WorldWideScience

Sample records for related background information

  1. Italian: Area Background Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This booklet has been assembled in order to provide students of Italian with a compact source of cultural information on their target area. Chapters include discussion of: (1) introduction to Italian; (2) origins of the Italian population; (3) geography; (4) history including the Roman Era, the Middle Ages, the Renaissance, the "Risorgimento," and…

  2. Experiences with nutrition-related information during antenatal care of pregnant women of different ethnic backgrounds residing in the area of Oslo, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnweidner, Lisa M; Sverre Pettersen, Kjell; Mosdøl, Annhild

    2013-12-01

    to explore experiences with nutrition-related information during routine antenatal care among women of different ethnical backgrounds. individual interviews with seventeen participants were conducted twice during pregnancy. Data collection and analysis were inspired by an interpretative phenomenological approach. participants were purposively recruited at eight Mother and Child Health Centres in the area of Oslo, Norway, where they received antenatal care. participants had either immigrant backgrounds from African and Asian countries (n=12) or were ethnic Norwegian (n=5). Participants were pregnant with their first child and had a pre-pregnancy Body Mass Index above 25 kg/m(2). participants experienced that they were provided with little nutrition-related information in antenatal care. The information was perceived as presented in very general terms and focused on food safety. Weight management and the long-term prevention of diet-related chronic diseases had hardly been discussed. Participants with immigrant backgrounds appeared to be confused about information given by the midwife which was incongruent with their original food culture. The participants were actively seeking for nutrition-related information and had to navigate between various sources of information. the midwife is considered a trustworthy source of nutrition-related information. Therefore, antenatal care may have considerable potential to promote a healthy diet to pregnant women. Findings suggest that nutrition communication in antenatal care should be more tailored towards women's dietary habits and cultural background, nutritional knowledge as well as level of nutrition literacy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Foreign Energy Company Competitiveness: Background information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weimar, M.R.; Freund, K.A.; Roop, J.M.

    1994-10-01

    This report provides background information to the report Energy Company Competitiveness: Little to Do With Subsidies (DOE 1994). The main body of this publication consists of data uncovered during the course of research on this DOE report. This data pertains to major government energy policies in each country studied. This report also provides a summary of the DOE report. In October 1993, the Office of Energy Intelligence, US Department of Energy (formerly the Office of Foreign Intelligence), requested that Pacific Northwest Laboratory prepare a report addressing policies and actions used by foreign governments to enhance the competitiveness of their energy firms. Pacific Northwest Laboratory prepared the report Energy Company Competitiveness Little to Do With Subsidies (DOE 1994), which provided the analysis requested by DOE. An appendix was also prepared, which provided extensive background documentation to the analysis. Because of the length of the appendix, Pacific Northwest Laboratory decided to publish this information separately, as contained in this report.

  4. Egypt: Background and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-27

    right to govern; the more the Brotherhood charges ahead, the more it confirms the others’ belief of its monopolistic designs over power. Even if...appropriate market -reform and economic growth activities.” Egypt: Background and U.S. Relations Congressional Research Service 18 according to the State

  5. Egypt: Background and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-12

    contributions from Germany , Japan, and Switzerland. For more information on the MFO, see http://www.mfo.org/Default.asp?bhcp=1. Egypt: Background and...2008 Report, Egypt’s pace of business reforms and deregulation between 2006 and 2007 ranked first worldwide. In recent years, the state has...reinvigorated its privatization program by divesting shares in the state-dominated banking and insurance sectors. Additionally, the government removed import

  6. Qatar: Background and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-06

    Science Monitor, February 6, 2007. 10 For example, Senator John Kerry voiced specific concerns about alleged Qatari government and private support...Sen. Kerry Speaks on Middle East to Brookings Institute,” April 2, 2009. Qatar: Background and U.S. Relations Congressional Research Service 6...alcohol, which is available in licensed premises such as the bars of major hotels and clubs. 53 U.S

  7. Background information on the SSC project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, J.

    1991-10-01

    This report discusses the following information about the Superconducting Super Collider: Goals and milestones; civil construction; ring components; cryogenics; vacuum and cooling water systems; electrical power; instrumentation and control systems; and installation planning

  8. Lewis Information Network (LINK): Background and overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Roger R.

    1987-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center supports many research facilities with many isolated buildings, including wind tunnels, test cells, and research laboratories. These facilities are all located on a 350 acre campus adjacent to the Cleveland Hopkins Airport. The function of NASA-Lewis is to do basic and applied research in all areas of aeronautics, fluid mechanics, materials and structures, space propulsion, and energy systems. These functions require a great variety of remote high speed, high volume data communications for computing and interactive graphic capabilities. In addition, new requirements for local distribution of intercenter video teleconferencing and data communications via satellite have developed. To address these and future communications requirements for the next 15 yrs, a project team was organized to design and implement a new high speed communication system that would handle both data and video information in a common lab-wide Local Area Network. The project team selected cable television broadband coaxial cable technology as the communications medium and first installation of in-ground cable began in the summer of 1980. The Lewis Information Network (LINK) became operational in August 1982 and has become the backbone of all data communications and video.

  9. Venezuela: Background and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-21

    supported the 30 Amnesty International, “Venezuela, Los Derechos Humanos en Riesgo en Medio de Protestas...iachr/docs/annual/2015/doc-en/ InformeAnual2015-cap4-Venezuela-EN.pdf Programa Venezolano de Educación-Acción en Derechos Humanos (PROVEA) http

  10. Thailand: Background and U.S. Relations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chanlett-Avery, Emma

    2006-01-01

    U.S.-Thailand relations are of particular interest to Congress because of Thailand's status as a long-time military ally, a key country in the war against terrorism in Southeast Asia, and a significant...

  11. Study on the background information for the geological disposal concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, Kazuaki; Murano, Tohru; Hirusawa, Shigenobu; Komoto, Harumi

    2000-03-01

    Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) has published first R and D report in 1992, in which the fruits of the R and D work were compiled. Since then, JNC, has been promoting the second R and D progress report until before 2000, in which the background information on the geological disposal of high level radioactive waste (HLW) was to be presented as well as the technical basis. Recognizing the importance of the social consensus to the geological disposal, understanding and consensus by the society are essential to the development and realization of the geological disposal of HLW. In this fiscal year, studies were divided into 2 phases, considering the time schedule of the second R and D progress report. 1. Phase 1: Analysis of the background information on the geological disposal concept. Based on the recent informations and the research works of last 2 years, final version of the study was made to contribute to the background informations for the second R and D progress report. (This was published in Nov. 1999 as the intermediate report: JNC TJ 1420 2000-006). 2. Phase 2: Following 2 specific items were selected for the candidate issues which need to be studied, considering the present circumstances around the R and D of geological disposal. (1) Educational materials and strategies related to nuclear energy and nuclear waste. Specific strategies and approaches in the area of nuclear energy and nuclear waste educational outreach and curriculum activities by the nuclear industry, government and other entities in 6 countries were surveyed and summarized. (2) Alternatives to geological disposal of HLW: Past national/international consideration and current status. The alternatives for the disposal of HLW have been discussed in the past and the major waste-producing countries have almost all chosen deep geological disposal as preferred method. Here past histories and recent discussions on the variations to geological disposal were studied. (author)

  12. Venezuela: Background and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-22

    to enhance access to objective information and peaceful debate on key issues, and to promote citizen participation and democratic leadership . 113 At...April 2013 in which acting President Nicolás Maduro narrowly defeated Henrique Capriles of the opposition Democratic Unity Roundtable (MUD), with the...Maduro’s term, through 2018. Organization of American States (OAS) Secretary General Luis Almagro invoked the Inter-American Democratic Charter on the

  13. Egypt: Background and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-13

    accusations that it is seeking to control the Egyptian media and curtail freedom of speech . Others posit that competing Egyptian institutions, such as the...president with establishing an independent body to review freedom of speech cases. However, the government insists that there are certain red lines when...it comes to freedom of speech . According to Information Minister Abdel Maqsoud, “There is a clear difference between freedom on the one hand and

  14. Senegal: Background and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-25

    treatment of prisoners; corruption; violence and discrimination against women; child abuse, child labor, and child marriage ; and human trafficking...and U.S. Relations Congressional Research Service 8 both are reportedly widespread.36 Senegalese law also criminalizes homosexuality , and...Senegalese legislature amended the constitution and passed legislation aimed at removing any legal obstacles. However, the government has since stalled

  15. Turkey: Background and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-26

    rate hikes . 71 Most analyses of Turkey’s economy express optimism about its fiscal position and banking system, while noting that Turkey’s...Turkish officials have threatened to curtail U.S. access to Turkish bases. Calculations regarding the costs and benefits to the United States of a U.S...of diplomatic relations. Reportedly, Vice President Joe Biden facilitated the rapprochement in part due to potential mutual benefits anticipated by

  16. Argentina: Background and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-06

    Venezuela . For some observers, Macri’s election and policy changes signaled an ebbing of the so-called pink tide populist leftist governments in the region...2002 but also was characterized by protectionist and unorthodox economic policies and at times difficult relations with the United States...Peronist (Justicialist Party, PJ) senator selected by Congress to fill out the remainder of President de la Rúa’s term, implemented policies that

  17. The Institute of American Indian Arts Background Information (Task One of the Transition Evaluation). Background Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tippeconnic, John W., Jr.

    The paper, prepared as Task One of the Institute of American Indian Arts Transition Evaluation, provides pertinent background information about the Institute of American Indian Arts in Santa Fe, New Mexico. A brief history of the Institute is given, with information about its philosophy and purpose; objectives; organization and administration; the…

  18. The information content of cosmic microwave background anisotropies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Douglas; Contreras, Dagoberto; Narimani, Ali; Ma, Yin-Zhe

    2016-06-01

    The cosmic microwave background (CMB) contains perturbations that are close to Gaussian and isotropic. This means that its information content, in the sense of the ability to constrain cosmological models, is closely related to the number of modes probed in CMB power spectra. Rather than making forecasts for specific experimental setups, here we take a more pedagogical approach and ask how much information we can extract from the CMB if we are only limited by sample variance. We show that, compared with temperature measurements, the addition of E-mode polarization doubles the number of modes available out to a fixed maximum multipole, provided that all of the TT, TE, and EE power spectra are measured. However, the situation in terms of constraints on particular parameters is more complicated, as we explain and illustrate graphically. We also discuss the enhancements in information that can come from adding B-mode polarization and gravitational lensing. We show how well one could ever determine the basic cosmological parameters from CMB data compared with what has been achieved with Planck, which has already probed a substantial fraction of the TT information. Lastly, we look at constraints on neutrino mass as a specific example of how lensing information improves future prospects beyond the current 6-parameter model.

  19. The information content of cosmic microwave background anisotropies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, Douglas; Contreras, Dagoberto; Narimani, Ali; Ma, Yin-Zhe

    2016-01-01

    The cosmic microwave background (CMB) contains perturbations that are close to Gaussian and isotropic. This means that its information content, in the sense of the ability to constrain cosmological models, is closely related to the number of modes probed in CMB power spectra. Rather than making forecasts for specific experimental setups, here we take a more pedagogical approach and ask how much information we can extract from the CMB if we are only limited by sample variance. We show that, compared with temperature measurements, the addition of E -mode polarization doubles the number of modes available out to a fixed maximum multipole, provided that all of the TT , TE , and EE power spectra are measured. However, the situation in terms of constraints on particular parameters is more complicated, as we explain and illustrate graphically. We also discuss the enhancements in information that can come from adding B -mode polarization and gravitational lensing. We show how well one could ever determine the basic cosmological parameters from CMB data compared with what has been achieved with Planck , which has already probed a substantial fraction of the TT information. Lastly, we look at constraints on neutrino mass as a specific example of how lensing information improves future prospects beyond the current 6-parameter model.

  20. Study on the background information for the geological disposal concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, Kazuaki; Murano, Tohru; Hirusawa, Shigenobu; Komoto, Harumi

    1999-11-01

    Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) has published the first R and D progress report in 1992. In which the fruits of the R and D works were compiled. Since then the next step of R and D has been developing progressively in Japan. Now JNC has a plan to make the second R and D progress report until before 2000, in which information on the geological disposal of high level radioactive waste(HLW) will be presented to show the technical reliability and technical basis to contribute for the site selection or the safety-standard developments. Recognizing the importance of the social consensus to the geological disposal of international discussions in 1990's, understanding and consensus by the society are essential to the development and realization of the geological disposal of HLW. For getting social understanding and consensus, it is quite important to present the broad basis background information on the geological disposal of HLW, together with the technical basis and also the international discussion of the issues. In this report, the following studies have been done to help to prepare the background information for the 2nd R and D progress report, based on the recent informations and research and assessment works of last 2 years. These are, (1) As the part of general discussion, characteristics of HLW disposal and several issues to be considered for establishing the measures of the disposal of HLW were identified and analyzed from both practical and logical points of view. Those issues were the concept and image of the long term safety measures, the concept and criteria of geological disposal, and, safety assessment and performance assessment. (2) As the part of specific discussion, questions and concerns frequently raised by the non-specialists were taken up and 10 topics in relation to the geological disposal have been identified based on the discussion. Scientific and technical facts, consensus by the specialists on the issues, and international

  1. Background risk information to assist in risk management decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammonds, J.S.; Hoffman, F.O.; White, R.K.; Miller, D.B.

    1992-10-01

    The evaluation of the need for remedial activities at hazardous waste sites requires quantification of risks of adverse health effects to humans and the ecosystem resulting from the presence of chemical and radioactive substances at these sites. The health risks from exposure to these substances are in addition to risks encountered because of the virtually unavoidable exposure to naturally occurring chemicals and radioactive materials that are present in air, water, soil, building materials, and food products. To provide a frame of reference for interpreting risks quantified for hazardous waste sites, it is useful to identify the relative magnitude of risks of both a voluntary and involuntary nature that are ubiquitous throughout east Tennessee. In addition to discussing risks from the ubiquitous presence of background carcinogens in the east Tennessee environment, this report also presents risks resulting from common, everyday activities. Such information should, not be used to discount or trivialize risks from hazardous waste contamination, but rather, to create a sensitivity to general risk issues, thus providing a context for better interpretation of risk information

  2. 42 CFR 82.0 - Background information on this part.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 82.0 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY... EMPLOYEES OCCUPATIONAL ILLNESS COMPENSATION PROGRAM ACT OF 2000 Introduction § 82.0 Background information on this part. The Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program Act (EEOICPA), 42 U.S.C...

  3. Backgrounder

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC CRDI

    Center for Mountain Ecosystem Studies, Kunming Institute of Botany of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, China: $1,526,000 to inform effective water governance in the Asian highlands of China, Nepal, and Pakistan. • Ashoka Trust for Research in Ecology and the Environment (ATREE), India: $1,499,300 for research on ...

  4. Sri Lanka: Background and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-04

    account for about four-fifths of the country’s exports, including garments , textiles, gems, as well as agricultural goods. Tourism and repatriated...May 28, 2009. Sri Lanka: Background and U.S. Relations Congressional Research Service 13 reform and privatization of state-owned industries in...port facilities in Gwadar, Pakistan; Chittagong, Bangladesh ; and Sittwe, Burma.75 Colombo was also

  5. Saudi Arabia: Background and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-29

    23, 2013. 6 Background information on Saudi cabinet members is available at http://www.saudiembassy.net/about/ Biographies - of-Ministers.aspx. Saudi...territories it occupied in 1967, (2) agree to the establishment of a Palestinian state with a capital in East Jerusalem , and provide for the (3) “[a...compromise on Palestinian sovereignty in Jerusalem .” Elhanan Miller, “Arab ministers back Abbas in rejecting ‘Jewish’ Israel,” Times of Israel, January

  6. Resonances and background: A decomposition of scattering information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engdahl, E.; Braendas, E.; Rittby, M.; Elander, N.

    1988-01-01

    An analytic representation of the full Green's function including bound states, resonances, and remaining contributions has been obtained for a class of dilatation analytic potentials, including the superimposed Coulomb potential. It is demonstrated how to obtain the locations and residues of the poles of the Green's function as well as the associated generalized spectral density. For a model potential which has a barrier and decreases exponentially at infinity we have found a certain deflation property of the generalized spectral density. A qualitative explanation of this phenomenon is suggested. This constitutes the motivation for an approximation that explicitly shows a decomposition of the (real) continuum, corresponding to scattering data, into resonances and background contributions. The present representation is also shown to incorporate the appropriate pole-background interferences. Numerical residue strings are computed and analyzed. Results for the Coulomb potential plus the above-mentioned model potential are reported and compared with the previous non-Coulomb case. A similar deflation effect is seen to occur, as well as basically the same pole- and residue-string behavior. The relevance of the present analysis in relation to recently planned experiments with electron-cooled beams of highly charged ions is briefly discussed

  7. A monitored retrievable storage facility: Technical background information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-07-01

    The US government is seeking a site for a monitored retrievable storage facility (MRS). Employing proven technologies used in this country and abroad, the MRS will be an integral part of the federal system for safe and permanent disposal of the nation's high-level radioactive wastes. The MRS will accept shipments of spent fuel from commercial nuclear power plants, temporarily store the spent fuel above ground, and stage shipments of it to a geologic repository for permanent disposal. The law authorizing the MRS provides an opportunity for a state or an Indian tribe to volunteer to host the MRS. The law establishes the Office of the Nuclear Waste Negotiator, who is to seek a state or an Indian tribe willing to host an MRS at a technically-qualified site on reasonable terms, and is to negotiate a proposed agreement specifying the terms and conditions under which the MRS would be developed and operated at that site. This agreement can ensure that the MRS is acceptable to -- and benefits -- the host community. The proposed agreement must be submitted to Congress and enacted into law to become effective. This technical background information presents an overview of various aspects of a monitored retrievable storage facility, including the process by which it will be developed

  8. Information visualization courses for students with a computer science background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerren, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Linnaeus University offers two master's courses in information visualization for computer science students with programming experience. This article briefly describes the syllabi, exercises, and practices developed for these courses.

  9. Information in relational data bases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abhyankar, R B

    1982-01-01

    A new knowledge representation scheme is proposed for representing incomplete information in relational data bases. The knowledge representation scheme introduces a novel convention for negative information based on modal logic and a novel data structure obtained by introducing tuple flags in the relational model of data. Standard and minimal forms are defined for relations conforming to the new data structure. The conventional relational operators, select, project and join, the redefined so they can be used to manipulate relations containing incomplete information. Conditions are presented for the lossless decomposition of relations containing incomplete information. 20 references.

  10. Background Information on Crimes against Children Study. Information Memorandum 86-20.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Shaun

    This document was prepared to assist the Wisconsin Legislative Council's Special Committee on Crimes Against Children in its study of current laws relating to crimes against children. It provides the background of the origin of the study and describes the characteristics of the Criminal Code, upon which much of the committee review will center.…

  11. Background factors related to and/or influencing occupation in mentally disordered offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstedt, Helena; Ivarsson, Ann-Britt; Söderlund, Anne

    2006-09-01

    Knowledge of background and occupational related factors of mentally disordered offenders are missing. It is essential to understand these issues when planning discharge from forensic psychiatric hospital care to enable community dwelling. One aim was to investigate mentally disordered offenders' background factors, confidence in and how they value occupations. Another aim was to investigate MDOs background factors' in relation to and the influences on Occupational Performance and Social Participation. Data was collected with an explorative, correlative design after informed consent, from 74 mentally disordered offenders (mean age 34,2) cared for in forensic psychiatric hospitals. Assessments were Allen Cognitive Level Screen, Capability to Perform Daily Occupations, Interview Schedule of Social Interaction, Manchester Short Assessment of Quality of Life, Self-efficacy Scale and Importance scale. Eight background factors were assembled from the individual forensic psychiatric investigation. Most of the investigated background factors relate to and half of them influence occupational performance, particular the cognitive aspect of occupational performance. The influences on occupation originate from adulthood, such as suffering from schizophrenia, psycho/social problems, and having performed violent crimes. These findings indicate that staff in forensic hospital care should initiate rehabilitation with knowledge about MDOs' complex daily occupations. For avoiding information bias, information gathering preceding treatment planning should be performed in collaboration between caring staff and mentally disordered offenders.

  12. Thermalization of mutual information in hyperscaling violating backgrounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanhayi, M. Reza [Department of Physics, Faculty of Basic Science,Islamic Azad University Central Tehran Branch (IAUCTB),P.O. Box 14676-86831, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); School of Physics, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM),P.O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-03-31

    We study certain features of scaling behaviors of the mutual information during a process of thermalization, more precisely we extend the time scaling behavior of mutual information which has been discussed in http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP09(2015)165 to time-dependent hyperscaling violating geometries. We use the holographic description of entanglement entropy for two disjoint system consisting of two parallel strips whose widths are much larger than the separation between them. We show that during the thermalization process, the dynamical exponent plays a crucial rule in reading the general time scaling behavior of mutual information (e.g., at the pre-local-equilibration regime). It is shown that the scaling violating parameter can be employed to define an effective dimension.

  13. Radon-related Backgrounds in the LUX Dark Matter Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, A.; Akerib, D. S.; Araújo, H. M.; Bai, X.; Bailey, A. J.; Balajthy, J.; Bernard, E.; Bernstein, A.; Byram, D.; Cahn, S. B.; Carmona-Benitez, M. C.; Chan, C.; Chapman, J. J.; Chiller, A. A.; Chiller, C.; Coffey, T.; Currie, A.; de Viveiros, L.; Dobi, A.; Dobson, J.; Druszkiewicz, E.; Edwards, B.; Faham, C. H.; Fiorucci, S.; Flores, C.; Gaitskell, R. J.; Gehman, V. M.; Ghag, C.; Gibson, K. R.; Gilchriese, M. G. D.; Hall, C.; Hertel, S. A.; Horn, M.; Huang, D. Q.; Ihm, M.; Jacobsen, R. G.; Kazkaz, K.; Knoche, R.; Larsen, N. A.; Lee, C.; Lindote, A.; Lopes, M. I.; Malling, D. C.; Mannino, R.; McKinsey, D. N.; Mei, D.-M.; Mock, J.; Moongweluwan, M.; Morad, J.; Murphy, A. St. J.; Nehrkorn, C.; Nelson, H.; Neves, F.; Ott, R. A.; Pangilinan, M.; Parker, P. D.; Pease, E. K.; Pech, K.; Phelps, P.; Reichhart, L.; Shutt, T.; Silva, C.; Solovov, V. N.; Sorensen, P.; O'Sullivan, K.; Sumner, T. J.; Szydagis, M.; Taylor, D.; Tennyson, B.; Tiedt, D. R.; Tripathi, M.; Uvarov, S.; Verbus, J. R.; Walsh, N.; Webb, R.; White, J. T.; Witherell, M. S.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Woods, M.; Zhang, C.

    The LUX detector is currently in operation at the Davis Campus at the 4850' level of the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD to directly search for WIMP dark matter. Knowing the type and rate of backgrounds is critical in a rare, low energy event search, and LUX was designed, constructed, and deployed to mitigate backgrounds, both internal and external. An important internal background are decays of radon and its daughters. These consist of alpha decays, which are easily tagged and are a tracer of certain backgrounds, and beta decays, some of which are not as readily tagged and present a background for the WIMP search. We report on studies of alpha decay and discuss implications for the WIMP search.

  14. Unexploded ordnance issues at Aberdeen Proving Ground: Background information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenblatt, D.H.

    1996-11-01

    This document summarizes currently available information about the presence and significance of unexploded ordnance (UXO) in the two main areas of Aberdeen Proving Ground: Aberdeen Area and Edgewood Area. Known UXO in the land ranges of the Aberdeen Area consists entirely of conventional munitions. The Edgewood Area contains, in addition to conventional munitions, a significant quantity of chemical-munition UXO, which is reflected in the presence of chemical agent decomposition products in Edgewood Area ground-water samples. It may be concluded from current information that the UXO at Aberdeen Proving Ground has not adversely affected the environment through release of toxic substances to the public domain, especially not by water pathways, and is not likely to do so in the near future. Nevertheless, modest but periodic monitoring of groundwater and nearby surface waters would be a prudent policy.

  15. Presenting and processing information in background noise: A combined speaker-listener perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockstael, Annelies; Samyn, Laurie; Corthals, Paul; Botteldooren, Dick

    2018-01-01

    Transferring information orally in background noise is challenging, for both speaker and listener. Successful transfer depends on complex interaction between characteristics related to listener, speaker, task, background noise, and context. To fully assess the underlying real-life mechanisms, experimental design has to mimic this complex reality. In the current study, the effects of different types of background noise have been studied in an ecologically valid test design. Documentary-style information had to be presented by the speaker and simultaneously acquired by the listener in four conditions: quiet, unintelligible multitalker babble, fluctuating city street noise, and little varying highway noise. For both speaker and listener, the primary task was to focus on the content that had to be transferred. In addition, for the speakers, the occurrence of hesitation phenomena was assessed. The listener had to perform an additional secondary task to address listening effort. For the listener the condition with the most eventful background noise, i.e., fluctuating city street noise, appeared to be the most difficult with markedly longer duration of the secondary task. In the same fluctuating background noise, speech appeared to be less disfluent, suggesting a higher level of concentration from the speaker's side.

  16. Drug Use and Abuse: Background Information for Security Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-01

    Neurotoxicity of methamphetamine : Mechanisms of action and issues related to aging. In Miller, M. A., & Kozel, N. J., (Eds.), op. cit. 99. Cox et al...lives. This presents a dilemma for clearance adjudicators. If clearance standards are too lax, security may not be protected . If standards are too...strict, many well-adjusted, adventuresome, and creative employees may be screened out. Drug use may weaken judgment and affect ability to protect

  17. Clustering document fragments using background color and texture information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanda, Sukalpa; Franke, Katrin; Pal, Umapada

    2012-01-01

    Forensic analysis of questioned documents sometimes can be extensively data intensive. A forensic expert might need to analyze a heap of document fragments and in such cases to ensure reliability he/she should focus only on relevant evidences hidden in those document fragments. Relevant document retrieval needs finding of similar document fragments. One notion of obtaining such similar documents could be by using document fragment's physical characteristics like color, texture, etc. In this article we propose an automatic scheme to retrieve similar document fragments based on visual appearance of document paper and texture. Multispectral color characteristics using biologically inspired color differentiation techniques are implemented here. This is done by projecting document color characteristics to Lab color space. Gabor filter-based texture analysis is used to identify document texture. It is desired that document fragments from same source will have similar color and texture. For clustering similar document fragments of our test dataset we use a Self Organizing Map (SOM) of dimension 5×5, where the document color and texture information are used as features. We obtained an encouraging accuracy of 97.17% from 1063 test images.

  18. Acute myeloid leukaemia in relation to background radiation in houses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axelson, O.; Flodin, U.

    1993-01-01

    A review is presented on the results of several studies performed since the late 1970s to elucidate the role of background gamma radiation in houses and the incidence of cancer, especially leukemia. The influence of exposure time is discussed and the age dependence of the latency period is outlined. Estimation of dose-response relationships are presented. (MG)

  19. Quantum information and general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peres, A.

    2004-01-01

    The Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox (1935) is reexamined in the light of Shannon's information theory (1948). The EPR argument did not take into account that the observers' information was localized, like any other physical object. General relativity introduces new problems: there are horizons which act as on-way membranes for the propagation of quantum information, in particular black holes which act like sinks. (Abstract Copyright [2004], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  20. Quantum information and general relativity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peres, A. [Technion, Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa (Israel)

    2004-12-01

    The Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox (1935) is reexamined in the light of Shannon's information theory (1948). The EPR argument did not take into account that the observers' information was localized, like any other physical object. General relativity introduces new problems: there are horizons which act as on-way membranes for the propagation of quantum information, in particular black holes which act like sinks. (Abstract Copyright [2004], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  1. Quantum information and general relativity

    OpenAIRE

    Peres, Asher

    2004-01-01

    The Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox (1935) is reexamined in the light of Shannon's information theory (1948). The EPR argument did not take into account that the observers' information was localized, like any other physical object. General relativity introduces new problems: there are horizons which act as one-way membranes for the propagation of quantum information, in particular black holes which act like sinks.

  2. Quantum information and general relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres, A.

    2004-11-01

    The Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox (1935) is reexamined in the light of Shannon's information theory (1948). The EPR argument did not take into account that the observers' information was localized, like any other physical object. General relativity introduces new problems: there are horizons which act as on-way membranes for the propagation of quantum information, in particular black holes which act like sinks.

  3. Israel: Background and Relations with the United States

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Migdalovitz, Carol

    2006-01-01

    ... its neighbors. Armed conflict has marked every decade of Israel's existence. Despite its unstable regional environment, Israel has developed a vibrant parliamentary democracy, albeit with relatively fragile governments...

  4. Israel: Background and Relations with the United States

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Migdalovitz, Carol

    2008-01-01

    ... its neighbors. Armed conflict has marked every decade of Israel's existence. Despite its unstable regional environment, Israel has developed a vibrant parliamentary democracy, albeit with relatively fragile governments...

  5. Israel: Background and Relations with the United States

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Migdalovitz, Carol

    2007-01-01

    ... its neighbors. Armed conflict has marked every decade of Israel's existence. Despite its unstable regional environment, Israel has developed a vibrant parliamentary democracy, albeit with relatively fragile governments...

  6. Injection Related Background due to the Transverse Feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decker, F.J.; Akre, R.; Fisher, A.; Iverson, R.; Weaver, M.

    2008-01-01

    The background in the BaBar detector is especially high during injection, when most components are actually having reduced voltages. The situation is worse for the beam in High Energy Ring (HER) when the LER beam is present. It was found that the transverse feedback system plays an important role when stacking more charge on top of existing bunches. Lowering the feedback gain helped and it was realized later that the best scenario would be to gate off the feedback for only the one bunch, which got additional charge injected into it. The explanation is that the blown-up, but centered, original HER bunch plus the small injected off-axis bunch (each with half the charge) would stay in the ring if not touched, but the feedback system sees half the offset and wants to correct it, therefore disturbing and scraping the blown-up part

  7. Turkey: Background and U.S. Relations In Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-04

    described the failed coup as a “ gift from God” that would allow the military to be “cleansed.” 27 The United States, various European leaders, and...six F-35s. “Turkey – Procurement ,” IHS Jane’s Sentinel Security Assessment - Eastern Mediterranean, December 8, 2015. For more information on recent

  8. Natural background radioactivity of the earth's surface -- essential information for environmental impact studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tauchid, M.; Grasty, R.L.

    2002-01-01

    An environmental impact study is basically a study of change. This change is compared to the preexisting conditions that are usually perceived to be the original one or the 'pristine' stage. Unfortunately reliable information on the 'so called' pristine stage is far from adequate. One of the essential parts of this information is a good knowledge of the earth's chemical make up, or its geochemistry. Presently available data on the geochemistry of the earth's surface, including those related to radioactive elements, are incomplete and inconsistent. The main reason why a number of regulations are judged to be too strict and disproportional to the risks that might be caused by some human activities, is the lack of reliable information on the natural global geochemical background on which environmental regulations should be based. The main objective of this paper is to present a view on the need for complete baseline information on the earth's surface environment and in particular its geochemical character. It is only through the availability of complete information, including reliable baseline information on the natural radioactivity, that an appropriate study on the potential effect of the various naturally occurring elements on human health be carried out. Presented here are a number of examples where the natural radioactivity of an entire country has been mapped, or is in progress. Also described are the ways these undertakings were accomplished. There is a general misconception that elevated radioactivity can be found only around uranium mines, nuclear power reactors and similar nuclear installations. As can be seen from some of these maps, the natural background radioactivity of the earth's surface closely reflects the underlying geological formations and their alteration products. In reality, properly regulated and managed facilities, the levels of radioactivity associated with many of these facilities are generally quite low relative to those associated with

  9. Saudi Arabia: Background and U.S. Relations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blanchard, Christopher M

    2008-01-01

    .... Since 2005, King Abdullah bin Abd al Aziz Al Saud has sought to strengthen Saudi relations with European and Asian counterparts and has worked to build and lead an Arab consensus on regional security...

  10. Israel: Background and U.S. Relations in Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-09

    are located in areas that Palestinians claim as part of their envisioned future state . Israelis who defend the settlements’ legitimacy generally cite...since 1967, including East Jerusalem,” constitute “a flagrant violation under international law” and a “major obstacle” to a two- state solution and a...by CRS. Map boundaries and information generated by Hannah Fischer using Department of State Boundaries (2011); Esri (2013); the National Geospatial

  11. Rhetorical relations for information retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lioma, Christina; Larsen, Birger; Lu, Wei

    2012-01-01

    -called discourse structure has been applied successfully to several natural language processing tasks. This work studies the use of rhetorical relations for Information Retrieval (IR): Is there a correlation between certain rhetorical relations and retrieval performance? Can knowledge about a document’s rhetorical...... relations be useful to IR? We present a language model modification that considers rhetorical relations when estimating the relevance of a document to a query. Empirical evaluation of different versions of our model on TREC settings shows that certain rhetorical relations can benefit retrieval effectiveness...

  12. Microbiological activity in relation to coal utilisation. Part I. Background

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponsford, A P

    1966-01-01

    Part I of the review deals with the necessary background of microbiological reactions and their applications. Speculations on the possibility of micro-organisms bringing about particular chemical reactions could be misleading if based on the case of effecting chemical reactions in the laboratory. The elaborate enzyme systems possessed by living micro-organisms enable them to effect at ordinary temperatures reactions that are difficult or impossible by chemical means, even with the aid of catalysts or of high temperatures. However, in surveying the possible utility of coal as a substrate for microbial growth it is useful to keep in mind the types of chemical change required if parts or all of the carbon structure present are to be assimilated by micro-organisms. The main need is to find micro-organisms that are able to open up aromatic and hydroaromatic rings and break down further the substances formed into simpler compounds that can be metabolized. Coal is fairly readily broken down by chemical oxidative methods. It is possible therefore that oxidative breakdown of a similar type might be achieved by microbial enzymes. Alternatively some reduction might be effected. The remarkable versatility of microbial cells in being able to carry out rapidly by means of enzyme systems complicated chemical changes of diverse type, in strong contrast to the protracted or drastic measures employed by the organic chemist to effect similar changes, is striking. In common with other catalysts, enzymes are regenerated unchanged after each transformation. Many biochemical changes require the operation in sequence of several different enzymes. In addition, many enzymes require the presence of co-enzymes--organic compounds within the cell which act as carriers of hydrogen, phosphate, etc.

  13. Israel: Background and U.S. Relations in Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-24

    of the March 2015 Israeli electoral campaign, Netanyahu says that a Palestinian state will not be established under his watch, but after the elections...www.state.gov/p/nea/rls/rpt/259262.htm. It also lamented terrorist attacks against civilians and Palestinian incitement to violence . 29 The...U.S. Relations in Brief Congressional Research Service 10  Calls for immediate steps to prevent acts of violence against civilians and to

  14. Two-World Background of Special Relativity. Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adekugbe A. O. J.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A new sheet of spacetime is isolated and added to the existing sheet, thereby yielding a pair of co-existing sheets ofspacetimes, which are four-dimensional inversions of each other. The separation of the spacetimes by the special-relativistic event horizon compels an interpretation of the existence of a pair of symmetrical worlds (or universes in nature. Further more, a flat two-dimensional intrinsic spacetime that underlies the flat four-dimensional spacetime in each universe is introduced. The four-dimensional spacetime is outward manifestation of the two-dimensional intrinsic spacetime, just as the Special Theory of Relativity (SR on four-dimensional spacetime is mere outward manifestation of the intrinsic Special Theory of Relativity ($phi$SR on two-dimensional intrinsic spacetime. A new set of diagrams in the two-world picture that involves relative rotation of the coordinates of the two-dimensional intrinsic spacetime is drawn and intrinsic Lorentz transformation derived from it. The Lorentz transformation in SR is then written directly from intrinsic Lorentz transformation in $phi$SR without any need to draw diagrams involving relative rotation of the coordinates of four-dimensional spacetime, as usually done until now. Indeed every result of SR can be written directly from the corresponding result of $phi$SR. The non-existence of the light cone concept in the two-world picture is shown and good prospect for making the Lorentz group SO(3,1 compact in the two-world picture is highlighted.

  15. Two-World Background of Special Relativity. Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adekugbe A. O. J.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A new sheet of spacetime is isolated and added to the existing sheet, thereby yielding a pair of co-existing sheets of spacetimes, which are four-dimensional inversions of each other. The separation of the spacetimes by the special-relativistic event horizon com- pels an interpretation of the existence of a pair of symmetrical worlds (or universes in nature. Further more, a flat two-dimensional intrinsic spacetime that underlies the flat four-dimensional spacetime in each universe is introduced. The four-dimensional spacetime is outward manifestation of the two-dimensional intrinsic spacetime, just as the Special Theory of Relativity (SR on four-dimensional spacetime is mere outward manifestation of the intrinsic Special Theory of Relativity ( SR on two-dimensional intrinsic spacetime. A new set of diagrams in the two-world picture that involves rela- tive rotation of the coordinates of the two-dimensional intrinsic spacetime is drawn and intrinsic Lorentz transformation derived from it. The Lorentz transformation in SR is then written directly from intrinsic Lorentz transformation in SR without any need to draw diagrams involving relative rotation of the coordinates of four-dimensional space- time, as usually done until now. Indeed every result of SR can be written directly from the corresponding result of SR. The non-existence of the light cone concept in the two-world picture is shown and good prospect for making the Lorentz group SO(3,1 compact in the two-world picture is highlighted.

  16. Investor relations and information asymmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandrielem da Silva Rodrigues

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Companies invest significant volumes of resources in investor relations (IR departments. The professionals working in the IR department are responsible for communication between the company and the market, so that the information generated is widely disseminated and understood by investors. In this context, this research aims to investigate whether there is evidence that the IR activity decreases information asymmetry between the company and the market. Specifically, we evaluate the hypothesis that Brazilian companies with IR websites classified as more informative have a reduced bid-ask spread (proxy for asymmetry. Therefore, this paper classifies the informative content from IR websites of Brazilian companies for the years 2013 and 2014 and relates the outcomes obtained with information asymmetry metrics. Initially, the estimation considers the pooled ordinary least squares (POLS model and, at a second moment, in order to mitigate potential endogeneity problems, the pooled two-stage least squares (2SLS model is used. The results indicate that more informative IR websites are able to decrease the bid-ask spread of Brazilian listed companies. This finding strongly encourages companies to provide information to stakeholders on well-structured IR websites of their own.

  17. Background Information Relating to Southeast Asia and Vietnam (Revised Edition)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-06-16

    jet weapons and armoured vehicles, is prohibited. (b) It is understood, however, that war material, arms and munitions which have been destroyed...12-year Communist subversive effort. Indonesia was less well prepared; it gained its independence too, with our support, but with scars that have

  18. Public relations as public information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coninx, C.

    1983-01-01

    To the man in the street, the topic of nuclear energy on the one hand is a highly emotional subject incorporating dangers hard to assess. However, on the other hand, there is in most cases little inclination to concern oneself with problems of energy economy. Public relations activities therefore frequently must motivate their adresses to accept information before they can actually inform. In this connection, the informing party must appear trustworthy and avoid that a teacher : pupil relationship is created. In addition, the changes in the socio-political environment must be taken into account. Within the industries and organizations engaged in the nuclear field there is the problem that the effects and the impact of public relations work can hardly be gaged by individually, which greatly hampers quantification of the work actually done.

  19. Re-Identification of the Many-World Background of Special Relativity as Four-World Background. Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adekugbe A. O. J.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The re-identification of the many-world background of the special theory of relativity (SR as four-world background in the first part of this paper (instead of two-wold background isolated in the initial papers, is concluded in this second part. The flat two-dimensional intrinsic spacetime, which underlies the flat four-dimensional spacetime in each universe, introduced as ansatz in the initial paper, is derived formally within the four-world picture. The identical magnitudes of masses, identical sizes and identical shapes of the four members of every quartet of symmetry-partner particles or objects in the four universes are shown. The immutability of Lorentz invariance on flat spacetime of SR in each of the four universes is shown to arise as a consequence of the perfect symmetry of relative motion at all times among the four members of every quartet of symmetry-partner particles and objects in the four universes. The perfect symmetry of relative motions at all times, coupled with the identical magnitudes of masses, identical sizes and identical shapes, of the members of every quartet of symmetry-partner particles and objects in the four universes, guarantee perfect symmetry of state among the universes.

  20. Quantum information and relativity theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peres, Asher; Terno, Daniel R.

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses the intimate relationship between quantum mechanics, information theory, and relativity theory. Taken together these are the foundations of present-day theoretical physics, and their interrelationship is an essential part of the theory. The acquisition of information from a quantum system by an observer occurs at the interface of classical and quantum physics. The authors review the essential tools needed to describe this interface, i.e., Kraus matrices and positive-operator-valued measures. They then discuss how special relativity imposes severe restrictions on the transfer of information between distant systems and the implications of the fact that quantum entropy is not a Lorentz-covariant concept. This leads to a discussion of how it comes about that Lorentz transformations of reduced density matrices for entangled systems may not be completely positive maps. Quantum field theory is, of course, necessary for a consistent description of interactions. Its structure implies a fundamental tradeoff between detector reliability and localizability. Moreover, general relativity produces new and counterintuitive effects, particularly when black holes (or, more generally, event horizons) are involved. In this more general context the authors discuss how most of the current concepts in quantum information theory may require a reassessment

  1. Portuguese Coaches' Perceptions of and Preferences for Knowledge Sources Related to their Professional Background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, Isabel; Isidro, Sofia; Rosado, António

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse Portuguese coaches' perceptions of, and preferences for, knowledge sources as related to professional background; namely academic education level, coach education level and coaching experience. The study's participants comprised 336 Portuguese coaches from twenty-two sports. A questionnaire was used to identify coaches' demographic characteristics and representations about their preferred sources of coaching knowledge. MANOVA using Tukey's HSD test was used to compare groups. The results highlighted that coaches perceived that coaching knowledge is built from a broad range of sources from personal coaching and playing experiences to more explicit formal, informal and non-formal learning situations. Results indicated that the coaches ascribed more importance to experiential sources such as working with experts, learning by doing, interacting with peer coaches and attending informal seminars and clinics, than to the formal learning situations provided by the national coaching certification programs. Differences, however, were found in that coaches who had a greater background within higher education (physical) and sport valued informal and non-formal learning sources more than did coaches who were defined as not coming from an academic background. The findings point to the importance of developing new learning, experientially-based, opportunities within the Portuguese context, where curricula content continues to be delivered via didactic means. Key pointsCoaches recognized that learning is obtained from a broad range of sources of coaching knowledge and each source has a particular role in the development of a coach.Experiential guided sources reached more importance to coaches as working with experts, learning by doing, attending seminars/clinics outside of the formal system and interaction with peers were the most acknowledged.The only source that is related to formal learning, national certification programs, was

  2. Pricing Power of Agricultural Products under the Background of Small Peasant Management and Information Asymmetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dexuan LI

    2016-01-01

    From the background of small peasant management and information asymmetry,this paper introduced the middle profit sharing model and discussed influence factors and ownership of pricing power of agricultural products. It obtained following results:( i) the transaction scale has positive effect on farmer’s pricing power of agricultural products,while the competitor’s transaction scale has negative effect on it,so does the cost for information search;( ii) under the condition of small peasant management system,farmer is in a relatively weak position in the distribution of pricing power of agricultural products,due to factors such as small transaction scale,information asymmetry and farmer’s weak negotiation ability;( iii) through cooperative game,farmer and buyers can share cooperative surplus at the agreed ratio;( iv) the introduction of self-organizing specialized farmers cooperatives is favorable for solving the problem of pricing power of agricultural products,and possible problems,such as " collective action dilemma" and " fake cooperatives" in the cooperative development process can be solved by internal and external division of labor and specialization of cooperatives.

  3. 77 FR 21992 - Proposed Renewal of Information Collection: Applicant Background Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-12

    ... customers. By including employees of all backgrounds, all DOI employees gain a measure of knowledge... barriers in our recruitment and selection processes, DOI must track the demographic groups that apply for... need and use of the information: This information is required to obtain the source of recruitment...

  4. [Effects of exposure frequency and background information on preferences for photographs of cars in different locations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Ken; Kusumi, Takashi; Hosomi, Naohiro; Osa, Atsushi; Miike, Hidetoshi

    2014-08-01

    This study examined the influence of familiarity and novelty on the mere exposure effect while manipulating the presentation of background information. We selected presentation stimuli that integrated cars and backgrounds based on the results of pilot studies. During the exposure phase, we displayed the stimuli successively for 3 seconds, manipulating the background information (same or different backgrounds with each presentation) and exposure frequency (3, 6, and 9 times). In the judgment phase, 18 participants judged the cars in terms of preference, familiarity, and novelty on a 7-point scale. As the number of stimulus presentations increased, the preference for the cars increased during the different background condition and decreased during the same background condition. This increased preference may be due to the increase in familiarity caused by the higher exposure frequency and novelty resulting from the background changes per exposure session. The rise in preference judgments was not seen when cars and backgrounds were presented independently. Therefore, the addition of novel features to each exposure session facilitated the mere exposure effect.

  5. Impact of information technology on the role of medical libraries in information managment: normative background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamarija Rožić-Hristovski

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Exponential growth of biomedical knowledge and information technology development is changing the infrastructure of health care systems, education and research. So medical libraries roles have shifted from managing containers of information toward influencing biomedical information resource content and education. These new tasks are formalised in modem American standards for medical libraries, stressing information management role in evolving environment.In Slovenia medical libraries also are aware of development imperative of information activities for advances in medicine. At one side they are faced with lack of specific guidelines for proactive action and on the other with inadequate assessment in legal documents and insufficient funding.

  6. Portuguese Coaches’ Perceptions of and Preferences for Knowledge Sources Related to their Professional Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, Isabel; Isidro, Sofia; Rosado, António

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse Portuguese coaches’ perceptions of, and preferences for, knowledge sources as related to professional background; namely academic education level, coach education level and coaching experience. The study’s participants comprised 336 Portuguese coaches from twenty-two sports. A questionnaire was used to identify coaches’ demographic characteristics and representations about their preferred sources of coaching knowledge. MANOVA using Tukey’s HSD test was used to compare groups. The results highlighted that coaches perceived that coaching knowledge is built from a broad range of sources from personal coaching and playing experiences to more explicit formal, informal and non-formal learning situations. Results indicated that the coaches ascribed more importance to experiential sources such as working with experts, learning by doing, interacting with peer coaches and attending informal seminars and clinics, than to the formal learning situations provided by the national coaching certification programs. Differences, however, were found in that coaches who had a greater background within higher education (physical) and sport valued informal and non-formal learning sources more than did coaches who were defined as not coming from an academic background. The findings point to the importance of developing new learning, experientially-based, opportunities within the Portuguese context, where curricula content continues to be delivered via didactic means. Key points Coaches recognized that learning is obtained from a broad range of sources of coaching knowledge and each source has a particular role in the development of a coach. Experiential guided sources reached more importance to coaches as working with experts, learning by doing, attending seminars/clinics outside of the formal system and interaction with peers were the most acknowledged. The only source that is related to formal learning, national certification programs

  7. E-mail Writing: Providing Background Information in the Core of Computer Assisted Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad NAZARI

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study highly supported the effective role of providing background information via e-mail by the teacher to write e-mail by the students in learners’ writing ability. A total number of 50 EFL advanced male students aged between 25 and 40 at different branches of Iran Language Institute in Tehran, Tehran. Through the placement test of Oxford English Language Placement Test (OELPT the students' proficiency level seems to be nearly the same. Participants were randomly assign into two groups of experimental and control, each consisting of 25 students. After the administration of the proficiency test, all groups were assigned to write topic 1 as the pre-test. Next, the teacher involved the learners in the new instruction (treatment. During writing topics 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 experimental group’s background knowledge was activated through e-mail before writing and e-mailing topics while the control group received no background knowledge activation through e-mail. After the treatment was given to the experimental group, the students in both groups were required to write another composition about the last topic, topic 8. Again, in this phase, none of the groups received any background information. The results indicated that providing background information via e-mail by the teacher to write e-mail by the students significantly improved learners’ writing ability.

  8. Identification and summary characterization of materials potentially requiring vitrification: Background information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croff, A.G.

    1996-01-01

    This document contains background information for the Workshop in general and the presentation entitled 'Identification and Summary Characterization of Materials Potentially Requiring Vitrification' that was given during the first morning of the workshop. summary characteristics of 9 categories of US materials having some potential to be vitrified are given. This is followed by a 1-2 page elaborations for each of these 9 categories. References to more detailed information are included

  9. Re-Identification of the Many-World Background of Special Relativity as Four-World Background. Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adekugbe A. O. J.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The pair of co-existing symmetrical universes, referred to as our (or positive universe and negative universe, isolated and shown to constitute a two-world background for the special theory of relativity (SR in previous papers, encompasses another pair of symmetrical universes, referred to as positive time-universe and negative time-universe. The Euclidean 3-spaces (in the context of SR of the positive time-universe and the negative time-universe constitute the time dimensions of our (or positive universe and the negative universe respectively, relative to observers in the Euclidean 3-spaces of our universe and the negative universe and the Euclidean 3-spaces of our universe and the negative universe constitute the time dimensions of the positive time-universe and the negative time-universe respectively, relative to observers in the Euclidean 3-spaces of the positive time-universe and the negative time-universe. Thus time is a secondary concept derived from the concept of space according to this paper. The one-dimensional particle or object in time dimension to every three-dimensional particle or object in 3- space in our universe is a three-dimensional particle or object in 3-space in the positive time-universe. Perfect symmetry of natural laws is established among the resulting four universes and two outstanding issues about the new spacetime / intrinsic spacetime geometrical representation of Lorentz transformation / intrinsic Lorentz transformation in the two-world picture, developed in the previous papers, are resolved within the larger four-world picture in this first part of this paper.

  10. Re-Identification of the Many-World Background of Special Relativity as Four-World Background. Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adekugbe A. O. J.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The pair of co-existing symmetrical universes, referred to as our (or positive universe and negative universe, isolated and shown to constitute a two-world background for the special theory of relativity (SR in previous papers, encompasses another pair of symmetrical universes, referred to as positive time-universe and negative time-universe. The Euclidean 3-spaces (in the context of SR of the positive time-universe and the negative time-universe constitute the time dimensions of our (or positive universe and the negative universe respectively, relative to observers in the Euclidean 3-spaces of our universe and the negative universe and the Euclidean 3-spaces of our universe and the negative universe constitute the time dimensions of the positive time-universe and the negative time-universe respectively, relative to observers in the Euclidean 3-spaces of the positive time-universe and the negative time-universe. Thus time is a secondary concept derived from the concept of space according to this paper. The one-dimensional particle or object in time dimension to every three-dimensional particle or object in 3-space in our universe is a three-dimensional particle or object in 3-space in the positive time-universe. Perfect symmetry of natural laws is established among the resulting four universes and two outstanding issues about the new spacetime/intrinsic spacetime geometrical representation of Lorentz transformation/intrinsic Lorentz transformation in the two-world picture, developed in the previous papers, are resolved within the larger four-world picture in this first part of this paper.

  11. Judicial decision making: order of evidence presentation and availability of background information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerstholt, J.H.; Jackson, J.L.

    1998-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate both the effect of the order of presentation of defence and prosecution evidence and the prior availability of background information on assessment of guilt. Subjects were required to judge the defendant's probability of guilt either after each witness

  12. Technical background information for the environmental and safety report, Volume 4: White Oak Lake and Dam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oakes, T.W.; Kelly, B.A.; Ohnesorge, W.F.; Eldridge, J.S.; Bird, J.C.; Shank, K.E.; Tsakeres, F.S.

    1982-03-01

    This report has been prepared to provide background information on White Oak Lake for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Environmental and Safety Report. The paper presents the history of White Oak Dam and Lake and describes the hydrological conditions of the White Oak Creek watershed. Past and present sediment and water data are included; pathway analyses are described in detail

  13. Technical background information for the environmental and safety report, Volume 4: White Oak Lake and Dam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oakes, T.W.; Kelly, B.A.; Ohnesorge, W.F.; Eldridge, J.S.; Bird, J.C.; Shank, K.E.; Tsakeres, F.S.

    1982-03-01

    This report has been prepared to provide background information on White Oak Lake for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Environmental and Safety Report. The paper presents the history of White Oak Dam and Lake and describes the hydrological conditions of the White Oak Creek watershed. Past and present sediment and water data are included; pathway analyses are described in detail.

  14. E-Mail Writing: Providing Background Information in the Core of Computer Assisted Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazari, Behzad; Ninknejad, Sahar

    2015-01-01

    The present study highly supported the effective role of providing background information via email by the teacher to write e-mail by the students in learners' writing ability. A total number of 50 EFL advanced male students aged between 25 and 40 at different branches of Iran Language Institute in Tehran, Tehran. Through the placement test of…

  15. An analysis of the Bonn agreement. Background information for evaluating business implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torvanger, Asbjoern

    2001-01-01

    This report has been commissioned by the World Business Council for Sustainable Development and written in August 2001. The aim of the report is to present and analyze the newest developments in the climate negotiations, particularly from part two of the sixth Conference of the Parties to the Climate Convention in Bonn in July 2001, and to provide background information to evaluate what the ''Bonn agreement'' means for business. The report is organized as a collection of slides with supporting text explaining the background and contents of each slide. (author)

  16. Study on the background information for the R and D of geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, Kazuaki; Hirusawa, Shigenobu; Komoto, Harumi

    2001-02-01

    It is quite important for Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) to analyze the R and D items after 'H12 report' and also provide their results of R and D activities to general public effectively. Recognizing the importance of the social consensus to the geological disposal, relating background informations were to be picked up. In this fiscal year, following two main topics were selected and studied. 1. Research and analysis on the options for the geological disposal concept. The major nuclear power-generating countries have almost all chosen deep geological disposal as preferred method for HLW disposal. Since 1990's, to make the geological disposal flexible, the alternative concepts for the disposal of HLW have been discussed promoting the social acceptance. In this context, recent optional discussions and international evaluations on the following topics were studied and summarized. (1) Reversibility of waste disposal/Retrievability of waste/Waste monitoring, (2) Long-term storage concept and its effectiveness, (3) Present position and role of international disposal. 2. Research and analysis on some educational materials collected from foreign countries. Although geological disposals is scheduled to start still in future, it is quite important to study the procedures to attract younger generation and get their proper perceptions on the nuclear energy and waste problems. As the supporting analysis to implement strategically the public relational activities for JNC's geological disposal R and D, particular attention was focused on the educational materials obtained in the last year's survey. Representative educational materials were selected and following items were studied and summarized. (1) Basic approach, positioning and characteristics of the educational materials, (2) Detailed analysis of the representatively selected educational materials, (3) Comparison of the analyzed characteristics and study on its feedback to Japanese materials. (author)

  17. Background information and technical basis for assessment of environmental implications of magnetic fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannon, J.B.

