. Technical findings related to Unresolved Safety Issue A-43

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-04-01

    This report summarizes key technical findings related to the Unresolved Safety Issue A-43, Containment Emergency Sump Performance, and provides recommendations for resolution of attendant safety issues. The key safety questions relate to: (a) effects of insulation debris on sump performance; (b) sump hydraulic performance as determined by design features, submergence, and plant induced effects, and (c) recirculation pump performance wherein air and/or particulate ingestion can occur. The technical findings presented in this report provide information relevant to the design and performance evaluation of the containment emergency sump

  20. Prevalence of vulvovaginitis and relation to physical findings in girls assessed for suspected child sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Gisel; Ocampo, Dolores; Rubinstein, Anahí; Risso, Paula

    2015-10-01

    The presence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in patients with suspected sexual abuse is uncommon in the field of pediatrics. To establish the prevalence of anogenital findings and their relation to the presence of STIs in girls referred for suspected child sexual abuse. Retrospective study conducted between January 1st, 2003 and December 31st, 2013. Physical findings and detection of STIs in girls with suspected child sexual abuse were analyzed. One thousand thirty-four patients were included. Their median age was 7.9 years old. Anogenital findings were classified as class I (normal):38.4%, class II (nonspecific):38.1%, class III (specific):19.9% and class IV (definitive):3.6%. STIs were observed in 42 patients (4.1%). A relation was established between STIs and the classification of physical findings: 10 (class II: 9; class III: 1) Neisseria gonorrhoeae, 17 (class I: 2; class II: 8; class III: 7) Chlamydia trachomatis, 15 (class I: 2; class II: 10; class III: 3) Trichomonas vaginalis. Statistically significant differences for Trichomonas vaginalis (p= 0.01) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (p < 0.0001) were observed, with predominance of nonspecific clinical signs. Both nonspecific and specific findings were similarly observed for Chlamydia trachomatis (p= 0.03). Most cases of girls with suspected child sexual abuse had normal or nonspecific anogenital findings. The prevalence of STIs in these girls is low. Trichomonas vaginalis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae were related to nonspecific findings, while both nonspecific and specific findings were observed for Chlamydia trachomatis.

  1. HIV prevalence, risky behaviors, and discrimination experiences among transgender women in Cambodia: descriptive findings from a national integrated biological and behavioral survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Siyan; Ngin, Chanrith; Tuot, Sovannary; Chhoun, Pheak; Chhim, Srean; Pal, Khuondyla; Mun, Phalkun; Mburu, Gitau

    2017-05-23

    Transgender people are disproportionately affected by HIV. Despite their high vulnerability to HIV, lack of adequate epidemiological and surveillance data related to this population in many countries prevents provision of appropriate services. This paper summarizes descriptive findings from a national integrated biological and behavioral survey and discusses policy implications of the findings on HIV prevention among transgender women in Cambodia. This cross-sectional study was conducted between December 2015 and February 2016. Participants were recruited from 20 sites in the capital city and 12 provinces of Cambodia using Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS) method. Behavioral data were collected through structured questionnaire interviews, and rapid finger-prick HIV testing was performed. Descriptive data analyses were conducted using STATA. This study included 1,375 transgender women with a mean age of 25.9 years (SD = 7.1). The overall prevalence of HIV was 5.9%. The prevalence of HIV was significantly higher among urban participants compared to their rural counterparts (6.5 vs. 2.6%, p = 0.02). Almost one in five (19.6%) had never been tested for HIV prior to the study. Overall, 45.0% reported ever using gender affirming hormones. More than one-third (39.1%) reported not using condoms in their last sex, 29.8% had engaged in sex in exchange for money/gifts, and 14.0% reported that they had experienced at least one symptom of sexually transmitted infections (STI) in the past year. About one in ten (10.1%) reported having used some form of amphetamine-type stimulant drugs, while 6.5% reported having sex during or after using illicit drugs. A significant number of participants experienced sexual abuse (39.2%), losing a job (24.3%), or physical abuse (23.6%) because of their transgender identity. In addition, 82.9 and 88.9% would be willing to use the HIV self-test and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), respectively, if they become available. The high prevalence

  2. Social relationships and health related behaviors among older US adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Richard G; Heilmann, Anja; Sabbah, Wael; Newton, Tim; Chandola, Tarani; Aida, Jun; Sheiham, Aubrey; Marmot, Michael; Kawachi, Ichiro; Tsakos, Georgios

    2014-05-30

    Health behaviors are a key determinant of health and well-being that are influenced by the nature of the social environment. This study examined associations between social relationships and health-related behaviors among a nationally representative sample of older people. We analyzed data from three waves (1999-2004) of the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Participants were 4,014 older Americans aged 60 and over. Log-binomial regression models estimated prevalence ratios (PR) for the associations between social relationships and each of the following health behaviors: alcohol use, smoking, physical activity and dental attendance. Health-compromising behaviors (smoking, heavy drinking and less frequent dental visits) were related to marital status, while physical activity, a health-promoting behavior, was associated with the size of friendship networks. Smoking was more common among divorced/separated (PR = 2.1; 95% CI: 1.6, 2.7) and widowed (PR = 1.7; 95% CI: 1.3, 2.3) respondents than among those married or cohabiting, after adjusting for socio-demographic background. Heavy drinking was 2.6 times more common among divorced/separated and 1.7 times more common among widowed men compared to married/cohabiting men, while there was no such association among women. For women, heavy drinking was associated with being single (PR = 1.7; 95% CI: 1.0, 2.9). Being widowed was related to a lower prevalence of having visited a dentist compared to being married or living with a partner (PR = 0.92; 95% CI 0.86, 0.99). Those with a larger circle of friends were more likely to be physically active (PR = 1.17; 95% CI:1.06, 1.28 for 5-8 versus less than 5 friends). Social relationships of older Americans were independently associated with different health-related behaviors, even after adjusting for demographic and socioeconomic determinants. Availability of emotional support did not however mediate these associations. More research is

  3. Associations of maternal stress with children’s weight-related behaviors: A systematic literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Connor, Sydney G.; Maher, Jaclyn P.; Belcher, Britni R.; Leventhal, Adam M.; Margolin, Gayla; Shonkoff, Eleanor T.; Dunton, Genevieve F.

    2017-01-01

    Low adherence to guidelines for weight-related behaviors (e.g., dietary intake and physical activity) among U.S. children underscores the need to better understand how parental factors may influence children’s obesity risk. In addition to most often acting as primary caregiver to their children, women are also known to experience greater levels of stress than men. This study systematically reviewed associations between maternal stress and children’s weight-related behaviors. Our search returned 14 eligible articles, representing 25 unique associations of maternal stress with a distinct child weight-related behavior (i.e., healthy diet (n=3), unhealthy diet (n=6), physical activity (n=7), sedentary behavior (n=9)). Overall, findings for the relationship between maternal stress and children’s weight-related behaviors were mixed, with no evidence for an association with children’s healthy or unhealthy dietary intake, but fairly consistent evidence for the association of maternal stress with children’s lower physical activity and higher sedentary behavior. Recommendations for future research include prioritizing prospective designs, identifying moderators, and use of high resolution, real-time data collection techniques to elucidate potential mechanisms. PMID:28296057

  4. Nutrition Facts Use in Relation to Eating Behaviors and Healthy and Unhealthy Weight Control Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoph, Mary J; Loth, Katie A; Eisenberg, Marla E; Haynos, Ann F; Larson, Nicole; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2018-03-01

    Investigate the relationship between use of Nutrition Facts labels on packaged foods and weight-related behaviors. Cross-sectional survey in 2015-2016. Young adult respondents (n = 1,817; 57% women; average age 31.0 ± 1.6 years) to the Project Eating and Activity in Teens and Young Adults-IV survey, the fourth wave of a longitudinal cohort study. Use of Nutrition Facts labels on packaged foods; healthy, unhealthy, and extreme weight control behaviors; intuitive eating; binge eating. Linear and logistic regression models were adjusted for age, ethnicity/race, education, income, and weight status. In women, greater Nutrition Facts use was associated with a 23% and 10% greater likelihood of engaging in healthy and unhealthy weight control behaviors, respectively, and a 17% greater chance of engaging in binge eating. In men, greater label use was associated with a 27% and 17% greater likelihood of engaging in healthy and unhealthy weight control behaviors, respectively, and a lower level of intuitive eating. Professionals advising patients and clients on weight management may consider possible gender differences in response to weight loss and management guidance. Since label use was related to engagement in some unhealthy behaviors in addition to healthy behaviors, it is important to consider how individuals may use labels, particularly those at risk for, or engaging in, disordered eating behaviors. Future research investigating potential relationships between Nutrition Facts use, intuitive eating, and binge eating is needed. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Two-Year Findings from a National Effectiveness Trial: Effectiveness of Behavioral and Non-Behavioral Parenting Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Högström, Jens; Olofsson, Viveca; Özdemir, Metin; Enebrink, Pia; Stattin, Håkan

    2017-04-01

    Long-term follow-up studies of selective parent training (PT) programs are scarce, particularly in the case of effectiveness trials conducted within regular care settings. This study evaluated the 2-year effects of 4 programs: Comet, Incredible Years, Cope, and Connect and differences in the rate of change among programs were investigated using Latent Growth Modeling (LGM). Participants were parents who had sought help at 30 local service sector units (e.g., child psychiatric clinics and social services centers) for major problems in managing their children's externalizing behavior. Parents of 749 children (63 % boys) with moderate levels of externalizing behavior, aged 3-12, were randomized to one of the 4 PT programs. Assessments included parent-reported measures of child externalizing, hyperactivity and inattention, as well as parenting practices, sense of competence, and parents' stress and depressive symptoms. At 2-year follow-up, there were no differences in any of the child outcomes among the programs. All programs had reduced externalizing behaviors with large effect sizes (d = 1.21 to d = 1.32), and negative parenting practices with moderate to large effect sizes (d = 0.49 to d = 0.83). LGM analyses showed that the 2 behavioral programs, Comet and Incredible Years, produced more rapid reductions in externalizing behavior during the course of the intervention than the non-behavioral program, Connect. Connect, however, was the only program where children continued to improve after the intervention. Overall, the results indicate that the 4 programs were equally effective in a clinical setting, despite differences in their theoretical origin.

  6. Problematic Gaming Behavior Among Finnish Junior High School Students: Relation to Socio-Demographics and Gaming Behavior Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Männikkö, Niko; Ruotsalainen, Heidi; Demetrovics, Zsolt; Lopez-Fernandez, Olatz; Myllymäki, Laura; Miettunen, Jouko; Kääriäinen, Maria

    2017-09-14

    Multiplatform digital media use and gaming have been increased in recent years. The aim of this study was to examine associations between sociodemographics and digital gaming behavior characteristics (i.e., gaming time, medium, and genres) with problematic gaming behavior in adolescents. A convenience sample of Finnish junior high school students (n = 560; mean age 14 years, ranging from 12 to 16 years) participated in the cross-sectional survey, of which, 83% (n = 465) reported having played digital games regularly. Sociodemographic data, different forms of digital media use, gaming behavior characteristics and problematic gaming behavior was assessed. Study participants spent on average one hour per day playing digital games; casual games (23.9%), shooting games (19.8%), and sport games (12.9%), were the most popular games among participants. By using regression analysis, a blended family structure and gaming time related positively to problematic gaming behavior. Preferences for game genres such as solo, Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing and strategy-management games were also positively associated with problematic use of digital games. These findings provide knowledge that can be utilized in the prevention of the possible negative consequences of digital gaming.

  7. Aging Men’s Health-Related Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry Peak

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This conceptual review summarizes the current research on older men and their health-related behaviors with special attention given to the influence of the hegemonic masculinity framework over the life span. The authors consider whether masculinity precepts can be modified to enable men to alter their gendered morbidity/mortality factors and achieve healthier and longer lives. Also included is an overview of the gender-based research and health education efforts to persuade men to adopt more effective health-related behaviors or health practices earlier in the life span. Given the current attention being paid to men’s health, for example, their higher risk of morbidity and mortality both generally and at younger ages, and the associated health care costs tied to those risks, the ethical and economic implications of this review may prove useful.

  8. Subjective fear, interference by threat, and fear associations independently predict fear-related behavior in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Anke M; Kleinherenbrink, Annelies V; Simons, Carlijn; de Gier, Erwin; Klein, Steven; Allart, Esther; Bögels, Susan M; Becker, Eni S; Rinck, Mike

    2012-09-01

    Several information-processing models highlight the independent roles of controlled and automatic processes in explaining fearful behavior. Therefore, we investigated whether direct measures of controlled processes and indirect measures of automatic processes predict unique variance components of children's spider fear-related behavior. Seventy-seven children between 8 and 13 years performed an Affective Priming Task (APT) measuring associative bias, a pictorial version of the Emotional Stroop Task (EST) measuring attentional bias, filled out the Spider Anxiety and Disgust Screening for Children (SADS-C) in order to assess self-perceived fear, and took part in a Behavioral Assessment Test (BAT) to measure avoidance of spiders. The SADS-C, EST, and APT did not correlate with each other. Spider fear-related behavior was best explained by SADS-C, APT, and EST together; they explained 51% of the variance in BAT behavior. No children with clinical levels of spider phobia were tested. The direct and the different indirect measures did no correlate with each other. These results indicate that both direct and indirect measures are useful for predicting unique variance components of fear-related behavior in children. The lack of relations between direct and indirect measures may explain why some earlier studies did not find stronger color-naming interference or stronger fear associations in children with high levels of self-reported fear. It also suggests that children with high levels of spider-fearful behavior have different fear-related associations and display higher interference by spider stimuli than children with non-fearful behavior. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Longitudinal relations between adolescent and parental behaviors, parental knowledge, and internalizing behaviors among urban adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garthe, Rachel C; Sullivan, Terri; Kliewer, Wendy

    2015-04-01

    High prevalence rates of depression and anxiety among adolescents underscore the importance of identifying parental and adolescent behaviors that may lessen the risk for these outcomes. Previous research has shown that parental acceptance, parental knowledge, and child disclosure are negatively associated with internalizing behaviors. It is also important to explore the impact of internalizing behaviors on these parental and child constructs. The current study examined longitudinal relationships between parental acceptance, parental knowledge, child disclosure, and internalizing symptoms across a one-year time period. Participants were 358 adolescents (54 % female) and their primary caregivers, who were primarily African American (92 %). Parents and adolescents provided data through face-to-face interviews. Results showed that parental knowledge and parental acceptance predicted child disclosure, and child disclosure predicted parental knowledge one year later. Higher levels of parental acceptance predicted lower levels of adolescent-reported depressive symptoms, while higher levels of parental report of adolescents' internalizing symptoms predicted lower levels of parental knowledge. No differences in the strength of these relationships were found across grade or gender. These findings highlight the role of the adolescent's perceived acceptance by parents in promoting children's disclosure, and the benefits of parental acceptance in decreasing depressive symptoms over time. Overall, these results show the impact that both adolescent and parental behaviors and internalizing behaviors have on each other across time.

  10. Tomographic and functional findings in severe COPD: comparison between the wood smoke-related and smoking-related disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Garcia, Mauricio; Maldonado Gomez, Dario; Torres-Duque, Carlos A.; Barrero, Margarita; Jaramillo Villegas, Claudia; Perez, Juan Manuel; Varon, Humberto [Colombian Pulmonology Foundation, Bogota (Colombia); Department of Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging, Children' s Cardiology Foundation, Cardiology Institute, Bogota (Colombia)

    2013-11-01

    Objective: Wood smoke exposure is a risk factor for COPD. For a given degree of airway obstruction, the reduction in DLCO is smaller in individuals with wood smoke-related COPD than in those with smoking-related COPD, suggesting that there is less emphysema in the former. The objective of this study was to compare HRCT findings between women with wood smoke-related COPD and women with smoking-related COPD. Methods: Twenty-two women with severe COPD (FEV1/FVC ratio < 70% and FEV1 < 50%) were divided into two groups: those with wood smoke-related COPD (n = 12) and those with smoking-related COPD (n = 10). The two groups were compared regarding emphysema scores and airway involvement (as determined by HRCT); and functional abnormalities-spirometry results, DLCO, alveolar volume (VA), the DLCO/VA ratio, lung volumes, and specific airway resistance (sRaw). Results: There were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of FEV1, sRaw, or lung hyperinflation. Decreases in DLCO and in the DLCO/VA ratio were greater in the smoking-related COPD group subjects, who also had higher emphysema scores, in comparison with the wood smoke-related COPD group subjects. In the wood smoke-related COPD group, HRCT scans showed no significant emphysema, the main findings being peribronchial thickening, bronchial dilation, and subsegmental atelectasis. Conclusions: Female patients with severe wood smoke-related COPD do not appear to develop emphysema, although they do show severe airway involvement. The reduction in DLCO and VA, with a normal DLCO/VA ratio, is probably due to severe bronchial obstruction and incomplete mixing of inspired gas during the determination of single-breath DLCO. (author)

  11. Tomographic and functional findings in severe COPD: comparison between the wood smoke-related and smoking-related disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Garcia, Mauricio; Maldonado Gomez, Dario; Torres-Duque, Carlos A.; Barrero, Margarita; Jaramillo Villegas, Claudia; Perez, Juan Manuel; Varon, Humberto

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Wood smoke exposure is a risk factor for COPD. For a given degree of airway obstruction, the reduction in DLCO is smaller in individuals with wood smoke-related COPD than in those with smoking-related COPD, suggesting that there is less emphysema in the former. The objective of this study was to compare HRCT findings between women with wood smoke-related COPD and women with smoking-related COPD. Methods: Twenty-two women with severe COPD (FEV1/FVC ratio < 70% and FEV1 < 50%) were divided into two groups: those with wood smoke-related COPD (n = 12) and those with smoking-related COPD (n = 10). The two groups were compared regarding emphysema scores and airway involvement (as determined by HRCT); and functional abnormalities—spirometry results, DLCO, alveolar volume (VA), the DLCO/VA ratio, lung volumes, and specific airway resistance (sRaw). Results: There were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of FEV1, sRaw, or lung hyperinflation. Decreases in DLCO and in the DLCO/VA ratio were greater in the smoking-related COPD group subjects, who also had higher emphysema scores, in comparison with the wood smoke-related COPD group subjects. In the wood smoke-related COPD group, HRCT scans showed no significant emphysema, the main findings being peribronchial thickening, bronchial dilation, and subsegmental atelectasis. Conclusions: Female patients with severe wood smoke-related COPD do not appear to develop emphysema, although they do show severe airway involvement. The reduction in DLCO and VA, with a normal DLCO/VA ratio, is probably due to severe bronchial obstruction and incomplete mixing of inspired gas during the determination of single-breath DLCO. (author)

  12. Autism-related behavioral abnormalities in synapsin knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Barbara; Managò, Francesca; Tucci, Valter; Kao, Hung-Teh; Valtorta, Flavia; Benfenati, Fabio

    2013-08-15

    Several synaptic genes predisposing to autism-spectrum disorder (ASD) have been identified. Nonsense and missense mutations in the SYN1 gene encoding for Synapsin I have been identified in families segregating for idiopathic epilepsy and ASD and genetic mapping analyses have identified variations in the SYN2 gene as significantly contributing to epilepsy predisposition. Synapsins (Syn I/II/III) are a multigene family of synaptic vesicle-associated phosphoproteins playing multiple roles in synaptic development, transmission and plasticity. Lack of SynI and/or SynII triggers a strong epileptic phenotype in mice associated with mild cognitive impairments that are also present in the non-epileptic SynIII(-/-) mice. SynII(-/-) and SynIII(-/-) mice also display schizophrenia-like traits, suggesting that Syns could be involved in the regulation of social behavior. Here, we studied social interaction and novelty, social recognition and social dominance, social transmission of food preference and social memory in groups of male SynI(-/-), SynII(-/-) and SynIII(-/-) mice before and after the appearance of the epileptic phenotype and compared their performances with control mice. We found that deletion of Syn isoforms widely impairs social behaviors and repetitive behaviors, resulting in ASD-related phenotypes. SynI or SynIII deletion altered social behavior, whereas SynII deletion extensively impaired various aspects of social behavior and memory, altered exploration of a novel environment and increased self-grooming. Social impairments of SynI(-/-) and SynII(-/-) mice were evident also before the onset of seizures. The results demonstrate an involvement of Syns in generation of the behavioral traits of ASD and identify Syn knockout mice as a useful experimental model of ASD and epilepsy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Explaining reported puma-related behaviors and behavioral intentions among northern Arizona residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, David J.; Ruther, Elizabeth J.

    2012-01-01

    Management of pumas in the American West is typified by conflict among stakeholders plausibly rooted in life experiences and worldviews. We used a mail questionnaire to assess demographics, nature-views, puma-related life experiences and behaviors, and support for puma-related policies among residents of northern Arizona. Data from the questionnaire (n = 693 respondents) were used to model behaviors and support for policies. Compared to models based on nature-views and life experiences, those based on demographics had virtually no support from the data. The Utilitarian/Dominionistic nature-view had the strongest effect of any variable in six of seven models, and was associated with firearms and opposition to policies that would limit killing pumas. The Humanistic/Moralistic nature-view was positively associated with non-lethal behaviors and policies in five models. Gender had the strongest effect of any demographic variable. Compared to demographics alone, our results suggest that worldviews provide a more meaningful explanation of reported human behaviors and behavioral intentions regarding pumas.

  14. Predictors of smoking cessation behavior among Bangladeshi adults: findings from ITC Bangladesh survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Abu S; Driezen, Pete; Quah, Anne C K; Nargis, Nigar; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2015-01-01

    Research findings on the predictors of smoking cessation behavior identified in Western countries may not be generalizable to smokers in the Southeast Asian countries (i.e., Bangladesh). This study examined the factors associated with smoking cessation behavior (quit attempts and smoking cessation) among a representative sample of Bangladeshi adults. Data from Wave 1 (2009) and Wave 2 (2010) of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Survey in Bangladesh, a face-to-face survey of adult smokers, were analysed. Households were sampled using a stratified multistage design and interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Respondents included in the study are 1,861 adult daily smokers (cigarette only or dual use of cigarette and bidi) in the Wave 1 survey who completed the Wave 2 follow up. Of the smokers (N = 1,861), 98 % were male, 18 % illiterate, 78 % married and 42 % were aged 40 or above; 89 % were cigarette smokers and 11 % were dual users (cigarette & bidi). Overall, 21.8 % of the baseline smokers made quit attempts (that is, making at least one quit attempt that lasted for at least 24 hours) during the 11- to 12-month interval between Waves 1 and 2 with only 4.1 % quitting successfully (that is, smokers who had stopped smoking for at least 6 months at the time of the Wave 2 survey). Significant predictors of attempts to quit included: residing areas outside Dhaka (OR = 3.41), being aged 40 or older (OR = 1.53), having a monthly income of above BDT10,000 (US$126) versus below BDT 5,000 (US$63) (OR = 1.57), intending to quit sometime in the future (OR = 1.73). Respondents not working indoors/outside the home were less likely to have made a quit attempt than those with no workplace restrictions on smoking (OR = 0.62). Predictors of successful smoking cessation included: being aged 40 or older (OR = 3.11), perceiving self-rated health as good or excellent (OR = 2.40), and an increased level of self-efficacy (OR = 1

  15. Is drive for muscularity related to body checking behaviors in men athletes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo de Sousa Fortes

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between drive for muscularity and body checking behaviors in men athletes. Two hundred and twelve Brazilian athletes over 15 years of age participated. We used the Drive for Muscularity Scale (DMS to evaluate the drive for muscularity. The Male Body Checking Questionnaire was used to assess body checking behaviors. The findings demonstrated a relationship between the "body image-oriented muscularity" subscale of the DMS and body checking behaviors (p = 0.001. The results indicated differences in body checking among athletes with high and low levels of drive for muscularity. We concluded that drive for muscularity was related to body checking behaviors in men athletes.

  16. Measuring the relative importance of strategic thinking dimensions in relation to counterproductive behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsaneh Zamani Moghaddam

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to explore the relative importance of strategic thinking dimensions in prediction of counter-productive behavior. The research method is based on a descriptive- Survey research. After collecting the questionnaires from 73 top managers and 110 staffs, the correlations between strategic thinking dimensions and counterproductive behavior were calculated. The relative importance method was used to calculate the relative weight of each dimension of strategic thinking in prediction of counterproductive behaviors. The results show that the strategic thinking of top managers is associated with their counterproductive behavior (correlation coefficient -0.38. Furthermore, The results of the Relative Importance Method indicate that the relative importance of each dimension of strategic thinking in prediction of counterproductive behavior is not the same. System perspective with 31.1% has the highest importance and hypothesis driven with 11.7% has the lowest weight. Intent focus, thinking in time and intelligent opportunism predict 14.1%, 13.3%, and 29.8% of counter-productive changes, respectively.

  17. Associations between aspects of friendship networks and dietary behavior in youth: Findings from a systematized review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawka, Keri Jo; McCormack, Gavin R; Nettel-Aguirre, Alberto; Swanson, Kenda

    2015-08-01

    To gather and synthesize current evidence on the associations between aspects of friendship networks (e.g., friends' dietary behavior, popularity) and an individual's dietary behavior among children and adolescents. A systematic search of six scientific online databases was conducted in August 2013. Eligible studies included child or adolescent participants (aged 6 to 18years), a measure of each participant's friendship network, and a measure of habitual dietary behavior for both the participant and the participant's nominated friend(s). Data on study design, participant characteristics, friendship networks, dietary behavior, and study outcomes were abstracted. From a total of 9041 articles retrieved, seven studies were included in this review. Overall, friends' unhealthy food consumption was associated with an individual's unhealthy food consumption, and this association appeared to be stronger for boys compared with girls. More popular adolescents also tended to consume more unhealthy foods. Best friends' total energy intake was correlated with an individual's total energy intake. Similarities among friends' healthy food consumption, as well as daily breakfast consumption, were inconclusive. Longitudinal evidence showed that an individual's unhealthy food consumption tended to become similar to friends' unhealthy food consumption over time. Social network analysis in the adolescent dietary behavior literature is beginning to emerge. Results highlight friends' particular influence on unhealthy food consumption among adolescents. Focus on modeling healthy dietary behaviors among adolescent friendship group may help reduce unhealthy dietary behaviors and promote healthy weight status among youth. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Relations among perceived parental rearing behaviors, attachment style, and worry in anxious children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Amy M; Whiteside, Stephen P

    2008-01-01

    The present study extended the findings of Muris et al. [Muris, P., Meesters, C., Merckelbach, H., & Hulsenbeck, P. (2000). Worry in children is related to perceived parental rearing and attachment. Behavior Research and Therapy, 38, 487-497] regarding the relations between perceived parental rearing behaviors, self-reported attachment style, and worry in a community sample to a clinical sample of anxious children. Sixty-four children and adolescents, aged 7-18 years, with a primary anxiety disorder completed (a) the EMBU-C, a questionnaire measuring perceptions of parental rearing behaviors, (b) a single-item measure of attachment style, and (c) an index of worry severity. Findings revealed that child rated parental rearing behaviors, particularly parental rejection, were positively related to child worry. Self-reported attachment style was also related to worry, such that children who classified themselves as ambivalently attached reported higher levels of worry than did children who classified themselves as securely attached. Parenting style and attachment were found to make independent contributions to worry. The results are compared to those from Muris et al.'s community study, and implications for future research are discussed.

  19. Effect of tramadol on pain-related behaviors and bladder overactivity in rodent cystitis models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, Tatsuya; Homan, Takashi; Kyotani, Junko; Oka, Michiko

    2012-02-15

    Tramadol is a widely used analgesic that stimulates the μ opioid receptor and inhibits serotonin and noradrenalin reuptake. There have been studies on the analgesic effects of tramadol based on the tail-flick test, the formalin test, and the induction of allodynia by sciatic-nerve ligation. However, the effects of tramadol on behaviors related to bladder pain and bladder overactivity induced by cystitis have not been reported. To investigate the usefulness of tramadol for patients with cystitis, we investigated these effects of tramadol in rodent cystitis models. Intraperitoneal injection of cyclophosphamide caused bladder-specific inflammation and increases in pain-related behaviors, the number of voids and bladder weight in mice. Tramadol suppressed the cyclophosphamide-induced pain-related behaviors but did not affect the number of voids or the bladder weight. During continuous-infusion cystometrograms in anesthetized rats, cyclophosphamide shortened the intercontraction interval, indicating bladder overactivity. Tramadol significantly prolonged the intercontraction interval, and the effect was partially blocked by the opioid antagonist naloxone. This finding indicates that μ opioid receptors may be involved in the action of tramadol. In conclusion, tramadol ameliorated cyclophosphamide-induced bladder-pain-related behaviors and bladder overactivity in rodents. These findings suggest that tramadol might be a treatment option for cystitis-induced bladder pain and bladder overactivity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Respiratory syncytial virus-related encephalitis: magnetic resonance imaging findings with diffusion-weighted study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Arim; Suh, Sang-il; Seol, Hae-Young; Son, Gyu-Ri; Lee, Nam-Joon; Lee, Young Hen; Seo, Hyung Suk; Eun, Baik-Lin

    2014-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common pathogen causing acute respiratory infection in children. Herein, we describe the incidence and clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of RSV-related encephalitis, a major neurological complication of RSV infection. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records and imaging findings of the patients over the past 7 years who are admitted to our medical center and are tested positive for RSV-RNA by reverse transcriptase PCR. In total, 3,856 patients were diagnosed with RSV bronchiolitis, and 28 of them underwent brain MRI for the evaluation of neurologic symptoms; 8 of these 28 patients had positive imaging findings. Five of these 8 patients were excluded because of non-RSV-related pathologies, such as subdural hemorrhage, brain volume loss due to status epilepticus, periventricular leukomalacia, preexisting ventriculomegaly, and hypoxic brain injury. The incidence of RSV-related encephalitis was as follows: 3/3,856 (0.08 %) of the patients are positive for RSV RNA, 3/28 (10.7 %) of the patient underwent brain MRI for neurological symptom, and 3/8 (37.5 %) of patients revealed abnormal MR findings. The imaging findings were suggestive of patterns of rhombenmesencephalitis, encephalitis with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, and limbic encephalitis. They demonstrated no diffusion abnormality on diffusion-weighted image and symptom improvement on the follow-up study. Encephalitis with RSV bronchiolitis occurs rarely. However, on brain MRI performed upon suspicion of neurologic involvement, RSV encephalitis is not infrequently observed among the abnormal MR findings and may mimic other viral and limbic encephalitis. Physicians should be aware of this entity to ensure proper diagnosis and neurologic care of RSV-positive patients. (orig.)

  1. Respiratory syncytial virus-related encephalitis: magnetic resonance imaging findings with diffusion-weighted study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Arim; Suh, Sang-il; Seol, Hae-Young [Korea University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Korea University Guro Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Son, Gyu-Ri; Lee, Nam-Joon [Korea University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Korea University Anam Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Hen; Seo, Hyung Suk [Korea University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Korea University Ansan Hospital, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Eun, Baik-Lin [Korea University College of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Korea University Guro Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-15

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common pathogen causing acute respiratory infection in children. Herein, we describe the incidence and clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of RSV-related encephalitis, a major neurological complication of RSV infection. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records and imaging findings of the patients over the past 7 years who are admitted to our medical center and are tested positive for RSV-RNA by reverse transcriptase PCR. In total, 3,856 patients were diagnosed with RSV bronchiolitis, and 28 of them underwent brain MRI for the evaluation of neurologic symptoms; 8 of these 28 patients had positive imaging findings. Five of these 8 patients were excluded because of non-RSV-related pathologies, such as subdural hemorrhage, brain volume loss due to status epilepticus, periventricular leukomalacia, preexisting ventriculomegaly, and hypoxic brain injury. The incidence of RSV-related encephalitis was as follows: 3/3,856 (0.08 %) of the patients are positive for RSV RNA, 3/28 (10.7 %) of the patient underwent brain MRI for neurological symptom, and 3/8 (37.5 %) of patients revealed abnormal MR findings. The imaging findings were suggestive of patterns of rhombenmesencephalitis, encephalitis with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, and limbic encephalitis. They demonstrated no diffusion abnormality on diffusion-weighted image and symptom improvement on the follow-up study. Encephalitis with RSV bronchiolitis occurs rarely. However, on brain MRI performed upon suspicion of neurologic involvement, RSV encephalitis is not infrequently observed among the abnormal MR findings and may mimic other viral and limbic encephalitis. Physicians should be aware of this entity to ensure proper diagnosis and neurologic care of RSV-positive patients. (orig.)

  2. The Meaning of Emotional Overinvolvement in Early Development: Prospective Relations with Child Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khafi, Tamar Y.; Yates, Tuppett M.; Sher-Censor, Efrat

    2015-01-01

    Emotional Overinvolvement (EOI) in parents’ Five Minute Speech Samples (FMSS; Magaña-Amato, 1993) is thought to measure overconcern and enmeshment with one’s child. Although related to maladaptive outcomes in studies of adult children, FMSS-EOI evidences varied relations with behavior problems in studies with young children. These mixed findings may indicate that certain FMSS-EOI criteria reflect inappropriate and excessive involvement with adult children, but do not indicate maladaptive processes when parenting younger children. Thus, this study evaluated relations of each FMSS-EOI criterion with changes in child behavior problems from preschool to first grade in a community sample of 223 child-mother dyads (47.98% female; Mage_W1 = 49.08 months; 56.50% Hispanic/Latina). Maternal FMSS-EOI ratings were obtained at wave 1, and independent examiners rated child externalizing and internalizing behavior problems at wave 1 and two years later. Path analyses indicated that both the Self-Sacrifice/Overprotection (SSOP) and Statements of Attitude (SOAs) FMSS-EOI criteria predicted increased externalizing problems. In contrast, Excessive Detail and Exaggerated Praise were not related to child externalizing behavior problems, and Emotional Display was not evident in this sample. None of the FMSS-EOI criteria evidenced significant relations with internalizing behavior problems. Multigroup comparisons indicated that the effect of SOAs on externalizing behavior problems was significant for boys but not for girls, and there were no significant group differences by race/ethnicity. These findings point to the salience of SSOP and SOAs for understanding the developmental significance of EOI in early development. PMID:26147935

  3. Service Encounter Related Process Quality, Patient Satisfaction, and Behavioral Intention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandakumar Mekoth

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study identifies some of the critical service encounters thatthe outpatients undergo in a health care facility and investigateswhether the service encounter related process quality as perceivedby the patients leads to patient satisfaction, repeat visit, and recommendationintentions. Personal visits, observations, and enquiriesat the outpatient center have been conducted to identifythe various service encounters that outpatients undergo in thehospital. Exit interviews of the outpatients have been conductedto identify service encounter related process quality variableswhich determine patient satisfaction and behavioral intentions.A preliminary scale to measure service encounter related processquality was developed and its factor structure and internal consistencyreliability were established. The study reveals that boththe physician quality and laboratory quality have been found tobe significantly related to patient satisfaction. However, quite interestingly,courtesy shown by the registration or outpatient staff,perceived length of waiting time, or even the salient aspects of theservicescape, did not influence patient satisfaction.

  4. The Effect of Loneliness on Social Networking Sites Use and Its Related Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranaeiy, Samira; Taghavi, Mohammad Reza; Goodarzi, Mohammad Ali

    2016-08-01

    The current research was conducted to examine the effect of "Loneliness", on time spent in Social Networking Sites (S.N.S), main reasons for S.N.S use, and its related behaviors. 156 students of Shiraz University voluntarily participated in this research. Loneliness was assessed usingthe UCLA Loneliness scale. 25% of highest scoring students reported that they were lonely whereas 25% of the lowest scoring students were considered to be non-lonely. The positive and negative reasons of using S.N.S were assessed based on Reasons for Internet Use Scale, and internet behaviors were assessed based on Scale of Internet Behaviors. There was no difference in time spent in S.N.S as well as the positive and negative reasons of using S.N.S (contrary to literature), but internet behaviors showed a significant difference between "lonely" and "non-lonely" individuals. "Lonely" and "non-lonely" individuals showed a significant difference in "social aspect" of S.N.S behaviors. There was also a significant difference between "Lonely" and "non-Lonely" individuals in "Negative impact" of S.N.S behaviors. Yet, there seemed to be no difference in "competency and convenience aspect" of S.N.S behaviors. This study suggested that there is no difference between lonely and non-lonely individuals in reasons for using S.N.S and time spent in S.N.S. This finding stands contrary to previous research findings and general literature on the subject In other words, what drives people to S.N.S at the first place shows no significant difference between lonely and non-lonely individuals while after attending S.N.S, social behavior of lonely individuals shows a significant difference which is consistently enhanced online. Lonely people also significantly develop internet-related problems in their daily functioning, including interference with real life socializing.

  5. E-Cigarettes Use Behavior and Experience of Adults: Qualitative Research Findings to Inform E-Cigarette Use Measure Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyoshin; Davis, Andrew H; Dohack, Jaime L; Clark, Pamela I

    2017-02-01

    To gain a better understanding of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use behavior and experience among adult e-cigarette users, with the goal of informing development of future e-cigarette use measures. Between August and October 2014 six focus groups were conducted in Seattle. Participants (63% male; 60% >35 years old; 60% White): e-cigarette users who used combustible tobacco products either currently or in the past. E-cigarette discussion topics covered: their daily use pattern (eg, frequency), product-related characteristics (eg, nicotine levels), and perceptions about health risks and benefits. Participants' descriptions of daily use were so varied that no common "unit" of a "session" easily summarized frequency or quantity of typical e-cigarette use. Most users had difficulty in tracking their own use. Participants reported nicotine craving relief when using e-cigarettes, but described e-cigarettes use as less satisfying than combustible cigarettes. Valued characteristics included "ready availability" and the possibility of using indoors. A unique aspect of the e-cigarette use experience is the option of adding flavors and having the ability to exhale "big clouds" of vapor/aerosol. Most perceived e-cigarettes as a better and safer alternative to conventional cigarettes, yet still sought further information about health consequences and safety of e-cigarettes from trusted sources. E-cigarettes users are far from homogeneous in their behavior and motivation for adopting e-cigarettes. A range of use patterns arising from both hedonic and utilitarian factors, along with product characteristics (eg, variable nicotine levels and flavors) extending beyond those of conventional cigarettes, suggest that new, specific e-cigarette use measures must be developed. The current study provides timely information on adult e-cigarette use behavior, which is a crucial step in measuring this new phenomenon and assessing the risks associated with using e-cigarette products. Our

  6. Event-related potentials, cognition, and behavior: a biological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotchoubey, Boris

    2006-01-01

    The prevailing cognitive-psychological accounts of event-related brain potentials (ERPs) assume that ERP components manifest information processing operations leading from stimulus to response. Since this view encounters numerous difficulties already analyzed in previous studies, an alternative view is presented here that regards cortical control of behavior as a repetitive sensorimotor cycle consisting of two phases: (i) feedforward anticipation and (ii) feedback cortical performance. This view allows us to interpret in an integrative manner numerous data obtained from very different domains of ERP studies: from biophysics of ERP waves to their relationship to the processing of language, in which verbal behavior is viewed as likewise controlled by the same two basic control processes: feedforward (hypothesis building) and feedback (hypothesis checking). The proposed approach is intentionally simplified, explaining numerous effects on the basis of few assumptions and relating several levels of analysis: neurophysiology, macroelectrical processes (i.e. ERPs), cognition and behavior. It can, therefore, be regarded as a first approximation to a general theory of ERPs.

  7. Cyberbullying Victimization and Behaviors Among Girls: Applying Research Findings in the Field

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia A. Snell; Elizabeth K. Englander

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: Prior research on cyberbullying has been conducted; however specific research on gender differences has yet to be examined. The current study focuses on gender trends, specifically females, in cyberbullying victimization and behaviors. Approach: A survey was given to undergraduate students at Bridgewater State College in an effort to see what gender trends exist in cyberbullying behaviors. A pilot program focused on girls and cyberbullying is also examined in this article. ...

  8. Close relatives find meaning to cope with cancer diagnosis and treatment of family members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyh, Janelle M; Levine, Ellen G; Clay, Karine

    2012-12-01

    Pediatric palliative care has recently become a priority in the health care field and is implemented at the time of diagnosis rather than days or weeks before the child's death. Social constructivism theory in which humans generate meaning from their experiences was utilized as a general framework to determine the impact of pediatric palliative care on close relatives. The purpose of this grounded theory study was to generate a substantive theory that explains how close relatives such as grandparents, aunts, and uncles of a child with cancer experience palliative care. The participants of the study included close relatives of children in palliative care. Semistructured interviews and journaling were used to collect data. Initial, focused, and axial coding procedures were used to manage the data and a content analysis of the textual data was performed. Findings from the data suggested a process of finding meaning which helps close relatives to let go of what they cannot control while holding on to what they can control. Social change implications of this study may include improving health care programming for close relatives utilizing supportive-expressive measures. This programming may promote mental health of the close relatives who will learn to deal with their adjustment difficulties and improve their coping skills.

  9. Transcriptional effects of glucocorticoid receptors in the dentate gyrus increase anxiety-related behaviors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadège Sarrazin

    Full Text Available The Glucocorticoid Receptor (GR is a transcription factor ubiquitously expressed in the brain. Activation of brain GRs by high levels of glucocorticoid (GC hormones modifies a large variety of physiological and pathological-related behaviors. Unfortunately the specific cellular targets of GR-mediated behavioral effects of GC are still largely unknown. To address this issue, we generated a mutated form of the GR called DeltaGR. DeltaGR is a constitutively transcriptionally active form of the GR that is localized in the nuclei and activates transcription without binding to glucocorticoids. Using the tetracycline-regulated system (Tet-OFF, we developed an inducible transgenic approach that allows the expression of the DeltaGR in specific brain areas. We focused our study on a mouse line that expressed DeltaGR almost selectively in the glutamatergic neurons of the dentate gyrus (DG of the hippocampus. This restricted expression of the DeltaGR increased anxiety-related behaviors without affecting other behaviors that could indirectly influence performance in anxiety-related tests. This behavioral phenotype was also associated with an up-regulation of the MAPK signaling pathway and Egr-1 protein in the DG. These findings identify glutamatergic neurons in the DG as one of the cellular substrate of stress-related pathologies.

  10. Adolescents' perception of peer groups: Psychological, behavioral, and relational determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seungyoon; Foote, Jeremy; Wittrock, Zachary; Xu, Siyu; Niu, Li; French, Doran C

    2017-07-01

    Adolescents' social cognitive understanding of their social world is often inaccurate and biased. Focusing on peer groups, this study examines how adolescents' psychological, behavioral, and relational characteristics influence the extent to which they accurately identify their own and others' peer groups. Analyses were conducted with a sample of 1481 seventh- and tenth-grade Chinese students who are embedded with 346 peer groups. Overall, females and older students had more accurate perceptions. In addition, lower self-esteem, higher indegree centrality, and lower betweenness centrality in the friendship network predicted more accurate perception of one's own groups, whereas higher academic performance and lower betweenness centrality in the friendship network predicted more accurate perception of others' groups. Implications for understanding the connection between adolescents' psychological and behavioral traits, social relationships, and social cognition are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Determinants of consumer behavior related to organic foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Richard; Magnusson, Maria; Sjödén, Per-Olow

    2005-06-01

    There have been many studies of what influences consumers in their decisions to purchase or consume organic foods, mainly concerned with fresh organic foods. These show a discrepancy between attitudes and behavior with people being positive about organic foods but often not purchasing them. This discrepancy seems to be explained by the fact that consumers do not consider "organically produced" to be an important purchase criterion, that organic foods are not perceived to surpass conventional foods regarding taste and shelf life (two qualities rated to be of great importance), and because of the perceived premium prices of organic foods. In two Swedish studies, health benefits were demonstrated to be more strongly related to attitudes and behavior toward organic foods than were perceived environmental benefits. A new European Union (EU) project will investigate the influences on both fresh and processed organic foods and investigate the role of moral, ethical, and affective influences on choice across eight EU countries.

  12. Endocrine Disruption of Vasopressin Systems and Related Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather B. Patisaul

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs are chemicals that interfere with the organizational or activational effects of hormones. Although the vast majority of the EDC literature focuses on steroid hormone signaling related impacts, growing evidence from a myriad of species reveals that the nonapeptide hormones vasopressin (AVP and oxytocin (OT may also be EDC targets. EDCs shown to alter pathways and behaviors coordinated by AVP and/or OT include the plastics component bisphenol A (BPA, the soy phytoestrogen genistein (GEN, and various flame retardants. Many effects are sex specific and likely involve action at nuclear estrogen receptors. Effects include the elimination or reversal of well-characterized sexually dimorphic aspects of the AVP system, including innervation of the lateral septum and other brain regions critical for social and other non-reproductive behaviors. Disruption of magnocellular AVP function has also been reported in rats, suggesting possible effects on hemodynamics and cardiovascular function.

  13. Autonomous and controlled motivational regulations for multiple health-related behaviors: between- and within-participants analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagger, M.S.; Hardcastle, S.J.; Chater, A.; Mallett, C.; Pal, S.; Chatzisarantis, N.L.D.