    1983-08-01

    This report contains background information for assessing the potential environmental implications of fusion-based central electric power stations. It was developed as part of an environmental review of the Magnetic Fusion Energy Program. Transition of the program from demonstration of purely scientific feasibility (breakeven conditions) to exploration of engineering feasibility suggests that formal program environmental review under the National Environmental Policy Act is timely. This report is the principal reference upon which an environmental impact statement on magnetic fusion will be based

  18. Full simulation of the beam-related backgrounds at the ILC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuetz, Anne [DESY (Germany); KIT (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The ILC has been proposed as the next machine at the energy frontier and a Technical Design Report was presented in 2012. As part of the site-specific studies to prepare the hosting of the ILC in Japan, the final focus region of the ILC had to be adapted. In this contribution, updated results for the beam-related background as well as new results for the backgrounds originating from the beam dump are presented. The beam-related backgrounds are simulated using GuineaPig and are then propagated through the full simulation of the SiD detector. The impact of various modifications in the final-focus region on the detector occupancies are then evaluated. For the neutron background from the beam dump, the FLUKA simulation suite is used, which is well established for dosimetry and shielding studies. With this program, the effect of the neutrons from the ILC beam dumps on the ILC detectors are studied.

  19. Radiation-related information at science exhibitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannai, Tadaaki [Inst. for Environmental Sciences, Rokkasho, Aomori (Japan)

    1999-09-01

    The aim of the present report was to promote an efficient utilization of science museums providing with educational information concerning radiations. Investigations were made on radiation-related materials exhibited at 38 museums including PR event sites between April 1996 and July 1998 mainly located on Kanto and Tohoku area in Japan. The investigation concerned as to whether the displays on radiation-related material (cosmic rays, X-rays, etc) existed or not, and as to the background of the display as well. As the result, 14 locations had no relevant displays, 10 of them not having things about atomic energy at all. The locations belonging to electricity company mostly had displays related to radiations and atomic energy power generation. A spark chamber was exhibited at 9 locations and a cloud chamber at 3 locations, but only one location among them displayed both. Displays on the actual use of X-radiation were found at 4 locations. Needs to prepare further improved displays exist at the sites visited. (S. Ohno)

  20. Asynchronous Communication: Investigating the Influences of Relational Elements and Background on the Framing Structure of Emails

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlAfnan, Mohammad Awad

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the influences of relational elements and the background of communicators on the framing structure of email messages that were exchanged in an educational Institute in Malaysia. The investigation revealed that social distance played a more significant role than power relations as Malaysian respondents are, generally, more…

  1. Background information document to support NESHAPS rulemaking on nuclear power reactors. Draft report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colli, A.; Conklin, C.; Hoffmeyer, D.

    1991-08-01

    The purpose of this Background Information Document (BID) is to present information relevant to the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) reconsideration of the need for a NESHAP to control radionuclides emitted to the air from commercial nuclear power reactors. The BID presents information on the relevant portions of the regulatory framework that NRC has implemented for nuclear power plant licensees, under the authority of the Atomic Energy Act, as amended, to protect the public's health and safety. To provide context, it summarizes the rulemaking history for Subpart I. It then describes NRC's regulatory program for routine atmospheric emissions of radionuclides and evaluates the doses caused by actual airborne emissions from nuclear power plants, including releases resulting from anticipated operational occurrences

  2. Fidelity, entanglement, and information complementarity relation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Jian-Ming; Zhou, Zheng-Wei; Guo, Guang-Can

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the dynamics of information in isolated multi-qubit systems. It is shown that information is in not only local form but also nonlocal form. We apply a measure of local information based on fidelity, and demonstrate that nonlocal information can be directly related to some appropriate well defined entanglement measures. Under general unitary transformations, local and nonlocal information will exhibit unambiguous complementary behavior with the total information conserved

  3. Background information to the installers guide for small scale mains connected PV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This report contains background information used by BRE, EA Technology, Halcrows and Sundog when compiling guidance for the UK's New and Renewable Energy Programme on the installation of small-scale photovoltaics (PV) in buildings. The report considers: relevant standards; general safety issues; fire and safety issues, including the fire resistance of PV modules; PV module ratings such as maximum voltage and maximum current; DC cabling; the DC disconnect; the DC junction box; fault analysis; general and AC side earthing; DC earthing; lightning and surge suppression; inverters; AC modules; AC systems; getting connection; mounting options; and installation issues.

  4. Background Information for the Nevada National Security Site Integrated Sampling Plan, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farnham, Irene; Marutzky, Sam

    2014-12-01

    This document describes the process followed to develop the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) Integrated Sampling Plan (referred to herein as the Plan). It provides the Plan’s purpose and objectives, and briefly describes the Underground Test Area (UGTA) Activity, including the conceptual model and regulatory requirements as they pertain to groundwater sampling. Background information on other NNSS groundwater monitoring programs—the Routine Radiological Environmental Monitoring Plan (RREMP) and Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP)—and their integration with the Plan are presented. Descriptions of the evaluations, comments, and responses of two Sampling Plan topical committees are also included.

  5. Background information on a multimedia nitrogen emission reduction strategy; Hintergrundpapier zu einer multimedialen Stickstoffemissionsminderungsstrategie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geupel; Jering; Frey (and others)

    2009-04-15

    The background information report on a multimedia nitrogen reduction strategy covers the following chapters: 1. Introduction: the nitrogen cascade and the anthropogenic influence, environmental impact of increased nitrogen emissions and effects on human health. 2. Sources and balancing of anthropogenic nitrogen emissions in Germany. 3. Environmental quality targets, activity goals of environmental measures and instruments of an integrated nitrogen reduction strategy. 4. Conclusions and perspectives. The attachments include emission sources, nitrogen release and nitrogen transport in Germany; catalogue of measures and instruments according the criteria efficiency and cost-efficacy.

  6. 42 CFR 447.255 - Related information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Related information. 447.255 Section 447.255 Public... Facility Services Payment Rates § 447.255 Related information. The Medicaid agency must submit, with the assurances described in § 447.253(a), the following information: (a) The amount of the estimated average...

  7. The impact of musicianship on the cortical mechanisms related to separating speech from background noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zendel, Benjamin Rich; Tremblay, Charles-David; Belleville, Sylvie; Peretz, Isabelle

    2015-05-01

    Musicians have enhanced auditory processing abilities. In some studies, these abilities are paralleled by an improved understanding of speech in noisy environments, partially due to more robust encoding of speech signals in noise at the level of the brainstem. Little is known about the impact of musicianship on attention-dependent cortical activity related to lexical access during a speech-in-noise task. To address this issue, we presented musicians and nonmusicians with single words mixed with three levels of background noise, across two conditions, while monitoring electrical brain activity. In the active condition, listeners repeated the words aloud, and in the passive condition, they ignored the words and watched a silent film. When background noise was most intense, musicians repeated more words correctly compared with nonmusicians. Auditory evoked responses were attenuated and delayed with the addition of background noise. In musicians, P1 amplitude was marginally enhanced during active listening and was related to task performance in the most difficult listening condition. By comparing ERPs from the active and passive conditions, we isolated an N400 related to lexical access. The amplitude of the N400 was not influenced by the level of background noise in musicians, whereas N400 amplitude increased with the level of background noise in nonmusicians. In nonmusicians, the increase in N400 amplitude was related to a reduction in task performance. In musicians only, there was a rightward shift of the sources contributing to the N400 as the level of background noise increased. This pattern of results supports the hypothesis that encoding of speech in noise is more robust in musicians and suggests that this facilitates lexical access. Moreover, the shift in sources suggests that musicians, to a greater extent than nonmusicians, may increasingly rely on acoustic cues to understand speech in noise.

  8. Chemical Source Localization Fusing Concentration Information in the Presence of Chemical Background Noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomareda, Víctor; Magrans, Rudys; Jiménez-Soto, Juan M; Martínez, Dani; Tresánchez, Marcel; Burgués, Javier; Palacín, Jordi; Marco, Santiago

    2017-04-20

    We present the estimation of a likelihood map for the location of the source of a chemical plume dispersed under atmospheric turbulence under uniform wind conditions. The main contribution of this work is to extend previous proposals based on Bayesian inference with binary detections to the use of concentration information while at the same time being robust against the presence of background chemical noise. For that, the algorithm builds a background model with robust statistics measurements to assess the posterior probability that a given chemical concentration reading comes from the background or from a source emitting at a distance with a specific release rate. In addition, our algorithm allows multiple mobile gas sensors to be used. Ten realistic simulations and ten real data experiments are used for evaluation purposes. For the simulations, we have supposed that sensors are mounted on cars which do not have among its main tasks navigating toward the source. To collect the real dataset, a special arena with induced wind is built, and an autonomous vehicle equipped with several sensors, including a photo ionization detector (PID) for sensing chemical concentration, is used. Simulation results show that our algorithm, provides a better estimation of the source location even for a low background level that benefits the performance of binary version. The improvement is clear for the synthetic data while for real data the estimation is only slightly better, probably because our exploration arena is not able to provide uniform wind conditions. Finally, an estimation of the computational cost of the algorithmic proposal is presented.

  9. Traceability information carriers. The technology backgrounds and consumers' perceptions of the technological solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chrysochou, Polymeros; Chryssochoidis, George; Kehagia, Olga

    2009-01-01

    of and confidence in the information provided, perceived levels of convenience, impact on product quality and safety, impact on consumers' health and the environment, and potential consequences on ethical and privacy liberties constitute important factors influencing consumers' perceptions of technologies......The implementation of traceability in the food supply chain has reinforced adoption of technologies with the ability to track forward and trace back product-related information. Based on the premise that these technologies can be used as a means to provide product-related information to consumers...... in their production lines. For the purposes of the study, a focus group study was conducted across 12 European countries, while a set of four different technologies used as a means to provide traceability information to consumers was the focal point of the discussions in each focus group. Results show that the amount...

  10. The Impacts of Language Background and Language-Related Disorders in Auditory Processing Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loo, Jenny Hooi Yin; Bamiou, Doris-Eva; Rosen, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the impact of language background and language-related disorders (LRDs--dyslexia and/or language impairment) on performance in English speech and nonspeech tests of auditory processing (AP) commonly used in the clinic. Method: A clinical database concerning 133 multilingual children (mostly with English as an additional…

  11. Language-Related Values, Reading Amount, and Reading Comprehension in Students with Migration Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Khechen, Wahiba; Ferdinand, Hanna D.; Steinmayr, Ricarda; McElvany, Nele

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although various studies on general language performance have investigated determinants of students' reading comprehension (e.g., reading amount), they have paid insufficient attention to how students perceive parental values influence their language-related values and behaviour--and, as a consequence, their performance. This is…

  12. Role of Family Background, Student Behaviors, and School-Related Beliefs in Predicting High School Dropout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, Alyssa K.; Bonitz, Verena S.

    2015-01-01

    The authors' purpose was to test a parsimonious model derived from social cognitive career theory (R. W. Lent, S. D. Brown, & G. Hackett, 1994) and expectancy value theory (J. S. Eccles & A. Wigfield, 2002) that integrates groups of variables (demographic background, student behaviors, and school-related beliefs) with the goal of…

  13. Relative information entropy in cosmology: The problem of information entanglement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czinner, Viktor G., E-mail: czinner.viktor@wigner.mta.hu [Centro de Matemática, Universidade do Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); HAS Wigner Research Centre for Physics, H-1525 Budapest, P.O. Box 49 (Hungary); Mena, Filipe C., E-mail: fmena@math.uminho.pt [Centro de Matemática, Universidade do Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal)

    2016-07-10

    The necessary information to distinguish a local inhomogeneous mass density field from its spatial average on a compact domain of the universe can be measured by relative information entropy. The Kullback–Leibler (KL) formula arises very naturally in this context, however, it provides a very complicated way to compute the mutual information between spatially separated but causally connected regions of the universe in a realistic, inhomogeneous model. To circumvent this issue, by considering a parametric extension of the KL measure, we develop a simple model to describe the mutual information which is entangled via the gravitational field equations. We show that the Tsallis relative entropy can be a good approximation in the case of small inhomogeneities, and for measuring the independent relative information inside the domain, we propose the Rényi relative entropy formula.

  14. Is Information Ethics Culture-Relative?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brey, Philip A.E.; Zaphiris, P.; Ang, C.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, I examine whether information ethics is culture relative. If it is, different approaches to information ethics are required in different cultures and societies. This would have major implications for the current, predominantly Western approach to information ethics. If it is not,

  15. Opportunities for renewable biomass in the Dutch province of Zeeland. Background information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Buck, A.; Croezen, H.

    2009-04-01

    The Dutch province of Zeeland is organizing three bio-debates to map economically attractive and renewable biomass opportunities. Participants included industrial businesses, ZLTO, ZMF, Zeeland Seaports, Impuls Zeeland, Hogeschool Zeeland and the University of Ghent. CE Delft is organizing the debates and provides the expertise in this field. In the first debate (Goes, 22 January 2009) the main lines for deployment of biomass in Zeeland were established. One of the conclusions was that there are opportunities for existing industry to implement new technology for large-scale use of (imported) biomass. As for agriculture, there may be opportunities for high-quality chemicals from agricultural crops. Agriculture and industry have opportunities in the short term for better and more high-quality utilization of existing residual flows of biomass. The second and third debate should address concrete opportunities for the industry and agriculture in Zeeland. This report is background information to support the debates. [nl

  16. Historical Background of Turkey-Syria Relations in the Term of Social Geograpy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedat BENEK

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Historical process between Syria and Turkey has always high tension. According to Turkey, Syria is the country,which has hosted the Turkish enemies, which causes problems in the sharing of water resources and geographically it is seen as ‘’enemy country’’ because of interfering in Turkey's territorial integrity; According to Syria, Turkey is "enemy" is because it doesn’t share water resources in a fair way and as supporters of western countries, claiming rights over their territory (Hatay. In short, for many years strained relations with Syria-Turkey relations , by signing of the Treaty of Adana in 1998, good relations has been established with unpredictable speed in a short time . Escalating positive relations between Turkey and Syria in the years 1998-2011, and relations has again strained the outbreak of the Syria Civil War in 2011, and was even worse off period before 1998. Therefore the main goal of this study "Historical Background of Turkey-Syria Relations in terms of Social Geography" is to examine the dynamics of it. For this purpose, treaties defining the Turkey-Syria relationship, the protocols, briefings given by officials were examined. Historical background of the two countries' relations in terms of social geography has been tried to put forward in chronological order

  17. Traceability information carriers. The technology backgrounds and consumers' perceptions of the technological solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrysochou, Polymeros; Chryssochoidis, George; Kehagia, Olga

    2009-12-01

    The implementation of traceability in the food supply chain has reinforced adoption of technologies with the ability to track forward and trace back product-related information. Based on the premise that these technologies can be used as a means to provide product-related information to consumers, this paper explores the perceived benefits and drawbacks of such technologies. The aim is to identify factors that influence consumers' perceptions of such technologies, and furthermore to advise the agri-food business on issues that they should consider prior to the implementation of such technologies in their production lines. For the purposes of the study, a focus group study was conducted across 12 European countries, while a set of four different technologies used as a means to provide traceability information to consumers was the focal point of the discussions in each focus group. Results show that the amount of and confidence in the information provided, perceived levels of convenience, impact on product quality and safety, impact on consumers' health and the environment, and potential consequences on ethical and privacy liberties constitute important factors influencing consumers' perceptions of technologies that provide traceability.

  18. The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search and Background Rejection with Event Position Information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Gen-sheng

    2005-01-01

    Evidence from observational cosmology and astrophysics indicates that about one third of the universe is matter, but that the known baryonic matter only contributes to the universe at 4%. A large fraction of the universe is cold and non-baryonic matter, which has important role in the universe structure formation and its evolution. The leading candidate for the non-baryonic dark matter is Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs), which naturally occurs in the supersymmetry theory in particle physics. The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) experiment is searching for evidence of a WIMP interaction off an atomic nucleus in crystals of Ge and Si by measuring simultaneously the phonon energy and ionization energy of the interaction in the CDMS detectors. The WIMP interaction energy is from a few keV to tens of keV with a rate less than 0.1 events/kg/day. To reach the goal of WIMP detection, the CDMS experiment has been conducted in the Soudan mine with an active muon veto and multistage passive background shields. The CDMS detectors have a low energy threshold and background rejection capabilities based on ionization yield. However, betas from contamination and other radioactive sources produce surface interactions, which have low ionization yield, comparable to that of bulk nuclear interactions. The low-ionization surface electron recoils must be removed in the WIMP search data analysis. An emphasis of this thesis is on developing the method of the surface-interaction rejection using location information of the interactions, phonon energy distributions and phonon timing parameters. The result of the CDMS Soudan run118 92.3 live day WIMP search data analysis is presented, and represents the most sensitive search yet performed

  19. The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search and Background Rejection with Event Position Information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Gensheng [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States). Dept. of Physics

    2005-01-01

    Evidence from observational cosmology and astrophysics indicates that about one third of the universe is matter, but that the known baryonic matter only contributes to the universe at 4%. A large fraction of the universe is cold and non-baryonic matter, which has important role in the universe structure formation and its evolution. The leading candidate for the non-baryonic dark matter is Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs), which naturally occurs in the supersymmetry theory in particle physics. The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) experiment is searching for evidence of a WIMP interaction off an atomic nucleus in crystals of Ge and Si by measuring simultaneously the phonon energy and ionization energy of the interaction in the CDMS detectors. The WIMP interaction energy is from a few keV to tens of keV with a rate less than 0.1 events/kg/day. To reach the goal of WIMP detection, the CDMS experiment has been conducted in the Soudan mine with an active muon veto and multistage passive background shields. The CDMS detectors have a low energy threshold and background rejection capabilities based on ionization yield. However, betas from contamination and other radioactive sources produce surface interactions, which have low ionization yield, comparable to that of bulk nuclear interactions. The low-ionization surface electron recoils must be removed in the WIMP search data analysis. An emphasis of this thesis is on developing the method of the surface-interaction rejection using location information of the interactions, phonon energy distributions and phonon timing parameters. The result of the CDMS Soudan run118 92.3 live day WIMP search data analysis is presented, and represents the most sensitive search yet performed.

  20. Repetitive Bibliographical Information in Relational Databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Terrence A.

    1988-01-01

    Proposes a solution to the problem of loading repetitive bibliographic information in a microcomputer-based relational database management system. The alternative design described is based on a representational redundancy design and normalization theory. (12 references) (Author/CLB)

  1. HIERARCHICAL ORGANIZATION OF INFORMATION, IN RELATIONAL DATABASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demian Horia

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I will present different types of representation, of hierarchical information inside a relational database. I also will compare them to find the best organization for specific scenarios.

  2. PUBLIC RELATIONS AS AN INFORMATION PROCESS PHENOMENON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TKACH L. M.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Formulation of the problem. If public relations as a phenomenon of information management are examined, we deal with the question of knowledge content and nature of relationship of PR with environment, ability to manage the perception and attitude of people to events in the environment; ensure priority of information over other resources. Goal. To investigate the concept of "public relations" of foreign and domestic experts; consider the typology of the public and the "laws" of public opinion; define the basic principles according to which relations with public should be built, and to identify PR activities as a kind of social communication. Conclusions. Public relations on the basis of advanced information and communication technologies create fundamentally new opportunities for information control and influence on public consciousness.

  3. Relational information in medicine: a challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolboaca, S.; Cadariu, A.; Jaentschi, L.

    2005-01-01

    Nowadays, a sizable amount of information is available in all areas medical domain including radiology. An important provocation is represented by the organization of these huge amounts of medical information, tasks that are essential in order to be used. The present paper presents a proposal of a relational structure for the organization of medical information using key terms and a Visual Fox Pro application for structure management

  4. [Eating Disorders in Female High School Students: Educational and Migration Background, School-Related Stress and Performance-Orientated Classes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grüttner, M

    2018-02-01

    Many adolescents and young adults, especially young females, suffer from eating disorders or problematic nutrition behavior. Children and adolescents with migration background as well as from a lower social class are more likely to have eating disorders 1. Although schools are an important context in these age groups, there is a lack of scientific inquiry concerning the relationship between schooling and eating disorders. The present study investigates the relationship between performance-related stress at school and eating disorders while controlling for personnel and familial resources. Interview data on the 7 th grade high school students from the National Educational Panel Study (NEPS)* starting cohort 3 are used. The dependent variable is based on the SCOFF questionnaire. Logistic regressions are calculated using information from students and parents. Performance-related stress at school is operationalized by the negative deviation of realistic from idealistic educational aspirations (EA) and unfulfilled social expectations (SE), performance-oriented class climate is operationalized by students' perception of the performance-orientation of the teacher (PT) and the expectations of classmates (EC). The results point towards an increased risk of suffering from an eating disorder due to performance-related school stress (EA: AME: 0.18; p<0.001; SE: AME: 0.12; p<0.05) and performance-oriented class climate (PT: AME: 0.05; p<0.1; EC: AME: 0.15, p<0.01). They partly explain the relation between both migration background and educational background and eating disorders. In order to prevent eating disorders in female high school students, attention should be paid to performance-orientation experienced at school and in the social background, and improved individual support for disadvantaged students should be made available. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Internal combustion engines for alcohol motor fuels: a compilation of background technical information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaser, Richard

    1980-11-01

    This compilation, a draft training manual containing technical background information on internal combustion engines and alcohol motor fuel technologies, is presented in 3 parts. The first is a compilation of facts from the state of the art on internal combustion engine fuels and their characteristics and requisites and provides an overview of fuel sources, fuels technology and future projections for availability and alternatives. Part two compiles facts about alcohol chemistry, alcohol identification, production, and use, examines ethanol as spirit and as fuel, and provides an overview of modern evaluation of alcohols as motor fuels and of the characteristics of alcohol fuels. The final section compiles cross references on the handling and combustion of fuels for I.C. engines, presents basic evaluations of events leading to the use of alcohols as motor fuels, reviews current applications of alcohols as motor fuels, describes the formulation of alcohol fuels for engines and engine and fuel handling hardware modifications for using alcohol fuels, and introduces the multifuel engines concept. (LCL)

  6. Thin-shell bubbles and information loss problem in anti de Sitter background

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, Misao [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics,Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Tomsk State Pedagogical University,634050 Tomsk (Russian Federation); Yeom, Dong-han [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics,Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Leung Center for Cosmology and Particle Astrophysics, National Taiwan University,Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)

    2014-12-24

    We study the motion of thin-shell bubbles and their tunneling in anti de Sitter (AdS) background. We are interested in the case when the outside of a shell is a Schwarzschild-AdS space (false vacuum) and the inside of it is an AdS space with a lower vacuum energy (true vacuum). If a collapsing true vacuum bubble is created, classically it will form a Schwarzschild-AdS black hole. However, this collapsing bubble can tunnel to a bouncing bubble that moves out to spatial infinity. Then, although the classical causal structure of a collapsing true vacuum bubble has the singularity and the event horizon, quantum mechanically the wavefunction has support for a history without any singularity nor event horizon which is mediated by the non-perturbative, quantum tunneling effect. This may be regarded an explicit example that shows the unitarity of an asymptotic observer in AdS, while a classical observer who only follows the most probable history effectively lose information due to the formation of an event horizon.

  7. Thin-shell bubbles and information loss problem in anti de Sitter background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Misao; Yeom, Dong-han

    2014-01-01

    We study the motion of thin-shell bubbles and their tunneling in anti de Sitter (AdS) background. We are interested in the case when the outside of a shell is a Schwarzschild-AdS space (false vacuum) and the inside of it is an AdS space with a lower vacuum energy (true vacuum). If a collapsing true vacuum bubble is created, classically it will form a Schwarzschild-AdS black hole. However, this collapsing bubble can tunnel to a bouncing bubble that moves out to spatial infinity. Then, although the classical causal structure of a collapsing true vacuum bubble has the singularity and the event horizon, quantum mechanically the wavefunction has support for a history without any singularity nor event horizon which is mediated by the non-perturbative, quantum tunneling effect. This may be regarded an explicit example that shows the unitarity of an asymptotic observer in AdS, while a classical observer who only follows the most probable history effectively lose information due to the formation of an event horizon.

  8. Data-driven modeling of background and mine-related acidity and metals in river basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedel, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    A novel application of self-organizing map (SOM) and multivariate statistical techniques is used to model the nonlinear interaction among basin mineral-resources, mining activity, and surface-water quality. First, the SOM is trained using sparse measurements from 228 sample sites in the Animas River Basin, Colorado. The model performance is validated by comparing stochastic predictions of basin-alteration assemblages and mining activity at 104 independent sites. The SOM correctly predicts (>98%) the predominant type of basin hydrothermal alteration and presence (or absence) of mining activity. Second, application of the Davies–Bouldin criteria to k-means clustering of SOM neurons identified ten unique environmental groups. Median statistics of these groups define a nonlinear water-quality response along the spatiotemporal hydrothermal alteration-mining gradient. These results reveal that it is possible to differentiate among the continuum between inputs of background and mine-related acidity and metals, and it provides a basis for future research and empirical model development. The trained self-organizing map is used to determine upstream hydrothermal alteration (AS – acid sulfate; PROP – propylitic, PROP-V – propylitic veins, QSP – quartz-sericite-pyrite, WSP – weak-sericite-pyrite; Mining activity: MINES) from water-quality measurements in the Animas river basin, Colorado, USA. The white hexagons are sized proportional to the number of water-quality samples associated with that SOM neuron. Highlights: • We model surface-water quality response using a self-organizing map and multivariate statistics. • Applying Davies–Bouldin criteria to k-means clusters defines ten environmental response groups. • The approach differentiates between background and mine-related acidity and metals. -- These results reveal that it is possible to differentiate among the continuum between inputs of background and mine-related acidity and metals

  9. 1+3 covariant cosmic microwave background anisotropies I: Algebraic relations for mode and multipole expansions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gebbie, Tim; Ellis, G.F.R.

    2000-01-01

    This is the first of a series of papers systematically extending a 1+3 covariant and gauge-invariant treatment of kinetic theory in curved space-times to a treatment of cosmic microwave background temperature anisotropies arising from inhomogeneities in the early universe. The present paper deals with algebraic issues, both generically and in the context of models linearised about Robertson-Walker geometries. The approach represents radiation anisotropies by projected symmetric and trace-free tensors. The angular correlation functions for the mode coefficients are found in terms of these quantities, following the Wilson-Silk approach, but derived and dealt with in 1+3 covariant and gauge-invariant form. The covariant multipole and mode-expanded angular correlation functions are related to the usual treatments in the literature. The 1+3 covariant and gauge-invariant mode expansion is related to the coordinate approach by linking the Legendre functions to the projected symmetric trace-free representation, using a covariant addition theorem for the tensors to generate the Legendre polynomial recursion relation. This paper lays the foundation for further papers in the series, which use this formalism in a covariant and gauge-invariant approach to developing solutions of the Boltzmann and Liouville equations for the cosmic microwave background before and after decoupling, thus providing a unified covariant and gauge-invariant derivation of the variety of approaches to cosmic microwave background anisotropies in the current literature, as well as a basis for extension of the theory to include nonlinearities

  10. 77 FR 31017 - Office of Facilities Management and Program Services; Information Collection; Background...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-24

    ... 3090-0287, Background Investigations for Child Care Workers. Instructions: Please submit comments only... request for review and approval for background check investigations of child care workers, form GSA 176C... Child Care Workers AGENCY: Office of Facilities Management and Program Services, Public Building Service...

  11. Informal eldercare and work-related strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trukeschitz, Birgit; Schneider, Ulrike; Mühlmann, Richard; Ponocny, Ivo

    2013-03-01

    In light of an aging workforce, reconciling informal eldercare and paid work becomes increasingly pertinent. This article investigates the association between informal eldercare and work-related strain and tests for both the "competing demands" and "expansion" hypotheses. The sample of 938 Austrian employees consisted of employees caring for older relatives and a control group of employees without eldercare obligations. We ran a Tobit regression model on work-related strain with different measures of informal eldercare as explanatory variables and controls for both personal and workplace characteristics. Accounting for different characteristics of eldercare within one estimation model revealed that informal eldercare was associated with work-related strain in 2 ways, that is, it increased with both care hours and subjective care burden. However, after controlling for these burdensome attributes of eldercare, the carer status as such was found to be negatively associated with work-related strain. In addition and independently of care commitments, work-related factors, such as advanced skills and job motivation, reduced work-related strain. This article lends support to both the "competing demands" and the "expansion" hypotheses. Commitment to eldercare can enhance work-related outcomes but entails work-related problems if care burden and time demands of eldercare are substantial. Thus, workers with eldercare responsibilities cannot be considered less productive from the outset. An individual assessment of their situation, considering the care and work setting, is required. Findings from this study support the design of workplace initiatives to uphold workers' productivity in general and bring specific attention to policies alleviating workers' eldercare burden.

  12. Report: Management Alert - EPA Has Not Initiated Required Background Investigations for Information Systems Contractor Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report #17-P-0409, September 27, 2017. Not vetting contractor personnel before granting them network access exposes the EPA to risks. Contractor personnel with potentially questionable backgrounds who access sensitive agency data could cause harm.

  13. Age-Related Macular Degeneration: Pathogenesis, Genetic Background, and the Role of Nutritional Supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilita M. Moschos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Age-related macular degeneration (ARMD is the leading cause of severe vision loss and blindness worldwide, mainly affecting people over 65 years old. Dry and wet ARDM are the main types of the disease, which seem to have a multifactorial background. The aim of this review is to summarize the mechanisms of ARMD pathogenesis and exhibit the role of diet and nutritional supplements in the onset and progression of the disease. Environmental factors, such as smoking, alcohol, and, diet appear to interact with mutations in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA, contributing to the pathogenesis of ARMD. Inflammatory mediators and oxidative stress, induced by the daily exposure of retina to high pressure of oxygen and light radiation, have been also associated with ARMD lesions. Other than medical and surgical therapies, nutritional supplements hold a significant role in the prevention and treatment of ARMD, eliminating the progression of macular degeneration.

  14. Reasonable fermionic quantum information theories require relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friis, Nicolai

    2016-01-01

    We show that any quantum information theory based on anticommuting operators must be supplemented by a superselection rule deeply rooted in relativity to establish a reasonable notion of entanglement. While quantum information may be encoded in the fermionic Fock space, the unrestricted theory has a peculiar feature: the marginals of bipartite pure states need not have identical entropies, which leads to an ambiguous definition of entanglement. We solve this problem, by proving that it is removed by relativity, i.e., by the parity superselection rule that arises from Lorentz invariance via the spin-statistics connection. Our results hence unveil a fundamental conceptual inseparability of quantum information and the causal structure of relativistic field theory. (paper)

  15. Development of the Informing Relatives Inventory (IRI): Assessing index patients' knowledge, motivation and self-efficacy regarding the disclosure of hereditary cancer risk information to relatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Geus, E.; Aalfs, C.M.; Menko, F.H.; Sijmons, R.H.; Verdam, M.G.E.; de Haes, H.C.J.M.; Smets, E.M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite the use of genetic services, counselees do not always share hereditary cancer information with at-risk relatives. Reasons for not informing relatives may be categorized as a lack of: knowledge, motivation, and/or self-efficacy. Purpose: This study aims to develop and test the

  16. Privacy-Related Context Information for Ubiquitous Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nykänen, Pirkko; Ruotsalainen, Pekka

    2014-01-01

    Background Ubiquitous health has been defined as a dynamic network of interconnected systems. A system is composed of one or more information systems, their stakeholders, and the environment. These systems offer health services to individuals and thus implement ubiquitous computing. Privacy is the key challenge for ubiquitous health because of autonomous processing, rich contextual metadata, lack of predefined trust among participants, and the business objectives. Additionally, regulations and policies of stakeholders may be unknown to the individual. Context-sensitive privacy policies are needed to regulate information processing. Objective Our goal was to analyze privacy-related context information and to define the corresponding components and their properties that support privacy management in ubiquitous health. These properties should describe the privacy issues of information processing. With components and their properties, individuals can define context-aware privacy policies and set their privacy preferences that can change in different information-processing situations. Methods Scenarios and user stories are used to analyze typical activities in ubiquitous health to identify main actors, goals, tasks, and stakeholders. Context arises from an activity and, therefore, we can determine different situations, services, and systems to identify properties for privacy-related context information in information-processing situations. Results Privacy-related context information components are situation, environment, individual, information technology system, service, and stakeholder. Combining our analyses and previously identified characteristics of ubiquitous health, more detailed properties for the components are defined. Properties define explicitly what context information for different components is needed to create context-aware privacy policies that can control, limit, and constrain information processing. With properties, we can define, for example, how

  17. Comparison of norovirus RNA levels in outbreak-related oysters with background environmental levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowther, James A; Gustar, Nicole E; Hartnell, Rachel E; Lees, David N

    2012-02-01

    Norovirus is the principal agent of bivalve shellfish-associated gastroenteric illness worldwide. Numerous studies using PCR have demonstrated norovirus contamination in a significant proportion of both oyster and other bivalve shellfish production areas and ready-to-eat products. By comparison, the number of epidemiologically confirmed shellfish-associated outbreaks is relatively low. This suggests that factors other than the simple presence or absence of virus RNA are important contributors to the amount of illness reported. This study compares norovirus RNA levels in oyster samples strongly linked to norovirus or norovirus-type illness with the levels typically found in commercial production areas (non-outbreak-related samples). A statistically significant difference between norovirus levels in the two sets of samples was observed. The geometric mean of the levels in outbreak samples (1,048 copies per g) was almost one order of magnitude higher than for positive non-outbreak-related samples (121 copies per g). Further, while none of the outbreak-related samples contained fewer than 152 copies per g, the majority of positive results for non-outbreak-related samples was below this level. These observations support the concept of a dose-response for norovirus RNA levels in shellfish and could help inform the establishment of threshold criteria for risk management.

  18. 76 FR 28034 - Labor-Management Relations Information Collection Requests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... FEDERAL MEDIATION AND CONCILIATION SERVICE Labor-Management Relations Information Collection... of Subjects Labor-management relations, employee management relations, and Information collection... opportunity to comment on the following information collection requests. The information collection requests...

  19. A genomic background based method for association analysis in related individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najaf Amin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Feasibility of genotyping of hundreds and thousands of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in thousands of study subjects have triggered the need for fast, powerful, and reliable methods for genome-wide association analysis. Here we consider a situation when study participants are genetically related (e.g. due to systematic sampling of families or because a study was performed in a genetically isolated population. Of the available methods that account for relatedness, the Measured Genotype (MG approach is considered the 'gold standard'. However, MG is not efficient with respect to time taken for the analysis of genome-wide data. In this context we proposed a fast two-step method called Genome-wide Association using Mixed Model and Regression (GRAMMAR for the analysis of pedigree-based quantitative traits. This method certainly overcomes the drawback of time limitation of the measured genotype (MG approach, but pays in power. One of the major drawbacks of both MG and GRAMMAR, is that they crucially depend on the availability of complete and correct pedigree data, which is rarely available. METHODOLOGY: In this study we first explore type 1 error and relative power of MG, GRAMMAR, and Genomic Control (GC approaches for genetic association analysis. Secondly, we propose an extension to GRAMMAR i.e. GRAMMAR-GC. Finally, we propose application of GRAMMAR-GC using the kinship matrix estimated through genomic marker data, instead of (possibly missing and/or incorrect genealogy. CONCLUSION: Through simulations we show that MG approach maintains high power across a range of heritabilities and possible pedigree structures, and always outperforms other contemporary methods. We also show that the power of our proposed GRAMMAR-GC approaches to that of the 'gold standard' MG for all models and pedigrees studied. We show that this method is both feasible and powerful and has correct type 1 error in the context of genome-wide association analysis

  20. Surfing for health: user evaluation of a health information website. Part one: Background and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Peter; Nicholas, David; Huntington, Paul; McLean, Fiona

    2002-06-01

    The Government in Britain is set on using the Internet to expand the provision of health information to the general public. Concerns over the quality of the health information have preoccupied commentators and organizations rather than the way users interact with health information systems. This report examines the issues surrounding the provision of electronic health information, and describes an evaluation undertaken of a commercial health website-that of Surgerydoor (http://www.surgerydoor.co.uk/), and comprises two parts. Part one outlines the literature on electronic health information evaluation. It discusses quality issues, but also redresses the imbalance by exploring other evaluative perspectives. Part two describes an evaluation of a health information Internet site in terms of its usability and appeal, undertaken as part of a Department of Health funded study on the impact of such systems.

  1. Relative Luminance and Figure-Background Segmentation Problems: Using AMLA to Avoid Nondiscernible Stimulus Pairs in Common and Color Blind Observers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jover, Julio Lillo; Moreira, Humberto

    2005-01-01

    Four experiments evaluated AMLA temporal version accuracy to measure relative luminosity in people with and without color blindness and, consequently, to provide the essential information to avoid poor figure-background combinations in any possible "specific screen-specific observer" pair. Experiment 1 showed that two very different apparatus, a…

  2. Characteristics of myosin profile in human vastus lateralis muscle in relation to training background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawadowska, B; Majerczak, J; Semik, D; Karasinski, J; Kolodziejski, L; Kilarski, W M; Duda, K; Zoladz, J A

    2004-01-01

    Twenty-four male volunteers (mean +/- SD: age 25.4+/-5.8 years, height 178.6+/-5.5 cm, body mass 72.1+/-7.7 kg) of different training background were investigated and classified into three groups according to their physical activity and sport discipline: untrained students (group A), national and sub-national level endurance athletes (group B, 7.8+/-2.9 years of specialised training) and sprint-power athletes (group C, 12.8+/-8.7 years of specialised training). Muscle biopsies of vastus lateralis were analysed histochemically for mATPase and SDH activities, immunohistochemically for fast and slow myosin, and electrophoretically followed by Western immunoblotting for myosin heavy chain (MyHC) composition. Significant differences (Pski-jumping, volleyball, soccer and modern dance. Furthermore, the relative amount of the fastest MyHCIIX isoform in vastus lateralis muscle was significantly lower in the athletes from group C than in students (group A). We conclude that the myosin profile in the athletes belonging to group C was unfavourable for their sport disciplines. This could be the reason why those athletes did not reach international level despite of several years of training.

  3. Data-driven modeling of background and mine-related acidity and metals in river basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedel, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    A novel application of self-organizing map (SOM) and multivariate statistical techniques is used to model the nonlinear interaction among basin mineral-resources, mining activity, and surface-water quality. First, the SOM is trained using sparse measurements from 228 sample sites in the Animas River Basin, Colorado. The model performance is validated by comparing stochastic predictions of basin-alteration assemblages and mining activity at 104 independent sites. The SOM correctly predicts (>98%) the predominant type of basin hydrothermal alteration and presence (or absence) of mining activity. Second, application of the Davies–Bouldin criteria to k-means clustering of SOM neurons identified ten unique environmental groups. Median statistics of these groups define a nonlinear water-quality response along the spatiotemporal hydrothermal alteration-mining gradient. These results reveal that it is possible to differentiate among the continuum between inputs of background and mine-related acidity and metals, and it provides a basis for future research and empirical model development.

  4. Personal exposure to grass pollen: relating inhaled dose to background concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peel, Robert George; Hertel, Ole; Smith, Matt

    2013-01-01

    Background: Very few studies on human exposure to allergenic pollen have been conducted using direct methods, with background concentrations measured at city center monitoring stations typically taken as a proxy for exposure despite the inhomogeneous nature of atmospheric pollen concentrations. A...

  5. Existentially informed HIV-related psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farber, Eugene W

    2009-09-01

    This article describes an existentially informed approach to conducting psychotherapy with individuals living with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Uses of existential concepts to guide a holistic conceptualization of the individual and illuminate core existential concerns and dilemmas in confronting HIV-related challenges are delineated. Applications of existential ideas regarding psychotherapy process and technique in HIV-related psychotherapy also are illustrated. It is concluded that existential psychotherapy offers a conceptual framework that is especially well suited to the work of psychotherapy with individuals living with HIV disease, although the approach has received only limited attention in the HIV-related psychotherapy literature. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Financial Information Source, Knowledge, and Practices of College Students from Diverse Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimura, Yoko; Koonce, Joan; Plunkett, Scott W.; Pleskus, Lindsey

    2015-01-01

    Using cross-sectional data, we examined the financial information sources, financial knowledge, and financial practices of young adults, many of whom are first generation college students, ethnic minorities, and immigrants or children of immigrants. Participants (n = 1,249) were undergraduate students at a large regional comprehensive university.…

  7. Developing written information for cancer survivors from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds: Lessons learnt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina Wiley

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Australia is a multicultural nation with a large migrant population. Migrants with cancer report inferior quality of life and the need for more information in their own language. This paper describes lessons learnt from developing culturally appropriate written information resources with and for Arabic, Italian, and Vietnamese cancer survivors and carers. The information needs of survivors from these language groups as well as guidelines for the development of written resources for culturally diverse populations were identified through literature review. Community consultation was undertaken with focus groups. The content was developed and tested with health professionals who spoke the appropriate language and focus group participants, ensuring relevance and appropriateness. Resource design and dissemination were informed through community consultation. A number of key tasks for developing resources were identified as follows: (1 community engagement and consultation; (2 culturally sensitive data collection; (3 focus group facilitators (recruitment and training; (4 content development; (5 translation and review process; (6 design; and (7 sustainability. This project reinforced literature review findings on the importance of cultural sensitivity in the development of resources. Engaging with community groups and incorporating culturally appropriate recruitment strategies optimises recruitment to focus groups and facilitates content development. Stakeholders and lay persons from the intended ethnic-minority communities should be involved in the development and formative evaluation of resources to ensure appropriateness and relevance and in the dissemination strategy to optimize penetration. We believe the lessons we have learnt will be relevant to any group intending to develop health information for culturally and linguistic diverse groups.

  8. Climatic variability related to El Niño in Ecuador - a historical background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arteaga, K.; Tutasi, P.; Jiménez, R.

    2006-02-01

    This paper reports on an investigation into the chronology of El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events, during the period from the arrival of conquistadores in Ecuador in 1532 until the year 1900. A number of probable El Niño events and drought years can be dated from anecdotal reports of significant rainfall and drought in the equatorial region. The evidence of ENSO has been documented from early reports in the South America archives. A large number of books and articles have been reviewing from the Ecuadorian archives to obtain information on El Niño events that have occurred over the past centuries. This information is based on evidence obtained from the equatorial region, where strong and very strong El Niño events clearly separate the northern part of the Ecuadorian coast from the southern region, the normally rainy season specially from west-central to the south coast of Ecuador, as well as the drought years, reported in this region which is climatologically and oceanographically different from the moist Northern coast of Ecuador. Given the normal occurrence of rains in the southern coast of Ecuador, it is reasonable to expect that at least some of the major rainy seasons would be recorded in local chronicles and publications. This information has been compared with reports obtained from Peru. Relative strengths of events are based on such considerations as wind and current effects on travel times of ancient sailing ships, degree of physical damage and destruction, amounts of rainfall and flooding, human disease epidemic, mass mortality of endemic marine organism, rises in sea temperatures and sea levels, effects on coastal fisheries. This paper is the first survey of the historical sources concerned the rainfall and drought in Ecuador. In the course of this investigation we also noted some extended periods of time, near decadal or longer over the past records, when the amount and/or strength of El Niño and its resulting effects appeared to represent

  9. Climatic variability related to El Niño in Ecuador − a historical background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Arteaga

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on an investigation into the chronology of El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO events, during the period from the arrival of conquistadores in Ecuador in 1532 until the year 1900. A number of probable El Niño events and drought years can be dated from anecdotal reports of significant rainfall and drought in the equatorial region. The evidence of ENSO has been documented from early reports in the South America archives. A large number of books and articles have been reviewing from the Ecuadorian archives to obtain information on El Niño events that have occurred over the past centuries. This information is based on evidence obtained from the equatorial region, where strong and very strong El Niño events clearly separate the northern part of the Ecuadorian coast from the southern region, the normally rainy season specially from west-central to the south coast of Ecuador, as well as the drought years, reported in this region which is climatologically and oceanographically different from the moist Northern coast of Ecuador. Given the normal occurrence of rains in the southern coast of Ecuador, it is reasonable to expect that at least some of the major rainy seasons would be recorded in local chronicles and publications. This information has been compared with reports obtained from Peru. Relative strengths of events are based on such considerations as wind and current effects on travel times of ancient sailing ships, degree of physical damage and destruction, amounts of rainfall and flooding, human disease epidemic, mass mortality of endemic marine organism, rises in sea temperatures and sea levels, effects on coastal fisheries. This paper is the first survey of the historical sources concerned the rainfall and drought in Ecuador. In the course of this investigation we also noted some extended periods of time, near decadal or longer over the past records, when the amount and/or strength of El Niño and its resulting effects

  10. Characteristics of myosin profile in human vastus lateralis muscle in relation to training background.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J A Zoladz

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-four male volunteers (mean +/- SD: age 25.4+/-5.8 years, height 178.6+/-5.5 cm, body mass 72.1+/-7.7 kg of different training background were investigated and classified into three groups according to their physical activity and sport discipline: untrained students (group A, national and sub-national level endurance athletes (group B, 7.8+/-2.9 years of specialised training and sprint-power athletes (group C, 12.8+/-8.7 years of specialised training. Muscle biopsies of vastus lateralis were analysed histochemically for mATPase and SDH activities, immunohistochemically for fast and slow myosin, and electrophoretically followed by Western immunoblotting for myosin heavy chain (MyHC composition. Significant differences (P<0.05 regarding composition of muscle fibre types and myosin heavy chains were found only between groups A (41.7+/-1.6% of MyHCI, 40.8+/-4.0% of MyHCIIA and 17.5+/-4.0% of MyHCIIX and B (64.3+/-0.8% of MyHCI, 34.0+/-1.4% of MyHCIIA and 1.7+/-1.4% of MyHCIIX and groups A and C (59.6+/-1.6% of MyHCI, 37.2+/-1.3% of MyHCIIA and 3.2+/-1.3% of MyHCIIX. Unexpectedly, endurance athletes (group B such as long-distance runners, cyclists and cross country skiers, did not differ from the athletes representing short term, high power output sports (group C such as ice hockey, karate, ski-jumping, volleyball, soccer and modern dance. Furthermore, the relative amount of the fastest MyHCIIX isoform in vastus lateralis muscle was significantly lower in the athletes from group C than in students (group A. We conclude that the myosin profile in the athletes belonging to group C was unfavourable for their sport disciplines. This could be the reason why those athletes did not reach international level despite of several years of training.

  11. Students' Moral Reasoning as Related to Cultural Background and Educational Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Yam, Miriam; And Others

    The relationship between moral development and cultural and educational background is examined. Approximately 120 Israeli youth representing different social classes, sex, religious affiliation, and educational experience were interviewed. The youth interviewed included urban middle and lower class students, Kibbutz-born, Youth Aliyah…

  12. Childhood cancers in the UK and their relation to background radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kneale, G.W.; Stewart, A.M.

    1987-01-01

    This chapter shows the results of including two independent data sets in a study of several factors with cancer associations including background radiation. One data set came from the Oxford Survey of Childhood Cancers (OSCC); the other from the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) and findings are compatible with background radiation being the single most important cause of juvenile neoplasms. It also emerged that these neoplasms have a strongly clustered distribution. No obvious cause of clusters was found, but they had associations with prenatal and postnatal illnesses as well as background radiation. Therefore, since there is mounting sensitivity to infections during the latent phase of leukaemia, cancer clusters might be the result of competing causes of death having an epidemic distribution. The findings as a whole are compatible with all man-made additions to background (including leakages of radioactivity from a reprocessing plant) adding to risk of an early cancer death. Proof that certain leukaemia clusters in the vicinity of two reprocessing plants were caused in this way must await collection of data. (author)

  13. Selective Exposure to and Acquisition of Information from Educational Television Programs as a Function of Appeal and Tempo of Background Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakshlag, Jacob J.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    The effect of educational television background music on selective exposure and information acquisition was studied. Background music of slow tempo, regardless of its appeal, had negligible effects on attention and information acquisition. Rhythmic, fast-tempo background music, especially when appealing, significantly reduced visual attention to…

  14. Monitor Clean and Efficient. Background information. Methods and references as applied in the Monitor in April 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerdes, J.; De Ligt, T.

    2010-01-01

    This report contains background information about the Monitor Clean and Efficient that was published in April 2009. The goal and approach of the Monitor are clarified, as well as the methods and data that are used. The structure of this report resembles the structure of the Monitor. Sources and dates of availability are mentioned along with the data, as are the parties collecting and processing the information. The results that were found using this methodology have been published in the Monitor Clean and Efficient. [nl

  15. Background information for the development of a low-level waste performance assessment methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shipers, L.R.

    1989-12-01

    This document identifies and describes the potential postclosure pathways of radionuclide release, migration, and exposure from low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. Each pathway identified is composed of a combination of migration pathways (air, surface water, ground water, food chain) and exposure pathways (direct gamma, inhalation, ingestion, surface contact). The pathway identification is based on a review and evaluation of existing information, and not all pathways presented in the document would necessarily be of importance at a given low-level waste disposal site. This document presents pathways associated with undisturbed (ground water, gas generation), naturally disturbed (erosion, bathtubbing, earth creep, frost heave, plant and animal intruder), and inadvertent intruder (construction, agriculture) scenarios of a low-level waste disposal facility. 20 refs., 1 fig

  16. Background {sup 99m}Tc-methoxyisobutylisonitrile uptake of breast-specific gamma imaging in relation to background parenchymal enhancement in magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Hai-Jeon; Kim, Bom Sahn [Ewha Womans University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Yangchun-Ku, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yemi [Ewha Womans University, Clinical Research Institute and Department of Conservative Dentistry, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jee Eun [Ewha Womans University, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    This study investigated factors that could affect background uptake of {sup 99m}Tc- methoxyisobutylisonitrile (MIBI) on normal breast by breast-specific gamma imaging (BSGI). In addition, the impact of background {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI uptake on the diagnostic performance of BSGI was further investigated. One hundred forty-five women with unilateral breast cancer who underwent BSGI, MRI, and mammography were retrospectively enrolled. Background uptake on BSGI was evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively. Patients were classified into non-dense and dense breast groups according to mammographic breast density. Background parenchymal enhancement (BPE) was rated according to BI-RADS classification. The relationship of age, menopausal status, mammographic breast density, and BPE with background {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI uptake was analyzed. Heterogeneous texture and high background uptake ratio on BSGI were significantly correlated with younger age (p < 0.001, respectively), premenopausal status (p < 0.001 and p = 0.003), dense breast (p < 0.001, respectively), and marked BPE (p < 0.001, respectively). On multivariate analysis, only BPE remained a significant factor for background MIBI uptake (p < 0.001).There was a significant reduction in positive predictive value (p = 0.024 and p = 0.002) as background MIBI uptake and BPE grade increased. BPE on MRI was the most important factor for background MIBI uptake on BSGI. High background MIBI uptake or marked BPE can diminish the diagnostic performance of BSGI. (orig.)

  17. The effects of problem content and scientific background on information search and the assessment and valuation of correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soffer, Shira; Kareev, Yaakov

    2011-01-01

    The effects of problem contents and one's scientific background on the detection of correlations and the assessment of their strength were studied using a task that required active data search, assessment of the strength of a correlation, and monetary valuation of the correlation's predictive utility. Participants (N = 72) who were trained either in the natural sciences or in the social sciences and humanities explored data sets differing in contents and actual strength of correlation. Data search was consistent across all variables: Participants drew relatively small samples whose relative sizes would favor the detection of a correlation, if one existed. In contrast, the assessment of the correlation strength and the valuation of its predictive utility were strongly related not only to its objective strength, but also to the correspondence between problem contents and one's scientific background: When the two matched, correlations were judged to be stronger and more valuable than when they did not.

  18. Background Paper for the Expert Meeting on the Gender-Related Aspects of Race Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Kimberlé Crenshaw

    2002-01-01

    Neither the gender aspects of racial discrimination nor the racial aspects of gender discrimination are fully comprehended within human rights discourses. Building on the growing recognition that race and gender discrimination are not mutually exclusive phenomena, this background paper forwards a provisional framework to identify various forms of subordination that can be said to reflect the interactive effects of race and gender discrimination. It suggests a provisional protoc...

  19. Down's syndrome and related abnormalities in an area of high background radiation in coastal Kerala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kochupillai, N.; Verma, I.C.; Grewal, M.S.; Ramalingaswami, V.

    1976-01-01

    It is stated that in a coastal area of Kerala, Southern India, the background radiation is between 1500 and 3000 mR/yr, this being due to the presence of Th-containing monazite mineral in the soil. During an epidemiological study of modular lesions of the thyroid in this area an apparently high prevalence of Down's syndrome and other forms of severe mental retardation was observed. A house-to-house survey of relevant abnormalities in this area was made, and also in a comparable control area without high background radiation. The frequency of chromosome aberrations in a sample of the population in the study and control areas was also investigated. The observations support the view that radiation induces genetic anomalies occur with above average frequency in the population living in the area with high background radiation. Only gross abnormalities evident in clinical examination were recorded. The study and control populations were similar in age and sex structure and general sociologic conditions. Severe mental retardation was the commonest abnormality encountered, and 85% of the abnormalities detected in the study population were genetic in origin, compared with 56% in the control population. Prevalence of Down's syndrome was 0.93 per 1000 in the study population. (U.K.)

  20. Produced water discharges to the Gulf of Mexico: Background information for ecological risk assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meinhold, A.F.; Holtzman, S.; DePhillips, M.P.