    2014-01-01

    Self-determination theory has been applied to the prediction of a number of health-related behaviors with self-determined or autonomous forms of motivation generally more effective in predicting health behavior than non-self-determined or controlled forms. Research has been confined to examining the motivational predictors in single health behaviors rather than comparing effects across multiple behaviors. The present study addressed this gap in the literature by testing the relative contribution of autonomous and controlling motivation to the prediction of a large number of health-related behaviors, and examining individual differences in self-determined motivation as a moderator of the effects of autonomous and controlling motivation on health behavior. Participants were undergraduate students (N = 140) who completed measures of autonomous and controlled motivational regulations and behavioral intention for 20 health-related behaviors at an initial occasion with follow-up behavioral measures taken four weeks later. Path analysis was used to test a process model for each behavior in which motivational regulations predicted behavior mediated by intentions. Some minor idiosyncratic findings aside, between-participants analyses revealed significant effects for autonomous motivational regulations on intentions and behavior across the 20 behaviors. Effects for controlled motivation on intentions and behavior were relatively modest by comparison. Intentions mediated the effect of autonomous motivation on behavior. Within-participants analyses were used to segregate the sample into individuals who based their intentions on autonomous motivation (autonomy-oriented) and controlled motivation (control-oriented). Replicating the between-participants path analyses for the process model in the autonomy- and control-oriented samples did not alter the relative effects of the motivational orientations on intention and behavior. Results provide evidence for consistent effects

  14. Correlation of parenting style and pediatric behavior guidance strategies in the dental setting: preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminabadi, Naser Asl; Farahani, Ramin Mostofi Zadeh

    2008-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of parenting style on the choice of proper behavior guidance strategies in pedodontics. Seventy-two children aged between 4 and 6 years (mean 5.12 years) with carious primary mandibular molars were selected. The Primary Caregivers' Practices Report (PCPR) was used to quantify authoritarian, permissive and authoritative aspects of the caregivers' parenting style. After inferior alveolar nerve block, carious lesions were removed and the teeth were restored using amalgam. The children's behavior during operation was assessed according to the sound, eye, and motor (SEM) scale. Communicative guidance, advance behavior guidance, parental separation, and deferred treatment were used for behavior management. The dominant authoritative score was observed in 50% of parents, permissive in 37.5%, and authoritarian in 12.5%. The mean SEM score in children belonging to authoritative parents was significantly lower than in children of permissive and of authoritarian parents (pparenting style. Advanced behavior guidance (protective stabilization) was applied in 16.7% of cases in the authoritative category and in 100% in the permissive and authoritarian categories. The use of restrictive devices (7.4%) and sedation (3.7%) was limited to the permissive category. Parental separation (40.7%) and deferred treatment (3.7%) were performed only in the permissive category. This study provides preliminary evidence that a child's reaction to restorative dental procedures is influenced by the nature of the caregiver's parenting style.

  15. Does Integrated Behavioral Health Care Reduce Mental Health Disparities for Latinos? Initial Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, Ana J.; Andrews, Arthur R.; Villalobos, Bianca T.; Pastrana, Freddie A.; Cavell, Timothy A.; Gomez, Debbie

    2014-01-01

    Integrated behavioral health care (IBHC) is a model of mental health care service delivery that seeks to reduce stigma and service utilization barriers by embedding mental health professionals into the primary care team. This study explored whether IBHC service referrals, utilization, and outcomes were comparable for Latinos and non-Latino White primary care patients. Data for the current study were collected from 793 consecutive patients (63.8% Latino; M age = 29.02 years [SD = 17.96]; 35.1% under 18 years; 65.3% women; 54.3% uninsured) seen for behavioral health services in 2 primary care clinics during a 10.5 month period. The most common presenting concerns were depression (21.6%), anxiety (18.5%), adjustment disorder (13.0%), and externalizing behavior problems (9.8%). Results revealed that while Latino patients had significantly lower self-reported psychiatric distress, significantly higher clinician-assigned global assessment of functioning scores, and fewer received a psychiatric diagnosis at their initial visit compared to non-Latino White patients, both groups had comparable utilization rates, comparable and clinically significant improvements in symptoms (Cohen’s d values > .50), and expressed high satisfaction with integrated behavioral services. These data provide preliminary evidence suggesting integration of behavioral health services into primary care clinics may help reduce mental health disparities for Latinos. PMID:25309845

  16. Can fear extinction be enhanced? A review of pharmacological and behavioral findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Paul J.; Seemann, Jocelyn R.; Maren, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    There is considerable interest, from both a basic and clinical standpoint, in gaining a greater understanding of how pharmaceutical or behavioral manipulations alter fear extinction in animals. Not only does fear extinction in rodents model exposure therapy in humans, where the latter is a cornerstone of behavioral intervention for anxiety disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder and specific phobias, but also understanding more about extinction provides basic information into learning and memory processes and their underlying circuitry. In this paper, we briefly review three principal approaches that have been used to modulate extinction processes in animals and humans: a purely pharmacological approach, the more widespread approach of combining pharmacology with behavior, and a purely behavioral approach. The pharmacological studies comprise modulation by: brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), d-cycloserine, serotonergic and noradrenergic drugs, neuropeptides, endocannabinoids, glucocorticoids, histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, and others. These studies strongly suggest that extinction can be modulated by drugs, behavioral interventions, or their combination, although not always in a lasting manner. We suggest that pharmacotherapeutic manipulations provide considerable promise for promoting effective and lasting fear reduction in individuals with anxiety disorders. PMID:24374101

  17. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy-related inflammation: imaging findings and clinical outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martucci, Matia; Sarria, Silvana; Coscojuela, Pilar; Vert, Carla; Siurana, Sahyly; Auger, Cristina; Rovira, Alex; Toledo, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    We aim to investigate the clinical onset, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings, and follow-up of patients with cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA)-related inflammation, an uncommon but clinically striking presentation of CAA. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical manifestations, CT/MR imaging findings, and outcome of ten consecutive patients with CAA-related inflammation. In each patient, a brain CT study was performed at hospital admission, and brain MR imaging was carried out 2 to 4 days later. Clinical and radiologic follow-up findings were evaluated in all patients. The most common clinical onset was rapidly progressive cognitive decline, followed by focal neurological signs. Brain CT/MR showed unenhanced expansive subcortical lesions, corresponding to areas of vasogenic edema, associated with chronic lobar, cortical, or cortical-subcortical micro/macrohemorrhages. Clinical symptoms recovered in a few weeks under treatment in eight patients and spontaneously in the remaining two. MRI follow-up at 2 to 12 months after treatment showed resolution of the lesions. Three patients experienced symptomatic disease recurrence, with new lesions on CT/MR. In the absence of histological data, early recognition of the clinical symptoms and typical radiologic features of CAA-related inflammation is essential to enable timely establishment of proper treatment. (orig.)

  18. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy-related inflammation: imaging findings and clinical outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martucci, Matia [Vall d' Hebron University Hospital, Neuroradiology Unit, Radiology Department (IDI), Barcelona (Spain); Catholic University of Sacred Heart, ' ' A. Gemelli' ' University Hospital, Department of Radiological Sciences, Rome (Italy); Sarria, Silvana; Coscojuela, Pilar; Vert, Carla; Siurana, Sahyly; Auger, Cristina; Rovira, Alex [Vall d' Hebron University Hospital, Neuroradiology Unit, Radiology Department (IDI), Barcelona (Spain); Toledo, Manuel [Vall d' Hebron University Hospital, Epilepsy Unit, Neurology Department, Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-04-15

    We aim to investigate the clinical onset, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings, and follow-up of patients with cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA)-related inflammation, an uncommon but clinically striking presentation of CAA. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical manifestations, CT/MR imaging findings, and outcome of ten consecutive patients with CAA-related inflammation. In each patient, a brain CT study was performed at hospital admission, and brain MR imaging was carried out 2 to 4 days later. Clinical and radiologic follow-up findings were evaluated in all patients. The most common clinical onset was rapidly progressive cognitive decline, followed by focal neurological signs. Brain CT/MR showed unenhanced expansive subcortical lesions, corresponding to areas of vasogenic edema, associated with chronic lobar, cortical, or cortical-subcortical micro/macrohemorrhages. Clinical symptoms recovered in a few weeks under treatment in eight patients and spontaneously in the remaining two. MRI follow-up at 2 to 12 months after treatment showed resolution of the lesions. Three patients experienced symptomatic disease recurrence, with new lesions on CT/MR. In the absence of histological data, early recognition of the clinical symptoms and typical radiologic features of CAA-related inflammation is essential to enable timely establishment of proper treatment. (orig.)

  19. Parent and family associations with weight-related behaviors and cognitions among overweight adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromley, Taya R.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Story, Mary; Boutelle, Kerri

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To examine parent and family variables in relation to adolescent weight control and eating behaviors, body satisfaction, and importance of thinness among overweight adolescents. Methods This study examined parent-reported use of weight control behaviors (i.e., healthy and unhealthy behaviors, behavioral changes, other diet strategies), parent psychosocial functioning (i.e., depression, self-esteem, body satisfaction, importance of thinness), and family functioning (i.e., cohesion and adaptability) in relation to adolescent weight control and eating behaviors, body satisfaction, and importance of thinness. Surveys were completed by 103 overweight (BMI ≥ 85th percentile) adolescents, ages 12 to 20, and their parents. Height and weight were also measured. Linear regression equations were used for continuous outcomes and logistic regression equations for dichotomous outcomes. Results Adolescent report of lower body satisfaction and engagement in more “severe” or less healthy forms of weight control behavior were associated with parent weight control behaviors. Adolescent report of overeating was associated with lower scores of family cohesion and adaptability. Adolescent report of lower body satisfaction was positively associated with parent report of body satisfaction and self-esteem. Adolescent report of greater importance placed on thinness was associated with parent report of lower self-esteem. Conclusions Findings indicate that several parent and family variables are associated with weight control behaviors, episodes of overeating, and body satisfaction and importance of thinness among overweight adolescents. Parent weight control behaviors and adolescent cognitions about body image may be important variables to target within intervention research and treatment programs for overweight youth. PMID:20708565

  20. Abnormal imaging findings of the breast related to hormone replacement therapy: analysis of surgically excised cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Woo Kyung; Cha, Joo Hee; Cho, Kyung Soo; Choi, Een Wan; Lee, Yu Jin; Im, Jung Gi [College of Medicine, Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyung Seok [Wooridul Spine Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Sun Yang [Bundang CHA General Hospital, Sungnam (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Nariya [Gil Medical Center, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-02-01

    To correlate the mammographic and ultrasonographic findings with the pathologic results in women undergoing hormone replacement therapy (HRT), and to determine the characteristic clinical, mammographic or histologic findings of breast cancer in these patients. Twenty-five breast lesions in 25 patients aged 44-65 (mean, 55.5) years undergoing HRT were surgically removed due to abnormal mammographic findings or the presence of palpable masses. Mammograms in all patients and ultrasonograms in 23 were retrospectively analyzed in terms of the shape and margin of the mass, and microcalcifications, and the imaging findings were correlated with the pathologic results. As a control group, 45 cancer patients not undergoing HRT were selected. Using the student t test, detection methods, tumor size, mammographic findings, and the proportion of intraductal cancers were compared between to two groups. Surgical excision revealed ten benign lesions (four fibroadenomas and six cases of fibrocystic change) and 15 cancers (three intraductal and twelve invasive ductal cancers). Abnormal findings at mammography were a mass in 16 cases, clustered microcalcifications in seven, and a mass with microcalcifications in two. Mammography showed that all four circumscribed masses were benign. Five of seven ill-defined masses (71%) and all six spiculated masses were malignant. Three of seven cases (43%) with microcalcifications, and both with a mass and microcalcification, were malignant. In two cases in which ultrasonography revealed cystic lesions, histologic examination showed that fibrocystic change had occurred. Compared to non-HRT-related cancers, HRT-related cancers were more often detected by mammography (60% vs 16%; p<0.001), smaller (17 mm vs 24 mm, p<0.01), showed microcalcification only (20% vs 13%; p<0.05), and were intraductal (20% vs 7%; p<0.01). In patients with HRT, mammographic findings of an ill-defined or spiculated mass, or one with microcalcifications, were associated with

  1. Abnormal imaging findings of the breast related to hormone replacement therapy: analysis of surgically excised cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Woo Kyung; Cha, Joo Hee; Cho, Kyung Soo; Choi, Een Wan; Lee, Yu Jin; Im, Jung Gi; Kim, Hyung Seok; Chung, Sun Yang; Cho, Nariya

    2004-01-01

    To correlate the mammographic and ultrasonographic findings with the pathologic results in women undergoing hormone replacement therapy (HRT), and to determine the characteristic clinical, mammographic or histologic findings of breast cancer in these patients. Twenty-five breast lesions in 25 patients aged 44-65 (mean, 55.5) years undergoing HRT were surgically removed due to abnormal mammographic findings or the presence of palpable masses. Mammograms in all patients and ultrasonograms in 23 were retrospectively analyzed in terms of the shape and margin of the mass, and microcalcifications, and the imaging findings were correlated with the pathologic results. As a control group, 45 cancer patients not undergoing HRT were selected. Using the student t test, detection methods, tumor size, mammographic findings, and the proportion of intraductal cancers were compared between to two groups. Surgical excision revealed ten benign lesions (four fibroadenomas and six cases of fibrocystic change) and 15 cancers (three intraductal and twelve invasive ductal cancers). Abnormal findings at mammography were a mass in 16 cases, clustered microcalcifications in seven, and a mass with microcalcifications in two. Mammography showed that all four circumscribed masses were benign. Five of seven ill-defined masses (71%) and all six spiculated masses were malignant. Three of seven cases (43%) with microcalcifications, and both with a mass and microcalcification, were malignant. In two cases in which ultrasonography revealed cystic lesions, histologic examination showed that fibrocystic change had occurred. Compared to non-HRT-related cancers, HRT-related cancers were more often detected by mammography (60% vs 16%; p<0.001), smaller (17 mm vs 24 mm, p<0.01), showed microcalcification only (20% vs 13%; p<0.05), and were intraductal (20% vs 7%; p<0.01). In patients with HRT, mammographic findings of an ill-defined or spiculated mass, or one with microcalcifications, were associated with

  2. Emotional and cognitive social processes are impaired in Parkinson's disease and are related to behavioral disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narme, Pauline; Mouras, Harold; Roussel, Martine; Duru, Cécile; Krystkowiak, Pierre; Godefroy, Olivier

    2013-03-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with behavioral disorders that can affect social functioning but are poorly understood. Since emotional and cognitive social processes are known to be crucial in social relationships, impairment of these processes may account for the emergence of behavioral disorders. We used a systematic battery of tests to assess emotional processes and social cognition in PD patients and relate our findings to conventional neuropsychological data (especially behavioral disorders). Twenty-three PD patients and 46 controls (matched for age and educational level) were included in the study and underwent neuropsychological testing, including an assessment of the behavioral and cognitive components of executive function. Emotional and cognitive social processes were assessed with the Interpersonal Reactivity Index caregiver-administered questionnaire (as a measure of empathy), a facial emotion recognition task and two theory of mind (ToM) tasks. When compared with controls, PD patients showed low levels of empathy (p = .006), impaired facial emotion recognition (which persisted after correction for perceptual abilities) (p = .001), poor performance in a second-order ToM task (p = .008) that assessed both cognitive (p = .004) and affective (p = .03) inferences and, lastly, frequent dysexecutive behavioral disorders (in over 40% of the patients). Overall, impaired emotional and cognitive social functioning was observed in 17% of patients and was related to certain cognitive dysexecutive disorders. In terms of behavioral dysexecutive disorders, social behavior disorders were related to impaired emotional and cognitive social functioning (p = .04) but were independent of cognitive impairments. Emotional and cognitive social processes were found to be impaired in Parkinson's disease. This impairment may account for the emergence of social behavioral disorders. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. Weight discrimination and unhealthy eating-related behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutin, Angelina; Robinson, Eric; Daly, Michael; Terracciano, Antonio

    2016-07-01

    Individuals with obesity often experience unfair treatment because of their body weight. Such experiences are associated with binge eating, but less is known about its association with other eating-related behaviors and whether these relations are specific to discrimination based on weight or extend to other attributions for discrimination. The present research uses a large national sample (N = 5129) to examine whether weight discrimination is associated with diet and meal rhythmicity, in addition to overeating, and whether these associations generalize to nine other attributions for discrimination. We found that in addition to overeating, weight discrimination was associated with more frequent consumption of convenience foods and less regular meal timing. These associations were generally similar across sex, age, and race. Discrimination based on ancestry, gender, age, religion, and physical disability were also associated with overeating, which suggests that overeating may be a general coping response to discrimination. Unfair treatment because of body weight is associated with unhealthy eating-related behaviors, which may be one pathway through which weight discrimination increases risk for weight gain and obesity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Weight Discrimination and Unhealthy Eating-related Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutin, Angelina; Robinson, Eric; Daly, Michael; Terracciano, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with obesity often experience unfair treatment because of their body weight. Such experiences are associated with binge eating, but less is known about its association with other eating-related behaviors and whether these relations are specific to discrimination based on weight or extend to other attributions for discrimination. The present research uses a large national sample (N=5,129) to examine whether weight discrimination is associated with diet and meal rhythmicity, in addition to overeating, and whether these associations generalize to nine other attributions for discrimination. We found that in addition to overeating, weight discrimination was associated with more frequent consumption of convenience foods and less regular meal timing. These associations were generally similar across sex, age, and race. Discrimination based on ancestry, gender, age, religion, and physical disability were also associated with overeating, which suggests that overeating may be a general coping response to discrimination. Unfair treatment because of body weight is associated with unhealthy eating-related behaviors, which may be one pathway through which weight discrimination increases risk for weight gain and obesity. PMID:26877216

  5. Finding myself: a theory on the maturation of spirituality and its influence on behavior during late adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Deanna M

    2014-01-01

    This study employed a grounded theory research design to develop a theoretical model focused on the maturation of spirituality and its influence on behavior during late adolescence. Quantitative research studies have linked spirituality with decreased health-risk behaviors and increased health-promotion behaviors during late adolescence. Qualitative, theoretical data is proposed to discover the underlying reasons this relationship exists and increase the ability to apply this knowledge to practice. Twenty-one adolescents, age 16-21 years, were e-mail interviewed and transcripts analyzed using a conceptual lens of Blumer's symbolic interactionism. From this analysis, a theoretical model emerged with the core concept, finding myself that represents 5 core process concepts. Implications of this study illustrate that late adolescents are aware of their personal spiritual maturation as well as its influence on behavior. In addition, a distinction between the generic concept of spirituality, personal spirituality, and religion emerged.

  6. Treatment of addiction and addiction-related behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewey, Stephen L.; Brodie, Jonathan D.; Ashby, Jr., Charles R.

    2004-12-07

    The present invention provides a highly efficient method for treating substance addiction and for changing addiction-related behavior of a mammal suffering from substance addiction. The method includes administering to a mammal an effective amount of gamma vinylGABA or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. The present invention also provides a method of treatment of cocaine, morphine, heroin, nicotine, amphetamine, methamphetamine, or ethanol addiction by treating a mammal with an effective amount of gamma vinylGABA or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

  7. Synapse-specific astrocyte gating of amygdala-related behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Fernandez, Mario; Jamison, Stephanie; Robin, Laurie M; Zhao, Zhe; Martin, Eduardo D; Aguilar, Juan; Benneyworth, Michael A; Marsicano, Giovanni; Araque, Alfonso

    2017-11-01

    The amygdala plays key roles in fear and anxiety. Studies of the amygdala have largely focused on neuronal function and connectivity. Astrocytes functionally interact with neurons, but their role in the amygdala remains largely unknown. We show that astrocytes in the medial subdivision of the central amygdala (CeM) determine the synaptic and behavioral outputs of amygdala circuits. To investigate the role of astrocytes in amygdala-related behavior and identify the underlying synaptic mechanisms, we used exogenous or endogenous signaling to selectively activate CeM astrocytes. Astrocytes depressed excitatory synapses from basolateral amygdala via A 1 adenosine receptor activation and enhanced inhibitory synapses from the lateral subdivision of the central amygdala via A 2A receptor activation. Furthermore, astrocytic activation decreased the firing rate of CeM neurons and reduced fear expression in a fear-conditioning paradigm. Therefore, we conclude that astrocyte activity determines fear responses by selectively regulating specific synapses, which indicates that animal behavior results from the coordinated activity of neurons and astrocytes.

  8. Maternal depressive symptoms and weight-related parenting behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, Taryn W

    2014-08-01

    This study examined associations between mothers' depressive symptoms and parenting behaviors related to children's nutrition and physical activity. Data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort, a nationally representative study of children from infancy through kindergarten entry. Contemporaneous and lagged associations between maternal depressive symptoms and mothers' parenting behaviors were tested, controlling for background characteristics. The mediating effect of use of a physician's office or clinic as a source for routine care was tested. At each wave, between 18 and 20 % of mothers were considered as having moderate or severe depressive symptoms. These mothers were 1.3 percentage points more likely to put their infants to bed with a bottle, 2.6 percentage points less likely to have rules about the foods their children eat, and their children were 3.0 percentage points less likely to be in bed by 9:00 p.m. than mothers lacking depressive symptoms. These mothers also reported that their families ate dinner together fewer nights per week, and their children watched more television per day, than non-depressed mothers. The use of a physician's office or clinic partially mediated associations between maternal depressive symptoms and whether infants went to bed with a bottle. Interventions that identify maternal depression early may be useful in promoting healthy parenting behaviors and weight outcomes among young children.

  9. Offline and Online Sexual Risk Behavior among Youth in the Netherlands: Findings from "Sex under the Age of 25".

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Graaf, Hanneke; Verbeek, Mirthe; Van den Borne, Marieke; Meijer, Suzanne

    2018-01-01

    Sexually developing adolescents and emerging adults face sexual health risks as well as potentially negative outcomes of online sexual behaviors. The goal of this study was to describe three categories of sexual risk behavior: (1) behavior related to STI/HIV, (2) behavior related to unplanned pregnancy, and (3) online sexual risk behavior. In addition, we investigated whether these behaviors are actually related to negative (health) outcomes. For this purpose, we used data from a Dutch probability survey: "Sex under the age of 25." Adolescents and emerging adults aged 12 through 24 (8,053 boys and 12,447 girls) completed a digital questionnaire, including measures of the risk of STI/HIV and pregnancy, online sexual behavior and non-consensual sex. Chi-square tests and logistic regressions were used to test for gender and age differences and compute associations between risk behavior and negative outcomes. The results showed that the risk of unplanned pregnancy is low in the Netherlands. It seems that adolescents and emerging adults are less aware of the risk of STI/HIV than of the risk of pregnancy. About 11% of the participants had had more than one partner in the last 6 months and had not used condoms consistently with their last partner, and these participants had a 3.56 times higher likelihood of ever being diagnosed with an STI. Although many young people stop using condoms with their partner after a while, most of them did not get tested for STIs. More emerging adults (aged 18-24) engage in sexting (sending personal nude pictures and sex videos to others), but the chance that these images are shared with other people than the intended recipient is higher among adolescents (aged 12-17). The results of this study can guide professionals working in sex education and sexual health services to focus their efforts on the risk behaviors in the Netherlands that deserve most attention.

  10. Sexual orientation, treatment utilization, and barriers for alcohol related problems: Findings from a nationally representative sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Junior Lloyd; Mowbray, Orion

    2016-04-01

    Gay, lesbian, and bisexual (GLB) individuals appear to have an increased likelihood of alcohol use disorders and treatment utilization for alcohol related problems compared to heterosexual individuals. Despite this increase, treatment utilization rates among GLB individuals remain low. In an effort to address this, our paper examined whether or not GLB individuals encounter unique barriers when pursuing treatment for alcohol related problems. Using data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol Related Conditions (NESARC), we examined service sector specific factors, some of which included (a) utilization rates, (b) self-reported treatment barriers, and (c) whether or not there were emergent differences among GLB individuals, after controlling for socio-demographic and clinical characteristics. Findings indicated that GLB individuals reported higher severity rates for alcohol use disorders when compared to heterosexual individuals, and were significantly more likely to utilize treatment services for alcohol related problems, however, not across all treatment sectors. While similar patterns were observed when examining barriers to treatment, bisexual individuals reported significantly more barriers than heterosexual and gay/lesbian individuals. These findings underscored the importance of identifying and developing interventions that addresses treatment barriers associated with alcohol use service utilization among GLB populations, and creating improved outreach and education programs to better address stigmas associated with substance use and sexuality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The Associations Between Children's and Adolescents' Suicidal and Self-Harming Behaviors, and Related Behaviors Within Their Social Networks: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, Jody; Rasmussen, Susan; McAlaney, John

    2017-01-01

    Social influences-including the suicidal and self-harming behaviors of others-have been highlighted as a risk factor for suicidal and self-harming behavior in young people, but synthesis of the evidence is lacking. A systematic review of 86 relevant papers was conducted. Considerable published evidence was obtained for positive associations between young people's suicidal and self-harming behavior and that of people they know, with those reporting knowing people who had engaged in suicidal or self-harming behaviors more likely to report engaging in similar behaviors themselves. Findings are discussed in relation to a number of methodological and measurement issues-including the role of normative perceptions-and implications for the prevention of suicidal and self-harming behavior are considered.

  12. Early Behavioral Self-Regulation, Academic Achievement, and Gender: Longitudinal Findings from France, Germany, and Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gestsdottir, Steinunn; von Suchodoletz, Antje; Wanless, Shannon B.; Hubert, Blandine; Guimard, Philippe; Birgisdottir, Freyja; Gunzenhauser, Catherine; McClelland, Megan

    2014-01-01

    Research suggests that behavioral self-regulation skills are critical for early school success, but few studies have explored such links among young children in Europe. This study examined the contribution of early self-regulation to academic achievement gains among children in France, Germany, and Iceland. Gender differences in behavioral…

  13. Prenatal sex hormone effects on child and adult sex-typed behavior: methods and findings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Beek, C.; Cohen-Bendahan, C.; Berenbaum, S.

    2005-01-01

    There is now good evidence that human sex-typed behavior is influenced by sex hormones that are present during prenatal development, confirming studies in other mammalian species. Most of the evidence comes from clinical populations, in which prenatal hormone exposure is atypical for a person's sex,

  14. The "RAPID" Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Program for Inattentive Children: Preliminary Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The objectives of the current study were to ascertain feasibility and acceptability of directly delivering a cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) group intervention for inattentive children in a school setting, to examine the reliability of the RATE-C Questionnaires that accompany the program, and to determine whether they can be used to…

  15. Effective Components of TORDIA Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Adolescent Depression: Preliminary Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennard, Betsy D.; Clarke, Greg N.; Weersing, V. Robin; Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; Shamseddeen, Wael; Porta, Giovanna; Berk, Michele; Hughes, Jennifer L.; Spirito, Anthony; Emslie, Graham J.; Keller, Martin B.; Wagner, Karen D.; Brent, David A.

    2009-01-01

    In this report, we conducted a secondary analysis of the Treatment of SSRI-Resistant Depression in Adolescents (TORDIA) study to explore the impact of specific cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) treatment components on outcome. In TORDIA, 334 youths (ages 12 to 18 years) with major depressive disorder who had failed to respond to an adequate…

  16. Radiologic Findings of Immunoglobulin G4 Related Sclerosing Esophagitis: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Mi Sun; Kim, Su Young; Lee, Byung Hoon; Hwang, Yoon Joon; Han, Yoon Hee [Dept. of Radiology, Ilsan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Koyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-02-15

    We describe a case of immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related sclerosing esophagitis occurring in a 63-year-old man with progressive dysphagia and 10-kg weight loss over 9 months. An esophagoscopy revealed significant stricture with diffuse mucosal friability and ulceration at mid esophagus level. Barium esophagogram showed diffuse stenosis at the mid and lower esophagus levels with ulcerations and irregularity of the mucosa. Multidetector computed tomography revealed diffuse edematous and circumferential thickening of the submucosa and muscle layer of this esophageal segment. Fluorine 18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET) revealed diffuse mild FDG uptake in mid to lower esophagus. Although benign inflammatory lesion was suspected based on the imaging findings, the patient underwent surgery for worsening esophageal stricture and the esophageal lesion was pathologically confirmed as IgG4-related sclerosing esophagitis. Radiologic benignancy and high clinical suspicion for IgG4-related sclerosing disease may help making a proper decision and avoiding unnecessary operation.

  17. Radiologic Findings of Immunoglobulin G4 Related Sclerosing Esophagitis: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Mi Sun; Kim, Su Young; Lee, Byung Hoon; Hwang, Yoon Joon; Han, Yoon Hee

    2012-01-01

    We describe a case of immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related sclerosing esophagitis occurring in a 63-year-old man with progressive dysphagia and 10-kg weight loss over 9 months. An esophagoscopy revealed significant stricture with diffuse mucosal friability and ulceration at mid esophagus level. Barium esophagogram showed diffuse stenosis at the mid and lower esophagus levels with ulcerations and irregularity of the mucosa. Multidetector computed tomography revealed diffuse edematous and circumferential thickening of the submucosa and muscle layer of this esophageal segment. Fluorine 18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET) revealed diffuse mild FDG uptake in mid to lower esophagus. Although benign inflammatory lesion was suspected based on the imaging findings, the patient underwent surgery for worsening esophageal stricture and the esophageal lesion was pathologically confirmed as IgG4-related sclerosing esophagitis. Radiologic benignancy and high clinical suspicion for IgG4-related sclerosing disease may help making a proper decision and avoiding unnecessary operation.

  18. Containment Emergency Sump Performance. Technical findings related to Unresolved Safety Issue A-43. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-10-01

    This report summarizes key technical findings related to Unresolved Safety Issue (USI) A-43, Containment Emergency Sump Performance. Both BWRs and PWRs are considered in this report. Emergency core cooling systems require a clean, reliable water source to maintain long-term recirculation following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). PWRs rely on the containment emergency sump to provide such a water supply to residual heat removal pumps and containment spray pumps. BWRs rely on pump suction intakes in the suppression pool or wet well to provide water to residual heat removal and core spray systems. Thus, the technical findings in this report provide information on post-LOCA recirculation. These findings have been derived from extensive experimental studies, generic plant studies, and assessments of sumps used for long-term cooling. Results of hydraulic tests have shown that the potential for air ingestion is less severe than previously hypothesized. The effects of debris blockage on NPSH margin must be dealt with on a plant-specific basis. These findings have been used to develop revisions to Regulatory Guide 1.82 and Standard Review Plan Section 6.2.2 (NUREG-0800)

  19. Relations of Preschoolers' Visual-Motor and Object Manipulation Skills With Executive Function and Social Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Megan; Lipscomb, Shannon; McClelland, Megan M; Duncan, Rob; Becker, Derek; Anderson, Kim; Kile, Molly

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this article was to examine specific linkages between early visual-motor integration skills and executive function, as well as between early object manipulation skills and social behaviors in the classroom during the preschool year. Ninety-two children aged 3 to 5 years old (M age  = 4.31 years) were recruited to participate. Comprehensive measures of visual-motor integration skills, object manipulation skills, executive function, and social behaviors were administered in the fall and spring of the preschool year. Our findings indicated that children who had better visual-motor integration skills in the fall had better executive function scores (B = 0.47 [0.20], p gender, Head Start status, and site location, but not after controlling for children's baseline levels of executive function. In addition, children who demonstrated better object manipulation skills in the fall showed significantly stronger social behavior in their classrooms (as rated by teachers) in the spring, including more self-control (B - 0.03 [0.00], p social behavior in the fall and other covariates. Children's visual-motor integration and object manipulation skills in the fall have modest to moderate relations with executive function and social behaviors later in the preschool year. These findings have implications for early learning initiatives and school readiness.

  20. CT studies of mesentery and related vascular findings in strangulating intestinal obstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Wenhua; Cao Qingxuan; Yang Shifeng; Li Jianhai; Lu Shenglin; Zhang Qiang; Wu Tian

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the CT appearance of mesentery and related vascular (MRV) findings in strangulating obstruction (SO) and evaluate the value of CT examination for diagnosing SO. Methods: Thirty patients with SO were included in the investigation. The diagnosis was confirmed by operation in 26 cases and 4 cases by clinic. The cause of SO included adhesion in 9 cases, volvulus in 8 cases, intussusception in 6 cases, infarction of mesenteric vesseles in 4 cases, and internal hernia in 3 cases, respectively. All patients was examined with CT and 20 of them with enhanced CT. Results: Eleven items of CT findings were revealed in these patients. The findings could be divided into 3 types: (1) direct signs: including embolism of mesenteric vasculature in 2 cases and mesenteric edema and related vascular enlargement in 19 cases. (2)indirect signs: including bowel wall edema and thickenning in 24 cases, abnormal enhancement of the wall in 6 cases, massive fluid in the bowel in 13 cases, abnormal form of loops in 10 cases, and hemorrhage of bowel wall and mesentery in 1 case each. (3) complicated signs: including intramural gas in 3 cases, intrahepatic portal veins gas in 1 case, gas in mesentery in 1 case, and ascites and pneumoperitoneum in 11 cases. Conclusion: The CT findings of mesenteric edema, ischemia and infarction are reliable and characteristic signs for diagnosing SO. The diagnosis of SO can be correctly made before operation if these signs are recognized, at the same time, CT may demonstrate some complications which can not be revealed by traditional X-ray examinations. (authors)

  1. Questioning the link between Self-Expressed Attitudes and Repurchasing Behavior: Relations Between Cognitive, Affective and Action Loyalty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guven Ordun

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In psychology attitude is defined as favorable or unfavorable evaluations towards a person, group, object or event. Attitudes are formed by past and present experiences and are expected to change as a function of experience. Three components of the attitude defined as cognitive (what we know about the subject, affective (how we feel towards the subject and behavioral (intention to behave towards the subject. Our behavior is defined as a complex combination of beliefs, feelings, capabilities and norms. The majority of consumer behavior literature examined the main antecedents of purchase behavior. Attitudes are described as one of the most important determinant of the behavior. There are several methods and techniques to assess attitude; the most used one is the self-report paper and pencil measures. Brand loyalty is another important concept related with repetitive purchasing behavior. While cognitive loyalty is related with the information, affective loyalty is related with feelings. Behavioral loyalty is described as the past behaviors or experiences. Some of our behaviors are determined by the cognitive component of the attitude while others may be directed by the affective part. Main focus of the research is to find out whether there is a level of compliance between cognitive, affective and behavioral attitude of consumers. 1000 forms are distributed in order to identify the attitudes and purchasing behaviors of consumers 783 forms are evaluated

  2. Questioning the Link between Self-Expressed Attitudes and Repurchasing Behavior: Relations Between Cognitive, Affective and Action Loyalty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guven Ordun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In psychology attitude is defined as favorable or unfavorable evaluations towards a person, group, object or event. Attitudes are formed by past and present experiences and are expected to change as a function of experience. Three components of the attitude defined as cognitive (what we know about the subject, affective (how we feel towards the subject and behavioral (intention to behave towards the subject. Our behavior is defined as a complex combination of beliefs, feelings, capabilities and norms. The majority of consumer behavior literature examined the main antecedents of purchase behavior. Attitudes are described as one of the most important determinant of the behavior. There are several methods and techniques to assess attitude; the most used one is the self-report paper and pencil measures. Brand loyalty is another important concept related with repetitive purchasing behavior. While cognitive loyalty is related with the information, affective loyalty is related with feelings. Behavioral loyalty is described as the past behaviors or experiences. Some of our behaviors are determined by the cognitive component of the attitude while others may be directed by the affective part. Main focus of the research is to find out whether there is a level of compliance between cognitive, affective and behavioral attitude of consumers. 1000 forms are distributed in order to identify the attitudes and purchasing behaviors of consumers 783 forms are evaluated

  3. Food-related parenting practices and child and adolescent weight and weight-related behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loth, K; Fulkerson, J A; Neumark-Sztainer, D

    2014-03-01

    The prevalence of overweight and obesity in children has reached a concerning plateau in the past three decades, with overweight or obesity impacting approximately one-third of youth. Unhealthy weight-related behaviors, including dieting, unhealthy weight control practices and binge eating, are also a great public health concern for young people given both their high prevalence and harmful consequences. Food-related parenting practices, including food restriction and pressure-to-eat, have been associated with higher weight status, as well as the use of unhealthy weight-related behaviors, in children and adolescents. Physicians and other health care providers who work with families should discourage parents from using food restriction and pressure-to-eat parenting practices with their child or adolescent. Alternatively, parents should be empowered to promote healthy eating by focusing on making nutritious food items readily available within their home and modeling healthy food choices for their child or adolescent.

  4. Chronological Evolution of Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings in Children With Febrile Infection-Related Epilepsy Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas-Coppola, Marianna S; Shah, Namrata; Choudhri, Asim F; Morgan, Robin; Wheless, James W

    2016-02-01

    To describe and analyze the chronological evolution of the radiological findings in seven children with febrile infection-related epilepsy syndrome. This is a retrospective study describing the radiological findings and evolution in seven children with febrile infection-related epilepsy syndrome who presented from 2009 to 2013. The children all fit the defined clinical criteria for febrile infection-related epilepsy syndrome; all had a history of normal psychomotor development who presented with acute-onset catastrophic partial status epilepticus associated with a febrile illness or unspecific infectious process. The children were identified from the author's weekly review of the pediatric inpatient service, and then the data were collected and analyzed retrospectively. Six males and one female ranging from 3 months to 9 years of age presented with status epilepticus preceded by a febrile illness. Extensive investigations for infectious, autoimmune, and metabolic etiologies were unremarkable. Multiple antiepileptic medications were attempted, including drug-induced coma in all of them, with poor response. Immunotherapy with intravenous steroids or intravenous immunoglobulin (three patients had both) was tried in six of seven patients with a poor response. Ketogenic diet was initiated in four of seven patients with limited response. Serial magnetic resonance imaging studies, done from the initial presentation through 18 months of follow-up, showed evolution from normal imaging to severe cerebral atrophy. Progressive cytotoxic edema involving mostly bilateral hippocampi and temporal lobes was appreciated in one to three weeks. At one month from seizure onset, mild to moderate cerebral atrophy and hippocampal sclerosis was appreciated that continued to progress over the next year. After six to twelve months, most of the patients showed moderate to severe cerebral atrophy and by one year, cerebellar atrophy was also appreciated. Febrile infection-related epilepsy

  5. HIV-related social intolerance and risky sexual behavior in a high HIV prevalence environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delavande, Adeline; Sampaio, Mafalda; Sood, Neeraj

    2014-06-01

    Although most countries state that fighting social intolerance against persons with HIV is part of their national HIV strategy, the impact of reducing intolerance on risky sexual behavior is largely unknown. In this paper, we estimate the effect of social intolerance against HIV+ persons on risky sexual behavior in rural Malawi using data from roughly 2000 respondents from the 2004 and 2006 waves of the Malawi Longitudinal Study of Families and Health (MLSFH). The effect of social intolerance on risky behavior is a priori ambiguous. On the one hand, higher social intolerance or stigma can lead people to disassociate from the stigmatized group and hence promote risky behavior. On the other hand, intolerance can be viewed as a social tax on being HIV+ and thus higher intolerance may reduce risky behavior. We find that a decrease in social intolerance is associated with a decrease in risky behavior, including fewer partners and a lower likelihood of having extra-marital relations. This effect is mainly driven by the impact of social intolerance on men. Overall the results suggests that reducing social intolerance might not only benefit the HIV positive but might also forestall the spread of HIV. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Longitudinal relations between adolescents' materialism and prosocial behavior toward family, friends, and strangers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhixu; Fu, Xinyuan; Yu, Xiaoxia; Lv, Yichen

    2018-01-01

    The present study examines the short-term changes and longitudinal relations between adolescents' materialism and prosocial behavior toward family, friends, and strangers over a year. A total of 434 Chinese adolescents (mean age at Time 1 = 11.27; 54% girls) participated in the two time points. From 6 th grade to 7 th grade, boys' and girls' materialism increased, whereas their prosocial behavior toward family, friends, and strangers declined, despite the stable trend in boys' prosocial behavior toward strangers. Furthermore, a cross-lagged model was conducted and the results showed that, adolescent materialism was associated longitudinally with decreased prosocial behavior toward friends and strangers, but not toward family. However, earlier prosocial behavior toward family, friends, and strangers were not associated with subsequent adolescent materialism. The findings point toward an understanding of materialism as a precursor rather than an outcome or byproduct to prosocial behavior. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Gender-Related Quality of Parent-Child Interactions and Early Adolescent Problem Behaviors: Exploratory Study with Midwestern Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoth, Richard; Neppl, Tricia; Goldberg-Lillehoj, Catherine; Jung, Tony; Ramisetty-Mikler, Suhasini

    2006-01-01

    This article reports two exploratory studies testing a model guided by a social interactional perspective, positing an inverse relation between the quality of parent-child interactions and adolescent problem behaviors. It addresses mixed findings in the literature related to gender differences. Study 1 uses cross-sectional survey data from…

  8. Radiological findings in symphyseal and adductor-related groin pain in athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branci, Sonia; Thorborg, Kristian; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann

    2013-01-01

    and imaging techniques. The authors performed a review of the existing original evidence-based radiological literature involving radiography, ultrasonography and MRI in athletes with long-standing symphyseal and adductor-related groin pain. Our search yielded 17 original articles, of which 12 were dedicated......Long-standing symphyseal and adductor-related groin pain is a common problem for many athletes, and requires a multidisciplinary approach. Radiological evaluation of symptomatic individuals is a cornerstone in the diagnostic workup, and should be based on precise and reliable diagnostic terms...... to MRI, four to radiography and one to ultrasonography. Four main radiological findings seem to consistently appear: degenerative changes at the pubic symphyseal joint, pathology at the adductor muscle insertions, pubic bone marrow oedema and the secondary cleft sign. However, the existing diagnostic...

  9. ADHD-related symptoms, emotional/behavioral problems, and physical conditions in Taiwanese children with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Fang-Ju; Liu, Shu-Tsen; Lee, Chi-Mei; Lee, Wang-Tso; Fan, Pi-Chuan; Lin, Wei-Sheng; Chiu, Yen-Nan; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2013-07-01

    Little is known about whether Asian children with epilepsy have more attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-related symptoms, emotional/ behavioral problems, and physical conditions compared with those described in Western studies. The authors investigated the rates of ADHD-related symptoms, emotional/behavioral problems, and physical conditions among pediatric patients with epilepsy. We recruited 61 patients with epilepsy, aged 6-16 years, and 122 age-, sex-, and parental education-matched school controls. Data on demographics, parental reports on the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham, version IV scale (SNAP-IV), and medical records were collected. The average full-scale intelligence quotient of the case group was 95.8. There were 11 (18.0%), 7 (11.5%), 26 (42.6%), and 26 (42.6%) of children with epilepsy ever clinically diagnosed with developmental delay, overt ADHD symptoms, allergies reported by physicians, and behavior problems measured by the CBCL, respectively. Those children with epilepsy had more severe ADHD-related symptoms and a wider range of emotional/behavioral problems than controls (Cohen's d 0.36-0.80). The rate of potential cases of ADHD among children with epilepsy was 24.6%. A history of developmental delay predicted ADHD- related symptoms and internalizing and externalizing problems. Among children with epilepsy, a longer duration of treatment with antiepileptic drugs predicted externalizing problems, and an earlier onset of epilepsy predicted inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity. Our findings imply that clinicians should assess physical and emotional/behavioral problems among children with epilepsy in order to provide interventions to offset possible adverse psychiatric outcomes. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. The relation between serum vitamin D levels and clinical findings of fibromyalgia syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurcan Kılıç Baygutalp

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective:This study was performed to identify serum 25-OH vitamin D levels and to investigate the relationship between 25-OH vitamin D and clinical findings on patients with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS. Methods:Nineteen premenopausal women with FMS who were diagnosed according to ACR 1990 fibromyalgia diagnostic criteria and 24 premenopausal healthy women as control group were included in the study. Serum 25-OH vitamin D levels were determined in both patient and control groups. Widespread body pain, headache, fatigue, morning stiffness, sleep disorder, the number of tender points, Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ scores and Beck depression scores were evaluated as clinical findings in patients with FMS. Results:Serum 25-OH vitamin D levels were significantly lower in patients with FMS than those in control group (p=0.01. There were significantly negative correlations between 25-OH vitamin D levels and widespread body pain (r=-0.731, Beck depression scores (r=-0.777, headache (r=-0.629, and sleep disorder (r=-0.767 in the FMS group (p<0.01. Conclusion: It was concluded that 25-OH vitamin D deficiency may be related to the clinical findings such as widespread body pain, depression, headache and sleep disorder in patients with FMS.

  11. Triton-3He relative and differential flows and the high density behavior of nuclear symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yong, Gaochan; Li, Baoan; Chen, Liewen

    2010-01-01

    Using a transport model coupled with a phase-space coalescence after-burner we study the triton- 3 He relative and differential transverse flows in semi-central 132 Sn + 124 Sn reactions at a beam energy of 400 MeV/nucleon. We find that the triton- 3 He pairs carry interesting information about the density dependence of the nuclear symmetry energy. The t- 3 He relative flow can be used as a particularly powerful probe of the high-density behavior of the nuclear symmetry energy. (author)

  12. Recognition memory: a review of the critical findings and an integrated theory for relating them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmberg, Kenneth J

    2008-12-01

    The development of formal models has aided theoretical progress in recognition memory research. Here, I review the findings that are critical for testing them, including behavioral and brain imaging results of single-item recognition, plurality discrimination, and associative recognition experiments under a variety of testing conditions. I also review the major approaches to measurement and process modeling of recognition. The review indicates that several extant dual-process measures of recollection are unreliable, and thus they are unsuitable as a basis for forming strong conclusions. At the process level, however, the retrieval dynamics of recognition memory and the effect of strengthening operations suggest that a recall-to-reject process plays an important role in plurality discrimination and associative recognition, but not necessarily in single-item recognition. A new theoretical framework proposes that the contribution of recollection to recognition depends on whether the retrieval of episodic details improves accuracy, and it organizes the models around the construct of efficiency. Accordingly, subjects adopt strategies that they believe will produce a desired level of accuracy in the shortest amount of time. Several models derived from this framework are shown to account the accuracy, latency, and confidence with which the various recognition tasks are performed.

  13. Gender differences in adolescent coping behaviors and suicidal ideation: findings from a sample of 73,238 adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun Mi; Han, Doug Hyun; Trksak, George H; Lee, Young Sik

    2014-01-01

    Suicide among adolescents is an emerging global public health problem as well as a socioeconomic problem. Stress-coping strategies have been shown to be associated with suicidal ideation. We examined coping behaviors related to suicidal ideation and gender differences in adolescents using the data from the 2010 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Survey (ages 12-19 years; N = 73,238). Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate associations between suicidal ideation and specific coping behaviors while controlling for potentially confounding variables. In both male and female groups, the coping behavior "drinking alcoholic beverages" and "smoking cigarettes" were positively associated with suicidal ideation. "Watching TV," "playing online/mobile games," and "sleeping" were negatively associated with suicidal ideation in both groups. In males, "engaging in sports" was negatively related to suicidal ideation. In females, "venting by talking to others" and "eating" were negatively related to suicidal ideation. The results indicate that there are gender differences in the effects of coping behaviors on adolescent suicidal ideation, and that developing adaptive coping strategies may function to reduce suicidality. Future studies are needed to examine whether improving coping skills can reduce suicidal ideation in a gender-specific manner.

  14. A newly identified group of adolescents at "invisible" risk for psychopathology and suicidal behavior: findings from the SEYLE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carli, Vladimir; Hoven, Christina W; Wasserman, Camilla; Chiesa, Flaminia; Guffanti, Guia; Sarchiapone, Marco; Apter, Alan; Balazs, Judit; Brunner, Romuald; Corcoran, Paul; Cosman, Doina; Haring, Christian; Iosue, Miriam; Kaess, Michael; Kahn, Jean Pierre; Keeley, Helen; Postuvan, Vita; Saiz, Pilar; Varnik, Airi; Wasserman, Danuta

    2014-02-01

    This study explored the prevalence of risk behaviors (excessive alcohol use, illegal drug use, heavy smoking, reduced sleep, overweight, underweight, sedentary behavior, high use of Internet/TV/videogames for reasons not related to school or work, and truancy), and their association with psychopathology and self-destructive behaviors, in a sample of 12,395 adolescents recruited in randomly selected schools across 11 European countries. Latent class analysis identified three groups of adolescents: a low-risk group (57.8%) including pupils with low or very low frequency of risk behaviors; a high-risk group (13.2%) including pupils who scored high on all risk behaviors, and a third group ("invisible" risk, 29%) including pupils who were positive for high use of Internet/TV/videogames for reasons not related to school or work, sedentary behavior and reduced sleep. Pupils in the "invisible" risk group, compared with the high-risk group, had a similar prevalence of suicidal thoughts (42.2% vs. 44%), anxiety (8% vs. 9.2%), subthreshold depression (33.2% vs. 34%) and depression (13.4% vs. 14.7%). The prevalence of suicide attempts was 5.9% in the "invisible" group, 10.1% in the high-risk group and 1.7% in the low-risk group. The prevalence of all risk behaviors increased with age and most of them were significantly more frequent among boys. Girls were significantly more likely to experience internalizing (emotional) psychiatric symptoms. The "invisible" group may represent an important new intervention target group for potentially reducing psychopathology and other untoward outcomes in adolescence, including suicidal behavior. Copyright © 2014 World Psychiatric Association.

  15. Thermodynamic behavior of glassy state of structurally related compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushal, Aditya Mohan; Bansal, Arvind Kumar

    2008-08-01

    Thermodynamic properties of amorphous pharmaceutical forms are responsible for enhanced solubility as well as poor physical stability. The present study was designed to investigate the differences in thermodynamic parameters arising out of disparate molecular structures and associations for four structurally related pharmaceutical compounds--celecoxib, valdecoxib, rofecoxib, and etoricoxib. Conventional and modulated temperature differential scanning calorimetry were employed to study glass forming ability and thermodynamic behavior of the glassy state of model compounds. Glass transition temperature of four glassy compounds was in a close range of 327.6-331.8 K, however, other thermodynamic parameters varied considerably. Kauzmann temperature, strength parameter and fragility parameter showed rofecoxib glass to be most fragile of the four compounds. Glass forming ability of the compounds fared similar in the critical cooling rate experiments, suggesting that different factors were determining the glass forming ability and subsequent behavior of the compounds in glassy state. A comprehensive understanding of such thermodynamic facets of amorphous form would help in rationalizing the approaches towards development of stable glassy pharmaceuticals.

  16. Treatment of addiction and addiction-related behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewey, Stephen L. (Manorville, NY); Brodie, Jonathan D. (Cos Cob, CT); Ashby, Jr., Charles R. (Miller Place, NY)

    2003-01-01

    The present invention provides a highly efficient method for treating substance addiction and for changing addiction-related behavior of a mammal suffering from substance addiction. The method includes administering to a mammal an effective amount of gamma vinylGABA or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. The present invention also provides a method of treatment of cocaine, morphine, heroin, nicotine, amphetamine, methamphetamine, or ethanol addiction by treating a mammal with an effective amount of gamma vinylGABA or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. In one embodiment, the method of the present invention includes administering to the mammal an effective amount of a composition which increases central nervous system GABA levels wherein the effective amount is sufficient to diminish, inhibit or eliminate behavior associated with craving or use of drugs of abuse. The composition includes GVG, gabapentin, valproic acid, progabide, gamma-hydroxybutyric acid, fengabine, cetylGABA, topiramate or tiagabine or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, or an enantiomer or a racemic mixture thereof.

  17. Parental educational practices in relation to children's anxiety disorder-related behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellon, Robert C; Moutavelis, Adrianos G

    2011-08-01

    Schoolchildren reported their parents' use of aversive control and positive reinforcement contingencies in their educational interventions, as well as parental non-responsiveness to their requests for educational assistance. They also reported their own levels of six dimensions of anxiety disorder-related phenomena. Both parental use of aversive control and non-responsiveness were directly related to overall levels of child anxiety disorder-related behavior; these correlations were more robust than those observed in previous investigations of more diffuse dimensions of parenting style and trait anxiety. Panic disorder/agoraphobia and Generalized anxiety disorder were the dimensions most strongly correlated with both parental aversive control and non-responsiveness, while Compulsive behavior was uniquely uncorrelated with parental non-responsiveness and uniquely correlated with parental use of positive reinforcement contingencies. Differences in the magnitudes of correlations between anxiety disorder-related dimensions and parental educational practices are interpreted in terms of the probable differential effectiveness of their constituent behaviors in terminating parent-mediated negative reinforcers. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Enterovirus 71-related encephalomyelitis: usual and unusual magnetic resonance imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Seonah; Suh, Sang-Il; Ha, Su Min; Seol, Hae-Young [Korea University Guro Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Byeon, Jung Hye; Eun, Baik-Lin [Korea University Guro Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Hen; Seo, Hyung Suk [Korea University Ansan Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Ansan (Korea, Republic of); Eun, So-Hee [Korea University Ansan Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Ansan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    Most enterovirus (EV) 71 infections manifest as mild cases of hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD)/herpangina with seasonal variations, having peak incidence during the summer. Meanwhile, EV 71 may involve the central nervous system (CNS), causing severe neurologic disease. In many cases, enteroviral encephalomyelitis involves the central midbrain, posterior portion of the medulla oblongata and pons, bilateral dentate nuclei of the cerebellum, and the ventral roots of the cervical spinal cord, and the lesions show hyperintensity on T2-weighted and fluid-attenuation inversion recovery (FLAIR) images. Our goal was to review usual and unusual magnetic resonance (MR) findings in CNS involvement of enteroviral infection. Among consecutive patients who had HFMD and clinically suspected encephalitis or myelitis and who underwent brain or spinal MR imaging, five patients revealed abnormal MR findings. Diffusion-weighted and conventional MR and follow-up MR images were obtained. From cerebrospinal fluid, stool, or nasopharyngeal swabs, EV 71 was confirmed in all patients. MR imaging studies of two patients showed hyperintensity in the posterior portion of the brainstem on T2-weighted and FLAIR images, which is the well-known MR finding of EV 71 encephalitis. The remaining three cases revealed unusual manifestations: leptomeningeal enhancement, abnormal enhancement along the ventral roots at the conus medullaris level without brain involvement, and hyperintensity in the left hippocampus on T2/FLAIR images. EV 71 encephalomyelitis shows relatively characteristic MR findings; therefore, imaging can be helpful in radiologic diagnosis. However, physicians should also be aware of unusual radiologic manifestations of EV 71. (orig.)

  19. Enterovirus 71-related encephalomyelitis: usual and unusual magnetic resonance imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Seonah; Suh, Sang-Il; Ha, Su Min; Seol, Hae-Young; Byeon, Jung Hye; Eun, Baik-Lin; Lee, Young Hen; Seo, Hyung Suk; Eun, So-Hee

    2012-01-01

    Most enterovirus (EV) 71 infections manifest as mild cases of hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD)/herpangina with seasonal variations, having peak incidence during the summer. Meanwhile, EV 71 may involve the central nervous system (CNS), causing severe neurologic disease. In many cases, enteroviral encephalomyelitis involves the central midbrain, posterior portion of the medulla oblongata and pons, bilateral dentate nuclei of the cerebellum, and the ventral roots of the cervical spinal cord, and the lesions show hyperintensity on T2-weighted and fluid-attenuation inversion recovery (FLAIR) images. Our goal was to review usual and unusual magnetic resonance (MR) findings in CNS involvement of enteroviral infection. Among consecutive patients who had HFMD and clinically suspected encephalitis or myelitis and who underwent brain or spinal MR imaging, five patients revealed abnormal MR findings. Diffusion-weighted and conventional MR and follow-up MR images were obtained. From cerebrospinal fluid, stool, or nasopharyngeal swabs, EV 71 was confirmed in all patients. MR imaging studies of two patients showed hyperintensity in the posterior portion of the brainstem on T2-weighted and FLAIR images, which is the well-known MR finding of EV 71 encephalitis. The remaining three cases revealed unusual manifestations: leptomeningeal enhancement, abnormal enhancement along the ventral roots at the conus medullaris level without brain involvement, and hyperintensity in the left hippocampus on T2/FLAIR images. EV 71 encephalomyelitis shows relatively characteristic MR findings; therefore, imaging can be helpful in radiologic diagnosis. However, physicians should also be aware of unusual radiologic manifestations of EV 71. (orig.)

  20. Understanding Health and Health-Related Behavior of Users of Internet Health Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimble, Matt

    2016-10-01

    Little is known about how actual use of Internet health-related information is associated with health or health-related behavior. Using a nationally representative sample of 34,525 from 2012, this study examined the demographics of users of Internet health-related information (users), reports estimates of association with several health and behavioral outcomes adjusting for demographic factors, and analyzed the sample by education level, race, gender, and age. Analysis of a large nationally representative sample shows evidence that users of health-related information (users) on the Internet are younger, more educated, more likely to be insured, more likely to be female, and less likely to be African American. After adjusting for demographic differences, users are more likely to have been diagnosed with hypertension, cancer, stroke, and high cholesterol, but no evidence of current hypertension, weight-related issues, or being in fair or poor health. Users are less likely to smoke and among smokers are more likely to attempt quitting. Users are more likely to exercise, get a flu shot, pap smear, mammogram, HIV test, colon cancer screening, blood pressure check, and cholesterol check, but likely to be heavy drinkers. With few exceptions, results appear robust across gender, age groups, level of education, and ethnicity. Use is generally positively associated with prior diagnosis for several conditions and behaviors related to improved health, but I find no relationship with existing health status. The association between use of health-related Internet information and health-related behavior seems robust across levels of education, age, gender, and race.

  1. Relations of Behavioral Autonomy to Health Outcomes Among Emerging Adults With and Without Type 1 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Kerry A.; Becker, Dorothy; Escobar, Oscar; Siminerio, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the relation of behavioral autonomy to psychological, behavioral, and physical health among emerging adults with and without type 1 diabetes. Methods High school seniors with (n = 118) and without type 1 diabetes (n = 122) completed online questionnaires for three consecutive years. Behavioral autonomy, psychological health, risk behaviors, and diabetes outcomes were assessed. Regression analyses were conducted to predict Time 2 and 3 outcomes, controlling for Time 1 outcomes. Results There were no group differences in behavioral autonomy. Behavioral autonomy predicted better psychological health but only for emerging adults without diabetes. Behavioral autonomy was related to increased risk behavior for both groups. Behavioral autonomy was unrelated to self-care but predicted better glycemic control for females. Conclusions Behavioral autonomy may be beneficial for psychological health, but is related to increased risk behavior. The implications of behavioral autonomy for emerging adults with type 1 diabetes require careful consideration. PMID:25157070

  2. Egg turning behavior and incubation temperature in Forster’s terns in relation to mercury contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Gregory T.; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Shaffer, Scott A.

    2018-01-01

    Egg turning behavior is an important determinant of egg hatchability, but it remains relatively understudied. Here, we examined egg turning rates and egg temperatures in Forster’s terns (Sterna forsteri). We used artificial eggs containing a data logger with a 3-D accelerometer, a magnetometer, and a temperature thermistor to monitor parental incubation behavior of 131 tern nests. Overall, adults turned their eggs an average (±SD) of 3.8 ± 0.8 turns h-1, which is nearly two times higher than that of other seabirds. Egg turning rates increased with nest initiation date. We also examined egg turning rates and egg temperatures in relation to egg mercury contamination. Mercury contamination has been shown to be associated with reduced egg hatchability, and we hypothesized that mercury may decrease egg hatchability via altered egg turning behavior by parents. Despite the high variability in egg turning rates among individuals, the rate of egg turning was not related to mercury concentrations in sibling eggs. These findings highlight the need for further study concerning the potential determinants of egg turning behavior.

  3. Social Networking Technology Use and Engagement in HIV Related Risk and Protective Behaviors among Homeless Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman-Adhikari, Anamika; Rice, Eric; Bender, Kimberly; Lengnick-Hall, Rebecca; Yoshioka-Maxwell, Amanda; Rhoades, Harmony

    2016-01-01

    Preliminary studies with homeless youth find surprisingly pervasive social media use and suggest youths’ online interactions may be associated with their HIV-related risk and protective behaviors. As homeless youth are transient and difficult to engage in place-based services, social media may represent a novel venue for intervention. A critical first step in intervention development is gaining greater understanding of how homeless youth use social media especially as it relates to whom they connect to and around what topics. Given the salience of Social Networking Sites in the lives of these otherwise difficult to reach adolescents, and their potential to disseminate prevention interventions, this study assessed associations between online social networking technology use and HIV risk behaviors among homeless youth in Los Angeles, California. Homeless youth ages 13 through 24 (N=1046) were recruited through three drop-in centers and surveyed about their social media use and self-reported HIV-related risk behaviors. Results suggest that social media use is widely prevalent among this population, and the content of these online interactions is associated with whether or not they engage in risk or protective behaviors. Implications for interventions and further research are discussed. PMID:27337044

  4. Motor behavioral abnormalities and histopathological findings of Wistar rats inoculated with HTLV-1-infected MT2 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.C. Câmara

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to describe motor behavioral changes in association with histopathological and hematological findings in Wistar rats inoculated intravenously with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1-infected MT2 cells. Twenty-five 4-month-old male rats were inoculated with HTLV-1-infected MT2 cells and 13 control rats were inoculated with normal human lymphocytes. The behavior of the rats was observed before and 5, 10, 15, and 20 months after inoculation during a 30-min/rat testing time for 5 consecutive days. During each of 4 periods, a subset of rats was randomly chosen to be sacrificed in order to harvest the spinal cord for histopathological analysis and to obtain blood for serological and molecular studies. Behavioral analyses of the HTLV-1-inoculated rats showed a significant decrease of climbing, walking and freezing, and an increase of scratching, sniffing, biting, licking, and resting/sleeping. Two of the 25 HTLV-1-inoculated rats (8% developed spastic paraparesis as a major behavioral change. The histopathological changes were few and mild, but in some cases there was diffuse lymphocyte infiltration. The minor and major behavioral changes occurred after 10-20 months of evolution. The long-term observation of Wistar rats inoculated with HTLV-1-infected MT2 cells showed major (spastic paraparesis and minor motor abnormalities in association with the degree of HTLV-1-induced myelopathy.

  5. High-Throughput Behavioral Screens: the First Step towards Finding Genes Involved in Vertebrate Brain Function Using Zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Gerlai

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The zebrafish has been in the forefront of developmental biology for three decades and has become a favorite of geneticists. Due to the accumulated genetic knowledge and tools developed for the zebrafish it is gaining popularity in other disciplines, including neuroscience. The zebrafish offers a compromise between system complexity (it is a vertebrate similar in many ways to our own species and practical simplicity (it is small, easy to keep, and prolific. Such features make zebrafish an excellent choice for high throughput mutation and drug screening. For the identification of mutation or drug induced alteration of brain function arguably the best methods are behavioral test paradigms. This review does not present experimental examples for the identification of particular genes or drugs. Instead it describes how behavioral screening methods may enable one to find functional alterations in the vertebrate brain. Furthermore, the review is not comprehensive. The behavioral test examples presented are biased according to the personal interests of the author. They will cover research areas including learning and memory, fear and anxiety, and social behavior. Nevertheless, the general principles will apply to other functional domains and should represent a snapshot of the rapidly evolving behavioral screening field with zebrafish.

  6. ASIC1A in neurons is critical for fear-related behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taugher, R J; Lu, Y; Fan, R; Ghobbeh, A; Kreple, C J; Faraci, F M; Wemmie, J A

    2017-11-01

    Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) have been implicated in fear-, addiction- and depression-related behaviors in mice. While these effects have been attributed to ASIC1A in neurons, it has been reported that ASICs may also function in nonneuronal cells. To determine if ASIC1A in neurons is indeed required, we generated neuron-specific knockout (KO) mice with floxed Asic1a alleles disrupted by Cre recombinase driven by the neuron-specific synapsin I promoter (SynAsic1a KO mice). We confirmed that Cre expression occurred in neurons, but not all neurons, and not in nonneuronal cells including astrocytes. Consequent loss of ASIC1A in some but not all neurons was verified by western blotting, immunohistochemistry and electrophysiology. We found ASIC1A was disrupted in fear circuit neurons, and SynAsic1a KO mice exhibited prominent deficits in multiple fear-related behaviors including Pavlovian fear conditioning to cue and context, predator odor-evoked freezing and freezing responses to carbon dioxide inhalation. In contrast, in the nucleus accumbens ASIC1A expression was relatively normal in SynAsic1a KO mice, and consistent with this observation, cocaine conditioned place preference (CPP) was normal. Interestingly, depression-related behavior in the forced swim test, which has been previously linked to ASIC1A in the amygdala, was also normal. Together, these data suggest neurons are an important site of ASIC1A action in fear-related behaviors, whereas other behaviors likely depend on ASIC1A in other neurons or cell types not targeted in SynAsic1a KO mice. These findings highlight the need for further work to discern the roles of ASICs in specific cell types and brain sites. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  7. Relating gastric scintigraphy and symptoms to motility capsule transit and pressure findings in suspected gastroparesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasler, W L; May, K P; Wilson, L A; Van Natta, M; Parkman, H P; Pasricha, P J; Koch, K L; Abell, T L; McCallum, R W; Nguyen, L A; Snape, W J; Sarosiek, I; Clarke, J O; Farrugia, G; Calles-Escandon, J; Grover, M; Tonascia, J; Lee, L A; Miriel, L; Hamilton, F A

    2018-02-01

    Wireless motility capsule (WMC) findings are incompletely defined in suspected gastroparesis. We aimed to characterize regional WMC transit and contractility in relation to scintigraphy, etiology, and symptoms in patients undergoing gastric emptying testing. A total of 209 patients with gastroparesis symptoms at NIDDK Gastroparesis Consortium centers underwent gastric scintigraphy and WMCs on separate days to measure regional transit and contractility. Validated questionnaires quantified symptoms. Solid scintigraphy and liquid scintigraphy were delayed in 68.8% and 34.8% of patients; WMC gastric emptying times (GET) were delayed in 40.3% and showed 52.8% agreement with scintigraphy; 15.5% and 33.5% had delayed small bowel (SBTT) and colon transit (CTT) times. Transit was delayed in ≥2 regions in 23.3%. Rapid transit was rarely observed. Diabetics had slower GET but more rapid SBTT versus idiopathics (P ≤ .02). GET delays related to greater scintigraphic retention, slower SBTT, and fewer gastric contractions (P ≤ .04). Overall gastroparesis symptoms and nausea/vomiting, early satiety/fullness, bloating/distention, and upper abdominal pain subscores showed no relation to WMC transit. Upper and lower abdominal pain scores (P ≤ .03) were greater with increased colon contractions. Constipation correlated with slower CTT and higher colon contractions (P = .03). Diarrhea scores were higher with delayed SBTT and CTT (P ≤ .04). Wireless motility capsules define gastric emptying delays similar but not identical to scintigraphy that are more severe in diabetics and relate to reduced gastric contractility. Extragastric transit delays occur in >40% with suspected gastroparesis. Gastroparesis symptoms show little association with WMC profiles, although lower symptoms relate to small bowel or colon abnormalities. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Suicidal behavior-related hospitalizations among pregnant women in the USA, 2006-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Qiu-Yue; Gelaye, Bizu; Miller, Matthew; Fricchione, Gregory L; Cai, Tianxi; Johnson, Paula A; Henderson, David C; Williams, Michelle A

    2016-06-01

    Suicide is one of the leading causes of maternal mortality in many countries, but little is known about the epidemiology of suicide and suicidal behavior among pregnant women in the USA. We sought to examine trends and provide nationally representative estimates for suicidal behavior (including suicidal ideation and suicide and self-inflicted injury) among pregnant women from 2006 to 2012 in the USA. Pregnant women aged 12-55 years were identified through pregnancy- and delivery-related hospitalization records from the National (Nationwide) Inpatient Sample. Suicidal behavior was identified by the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes. Annual, nationwide estimates and trends were determined using discharge and hospital weights. The prevalence of suicidal ideation more than doubled from 2006 to 2012 (47.5 to 115.0 per 100,000 pregnancy- and delivery-related hospitalizations), whereas the prevalence of suicide and self-inflicted injury remained stable. Nearly 10 % of suicidal behavior occurred in the 12-18-year group, showing the highest prevalence per 100,000 pregnancy- and delivery-related hospitalizations (158.8 in 2006 and 308.7 in 2012) over the study period. For suicidal ideation, blacks had higher prevalence than whites; women in the lowest income quartile had the highest prevalence. Although the prevalence of suicidal behavior was higher among hospitalizations with depression diagnoses, more than 30 % of hospitalizations were for suicidal behavior without depression diagnoses. Our findings highlight the increasing burden and racial differences in suicidal ideation among US pregnant women. Targeted suicide prevention efforts are needed for high-risk pregnant women including teens, blacks, and low-income women.

  9. Fire-related post-traumatic stress disorder: brain 1H-MR spetroscopic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Myung Kwan; Suh, Chang Hae; Kim, Hyung Jin; Kim, Sung Tae; Lee, Jeong Seop; Kang, Min Hee; Kim, Ji Hye; Lee, Jung Hee

    2003-01-01

    To investigate the MR imaging and 1 H-MR spectroscopic findings of acute fire-related post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Sixteen patients (M:F=10:6; mean age, 16 years) with fire-related PTSD underwent MR imagine and 1 H-MR spectroscopy, and for control purposes, the procedures were repeated in eight age-matched normal volunteers. In all patients and controls, the regions of interest where data were acquired at MRS were the basal ganglia (BG), frontal periventricular white matter (FWM), and parietal periventricular white matter (PWM). In all patients with PTSD, MR images appeared normal. In contrast, MRS showed that in the BG, NAA/Cr ratios were significantly lower in patients than in volunteers. This decrease did not, however, show close correlation with the severity of the neuropsychiatric symptoms. In patients, neither NAA/Cr ratios in FWM nor PWM, nor Cho/Cr ratios in all three regions, were significantly different from those in the control group. Decreased NAA/Cr ratios in the BG, as seen at 1 H-MRS, might be an early sign of acute fire-related PTSD

  10. Fire-related post-traumatic stress disorder: brain {sup 1}H-MR spetroscopic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Myung Kwan; Suh, Chang Hae; Kim, Hyung Jin; Kim, Sung Tae; Lee, Jeong Seop; Kang, Min Hee [Inha University Hospital College of Medicine, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ji Hye [Gachon Medical School, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jung Hee [National Institute of Neurologic Disorders and Stroke, Bethesda (United States)

    2003-06-01

    To investigate the MR imaging and {sup 1}H-MR spectroscopic findings of acute fire-related post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Sixteen patients (M:F=10:6; mean age, 16 years) with fire-related PTSD underwent MR imagine and {sup 1}H-MR spectroscopy, and for control purposes, the procedures were repeated in eight age-matched normal volunteers. In all patients and controls, the regions of interest where data were acquired at MRS were the basal ganglia (BG), frontal periventricular white matter (FWM), and parietal periventricular white matter (PWM). In all patients with PTSD, MR images appeared normal. In contrast, MRS showed that in the BG, NAA/Cr ratios were significantly lower in patients than in volunteers. This decrease did not, however, show close correlation with the severity of the neuropsychiatric symptoms. In patients, neither NAA/Cr ratios in FWM nor PWM, nor Cho/Cr ratios in all three regions, were significantly different from those in the control group. Decreased NAA/Cr ratios in the BG, as seen at {sup 1}H-MRS, might be an early sign of acute fire-related PTSD.

  11. Preliminary findings on associations between moral emotions and social behavior in young children with normal hearing and with cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketelaar, Lizet; Wiefferink, Carin H; Frijns, Johan H M; Broekhof, Evelien; Rieffe, Carolien

    2015-11-01

    Moral emotions such as shame, guilt and pride are the result of an evaluation of the own behavior as (morally) right or wrong. The capacity to experience moral emotions is thought to be an important driving force behind socially appropriate behavior. The relationship between moral emotions and social behavior in young children has not been studied extensively in normally hearing (NH) children, let alone in those with a hearing impairment. This study compared young children with hearing impairments who have a cochlear implant (CI) to NH peers regarding the extent to which they display moral emotions, and how this relates to their social functioning and language skills. Responses of 184 NH children and 60 children with CI (14-61 months old) to shame-/guilt- and pride-inducing events were observed. Parents reported on their children's social competence and externalizing behavior, and experimenters observed children's cooperative behavior. To examine the role of communication in the development of moral emotions and social behavior, children's language skills were assessed. Results show that children with CI displayed moral emotions to a lesser degree than NH children. An association between moral emotions and social functioning was found in the NH group, but not in the CI group. General language skills were unrelated to moral emotions in the CI group, yet emotion vocabulary was related to social functioning in both groups of children. We conclude that facilitating emotion language skills has the potential to promote children's social functioning, and could contribute to a decrease in behavioral problems in children with CI specifically. Future studies should examine in greater detail which factors are associated with the development of moral emotions, particularly in children with CI. Some possible directions for future research are discussed.

  12. Leadership Is Positively Related to Athletic Training Students' Clinical Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutz, Matthew R.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Leadership development by health professionals positively affects patient outcomes. Objective: To 1) determine if there is any relationship between demonstrated leadership behaviors and clinical behaviors among entry-level AT students (ATS); 2) to explore if the level of leadership behavior changes between ATS level; and 3) to determine…

  13. Socioeconomic differences in adolescent health-related behavior differ by gender

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pitel, Lukas y; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; van Dijk, Jitse P.

    BACKGROUND: Many studies of adolescent health-related behaviors have assessed the effects of gender and parental socioeconomic position (SEP) but not their mutual modification. We investigated socioeconomic differences in health-related behaviors among Slovak adolescents and the potential

  14. Advertising, marketing and purchase behavior for energy-related products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiedemann, K.; Nelson, D.

    1998-07-01

    Energy conservation programs have relied heavily on incentives and regulatory standards to reduce residential energy consumption. However, in the changing market environment characterized by competitive pressures, alternative mechanisms such as marketing and promotions may increase substantially in importance compared to the demand-side management programs which have been the focus of most research. This paper describes the role of marketing and promotions in encouraging energy efficiency at the household level in British Columbia. The paper examines three related issues: first, the purchase process for energy-related products; second, the criteria used by customers in making purchase decisions; and third, the impact and effectiveness of alternative marketing tools. A key finding is the energy-related purchases do not fall into the impulse purchase category. There are two reasons for this: first, most of these products require installation and this requires a high level of commitment on the part of the purchaser; second, many energy-related products require a significant outlay of funds and this reduces impulse buying.

  15. On the Relative Importance of Corporate Working Capital Determinants: Findings from the EU Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Koralun-Bereźnicka

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The corporate finance literature traditionally abounds in both theoretical discussion and empirical research concerning financing and long-term investment decisions. Managing short-term resources appears to be a much less remarkable issue, despite this resource’s significant share of a firm’s balance sheet and the time and effort required to manage the current assets and liabilities. This article provides insights into the relative importance of the selected working capital determinants from the European Union perspective. The determinants considered in the study include both external and internal factors, specifically the country in which a company operates, its industrial classification and the firm size. Using more than 10,000 aggregated observations from a sample of firms from 13 industries, 9 countries and 3 group sizes, covering the period 2000-2009, the findings provide evidence that corporate working capital is most affected by country-specific factors, followed by industrial factors and firm size.

  16. The "RAPID" cognitive-behavioral therapy program for inattentive children: preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Susan

    2013-08-01

    The objectives of the current study were to ascertain feasibility and acceptability of directly delivering a cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) group intervention for inattentive children in a school setting, to examine the reliability of the RATE-CQuestionnaires that accompany the program, and to determine whether they can be used to measure outcome. Eighty-eight parents/carers, their children (age 8-11), and teachers at mainstream primary schools in London participated by completing the RATE-C Questionnaires; 48 participated in the group treatment following which the Questionnaires were readministered together with a semistructured interview. The intervention had a completion rate of 92%. Postgroup interviews supported the acceptability of a direct intervention with young children. Reliability of the RATE-C Total scores was excellent for parent/carer, child, and teacher ratings; postintervention parent/carer ratings indicated significant improvement on scales of attention, emotion, and conduct with medium to large effect. The results support the reliability of the RATE-C Scales, and feasibility and acceptability of the RAPID intervention.

  17. Self-monitoring Lifestyle Behavior in Overweight and Obese Pregnant Women: Qualitative Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shieh, Carol; Draucker, Claire Burke

    Excessive maternal gestational weight gain increases pregnancy and infant complications. Self-monitoring has been shown to be an effective strategy in weight management. Literature, however, is limited in describing pregnant women's engagement in self-monitoring. This qualitative study explored the experiences of overweight and obese pregnant women who self-monitored their eating, walking, and weight as participants in an intervention for excessive gestational weight gain prevention. Thirteen overweight and obese pregnant women participated in semistructured interviews. Reflexive iteration data analysis was conducted. Five themes were identified: making self-monitoring a habit, strategies for self-monitoring, barriers to self-monitoring, benefits of self-monitoring, and drawbacks of self-monitoring. The women viewed self-monitoring as a "habit" that could foster a sense of self-control and mindfulness. Visual or tracing aids were used to maintain the self-monitoring habit. Forgetting, defective tracking aids, complexities of food monitoring, and life events could impede self-monitoring. Being unable to keep up with self-monitoring or to achieve goals created stress. Self-monitoring is a promising approach to weight management for overweight and obese pregnant women. However, healthcare providers should be aware that, although women may identify several benefits to self-monitoring, for some women, consistently trying to track their behaviors is stressful.

  18. Do people agree about the causes of behavior? A social relations analysis of behavior ratings and causal attributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robins, Richard W; Mendelsohn, Gerald A; Connell, Joanie B; Kwan, Virginia S Y

    2004-02-01

    Two studies examined consistency and agreement in behavior ratings and causal attributions. In Study 1, participants (N = 280) engaged in a series of getting-acquainted conversations in one of 3 communication media (face-to-face, telephone, computer mediated); in Study 2, participants (N = 120) engaged in a competitive group task. In both studies, participants rated themselves and their interaction partners on a set of behaviors and then made attributions about the causes of those behaviors. The major findings were that (a) participants consistently favored some causal factors over others in explaining both their own and their partners' behavior, supporting the existence of generalized attributional styles; and (b) participants showed moderate self-partner and partner-partner agreement about behavior but virtually no agreement about the causes of behavior. Thus, in brief interactions people tend to see themselves and others through the lens of their stable patterns of perceiving and interpreting behavior.

  19. Storm-Related Carbon Monoxide Poisoning: An Investigation of Target Audience Knowledge and Risk Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damon, Scott A; Poehlman, Jon A; Rupert, Douglas J; Williams, Peyton N

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisonings in the United States consistently occur when residents improperly use portable gasoline-powered generators and other tools following severe storms and power outages. However, protective behaviors-such as installing CO alarms and placing generators more than 20 feet away from indoor structures-can prevent these poisonings. This study identified knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs that lead consumers to adopt risk and protective behaviors for storm-related CO poisoning and post-storm generator use. Four focus groups (32 participants in total) were conducted with generator owners in winter and summer storm-prone areas to explore home safety, portable generator use, CO poisoning knowledge, and generator safety messages. Discussions were transcribed, and findings analyzed using an ordered meta-matrix approach. Although most generator owners were aware of CO poisoning, many were unsure what constitutes a safe location for generator operation and incorrectly stated that enclosed areas outside the home-such as attached garages, sheds, and covered porches-were safe. Convenience and access to appliances often dictated generator placement. Participants were receptive to installing CO alarms in their homes but were unsure where to place them. These findings suggest a deficit in understanding how to operate portable generators safely and a need to correct misconceptions around safe placement. In terms of behavioral price, the simple installation and maintenance of inexpensive CO alarms may be the most important strategy for ultimately protecting homes from both storm-related and other CO exposures.

  20. Relations between Children's Levels of Responsiveness and Resistance, Maternal Interaction Behaviors, and Children's Social Behaviors with Peers in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Daniela; Neitzel, Carin

    2017-01-01

    Children's peer relationships have their origins in family relationships. The present study focuses on the relative importance of children's levels of responsiveness and/or resistance during mother-child interactions and tests a model of the direct and indirect relations between mother interaction behaviors and children's social behaviors with…

  1. Coping profiles, perceived stress and health-related behaviors: a cluster analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doron, Julie; Trouillet, Raphael; Maneveau, Anaïs; Ninot, Grégory; Neveu, Dorine

    2015-03-01

    Using cluster analytical procedure, this study aimed (i) to determine whether people could be differentiated on the basis of coping profiles (or unique combinations of coping strategies); and (ii) to examine the relationships between these profiles and perceived stress and health-related behaviors. A sample of 578 French students (345 females, 233 males; M(age)= 21.78, SD(age)= 2.21) completed the Perceived Stress Scale-14 ( Bruchon-Schweitzer, 2002), the Brief COPE ( Muller and Spitz, 2003) and a series of items measuring health-related behaviors. A two-phased cluster analytic procedure (i.e. hierarchical and non-hierarchical-k-means) was employed to derive clusters of coping strategy profiles. The results yielded four distinctive coping profiles: High Copers, Adaptive Copers, Avoidant Copers and Low Copers. The results showed that clusters differed significantly in perceived stress and health-related behaviors. High Copers and Avoidant Copers displayed higher levels of perceived stress and engaged more in unhealthy behavior, compared with Adaptive Copers and Low Copers who reported lower levels of stress and engaged more in healthy behaviors. These findings suggested that individuals' relative reliance on some strategies and de-emphasis on others may be a more advantageous way of understanding the manner in which individuals cope with stress. Therefore, cluster analysis approach may provide an advantage over more traditional statistical techniques by identifying distinct coping profiles that might best benefit from interventions. Future research should consider coping profiles to provide a deeper understanding of the relationships between coping strategies and health outcomes and to identify risk groups. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Parents’ Emotion-Related Beliefs, Behaviors, and Skills Predict Children's Recognition of Emotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Vanessa L.; Halberstadt, Amy G.; Lozada, Fantasy T.; Craig, Ashley B.

    2015-01-01

    Children who are able to recognize others’ emotions are successful in a variety of socioemotional domains, yet we know little about how school-aged children's abilities develop, particularly in the family context. We hypothesized that children develop emotion recognition skill as a function of parents’ own emotion-related beliefs, behaviors, and skills. We examined parents’ beliefs about the value of emotion and guidance of children's emotion, parents’ emotion labeling and teaching behaviors, and parents’ skill in recognizing children's emotions in relation to their school-aged children's emotion recognition skills. Sixty-nine parent-child dyads completed questionnaires, participated in dyadic laboratory tasks, and identified their own emotions and emotions felt by the other participant from videotaped segments. Regression analyses indicate that parents’ beliefs, behaviors, and skills together account for 37% of the variance in child emotion recognition ability, even after controlling for parent and child expressive clarity. The findings suggest the importance of the family milieu in the development of children's emotion recognition skill in middle childhood, and add to accumulating evidence suggesting important age-related shifts in the relation between parental emotion socialization and child emotional development. PMID:26005393

  3. Characterizing users of new psychoactive substances using psychometric scales for risk-related behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vreeker, Annabel; van der Burg, Babette G; van Laar, Margriet; Brunt, Tibor M

    2017-07-01

    Studies investigating risk-related behavior in relation to new psychoactive substance (NPS) use are sparse. The current study investigated characteristics of NPS users by comparing risk-related behavior of NPS users to that of illicit drugs (ID) users and licit substances users and non-users (NLC) users. In this cross-sectional study we included 528 individuals across an age range of 18-72years. Using a web-based questionnaire we collected self-report data on substance use, sensation seeking, impulsivity, peer substance use and risk perception of substance use. NPS and ID users had a higher level of sensation seeking compared to NLC users (NPS users: pusers: pusers (pusers (p=0.16), had increased levels of impulsivity compared to NLC users. NPS users had significantly higher scores for sensation seeking (F 1,423 =51.52, pusers. Additionally, NPS users had significantly more peers who use substances compared to ID and NLC users. Also, NPS and ID users had lower risk perception for most substances than NLC users. NPS users had lower risk perception for most substances than ID users. The findings highlight that NPS users show substantial more risk-related behavior than both ID and NLC users. Therefore, NPS users might be considered as a distinctive group of substance users that need another approach in terms of prevention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Emotion identification and aging: Behavioral and neural age-related changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Ana R; Fernandes, Carina; Pasion, Rita; Ferreira-Santos, Fernando; Barbosa, Fernando; Marques-Teixeira, João

    2018-05-01

    Aging is known to alter the processing of facial expressions of emotion (FEE), however the impact of this alteration is less clear. Additionally, there is little information about the temporal dynamics of the neural processing of facial affect. We examined behavioral and neural age-related changes in the identification of FEE using event-related potentials. Furthermore, we analyze the relationship between behavioral/neural responses and neuropsychological functioning. To this purpose, 30 younger adults, 29 middle-aged adults and 26 older adults identified FEE. The behavioral results showed a similar performance between groups. The neural results showed no significant differences between groups for the P100 component and an increased N170 amplitude in the older group. Furthermore, a pattern of asymmetric activation was evident in the N170 component. Results also suggest deficits in facial feature decoding abilities, reflected by a reduced N250 amplitude in older adults. Neuropsychological functioning predicts P100 modulation, but does not seem to influence emotion identification ability. The findings suggest the existence of a compensatory function that would explain the age-equivalent performance in emotion identification. The study may help future research addressing behavioral and neural processes involved on processing of FEE in neurodegenerative conditions. Copyright © 2018 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Determining Smoking Cessation Related Information, Motivation, and Behavioral Skills among Opiate Dependent Smokers in Methadone Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooperman, Nina A; Richter, Kimber P; Bernstein, Steven L; Steinberg, Marc L; Williams, Jill M

    2015-04-01

    Over 80% of people in methadone treatment smoke cigarettes, and existing smoking cessation interventions have been minimally effective. To develop an Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) Model of behavior change based smoking cessation intervention for methadone maintained smokers, we examined smoking cessation related IMB factors in this population. Current or former smokers in methadone treatment (n = 35) participated in focus groups. Ten methadone clinic counselors participated in an individual interview. A content analysis was conducted using deductive and inductive approaches. Commonly known IMB factors related to smoking cessation were described. These factors included: the health effects of smoking and treatment options for quitting (information); pregnancy and cost of cigarettes (motivators); and coping with emotions, finding social support, and pharmacotherapy adherence (behavioral skills). IMB factors specific to methadone maintained smokers were also described. These factors included: the relationship between quitting smoking and drug relapse (information), the belief that smoking is the same as using drugs (motivator); and coping with methadone clinic culture and applying skills used to quit drugs to quitting smoking (behavioral skills). IMB strengths and deficits varied by individual. Methadone maintained smokers could benefit from research on an IMB Model based smoking cessation intervention that is individualized, addresses IMB factors common among all smokers, and also addresses IMB factors unique to this population.

  6. Relations between Nonsuicidal Self-Injury and Suicidal Behavior in Adolescence: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salome Grandclerc

    Full Text Available Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI and suicidal behaviors, both important issues in adolescent health care, are frequently associated and possibly clinically related. Our objective was to explore the views of relations between nonsuicidal self-injury and suicidal behaviors during adolescence and young adulthood (11-25 years expressed in the scientific (medical and psychological literature. We adopted a textual approach to the process of synthesis to tell the story of the findings from the included studies. Our narrative systematic review of 64 articles found that they share the same risk factors. Integrated models envision nonsuicidal self-injury as a gateway enabling teens to acquire the capability for suicide. Because suicidal behavior short-circuits thought, it is difficult to conceive an intention to die during adolescents' acts of self-injury. Intention is constructed by the narrative of the act, influenced by numerous elements from the psychopathologic, cultural, religious, and philosophic context. Techniques of mentalizing-based treatments and work on the meaning that adolescents attribute to their behaviors might improve care.

  7. Role Breadth Self-Efficacy and Foci of Proactive Behavior: Moderating Role of Collective, Relational, and Individual Self-Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Pin-Chyuan; Han, Ming-Chuan; Chiu, Su-Fen

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to identify the interactive effect of role breadth self-efficacy (RBSE) and the three levels of self-concept (collective, relational, and individual) in predicting of different foci of proactive behaviors. Results from 259 matched responses from an airline company in Taiwan showed that RBSE had a positive effect on (1) pro-organizational proactive behavior among those with higher collective self-concept, (2) pro-supervisor proactive behavior among those with higher relational self-concept, and (3) pro-self proactive behavior among those with higher individual self-concept. Our findings provide insights into the moderating role of different levels of self-concept on RBSE-proactive behavior process in terms of specific targets or beneficiaries. Further implications for organizational research and practice are discussed.

  8. Happy Now, Tired Later? Extraverted and Conscientious Behavior Are Related to Immediate Mood Gains, but to Later Fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leikas, Sointu; Ilmarinen, Ville-Juhani

    2017-10-01

    Experience sampling studies on Big Five-related behavior show that people display the whole spectrum of each trait in their daily behavior, and that desirable Big Five states-especially state Extraversion-are related to positive mood. However, other research lines suggest that extraverted and conscientious behavior may be mentally depleting. The present research examined this possibility by extending the time frame of the measured personality processes. A 12-day experience sampling study (N = 48; observations = 2,328) measured Big Five states, mood, stress, and fatigue five times a day. Extraverted and conscientious behavior were concurrently related to positive mood and lower fatigue, but to higher fatigue after a 3-hour delay. These relations were not moderated by personality traits. The relation between extraverted behavior and delayed fatigue was mediated by the number of people the person had encountered. Whether the person had a goal mediated the relation between conscientious behavior and delayed fatigue. Extraverted and conscientious behavior predict mental depletion after a 3-hour delay. The results help reconcile previous findings regarding the consequences of state Extraversion and provide novel information about the consequences of state Conscientiousness. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Sexual Behaviors of US Women at Risk of HIV Acquisition: A Longitudinal Analysis of Findings from HPTN 064.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justman, J; Befus, M; Hughes, J; Wang, J; Golin, C E; Adimora, A A; Kuo, I; Haley, D F; Del Rio, C; El-Sadr, W M; Rompalo, A; Mannheimer, S; Soto-Torres, L; Hodder, S

    2015-07-01

    We describe the sexual behaviors of women at elevated risk of HIV acquisition who reside in areas of high HIV prevalence and poverty in the US. Participants in HPTN 064, a prospective HIV incidence study, provided information about individual sexual behaviors and male sexual partners in the past 6 months at baseline, 6- and 12-months. Independent predictors of consistent or increased temporal patterns for three high-risk sexual behaviors were assessed separately: exchange sex, unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) and concurrent partnerships. The baseline prevalence of each behavior was >30 % among the 2,099 participants, 88 % reported partner(s) with >1 HIV risk characteristic and both individual and partner risk characteristics decreased over time. Less than high school education and food insecurity predicted consistent/increased engagement in exchange sex and UAI, and partner's concurrency predicted participant concurrency. Our results demonstrate how interpersonal and social factors may influence sustained high-risk behavior by individuals and suggest that further study of the economic issues related to HIV risk could inform future prevention interventions.

  10. Cerebral Angiographic Findings of Cosmetic Facial Filler-related Ophthalmic and Retinal Artery Occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Kyu; Jung, Cheolkyu; Woo, Se Joon; Park, Kyu Hyung

    2015-12-01

    Cosmetic facial filler-related ophthalmic artery occlusion is rare but is a devastating complication, while the exact pathophysiology is still elusive. Cerebral angiography provides more detailed information on blood flow of ophthalmic artery as well as surrounding orbital area which cannot be covered by fundus fluorescein angiography. This study aimed to evaluate cerebral angiographic features of cosmetic facial filler-related ophthalmic artery occlusion patients. We retrospectively reviewed cerebral angiography of 7 patients (4 hyaluronic acid [HA] and 3 autologous fat-injected cases) showing ophthalmic artery and its branches occlusion after cosmetic facial filler injections, and underwent intra-arterial thrombolysis. On selective ophthalmic artery angiograms, all fat-injected patients showed a large filling defect on the proximal ophthalmic artery, whereas the HA-injected patients showed occlusion of the distal branches of the ophthalmic artery. Three HA-injected patients revealed diminished distal runoff of the internal maxillary and facial arteries, which clinically corresponded with skin necrosis. However, all fat-injected patients and one HA-injected patient who were immediately treated with subcutaneous hyaluronidase injection showed preserved distal runoff of the internal maxillary and facial arteries and mild skin problems. The size difference between injected materials seems to be associated with different angiographic findings. Autologous fat is more prone to obstruct proximal part of ophthalmic artery, whereas HA obstructs distal branches. In addition, hydrophilic and volume-expansion property of HA might exacerbate blood flow on injected area, which is also related to skin necrosis. Intra-arterial thrombolysis has a limited role in reconstituting blood flow or regaining vision in cosmetic facial filler-associated ophthalmic artery occlusions.