    1996-06-01

    This report reviews ecological risk assessment concepts and methods; describes important biological resources in the Gulf of Mexico of potential concern for produced water impacts; and summarizes data available to estimate exposure and effects of produced water discharges. The emphasis is on data relating to produced water discharges in the central and western Gulf of Mexico, especially in Louisiana. Much of the summarized data and cited literature are relevant to assessments of impacts in other regions. Data describing effects on marine and estuarine fishes, mollusks, crustaceans and benthic invertebrates are emphasized. This review is part of a series of studies of the health and ecological risks from discharges of produced water to the Gulf of Mexico. These assessments will provide input to regulators in the development of guidelines and permits, and to industry in the use of appropriate discharge practices

  1. Produced water discharges to the Gulf of Mexico: Background information for ecological risk assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meinhold, A.F.; Holtzman, S.; DePhillips, M.P.

    1996-06-01

    This report reviews ecological risk assessment concepts and methods; describes important biological resources in the Gulf of Mexico of potential concern for produced water impacts; and summarizes data available to estimate exposure and effects of produced water discharges. The emphasis is on data relating to produced water discharges in the central and western Gulf of Mexico, especially in Louisiana. Much of the summarized data and cited literature are relevant to assessments of impacts in other regions. Data describing effects on marine and estuarine fishes, mollusks, crustaceans and benthic invertebrates are emphasized. This review is part of a series of studies of the health and ecological risks from discharges of produced water to the Gulf of Mexico. These assessments will provide input to regulators in the development of guidelines and permits, and to industry in the use of appropriate discharge practices.

  2. Relation of EEG alpha background to cognitive fuction, brain atrophy, and cerebral metabolism in Down's syndrome. Age-specific changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devinsky, O.; Sato, S.; Conwit, R.A.; Schapiro, M.B.

    1990-01-01

    We studied 19 young adults (19 to 37 years old) and 9 older patients (42 to 66 years old) with Down's syndrome (DS) and a control group of 13 healthy adults (22 to 38 years old) to investigate the relation of electroencephalographic (EEG) alpha background to cognitive function and cerebral metabolism. Four of the older patients with DS had a history of mental deterioration, disorientation, and memory loss and were demented. Patients and control subjects had EEGs, psychometric testing, quantitative computed tomography, and positron emission tomography with fludeoxyglucose F 18. A blinded reader classified the EEGs into two groups--those with normal alpha background or those with abnormal background. All the control subjects, the 13 young adult patients with DS, and the 5 older patients with DS had normal EEG backgrounds. In comparison with the age-matched patients with DS with normal alpha background, older patients with DS with decreased alpha background had dementia, fewer visuospatial skills, decreased attention span, larger third ventricles, and a global decrease in cerebral glucose utilization with parietal hypometabolism. In the young patients with DS, the EEG background did not correlate with psychometric or positron emission tomographic findings, but the third ventricles were significantly larger in those with abnormal EEG background. The young patients with DS, with or without normal EEG background, had positron emission tomographic findings similar to those of the control subjects. The mechanism underlying the abnormal EEG background may be the neuropathologic changes of Alzheimer's disease in older patients with DS and may be cerebral immaturity in younger patients with DS

  3. Child physical abuse and the related PTSD in Taiwan: The role of Chinese cultural background and victims' subjective reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Chia-Ying; Su, Yi-Jen; Wu, Ho-Mao; Chen, Sue-Huei

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate child physical abuse (CPA) while taking into account the more rigorous definitions of CPA in the Chinese societies. The prevalence of CPA and CPA-related PTSD were estimated, together with the examination of peri-traumatic subjective reactions and their impacts on PTSD. In a Taiwanese sample of 1966 4th to 8th graders, the Chinese version of UCLA PTSD Reaction Index for DSM-IV (Steinberg, Brymer, Decker, & Pynoos, 2004) was used to investigate the lifetime exposure to CPA. A sub-sample of 236 traumatized CPA victims was examined with respect to related PTSD symptoms. Thirty-four percent of the children had been exposed to CPA. The estimated current prevalence of full and partial PTSD was 13.6% and 16.9%, respectively. The current CPA prevalence was found to be higher than the Western countries, but lower than the previous findings in other East Asian societies. The full PTSD prevalence was close to the findings in the Western countries, whereas sub-clinical PTSD was less observed in Taiwan. Peri-traumatic subjective reactions, that is, Criterion A2 and perceived threat, were shown to be major predictors of PTSD symptom severity. The role of attitudes of child discipline in the Chinese societies in the prevalence of CPA and CPA-related PTSD is discussed. By providing explicit epidemiological information of CPA and CPA-related PTSD in Taiwan, the current study extends our understanding of CPA and CPA-related PTSD more broadly from Western countries to the Eastern societies. By separately investigating CPA relating to different perpetrators, cross-study comparison is enhanced. In the current study, the significance of considering cultural background in defining CPA and examining CPA-related PTSD was pointed out. Meanwhile, the role of victims' subjective reactions in the psychopathology of PTSD is highlighted. The findings and discussions could contribute for generating a more sophisticated clinical practice, especially with Asian or

  4. Background Paper for the Expert Meeting on the Gender-Related Aspects of Race Discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberlé Crenshaw

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Neither the gender aspects of racial discrimination nor the racial aspects of gender discrimination are fully comprehended within human rights discourses. Building on the growing recognition that race and gender discrimination are not mutually exclusive phenomena, this background paper forwards a provisional framework to identify various forms of subordination that can be said to reflect the interactive effects of race and gender discrimination. It suggests a provisional protocol to be followed to better identify the occasions in which such interactive discrimination may have occurred, and posits further that the responsibility to address the causes and consequences of such discrimination be shared widely among all human rights institutions.

  5. How cosmic microwave background correlations at large angles relate to mass autocorrelations in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenthal, George R.; Johnston, Kathryn V.

    1994-01-01

    The Sachs-Wolfe effect is known to produce large angular scale fluctuations in the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR) due to gravitational potential fluctuations. We show how the angular correlation function of the CMBR can be expressed explicitly in terms of the mass autocorrelation function xi(r) in the universe. We derive analytic expressions for the angular correlation function and its multipole moments in terms of integrals over xi(r) or its second moment, J(sub 3)(r), which does not need to satisfy the sort of integral constraint that xi(r) must. We derive similar expressions for bulk flow velocity in terms of xi and J(sub 3). One interesting result that emerges directly from this analysis is that, for all angles theta, there is a substantial contribution to the correlation function from a wide range of distance r and that radial shape of this contribution does not vary greatly with angle.

  6. Relation between cancer incidence or mortality and external natural background radiation in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ujeno, Y.

    1983-01-01

    Analysis was performed on the relationships between the organ dose-equivalent rate due to natural background radiation (mSv/a) and three parameters of cancer risk: the age-adjusted cancer incidence (patients x 10 5 persons x a -1 ) in 13 large areas, the standardized mortality ratio of cancers in 46 large areas, and the cancer mortality in the population aged more than 40 years old (cancer deaths x 10 5 persons x a -1 ) in 649 small areas. The age-adjusted liver cancer incidence in males fitted the exponential model significantly (p<0.01) and the relationship of stomach cancer mortality of aged males in small areas fitted the linear model significantly (p<0.05). No relationship was observed with regard to female cancer in either case. The relationships between the three parameters and various other cancers of both sexes were not statistically significant. (author)

  7. Influence of Complete Coriolis Force on the Dispersion Relation of Ocean Internal-wave in a Background Currents Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yongjun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this thesis, the influence of complete Coriolis force (the model includes both the vertical and horizontal components of Coriolis force on the dispersion relation of ocean internal-wave under background currents field are studied, it is important to the study of ocean internal waves in density-stratified ocean. We start from the control equation of sea water movement in the background of the non-traditional approximation, and the vertical velocity solution is derived where buoyancy frequency N(z gradually varies with the ocean depth z. The results show that the influence of complete Coriolis force on the dispersion relation of ocean internal-wave under background currents field is obvious, and these results provide strong evidence for the understanding of dynamic process of density stratified ocean internal waves.

  8. Albania; Background Information

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes a evolution of the financial system in Albania. The paper highlights that a two-tier banking system was created following passage of a new Central Bank Law and Commercial Banking Law in April 1992. The State Bank of Albania became the Bank of Albania and retained only the functions of a central bank. Its commercial operations were hived off to become the National Bank of Albania in July 1992, which was subsequently merged with the Albanian Commercial Bank to form the Nati...

  9. The variable colours of the fiddler crab Uca vomeris and their relation to background and predation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmi, Jan M; Marshall, Justin; Pix, Waltraud; Vorobyev, Misha; Zeil, Jochen

    2006-10-01

    Colour changes in fiddler crabs have long been noted, but a functional interpretation is still lacking. Here we report that neighbouring populations of Uca vomeris in Australia exhibit different degrees of carapace colours, which range from dull mottled to brilliant blue and white. We determined the spectral characteristics of the mud substratum and of the carapace colours of U. vomeris and found that the mottled colours of crabs are cryptic against this background, while display colours provide strong colour contrast for both birds and crabs, but luminance contrast only for a crab visual system. We tested whether crab populations may become cryptic under the influence of bird predation by counting birds overflying or feeding on differently coloured colonies. Colonies with cryptically coloured crabs indeed experience a much higher level of bird presence, compared to colourful colonies. We show in addition that colourful crab individuals subjected to dummy bird predation do change their body colouration over a matter of days. The crabs thus appear to modify their social signalling system depending on their assessment of predation risk.

  10. Information needs related to extension service and community outreach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottcher, Robert W

    2003-06-01

    Air quality affects everyone. Some people are affected by air quality impacts, regulations, and technological developments in several ways. Stakeholders include the medical community, ecologists, government regulators, industries, technology providers, academic professionals, concerned citizens, the news media, and elected officials. Each of these groups may perceive problems and opportunities differently, but all need access to information as it is developed. The diversity and complexity of air quality problems contribute to the challenges faced by extension and outreach professionals who must communicate with stakeholders having diverse backgrounds. Gases, particulates, biological aerosols, pathogens, and odors all require expensive and relatively complex technology to measure and control. Economic constraints affect the ability of regulators and others to measure air quality, and industry and others to control it. To address these challenges, while communicating air quality research results and concepts to stakeholders, three areas of information needs are evident. (1) A basic understanding of the fundamental concepts regarding air pollutants and their measurement and control is needed by all stakeholders; the Extension Specialist, to be effective, must help people move some distance up the learning curve. (2) Each problem or set of problems must be reasonably well defined since comprehensive solution of all problems simultaneously may not be feasible; for instance, the solution of an odor problem associated with animal production may not address atmospheric effects due to ammonia emissions. (3) The integrity of the communication process must be preserved by avoiding prejudice and protectionism; although stakeholders may seek to modify information to enhance their interests, extension and outreach professionals must be willing to present unwelcome information or admit to a lack of information. A solid grounding in fundamental concepts, careful and fair problem

  11. Increasing Power by Sharing Information from Genetic Background and Treatment in Clustering of Gene Expression Time Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sura Zaki Alrashid

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Clustering of gene expression time series gives insight into which genes may be co-regulated, allowing us to discern the activity of pathways in a given microarray experiment. Of particular interest is how a given group of genes varies with different conditions or genetic background. This paper develops
a new clustering method that allows each cluster to be parameterised according to whether the behaviour of the genes across conditions is correlated or anti-correlated. By specifying correlation between such genes,more information is gain within the cluster about how the genes interrelate. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is an irreversible neurodegenerative disorder that kills the motor neurons and results in death within 2 to 3 years from the symptom onset. Speed of progression for different patients are heterogeneous with significant variability. The SOD1G93A transgenic mice from different backgrounds (129Sv and C57 showed consistent phenotypic differences for disease progression. A hierarchy of Gaussian isused processes to model condition-specific and gene-specific temporal co-variances. This study demonstrated about finding some significant gene expression profiles and clusters of associated or co-regulated gene expressions together from four groups of data (SOD1G93A and Ntg from 129Sv and C57 backgrounds. Our study shows the effectiveness of sharing information between replicates and different model conditions when modelling gene expression time series. Further gene enrichment score analysis and ontology pathway analysis of some specified clusters for a particular group may lead toward identifying features underlying the differential speed of disease progression.

  12. The Psychologist's Troubled Background: Major Related Life Experiences of Psychology and Law Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werz, Janina; Buechner, Vanessa L.

    2017-01-01

    This study explores major-related life experiences (MRLE) of psychology and law students to examine the stereotype of the wounded psychology student. Previous studies have shown that psychology students know people with mental disorders and are seeking treatment themselves. However, these studies do not allow drawing conclusions about the…

  13. Relational Database Design in Information Science Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Terrence A.

    1985-01-01

    Reports on database management system (dbms) applications designed by library school students for university community at University of Iowa. Three dbms design issues are examined: synthesis of relations, analysis of relations (normalization procedure), and data dictionary usage. Database planning prior to automation using data dictionary approach…

  14. Event-related potentials and information processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brookhuis, Karel Anton

    1989-01-01

    We set out to test the hypotheses generated by Shiffrin & Schneider’s model of information procesing with our new tool, the ERP. The experiments were devised to test hypotheses that were orginally based on performance data alone, i.e. reaction time and errors. Although the overt behaviour was

  15. Reaching Out with Business-Related Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbes, Bill

    2000-01-01

    Discusses how the Bensenville Community Public Library (Illinois) met the growing needs of the business community by subscribing to Infotrac's Web-based General BusinessFile. Topics include meeting the information needs of business; installing a computer station at the Chamber of Commerce; and grant funding. (LRW)

  16. General Information about AIDS-Related Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and treatment options. AIDS-related lymphoma is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the ... cord. The sample may also be checked for Epstein-Barr virus . This procedure is also called an LP ...

  17. Background paper for regulations related to the exposure of uranium mine and mill workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The Atomic Energy Control Board is modifying the Atomic Energy Control Regulations to include a maximum permissible exposure to radon daughters for uranium mine and mill workers. In January 1976, after consultation with the uranium producers, union, and government regulatory bodies, the AECB issued a directive endorsing a maximum permissible annual occupational exposure to radon daughters of 4 Working Level Months (WLM). This exposure limit was an interim guideline to be applied for at least one year. The Board staff and members of the Mine Safety Advisory Committee have examined available evidence on the excess risk of lung cancer owing to exposure to radon daughters since then, and have assessed the arguments for both raising and lowering the exposure limit. The evidence is still not conclusive, and further studies, especially epidemiological ones, are needed. Nevertheless, the Board considers that the interim guideline is acceptable in the light of the present state of knowledge and that it should be incorporated into the regulations. This document explains why the Board has made this decision and discusses a number of related issues

  18. Orientations in adolescent use of information and communication technology: a digital divide by sociodemographic background, educational career, and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivusilta, Leena K; Lintonen, Tomi P; Rimpelä, Arja H

    2007-01-01

    The role of information and communication technology (ICT) in adolescents' lives was studied, with emphasis on whether there exists a digital divide based on sociodemographic background, educational career, and health. The assumption was that some groups of adolescents use ICT more so that their information utilization skills improve (computer use), while others use it primarily for entertainment (digital gaming, contacting friends by mobile phone). Data were collected by mailed survey from a nationally representative sample of 12- to 18-year-olds (n=7,292; response 70%) in 2001 and analysed using ANOVA. Computer use was most frequent among adolescents whose fathers had higher education or socioeconomic status, who came from nuclear families, and who continued studies after compulsory education. Digital gaming was associated with poor school achievement and attending vocational rather than upper secondary school. Mobile phone use was frequent among adolescents whose fathers had lower education or socioeconomic status, who came from non-nuclear families, and whose educational prospects were poor. Intensive use of each ICT form, especially of mobile phones, was associated with health problems. High social position, nuclear family, and a successful educational career signified good health in general, independently of the diverse usage of ICT. There exists a digital divide among adolescents: orientation to computer use is more common in educated well-off families while digital gaming and mobile phone use accumulate at the opposite end of the spectrum. Poorest health was reported by mobile phone users. High social background and success at school signify better health, independently of the ways of using ICT.

  19. Autism and intellectual disability are differentially related to sociodemographic background at birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Helen; Glasson, Emma; Nassar, Natasha; Whitehouse, Andrew; Bebbington, Ami; Bourke, Jenny; Jacoby, Peter; Dixon, Glenys; Malacova, Eva; Bower, Carol; Stanley, Fiona

    2011-03-30

    Research findings investigating the sociodemographics of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have been inconsistent and rarely considered the presence of intellectual disability (ID). We used population data on Western Australian singletons born from 1984 to 1999 (n = 398,353) to examine the sociodemographic characteristics of children diagnosed with ASD with or without ID, or ID without ASD compared with non-affected children. The profiles for the four categories examined, mild-moderate ID, severe ID, ASD without ID and ASD with ID varied considerably and we often identified a gradient effect where the risk factors for mild-moderate ID and ASD without ID were at opposite extremes while those for ASD with ID were intermediary. This was demonstrated clearly with increased odds of ASD without ID amongst older mothers aged 35 years and over (odds ratio (OR) = 1.69 [CI: 1.18, 2.43]), first born infants (OR = 2.78; [CI: 1.67, 4.54]), male infants (OR = 6.57 [CI: 4.87, 8.87]) and increasing socioeconomic advantage. In contrast, mild-moderate ID was associated with younger mothers aged less than 20 years (OR = 1.88 [CI: 1.57, 2.25]), paternal age greater than 40 years (OR = 1.59 [CI: 1.36, 1.86]), Australian-born and Aboriginal mothers (OR = 1.60 [CI: 1.41, 1.82]), increasing birth order and increasing social disadvantage (OR = 2.56 [CI: 2.27, 2.97]). Mothers of infants residing in regional or remote areas had consistently lower risk of ASD or ID and may be linked to reduced access to services or under-ascertainment rather than a protective effect of location. The different risk profiles observed between groups may be related to aetiological differences or ascertainment factors or both. Untangling these pathways is challenging but an urgent public health priority in view of the supposed autism epidemic.

  20. Smoking in European adolescents: relation between media influences, family affluence, and migration background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenstern, Matthis; Sargent, James D; Engels, Rutger C M E; Florek, Ewa; Hanewinkel, Reiner

    2013-10-01

    Seeing smoking depictions in movies has been identified as a determinant of smoking in adolescents. Little is known about how such media influences interact with other social risk factors. Differences in smoking rates in different socio-economic status groups might be explainable by differences in media exposure. There might also be differences in the average response to movie smoking exposure. We tested this hypothesis within a cross-national study conducted in six European countries. A total of 16,551 pupils from Germany, Iceland, Italy, Netherlands, Poland, and Scotland with a mean age of 13.4years (SD=1.18) were recruited from 114 state funded schools. Using previously validated methods, exposure to smoking depictions in movies was estimated for each student and related to ever smoking. The analysis was stratified by level of family affluence (low, medium, high) and migration history of parents (yes vs. no), controlling for a number of covariates like age, gender, school performance, television screen time, sensation seeking and rebelliousness and smoking within the social environment (peers, parents, siblings). We found a significant association for each category of family affluence and ethnicity between ever smoking and movie smoking exposure, also significant adjusted odds ratios for age, school performance, sensation seeking, peer smoking, mother smoking, and sibling smoking. This relationship between movie smoking and adolescent smoking was not moderated by family affluence or ethnicity. Although we used a very broad measure of economic status and migration history, the results suggest that the effects of exposure to movie smoking can be generalized to the population of youths across European countries. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Government Collection of Private Information: Background and Issues Related to the USA PATRIOT Act Reauthorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-02

    sparse use. The approval process is less familiar, multi-layered, sometimes cumbersome, and time consuming.131 Moreover, voluntary compliance, NSLs...nondisclosure requirement.153 Petitions, which survive a screening process designed to weed out frivolous challenges, may be granted only if the judge concludes...forms of material support are unconstitutionally vague.183 The Supreme Court has agreed to hear arguments which assert that they are incompatible with

  2. A smoking-related background helps moderate smokers to focus: An event-related potential study using a Go-NoGo task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detandt, Sandrine; Bazan, Ariane; Schröder, Elisa; Olyff, Giulia; Kajosch, Hendrik; Verbanck, Paul; Campanella, Salvatore

    2017-10-01

    Cognitive impairment is a major component in addiction. However, research has been inconclusive as to whether this is also the case for smokers. The present study aims at providing electrophysiological clue for altered inhibitory control in smokers and at investigating whether reduced inhibition was more pronounced during exposure to a smoking cue. ERPs were recorded during a visual Go-NoGo task performed by 18 smokers and 23 controls, in which either a frequent Go signal (letter "M") or a rare No-Go signal ("letter W") were superimposed on three different long-lasting background contexts: black-neutral, smoking-related and non smoking-related. (1) Smokers performed worse and had an earlier NoGo-N2 latency as compared to controls and independently of context, suggesting a general inhibition impairment; (2) with smoking-related backgrounds specifically, smokers made fewer mistakes than they did in other contexts and displayed a larger NoGo P3 amplitude. These data might suggest that background cues related to addiction may help smokers to be more accurate in an inhibition task. Our results show the classical inhibitory impairment in smokers as compared to non-smokers. However, our data also suggest that a smoking-related background may bolster the inhibitory ability of smokers specifically. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Health-Related Internet Use by Informal Caregivers of Children and Adolescents: An Integrative Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Eunhee; Kim, Heejung; Steinhoff, Andreanna

    2016-01-01

    Background Internet-based health resources can support informal caregivers who are caring for children or adolescents with health care needs. However, few studies discriminate informal caregivers? needs from those of their care recipients or those of people caring for adults. Objective This study reviews the literature of health-related Internet use among informal caregivers of children and adolescents. Methods A total of 17 studies were selected from literature searches conducted in 6 electr...

  4. Quantum teleportation for continuous variables and related quantum information processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furusawa, Akira; Takei, Nobuyuki

    2007-01-01

    Quantum teleportation is one of the most important subjects in quantum information science. This is because quantum teleportation can be regarded as not only quantum information transfer but also a building block for universal quantum information processing. Furthermore, deterministic quantum information processing is very important for efficient processing and it can be realized with continuous-variable quantum information processing. In this review, quantum teleportation for continuous variables and related quantum information processing are reviewed from these points of view

  5. Patterns of students' computer use and relations to their computer and information literacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundsgaard, Jeppe; Gerick, Julia

    2017-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have shown that there is a complex relationship between students’ computer and information literacy (CIL) and their use of information and communication technologies (ICT) for both recreational and school use. Methods: This study seeks to dig deeper into these complex...... relations by identifying different patterns of students’ school-related and recreational computer use in the 21 countries participating in the International Computer and Information Literacy Study (ICILS 2013). Results: Latent class analysis (LCA) of the student questionnaire and performance data from......, raising important questions about differences in contexts. Keywords: ICILS, Computer use, Latent class analysis (LCA), Computer and information literacy....

  6. Agricultural practice and water quality in the Netherlands in the 1992-2002 period. Background information for the third EU Nitrate Directive Member States report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fraters B; Hotsma PH; Langenberg VT; Leeuwen TC van; Mol APA; Olsthoorn CSM; Schotten CGJ; Willems WJ; EC-LNV; RIKZ; LEI; RIZA; CBS; LDL

    2004-01-01

    This overview provides the background information for the Netherlands Member State report, 'Nitrate Directive, status and trends of aquatic environment and agricultural practice' to be submitted to the European Commission mid-2004. It documents current agricultural practice, and groundwater and

  7. The impact of the information society on the customs relations

    OpenAIRE

    Troyan, Elena

    2017-01-01

    The Information Society is a new civilization; it is based on the information technologies. They influence on all spheres of life, including the customs service. Customs in the information society cooperates with other state bodies of the Russian Federation and the participants of foreign economic activity, so that it becomes involved in the global information process. The article examines how the information society effects on the customs legal relations, as well as identifies the positive a...

  8. Is investigator background related to outcome in head to head trials of psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy for adult depression? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana A Cristea

    Full Text Available The influence of factors related to the background of investigators conducting trials comparing psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy has remained largely unstudied. Specializations emphasizing biological determinants of mental disorders, like psychiatry, might favor pharmacotherapy, while others stressing psychosocial factors, like psychology, could promote psychotherapy. Yet financial conflict of interest (COI could be a confounding factor as authors with a medical specialization might receive more sponsoring from the pharmaceutical industry.We conducted a meta-analysis with subgroup and meta-regression analysis examining whether the specialization and affiliation of trial authors were associated to outcomes in the direct comparison of psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy for the acute treatment of depression. Meta-regression analysis also included trial risk of bias and author conflict of interest in relationship to the pharmaceutical industry.We included 45 trials. In half, the first author was psychologist. The last author was psychiatrist/MD in half of the trials, and a psychologist or statistician/other technical in the rest. Most lead authors had medical affiliations. Subgroup analysis indicated that studies with last authors statisticians favored pharmacotherapy. Univariate analysis showed a negative relationship between the presence of statisticians and outcomes favoring psychotherapy. Multivariate analysis showed that trials including authors with financial COI reported findings more favorable to pharmacotherapy.We report the first detailed overview of the background of authors conducting head to head trials for depression. Trials co-authored by statisticians appear to subtly favor pharmacotherapy. Receiving funding from the industry is more closely related to finding better outcomes for the industry's elective treatment than are factors related to authors' background.For a minority of authors we could not retrieve background information

  9. Excess relative risk of solid cancer mortality after prolonged exposure to naturally occurring high background radiation in Yangjiang, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun Quanfu; Tao Zufan [Ministry of Health, Beijing (China). Lab. of Industrial Hygiene; Akiba, Suminori (and others)

    2000-10-01

    A study was made on cancer mortality in the high-background radiation areas of Yangjiang, China. Based on hamlet-specific environmental doses and sex- and age-specific occupancy factors, cumulative doses were calculated for each subject. In this article, we describe how the indirect estimation was made on individual dose and the methodology used to estimate radiation risk. Then, assuming a linear dose response relationship and using cancer mortality data for the period 1979-1995, we estimate the excess relative risk per Sievert for solid cancer to be -0.11 (95% CI, -0.67, 0.69). Also, we estimate the excess relative risks of four leading cancers in the study areas, i.e., cancers of the liver, nasopharynx, lung and stomach. In addition, we evaluate the effects of possible bias on our risk estimation. (author)

  10. Relative effect of environmental factors, information literacy, course

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Computer literacy, as an aspect of information literacy refers to effectiveness in searching for ... study, that researchers in the sciences use ICT facilities in their information .... Human Kinetics and Health Education, Creative Arts, Chemical Engineering, ... Questions were asked to obtain information on the relative effect of.

  11. 76 FR 43331 - Labor-Management Relations Information Collection Requests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-20

    ... FEDERAL MEDIATION AND CONCILIATION SERVICE Labor-Management Relations Information Collection... the following public information collection requests (ICR) to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB... information collection requests are FMCS forms: Arbitrator's Report and Fee Statement (Agency Form R-19...

  12. 77 FR 56842 - Labor-Management Relations Information Collection Requests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-14

    ... FEDERAL MEDIATION AND CONCILIATION SERVICE Labor-Management Relations Information Collection... the following public information collection request (ICR) to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB... information collection request is the Notice to Mediation Agencies (Agency Form F-7), OMB control number 3076...

  13. Role of information theoretic uncertainty relations in quantum theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jizba, Petr, E-mail: p.jizba@fjfi.cvut.cz [FNSPE, Czech Technical University in Prague, Břehová 7, 115 19 Praha 1 (Czech Republic); ITP, Freie Universität Berlin, Arnimallee 14, D-14195 Berlin (Germany); Dunningham, Jacob A., E-mail: J.Dunningham@sussex.ac.uk [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton, BN1 9QH (United Kingdom); Joo, Jaewoo, E-mail: j.joo@surrey.ac.uk [Advanced Technology Institute and Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-15

    Uncertainty relations based on information theory for both discrete and continuous distribution functions are briefly reviewed. We extend these results to account for (differential) Rényi entropy and its related entropy power. This allows us to find a new class of information-theoretic uncertainty relations (ITURs). The potency of such uncertainty relations in quantum mechanics is illustrated with a simple two-energy-level model where they outperform both the usual Robertson–Schrödinger uncertainty relation and Shannon entropy based uncertainty relation. In the continuous case the ensuing entropy power uncertainty relations are discussed in the context of heavy tailed wave functions and Schrödinger cat states. Again, improvement over both the Robertson–Schrödinger uncertainty principle and Shannon ITUR is demonstrated in these cases. Further salient issues such as the proof of a generalized entropy power inequality and a geometric picture of information-theoretic uncertainty relations are also discussed.

  14. Role of information theoretic uncertainty relations in quantum theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jizba, Petr; Dunningham, Jacob A.; Joo, Jaewoo

    2015-01-01

    Uncertainty relations based on information theory for both discrete and continuous distribution functions are briefly reviewed. We extend these results to account for (differential) Rényi entropy and its related entropy power. This allows us to find a new class of information-theoretic uncertainty relations (ITURs). The potency of such uncertainty relations in quantum mechanics is illustrated with a simple two-energy-level model where they outperform both the usual Robertson–Schrödinger uncertainty relation and Shannon entropy based uncertainty relation. In the continuous case the ensuing entropy power uncertainty relations are discussed in the context of heavy tailed wave functions and Schrödinger cat states. Again, improvement over both the Robertson–Schrödinger uncertainty principle and Shannon ITUR is demonstrated in these cases. Further salient issues such as the proof of a generalized entropy power inequality and a geometric picture of information-theoretic uncertainty relations are also discussed

  15. Universal quantum uncertainty relations between nonergodicity and loss of information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Natasha; Bhattacharya, Samyadeb; SenDe, Aditi; Sen, Ujjwal

    2018-03-01

    We establish uncertainty relations between information loss in general open quantum systems and the amount of nonergodicity of the corresponding dynamics. The relations hold for arbitrary quantum systems interacting with an arbitrary quantum environment. The elements of the uncertainty relations are quantified via distance measures on the space of quantum density matrices. The relations hold for arbitrary distance measures satisfying a set of intuitively satisfactory axioms. The relations show that as the nonergodicity of the dynamics increases, the lower bound on information loss decreases, which validates the belief that nonergodicity plays an important role in preserving information of quantum states undergoing lossy evolution. We also consider a model of a central qubit interacting with a fermionic thermal bath and derive its reduced dynamics to subsequently investigate the information loss and nonergodicity in such dynamics. We comment on the "minimal" situations that saturate the uncertainty relations.

  16. Gender Differences in Stressors Related to Migration and Acculturation in Patients with Psychiatric Disorders and Turkish Migration Background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Matthias Johannes; Koch, Eckhardt

    2017-06-01

    Migration, acculturation, and psychiatric disorders may cause stress and adaptation processes differently in men and women, but empirical research is scarce. In a retrospective study n = 62 Turkish migrants and n = 62 native German inpatients with depressive or anxiety disorders, matched for age, gender, and diagnoses, were compared using a 10-item instrument for the assessment of migration- and acculturation related stressors (MIGSTR10). Gender differences in the prevalence of stressors and in the total sum of stressors were calculated and compared between migrants and indigenous patients. Results showed a higher global stress level in migrants and in women than in men with migration background. Regarding single stressors, the perceived loss of status was significantly more prevalent and more pronounced in men than in women (P stress should be taken into account in migration and acculturation research.

  17. Contribution of genetic background, traditional risk factors, and HIV-related factors to coronary artery disease events in HIV-positive persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rotger, Margalida; Glass, Tracy R; Junier, Thomas; Lundgren, Jens; Neaton, James D; Poloni, Estella S; van 't Wout, Angélique B; Lubomirov, Rubin; Colombo, Sara; Martinez, Raquel; Rauch, Andri; Günthard, Huldrych F; Neuhaus, Jacqueline; Wentworth, Deborah; van Manen, Danielle; Gras, Luuk A; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Albini, Laura; Torti, Carlo; Jacobson, Lisa P; Li, Xiuhong; Kingsley, Lawrence A; Carli, Federica; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Ford, Emily S; Sereti, Irini; Hadigan, Colleen; Martinez, Esteban; Arnedo, Mireia; Egaña-Gorroño, Lander; Gatell, Jose M; Law, Matthew; Bendall, Courtney; Petoumenos, Kathy; Rockstroh, Jürgen; Wasmuth, Jan-Christian; Kabamba, Kabeya; Delforge, Marc; De Wit, Stephane; Berger, Florian; Mauss, Stefan; de Paz Sierra, Mariana; Losso, Marcelo; Belloso, Waldo H; Leyes, Maria; Campins, Antoni; Mondi, Annalisa; De Luca, Andrea; Bernardino, Ignacio; Barriuso-Iglesias, Mónica; Torrecilla-Rodriguez, Ana; Gonzalez-Garcia, Juan; Arribas, José R; Fanti, Iuri; Gel, Silvia; Puig, Jordi; Negredo, Eugenia; Gutierrez, Mar; Domingo, Pere; Fischer, Julia; Fätkenheuer, Gerd; Alonso-Villaverde, Carlos; Macken, Alan; Woo, James; McGinty, Tara; Mallon, Patrick; Mangili, Alexandra; Skinner, Sally; Wanke, Christine A; Reiss, Peter; Weber, Rainer; Bucher, Heiner C; Fellay, Jacques; Telenti, Amalio; Tarr, Philip E; Schölvinck, Elisabeth H.

    BACKGROUND: Persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have increased rates of coronary artery disease (CAD). The relative contribution of genetic background, HIV-related factors, antiretroviral medications, and traditional risk factors to CAD has not been fully evaluated in the

  18. Establishing an Information Security System related to Physical Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Sung Soon; Yoo, Ho Sik

    2009-01-01

    A physical protection system (PPS) integrates people, procedures and equipment for the protection of assets or facilities against theft, sabotage or other malevolent attacks. In the physical protection field, it is important the maintain confidentiality of PPS related information, such as the alarm system layout, detailed maps of buildings, and guard schedules. In this abstract, we suggest establishing a methodology for an information security system. The first step in this methodology is to determine the information to protect and possible adversaries. Next, system designers should draw all possible paths to the information and arrange appropriate protection elements. Finally he/she should analyze and upgrade their information security system

  19. Genetic background influences age-related decline in visual and nonvisual retinal responses, circadian rhythms, and sleep☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Gareth; Heise, Ines; Starbuck, Becky; Osborne, Tamzin; Wisby, Laura; Potter, Paul; Jackson, Ian J.; Foster, Russell G.; Peirson, Stuart N.; Nolan, Patrick M.

    2015-01-01

    The circadian system is entrained to the environmental light/dark cycle via retinal photoreceptors and regulates numerous aspects of physiology and behavior, including sleep. These processes are all key factors in healthy aging showing a gradual decline with age. Despite their importance, the exact mechanisms underlying this decline are yet to be fully understood. One of the most effective tools we have to understand the genetic factors underlying these processes are genetically inbred mouse strains. The most commonly used reference mouse strain is C57BL/6J, but recently, resources such as the International Knockout Mouse Consortium have started producing large numbers of mouse mutant lines on a pure genetic background, C57BL/6N. Considering the substantial genetic diversity between mouse strains we expect there to be phenotypic differences, including differential effects of aging, in these and other strains. Such differences need to be characterized not only to establish how different mouse strains may model the aging process but also to understand how genetic background might modify age-related phenotypes. To ascertain the effects of aging on sleep/wake behavior, circadian rhythms, and light input and whether these effects are mouse strain-dependent, we have screened C57BL/6J, C57BL/6N, C3H-HeH, and C3H-Pde6b+ mouse strains at 5 ages throughout their life span. Our data show that sleep, circadian, and light input parameters are all disrupted by the aging process. Moreover, we have cataloged a number of strain-specific aging effects, including the rate of cataract development, decline in the pupillary light response, and changes in sleep fragmentation and the proportion of time spent asleep. PMID:25179226

  20. Genetic background influences age-related decline in visual and nonvisual retinal responses, circadian rhythms, and sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Gareth; Heise, Ines; Starbuck, Becky; Osborne, Tamzin; Wisby, Laura; Potter, Paul; Jackson, Ian J; Foster, Russell G; Peirson, Stuart N; Nolan, Patrick M

    2015-01-01

    The circadian system is entrained to the environmental light/dark cycle via retinal photoreceptors and regulates numerous aspects of physiology and behavior, including sleep. These processes are all key factors in healthy aging showing a gradual decline with age. Despite their importance, the exact mechanisms underlying this decline are yet to be fully understood. One of the most effective tools we have to understand the genetic factors underlying these processes are genetically inbred mouse strains. The most commonly used reference mouse strain is C57BL/6J, but recently, resources such as the International Knockout Mouse Consortium have started producing large numbers of mouse mutant lines on a pure genetic background, C57BL/6N. Considering the substantial genetic diversity between mouse strains we expect there to be phenotypic differences, including differential effects of aging, in these and other strains. Such differences need to be characterized not only to establish how different mouse strains may model the aging process but also to understand how genetic background might modify age-related phenotypes. To ascertain the effects of aging on sleep/wake behavior, circadian rhythms, and light input and whether these effects are mouse strain-dependent, we have screened C57BL/6J, C57BL/6N, C3H-HeH, and C3H-Pde6b+ mouse strains at 5 ages throughout their life span. Our data show that sleep, circadian, and light input parameters are all disrupted by the aging process. Moreover, we have cataloged a number of strain-specific aging effects, including the rate of cataract development, decline in the pupillary light response, and changes in sleep fragmentation and the proportion of time spent asleep. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Sexual health-related information delivery - are patient information leaflets still relevant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, Rick; Chung, Charles; Townsend, Amanda; Power, Melissa

    2016-06-01

    Background Patient information leaflets (PILs) are widely utilised within publically funded sexual health clinics to deliver sexual health-related information (SHRI); however, their continued value to clients in the era of social media is unclear. This study aimed to evaluate clients' opinions on three newly developed PILs and examine client views on other forms of SHRI delivery. An anonymous self-administered questionnaire was completed by clients attending the Western Sydney Sexual Health Centre (WSSHC) in 2012. High-risk population (HRP) vs non-high-risk population (non-HRP) views on PILs vs alternative methods of SHRI delivery were analysed by using Mann-Whitney U, Wilcoxon, McNemar and χ(2) tests. Over half (210/315; (67%)) of the consecutive clients from a culturally diverse population completed the survey. Sex workers (SW) and young people (YP) were significantly likely to have a high school education than non-HRP (PInformation Link (SHIL), a state-wide website and telephone line, were ranked significantly higher as a means of SHRI delivery on a Likert scale than newer technologies including Facebook (P<0.001), email (P<0.001), mobile phone applications (P<0.001), TVs in waiting rooms (P<0.001) and business cards (P<0.001). There was no significant difference in opinion between HRP and non-HRP. This study provides evidence for the ongoing use of PILs to deliver SHRI to clinic attendees, in conjunction with other forms of SHRI delivery such as websites and SHIL. Novel methods may require additional consumer engagement and a greater understanding of specific population's needs.

  2. Privacy-related context information for ubiquitous health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seppälä, Antto; Nykänen, Pirkko; Ruotsalainen, Pekka

    2014-03-11

    Ubiquitous health has been defined as a dynamic network of interconnected systems. A system is composed of one or more information systems, their stakeholders, and the environment. These systems offer health services to individuals and thus implement ubiquitous computing. Privacy is the key challenge for ubiquitous health because of autonomous processing, rich contextual metadata, lack of predefined trust among participants, and the business objectives. Additionally, regulations and policies of stakeholders may be unknown to the individual. Context-sensitive privacy policies are needed to regulate information processing. Our goal was to analyze privacy-related context information and to define the corresponding components and their properties that support privacy management in ubiquitous health. These properties should describe the privacy issues of information processing. With components and their properties, individuals can define context-aware privacy policies and set their privacy preferences that can change in different information-processing situations. Scenarios and user stories are used to analyze typical activities in ubiquitous health to identify main actors, goals, tasks, and stakeholders. Context arises from an activity and, therefore, we can determine different situations, services, and systems to identify properties for privacy-related context information in information-processing situations. Privacy-related context information components are situation, environment, individual, information technology system, service, and stakeholder. Combining our analyses and previously identified characteristics of ubiquitous health, more detailed properties for the components are defined. Properties define explicitly what context information for different components is needed to create context-aware privacy policies that can control, limit, and constrain information processing. With properties, we can define, for example, how data can be processed or how components

  3. 40 CFR 300.155 - Public information and community relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... POLLUTION CONTINGENCY PLAN Responsibility and Organization for Response § 300.155 Public information and community relations. (a) When an incident occurs, it is imperative to give the public prompt, accurate...

  4. Development of Information Technology of Object-relational Databases Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentyn A. Filatov

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is concerned with the development of information technology of object-relational databases design and study of object features infological and logical database schemes entities and connections.

  5. Assessment of technical strengths and information flow of energy conservation research in Japan. Volume 2. Background document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hane, G.J.; Lewis, P.M.; Hutchinson, R.A.; Rubinger, B.; Willis, A.

    1985-06-01

    Purpose of this study is to explore the status of R and D in Japan and the ability of US researchers to keep abreast of Japanese technical advances. US researchers familiar with R and D activities in Japan were interviewed in ten fields that are relevant to the more efficient use of energy: amorphous metals, biotechnology, ceramics, combustion, electrochemical energy storage, heat engines, heat transfer, high-temperature sensors, thermal and chemical energy storage, and tribology. The researchers were questioned about their perceptions of the strengths of R and D in Japan, comparative aspects of US work, and the quality of available information sources describing R and D in Japan. Of the ten related fields, the researchers expressed a strong perception that significant R and D is under way in amorphous metals, biotechnology, and ceramics, and that the US competitive position in these technologies will be significantly challenged. Researchers also identified alternative emphases in Japanese R and D programs in these areas that provide Japan with stronger technical capabilities. For example, in biotechnology, researchers noted the significant Japanese emphasis on industrial-scale bioprocess engineering, which contrasts with a more meager effort in the US. In tribology, researchers also noted the strength of the chemical tribology research in Japan and commented on the effective mix of chemical and mechanical tribology research. This approach contrasts with the emphasis on mechanical tribology in the US.

  6. Contribution of Genetic Background, Traditional Risk Factors, and HIV-Related Factors to Coronary Artery Disease Events in HIV-Positive Persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotger, Margalida; Glass, Tracy R.; Junier, Thomas; Lundgren, Jens; Neaton, James D.; Poloni, Estella S.; van 't Wout, Angélique B.; Lubomirov, Rubin; Colombo, Sara; Martinez, Raquel; Rauch, Andri; Günthard, Huldrych F.; Neuhaus, Jacqueline; Wentworth, Deborah; van Manen, Danielle; Gras, Luuk A.; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Albini, Laura; Torti, Carlo; Jacobson, Lisa P.; Li, Xiuhong; Kingsley, Lawrence A.; Carli, Federica; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Ford, Emily S.; Sereti, Irini; Hadigan, Colleen; Martinez, Esteban; Arnedo, Mireia; Egaña-Gorroño, Lander; Gatell, Jose M.; Law, Matthew; Bendall, Courtney; Petoumenos, Kathy; Rockstroh, Jürgen; Wasmuth, Jan-Christian; Kabamba, Kabeya; Delforge, Marc; De Wit, Stephane; Berger, Florian; Mauss, Stefan; de Paz Sierra, Mariana; Losso, Marcelo; Belloso, Waldo H.; Leyes, Maria; Campins, Antoni; Mondi, Annalisa; De Luca, Andrea; Bernardino, Ignacio; Barriuso-Iglesias, Mónica; Torrecilla-Rodriguez, Ana; Gonzalez-Garcia, Juan; Arribas, José R.; Fanti, Iuri; Gel, Silvia; Puig, Jordi; Negredo, Eugenia; Gutierrez, Mar; Domingo, Pere; Fischer, Julia; Fätkenheuer, Gerd; Alonso-Villaverde, Carlos; Macken, Alan; Woo, James; McGinty, Tara; Mallon, Patrick; Mangili, Alexandra; Skinner, Sally; Wanke, Christine A.; Reiss, Peter; Weber, Rainer; Bucher, Heiner C.; Fellay, Jacques; Telenti, Amalio; Tarr, Philip E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have increased rates of coronary artery disease (CAD). The relative contribution of genetic background, HIV-related factors, antiretroviral medications, and traditional risk factors to CAD has not been fully evaluated in the setting of HIV infection. Methods In the general population, 23 common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were shown to be associated with CAD through genome-wide association analysis. Using the Metabochip, we genotyped 1875 HIV-positive, white individuals enrolled in 24 HIV observational studies, including 571 participants with a first CAD event during the 9-year study period and 1304 controls matched on sex and cohort. Results A genetic risk score built from 23 CAD-associated SNPs contributed significantly to CAD (P = 2.9×10−4). In the final multivariable model, participants with an unfavorable genetic background (top genetic score quartile) had a CAD odds ratio (OR) of 1.47 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05–2.04). This effect was similar to hypertension (OR = 1.36; 95% CI, 1.06–1.73), hypercholesterolemia (OR = 1.51; 95% CI, 1.16–1.96), diabetes (OR = 1.66; 95% CI, 1.10–2.49), ≥1 year lopinavir exposure (OR = 1.36; 95% CI, 1.06–1.73), and current abacavir treatment (OR = 1.56; 95% CI, 1.17–2.07). The effect of the genetic risk score was additive to the effect of nongenetic CAD risk factors, and did not change after adjustment for family history of CAD. Conclusions In the setting of HIV infection, the effect of an unfavorable genetic background was similar to traditional CAD risk factors and certain adverse antiretroviral exposures. Genetic testing may provide prognostic information complementary to family history of CAD. PMID:23532479

  7. Usability of consumer-related information sources for design improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thiruvenkadam, G.; Brombacher, A.C.; Lu, Y.; Ouden, den P.H.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we report the findings of a study intended to assess the usability of consumer related information sources in order to improve the design processes of innovative electronic products. Specifically, an evaluation is done of the quality and content of information that would help product

  8. Multiple-choice pretesting potentiates learning of related information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Jeri L; Bjork, Elizabeth Ligon

    2016-10-01

    Although the testing effect has received a substantial amount of empirical attention, such research has largely focused on the effects of tests given after study. The present research examines the effect of using tests prior to study (i.e., as pretests), focusing particularly on how pretesting influences the subsequent learning of information that is not itself pretested but that is related to the pretested information. In Experiment 1, we found that multiple-choice pretesting was better for the learning of such related information than was cued-recall pretesting or a pre-fact-study control condition. In Experiment 2, we found that the increased learning of non-pretested related information following multiple-choice testing could not be attributed to increased time allocated to that information during subsequent study. Last, in Experiment 3, we showed that the benefits of multiple-choice pretesting over cued-recall pretesting for the learning of related information persist over 48 hours, thus demonstrating the promise of multiple-choice pretesting to potentiate learning in educational contexts. A possible explanation for the observed benefits of multiple-choice pretesting for enhancing the effectiveness with which related nontested information is learned during subsequent study is discussed.

  9. Job-Structure and Job-Related Information

    OpenAIRE

    川上, 善郎

    1981-01-01

    The requirements of job-related information in many domain, such as personnel selection, placement, training, personnel appraisal, job evaluation, job design etc, have developed many techniques of job analysis.In this paper, several approaches to analyze the job characteristics are reviewed; (a) conventional approach, (b) worker-oriented approach, and (c) perceived job characteristics approach.In addition, new direction of job-related information is discussed.

  10. NATO mission in Kosovo: historical backgrounds and informations of working as radiologist in the German field hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voelk, M.; Danz, B.

    2005-01-01

    The first part of this article describes how the NATO mission in Kosovo came into existence and focuses on the historical background and ethnical problems. The second part deals with the working conditions of a radiologist in the German field hospital in Prizren and focuses on the personnel and technical equipment in the radiological department. (orig.) [de

  11. Nonmaterialized Relations and the Support of Information Retrieval Applications by Relational Database Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Clifford A.

    1991-01-01

    Describes several aspects of the problem of supporting information retrieval system query requirements in the relational database management system (RDBMS) environment and proposes an extension to query processing called nonmaterialized relations. User interactions with information retrieval systems are discussed, and nonmaterialized relations are…

  12. Clinical background and its relation to results of percutaneous needle biopsy of suspected bone metastasis under guidance with CT fluoroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Jun; Koyama, Yoshinori; Morita, Hideo; Takahashi, Ayako; Nakajima, Takahito; Yagi, Akiko; Arai, Kiyokazu; Shinozaki, Tetsuya; Watanabe, Hideomi

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical background of needle biopsy of suspected bone metastasis under guidance with CT fluoroscopy. During a 3-year period (from April 2000 to March 2003), 103 needle biopsies on 101 lesions of 90 patients were performed for pathological evaluation of suspected bone metastasis. The clinical course of these patients prior to biopsy and its relation to the biopsy results were retrospectively reviewed. Sixty-two patients (69% of total cases) were referred for biopsy from orthopedic surgeons, and 51 of these patients consulted orthopedic surgeons on the initial presentation. Malignancy was pathologically proved in 47 (76%) of the 62 orthopedic patients, and in 19 (68%) of the 28 patients referred from other clinicians. Thirteen (21%) of the orthopedic patients had a history of malignancy, while 22 (78%) of the non-orthopedic patients were cancer patients. Metastasis was pathologically proved in 23 (66%) of the 35 patients with a history of malignancy, while malignancy was pathologically proved in 43 (78%) of the 55 patients without known malignancy. Diagnostic accuracy of the needle bone biopsy was 96%, and its complication rate was 0.7%. In the era of CT fluoroscopy, needle biopsy for suspected bone metastasis was most frequently requested for the patients who consulted orthopedic surgeons for the occurrence of local bone pain as the initial symptom of unknown malignancy. Frequency of malignancy proved by the biopsy in those patients was as high as that in the cancer patients referred from other clinicians. (author)

  13. Infants' Background Television Exposure during Play: Negative Relations to the Quantity and Quality of Mothers' Speech and Infants' Vocabulary Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masur, Elise Frank; Flynn, Valerie; Olson, Janet

    2016-01-01

    Research on immediate effects of background television during mother-infant toy play shows that an operating television in the room disrupts maternal communicative behaviors crucial for infants' vocabulary acquisition. This study is the first to examine associations between frequent background TV/video exposure during mother-infant toy play at…

  14. Increasing Power by Sharing Information from Genetic Background and Treatment in Clustering of Gene Expression Time Series

    OpenAIRE

    Sura Zaki Alrashid; Muhammad Arifur Rahman; Nabeel H Al-Aaraji; Neil D Lawrence; Paul R Heath

    2018-01-01

    Clustering of gene expression time series gives insight into which genes may be co-regulated, allowing us to discern the activity of pathways in a given microarray experiment. Of particular interest is how a given group of genes varies with different conditions or genetic background. This paper develops
a new clustering method that allows each cluster to be parameterised according to whether the behaviour of the genes across conditions is correlated or anti-correlated. By specifying correlati...

  15. The study of different attention states under different background music based on Event-Related potential analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Yun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper conducts the research on the attention sates based on ERP analysis when the subjects are under the quiet, flute and zither background music. The amplitude and latency of P300 are analyzed. The results show that there are greater P300 amplitudes and smaller P300 latencies of CZ, PZ, OZ and CP3 in music background than those in quiet background. The PCA and ICA achieve to select the effective data components and the head model is reconstructed. The active degree of brain areas are analyzed by using the source location methods. The result shows that the brain’s excitement is very obvious under the Bach's flute background. The study also indicates that some background music might help to improve the attention.

  16. Uncertainty relations for information entropy in wave mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bialynicki-Birula, I.; Pittsburgh Univ., Pa.; Mycielski, J.

    1975-01-01

    New uncertainty relations in quantum mechanics are derived. They express restrictions imposed by quantum theory on probability distributions of canonically conjugate variables in terms of corresponding information entropies. The Heisenberg uncertainty relation follows from those inequalities and so does the Gross-Nelson inequality. (orig.) [de

  17. Ethnobotanical uses of neem (Azadirachta indica A.Juss.; Meliaceae) leaves in Bali (Indonesia) and the Indian subcontinent in relation with historical background and phytochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujarwo, Wawan; Keim, Ary P; Caneva, Giulia; Toniolo, Chiara; Nicoletti, Marcello

    2016-08-02

    Neem (Azadirachta indica; Meliaceae) is widely known for its cold pressed seed oil, mainly used as insecticide, but also for cosmetic, medicinal and agricultural uses. The seed oil is widely employed in the Indian subcontinent, and the leaves seem to have a lower relevance, but the ethnobotanical information of Bali (Indonesia) considers the utilisation of leaves for medicinal properties. We report ethnopharmacological information about current uses of neem, in particular of the leaves, besides the insecticidal one, we discuss on the historical background of their uses. Ethnobotanical data were collected using both literature and scientific references and semi-structured interviews with 50 informants (ages ranged between 14 and 76 years old) through the snowball method in thirteen aga (indigenous Balinese) villages, following Ethic code procedures. The informants were asked to specify: which part of the plant was used, and how that plant part was used. Plant specimens were collected, identified and made into herbarium voucher. In consideration of the high variability and complex chemical constituent of neem, a HPTLC analysis of neem leaves coming from both the Indonesian island of Bali and the Indian subcontinent was carried out. The data on the medical use of traditional preparations from leaves of neem display a wide spectrum of applications. In the Indian subcontinent, neem leaves are used to treat dental and gastrointestinal disorders, malaria fevers, skin diseases, and as insects repellent, while the Balinese used neem leaves as a diuretic and for diabetes, headache, heartburn, and stimulating the appetite. Differences in utilisation cannot be related to chemical differences and other constituents besides limonoids must be investigated and related to the multipurpose activity of neem. This study revealed that neem leaves are believed to treat diabetes in both Balinese and Indian communities. Limonoids can not be considered the only responsible of digestive

  18. Are Principal Background and School Processes Related to Teacher Job Satisfaction? A Multilevel Study Using Schools and Staffing Survey 2003-04

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jianping; Leslie, Jeffrey M.; Spybrook, Jessaca K.; Ma, Xin

    2012-01-01

    Using nationally representative samples for public school teachers and principals, the authors inquired into whether principal background and school processes are related to teacher job satisfaction. Employing hierarchical linear modeling (HLM), the authors were able to control for background characteristics at both the teacher and school levels.…

  19. You don't have to believe everything you read: background knowledge permits fast and efficient validation of information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Tobias; Schroeder, Sascha; Wöhrmann, Britta

    2009-03-01

    In social cognition, knowledge-based validation of information is usually regarded as relying on strategic and resource-demanding processes. Research on language comprehension, in contrast, suggests that validation processes are involved in the construction of a referential representation of the communicated information. This view implies that individuals can use their knowledge to validate incoming information in a routine and efficient manner. Consistent with this idea, Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrated that individuals are able to reject false assertions efficiently when they have validity-relevant beliefs. Validation processes were carried out routinely even when individuals were put under additional cognitive load during comprehension. Experiment 3 demonstrated that the rejection of false information occurs automatically and interferes with affirmative responses in a nonsemantic task (epistemic Stroop effect). Experiment 4 also revealed complementary interference effects of true information with negative responses in a nonsemantic task. These results suggest the existence of fast and efficient validation processes that protect mental representations from being contaminated by false and inaccurate information.