  11. FACTORS RELATED TO MOTORCYCLE ACCIDENT RISK BEHAVIOR AMONG UNIVERSITY STUDENTS IN NORTHEASTERN THAILAND.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumpawadee, Urai; Homchampa, Pissamai; Thongkrajai, Pramote; Suwanimitr, Amorn; Chadbunchachai, Witaya

    2015-07-01

    Young motorcycle drivers in Thailand are at high risk for road traffic accidents. We conducted this study to identify factors associated with motorcycle accident risk behavior (MARB). We studied 372 randomly selected university students aged 18-22 years (mean 20.2 years; women comprised 68.0% of our participants), who attend a government university in northeastern Thailand. Each student was asked to fill out a questionnaire asking about MARB and factors associated with this behavior. The respondents had an average of 6.2 years (SD+3.09) motorcycle driving experience, 72.3% had a motorcycle driver's license and 83.0% had accident insurance. The prevalence of self-reported motorcycle accident injuries was 42.7%. Their major MARB were using a telephone while driving (69.3%), speeding (45.4%), driving with more than one passenger (40.1%), drunk driving (22.1%), and not wearing a helmet (23.3%). Factors related to MARB were: gender, with men engaged in risky behavior more often than women (p motorcycle driving--drivers with > 5 years experience were more likely to engage in risky behavior (p < 0.05); and knowledge of safe driving, those with a greater knowledge of safe driving were more likely to drive safely (p < 0.001). Having a greater awareness of MARB was associated with lower risk of engaging in risky behavior (p < 0.001). Students who engaged in risky behavior were more likely to view it as normal behavior (p < 0.001) and less likely to have adequate self-control (p < 0.001). Our findings indicate a need to strengthen accident prevention programs for university students in northeastern Thailand.

  12. Low self-esteem is related to aggression, antisocial behavior, and delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnellan, M Brent; Trzesniewski, Kali H; Robins, Richard W; Moffitt, Terrie E; Caspi, Avshalom

    2005-04-01

    The present research explored the controversial link between global self-esteem and externalizing problems such as aggression, antisocial behavior, and delinquency. In three studies, we found a robust relation between low self-esteem and externalizing problems. This relation held for measures of self-esteem and externalizing problems based on self-report, teachers' ratings, and parents' ratings, and for participants from different nationalities (United States and New Zealand) and age groups (adolescents and college students). Moreover, this relation held both cross-sectionally and longitudinally and after controlling for potential confounding variables such as supportive parenting, parent-child and peer relationships, achievement-test scores, socioeconomic status, and IQ. In addition, the effect of self-esteem on aggression was independent of narcissism, an important finding given recent claims that individuals who are narcissistic, not low in self-esteem, are aggressive. Discussion focuses on clarifying the relations among self-esteem, narcissism, and externalizing problems.

  13. Histopathologic Findings Related to the Indeterminate or Inadequate Results of Fine-Needle Aspiration Biopsy and Correlation with Ultrasonographic Findings in Papillary Thyroid Carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, So Lyung; Jung, Chan Kwon; Kim, Sung Hun; Kang, Bong Joo; Ahn, Kook Jin; Kim, Bum Soo; Ahn, Myeong Im; Im, Dong Jun; Bae, Ja Sung; Chung, Soo Kyo

    2010-01-01

    To determine histopathologic findings related to the indeterminate or inadequate result of fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) in papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs) and to correlate histopathological findings with ultrasonographic features of tumors. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of FNAB, histopathologic characteristics, and sonographic findings of the solid portion of 95 PTCs in 95 patients. All cases were pathologically confirmed by surgery. Histopathologic characteristics were analyzed for tumor distribution, microcystic changes, fibrosis, and tumor component. We assumed several histopathologic conditions to be the cause of indeterminate or inadequate results of FNAB, including: 1) an uneven tumor distribution, 2) > 30% microcystic changes, 3) > 30% fibrosis, and 4) < 30% tumor component. Ultrasonographic findings of each PTC were evaluated for echotexture (homogeneous or heterogeneous), echogenicity (markedly hypoechoic, hypoechoic, isoechoic, or hyperechoic), and volume of the nodule. We correlated histopathologic characteristics of the PTC with results of the FNAB and ultrasonographic findings. From 95 FNABs, 71 cases (74%) were confirmed with malignancy or suspicious malignancy (PTCs), 21 (22%) had indeterminate results (atypical cells), and three (4%) were negative for malignancy. None of the assumed variables influenced the diagnostic accuracy of FNAB. Tumor distribution and fibrosis were statistically correlated with ultrasonographic findings of the PTCs (p < 0.05). Uneven tumor distribution was related with small tumor volume, and fibrosis over 30% was correlated with homogeneous echotexture, markedly hypoechoic and hypoechoic echogenicity, and small tumor volume (p < 0.05). No histopathologic component was found to correlate with improper results of FNAB in PTCs. In contrast, two histopathologic characteristics, uneven distribution and fibrosis, were correlated with ultrasonographic findings

  14. The Relations of Ego-Resiliency and Emotion Socialization to the Development of Empathy and Prosocial Behavior Across Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Zoe E.; Eisenberg, Nancy; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Eggum, Natalie D.; Sulik, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    The present study explored early personality and environmental predictors of the development of young children’s empathy, as well as relations of empathy to prosocial behavior with peers at a later age. How children manage their own emotions and behaviors when under stress—their ego-resiliency—would be expected to affect their responses to others’ emotions. Also, socialization experiences, such as the quality of parenting behaviors, have been associated with individual differences in empathy-related responding. We examined whether mothers’ emotion socialization practices and children’s ego-resiliency at 18 months predicted initial levels and change in empathy across five time points (24, 30, 42, 48, and 54 months; N = 242), and whether empathy in turn predicted prosocial behavior with peers at 72/84 months of age. Ego-resiliency and mothers’ expressive encouragement both uniquely predicted the intercept of empathy. Boys’ empathy was lower than girls’ but improved more with age. Initial levels and growth of empathy positively predicted later prosocial behavior. Children’s ego-resiliency predicted the slope of empathy at near significance (p = .054). We also found that the intercept of empathy mediated the relation between ego-resiliency and prosocial behavior as well as the relation between mothers’ expressive encouragement and prosocial behavior. These findings suggest that both parenting and personality characteristics are relevant to the development of empathy during early childhood and might contribute to children’s later prosocial behavior with peers. PMID:24098930

  15. Measurement and modification of the EEG and related behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterman, M. B.

    1991-01-01

    Electrophysiological changes in the sensorimotor pathways were found to accompany the effect of rhythmic EEG patterns in the sensorimotor cortex. Additionally, several striking behavioral changes were seen, including in particular an enhancement of sleep and an elevation of seizure threshold to epileptogenic agents. This raised the possibility that human seizure disorders might be influenced therapeutically by similar training. Our objective in human EEG feedback training became not only the facilitation of normal rhythmic patterns, but also the suppression of abnormal activity, thus requiring complex contingencies directed to the normalization of the sensorimotor EEG. To achieve this, a multicomponent frequency analysis was developed to extract and separate normal and abnormal elements of the EEG signal. Each of these elements was transduced to a specific component of a visual display system, and these were combined through logic circuits to present the subject with a symbolic display. Variable criteria provided for the gradual shaping of EEG elements towards the desired normal pattern. Some 50-70% of patients with poorly controlled seizure disorders experienced therapeutic benefits from this approach in our laboratory, and subsequently in many others. A more recent application of this approach to the modification of human brain function in our lab has been directed to the dichotomous problems of task overload and underload in the contemporary aviation environment. At least 70% of all aviation accidents have been attributed to the impact of these kinds of problems on crew performance. The use of EEG in this context has required many technical innovations and the application of the latest advances in EEG signal analysis. Our first goal has been the identification of relevant EEG characteristics. Additionally, we have developed a portable recording and analysis system for application in this context. Findings from laboratory and in-flight studies suggest that we

  16. Acute carbon monoxide intoxication : the relation between MR findings and clinical outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Jin Bae; Jeong, Hae Woong; Kim, Ki Nam; Kim, Dong Wook; Kim, Chang Soo

    1999-01-01

    To analyse MR findings of various involving sites and the relation between such findings and clinical outcome, the authors retrospectively reviewed MR images of acute carbon monoxide intoxication. In 12 patients, MR images obtained from several hours to 12 days after acute carbon monoxide intoxication were reviewed. The images were analysed with regard to involved sites, symmetricity, signal intensity, and the presence or absence of hemorrhage, and the relationship between MR findings and clinical outcome; the presence of delayed encephalopathy was then determined. The globus pallidus(n=9), white matter(n=3), [centrum semiovale(n=2), periventricular white matter(n=1)] and gyrus(n=6) [inferior temporal gyrus(n=2), cingulate gyrus(n=1), precentral gyrus(n=1), hippocampal gyrus(n=1), parahippocampal gyrus(n=1)] were typically involved, and there was also involvenent of the corpus callosum(n=3), thalamus(n=2) and midbrain(n=2). All lesions of the globus pallidus, thalamus, midbrain and temporal lobe were bilaterally symmetric. In all these cases, subtle or prominent low signal intensity was seen on spin-echo T1WI, and high signal intensity on PDWI and T2WI. Some lesions of the globus pallidus(n=1), thalamus(n=1) and midbrain(n=1) were associated with hemorrhage, which occurred during the early subacute stage and was seen on high/low signal intensity T1/T2WI images. Acute cerebral(n=1) and cerebellar(n=1) infarctions were also seen. Cerebral white matter involvement correlated with poor clinical outcome, and in two cases, delayed encephalopathy developed. In these cases of acute carbon monoxide intoxication, the globus pallidus, white matter, cortex and hippocampus were frequently involved, and there was also involvement of various sites such as the corpus callosum, thalamus and midbrain. Lesions of the temporal lobe, thalamus and midbrain were bilaterally symmetric. The involvement of cerebral white matter and the presence of delayed encephalopathy can influence

  17. Health-related quality of life, physical activity, and sedentary behavior of adults with visual impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haegele, Justin A; Famelia, Ruri; Lee, Jihyun

    2017-11-01

    Research suggests that physical activity and sedentary behaviors can impact one's health-related quality of life (HRQoL). However, little is known about the impact that these behaviors can have on the HRQoL of those with visual impairments. Therefore, the primary purpose of this study was to determine the associations of physical activity and sedentary behavior with HRQoL among a sample of adults with visual impairments. Individuals with visual impairments were invited via email to complete three questionnaires: (a) the international physical activity questionnaire-short form, (b) the Rasch-revised versions of the World Health Organization Quality of Life instrument with the Level of Independence subscale, and (c) a demographic questionnaire. Eighty participants (M age   =   47.5) provided usable surveys for analyses. The results demonstrated that physical activity significantly predicted HRQoL (F(2,79) = 3.508, p = .035, R 2 Adjusted =.060), yet, sedentary behavior did not (F(2,79) = 1.546, p = .220, R 2  = .039, R 2 Adjusted =.014). Gender differences were uncovered regarding the relationship between physical activity and health-related quality of life. The findings of this study demonstrate the importance of physical activity in influencing the HRQoL of adults with visual impairments. This study supports the need for additional intervention research to promote physical activity for those with visual impairments. Implications for Rehabilitations Adults with visual impairments tend to report lower health-related quality of life than peers without visual impairments. Regular participation in leisure-time physical activity, and restricted sedentary time, have been demonstrated to positively influence health-related quality of life for adults without disabilities. In this study, physical activity shows promise as an effective means of improving health-related quality of life for adults with visual impairments.

  18. Attachment representations in adulthood: relations with parental behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koren-Karie, N

    2000-01-01

    The paper presents two standardized measurements of attachment. The Strange Situation Procedure is an observational measure of the reaction of 12-18-month-old infants to their parent after being exposed to brief separations from him/her. Four main types of responses are noted, and have been noted in a range of cultures. The second measure is the Adult Attachment Interview which is a semi-structured interview of 18 questions that discusses childhood memories and assesses the current state of mind with regard to attachment issues. Four types of characteristic response styles have been noted in a range of cultures, and this measure seems to be related to certain types of parenting. Studies of the link between the two measures have been complicated, as the adult measure does not include the capacity to be available for the child. A further instrument, the Maternal Empathic Understanding Procedure, designed to assess parent's ability to see things from the child's point of view, is suggested as a possible mediator between parental attachment style and parenting behavior. These studies permit standardized evaluation of parenting skills, facilitate the study of intergenerational transmission of these skills, and suggest the possibility of psychotherapeutic interventions that focus on these areas.

  19. Carbon diffusion behavior in molybdenum at relatively low temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiraoka, Yutaka, E-mail: hiraoka@dap.ous.ac.j [Department of Applied Physics, Okayama University of Science, 1-1 Ridai-cho, Okayama 700-0005 (Japan); Imamura, Kyosuke [Graduate School of Science, Okayama University of Science, 1-1 Ridai-cho, Okayama 700-0005 (Japan); Kadokura, Takanori; Yamamoto, Yoshiharu [Materials Research Department, A.L.M.T. Corp., 2 Iwasekoshi-machi, Toyama 931-8543 (Japan)

    2010-01-07

    Purpose of this study is to investigate the carbon diffusion behavior in pure molybdenum at relatively low temperatures by means of fracture surface observation. Carbon addition was performed at a temperature of 1273-1373 K with the heating time being changed. Fracture surface of the specimen after carbon addition was examined using SEM and the carbon diffusion distance was estimated from the change of fracture mode as a function of the distance from the surface. Results are summarized as follows. First, the carbon diffusion distance increased approximately linearly with the increase of heating time from 1.2 to 10.8 ks. This relationship does not agree with that obtained at much higher temperatures. From Arrhenius plots of the slope of the straight line and the temperature, activation energy was calculated (155 kJ/mol). Secondly, the carbon diffusion distance estimated in this study was generally larger than that simulated using the data of Rudman, particularly at a longer heating time.

  20. Reward-related frontostriatal activity and smoking behavior among adolescents in treatment for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Kathleen A; Yip, Sarah W; Balodis, Iris M; Carroll, Kathleen M; Potenza, Marc N; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

    2017-08-01

    Tobacco use is often initiated during adolescence and continued into adulthood despite desires to quit. A better understanding of the neural correlates of abstinence from smoking in adolescents may inform more effective smoking cessation interventions. Neural reward systems are implicated in tobacco use disorder, and adolescent smokers have shown reduced reward-related ventral striatal activation related to increased smoking. The current study evaluated nondrug reward anticipation in adolescent smokers using a monetary incentive delay task in fMRI pre- and post- smoking cessation treatment (n=14). This study tested how changes in neural responses to reward anticipation pre- to post-treatment were related to reduced smoking. An exploratory analysis in a larger sample of adolescents with only pre-treatment fMRI (n=28) evaluated how neural responses to reward anticipation were related to behavioral inhibition and behavioral activation scales. Adolescent smokers showed pre- to post-treatment increases in reward anticipation-related activity in the bilateral nucleus accumbens and insula, and medial prefrontal cortex, and greater increases in reward anticipation-related activity were correlated with larger percent days of smoking abstinence during treatment. These findings suggest that reduced smoking during smoking cessation treatment is associated with a "recovery of function" in frontostriatal responses to nondrug reward anticipation in adolescent smokers, although comparison with a developmental control group of adolescent nonsmokers is warranted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Exploring AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of female Mexican migrant workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organista, P B; Organista, K C; Soloff, P R

    1998-05-01

    AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors were assessed in female Mexican migrant laborers. Thirty-two women were administered a modified version of the Hispanic Condom Questionnaire. Respondents were knowledgeable about the major modes of HIV transmission, but one-third to one-half of the women believed that they could contract AIDS from unlikely casual sources. Although respondents reported few negative beliefs about condom use, actual condom use with sex partners was low and knowledge of proper condom use was problematic. Consequently, 75 percent reported never carrying condoms. Implications of these findings for future research and provision of services for female Mexican migrants are discussed.

  2. Health-Related Behavior Mediates the Association Between Personality and Memory Performance in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Mark S; Laborde, Sylvain; Walter, Emma E

    2017-03-01

    This prospective study explored the potential mediating role of health-related behavior (alcohol involvement, diet, television viewing, and physical activity) in the association between personality and change in memory performance over 2 years. A nationally representative sample of 8,376 U.K. participants aged 55 years and older (4,572 women, 3,804 men) completed self-report measures of personality and health-related behavior in 2010, and completed a memory performance task in 2010 and 2012. After removing variance associated with potential confounding variables, neuroticism and agreeableness had negative associations, and openness and conscientiousness positive associations with change in memory performance. There were no moderation effects by age, sex, education level, or ethnicity. Multiple mediator models demonstrated that physical activity, television viewing, and alcohol intake mediated associations between personality and change in memory performance. These findings provide evidence that the association between personality and memory performance in older adults can be explained, in part, through health-related behavior.

  3. Parents' obesity-related behavior and confidence to support behavioral change in their obese child: data from the STAR study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenault, Lisa N; Xu, Kathleen; Taveras, Elsie M; Hacker, Karen A

    2014-01-01

    Successful childhood obesity interventions frequently focus on behavioral modification and involve parents or family members. Parental confidence in supporting behavior change may be an element of successful family-based prevention efforts. We aimed to determine whether parents' own obesity-related behaviors were related to their confidence in supporting their child's achievement of obesity-related behavioral goals. Cross-sectional analyses of data collected at baseline of a randomized control trial testing a treatment intervention for obese children (n = 787) in primary care settings (n = 14). Five obesity-related behaviors (physical activity, screen time, sugar-sweetened beverage, sleep duration, fast food) were self-reported by parents for themselves and their child. Behaviors were dichotomized on the basis of achievement of behavioral goals. Five confidence questions asked how confident the parent was in helping their child achieve each goal. Logistic regression modeling high confidence was conducted with goal achievement and demographics as independent variables. Parents achieving physical activity or sleep duration goals were significantly more likely to be highly confident in supporting their child's achievement of those goals (physical activity, odds ratio 1.76; 95% confidence interval 1.19-2.60; sleep, odds ratio 1.74; 95% confidence interval 1.09-2.79) independent of sociodemographic variables and child's current behavior. Parental achievements of TV watching and fast food goals were also associated with confidence, but significance was attenuated after child's behavior was included in models. Parents' own obesity-related behaviors are factors that may affect their confidence to support their child's behavior change. Providers seeking to prevent childhood obesity should address parent/family behaviors as part of their obesity prevention strategies. Copyright © 2014 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Relations between constructive peculiarities and structural behavior in Venice buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doglioni, F.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Here we are synthetically describing some constructive peculiarities of Venice civil buildings, analyzing the relation with the features of their structural decay and behavior in the long run. We suppose Venetian buildings, especially those parts which are conceived to suit the lagoon environment, to have undergone an evolution made of some adjustments, which were based on the observation of damages in previous buildings. That is we suppose ancient builders to rely on their awareness of the behavior of structures yet to come, and to be able to forecast it in part. This process brought some building contrivances to perfection, as exclusive and enduring features of Venice, overcoming changes in style and architectural layout, till they grew into essential elements of a whole and adaptable “device”. This writing is meant for a concise interpretation of this device, which is the result of some research works carried out at Venice IUAV University.

    En este texto, se describen sintéticamente algunas peculiaridades de la edificación residencial de Venecia, analizando su relación con el abanico de problemas estructurales que caracterizan el comportamiento estructural del edificio a lo largo del tiempo. Se aventura la hipótesis que las construcciones venecianas y, en particular, algunos de sus detalles, concebidos específicamente para la laguna donde se enclava, han sido objeto de una adaptación evolutiva a través de la observación de los problemas estructurales de los edificios precedentes. Los alarifes venecianos aprendieron a tener en cuenta el comportamiento estructural posterior del edificio, que previeron en cierta medida. Este proceso ha llevado a perfeccionar algunos detalles constructivos exclusivos de Venecia que han perdurado en el tiempo, que han resistido impertérritos a mutaciones de estilo y de configuración arquitectónica, hasta constituir elementos esenciales de un aparato indivisible y adaptable cuya interpretaci

  5. Intentional suppression can lead to a reduction of memory strength: Behavioral and electrophysiological findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerd Thomas Waldhauser

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that the intentional suppression of unwanted memories can lead to forgetting in later memory tests. However, the mechanisms underlying this effect remain unclear. This study employed recognition memory testing and event-related potentials (ERPs to investigate whether intentional suppression leads to the inhibition of memory representations at an item level. In a think/no-think experiment, participants were cued to either suppress (no-think condition or retrieve (think condition previously learned words, 18 or 0 times. Performance in a final recognition test was significantly reduced for repeatedly suppressed no-think items when compared to the baseline, zero-repetition condition. ERPs recorded during the suppression of no-think items were significantly more negative-going in a time-window around 300 ms when compared to ERPs in the think condition. This reduction correlated with later recognition memory impairment. Furthermore, ERPs to no-think items from 225-450 ms were more negative-going in later phases of the experiment, suggesting a gradual reduction of memory strength with repeated suppression attempts. These effects were dissociable from correlates of recollection (500-600 ms and inhibitory control (450-500 ms that did not vary over the time-course of the experiment and appeared to be under strategic control. Our results give strong evidence that the no-think manipulation involves inhibition of memory representations at an item level.

  6. The role of parents in the ontogeny of achievement-related motivation and behavioral choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpkins, Sandra D

    2015-06-01

    Parents believe what they do matters. But, how does it matter? How do parents' beliefs about their children early on translate into the choices those children make as adolescents? The Eccles' expectancy–value model asserts that parents' beliefs about their children during childhood predict adolescents' achievement-related choices through a sequence of processes that operate in a cumulative, cascading fashion over time. Specifically, parents' beliefs predict parents' behaviors that predict their children's motivational beliefs. Those beliefs predict children's subsequent choices. Using data from the Childhood and Beyond Study (92% European American; N = 723), we tested these predictions in the activity domains of sports, instrumental music, mathematics, and reading across a 12-year period. In testing these predictions, we looked closely at the idea of reciprocal influences and at the role of child gender as a moderator. The cross-lagged models generally supported the bidirectional influences described in Eccles' expectancy-value model. Furthermore, the findings demonstrated that: (a) these relations were stronger in the leisure domains than in the academic domains, (b) these relations did not consistently vary based on youth gender, (c) parents were stronger predictors of their children's beliefs than vice versa, and (d) adolescents' beliefs were stronger predictors of their behaviors than the reverse. The findings presented in this monograph extend our understanding of the complexity of families, developmental processes that unfold over time, and the extent to which these processes are universal across domains and child gender.

  7. Relations among school students' self-determined motivation, perceived enjoyment, effort, and physical activity behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao

    2009-12-01

    Guided by the self-determination theory, the purpose of this study was to examine the predictive strength of self-determined motivation toward motivational outcomes (perceived enjoyment, perceived effort, physical activity behaviors) for 286 middle school students in physical education. Analyses indicated that intrinsic motivation, identified regulation, and introjected regulation were positively related to students' enjoyment, perceived effort, and physical activity, whereas amotivation was negatively associated with students' enjoyment and perceived effort. The findings highlighted the importance of higher self-determined motivation (intrinsic motivation and identified regulation) in students' perceived enjoyment, effort, and physical activity behaviors. This study supports the use of self-determination theory to investigate students' motivational outcomes in school physical education.

  8. Addictive behaviors related to opioid use for chronic pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højsted, Jette; Ekholm, Kim Ola Michael; Kurita, Geana Paula

    2013-01-01

    ,281 individuals were analyzed through multiple logistic regression analyses to assess the association between chronic pain (lasting ⩾6 months), opioid use, health behavior, and body mass index. Six potential addictive behaviors were identified: daily smoking; high alcohol intake; illicit drug use in the past year...

  9. Purchase decision involvement: Event management segments and related event behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodney B. Warnick; David C. Bojanic

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this research was to examine the relationships between different levels of event purchase decision involvement (PDI) segments and their respective event behaviors (e.g., expenditures, travel behavior, event consumption and satisfaction). The specific purpose was to answer two major research questions: 1) Can PDI identify different levels or segments of...

  10. Stress among Graduate Students in Relation to Health Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Berkel, Kelly; Reeves, Brenda

    2017-01-01

    Problem: While stress is universal for graduate students, the difference in terms of stress symptoms and the effects on health behavior is how students cope. While numerous research studies have linked stress and negative health behaviors, few studies have objectively assessed these variables. Purpose: Utilize current health and fitness technology…

  11. Children's and Their Friends' Moral Reasoning: Relations with Aggressive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasser, Luciano; Malti, Tina

    2012-01-01

    Friends' moral characteristics such as their moral reasoning represent an important social contextual factor for children's behavioral socialization. Guided by this assumption, we compared the effects of children's and friends' moral reasoning on their aggressive behavior in a low-risk sample of elementary school children. Peer nominations and…

  12. Determinants of Risky Sexual Behavior, Relation between HIV Risk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal ... Partial correlation and linear regression was used to assess the applicability of Theory of Planned Behavior model in predicting intention to use condom and ... In this study, Theory of Planned Behavior explained 39.3% of variances in intention to consistent condom use.

  13. Industrial Buying Behavior Related to Human Resource Consulting Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollensen, Svend; Grünbaum, Niels Nolsøe; Andresen, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Early B2B buying-behavior literature strongly emphasizes the rational aspects of buying behavior in B2B services. Based on a comprehensive exploratory study of Danish companies’ purchases of HR consulting services, the authors provide insights into the factors that determine how Danish companies ...

  14. Perception of Risk and Terrorism-Related Behavior Change: Dual Influences of Probabilistic Reasoning and Reality Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denovan, Andrew; Dagnall, Neil; Drinkwater, Kenneth; Parker, Andrew; Clough, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The present study assessed the degree to which probabilistic reasoning performance and thinking style influenced perception of risk and self-reported levels of terrorism-related behavior change. A sample of 263 respondents, recruited via convenience sampling, completed a series of measures comprising probabilistic reasoning tasks (perception of randomness, base rate, probability, and conjunction fallacy), the Reality Testing subscale of the Inventory of Personality Organization (IPO-RT), the Domain-Specific Risk-Taking Scale, and a terrorism-related behavior change scale. Structural equation modeling examined three progressive models. Firstly, the Independence Model assumed that probabilistic reasoning, perception of risk and reality testing independently predicted terrorism-related behavior change. Secondly, the Mediation Model supposed that probabilistic reasoning and reality testing correlated, and indirectly predicted terrorism-related behavior change through perception of risk. Lastly, the Dual-Influence Model proposed that probabilistic reasoning indirectly predicted terrorism-related behavior change via perception of risk, independent of reality testing. Results indicated that performance on probabilistic reasoning tasks most strongly predicted perception of risk, and preference for an intuitive thinking style (measured by the IPO-RT) best explained terrorism-related behavior change. The combination of perception of risk with probabilistic reasoning ability in the Dual-Influence Model enhanced the predictive power of the analytical-rational route, with conjunction fallacy having a significant indirect effect on terrorism-related behavior change via perception of risk. The Dual-Influence Model possessed superior fit and reported similar predictive relations between intuitive-experiential and analytical-rational routes and terrorism-related behavior change. The discussion critically examines these findings in relation to dual-processing frameworks. This

  15. Perception of Risk and Terrorism-Related Behavior Change: Dual Influences of Probabilistic Reasoning and Reality Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denovan, Andrew; Dagnall, Neil; Drinkwater, Kenneth; Parker, Andrew; Clough, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The present study assessed the degree to which probabilistic reasoning performance and thinking style influenced perception of risk and self-reported levels of terrorism-related behavior change. A sample of 263 respondents, recruited via convenience sampling, completed a series of measures comprising probabilistic reasoning tasks (perception of randomness, base rate, probability, and conjunction fallacy), the Reality Testing subscale of the Inventory of Personality Organization (IPO-RT), the Domain-Specific Risk-Taking Scale, and a terrorism-related behavior change scale. Structural equation modeling examined three progressive models. Firstly, the Independence Model assumed that probabilistic reasoning, perception of risk and reality testing independently predicted terrorism-related behavior change. Secondly, the Mediation Model supposed that probabilistic reasoning and reality testing correlated, and indirectly predicted terrorism-related behavior change through perception of risk. Lastly, the Dual-Influence Model proposed that probabilistic reasoning indirectly predicted terrorism-related behavior change via perception of risk, independent of reality testing. Results indicated that performance on probabilistic reasoning tasks most strongly predicted perception of risk, and preference for an intuitive thinking style (measured by the IPO-RT) best explained terrorism-related behavior change. The combination of perception of risk with probabilistic reasoning ability in the Dual-Influence Model enhanced the predictive power of the analytical-rational route, with conjunction fallacy having a significant indirect effect on terrorism-related behavior change via perception of risk. The Dual-Influence Model possessed superior fit and reported similar predictive relations between intuitive-experiential and analytical-rational routes and terrorism-related behavior change. The discussion critically examines these findings in relation to dual-processing frameworks. This

  16. Perception of Risk and Terrorism-Related Behavior Change: Dual Influences of Probabilistic Reasoning and Reality Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Denovan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study assessed the degree to which probabilistic reasoning performance and thinking style influenced perception of risk and self-reported levels of terrorism-related behavior change. A sample of 263 respondents, recruited via convenience sampling, completed a series of measures comprising probabilistic reasoning tasks (perception of randomness, base rate, probability, and conjunction fallacy, the Reality Testing subscale of the Inventory of Personality Organization (IPO-RT, the Domain-Specific Risk-Taking Scale, and a terrorism-related behavior change scale. Structural equation modeling examined three progressive models. Firstly, the Independence Model assumed that probabilistic reasoning, perception of risk and reality testing independently predicted terrorism-related behavior change. Secondly, the Mediation Model supposed that probabilistic reasoning and reality testing correlated, and indirectly predicted terrorism-related behavior change through perception of risk. Lastly, the Dual-Influence Model proposed that probabilistic reasoning indirectly predicted terrorism-related behavior change via perception of risk, independent of reality testing. Results indicated that performance on probabilistic reasoning tasks most strongly predicted perception of risk, and preference for an intuitive thinking style (measured by the IPO-RT best explained terrorism-related behavior change. The combination of perception of risk with probabilistic reasoning ability in the Dual-Influence Model enhanced the predictive power of the analytical-rational route, with conjunction fallacy having a significant indirect effect on terrorism-related behavior change via perception of risk. The Dual-Influence Model possessed superior fit and reported similar predictive relations between intuitive-experiential and analytical-rational routes and terrorism-related behavior change. The discussion critically examines these findings in relation to dual

  17. SPECT findings by 123I-iomazenil in pediatric localization-related epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshinari, Satoshi; Hamano, Shinichiro; Minamitani, Motoyuki; Tanaka, Manabu; Abe, Shinpei; Eto, Yoshikatsu

    2006-01-01

    123 I-iomazenil SPECT (IMZ-SPECT) was performed in pediatric patients with localization-related epilepsy to characterize the distribution of benzodiazepine receptor (BZR) in infants' brain and to examine the detectability of the seizure focus. Subjects were the patients (5 boys and 6 girls; 0.4-20.9 years old, average 11.7+/-6.5) without abnormality in head MRI. IMZ was given intravenously at 55.5 (0-1 years old), 74 (2-6), 111 (7-11) and 167 (12 or older) MBq, and the late phase images (3 hr after injection) were obtained by the gamma-camera with 3 detectors (SIEMENS MULTISPECT 3) for evaluation. BZR by IMZ distribution was found to spread from the occipital lobe toward anterior regions with ageing from the infant to schoolchild period, when the BZR localization became the same as that in adults. In only 3 patients, the focus could be identified by findings of electroencephalogram and clinical symptoms. Thus, BZR distribution in the brain changed with age in infants and detection rate of the focus was lower than in adults. The latter suggests the focus is not limited to BZR, particularly in infants. The detectability may be improved by increased number of subjects and by more quantitative methodology. (T.I.)

  18. Bronchiectasis: correlation of high-resolution CT findings with health-related quality of life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eshed, I. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, E. Wolfson Medical Center, Holon (Israel)]. E-mail: iriseshed@gmail.com; Minski, I. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, E. Wolfson Medical Center, Holon (Israel); Katz, R. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, E. Wolfson Medical Center, Holon (Israel); Jones, P.W. [Department of Respiratory Medicine, St George' s Hospital Medical School, University of London (United Kingdom); Priel, I.E. [Department of Pulmonary Medicine, E. Wolfson Medical Center, Holon, Israel, Affiliated with the Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University (Israel)

    2007-02-15

    Aim: To evaluate the relationship between the severity of bronchiectatic diseases, as evident on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and the patient's quality of life measured using the St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ). Methods and materials: Forty-six patients (25 women, 21 men, mean age: 63 years) with bronchiectatic disease as evident on recent HRCT examinations were recruited. Each patient completed the SGRQ and underwent respiratory function tests. HRCT findings were blindly and independently scored by two radiologists, using the modified Bhalla scoring system. The relationships between HRCT scores, SGRQ scores and pulmonary function tests were evaluated. Results: The patients' total CT score did not correlate with the SGRQ scores. However, patients with more advanced disease on HRCT, significantly differed in their SGRQ scores from patients with milder bronchiectatic disease. A significant correlation was found between the CT scores for the middle and distal lung zones and the activity, impacts and total SGRQ scores. No correlation was found between CT scores and respiratory function test indices. However, a significant correlation was found between the SGRQ scores and most of the respiratory function test indices. Conclusion: A correlation between the severity of bronchiectatic disease as expressed in HRCT and the health-related quality of life exists in patients with a more severe bronchiectatic disease but not in patients with mild disease. Such correlation depends on the location of the bronchiectasis in the pulmonary tree.

  19. Adequate sleep among adolescents is positively associated with health status and health-related behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeng Yi-Jong

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amount of sleep is an important indicator of health and well-being in children and adolescents. Adequate sleep (AS: adequate sleep is defined as 6–8 hours per night regularly is a critical factor in adolescent health and health-related behaviors. The present study was based on a health promotion project previously conducted on adolescents in Tao-Yuan County, Taiwan. The aim was to examine the relationship between AS during schooldays and excessive body weight, frequency of visiting doctors and health-related behaviors among Taiwanese adolescents. Methods A cross-sectional study design, categorical and multivariate data analyses were used. The hypotheses investigated were: high frequency of AS is positively associated with lack of obesity and less frequent visits to doctors; and high frequency AS is positively associated with health-related behavior. Results A total of 656 boys (53.2% and girls (46.8%, ranging in age from 13–18 years were studied between January and June 2004. Three hundred and fifty seven subjects (54% reported that they slept less than the suggested 6–8 hours on schooldays. A significant negative association was found between low sleep and of the following health-related behaviors: (1 life appreciation; (2 taking responsibility for health; (3 adopting healthy diet; (4 effective stress management; (5 regular exercise; and (6 total AHP score. High frequency AS was associated with low frequencies of obesity after potential confounding factors were controlled. Junior high school adolescents reported significantly higher frequencies of AS than high school participants. Gender, family structure, home location and frequency of television watching or computer use were not significantly associated with AS. Conclusion These findings support the proposition that AS is associated with good health status and high-frequency adoption of health-related behavior. Furthermore, these findings suggest that inadequate

  20. Teachers’ Emotional and Behavioral Support and Preschoolers’ Self-Regulation : Relations With Social and Emotional Skills During Play

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekhuizen, Martine L.; Slot, Pauline L.; van Aken, Marcel A G; Dubas, Judith S.

    2017-01-01

    Research Findings: Drawing from a Dutch sample of 113 Dutch children (M age = 37 months, SD = 3.5) from 37 early care and education classrooms (19 child care centers and 18 preschools), this study examined whether the relation between classroom emotional and behavioral support and children’s

  1. Does Distraction Reduce the Alcohol-Aggression Relation? A Cognitive and Behavioral Test of the Attention-Allocation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Kathryn E.; Parrott, Dominic J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study provided the first direct test of the cognitive underpinnings of the attention-allocation model and attempted to replicate and extend past behavioral findings for this model as an explanation for alcohol-related aggression. Method: A diverse community sample (55% African American) of men (N = 159) between 21 and 35 years of…

  2. Young Children's Trust Beliefs in Peers: Relations to Social Competence and Interactive Behaviors in a Peer Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Jui-Chih

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: The aim of this study was to explore the relations between children's trust beliefs and social competence as well as social preference. In addition, this study examined how children with different trust belief profiles may differ in their peer interactive behaviors. A total of 47 children ages 5 to 6 participated in this study.…

  3. Teachers' Emotional and Behavioral Support and Preschoolers' Self-Regulation: Relations with Social and Emotional Skills during Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broekhuizen, Martine L.; Slot, Pauline L.; van Aken, Marcel A. G.; Dubas, Judith S.

    2017-01-01

    Research Findings: Drawing from a Dutch sample of 113 Dutch children (M age = 37 months, SD = 3.5) from 37 early care and education classrooms (19 child care centers and 18 preschools), this study examined whether the relation between classroom emotional and behavioral support and children's observed social integration and positive mood in a play…

  4. Constitutive differences in glucocorticoid responsiveness to stress are related to variation in aggression and anxiety-related behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Sophie E; Zanoletti, Olivia; Guillot de Suduiraut, Isabelle; Sandi, Carmen

    2017-10-01

    Glucocorticoids coordinate responses that enable an individual to cope with stressful challenges and, additionally, mediate adaptation following cessation of a stressor. There are important individual differences in the magnitude of glucocorticoid responsiveness to stressors. However, whether individual differences in glucocorticoid responsiveness to stress are linked to different behavioral strategies in coping with social and non-social challenges is not easily studied, owing to the lack of appropriate animal models. To address this, we generated three lines of Wistar rats selectively bred for the magnitude of their glucocorticoid responses following exposure to a variety of stressors over three consecutive days at juvenility. Here, we present findings following observations of a high level of variation in glucocorticoid responsiveness to stress in outbred Wistar rats, and the strong response to selection for this trait over a few generations. When challenged with different stressful challenges, rats from the three lines differed in their coping behaviors. Strikingly, the line with high glucocorticoid responsiveness to stress displayed enhanced aggression and anxiety-like behaviors. In addition, these rats also showed alterations in the expression of genes within both central and peripheral nodes of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and enhanced reactivity to acute stress exposure. Together, these findings strongly link differences in glucocorticoid responsiveness to stress with marked differences in coping styles. The developed rat lines are thus a promising model with which to examine the relationship between variation in reactivity of the HPA axis and stress-related pathophysiology and could be employed to assess the therapeutic potential of treatments modulating stress habituation to ameliorate psychopathology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The relations among child negative interactive behavior, child temperament, and maternal behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szabo, Nora; Dekovic, Maja; van Aken, Chantal; Verhoeven, Marjolein; van Aken, Marcel A.G.; Junger, Marianne

    2008-01-01

    Negative behavior toward the mother during toddlerhood might be a marker of increased risk for maladjustment. The aim of the present study was to examine the possible antecedents of toddler boys’ negative behavior observed in interaction with the mother: child temperament, and maternal behavior

  6. Association of Active Play-Related Parenting Behaviors, Orientations, and Practices with Preschool Sedentary Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loprinzi, Paul D.; Cardinal, Bradley J.; Kane, Christy; Lee, Hyo; Beets, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Parents' behaviors, practices, beliefs, and attitudes greatly influence children's active play behavior; however, little research has examined these parental influences on preschool children's sedentary behavior (SB). Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the association between parental influences on preschool SB. Methods:…

  7. Parenting style as a predictor of adolescent weight and weight-related behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Jerica M; Wall, Melanie; Loth, Katie; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2010-04-01

    Current research indicates that specific parenting styles are associated with adolescent overweight, dietary intake, and physical activity; but most of the research has been cross-sectional, making it difficult to determine the temporal order of these associations. The current study adds to the previous research by examining 5-year longitudinal associations between parenting style and adolescent weight and weight-related behaviors. Data from Project EAT, a population-based study with adolescents from diverse ethnic and socioeconomic backgrounds, were used. Adolescents (N = 2,516) from 31 Minnesota schools completed in-class assessments in 1999 (Time 1) and mailed surveys in 2004 (Time 2). Multiple linear regression models were used to predict mean levels of adolescent outcomes at Time 2 from parenting style at Time 1. Time 1 maternal authoritative parenting style predicted lower body mass index in adolescent sons and daughters at Time 2. Time 1 paternal permissive parenting style predicted more fruits and vegetables intake in daughters at Time 2. Significant associations were not found between parenting style and adolescent physical activity. Findings suggest that authoritative parenting style may play a protective role related to adolescent overweight and that the dimension of warmth and/or caring in the parent-adolescent relationship may be important in relation to female adolescent healthy dietary intake. Further exploration of opposite sex parent-adolescent dyad patterns related to parenting style and adolescent weight and weight-related behaviors is warranted. Copyright 2010 Society for Adolescent Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Gambling and health risk behaviors among U.S. college student-athletes: findings from a national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiun-Hau; Jacobs, Durand F; Derevensky, Jeffrey L; Gupta, Rina; Paskus, Thomas S

    2007-05-01

    To examine prevalence and associations of gambling problems and health risk behaviors among college athletes from the first national survey of gambling among U.S. college student-athletes. Conducted by the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA), this self-administered and anonymous survey collected information from a nationally representative sample of 20,739 student-athletes. Males consistently had higher past-year prevalence of gambling than females (e.g., 62.4% of males reported some type of gambling vs. 42.8% of females). Based on DSM-IV Gambling Screen, this study identified 4.3% of males and 0.4% of females as problem/pathological gamblers. A general upward trend existed that as the level of gambling problems increased, so did the prevalence of substance use, gorging/vomiting, and unprotected sex. Cross-group comparisons by gambler type were all significant. Problem and pathological gamblers also experienced significantly more drug/alcohol-related problems than non-gamblers and social gamblers. Direct associations found between gambling and multiple risk behaviors in college student-athletes support the persistence of the youth problem-behavior syndrome and suggest the need for multi-faceted initiatives to tackle these risk behaviors simultaneously.

  9. Relation Between Emotional Labor and Organizational Citizenship Behavior: An Investigation Among Chinese Teaching Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Francis Y L; Lun, Vivian Miu-Chi

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the association between emotional labor and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) and the mediation of work engagement in this relationship. A total of 264 teachers in Mainland China were recruited for this study. Bivariate correlation showed that both deep acting and the expression of naturally felt emotion were positively related to the two dimensions of OCB, namely, OCB toward the individual (OCBI) and OCB toward the organization (OCBO), whereas surface acting was not related to the OCB dimensions. Work engagement was also positively associated with both OCB dimensions. Regression results showed that work engagement partially mediated the relation between deep acting and OCBO, and that between the expression of naturally felt emotion and OCBI. Work engagement also fully mediated the association between deep acting and OCBI, and that between the expression of naturally felt emotion and OCBO. In light of these findings, strategies that encourage employees to display emotions consistent with their inner experience were discussed.

  10. Asperger syndrome related suicidal behavior: two case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kocourkova J

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Jana Kocourkova, Iva Dudova, Jiri Koutek Department of Child Psychiatry, Charles University Second Faculty of Medicine, University Hospital Motol, Prague, Czech Republic Abstract: Asperger syndrome hinders adaptation to developmental challenges during childhood and adolescence, particularly with regard to interpersonal relationships. Individuals with Asperger syndrome display lack of empathy and limited ability to understand social and emotional exchanges with other people. Individuals with Asperger syndrome are significantly exposed to the risk of suicidal behavior, especially during adolescence. The authors describe cases of suicidal behavior in two adolescent boys with Asperger syndrome. Keywords: Asperger syndrome, suicidal behavior, adolescence

  11. Improving medication adherence among kidney transplant recipients: Findings from other industries, patient engagement, and behavioral economics—A scoping review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberlin, Shelley R; Parente, Stephen T; Pruett, Timothy L

    2016-01-01

    The immune system is a powerful barrier to successful organ transplantation, but one that has been routinely thwarted through modern pharmacotherapeutics. Despite the benefits of immunosuppressive therapy, medication non-adherence leads to an increased risk of graft rejection, higher hospital utilization and costs, and poor outcomes. We conduct a scoping review following Arksey and O’Malley’s five-stage framework methodology to identify established or novel interventions that could be applied to kidney transplant recipients to improve medication adherence. As the desired outcome is a behavior (taking a pill), we assess three areas: behavioral-focused interventions in other industries, patient engagement theories, and behavioral economic principles. Search strategies included mining business, social sciences, and medical literature with additional guidance from six consultative interviews. Our review suggests that no intervention stands out as superior or likely to be more effective than any other intervention; yet promising strategies and interventions were identified across all three areas examined. Based on our findings, we believe there are five strategies that transplant centers and other organizations can implement to improve medication adherence: (1) Build a foundation of trust; (2) Employ multiple interventions; (3) Stratify the population; (4) Develop collaborative partnerships; and (5) Embed medication adherence into the organization’s culture. The effectiveness of these interventions will need to be investigated further, but we believe they are a step in the right direction for organizations to consider in their efforts to improve medication adherence. PMID:26835016

  12. Improving medication adherence among kidney transplant recipients: Findings from other industries, patient engagement, and behavioral economics—A scoping review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelley R Oberlin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The immune system is a powerful barrier to successful organ transplantation, but one that has been routinely thwarted through modern pharmacotherapeutics. Despite the benefits of immunosuppressive therapy, medication non-adherence leads to an increased risk of graft rejection, higher hospital utilization and costs, and poor outcomes. We conduct a scoping review following Arksey and O’Malley’s five-stage framework methodology to identify established or novel interventions that could be applied to kidney transplant recipients to improve medication adherence. As the desired outcome is a behavior (taking a pill, we assess three areas: behavioral-focused interventions in other industries, patient engagement theories, and behavioral economic principles. Search strategies included mining business, social sciences, and medical literature with additional guidance from six consultative interviews. Our review suggests that no intervention stands out as superior or likely to be more effective than any other intervention; yet promising strategies and interventions were identified across all three areas examined. Based on our findings, we believe there are five strategies that transplant centers and other organizations can implement to improve medication adherence: (1 Build a foundation of trust; (2 Employ multiple interventions; (3 Stratify the population; (4 Develop collaborative partnerships; and (5 Embed medication adherence into the organization’s culture. The effectiveness of these interventions will need to be investigated further, but we believe they are a step in the right direction for organizations to consider in their efforts to improve medication adherence.