  20. Antibiotic Resistance Profile in Relation to Phylogenetic Background in Escherichia coli Isolated From Fecal Samples of Healthy Ostrich

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Mohamadi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: E. coli is regarded as a reservoir for antibiotic resistance in foods of animal origin. E. coli can be categories into four mainphylogenetic groups (A, B1, B2 and D. The commensal E. coli strains mostly are assigned to the phylo-groups A and B1. Objectives: The purposes of this study were to determine the phylogenetic group/subgroups and antibiotic resistance patterns of ostrich E. coli isolates in Iran. Materials and Methods: A total of 126 E. coli isolates were obtained from cloacae swabs of the healthy ostrich in Kerman, Iran. The E. coliisolates were confirmed using biochemical API 20E identification system. The confirmed isolates were studied to determine phylogeneticbackground by PCR. The isolates were tested for antibiotic resistance against 12 different antibiotic disk by disk diffusion method. Results: Phylotyping of E. coli isolates indicated that 74 isolates belonged to A, 27 isolates to B1, 7 isolates to B2, and 18 isolates to D groups.Also the isolates fell into six phylogenetic subgroups, including 34 isolates in A0, 40 isolates in A1, one isolate in B22, 6 isolates in B23, 11isolates in D1 and 7 isolates in subgroup D2. In the examined E. coli isolates, the maximum rate of resistance was against tetracycline, andthe minimum rate of resistance was against amoxicillin. Twenty three antibiotic resistance patterns were detected among the isolates. Thecefoxitin and tetracycline resistance pattern was the most prevalent in the isolates that belonged to phylo-group A. Conclusions: In conclusion, the result of the present study revealed a low frequency of antibiotic resistance in ostrich E. coli isolates.The antibiotic resistance patterns were in relation to A and D phylogenetic groups. Further studies are needed to better understand thedistribution of phylogenetic groups in poultry isolates.

  1. Violence against the adolescents of Kolkata: A study in relation to the socio-economic background and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, Sibnath; Ray, Mrinalkanti; Bhattacharyya, Banhishikha; Sun, Jiandong

    2016-02-01

    This study attempts to understand the nature of violence suffered by the adolescents of Kolkata (erstwhile Calcutta) and to identify its relation with their socio-economic background and mental health variables such as anxiety, adjustment, and self-concept. It is a cross-sectional study covering a total of 370 adolescents (182 boys and 188 girls) from six higher secondary schools in Kolkata. The data was gathered by way of a semi-structured questionnaire and three standard psychological tests. Findings revealed that 52.4%, 25.1%, and 12.7% adolescents suffered psychological, physical, and sexual violence in the last year. Older adolescents (aged 17-18 years) suffered more psychological violence than the younger ones (15-16 years) (pviolence between adult members in the family. More than three-fifth (61.9%) adolescents experienced at least one type of violence, while one-third (32.7%) experienced physical or sexual violence or both. Whatever its nature is, violence leaves a scar on the mental health of the victims. Those who have been through regular psychological violence reported high anxiety, emotional adjustment problem, and low self-concept. Sexual abuse left a damaging effect on self-concept (pviolence or the witnessing of violence prompted high anxiety scores (pconcept (p<0.05). This study stresses the need to provide individual counselling services to the maltreated adolescents of Kolkata so that their psychological traumas can heal and that they can move on in life with new hopes and dreams. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Contribution of genetic background, traditional risk factors, and HIV-related factors to coronary artery disease events in HIV-positive persons

    OpenAIRE

    Rotger, Margalida; Glass, Tracy R; Junier, Thomas; Lundgren, Jens; Neaton, James D; Poloni, Estella S; van 't Wout, Angélique B; Lubomirov, Rubin; Colombo, Sara; Martinez, Raquel; Rauch, Andri; Günthard, Huldrych F; Neuhaus, Jacqueline; Wentworth, Deborah; van Manen, Danielle

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have increased rates of coronary artery disease (CAD). The relative contribution of genetic background, HIV-related factors, antiretroviral medications, and traditional risk factors to CAD has not been fully evaluated in the setting of HIV infection. METHODS: In the general population, 23 common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were shown to be associated with CAD through genome-wide association analysis. Using the ...

  3. Influence of Flavors on the Propagation of E-Cigarette–Related Information: Social Media Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiaqi; Zeng, Daniel Dajun; Tsui, Kwok Leung

    2018-01-01

    Background Modeling the influence of e-cigarette flavors on information propagation could provide quantitative policy decision support concerning smoking initiation and contagion, as well as e-cigarette regulations. Objective The objective of this study was to characterize the influence of flavors on e-cigarette–related information propagation on social media. Methods We collected a comprehensive dataset of e-cigarette–related discussions from public Pages on Facebook. We identified 11 categories of flavors based on commonly used categorizations. Each post’s frequency of being shared served as a proxy measure of information propagation. We evaluated a set of regression models and chose the hurdle negative binomial model to characterize the influence of different flavors and nonflavor control variables on e-cigarette–related information propagation. Results We found that 5 flavors (sweet, dessert & bakery, fruits, herbs & spices, and tobacco) had significantly negative influences on e-cigarette–related information propagation, indicating the users’ tendency not to share posts related to these flavors. We did not find a positive significance of any flavors, which is contradictory to previous research. In addition, we found that a set of nonflavor–related factors were associated with information propagation. Conclusions Mentions of flavors in posts did not enhance the popularity of e-cigarette–related information. Certain flavors could even have reduced the popularity of information, indicating users’ lack of interest in flavors. Promoting e-cigarette–related information with mention of flavors is not an effective marketing approach. This study implies the potential concern of users about flavorings and suggests a need to regulate the use of flavorings in e-cigarettes. PMID:29572202

  4. Foraging for Information in the EHR: The Search for Adherence Related Information by Mental Health Clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Bryan; Butler, Jorie; Zirkle, Maryan; Hammond, Kenric; Weir, Charlene

    2016-01-01

    In this project we sought to qualitatively describe clinician's search for information related to the complex construct of adherence. Nineteen think aloud observations and semi-structured interviews were conducted with mental health providers as they prepared for a patient visit. The transcripts were coded according to constructs from information foraging theory (information goal, patch, scent, enrichment, and opportunity cost). The search strategies uncovered were complicated: provider's searches were sometimes multi-staged (e.g. a search of the EHR led to further enquiry when interviewing the patient), and involved multiple 'patches' (i.e. data from the EHR, the patient and other providers were all sought out). In addition, some information that providers considered relevant to understand adherence related questions was non-obvious (e.g. the absence of specific information was considered a useful cue). Providers' information search strategies for complex constructs are at times non-intuitive; implications for the design of EHR summarization tools are discussed.

  5. Internet use by Chinese women seeking pregnancy-related information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ling-ling; Larsson, Margareta; Luo, Shu-yuan

    2013-07-01

    to investigate whether and how Chinese pregnant women used the Internet to retrieve pregnancy-related information. a descriptive, cross-sectional design using a waiting-room questionnaire was employed to obtain information from Chinese pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic of a general hospital in Guangzhou, mainland China from September to October in 2011. a total of 335 Chinese women pregnant at least 32 weeks participated in the study with the response rate 85%. the great majority of the women (91.9%) had access to the Internet. Most of them (88.7%) used it to retrieve health information and began from the beginning of the pregnancy. Fetal development and nutrition in pregnancy were the two most often mentioned topics of interest. More than half of the women regarded the information as reliable. The first most important criterion for judging the trustworthiness of web-based information was if the facts were consistent with information from other sources; the second most important criterion was if references were provided. Most (75.1%) of the women did not discuss the information they retrieved from the Internet with their health professionals. the Internet was a common source for pregnancy related information among Chinese pregnant women, the same as that in the western countries. Health professionals should be able to guide Chinese pregnant women to high-quality, web-based information and then take the opportunity to discuss this information with them during antenatal visits, consultations and childbirth education classes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. METHODOLOGICAL BACKGROUND OF EXPERT ESTIMATION OF INITIAL DATA COMPLETENESS AND QUALITY ACCORDING TO THE CERTIFIED INFORMATION SECURITY SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. K. Fisenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem of information security systems certification is analyzed and the tasks of initial data analysis are carried out. The objectives, indices and decision making criteria, as well as the challenges to be addressed are formulated. It is shown that, in order to improve quality, reduce time and cost of preparation for certification, it is reasonable to use software system for automatization of the process of initial data analysis, presented by the owner of the information system.

  7. Relation between distribution coefficient of radioactive strontium and solid-liquid distribution ratio of background stable strontium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igarashi, Toshifumi; Mahara, Yasunori; Okamura, Masaki; Ashikawa, Nobuo.

    1992-01-01

    Distribution coefficients (K d ) of nuclides, which are defined as the ratio of the adsorbed concentration to the solution concentration, are important in predicting nuclide migration in the subsurface environment. This study was undertaken to contrust an effective method of determining the most pertinent K d value for simulating in situ distribution phenomena between the solid and liquid phases, by using background stable isotopes. This paper describes the applicability of this method to Sr by carrying out a batch Sr adsorption experiment where stable Sr coexisted with the radioactive isotope, 85 Sr, and by comparing the concentration distribution ratio of the background stable Sr with the K d value obtained by the batch experiment. The results showed that the K d of 85 Sr (K d85 ) agreed well with the K d of the coexisting stable Sr (K ds ) and that the two values decreased with an increase in the concentration of the stable Sr, when sand was used as an adsorbent. In addition, the K d85 corresponded to the ratio of the exchangeable solid-phase concentration of background stable Sr to the concentration of the background stable Sr in groundwater when the concentration of the coexisting stable Sr approached the background level. On the other hand, when powdered rock samples were used, the K d85 did not agree with the K ds , and the concentration distribution ratio of the background stable Sr was greater than the K d85 . This discrepancy might be due to the disequilibrium resulting from grinding the rock matrices. This suggests that measurement of the background stable Sr distribution ratio between the solid and liquid phases can be an effective method of estimating the K d of radioactive Sr when the groundwater is in satisfactory contact with the adsorption medium. (author)

  8. Radiological assessment of residences in the Oak Ridge area. Volume 1. Background information for ORNL environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsakeres, F.S.; Shank, K.E.; Chaudhry, M.Y.; Ahmad, S.; DiZillo-Benoit, P.M.; Oakes, T.W.

    1980-10-01

    Measurements of exposure rates using thermoluminescent dosimeters placed within residences in the Oak Ridge/Knoxville area are presented. The objective of this investigation was to determine the radiation component acquired by Oak Ridge National Laboratory employee personnel dosimeter-security badges during residential badge storage and to develop a model to predict the radiation exposure rate in Oak Ridge/Knoxville-area homes. The exposure rates varied according to building material used and geographic location. Exposure rates were higher in the fall and lower in the spring; stone residences had a higher average dose equivalent rate than residences made of wood. An average yearly exposure rate was determined to be 78 millirems per year for the Oak Ridge-area homes. This value can be compared to the natural background radiation dose equivalent rate in the United States of 80 to 200 millirems per year

  9. Political Public Relations − Media and Information Management

    OpenAIRE

    Tomić, Zoran; Grbavac, Ivana

    2016-01-01

    Political public relations, as one of the PR programmes, has slowly created strategies and tactics for communication with the public and the media. Media management and information management are the most important activities of the political public relations. These activities are frequently connected with non-ethical communication, whose aim is media manipulation and manipulation of the public. Media manipulation is well known as communication spin. These activities are created by governm...

  10. Influence of sex and genetic background on anxiety-related and stress-induced behaviour of prodynorphin-deficient mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Kastenberger

    Full Text Available The role of dynorphin/kappa opioid receptors in epilepsy and addiction are well accepted, but their function in emotional control is not yet fully understood. Data obtained from different strains of prodynorphin (Pdyn- and kappa opioid receptor (KOP-deficient mice do not provide a consistent picture of the functions of Dyn/KOP in anxiety, suggesting the influence of testing conditions and/or genetic background. Therefore, we investigated the behaviour and neurochemistry of male and female Pdyn KO mice on the balb/c and C57Bl/6N background. Consistent with our results obtained from male mice on the C57bl/6N background, we observed a less anxious phenotype in the elevated plus maze, open-field and light-dark test in male mice on the balb/c background. Female mice on the balb/c background also displayed less anxiety like behaviour; however these data reflect high trait anxiety and inter-individual differences. In contrast, female mice on the C57Bl/6N background displayed low trait anxiety and a paradigm-dependent reduction of anxiety. No differences were observed in the forced swim test, while balb/c Pdyn KO mice displayed prolonged immobility in the tail suspension test. In line with our previous results, we observed reduced CRH mRNA in the central amygdala in all groups of mice. In contrast, the recently observed CRH mRNA reduction in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus appears restricted to male, but not female mice. Our data support previous data suggesting a pronounced impact of endogenous prodynorphin-derived peptides on anxiety. Moreover, our data support the idea that the less anxious phenotype manifests only at elevated stress levels.

  11. Questions related to Bitcoin and other Informational Money

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; de Leeuw, K.

    2013-01-01

    A collection of questions about Bitcoin and its hypothetical relatives Bitguilder and Bitpenny is formulated. These questions concern technical issues about protocols, security issues, issues about the formalizations of informational monies in various contexts, and issues about forms of use and

  12. Relation between entropy functional of Keizer and information theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freidkin, E.S.; Nettleton, R.E.

    1990-01-01

    An equation given by Keizer which relates the second-order functional derivative of the steady-state entropy to the inverse fluctuation correlation function is satisified by the information-theoretic entropy if the equation is extended to arbitrary nonequilibrium states

  13. 36 CFR 1256.60 - Information relating to financial institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... financial institutions. 1256.60 Section 1256.60 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND... General Restrictions § 1256.60 Information relating to financial institutions. (a) In accordance with 5 U... regulation or supervision of financial institutions. (b) The Archivist of the United States may determine...

  14. Consequences of information technology usage on retailer-supplier relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars

    1. Retailers and suppliers increasingly tend to form long-term co-operative relationships. In the literature, the use of information technology is an enabling factor behind this trend. Nevertheless, our understanding of how information technology influences retailer-supplier relationships is still...... limited. The purpose of this paper therefore is to study the consequences of information technology usage on retailer supplier relationships, focusing on inter-organisational systems. 2. The paper begins by discussing the nature of retailer-supplier relations, noting that whereas these relationships have...... traditionally been adversarial, retailers and suppliers are beginning to realise that they can benefit from co-operating. Further, developmental processes in co-operative inter-organisational relations are discussed and the important role of social exchange in inter-organisational relationships is stressed. 3...

  15. Background air pollution studies in urban and rural areas of Bangladesh using nuclear-related analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.H.; Khaliquzzaman, M.; Tarafdar, S.A.; Biswas, S.K.; Islam, A.

    1994-01-01

    The trace element constituents of aerosols such as Hg, Pb, Cd, Se, As, Cu, Zn, Cr, V, etc. are permanent pollutants affecting the biosphere and the general ecosystem. The measurements of these elements collected on air filters, in rainwater, and also in some bioindicators such as moss and lichen, can yield very significant information on the origin, transport, removal and deposition of these pollutants. A set of sensitive and precise nuclear-related and chemical methods such as PIXE, EDXRF, FAAS and DPASV have, therefore, been developed and applied to analyze a number of trace and minor elements in air particulates, coal fly ash, plant materials, moss and water. Further analytical developments would include INAA and TRXRF. Some of the results from air particulates (integral), coal fly ash and moss analyses are presented to illustrate the experience level of the Laboratory. A core programme of study on the trace element composition of aerosols from urban and rural atmosphere in Bangladesh has been planned for implementation within the framework of this CRP. 10 refs, 1 fig., 5 tabs

  16. Relative quality of internet-derived gastrointestinal cancer information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, David S Y; Willicombe, Anita; Reid, Thomas D; Beaton, Ceri; Arnold, David; Ward, James; Davies, I Llion; Lewis, Wyn G

    2012-12-01

    Internet-derived health care information is increasingly accessed by patients, yet its quality and accuracy is variable and unregulated. The aim of this study was to assess the information available regarding common gastrointestinal cancers via three internet search engines (Google, Yahoo and Bing). The top 30 websites for each of the terms: oesophageal, gastric, pancreatic, colon and rectal cancer were evaluated (University of Michigan Consumer Health Website Checklist) and scored [-80 (poor) to 90 (excellent)]. The median score was 53 (-7 to 81) and was significantly higher for oesophageal (61) and pancreatic (65) cancer websites, compared with gastric (49), colon (48) and rectal cancer (50) (p = 0.014). Median scores related to charitable organisations were significantly better than academic, commercial, news agency, care provider, layperson and medical information websites collectively (79 vs. 42, p < 0.0001). Overall quality of internet-derived gastrointestinal cancer information remains poor and patients and clinicians should be aware.

  17. Validation of the XLACS code related to contribution of resolved and unresolved resonances and background cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anaf, J.; Chalhoub, E.S.

    1990-01-01

    The procedures for calculating contributions of resolved and unresolved resonances and background cross sections, in XLACS code, were revised. Constant weighting function and zero Kelvin temperature were considered. Discrepancies found were corrected and now the validated XLACS code generates results that are correct and in accordance with its originally established procedures. (author)

  18. Background Intestinal 18F-FDG Uptake Is Related to Serum Lipid Profile and Obesity in Breast Cancer Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Jeon Yoon

    Full Text Available This study investigated the relationships between background intestinal uptake on 18F-FDG PET and cardio-metabolic risk (CMR factors.A total of 326 female patients that underwent 18F-FDG PET to determine the initial stage of breast cancer were enrolled. None of the patients had history of diabetes or hypertension. The background intestinal uptake on PET was visually graded (low vs. high uptake group and quantitatively measured using the maximal standardized uptake value (SUVmax. SUVmax of 7 bowel segments (duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, hepatic flexure, splenic flexure, and descending colon-sigmoid junction were averaged for the total bowel (TB SUVmax. Age, body mass index (BMI, fasting blood glucose level (BST, triglyceride (TG, cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL, and low density lipoprotein (LDL were the considered CMR factors. The relationships between background intestinal 18F-FDG uptake on PET and diverse CMR factors were analyzed.The visual grades based on background intestinal 18F-FDG uptake classified 100 (30.7% patients into the low uptake group, while 226 (69.3% were classified into the high uptake group. Among CMR factors, age (p = 0.004, BMI (p<0.001, and TG (p<0.001 were significantly different according to visual grade of background intestinal 18F-FDG uptake. Quantitative TB SUVmax showed significant positive correlation with age (r = 0.203, p<0.001, BMI (r = 0.373, p<0.001, TG (r = 0.338, p<0.001, cholesterol (r = 0.148, p = 0.008, and LDL (r = 0.143, p = 0.024 and significant negative correlation with HDL (r = -0.147, p = 0.022. Multivariate analysis indicated that BMI and TG were independent factors in both visually graded background intestinal 18F-FDG uptake (p = 0.027 and p = 0.023, respectively and quantitatively measured TB SUVmax (p = 0.006 and p = 0.004, respectively.Increased background intestinal 18F-FDG uptake on PET may suggest alteration of lipid metabolism and risk of cardio-metabolic disease in non

  19. Physician's emerging roles relating to trends in health information technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Johnson, J

    2014-08-12

    Objective: To determine the new roles that physicians will adopt in the near future to adjust to accelerating trends from managed care to outcome-based practice to health care reform to health information technology to the evolving role of health consumers. Methods: Trends and related developments concerning the changing roles of physicians based on prior literature reviews. Results: Six possible roles, traditional, gatekeeper, coach, navigator, informatician and one voice among many, are discussed in terms of physician's centrality, patient autonomy, decision-making and uncertainty, information seeking, satisfaction and outcomes, particularly those related to compliance. Conclusion: A greater understanding of these emerging roles could lead to more efficacious outcomes in our ever changing, increasingly complex medical system. Patients often have little understanding of emerging trends that lead to the development of specialized roles such as hospitalist and navigators and, relatedly, the evolving roles of physicians.

  20. From Cleanup to Stewardship. A companion report to Accelerating Cleanup: Paths to Closure and background information to support the scoping process required for the 1998 PEIS Settlement Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    1999-10-01

    Long-term stewardship is expected to be needed at more than 100 DOE sites after DOE's Environmental Management program completes disposal, stabilization, and restoration operations to address waste and contamination resulting from nuclear research and nuclear weapons production conducted over the past 50 years. From Cleanup to stewardship provides background information on the Department of Energy (DOE) long-term stewardship obligations and activities. This document begins to examine the transition from cleanup to long-term stewardship, and it fulfills the Secretary's commitment to the President in the 1999 Performance Agreement to provide a companion report to the Department's Accelerating Cleanup: Paths to Closure report. It also provides background information to support the scoping process required for a study on long-term stewardship required by a 1998 Settlement Agreement.

  1. Background Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zandersen, Marianne; Hyytiäinen, Kari; Saraiva, Sofia

    This document serves as a background material to the BONUS Pilot Scenario Workshop, which aims to develop harmonised regional storylines of socio-ecological futures in the Baltic Sea region in a collaborative effort together with other BONUS projects and stakeholders.......This document serves as a background material to the BONUS Pilot Scenario Workshop, which aims to develop harmonised regional storylines of socio-ecological futures in the Baltic Sea region in a collaborative effort together with other BONUS projects and stakeholders....

  2. Hazardous air pollutant emissions from process units in the synthetic organic chemical manufacturing industry: Background information for proposed standards. Volume 1B. Control technologies. Draft report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    A draft rule for the regulation of emissions of organic hazardous air pollutants (HAP's) from chemical processes of the synthetic organic chemical manufacturing industry (SOCMI) is being proposed under the authority of Sections 112, 114, 116, and 301 of the Clean Air Act, as amended in 1990. The volume of the Background Information Document presents discussions of control technologies used in the industry and the costs of those technologies

  3. Hazardous air pollutant emissions from process units in the synthetic organic chemical manufacturing industry: Background information for proposed standards. Volume 1A. National impacts assessment. Draft report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    A draft rule for the regulation of emissions of organic hazardous air pollutants (HAP's) from chemical processes of the synthetic organic chemical manufacturing industry (SOCMI) is being proposed under the authority of Sections 112, 114, 116, and 301 of the Clean Air Act, as amended in 1990. The volume of the Background Information Document presents the results of the national impacts assessment for the proposed rule

  4. Some applications of uncertainty relations in quantum information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, A. S.; Pramanik, T.

    2016-08-01

    We discuss some applications of various versions of uncertainty relations for both discrete and continuous variables in the context of quantum information theory. The Heisenberg uncertainty relation enables demonstration of the Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen (EPR) paradox. Entropic uncertainty relations (EURs) are used to reveal quantum steering for non-Gaussian continuous variable states. EURs for discrete variables are studied in the context of quantum memory where fine-graining yields the optimum lower bound of uncertainty. The fine-grained uncertainty relation is used to obtain connections between uncertainty and the nonlocality of retrieval games for bipartite and tripartite systems. The Robertson-Schrödinger (RS) uncertainty relation is applied for distinguishing pure and mixed states of discrete variables.

  5. Effects of ivermectin application on the diversity and function of dung and soil fauna: Regulatory and scientific background information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler, Nicole; Blanckenhorn, Wolf U; Bachmann, Jean

    2016-01-01

    for veterinary medicinal products in the European Union includes a requirement for higher-tier tests when adverse effects on dung organisms are observed in single-species toxicity tests. However, no guidance documents for the performance of higher-tier tests are available. Hence, an international research...... on communities of dung-breeding insects and soil fauna under field conditions, the test method meets the requirements of a higher-tier test as mandated by the European Union. The present study provides contextual information on authorization requirements for veterinary medicinal products and on the structure...... project was undertaken to develop and validate a proposed test method under varying field conditions of climate, soil, and endemic coprophilous fauna at Lethbridge (Canada), Montpellier (France), Zurich (Switzerland), and Wageningen (The Netherlands). The specific objectives were to determine if fecal...

  6. Contribution of genetic background, traditional risk factors, and HIV-related factors to coronary artery disease events in HIV-positive persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rotger, Margalida; Glass, Tracy R.; Junier, Thomas; Lundgren, Jens; Neaton, James D.; Poloni, Estella S.; van 't Wout, Angélique B.; Lubomirov, Rubin; Colombo, Sara; Martinez, Raquel; Rauch, Andri; Günthard, Huldrych F.; Neuhaus, Jacqueline; Wentworth, Deborah; van Manen, Danielle; Gras, Luuk A.; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Albini, Laura; Torti, Carlo; Jacobson, Lisa P.; Li, Xiuhong; Kingsley, Lawrence A.; Carli, Federica; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Ford, Emily S.; Sereti, Irini; Hadigan, Colleen; Martinez, Esteban; Arnedo, Mireia; Egaña-Gorroño, Lander; Gatell, Jose M.; Law, Matthew; Bendall, Courtney; Petoumenos, Kathy; Rockstroh, Jürgen; Wasmuth, Jan-Christian; Kabamba, Kabeya; Delforge, Marc; de Wit, Stephane; Berger, Florian; Mauss, Stefan; de Paz Sierra, Mariana; Losso, Marcelo; Belloso, Waldo H.; Leyes, Maria; Campins, Antoni; Mondi, Annalisa; de Luca, Andrea; Bernardino, Ignacio; Barriuso-Iglesias, Mónica; Torrecilla-Rodriguez, Ana; Gonzalez-Garcia, Juan; Arribas, José R.; Fanti, Iuri; Gel, Silvia; Puig, Jordi; Negredo, Eugenia; Gutierrez, Mar; Domingo, Pere; Fischer, Julia; Fätkenheuer, Gerd; Alonso-Villaverde, Carlos; Macken, Alan; Woo, James; McGinty, Tara; Mallon, Patrick; Mangili, Alexandra; Skinner, Sally; Wanke, Christine A.; Reiss, Peter; Weber, Rainer; Bucher, Heiner C.; Fellay, Jacques; Telenti, Amalio; Tarr, Philip E.; Gras, A. Luuk; van Wout, Angelique B.; Arnedo-Valero, Mireia; Sierra, Mariana de Paz; Rodriguez, Ana Torrecilla; Garcia, Juan Gonzalez; Arribas, Jose R.; Aubert, V.; Barth, J.; Battegay, M.; Bernasconi, E.; Böni, J.; Bucher, H. C.; Burton-Jeangros, C.; Calmy, A.; Cavassini, M.; Egger, M.; Elzi, L.; Fehr, J.; Fellay, J.; Francioli, P.; Furrer, H.; Fux, C. A.; Gorgievski, M.; Günthard, H.; Haerry, D.; Hasse, B.; Hirsch, H. H.; Hirschel, B.; Hösli, I.; Kahlert, C.; Kaiser, L.; Keiser, O.; Kind, C.; Klimkait, T.; Kovari, H.; Ledergerber, B.; Martinetti, G.; Martinez de Tejada, B.; Metzner, K.; Müller, N.; Nadal, D.; Pantaleo, G.; Rauch, A.; Regenass, S.; Rickenbach, M.; Rudin, C.; Schmid, P.; Schultze, D.; Schöni-Affolter, F.; Schüpbach, J.; Speck, R.; Taffé, P.; Tarr, P.; Telenti, A.; Trkola, A.; Vernazza, P.; Weber, R.; Prins, Yerly S. J. M.; Kuijpers, T. W.; Scherpbier, H. J.; Boer, K.; van der Meer, J. T. M.; Wit, F. W. M. N.; Godfried, M. H.; van der Poll, T.; Nellen, F. J. B.; Lange, J. M. A.; Geerlings, S. E.; van Vugt, M.; Vrouenraets, S. M. E.; Pajkrt, D.; Bos, J. C.; van der Valk, M.; Schreij, G.; Lowe, S.; Oude Lashof, A.; Pronk, M. J. H.; Bravenboer, B.; van der Ende, M. E.; de Vries-Sluijs, T. E. M. S.; Schurink, C. A. M.; van der Feltz, M.; Nouwen, J. L.; Gelinck, L. B. S.; Verbon, A.; Rijnders, B. J. A.; van de Ven-de Ruiter, E. D.; Slobbe, L.; Haag, Den; Kauffmann, R. H.; Schippers, E. F.; Groeneveld, P. H. P.; Alleman, M. A.; Bouwhuis, J. W.; ten Kate, R. W.; Soetekouw, R.; Kroon, F. P.; van den Broek, P. J.; van Dissel, J. T.; Arend, S. M.; van Nieuwkoop, C.; de Boer, M. J. G.; Jolink, H.; den Hollander, J. G.; Pogany, K.; Bronsveld, W.; Kortmann, W.; van Twillert, G.; van Houte, D. P. F.; Polée, M. B.; van Vonderen, M. G. A.; ten Napel, C. H. H.; Kootstra, G. J.; Brinkman, K.; Blok, W. L.; Frissen, P. H. J.; Schouten, W. E. M.; van den Berk, G. E. L.; Juttmann, J. R.; van Kasteren, M. E. E.; Brouwer, A. E.; Mulder, J. W.; van Gorp, E. C. M.; Smit, P. M.; Weijer, S.; van Eeden, A.; Verhagen, D. W. M.; Sprenger, H. G.; Doedens, R.; Scholvinck, E. H.; van Assen, S.; Stek, C. J.; Hoepelman, I. M.; Mudrikova, T.; Schneider, M. M. E.; Jaspers, C. A. J. J.; Ellerbroek, P. M.; Peters, E. J. G.; Maarschalk-Ellerbroek, L. J.; Oosterheert, J. J.; Arends, J. E.; Wassenberg, M. W. M.; van der Hilst, J. C. H.; Richter, C.; van der Berg, J. P.; Gisolf, E. H.; Margolick, Joseph B.; Plankey, Michael; Crain, Barbara; Dobs, Adrian; Farzadegan, Homayoon; Gallant, Joel; Johnson-Hill, Lisette; Sacktor, Ned; Selnes, Ola; Shepard, James; Thio, Chloe; Phair, John P.; Wolinsky, Steven M.; Badri, Sheila; Conover, Craig; O'Gorman, Maurice; Ostrow, David; Palella, Frank; Ragin, Ann; Detels, Roger; Martínez-Maza, Otoniel; Aronow, Aaron; Bolan, Robert; Breen, Elizabeth; Butch, Anthony; Fahey, John; Jamieson, Beth; Miller, Eric N.; Oishi, John; Vinters, Harry; Visscher, Barbara R.; Wiley, Dorothy; Witt, Mallory; Yang, Otto; Young, Stephen; Zhang, Zuo Feng; Rinaldo, Charles R.; Becker, James T.; Cranston, Ross D.; Martinson, Jeremy J.; Mellors, John W.; Silvestre, Anthony J.; Stall, Ronald D.; Muñoz, Alvaro; Abraham, Alison; Althoff, Keri; Cox, Christopher; D'Souza, Gypsyamber; Gange, Stephen J.; Golub, Elizabeth; Schollenberger, Janet; Seaberg, Eric C.; Su, Sol; Huebner, Robin E.; Dominguez, Geraldina; Moroni, M.; Angarano, G.; Antinori, A.; Carosi, G.; Cauda, R.; Monforte, A. d'Arminio; Di Perri, G.; Galli, M.; Iardino, R.; Ippolito, G.; Lazzarin, A.; Perno, C. F.; Sagnelli, E.; Viale, P. L.; Von Schlosser, F.; d'Arminio Monforte, A.; Ammassari, A.; Andreoni, M.; Balotta, C.; Bonfanti, P.; Bonora, S.; Borderi, M.; Capobianchi, M. R.; Castagna, A.; Ceccherini-Silberstein, F.; Cozzi-Lepri, A.; de Luca, A.; Gargiulo, M.; Gervasoni, C.; Girardi, E.; Lichtner, M.; Lo Caputo, S.; Madeddu, G.; Maggiolo, F.; Marcotullio, S.; Monno, L.; Murri, R.; Mussini, C.; Puoti, M.; Torti, C.; Fanti, I.; Formenti, T.; Galli, Laura; Lorenzini, Patrizia; Montroni, M.; Giacometti, A.; Costantini, A.; Riva, A.; Tirelli, U.; Martellotta, F.; Ladisa, N.; Lazzari, G.; Verucchi, G.; Castelli, F.; Scalzini, A.; Minardi, C.; Bertelli, D.; Quirino, T.; Abeli, C.; Manconi, P. E.; Piano, P.; Vecchiet, J.; Falasca, K.; Carnevale, G.; Lorenzotti, S.; Sighinolfi, L.; Segala, D.; Leoncini, F.; Mazzotta, F.; Pozzi, M.; Cassola, G.; Viscoli, G.; Viscoli, A.; Piscopo, R.; Mazzarello, G.; Mastroianni, C.; Belvisi, V.; Caramma, I.; Chiodera, A.; Castelli, P.; Rizzardini, G.; Ridolfo, A. L.; Foschi, A.; Salpietro, S.; Galli, A.; Bigoloni, A.; Spagnuolo, V.; Merli, S.; Carenzi, L.; Moioli, M. C.; Cicconi, P.; Bisio, L.; Gori, A.; Lapadula, G.; Abrescia, N.; Chirianni, A.; de Marco, M.; Ferrari, C.; Borghi, R.; Baldelli, F.; Belfiori, B.; Parruti, G.; Ursini, T.; Magnani, G.; Ursitti, M. A.; Narciso, P.; Tozzi, V.; Vullo, V.; d'Avino, A.; Zaccarelli, M.; Gallo, L.; Acinapura, R.; Capozzi, M.; Libertone, R.; Trotta, M. P.; Tebano, G.; Cattelan, A. M.; Mura, M. S.; Caramello, P.; Orofino, G. C.; Sciandra, M.; Raise, N. N.; Ebo, F.; Pellizzer, G.; Manfrin, V.; Law, M.; Petoumenos, K.; McManus, H.; Wright, S.; Bendall, C.; Moore, R.; Edwards, S.

    2013-01-01

    Persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have increased rates of coronary artery disease (CAD). The relative contribution of genetic background, HIV-related factors, antiretroviral medications, and traditional risk factors to CAD has not been fully evaluated in the setting of HIV

  7. Effects of ivermectin application on the diversity and function of dung and soil fauna: Regulatory and scientific background information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Nicole; Bachmann, Jean; Blanckenhorn, Wolf U; Floate, Kevin D; Jensen, John; Römbke, Jörg

    2016-08-01

    The application of veterinary medical products to livestock can impact soil organisms in manure-amended fields or adversely affect organisms that colonize dung pats of treated animals and potentially retard the degradation of dung on pastures. For this reason, the authorization process for veterinary medicinal products in the European Union includes a requirement for higher-tier tests when adverse effects on dung organisms are observed in single-species toxicity tests. However, no guidance documents for the performance of higher-tier tests are available. Hence, an international research project was undertaken to develop and validate a proposed test method under varying field conditions of climate, soil, and endemic coprophilous fauna at Lethbridge (Canada), Montpellier (France), Zurich (Switzerland), and Wageningen (The Netherlands). The specific objectives were to determine if fecal residues of an anthelmintic with known insecticidal activity (ivermectin) showed similar effects across sites on 1) insects breeding in dung of treated animals, 2) coprophilous organisms in the soil beneath the dung, and 3) rates of dung degradation. By evaluating the effects of parasiticides on communities of dung-breeding insects and soil fauna under field conditions, the test method meets the requirements of a higher-tier test as mandated by the European Union. The present study provides contextual information on authorization requirements for veterinary medicinal products and on the structure and function of dung and soil organism communities. It also provides a summary of the main findings. Subsequent studies on this issue provide detailed information on different aspects of this overall project. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1914-1923. © 2015 SETAC. © 2015 SETAC.

  8. Differences in the Neural Mechanisms of Selective Attention in Children from Different Socioeconomic Backgrounds: An Event-Related Brain Potential Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Courtney; Lauinger, Brittni; Neville, Helen

    2009-01-01

    Previous research indicates that children from lower socioeconomic backgrounds show deficits in aspects of attention, including a reduced ability to filter irrelevant information and to suppress prepotent responses. However, less is known about the neural mechanisms of group differences in attention, which could reveal the stages of processing at…

  9. Integration and health-related quality of life of undergraduate medical students with migration backgrounds ? Results of a survey

    OpenAIRE

    Kurr?, Jennifer; Scholl, Johanna; Bullinger, Monika; Petersen-Ewert, Corinna

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Most medical faculties in Germany are still lacking differentiated counseling programmes for specific target groups. The purpose of the present study was to determine the quality of life and integration of students with migration backgrounds and their interests in counseling programmes.Methods: Data was collected at the University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf in Germany. Participants were students of the undergraduate medical course; n=890 (89.3%) students without migration b...

  10. Smoking cessation: Exploration of perceived technology-related information value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reychav, Iris; McHaney, Roger; Hirak, Eyal; Merker, Ben

    2018-01-01

    This study describes a unique approach to information transfer affecting the perceived value of this information and related impact on smoker behavior. Data were collected via survey, sampling approximately 120 participants. An online survey tool was used for the survey creation, data collection and monitoring. Another online tool was used by participants to create short animation videos as a means of increasing their engagement with information in an experiential fashion. Study findings included that the process experienced by the test group was influential and facilitated participants' change of mind regarding enrollment in a smoking cessation workshop. This was partly attributable to the IKEA effect. The study provides evidence that a change in habits crucial to improve health and enhance positive lifestyle choices can be stimulated through active engagement with artifact creation in a technology-mediated environment.

  11. Fisher information, kinetic energy and uncertainty relation inequalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Shunlong

    2002-01-01

    By interpolating between Fisher information and mechanical kinetic energy, we introduce a general notion of kinetic energy with respect to a parameter of Schroedinger wavefunctions from a statistical inference perspective. Kinetic energy is the sum of Fisher information and an integral of a parametrized analogue of quantum mechanical current density related to phase. A family of integral inequalities concerning kinetic energy and moments are established, among which the Cramer-Rao inequality and the Weyl-Heisenberg inequality, are special cases. In particular, the integral inequalities involving the negative order moments are relevant to the study of electron systems. Moreover, by specifying the parameter to a scale, we obtain a family of inequalities of uncertainty relation type which incorporate the position and momentum observables symmetrically in a single quantity. (author)

  12. RANKING RELATIONS USING ANALOGIES IN BIOLOGICAL AND INFORMATION NETWORKS1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Ricardo; Heller, Katherine; Ghahramani, Zoubin; Airoldi, Edoardo M.

    2013-01-01

    Analogical reasoning depends fundamentally on the ability to learn and generalize about relations between objects. We develop an approach to relational learning which, given a set of pairs of objects S = {A(1) : B(1), A(2) : B(2), …, A(N) : B(N)}, measures how well other pairs A : B fit in with the set S. Our work addresses the following question: is the relation between objects A and B analogous to those relations found in S? Such questions are particularly relevant in information retrieval, where an investigator might want to search for analogous pairs of objects that match the query set of interest. There are many ways in which objects can be related, making the task of measuring analogies very challenging. Our approach combines a similarity measure on function spaces with Bayesian analysis to produce a ranking. It requires data containing features of the objects of interest and a link matrix specifying which relationships exist; no further attributes of such relationships are necessary. We illustrate the potential of our method on text analysis and information networks. An application on discovering functional interactions between pairs of proteins is discussed in detail, where we show that our approach can work in practice even if a small set of protein pairs is provided. PMID:24587838

  13. Integration of information and communication technologies in special relativity teaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbier, Remi; Fleck, Sonia; Perries, Stephane; Ray, Cedric

    2005-01-01

    Integration of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in special relativity teaching may bring multiple and complementary methods for introducing either difficult or abstract counterintuitive concepts. This paper describes multimedia content developed at Lyon University to enhance the learning process of undergraduate students. Two categories of animated scenarios have been identified: real experiments and thought experiments. Both typical examples of these scenarios and their impacts on the teaching process are discussed

  14. Development of a classification scheme for disease-related enzyme information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Söhngen Carola

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background BRENDA (BRaunschweig ENzyme DAtabase, http://www.brenda-enzymes.org is a major resource for enzyme related information. First and foremost, it provides data which are manually curated from the primary literature. DRENDA (Disease RElated ENzyme information DAtabase complements BRENDA with a focus on the automatic search and categorization of enzyme and disease related information from title and abstracts of primary publications. In a two-step procedure DRENDA makes use of text mining and machine learning methods. Results Currently enzyme and disease related references are biannually updated as part of the standard BRENDA update. 910,897 relations of EC-numbers and diseases were extracted from titles or abstracts and are included in the second release in 2010. The enzyme and disease entity recognition has been successfully enhanced by a further relation classification via machine learning. The classification step has been evaluated by a 5-fold cross validation and achieves an F1 score between 0.802 ± 0.032 and 0.738 ± 0.033 depending on the categories and pre-processing procedures. In the eventual DRENDA content every category reaches a classification specificity of at least 96.7% and a precision that ranges from 86-98% in the highest confidence level, and 64-83% for the smallest confidence level associated with higher recall. Conclusions The DRENDA processing chain analyses PubMed, locates references with disease-related information on enzymes and categorises their focus according to the categories causal interaction, therapeutic application, diagnostic usage and ongoing research. The categorisation gives an impression on the focus of the located references. Thus, the relation categorisation can facilitate orientation within the rapidly growing number of references with impact on diseases and enzymes. The DRENDA information is available as additional information in BRENDA.

  15. Simultaneous reconstruction, segmentation, and edge enhancement of relatively piecewise continuous images with intensity-level information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Z.; Jaszczak, R.; Coleman, R.; Johnson, V.

    1991-01-01

    A multinomial image model is proposed which uses intensity-level information for reconstruction of contiguous image regions. The intensity-level information assumes that image intensities are relatively constant within contiguous regions over the image-pixel array and that intensity levels of these regions are determined either empirically or theoretically by information criteria. These conditions may be valid, for example, for cardiac blood-pool imaging, where the intensity levels (or radionuclide activities) of myocardium, blood-pool, and background regions are distinct and the activities within each region of muscle, blood, or background are relatively uniform. To test the model, a mathematical phantom over a 64x64 array was constructed. The phantom had three contiguous regions. Each region had a different intensity level. Measurements from the phantom were simulated using an emission-tomography geometry. Fifty projections were generated over 180 degree, with 64 equally spaced parallel rays per projection. Projection data were randomized to contain Poisson noise. Image reconstructions were performed using an iterative maximum a posteriori probability procedure. The contiguous regions corresponding to the three intensity levels were automatically segmented. Simultaneously, the edges of the regions were sharpened. Noise in the reconstructed images was significantly suppressed. Convergence of the iterative procedure to the phantom was observed. Compared with maximum likelihood and filtered-backprojection approaches, the results obtained using the maximum a posteriori probability with the intensity-level information demonstrated qualitative and quantitative improvement in localizing the regions of varying intensities

  16. Discussion series on PURPA related topics: information to customers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sturgeon, J I

    1980-08-01

    This volume relates primarily to Time-of-Day rates standard, PURPA IB(d)3, and deals with the content and methods of providing rate and conservation information to customers when Time-of-Day rates are used. Information to customers in the Demonstration and Pilot Projects fell mainly into four categories: administrative communications; explanations of new rate structures; information and advice on load management; and facts, recommendations and encouragements about energy conservation and end-use improvement. Administrative communications were about such matters as the existence of Projects, their funding, their periods of performance, the selection of their test customers, conditions of participation, procedural changes during the tests, and the time and conditions of ending the tests. These communications were important to good customer cooperation. All Demonstration Projects devoted considerable effort to the crucial task of clearly explaining the rationale of Time-of-Use (TOU) pricing and the test rate structures. The Projects then presented the concept of TOU pricing as a means of (a) fairly charging customers the true cost of their electricity and (b) rewarding them for shifting consumption to times when costs are less. For the most part, Demonstration Projects gave specific information on the individual customer's own rate structure and none on any others that were under test. The information was presented in face-to-face interviews, group presentations, television, radio, and print media, and traveling exhibits. The results are evaluated. (LCL)

  17. Determining Smoking Cessation Related Information, Motivation, and Behavioral Skills among Opiate Dependent Smokers in Methadone Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooperman, Nina A.; Richter, Kimber P.; Bernstein, Steven L.; Steinberg, Marc L.; Williams, Jill M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Over 80% of people in methadone treatment smoke cigarettes, and existing smoking cessation interventions have been minimally effective. Objective To develop an Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) Model of behavior change based smoking cessation intervention for methadone maintained smokers, we examined smoking cessation related information, motivation, and behavioral skills in this population. Methods Current or former smokers in methadone treatment (n=35) participated in focus groups. Ten methadone clinic counselors participated in an individual interview. A content analysis was conducted using deductive and inductive approaches. Results Commonly known information, motivation, and behavioral skills factors related to smoking cessation were described. These factors included: the health effects of smoking and treatment options for quitting (information); pregnancy and cost of cigarettes (motivators); and coping with emotions, finding social support, and pharmacotherapy adherence (behavioral skills). Information, motivation, and behavioral skills factors specific to methadone maintained smokers were also described. These factors included: the relationship between quitting smoking and drug relapse (information), the belief that smoking is the same as using drugs (motivator); and coping with methadone clinic culture and applying skills used to quit drugs to quitting smoking (behavioral skills). Information, motivation, and behavioral skills strengths and deficits varied by individual. Conclusions Methadone maintained smokers could benefit from research on an IMB Model based smoking cessation intervention that is individualized, addresses IMB factors common among all smokers, and also addresses IMB factors unique to this population. PMID:25559697

  18. Background radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnott, D.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of background radiation, whether natural or caused by man's activities, are discussed. The known biological effects of radiation in causing cancers or genetic mutations are explained. The statement that there is a threshold below which there is no risk is examined critically. (U.K.)

  19. Low back pain in military recruits in relation to social background and previous low back pain. A cross-sectional and prospective observational survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hestbæk, Lise; Larsen, K.; Weidich, F.

    2005-01-01

    back pain in the development of low back pain in military recruits. METHODS: During a three-month period, Danish military recruits with different social backgrounds live and work under the same conditions. Thus, there is an opportunity to investigate the influence of social background......BACKGROUND: Traditionally, studies on the etiology of low back pain have been carried out in adult populations. However, since low back pain often appears early in life, more research on young populations is needed. This study focuses on the importance of social background factors and previous low...... on the development of low back pain, when persons are removed from their usual environment and submitted to a number of new stressors. In addition, the importance of the recruits' previous low back pain history in relation to low back pain during military service was studied. This was done by means of questionnaires...

  20. Multimodal cues provide redundant information for bumblebees when the stimulus is visually salient, but facilitate red target detection in a naturalistic background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcobado, Guadalupe; Trillo, Alejandro

    2017-01-01

    Our understanding of how floral visitors integrate visual and olfactory cues when seeking food, and how background complexity affects flower detection is limited. Here, we aimed to understand the use of visual and olfactory information for bumblebees (Bombus terrestris terrestris L.) when seeking flowers in a visually complex background. To explore this issue, we first evaluated the effect of flower colour (red and blue), size (8, 16 and 32 mm), scent (presence or absence) and the amount of training on the foraging strategy of bumblebees (accuracy, search time and flight behaviour), considering the visual complexity of our background, to later explore whether experienced bumblebees, previously trained in the presence of scent, can recall and make use of odour information when foraging in the presence of novel visual stimuli carrying a familiar scent. Of all the variables analysed, flower colour had the strongest effect on the foraging strategy. Bumblebees searching for blue flowers were more accurate, flew faster, followed more direct paths between flowers and needed less time to find them, than bumblebees searching for red flowers. In turn, training and the presence of odour helped bees to find inconspicuous (red) flowers. When bees foraged on red flowers, search time increased with flower size; but search time was independent of flower size when bees foraged on blue flowers. Previous experience with floral scent enhances the capacity of detection of a novel colour carrying a familiar scent, probably by elemental association influencing attention. PMID:28898287

  1. Factors Related to Job Satisfaction of Information Technology Professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim Halil SEYREK

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Job satisfaction of employees in any type of organization is important both for the employee and for the organization he/she works for. There are several factors researchers studied that are related to employee satisfaction. Even though there are several common factors for the job satisfaction of employees, there can be differences based on the personal and job characteristics. Information Technology (IT workers are important for current information economy and therefore factors related to their job satisfaction is an important research topic. In this study, based on survey data collected from 455 IT workers from different industries, the factors related to IT worker job satisfaction are investigated. As a result of analyses, it was found that demographic factors like gender, sector (public vs. private, work experience, and wage are not related to the job satisfaction of the worker. On the other hand, the results show that feel of belonging, feel of acceptance, job autonomy, burnout, role clarity and fairness of rewards are factors that affect job satisfaction.

  2. Understanding nephro-blastomas. Information dedicated to parents and relatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brusco, S.; Carretier, J.; Delavigne, V.; Fervers, B.; Leichtnam-Dugarin, L.; Bergeron, C.; Claude, L.; Philip, T.; Boccon-Gibod, L.; Coze, C.; Leclair, M.D.

    2006-01-01

    In response to the evolution of the information-seeking behaviour of patients and concerns from health professionals regarding cancer patient information, the French National Federation of Comprehensive Cancer Centres (FNCLCC) introduced, in 1998, an information and education program dedicated to patients and relatives, the SOR SAVOIR PATIENT program. The methodology of this program adheres to established quality criteria regarding the elaboration of patient information. Cancer patient information developed in this program is based on clinical practice guidelines produced by the FNCLCC and the twenty French regional cancer centres, the National League against Cancer, The National Cancer Institute, the French Hospital Federation, the National Oncology Federation of Regional and University Hospitals, the French Oncology Federation of General Hospitals, many learned societies, as well as an active participation of patients, former patients and care-givers. The handbook SOR SAVOIR PATIENT Understanding nephro-blastomas is an adapted version of various scientific publications and international clinical practice guidelines, validated by oncology experts and by the Nephro-blastomas Committee of the French Society against Cancers and Leukemias in children and adolescents (SFCE). It was elaborated with the active participation of parents and other family members. It is meant to provide a basis for the explanation of the disease, to help parents asking questions, and to facilitate discussions with the health-care team. It is available from the FNCLCC (101, rue de Tolbiac, 75013 PARIS, Tel. (0033)1 76 64 78 00, www.fncicc.fr). This document was validated at the end of 2005 and published in May 2006. SOR SAVOIR PATIENT guides are systematically updated when new research becomes available. Information leaflets, extracted from the handbook SOR SAVOIR PATIENT Understanding nephro-blastomas and published in this edition of the Cancer et Radiotherapie, describe the physiopathology

  3. Introducing diagnosis-related groups: is the information system ready?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Weiyan; Lu, Ming; Han, Wei; Hu, Mu

    2016-01-01

    Diagnosis-related group (DRG) system is a classification system widely used in health managements, the foundation of which lies in the medical information system. A large effort had been made to improve the quality of discharge data before the introduction of DRGs in Beijing. We extract discharge data from 108 local hospitals spanning 4 years before and after standardization to evaluate the impact of standardization on DRG grouping performance. The data was grouped on an annual basis in accordance with Beijing's local DRG system. Proportion of ungrouped data, coefficient of variation (CV) and reduction in variance (RIV) were used to measure the performance of the DRG system. Both the descriptive and regression analysis indicate a significant reduction in terms of ungrouped data and CV for expenditure, increase of RIV for expenditure and length of stay. However, when there was no intervention, that is, between 2005 and 2006 and between 2008 and 2009, changes in these indicators were all insignificant. Therefore, the standardization of discharge data did improve data quality and consequently enhanced the performance of DRGs. Developing countries with a relatively weak information infrastructure should strengthen their medical information system before the introduction of the DRG system. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. [Trauma-Informed Peer Counselling in the Care of Refugees with Trauma-Related Disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wöller, Wolfgang

    2016-09-01

    Providing adequate culture-sensitive care for a large number of refugees with trauma-related disorders constitutes a major challenge. In this context, peer support and trauma-informed peer counselling can be regarded as a valuable means to complement the psychosocial care systems. In recent years, peer support and peer education have been successfully implemented e. g. in health care education, in psychiatric care, and in the treatment of traumatized individuals. Only little research data is available for traumatized refugees. However, results are encouraging. A program is presented which integrates trauma-informed peer educators (TIP) with migration background in the care of traumatized refugees. Peers' responsibility includes emotional support and understanding the refugees' needs, sensitizing for trauma-related disorders, providing psychoeducation, and teaching trauma-specific stabilization techniques under supervision of professional psychotherapists. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Can Ethnic Background Differences in Children's Body Composition Be Explained by Differences in Energy Balance-Related Behaviors? A Mediation Analysis within the Energy-Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez Alvira, J.M.; te Velde, S.J.; Jimenez-Pavon, D.; Manios, Y.; Singh, A.S.; Moreno, L.A.; Brug, J.