  13. Improving medication adherence among kidney transplant recipients: Findings from other industries, patient engagement, and behavioral economics-A scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberlin, Shelley R; Parente, Stephen T; Pruett, Timothy L

    2016-01-01

    The immune system is a powerful barrier to successful organ transplantation, but one that has been routinely thwarted through modern pharmacotherapeutics. Despite the benefits of immunosuppressive therapy, medication non-adherence leads to an increased risk of graft rejection, higher hospital utilization and costs, and poor outcomes. We conduct a scoping review following Arksey and O'Malley's five-stage framework methodology to identify established or novel interventions that could be applied to kidney transplant recipients to improve medication adherence. As the desired outcome is a behavior (taking a pill), we assess three areas: behavioral-focused interventions in other industries, patient engagement theories, and behavioral economic principles. Search strategies included mining business, social sciences, and medical literature with additional guidance from six consultative interviews. Our review suggests that no intervention stands out as superior or likely to be more effective than any other intervention; yet promising strategies and interventions were identified across all three areas examined. Based on our findings, we believe there are five strategies that transplant centers and other organizations can implement to improve medication adherence: (1) Build a foundation of trust; (2) Employ multiple interventions; (3) Stratify the population; (4) Develop collaborative partnerships; and (5) Embed medication adherence into the organization's culture. The effectiveness of these interventions will need to be investigated further, but we believe they are a step in the right direction for organizations to consider in their efforts to improve medication adherence.

  14. Conservation in Mammals of Genes Associated with Aggression-Related Behavioral Phenotypes in Honey Bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Robinson, Gene E; Jakobsson, Eric

    2016-06-01

    The emerging field of sociogenomics explores the relations between social behavior and genome structure and function. An important question is the extent to which associations between social behavior and gene expression are conserved among the Metazoa. Prior experimental work in an invertebrate model of social behavior, the honey bee, revealed distinct brain gene expression patterns in African and European honey bees, and within European honey bees with different behavioral phenotypes. The present work is a computational study of these previous findings in which we analyze, by orthology determination, the extent to which genes that are socially regulated in honey bees are conserved across the Metazoa. We found that the differentially expressed gene sets associated with alarm pheromone response, the difference between old and young bees, and the colony influence on soldier bees, are enriched in widely conserved genes, indicating that these differences have genomic bases shared with many other metazoans. By contrast, the sets of differentially expressed genes associated with the differences between African and European forager and guard bees are depleted in widely conserved genes, indicating that the genomic basis for this social behavior is relatively specific to honey bees. For the alarm pheromone response gene set, we found a particularly high degree of conservation with mammals, even though the alarm pheromone itself is bee-specific. Gene Ontology identification of human orthologs to the strongly conserved honey bee genes associated with the alarm pheromone response shows overrepresentation of protein metabolism, regulation of protein complex formation, and protein folding, perhaps associated with remodeling of critical neural circuits in response to alarm pheromone. We hypothesize that such remodeling may be an adaptation of social animals to process and respond appropriately to the complex patterns of conspecific communication essential for social organization.

  15. Conservation in Mammals of Genes Associated with Aggression-Related Behavioral Phenotypes in Honey Bees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Liu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The emerging field of sociogenomics explores the relations between social behavior and genome structure and function. An important question is the extent to which associations between social behavior and gene expression are conserved among the Metazoa. Prior experimental work in an invertebrate model of social behavior, the honey bee, revealed distinct brain gene expression patterns in African and European honey bees, and within European honey bees with different behavioral phenotypes. The present work is a computational study of these previous findings in which we analyze, by orthology determination, the extent to which genes that are socially regulated in honey bees are conserved across the Metazoa. We found that the differentially expressed gene sets associated with alarm pheromone response, the difference between old and young bees, and the colony influence on soldier bees, are enriched in widely conserved genes, indicating that these differences have genomic bases shared with many other metazoans. By contrast, the sets of differentially expressed genes associated with the differences between African and European forager and guard bees are depleted in widely conserved genes, indicating that the genomic basis for this social behavior is relatively specific to honey bees. For the alarm pheromone response gene set, we found a particularly high degree of conservation with mammals, even though the alarm pheromone itself is bee-specific. Gene Ontology identification of human orthologs to the strongly conserved honey bee genes associated with the alarm pheromone response shows overrepresentation of protein metabolism, regulation of protein complex formation, and protein folding, perhaps associated with remodeling of critical neural circuits in response to alarm pheromone. We hypothesize that such remodeling may be an adaptation of social animals to process and respond appropriately to the complex patterns of conspecific communication essential for

  16. Obesity-related behaviors among poor adolescents and young adults: Is social position associated with risk behaviors?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda Lucia Ritterman Weintraub

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study examines multiple dimensions of social position in relation to obesity-related behaviors in an adolescent and young adult population. In addition to using conventional measures of social position, including parental education and household expenditures, we explore the usefulness of three youth-specific measures of social position—community and society subjective social status and school dropout status. Data is taken from a 2004 house-to-house survey of urban households within the bottom 20th percentile of income distribution within seven states in Mexico. A total of 5,321 Mexican adolescents, aged 12-22 years, provided information on obesity-related behaviors (e.g. diet, physical activity, sedentary behavior and indicators of subjective and objective social position. A parent in each household provided information on socioeconomic status of the parent and household. Ordinal logistic regressions are used to estimate the associations of parental, household and adolescent indicators of social position and obesity-related risk behaviors. Those adolescents with the highest odds of adopting obesity risk behaviors were the ones who perceived themselves as lower in social status in reference to their peer community and those who had dropped out of school. We found no significant associations between parental education or household expenditures and obesity-related risk behaviors. Immediate social factors in adolescents' lives may have a strong influence on their health-related behaviors. This study provides evidence for the usefulness of two particular measures, both of which are youth-specific. Adolescents and young adults who have dropped out of school and those with lower perceived relative social position within their community are more likely to be at-risk for obesity-related behaviors than those with higher relative social position. We conclude that youth-specific measures may be important in identifying the most at

  17. Event-related potentials reveal early attention bias for negative, unexpected behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Jerónimo, R.; Volpert, H. I.; Bartholow, B. D.

    2017-01-01

    WOS:000395098000012 (Nº de Acesso Web of Science) Numerous studies have documented that expectancy-violating (EV) behavior (i.e., behavior that violates existing person impressions) elicits more effortful cognitive processing compared to expectancy-consistent (EC) behavior. Some studies also have shown that this effect is modulated by the valence of behavior, though this finding is inconsistent with some extant models of expectancy processes. The current research investigated whether the v...

  18. The relation between maternal ADHD symptoms & improvement in child behavior following brief behavioral parent training is mediated by change in negative parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; O'Brien, Kelly A; Johnston, Charlotte; Jones, Heather A; Clarke, Tana L; Raggi, Veronica L; Rooney, Mary E; Diaz, Yamalis; Pian, Jessica; Seymour, Karen E

    2011-10-01

    This study examined the extent to which maternal attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms predict improvement in child behavior following brief behavioral parent training. Change in parenting was examined as a potential mediator of the negative relationship between maternal ADHD symptoms and improvement in child behavior. Seventy mothers of 6-10 year old children with ADHD underwent a comprehensive assessment of adult ADHD prior to participating in an abbreviated parent training program. Before and after treatment, parenting was assessed via maternal reports and observations and child disruptive behavior was measured via maternal report. Controlling for pre-treatment levels, maternal ADHD symptomatology predicted post-treatment child disruptive behavior problems. The relation between maternal ADHD symptomatology and improvement in child behavior was mediated by change in observed maternal negative parenting. This study replicated findings linking maternal ADHD symptoms with attenuated child improvement following parent training, and is the first to demonstrate that negative parenting at least partially explains this relationship. Innovative approaches combining evidence-based treatment for adult ADHD with parent training may therefore be necessary for families in which both the mother and child have ADHD. Larger-scale studies using a full evidence-based parent training program are needed to replicate these findings.

  19. Antisocial behavior in adolescence: Typology and relation to family context

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sobotková, Veronika; Blatný, Marek; Jelínek, Martin; Hrdlička, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 8 (2013), s. 1091-1115 ISSN 0272-4316 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : family * antisocial behavior * typology * adolescence Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 1.200, year: 2013

  20. A case report of suicidal behavior related to subclinical hyperthyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joo SH

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Soo-Hyun Joo, Jong-Hyun Jeong, Seung-Chul HongDepartment of Psychiatry, St Vincent's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Suwon, KoreaAbstract: Abnormalities in thyroid function are associated with many psychiatric symptoms. We present a report of a 15-year-old girl who was admitted to the psychiatry inpatient unit with symptoms of suicidal behavior, irritability, and impulsivity. One year previously, she had become more short-tempered, and had started to cut her wrists impulsively. Laboratory tests revealed subclinical hyperthyroidism. She was treated with anxiolytic and antithyroid drugs, and her suicidal ideation and irritability resolved. This case demonstrates that subclinical hyperthyroidism can be associated with suicidal behavior as well as overt hyperthyroidism. Early intervention is required to prevent suicidal behavior in patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism.Keywords: suicidal behavior, subclinical hyperthyroidism, anxiolytics

  1. Visual Sexual Stimuli-Cue or Reward? A Perspective for Interpreting Brain Imaging Findings on Human Sexual Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gola, Mateusz; Wordecha, Małgorzata; Marchewka, Artur; Sescousse, Guillaume

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing number of neuroimaging studies using visual sexual stimuli (VSS), especially within the emerging field of research on compulsive sexual behaviors (CSB). A central question in this field is whether behaviors such as excessive pornography consumption share common brain mechanisms with widely studied substance and behavioral addictions. Depending on how VSS are conceptualized, different predictions can be formulated within the frameworks of Reinforcement Learning or Incentive Salience Theory, where a crucial distinction is made between conditioned and unconditioned stimuli (related to reward anticipation vs. reward consumption, respectively). Surveying 40 recent human neuroimaging studies we show existing ambiguity about the conceptualization of VSS. Therefore, we feel that it is important to address the question of whether VSS should be considered as conditioned stimuli (cue) or unconditioned stimuli (reward). Here we present our own perspective, which is that in most laboratory settings VSS play a role of reward, as evidenced by: (1) experience of pleasure while watching VSS, possibly accompanied by genital reaction; (2) reward-related brain activity correlated with these pleasurable feelings in response to VSS; (3) a willingness to exert effort to view VSS similarly as for other rewarding stimuli such as money; and (4) conditioning for cues predictive of VSS. We hope that this perspective article will initiate a scientific discussion on this important and overlooked topic and increase attention for appropriate interpretations of results of human neuroimaging studies using VSS.

  2. Visual Sexual Stimuli—Cue or Reward? A Perspective for Interpreting Brain Imaging Findings on Human Sexual Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gola, Mateusz; Wordecha, Małgorzata; Marchewka, Artur; Sescousse, Guillaume

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing number of neuroimaging studies using visual sexual stimuli (VSS), especially within the emerging field of research on compulsive sexual behaviors (CSB). A central question in this field is whether behaviors such as excessive pornography consumption share common brain mechanisms with widely studied substance and behavioral addictions. Depending on how VSS are conceptualized, different predictions can be formulated within the frameworks of Reinforcement Learning or Incentive Salience Theory, where a crucial distinction is made between conditioned and unconditioned stimuli (related to reward anticipation vs. reward consumption, respectively). Surveying 40 recent human neuroimaging studies we show existing ambiguity about the conceptualization of VSS. Therefore, we feel that it is important to address the question of whether VSS should be considered as conditioned stimuli (cue) or unconditioned stimuli (reward). Here we present our own perspective, which is that in most laboratory settings VSS play a role of reward, as evidenced by: (1) experience of pleasure while watching VSS, possibly accompanied by genital reaction; (2) reward-related brain activity correlated with these pleasurable feelings in response to VSS; (3) a willingness to exert effort to view VSS similarly as for other rewarding stimuli such as money; and (4) conditioning for cues predictive of VSS. We hope that this perspective article will initiate a scientific discussion on this important and overlooked topic and increase attention for appropriate interpretations of results of human neuroimaging studies using VSS. PMID:27574507

  3. Novel Variants in Individuals with RYR1-Related Congenital Myopathies: Genetic, Laboratory, and Clinical Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua J. Todd

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The ryanodine receptor 1-related congenital myopathies (RYR1-RM comprise a spectrum of slow, rare neuromuscular diseases. Affected individuals present with a mild-to-severe symptomatology ranging from proximal muscle weakness, hypotonia and joint contractures to scoliosis, ophthalmoplegia, and respiratory involvement. Although there is currently no FDA-approved treatment for RYR1-RM, our group recently conducted the first clinical trial in this patient population (NCT02362425. This study aimed to characterize novel RYR1 variants with regard to genetic, laboratory, muscle magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, and clinical findings. Genetic and histopathology reports were obtained from participant’s medical records. Alamut Visual Software was used to determine if participant’s variants had been previously reported and to assess predicted pathogenicity. Physical exams, pulmonary function tests, T1-weighted muscle MRI scans, and blood measures were completed during the abovementioned clinical trial. Six novel variants (two de novo, three dominant, and one recessive were identified in individuals with RYR1-RM. Consistent with established RYR1-RM histopathology, cores were observed in all biopsies, except Case 6 who exhibited fiber-type disproportion. Muscle atrophy and impaired mobility with Trendelenburg gait were the most common clinical symptoms and were identified in all cases. Muscle MRI revealed substantial inter-individual variation in fatty infiltration corroborating the heterogeneity of the disease. Two individuals with dominant RYR1 variants exhibited respiratory insufficiency: a clinical symptom more commonly associated with recessive RYR1-RM cases. This study demonstrates that a genetics-led approach is suitable for the diagnosis of suspected RYR1-RM which can be corroborated through histopathology, muscle MRI and clinical examination.

  4. Skin ulcers related to chronic graft-versus-host disease: clinical findings and associated morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jachiet, M; de Masson, A; Peffault de Latour, R; Rybojad, M; Robin, M; Bourhis, J-H; Xhaard, A; Dhedin, N; Sicre de Fontbrune, F; Suarez, F; Barete, S; Parquet, N; Nguyen, S; Ades, L; Rubio, M-T; Wittnebel, S; Bagot, M; Socié, G; Bouaziz, J-D

    2014-07-01

    According to the National Institutes of Health classification of chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD), skin ulcers after allogeneic haematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) are recorded as having the maximal severity score but published data are scarce. To describe skin ulcers related to cGVHD with an emphasis on clinical findings, associated morbidity, management and evolution. A multicentre retrospective analysis was carried out of patients with a diagnosis of cGVHD skin ulcers. All 25 patients included in the study had sclerotic skin cGVHD and 21 had lichenoid skin lesions associated with the sclerotic skin lesions. Thirteen patients had severe cGVHD without considering the skin, because of the involvement of an extracutaneous organ by cGVHD. The median time from HSCT to the onset of ulcers was 44 months. In addition to scleroderma, initial skin lesions at the site of ulcers were bullous erosive lichen in 21 patients and bullous erosive morphoea in four patients. Fifteen patients had an inaugural oedema. Ulcers were mostly bilateral with a predilection for the lower limbs. They were frequently colonized but few infections occurred. Four patients died during a median follow-up period of 55 months. Chronic graft-versus-host disease skin ulcers occur in patients with sclerodermatous skin cGVHD, are associated with severe cGVHD, often start with bullous lichenoid lesions or bullous morphoea and seem to cause more morbidity than mortality, given the low rate of mortality observed in our series of patients. © 2014 British Association of Dermatologists.

  5. Manometric findings in relation to functional outcomes in different types of anorectal malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyrklund, Kristiina; Pakarinen, Mikko P; Rintala, Risto J

    2017-04-01

    To compare anorectal manometry (AM) in patients with different types of anorectal malformations (ARMs) in relation to functional outcomes. A single-institution, cross-sectional study. After ethical approval, all patients ≥7years old treated for anterior anus (AA), perineal fistula (PF), vestibular fistula (VF), or rectourethral fistula (RUF) from 1983 onwards were invited to answer the Rintala bowel function score (BFS) questionnaire and to attend anorectal manometry (AM). Patients with mild ARMs (AA females and PF males) had been treated with minimally invasive perineal procedures. Females with VF/PF and males with RUF had undergone internal-sphincter saving sagittal repairs. 55 of 132 respondents (42%; median age 12 (7-29) years; 42% male) underwent AM. Patients with mild ARMs displayed good anorectal function after minimally invasive treatments. The median anal resting and squeeze pressures among patients with mild ARMs (60 cm H2O and 116 cm H2O respectively) were significantly higher than among patients with more severe ARMs (50 cm H2O, and 80cm H2O respectively; p≤0.002). The rectoanal inhibitory reflex was preserved in 100% of mild ARMs and 83% of patients with more severe malformations after IAS-saving sagittal repair. The functional outcome was poor in 4/5 patients with an absent RAIR (BFS≤11 or antegrade continence enema-dependence). Rectal sensation correlated significantly with the BFS. Our findings support the appropriateness of our minimally invasive approaches to the management of mild ARMs, and IAS-saving anatomical repairs for patients with more severe malformations. III. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The associations between cigarette smoking and health-related behaviors among Chinese school-aged adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Wang

    2017-06-01

    The results suggested that cigarette smoking was associated with a cluster of health-related behaviors in adolescents, which should be considered in health promotion interventions to target multiple health behaviors.

  7. Brain Regions Related to Impulsivity Mediate the Effects of Early Adversity on Antisocial Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mackey, Scott; Chaarani, Bader; Kan, Kees Jan; Spechler, Philip A.; Orr, Catherine; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth; Bokde, Arun L.W.; Bromberg, Uli; Büchel, Christian; Cattrell, Anna; Conrod, Patricia J.; Desrivières, Sylvane; Flor, Herta; Frouin, Vincent; Gallinat, Jürgen; Gowland, Penny; Heinz, Andreas; Ittermann, Bernd; Paillère Martinot, Marie Laure; Artiges, Eric; Nees, Frauke; Papadopoulos-Orfanos, Dimitri; Poustka, Luise; Smolka, Michael N.; Jurk, Sarah; Walter, Henrik; Whelan, Robert; Schumann, Gunter; Althoff, Robert R.; Garavan, Hugh

    2017-01-01

    Background Individual differences in impulsivity and early adversity are known to be strong predictors of adolescent antisocial behavior. However, the neurobiological bases of impulsivity and their relation to antisocial behavior and adversity are poorly understood. Methods Impulsivity was estimated

  8. Predicting personality traits related to consumer behavior using SNS analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baik, Jongbum; Lee, Kangbok; Lee, Soowon; Kim, Yongbum; Choi, Jayoung

    2016-07-01

    Modeling a user profile is one of the important factors for devising a personalized recommendation. The traditional approach for modeling a user profile in computer science is to collect and generalize the user's buying behavior or preference history, generated from the user's interactions with recommender systems. According to consumer behavior research, however, internal factors such as personality traits influence a consumer's buying behavior. Existing studies have tried to adapt the Big 5 personality traits to personalized recommendations. However, although studies have shown that these traits can be useful to some extent for personalized recommendation, the causal relationship between the Big 5 personality traits and the buying behaviors of actual consumers has not been validated. In this paper, we propose a novel method for predicting the four personality traits-Extroversion, Public Self-consciousness, Desire for Uniqueness, and Self-esteem-that correlate with buying behaviors. The proposed method automatically constructs a user-personality-traits prediction model for each user by analyzing the user behavior on a social networking service. The experimental results from an analysis of the collected Facebook data show that the proposed method can predict user-personality traits with greater precision than methods that use the variables proposed in previous studies.

  9. Identifying job characteristics related to employed women's breastfeeding behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzmueller, Christiane; Zhang, Jing; Thomas, Candice L; Wang, Zhuxi; Fisher, Gwenith G; Matthews, Russell A; Strathearn, Lane

    2018-05-14

    For employed mothers of infants, reconciliation of work demands and breastfeeding constitutes a significant challenge. The discontinuation of breastfeeding has the potential to result in negative outcomes for the mother (e.g., higher likelihood of obesity), her employer (e.g., increased absenteeism), and her infant (e.g., increased risk of infection). Given previous research findings identifying return to work as a major risk factor for breastfeeding cessation, we investigate what types of job characteristics relate to women's intentions to breastfeed shortly after giving birth and women's actual breastfeeding initiation and duration. Using job titles and job descriptors contained in a large Australian longitudinal cohort data set (N = 809), we coded job titles using the U.S. Department of Labor (DOL)'s Occupational Information Network (O*NET) database and extracted job characteristics. Hazardous working conditions and job autonomy were identified as significant determinants of women's breastfeeding intentions, their initiation of breastfeeding, and ultimately their breastfeeding continuation. Hence, we recommend that human resource professionals, managers, and public health initiatives provide breastfeeding-supportive resources to women who, based on their job characteristics, are at high risk to prematurely discontinue breastfeeding to ensure these mothers have equal opportunity to reap the benefits of breastfeeding. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Risky driving behavior and road traffic crashes among young Asian Australian drivers: findings from the DRIVE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boufous, Soufiane; Ivers, Rebecca; Senserrick, Teresa; Norton, Robyn; Stevenson, Mark; Chen, Huei-Yang; Lam, Lawrence T

    2010-06-01

    To examine differences in risky driving behavior and likelihood of traffic crash according to the country of birth of recently licensed young drivers. The groups examined include those born in Australia, those born in Asia, and those born in other countries. The DRIVE study is a prospective cohort study of drivers aged 17-24 years holding their first-year provisional driver license in New South Wales, Australia. Information obtained from 20,822 participants who completed a baseline questionnaire was linked to police-reported traffic crashes. Self-reported risky driving behaviors and police-reported traffic crashes in young drivers. Young drivers who were born in Asian countries were less likely to report engaging in risky driving behaviors than their Australian-born counterparts. The proportion of participants reporting a high level of risky driving was 31.5 percent (95% confidence intervale [CI], 30.8-32.1) among Australian-born drivers compared to 25.6 percent (95% CI, 23.1-28.2) among Asian-born drivers and 30.4 percent (95% CI, 28.4-32.5) among those born in other regions. Asian-born participants had half the risk of a crash as a driver than their Australian-born counterparts (relative risk [RR] 0.55; 95% CI, 0.41-0.75) after adjusting for a number of demographic factors and driving and risk-taking behaviors. The comparative risk was even lower among those aged 17 years (RR 0.29; 95% CI, 0.29-0.75). Risk estimates for people born in other regions did not differ to those for Australian-born respondents. The study highlights the lower level of risky driving and significantly reduced crash risk for Australian drivers born in Asian countries relative to those born locally. Further research is needed to examine factors underlying this reduced risk and the impact of the length of residence in the host country.

  11. Modeling Structural, Dyadic, and Individual Factors: The Inclusion and Exclusion Model of HIV Related Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Albarracin, Dolores; Tannenbaum, Melanie B.; Glasman, Laura R.; Rothman, Alexander J.

    2010-01-01

    Changing HIV-related behaviors requires addressing the individual, dyadic, and structural influences that shape them. This supplement of AIDS & Behavior presents frameworks that integrate these three influences on behavior. Concepts from these frameworks were selected to model the processes by which structural factors affect individual HIV-related behavior. In the Inclusion/Exclusion Model, material and symbolic inclusions and exclusions (sharing versus denying resources) regulate individuals...

  12. HIV-related sexual risk behavior among African American adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielson, Carla Kmett; Walsh, Kate; McCauley, Jenna; Ruggiero, Kenneth J; Brown, Jennifer L; Sales, Jessica M; Rose, Eve; Wingood, Gina M; Diclemente, Ralph J

    2014-05-01

    Latent class analysis (LCA) is a useful statistical tool that can be used to enhance understanding of how various patterns of combined sexual behavior risk factors may confer differential levels of HIV infection risk and to identify subtypes among African American adolescent girls. Data for this analysis is derived from baseline assessments completed prior to randomization in an HIV prevention trial. Participants were African American girls (n=701) aged 14-20 years presenting to sexual health clinics. Girls completed an audio computer-assisted self-interview, which assessed a range of variables regarding sexual history and current and past sexual behavior. Two latent classes were identified with the probability statistics for the two groups in this model being 0.89 and 0.88, respectively. In the final multivariate model, class 1 (the "higher risk" group; n=331) was distinguished by a higher likelihood of >5 lifetime sexual partners, having sex while high on alcohol/drugs, less frequent condom use, and history of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), when compared with class 2 (the "lower risk" group; n=370). The derived model correctly classified 85.3% of participants into the two groups and accounted for 71% of the variance in the latent HIV-related sexual behavior risk variable. The higher risk class also had worse scores on all hypothesized correlates (e.g., self-esteem, history of sexual assault or physical abuse) relative to the lower risk class. Sexual health clinics represent a unique point of access for HIV-related sexual risk behavior intervention delivery by capitalizing on contact with adolescent girls when they present for services. Four empirically supported risk factors differentiated higher versus lower HIV risk. Replication of these findings is warranted and may offer an empirical basis for parsimonious screening recommendations for girls presenting for sexual healthcare services.

  13. Effects of drinker self-schema on drinking- and smoking-related information processing and behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chia-Kuie; Stein, Karen F; Corte, Colleen

    2018-01-02

    Co-occurrence of drinking and smoking is prevalent in undergraduate students. A drinker self-schema-cognition about the self as the drinker-is a common identity in undergraduates and a well-known predictor of drinking behaviors. Given that smoking commonly occurs in the context of drinking, a drinker self-schema may be a cognitive mechanism to motivate co-occurring alcohol and tobacco use (i.e., cross-substance facilitation hypothesis). This study was to determine whether the drinker self-schema influences the processing of drinking- and smoking-related information and facilitates the co-occurrence of alcohol and tobacco use in undergraduate students who drink and smoke but do not self-identify as smokers. This study was the second phase of a 2-phase study. Of the 330 who completed phase 1 (online survey), 99 completed the phase 2 study. Phase 2 was an in-person session that included a computerized information processing task to measure endorsements and response latencies for drinking- and smoking-related attributes, and a computerized Timeline Followback that was used to measure 90-day alcohol- and tobacco-use behaviors. The 5-item drinker self-schema scale, administered in phase 1, was used to measure the strength of the drinker self-schema. A higher drinker self-schema score was associated with more endorsements of positive attributes for drinking and smoking, fewer endorsements of negative attributes for smoking, faster processing of agreements with positive alcohol-use-related attributes, higher levels of drinking and smoking, and more days of co-occurring alcohol and tobacco use. Findings provide preliminary evidence to support the cross-substance facilitation hypothesis that the drinker self-schema facilitates the processing of not only drinking-related but also smoking-related stimuli and behaviors. Undergraduates who have higher drinker self-schema scores may be vulnerable to co-occurring alcohol and tobacco use.

  14. Predictors of Prosthodontic Treatment-Related Behavior Using the Theory of Planned Behavior Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Antonio Helio; Castro e Silva, Donizete; Nogueira, Túlio Eduardo; Leles, Cláudio Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) was used to assess subjects' intentions and behavior to predict willingness to undergo prosthodontic care. A questionnaire was administered to 225 adults with history of teeth loss who currently were not under prosthodontic treatment. The questionnaire comprised TPB components (attitude toward behaviour [ATB], subjective norm [SN], and perceived behavioral control [PBC]) containing items with potential influence on the intentions and behavior of individuals toward prosthodontic care. Clinical and socioeconomic data were also assessed. A path regression model was constructed explaining two dependent variables simultaneously: one explained the influence of PBC on intention (R2=0.04) and another explained the influence of dental arch, position of lost teeth, socioeconomic status, and PBC on behavior (R2=0.31). It was concluded that PBC was a relevant TPB component that encompasses perception of costs, opportunity cost, perceived need, and access to dental care. Clinical and socioeconomic factors were also major determinants of behavior toward prosthodontic treatment.

  15. Cardiovascular risk factors and behavior lifestyles of young women: implications from findings of the Bogalusa Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, C E; Nicklas, T A; Myers, L; Johnson, C C; Berenson, G S

    1997-12-01

    The primary purposes of this article are to highlight important issues related to cardiovascular risk factors and behavior life-styles in young women and to examine racial (black-white) differences in risk factors that relate to cardiovascular disease. In childhood, some girls show cardiovascular risk factors of higher blood pressure levels, dyslipidemia, and obesity, all of which continue into young adulthood. Factors that contribute to abnormal risk factors are a high-saturated fat diet, excess energy intake related to inactivity, and cigarette smoking. Trends of obesity are documented; and young white girls are continuing to use tobacco, more so than boys and black girls. Although the onset of clinical cardiovascular disease is delayed in women, the stage is set in childhood for the development of early cardiovascular risk.

  16. Consumer Knowledge, Attitudes and Salt-Related Behavior in the Middle-East: The Case of Lebanon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Nasreddine

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Sodium intake is high in Lebanon, a country of the Middle East region where rates of cardiovascular diseases are amongst the highest in the world. This study examines salt-related knowledge, attitude and self-reported behaviors amongst adult Lebanese consumers and investigates the association of socio-demographic factors, knowledge and attitudes with salt-related behaviors. Using a multicomponent questionnaire, a cross-sectional study was conducted in nine supermarkets in Beirut, based on systematic random sampling (n = 442. Factors associated with salt-related behaviors were examined by multivariate regression analysis. Specific knowledge and attitude gaps were documented with only 22.6% of participants identifying processed foods as the main source of salt, 55.6% discerning the relationship between salt and sodium, 32.4% recognizing the daily limit of salt intake and 44.7% reporting being concerned about the amount of salt in their diet. The majority of participants reported behavioral practices that increase salt intake with only 38.3% checking for salt label content, 43.7% reporting that their food purchases are influenced by salt content and 38.6% trying to buy low-salt foods. Knowledge, attitudes and older age were found to significantly predict salt-related behaviors. Findings offer valuable insight on salt-related knowledge, attitude and behaviors in a sample of Lebanese consumers and provide key information that could spur the development of evidence-based salt-reduction interventions specific to the Middle East.

  17. Forms of aggression, peer relationships, and relational victimization among Chinese adolescent girls and boys: roles of prosocial behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shujun; Zhang, Wei; Li, Dongping; Yu, Chengfu; Zhen, Shuangju; Huang, Shihua

    2015-01-01

    Through a sample of 686 Chinese adolescents (mean age = 13.73 years; 50% girls), we examined the compensatory and moderating effects of prosocial behavior on the direct and indirect associations between forms of aggression and relational victimization mediated by peer relationships among adolescent girls and boys. The results indicated that only adolescent girls' relationally aggressive behaviors could be directly linked with their experiences of relational victimization, and both relationally and overtly aggressive adolescent boys and girls might be more often rejected by their peers, which, in turn, could make them targets of relational aggression. Next, we found that prosocial behavior indirectly counteracts the effects of aggression on relational victimization through reducing adolescents' peer rejection and promoting adolescents' peer attachment. In addition, relationally aggressive girls with high levels of prosocial behavior might be less rejected by peers; however, they might also have lower levels of peer attachment and be more likely to experience relational victimization. Last, adolescent boys scored higher on risks, but lower on the protective factors of relational victimization than girls, which, to some degree, might explain the gender difference in relational victimization. Finally, we discussed the theoretical and practical implications of these findings.

  18. Forms of Aggression, Peer Relationships, and Relational Victimization among Chinese Adolescent girls and boys: Roles of Prosocial Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shujun eWang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Through a sample of 686 Chinese adolescents (mean age = 13.73 years; 50% girls, we examined the compensatory and moderating effects of prosocial behavior on the direct and indirect associations between forms of aggression and relational victimization mediated by peer relationships among adolescent girls and boys. The results indicated that only adolescent girls’ relationally aggressive behaviors could be directly linked with their experiences of relational victimization, and both relationally and overtly aggressive adolescent boys and girls might be more often rejected by their peers, which, in turn, could make them targets of relational aggression. Next, we found that prosocial behavior indirectly counteracts the effects of aggression on relational victimization through reducing adolescents’ peer rejection and promoting adolescents’ peer attachment. In addition, relationally aggressive girls with high levels of prosocial behavior might be less rejected by peers; however, they might also have lower levels of peer attachment and be more likely to experience relational victimization. Last, adolescent boys scored higher on risks, but lower on the protective factors of relational victimization than girls, which, to some degree, might explain the gender difference in relational victimization. Finally, we discussed the theoretical and practical implications of these findings.

  19. Using the Internet for Health-Related Activities: Findings From a National Probability Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saperstein, Sandra L; Pleis, John

    2009-01-01

    Background eHealth tools on the Internet have the potential to help people manage their health and health care. However, little is known about the distribution and use of different kinds of eHealth tools across the population or within population subgroups. Objective The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence and predictors of participation in specific online health-related activities. Methods A secondary data analysis of the National Cancer Institute’s Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) 2005 was conducted to study three online behaviors among Internet users (n = 3244): searching for health information for oneself, participating in a support group for those with similar health or medical conditions, and purchasing medicine or vitamins. Results A total of 58% of Internet users reported searching for health information for themselves, 3.8% used online support groups, and 12.8% bought medicine or vitamins online in the past year. Multivariate analysis found that those seeking health information were more likely to be women (OR = 2.23, 95% CI = 1.60, 3.09), have cable or satellite Internet connections (OR = 1.73, 95% CI = 1.22, 2.45) or DSL connections (OR = 1.94, 95% CI = 1.36, 2.76), have Internet access from work (OR = 2.43, 95% CI = 1.27, 4.67) or from home and work (OR = 1.73, 95% CI = 1.31, 2.30), and report more hours of weekday Internet use (OR = 4.12, 95% CI = 2.41, 7.07). Those with a high school education or less (OR = 0.44, 95% CI = 0.31, 0.63) and those with some college (OR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.49, 0.89) were less likely to search for health information. Online support groups were more likely to be used by those with “fair” health (OR = 3.28, 95% CI = 1.21, 8.92) and “poor” health (OR = 5.98, 95% CI = 1.49, 24.07) and those with lower incomes (OR = 2.64, 95% CI = 1.09, 6.41) and less likely to be used by those with Internet access both at home and work (OR = 0.56, 95% CI = 0.35, 0.90). Those who were age 35-49 (OR = 2

  20. HLA typing in acute optic neuritis. Relation to multiple sclerosis and magnetic resonance imaging findings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, J.L.; Madsen, H.O.; Ryder, L.P.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the association of brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and HLA findings to clarify the relationship between monosymptomatic optic neuritis (ON) and ON as part of clinically definite multiple sclerosis (CDMS). DESIGN: Population-based cohort of patients with ON refe......OBJECTIVE: To study the association of brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and HLA findings to clarify the relationship between monosymptomatic optic neuritis (ON) and ON as part of clinically definite multiple sclerosis (CDMS). DESIGN: Population-based cohort of patients......: The frequency of HLA-DR15 was significantly increased in patients with ON + CDMS (52%) and ON (47%) compared with control subjects (31%). The frequency of HLA-DR17 was almost equal in the ON + CDMS (18%), ON (23%), and control (23%) groups. The frequencies of HLA-DQA-1B (55% in ON + CDMS, 58% in ON) and HLA...

  1. Age- and cohort-related variance of type-A behavior over 24 years: the Young Finns Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintsa, Taina; Jokela, Markus; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa

    2014-12-01

    Over the recent decades, the incidence of cardiovascular and heart diseases has decreased while levels of type-A behavior, i.e., a potential risk factor, appear to have increased. However, the long-term developmental patterns of type-A behavior is poorly understood. Both age- and cohort-related changes may be involved in these developments. The purpose of this study was to examine an age- and cohort-related changes of Hunter-Wolf type-A behavior from adolescence to adulthood. Type-A behavior and its components (aggressiveness, leadership, hard driving, and eagerness energy) were assessed using the Hunter-Wolf A-B rating scale at five time points (1983, 1986, 1989, 2001, and 2007) in a population-based sample consisting of six birth cohorts born between 1962 and 1977 (n = 3,341, a total of 10,506 person observations). Development of type-A behavior and its components was examined with cohort-sequential multilevel modeling. Aggressiveness decreased with age, eagerness energy, hard driving, and global type-A behavior increased, and leadership exhibited no mean level changes. Younger cohorts had higher aggressiveness, lower hard driving, and global type-A behavior. The findings suggest that in order to understand the health consequences of type-A behavior, both life span and societal changes should be considered.

  2. Anabolic Androgenic Steroid (AAS) related deaths: autoptic, histopathological and toxicological findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frati, Paola; Busardò, Francesco P; Cipolloni, Luigi; Dominicis, Enrico De; Fineschi, Vittorio

    2015-01-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AASs) represent a large group of synthetic derivatives of testosterone, produced to maximize anabolic effects and minimize the androgenic ones. AAS can be administered orally, parenterally by intramuscular injection and transdermally. Androgens act by binding to the nuclear androgen receptor (AR) in the cytoplasm and then translocate into the nucleus. This binding results in sequential conformational changes of the receptor affecting the interaction between receptor and protein, and receptor and DNA. Skeletal muscle can be considered as the main target tissue for the anabolic effects of AAS, which are mediated by ARs which after exposure to AASs are up-regulated and their number increases with body building. Therefore, AASs determine an increase in muscle size as a consequence of a dose-dependent hypertrophy resulting in an increase of the cross-sectional areas of both type I and type II muscle fibers and myonuclear domains. Moreover, it has been reported that AASs can increase tolerance to exercise by making the muscles more capable to overload therefore shielding them from muscle fiber damage and improving the level of protein synthesis during recovery. Despite some therapeutic use of AASs, there is also wide abuse among athletes especially bodybuilders in order to improve their performances and to increase muscle growth and lean body mass, taking into account the significant anabolic effects of these drugs. The prolonged misuse and abuse of AASs can determine several adverse effects, some of which may be even fatal especially on the cardiovascular system because they may increase the risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD), myocardial infarction, altered serum lipoproteins, and cardiac hypertrophy. The aim of this review is to focus on deaths related to AAS abuse, trying to evaluate the autoptic, histopathological and toxicological findings in order to investigate the pathophysiological mechanism that underlines this type of death, which

  3. Morbidity associated with golf-related injuries among children: findings from a pediatric trauma center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, Melissa A; Mertz, Kristen J; Gaines, Barbara; Zuckerbraun, Noel S

    2011-01-01

    To describe injuries due to golf-related activities among pediatric patients requiring hospital admission. We conducted a retrospective analysis of all sports-related injuries from 2000 to 2006 using a level 1 trauma center database. Of 1005 children admitted with sports-related injuries, 60 (6%) had golf-related injuries. The mean injury severity score was significantly higher for golf-related injuries (11.0) than that for all other sports-related injuries (6.8). Most golf-related injuries occurred in children younger than 12 years (80%), at home (48%), and by a strike from a club (57%) and resulted in trauma to the head or neck (68%). Golf-related injuries, although an infrequent cause of sports-related injuries, have the potential to result in severe injuries, especially in younger children. Preventive efforts should target use of golf clubs by younger children in the home setting.

  4. Educating dental students about diet-related behavior change: does experiential learning work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, George W; Stumpos, Madelyn L; Kerschbaum, Wendy; Inglehart, Marita Rohr

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore whether an experiential exercise in a nutrition class would a) increase dental students' motivation to change their own diet-related behavior, b) improve their understanding of theoretical concepts related to behavior change, and c) improve their attitudes towards educating their patients about diet-related behavior. Data were collected from 218 senior dental students in one dental school (2010: 106; 2011: 112) during their nutrition class. The students agreed at the beginning that it was important to change their own diet-related behavior. After one week, the majority agreed that they had changed how they felt and thought about the targeted behavior and what they actually did. After three weeks and at the end of the term, they rated the exercise as helpful for gaining a better understanding of health education theories. The majority indicated that the exercise had helped them understand the difficulty of diet-related behavior change and that it had increased their interest in helping patients change their diet-related behavior. In conclusion, this study suggests that experiential learning about diet-related behavior change is likely to affect students' own behavior positively and to result in increased understanding of behavior change theories and positive behavioral intentions concerning future health education efforts with patients.

  5. Modeling structural, dyadic, and individual factors: the inclusion and exclusion model of HIV related behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarracin, Dolores; Tannenbaum, Melanie B; Glasman, Laura R; Rothman, Alexander J

    2010-12-01

    Changing HIV-related behaviors requires addressing the individual, dyadic, and structural influences that shape them. This supplement of AIDS & Behavior presents frameworks that integrate these three influences on behavior. Concepts from these frameworks were selected to model the processes by which structural factors affect individual HIV-related behavior. In the Inclusion/Exclusion Model, material and symbolic inclusions and exclusions (sharing versus denying resources) regulate individuals' ability and motivation to detect, prevent, and treat HIV. Structural interventions create inclusions that increase one's ability or motivation to perform these behaviors or exclusions that hinder one's ability or motivation to execute counterproductive behaviors. The need to expand research regarding multilevel influences on HIV-related behavior is also discussed, particularly concerning further understanding of sustained behavior change and effective dissemination of evidence-based intervention strategies.

  6. Industrial Buying Behavior Related to Human Resource Consulting Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grünbaum, Niels Nolsøe; Hollensen, Svend; Kahle, Lynn

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to extend the understanding of the industrial buying process in connection with purchasing professional business (B2B) services, specifically human resource (HR) consulting services. Early B2B buying-behavior literature strongly emphasizes the rational aspects...... of buying behavior in B2B services. Based on a comprehensive exploratory study of Danish companies’ purchases of HR consulting services, the authors provide insights into the factors that determine how Danish companies choose a consulting services supplier. Five hypotheses are developed based...

  7. Clinical Considerations Related to the Behavioral Manifestations of Child Maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sege, Robert D; Amaya-Jackson, Lisa

    2017-04-01

    Children who have suffered early abuse or neglect may later present with significant health and behavior problems that may persist long after the abusive or neglectful environment has been remediated. Neurobiological research suggests that early maltreatment may result in an altered psychological and physiologic response to stressful stimuli, a response that deleteriously affects the child's subsequent development. Pediatricians can assist caregivers by helping them recognize the abused or neglected child's emotional and behavioral responses associated with child maltreatment and guide them in the use of positive parenting strategies, referring the children and families to evidence-based therapeutic treatment and mobilizing available community resources. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  8. Adolescent caffeine consumption increases adulthood anxiety-related behavior and modifies neuroendocrine signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Neill, Casey E.; Newsom, Ryan J.; Stafford, Jacob; Scott, Talia; Archuleta, Solana; Levis, Sophia C.; Spencer, Robert L.; Campeau, Serge; Bachtell, Ryan K.

    2016-01-01

    Caffeine is a commonly used psychoactive substance and consumption by children and adolescents continues to rise. Here, we examine the lasting effects of adolescent caffeine consumption on anxiety-related behaviors and several neuroendocrine measures in adulthood. Adolescent male Sprague-Dawley rats consumed caffeine (0.3 g/L) for 28 consecutive days from postnatal day 28 (P28) to P55. Age-matched control rats consumed water. Behavioral testing for anxiety-related behavior began in adulthood (P62) 7 days after removal of caffeine. Adolescent caffeine consumption enhanced anxiety-related behavior in an open field, social interaction test, and elevated plus maze. Similar caffeine consumption in adult rats did not alter anxiety-related behavior after caffeine removal. Characterization of neuroendocrine measures was next assessed to determine whether the changes in anxiety were associated with modifications in the HPA axis. Blood plasma levels of corticosterone (CORT) were assessed throughout the caffeine consumption procedure in adolescent rats. Adolescent caffeine consumption elevated plasma CORT 24 h after initiation of caffeine consumption that normalized over the course of the 28-day consumption procedure. CORT levels were also elevated 24 h after caffeine removal and remained elevated for 7 days. Despite elevated basal CORT in adult rats that consumed caffeine during adolescence, the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and CORT response to placement on an elevated pedestal (a mild stressor) was significantly blunted. Lastly, we assessed changes in basal and stress-induced c-fos and corticotropin-releasing factor (Crf) mRNA expression in brain tissue collected at 7 days withdrawal from adolescent caffeine. Adolescent caffeine consumption increased basal c-fos mRNA in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. Adolescent caffeine consumption had no other effects on the basal or stress-induced c-fos mRNA changes. Caffeine consumption during adolescence

  9. Adolescent caffeine consumption increases adulthood anxiety-related behavior and modifies neuroendocrine signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Casey E; Newsom, Ryan J; Stafford, Jacob; Scott, Talia; Archuleta, Solana; Levis, Sophia C; Spencer, Robert L; Campeau, Serge; Bachtell, Ryan K

    2016-05-01

    Caffeine is a commonly used psychoactive substance and consumption by children and adolescents continues to rise. Here, we examine the lasting effects of adolescent caffeine consumption on anxiety-related behaviors and several neuroendocrine measures in adulthood. Adolescent male Sprague-Dawley rats consumed caffeine (0.3g/L) for 28 consecutive days from postnatal day 28 (P28) to P55. Age-matched control rats consumed water. Behavioral testing for anxiety-related behavior began in adulthood (P62) 7 days after removal of caffeine. Adolescent caffeine consumption enhanced anxiety-related behavior in an open field, social interaction test, and elevated plus maze. Similar caffeine consumption in adult rats did not alter anxiety-related behavior after caffeine removal. Characterization of neuroendocrine measures was next assessed to determine whether the changes in anxiety were associated with modifications in the HPA axis. Blood plasma levels of corticosterone (CORT) were assessed throughout the caffeine consumption procedure in adolescent rats. Adolescent caffeine consumption elevated plasma CORT 24h after initiation of caffeine consumption that normalized over the course of the 28-day consumption procedure. CORT levels were also elevated 24h after caffeine removal and remained elevated for 7 days. Despite elevated basal CORT in adult rats that consumed caffeine during adolescence, the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and CORT response to placement on an elevated pedestal (a mild stressor) was significantly blunted. Lastly, we assessed changes in basal and stress-induced c-fos and corticotropin-releasing factor (Crf) mRNA expression in brain tissue collected at 7 days withdrawal from adolescent caffeine. Adolescent caffeine consumption increased basal c-fos mRNA in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. Adolescent caffeine consumption had no other effects on the basal or stress-induced c-fos mRNA changes. Caffeine consumption during adolescence increased

  10. Physical and relational bullying and victimization: Differential relations with adolescent dating and sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dane, Andrew V; Marini, Zopito A; Volk, Anthony A; Vaillancourt, Tracy

    2017-04-01

    Taking an evolutionary psychological perspective, we investigated whether involvement in bullying as a perpetrator or victim was more likely if adolescents reported having more dating and sexual partners than their peers, an indication of greater engagement in competition for mates. A total of 334 adolescents (173 boys, 160 girls) between the ages of 12 and 16 years (M = 13.6, SD = 1.3), recruited from community youth organizations, completed self-report measures of physical and relational bullying and victimization, as well as dating and sexual behavior. As predicted, pure physical bullying was positively associated with the number of dating and sexual partners, primarily for adolescent boys. Adolescent girls with more dating partners had greater odds of being relational bully-victims, in line with predictions. Finally, adolescent girls with more sexual partners were at greater risk of being physically victimized by peers, and greater involvement with dating and sexual partners was associated with higher odds of being a physical bully-victim. Results are discussed with respect to evolutionary theory and research in which adolescent boys may display strength and athleticism through physical bullying to facilitate intersexual selection, whereas relational bullying may be employed as a strategy to engage in intrasexual competition with rivals for mates. Aggr. Behav. 43:111-122, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Self-Regulatory Processes Mediate the Intention-Behavior Relation for Adherence and Exercise Behaviors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruin, de M.; Sheeran, P.; Kok, G.; Hiemstra, A.; Prins, J.M.; Hospers, H.J.; Breukelen, G.J.P.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Understanding the gap between people's intentions and actual health behavior is an important issue in health psychology. Our aim in this study was to investigate whether self-regulatory processes (monitoring goal progress and responding to discrepancies) mediate the intention-behavior

  12. Behavioral Self-Regulation and Weight-Related Behaviors in Inner-City Adolescents: A Model of Direct and Indirect Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isasi, Carmen R; Wills, Thomas A

    2011-08-01

    BACKGROUND: This study examined the association of two distinct self-regulation constructs, effortful control and dysregulation, with weight-related behaviors in adolescents and tested whether these effects were mediated by self-efficacy variables. METHODS: A school-based survey was conducted with 1771 adolescents from 11 public schools in the Bronx, New York. Self-regulation was assessed by multiple indicators and defined as two latent constructs. Dependent variables included fruit/vegetable intake, intake of snack/junk food, frequency of physical activity, and time spent in sedentary behaviors. Structural equation modeling examined the relation of effortful control and dysregulation to lifestyle behaviors, with self-efficacy variables as possible mediators. RESULTS: Study results showed that effortful control had a positive indirect effect on fruit and vegetable intake, mediated by self-efficacy, as well as a direct effect. Effortful control also had a positive indirect effect on physical activity, mediated by self-efficacy. Dysregulation had direct effects on intake of junk food/snacks and time spent in sedentary behaviors. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that self-regulation characteristics are related to diet and physical activity and that some of these effects are mediated by self-efficacy. Different effects were noted for the two domains of self-regulation. Prevention researchers should consider including self-regulation processes in programs to improve health behaviors in adolescents.

  13. Benchmarking Alumni Relations in Community Colleges: Findings from a 2015 CASE Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradise, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    The Benchmarking Alumni Relations in Community Colleges white paper features key data on alumni relations programs at community colleges across the United States. The paper compares results from 2015 and 2012 across such areas as the structure, operations and budget for alumni relations, alumni data collection and management, alumni communications…

  14. Antisocial Behavior in Adolescence: Typology and Relation to Family Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobotková, Veronika; Blatný, Marek; Jelínek, Martin; Hrdlicka, Michal

    2013-01-01

    The study deals with the relationship between antisocial behavior in early adolescence and family environment. Sample consisted of 2,856 adolescents (53% girls, mean age 13.5 years, SD = 1.1) from urban areas in the Czech Republic. The Social and Health Assessment (SAHA), a school survey, was used to measure sociodemographic characteristics of the…

  15. Laboratory Measured Behavioral Impulsivity Relates to Suicide Attempt History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Donald M.; Mathias, Charles W.; Marsh, Dawn M.; Papageorgiou, T. Dorina; Swann, Alan C.; Moeller, F. Gerard

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between laboratory behavioral measured impulsivity (using the Immediate and Delayed Memory Tasks) and suicidal attempt histories. Three groups of adults were recruited, those with either: no previous suicide attempts (Control, n = 20), only a single suicide attempt (Single, n = 20), or…

  16. Friendship Expectations and Children's Friendship-Related Behavior and Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacEvoy, Julie Paquette; Papadakis, Alison A.; Fedigan, Shea K.; Ash, Sarah E.

    2016-01-01

    Although relationship expectations are thought to influence all social interactions, little is known about the function of children's friendship expectations. This study examined the associations among children's friendship expectations and their behavior within their friendships, their friendship adjustment, and their socioemotional functioning.…

  17. Explicit- and Implicit Bullying Attitudes in Relation to Bullying Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goethem, A.A.J. van; Scholte, R.H.J.; Wiers, R.W.H.J.

    2010-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to examine whether an assessment of implicit bullying attitudes could add to the prediction of bullying behavior after controlling for explicit bullying attitudes. Primary school children (112 boys and 125 girls, M age = 11 years, 5 months) completed two newly

  18. Explicit- and implicit bullying attitudes in relation to bullying behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Goethem, A.A.J.; Scholte, R.H.J.; Wiers, R.W.

    2010-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to examine whether an assessment of implicit bullying attitudes could add to the prediction of bullying behavior after controlling for explicit bullying attitudes. Primary school children (112 boys and 125 girls, M age = 11 years, 5 months) completed two newly

  19. Leadership Behaviors and Its Relation with Principals' Management Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdinezhad, Vali; Sardarzahi, Zaid

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims at studying the leadership behaviors reported by principals and observed by teachers and its relationship with management experience of principals. A quantitative method was used in this study. The target population included all principals and teachers of guidance schools and high schools in the Dashtiari District, Iran. A sample…

  20. Cognitive ability and health-related behaviors during adolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciarrochi, Joseph; Heaven, Patrick C L; Skinner, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    Longitudinal research on the links between intelligence and health behaviors among adolescents is rare. We report longitudinal data in which we assessed the relationships between intelligence as assessed in Grade 7 and consequential health outcomes in Grade 11. The mean age of respondents (N=420;...

  1. Characterizing users of new psychoactive substances using psychometric scales for risk-related behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreeker, Annabel; van der Burg, Babette G.; van Laar, Margriet; Brunt, Tibor M.

    2017-01-01

    Studies investigating risk-related behavior in relation to new psychoactive substance (NPS) use are sparse. The current study investigated characteristics of NPS users by comparing risk-related behavior of NPS users to that of illicit drugs (ID) users and licit substances users and non-users (NLC)

  2. Gambling-Related Attitudes and Behaviors in Adolescents Having Received Instant (Scratch) Lottery Tickets as Gifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Priya V.; Pilver, Corey E.; Desai, Rani A.; Steinberg, Marvin A.; Rugle, Loreen; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Potenza, Marc N.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Instant (scratch) lottery ticket gambling is popular among adolescents. Prior research has not determined whether adolescents’ gambling behavior and attitudes toward gambling are influenced by the receipt of scratch lottery tickets as gifts. Method Cross-sectional survey data from 2,002 Connecticut high school students with past-year gambling were analyzed using bivariate approaches and logistic regression analyses. Interactions between gambling-problem severity and lottery-gift status were examined in relation to multiple outcomes. Results Adolescents who received a scratch lottery ticket as a gift compared with those who did not were more likely to report features of problem gambling, buy scratch lottery tickets for themselves, and buy and receive other types of lottery tickets; they were also less likely to report parental disapproval of gambling and to see gambling prevention efforts as important. Later (≥15 years) age-at-gambling-onset was inversely linked to gambling-problem severity in the lottery gift group (odds ratio [OR] = .38) but not in the nongift group (OR = .91), yielding a significant severity by gift status interaction. Other academic, health, and gambling-related correlates of gambling-problem severity were similar in the gift and nongift groups. Conclusions For adolescents, the receipt of scratch lottery tickets as gifts during childhood or adolescence was associated with risky/problematic gambling and with gambling-related attitudes, behaviors, and views suggesting greater gambling acceptability. The extent to which the receipt of scratch lottery tickets may promote gambling behaviors and the development of gambling problems warrants consideration. Education, prevention, and treatment strategies should incorporate findings relating to receipt of gambling products by underage individuals. PMID:23299004

  3. Fat- and Fiber-Related Diet Behavior among Type 2 Diabetes Patients from Distinct Regions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hendrychová, T.; Vytřísalová, M.; Alwarafi, A.; Duintjer Tebbens, Jurjen; Vaňkátová, H.; Leal, S.; Kuběna, A.A.; Šmahelová, A.; Vlček, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 9, Article number A38 (2015), s. 319-325 ISSN 1177-889X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-06684S Grant - others:SVV UK(CZ) 260 066 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : type 2 diabetes mellitus * fat-related behavior * fiber-related behavior * Fat- and Fiber-related Diet Behavior Questionnaire * geographical difference Subject RIV: FR - Pharmacology ; Medidal Chemistry Impact factor: 1.718, year: 2015

  4. Four Distinct Subgroups of Self-Injurious Behavior among Chinese Adolescents: Findings from a Latent Class Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuhong Xin

    Full Text Available Self-injurious behavior (SIB among adolescents is an important public health issue worldwide. It is still uncertain whether homogeneous subgroups of SIB can be identified and whether constellations of SIBs can co-occur due to the high heterogeneity of these behaviors. In this study, a cross-sectional study was conducted on a large school-based sample and latent class analysis was performed (n = 10,069, mean age = 15 years to identify SIB classes based on 11 indicators falling under direct SIB (DSIB, indirect SIB (ISIB, and suicide attempts (SAs. Social and psychological characteristics of each subgroup were examined after controlling for age and gender. Results showed that a four-class model best fit the data and each class had a distinct pattern of co-occurrence of SIBs and external measures. Class 4 (the baseline/normative group, 65.3% had a low probability of SIB. Class 3 (severe SIB group, 3.9% had a high probability of SIB and the poorest social and psychological status. Class 1 (DSIB+SA group, 14.2% had similar scores for external variables compared to class 3, and included a majority of girls [odds ratio (OR = 1.94]. Class 2 (ISIB group, 16.6% displayed moderate endorsement of ISIB items, and had a majority of boys and older adolescents (OR = 1.51. These findings suggest that SIB is a heterogeneous entity, but it may be best explained by four homogenous subgroups that display quantitative and qualitative differences. Findings in this study will improve our understanding on SIB and may facilitate the prevention and treatment of SIB.

  5. Technical findings related to Generic Issue 23: Reactor coolant pump seal failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruger, C.J.; Luckas, W.J. Jr.

    1989-03-01

    Reactor coolant pumps contain mechanical seals to limit the leakage of pressurized coolant from the reactor coolant system to the containment. These seals have the potential to leak, and a few have degraded and even failed resulting in a small break loss of coolant accident (LOCA). As a result, ''Reactor Coolant Pump Seal Failure,'' Generic Issue 23 was established. This report summarizes the findings of a technical investigation generated as part of the program to resolve this issue. These technical findings address the various fact-finding issue tasks developed for the action plan associated with the generic issue, namely background information on seal failure, evaluation of seal cooling, and mechanical- and maintenance-induced failure mechanisms. 46 refs., 15 figs., 14 tabs

  6. Sexually Related Behaviors as Predictors of HPV Vaccination Among Young Rural Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Laurel A.; Vanderpool, Robin C.; Crosby, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To explore whether sexually related behaviors predict refusal of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine among a sample of women aged 18–26 in Appalachian Kentucky. Methods Using a convenience sample, young women attending health clinics and a community college in southeastern Kentucky were recruited to participate in a Women’s Health Study. After completing a questionnaire, women received a free voucher for the three-dose HPV vaccine series. Completion of dose one served as the outcome variable. Results Women with a history of an abnormal Pap test were almost two times more likely to decline the HPV vaccine (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.91, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.14–3.20, p = 0.015), and women who reported they had never had a Pap test were four times more likely to decline the vaccine (AOR 4.02, 95% CI 1.13–14.32, p = 0.032). Women engaging in mutual masturbation were nearly two times more likely to decline the free vaccine (AOR 1.91, 95% CI 1.17–3.10, p = 0.009). Use of hormonal birth control showed a protective effect against refusal of the free HPV vaccine (AOR 0.593, 95% CI 0.44–0.80, p = 0.001). Conclusions Among this sample of Appalachian women, those engaging in behaviors that increase their risk for HPV infection were more likely to refuse the vaccine. Conversely, those women engaging in protective health behaviors were more likely to accept the vaccine. These findings suggest that those women not being vaccinated may be the very group most likely to benefit from vaccination. Cervical cancer prevention programs need to be creative in efforts to reach young women most in need of the vaccine based on a higher profile of sexually related behaviors and the proxy measure of this risk (having an abnormal Pap test result). PMID:22136319

  7. EEG Oscillations Are Modulated in Different Behavior-Related Networks during Rhythmic Finger Movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeber, Martin; Scherer, Reinhold; Müller-Putz, Gernot R

    2016-11-16

    Sequencing and timing of body movements are essential to perform motoric tasks. In this study, we investigate the temporal relation between cortical oscillations and human motor behavior (i.e., rhythmic finger movements). High-density EEG recordings were used for source imaging based on individual anatomy. We separated sustained and movement phase-related EEG source amplitudes based on the actual finger movements recorded by a data glove. Sustained amplitude modulations in the contralateral hand area show decrease for α (10-12 Hz) and β (18-24 Hz), but increase for high γ (60-80 Hz) frequencies during the entire movement period. Additionally, we found movement phase-related amplitudes, which resembled the flexion and extension sequence of the fingers. Especially for faster movement cadences, movement phase-related amplitudes included high β (24-30 Hz) frequencies in prefrontal areas. Interestingly, the spectral profiles and source patterns of movement phase-related amplitudes differed from sustained activities, suggesting that they represent different frequency-specific large-scale networks. First, networks were signified by the sustained element, which statically modulate their synchrony levels during continuous movements. These networks may upregulate neuronal excitability in brain regions specific to the limb, in this study the right hand area. Second, movement phase-related networks, which modulate their synchrony in relation to the movement sequence. We suggest that these frequency-specific networks are associated with distinct functions, including top-down control, sensorimotor prediction, and integration. The separation of different large-scale networks, we applied in this work, improves the interpretation of EEG sources in relation to human motor behavior. EEG recordings provide high temporal resolution suitable to relate cortical oscillations to actual movements. Investigating EEG sources during rhythmic finger movements, we distinguish sustained from

  8. Consumer behaviors towards ready-to-eat foods based on food-related lifestyles in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Hyun-Joo; Chae, Mi-Jin; Ryu, Kisang

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine consumers' behaviors toward ready-to-eat foods and to develop ready-to-eat food market segmentation in Korea. The food-related lifestyle and purchase behaviors of ready-to-eat foods were evaluated using 410 ready-to-eat food consumers in the Republic of Korea. Four factors were extracted by exploratory factor analysis (health-orientation, taste-orientation, convenience-orientation, and tradition-orientation) to explain the ready-to eat food consumers' food-related lifestyles. The results of cluster analysis indicated that "tradition seekers" and "convenience seekers" should be regarded as the target segments. Chi-square tests and t-tests of the subdivided groups showed there were significant differences across marital status, education level, family type, eating-out expenditure, place of purchase, and reason for purchase. In conclusion, the tradition seekers consumed more ready-to-eat foods from discount marts or specialty stores and ate them between meals more often than the convenience seekers. In contrast, the convenience seekers purchased more ready-to-eat foods at convenience stores and ate them as meals more often than the tradition seekers. These findings suggest that ready-to-eat food market segmentation based on food-related lifestyles can be applied to develop proper marketing strategies.

  9. Consumer behaviors towards ready-to-eat foods based on food-related lifestyles in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Hyun-Joo; Chae, Mi-Jin

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine consumers' behaviors toward ready-to-eat foods and to develop ready-to-eat food market segmentation in Korea. The food-related lifestyle and purchase behaviors of ready-to-eat foods were evaluated using 410 ready-to-eat food consumers in the Republic of Korea. Four factors were extracted by exploratory factor analysis (health-orientation, taste-orientation, convenience-orientation, and tradition-orientation) to explain the ready-to eat food consumers' food-related lifestyles. The results of cluster analysis indicated that "tradition seekers" and "convenience seekers" should be regarded as the target segments. Chi-square tests and t-tests of the subdivided groups showed there were significant differences across marital status, education level, family type, eating-out expenditure, place of purchase, and reason for purchase. In conclusion, the tradition seekers consumed more ready-to-eat foods from discount marts or specialty stores and ate them between meals more often than the convenience seekers. In contrast, the convenience seekers purchased more ready-to-eat foods at convenience stores and ate them as meals more often than the tradition seekers. These findings suggest that ready-to-eat food market segmentation based on food-related lifestyles can be applied to develop proper marketing strategies. PMID:20827350

  10. Work-Related Asthma in Korea - Findings from the Korea Work-Related Asthma Surveillance (KOWAS) program, 2004-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Soon-Chan; Song, Jaechul; Kim, Yong-Kyu; Calvert, Geoffrey M

    2015-01-01

    To determine the incidence and epidemiological characteristics of work-related asthma in Korea. During 2004-2009, the Korea Work-Related Asthma Surveillance (KOWAS) program collected data on new cases of work-related asthma from occupational physicians, allergy and chest physicians, regional surveillance systems, and workers' compensation schemes. The incidence was calculated on the basis of industry, occupation, sex, age, and region. In addition, the distribution of causal agents was determined. During the study period, 236 cases of work-related asthma were reported, with 77 cases from more than 1 source. A total of 22.0% (n=52) were reported by occupational physicians, 52.5% (n=124) by allergy and chest physicians, 24.2% (n=57) by regional surveillance systems, and 43.2% (n=102) by workers' compensation schemes. The overall average annual incidence was 3.31 cases/million workers, with a rate of 3.78/million among men and 2.58/million among women. The highest incidence was observed in the 50-59-year age group (7.74/million), in the Gyeonggi/Incheon suburb of Seoul (8.50/million), in the furniture and other instrument manufacturing industries (67.62/million), and among craft and related trades workers (17.75/million). The most common causal agents were isocyanates (46.6%), flour/grain (8.5%), metal (5.9%), reactive dyes (5.1%), and solvents (4.2%). The incidence of work-related asthma in Korea was relatively low, and varied according to industry, occupation, gender, age, and region. Data provided by workers' compensation schemes and physician reports have been useful for determining the incidence and causes of work-related asthma.

  11. Mathematics Achievement and Anxiety and Their Relation to Internalizing and Externalizing Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sarah S.; Willcutt, Erik G.; Escovar, Emily; Menon, Vinod

    2014-01-01

    Although behavioral difficulties are well documented in reading disabilities, little is known about the relationship between math ability and internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Here, we use standardized measures to investigate the relation among early math ability, math anxiety, and internalizing and externalizing behaviors in a group of…

  12. Characteristic brain MRI findings in ataxia-neuropathy spectrum related to POLG mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henao, Adriana I; Pira, Sonia; Herrera, Diego A; Vargas, Sergio A; Montoya, Jorge; Castillo, Mauricio

    2016-02-01

    Patients with mutations in the polymerase gamma gene (POLG) may present with progressive ataxia and in such situations neuroimaging findings may suggest the diagnosis. Herein we report a patient with a POLG gene W748S homozygous mutation and characteristic lesions in the thalamus, cerebellum and inferior olivary nucleus seen on magnetic resonance imaging. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. Relative distribution of pertinent findings on portable neonatal abdominal radiographs: can we shield the gonads?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winfeld, Matthew; Strubel, Naomi; Pinkney, Lynne; Lala, Shailee; Milla, Sarah; Babb, James; Fefferman, Nancy

    2013-10-01

    Shielding of the gonads is a dose-saving strategy in pediatric radiography and its use is the law in New York and the majority of other states. However, routine use of gonadal shields is controversial because of concerns that important diagnostic information can be obscured. The purpose of this study was to assess the frequency and spatial distribution of key findings on portable neonatal abdominal radiographs. We reviewed the 2,544 portable neonatal intensive care unit anteroposterior abdominal radiographs performed in 2010 at a university medical center, of which 962 were inadequately shielded. These 962 radiographs were reviewed by pairs of pediatric radiologists for the presence of findings in different regions, including bowel abnormalities, pneumatosis, free air, inguinal hernias, osseous abnormalities, and catheter/tube tips. The fewest pertinent findings were present below the level of the sacrosciatic notches (n = 181, 18.8%). Of the 853 abnormalities below the level of the iliac crests in our cohort, six were isolated to these regions, whereas others had concomitant abnormalities more superiorly. Of 35 radiographs with pneumatosis or suspected pneumatosis in the pelvis, 33 had pneumatosis in more superior regions. Suspected free air was never isolated to the pelvis. Osseous abnormalities were only present in the pelvis below the sacrosciatic notch, and 37.5% of lower extremity catheters terminated below the level of the sacrosciatic notches. Pertinent findings on neonatal intensive care unit abdominal radiographs are rarely isolated to the pelvic regions.

  14. Headache secondary to sleep-related bruxism: A case with polysomnographic findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sourav Das

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sleep-related bruxism may present with headache. However, in clinical practice it may be difficult to differentiate from other causes of headache, especially in subjects with substance abuse. We are presenting a case of sleep-related bruxism that presented with headache and sleep-related symptoms in the presence of substance abuse. Polysomnography was used to ascertain cause of headache. How the other possible causes of headache ruled out is also discussed in report. In short, Sleep-related bruxism can cause headache that is worse in the morning. It is associated with poor quality sleep.

  15. A case report of suicidal behavior related to subclinical hyperthyroidism

    OpenAIRE

    Jeong, Jong-Hyun; Joo,Soo-Hyun; Hong,Seung-Chul

    2014-01-01

    Soo-Hyun Joo, Jong-Hyun Jeong, Seung-Chul HongDepartment of Psychiatry, St Vincent's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Suwon, KoreaAbstract: Abnormalities in thyroid function are associated with many psychiatric symptoms. We present a report of a 15-year-old girl who was admitted to the psychiatry inpatient unit with symptoms of suicidal behavior, irritability, and impulsivity. One year previously, she had become more short-tempered, and had started to c...

  16. Workplace exercise for changing health behavior related to physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grande, Antonio José; Cieslak, Fabrício; Silva, Valter

    2015-01-01

    Physical Activity in the workplace has received special attention from researchers who are looking to promote lifelong health and well-being. The workplace is being investigated as a possible place to assess and create strategies to help people to become healthier. The transtheoretical model and stages of change has been adapted as a tool to assess the stages of behavioral change towards exercising. To assess the change in health behavior following a three-month exercise program based in the workplace. A quasi-experimental study design was used in which 165 employees participated in the study. An intervention program of workplace exercise was applied for three months. Participants were assessed through the transtheoretical model and stages of change questionnaire before and after intervention to understand changes in their position on the behavioral change continuum. The number of employees who were physically active increased after the workplace exercise intervention (13.9% , 95% CI 9.5 to 20.1; P = 0.009). There was a significant decrease in the proportion of employees in the pre-contemplation stage (-6.1% , 95% CI 3.3 to 10.8; P = 0.045) and contemplation stage (-11.5% , 95% CI 7.5 to 17.3; P = 0.017), and a significant increase in the action stage (10.9% , 95% CI 7.0 to 16.6; P = 0.003). Engaging in workplace exercise has a significant positive effect on health behavior and willingness to become more physically active.

  17. The child play behavior and activity questionnaire: a parent-report measure of childhood gender-related behavior in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lu; Winter, Sam; Xie, Dong

    2010-06-01

    Boys and girls establish relatively stable gender stereotyped behavior patterns by middle childhood. Parent-report questionnaires measuring children's gender-related behavior enable researchers to conduct large-scale screenings of community samples of children. For school-aged children, two parent-report instruments, the Child Game Participation Questionnaire (CGPQ) and the Child Behavior and Attitude Questionnaire (CBAQ), have long been used for measuring children's sex-dimorphic behaviors in Western societies, but few studies have been conducted using these measures for Chinese populations. The current study aimed to empirically examine and modify the two instruments for their applications to Chinese society. Parents of 486 Chinese boys and 417 Chinese girls (6-12 years old) completed a questionnaire comprising items from the CGPQ and CBAQ, and an additional 14 items specifically related to Chinese gender-specific games. Items revealing gender differences in a Chinese sample were identified and used to construct a Child Play Behavior and Activity Questionnaire (CPBAQ). Four new scales were generated through factor analysis: a Gender Scale, a Girl Typicality Scale, a Boy Typicality Scale, and a Cross-Gender Scale (CGS). These scales had satisfactory internal reliabilities and large effect sizes for gender. The CPBAQ is believed to be a promising instrument for measuring children's gender-related behavior in China.

  18. A review of chemosensation and related behavior in aquatic insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo, José G

    2011-01-01

    Insects that are secondarily adapted to aquatic environments are able to sense odors from a diverse array of sources. The antenna of these insects, as in all insects, is the main chemosensory structure and its input to the brain allows for integration of sensory information that ultimately ends in behavioral responses. Only a fraction of the aquatic insect orders have been studied with respect to their sensory biology and most of the work has centered either on the description of the different types of sensilla, or on the behavior of the insect as a whole. In this paper, the literature is exhaustively reviewed and ways in which antennal morphology, brain structure, and associated behavior can advance better understanding of the neurobiology involved in processing of chemosensory information are discussed. Moreover, the importance of studying such group of insects is stated, and at the same time it is shown that many interesting questions regarding olfactory processing can be addressed by looking into the changes that aquatic insects undergo when leaving their aquatic environment.

  19. Changing energy-related behavior: An Intervention Mapping approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kok, Gerjo; Lo, Siu Hing; Peters, Gjalt-Jorn Y.; Ruiter, Robert A.C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper's objective is to apply Intervention Mapping, a planning process for the systematic development of theory- and evidence-based health promotion interventions, to the development of interventions to promote energy conservation behavior. Intervention Mapping (IM) consists of six steps: needs assessment, program objectives, methods and applications, program development, planning for program implementation, and planning for program evaluation. Examples from the energy conservation field are provided to illustrate the activities associated with these steps. It is concluded that applying IM in the energy conservation field may help the development of effective behavior change interventions, and thus develop a domain specific knowledge-base for effective intervention design. - Highlights: → Intervention Mapping (IM) is a planning process for developing evidence-based interventions.→ IM takes a problem-driven rather than theory-driven approach. → IM can be applied to the promotion of energy-conservation in a multilevel approach. → IM helps identifying determinants of behaviors and environmental conditions. → IM helps selecting appropriate theory-based methods and practical applications.

  20. Changing energy-related behavior: An Intervention Mapping approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kok, Gerjo, E-mail: g.kok@maastrichtuniversity.nl [Department of Work and Social Psychology, Maastricht University, P.O. Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht (Netherlands); Lo, Siu Hing, E-mail: siu-hing.lo@maastrichtuniversity.nl [Department of Work and Social Psychology, Maastricht University, P.O. Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht (Netherlands); Peters, Gjalt-Jorn Y., E-mail: gj.peters@maastrichtuniversity.nl [Department of Work and Social Psychology, Maastricht University, P.O. Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht (Netherlands); Ruiter, Robert A.C., E-mail: r.ruiter@maastrichtuniversity.nl [Department of Work and Social Psychology, Maastricht University, P.O. Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht (Netherlands)

    2011-09-15

    This paper's objective is to apply Intervention Mapping, a planning process for the systematic development of theory- and evidence-based health promotion interventions, to the development of interventions to promote energy conservation behavior. Intervention Mapping (IM) consists of six steps: needs assessment, program objectives, methods and applications, program development, planning for program implementation, and planning for program evaluation. Examples from the energy conservation field are provided to illustrate the activities associated with these steps. It is concluded that applying IM in the energy conservation field may help the development of effective behavior change interventions, and thus develop a domain specific knowledge-base for effective intervention design. - Highlights: > Intervention Mapping (IM) is a planning process for developing evidence-based interventions.> IM takes a problem-driven rather than theory-driven approach. > IM can be applied to the promotion of energy-conservation in a multilevel approach. > IM helps identifying determinants of behaviors and environmental conditions. > IM helps selecting appropriate theory-based methods and practical applications.

  1. Benchmarking Alumni Relations in Community Colleges: Findings from a 2015 CASE Survey. CASE White Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradise, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Building on the inaugural survey conducted three years prior, the 2015 CASE Community College Alumni Relations survey collected additional insightful data on staffing, structure, communications, engagement, and fundraising. This white paper features key data on alumni relations programs at community colleges across the United States. The paper…

  2. Benchmarking Alumni Relations in Community Colleges: Findings from a 2012 CASE Survey. CASE White Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradise, Andrew; Heaton, Paul

    2013-01-01

    In 2011, CASE founded the Center for Community College Advancement to provide training and resources to help community colleges build and sustain effective fundraising, alumni relations and communications and marketing programs. This white paper summarizes the results of a groundbreaking survey on alumni relations programs at community colleges…

  3. Prediction of the relative toxicity of environmental toxins as a function of behavioral and non-behavioral endpoints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to examine the differential effects of behavioral and non-behavioral endpoints on the prediction of the relative toxicity of an environmental toxin. The effects of ionizing radiation were taken as the model for this evaluation. Forty rhesus monkeys were irradiated in groups of four at five different dose levels of high energy neuton and Bremsstrahlung radiations. Measures of behavioral performance, emesis and mortality were taken for each subject in order to test the hypotheses that behavioral indices would be more sensitive to gamma radiation than would physiological indices and that the physiological indices would be more sensitive to neutron radiations than would behavioral indices. The results supported these hypotheses

  4. Visual relations children find easy and difficult to process in figural analogies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Claire E; Alberto, Rosa A; van den Boom, Max A; de Boeck, Paul A L

    2014-01-01

    Analogical reasoning, the ability to learn about novel phenomena by relating it to structurally similar knowledge, develops with great variability in children. Furthermore, the development of analogical reasoning coincides with greater working memory efficiency and increasing knowledge of the entities and relations present in analogy problems. In figural matrices, a classical form of analogical reasoning assessment, some features, such as color, appear easier for children to encode and infer than others, such as orientation. Yet, few studies have structurally examined differences in the difficulty of visual relations across different age-groups. This cross-sectional study of figural analogical reasoning examined which underlying rules in figural analogies were easier or more difficult for children to correctly process. School children (N = 1422, M = 7.0 years, SD = 21 months, range 4.5-12.5 years) were assessed in analogical reasoning using classical figural matrices and memory measures. The visual relations the children had to induce and apply concerned the features: animal, color, orientation, position, quantity and size. The role of age and memory span on the children's ability to correctly process each type of relation was examined using explanatory item response theory models. The results showed that with increasing age and/or greater memory span all visual relations were processed more accurately. The "what" visual relations animal, color, quantity and size were easiest, whereas the "where" relations orientation and position were most difficult. However, the "where" visual relations became relatively easier with age and increased memory efficiency. The implications are discussed in terms of the development of visual processing in object recognition vs. position and motion encoding in the ventral ("what") and dorsal ("where") pathways respectively.

  5. Socio-economic variation in price minimizing behaviors: findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licht, Andrea S; Hyland, Andrew J; O'Connor, Richard J; Chaloupka, Frank J; Borland, Ron; Fong, Geoffrey T; Nargis, Nigar; Cummings, K Michael

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines how socio-economic status (SES) modifies how smokers adjust to changes in the price of tobacco products through utilization of multiple price minimizing techniques. Data come from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation (ITC) Four Country Survey, nationally representative samples of adult smokers and includes respondents from Canada, the United States, the United Kingdom and Australia. Cross-sectional analyses were completed among 8,243 respondents (7,038 current smokers) from the survey wave conducted between October 2006 and February 2007. Analyses examined predictors of purchasing from low/untaxed sources, using discount cigarettes or roll-your-own (RYO) tobacco, purchasing cigarettes in cartons, and engaging in high levels of price and tax avoidance at last purchase. All analyses tested for interactions with SES and were weighted to account for changing and under-represented demographics. Relatively high levels of price and tax avoidance behaviors were present; 8% reported buying from low or untaxed source; 36% used discount or generic brands, 13.5% used RYO tobacco, 29% reported purchasing cartons, and 63% reported using at least one of these high price avoidance behaviors. Respondents categorized as having low SES were approximately 26% less likely to report using low or untaxed sources and 43% less likely to purchase tobacco by the carton. However, respondents with low SES were 85% more likely to report using discount brands/RYO compared to participants with higher SES. Overall, lower SES smokers were 25% more likely to engage in at least one or more tax avoidance behaviors compared to their higher SES counterparts. Price and tax avoidance behaviors are relatively common among smokers of all SES strata, but strategies differed with higher SES groups more likely to report traveling to a low-tax location to avoid paying higher prices, purchase duty free tobacco, and purchase by cartons instead of packs all of which were less

  6. Socio-Economic Variation in Price Minimizing Behaviors: Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC Four Country Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigar Nargis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines how socio-economic status (SES modifies how smokers adjust to changes in the price of tobacco products through utilization of multiple price minimizing techniques. Data come from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation (ITC Four Country Survey, nationally representative samples of adult smokers and includes respondents from Canada, the United States, the United Kingdom and Australia. Cross-sectional analyses were completed among 8,243 respondents (7,038 current smokers from the survey wave conducted between October 2006 and February 2007. Analyses examined predictors of purchasing from low/untaxed sources, using discount cigarettes or roll-your-own (RYO tobacco, purchasing cigarettes in cartons, and engaging in high levels of price and tax avoidance at last purchase. All analyses tested for interactions with SES and were weighted to account for changing and under-represented demographics. Relatively high levels of price and tax avoidance behaviors were present; 8% reported buying from low or untaxed source; 36% used discount or generic brands, 13.5% used RYO tobacco, 29% reported purchasing cartons, and 63% reported using at least one of these high price avoidance behaviors. Respondents categorized as having low SES were approximately 26% less likely to report using low or untaxed sources and 43% less likely to purchase tobacco by the carton. However, respondents with low SES were 85% more likely to report using discount brands/RYO compared to participants with higher SES. Overall, lower SES smokers were 25% more likely to engage in at least one or more tax avoidance behaviors compared to their higher SES counterparts. Price and tax avoidance behaviors are relatively common among smokers of all SES strata, but strategies differed with higher SES groups more likely to report traveling to a low-tax location to avoid paying higher prices, purchase duty free tobacco, and purchase by cartons instead of packs all of

  7. Socio-Economic Variation in Price Minimizing Behaviors: Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licht, Andrea S.; Hyland, Andrew J.; O’Connor, Richard J.; Chaloupka, Frank J.; Borland, Ron; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Nargis, Nigar; Cummings, K. Michael

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines how socio-economic status (SES) modifies how smokers adjust to changes in the price of tobacco products through utilization of multiple price minimizing techniques. Data come from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation (ITC) Four Country Survey, nationally representative samples of adult smokers and includes respondents from Canada, the United States, the United Kingdom and Australia. Cross-sectional analyses were completed among 8,243 respondents (7,038 current smokers) from the survey wave conducted between October 2006 and February 2007. Analyses examined predictors of purchasing from low/untaxed sources, using discount cigarettes or roll-your-own (RYO) tobacco, purchasing cigarettes in cartons, and engaging in high levels of price and tax avoidance at last purchase. All analyses tested for interactions with SES and were weighted to account for changing and under-represented demographics. Relatively high levels of price and tax avoidance behaviors were present; 8% reported buying from low or untaxed source; 36% used discount or generic brands, 13.5% used RYO tobacco, 29% reported purchasing cartons, and 63% reported using at least one of these high price avoidance behaviors. Respondents categorized as having low SES were approximately 26% less likely to report using low or untaxed sources and 43% less likely to purchase tobacco by the carton. However, respondents with low SES were 85% more likely to report using discount brands/RYO compared to participants with higher SES. Overall, lower SES smokers were 25% more likely to engage in at least one or more tax avoidance behaviors compared to their higher SES counterparts. Price and tax avoidance behaviors are relatively common among smokers of all SES strata, but strategies differed with higher SES groups more likely to report traveling to a low-tax location to avoid paying higher prices, purchase duty free tobacco, and purchase by cartons instead of packs all of which were less

  8. Sleep-Related Behaviors and Beliefs Associated With Race/Ethnicity in Women

    OpenAIRE

    Grandner, Michael A.; Patel, Nirav P.; Jean-Louis, Girardin; Jackson, Nicholas; Gehrman, Philip R.; Perlis, Michael L.; Gooneratne, Nalaka S.

    2013-01-01

    Explore how social factors influence sleep, especially sleep-related beliefs and behaviors. Sleep complaints, sleep hygiene behaviors, and beliefs about sleep were studied in 65 black/African American and white/European American women. Differences were found for snoring and discrepancy between sleep duration and need. Sleep behaviors differed across groups for napping, methods for coping with sleep difficulties, and nonsleep behaviors in bed. Beliefs also distinguished groups, with difference...

  9. Oral health related knowledge and health behavior of parents and school children

    OpenAIRE

    Lalić Maja; Aleksić Ema; Gajić Mihajlo; Malešević Đoka

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. The family provides the background for developing behaviors, attitudes and knowledge related to oral health of children. The aim of this study was to compare oral health behavior of parents and their children and to asses the impact of parental behavior on children’s oral health. Material and Methods. This cross-sectional study included 99 parent - child pairs (12 to 15 years old). Data on oral health behavior, knowledge and attitudes regarding oral hygiene, fluorides and ...

  10. Effects of Cognitive Versus Cognitive-Behavioral Divorce-Parenting Programs on Parental Conflict, Intimate Violence, Parental Communication, Divorce-Related Parental Behaviors and Children's Behavioral Problems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Whitworth, James

    2000-01-01

    .... The two-group pretest- posttest design with a three-month follow-up measured parents knowledge of divorce-related parenting behaviors, reports of intimate violence, destructive conflict tactics...

  11. ADHD-related symptoms, emotional/behavioral problems, and physical conditions in Taiwanese children with epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang-Ju Tsai

    2013-07-01

    Conclusion: Our findings imply that clinicians should assess physical and emotional/behavioral problems among children with epilepsy in order to provide interventions to offset possible adverse psychiatric outcomes.

  12. Prognosis of head injury. In relation to age, CT findings and the GCS on admission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Satoshi; Kamei, Ichiro; Ooiwa, Yoshitsugu; Hyotani, Genhachi; Yabumoto, Michio; Kuriyama, Tsuyoshi [Japanese Red Cross Society, Wakayama (Japan). Wakayama Medical Center; Kakishita, Koji; Inui, Yoshiro

    1996-02-01

    We have carried out a retrospective study of head injury patients to determine the factors that predict their outcomes. The subjects consisted of 74 head injury patients (Glasgow Coma Scale: 3-12) treated at our hospital from January, 1989 to March, 1994. Age, CT findings and the GCS on admission were investigated as outcome-predicting factors. CT findings were classified according to the TCDB (Traumatic Coma Data Bank) and the outcomes were evaluated using the Glasgow Outcome Scale 3 months after the head injury. In our study, the factors indicated favorable outcomes were as follows; age younger than 50 years old, GCS higher than 6, appearance of the basal cisterns on CT scan, existence of removable acute epidural hematoma. In contrast, the factors that indicated unfavorable outcomes were as follows; disappearance of the basal cisterns on CT scan, existence of apparent acute subdural hematoma and/or intracranial hematoma associated with cerebral contusion. Based on these findings, we can more accurately estimate the prognosis of head injury. (author)

  13. Radiographic Findings in Patients with Medication-Related Osteonecrosis of the Jaw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Lopes Cardoso

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective study was conducted of the records and panoramic radiographs of 35 patients treated with bisphosphonates (BP and diagnosed with MRONJ. Panoramic radiography was used for evaluation, by two examiners, the following findings were subject of search: osteolysis (OT, cortical bone erosion (EC, bone sclerosis focal (FS and diffuse (DS, bone sequestration (BS, thickening of lamina dura (TD, prominence of the inferior alveolar nerve canal (IAN, persisting alveolar sockets (SK, and the presence of a pathological fracture (PF. Medical information and staging were also recorded in order to correlate with radiographic findings. Bone sclerosis was the most frequent alteration, followed by OT and TD. The mandible was more affected than the maxilla. There was no significant difference between genders or significant correlation between the number of injuries with age and duration of BP usage. Considering the association between the radiographic findings and MRONJ staging, EC was predominant in stage 3 and DS in stage 2. IAN and PF demonstrated greater association with stage 3. In conclusion, the higher the clinical staging, the greater the severity of the bone alteration. Panoramic radiographic examination is a useful screening tool in patients submitted to antiresorptive therapy.

  14. Informing a Behavior Change Communication Strategy: Formative Research Findings From the Scaling Up Nutrition Movement in Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodish, Stephen; Aburto, Nancy; Dibari, Filippo; Brieger, William; Agostinho, Saozinha P; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2015-09-01

    Nutrition interventions targeting the first 1000 days show promise to improve nutritional status, but they require effective implementation. Formative research is thus invaluable for developing such interventions, but there have been few detailed studies that describe this phase of work within the Scaling Up Nutrition (SUN) movement. To inform a stunting prevention intervention in Cabo Delgado, Mozambique, by describing the sociocultural landscape and elucidating characteristics related to young child food, illness, and health. This formative research utilized a rapid assessment procedures (RAP) approach with 3 iterative phases that explored local perceptions and behaviors around food and illness among the Macua, Mwani, and Maconde ethnic groups. Ethnographic methods, including in-depth interviews, direct observations, free lists, and pile sorts, were used to collect data from community leaders, caregivers, and children 6 to 23 months. Data were analyzed drawing from grounded theory and cultural domain analysis. Geographic differences drive sociocultural characteristics amid 3 ethnic groups that allow for segmentation of the population into 2 distinct audiences for behavior change communications. These 2 communities have similar classification systems for children's foods but different adult dietary patterns. Small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplement did not fall into the existing food classification systems of either community, and participants preferred its promotion through community leader channels. Community members in both groups have little recognition of and perceived severity toward nutrition-related illnesses. Within Cabo Delgado, the cultural heterogeneity yields substantial differences related to food, illness, and health that are necessary to consider for developing an effective nutrition intervention. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. The Effects of CW-Related Chemicals on Social Behavior and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-15

    Sexual Behaviors: Sexual Present Mount (no thrusting) Mount (with thrusting) Masturbate Genital Manipulation (other animal) Genital Sniff (other animal...definite place in the behavioral test battery, although it would not be practical to use it on an everyday basis because of the habituation problem...14) Vocalizaticns (15) Self directed behaviors (grc=m, masturbate , etc.) General Findings Shortly after the project began the eight adult males in I

  16. Work in progress Tim Radford on research that aims to find a tiny error in Einstein's theory of special relativity

    CERN Multimedia

    Radford, T

    2004-01-01

    "Ben Varcoe wants to find a relatively small mistake in Einstein's theory of special relativity. To do this, he will slow light down from 300,000 km per second to 10 metres per second - about the speed of Darren Campbell - and see how it behaves" (1 page)

  17. Relations of behavioral autonomy to health outcomes among emerging adults with and without type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgeson, Vicki S; Reynolds, Kerry A; Becker, Dorothy; Escobar, Oscar; Siminerio, Linda

    2014-01-01

    To examine the relation of behavioral autonomy to psychological, behavioral, and physical health among emerging adults with and without type 1 diabetes. High school seniors with (n = 118) and without type 1 diabetes (n = 122) completed online questionnaires for three consecutive years. Behavioral autonomy, psychological health, risk behaviors, and diabetes outcomes were assessed. Regression analyses were conducted to predict Time 2 and 3 outcomes, controlling for Time 1 outcomes. There were no group differences in behavioral autonomy. Behavioral autonomy predicted better psychological health but only for emerging adults without diabetes. Behavioral autonomy was related to increased risk behavior for both groups. Behavioral autonomy was unrelated to self-care but predicted better glycemic control for females. Behavioral autonomy may be beneficial for psychological health, but is related to increased risk behavior. The implications of behavioral autonomy for emerging adults with type 1 diabetes require careful consideration. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. The MVP Model as an Organizing Framework for Neuroscience Findings Related to Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakrajsek, Todd M.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter describes the ways in which the MVP model relates to recent research on neuroscience and learning, and demonstrates how those relationships may be used to better understand physiological impacts on motivation, and to facilitate improved learning.

  19. Cerebral Angiographic Findings of Cosmetic Facial Filler-related Ophthalmic and Retinal Artery Occlusion

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Yong-Kyu; Jung, Cheolkyu; Woo, Se Joon; Park, Kyu Hyung

    2015-01-01

    Cosmetic facial filler-related ophthalmic artery occlusion is rare but is a devastating complication, while the exact pathophysiology is still elusive. Cerebral angiography provides more detailed information on blood flow of ophthalmic artery as well as surrounding orbital area which cannot be covered by fundus fluorescein angiography. This study aimed to evaluate cerebral angiographic features of cosmetic facial filler-related ophthalmic artery occlusion patients. We retrospectively reviewed...