    2013-01-01

    Background:In affluent countries, children from non-native ethnicity have in general less favourable body composition indicators and energy balance-related behaviors (EBRBs) than children from native ethnicity. However, differences between countries have been reported.Methodology/Principal

  6. Background information for the SER Energy Agreement for Sustainable Growth calculations. Sectors Industry, Agriculture and Horticulture; Achtergronddocument bij doorrekening Energieakkoord. Sectoren industrie en land- en tuinbouw

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetzels, W. [ECN Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-09-01

    On September 4, 2013, representatives of employers' associations, trade union federations, environmental organizations, the Dutch government and civil society have signed an Energy Agreement for Sustainable Growth. ECN and PBL have been asked to evaluate this agreement. This report gives background information on the evaluation of the measures aimed at improving energy efficiency in industry and agriculture [Dutch] Op 4 september 2013 is het 'Energieakkoord voor duurzame groei' getekend. ECN en PBL zijn gevraagd het akkoord te beoordelen en door te rekenen. Dit rapport dient als achtergronddocument bij de doorrekening van de maatregelen gericht op energiebesparing in de industrie en land- en tuinbouw.

  7. The Alaskan mineral resource assessment program; background information to accompany folio of geologic and mineral resource maps of the Ambler River Quadrangle, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayfield, Charles F.; Tailleur, I.L.; Albert, N.R.; Ellersieck, Inyo; Grybeck, Donald; Hackett, S.W.

    1983-01-01

    The Ambler River quadrangle, consisting of 14,290 km2 (5,520 mi2) in northwest Alaska, was investigated by an interdisciplinary research team for the purpose of assessing the mineral resource potential of the quadrangle. This report provides background information for a folio of maps on the geology, reconnaissance geochemistry, aeromagnetics, Landsat imagery, and mineral resource evaluation of the quadrangle. A summary of the geologic history, radiometric dates, and fossil localities and a comprehensive bibliography are also included. The quadrangle contains jade reserves, now being mined, and potentially significant resources of copper, zinc, lead, and silver.

  8. Botanical Dietary Supplements: Background Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... use a Latin name made up of the genus and species of the plant. Under this system ... form of a botanical preparation also play important roles in its safety. Teas, tinctures, and extracts have ...

  9. Informed decision making does not affect health-related quality of life in lung cancer screening (NELSON trial)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bergh, Karien A. M.; Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise; van Klaveren, Rob J.; de Koning, Harry J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: It is believed that making an informed decision about (screening) participation is associated with better health-related quality of life (HRQoL) outcomes. This is the first study in cancer screening to explore this association in subjects participating in a lung cancer computed

  10. Zambia Country Background Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hampwaye, Godfrey; Jeppesen, Søren; Kragelund, Peter

    This paper provides background data and general information for the Zambia studies focusing on local food processing sub­‐sector; and the local suppliers to the mines as part of the SAFIC project (Successful African Firms and Institutional Change).......This paper provides background data and general information for the Zambia studies focusing on local food processing sub­‐sector; and the local suppliers to the mines as part of the SAFIC project (Successful African Firms and Institutional Change)....

  11. Social network profiles as information sources for adolescents' offline relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtois, Cédric; All, Anissa; Vanwynsberghe, Hadewijch

    2012-06-01

    This article presents the results of a study concerning the use of online profile pages by adolescents to know more about "offline" friends and acquaintances. Previous research has indicated that social networking sites (SNSs) are used to gather information on new online contacts. However, several studies have demonstrated a substantial overlap between offline and online social networks. Hence, we question whether online connections are meaningful in gathering information on offline friends and acquaintances. First, the results indicate that a combination of passive uncertainty reduction (monitoring a target's profile) and interactive uncertainty reduction (communication through the target's profile) explains a considerable amount of variance in the level of uncertainty about both friends and acquaintances. More specifically, adolescents generally get to know much more about their acquaintances. Second, the results of online uncertainty reduction positively affect the degree of self-disclosure, which is imperative in building a solid friend relation. Further, we find that uncertainty reduction strategies positively mediate the effect of social anxiety on the level of certainty about friends. This implies that socially anxious teenagers benefit from SNSs by getting the conditions right to build a more solid relation with their friends. Hence, we conclude that SNSs play a substantial role in today's adolescents' everyday interpersonal communication.

  12. Searching for suicide-related information on Chinese websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Yeh; Hung, Galen Chin-Lun; Cheng, Qijin; Tsai, Chi-Wei; Wu, Kevin Chien-Chang

    2017-12-01

    Growing concerns about cyber-suicide have prompted many studies on suicide information available on the web. However, very few studies have considered non-English websites. We aimed to analyze online suicide-related information accessed through Chinese-language websites. We used Taiwan's two most popular search engines (Google and Yahoo) to explore the results returned from six suicide-related search terms in March 2016. The first three pages listing the results from each search were analyzed and rated based on the attitude towards suicide (pro-suicide, anti-suicide, neutral/mixed, not a suicide site, or error). Comparisons across different search terms were also performed. In all, 375 linked webpages were included; 16.3% of the webpages were pro-suicide and 41.3% were anti-suicide. The majority of the pro-suicide sites were user-generated webpages (96.7%). Searches using the keywords 'ways to kill yourself' (31.7%) and 'painless suicide' (28.3%) generated much larger numbers of harmful webpages than the term 'suicide' (4.3%). We conclude that collaborative efforts with internet service providers and search engines to improve the ranking of anti-suicide webpages and websites and implement online suicide reporting guidelines are highly encouraged. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Child Physical Abuse and the Related PTSD in Taiwan: The Role of Chinese Cultural Background and Victims' Subjective Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Chia-Ying; Su, Yi-Jen; Wu, Ho-Mao; Chen, Sue-Huei

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to investigate child physical abuse (CPA) while taking into account the more rigorous definitions of CPA in the Chinese societies. The prevalence of CPA and CPA-related PTSD were estimated, together with the examination of peri-traumatic subjective reactions and their impacts on PTSD. Methods: In a Taiwanese sample of…

  14. Nutritional Information Provision to Cancer Patients and Their Relatives Can Promote Dietary Behavior Changes Independent of Nutritional Information Needs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, van Merel R.; Winkels, Renate M.; Janssen, Silvie H.M.; Kampman, Ellen; Beijer, Sandra

    2018-01-01

    We investigated whether obtaining nutritional information influences reported changes in dietary behavior in cancer survivors and their relatives and whether nutritional information needs influence this association. We included 239 cancer survivors and their relatives, recruited from an online panel

  15. Germany's energy policies from 1960 to 1980 against the background of foreign trade relations and foreign politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czakainski, M.

    1993-01-01

    There is hardly another area of politicis where the wishes and interests of different social groups clash so hard with facts and realities as the area of energy politics. The following article looks at Germany's energy politics between 1960 and 1980, it tries to highlight the vanifications of foreign trade relations and explain their impact on energy politics and on the resulting tensions on the area of foreign politics. (orig.) [de

  16. Economic backgrounds, strategic guidelines and cross-cultural specificity of business relations ukrainian enterprises with chinese partners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kryvoruchko Larysa Borysivna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to issues economic cooperation between Ukraine and China. The substantial expansion potential supplies of Ukrainian products to the market of China have been proved, the main directions of export have been outlined. The basic obstacles of establishment and development of reciprocal relations with Chinese partners have been discovered, cultural differences between the two countries have been investigated and recommendations for successful negotiations proceedings have been formulated.

  17. Hellmann–Feynman connection for the relative Fisher information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkatesan, R.C., E-mail: ravi@systemsresearchcorp.com [Systems Research Corporation, Aundh, Pune 411007 (India); Plastino, A., E-mail: plastino@fisica.unlp.edu.ar [IFLP, National University La Plata & National Research (CONICET) C. C., 727 1900, La Plata (Argentina)

    2015-08-15

    The (i) reciprocity relations for the relative Fisher information (RFI, hereafter) and (ii) a generalized RFI–Euler theorem are self-consistently derived from the Hellmann–Feynman theorem. These new reciprocity relations generalize the RFI–Euler theorem and constitute the basis for building up a mathematical Legendre transform structure (LTS, hereafter), akin to that of thermodynamics, that underlies the RFI scenario. This demonstrates the possibility of translating the entire mathematical structure of thermodynamics into a RFI-based theoretical framework. Virial theorems play a prominent role in this endeavor, as a Schrödinger-like equation can be associated to the RFI. Lagrange multipliers are determined invoking the RFI–LTS link and the quantum mechanical virial theorem. An appropriate ansatz allows for the inference of probability density functions (pdf’s, hereafter) and energy-eigenvalues of the above mentioned Schrödinger-like equation. The energy-eigenvalues obtained here via inference are benchmarked against established theoretical and numerical results. A principled theoretical basis to reconstruct the RFI-framework from the FIM framework is established. Numerical examples for exemplary cases are provided. - Highlights: • Legendre transform structure for the RFI is obtained with the Hellmann–Feynman theorem. • Inference of the energy-eigenvalues of the SWE-like equation for the RFI is accomplished. • Basis for reconstruction of the RFI framework from the FIM-case is established. • Substantial qualitative and quantitative distinctions with prior studies are discussed.

  18. Relations between information and communication technologies and international migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukić Vesna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the topic of the impact of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT on the international migration phenomenon According to the discussed literature, there is an impression that ICTs change the essence of migration and monitoring of migration flows. It also suggests that migration and migrants’ needs shape the development of ICT services intended to them, but they also shape the content of social media. The impact of new technologies on international migration (before migration, during migration and upon arrival in the country of destination has been discussed through an overview of empirical research findings in Serbia and other countries. In this context, the ICT users relevant to the migration process (individuals and interest groups have been more closely determined and discussed, the aspects of the relations between ICTs and migration have been highlighted, as well as their implications for individuals and society. The considered aspects of relations of ICTs and international migration at different stages of the migration process and their severe implications for individuals and society, in our opinion, point to the need for cooperation of users of information and communication technologies relevant to the migration process in different domains ‒ the spheres of influence of ICTs. We believe that is how the potential of ICTs will be exploited in an adequate way, for benefit of both ‒ migrants and other relevant interested parties. While widely accepted by individuals, information and communication technologies have just begun to be recognized as important for migration policy in Serbia and generally, in terms of their opportunities and challenges. In Serbia, only recently (as of the 2011 Census there has been data available on the use of ICTs by certain migrant groups (long-term settled refugees from former Yugoslav republics. Also, the qualitative surveys on the use of ICTs during the migration by transit

  19. Functional food awareness and perceptions in relation to information sources in older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The functional food industry has experienced innovative and economic expansion, yet research into consumer perceptions of functional foods and their associated health claims is limited. Among consumers, older adults could benefit from functional foods due to age-related issues pertaining to food and health. The purpose of this research was to identify the need for information related to functional foods among older adults (≥60 years old) and to assess awareness and perceptions of health claims on functional food packages. Methods Community-dwelling older adults (n = 200) completed a researcher administered questionnaire designed to collect information about functional foods including current consumption, motivating factors for consumption, perceived need for information, sources of information for functional foods and awareness of health claims. Results Prevalence of functional food consumption among participants was 93.0%. Increased awareness and knowledge was the most commonly reported factor that would promote functional food consumption (85.5%) and 63.5% of participants wanted more information about functional foods with preferred sources being newspapers/magazines/books (68.5%) and food labels (66.1%). Participants were predominately (93.5%) aware of health claims on functional foods and those with more education were more likely to report being aware of health claims (p = 0.045). Conclusions Although functional food consumption among older adults in this sample is high, there is a need for further information regarding functional foods. These results inform stakeholders regarding the potential for information to influence functional food acceptance among older adult consumers. PMID:24886306

  20. Determination of endogenous inflammation-related lipid mediators in ischemic stroke rats using background subtracting calibration curves by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Zhong, Qisheng; Mo, Canlong; Zhang, Hao; Zhou, Ting; Tan, Wen

    2017-11-01

    Accurate and reliable quantification of endogenous lipid mediators in complex biological samples is a daunting challenge. In this study, a robust and direct endogenous quantitative method using background subtracting calibration curves by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was first developed for the determination of endogenous lipid mediators in ischemic stroke rats. Absolute quantification without surrogate matrix could be achieved by using background subtracting calibration curves, which were corrected and verified from standard curves constructed on original matrix. The recoveries of this method were in the range of 50.3-98.3%, the precision with the relative standard deviation was less than 13.8%, and the accuracy with the relative error was within ± 15.0%. In addition, background subtracting calibration curves were further verified by validation factors ranging from 90.3 to 110.9%. This validated method has been successfully applied to the analysis of seven endogenous inflammation-related lipid mediators in the brain tissues of ischemic stroke rats. The results indicated that prostaglandins as inflammatory factors and some lipid mediators with neuroprotective effects increased apparently (p endogenous compounds in the complex biological samples. Graphical abstract The analysis procedure of determining endogenous inflammation-related lipid mediators using BSCC by LC-MS/MS.

  1. Impact of physiological variables and genetic background on myocardial frequency-resistivity relations in the intact beating murine heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Maricela; Steinhelper, Mark E; Alvarez, Jorge A; Escobedo, Daniel; Pearce, John; Valvano, Jonathan W; Pollock, Brad H; Wei, Chia-Ling; Kottam, Anil; Altman, David; Bailey, Steven; Thomsen, Sharon; Lee, Shuko; Colston, James T; Oh, Jung Hwan; Freeman, Gregory L; Feldman, Marc D

    2006-10-01

    Conductance measurements for generation of an instantaneous left ventricular (LV) volume signal in the mouse are limited, because the volume signal is a combination of blood and LV muscle, and only the blood signal is desired. We have developed a conductance system that operates at two simultaneous frequencies to identify and remove the myocardial contribution to the instantaneous volume signal. This system is based on the observation that myocardial resistivity varies with frequency, whereas blood resistivity does not. For calculation of LV blood volume with the dual-frequency conductance system in mice, in vivo murine myocardial resistivity was measured and combined with an analytic approach. The goals of the present study were to identify and minimize the sources of error in the measurement of myocardial resistivity to enhance the accuracy of the dual-frequency conductance system. We extended these findings to a gene-altered mouse model to determine the impact of measured myocardial resistivity on the calculation of LV pressure-volume relations. We examined the impact of temperature, timing of the measurement during the cardiac cycle, breeding strain, anisotropy, and intrameasurement and interanimal variability on the measurement of intact murine myocardial resistivity. Applying this knowledge to diabetic and nondiabetic 11- and 20- to 24-wk-old mice, we demonstrated differences in myocardial resistivity at low frequencies, enhancement of LV systolic function at 11 wk and LV dilation at 20-24 wk, and histological and electron-microscopic studies demonstrating greater glycogen deposition in the diabetic mice. This study demonstrated the accurate technique of measuring myocardial resistivity and its impact on the determination of LV pressure-volume relations in gene-altered mice.

  2. DART - for design basis justification and safety related information management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billington, A.; Blondiaux, P.; Boucau, J.; Cantineau, B.; Doumont, C.; Mared, A.

    2000-01-01

    DART is the acronym for Design Analysis Re-engineering Tool. It embodies a systematic and integrated approach to NPP safety re-assessment and configuration management, that makes use of Reverse Failure Mode and Effect Analysis in conjunction with a state-of-the-art relational database and a standardized data format, to permit long-term management of plant safety related information. The plant design is reviewed in a step-by-step logical fashion by constructing fault trees that identify the link between undesired consequences and their causes. Each failure cause identified in a fault tree is addressed by defining functional requirements, which are in turn addressed by documenting the specific manner in which the plant complies with the requirement. The database can be used to generate up-to-date plant safety related documents, including: SAR, Systems Descriptions, Technical Specifications and plant procedures. The approach is open-minded by nature and therefore is not regulatory driven, however the plant licensing basis will also be reviewed and documented within the same database such that a Regulatory Conformance Program may be integrated with the other safety documentation. This methodology can thus reconstitute the plant design bases in a comprehensive and systematic way, while allowing to uncover weaknesses in design. The original feature of the DART methodology is that it links all the safety related documents together, facilitating the evaluation of the safety impact resulting from any plant modification. Due to its capability to retrieve the basic justifications of the plant design, it is also a useful tool for training the young generation of plant personnel. The DART methodology has been developed for application to units 2, 3 and 4 at Vattenfall's Ringhals site in Sweden. It may be applied to any nuclear power plant or industrial facility where public safety is a concern. (author)

  3. DART - for design basis justification and safety related information management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billington, A.; Blondiaux, B.; Boucau, J.; Cantineau, B.; Mared, A.

    2001-01-01

    DART is the acronym for Design Analysis Re-Engineering Tool. It embodies a systematic and integrated approach to NPP safety re-assessment and configuration management, that makes use of Reverse Failure Mode and Effect Analysis in conjunction with a state-of-the-art relational database and a standardized data format, to permit long-term management of plant safety related information. The plant design is reviewed in a step-by-step logical fashion by constructing fault trees that identify the link between undesired consequences and their causes. Each failure cause identified in a fault tree is addressed by defining functional requirements, which are in turn addressed by documenting the specific manner in which the plant complies with the requirement. The database can then be used to generate up-to-date plant safety related documents, including: SAR, Systems Descriptions, Technical Specifications and plant procedures. The approach is open-minded by nature and therefore is not regulatory driven, however the plant licensing basis will also be reviewed and documented within the same database such that a Regulatory Conformance Program may be integrated with the other safety documentation. This methodology can thus reconstitute the plant design bases in a comprehensive and systematic way, while allowing to uncover weaknesses in design. The original feature of the DART methodology is that it links all the safety related documents together, facilitating the evaluation of the safety impact resulting from any plant modification. Due to its capability to retrieve the basic justifications of the plant design, it is also a useful tool for training the young generation of plant personnel. The DART methodology has been developed for application to units 2, 3 and 4 at Vattenfall's Ringhals site in Sweden. It may be applied to any nuclear power plant or industrial facility where public safety is a concern. (author)

  4. Sun-related behaviours among young Australians with Asian ethnic background: differences according to sociocultural norms and skin tone perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, A K; Wilson, C J; Hutchinson, A D; Roberts, R M

    2015-07-01

    Deliberate tanning, poor sun protection and sun exposure increase an individual's risk for skin cancer. Recent evidence suggests that individuals of Asian heritage have lower incidence of skin cancer than Caucasians but that their post-diagnosis outcomes are often worse. In Western cultures tanning behaviours are often motivated by a desire for 'attractive' tanned skin. Conversely, a light complexion is desired in a number of Asian cultures and may consequently serve to protect this group from excessive and risky sun exposure behaviours. This possibility is yet to be tested, with little known about the sun-related behaviours of Asian people residing in Australia. The present study involves 140 South Australian young adults who report having Asian heritage. Results show that the majority of female participants, and significantly fewer males, reported participating in deliberate outdoor tanning behaviour. Perceptions of family, peer and media tanning norms influenced behaviour, with peer norms being the strongest predictor. The desire for a lighter skin tone was associated with increased sun-protective behaviour and a lower number of previous severe sunburns. As a significant proportion of participants engaged in deliberate tanning behaviour, it is recommended that future research continue to explore factors associated with tanning, including an explicit measure of culture. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. A method for investigating relative timing information on phylogenetic trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Daniel; Matsen, Frederick A; Stadler, Tanja

    2009-04-01

    In this paper, we present a new way to describe the timing of branching events in phylogenetic trees. Our description is in terms of the relative timing of diversification events between sister clades; as such it is complementary to existing methods using lineages-through-time plots which consider diversification in aggregate. The method can be applied to look for evidence of diversification happening in lineage-specific "bursts", or the opposite, where diversification between 2 clades happens in an unusually regular fashion. In order to be able to distinguish interesting events from stochasticity, we discuss 2 classes of neutral models on trees with relative timing information and develop a statistical framework for testing these models. These model classes include both the coalescent with ancestral population size variation and global rate speciation-extinction models. We end the paper with 2 example applications: first, we show that the evolution of the hepatitis C virus deviates from the coalescent with arbitrary population size. Second, we analyze a large tree of ants, demonstrating that a period of elevated diversification rates does not appear to have occurred in a bursting manner.

  6. TRADE EFFECTS: REGULATORY, ACCOUNTING PRACTICES AND REPORTING OF INFORMATION RELATED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARISTIŢA ROTILĂ

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available It is known that within trade relations providers often credit customers for the value of goods or services which are the subject of conducted commercial transactions, this aspect being materialized in the issuance and acceptance of a trade effect. From the time of acceptance until maturity / settlement, trade effects should be reflected separately in the accounts and, to the extent that were not settled until the end of exercise, their value must be presented in the financial statements. Based on analysis of the Romanian accounting regulations, also taking into consideration the opinions expressed in specific literature concerning accounting reflection of trade effects, in this article we try to point out some aspects which, in our opinion, require clarification. We also want to point out some contradictions / inconsistencies regarding the reporting of information on the trade effects, specifically between the text of accounting regulations concerning the definition of accounting structures „cash and bank accounts” and “short term investments” and their contents when presented as positions in the balance sheet structure. In relation to the issues raised we try to prove the effects on the indicators concerning financial position and to make some suggestions that would have effects on Romanian accounting regulations, namely the improvement of financial reporting performed by the economic operators.

  7. The relation between the bifactor model of the Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory and conduct problems in adolescence: Variations across gender, ethnic background, and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwaanswijk, Wendy; Veen, Violaine C; van Geel, Mitch; Andershed, Henrik; Vedder, Paul

    2017-08-01

    The current study examines how the bifactor model of the Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory (YPI) is related to conduct problems in a sample of Dutch adolescents (N = 2,874; 43% female). It addresses to what extent the YPI dimensions explain variance over and above a General Psychopathy factor (i.e., one factor related to all items) and how the general factor and dimensional factors are related to conduct problems. Group differences in these relations for gender, ethnic background, and age were examined. Results showed that the general factor is most important, but dimensions explain variance over and above the general factor. The general factor, and Affective and Lifestyle dimensions, of the YPI were positively related to conduct problems, whereas the Interpersonal dimension was not, after taking the general factor into account. However, across gender, ethnic background, and age, different dimensions were related to conduct problems over and above the general factor. This suggests that all 3 dimensions should be assessed when examining the psychopathy construct. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Background information for the SER Energy Agreement for Sustainable Growth calculations. Sector Built Environment; Achtergronddocument bij doorrekening SER Energieakkoord. Sector Gebouwde omgeving

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menkveld, M.; Tigchelaar, C. [ECN Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-09-01

    This publication is part of the support given by ECN and PBL in the development of a national energy agreement between March and September 2013 as initiated by the SER (Social and Economic Council of the Netherlands). The report gives background information on the evaluation of measures in the agreement aimed at the built environment. It is an annex of the general evaluation of PBL/ECN [Dutch] Dit rapport is geschreven als onderdeel van de ondersteuning door ECN en PBL bij het tot stand komen van het energieakkoord in de periode maart tot september 2013. Dit rapport dient als achtergrond bij de doorrekening van de maatregelen gericht op energiebesparing in de gebouwde omgeving.

  9. Mechanisms for integration of information models across related domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Rob

    2010-05-01

    It is well recognised that there are opportunities and challenges in cross-disciplinary data integration. A significant barrier, however, is creating a conceptual model of the combined domains and the area of integration. For example, a groundwater domain application may require information from several related domains: geology, hydrology, water policy, etc. Each domain may have its own data holdings and conceptual models, but these will share various common concepts (eg. The concept of an aquifer). These areas of semantic overlap present significant challenges, firstly to choose a single representation (model) of a concept that appears in multiple disparate models,, then to harmonise these other models with the single representation. In addition, models may exist at different levels of abstraction depending on how closely aligned they are with a particular implementation. This makes it hard for modellers in one domain to introduce elements from another domain without either introducing a specific style of implementation, or conversely dealing with a set of abstract patterns that are hard to integrate with existing implementations. Models are easier to integrate if they are broken down into small units, with common concepts implemented using common models from well-known, and predictably managed shared libraries. This vision however requires development of a set of mechanisms (tools and procedures) for implementing and exploiting libraries of model components. These mechanisms need to handle publication, discovery, subscription, versioning and implementation of models in different forms. In this presentation a coherent suite of such mechanisms is proposed, using a scenario based on re-use of geosciences models. This approach forms the basis of a comprehensive strategy to empower domain modellers to create more interoperable systems. The strategy address a range of concerns and practice, and includes methodologies, an accessible toolkit, improvements to available

  10. Background Music and Background Feelings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Have, Iben

    2008-01-01

    With a focus on underscore music in film and television this report discusses the relations between music and emotions. The report will present and discuss an interdisciplinary theoretical framework connecting the experience of musical structures with emotional structures. Subsequently it discuss...... how music in the attachment to the audiovisual context contributes to the generation of different kinds of emotional experiences. The Danish television documentary Ballets droning (“The Queen of the Ball”) portraying the leader of the Danish right wing party The Danish Peoples’ Party...

  11. Inferring facts from fiction: reading correct and incorrect information affects memory for related information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Andrew C; Dennis, Nancy A; Marsh, Elizabeth J

    2012-07-01

    People can acquire both true and false knowledge about the world from fictional stories. The present study explored whether the benefits and costs of learning about the world from fictional stories extend beyond memory for directly stated pieces of information. Of interest was whether readers would use correct and incorrect story references to make deductive inferences about related information in the story, and then integrate those inferences into their knowledge bases. Participants read stories containing correct, neutral, and misleading references to facts about the world; each reference could be combined with another reference that occurred in a later sentence to make a deductive inference. Later they answered general knowledge questions that tested for these deductive inferences. The results showed that participants generated and retained the deductive inferences regardless of whether the inferences were consistent or inconsistent with world knowledge, and irrespective of whether the references were placed consecutively in the text or separated by many sentences. Readers learn more than what is directly stated in stories; they use references to the real world to make both correct and incorrect inferences that are integrated into their knowledge bases.

  12. Information Competencies for Chemistry Undergraduates and Related Collaborative Endeavors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Marion C.

    2014-01-01

    "Information Competencies for Chemistry Undergraduates: The Elements of Information Literacy", (2012-) now in its second edition and available as a Wikibook since 2012, resulted from collaboration by chemistry librarians participating in several professional organizations. Sections covering a) the library and scientific literature and b)…

  13. Night-rest urinary catecholamine excretion in relation to aspects of free time, work and background data in a teacher group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnunen, U; Vihko, V

    1991-01-01

    Free time, work and background data were related to night-rest catecholamine excretion rates in a teacher group (n = 137) during an autumn term. The explained interindividual variance increased slightly towards the end of the term. Adrenaline excretion was predicted better than noradrenaline, notedly by coffee consumption, amount of physical activity, and subjective stress feelings which explained 16% of the variance in adrenaline excretion during night rest. However, the results indicated that the differences in catecholamine excretion during night rest remained mostly unpredictable.

  14. An analysis of online health information on schizophrenia or related conditions: a cross-sectional survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Around 20% of those who seek health information online, search specifically for mental health. However, little is known about the nature of the online health information offered by two European countries, Finland and Greece, which are characterized by markedly differing levels of Internet access and online health information seeking. This study aims to assess, describe and compare websites, written in two European, non-English languages (Finnish and Greek) that appear first after performing an online search concerning schizophrenia or related conditions. Methods The first 20 results from four search terms (searched in Finnish and Greek) in the Web search engine ‘Google’ were screened. A total of 160 websites were retrieved (80 Finnish, 80 Greek) and evaluated using a preformulated coding system which consisted of websites’ indicators, such as: types, characteristics, accountability, interactivity, aesthetics and content. Differences between websites were evaluated with Chi-Square or Fisher’s Exact tests for categorical data and independent t-tests for parametric data. Results Twenty-four Finnish and thirty-four Greek websites (36% in total) were included. Almost two-thirds (62%, n=36) were owned by an organization, compared to 17% (n=10) by an individual. In both countries, aesthetics had the highest score (possible range 0–4, mean = 2.6, SD = .62), while interactivity the lowest (range 0–5, mean = 1.79, SD = .87). There were no statistically significant differences among the accountability, interactivity and aesthetics scores of the Finnish and Greek websites. Conclusions All assessed indicators suggest there is a need to improve Finnish and Greek online information about schizophrenia or related conditions. The poor website interactivity is of particular concern given the challenges faced by the target group. The findings can be used to guide the development and dissemination of online mental health information aimed at Finnish and Greek

  15. Pregnant Women Sharing Pregnancy-Related Information on Facebook: Web-Based Survey Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Background Research indicates expectant and new mothers use the Internet, specifically social media, to gain information and support during the transition to parenthood. Although parents regularly share information about and photos of their child or children on Facebook, researchers have neither explored the use of Facebook to share pregnancy-related information nor investigated factors that influence such sharing. Objective The aim of this study was to address a gap in the literature by exploring the use of Facebook by pregnant women. Specifically, the study examined the use of Facebook to share pregnancy-related information, as well as any association between prenatal attachment and the aforementioned aspects of sharing pregnancy-related information on Facebook. Methods Pregnant women who were at least 18 years of age were recruited for participation in the study through posts and paid advertisements on Facebook and posts to professional organization listservs. Individuals interested in participating were directed to a secure Web-based survey system where they completed the consent form and the survey that focused on their current pregnancy. Participants completed the Maternal Antenatal Attachment Scale and answered questions that assessed how often they shared pregnancy-related information on Facebook, who they shared it with, why they shared it, and what they shared. Results A total of 117 pregnant women completed the survey. Descriptive statistics indicated that the pregnancy announcement was most commonly shared (75/108, 69.4%), with most women sharing pregnancy-related information on Facebook less than monthly (52/117, 44.4%) with only family and friends (90/116, 77.6% and 91/116, 78.4%, respectively) and for the purpose of involving others or sharing the experience (62/107, 57.9%). Correlation and regression analyses showed that prenatal attachment, in general, was positively and significantly related to all aspects of sharing pregnancy-related information

  16. Diabetes-related information-seeking behaviour: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuske, Silke; Schiereck, Tim; Grobosch, Sandra; Paduch, Andrea; Droste, Sigrid; Halbach, Sarah; Icks, Andrea

    2017-10-24

    Information-seeking behaviour is necessary to improve knowledge on diabetes therapy and complications. Combined with other self-management skills and autonomous handling of the disease, it is essential for achieving treatment targets. However, a systematic review addressing this topic is lacking. The aims of this systematic review were to identify and analyse existing knowledge of information-seeking behaviour: (1) types information-seeking behaviour, (2) information sources, (3) the content of searched information, and (4) associated variables that may affect information-seeking behaviour. The systematic review follows the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) requirements. MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, ScienceDirect, PsycInfo, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, CCMed, ERIC, Journals@OVID, Deutsches Ärzteblatt and Karlsruher virtueller Katalog (KvK) databases were searched. Publications dealing with information-seeking behaviour of people with diabetes mellitus published up to June 2015 were included. A forward citation tracking was performed in September 2016 and June 2017. Additionally, an update of the two main databases (MEDLINE, CINAHL) was conducted, considering studies published up to July 2017. Studies published in languages other than English or German were excluded, as well as letters, short reports, editorials, comments and discussion papers. A study selection and the critical appraisal of the selected studies were performed independently by two reviewers. A third reviewer was consulted if any disagreement was found. Data extraction and content analysis were performed using selected dimensions of Wilson's 'model of information behaviour'. Twenty-six studies were included. Five 'types of information-seeking behaviour' were identified, e.g. passive and active search. The 'Internet' and 'healthcare professionals' were the most frequently reported sources. 'Diet', 'complications', 'exercise' and 'medications and

  17. Social network profiles as information sources for adolescents' offline relations

    OpenAIRE

    Courtois, Cédric; All, Anissa

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study concerning the use of profile pages by adolescents to get to know more about offline friends and acquaintances. Previous research has indicated that social network sites are used to gather information on new online contacts. However, several studies have demonstrated a substantial overlap between offline and online social networks. Hence, we question whether online profiles are meaningful in gathering information on these 'offline' friends and acquai...

  18. Social network profiles as information sources for adolescents' offline relations

    OpenAIRE

    Courtois, Cédric; All, Anissa; Vanwynsberghe, Hadewijch

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study concerning the use of online profile pages by adolescents to know more about “offline” friends and acquaintances. Previous research has indicated that social networking sites (SNSs) are used to gather information on new online contacts. However, several studies have demonstrated a substantial overlap between offline and online social networks. Hence, we question whether online connections are meaningful in gathering information on offline friends and...

  19. Direction Dependent Background Fitting for the Fermi GBM Data

    OpenAIRE

    Szécsi, Dorottya; Bagoly, Zsolt; Kóbori, József; Horváth, István; Balázs, Lajos G.

    2013-01-01

    We present a method for determining the background of Fermi GBM GRBs using the satellite positional information and a physical model. Since the polynomial fitting method typically used for GRBs is generally only indicative of the background over relatively short timescales, this method is particularly useful in the cases of long GRBs or those which have Autonomous Repoint Request (ARR) and a background with much variability on short timescales. We give a Direction Dependent Background Fitting...

  20. Recent geoscientific information relating to deep crustal studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smellie, John

    2004-01-01

    Geoscientific information relating to conditions deep in the earth's crust, as a basis to the deposition of radioactive wastes in vertically drilled boreholes to depths of 4-5 km, has been compiled already in several reports. The objective of this present document is to provide an update of geoscientific information that has become available in the open literature since 1998. Emphasis has been put on crystalline rocks to conform to SKB's disposal concepts for radioactive wastes. These conclusions are arranged under various headings of importance with respect to deep hole disposal of radioactive wastes at 4,000-5,000 m depth. Geothermal considerations: The rock thermal conductivity is an important parameter to help dissipate the heat generated by the waste package and depends on rock composition. In this respect, since mafic-rich varieties are more conductive, a granitic host rock may be considered more problematic. Fractures tend to increase the thermal conductivity; however due to the rock stress the frequency of fractures decreases with depth so that a deterioration in thermal conductivity with depth is to be expected. Evaluating the temperature/heat production gradient is an important pre-requisite for disposal, for example the long-term stability of engineered materials. The experience from the German KTB programme has underlined that it may not always be possible to extrapolate near-surface derived predictions of temperature variations to repository depths, especially in a heterogeneous bedrock environment. Hydraulic conductivity: Main problems are the presence of gas phases and groundwater flow; of lesser importance is fluid circulation initiated by the temperature gradient resulting from the temperature increase of the waste package. Rock permeability is expected to be in the order of (1 to 3) x 10 -13 m 2 over a 1-2 km zone if exogenic fracturing is assumed, in the order of 10 -17 -10 -16 m 2 at repository depths, and in the order of 10 -20 -10 -19 m 2 at

  1. Recent geoscientific information relating to deep crustal studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smellie, John [Conterra AB, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2004-01-01

    Geoscientific information relating to conditions deep in the earth's crust, as a basis to the deposition of radioactive wastes in vertically drilled boreholes to depths of 4-5 km, has been compiled already in several reports. The objective of this present document is to provide an update of geoscientific information that has become available in the open literature since 1998. Emphasis has been put on crystalline rocks to conform to SKB's disposal concepts for radioactive wastes. These conclusions are arranged under various headings of importance with respect to deep hole disposal of radioactive wastes at 4,000-5,000 m depth. Geothermal considerations: The rock thermal conductivity is an important parameter to help dissipate the heat generated by the waste package and depends on rock composition. In this respect, since mafic-rich varieties are more conductive, a granitic host rock may be considered more problematic. Fractures tend to increase the thermal conductivity; however due to the rock stress the frequency of fractures decreases with depth so that a deterioration in thermal conductivity with depth is to be expected. Evaluating the temperature/heat production gradient is an important pre-requisite for disposal, for example the long-term stability of engineered materials. The experience from the German KTB programme has underlined that it may not always be possible to extrapolate near-surface derived predictions of temperature variations to repository depths, especially in a heterogeneous bedrock environment. Hydraulic conductivity: Main problems are the presence of gas phases and groundwater flow; of lesser importance is fluid circulation initiated by the temperature gradient resulting from the temperature increase of the waste package. Rock permeability is expected to be in the order of (1 to 3) x 10{sup -13} m{sup 2} over a 1-2 km zone if exogenic fracturing is assumed, in the order of 10{sup -17}-10{sup -16} m{sup 2} at repository depths, and in

  2. Coping with Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Engaging with Information to Inform Health-Related Decision Making in Daily Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restall, Gayle J; Simms, Alexandria M; Walker, John R; Haviva, Clove; Graff, Lesley A; Sexton, Kathryn A; Miller, Norine; Targownik, Laura E; Bernstein, Charles N

    2017-08-01

    People with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) require disease and lifestyle information to make health-related decisions in their daily lives. Derived from a larger qualitative study of the lived experiences of people with IBD, we report on findings that explored how people with IBD engage with health-related information in their daily lives. Participants were recruited primarily from the Manitoba IBD Cohort Study. We used purposive sampling to select people with a breadth of characteristics and experiences. Individual interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were analyzed using inductive qualitative methods consistent with a phenomenological approach. Forty-five people with IBD participated; 51% were women. Findings highlighted the temporal and contextual influences on engagement with health-related information. Temporal influences were described as the changing need for health-related information over time. Participants identified 6 contextual factors influencing engagement with information to make health decisions: (1) emotional and attitudinal responses, (2) perceived benefits and risks, (3) trust in the source of the information, (4) knowledge and skills to access and use information, (5) availability of evidence to support decisions, and (6) social and economic environments. Findings illustrate the changing needs for health-related information over the course of IBD, and with evolving health and life circumstances. Practitioners can be responsive to information needs of people with IBD by having high-quality information available at the right time in a variety of formats and by supporting the incorporation of information in daily life.

  3. Issues related to the use of genetic material and information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giarelli, E; Jacobs, L A

    2000-04-01

    To review issues regarding the use of genetic materials and information. Professional literature, regional and federal legislation. An analysis is provided of the relationship among advances in genetic technology, use of genetic material and information, and the development of laws that protect the interests of donors, researchers, and insurers. Rapid technological achievements have generated complex questions that are difficult to answer. The Human Genome Project began and the scientific discoveries were put to use before adequate professional and public debate on the ethical, legal, social, and clinical issues. The term "proper use" of genetic material and information is not defined consistently. An incomplete patchwork of protective state and federal legislation exists. Many complicated issues surround the use and potential misuse of genetic material and information. Rapidly advancing technology in genetics makes it difficult for regulations that protect individuals and families to keep pace. Oncology nurses need to recognize their role as change agents, understand genetic technology, and advocate for patients by participating in the debate on the proper use and prevention of misuse of genetic material and information.

  4. The relations among body consciousness, somatic symptom report, and information processing speed in chronic fatigue syndrome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werf, S.P. van der; Vree, B.P.W. de; Meer, J.W.M. van der; Bleijenberg, G.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the potential influence of body consciousness and levels of somatic symptom report upon information processing speed in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). BACKGROUND: According to a model of a fixed information processing capacity, it was

  5. Low back pain in military recruits in relation to social background and previous low back pain. A cross-sectional and prospective observational survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weidick Flemming

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditionally, studies on the etiology of low back pain have been carried out in adult populations. However, since low back pain often appears early in life, more research on young populations is needed. This study focuses on the importance of social background factors and previous low back pain in the development of low back pain in military recruits. Methods During a three-month period, Danish military recruits with different social backgrounds live and work under the same conditions. Thus, there is an opportunity to investigate the influence of social background on the development of low back pain, when persons are removed from their usual environment and submitted to a number of new stressors. In addition, the importance of the recruits' previous low back pain history in relation to low back pain during military service was studied. This was done by means of questionnaires to 1,711 recruits before and after this three-month period. Results Sedentary occupation was negatively associated with long-lasting low back pain (>30 days during the past year at baseline with an odds ratios of 0.55 (95% CI: 0.33–0.90. This effect vanished during service. Having parents with higher education increased the risk of low back pain during service (OR: 1.9;1.2–3.0, for the highest educated group, but not of the consequences (leg pain and exemption from duty, whereas high IQ decreased the risk of these consequences (odds ratios as low as 0.2;0.1–0.8 for exemption from duty in the group with highest IQ. Long-lasting low back pain prior to service increased the risk of long-lasting low back pain (OR: 4.8;2.1–10.8, leg pain (OR: 3.3;1.3–8.3 and exemption from duty during service (OR: 5.9;2.4–14.8. Conclusion Sedentary occupation is negatively associated with low back pain at baseline. This protective effect disappears, when the person becomes physically active. For predicting trouble related to the low back during service, the

  6. Improvements in or relating to information display arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blay, A.G.

    1975-01-01

    An information display arrangement for use in biomedical radiography with either X- or γ-radiation or ultrasonic waves is described. This invention overcomes the drawbacks of conventional three-dimensional displays where certain features may be partially or completely obscured from view by matter which is not of interest. This improvement is achieved by interactive means using a light pen on a cathode ray tube display to effectively draw boundaries between relevant and irrelevant features. The computerised display is then up-dated from the information store containing the transmission data. (U.K.)

  7. Designing patient-focused information: an opportunity for communicating anatomically related information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Darrell J R

    2008-01-01

    Literature clearly demonstrates that there has been a large increase in the time devoted to teaching oral communication skills within medical curricula worldwide. In contrast, the ability to communicate with patients through written means does not appear to be a feature in many programmes, despite its fundamental importance in creating understanding of medicine within the general population. This article investigates one way patient-centered written communication has been integrated into part of the early training years of medical students using anatomically related material as a focus. Following a series of interactive seminars and debates as part of a student-selected component, students were asked to prepare a patient-focused information leaflet on a particular birth defect. The leaflets included aspects of anatomy and embryology as well as causes of the birth defect, signs and symptoms, treatments, outlook, and support mechanisms. Evaluation of the leaflets using set marking criteria and readability indexes showed that students had successfully targeted the chosen audiences. Feedback showed that the component was rated highly by the students in terms of quality, usefulness, and interest. Students viewed sessions as an excellent forum for appreciating the importance of and developing their own effective written communication skills. It is hoped that such developments will enhance the capacity of all potential doctors to communicate more effectively with patients and colleagues in both the written and spoken form.

  8. Development of the Informing Relatives Inventory (IRI): Assessing Index Patients' Knowledge, Motivation and Self-Efficacy Regarding the Disclosure of Hereditary Cancer Risk Information to Relatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Geus, Eveline; Aalfs, Cora M.; Menko, Fred H.; Sijmons, Rolf H.; Verdam, Mathilde G. E.; de Haes, Hanneke C. J. M.; Smets, Ellen M. A.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the use of genetic services, counselees do not always share hereditary cancer information with at-risk relatives. Reasons for not informing relatives may be categorized as a lack of: knowledge, motivation, and/or self-efficacy. This study aims to develop and test the psychometric properties

  9. Development of the Informing Relatives Inventory (IRI) : Assessing Index Patients' Knowledge, Motivation and Self-Efficacy Regarding the Disclosure of Hereditary Cancer Risk Information to Relatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Geus, Eveline; Aalfs, Cora M.; Menko, Fred H.; Sijmons, Rolf H.; Verdam, Mathilde G. E.; de Haes, Hanneke C. J. M.; Smets, Ellen M. A.

    Despite the use of genetic services, counselees do not always share hereditary cancer information with at-risk relatives. Reasons for not informing relatives may be categorized as a lack of: knowledge, motivation, and/or self-efficacy. This study aims to develop and test the psychometric properties

  10. The consequences of Edward Snowden NSA related information disclosures.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Von Solms, S

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available related leaks, and discuss the reactions to these disclosures. We also explore the direct and indirect impact of these leaks. The consequences of these disclosures include strained foreign relationships, and the knowledge that mass surveillance programmes...

  11. Communications Related to Weather Information Handling and Dissemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhas, Chris

    2000-01-01

    This report summarizes the tasking contained in the Statement of Work and describes the results of the project. In addition, it addresses the principles, procedures, and methods of application that would be generally applicable to using the results of the project. NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) is involved in the Aviation Weather Information (AWIN) Program, which has a goal of reducing the aircraft accident rate, by a factor of five within 10 years and by a factor of 10 within 20 years. GRC's effort concentrates on the communications means needed to disseminate effective weather data. GRC's focus in on developing new technologies and techniques to support the digital communication of weather information between airborne and ground-based users.

  12. Information Dissemination: Exploring the Librarian's Role in Public Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Virginia

    Historically the special librarian's role has been to store and preserve the organization's knowledge. In today's Information Age, increasing importance is placed on information dissemination. The management of electronic resources has been an important aspect of the Gemini librarian's job since the library's inception. In this paper, I discuss the methods that the Gemini Observatory is using to share its resources with a growing audience. Note: The Gemini Observatory is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council (United Kingdom), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), CNPq (Brazil) and CONICET (Argentina).

  13. Characterizing Health-Related Information Needs of Domain Experts

    OpenAIRE

    Znaidi , Eya; Tamine , Lynda; Chouquet , Cécile; Latiri , Chira

    2013-01-01

    International audience; In information retrieval literature, understanding the users’ intents behind the queries is critically important to gain a better insight of how to select relevant results. While many studies investigated how users in general carry out exploratory health searches in digital environments, a few focused on how are the queries formulated, specifically by domain expert users. This study intends to fill this gap by studying 173 health expert queries issued from 3 medical in...

  14. Emission and costs up to and including 2030 for the current environmental policy. Background information for the National Environmental Outlook 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Wee, G.P.; Kuijpers-Linde, M.A.J.; Van Gerwen, O.J.

    2001-03-01

    Every four years the Dutch National Institute of Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) publishes an Environmental Outlook in preparation for the National Environmental Policy Plan (NEPP). The fifth National Environmental Outlook (NEOS) describes developments in the quality of the environment in the Netherlands for 2000-2030 against a background of developments on the European and global scales. The two macro-economic scenarios of the Netherlands Bureau for Economic and Policy Analysis (CPB) used are the European Coordination (EC) scenario and the Global Competition scenario (GC). Consequences for public health, nature and the human physical environment are also indicated. 'Fixed policy' scenarios are used in the Environmental Outlook for the Netherlands. In 'fixed policy' scenarios it is assumed that all policy measures agreed on by the year 2000 will be implemented, but no new measures taken. In this way the Outlook offers baseline scenarios that can be compared with targets and objectives to facilitate the development of new policy. The Fifth National Environmental Outlook was realised with the assistance of many other Dutch research institutes. This background document to NEOS presents estimated levels of energy use, emissions and costs of environmental measures for the 1995-2020 period. The main conclusions are: The environmental problems most difficult to tackle are climate change and noise nuisance. These problems are highly related to energy use and transportation; The policy as presented in the 'Uitvoeringsnota Klimaatbeleid', a document describing the Dutch Kyoto-related climate policy, results in a reduction of greenhouse gases of 15 Mton CO2 equivalents (GS scenario) with respect to the pre-Kyoto policy in 2010. To meet the Kyoto agreements a further reduction of approximately 45 Mton CO2 equivalents is needed. If policies in the 'Uitvoeringsnota Klimaatbeleid' are further instrumentalised and made concrete, an extra reduction of 10 Mton is possible

  15. Nutritional Information Provision to Cancer Patients and Their Relatives Can Promote Dietary Behavior Changes Independent of Nutritional Information Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Veen, Merel R; Winkels, Renate M; Janssen, Silvie H M; Kampman, Ellen; Beijer, Sandra

    2018-04-01

    We investigated whether obtaining nutritional information influences reported changes in dietary behavior in cancer survivors and their relatives and whether nutritional information needs influence this association. We included 239 cancer survivors and their relatives, recruited from an online panel of cancer survivors and relatives. This panel completed a survey about their experiences with nutritional information provision by healthcare professionals and the media in the period after diagnosis, their information needs regarding nutrition and cancer, and whether they changed their dietary behavior since diagnosis. The survey showed that 56% of respondents obtained nutritional information, mostly during treatment. Respondents who obtained nutritional information more often reported to have altered their dietary behavior after diagnosis. This association was not altered by having information needs. The reported changes in dietary behavior were coherent with the recommendations of the World Cancer Research Fund: respondents reported to choose less products that promote weight gain, increased intake of plant foods, and decreased meat and alcohol use. Respondents who obtained nutritional information more often changed their dietary behavior, regardless whether they had nutritional information needs. This might be an indication that healthcare professionals should provide nutritional information not only to those expressing a need for nutritional information.

  16. The DELPHI distributed information system for exchanging LEP machine related information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doenszelmann, M.; Gaspar, C.

    1994-01-01

    An information management system was designed and implemented to interchange information between the DELPHI experiment at CERN and the monitoring/control system for the LEP (Large Electron Positron Collider) accelerator. This system is distributed and communicates with many different sources and destinations (LEP) using different types of communication. The system itself communicates internally via a communication system based on a publish-and-subscribe mechanism, DIM (Distributed Information Manager). The information gathered by this system is used for on-line as well as off-line data analysis. Therefore it logs the information to a database and makes it available to operators and users via DUI (DELPHI User Interface). The latter was extended to be capable of displaying ''time-evolution'' plots. It also handles a protocol, implemented using a finite state machine, SMI (State Management Interface), for (semi-)automatic running of the Data Acquisition System and the Slow Controls System. ((orig.))

  17. The effects of verbal information and approach-avoidance training on children's fear-related responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Kathryn J.; Lisk, Stephen C.; Mikita, Nina; Mitchell, Sophie; Huijding, Jorg; Rinck, Mike; Field, Andy P.

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives This study examined the effects of verbal information and approach-avoidance training on fear-related cognitive and behavioural responses about novel animals. Methods One hundred and sixty children (7–11 years) were randomly allocated to receive: a) positive verbal information about one novel animal and threat information about a second novel animal (verbal information condition); b) approach-avoidance training in which they repeatedly pushed away (avoid) or pulled closer (approach) pictures of the animals (approach-avoidance training), c) a combined condition in which verbal information was given prior to approach-avoidance training (verbal information + approach-avoidance training) and d) a combined condition in which approach-avoidance training was given prior to verbal information (approach-avoidance training + verbal information). Results Threat and positive information significantly increased and decreased fear beliefs and avoidance behaviour respectively. Approach-avoidance training was successful in training the desired behavioural responses but had limited effects on fear-related responses. Verbal information and both combined conditions resulted in significantly larger effects than approach-avoidance training. We found no evidence for an additive effect of these pathways. Limitations This study used a non-clinical sample and focused on novel animals rather than animals about which children already had experience or established fears. The study also compared positive information/approach with threat information/avoid training, limiting specific conclusions regarding the independent effects of these conditions. Conclusions The present study finds little evidence in support of a possible causal role for behavioural response training in the aetiology of childhood fear. However, the provision of verbal information appears to be an important pathway involved in the aetiology of childhood fear. PMID:25698069

  18. Relative luminance and figure-background segmentation problems: Using AMLA to avoid nondiscernible stimulus pairs in common and color blind observers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Lillo Jover

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Four experiments evaluated AMLA temporal version accuracy to measure relative luminosity in people with and without color blindness and, consequently, to provide the essential information to avoid poor figurebackground combinations in any possible “specific screen-specific observer” pair. Experiment 1 showed that two very different apparatus, a sophisticated photometer and a common luxometer, provide equivalent measurements to compute: (1 screen gamma exponents and (2 relative luminance (Y/Yn of achromatic but not of chromatic stimuli. Experiments 2, 3 and 4 showed that the psychophysical task of AMLA temporal version provided, for any stimulus type, accurate relative luminance measurements. They were: equivalent to standardised photometric measurements for common observers (Experiment 2; similar to the expected distortions for simulated (Experiment 2 and real (Experiment 3 aged tritanomalous observers; concordant with the expected distortions of protanope observers (Experiment 4.

  19. Impact of Noncaregiving-Related Stressors on Informal Caregiver Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austrom, Mary Guerriero; Lu, Yvonne Yueh-Feng; Perkins, Anthony J; Boustani, Malaz; Callahan, Christopher M; Hendrie, Hugh C

    2014-08-01

    Caregivers of persons with dementia are stressed. Stressors not related to care recipients' needs impact caregiver outcomes, yet are seldom reported. The purpose of this study was to report the most stressful events experienced by spouse caregivers of older adults with Alzheimer s disease during a 6-month period. 31 caregivers completed the Most Stressful Event form, Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and the Revised Memory Behavioral Problem Checklist (R-MBPC). Fisher's exact test and two-sample t-test were used to compare Most Stressful Events between caregivers. ANOVA model tested whether the PHQ-9 and R-MBPC subscales differed by stressor. Caregivers reported no stressors 21.5% of the time, 1-2 stressors 25% of the time, and 3 stressors 53% of the time with 318 stressors reported in total. Care recipient needs (30.2%), caregiver needs (26.7%), and decision-making (16.7%) were the most frequently reported stressors. Using a mixed effects model, there were associations between the Most Stressful Events and depression (p = 0.016), mobility (p = 0.024) and caregiver issues (p = 0.009) subscales of R-MBPC. Results can be used to develop targeted intervention and support strategies for spouse caregivers experiencing non-caregiving related stressorsas well as the traditional challenges with caregiving related issues. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. Information Technology Management: Hurricane Katrina Disaster Recovery Efforts Related to Army Information Technology Resources

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jolliffe, Richard B; Burton, Bruce A; Wicecarver, Jacqueline L; Kince, Therese M; Ryan, Susan R; Price, Matthew J; Cleveland, Karma J; N. Pugh, Jacqueline; Milner, Jillisa H; Johnson, Meredith H

    2006-01-01

    ... of Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida with Category 3 winds and torrential rain. This audit report is the first in a planned series of audits on the effects of Hurricane Katrina on DoD information technology resources...

  1. National Strategy for Information Sharing: Successes and Challenges in Improving Terrorism-Related Information Sharing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2007-01-01

    .... While this Strategy describes the vision that has guided the Administration for the past six years, it also sets forth our plan to build upon progress and establish a more integrated information...

  2. Determinants of information behaviour and information literacy related to healthy eating among Internet users in five European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niedźwiedzka, Barbara; Mazzocchi, Mario; Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. This study investigates how Europeans seek information related to healthy eating, what determines their information seeking and whether any problems are encountered in doing so. Method. A survey was administered through computer-assisted on-line web-interviewing. Respondents were gr...... literacy of the information-poor, men, the uneducated, and the economically disadvantaged.......Introduction. This study investigates how Europeans seek information related to healthy eating, what determines their information seeking and whether any problems are encountered in doing so. Method. A survey was administered through computer-assisted on-line web-interviewing. Respondents were...... grouped by age and sex (n=3003, age +16) in Belgium, Denmark, Italy, Poland, and the UK. Analysis. Descriptive statistics and regression analysis were used to analyse the influence of social, demographic, psychological and economic characteristics on the information seeking of the respondents. Results...

  3. Effects of background radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knox, E.G.; Stewart, A.M.; Gilman, E.A.; Kneale, G.W.