  20. Nurses' self-care behaviors related to weight and stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahm, Eun-Shim; Warren, Joan; Zhu, Shijun; An, Minjeong; Brown, Jeanine

    2012-01-01

    Considerable research on preventive health care behaviors has been conducted in different segments of the population. Although nurses are the largest group of direct health care providers (3 million), little is known about their preventive health care behaviors. As the average age of nurses working in the United States (US) increases (mean age 47 years), maintaining their health to ensure they can continue to provide optimal health care to others becomes a greater priority. This descriptive online study examined registered nurses' dietary and exercise practices, weight status, stress levels, and preferred preventive health strategies using a sample of nurses recruited from a community-based, urban teaching hospital (n = 183; mean age 47 ± 11.3 years). The majority of participants (72.2%, n = 122) reported a lack of exercise, and more than half (53.8%, n = 91) had an irregular meal pattern. The average body mass index (BMI) was 28.3 ± 6.8, and 59.2% (n = 100) were either overweight (n = 47) or obese (n = 53). BMI had a significant inverse relationship with having a regular meal schedule and the amount of time spent exercising. Participants who reported greater stress had more irregular meal schedules. The most frequently used stress-release method was eating (n = 32), followed by exercise (n = 31). Nurses are fully aware of measures that should be taken for healthy living. Their knowledge, however, has not been well translated into their own self-care. As nursing shortages loom, maintaining the health of the aging nursing workforce is essential to retention. Further research is needed to identify factors that may motivate nurses to better care for themselves and measures that can be implemented by employers to initiate and sustain these preventive health care behaviors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Troubled or Traumatized Youth? The Relations Between Psychopathy, Violence Exposure, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, and Antisocial Behavior Among Juvenile Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Siny

    2018-01-01

    The current study examined how psychopathy, exposure to violence, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are associated with antisocial behavior among 1,354 serious delinquent adolescents from the Pathways to Desistance study. Results showed that psychopathy, violence exposure, and PTSD are independently linked to self-reported involvement of delinquency, even after controlling for respondents' demographic characteristics. However, the effect of PTSD on antisocial behavior was small. Differential associations were observed between the 2 factors of psychopathy, interpersonal/affective and social deviance, and PTSD symptoms. Specifically, the effect of social deviance characteristics on delinquency was above and beyond that of interpersonal/affective features. In addition, exposure to violence as a victim or witness were uniquely associated with increased delinquent behavior. Findings clarified the relations among psychopathy, violence exposure, PTSD, and antisocial behavior, and highlighted the differential links between psychopathy factors and delinquency.

  2. Adolescent-parent attachment as a mediator of relations between parenting and adolescent social behavior and wellbeing in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Mengfei; Hardy, Sam A; Olsen, Joseph A; Nelson, David A; Yamawaki, Niwako

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine links between parenting dimensions (authoritative parenting, psychological control, and parental authority) and adolescent wellbeing (self-esteem, autonomy, and peer attachments) as mediated by parent-teen attachment, among Chinese families. The sample included 298 Chinese adolescents, ages 15-18 years (M(age) = 16.36, SD = .68; 60% female). The mediation model was examined using path analyses (one model with parental authority as overprotection, and one with it as perceived behavioral control). To improve model fit a direct path was added from authoritative parenting to autonomy. Authoritative parenting was positively predictive of attachment, while psychological control and overprotection (but not behavioral control) were negative predictors. In turn, adolescent-parent attachment was positively related to the three outcomes. Lastly, the model paths did not differ by adolescent gender. These findings suggest that parenting behaviors may play a crucial role in adolescent social behaviors and wellbeing via adolescent-parent attachment.

  3. Social networks, health promoting-behavior, and health-related quality of life in older Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Minjoo; De Gagne, Jennie C; Shin, Hyewon

    2018-03-01

    In this cross-sectional, descriptive study, we compared the sociodemographic characteristics, social networks, health-promoting behavior, and the health-related quality of life of older Korean adults living in South Korea to those of older Korean adult immigrants living in the USA. A total of 354 older adults, aged 65 years or older, participated. Data were collected through self-directed questionnaires, and analyzed using a two way analysis of variance, t-tests, χ 2 -tests, and Pearson's correlation coefficient. The association between four sociodemographic characteristics and health-related quality of life was significantly different between the two groups. For the older Korean adults living in South Korea, positive correlations existed between a measure of their social networks and both health-promoting behavior and health-related quality of life. For the older Korean immigrants, the findings revealed a positive correlation only between social networks and health-promoting behavior. The study findings support the important association social networks can have with health-related quality of life, and their possible relationship to health-promoting behaviors of older Korean adults. We suggest that health policy-makers and healthcare providers develop comprehensive programs that are designed to improve older adults' social networks. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  4. Neural correlates to food-related behavior in normal-weight and overweight/obese participants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Ho

    Full Text Available Two thirds of US adults are either obese or overweight and this rate is rising. Although the etiology of obesity is not yet fully understood, neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that the central nervous system has a principal role in regulating eating behavior. In this study, functional magnetic resonance imaging and survey data were evaluated for correlations between food-related problem behaviors and the neural regions underlying responses to visual food cues before and after eating in normal-weight individuals and overweight/obese individuals. In normal-weight individuals, activity in the left amygdala in response to high-calorie food vs. nonfood object cues was positively correlated with impaired satiety scores during fasting, suggesting that those with impaired satiety scores may have an abnormal anticipatory reward response. In overweight/obese individuals, activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC in response to low-calorie food cues was negatively correlated with impaired satiety during fasting, suggesting that individuals scoring lower in satiety impairment were more likely to activate the DLPFC inhibitory system. After eating, activity in both the putamen and the amygdala was positively correlated with impaired satiety scores among obese/overweight participants. While these individuals may volitionally suggest they are full, their functional response to food cues suggests food continues to be salient. These findings suggest brain regions involved in the evaluation of visual food cues may be mediated by satiety-related problems, dependent on calorie content, state of satiation, and body mass index.

  5. Contextual startle responses moderate the relation between behavioral inhibition and anxiety in middle childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Tyson V; Reeb-Sutherland, Bethany; Degnan, Kathryn A; Walker, Olga L; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; Henderson, Heather A; Pine, Daniel S; Fox, Nathan A

    2015-11-01

    Behavioral inhibition (BI), a temperament characterized in early childhood by wariness and avoidance of novelty, is a risk factor for anxiety disorders. An enhanced startle response has been observed in adolescents characterized with BI in childhood, particularly when they also manifest concurrent symptoms of anxiety. However, no prior study has examined relations among BI, startle responsivity, and anxiety in a prospective manner. Data for the present study were from a longitudinal study of infant temperament. Maternal reports and observations of BI were assessed at ages 2 and 3. At age 7, participants completed a startle procedure, while electromyography was collected, where participants viewed different colors on a screen that were associated with either the delivery of an aversive stimulus (i.e., puff of air to the larynx; threat cue) or the absence of the aversive stimulus (i.e., safety cue). Parental reports of child anxiety were collected when children were 7 and 9 years of age. Results revealed that startle responses at age 7 moderated the relation between early BI and 9-year anxiety. These findings provide insight into one potential mechanism that may place behaviorally inhibited children at risk for anxiety. © 2015 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  6. Neurological Findings in Relation to the Level of Lumbar Disc Hernia

    OpenAIRE

    谷代, 弘三; Yashiro, Kouzou

    1989-01-01

    Real neurological findings in 177 cases of lumbar disc hernia, the levels of which were operatively proved were compared with those described as corresponding to a certain level of hernia in books hitherto published. Sensory change in Keegan's L5 dermatome was accordant with L4-5 hernia only in 41%, that in S1 dermatome with L5-S1 hernia in 44%, and that in L4 dermatome with L3-4 hernia in 67%. Weakness of an entire lower limb or of lliopsoas was proved in accordance with L1-2 or L2-3 hernia....

  7. Creutzfeldt-Jacob-disease: The computerized tomogram in relation to clinical, electroencephalographic and neuropathological findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zieger, A.; Vonofakos, D.; Vitzthum, H.

    1981-12-01

    The computerized tomogram (CT) of a senile case of Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease with rapid progress, showed after an initially minor parietal dilatation of the gyri, a volume increase, predominantly on the right side, in the area of the cerebral convexity and a right-preponderant dilatation of the anterior horns. By neuropathologic examination indications for a passed cerebral oedema was found, covering the cortex atrophy, which previously had been detected by CT. Progression and local intensity of the atrophic signs in CT - in combination with clinical and electroencephalographic findings - suggest the existence of a Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and permit its delineation against other atrophying processes.

  8. Creutzfeldt-Jacob-disease: The computerized tomogram in relation to clinical, electroencephalographic and neuropathological findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zieger, A.

    1981-01-01

    The computerized tomogram (CT) of a senile case of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease with rapid progress, showed after an initially minor parietal dilatation of the gyri, a volume increase, predominantly on the right side, in the area of the cerebral convexity and a right-preponderant dilatation of the anterior horns. By neuropathologic examination indications for a passed cerebral oedema was found, covering the cortex atrophy, which previously had been detected by CT. Progression and local intensity of the atrophic signs in CT - in combination with clinical and electroencephalographic findings - let appear probable the existence of a Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and permit its delineation against other atrophying processes. (orig./MG) [de

  9. Allelic Variation of Risk for Anxiety Symptoms Moderates the Relation Between Adolescent Safety Behaviors and Social Anxiety Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Sarah A.; Weeks, Justin W.; Dougherty, Lea R.; Lipton, Melanie F.; Daruwala, Samantha E.; Kline, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Social anxiety often develops in adolescence, and precedes the onset of depression and substance use disorders. The link between social anxiety and use of behaviors to minimize distress in social situations (i.e., safety behaviors) is strong and for some patients, this link poses difficulty for engaging in, and benefiting from, exposure-based treatment. Yet, little is known about whether individual differences may moderate links between social anxiety and safety behaviors, namely variations in genetic alleles germane to anxiety. We examined the relation between adolescent social anxiety and expressions of safety behaviors, and whether allelic variation for anxiety moderates this relation. Adolescents (n=75; ages 14–17) were recruited from two larger studies investigating measurement of family relationships or adolescent social anxiety. Adolescents completed self-report measures about social anxiety symptoms and use of safety behaviors. They also provided saliva samples to assess allelic variations for anxiety from two genetic polymorphisms (BDNF rs6265; TAQ1A rs1800497). Controlling for adolescent age and gender, we observed a significant interaction between social anxiety symptoms and allelic variation (β=0.37, t=2.41, p=.02). Specifically, adolescents carrying allelic variations for anxiety evidenced a statistically significant and relatively strong positive relation between social anxiety symptoms and safety behaviors (β=0.73), whereas adolescents not carrying allelic variation evidenced a statistically non-significant and relatively weak relation (β=0.22). These findings have important implications for treating adolescent social anxiety, in that we identified an individual difference variable that can be used to identify people who evidence a particularly strong link between use of safety behaviors and expressing social anxiety. PMID:26692635

  10. The Multifaceted Impact of Peer Relations on Aggressive-Disruptive Behavior in Early Elementary School

    OpenAIRE

    Powers, Christopher J.; Bierman, Karen L.

    2012-01-01

    Following a large, diverse sample of 4096 children in 27 schools, this study evaluated the impact of three aspects of peer relations, measured concurrently, on subsequent child aggressive-disruptive behavior during early elementary school – peer-dislike, reciprocated friends' aggressiveness, and classroom levels of aggressive-disruptive behavior. Teachers rated child aggressive-disruptive behavior in first and third grade, and peer relations were assessed during second grade. Results indicate...

  11. Age-related striatal BOLD changes without changes in behavioral loss aversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Vijay; Lee, Sang; Gilman, Jodi M.; Kim, Byoung Woo; Lee, Nick; Chamberlain, Laura; Livengood, Sherri L.; Raman, Kalyan; Lee, Myung Joo; Kuster, Jake; Stern, Daniel B.; Calder, Bobby; Mulhern, Frank J.; Blood, Anne J.; Breiter, Hans C.

    2015-01-01

    Loss aversion (LA), the idea that negative valuations have a higher psychological impact than positive ones, is considered an important variable in consumer research. The literature on aging and behavior suggests older individuals may show more LA, although it is not clear if this is an effect of aging in general (as in the continuum from age 20 and 50 years), or of the state of older age (e.g., past age 65 years). We also have not yet identified the potential biological effects of aging on the neural processing of LA. In the current study we used a cohort of subjects with a 30 year range of ages, and performed whole brain functional MRI (fMRI) to examine the ventral striatum/nucleus accumbens (VS/NAc) response during a passive viewing of affective faces with model-based fMRI analysis incorporating behavioral data from a validated approach/avoidance task with the same stimuli. Our a priori focus on the VS/NAc was based on (1) the VS/NAc being a central region for reward/aversion processing; (2) its activation to both positive and negative stimuli; (3) its reported involvement with tracking LA. LA from approach/avoidance to affective faces showed excellent fidelity to published measures of LA. Imaging results were then compared to the behavioral measure of LA using the same affective faces. Although there was no relationship between age and LA, we observed increasing neural differential sensitivity (NDS) of the VS/NAc to avoidance responses (negative valuations) relative to approach responses (positive valuations) with increasing age. These findings suggest that a central region for reward/aversion processing changes with age, and may require more activation to produce the same LA behavior as in younger individuals, consistent with the idea of neural efficiency observed with high IQ individuals showing less brain activation to complete the same task. PMID:25983682

  12. Age-related striatal BOLD changes without changes in behavioral loss aversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans C Breiter

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Loss aversion (LA, the idea that negative valuations have a higher psychological impact than positive ones, is considered an important variable in consumer research. The literature on aging and behavior suggests older individuals may show more LA, although it is not clear if this is an effect of aging in general (as in the continuum from age 20 and 50 years, or of the state of older age (e.g., past age 65 years. We also have not yet identified the potential biological effects of aging on the neural processing of LA. In the current study we used a cohort of subjects with a 30 year range of ages, and performed whole brain functional MRI (fMRI to examine the ventral striatum/nucleus accumbens (VS/NAc response during a passive viewing of affective faces with model-based fMRI analysis incorporating behavioral data from a validated approach/avoidance task with the same stimuli. Our a priori focus on the VS/NAc was based on (1 the VS/NAc being a central region for reward/aversion processing, (2 its activation to both positive and negative stimuli, (3 its reported involvement with tracking LA. LA from approach/avoidance to affective faces showed excellent fidelity to published measures of LA. Imaging results were then compared to the behavioral measure of LA using the same affective faces. Although there was no relationship between age and LA, we observed increasing neural differential sensitivity (NDS of the VS/NAc to avoidance responses (negative valuations relative to approach responses (positive valuations with increasing age. These findings suggest that a central region for reward/aversion processing changes with age, and may require more activation to produce the same LA behavior as in younger individuals, consistent with the idea of neural efficiency observed with high IQ individuals showing less brain activation to complete the same task.

  13. Age-related striatal BOLD changes without changes in behavioral loss aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Vijay; Lee, Sang; Gilman, Jodi M; Kim, Byoung Woo; Lee, Nick; Chamberlain, Laura; Livengood, Sherri L; Raman, Kalyan; Lee, Myung Joo; Kuster, Jake; Stern, Daniel B; Calder, Bobby; Mulhern, Frank J; Blood, Anne J; Breiter, Hans C

    2015-01-01

    Loss aversion (LA), the idea that negative valuations have a higher psychological impact than positive ones, is considered an important variable in consumer research. The literature on aging and behavior suggests older individuals may show more LA, although it is not clear if this is an effect of aging in general (as in the continuum from age 20 and 50 years), or of the state of older age (e.g., past age 65 years). We also have not yet identified the potential biological effects of aging on the neural processing of LA. In the current study we used a cohort of subjects with a 30 year range of ages, and performed whole brain functional MRI (fMRI) to examine the ventral striatum/nucleus accumbens (VS/NAc) response during a passive viewing of affective faces with model-based fMRI analysis incorporating behavioral data from a validated approach/avoidance task with the same stimuli. Our a priori focus on the VS/NAc was based on (1) the VS/NAc being a central region for reward/aversion processing; (2) its activation to both positive and negative stimuli; (3) its reported involvement with tracking LA. LA from approach/avoidance to affective faces showed excellent fidelity to published measures of LA. Imaging results were then compared to the behavioral measure of LA using the same affective faces. Although there was no relationship between age and LA, we observed increasing neural differential sensitivity (NDS) of the VS/NAc to avoidance responses (negative valuations) relative to approach responses (positive valuations) with increasing age. These findings suggest that a central region for reward/aversion processing changes with age, and may require more activation to produce the same LA behavior as in younger individuals, consistent with the idea of neural efficiency observed with high IQ individuals showing less brain activation to complete the same task.

  14. Study of large shareholders’ behavior after non-tradable shares reform: A perspective of related party transactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbo Zhang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper explores the behavior choice of large shareholders in the related party transactions which occur between the large shareholders and listed companies by using the data of shares from 2007 to 2010. Design/methodology/appraoch: Based on the classical research paradigm (that is, LLSV, we analysis controlling shareholders’ propping and tunneling behaviors aiming to make sure their impacts to the medium and small shareholders in theory. Findings: We get the following findings: After our capital market entering the era of full circulation, we find that the relationship between the ratio of controlling shareholders and the related party transactions present (RPTs an inverted “U” shape curve, which means that it exits a typical “Grab-synergy” effect. we should take different measures to the transactions occurred between the large shareholders and listed companies according to the property nature of the large shareholders. State-owned shareholders choose to realize their private benefits by means of RPTs, while the non state-owned shareholders conduct RPTs with an expectation of reducing costs.Practical implications: Since Guo Shuqing, the Chairman of China Securities Regulatory Commission, took office, he has taken a lot measures to curb the related party transactions harshly. Under this circumstance, it is just the right time to have a research on large shareholders’ behavior. It has important significance both in theory and practice. Originality/value: Considering the Chinese special national conditions, this paper added lots of comprehensive facts to study large shareholders’ behavior including the rate of the share held by indirect controller, the probability of thievish behaviors have been discovered, and the strict punishment regulations. The discussions in this paper help to bring into focus a highly topical issue within the context of the large shareholders’ behavior after Non-tradable Shares Reform.

  15. Coordination in contractual relations: Some preliminary findings from the Malaysian housing industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suraya Ismail

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The traditional general procurement route found in many housing projects in Malaysia is conceptualized as a governance structure following the transaction cost economics (TCE approach. This approach has been used to examine governance structures in different economic sectors in several countries but evidence of its use in the context of developing countries is limited. This lack of evidence has prompted the authors to conduct a preliminary study to ascertain whether a TCE approach can explain construction governance structures in developing countries. This research does not discuss the trade-off that governs the choice of hybrids, market or hierarchies for organizing transactions. Rather, it takes advantage of existing research to substantiate the specific properties of hybrid organizations as governance structures. The main focus is coordination. Coordination is specified at two levels. At Level 1 is the coordination of specialization (i.e. the formation of the project team members and at Level 2 is the coordination mode of the contracting parties (client and contractor and the agents involved (the lead designer and project manage r. A case survey method was adopted. Preliminary findings seem to suggest that clients have used hierarchical themes in the contracts and high powered incentives to coordinate with in the contracting parties. The research findings suggest that all participants involved in the sample studied used governance structures symptomatic of a hybrid organization.

  16. Finding online health-related information: usability issues of health portals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurel Koybasi, Nergis A; Cagiltay, Kursat

    2012-01-01

    As Internet and computers become widespread, health portals offering online health-related information become more popular. The most important point for health portals is presenting reliable and valid information. Besides, portal needs to be usable to be able to serve information to users effectively. This study aims to determine usability issues emerging when health-related information is searched on a health portal. User-based usability tests are conducted and eye movement analyses are used in addition to traditional performance measures. Results revealed that users prefer systematic, simple and consistent designs offering interactive tools. Moreover, content and partitions needs to be shaped according to the medical knowledge of target users.

  17. Interparental Conflict Styles and Parenting Behaviors: Associations with Overt and Relational Aggression among Chinese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Putallaz, Martha; Su, Yanjie

    2011-01-01

    This study examined how interparental conflict styles related to Chinese children's overt and relational aggression directly and indirectly through parenting behaviors. Mothers (n = 670) and fathers (n = 570) reported their overt and covert interparental conflict styles and different parenting behaviors. Children's (n = 671) aggression was…

  18. The ENDORSE study: Research into environmental determinants of obesity related behaviors in Rotterdam schoolchildren

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.A. van der Horst-Nachtegaal (Klazine); A. Oenema (Anke); P.M. van de Looij-Jansen (Petra); J. Brug (Hans)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Children and adolescents are important target groups for prevention of overweight and obesity as overweight is often developed early in life and tracks into adulthood. Research into behaviors related to overweight (energy balance-related behaviors) and the personal

  19. Understanding work-related social media use: An extension of theory of planned behavior.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zoonen, W.; Verhoeven, J.W.M.; Elving, W.J.L.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the motives of employees to engage in work related social media use - i.e. the use of personal social media accounts to communicate about work-related issues. The theory of planned behavior (TPB) was used to explain this behavior. Because social media can enable users to express

  20. Does a Positive Bias Relate to Social Behavior in Children with ADHD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnea, Kate; Hoza, Betsy; Tomb, Meghan; Kaiser, Nina

    2012-01-01

    This study examines whether positively biased self-perceptions relate to social behaviors in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as compared to control children. The social behaviors of children with ADHD (n = 87) were examined relative to control children (CTL; n = 38) during a laboratory-based dyadic social interaction…

  1. Mediation by peer violence victimization of sexual orientation disparities in cancer-related tobacco, alcohol, and sexual risk behaviors: pooled youth risk behavior surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosario, Margaret; Corliss, Heather L; Everett, Bethany G; Russell, Stephen T; Buchting, Francisco O; Birkett, Michelle A

    2014-06-01

    We examined the role of adolescent peer violence victimization (PVV) in sexual orientation disparities in cancer-related tobacco, alcohol, and sexual risk behaviors. We pooled data from the 2005 and 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys. We classified youths with any same-sex sexual attraction, partners, or identity as sexual minority and the remainder as heterosexual. We had 4 indicators of tobacco and alcohol use and 4 of sexual risk and 2 PVV factors: victimization at school and carrying weapons. We stratified associations by gender and race/ethnicity. PVV was related to disparities in cancer-related risk behaviors of substance use and sexual risk, with odds ratios (ORs) of 1.3 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03, 1.6) to 11.3 (95% CI = 6.2, 20.8), and to being a sexual minority, with ORs of 1.4 (95% CI = 1.1, 1.9) to 5.6 (95% CI = 3.5, 8.9). PVV mediated sexual orientation disparities in substance use and sexual risk behaviors. Findings were pronounced for adolescent girls and Asian/Pacific Islanders. Interventions are needed to reduce PVV in schools as a way to reduce sexual orientation disparities in cancer risk across the life span.

  2. Key issues of public relations of Europe: findings from the European Communication Monitor 2007-2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verčič, D.; Verhoeven, P.; Zerfass, A.

    2014-01-01

    European Communication Monitor is the largest longitudinal research project in public relations practice in the world. Data collected annually from 2007 to 2014 show that practitioners perceive five issues as the most important for their work: linking business strategy and communication, coping with

  3. Risk factors for age-related macular degeneration: Pooled findings from three continents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, W.; Assink, J.; Klein, R.; Mitchell, P.; Klaver, C. C.; Klein, B. E.; Hofman, A.; Jensen, S.; Wang, J. J.; de Jong, P. T.

    2001-01-01

    To assess the prevalence and potential risk factors for late age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in three racially similar populations from North America, Europe, and AUSTRALIA: Combined analysis of population-based eye disease prevalence data. There were 14,752 participants with gradable

  4. Physico-chemical findings related to the resilience of different soils ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As part of an interdisciplinary study on Sustainable Agriculture in semiarid Areas (SASA) in south-central Tanzania, soils from five different locations were investigated for their mineralogical composition and physico-chemical characteristics in order to determine their resilience in relation to land use. The results of the ...

  5. 77 FR 11157 - Certain Portable Electronic Devices and Related Software; Final Determination Finding No...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ... investigation). The complaint named Apple Inc. as the Respondent. On October 17, 2011, the ALJ issued his final... Commission has subject matter jurisdiction and that Apple did not contest that the Commission has in rem and... electronic devices and related software. Regarding infringement, the ALJ found that Apple does not infringe...

  6. EVALUATION OF THE IMPORTANCE OF BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN RELATION TO ULTRASONOGRAPHIC FINDING IN ECTOPIC PREGNANCY DIAGNOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Lončar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The implantation of the fertilized egg outside the uterine cavity leads to the development of ectopic pregnancy. The incidence of ectopic pregnancy is 1/100 births. The most common place of ectopic implantation of the fertilized ovum is the oviduct (98% with predilection for the ampullar part of the Fallopian tube. The aim of this study was to determine the predictive importance of beta-hCG and progesterone concentration compared to ultrasonographic finding in the ectopic pregnancy diagnosis.We examined 24 patients with ectopic pregnancies which we divided according to the days of amenorrhea into two groups: the first group with the total of 28 patients from 16–42 days and another group of 8 patients with amenorrhea longer than 42 days. The control group was comprised of 20 patients with vital intrauterine pregnancy, gestational age of 42-52 days. Blood samples for quantitative determination of hormones were collected on three occasions after 48 hours in the forenoon time in the examined and control group of pregnant women. Ultrasonographic examinations of all pregnant women were carried out immediately after blood sampling, with the trans-vaginal approach using "make loop" option, and measurements with an accuracy of 0.1 mm.Mean values for beta-hCG range from 698-1774 mlU/ml in the first group of pregnant women, and in the second group of 1896 mlU/ml to 4410 mlU/ml with a statistically significant difference compared to the values in the control group (p <0.001. The concentration of progesterone in the first group of women ranging from 41-70 nmol/l, and in the second group of 76-94 nmol/l which is also the statistically significant difference compared to the control group (p<0.002. We have shown that ultrasonographic finding with its parameters reliably predicts the values of biochemical parameters both in normal intrauterine pregnancy and in the case of ectopic pregnancy.Embryo viability and implantation place condition the values of

  7. Finding Combination of Features from Promoter Regions for Ovarian Cancer-related Gene Group Classification

    KAUST Repository

    Olayan, Rawan S.

    2012-12-01

    In classification problems, it is always important to use the suitable combination of features that will be employed by classifiers. Generating the right combination of features usually results in good classifiers. In the situation when the problem is not well understood, data items are usually described by many features in the hope that some of these may be the relevant or most relevant ones. In this study, we focus on one such problem related to genes implicated in ovarian cancer (OC). We try to recognize two important OC-related gene groups: oncogenes, which support the development and progression of OC, and oncosuppressors, which oppose such tendencies. For this, we use the properties of promoters of these genes. We identified potential “regulatory features” that characterize OC-related oncogenes and oncosuppressors promoters. In our study, we used 211 oncogenes and 39 oncosuppressors. For these, we identified 538 characteristic sequence motifs from their promoters. Promoters are annotated by these motifs and derived feature vectors used to develop classification models. We made a comparison of a number of classification models in their ability to distinguish oncogenes from oncosuppressors. Based on 10-fold cross-validation, the resultant model was able to separate the two classes with sensitivity of 96% and specificity of 100% with the complete set of features. Moreover, we developed another recognition model where we attempted to distinguish oncogenes and oncosuppressors as one group from other OC-related genes. That model achieved accuracy of 82%. We believe that the results of this study will help in discovering other OC-related oncogenes and oncosuppressors not identified as yet.

  8. Finding Combination of Features from Promoter Regions for Ovarian Cancer-related Gene Group Classification

    KAUST Repository

    Olayan, Rawan S.

    2012-01-01

    In classification problems, it is always important to use the suitable combination of features that will be employed by classifiers. Generating the right combination of features usually results in good classifiers. In the situation when the problem is not well understood, data items are usually described by many features in the hope that some of these may be the relevant or most relevant ones. In this study, we focus on one such problem related to genes implicated in ovarian cancer (OC). We try to recognize two important OC-related gene groups: oncogenes, which support the development and progression of OC, and oncosuppressors, which oppose such tendencies. For this, we use the properties of promoters of these genes. We identified potential “regulatory features” that characterize OC-related oncogenes and oncosuppressors promoters. In our study, we used 211 oncogenes and 39 oncosuppressors. For these, we identified 538 characteristic sequence motifs from their promoters. Promoters are annotated by these motifs and derived feature vectors used to develop classification models. We made a comparison of a number of classification models in their ability to distinguish oncogenes from oncosuppressors. Based on 10-fold cross-validation, the resultant model was able to separate the two classes with sensitivity of 96% and specificity of 100% with the complete set of features. Moreover, we developed another recognition model where we attempted to distinguish oncogenes and oncosuppressors as one group from other OC-related genes. That model achieved accuracy of 82%. We believe that the results of this study will help in discovering other OC-related oncogenes and oncosuppressors not identified as yet.

  9. Relaxing moral reasoning to win: How organizational identification relates to unethical pro-organizational behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mo; Chen, Chao C; Sheldon, Oliver J

    2016-08-01

    Drawing on social identity theory and social-cognitive theory, we hypothesize that organizational identification predicts unethical pro-organizational behavior (UPB) through the mediation of moral disengagement. We further propose that competitive interorganizational relations enhance the hypothesized relationships. Three studies conducted in China and the United States using both survey and vignette methodologies provided convergent support for our model. Study 1 revealed that higher organizational identifiers engaged in more UPB, and that this effect was mediated by moral disengagement. Study 2 found that organizational identification once again predicted UPB through the mediation of moral disengagement, and that the mediation relationship was stronger when employees perceived a higher level of industry competition. Finally, Study 3 replicated the above findings using a vignette experiment to provide stronger evidence of causality. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Brazilian adolescents' prosocial moral judgment and behavior: relations to sympathy, perspective taking, gender-role orientation, and demographic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, N; Zhou, Q; Koller, S

    2001-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine demographic and individual difference variables that predict level of prosocial moral judgment and self-reported prosocial behavior and to test mediating or moderating relations among predictors. The relations of prosocial moral reasoning and self-reported prosocial behavior to perspective taking, sympathy, age, sociometric status, and gender-role orientation were examined with a sample of 149 Brazilian adolescents who completed a series of questionnaire measures. Prosocial moral judgment was expected to be predicted by both sympathy and perspective taking, whereas sympathy or prosocial moral judgment was expected to mediate the relations of femininity and perspective taking to prosocial behavior. Self-reported perspective taking and sympathy interacted when predicting prosocial moral judgment; adolescents who were high in either sympathy or perspective taking (or both) scored high in prosocial moral reasoning. A feminine orientation predicted sympathy and perspective taking, perspective taking predicted prosocial moral reasoning and sympathy, and sympathy had both direct and indirect paths (through moral judgment) to prosocial behavior. The findings generally were consistent with the contention that both the tendency to take others' perspectives and to sympathize are related to level of prosocial moral reasoning, which in turn motivates prosocial behavior. Moreover, patterns of correlations among variables were similar to those found in the United States.

  11. Ventilator-Related Adverse Events: A Taxonomy and Findings From 3 Incident Reporting Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Julius Cuong; Williams, Tamara L; Sparnon, Erin M; Cillie, Tam K; Scharen, Hilda F; Marella, William M

    2016-05-01

    In 2009, researchers from Johns Hopkins University's Armstrong Institute for Patient Safety and Quality; public agencies, including the FDA; and private partners, including the Emergency Care Research Institute and the University HealthSystem Consortium (UHC) Safety Intelligence Patient Safety Organization, sought to form a public-private partnership for the promotion of patient safety (P5S) to advance patient safety through voluntary partnerships. The study objective was to test the concept of the P5S to advance our understanding of safety issues related to ventilator events, to develop a common classification system for categorizing adverse events related to mechanical ventilators, and to perform a comparison of adverse events across different adverse event reporting systems. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of ventilator-related adverse events reported in 2012 from the following incident reporting systems: the Pennsylvania Patient Safety Authority's Patient Safety Reporting System, UHC's Safety Intelligence Patient Safety Organization database, and the FDA's Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience database. Once each organization had its dataset of ventilator-related adverse events, reviewers read the narrative descriptions of each event and classified it according to the developed common taxonomy. A Pennsylvania Patient Safety Authority, FDA, and UHC search provided 252, 274, and 700 relevant reports, respectively. The 3 event types most commonly reported to the UHC and the Pennsylvania Patient Safety Authority's Patient Safety Reporting System databases were airway/breathing circuit issue, human factor issues, and ventilator malfunction events. The top 3 event types reported to the FDA were ventilator malfunction, power source issue, and alarm failure. Overall, we found that (1) through the development of a common taxonomy, adverse events from 3 reporting systems can be evaluated, (2) the types of events reported in each database were related

  12. Ventilator-Related Adverse Events: A Taxonomy and Findings From 3 Incident Reporting Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Julius Cuong; Williams, Tamara L; Sparnon, Erin M; Cillie, Tam K; Scharen, Hilda F; Marella, William M

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In 2009, researchers from Johns Hopkins University's Armstrong Institute for Patient Safety and Quality; public agencies, including the FDA; and private partners, including the Emergency Care Research Institute and the University HealthSystem Consortium (UHC) Safety Intelligence Patient Safety Organization, sought to form a public-private partnership for the promotion of patient safety (P5S) to advance patient safety through voluntary partnerships. The study objective was to test the concept of the P5S to advance our understanding of safety issues related to ventilator events, to develop a common classification system for categorizing adverse events related to mechanical ventilators, and to perform a comparison of adverse events across different adverse event reporting systems. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional analysis of ventilator-related adverse events reported in 2012 from the following incident reporting systems: the Pennsylvania Patient Safety Authority's Patient Safety Reporting System, UHC's Safety Intelligence Patient Safety Organization database, and the FDA's Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience database. Once each organization had its dataset of ventilator-related adverse events, reviewers read the narrative descriptions of each event and classified it according to the developed common taxonomy. RESULTS: A Pennsylvania Patient Safety Authority, FDA, and UHC search provided 252, 274, and 700 relevant reports, respectively. The 3 event types most commonly reported to the UHC and the Pennsylvania Patient Safety Authority's Patient Safety Reporting System databases were airway/breathing circuit issue, human factor issues, and ventilator malfunction events. The top 3 event types reported to the FDA were ventilator malfunction, power source issue, and alarm failure. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, we found that (1) through the development of a common taxonomy, adverse events from 3 reporting systems can be evaluated, (2) the types of

  13. AIDS Risk Perception and its related factors in Women with High-Risk Behaviors in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahin Tafazoli

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: AIDS is one of the major public health challenges all over the world. Perceived risk is a significant predictor of high-risk behaviors related to AIDS. Women constitute more than half of the HIV patients, and the rate of female sex workers with AIDS is more than the rest of female population. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate AIDS risk perception and its related factors in females with high-risk behaviors in Mashhad, Iran. Methods:This descriptive study was performed on 58 women who were arrested on prostitution charges and imprisoned in Mashhad Vakil Abad Prison in 2013. The data were collected using self-designed questionnaires assessing knowledge regarding AIDS as well as sexual activities and also perceived risk of HIV questionnaire. One-way ANOVA, independent samples t-test, linear regression, and Chi-square tests were run, using SPSS version 16. Results: The mean score of HIV risk perception was 18.43±5.92, which was average. There was a significant relationship between the mean score of perceived risk of HIV and knowledge regarding AIDS (P=0.005, alcohol consumption (P=0.04, history of addiction (P=0.008, using contraceptive methods (P=0.01, condom use during intercourse (P=0.02, voluntary HIV testing (P=0.001, and follow-up of HIV test (P=0.009. Conclusion:The findings of the present study revealed that knowledge, alcohol consumption, history of addiction, contraceptive methods, the rate of condom use during intercourse, as well as voluntary HIV testing and follow-up were associated with perceived risk of HIV infection. Therefore, taking the necessary steps towards health promotion through appropriate training and interventional approaches seems to be mandatory for reducing high-risk behaviors in populations with low risk perception.

  14. Using the internet: skill related problems in users’ online behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Deursen, Alexander Johannes Aloysius Maria; van Dijk, Johannes A.G.M.

    2009-01-01

    This study extends the conventional and superficial notion of measuring digital skills by proposing definitions for operational, formal, information and strategic skills. The main purpose was to identify individual skill related problems that users experience when navigating the Internet. In

  15. Children with Sickle-Cell Anemia: Parental Relations, Parent-Child Relations, and Child Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Robert C.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Investigated the influence of a child with sickle-cell anemia on parental affiliation, parent-child relationships, and parents' perception of their child's behavior. In the sickle-cell group, parents' interpersonal relationship suffered; parent-child relationship and child behavior correlated significantly; and single-parent families estimated…

  16. On the Relative Importance of Corporate Working Capital Determinants: Findings from the EU Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Julia Koralun-Bereźnicka

    2014-01-01

    The corporate finance literature traditionally abounds in both theoretical discussion and empirical research concerning financing and long-term investment decisions. Managing short-term resources appears to be a much less remarkable issue, despite this resource's significant share of a firm's balance sheet and the time and effort required to manage the current assets and liabilities. This article provides insights into the relative importance of the selected working capital determinants from ...

  17. How does a diurnal hawkmoth find nectar? Differences in sensory control with a nocturnal relative

    OpenAIRE

    Joaquín Goyret; Almut Kelber

    2011-01-01

    Recent research shows that a nocturnal hawkmoth, Manduca sexta, inspects flowers in search for nectar by means of a series of hovering and proboscis movements controlled by different sensory modalities, mainly vision and mechanoreception. The diurnal Macroglossum stellatarum is a closely related hawkmoth challenged with the same task but under illuminances 6--8 orders of magnitude higher. Here, we use flower models presenting color markings, 3D features, or both to study innate flower movemen...

  18. The Incidental Influence of Memories of Past Eating Occasions on Consumers’ Emotional Responses to Food and Food-Related Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piqueras-Fiszman, Betina; Jaeger, Sara R.

    2016-01-01

    Our memories of past eating experiences are influential in shaping food preferences and consumption behavior, and the emotions that people associate to these memories are linked to their attitudes toward foods and their everyday food-related behaviors. This work studies the impact that food-related memories have on peoples’ emotional state and how this state is projected in a subsequent evaluation of images pertaining to food and food-related behaviors. Focus is placed on guilt and shame emotions. Through an online survey, three memories were investigated (a positive meal, a routine evening meal, and an overeating occasion) among UK consumers (N = 710). Participants primed with the overeating memory evaluated images related to junk food as conveying more feelings of guilt and shame than did participants primed with the memory of a positive meal. Moreover, this effect was moderated by participants’ dietary restraint status. Participants classified as having a high dietary restraint had stronger associations with the emotions guilt and shame than participants classified as low in dietary restraint. In contrast, a memory of a positive meal did not lead to positive valuations of any of the food-related images shown. Overall, the findings from the present study illustrate the partial impact that personal food memories have on consumers’ emotional response toward food-related issues, which in turn has the potential to affect future behavior. This study therefore contributes to the literature about cognitive effects on food attitudes and behavior. Furthermore, the results suggest that the empirical approach may be tapping into possibly unconscious emotions toward foods and food-related behavior. PMID:27445911

  19. The Incidental Influence of Memories of Past Eating Occasions on Consumers' Emotional Responses to Food and Food-Related Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piqueras-Fiszman, Betina; Jaeger, Sara R

    2016-01-01

    Our memories of past eating experiences are influential in shaping food preferences and consumption behavior, and the emotions that people associate to these memories are linked to their attitudes toward foods and their everyday food-related behaviors. This work studies the impact that food-related memories have on peoples' emotional state and how this state is projected in a subsequent evaluation of images pertaining to food and food-related behaviors. Focus is placed on guilt and shame emotions. Through an online survey, three memories were investigated (a positive meal, a routine evening meal, and an overeating occasion) among UK consumers (N = 710). Participants primed with the overeating memory evaluated images related to junk food as conveying more feelings of guilt and shame than did participants primed with the memory of a positive meal. Moreover, this effect was moderated by participants' dietary restraint status. Participants classified as having a high dietary restraint had stronger associations with the emotions guilt and shame than participants classified as low in dietary restraint. In contrast, a memory of a positive meal did not lead to positive valuations of any of the food-related images shown. Overall, the findings from the present study illustrate the partial impact that personal food memories have on consumers' emotional response toward food-related issues, which in turn has the potential to affect future behavior. This study therefore contributes to the literature about cognitive effects on food attitudes and behavior. Furthermore, the results suggest that the empirical approach may be tapping into possibly unconscious emotions toward foods and food-related behavior.

  20. Smoking Behaviors and Attitudes Among Clients and Staff at New York Addiction Treatment Programs Following a Smoking Ban: Findings After 5 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, Anna; Guydish, Joseph; Le, Thao; Tajima, Barbara; Passalacqua, Emma; Soto-Nevarez, Arturo; Brown, Lawrence S; Delucchi, Kevin L

    2016-05-01

    Addiction treatment clients are more likely to die of tobacco-related diseases than of alcohol or illicit drug-related causes. We aimed to assess smoking behavior, and smoking-related attitudes and services, in New York addiction treatment programs before a statewide smoking ban in treatment facilities was implemented (2008), 1 year (2009) and 5 years after implementation (2013). We conducted surveys at each time point with clients (N = 329, 341, and 353, respectively) and staff (N = 202, 203, and 166, respectively) from five residential and two methadone maintenance programs in New York State. At each data collection wave, questionnaires measured smoking behavior as well as smoking-related knowledge, attitudes, and experiences with tobacco cessation services as part of addiction treatment. Staff smoking prevalence decreased from 35.2% in 2008 to 21.8% in 2013 (P = .005) while client smoking prevalence over the same period was unchanged (68.1% vs. 66.0%, P = .564). Among clients who smoked, mean cigarettes per day decreased from 13.7 (SD = 8.38) to 10.2 (SD = 4.44; P attitudes and cessation services received; and for staff self-efficacy and cessation services provided. In residential programs, scores for most items decreased (became less positive) in 2009 followed by a partial rebound in 2013. Methadone program scores tended to rise (become more positive) throughout the study period. Staff and clients may respond differentially to tobacco-free policies depending on type of treatment program, and this finding may help to inform the implementation of tobacco-free policies in other statewide addiction treatment systems. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Food Perceptions and Dietary Behavior of American-Indian Children, Their Caregivers, and Educators: Formative Assessment Findings from Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gittelsohn, Joel; Toporoff, Elanah Greer; Story, Mary; Evans, Marguerite; Anliker, Jean; Davis, Sally; Sharma, Anjali; White, Jean

    2000-01-01

    Dietary findings from a school-based obesity prevention project (Pathways) are reported for children from six different American-Indian nations. A formative assessment was undertaken with teachers, caregivers, and children from nine schools to design a culturally appropriate intervention, including classroom curriculum, food service, physical education, and family components. This assessment employed a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods (including direct observations, paired-child in-depth interviews, focus groups with child caregivers and teachers, and semistructured interviews with caregivers and foodservice personnel) to query local perceptions and beliefs about foods commonly eaten and risk behaviors associated with childhood obesity at home, at school, and in the community. An abundance of high-fat, high-sugar foods was detected in children's diets described by caregivers, school food-service workers, and the children themselves. Although children and caregivers identified fruits and vegetables as healthy food choices, this knowledge does not appear to influence actual food choices. Frequent high-fat/high-sugar food sales in the schools, high-fat entrees in school meals, the use of food rewards in the classroom, rules about finishing all of one's food, and limited family resources are some of the competing factors that need to be addressed in the Pathways intervention.

  2. CDKL5 gene-related epileptic encephalopathy: electroclinical findings in the first year of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melani, Federico; Mei, Davide; Pisano, Tiziana; Savasta, Salvatore; Franzoni, Emilio; Ferrari, Anna Rita; Marini, Carla; Guerrini, Renzo

    2011-04-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) gene abnormalities cause an early-onset epileptic encephalopathy. We performed video-electroencephalography (video-EEG) monitoring early in the course of CDKL5-related epileptic encephalopathy in order to examine the early electroclinical characteristics of the condition. We used video-EEG to monitor six infants (five females, one male) with CDKL5-related epileptic encephalopathy (five mutations; one deletion), at ages 45 days to 12 months and followed them up to the ages of 14 months to 5 years (mean age 23 mo). We focused our analysis on the first year of life. The results were evaluated against those of a comparison group of nine infants (aged below 1y) with epileptic encephalography who had tested negative for CDKL5 mutations and deletions. One infant exhibited normal background activity, three exhibited moderate slowing, and two exhibited a suppression burst pattern. Two participants had epileptic spasms and four had a stereotyped complex seizure pattern, which we defined as a 'prolonged' generalized tonic-clonic event consisting of a tonic-tonic/vibratory contraction, followed by a clonic phase with series of spasms, gradually translating into repetitive distal myoclonic jerks. Seizure duration ranged from 2 to 4 minutes. The EEG correlate of each clinical phase included an initial electrodecremental event (tonic vibratory phase), irregular series of sharp waves and spike slow waves (clonic phase with series of spasms), and bilateral rhythmic sharp waves (time locked with myoclonus). Infants with CDKL5-related early epileptic encephalopathy can present in the first year of life with an unusual electroclinical pattern of 'prolonged' generalized tonic-clonic seizures. © The Authors. Journal compilation © Mac Keith Press 2011.