    1987-01-01

    The primary objective of this investigation is to measure the relationship between exposure to different levels of background gamma radiation in different parts of the country, and different Relative Risks for leukaemias and cancers in children. The investigation is linked to an earlier analysis of the effects of prenatal medical x-rays upon leukaemia and cancer risk; the prior hypothesis on which the background-study was based, is derived from the earlier results. In a third analysis, the authors attempted to measure varying potency of medical x-rays delivered at different stages of gestation and the results supply a link between the other two estimates. (author)

  4. Excess relative risk for solid cancer mortality during prolonged exposure to high-background natural radiation in Yangjiang area of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Quanfu; Tao Zufan; Yuan Yongling; Zou Jianming; Cha Yongru; Jian Yuannu; Wei Luxin; Akiba, S.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the excess relative risk for solid cancer associated with chronically exposure to high-background natural radiation in Yangjiang area of China. Methods: Based on hamlet-specific environmental doses and sex-and age-specific occupancy factors, the authors calculated cumulative doses for each cohort member. Assuming a linear dose response relationship and using cancer mortality data for the period 1979-1995 and Poisson model, the authors estimated the excess relative risk (ERR) for solid cancer. Results: The ERR per Sv of all solid cancer is estimated to be -0.11 (95% CI, -0.67, 0.69 to 95%). The corresponding figures for cancers of liver, nasopharynx, lungs and stomach are -0.99 (-1.60, 0.10), 0.10 (-1.21, 3.28), -0.68 (-1.58, 1.66) and -0.27 (-1.37, 2.69) respectively. Conclusion: The association between ERR of solid cancer and dose can not be found

  5. Assessment of country-of-origin-related and -neutral elements of mobile communication service offers: An empirical study of consumers with a Turkish migration background in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torsten J. Gerpott

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to more than three million people in Germany with a Turkish migration background country-of-origin (COO-sensitive, designs of offers directed at this customer segment have been implemented by various corporations and discussed in the management literature for quite a while. Unfortunately, to date most publications have a weak empirical foundation and refrain from simultaneously investigating preference effects of several country-of-origin-sensitive and -neutral offer characteristics among Turkish migrants living in Germany. Therefore, the present paper explores the relative impacts of three COO-sensitive offer characteristics and one COO-neutral attribute of bundled mobile communication offers on preference statements derived from a conjoint-analysis of questionnaire responses of 249 consumers in Germany with Turkish roots. The results suggest that for the offering category in question a COO-neutral feature (cell phone type/brand shapes the preferences of Turkish migrants almost to the same extent as the three remaining price- and communication-related characteristics investigated. Furthermore, we found that Turkish consumers in Germany encompass four subsegments with distinct preferences with respect to the design of mobile communication offerings. The members of these subsegments in turn differ primarily in terms of their age and gender structures as well as their level of accommodation to the German culture.

  6. Polio Endgame, Information Gaps Related to Vaccines and Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Mohammad; Bahl, Sunil; Kunwar, Abhishek

    2016-08-07

    Evidence generated through research studies has guided programmatic actions and fine-tuned strategies for the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI). However, many gaps still persist in the understanding of a risk-free implementation of the polio endgame. Immediate concerns relate to the introduction of inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) and switch from trivalent oral polio vaccine (tOPV) to bivalent oral polio vaccine (bOPV) in routine immunization schedule. A comprehensive understanding of mucosal immunity in populations and best response options against circulating vaccine derived poliovirus (cVDPV) outbreaks in post tOPV-bOPV switch is essential to mitigate the risks of wild and vaccine-derived poliovirus importations and emergence of cVDPVs in polio-free countries. A clearer picture is also needed on few operational issues, interference between polio vaccines and other EPI vaccines and products related to polio endgame. It is also extremely important to develop mechanisms to identify and manage long-term poliovirus excretors who may pose a risk of reintroduction into the population after global eradication of poliovirus.

  7. Accessing Suicide-Related Information on the Internet: A Retrospective Observational Study of Search Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The Internet’s potential impact on suicide is of major public health interest as easy online access to pro-suicide information or specific suicide methods may increase suicide risk among vulnerable Internet users. Little is known, however, about users’ actual searching and browsing behaviors of online suicide-related information. Objective To investigate what webpages people actually clicked on after searching with suicide-related queries on a search engine and to examine what queries people used to get access to pro-suicide websites. Methods A retrospective observational study was done. We used a web search dataset released by America Online (AOL). The dataset was randomly sampled from all AOL subscribers’ web queries between March and May 2006 and generated by 657,000 service subscribers. Results We found 5526 search queries (0.026%, 5526/21,000,000) that included the keyword "suicide". The 5526 search queries included 1586 different search terms and were generated by 1625 unique subscribers (0.25%, 1625/657,000). Of these queries, 61.38% (3392/5526) were followed by users clicking on a search result. Of these 3392 queries, 1344 (39.62%) webpages were clicked on by 930 unique users but only 1314 of those webpages were accessible during the study period. Each clicked-through webpage was classified into 11 categories. The categories of the most visited webpages were: entertainment (30.13%; 396/1314), scientific information (18.31%; 240/1314), and community resources (14.53%; 191/1314). Among the 1314 accessed webpages, we could identify only two pro-suicide websites. We found that the search terms used to access these sites included “commiting suicide with a gas oven”, “hairless goat”, “pictures of murder by strangulation”, and “photo of a severe burn”. A limitation of our study is that the database may be dated and confined to mainly English webpages. Conclusions Searching or browsing suicide-related or pro-suicide webpages was

  8. The quality of information on the internet relating to top-selling dietary supplements in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudischova, L; Straznicka, J; Pokladnikova, J; Jahodar, L

    2018-02-01

    Background The purchase of dietary supplements (DS) via the Internet is increasing worldwide as well as in the Czech Republic. Objective The aim of the study is to evaluate the quality of information on DS available on the Internet. Setting Czech websites related to dietary supplements. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out involving the analysis of information placed on the websites related to the 100 top-selling DS in the Czech Republic in 2014, according to IMS Health data. Main outcome measure The following criteria were evaluated: contact for the manufacturer, recommended dosage, information on active substances as well as overall composition, permitted health claims, % of the daily reference intake value (DRIV) for vitamins and minerals, link for online counseling, pregnancy/breastfeeding, allergy information, contraindications, adverse reactions, and supplement-drug interactions (some criteria were evaluated from both points of view). Results A total of 199 web domains and 850 websites were evaluated. From the regulatory point of view, all the criteria were fulfilled by 11.3% of websites. Almost 9% of the websites reported information referring to the treatment, cure, or prevention of a disease. From the clinical point of view, all the criteria were only met by one website. Conclusions The quality of information related to DS available on the Internet in the Czech Republic is quite low. The consumers should consult a specialist when using DS purchased online.

  9. 78 FR 5873 - Regulations Relating to Information Reporting by Foreign Financial Institutions and Withholding...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    ... Service 26 CFR Parts 1 and 301 Regulations Relating to Information Reporting by Foreign Financial... 9610] RIN 1545-BK68 Regulations Relating to Information Reporting by Foreign Financial Institutions and... (Code) regarding information reporting by foreign financial institutions (FFIs) with respect to U.S...

  10. Information needs related to teaching about air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, William P; Stubbs, Harriett S

    2003-06-01

    Translating knowledge of air quality into a form that can be understood by students and the general public is a major challenge for scientists, public officials, and teachers. Social science studies have shown that both educators and the general public are relatively uninformed about recent findings in environmental research. It is especially difficult to get students of today excited about environmental issues because environmental education has become institutionalized. Students believe they know about major environmental problems even when their knowledge is rudimentary or even wrong. One problem in getting public attention is the general level of hyperbole and hysteria common in most media. Thus, do we try to be even more shrill and apocalyptic than other advocates clamoring for public notice, or should we refuse to participate in this competition for attention?A model is presented to bring K-12 teachers, scientists, and students together to develop innovative, inquiry-based, active learning materials for environmental education. Curricular materials utilizing the discovery process can be created and tested in an iterative process that incorporates the results of current science research into highly effective teaching materials for schools. Following extensive evaluative procedures and review, exemplary materials are prepared for publication. This collaborative method also gives teachers and students a more realistic understanding of how science works by giving them access to active scientists and practical scientific experience.Finally, we argue that scientists need to reveal why they care about environmental issues. It is not enough to remain aloof and objective. If we are going to motivate students and the public to make changes in their lives, we need to make a convincing case for the importance of air quality and what it means in practical terms to our common environment.

  11. A Theory of the Podkletnov Effect based on General Relativity: Anti-Gravity Force due to the Perturbed Non-Holonomic Background of Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabounski D.

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available We consider the Podkletnov effect — the weight loss of an object located over a superconducting disc in air due to support by an alternating magnetic field. We consider this problem using the mathematical methods of General Relativity. We show via Einstein’s equations and the geodesic equations in a space perturbed by a disc undergoing oscillatory bounces orthogonal to its own plane, that there is no r ˆ ole of superconductivity; the Podkletnov effect is due to the fact that the field of the background space non-holonomity (the basic non-othogonality of time lines to the spatial section, being perturbed by such an oscillating disc produces energy and momentum flow in order to compensate the perturbation in itself. Such a momentum flow is directed above the disc in Podkletnov’s experiment, so it works like negative gravity (anti-gravity. We propose a simple mechanical system which, simulating the Podkletnov effect, is an experimental test of the whole theory. The theory allows for other “anti-gravity devices”, which simulate the Podkletnov effect without use of very costly superconductor technology. Such devices could be applied to be used as a cheap source of new energy, and could have implications to air and space travel.

  12. Tata Kelola Pada Perguruan Tinggi Menggunakan Control Objective for Information & Related Technology (COBIT) 5

    OpenAIRE

    asriyanik, asriyanik; Hendayun, Mokhamad

    2017-01-01

    A College needs a good governance in implementation of information technology, especially which related with information security because information is an important asset. Framework which can be used for the preparation of information security governance is COBIT 5 from ISACA. The first step to start the preparation of the governance using COBIT is mapping between the goal of college with enterprise goals (EG), IT Related Goals and domain process COBIT 5. From 15 colleges that have been acc...

  13. Health-Related Information-Seeking Behaviors and Preferences Among Mexican Patients with Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Perez-de-Celis, Enrique; Perez-Montessoro, Viridiana; Rojo-Castillo, Patricia; Chavarri-Guerra, Yanin

    2018-06-01

    Understanding the preferred sources of health-related information among patients with cancer is essential for designing successful cancer education and prevention strategies. However, little is known about health-related information-seeking practices among patients living in low- and middle-income countries. We studied the preferred sources of health-related information among Mexican patients with cancer and explored which factors influence these choices. The health-related information-seeking practices among patients with cancer treated at a public hospital in Mexico City were evaluated using questions from the Spanish Version of the Health Information National Trends Survey. The characteristics of patients who sought health-related information, and of those who chose the internet as their preferred source of information, were analyzed. Fisher's exact test and logistic regression were used for statistical analyses. One hundred forty-eight patients answered the survey (median age 60 years, 70% female), of which 88 (59%) had sought for health-related information. On multivariate analysis, the only characteristic associated with lower odds of seeking health-related information was increasing age (OR 0.93, 95% CI 0.90-0.97). Sixty-one respondents (69%) listed the internet as their preferred source of health-related information. On multivariate analysis, only being of the female gender (OR 4.9, 95% CI 1.3-18.3) was related with higher odds of preferring other sources of information over the internet. Among Mexican patients with cancer, the Internet is the most widely used information source. Older age was the characteristic most strongly associated with not seeking health-related information, while being female was strongly associated with preferring other sources of information over the Internet.

  14. Development of the Informing Relatives Inventory (IRI): Assessing Index Patients' Knowledge, Motivation and Self-Efficacy Regarding the Disclosure of Hereditary Cancer Risk Information to Relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Geus, Eveline; Aalfs, Cora M; Menko, Fred H; Sijmons, Rolf H; Verdam, Mathilde G E; de Haes, Hanneke C J M; Smets, Ellen M A

    2015-08-01

    Despite the use of genetic services, counselees do not always share hereditary cancer information with at-risk relatives. Reasons for not informing relatives may be categorized as a lack of: knowledge, motivation, and/or self-efficacy. This study aims to develop and test the psychometric properties of the Informing Relatives Inventory, a battery of instruments that intend to measure counselees' knowledge, motivation, and self-efficacy regarding the disclosure of hereditary cancer risk information to at-risk relatives. Guided by the proposed conceptual framework, existing instruments were selected and new instruments were developed. We tested the instruments' acceptability, dimensionality, reliability, and criterion-related validity in consecutive index patients visiting the Clinical Genetics department with questions regarding hereditary breast and/or ovarian cancer or colon cancer. Data of 211 index patients were included (response rate = 62%). The Informing Relatives Inventory (IRI) assesses three barriers in disclosure representing seven domains. Instruments assessing index patients' (positive) motivation and self-efficacy were acceptable and reliable and suggested good criterion-related validity. Psychometric properties of instruments assessing index patients knowledge were disputable. These items were moderately accepted by index patients and the criterion-related validity was weaker. This study presents a first conceptual framework and associated inventory (IRI) that improves insight into index patients' barriers regarding the disclosure of genetic cancer information to at-risk relatives. Instruments assessing (positive) motivation and self-efficacy proved to be reliable measurements. Measuring index patients knowledge appeared to be more challenging. Further research is necessary to ensure IRI's dimensionality and sensitivity to change.

  15. Veterinary decision making in relation to metritis - a qualitative approach to understand the background for variation and bias in veterinary medical records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enevoldsen Carsten

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Results of analyses based on veterinary records of animal disease may be prone to variation and bias, because data collection for these registers relies on different observers in different settings as well as different treatment criteria. Understanding the human influence on data collection and the decisions related to this process may help veterinary and agricultural scientists motivate observers (veterinarians and farmers to work more systematically, which may improve data quality. This study investigates qualitative relations between two types of records: 1 'diagnostic data' as recordings of metritis scores and 2 'intervention data' as recordings of medical treatment for metritis and the potential influence on quality of the data. Methods The study is based on observations in veterinary dairy practice combined with semi-structured research interviews of veterinarians working within a herd health concept where metritis diagnosis was described in detail. The observations and interviews were analysed by qualitative research methods to describe differences in the veterinarians' perceptions of metritis diagnosis (scores and their own decisions related to diagnosis, treatment, and recording. Results The analysis demonstrates how data quality can be affected during the diagnostic procedures, as interaction occurs between diagnostics and decisions about medical treatments. Important findings were when scores lacked consistency within and between observers (variation and when scores were adjusted to the treatment decision already made by the veterinarian (bias. The study further demonstrates that veterinarians made their decisions at 3 different levels of focus (cow, farm, population. Data quality was influenced by the veterinarians' perceptions of collection procedures, decision making and their different motivations to collect data systematically. Conclusion Both variation and bias were introduced into the data because of

  16. Studies analysing the need for health-related information in Germany - a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieper, Dawid; Jülich, Fabian; Antoine, Sunya-Lee; Bächle, Christina; Chernyak, Nadja; Genz, Jutta; Eikermann, Michaela; Icks, Andrea

    2015-09-23

    Exploring health-related information needs is necessary to better tailor information. However, there is a lack of systematic knowledge on how and in which groups information needs has been assessed, and which information needs have been identified. We aimed to assess the methodology of studies used to assess information needs, as well as the topics and extent of health-related information needs and associated factors in Germany. A systematic search was performed in Medline, Embase, Psycinfo, and all databases of the Cochrane Library. All studies investigating health-related information needs in patients, relatives, and the general population in Germany that were published between 2000 and 2012 in German or English were included. Descriptive content analysis was based on predefined categories. We identified 19 studies. Most studies addressed cancer or rheumatic disease. Methods used were highly heterogeneous. Apart from common topics such as treatment, diagnosis, prevention and health promotion, etiology and prognosis, high interest ratings were also found in more specific topics such as complementary and alternative medicine or nutrition. Information needs were notable in all surveyed patient groups, relatives, and samples of the general population. Younger age, shorter duration of illness, poorer health status and higher anxiety and depression scores appeared to be associated with higher information needs. Knowledge about information needs is still scarce. Assuming the importance of comprehensive information to enable people to participate in health-related decisions, further systematic research is required.

  17. INIS - International Nuclear Information System. CEA-users relations. Nuclear information in total freedom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surmont, J.; Paillard, M.D.; Constant, A.; Guille, N.; Le Blanc, A.; Mouffron, O.; Anguise, P.; Jouve, J.J.; Lilin, A.

    2009-01-01

    This poster, prepared for the seventh edition of the meetings of scientific and technical information professionals (RPIST, Nancy (France)), presents the principle of operation of the INIS system, based on a cooperative and decentralized preparation of the data which are centralized by the IAEA for the preparation of the INIS products: the database (on Internet and on CD/DVD-Rom), the collection of grey literature documents in full text (microfiches and CD/DVD-roms), and the multilingual thesaurus available in 7 different languages and under various formats. The poster presents these different products, and the role of the INIS members in the distribution of these products towards their national users. One insert presents the French INIS team of the CEA-Saclay and its daily work. (J.S.)

  18. Relational autonomy in informed consent (RAIC) as an ethics of care approach to the concept of informed consent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuji, Peter I

    2018-03-01

    The perspectives of the dominant Western ethical theories, have dominated the concepts of autonomy and informed consent for many years. Recently this dominant understanding has been challenged by ethics of care which, although, also emanates from the West presents a more nuanced concept: relational autonomy, which is more faithful to our human experience. By paying particular attention to relational autonomy, particularity and Process approach to ethical deliberations in ethics of care, this paper seeks to construct a concept of informed consent from the perspective of ethics of care which is here called relational autonomy-in-informed consent (RAIC). Thus, providing a broader theoretical basis for informed consent beyond the usual theoretical perspectives that are particularly Western. Care ethics provides such a broader basis because it appeals to a global perspective that encompasses lessons from other cultures, and this will help to enrich the current ideas of bioethics principles of autonomy and informed consent. This objective will be achieved by exploring the ethics of care emphasis on relationships based on a universal experience of caring; and by contrasting its concept of autonomy as relational with the understanding of autonomy in the approaches of the dominant moral theories that reflect rational, individualistic, and rights-oriented autonomy of the American liberalism.

  19. Investigate the relation between the media literacy and information literacy of students of communication science and information science and knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Esmaeil Pounaki

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The new millennium is called Information Age, in which information and communication technologies have been developed. The transfer from industrial society to information society has changed the form and level of education and information from those of the past times. In the past, literacy meant the ability of reading and writing, but today the meaning of literacy has been changed through the time and such a type of literacy is not enough to meet people’s needs in the industrial society of the 21st century. Today’s life requires media and information literacy especially for the students, whose duty is to research and who have a significant role in the development of their country from any perspective. This research aims to study the relation between the media literacy and information literacy of the students of the fields of communication science and information science and knowledge. This is an applied research in terms of its objective and uses a survey-correlation method. The statistical population of this research consists of the postgraduate students studying in the fields of study of information science and knowledge and communication science at Tehran University and Allameh Tabatabai University. The data required for this research were collected by a researcher-made questionnaire. The reliability of the questionnaire has been evaluated by Cronbach’s Alpha, which was equal to 0.936. The data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistic methods. The results showed that the level of media literacy and information literacy of students is desirable. There is a significant relationship between the economic status of students and their media literacy. However, the social status of students was directly related to their "ability to communicate" variable of media literacy. Also the Pearson correlation test showed a significant relationship between the variables of media literacy and information literacy.

  20. Power generation from renewable energy sources. Climate-friendly and economically efficient. Background information; Stromerzeugung aus erneuerbaren Energien. Klimafreundlich und oekonomisch sinnvoll. Hintergrund

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-02-15

    As the publication shows, the public discussion in Germany is increasingly focusing on the cost of the promotion of renewable energy sources. Critical comments state that the EEG (Renewables Act) accounts for most of the recent electricity rate increases and also does not contribute to climate protection. This background paper of the Federal Environmental Office stresses the role of the EEC for climate protection and its effects on price trends in electricity supply. The resulting financial burden for the German citizens and industry is investigated, and it is discussed whether public funding of renewable energy sources is indeed beneficial for the German economy on the whole.

  1. Integration of relational and hierarchical network information for protein function prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Xiaoyu

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the current climate of high-throughput computational biology, the inference of a protein's function from related measurements, such as protein-protein interaction relations, has become a canonical task. Most existing technologies pursue this task as a classification problem, on a term-by-term basis, for each term in a database, such as the Gene Ontology (GO database, a popular rigorous vocabulary for biological functions. However, ontology structures are essentially hierarchies, with certain top to bottom annotation rules which protein function predictions should in principle follow. Currently, the most common approach to imposing these hierarchical constraints on network-based classifiers is through the use of transitive closure to predictions. Results We propose a probabilistic framework to integrate information in relational data, in the form of a protein-protein interaction network, and a hierarchically structured database of terms, in the form of the GO database, for the purpose of protein function prediction. At the heart of our framework is a factorization of local neighborhood information in the protein-protein interaction network across successive ancestral terms in the GO hierarchy. We introduce a classifier within this framework, with computationally efficient implementation, that produces GO-term predictions that naturally obey a hierarchical 'true-path' consistency from root to leaves, without the need for further post-processing. Conclusion A cross-validation study, using data from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, shows our method offers substantial improvements over both standard 'guilt-by-association' (i.e., Nearest-Neighbor and more refined Markov random field methods, whether in their original form or when post-processed to artificially impose 'true-path' consistency. Further analysis of the results indicates that these improvements are associated with increased predictive capabilities (i.e., increased

  2. 17 CFR 39.5 - Information relating to derivatives clearing organization operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Information relating to derivatives clearing organization operations. 39.5 Section 39.5 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION DERIVATIVES CLEARING ORGANIZATIONS § 39.5 Information relating to derivatives...

  3. 77 FR 10370 - Rewards and Awards for Information Relating to Violations of Internal Revenue Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... whistleblowers should be rewarded for the prevention of future tax avoidance based on the whistleblower's... regulations do not address awards relating to the prevention of future tax avoidance. Special Analysis It has... information provided to the Secretary when the information relates to the detection of underpayments of tax or...

  4. 36 CFR 1256.62 - Geological and geophysical information relating to wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Geological and geophysical... MATERIALS General Restrictions § 1256.62 Geological and geophysical information relating to wells. (a) In accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(b)(9), NARA may withhold information in records that relates to geological and...

  5. DINFOS: Bibliography of Theses and Reports Related to Military Information Activities; Volume V, May 1976.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fort Benjamin Harrison, IN. Defense Information School.

    This bibliography lists theses and research reports related to military information activities. The listings are grouped according to the following subject categories: journalism, public and internal information, mass communications, political science, international communications, sociology, history, education, public relations, leadership,…

  6. The Quality of Online Health-Related Information – an Emergent Consumer Health Issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nădăşan Valentin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Internet has become one of the main means of communication used by people who search for health-related information. The quality of online health-related information affects the users’ knowledge, their attitude, and their risk or health behaviour in complex ways and influences a substantial number of users in their decisions regarding diagnostic and treatment procedures.

  7. 78 FR 55202 - Regulations Relating to Information Reporting by Foreign Financial Institutions and Withholding...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-10

    ... Regulations Relating to Information Reporting by Foreign Financial Institutions and Withholding on Certain... (78 FR 5874). The regulations related to information reporting by foreign financial institutions (FFIs... foreign branch of a U.S. financial institution that is a reporting Model 1 FFI must withhold in accordance...

  8. 77 FR 9021 - Regulations Relating to Information Reporting by Foreign Financial Institutions and Withholding...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    ... Service 26 CFR Parts 1 and 301 Regulations Relating to Information Reporting by Foreign Financial...-121647-10] RIN 1545-BK68 Regulations Relating to Information Reporting by Foreign Financial Institutions... respect to withholding and reporting under chapter 4. If a territory financial institution is a flow...

  9. Conserved quantities in background independent theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markopoulou, Fotini [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 35 King Street North, Waterloo, Ontario N2J 2W9 (Canada); Department of Physics, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2007-05-15

    We discuss the difficulties that background independent theories based on quantum geometry encounter in deriving general relativity as the low energy limit. We follow a geometrogenesis scenario of a phase transition from a pre-geometric theory to a geometric phase which suggests that a first step towards the low energy limit is searching for the effective collective excitations that will characterize it. Using the correspondence between the pre-geometric background independent theory and a quantum information processor, we are able to use the method of noiseless subsystems to extract such coherent collective excitations. We illustrate this in the case of locally evolving graphs.

  10. Information for Consumers about Alternative Fuel Conversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Here are some factors to be aware of if you are considering fuel conversion, including background information on fuel conversion, instructions for demonstrating compliance, and other related information.

  11. Environmental Complexity Related Information for the Assessment of Country Logistics Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinra, Aseem

    2015-01-01

    logistics assessment generates some of this information, its relevance for the decision makers, and relationship to their unpredictability from foreign national logistics systems remains indefinite. This paper identifies and categorises the relevant, available information on country logistics environments...... by using a content analysis approach. We demonstrate the immensity and nature of this information, are able to confirm the changing spatial transaction cost structures, and to reflect upon the overall conditions of information-related complexity and globalisation in the environment. Besides making...

  12. Maintenance of relational information in working memory leads to suppression of the sensory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikkai, Akiko; Blacker, Kara J; Lakshmanan, Balaji M; Ewen, Joshua B; Courtney, Susan M

    2014-10-15

    Working memory (WM) for sensory-based information about individual objects and their locations appears to involve interactions between lateral prefrontal and sensory cortexes. The mechanisms and representations for maintenance of more abstract, nonsensory information in WM are unknown, particularly whether such actively maintained information can become independent of the sensory information from which it was derived. Previous studies of WM for individual visual items found increased electroencephalogram (EEG) alpha (8-13 Hz) power over posterior electrode sites, which appears to correspond to the suppression of cortical areas that represent irrelevant sensory information. Here, we recorded EEG while participants performed a visual WM task that involved maintaining either concrete spatial coordinates or abstract relational information. Maintenance of relational information resulted in higher alpha power in posterior electrodes. Furthermore, lateralization of alpha power due to a covert shift of attention to one visual hemifield was marginally weaker during storage of relational information than during storage of concrete information. These results suggest that abstract relational information is maintained in WM differently from concrete, sensory representations and that during maintenance of abstract information, posterior sensory regions become task irrelevant and are thus suppressed. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Restoring large-scale brain networks in PTSD and related disorders: a proposal for neuroscientifically-informed treatment interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth A. Lanius

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Three intrinsic connectivity networks in the brain, namely the central executive, salience, and default mode networks, have been identified as crucial to the understanding of higher cognitive functioning, and the functioning of these networks has been suggested to be impaired in psychopathology, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Objective: 1 To describe three main large-scale networks of the human brain; 2 to discuss the functioning of these neural networks in PTSD and related symptoms; and 3 to offer hypotheses for neuroscientifically-informed interventions based on treating the abnormalities observed in these neural networks in PTSD and related disorders. Method: Literature relevant to this commentary was reviewed. Results: Increasing evidence for altered functioning of the central executive, salience, and default mode networks in PTSD has been demonstrated. We suggest that each network is associated with specific clinical symptoms observed in PTSD, including cognitive dysfunction (central executive network, increased and decreased arousal/interoception (salience network, and an altered sense of self (default mode network. Specific testable neuroscientifically-informed treatments aimed to restore each of these neural networks and related clinical dysfunction are proposed. Conclusions: Neuroscientifically-informed treatment interventions will be essential to future research agendas aimed at targeting specific PTSD and related symptoms.

  14. Sociodemographic and health-(care-)related characteristics of online health information seekers: a cross-sectional German study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nölke, Laura; Mensing, Monika; Krämer, Alexander; Hornberg, Claudia

    2015-01-29

    Although the increasing dissemination and use of health-related information on the Internet has the potential to empower citizens and patients, several studies have detected disparities in the use of online health information. This is due to several factors. So far, only a few studies have examined the impact of socio-economic status (SES) on health information seeking on the Internet. This study was designed to identify sociodemographic and health-(care-)related differences between users and non-users of health information gleaned from the Internet with the aim of detecting hard-to-reach target groups. This study analyzed data from the NRW Health Survey LZG.NRW 2011 (n = 2,000; conducted in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, via telephone interviews). Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the determinants of online health information seeking behavior. 68% of Internet users refer to the Internet for health-related purposes. Of the independent variables tested, SES proved to exert the strongest influence on searching the Internet for health information. The final multivariate regression model shows that people from the middle (OR: 2.2, 95% CI: 1.6-3.2) and upper (OR: 4.0, 95% CI: 2.7-6.2) social classes are more likely to seek health information on the Internet than those from the lower class. Also, women are more likely to look for health information on the Internet than men (OR: 1.5, 95% CI: 1.1-2.1). Individuals with a migration background are less likely to conduct health searches on the Internet (OR: 0.6, 95% CI: 0.4-0.8). Married people or individuals in a stable relationship search the Internet more often for health information than do singles (OR: 1.9, 95% CI: 1.2-2.9). Also, heavy use of health-care services compared to non-use is associated with a higher likelihood of using the Internet for health-related matters (OR: 1.7, 95% CI: 1.2-2.5). In order to achieve equity in health, health-related Internet use by the socially deprived should be

  15. Recovery of native genetic background in admixed populations using haplotypes, phenotypes, and pedigree information--using Cika cattle as a case breed.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojca Simčič

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to obtain unbiased estimates of the diversity parameters, the population history, and the degree of admixture in Cika cattle which represents the local admixed breeds at risk of extinction undergoing challenging conservation programs. Genetic analyses were performed on the genome-wide Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP Illumina Bovine SNP50 array data of 76 Cika animals and 531 animals from 14 reference populations. To obtain unbiased estimates we used short haplotypes spanning four markers instead of single SNPs to avoid an ascertainment bias of the BovineSNP50 array. Genome-wide haplotypes combined with partial pedigree and type trait classification show the potential to improve identification of purebred animals with a low degree of admixture. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated unique genetic identity of Cika animals. Genetic distance matrix presented by rooted Neighbour-Net suggested long and broad phylogenetic connection between Cika and Pinzgauer. Unsupervised clustering performed by the admixture analysis and two-dimensional presentation of the genetic distances between individuals also suggest Cika is a distinct breed despite being similar in appearance to Pinzgauer. Animals identified as the most purebred could be used as a nucleus for a recovery of the native genetic background in the current admixed population. The results show that local well-adapted strains, which have never been intensively managed and differentiated into specific breeds, exhibit large haplotype diversity. They suggest a conservation and recovery approach that does not rely exclusively on the search for the original native genetic background but rather on the identification and removal of common introgressed haplotypes would be more powerful. Successful implementation of such an approach should be based on combining phenotype, pedigree, and genome-wide haplotype data of the breed of interest and a spectrum of reference breeds which

  16. Preferential processing of task-irrelevant beloved-related information and task performance: Two event-related potential studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langeslag, Sandra J E; van Strien, Jan W

    2017-09-18

    People who are in love have better attention for beloved-related information, but report having trouble focusing on other tasks, such as (home)work. So, romantic love can both improve and hurt cognition. Emotional information is preferentially processed, which improves task performance when the information is task-relevant, but hurts task performance when it is task-irrelevant. Because beloved-related information is highly emotional, the effects of romantic love on cognition may resemble these effects of emotion on cognition. We examined whether beloved-related information is preferentially processed even when it is task-irrelevant and whether this hurts task performance. In two event-related potential studies, participants who had recently fallen in love performed a visuospatial short-term memory task. Task-irrelevant beloved, friend, and stranger faces were presented during maintenance (Study 1), or encoding (Study 2). The Early Posterior Negativity (EPN) reflecting early automatic attentional capturing and the Late Positive Potential (LPP) reflecting sustained motivated attention were largest for beloved pictures. Thus, beloved pictures are preferentially processed even when they are task-irrelevant. Task performance and reaction times did not differ between beloved, friend, and stranger conditions. Nevertheless, self-reported obsessive thinking about the beloved tended to correlate negatively with task performance, and positively with reaction times, across conditions. So, although task-irrelevant beloved-related information does not impact task performance, more obsessive thinking about the beloved might relate to poorer and slower overall task performance. More research is needed to clarify why people experience trouble focusing on beloved-unrelated tasks and how this negative effect of love on cognition could be reduced. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Increased attention and memory for beloved-related information during infatuation: behavioral and electrophysiological data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langeslag, Sandra J E; Olivier, Jamie R; Köhlen, Martine E; Nijs, Ilse M; Van Strien, Jan W

    2015-01-01

    Emotionally salient information is well attended and remembered. It has been shown that infatuated individuals have increased attention for their beloved. It is unknown whether this attention bias generalizes to information related to the beloved. Moreover, infatuated individuals report to remember trivial things about their beloved, but this has not yet been tested empirically. In two studies, we tested whether infatuated individuals have increased attention and memory for beloved-related information. In a passive viewing task (Study 1), the late positive potential, an event-related potential (ERP) component reflecting motivated attention, was enhanced for beloved-related vs friend-related words/phrases. In a recognition task (Study 2), memory performance and the frontal and parietal ERP old/new effects, reflecting familiarity and recollection, respectively, were not enhanced for beloved-related compared with friend-related words/phrases. In free recall tasks in both studies, memory was better for beloved-related than friend-related words/phrases. This research reveals that attention and memory are enhanced for beloved-related information. These attention and memory biases for beloved-related information were not due to valence, semantic relatedness, or experience, but to arousal. To conclude, romantic love has profound effects on cognition that play a clear role in daily life. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Population distribution of flexible molecules from maximum entropy analysis using different priors as background information: application to the Φ, Ψ-conformational space of the α-(1-->2)-linked mannose disaccharide present in N- and O-linked glycoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Säwén, Elin; Massad, Tariq; Landersjö, Clas; Damberg, Peter; Widmalm, Göran

    2010-08-21

    The conformational space available to the flexible molecule α-D-Manp-(1-->2)-α-D-Manp-OMe, a model for the α-(1-->2)-linked mannose disaccharide in N- or O-linked glycoproteins, is determined using experimental data and molecular simulation combined with a maximum entropy approach that leads to a converged population distribution utilizing different input information. A database survey of the Protein Data Bank where structures having the constituent disaccharide were retrieved resulted in an ensemble with >200 structures. Subsequent filtering removed erroneous structures and gave the database (DB) ensemble having three classes of mannose-containing compounds, viz., N- and O-linked structures, and ligands to proteins. A molecular dynamics (MD) simulation of the disaccharide revealed a two-state equilibrium with a major and a minor conformational state, i.e., the MD ensemble. These two different conformation ensembles of the disaccharide were compared to measured experimental spectroscopic data for the molecule in water solution. However, neither of the two populations were compatible with experimental data from optical rotation, NMR (1)H,(1)H cross-relaxation rates as well as homo- and heteronuclear (3)J couplings. The conformational distributions were subsequently used as background information to generate priors that were used in a maximum entropy analysis. The resulting posteriors, i.e., the population distributions after the application of the maximum entropy analysis, still showed notable deviations that were not anticipated based on the prior information. Therefore, reparameterization of homo- and heteronuclear Karplus relationships for the glycosidic torsion angles Φ and Ψ were carried out in which the importance of electronegative substituents on the coupling pathway was deemed essential resulting in four derived equations, two (3)J(COCC) and two (3)J(COCH) being different for the Φ and Ψ torsions, respectively. These Karplus relationships are denoted

  19. Intellectual Capital Disclosure at Czech Public Universities in Relation to the Stakeholder Information Need

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina Kuralová

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine the extent and quality of intellectual capital disclosure at Czech public universities in relation to information need of identified stakeholders – students. This research is based on the theoretical framework for voluntary intellectual capital disclosure, the proposed intellectual capital disclosure index, the identification of stakeholders including their information need as well as the content analysis of the universities’ annual reports has been applied. The quality of disclosed information on intangible resources in public universities in the Czech Republic is in the middle level. In the highest quality is disclosed relational capital, followed by structural and human capital. Information need of students is highest for information falling under the relational capital followed by structural capital and human capital. This study opens new approach regarding intellectual capital disclosure including suggested recommendations for Czech public universities, as there was no research related to the issue conducted in the past.

  20. Differences in weight status and energy-balance related behaviours according to ethnic background among adolescents in seven countries in Europe: the ENERGY-project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brug, J.; van Stralen, M.M.; Chin A Paw, M.J.M.; de Bourdeaudhuij, I.; Lien, N.; Bere, E.; Singh, A.S.; Maes, L.; Moreno, L.; Jan, N.; Kovacs, E.; Lobstein, T.; Manios, Y.; te Velde, S.J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to explore differences in weight status and energy balance behaviours according to ethnic background among adolescents across Europe. Methods: A school-based survey among 10-12-year-old adolescents was conducted in seven European countries. Weight, height and

  1. Finding online health-related information: usability issues of health portals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurel Koybasi, Nergis A; Cagiltay, Kursat

    2012-01-01

    As Internet and computers become widespread, health portals offering online health-related information become more popular. The most important point for health portals is presenting reliable and valid information. Besides, portal needs to be usable to be able to serve information to users effectively. This study aims to determine usability issues emerging when health-related information is searched on a health portal. User-based usability tests are conducted and eye movement analyses are used in addition to traditional performance measures. Results revealed that users prefer systematic, simple and consistent designs offering interactive tools. Moreover, content and partitions needs to be shaped according to the medical knowledge of target users.

  2. Establishing management information system to solve the information management problem of nuclear safety related personnel's qualification management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Haipeng; Liu Zhijun; Li Tianshu

    2013-01-01

    With the rapid progress of nuclear energy and nuclear technology utilization, nuclear safety related personnel play an increasingly important role in ensuring nuclear safety. NNSA personnel qualification management information system conducts a multi-faceted, effective, real-time monitoring and information collection for nuclear safety staff practice unit management, knowledge management, license application, appraisal management or supervision, training management or supervision and certified staff management, and also is a milestone for NNSA to build the state department with 'five-feature' (learning-oriented, service-oriented, economical, innovative, clean-type). (authors)

  3. The Relevance of the Social Information Processing Model for Understanding Relational Aggression in Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, Marcelle M.; Finch, Cambra L.; Foster, Sharon L.

    2005-01-01

    Two studies examined whether social information-processing variables predict relational aggression in girls. In Study 1, fourth- through sixth-grade girls reported their intent attributions, social goals, outcome expectancies for relational aggression, and the likelihood that they would choose a relationally aggressive response in response to…

  4. Background subtraction system for pulsed neutron logging of earth boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hertzog, R.C.

    1983-01-01

    The invention provides a method for determining the characteristics of earth formations surrounding a well borehole comprising the steps of: repetitively irradiating the earth formations surrounding the well bore with relatively short duration pulses of high energy neutrons; detecting during each pulse of high energy neutrons, gamma radiation due to the inelastic scattering of neutrons by materials comprising the earth formations surrounding the borehole and providing information representative thereof; detecting immediately following each such pulse of high energy neutrons, background gamma radiation due to thermal neutron capture and providing information representative thereof; and correcting the inelastic gamma representative information to compensate for said background representative information

  5. Influence of Flavors on the Propagation of E-Cigarette-Related Information: Social Media Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiaqi; Zhang, Qingpeng; Zeng, Daniel Dajun; Tsui, Kwok Leung

    2018-03-23

    Modeling the influence of e-cigarette flavors on information propagation could provide quantitative policy decision support concerning smoking initiation and contagion, as well as e-cigarette regulations. The objective of this study was to characterize the influence of flavors on e-cigarette-related information propagation on social media. We collected a comprehensive dataset of e-cigarette-related discussions from public Pages on Facebook. We identified 11 categories of flavors based on commonly used categorizations. Each post's frequency of being shared served as a proxy measure of information propagation. We evaluated a set of regression models and chose the hurdle negative binomial model to characterize the influence of different flavors and nonflavor control variables on e-cigarette-related information propagation. We found that 5 flavors (sweet, dessert & bakery, fruits, herbs & spices, and tobacco) had significantly negative influences on e-cigarette-related information propagation, indicating the users' tendency not to share posts related to these flavors. We did not find a positive significance of any flavors, which is contradictory to previous research. In addition, we found that a set of nonflavor-related factors were associated with information propagation. Mentions of flavors in posts did not enhance the popularity of e-cigarette-related information. Certain flavors could even have reduced the popularity of information, indicating users' lack of interest in flavors. Promoting e-cigarette-related information with mention of flavors is not an effective marketing approach. This study implies the potential concern of users about flavorings and suggests a need to regulate the use of flavorings in e-cigarettes. ©Jiaqi Zhou, Qingpeng Zhang, Daniel Dajun Zeng, Kwok Leung Tsui. Originally published in JMIR Public Health and Surveillance (http://publichealth.jmir.org), 23.03.2018.

  6. Backgrounded but not peripheral

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovmark, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    .e. the schema enters into apparently contradictory constructions of the informants’ local home-base and, possibly, of their identity (cf. Hovmark, 2010). Second, I discuss the status and role of the specific linguistic category in question, i.e. the directional adverbs. On the one hand we claim that the DDAs......In this paper I pay a closer look at the use of the CENTRE-PERIPHERY schema in context. I address two specific issues: first, I show how the CENTRE-PERIPHERY schema, encoded in the DDAs, enters into discourses that conceptualize and characterize a local community as both CENTRE and PERIPHERY, i......; furthermore, the DDAs are backgrounded in discourse. Is it reasonable to claim, rather boldly, that “the informants express their identity in the use of the directional adverb ud ‘out’ etc.”? In the course of this article, however, I suggest that the DDAs in question do contribute to the socio...

  7. The Conterminous United States Mineral Appraisal Program; background information to accompany folio of geologic, geochemical, geophysical, and mineral resources maps of the Tonopah 1 by 2 degree Quadrangle, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, David A.; Nash, J.T.; Plouff, Donald; Whitebread, D.H.

    1991-01-01

    The Tonopah 1 ? by 2 ? quadrangle in south-central Nevada was studied by an interdisciplinary research team to appraise its mineral resources. The appraisal is based on geological, geochemical, and geophysical field and laboratory investigations, the results of which are published as a folio of maps, figures, and tables, with accompanying discussions. This circular provides background information on the investigations and integrates the information presented in the folio. The selected bibliography lists references to the geology, geochemistry, geophysics, and mineral deposits of the Tonopah 1 ? by 2 ? quadrangle.

  8. A Coordinated Approach to Communicating Pediatric-Related Information on Pandemic Influenza at the Community Level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HCTT CHE

    2009-12-16

    The purpose of this document is to provide a suggested approach, based on input from pediatric stakeholders, to communicating pediatric-related information on pandemic influenza at the community level in a step-by-step manner.

  9. Information Operations, Electronic Warfare, and Cyberwar: Capabilities and Related Policy Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilson, Clay

    2007-01-01

    .... It also suggests related policy issues of potential interest to Congress. For military planners, the control of information is critical to military success, and communications networks and computers are of vital operational importance...

  10. Parametric models to relate spike train and LFP dynamics with neural information processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Arpan; Dean, Heather L; Pesaran, Bijan

    2012-01-01

    Spike trains and local field potentials (LFPs) resulting from extracellular current flows provide a substrate for neural information processing. Understanding the neural code from simultaneous spike-field recordings and subsequent decoding of information processing events will have widespread applications. One way to demonstrate an understanding of the neural code, with particular advantages for the development of applications, is to formulate a parametric statistical model of neural activity and its covariates. Here, we propose a set of parametric spike-field models (unified models) that can be used with existing decoding algorithms to reveal the timing of task or stimulus specific processing. Our proposed unified modeling framework captures the effects of two important features of information processing: time-varying stimulus-driven inputs and ongoing background activity that occurs even in the absence of environmental inputs. We have applied this framework for decoding neural latencies in simulated and experimentally recorded spike-field sessions obtained from the lateral intraparietal area (LIP) of awake, behaving monkeys performing cued look-and-reach movements to spatial targets. Using both simulated and experimental data, we find that estimates of trial-by-trial parameters are not significantly affected by the presence of ongoing background activity. However, including background activity in the unified model improves goodness of fit for predicting individual spiking events. Uncovering the relationship between the model parameters and the timing of movements offers new ways to test hypotheses about the relationship between neural activity and behavior. We obtained significant spike-field onset time correlations from single trials using a previously published data set where significantly strong correlation was only obtained through trial averaging. We also found that unified models extracted a stronger relationship between neural response latency and trial

  11. Nuclear atlas. After Chernobyl: Nuclear energy between fear and hope. Figures - facts - background information. Der Atomatlas. Nach Tschernobyl: Kernenergie zwischen Angst und Hoffnung. Zahlen - Fakten - Hintergruende

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinrich, M; Schmidt, A

    1986-01-01

    Chernobyl has become the catchword that reveals the profound difference of opinions among experts and the population on the issue of nuclear energy. In the many discussions in the public media and elsewhere after the Chernobyl accident, technical terms and scientific terminology and analytic data have been used that induced a feeling of helplessness in the general public, simply because people are not familiar with this terminology and subject. What does 'radioactivity' really mean. What damage to health is done by ionizing radiation. Who finds his way through the muddle of measuring units for radiation, such as rem, Becquerel, or Curie. How does a nuclear power plant work. What kind of reactors are operating in Europe. How safe are they. Where are they. What is a reprocessing plant. These are only a few of the many questions the book answers. The information is intended for the general reader, and supplemented by numerous illustrations, maps, tables and graphs.

  12. Exploring the Use of Internet by University Students for Seeking Health Related Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Asad; Khan, Mohammed Naved; Rahman, Obaidur

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Internet is both a medium and a platform for information exchange. This characteristic of internet is gradually metamorphosing it into an e-learning enabler. A significant percentage of internet users access health-related information through the medium of internet, but little is known about the factors that determine such behaviour. This…

  13. Relative Performance Information, Rank Ordering and Employee Performance: A Research Note

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, S.; Maas, V.S.; van Rinsum, M.

    2016-01-01

    We conduct a laboratory experiment to examine whether the provision of detailed relative performance information (i.e., information about the specific performance levels of peers) affects employee performance. We also investigate how – if at all – explicit ranking of performance levels affects how

  14. A Parallel Relational Database Management System Approach to Relevance Feedback in Information Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundquist, Carol; Frieder, Ophir; Holmes, David O.; Grossman, David

    1999-01-01

    Describes a scalable, parallel, relational database-drive information retrieval engine. To support portability across a wide range of execution environments, all algorithms adhere to the SQL-92 standard. By incorporating relevance feedback algorithms, accuracy is enhanced over prior database-driven information retrieval efforts. Presents…

  15. Internet skill-related problems in accessing online health information and services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Deursen, Alexander Johannes Aloysius Maria

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Despite the amount of health information available online, there are several barriers that limit the Internet from being adopted as a source of health information. The purpose of this study was to identify individual skill-related problems that users experience when accessing the Internet

  16. 77 FR 50757 - Charging Standard Administrative Fees for Nonprogram-Related Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-22

    ... are announcing the standardized administrative fees we will charge to recover our full cost of... will ensure fees are consistent and that we collect the full cost of supplying our information when a... standard fees that are calculated to reflect the full cost of providing information for nonprogram-related...

  17. 76 FR 52659 - Access by EPA Contractors to Confidential Business Information (CBI) Related to the Greenhouse...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-23

    ... Confidential Business Information (CBI) Related to the Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program AGENCY: Environmental... contractors named in this notice to access information that will be submitted to EPA under the Greenhouse Gas...), EPA created the Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program (GHGRP), 40 CFR part 98 (part 98), which requires...

  18. Internet Information-Seeking and Its Relation to Support for Access to Government Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuillier, David; Piotrowski, Suzanne J.

    2009-01-01

    Public access to government records is essential for democratic self-governance, and attitudes toward that right can facilitate or hinder public policy regarding transparency. As more people use the internet for gathering information about their governments and communities, it is unknown whether such online information-seeking is related to…

  19. What factors determine use of quality-related marketing research information? an empirical investigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Birgelen, van M.; Ruyter, de J.C.; Wetzels, M.G.M.

    2001-01-01

    For effective total quality management (TQM), internal, process-related, as well as external, market-oriented, information is crucial. In particular, external marketing information seems to be very valuable since customers are the ultimate evaluators of the quality of an organization. In this paper,

  20. Employment-related information for clients receiving mental health services and clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Joanne; Cleary, Catherine; Harris, Meredith G; Lloyd, Chris; Waghorn, Geoff

    2011-01-01

    Clients receiving public mental health services and clinicians require information to facilitate client access to suitable employment services. However, little is known about the specific employment-related information needs of these groups. This study aimed to identify employment-related information needs among clients, clinicians and employment specialists, with a view to developing a new vocational information resource. Employment-related information needs were identified via a series of focus group consultations with clients, clinicians, and employment specialists (n=23). Focus group discussions were guided by a common semi-structured interview schedule. Several categories of information need were identified: countering incorrect beliefs about work; benefits of work; disclosure and managing personal information; impact of earnings on welfare entitlements; employment service pathways; job preparation, planning and selection; and managing illness once working. Clear preferences were expressed about effective means of communicating the key messages in written material. This investigation confirmed the need for information tailored to clients and clinicians in order to activate clients' employment journey and to help them make informed decisions about vocational assistance.

  1. Information structure influences depth of syntactic processing: event-related potential evidence for the Chomsky illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Bastiaansen, Marcel; Yang, Yufang; Hagoort, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Information structure facilitates communication between interlocutors by highlighting relevant information. It has previously been shown that information structure modulates the depth of semantic processing. Here we used event-related potentials to investigate whether information structure can modulate the depth of syntactic processing. In question-answer pairs, subtle (number agreement) or salient (phrase structure) syntactic violations were placed either in focus or out of focus through information structure marking. P600 effects to these violations reflect the depth of syntactic processing. For subtle violations, a P600 effect was observed in the focus condition, but not in the non-focus condition. For salient violations, comparable P600 effects were found in both conditions. These results indicate that information structure can modulate the depth of syntactic processing, but that this effect depends on the salience of the information. When subtle violations are not in focus, they are processed less elaborately. We label this phenomenon the Chomsky illusion.

  2. Environmental qualification - walkdowns: The documentation of configuration information for safety related components, equipment and systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melmer, J.; Waters, M.

    1995-01-01

    Environmental Qualification walkdowns are conducted to collect field data to verify/validate/document configurations of safety related equipment and systems. This paper describes the process for conducting walkdowns and the justification for using an electronic format. The following are described: a) Background; b) Preparing, executing and processing walkdowns; c) Hardware/software; d) Impact of a paperless system on walkdown execution, maintenance and work planning; e) Other applications for the technology

  3. Task 23 - background report on subsurface environmental issues relating to natural gas sweetening and dehydration operations. Topical report, February 1, 1994--February 28, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorensen, J.A.

    1998-12-31

    This report describes information pertaining to environmental issues, toxicity, environmental transport, and fate of alkanolamines and glycols associated with natural gas sweetening and dehydration operations. Waste management associated with the operations is also discussed.

  4. The application of information theory for the research of aging and aging-related diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blokh, David; Stambler, Ilia

    2017-10-01

    This article reviews the application of information-theoretical analysis, employing measures of entropy and mutual information, for the study of aging and aging-related diseases. The research of aging and aging-related diseases is particularly suitable for the application of information theory methods, as aging processes and related diseases are multi-parametric, with continuous parameters coexisting alongside discrete parameters, and with the relations between the parameters being as a rule non-linear. Information theory provides unique analytical capabilities for the solution of such problems, with unique advantages over common linear biostatistics. Among the age-related diseases, information theory has been used in the study of neurodegenerative diseases (particularly using EEG time series for diagnosis and prediction), cancer (particularly for establishing individual and combined cancer biomarkers), diabetes (mainly utilizing mutual information to characterize the diseased and aging states), and heart disease (mainly for the analysis of heart rate variability). Few works have employed information theory for the analysis of general aging processes and frailty, as underlying determinants and possible early preclinical diagnostic measures for aging-related diseases. Generally, the use of information-theoretical analysis permits not only establishing the (non-linear) correlations between diagnostic or therapeutic parameters of interest, but may also provide a theoretical insight into the nature of aging and related diseases by establishing the measures of variability, adaptation, regulation or homeostasis, within a system of interest. It may be hoped that the increased use of such measures in research may considerably increase diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities and the fundamental theoretical mathematical understanding of aging and disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. YAdumper: extracting and translating large information volumes from relational databases to structured flat files.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, José M; Valencia, Alfonso

    2004-10-12

    Downloading the information stored in relational databases into XML and other flat formats is a common task in bioinformatics. This periodical dumping of information requires considerable CPU time, disk and memory resources. YAdumper has been developed as a purpose-specific tool to deal with the integral structured information download of relational databases. YAdumper is a Java application that organizes database extraction following an XML template based on an external Document Type Declaration. Compared with other non-native alternatives, YAdumper substantially reduces memory requirements and considerably improves writing performance.

  6. Informal interpreting in general practice: Are interpreters' roles related to perceived control, trust, and satisfaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zendedel, Rena; Schouten, Barbara C; van Weert, Julia C M; van den Putte, Bas

    2018-06-01

    The aim of this observational study was twofold. First, we examined how often and which roles informal interpreters performed during consultations between Turkish-Dutch migrant patients and general practitioners (GPs). Second, relations between these roles and patients' and GPs' perceived control, trust in informal interpreters and satisfaction with the consultation were assessed. A coding instrument was developed to quantitatively code informal interpreters' roles from transcripts of 84 audio-recorded interpreter-mediated consultations in general practice. Patients' and GPs' perceived control, trust and satisfaction were assessed in a post consultation questionnaire. Informal interpreters most often performed the conduit role (almost 25% of all coded utterances), and also frequently acted as replacers and excluders of patients and GPs by asking and answering questions on their own behalf, and by ignoring and omitting patients' and GPs' utterances. The role of information source was negatively related to patients' trust and the role of GP excluder was negatively related to patients' perceived control. Patients and GPs are possibly insufficiently aware of the performed roles of informal interpreters, as these were barely related to patients' and GPs' perceived trust, control and satisfaction. Patients and GPs should be educated about the possible negative consequences of informal interpreting. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Combining Multiple Forms Of Visual Information To Specify Contact Relations In Spatial Layout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedgwick, Hal A.

    1990-03-01

    An expert system, called Layout2, has been described, which models a subset of available visual information for spatial layout. The system is used to examine detailed interactions between multiple, partially redundant forms of information in an environment-centered geometrical model of an environment obeying certain rather general constraints. This paper discusses the extension of Layout2 to include generalized contact relations between surfaces. In an environment-centered model, the representation of viewer-centered distance is replaced by the representation of environmental location. This location information is propagated through the representation of the environment by a network of contact relations between contiguous surfaces. Perspective information interacts with other forms of information to specify these contact relations. The experimental study of human perception of contact relations in extended spatial layouts is also discussed. Differences between human results and Layout2 results reveal limitations in the human ability to register available information; they also point to the existence of certain forms of information not yet formalized in Layout2.

  8. Chiropractic wellness on the web: the content and quality of information related to wellness and primary prevention on the Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans Marion

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Internet has become a common source of information for patients wishing to learn about health information. Previous studies found information related to back pain poor and often contradictory to current guidelines. Wellness has become a common topic in the field of chiropractic and accrediting agencies have standards on delivery of wellness-based content in college curricula as well as directives for clinical applications. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the quality of the information on the Internet using the terms "chiropractic wellness," or "wellness chiropractic". Methods Five commonly used search engines were selected and the first 10 sites found using the strategy above were evaluated by two raters. Demographic assessments of the sites were made along with whether they were Health on the Net Foundation (HON certified, contained standard wellness content, mentioned any Healthy People Focus Areas, and other chiropractic topics. Kappa statistics compared inter-rater agreement. Results Potential patients appeared to be the audience 87% of the time and a private doctor of chiropractic appeared to be the typical site owner. The sites usually promoted the provider. No sites displayed HON certification logo nor did any appear to meet the HON certification criteria. Twenty-six sites (55% promoted regular physical activity in some manner and 18 (38% had information on health risks of tobacco. Four (9% had mental health or stress-reduction content but none had information supportive of vaccination. Some had information contradictory to common public health measures. Conclusions Patients searching the Internet for chiropractic wellness information will often find useless information that will not help them maintain health or become well. Most simply market the chiropractic practice or allow for a patients to provide personal information in exchange for more 'wellness' information. More research should be done on how

  9. Fault Diagnosis Method Based on Information Entropy and Relative Principal Component Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoming Xu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In traditional principle component analysis (PCA, because of the neglect of the dimensions influence between different variables in the system, the selected principal components (PCs often fail to be representative. While the relative transformation PCA is able to solve the above problem, it is not easy to calculate the weight for each characteristic variable. In order to solve it, this paper proposes a kind of fault diagnosis method based on information entropy and Relative Principle Component Analysis. Firstly, the algorithm calculates the information entropy for each characteristic variable in the original dataset based on the information gain algorithm. Secondly, it standardizes every variable’s dimension in the dataset. And, then, according to the information entropy, it allocates the weight for each standardized characteristic variable. Finally, it utilizes the relative-principal-components model established for fault diagnosis. Furthermore, the simulation experiments based on Tennessee Eastman process and Wine datasets demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the new method.

  10. The effects of verbal information and approach-avoidance training on children's fear-related responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Kathryn J; Lisk, Stephen C; Mikita, Nina; Mitchell, Sophie; Huijding, Jorg; Rinck, Mike; Field, Andy P

    2015-09-01

    This study examined the effects of verbal information and approach-avoidance training on fear-related cognitive and behavioural responses about novel animals. One hundred and sixty children (7-11 years) were randomly allocated to receive: a) positive verbal information about one novel animal and threat information about a second novel animal (verbal information condition); b) approach-avoidance training in which they repeatedly pushed away (avoid) or pulled closer (approach) pictures of the animals (approach-avoidance training), c) a combined condition in which verbal information was given prior to approach-avoidance training (verbal information + approach-avoidance training) and d) a combined condition in which approach-avoidance training was given prior to verbal information (approach-avoidance training + verbal information). Threat and positive information significantly increased and decreased fear beliefs and avoidance behaviour respectively. Approach-avoidance training was successful in training the desired behavioural responses but had limited effects on fear-related responses. Verbal information and both combined conditions resulted in significantly larger effects than approach-avoidance training. We found no evidence for an additive effect of these pathways. This study used a non-clinical sample and focused on novel animals rather than animals about which children already had experience or established fears. The study also compared positive information/approach with threat information/avoid training, limiting specific conclusions regarding the independent effects of these conditions. The present study finds little evidence in support of a possible causal role for behavioural response training in the aetiology of childhood fear. However, the provision of verbal information appears to be an important pathway involved in the aetiology of childhood fear. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Information needs and requirements in patients with brain tumours and their relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinert, Christiane; Rathberger, Katharina; Klinkhammer-Schalke, Monika; Kölbl, Oliver; Proescholdt, Martin; Riemenschneider, Markus J; Schuierer, Gerhard; Hutterer, Markus; Gerken, Michael; Hau, Peter

    2018-06-01

    Patients with brain tumours face a number of medical and social challenges. Previous studies have shown that these patients and their relatives need a high level of patient-oriented information and counselling. However, these needs are often underestimated. In this single-centre cross-sectional study, we evaluated, for the first time, the information needs of patients with brain tumours and their relatives depending on diagnosis, age and level of education. The participants were interviewed using pre-specified questionnaires. Answers were evaluated descriptively using standard statistical methods. A total of 888 questionnaires were sent out. The return rate was 50.7%. The majority of patients (nP = 103; 59.9%) and a higher proportion of relatives (nR = 103; 72.5%; p = 0.019) wished to receive a maximum of information. The majority (79.7% of patients; 83.1% of relatives) also stated that they preferred a personal, face-to-face meeting as primary source of information. The need for information increased with education (p = 0.015), and decreased with tumour grade (p = 0.025) and age (p = 0.118). Our data indicate that patients with brain tumours and their relatives have high information needs throughout their disease and continuously require information and counselling. Optimal provision of information is based on personal preferences, which needs to be evaluated appropriately. Patient-oriented information and counselling are parts of a successful communication strategy that can improve cancer care significantly.

  12. Information Retrieval System Design Issues in a Microcomputer-Based Relational DBMS Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfram, Dietmar

    1992-01-01

    Outlines the file structure requirements for a microcomputer-based information retrieval system using FoxPro, a relational database management system (DBMS). Issues relating to the design and implementation of such systems are discussed, and two possible designs are examined in terms of space economy and practicality of implementation. (15…

  13. 77 FR 65702 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Refugee/Asylee Relative Petition, Form Number I-730...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-30

    ...-0037] Agency Information Collection Activities: Refugee/Asylee Relative Petition, Form Number I-730... request. (2) Title of the Form/Collection: Refugee/Asylee Relative Petition. (3) Agency form number, if... households. Form I- 730 will be used by an asylee or refugee to file on behalf of his or her spouse and/or...

  14. 77 FR 38307 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Refugee/Asylee Relative Petition, Extension, Without...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-27

    ... Collection Activities: Refugee/Asylee Relative Petition, Extension, Without Change, of a Currently Approved Collection ACTION: 60-Day Notice of Information Collection Under Review: Form I- 730, Refugee/Asylee Relative...: Extension, without change, of a currently approved collection. (2) Title of the Form/Collection: Refugee...

  15. Information on actual medication use and drug-related problems in older patients: questionnaire or interview?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willeboordse, Floor; Grundeken, Lucienne H; van den Eijkel, Lisanne P; Schellevis, François G; Elders, Petra J M; Hugtenburg, Jacqueline G

    2016-04-01

    Information on medication use and drug-related problems is important in the preparation of clinical medication reviews. Critical information can only be provided by patients themselves, but interviewing patients is time-consuming. Alternatively, patient information could be obtained with a questionnaire. In this study the agreement between patient information on medication use and drug-related problems in older patients obtained with a questionnaire was compared with information obtained during an interview. General practice in The Netherlands. A questionnaire was developed to obtain information on actual medication use and drug-related problems. Two patient groups ≥65 years were selected based on general practitioner electronic medical records in nine practices; I. polypharmacy and II. ≥1 predefined general geriatric problems. Eligible patients were asked to complete the questionnaire and were interviewed afterwards. Agreement on information on medication use and drug-related problems collected with the questionnaire and interview was calculated. Ninety-seven patients participated. Of all medications used, 87.6 % (95 % CI 84.7-90.5) was reported identically in the questionnaire and interview. Agreement for the complete medication list was found for 45.4 % (95 % CI 35.8-55.3) of the patients. On drug-related problem level, agreement between questionnaire and interview was 75 %. Agreement tended to be lower in vulnerable patients characterized by ≥4 chronic diseases, ≥10 medications used and low health literacy. Information from a questionnaire showed reasonable agreement compared with interviewing. The patients reported more medications and drug-related problems in the interview than the questionnaire. Taking the limitations into account, a questionnaire seems a suitable tool for medication reviews that may replace an interview for most patients.

  16. People with epilepsy and their relatives want more information about risks of injuries and premature death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Oliver; Nakken, Karl O; Lossius, Morten I

    2018-05-01

    For most people with chronic diseases such as epilepsy, thorough knowledge of the disease is important in order to reduce feelings of insecurity and to enable better management of everyday life. Whether and when to inform patients and their families about all the risks associated with epilepsy is a matter of controversy. Using a web-based survey, patients with epilepsy (PWE) (n=1183) and carers, family members, or guardians of PWE, who could either answer on behalf of the patients (CBP) (n=676) or on their own behalf (CAR) (n=231) were asked whether they wanted information about the risk of epilepsy-related injuries and premature death and also whether they had received such information. Ninety percent or more of PWE, CBP, and CAR reported that they wanted such information, and 50% of CAR, 81% of CBP, and 70% of PWE had received some information about seizure-related injuries. Regarding risk of unexpected death, 31% of PWE, 35% of CBP, and 28% of CAR had received information on this issue. Those with tonic-clonic seizures were most eager to obtain information on these matters, and those best informed about epilepsy-related risks were males and the youngest part of the cohort. The wish for more information or the likelihood of having already received information was independent of the individual's seizure situation. This study demonstrates that there is a considerable gap between what the patients want regarding information and what they are actually given by healthcare providers. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Drug-related disorders and the criminal and clinical background of the prison population of São Paulo State, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maíra Mendes dos Santos

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the association between drug (DAD and alcohol (AAD abuse and dependency and criminal and clinical background by gender of prisoners in São Paulo, Brazil. METHOD: Cross-sectional study, random sample stratified by administrative district, from which prisons and prisoners were selected via random, multistage sampling. Psychiatric diagnoses were made with the CIDI 2.1. Lifetime prevalence and 95% CI were calculated and adjusted via analysis of complex samples. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was carried out with four categories of dependent variables: presence AAD; presence DAD; presence of another mental disorder; no mental disorders. For female alcohol and drug abuse and dependency (ADAD were combined into a single category. RESULTS: The sample was composed by 1809 interviewed prisoners (1192 men and 617 women. Prevalence of DAD and AAD was 25.2% and 15.6%, respectively, among female prisoners, and 26.5% and 18.5% among males. Male prisoners with DAD were more likely to have a criminal record as an adolescent (OR 2.17, to be a repeat offender (OR 2.85, and to have committed a property crime (OR 2.18. Prisoners with AAD were repeat offenders (OR 2.18. Among female prisoners, ADAD was associated with repeat offenses (OR 3.39, a criminal record as an adolescent (OR 9.24, a clinical or infectious condition (OR 5.09, another health problem (OR 3.04, and violent crime (OR 2.5. CONCLUSION: The study confirmed an association between drug-use disorders and the criminal and clinical background in the study population. Prisoners with such disorders were more likely to be repeat offenders and to have a criminal record as adolescents. Among female prisoners disorders were also associated with violent crime and health problems, while among males they were associated with property crime. These patterns in clinical and criminal backgrounds illustrate the need for social rehabilitation programs and specific medical treatment for

  18. Monitored background radiometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruel, C.

    1988-01-01

    A monitored background radiometer is described comprising: a thermally conductive housing; low conductivity support means mounted on the housing; a sensing plate mounted on the low conductivity support means and spaced from the housing so as to be thermally insulated from the housing and having an outwardly facing first surface; the sensing plate being disposed relative to the housing to receive direct electromagnetic radiation from sources exterior to the radiometer upon the first surface only; means for controllably heating the sensing plate; first temperature sensitive means to measure the temperature of the housing; and second temperature sensitive means to measure the temperature of the sensing plate, so that the heat flux at the sensing plate may be determined from the temperatures of the housing and sensing plate after calibration of the radiometer by measuring the temperatures of the housing and sensing plate while controllably heating the sensing plate

  19. 75 FR 62363 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Bees and Related Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-08

    ...] Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Bees and Related Articles... an information collection associated with regulations for the importation of bees and related... INFORMATION CONTACT: For information on regulations for the importation of bees and related articles, contact...

  20. Background sources at PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, H.; Schwitters, R.F.; Toner, W.T.

    1988-01-01

    Important sources of background for PEP experiments are studied. Background particles originate from high-energy electrons and positrons which have been lost from stable orbits, γ-rays emitted by the primary beams through bremsstrahlung in the residual gas, and synchrotron radiation x-rays. The effect of these processes on the beam lifetime are calculated and estimates of background rates at the interaction region are given. Recommendations for the PEP design, aimed at minimizing background are presented. 7 figs., 4 tabs

  1. Individual Differences in Neural Mechanisms of Selective Auditory Attention in Preschoolers from Lower Socioeconomic Status Backgrounds: An Event-Related Potentials Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isbell, Elif; Wray, Amanda Hampton; Neville, Helen J.

    2016-01-01

    Selective attention, the ability to enhance the processing of particular input while suppressing the information from other concurrent sources, has been postulated to be a foundational skill for learning and academic achievement. The neural mechanisms of this foundational ability are both vulnerable and enhanceable in children from lower…

  2. Health-Related Internet Use by Informal Caregivers of Children and Adolescents: An Integrative Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eunhee; Kim, Heejung; Steinhoff, Andreanna

    2016-03-03

    Internet-based health resources can support informal caregivers who are caring for children or adolescents with health care needs. However, few studies discriminate informal caregivers' needs from those of their care recipients or those of people caring for adults. This study reviews the literature of health-related Internet use among informal caregivers of children and adolescents. A total of 17 studies were selected from literature searches conducted in 6 electronic databases: PubMed, Cochrane, CINAHL, PsycINFO, ERIC, and EMBASE. All databases searches were limited to articles published in the years 2004 to 2014 in peer-reviewed publications. Search terms consisted of "health-related Internet use," "eHealth," "Internet use for health-related purpose(s)," "Web-based resource(s)," and "online resources," combined with informal caregiver (or "parents") of "child," "adolescent," "student," "youth," and "teen." The age range of the children receiving care was limited to younger than 22 years. Their informal caregivers were defined as persons (parents) who provided unpaid care or assistance to a child or an adolescent with health problems. Among 17 empirical studies, the majority of informal caregivers of children with medical issues were the parents. Quantitative studies (14/17, 77%) reported prevalence and predictors of health-related Internet use, while mixed-methods and qualitative studies (3/17, 24%) investigated informal caregiver perceptions of helpful health-related Internet use and barriers of use. The prevalence of health-related Internet use varied (11%-90%) dependent upon how health-related Internet use was operationalized and measured. Disease-specific information was used for decision making about treatment, while social support via virtual communities and email were used for informal caregiver emotional needs. A digital divide of Internet access was identified in lower educated minorities. Most studies had methodological challenges resulting from

  3. Informal settlements and a relational view of health in Nairobi, Kenya: sanitation, gender and dignity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corburn, Jason; Karanja, Irene

    2016-06-01

    On an urban planet, slums or informal settlements present an increasing challenge for health promotion. The living conditions in complex informal settlements interact with how people navigate through their daily lives and political institutions to shape health inequities. In this article, we suggest that only a relational place-based characterization of informal settlements can accurately capture the forces contributing to existing urban health inequities and inform appropriate and effective health promotion interventions. We explore our relational framework using household survey, spatial mapping and qualitative focus group data gathered in partnership with residents and non-governmental organizations in the Mathare informal settlement in Nairobi, Kenya. All data interpretation included participation with local residents and organizations. We focus on the inter-relationships between inadequate sanitation and disease, social, economic and human rights for women and girls, who we show are most vulnerable from poor slum infrastructure. We suggest that this collaborative process results in co-produced insights about the meanings and relationships between infrastructure, security, resilience and health. We conclude that complex informal settlements require relational and context-specific data gathering and analyses to understand the multiple determinants of health and to inform appropriate and effective healthy city interventions. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Relating Maxwell’s demon and quantitative analysis of information leakage for practical imperative programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anjaria, Kushal; Mishra, Arun

    2017-01-01

    Shannon observed the relation between information entropy and Maxwell demon experiment to come up with information entropy formula. After that, Shannon’s entropy formula is widely used to measure information leakage in imperative programs. But in the present work, our aim is to go in a reverse direction and try to find possible Maxwell’s demon experimental setup for contemporary practical imperative programs in which variations of Shannon’s entropy formula has been applied to measure the information leakage. To establish the relation between the second principle of thermodynamics and quantitative analysis of information leakage, present work models contemporary variations of imperative programs in terms of Maxwell’s demon experimental setup. In the present work five contemporary variations of imperative program related to information quantification are identified. They are: (i) information leakage in imperative program, (ii) imperative multithreaded program, (iii) point to point leakage in the imperative program, (iv) imperative program with infinite observation, and (v) imperative program in the SOA-based environment. For these variations, minimal work required by an attacker to gain the secret is also calculated using historical Maxwell’s demon experiment. To model the experimental setup of Maxwell’s demon, non-interference security policy is used. In the present work, imperative programs with one-bit secret information have been considered to avoid the complexity. The findings of the present work from the history of physics can be utilized in many areas related to information flow of physical computing, nano-computing, quantum computing, biological computing, energy dissipation in computing, and computing power analysis. (paper)

  5. Cosmic Microwave Background Timeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosmic Microwave Background Timeline 1934 : Richard Tolman shows that blackbody radiation in an will have a blackbody cosmic microwave background with temperature about 5 K 1955: Tigran Shmaonov anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background, this strongly supports the big bang model with gravitational

  6. The relative contributions of facial shape and surface information to perceptions of attractiveness and dominance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaimie S Torrance

    Full Text Available Although many studies have investigated the facial characteristics that influence perceptions of others' attractiveness and dominance, the majority of these studies have focused on either the effects of shape information or surface information alone. Consequently, the relative contributions of facial shape and surface characteristics to attractiveness and dominance perceptions are unclear. To address this issue, we investigated the relationships between ratings of original versions of faces and ratings of versions in which either surface information had been standardized (i.e., shape-only versions or shape information had been standardized (i.e., surface-only versions. For attractiveness and dominance judgments of both male and female faces, ratings of shape-only and surface-only versions independently predicted ratings of the original versions of faces. The correlations between ratings of original and shape-only versions and between ratings of original and surface-only versions differed only in two instances. For male attractiveness, ratings of original versions were more strongly related to ratings of surface-only than shape-only versions, suggesting that surface information is particularly important for men's facial attractiveness. The opposite was true for female physical dominance, suggesting that shape information is particularly important for women's facial physical dominance. In summary, our results indicate that both facial shape and surface information contribute to judgments of others' attractiveness and dominance, suggesting that it may be important to consider both sources of information in research on these topics.

  7. The relative contributions of facial shape and surface information to perceptions of attractiveness and dominance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrance, Jaimie S; Wincenciak, Joanna; Hahn, Amanda C; DeBruine, Lisa M; Jones, Benedict C

    2014-01-01

    Although many studies have investigated the facial characteristics that influence perceptions of others' attractiveness and dominance, the majority of these studies have focused on either the effects of shape information or surface information alone. Consequently, the relative contributions of facial shape and surface characteristics to attractiveness and dominance perceptions are unclear. To address this issue, we investigated the relationships between ratings of original versions of faces and ratings of versions in which either surface information had been standardized (i.e., shape-only versions) or shape information had been standardized (i.e., surface-only versions). For attractiveness and dominance judgments of both male and female faces, ratings of shape-only and surface-only versions independently predicted ratings of the original versions of faces. The correlations between ratings of original and shape-only versions and between ratings of original and surface-only versions differed only in two instances. For male attractiveness, ratings of original versions were more strongly related to ratings of surface-only than shape-only versions, suggesting that surface information is particularly important for men's facial attractiveness. The opposite was true for female physical dominance, suggesting that shape information is particularly important for women's facial physical dominance. In summary, our results indicate that both facial shape and surface information contribute to judgments of others' attractiveness and dominance, suggesting that it may be important to consider both sources of information in research on these topics.

  8. Matrix Results and Techniques in Quantum Information Science and Related Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelejo, Diane Christine

    In this dissertation, we present several matrix-related problems and results motivated by quantum information theory. Some background material of quantum information science will be discussed in chapter 1, while chapter 7 gives a summary of results and concluding remarks. In chapter 2, we look at 2n x 2 n unitary matrices, which describe operations on a closed n-qubit system. We define a set of simple quantum gates, called controlled single qubit gates, and their associated operational cost. We then present a recurrence scheme to decompose a general 2n x 2n unitary matrix to the product of no more than 2n-12n-1 single qubit gates with small number of controls. In chapter 3, we address the problem of finding a specific element phi among a given set of quantum channels S that will produce the optimal value of a scalar function D(rho 1,phi(rho2)), on two fixed quantum states rho 1 and rho2. Some of the functions we considered for D(·,·) are the trace distance, quantum fidelity and quantum relative entropy. We discuss the optimal solution when S is the set of unitary quantum channels, the set of mixed unitary channels, the set of unital quantum channels, and the set of all quantum channels. In chapter 4, we focus on the spectral properties of qubit-qudit bipartite states with a maximally mixed qudit subsystem. More specifically, given positive numbers a1 ≥ ... ≥ a 2n ≥ 0, we want to determine if there exist a 2n x 2n density matrix rho having eigenvalues a1,..., a2n and satisfying tr 1(rho)=1/n In. This problem is a special case of the more general quantum marginal problem. We give the minimal necessary and sufficient conditions on a1,..., a2n for n ≤ 6 and state some observations on general values of n.. In chapter 5, we discuss the numerical method of alternating projections and illustrate its usefulness in: (a) constructing a quantum channel, if it exists, such that phi(rho(1))=sigma(1),...,phi(rho (k))=sigma(k) for given rho (1),...,rho(k) ∈ Dn and

  9. Relative cue encoding in the context of sophisticated models of categorization: Separating information from categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apfelbaum, Keith S; McMurray, Bob

    2015-08-01

    Traditional studies of human categorization often treat the processes of encoding features and cues as peripheral to the question of how stimuli are categorized. However, in domains where the features and cues are less transparent, how information is encoded prior to categorization may constrain our understanding of the architecture of categorization. This is particularly true in speech perception, where acoustic cues to phonological categories are ambiguous and influenced by multiple factors. Here, it is crucial to consider the joint contributions of the information in the input and the categorization architecture. We contrasted accounts that argue for raw acoustic information encoding with accounts that posit that cues are encoded relative to expectations, and investigated how two categorization architectures-exemplar models and back-propagation parallel distributed processing models-deal with each kind of information. Relative encoding, akin to predictive coding, is a form of noise reduction, so it can be expected to improve model accuracy; however, like predictive coding, the use of relative encoding in speech perception by humans is controversial, so results are compared to patterns of human performance, rather than on the basis of overall accuracy. We found that, for both classes of models, in the vast majority of parameter settings, relative cues greatly helped the models approximate human performance. This suggests that expectation-relative processing is a crucial precursor step in phoneme categorization, and that understanding the information content is essential to understanding categorization processes.

  10. Public support for energy sources and related technologies: The impact of simple information provision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobman, Elizabeth V.; Ashworth, Peta

    2013-01-01

    Increasing public awareness and understanding of alternative energy sources and related technologies is an essential component of informed decision-making regarding new options of generating energy for a low carbon future. The current study examined the influence of psychological factors (i.e., pro-environmental beliefs, and subjective norms) and the provision of factual information on public support for a range of energy sources and related technologies. A representative sample of 1907 Australians completed an on-line survey that measured perceptions of a range of climate change and energy issues. Results showed that support for renewables is stronger than support for traditional fossil-fuel based energy sources (i.e., coal or gas) or nuclear energy. The provision of factual information about generation cost and emissions significantly changed support ratings, particularly when cost information was provided. Regression analyses revealed that pro-environmental beliefs were significantly related to support ratings for alternative energy sources. Subjective norms, however, were the strongest positive explanatory factor, suggesting that social mechanisms may be key drivers of support for new and emerging energy sources and related technologies. - Highlights: • We examine support for a wide range of energy sources and technologies. • Support changes when information on cost and emissions is provided. • Pro-environmental beliefs and social norms positively relate to support

  11. Growth in Adolescent Delinquency and Alcohol Use in Relation to Young Adult Crime, Alcohol Use Disorders, and Risky Sex: A Comparison of Youth from Low- versus Middle-Income Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, W. Alex; Hitch, Julia E.; Kosterman, Rick; McCarty, Carolyn A.; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Hawkins, J. David

    2010-01-01

    Background: This study examined adolescent delinquency and alcohol use in relation to young adult crime, alcohol use disorders (AUDs), and risky sex. Analyses further examined the influences of late childhood involvement in these problem behavior outcomes, with mediation through teen delinquency and alcohol use, and examined differences in the…

  12. Pregnant Women Sharing Pregnancy-Related Information on Facebook: Web-Based Survey Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpel, Tammy

    2018-03-22

    Research indicates expectant and new mothers use the Internet, specifically social media, to gain information and support during the transition to parenthood. Although parents regularly share information about and photos of their child or children on Facebook, researchers have neither explored the use of Facebook to share pregnancy-related information nor investigated factors that influence such sharing. The aim of this study was to address a gap in the literature by exploring the use of Facebook by pregnant women. Specifically, the study examined the use of Facebook to share pregnancy-related information, as well as any association between prenatal attachment and the aforementioned aspects of sharing pregnancy-related information on Facebook. Pregnant women who were at least 18 years of age were recruited for participation in the study through posts and paid advertisements on Facebook and posts to professional organization listservs. Individuals interested in participating were directed to a secure Web-based survey system where they completed the consent form and the survey that focused on their current pregnancy. Participants completed the Maternal Antenatal Attachment Scale and answered questions that assessed how often they shared pregnancy-related information on Facebook, who they shared it with, why they shared it, and what they shared. A total of 117 pregnant women completed the survey. Descriptive statistics indicated that the pregnancy announcement was most commonly shared (75/108, 69.4%), with most women sharing pregnancy-related information on Facebook less than monthly (52/117, 44.4%) with only family and friends (90/116, 77.6% and 91/116, 78.4%, respectively) and for the purpose of involving others or sharing the experience (62/107, 57.9%). Correlation and regression analyses showed that prenatal attachment, in general, was positively and significantly related to all aspects of sharing pregnancy-related information at the PFacebook for a variety of

  13. Data Aggregation System: A system for information retrieval on demand over relational and non-relational distributed data sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, G. [Imperial Coll., London; Kuznetsov, V. [Cornell U.; Evans, D. [Fermilab; Metson, S. [Bristol U.

    2011-01-01

    We present the Data Aggregation System, a system for information retrieval and aggregation from heterogenous sources of relational and non-relational data for the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment on the CERN Large Hadron Collider. The experiment currently has a number of organically-developed data sources, including front-ends to a number of different relational databases and non-database data services which do not share common data structures or APIs (Application Programming Interfaces), and cannot at this stage be readily converged. DAS provides a single interface for querying all these services, a caching layer to speed up access to expensive underlying calls and the ability to merge records from different data services pertaining to a single primary key.

  14. Attachment and children's biased attentional processing: evidence for the exclusion of attachment-related information.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Vandevivere

    Full Text Available Research in both infants and adults demonstrated that attachment expectations are associated with the attentional processing of attachment-related information. However, this research suffered from methodological issues and has not been validated across ages. Employing a more ecologically valid paradigm to measure attentional processes by virtue of eye tracking, the current study tested the defensive exclusion hypothesis in late childhood. According to this hypothesis, insecurely attached children are assumed to defensively exclude attachment-related information. We hypothesized that securely attached children process attachment- related neutral and emotional information in a more open manner compared to insecurely attached children. Sixty-two children (59.7% girls, 8-12 years completed two different tasks, while eye movements were recorded: task one presented an array of neutral faces including mother and unfamiliar women and task two presented the same with happy and angry faces. Results indicated that more securely attached children looked longer at mother's face regardless of the emotional expression. Also, they tend to have more maintained attention to mother's neutral face. Furthermore, more attachment avoidance was related to a reduced total viewing time of mother's neutral, happy, and angry face. Attachment anxiety was not consistently related to the processing of mother's face. Findings support the theoretical assumption that securely attached children have an open manner of processing all attachment-related information.

  15. Exploring culturally and linguistically diverse consumer needs in relation to medicines use and health information within the pharmacy setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Annim; Saini, Bandana; Chaar, Betty Bouad

    2015-01-01

    Low health literacy may result in adverse health outcomes for patients and is a problem faced by countries with multi-ethnic demography. For those of culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) backgrounds, this problem can be compounded by language barriers such as low English proficiency (LEP). The pharmacy is often the last point of health-care provider contact before patients begin taking their medicines and the first point of care for minor ailments. There is a paucity of data exploring or establishing the needs of this population with respect to general medicine use/health information and pharmacist assistance. This study aimed to investigate the needs of CALD Australians with low or negligible English proficiency, specifically in regards to their understanding of health and medicines and the role of pharmacy in achieving best medicine use outcomes for this population. A qualitative method was employed. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with individuals of CALD backgrounds with a self-reported low or negligible English proficiency. The interviews explored past experiences with medicines use and interaction with health care professionals. A grounded theory approach with the method of constant comparison was undertaken for analyzing the data. Interviews were conducted until there was a saturation of themes. Thirty-one interviews were conducted, and data analyses identified themes relating to medicine use of CALD community members which were broadly categorized into: (1) health information, (2) interactions with health care professionals, (3) social networks and (4) perceptions and beliefs influencing health-related behavior. In CALD communities there are significant barriers to patient understanding and optimal use of medicines. There is significant potential for pharmacy to facilitate in addressing these issues as currently pharmacy is largely playing the role of dispenser of medicines. Whilst timely access of medicines is being ensured, there seems

  16. A definition of background independence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gryb, Sean

    2010-01-01

    We propose a definition for background (in)/dependence in dynamical theories of the evolution of configurations that have a continuous symmetry and test this definition on particle models and on gravity. Our definition draws from Barbour's best matching framework developed for the purpose of implementing spatial and temporal relationalism. Among other interesting theories, general relativity can be derived within this framework in novel ways. We study the detailed canonical structure of a wide range of best matching theories and show that their actions must have a local gauge symmetry. When gauge theory is derived in this way, we obtain at the same time a conceptual framework for distinguishing between background-dependent and -independent theories. Gauge invariant observables satisfying Kuchar's criterion are identified and, in simple cases, explicitly computed. We propose a procedure for inserting a global background time into temporally relational theories. Interestingly, using this procedure in general relativity leads to unimodular gravity.

  17. The Emergence of Knowledge and How it Supports the Memory for Novel Related Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Tobias

    2017-03-01

    Current theories suggest that memories for novel information and events, over time and with repeated retrieval, lose the association to their initial learning context. They are consolidated into a more stable form and transformed into semantic knowledge, that is, semanticized. Novel, related information can then be rapidly integrated into such knowledge, leading to superior memory. We tested these hypotheses in a longitudinal, 302-day, human functional magnetic resonance imaging study in which participants first overlearned and consolidated associative structures. This phase was associated with a shift from hippocampal- to ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC)-mediated retrieval, consistent with semanticization. Next, participants encoded novel, related information whose encoding into the already acquired knowledge was orchestrated by the ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Novel related information exhibited reduced forgetting compared with novel control information, which corresponded to a faster shift from hippocampal- to vlPFC-mediated retrieval. In sum, the current results suggest that memory for novel information can be enhanced by anchoring it to prior knowledge via acceleration of the processes observed during semanticization. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. HIV-positive patients’ and their families’ comprehension of HIV- and AIDS-related information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gedina E. de Wet

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite acknowledgement of the importance of sharing HIV- and AIDS-related information with people living with HIV, it is still unclear as to what their actual comprehension is of this information. This research was part of a larger project, Tswaragano, conducted in the North-West Province, South Africa, which explored and described the competence, ability and strengths of the family of the HIV-positive patient during home support. This research focused on Potchefstroom in the North-West Province. This article focuses on research with the objective being to explore and describe the comprehension of HIV-positive patients and their families with regard to HIV- and AIDS-related information, and to formulate recommendations to improve their comprehension of this information. A quantitative, explorative and descriptive survey design was followed. Data were collected by means of questionnaires completed by HIV-positive patients (n = 79 and their family members (n = 34. Descriptive statistical analysis by means of frequency analysis was conducted. Ethical considerations and mechanisms to enhance validity and reliability are discussed. The results indicated that both HIV-positive respondents and their families face social and financial challenges due to unemployment and low income. A strength found in this research is that the majority of respondents are linked to a church, which can be a valuable platform to share information on HIV and AIDS. With regards to sharing, sources and comprehension of HIV- and AIDS-related information, it is apparent that respondents perceived that pre- and post-counselling provided an opportunity for information sharing, but that they need health care workers to spend more time with them, to be non-judgemental and to make more use of visual aids. It furthermore seems that the majority of HIV-positive respondents in this study did comprehend the need for and negotiate for safer sexual practices. It was concluded that

  19. HIV-positive patients’ and their families’ comprehension of HIV- and AIDS-related information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gedina E. de Wet

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite acknowledgement of the importance of sharing HIV- and AIDS-related information with people living with HIV, it is still unclear as to what their actual comprehension is of this information. This research was part of a larger project, Tswaragano, conducted in the North-West Province, South Africa, which explored and described the competence, ability and strengths of the family of the HIV-positive patient during home support. This research focused on Potchefstroom in the North-West Province. This article focuses on research with the objective being to explore and describe the comprehension of HIV-positive patients and their families with regard to HIV- and AIDS-related information, and to formulate recommendations to improve their comprehension of this information. A quantitative, explorative and descriptive survey design was followed. Data were collected by means of questionnaires completed by HIV-positive patients (n= 79 and their family members (n= 34. Descriptive statistical analysis by means of frequency analysis was conducted. Ethical considerations and mechanisms to enhance validity and reliability are discussed. The results indicated that both HIV-positive respondents and their families face social and financial challenges due to unemployment and low income. A strength found in this research is that the majority of respondents are linked to a church, which can be a valuable platform to share information on HIV and AIDS. With regards to sharing, sources and comprehension of HIV- and AIDS-related information, it is apparent that respondents perceived that pre- and post-counselling provided an opportunity for information sharing, but that they need health care workers to spend more time with them, to be non-judgemental and to make more use of visual aids. It furthermore seems that the majority of HIV-positive respondents in this study did comprehend the need for and negotiate for safer sexual practices. It was concluded that although

  20. Information related to postal flows and big data analysis potential. The case of Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Alvaro, O.; Nuñez Gonzalez, A.

    2016-07-01

    National Post Offices manage huge volumes of letters and parcels. Data associated to these flows are growing fast, with a great variety related to the diversity of postal products. The research described in this paper has classified all information flows of Correos, the Spanish National Post Office. In spite of the complexity of the current postal service portfolio, only four categories of matrices allow the classification of all postal information flows. Thanks to the migration towards new products, analyses with simple techniques will provide more and better information in the future, due to the structured nature of existing databases. (Author)

  1. Summary of Information and Resources Related to Energy Use in Healthcare Facilities - Version 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, Brett C.; Coughlin, Jennifer L.; Mathew, Paul A.

    2009-09-08

    This document presents the results of a review of publicly available information on energy use in health care facilities. The information contained in this document and in the sources cited herein provides the background and context for efforts to reduce energy use and costs in health care. Recognizing the breadth and diversity of relevant information, the author acknowledges that the report is likely not comprehensive. It is intended only to present a broad picture of what is currently known about health care energy use. This review was conducted as part of a 'High Performance Health Care Buildings' research study funded by the California Energy Commission. The study was motivated by the recognition that health care facilities collectively account for a substantial fraction of total commercial building energy use, due in large part to the very high energy intensity of hospitals and other inpatient care facilities. The goal of the study was to develop a roadmap of research, development and deployment (RD&D) needs for the health care industry. In addition to this information review, the road map development process included interviews with industry experts and a full-day workshop at LBNL in March 2009. This report is described as 'Version 1' with the intent that it will be expanded and updated as part of an ongoing LBNL program in healthcare energy efficiency. The document is being released in this form with the hope that it can assist others in finding and accessing the resources described within.

  2. Background information on the estimation of short-term effects of the Energy Agreement for Sustainable Growth on renewable energy; Toelichting inschatting korte-termijneffecten Energieakkoord op hernieuwbare energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hekkenberg, M.; Londo, H.M.; Lensink, S.M. [ECN Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-09-01

    On September 4, 2013, representatives of employers' associations, trade union federations, environmental organizations, the Dutch government and civil society have signed an Energy Agreement for Sustainable Growth. ECN and PBL have been asked to evaluate this agreement. This report gives background information on the evaluation of the measures aimed at improving energy efficiency in industry and agriculture [Dutch] Op 4 september 2013 is het 'Energieakkoord voor duurzame groei' getekend. ECN en PBL zijn gevraagd het akkoord te beoordelen en door te rekenen. Dit rapport dient als achtergronddocument bij de doorrekening van de maatregelen gericht op energiebesparing in de industrie en land- en tuinbouw.

  3. Background Information on the Soviet Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    example that of Orlov, are coming had such a hot exchange at the Manege exhibition more and more to resemble those under Stalin. To in December 1962... Manege affair and his While Stalin’s heirs walk thisearth, Stalin, I fancy, still lurksbecame ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ i good frensustrtholeum.fai a i widow

  4. Health-related ad information and health motivation effects on product evaluations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chrysochou, Polymeros; Grunert, Klaus G

    2014-01-01

    This study tests the effect of health-related ad information on perceived product healthfulness and purchase intention. Also, the study investigates whether consumers' health motivation moderates the effects, because of the way health motivation affects processing of health-related information...... in ads. Three types of healthrelated ad elements are distinguished: functional claims, process claims and health imagery. These elements were combined in mock ads and an online experiment was run to test the study hypotheses. Results show that health imagery has the largest impact on consumers' product...

  5. 28 CFR 50.2 - Release of information by personnel of the Department of Justice relating to criminal and civil...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... means of public communication, if such a statement or information may reasonably be expected to...) The defendant's name, age, residence, employment, marital status, and similar background information... means of public communication if there is a reasonable likelihood that such dissemination will interfere...

  6. Paternal preconception alcohol exposure imparts intergenerational alcohol-related behaviors to male offspring on a pure C57BL/6J background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rompala, Gregory R; Finegersh, Andrey; Slater, Michelle; Homanics, Gregg E

    2017-05-01

    While alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a highly heritable condition, the basis of AUD in families with a history of alcoholism is difficult to explain by genetic variation alone. Emerging evidence suggests that parental experience prior to conception can affect inheritance of complex behaviors in offspring via non-genomic (epigenetic) mechanisms. For instance, male C57BL/6J (B6) mice exposed to chronic intermittent vapor ethanol (CIE) prior to mating with Strain 129S1/SvImJ ethanol-naïve females produce male offspring with reduced ethanol-drinking preference, increased ethanol sensitivity, and increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that these intergenerational effects of paternal CIE are reproducible in male offspring on an inbred B6 background. To this end, B6 males were exposed to 6 weeks of CIE (or room air as a control) before mating with ethanol-naïve B6 females to produce ethanol (E)-sired and control (C)-sired male and female offspring. We observed a sex-specific effect, as E-sired males exhibited decreased two-bottle free-choice ethanol-drinking preference, increased sensitivity to the anxiolytic effects of ethanol, and increased VTA BDNF expression; no differences were observed in female offspring. These findings confirm and extend our previous results by demonstrating that the effects of paternal preconception ethanol are reproducible using genetically identical, inbred B6 animals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The use of health related quality of life data to produce information sheets for patients with head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, S N; Hogg, E S; Cheung, W K A; Lai, L K L; Jassal, P; Lowe, D

    2015-07-01

    Health related quality of life information gives patients and carers an indication of how they will be affected following treatment. Such knowledge can promote realistic expectations and help patients come to terms with their outcome. The aim of this paper is to describe the background development of patient information sheets produced at our unit. The data were compiled using a common head and neck cancer specific quality of life questionnaire (University of Washington Quality of Life [UW-QOL]). There are 12 domains comprising activity, appearance, anxiety, chewing, mood, pain, recreation, saliva, shoulder, speech, swallowing and taste. The data were collected over 19 years at our unit and focus on follow-up records at around 2 years as this gives a good indication of health related quality of life in survivorship. UW-QOL questionnaires were available from 1,511 patients treated following primary diagnosis of head and neck cancer, and there were 24 subgroups based on cancer site, stage and treatment. There were 2 other subgroups: 132 having transoral laser resection and 176 having laryngectomy. The patient and carer research forum helped to design the information sheets, which display overall quality of life, percentages with 'good' outcome and 'significant problem' by domain, and the most important domains. Three examples are included in this paper: early stage oral cancer treated by surgery alone, early laryngeal cancer treated by surgery alone, and late stage oropharyngeal cancer treated by surgery and postoperative radiotherapy. All 26 subgroup information sheets are available in booklet form and on the internet. How the surgical community best utilises this type of resource needs further research.

  8. Understanding and retention of trial-related information among participants in a clinical trial after completing the informed consent process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mexas, Fernanda; Efron, Anne; Luiz, Ronir Raggio; Cailleaux-Cezar, Michelle; Chaisson, Richard E; Conde, Marcus B

    2014-02-01

    for assessing the level of understanding of trial-related information during the informed consent (IC) process in developing countries are lacking. To assess the understanding and retention of trial-related information presented in the IC process by administering an informed consent assessment instrument (ICAI) to participants in a clinical trial for a new tuberculosis (TB) regimen being conducted in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Methods The format of the ICAI was based on the language and structure of the United States National Cancer Institute's IC comprehension checklist. The ICAI was designed to assess points of the RioMAR study IC process that addressed the principles of research ethics requested by Brazilian Regulatory Authority: autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice. Briefly, (1) Is the respondent participating in a clinical trial? (2) Are two different treatments being evaluated? (3) Is the treatment arm chosen by chance? (4) Is an HIV test required? (5) Are liver function tests required? (6) Can participants leave the study at any time? (7) Are the risks and benefits of taking part in the study clear? (8) May pregnant women participate in the study? (9) Can one of the study drugs reduce the effectiveness of contraceptives? (10) Are patients paid to participate in the study? The ICAI was applied at two time points: immediately after enrollment in the clinical trial and 2 months later. A total of 61 patients who enrolled in the RioMAR study participated in this study. The percentage of correct answers to all questions was 82% at the time of the first ICAI; 31 participants (51%) did not recall that an HIV test was required (question 4) and 43 (70%) did not know that they could leave the study (question 6). Other individual questions were answered correctly by at least 76% of participants. There was no association between incorrect answers and age, gender, monthly family income, neighborhood, or level of education (p > 0.07). When the responses to the

  9. Brain activity related to working memory for temporal order and object information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Brooke M; Libby, Laura A; Inhoff, Marika C; Ranganath, Charan

    2017-06-08

    Maintaining items in an appropriate sequence is important for many daily activities; however, remarkably little is known about the neural basis of human temporal working memory. Prior work suggests that the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and medial temporal lobe (MTL), including the hippocampus, play a role in representing information about temporal order. The involvement of these areas in successful temporal working memory, however, is less clear. Additionally, it is unknown whether regions in the PFC and MTL support temporal working memory across different timescales, or at coarse or fine levels of temporal detail. To address these questions, participants were scanned while completing 3 working memory task conditions (Group, Position and Item) that were matched in terms of difficulty and the number of items to be actively maintained. Group and Position trials probed temporal working memory processes, requiring the maintenance of hierarchically organized coarse and fine temporal information, respectively. To isolate activation related to temporal working memory, Group and Position trials were contrasted against Item trials, which required detailed working memory maintenance of visual objects. Results revealed that working memory encoding and maintenance of temporal information relative to visual information was associated with increased activation in dorsolateral PFC (DLPFC), and perirhinal cortex (PRC). In contrast, maintenance of visual details relative to temporal information was characterized by greater activation of parahippocampal cortex (PHC), medial and anterior PFC, and retrosplenial cortex. In the hippocampus, a dissociation along the longitudinal axis was observed such that the anterior hippocampus was more active for working memory encoding and maintenance of visual detail information relative to temporal information, whereas the posterior hippocampus displayed the opposite effect. Posterior parietal cortex was the only region to show sensitivity to temporal

  10. Perceptions of Health-Related Information on Facebook: Cross-Sectional Study Among Vietnamese Youths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Melvyn Wb; Tran, Bach Xuan; Le, Huong Thi; Nguyen, Hinh Duc; Nguyen, Cuong Tat; Tran, Tho Dinh; Latkin, Carl A; Ho, Roger Cm

    2017-09-07

    While health information websites may have previously been the core source of information about health-related conditions on the Internet, social networking sites are increasingly replacing those websites as a source of health-related information. The increasingly popularity of social networking sites among the general population has consequential impact on health policies as well as health-related interventions. To date, there remains a paucity of research conducted in developing countries like Vietnam looking at the influence of social networking sites. Our goal is to establish the baseline use of Facebook among Vietnamese youths and establish their perception of the reliability and usefulness of health-related information that they previously encountered while using the social networking site. An online cross-sectional study was conducted from August 2015 to October 2015. Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) technique was used in the recruitment of participants. Sociodemographic, health status, behaviors, Facebook use and belief of information on Facebook, and interpersonal influence of social network sites were collected via an online structured questionnaire. Among 1080 participants, 72.87% (787/1080) reported being interested in health information on Facebook, and 50.74% (548/1080) and 17.50% (189/1080) perceived the information to be reliable and useful, respectively. A total of 10.93% (118/1080) of the participants also reported that they would follow the health advice they obtained from Facebook. Of significance, 7.13% (77/1080) of the participants also reported peer influences on their behavior. Factors that mediate Vietnamese perceptions of the information online include gender, level of perceived stress, age, educational level, and interpersonal influences from Facebook. Our study is perhaps one of the first conducted in Vietnam that looks at the relationship between health information on Facebook and factors that might influence young Vietnamese

  11. Hanford Site background: Part 1, Soil background for nonradioactive analytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    The determination of soil background is one of the most important activities supporting environmental restoration and waste management on the Hanford Site. Background compositions serve as the basis for identifying soil contamination, and also as a baseline in risk assessment processes used to determine soil cleanup and treatment levels. These uses of soil background require an understanding of the extent to which analytes of concern occur naturally in the soils. This report documents the results of sampling and analysis activities designed to characterize the composition of soil background at the Hanford Site, and to evaluate the feasibility for use as Sitewide background. The compositions of naturally occurring soils in the vadose Zone have been-determined for-nonradioactive inorganic and organic analytes and related physical properties. These results confirm that a Sitewide approach to the characterization of soil background is technically sound and is a viable alternative to the determination and use of numerous local or area backgrounds that yield inconsistent definitions of contamination. Sitewide soil background consists of several types of data and is appropriate for use in identifying contamination in all soils in the vadose zone on the Hanford Site. The natural concentrations of nearly every inorganic analyte extend to levels that exceed calculated health-based cleanup limits. The levels of most inorganic analytes, however, are well below these health-based limits. The highest measured background concentrations occur in three volumetrically minor soil types, the most important of which are topsoils adjacent to the Columbia River that are rich in organic carbon. No organic analyte levels above detection were found in any of the soil samples

  12. Background characteristics and treatment-related factors associated with treatment success or failure in a non-pharmacological intervention for dementia caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Karen C; Gitlin, Laura N

    2017-06-01

    Non-pharmacological interventions for persons with dementia often rely on family caregivers for implementation. However, caregivers differ in their readiness to use strategies. This study examines dyadic characteristics and treatment-related mechanisms associated with treatment success (high readiness to use strategies) and failure (low readiness to use strategies) at the conclusion of the Advancing Caregiver Training (ACT) intervention. Caregiver and person with dementia characteristics and treatment-related variables (treatment participation, number and type of strategies introduced and enacted) were examined in 110 caregivers in intervention. Interventionists rated readiness (1=precontemplation; 2=contemplation; 3=preparation; 4=action) of caregivers to use strategies at the final ACT session. Univariate analyses examined dyadic characteristics, and Multiple Analysis of Covariance (MANCOVA) and Analyses of Covariance (ANCOVA) examined treatment-related factors associated with readiness to use strategies at treatment completion. At treatment completion, 28.2% (N=31) scored in pre-action and 71.8% (N=79) at action. Caregivers at pre-action readiness levels were more likely than those at action to be a spouse, report greater financial difficulties and be managing fewer problem behaviors. Although both groups were introduced an equivalent number of non-pharmacological strategies, caregivers at pre-action were less likely than those at action to report enacting strategies. Certain dyadic characteristics and treatment-related factors were associated with treatment failure including financial strain and lack of strategy integration. Findings suggest that developing intervention components to address financial concerns and increase opportunities for practicing strategies and then using them between treatment sessions may be important for caregivers at risk of treatment failure.

  13. Understanding Health and Health-Related Behavior of Users of Internet Health Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimble, Matt

    2016-10-01

    Little is known about how actual use of Internet health-related information is associated with health or health-related behavior. Using a nationally representative sample of 34,525 from 2012, this study examined the demographics of users of Internet health-related information (users), reports estimates of association with several health and behavioral outcomes adjusting for demographic factors, and analyzed the sample by education level, race, gender, and age. Analysis of a large nationally representative sample shows evidence that users of health-related information (users) on the Internet are younger, more educated, more likely to be insured, more likely to be female, and less likely to be African American. After adjusting for demographic differences, users are more likely to have been diagnosed with hypertension, cancer, stroke, and high cholesterol, but no evidence of current hypertension, weight-related issues, or being in fair or poor health. Users are less likely to smoke and among smokers are more likely to attempt quitting. Users are more likely to exercise, get a flu shot, pap smear, mammogram, HIV test, colon cancer screening, blood pressure check, and cholesterol check, but likely to be heavy drinkers. With few exceptions, results appear robust across gender, age groups, level of education, and ethnicity. Use is generally positively associated with prior diagnosis for several conditions and behaviors related to improved health, but I find no relationship with existing health status. The association between use of health-related Internet information and health-related behavior seems robust across levels of education, age, gender, and race.

  14. Internet and Social Media For Health-Related Information and Communication in Health Care: Preferences of the Dutch General Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelen, Lucien JLPG; Berben, Sivera AA; Teerenstra, Steven; Samsom, Melvin; Schoonhoven, Lisette

    2013-01-01

    Background Health care is increasingly featured by the use of Web 2.0 communication and collaborative technologies that are reshaping the way patients and professionals interact. These technologies or tools can be used for a variety of purposes: to instantly debate issues, discover news, analyze research, network with peers, crowd-source information, seek support, and provide advice. Not all tools are implemented successfully; in many cases, the nonusage attrition rates are high. Little is known about the preferences of the Dutch general population regarding the use of the Internet and social media in health care. Objective To determine the preferences of the general population in the Netherlands regarding the use of the Internet and social media in health care. Methods A cross-sectional survey was disseminated via a popular Dutch online social network. Respondents were asked where they searched for health-related information, how they qualified the value of different sources, and their preferences regarding online communication with health care providers. Results were weighed for the Dutch population based on gender, age, and level of education using official statistics. Numbers and percentages or means and standard deviations were presented for different subgroups. One-way ANOVA was used to test for statistical differences. Results The survey was completed by 635 respondents. The Internet was found to be the number one source for health-related information (82.7%), closely followed by information provided by health care professionals (71.1%). Approximately one-third (32.3%) of the Dutch population search for ratings of health care providers. The most popular information topics were side effects of medication (62.5%) and symptoms (59.7%). Approximately one-quarter of the Dutch population prefer to communicate with a health care provider via social media (25.4%), and 21.2% would like to communicate via a webcam. Conclusions The Internet is the main source of health-related

  15. Characterization of Complementary and Alternative Medicine-Related Consultations in an Academic Drug Information Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Philip J; Jalloh, Mohamed A; Abe, Andrew M; Hu, James; Hein, Darren J

    2016-12-01

    To characterize requests received through an academic drug information consultation service related to complementary and alternative medicines. A retrospective review and descriptive analysis of drug information consultations was conducted. A total of 195 consultations related to complementary and alternative medicine were evaluated. All consultation requests involved questions about dietary supplements. The most common request types were related to safety and tolerability (39%), effectiveness (38%), and therapeutic use (34%). Sixty-eight percent of the requests were from pharmacists. The most frequent consultation requests from pharmacists were questions related to drug interactions (37%), therapeutic use (37%), or stability/compatibility/storage (34%). Nearly 60% of complementary and alternative medicine-related consultation requests were able to be completely addressed using available resources. Among review sources, Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, Clinical Pharmacology, Micromedex, and Pharmacist's Letter were the most common resources used to address consultations. Utilization of a drug information service may be a viable option for health care professionals to help answer a complementary and alternative medicine-related question. Additionally, pharmacists and other health care professionals may consider acquiring resources identified to consistently answering these questions. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Specifics of horizontal and vertical relations in Ukrainian political communication on the background of the party building’s process, political science theory and requirements to Ukrainian political context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Y. Odarchenko

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The specifics of horizontal and vertical relations in Ukrainian political communication on the background of the party building’s process has been analysed. Aims of this article are: 1 determination of the subjectivity of political communication; 2 disclosure of the main features of internal politics and communications; 3 setting the essential features of the political parties’ status after peaceful protests in Ukraine 2013-2014 year; 4 explanation of the actual gap that has horizontal and party political communication in Ukraine. Political modernization, capacity of Ukrainian political parties has been characterized. It has been shown that Maidan didn’t influenced tools of creating political parties and their typology greatly. Maidan as a political component was weak and did not respond to the challenges, which Ukrainian political system faced to. The weakness was in the fact that leaders of the oppositional political camp would rather keep old then implement real political change of the political system , which was adapted by the old oliharcial clan. Public sector was not able to identify their environment with new political leaders, nor with a mass movement, based on the creation of new organized political force. It has been found that in a democratic society communication is effective only if it is not only technically modern, interactive, two-way, but if it is consistent to other democratic demands, such as legal and moral control of society over the media, maintenance of basic pluralism, direct contact between senders and recipients of information, feeds decentralization, respect of freedom of expression and privat opinion. Summary of the political communication in Ukraine has to move away from thinking of policy and bureaucratic political consciousness. Otherwise, the simulation is effective and efficient for countries and regions where political communication can become a daily political farce communication in public space.