  3. Allergic colitis in infants related to cow's milk: clinical characteristics, pathologic changes, and immunologic findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Man-Chun; Tsai, Chia-Lun; Yang, Yao-Jong; Yang, Sing-San; Wang, Li-Hui; Lee, Chung-Ta; Jan, Ren-Long; Wang, Jiu-Yao

    2013-02-01

    Allergic colitis (AC) is an inflammatory condition characterized by eosinophils infiltrating the colonic wall. It can be a benign and/or severe illness among gastrointestinal diseases in infants. We report five infants who, since January 2009, in whom AC under fibrotic endoscopic examinations has been diagnosed. The criterion for histopathologic diagnosis of AC in this study was five or more eosinophils per high-power field. Patients' clinical symptoms, pathologic findings, and immunologic studies, such as specific antibodies against component of cow's milk protein, were compared with those of allergic children without AC and those of nonatopic control children. Histopathologic examinations of biopsy specimens revealed acute inflammation with characteristic eosinophilic infiltration of lamina propria (5-15 eosinophils per high-power field) in all five patients. They all had strongly positive skin prick tests against milk protein, which were not correlated with in vitro allergen-specific immunoglobulin (Ig) E levels. In contrast, there were significantly higher levels of IgE antibodies, and lower specific IgG4 and IgA levels to components and whole milk proteins in AC, as compared to control children without AC. Endoscopic biopsy specimens of intestine confirm the diagnosis of AC. However, allergen skin prick test and IgE antibody to milk protein components also provide helpful diagnostic tools for this rare disease in children. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging findings of disc-related epidural cysts in nonsurgical and postoperative patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simao, Marcelo Novelino, E-mail: marcelo_simao@hotmail.com [Central de Diagnostico Ribeirao Preto (CEDIRP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Helms, Clyde A. [Radiology, Musculoskeletal Section, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Richardson, William J. [Orthopedic Surgery, Spine Surgery Section, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Objective: To demonstrate five discal cysts with detailed magnetic resonance imaging findings in nonsurgical and following postoperative microdiscectomy. Materials And Methods: Five discal cysts in four patients who underwent magnetic resonance imaging were found through a search in our database and referral from a single orthopedic spine surgeon. Computed tomography in two cases and computed tomography discography in one case were also performed. Results: Five discal cysts were present in four patients. Three patients had no history of previous lumbar surgery and the other patient presented with two discal cysts and recurrent symptoms after partial laminectomy and microdiscectomy. All were oval shaped and seated in the anterior epidural space. Four were ventrolateral, and the other one was centrally positioned in the anterior spinal canal. One showed continuity with the central disc following discography. Three were surgically removed. Conclusion: Magnetic resonance imaging can easily depict an epidural cyst and the diagnosis of a discal cyst should be raised when an homogeneous ventrolateral epidural cyst contiguous to a mild degenerated disc is identified. (author)

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging findings of disc-related epidural cysts in nonsurgical and postoperative patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simao, Marcelo Novelino; Helms, Clyde A.; Richardson, William J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To demonstrate five discal cysts with detailed magnetic resonance imaging findings in nonsurgical and following postoperative microdiscectomy. Materials And Methods: Five discal cysts in four patients who underwent magnetic resonance imaging were found through a search in our database and referral from a single orthopedic spine surgeon. Computed tomography in two cases and computed tomography discography in one case were also performed. Results: Five discal cysts were present in four patients. Three patients had no history of previous lumbar surgery and the other patient presented with two discal cysts and recurrent symptoms after partial laminectomy and microdiscectomy. All were oval shaped and seated in the anterior epidural space. Four were ventrolateral, and the other one was centrally positioned in the anterior spinal canal. One showed continuity with the central disc following discography. Three were surgically removed. Conclusion: Magnetic resonance imaging can easily depict an epidural cyst and the diagnosis of a discal cyst should be raised when an homogeneous ventrolateral epidural cyst contiguous to a mild degenerated disc is identified. (author)

  6. Health-related job loss: findings from a community-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Christine; Poole, Jason; Palmer, Keith T; Coggon, David

    2007-03-01

    To explore the frequency, nature, determinants and outcome of health-related job loss (HRJL) in men sampled from the general population of three rural areas. Data on lifetime occupational history, including any HRJL, were obtained as part of a postal survey of men aged 24-70 years in three rural areas of England and Wales. Incidence rates were calculated for first health-related loss of a job that had been held for >or=1 year. Associations with risk factors were examined by Poisson regression, and by application of conditional logistic regression in a nested case-control study. HRJL was reported by 1408 (13%) of the 10 559 men who had held long-term jobs. The incidence rose steeply with age for cardiorespiratory and neurological disorders, but for accidents and poisoning the trend was, if anything, in the reverse direction. An increase in incidence over time was most marked for musculoskeletal disorders and mental illness, and much less prominent for cardiorespiratory and neurological disease. In comparison with other occupations, the risk was lower in agricultural workers (odds ratio (OR) 0.6, 95% CI 0.5 to 0.8), and higher in policemen (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.6 to 3.7) and teachers (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.5 to 2.7), this differential being even greater for HRJL caused by mental illness. Risk was also increased in employees relative to the self-employed (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.7 to 2.3). Shift work was associated with a higher incidence of job loss caused by mental illness (OR 1.5, 95%CI 1.1-2.2), and heavy lifting with HRJL caused by musculoskeletal disorders (OR 2.6, 95% CI 2.0 to 3.5). After HRJL, 61% of subjects had subsequently obtained further long-term employment, usually within 1 year. In the population studied, HRJL has become increasingly common, especially in relation to musculoskeletal disorders and mental illness. In addition to being associated with ergonomic stresses in the workplace, it may be importantly influenced by cultural and economic factors. Future research

  7. Perceptions of mental illness and related stigma among Vietnamese populations: findings from a mixed method study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Mai; Pham, Nhu Ngoc K; Wallick, Stacy; Nastasi, Bonnie Kaul

    2014-12-01

    Mental-illness-related (MIR) stigma is recognized as a major barrier to health care. Yet very little is known about mental illness and stigma among Vietnamese populations, or how emigration and acculturation processes might affect traditional views. Focus group discussions were conducted with Vietnamese Americans in New Orleans (Louisiana) and Vietnamese nationals in Bui Chu (Vietnam), who shared historical and cultural backgrounds, in 2010 to assess differences in their perceptions of mental illness and stigma. Results show several significant differences in mental illness perceptions between Vietnamese Americans and Vietnamese nationals, while MIR stigma seemed prevalent and understanding of mental illness was low among both groups.

  8. Stigma Related Avoidance in People Living with Severe Mental Illness (SMI): Findings of an Integrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abiri, Sadat; Oakley, Linda Denise; Hitchcock, Mary E; Hall, Amanda

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this integrative review is to synthesize primary evidence of the impact of internalized stigma on avoidance in adult community treatment patients living with SMI. A keyword database search of articles published through 2015 yielded 21 papers and a total of 4256 patients. Our analyses found that stigmatizing beliefs associated with avoidance are related to significant loss of self-esteem. Factors generally thought to reduce stigma internalized as self-stigmatizing beliefs, such as improved insight, increased self-awareness, and psycho-education to improve stigma coping skills, do not appear to improve self-esteem.

  9. Household coping strategies for delivery and related healthcare cost: findings from rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoque, Mohammad Enamul; Dasgupta, Sushil Kanta; Naznin, Eva; Al Mamun, Abdullah

    2015-10-01

    This study aims to measure the economic costs of maternal complication and to understand household coping strategies for financing maternal healthcare cost. A household survey of the 706 women with maternal complication, of whom 483 had normal delivery, was conducted to collect data at 6 weeks and 6 months post-partum. Data were collected on socio-economic information of the household, expenditure during delivery and post-partum, coping strategies adopted by households and other related information. Despite the high cost of health care associated with maternal complications, the majority of families were capable of protecting consumption on non-health items. Around one-third of households spent more than 20% of their annual household expenditure on maternal health care. Almost 50% were able to avoid catastrophic spending because of the coping strategies that they relied on. In general, households appeared resilient to short-term economic consequences of maternal health shocks, due to the availability of informal credit, donations from relatives and selling assets. While richer households fund a greater portion of the cost of maternal health care from income and savings, the poorer households with severe maternal complication resorted to borrowing from local moneylenders at high interest, which may leave them vulnerable to financial difficulties. Financial protection, especially for the poor, may benefit households against economic consequences of maternal complication. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. An exploratory study of information sources and key findings on UK cocaine-related deaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corkery, John M; Claridge, Hugh; Goodair, Christine; Schifano, Fabrizio

    2017-08-01

    Cocaine-related deaths have increased since the early 1990s in Europe, including the UK. Being multi-factorial, they are difficult to define, detect and record. The European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction commissioned research to: describe trends reported to Special Mortality Registries and General Mortality Registers; provide demographic and drug-use characteristic information of cases; and establish how deaths are identified and classified. A questionnaire was developed and piloted amongst all European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction Focal Point experts/Special Mortality Registries: 19 (63%) responded; nine countries provided aggregated data. UK General Mortality Registers use cause of death and toxicology to identify cocaine-related deaths. Categorisation is based on International Classification of Diseases codes. Special Mortality Registries use toxicology, autopsy, evidence and cause of death. The cocaine metabolites commonly screened for are: benzoylecgonine, ecgonine methyl ester, cocaethylene and ecgonine. The 2000s saw a generally accelerating upward trend in cases, followed by a decline in 2009. The UK recorded 2700-2900 deaths during 1998-2012. UK Special Mortality Registry data (2005-2009) indicate: 25-44 year-olds account for 74% of deaths; mean age=34 (range 15-81) years; 84% male. Cocaine overdoses account for two-thirds of cases; cocaine alone being mentioned/implicated in 23% in the UK. Opioids are involved in most (58%) cocaine overdose cases.

  11. Central venous device-related thrombosis as imaged with MDCT in oncologic patients: prevalence and findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catalano, Orlando; Castelguidone, Elisabetta de Lutio di; Granata, Vincenza; D'Errico, Adolfo Gallipoli; Sandomenico, Claudia; Petrillo, Mario; Aprea, Pasquale

    2011-01-01

    Background: Venous thrombosis is a common occurrence in cancer patients, developing spontaneously or in combination with indwelling central venous devices (CVD). Purpose: To analyze the multidetector CT (MDCT) prevalence, appearance, and significance of catheter related thoracic venous thrombosis in oncologic patients and to determine the percentage of thrombi identified in the original reports. Material and Methods: Five hundred consecutive patients were considered. Inclusion criteria were: presence of a CVD; availability of a contrast-enhanced MDCT; and cancer history. Exclusion criteria were: direct tumor compression/infiltration of the veins; poor image quality; device tip not in the scanned volume; and missing clinical data. Seventeen (3.5%) out of the final 481 patients had a diagnosis of venous thrombosis. Results: Factors showing the highest correlation with thrombosis included peripherally-inserted CVD, right brachiocephalic vein tip location, patient performance status 3, metastatic stage disease, ongoing chemotherapy, and longstanding CVD. The highest prevalence was in patients with lymphoma, lung carcinoma, melanoma, and gynecologic malignancies. Eleven out of 17 cases had not been identified in the original report. Conclusion: CVD-related thrombosis is not uncommon in cancer patients and can also be observed in outpatients with a good performance status and a non-metastatic disease. Thrombi can be very tiny. Radiologists should be aware of the possibility to identify (or overlook) small thrombi

  12. Relation between boundary slip mechanisms and waterlike fluid behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ternes, Patricia; Salcedo, Evy; Barbosa, Marcia C.

    2018-03-01

    The slip of a fluid layer in contact with a solid confining surface is investigated for different temperatures and densities using molecular dynamic simulations. We show that for an anomalous waterlike fluid the slip goes as follows: for low levels of shear, defect slip appears and is related to the particle exchange between the fluid layers; at high levels of shear, global slip occurs and is related to the homogeneous distribution of the fluid in the confining surfaces. The oscillations in the transition velocity from defect to global slip are shown to be associated with changes in the layering distribution in the anomalous fluid.

  13. THE RELATIONS WITH DEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS AND SUBDIMENSIONS OF ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIORS: A STUDY IN BANKING SECTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KUBİLAY ÖZYER

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study has been made to make clear what are the effects of demographic characteristics on workers’ organizational citizenship behaviors in service business. In this study organizational citizenship behavior was analysed with its subdimenisonals. There are 5 subdimensions as they are, alturism, conscientiousness, courtesy, civic virtue and sportsmanship. To the results of analyses, there are relations between gender, marital status, kids, hierarchical situation in organization, working organization and total organizational citizenship behavior. And also there are relations between these demographic variables and subdimensionals of organizational citizenship behaviors.

  14. "I'm pretty sure that we will win!": The influence of score-related nonverbal behavioral changes on the confidence in winning a basketball game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furley, Philip; Schweizer, Geoffrey

    2014-06-01

    The goal of the present research was to test whether score-related changes in opponents' nonverbal behavior influence athletes' confidence in beating their opponents. In an experiment, 40 participants who were experienced basketball players watched brief video clips depicting athletes' nonverbal behavior. Video clips were not artificially created, but showed naturally occurring behavior. Participants indicated how confident they were in beating the presented athletes in a hypothetical scenario. Results indicated that participants' confidence estimations were influenced by opponents' score-related nonverbal behavior. Participants were less confident about beating a leading team and more confident about beating a trailing team, although they were unaware of the actual score during the depicted scenes. The present research is the first to show that in-game variations of naturally occurring nonverbal behavior can influence athletes' confidence. This finding highlights the importance of research into nonverbal behavior in sports, particularly in relation to athletes' confidence.

  15. Effects of climate change on Pacific Northwest water-related resources: Summary of preliminary findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, M.J.; Sands, R.D.; Vail, L.W.; Chatters, J.C.; Neitzel, D.A.; Shankle, S.A.

    1993-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Case Study is a multi-agency analysis of atmospheric/climatic change impacts on the Pacific Northwest (which includes Washington, Oregon, Idaho, and portions of the Columbia River Basin in Western Montana). The purpose of the case study, which began in fiscal year 1991, was to develop and test analytical tools, as well as to develop an assessment of the effects of climate change on climate-sensitive natural resources of the Pacific Northwest and economic sectors dependent on them. The overall study, jointly funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the US Environmental Protection Agency, was a broad-based, reconnaissance-level study to identify potential climate impacts on agriculture, coastal resources, forest resources, and irrigation in the Pacific Northwest. DOE participated in the reconnaissance study, with responsibility for hydroelectric and water supply issues. While this report briefly discusses a broader array of water issues, attention is mainly focused on three aspects of the water study: (1) the effects of the region`s higher temperatures on the demand for electric power (which in turn puts additional demand on hydroelectric resources of the region); (2) the effects of higher temperatures and changes, both in precipitation amounts and seasonality, on river flows and hydroelectric supply; and (3) the effect of higher temperatures and changed precipitation amounts and seasonality on salmonid resources -- particularly the rearing conditions in tributaries of the Columbia River Basin. Because the meaning of regional climate forecasts is still quite uncertain, most of the preliminary findings are based on sensitivity analyses and historical analog climate scenarios.

  16. Autism: Too eager to learn? Event related potential findings of increased dependency on intentional learning in a serial reaction time task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwart, Fenny S; Vissers, Constance Th W M; van der Meij, Roemer; Kessels, Roy P C; Maes, Joseph H R

    2017-09-01

    It has been suggested that people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have an increased tendency to use explicit (or intentional) learning strategies. This altered learning may play a role in the development of the social communication difficulties characterizing ASD. In the current study, we investigated incidental and intentional sequence learning using a Serial Reaction Time (SRT) task in an adult ASD population. Response times and event related potentials (ERP) components (N2b and P3) were assessed as indicators of learning and knowledge. Findings showed that behaviorally, sequence learning and ensuing explicit knowledge were similar in ASD and typically developing (TD) controls. However, ERP findings showed that learning in the TD group was characterized by an enhanced N2b, while learning in the ASD group was characterized by an enhanced P3. These findings suggest that learning in the TD group might be more incidental in nature, whereas learning in the ASD group is more intentional or effortful. Increased intentional learning might serve as a strategy for individuals with ASD to control an overwhelming environment. Although this led to similar behavioral performances on the SRT task, it is very plausible that this intentional learning has adverse effects in more complex social situations, and hence contributes to the social impairments found in ASD. Autism Res 2017, 10: 1533-1543. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Anatomical variations of the thymus in relation to the left brachiocephalic vein, findings of necropsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza, Oscar Alonso; Moreno, Freddy

    2018-04-01

    Two cases of anatomical variations of the thymus are presented with respect to the anatomical relations with the left brachiocephalic vein and found during the necropsy process. Less than 2 days after birth with Noonan Syndrome, when the left brachiocephalic vein was scanning behind the upper thymus horns, there were other adjacent lesions consisting of three supernumerary spleens and three hepatic veins. The second case was an 8-year-old infant with child malpractice who died from urinary sepsis due to obstructive uropathy, in which case the upper lobes of the thymus were fused and formed a ring through which the left brachiocephalic vein passed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Analysis of the relation between intelligence and criminal behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Jovanovic

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the cognitive aspects of personality is intelligence. A large number of previous studies have shown that the intelligence within the criminal population is decreased, particularly in its verbal aspect.The aim of this study is to determine whether there is a link between intelligence and criminal behavior and how it is manifested.Methods: The research involved criminal inmates of the Correctional institutes of Republic of Srpska and Court Department of Psychiatry Clinic Sokolac who committed homicide and various non-homicide acts. Thetest group consisted of 60 inmates who have committed homicide (homicide offenders and a control group of 60 inmates who did not commit homicide (non-homicide offenders. The study was controlled, transverse or cross-sectional study.Results: Average intelligence of inmates (homicidal and non-homicidal was IQ 95.7. Intelligence of homicide inmates was IQ 97.4 and non-homicide IQ 94.09. Intelligence coeffi cients for non-homicide inmatesubgroups were as follows - subgroup consisting of robbery offenders (IQ 96.9, subgroup consisting of theft perpetrators (IQ 93.83, subgroups consisting of other criminal offenders (IQ 92.8. Verbal intellectual ability– IQw of homicide inmates was 91.22, and 91.10 IQw of non-homicide inmates. Intellectual abilities in nonverbal or manipulative part were average, but they were higher in homicide inmates group (IQm 103.65 than in the group of non-homicide inmates (IQm 97.08.Conclusion: Average intelligence of investigated inmates (homicide and non-homicide is lower than in the general population and corresponds to low average. Verbal part of intelligence is lowered while nonverbalpart is within the average range.

  19. An immunoglobulin G-4 related sclerosing disease of the small bowel: CT and small bowel series findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Young Hwan; Hwang, Dae Hyun; Min, Seon Jeong; Woo, Ji Young; Kim, Jeong Won; Hong, Hye Sook; Yang, Ik; Lee, Yul

    2013-01-01

    Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related sclerosing disease is rare and is known to involve various organs. We present a case of histologically proven IgG4-related sclerosing disease of the small bowel with imaging findings on computed tomography (CT) and small bowel series. CT showed irregular wall thickening, loss of mural stratification and aneurysmal dilatation of the distal ileum. Small bowel series showed aneurysmal dilatations, interloop adhesion with traction and abrupt angulation.

  20. Challenging Ingrained Thoughts? The Joint Effect of Stereotypes and Awareness of Related Information on Pro-Environmental Behavior in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Ghorbani

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This research applies a positive stereotype perspective to test the effect of individuals’ choices between pro-environmental versus pro-safety behavior, while considering the role of media exposure. We test our hypotheses in China, where both food-safety and environment are major issues and are widely covered by the media and government reports. Based on a quasi-experiments and survey questionnaires focused on attitudes towards disposable chopsticks, we find that individuals form cognitive perceptions in ways that either have stronger positive environmental or safety stereotypes. Based on these stereotypes, they either believe that reusable chopsticks are more environmentally friendly or that disposable chopsticks are safer, each impacting individuals’ choices differently. In addition, awareness of information related to the environment augments the link between environmental stereotypes and pro-environmental behavior, while having no influence on the effect of safety stereotypes on pro-safety behavior. On the other hand, while awareness of safety-related information accentuates the link between safety-related stereotypes and pro-safety behavior, it has no impact on the effect of environmental stereotypes on pro-environmental behavior.

  1. Who puts the most energy into energy conservation? A segmentation of energy consumers based on energy-related behavioral characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sütterlin, Bernadette; Brunner, Thomas A.; Siegrist, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The present paper aims to identify and describe different types of energy consumers in a more comprehensive way than previous segmentation studies using cluster analysis. Energy consumers were segmented based on their energy-related behavioral characteristics. In addition to purchase- and curtailment-related energy-saving behavior, consumer classification was also based on acceptance of policy measures and energy-related psychosocial factors, so the used behavioral segmentation base was more comprehensive compared to other studies. Furthermore, differentiation between the energy-saving purchase of daily products, such as food, and of energy efficient appliances allowed a more differentiated characterization of the energy consumer segments. The cluster analysis revealed six energy consumer segments: the idealistic, the selfless inconsequent, the thrifty, the materialistic, the convenience-oriented indifferent, and the problem-aware well-being-oriented energy consumer. Findings emphasize that using a broader and more distinct behavioral base is crucial for an adequate and differentiated description of energy consumer types. The paper concludes by highlighting the most promising energy consumer segments and discussing possible segment-specific marketing and policy strategies. - Highlights: ► By applying a cluster-analytic approach, new energy consumer segments are identified. ► A comprehensive, differentiated description of the different energy consumer types is provided. ► A distinction between purchase of daily products and energy efficient appliances is essential. ► Behavioral variables are a more suitable base for segmentation than general characteristics.

  2. The Relation of Serum Bilirubin Level With Coronary Artery Disease Based on Angiographic Findings

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    Taban Sadeghi Mohammadreza

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Lipid oxidation and generation of free radicals are important factors contributing to the formation of atherosclerotic plaque. Bilirubin is supposed to play a protective role against atherosclerosis, coronary artery diseases (CAD and inflammation for its strong antioxidant property. Thus, this study aims at investigating the relationship of bilirubin level with the severity and type of coronary artery stenosis (CAS in different patient groups. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study 200 consecutive patients, who underwent elective angiography in Madani Heart hospital, Tabriz, Iran, were selected and their blood samples were measured for total, direct, and indirect bilirubin level, with Diazo method using colorimetric technique. Following angiography, comparisons were made between the severity and location of CAS and therapeutic follow-up plan with total, direct, and indirect bilirubin level. Results: Of 200 studied patients, 129 (64.5% and 71 (35.5% subjects were male and female, respectively. The cases were classified into 5 subgroups based on angiography results as follows: 59 (29.5% cases with normal angiography, 11 cases (5.5% with minimal CAD, 56 cases (28% with single vessel involvement, 35 (17.5% cases with two vessel involvement and 39 cases (19.5% with three vessel involvement. The mean total bilirubin level was 1.47 ± 0.8 mg/dl, 1.27 ± 0.12 mg/dl, 1.27 ± 0.06 mg/dl, 1.6 ± 0.04 mg/dl and 0.98 ± 0.05 mg/dl, respectively for the cases with above order. The mean difference in serum total bilirubin between normal angiography group and three-vessel involvement group was 0.49 mg/dl (P < .0001. There was a significant inverse relation between bilirubin level (total, direct and indirect and number of involved vessels and involvement intensity increased as serum bilirubin level decreased. Severity of coronary arteries stenosis as well as the number of involved vessels increased as serum bilirubin level decreased

  3. Beauty and the beast: gender differences in food-related behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Velloso Missagia

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Among the decisions that consumers have to make there are food choices, including the decision to eat healthily. In this way, both motives for food choice and the behavior reported by consumers can describe how people relate to healthy food, particularly males and females, and what distinguishes them. Researching of a sample of 309 people, respondents were randomly selected in order to achieve balanced age and gender. Such individuals were recruited through an offline method that consisted of contact in supermarkets. Total sample size is constituted by 174 female and 135 male respondents. The results of the logistic regression analysis pointed that the main difference between genders is the way they interpret healthiness as a motive for food choice. While men find important that the products they eat keep them healthy, women consider more important the fact that they are nutritious. In addition, other motives and behaviors that distinguish men and women in respect of food choices and healthy eating were observed.DOI:10.5585/remark.v12i1.2441

  4. A review of research programs related to the behavior of plutonium in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartram, B.W.; Wilkinson, M.J.

    1983-01-01

    Plutonium-fueled radioisotopic heat sources find application in a spectrum of space, terrestrial, and underseas applications to generate electrical power by thermoelectric or dynamic-cycle conversion. Such systems under postulated accident conditions could release radioactivity into the environment resulting in risks to the general population. The released radioactivity could be dispersed into various environmental media, such as air, soil, and water and interact with people through various exposure pathways leading to inhalation, ingestion, and external radiological doses and associated health effects. The authors developed short-term exposure (RISK II) and long-term exposure (RISK III) models for use in safety risk assessments of space missions utilizing plutonium-fueled electric power systems. To effectively use these models in risk assessments, representative input values must be selected for a spectrum of environmental transfer parameters that characterize the behavior of plutonium in the environment. The selection of appropriate transfer parameters to be used in a given analysis will depend on the accident scenarios to be modeled and the terrestrial and aquatic environments to be encountered. The authors reviewed the availability of plutonium environmental data for use in risk assessments and the status of research programs being conducted by various organizations related to the behavior of plutonium in the environment. This report summarizes the research programs presently being conducted at six Department of Energy Laboratories and makes recommendations on areas where further research is needed to fill gaps in the data necessary for risk assessments. 19 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  5. The Associations of Eating-related Attitudinal Balance with Psychological Well-being and Eating Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Fuglestad, Paul T.; Bruening, Meg; Graham, Dan J.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne R.

    2013-01-01

    This study used balance theory to illuminate the relations of eating-related attitudinal consistency between self and friends to psychological well-being and eating behaviors. It was hypothesized that attitudinal inconsistency, relative to consistency, would predict lower well-being and poorer eating habits. A population-based sample of 2287 young adults participating in Project EAT-III (Eating Among Teens and Young Adults) completed measures of psychological well-being, eating behaviors, and...

  6. Sex-related online behaviors, perceived peer norms and adolescents' experience with sexual behavior : Testing an integrative model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doornwaard, Suzan M.; Ter Bogt, Tom F M; Reitz, Ellen; Van Den Eijnden, Regina J J M

    2015-01-01

    Research on the role of sex-related Internet use in adolescents' sexual development has often isolated the Internet and online behaviors from other, offline influencing factors in adolescents' lives, such as processes in the peer domain. The aim of this study was to test an integrative model

  7. Sex-related online behaviors and adolescents' body and sexual self-perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doornwaard, Suzan M; Bickham, David S; Rich, Michael; Vanwesenbeeck, Ine; van den Eijnden, Regina J J M; ter Bogt, Tom F M

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated: (1) the prevalence and development of 2 receptive (sexually explicit Internet material [SEIM] use and sexual information seeking) and 2 interactive (cybersex and general social networking site [SNS] use) online behaviors in adolescence; (2) whether development of these behaviors predict adolescents' body and sexual self-perceptions; and (3) whether parental strategies regarding adolescents' Internet use reduce engagement in sex-related online behaviors. Four-wave longitudinal data among 1132 seventh- to 10th-grade Dutch adolescents (mean age at wave 1: 13.95 years; 52.7% boys) were collected. Developmental trajectories of sex-related online behaviors were estimated by using latent growth curve modeling. Self-perception outcomes at wave 4 and parental strategies predicting online behaviors were investigated by adding regression paths to growth models. Boys occasionally and increasingly used SEIM. Patterns for girls' SEIM use and boys' and girls' sexual information seeking and cybersex were consistently low. SNS use, however, was a common, daily activity for both. Higher initial levels and/or faster increases in sex-related online behaviors generally predicted less physical self-esteem (girls' SNS use only), more body surveillance, and less satisfaction with sexual experience. Private Internet access and less parental rule setting regarding Internet use predicted greater engagement in sex-related online behaviors. Although most sex-related online behaviors are not widespread among youth, adolescents who engage in such behaviors are at increased risk for developing negative body and sexual self-perceptions. Particular attention should be paid to adolescents' SNS use because this behavior is most popular and may, through its interactive characteristics, elicit more critical self-evaluations. Prevention efforts should focus on parents' role in reducing risky sex-related online behaviors. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  8. Find the fish: using PROC SQL to build a relational database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabrizio, Mary C.; Nelson, Scott N.

    1995-01-01

    Reliable estimates of abundance and survival, gained through mark-recapture studies, are necessary to better understand how to manage and restore lake trout populations in the Great Lakes. Working with a 24-year data set from a mark-recapture study conducted in Lake Superior, we attempted to disclose information on tag shedding by examining recaptures of double-tagged fish. The data set consisted of 64,288 observations on fish which had been marked with one or more tags; a subset of these fish had been marked with two tags at initial capture. Although DATA and PROC statements could be used to obtain some of the information we sought, these statements could not be used to extract a complete set of results from the double-tagging experiments. We therefore used SQL processing to create three tables representing the same information but in a fully normalized relational structure. In addition, we created indices to efficiently examine complex relationships among the individual capture records. This approach allowed us to obtain all the information necessary to estimate tag retention through subsequent modeling. We believe that our success with SQL was due in large part to its ability to simultaneosly scan the same table more than once and to permit consideration of other tables in sub-queries.

  9. Relation of Habitual Chocolate Consumption to Arterial Stiffness in a Community-Based Sample: Preliminary Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, Georgina E.; Elias, Merrill F.; Alkerwi, Ala'a; Stranges, Saverio; Abhayaratna, Walter P.

    2016-01-01

    Background The consumption of chocolate and cocoa has established cardiovascular benefits. Less is known about the effects of chocolate on arterial stiffness, a marker of subclinical cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to investigate whether chocolate intakes are independently associated with pulse wave velocity (PWV), after adjustment for cardiovascular, lifestyle and dietary factors. Methods Prospective analyses were undertaken on 508 community-dwelling participants (mean age 61 years, 60% women) from the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study (MSLS). Habitual chocolate intakes, measured using a food frequency questionnaire, were related to PWV, measured approximately 5 years later. Results Chocolate intake was significantly associated with PWV in a non-linear fashion with the highest levels of PWV in those who never or rarely ate chocolate and lowest levels in those who consumed chocolate once a week. This pattern of results remained and was not attenuated after multivariate adjustment for diabetes, cardiovascular risk factors and dietary variables (p = 0.002). Conclusions Weekly chocolate intake may be of benefit to arterial stiffness. Further studies are needed to explore the underlying mechanisms that may mediate the observed effects of habitual chocolate consumption on arterial stiffness. PMID:27493901

  10. Relation of Habitual Chocolate Consumption to Arterial Stiffness in a Community-Based Sample: Preliminary Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, Georgina E; Elias, Merrill F; Alkerwi, Ala'a; Stranges, Saverio; Abhayaratna, Walter P

    2016-07-01

    The consumption of chocolate and cocoa has established cardiovascular benefits. Less is known about the effects of chocolate on arterial stiffness, a marker of subclinical cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to investigate whether chocolate intakes are independently associated with pulse wave velocity (PWV), after adjustment for cardiovascular, lifestyle and dietary factors. Prospective analyses were undertaken on 508 community-dwelling participants (mean age 61 years, 60% women) from the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study (MSLS). Habitual chocolate intakes, measured using a food frequency questionnaire, were related to PWV, measured approximately 5 years later. Chocolate intake was significantly associated with PWV in a non-linear fashion with the highest levels of PWV in those who never or rarely ate chocolate and lowest levels in those who consumed chocolate once a week. This pattern of results remained and was not attenuated after multivariate adjustment for diabetes, cardiovascular risk factors and dietary variables (p = 0.002). Weekly chocolate intake may be of benefit to arterial stiffness. Further studies are needed to explore the underlying mechanisms that may mediate the observed effects of habitual chocolate consumption on arterial stiffness.

  11. [Cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome, a Noonan syndrome related disorder: clinical and molecular findings in 11 patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carcavilla, Atilano; García-Miñaúr, Sixto; Pérez-Aytés, Antonio; Vendrell, Teresa; Pinto, Isabel; Guillén-Navarro, Encarna; González-Meneses, Antonio; Aoki, Yoko; Grinberg, Daniel; Ezquieta, Begoña

    2015-01-20

    To describe 11 patients with cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome (CFC) and compare them with 130 patients with other RAS-MAPK syndromes (111 Noonan syndrome patients [NS] and 19 patients with LEOPARD syndrome). Clinical data from patients submitted for genetic analysis were collected. Bidirectional sequencing analysis of PTPN11, SOS1, RAF1, BRAF, and MAP2K1 focused on exons carrying recurrent mutations, and of all KRAS exons were performed. Six different mutations in BRAF were identified in 9 patients, as well as 2 MAP2K1 mutations. Short stature, developmental delay, language difficulties and ectodermal anomalies were more frequent in CFC patients when compared with other neuro-cardio-faciocutaneous syndromes (P<.05). In at least 2 cases molecular testing helped reconsider the diagnosis. CFC patients showed a rather severe phenotype but at least one patient with BRAF mutation showed no developmental delay, which illustrates the variability of the phenotypic spectrum caused by BRAF mutations. Molecular genetic testing is a valuable tool for differential diagnosis of CFC and NS related disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Rape-related cognitive distortions: Preliminary findings on the role of early maladaptive schemas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigre-Leirós, Vera; Carvalho, Joana; Nobre, Pedro J

    2015-01-01

    Despite the important focus on the notion of cognitive distortions in the sexual offending area, the relevance of underlying cognitive schemas in sexual offenders has also been suggested. The aim of the present study was to investigate a potential relationship between Early Maladaptive Schemas (EMSs) and cognitive distortions in rapists. A total of 33 men convicted for rape completed the Bumby Rape Scale (BRS), the Young Schema Questionnaire - Short form-3 (YSQ-S3), the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), and the Socially Desirable Response Set Measure (SDRS-5). Results showed a significant relationship between the impaired limits schematic domain and the Justifying Rape dimension of the BRS. Specifically, after controlling for psychological distress levels and social desirability tendency, the entitlement/grandiosity schema from the impaired limits domain was a significant predictor of cognitive distortions related to Justifying Rape themes. Overall, despite preliminary, there is some evidence that the Young's Schema-Focused model namely the impaired limits dimension may contribute for the conceptualization of cognitive distortions in rapists and further investigation is recommended. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Health-related quality of life in epilepsy: findings obtained with a new Italian instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazzini, Ada; Beghi, Ettore; Turner, Katherine; Ferraroni, Monica

    2008-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the Epi-QoL, a new Italian-specific measure of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) for adults with epilepsy; the clinical variables that affected the HRQOL score were also assessed. The Epi-QoL is a 46-item self-administered questionnaire focusing on six domains: Physical Functioning, Cognitive Functioning, Emotional Well-Being, Social Functioning, Seizure Worry, and Medication Effects. Eight hundred fifteen patients recruited from 24 secondary and tertiary Italian centers for the care of epilepsy were assessed. The results supported the reliability and validity of the Epi-QoL as a measure of HRQOL. The variables that significantly affected HRQOL scores were: geographic area, gender, seizure frequency, prognostic categories, number of medications, comorbidity, presence of cognitive impairment, psychiatric disturbances, and disability. We believe that a new specific questionnaire for the evaluation of HRQOL in Italy can contribute much to the understanding of the influence of epilepsy on patients' lives.

  14. Age-Related Macular Degeneration: Clinical Findings following Treatment with Antiangiogenic Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Casaroli-Marano

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To survey the management of patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nvAMD in Spain. Methods. An observational retrospective multicenter study was conducted. The variables analyzed were sociodemographic characteristics, foveal and macular thickness, visual acuity (VA, type of treatment, number of injections, and the initial administration of a loading dose of an antiangiogenic drug. Results. 208 patients were followed up during 23.4 months in average. During the first and second years, patients received a mean of 4.5±1.8 and 1.6±2.1 injections of antiangiogenic drugs, and 5.4±2.8 and 3.6±2.2 follow-up visits were performed, respectively. The highest improvement in VA was observed at 3 months of follow-up, followed by a decrease in the response that stabilized above baseline values until the end of the study. Patients who received an initial loading dose presented greater VA gains than those without. Conclusions. Our results suggest the need for a more standardized approach in the management and diagnosis of nvAMD receiving VEGF inhibitors. To achieve the visual outcomes reported in pivotal trials, an early diagnosis, proactive approach (more treating than follow-up visits, and a close monitoring might be the key to successfully manage nvAMD.

  15. Masculinity and HIV: Dimensions of Masculine Norms that Contribute to Men's HIV-Related Sexual Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Paul J; DiClemente, Ralph J; Barrington, Clare

    2016-04-01

    Numerous studies have documented a relationship between masculine norms and men's HIV-related sexual behaviors, but intervening upon this relationship requires a nuanced understanding of the specific aspects of masculine norms that shape men's sexual behaviors. We integrate theories on masculinities with empirical HIV research to identify specific dimensions of masculine norms that influence men's HIV-related sexual behaviors. We identify three major dimensions of masculine norms that shape men's sexual behavior: (1) uncontrollable male sex drive, (2) capacity to perform sexually, and (3) power over others. While the existing literature does help explain the relationship between masculine norms and men's sexual behaviors several gaps remain including: a recognition of context-specific masculinities, an interrogation of the positive influences of masculinity, adoption of an intersectional approach, assessment of changes in norms and behaviors over time, and rigorous evaluations of gender-transformative approaches. Addressing these gaps in future research may optimize prevention efforts.

  16. Microglia are involve in pain related behaviors during the acute and chronic phase of arthritis inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Nasseri

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground: Pain is one of the main protests of inflammatory diseases, hence, understanding the mechanisms which involved in the induction and persistence of pain is essential. Microglia is a contributing factor in the onset and maintenance of inflammation. Increased microglial   activation increases the level of central pro-inflammatory cytokines and the development of central sensitization following inflammation. The aim of this study was evaluate the relation of spinal microglia activity with pain related behaviors during Complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA-induced inflammation.Materials and Methods: Inflammation caused by subcutaneous injection of Complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA in a single dose to the animals right hind paw. The edema and hyperalgesia caused by inflammation, respectively are measured by Plethysmometer and Radiant Heat, on days 0,7,14 and 21. Spinal Iba-1 protein expression was detected by Western blotting. Minocycline hydrochloride (Sigma, U.S.A was administered i.p. at a dose of 40mg/kg daily.Results: Our study findings indicated that CFA injection to right hindpaw of rats increased paw volume and hyperalgesia significantly during different stages of study, while Minocycline treatment significantly reduced paw volume and hyperalgesia. CFA injection into the right hindpaw of the rat increases the expression of molecules Ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule -1 (Iba-1 on different days of study, while Minocycline administration reduced spinal Iba-1 expression significantly compared to the CFA group.Conclusion: The results of this study indicated the significant roles of microglia activation in deterioration of pain related behaviors during different stages of CFA-induced inflammation. The steady injection of Minocycline (as a microglia inhibitor could reduce the inflammatory symptoms.Keywords: Inflammation, pain, microglia, minocycline

  17. Within-family conflict behaviors as predictors of conflict in adolescent romantic relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, Nancy; Cohan, Catherine L; Burns, Andrew; Thompson, Louisa

    2008-12-01

    Continuity in conflict behaviors from (a) adolescents' behavior with parents and their behavior with romantic partners and (b) from parents' marriage to adolescents' romantic relationships were examined in a sample of 58 mother-father-adolescent families and the adolescents' romantic partners. The social relations model was used to analyze within-family reports of own and partner conflict behavior. Mother-father consensus about adolescents' use of physical aggression was associated with romantic partners' reports of adolescents' physical aggression. Less functional behaviors observed during observed marital conflict were associated with a range of less functional conflict behaviors in adolescents' observed interactions with romantic partners, including withdrawal, verbal aggression, negativity, ineffective problem solving, and low cohesion. Within-family conflict and methodological issues in the use of partner and self-reports of conflict behaviors are discussed.

  18. Evaluation of systems interactions in nuclear power plants: Technical findings related to Unresolved Safety Issue A-17

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thatcher, D.

    1989-05-01

    This report presents a summary of the activities related to Unresolved Safety Issue (USI)A-17, ''Systems Interactions in Nuclear Power Plants,'' and also includes the NRC staff's conclusions based on those activities. The staff's technical findings provide the framework for the final resolution of this unresolved safety issue. The final resolution will be published later as NUREG-1229. 52 refs., 4 tabs

  19. The Novel Attempt for Finding Minimum Solution in Fuzzy Neutrosophic Relational Geometric Programming (FNRGP with (max,min Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huda E. Khalid

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This article sheds light on the possibility of finding the minimum solution set of neutrosophic relational geometric programming with (max, min composition. This work examines the privacy enjoyed by both neutrosophic logic and geometric programming, and how it affects the minimum solutions.

  20. Adductor-related groin pain in athletes: correlation of MR imaging with clinical findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, P.; Barron, D.A.; Grainger, A.J.; O'Connor, P.J.; Parsons, W.; Schilders, E.M.G.

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging in athletes with chronic groin pain and correlate with the clinical features. MR examinations performed in 52 athletes (51 male, 1 female; median age 26 years) with chronic groin pain and 6 asymptomatic control athletes (6 male; median age 29 years) were independently reviewed by two radiologists masked to the clinical details. Symptom duration (median 6 months) and clinical side of severity were recorded. Anatomical areas in the pelvis were scored for abnormality (as normal, mildly abnormal or abnormal) and an overall assessment for side distribution of abnormality was recorded, initially without post-gadolinium sequences and then, 3 weeks later (median 29 days), the post-gadolinium sequences only. Correlation between radiological and clinical abnormality was calculated by Spearman's correlation. Abnormal anterior pubis and enthesis enhancement significantly correlated with clinical side for both radiologists (both P=0.008). Abnormal anterior pubis and adductor longus enthesis oedema was significant for one radiologist (P=0.009). All other features showed no significant correlation (P>0.05). In the control cases there was no soft tissue abnormality but symphyseal irregularity was present (n=2). For both radiologists assessment of imaging side severity significantly correlated with clinical side for post-gadolinium (P=0.048 and P=0.023) but not non-gadolinium sequences (P>0.05). The extent and side of anterior pubis and adductor longus enthesis abnormality on MR imaging significantly and reproducibly correlates with the athletes' current symptoms in chronic adductor-related groin pain. (orig.)

  1. Assessing health-related resiliency in HIV+ Latin women: Preliminary psychometric findings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladys J Jimenez-Torres

    Full Text Available HIV-associated vulnerabilities-especially those linked to psychological issues-and limited mental health-treatment resources have the potential to adversely affect the health statuses of individuals. The concept of resilience has been introduced in the literature to shift the emphasis from vulnerability to protective factors. Resilience, however, is an evolving construct and is measured in various ways, though rarely among underserved, minority populations. Herein, we present the preliminary psychometric properties of a sample of HIV-seropositive Puerto Rican women, measured using a newly developed health-related resilience scale.The Resilience Scales for Children and Adolescents, an instrument with solid test construction properties, acted as a model in the development (in both English and Spanish of the HRRS, providing the same dimensions and most of the same subscales. The present sample was nested within the Hispanic-Latino longitudinal cohort of women (HLLC, that is part of the NeuroAIDS Research Program at the University of Puerto Rico (UPR, Medical Sciences Campus (MSC. Forty-five consecutively recruited, HIV+ women from the HLLC completed a demographic survey, the HRRS, and the Beck Depression Inventory-I, Spanish version.The results demonstrate excellent overall internal consistency for the total HRRS score (α = 0.95. Each of the dimensional scores also evidenced acceptable internal consistency (α ≥ 0.88. All the dimensional and subscale content validity indices were above the 0.42 cut-off. Analysis revealed a significant negative correlation between the HRRS total score and BDI-I-S (r(45 = -0.453, p < 0.003.Albeit preliminary in nature, the present study provides support for the HRRS as a measure to assess resilience among individuals living with chronic medical conditions. Minority populations, especially non-English speaking ones, are understudied across the field of medicine, and when efforts are made to include these patient

  2. The relation of serotonin-related gene and COMT gene polymorphisms with criminal behavior in schizophrenic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Kyung Bong; Choi, Eun Hee; Lee, Young-joon; Han, Mooyoung; Choi, Sang-Sup; Kim, So Won; Lee, Min Goo

    2012-02-01

    It has been suggested that patients with schizophrenia might be involved in criminal behavior, such as homicidal and violent behavior. However, the relationship between criminal behavior and genes in patients with schizophrenia has not been clearly elucidated. The objective of this study was to examine the relation between criminal behavior and serotonin-related gene or catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene polymorphisms in patients with schizophrenia. Serotonin-related and COMT polymorphic markers were assessed by using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping. Ninety-nine crime-related inpatients with schizophrenia (57 homicidal and 42 nonhomicidal violent) and 133 healthy subjects were enrolled between October 2005 and May 2008. Diagnoses were made according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) criteria. The genotype frequencies of tryptophan hydroxylase-1 (TPH1) A218C and COMT V158M were compared between groups. The TPH1 CC genotype had 2.7-fold higher odds of crime-related schizophrenia compared with A-carrier genotype after the analysis was controlled for sex and age (OR, 2.69; 95% CI, 1.22 - 5.91; P = .01). In addition, the TPH1 CC genotype had 3.4-fold higher odds of homicidal schizophrenia compared with A-carrier genotype after the analysis was controlled for sex and age (OR, 3.38; 95% CI, 1.40 - 8.18; P = .007). However, no significant differences were found in the frequencies of genotype of COMT polymorphism between criminal schizophrenics and healthy subjects, nor were any significant differences found between nonhomicidal schizophrenics and healthy subjects. These results indicate that the TPH1 CC recessive genotype is likely to be a genetic risk factor for criminal behavior, especially homicidal behavior in patients with schizophrenia. However, COMT gene polymorphisms were not associated with criminal behavior in schizophrenic patients. © Copyright 2012 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  3. Environment-behavior relations, behavior therapy and the process of persuasion and attitude change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauss, S L; Chase, P N; Hawkins, R P

    1997-03-01

    The phenomena described by the cognitive dissonance literature, especially to explain attitude change, have important relevance to understanding certain aspects of therapy. Contrary to popular beliefs, these phenomena can be described in behavior-analytic terms. To do so requires an analysis of learning histories that select and maintain consistency in what individuals say and do. An understanding of the environmental variables that produce consistency can then be applied to the kinds of attitude change and stability found in the cognitive dissonance literature that have therapeutic importance.

  4. Obesity-related differences between women and men in brain structure and goal-directed behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette eHorstmann

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Gender differences in the regulation of body weight are well documented. Here, we assessed obesity-related influences of gender on brain structure as well as performance in the Iowa Gambling Task. This task requires evaluation of both immediate rewards and long-term outcomes and thus mirrors the trade-off between immediate reward from eating and the long-term effect of overeating on body weight. In women, but not in men, we show that the preference for salient immediate rewards in the face of negative long-term consequences is higher in obese than in lean subjects. In addition, we report structural differences in the left dorsal striatum (i.e. putamen and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex for women only. Functionally, both regions are known to play complimentary roles in habitual and goal-directed control of behavior in motivational contexts. For women as well as men, gray matter volume correlates positively with measures of obesity in regions coding the value and saliency of food (i.e. nucleus accumbens, orbitofrontal cortex as well as in the hypothalamus (i.e. the brain's central homeostatic centre. These differences between