  17. A Neuroeconomics Analysis of Investment Process with Money Flow Information: The Error-Related Negativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuicui Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This investigation is among the first ones to analyze the neural basis of an investment process with money flow information of financial market, using a simplified task where volunteers had to choose to buy or not to buy stocks based on the display of positive or negative money flow information. After choosing “to buy” or “not to buy,” participants were presented with feedback. At the same time, event-related potentials (ERPs were used to record investor’s brain activity and capture the event-related negativity (ERN and feedback-related negativity (FRN components. The results of ERN suggested that there might be a higher risk and more conflict when buying stocks with negative net money flow information than positive net money flow information, and the inverse was also true for the “not to buy” stocks option. The FRN component evoked by the bad outcome of a decision was more negative than that by the good outcome, which reflected the difference between the values of the actual and expected outcome. From the research, we could further understand how investors perceived money flow information of financial market and the neural cognitive effect in investment process.

  18. A Neuroeconomics Analysis of Investment Process with Money Flow Information: The Error-Related Negativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cuicui; Vieito, João Paulo; Ma, Qingguo

    2015-01-01

    This investigation is among the first ones to analyze the neural basis of an investment process with money flow information of financial market, using a simplified task where volunteers had to choose to buy or not to buy stocks based on the display of positive or negative money flow information. After choosing “to buy” or “not to buy,” participants were presented with feedback. At the same time, event-related potentials (ERPs) were used to record investor's brain activity and capture the event-related negativity (ERN) and feedback-related negativity (FRN) components. The results of ERN suggested that there might be a higher risk and more conflict when buying stocks with negative net money flow information than positive net money flow information, and the inverse was also true for the “not to buy” stocks option. The FRN component evoked by the bad outcome of a decision was more negative than that by the good outcome, which reflected the difference between the values of the actual and expected outcome. From the research, we could further understand how investors perceived money flow information of financial market and the neural cognitive effect in investment process. PMID:26557139

  19. A 3-Factor Model Relating Communication to Risk Mitigation of Extended Information System Failover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios Podaras

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyse the relation between timely and effective communication and risk mitigation of late recovery after an unexpected information system outage in enterprises. An unforeseen information system failure in modern enterprise units, may result to significant operational and financial damage. In such a critical incident, effective communication between the team leaders and the recovery team involved, can minimize or even eliminate this negative impact. An extended information system outage can be perceived as a time deviation from the Maximum Accepted Outage (ΜΑΟ timeframe, proposed by the business continuity management, according to the value of which dependent business functions may be interrupted without any serious effects to the company. The paper examines the relation between 3 basic factors and the efficient communication between team members. The factors are: timely information distribution, staff availability and network availability. Through the current paper, the author proposes a risk analysis model, based on the Composite Risk Index theory of Risk Management, which can significantly diminish the possibility of an extended information system outage, as well as calculate the extended time required to recover a system when the aforementioned factors emerge in their worst form. The precise calculation of recovery time can be achieved via the execution of business continuity tests which include scenarios, according to which an unexpected system outage coexists with delayed information distribution as well as low staff and network availability.

  20. Legal framework related to access to information and public participation on nuclear activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arias, M. C.; Bernaldez, A.L.; Ghiggeri, M.; Tula, C.

    2011-01-01

    The right of access to information by citizens about activities related to scientific and technological development of nuclear energy for peaceful uses, has evolved over time. Governments began to perceive the necessity and the benefits of informing the community, who manifested certain prejudices about nuclear activity as a consequence of the propelling of nuclear bombs in Nagasaki and Hiroshima. With the advent of environmental law and the influence of its principles, the idea of transparency of information in the nuclear field was imposed, and also the importance of both the inhabitants of countries with nuclear developments and neighbouring countries who may be affected by the bordering effects of ionizing radiation, could have access to information and to participate actively. The access to information and citizen participation has been institutionalized and reflected in international regulations through international conventions subscribed by our country and nationally through the National Constitution, the Provincials Constitutions, the City of Buenos Aires Constitution, Laws No. 25.675, 25.831 and PEN Decree No. 1172/03, among others. The present work aims to make an overview of the legal framework related to access to information on nuclear activity. (authors) [es

  1. Looking for Cosmic Neutrino Background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiaki eYanagisawa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the discovery of neutrino oscillation in atmospheric neutrinos by the Super-Kamiokande experiment in 1998, study of neutrinos has been one of exciting fields in high-energy physics. All the mixing angles were measured. Quests for 1 measurements of the remaining parameters, the lightest neutrino mass, the CP violating phase(s, and the sign of mass splitting between the mass eigenstates m3 and m1, and 2 better measurements to determine whether the mixing angle theta23 is less than pi/4, are in progress in a well-controlled manner. Determining the nature of neutrinos, whether they are Dirac or Majorana particles is also in progress with continuous improvement. On the other hand, although the ideas of detecting cosmic neutrino background have been discussed since 1960s, there has not been a serious concerted effort to achieve this goal. One of the reasons is that it is extremely difficult to detect such low energy neutrinos from the Big Bang. While there has been tremendous accumulation of information on Cosmic Microwave Background since its discovery in 1965, there is no direct evidence for Cosmic Neutrino Background. The importance of detecting Cosmic Neutrino Background is that, although detailed studies of Big Bang Nucleosynthesis and Cosmic Microwave Background give information of the early Universe at ~a few minutes old and ~300 k years old, respectively, observation of Cosmic Neutrino Background allows us to study the early Universe at $sim$ 1 sec old. This article reviews progress made in the past 50 years on detection methods of Cosmic Neutrino Background.

  2. The User Interface: A Hypertext Model Linking Art Objects and Related Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moline, Judi

    This report presents a model combining the emerging technologies of hypertext and expert systems. Hypertext is relatively unexplored but promises an innovative approach to information retrieval. In contrast, expert systems have been used experimentally in many different application areas ranging from medical diagnosis to oil exploration. The…

  3. 17 CFR 37.8 - Information relating to transactions on derivatives transaction execution facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Information relating to transactions on derivatives transaction execution facilities. 37.8 Section 37.8 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION DERIVATIVES TRANSACTION EXECUTION FACILITIES § 37.8...

  4. 78 FR 72151 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request on Information Collection Tools Relating to Qualitative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ... Information Collection Tools Relating to Qualitative Feedback on Agency Service Delivery. AGENCY: Internal...(c)(2)(A)). Currently, the IRS is soliciting comments concerning the collection of qualitative...: Title: Collection of Qualitative Feedback on Agency Service Delivery OMB Number: 1545-NEW. Form Number...

  5. The grey relational approach for evaluating measurement uncertainty with poor information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Zai; Wang, Yanqing; Zhou, Weihu; Wang, Zhongyu

    2015-01-01

    The Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM) is the master document for measurement uncertainty evaluation. However, the GUM may encounter problems and does not work well when the measurement data have poor information. In most cases, poor information means a small data sample and an unknown probability distribution. In these cases, the evaluation of measurement uncertainty has become a bottleneck in practical measurement. To solve this problem, a novel method called the grey relational approach (GRA), different from the statistical theory, is proposed in this paper. The GRA does not require a large sample size or probability distribution information of the measurement data. Mathematically, the GRA can be divided into three parts. Firstly, according to grey relational analysis, the grey relational coefficients between the ideal and the practical measurement output series are obtained. Secondly, the weighted coefficients and the measurement expectation function will be acquired based on the grey relational coefficients. Finally, the measurement uncertainty is evaluated based on grey modeling. In order to validate the performance of this method, simulation experiments were performed and the evaluation results show that the GRA can keep the average error around 5%. Besides, the GRA was also compared with the grey method, the Bessel method, and the Monte Carlo method by a real stress measurement. Both the simulation experiments and real measurement show that the GRA is appropriate and effective to evaluate the measurement uncertainty with poor information. (paper)

  6. Social Information Processing in Children: Specific Relations to Anxiety, Depression, and Affect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luebbe, Aaron M.; Bell, Debora J.; Allwood, Maureen A.; Swenson, Lance P.; Early, Martha C.

    2010-01-01

    Two studies examined shared and unique relations of social information processing (SIP) to youth's anxious and depressive symptoms. Whether SIP added unique variance over and above trait affect in predicting internalizing symptoms was also examined. In Study 1, 215 youth (ages 8-13) completed symptom measures of anxiety and depression and a…

  7. Text Processing of Domain-Related Information for Individuals with High and Low Domain Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilich, George J.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    The way in which previously acquired knowledge affects the processing on new domain-related information was investigated. Text processing was studied in two groups differing in knowledge of the domain of baseball. A knowledge structure for the domain was constructed, and text propositions were classified. (SW)

  8. Relating the new language models of information retrieval to the traditional retrieval models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, Djoerd; de Vries, A.P.

    During the last two years, exciting new approaches to information retrieval were introduced by a number of different research groups that use statistical language models for retrieval. This paper relates the retrieval algorithms suggested by these approaches to widely accepted retrieval algorithms

  9. What really matters: An inquiry into the relative importance of dimensions of informal caregiver burden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Exel, N.J.A. van; Brouwer, W.B.F.; Berg, B. van den; Koopmanschap, M.A.; Bos, G.A.M. van den

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Prevailing measures of subjective caregiver burden either have no overall summary score or do not consider the relative importance caregivers attach to different dimensions of burden. Our aim was to assess which dimensions informal caregivers perceive as being important to their overall

  10. What really matters: an inquiry into the relative importance of dimensions of informal caregiver burden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Exel, N. J. A.; Brouwer, W. B. F.; van den Berg, B.; Koopmanschap, M. A.; van den Bos, G. A. M.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Prevailing measures of subjective caregiver burden either have no overall summary score or do not consider the relative importance caregivers attach to different dimensions of burden. Our aim was to assess which dimensions informal caregivers perceive as being important to their overall

  11. 36 CFR 1256.58 - Information related to law enforcement investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Information related to law enforcement investigations. 1256.58 Section 1256.58 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION PUBLIC AVAILABILITY AND USE ACCESS TO RECORDS AND DONATED HISTORICAL MATERIALS General Restrictions § 1256.58...

  12. 78 FR 5828 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Petition To Classify Orphan as an Immediate Relative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    ...-0028] Agency Information Collection Activities: Petition To Classify Orphan as an Immediate Relative, Form I-600; Application for Advance Processing of Orphan Petition, Form I-600A; Listing of Adult Member... are encouraged and will be accepted until February 27, 2013. This process is conducted in accordance...

  13. 78 FR 3499 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request on Information Collection Tools Relating to Customer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-16

    .... In regard to online services, this feedback will provide insights into customer preferences for... Information Collection Tools Relating to Customer Satisfaction Surveys AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS... use a data-driven approach to understanding customer satisfaction at the Internal Revenue Service (IRS...

  14. On the Determinants of Employment-Related Organised Education and Informal Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Staffan; Rubenson, Kjell

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses the distribution of employment-related organised education and informal learning in the Canadian workforce. The paper draws on a large-scale survey, the Changing Nature of Work and Lifelong Learning (WALL), which was based on structured and standardised telephone interviews with a representative sample of 5783 Canadian members…

  15. Decomposing executive stock option exercises: relative information and incentives to manage earnings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenman, D.; Hodgson, A.; van Praag, B.; Zhang, W.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the information content of stock option exercises versus regular insider share trades by corporate executives. We argue that the asymmetric payoff structure of options makes managerial wealth - compared to holdings of shares - relatively more sensitive to stock price changes and

  16. An Examination of College Students' Receptiveness to Alcohol-Related Information and Advice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy, Matthew M.; Jouriles, Ernest N.; Walters, Scott T.

    2013-01-01

    This project examined the reliability and validity of a newly developed measure of college students' receptiveness to alcohol related information and advice. Participants were 116 college students who reported having consumed alcohol at some point in their lifetime. Participants completed a measure of receptiveness to alcohol-related…

  17. Study on upgrade on nuclear control related open source information website

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H. T.; Park, S. S.; Park, W. S.; Choi, Y. M.

    2002-01-01

    The open source information relevant to the nuclear control is regularly collected, analyzed, and published to the three web sites by the Technology Center for Nuclear Control (TCNC) of the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). These web sites are world-wide, KAERI-wide, and TCNC-wide, respectively. We are to upgrade the KAERI-wide website to the access-controlled world-wide web site with some additional functionality. In this research, the current status of the three nuclear control related open source information websites managed by the TCNC was introduced and methods for upgrading the KAERI-wide open source information website and associated information security technology were reviewed

  18. Event-related potential N270 as an index of social information conflict in explicit processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pei; Tan, Chen-Hao; Li, Yu; Zhang, Qin; Wang, Yi-Bo; Luo, Jun-Long

    2018-01-01

    As N270 has been widely shown to be sensitive to nonsocial information conflict, the present study investigated whether social information conflict can elicit increased N270 in either explicit or implicit processing conditions. Gender stereotype-related picture-word pairs and picture-word pairs in specific colors were used as social and nonsocial information, respectively. Participants performed an explicit task based on the S1-S2 paradigm in Study 1, and both social and nonsocial information conditions elicited larger N270 than the no-conflict condition. In Study 2, participants performed a word judgment task that was modified from the S1-S2 paradigm of Study 1. However, neither social information nor nonsocial information elicited larger N270 within the conflict condition. Social trials generally elicited a more negative ERP waveform than nonsocial trials overall. These findings suggest that N270 may reflect the processing of social information conflict only in explicit conditions and also that the cognitive basis of N270 is thus a general but explicit processing of working memory representation conflict. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Functional food awareness and perceptions in relation to information sources in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, Meagan N; Stratton, Laura M; Sheeshka, Judy; Duncan, Alison M

    2014-05-17

    The functional food industry has experienced innovative and economic expansion, yet research into consumer perceptions of functional foods and their associated health claims is limited. Among consumers, older adults could benefit from functional foods due to age-related issues pertaining to food and health. The purpose of this research was to identify the need for information related to functional foods among older adults (≥60 years old) and to assess awareness and perceptions of health claims on functional food packages. Community-dwelling older adults (n = 200) completed a researcher administered questionnaire designed to collect information about functional foods including current consumption, motivating factors for consumption, perceived need for information, sources of information for functional foods and awareness of health claims. Prevalence of functional food consumption among participants was 93.0%. Increased awareness and knowledge was the most commonly reported factor that would promote functional food consumption (85.5%) and 63.5% of participants wanted more information about functional foods with preferred sources being newspapers/magazines/books (68.5%) and food labels (66.1%). Participants were predominately (93.5%) aware of health claims on functional foods and those with more education were more likely to report being aware of health claims (p = 0.045). Although functional food consumption among older adults in this sample is high, there is a need for further information regarding functional foods. These results inform stakeholders regarding the potential for information to influence functional food acceptance among older adult consumers.

  20. [Perceived satisfaction and usefulness of suicide prevention information for patients and relatives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triñanes, Y; Senra-Rivera, C; Seoane-Pesqueira, G; González-García, A; Álvarez-Ariza, M; de-Las-Heras-Liñero, E; Atienza, G

    2014-01-01

    To assess the satisfaction of persons with suicidal behaviour and their relatives using patient information material included in the Clinical Practice Guidelines on Prevention and Treatment of Suicidal Behaviour. The sample was made up of 57 patients with suicidal ideation or behaviour, and 52 relatives. The participants were recruited through a suicide prevention programme (Programa de intervención intensiva en conducta suicida [PII] - Suicidal Behaviour Intensive Intervention Programme) and a family association (Federación de Asociaciones de Familiares y Personas con enfermedad mental de Galicia [FEAFES] - Galician Federation of Associations of Relatives and Persons with mental diseases). An ad-hoc questionnaire was designed to ascertain the degree of perceived satisfaction and usefulness of using the information included in the guidelines. The descriptive data of the sample is presented, along with an exploratory factorial analysis of the questionnaire that yielded two dimensions, i.e., format and usefulness. Patients scored significantly lower than the relatives in two dimensions; nevertheless, no significant differences were found between the two groups in the level of general satisfaction. The socio-demographic variables did not influence the results. Similarly, no differences were observed between patients with and without history of suicidal behaviour. Participants stressed that Primary Care was the setting best suited for dissemination of this type of information. In general, both patients and relatives displayed a high level of satisfaction with the patient information material assessed. Furnishing information of this type to patients with suicidal ideation and/or behaviour could act as a preventive-educational tool. Copyright © 2013 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. Optimal background matching camouflage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalis, Constantine; Scott-Samuel, Nicholas E; Gibson, David P; Cuthill, Innes C

    2017-07-12

    Background matching is the most familiar and widespread camouflage strategy: avoiding detection by having a similar colour and pattern to the background. Optimizing background matching is straightforward in a homogeneous environment, or when the habitat has very distinct sub-types and there is divergent selection leading to polymorphism. However, most backgrounds have continuous variation in colour and texture, so what is the best solution? Not all samples of the background are likely to be equally inconspicuous, and laboratory experiments on birds and humans support this view. Theory suggests that the most probable background sample (in the statistical sense), at the size of the prey, would, on average, be the most cryptic. We present an analysis, based on realistic assumptions about low-level vision, that estimates the distribution of background colours and visual textures, and predicts the best camouflage. We present data from a field experiment that tests and supports our predictions, using artificial moth-like targets under bird predation. Additionally, we present analogous data for humans, under tightly controlled viewing conditions, searching for targets on a computer screen. These data show that, in the absence of predator learning, the best single camouflage pattern for heterogeneous backgrounds is the most probable sample. © 2017 The Authors.

  2. Experimental Verification of a Jarzynski-Related Information-Theoretic Equality by a Single Trapped Ion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, T P; Yan, L L; Zhou, F; Rehan, K; Liang, D F; Chen, L; Yang, W L; Ma, Z H; Feng, M; Vedral, V

    2018-01-05

    Most nonequilibrium processes in thermodynamics are quantified only by inequalities; however, the Jarzynski relation presents a remarkably simple and general equality relating nonequilibrium quantities with the equilibrium free energy, and this equality holds in both the classical and quantum regimes. We report a single-spin test and confirmation of the Jarzynski relation in the quantum regime using a single ultracold ^{40}Ca^{+} ion trapped in a harmonic potential, based on a general information-theoretic equality for a temporal evolution of the system sandwiched between two projective measurements. By considering both initially pure and mixed states, respectively, we verify, in an exact and fundamental fashion, the nonequilibrium quantum thermodynamics relevant to the mutual information and Jarzynski equality.

  3. Smooth handling: the lack of safety-related consumer information in car advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Nick; Maher, Anthony; Thomson, George; Keall, Michael

    2007-10-01

    To examine the content and trends of safety-related consumer information in magazine vehicle advertisements, as a case study within the worldwide marketing of vehicles. Content analysis of popular current affairs magazines in New Zealand for the 5-year period 2001-2005 was undertaken (n = 514 advertisements), supplemented with vehicle data from official websites. Safety information in advertisements for light passenger vehicles was relatively uncommon with only 27% mentioning one or more of nine key safety features examined (average: 1.7 out of nine features in this 27%). Also included were potentially hazardous features of: speed imagery (in 29% of advertisements), power references (14%), and acceleration data (4%). The speed and power aspects became relatively more common over the 5-year period (p advertisements and vehicle marketing - as already occurs with many other consumer products.

  4. Internet use by pregnant women seeking pregnancy-related information: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayakhot, Padaphet; Carolan-Olah, Mary

    2016-03-28

    The Internet has become one of the most popular sources of information for health consumers and pregnant women are no exception. The primary objective of this review was to investigate the ways in which pregnant women used the Internet to retrieve pregnancy-related information. We conducted a systematic review to answer this question. In November 2014, electronic databases: Scopus, Medline, PreMEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and PubMed were searched for papers with the terms "Internet"; "pregnancy"; "health information seeking", in the title, abstract or as keywords. Restrictions were placed on publication to within 10 years and language of publication was restricted to English. Quantitative studies were sought, that reported original research and described Internet use by pregnant women. Seven publications met inclusion criteria and were included in the review. Sample size ranged from 182 - 1347 pregnant women. The majority of papers reported that women used the Internet as a source of information about pregnancy. Most women searched for information at least once a month. Fetal development and nutrition in pregnancy were the most often mentioned topics of interest. One paper included in this review found that women with higher education were three times more likely to seek advice than women with less than a high school education, and also that single and multiparous women were less likely to seek advice than married and nulliparous women. The majority of women found health information on the Internet to be reliable and useful. Most women did not discuss the information they retrieved from the Internet with their health providers. Thus, health providers may not be aware of potentially inaccurate information or mistaken beliefs about pregnancy, reported on the Internet. Future research is needed to address this issue of potentially unreliable information.

  5. Look Who's Talking. Explaining Water-Related Information Sharing and Demand for Action Among Ugandan Villagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holvoet, Nathalie; Dewachter, Sara; Molenaers, Nadia

    2016-11-01

    Many national water policies propagate community-based participatory approaches to overcome weaknesses in supply-driven rural water provision, operation, and maintenance. Citizen involvement is thought to stimulate bottom-up accountability and broaden the information base, which may enrich design and implementation processes and foster improved water accessibility and sustainability. Practices on the ground, however, are embedded in socio-political realities which mediate possible beneficial effects of participatory approaches. This paper builds on full social network data collected in a Ugandan village to study the social and political reality of two distinct levels of participation, i.e. local information sharing among citizens and a more active appeal to fellow citizens to improve water services. We use Logistic Regression Quadratic Assignment Procedure to explore what type of actor and network traits influence information sharing and whether the same factors are in play in the demand for action to remedy water-related problems. Whereas social aspects (social support relations) and homophily (using the same water source, the same gender) play an important role in information sharing, it is the educational level, in particular, of the villager who is called upon that is important when villagers demand action. Our findings also demonstrate that those most in need of safe water do not mobilize their information sharing ties to demand for action. This indicates that building local water policies and practice exclusively on locally existing demand for action may fail to capture the needs of the most deprived citizens.

  6. Key Health Information Technologies and Related Issues for Iran: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmat, Morteza; Ayatollahi, Haleh; Maleki, Mohammadreza; Saghafi, Fatemeh

    2018-01-01

    Planning for the future of Health Information Technology (HIT) requires applying a systematic approach when conducting foresight studies. The aim of this study was to identify key health information technologies and related issues for Iran until 2025. This was a qualitative study and the participants included experts and policy makers in the field of health information technology. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted and data were analyzed by using framework analysis and MAXQDA software. The findings revealed that the development of national health information network, electronic health records, patient health records, a cloud-based service center, interoperability standards, patient monitoring technologies, telehealth, mhealth, clinical decision support systems, health information technology and mhealth infrastructure were found to be the key technologies for the future. These technologies could influence the economic, organizational and individual levels. To achieve them, the economic and organizational obstacles need to be overcome. In this study, a number of key technologies and related issues were identified. This approach can help to focus on the most important technologies in the future and to priorities these technologies for better resource allocation and policy making.

  7. Disclosing genetic information to at-risk relatives: new Australian privacy principles, but uniformity still elusive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otlowski, Margaret F A

    2015-04-06

    There is growing understanding of the need for genetic information to be shared with genetic relatives in some circumstances. Since 2006, s 95AA of the Privacy Act 1988 (Cwlth) has permitted the disclosure of genetic information to genetic relatives without the patient's consent, provided that the health practitioner reasonably believes that disclosure is necessary to lessen or prevent a serious threat to the life, health or safety of the genetic relatives. Enabling guidelines were introduced in 2009. These were limited to the private sector, and excluded doctors working in the public sector at both Commonwealth and state and territory levels. Privacy legislation was amended in March 2014, and new Australian Privacy Principles, which replace the National Privacy Principles and Information Privacy Principles, now cover the collection and use of personal information. The Privacy Act and the Australian Privacy Principles now extend to practitioners employed by the Commonwealth but not to health practitioners working in state and territory public hospitals. In this article, I review these legislative developments and highlight the implications of the lack of uniformity and the consequent need for a collaborative, uniform approach by states and territories.

  8. Extract the Relational Information of Static Features and Motion Features for Human Activities Recognition in Videos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Both static features and motion features have shown promising performance in human activities recognition task. However, the information included in these features is insufficient for complex human activities. In this paper, we propose extracting relational information of static features and motion features for human activities recognition. The videos are represented by a classical Bag-of-Word (BoW model which is useful in many works. To get a compact and discriminative codebook with small dimension, we employ the divisive algorithm based on KL-divergence to reconstruct the codebook. After that, to further capture strong relational information, we construct a bipartite graph to model the relationship between words of different feature set. Then we use a k-way partition to create a new codebook in which similar words are getting together. With this new codebook, videos can be represented by a new BoW vector with strong relational information. Moreover, we propose a method to compute new clusters from the divisive algorithm’s projective function. We test our work on the several datasets and obtain very promising results.

  9. Immediate relativity: EEG reveals early engagement of comparison in social information processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmann, Katharina; Stahl, Jutta; Mussweiler, Thomas; Kedia, Gayannée

    2016-11-01

    A wide array of social decisions relies on social comparisons. As such, these decisions require fast access to relative information. Therefore, we expect that signatures of the comparative process should be observable in electrophysiological components at an early stage of information processing. However, to date, little is known about the neural time course of social target comparisons. Therefore, we tested this hypothesis in 2 electroencephalography (EEG) studies using a social distance effect paradigm. The distance effect capitalizes on the fact that stimuli close on a certain dimension take longer to compare than stimuli clearly differing on this dimension. Here, we manipulated the distance of face characteristics regarding their levels of attractiveness (Study 1) and trustworthiness (Study 2), 2 essential social dimensions. In both studies, size comparisons served as a nonsocial control condition. In Study 1, distance related effects were apparent 170 ms (vertex positive potential, VPP) and 200 ms (N2) after stimulus onset for attractiveness comparisons. In Study 2, trustworthiness comparisons took effect already after 100 ms (N1) and likewise carried over to an event-related N2. Remarkably, we observed a similar temporal pattern for social (attractiveness, trustworthiness) and nonsocial (size) dimensions. These results speak in favor of an early encoding of comparative information and emphasize the primary role of comparison in social information processing. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Extraction and Analysis of Information Related to Research & Development Declared Under an Additional Protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idinger, J.; Labella, R.; Rialhe, A.; Teller, N.

    2015-01-01

    The additional protocol (AP) provides important tools to strengthen and improve the effectiveness and efficiency of the safeguards system. Safeguards are designed to verify that States comply with their international commitments not to use nuclear material or to engage in nuclear-related activities for the purpose of developing nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices. Under an AP based on INFCIRC/540, a State must provide to the IAEA additional information about, and inspector access to, all parts of its nuclear fuel cycle. In addition, the State has to supply information about its nuclear fuel cycle-related research and development (R&D) activities. The majority of States declare their R&D activities under the AP Articles 2.a.(i), 2.a.(x), and 2.b.(i) as part of initial declarations and their annual updates under the AP. In order to verify consistency and completeness of information provided under the AP by States, the Agency has started to analyze declared R&D information by identifying interrelationships between States in different R&D areas relevant to safeguards. The paper outlines the quality of R&D information provided by States to the Agency, describes how the extraction and analysis of relevant declarations are currently carried out at the Agency and specifies what kinds of difficulties arise during evaluation in respect to cross-linking international projects and finding gaps in reporting. In addition, the paper tries to elaborate how the reporting quality of AP information with reference to R&D activities and the assessment process of R&D information could be improved. (author)

  11. Urban development, and emerging relations of informal property and land based authority in Accra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stacey, Paul Austin

    2018-01-01

    Rural–urban migration leads to ever increasing numbers of Africans living in informal settlements. In Accra's largest informal settlement, Old Fadama, residents by definition have no statutory rights to the land and their building activities undermine formal state law and state-recognized customary......, building and development in the settlement that involve a variety of local, national and global actors. Their actions show the contemporaneous making and unmaking of different relations of property and land-based control and authority in the densely populated urban site. Important features of urban...

  12. Interviews of living kidney donors to assess donation-related concerns and information-gathering practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruck, Jessica M; Van Pilsum Rasmussen, Sarah E; Henderson, Macey L; Massie, Allan B; Segev, Dorry L

    2018-06-08

    Efforts are underway to improve living kidney donor (LKD) education, but current LKD concerns and information-gathering preferences have not been ascertained to inform evidence-based resource development. As a result, prior studies have found that donors desire information that is not included in current informed consent and/or educational materials. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 50 LKDs who donated at our center to assess (1) concerns about donation that they either had personally before or after donation or heard from family members or friends, (2) information that they had desired before donation, and (3) where they sought information about donation. We used thematic analysis of verbatim interview transcriptions to identify donation-related concerns. We compared the demographic characteristics of participants reporting specific concerns using Fisher's exact test. We identified 19 unique concerns that participants had or heard about living kidney donation. 20% of participants reported having had no pre-donation concerns; 38% reported no post-donation concerns. The most common concern pre-donation was future kidney failure (22%), post-donation was the recovery process (24%), and from family was endangering their family unit (16%). 44% of participants reported being less concerned than family. 26% of participants wished they had had additional information prior to donating, including practical advice for recovery (10%) and information about specific complications (14%). Caucasian participants were more likely to hear at least one concern from family (76% vs. 33%, p = 0.02). The most commonly consulted educational resources were health care providers (100%) and websites (79% of donors since 2000). 26% of participants had had contact with other donors; an additional 20% desired contact with other LKDs. Potential donors not only have personal donation-related concerns but frequently hear donation-related concerns from family members and friends

  13. The Seven Deadly Tensions of Health-Related Human Information Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. David Johnson

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Tensions are a ubiquitous feature of social life and are manifested in a number of particular forms: contradictory logics, competing demands, clashes of ideas, contradictions, dialectics, irony, paradoxes, and/or dilemmas. This essay aims to explore in detail tensions surrounding seven common findings of the information seeking literature relating to: interpersonal communication, accessibility, level of skill, individual preferences, psychological limits, inertia, and costs. Our incomplete understanding of these tensions can lead us to suggest resolutions that do not recognize their underlying dualities. Human information behavior stands at the intersection of many important theoretical and policy issues (e.g., personalized medicine. Policy makers need to be more attuned to these basic tensions of information seeking recognizing the real human limits they represent to informing the public. So, even if you build a great information system, people will not necessarily use it because of the force of these underlying tensions. While rationality rules systems, irrationality rules people. The proliferation of navigator roles over the last several years is actually a hopeful sign: recognition that people need a human interface to inform them about our ever more complex health care systems.

  14. Breach of belongingness: Newcomer relationship conflict, information, and task-related outcomes during organizational socialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nifadkar, Sushil S; Bauer, Talya N

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies of newcomer socialization have underlined the importance of newcomers' information seeking for their adjustment to the organization, and the conflict literature has consistently reported negative effects of relationship conflict with coworkers. However, to date, no study has examined the consequences of relationship conflict on newcomers' information seeking. In this study, we examined newcomers' reactions when they have relationship conflict with their coworkers, and hence cannot obtain necessary information from them. Drawing upon belongingness theory, we propose a model that moves from breach of belongingness to its proximal and distal consequences, to newcomer information seeking, and then to task-related outcomes. In particular, we propose that second paths exist-first coworker-centric and the other supervisor-centric-that may have simultaneous yet contrasting influence on newcomer adjustment. To test our model, we employ a 3-wave data collection research design with egocentric and Likert-type multisource surveys among a sample of new software engineers and their supervisors working in India. This study contributes to the field by linking the literatures on relationship conflict and newcomer information seeking and suggesting that despite conflict with coworkers, newcomers may succeed in organizations by building relationships with and obtaining information from supervisors. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Cosmic microwave background radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    The 20-ft horn-reflector antenna at Bell Laboratories is discussed in detail with emphasis on the 7.35 cm radiometer. The circumstances leading to the detection of the cosmic microwave background radiation are explored

  16. The Standardization Method of Address Information for POIs from Internet Based on Positional Relation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Yong

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available As points of interest (POIon the internet, exists widely incomplete addresses and inconsistent literal expressions, a fast standardization processing method of network POIs address information based on spatial constraints was proposed. Based on the model of the extensible address expression, first of all, address information of POI was segmented and extracted. Address elements are updated by means of matching with the address tree layer by layer. Then, by defining four types of positional relations, corresponding set are selected from standard POI library as candidate for enrichment and amendment of non-standard address. At last, the fast standardized processing of POI address information was achieved with the help of backtracking address elements with minimum granularity. Experiments in this paper proved that the standardization processing of an address can be realized by means of this method with higher accuracy in order to build the address database.

  17. An analysis method of the press information related with the nuclear activity in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alsina, Griselda.

    1989-01-01

    The articles published by the newspapers during the year 1987 were analyzed and classified according to their contents. An attribute was assigned to each article (positive, negative or neutral) in agreement with its connotation regarding the nuclear activity in Argentina. An ISIS base system was developed using these data. The purpose of this analysis was to evaluate the influence of the press in the public opinion. The relation between the different variables show the importance and approach (environmental, technico-scientifical or political) given by the press to the different subjects. The results show a general lack of knowledge about nuclear activities and a concern among the readers associated with the environmental risks, which calls for the need to develop an information program for the community. The fundamentals of this program should improve the organization in order to make the information reach the external demands, to promote educational programs and to continuously provide information to the press. (S.M.) [es

  18. The relative importance of information sources in consumers' choice of hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooding, S K

    1995-01-01

    The research presented focuses on an examination of the relative importance of word-of-mouth, expert opinion, external communication, and past experience in the context of hospital choice. Past research has examined the effect of each individually and various combinations of the four sources, but not all four simultaneously. Results of the present study suggest that past experience plays a greater role in hospital choice than other information sources, including expert opinion. The strength of word-of-mouth as a source of information is also verified. The implications of this research include the following: (1) health care researchers need to incorporate word-of-mouth when investigating informations sources, and (2) local hospitals need to be aware of "negative perceptions" and strive for consumer satisfaction. Health care delivery systems incorporating consumer-based choice render these findings especially valuable as researchers and practitioners address the challenges that these evolving systems will bring.

  19. The search for person-related information in general practice: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrans, Diego; Avonts, Dirk; Christiaens, Thierry; Willems, Sara; de Smet, Kaat; van Boven, Kees; Boeckxstaens, Pauline; Kühlein, Thomas

    2016-02-01

    General practice is person-focused. Contextual information influences the clinical decision-making process in primary care. Currently, person-related information (PeRI) is neither recorded in a systematic way nor coded in the electronic medical record (EMR), and therefore not usable for scientific use. To search for classes of PeRI influencing the process of care. GPs, from nine countries worldwide, were asked to write down narrative case histories where personal factors played a role in decision-making. In an inductive process, the case histories were consecutively coded according to classes of PeRI. The classes found were deductively applied to the following cases and refined, until saturation was reached. Then, the classes were grouped into code-families and further clustered into domains. The inductive analysis of 32 case histories resulted in 33 defined PeRI codes, classifying all personal-related information in the cases. The 33 codes were grouped in the following seven mutually exclusive code-families: 'aspects between patient and formal care provider', 'social environment and family', 'functioning/behaviour', 'life history/non-medical experiences', 'personal medical information', 'socio-demographics' and 'work-/employment-related information'. The code-families were clustered into four domains: 'social environment and extended family', 'medicine', 'individual' and 'work and employment'. As PeRI is used in the process of decision-making, it should be part of the EMR. The PeRI classes we identified might form the basis of a new contextual classification mainly for research purposes. This might help to create evidence of the person-centredness of general practice. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Using Active Learning to Identify Health Information Technology Related Patient Safety Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Allan; Howe, Jessica L; Adams, Katharine T; Ratwani, Raj M

    2017-01-18

    The widespread adoption of health information technology (HIT) has led to new patient safety hazards that are often difficult to identify. Patient safety event reports, which are self-reported descriptions of safety hazards, provide one view of potential HIT-related safety events. However, identifying HIT-related reports can be challenging as they are often categorized under other more predominate clinical categories. This challenge of identifying HIT-related reports is exacerbated by the increasing number and complexity of reports which pose challenges to human annotators that must manually review reports. In this paper, we apply active learning techniques to support classification of patient safety event reports as HIT-related. We evaluated different strategies and demonstrated a 30% increase in average precision of a confirmatory sampling strategy over a baseline no active learning approach after 10 learning iterations.

  1. Reliability, Validity, Comparability and Practical Utility of Cybercrime-Related Data, Metrics, and Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nir Kshetri

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available With an increasing pervasiveness, prevalence and severity of cybercrimes, various metrics, measures and statistics have been developed and used to measure various aspects of this phenomenon. Cybercrime-related data, metrics, and information, however, pose important and difficult dilemmas regarding the issues of reliability, validity, comparability and practical utility. While many of the issues of the cybercrime economy are similar to other underground and underworld industries, this economy also has various unique aspects. For one thing, this industry also suffers from a problem partly rooted in the incredibly broad definition of the term “cybercrime”. This article seeks to provide insights and analysis into this phenomenon, which is expected to advance our understanding into cybercrime-related information.

  2. State information needs related to onshore and nearshore effects of OCS petroleum development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, D.C.; Stang, P.R.; Hyde, B.

    1977-01-01

    The United States currently has underway a program to develop tracts on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) for their petroleum resources that can have significant impact on and near the shore. The potentially affected States bordering the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans and the Gulf of Mexico have expressed serious concerns about the availability and adequacy of the information they need to make planning and management decisions about onshore activities and impacts related to OCS petroleum development. This report discusses state policies, major concerns, organization, planning approaches and relation to other state planning efforts.

  3. Disentangling brain activity related to the processing of emotional visual information and emotional arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuniecki, Michał; Wołoszyn, Kinga; Domagalik, Aleksandra; Pilarczyk, Joanna

    2018-05-01

    Processing of emotional visual information engages cognitive functions and induces arousal. We aimed to examine the modulatory role of emotional valence on brain activations linked to the processing of visual information and those linked to arousal. Participants were scanned and their pupil size was measured while viewing negative and neutral images. The visual noise was added to the images in various proportions to parametrically manipulate the amount of visual information. Pupil size was used as an index of physiological arousal. We show that arousal induced by the negative images, as compared to the neutral ones, is primarily related to greater amygdala activity while increasing visibility of negative content to enhanced activity in the lateral occipital complex (LOC). We argue that more intense visual processing of negative scenes can occur irrespective of the level of arousal. It may suggest that higher areas of the visual stream are fine-tuned to process emotionally relevant objects. Both arousal and processing of emotional visual information modulated activity within the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). Overlapping activations within the vmPFC may reflect the integration of these aspects of emotional processing. Additionally, we show that emotionally-evoked pupil dilations are related to activations in the amygdala, vmPFC, and LOC.

  4. Colon cancer information as a source of exercise motivation for relatives of patients with colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Erin L; Prapavessis, Harry

    2010-12-01

    Using a Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) framework, this study examined whether factual colon cancer information is a meaningful source of exercise motivation for relatives of patients with colon cancer. One hundred sixty-six inactive relatives were randomly assigned to one of two treatment conditions: PMT group (intervention); and non-PMT group (attention control). At baseline (T1) participants completed demographic information, a questionnaire designed to assess their beliefs toward exercise and colon cancer as well as their exercise intentions. At T2 (one week following T1) participants watched one of two DVD videos that were created for the study. The intervention DVD contained exercise and colon cancer information that was yoked within the four major components of PMT: perceived vulnerability (PV); perceived severity (PS); response efficacy (RE); and self-efficacy (SE), while the attention control DVD contained general diet and cancer information. Immediately following watching the DVD, participants completed the same measures as in T1. Participants assigned to the PMT intervention group showed significant improvement in PV, RE, SE and exercise intentions, whereas participants assigned to the attention control group showed significant improvement only in RE. RE, SE, and PS made significant and unique contributions to prediction of exercise intention. Overall, the results of the present study demonstrate that a single exposure media intervention grounded in a PMT framework can change individuals' exercise and colon cancer beliefs, as well as change their exercise intentions. Implications of these findings and direction for future research are discussed.

  5. The Ecological Behaviour Related to Green Information and Communication Technology in Romanian Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura-Diana Radu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An increased focus on environmental issues and the fulminant development of information and communication technologies led to the appearance and increased interest in the green characteristics of the available products and services. The ecological behaviour related to these technologies used by organizations, has become a widely studied and applied topic nowadays. In this context, this paper aims to analyse the perception of managers and employees of the Romanian companies in relation to the green information and communication technologies in the attempt to offer a genuine image of their attitude and see if their views are close to the international vision on environment protection. Starting from the literature regarding information and communication technologies and the available empirical studies, we have made an analysis on two categories of organizations: the ones that apply environment policies supported by the institutions and the ones that do not apply any policies, including comparisons between them. The conclusions of the study pointed out the presence of environmental concerns, not always clearly drawn or applied, but they could form the basis for the future actions and initiatives of consumers of information and communication technologies products and services in the wider context and will to fall into line with the Western level of economic and social development.

  6. Background radioactivity in environmental materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maul, P.R.; O'Hara, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a literature search to identify information on concentrations of 'background' radioactivity in foodstuffs and other commonly available environmental materials. The review has concentrated on naturally occurring radioactivity in foods and on UK data, although results from other countries have also been considered where appropriate. The data are compared with established definitions of a 'radioactive' substance and radionuclides which do not appear to be adequately covered in the literature are noted. (author)

  7. Background paper on aquaculture research

    OpenAIRE

    Wenblad, Axel; Jokumsen, Alfred; Eskelinen, Unto; Torrissen, Ole

    2013-01-01

    The Board of MISTRA established in 2012 a Working Group (WG) on Aquaculture to provide the Board with background information for its upcoming decision on whether the foundation should invest in aquaculture research. The WG included Senior Advisor Axel Wenblad, Sweden (Chairman), Professor Ole Torrissen, Norway, Senior Advisory Scientist Unto Eskelinen, Finland and Senior Advisory Scientist Alfred Jokumsen, Denmark. The WG performed an investigation of the Swedish aquaculture sector including ...

  8. Reliability, Validity, Comparability and Practical Utility of Cybercrime-Related Data, Metrics, and Information

    OpenAIRE

    Nir Kshetri

    2013-01-01

    With an increasing pervasiveness, prevalence and severity of cybercrimes, various metrics, measures and statistics have been developed and used to measure various aspects of this phenomenon. Cybercrime-related data, metrics, and information, however, pose important and difficult dilemmas regarding the issues of reliability, validity, comparability and practical utility. While many of the issues of the cybercrime economy are similar to other underground and underworld industries, this economy ...

  9. Factors related to cancer information scanning and seeking behavior among high school students in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kye, Su Yeon; Yun, E Hwa; Park, Keeho

    2012-01-01

    This paper aimed to determine the relationship between cancer information scanning and seeking experience of adolescents and cancer preventive behavior, perceived cancer risk, and levels of cancer- related knowledge. The study sample comprised 1,000 second-year students from 6 high schools: the general and vocational school systems were each represented by 1 boys', 1 girls', and 1 coeducational high school. In July 2011, trained researchers visited each classroom, explained the purpose of the study, distributed questionnaires to the students who agreed to participate, instructed them to complete the survey by self-reporting, and collected the completed questionnaires. The students who attended general high schools (as compared with vocational high schools), earned higher grades, consumed more vegetables, had a higher perceived cancer risk, and answered the cancer-related questions more correctly and had more cancer information scanning and seeking experience. These results reinforce the importance of cancer prevention health education. Furthermore, the results may help in preparing a strategy that enables people to acquire accurate cancer-related information easily and quickly.

  10. Generative electronic background music system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazurowski, Lukasz [Faculty of Computer Science, West Pomeranian University of Technology in Szczecin, Zolnierska Street 49, Szczecin, PL (Poland)

    2015-03-10

    In this short paper-extended abstract the new approach to generation of electronic background music has been presented. The Generative Electronic Background Music System (GEBMS) has been located between other related approaches within the musical algorithm positioning framework proposed by Woller et al. The music composition process is performed by a number of mini-models parameterized by further described properties. The mini-models generate fragments of musical patterns used in output composition. Musical pattern and output generation are controlled by container for the mini-models - a host-model. General mechanism has been presented including the example of the synthesized output compositions.

  11. Generative electronic background music system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazurowski, Lukasz

    2015-01-01

    In this short paper-extended abstract the new approach to generation of electronic background music has been presented. The Generative Electronic Background Music System (GEBMS) has been located between other related approaches within the musical algorithm positioning framework proposed by Woller et al. The music composition process is performed by a number of mini-models parameterized by further described properties. The mini-models generate fragments of musical patterns used in output composition. Musical pattern and output generation are controlled by container for the mini-models - a host-model. General mechanism has been presented including the example of the synthesized output compositions

  12. Factors Related to the Selection of Information Sources: A Study of Ramkhamhaeng University Regional Campuses Graduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angchun, Peemasak

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed students' satisfaction with Ramkhamhaeng University regional library services (RURLs) and the perceived quality of information retrieved from other information sources. In particular, this study investigated factors relating to regional students' selection of information sources to meet their information needs. The researcher…

  13. Senegal: Background and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-11

    Politique et Révolution Passive. ‘Sopi’ or not ‘Sopi’?” Politique Africaine, December 2004. 12 See, for example, Abdou Latif Coulibaly, Contes et ...regional presence of violent extremist groups. Al Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM), an criminal- terrorist network with ties to Al Qaeda and roots...FTF_2010_Implementation_Plan_Senegal.pdf. 27 U.N. Development Program and Government of Senegal, Changement Climatique, Sécurité Alimentaire et Développement Humain

  14. Yemen: Background and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-22

    Bank and Al-Nas press institute, and is the proprietor of local Kentucky Fried Chicken and Baskin-Robbins franchises . 7 One leader of the youth... restaurant in the Hadda district of Sana’a. The attacker, a Jordanian citizen who was found carrying other weapons and false identity papers, was caught

  15. Thailand: Background and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    practices. However, hopes for a smooth transition back to representative government were dashed as the turmoil has continued to churn in Thailand since...sale of his family’s telecommunications firm to a Singapore state company in a $1.9 billion deal that many suspected was not taxed because of...editors were dismissed, and pointing to a libel suit against an outspoken editor filed by a telecommunications corporation that Thaksin founded.26 Shin

  16. Nepal: Background and U.S. Relations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vaughn, Bruce

    2006-01-01

    .... Although this led to a process of economic restructuring and market liberalization, political instability and years of increasingly dire internal security challenges have undercut the country's...

  17. Israel: Background and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-29

    Israel would eventually be “wiped off the map,” and he has described the Holocaust as a “myth” used as a pretext to create an “ artificial Zionist...smuggling into Gaza and continue to limit passenger traffic at the Rafah crossing. Even after 2011-2012 elections, the power structure and...rls/rm/176684.htm. 102 Barbara Opall -Rome, “Israeli Brass Decry U.S. Arms Sales to Arab States,” Defense News, January 23, 2012. According to this

  18. Qatar: Background and U.S. Relations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sharp, Jeremy M

    2004-01-01

    .... In April 2003, the Bush Administration announced that the U.S. Combat Air Operations Center for the Middle East will be moved from Prince Sultan Airbase in Saudi Arabia to Qatar's Al-Udeid airbase, which served as a logistics hub for U.S...

  19. Israel: Background and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    principle to raise the electoral threshold for political parties seeking to enter the Knesset from 2% to 4%. Shelly Yachimovich formally leads the...Israel’s 2008-2009 Operation Cast Lead, which was directed against Hamas in the Gaza Strip) as acts of aggression. During the 111th Congress, the...Senate and the House overwhelmingly passed resolutions during the week of January 5, 2009 in connection with Operation Cast Lead that supported

  20. Bangladesh: Background and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-07

    rise in Bangladesh . Awami League Finance Minister A.M.S. Kibria and four others were killed in a bomb attack that also injured 70 at a political rally...Labor Force: Agriculture 63%, Industry 11%, and Services 26% Key Exports: Garments , jute, leather, frozen fish, seafood Key Export Partners: U.S. 24... Bangladesh . Ready made garments and jute carpet backing are two of Bangladesh’s key exports to the U.S. The United States has generally had a negative

  1. Israel: Background and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-07

    Iranian progress toward a nuclear weapons capability is fast closing. Consequently, they have sought increasingly punitive international measures...the Biblical home of the Jews but was then part of the Ottoman Empire. During World War I, the British government issued the Balfour Declaration in

  2. Singapore: Background and U.S. Relations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chanlett-Avery, Emma

    2008-01-01

    A former colonial island trading and military outpost of the far-flung British Empire, the tiny Republic of Singapore has transformed itself into a modem Asian nation and a major player in the global...

  3. Yemen: Background and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-19

    constitution states that a Yemeni national may not be extradited to a foreign authority. 54 “We outsource this to the Saudis. It is their problem,” The...equality, decentralization, and a greater share of state welfare . Many southerners reportedly have felt cut off from services and jobs and see persistent

  4. Jordan: Background and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-21

    gas taxes. Subsidies for sugar and rice also were increased and public salaries have been raised. The full impact these measures will have on Jordan’s...demonstrations, and one youth leader said that “We believe these changes are only cosmetic and don’t address the core issues that need to be implemented...Jordanians to boycott contacts with Israel, and activists among them have compiled “ black lists” of Jordanian individuals and companies that deal with

  5. Thailand: Background and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-02

    Capabilities Will Be Emphasized Instead of Numbers of Troops,” State Department Press Releases and Documents. August 16, 2004. 28 Kaplan , Robert D., “How We...LAOS MALAYSIA Andaman Sea Str ai t of Mal acca INDONESIA Gul f of Thai l and South Chi na Sea Phuket Hat Yai Pattani Yala Narathiwat Nakhon Ratchasima

  6. Egypt: Background and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-25

    exhortations to report critics of the government to the authorities; and censorship , prosecution, and attacks on journalists.” 19  Reporters Without...upon between the above-mentioned representatives.” See Agreement between the United States of America and Egypt, signed at Cairo, August 16, 1978

  7. Syria: Background and U.S. Relations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sharp, Jeremy M

    2008-01-01

    ... (Lebanon, Israel-Palestine, Iraq, and Iran). In the Levant, Syrian leaders aim to dominate the internal politics of Lebanon, and have been accused of involvement in the assassination of four parliamentarians and former Prime Minister Rafik Hariri...

  8. Israel: Background and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-14

    56 “EU Calls for Jerusalem to be Shared Capital,” Boston Globe, December 9, 2009. 57 Herb Keinon...73 Herb Keinon, “PM Tells Knesset all Premiers since ’67 Built in Jerusalem,” Jerusalem Post, March 16, 2010. 74 Glenn Kessler, “Clinton Upbraids...threaten both the forces of democratic Taiwan and the United States in the region surrounding the Taiwan Strait. The Committee intends to revisit this

  9. Egypt: Background and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-19

    syndicates (associations), including those representing engineers, doctors, lawyers and academics.21 CRS-15 21 (...continued) winter 2003), vol. 24...Schiff, a columnist for the Israeli newspaper Ha’aretz recently wrote that “The rules of engagement for the Egyptian forces guarding the border are also

  10. Qatar: Background and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-04

    Ahmed bin Abdullah bin Ziad Al Mahmoud Foreign Minister Khalid Bin Mohammed Al Attiyah Minister of Energy and Industry Mohammed bin Saleh al Sada...about voter franchise extension were resolved.5 The Advisory Council would have oversight authority over the Council of Ministers and would be able...and energy, water, and food supplies. To respond to these challenges, Qatari authorities have embarked on a series of parallel national development

  11. Jordan: Background and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-02

    Estonia’s Enefit Eesti Energia AS also has signed agreements on oil shale projects. In 2012, the Canadian company, Global Oil Shale Holdings (GOSH...variety of sectors including democracy assistance, water preservation, and education (particularly building and renovating public schools). In the

  12. Qatar: Background and U.S. Relations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blanchard, Christopher M

    2008-01-01

    .... military facilities for command, basing, and equipment pre-positioning. Qatar holds the third largest proven natural gas reserves in the world, and its small population enjoys the highest per capita income of any Middle Eastern country...

  13. Argentina: Background and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-05

    Comercio Internacional, Y Culto, Comunicado de la Cancillería Argentina, September 11, 2008. 43 A. Rebossio, "Fernández Acusa al FBI de Desestablizar...Argentina," El País (Madrid), September 13, 2008. 44 “Argentina Slams Witness in Cash Suitcase Scandal,” Associated Press Newswires, November 4, 2008

  14. Jordan: Background and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-27

    hospitals , schools, sanitation, and water systems are under similar strain. Some Jordanian observers are openly questioning the wisdom of continuing...Brotherhood Association. Its parent organization, which is licensed as a charity and not an association, expelled the new group from its ranks, leaving

  15. Israel: Background and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-31

    including Israel’s communitarian heritage, its tradition of vigorous public debate, and the consequences of deregulation for a system characterized by some...goods, rough diamonds, fuels, grain, consumer goods Import partners U.S. 12.9%, China 7.3%, Germany 6.3%, Switzerland 5.5%, Belgium 4.8% (2012 est...interim agreement between the “P5+1” nations (United States, United Kingdom, France, China, Russia, and Germany ) and Iran that went into effect in

  16. Israel: Background and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-28

    is the largest such non-emergency increase ever and, if it’s funded, would consume a growing share of a shrinking U.S. Missile Defense Agency’s...Clarke and Robert J. Johnston, “U.S. Dual-Use Exports to China, Chinese Behavior , and the Israel Factor: Effective Controls?” Asian Survey, Vol. 39, No

  17. Libya: Background and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-16

    designs or enrichment equipment disclosed by Libya. Leslie Lopez, “Libyans Got Nuclear Training at Malaysian Company, Police Say,” Wall Street Journal... taxation , development, and constitutional issues. In 1963, King Idris replaced the federal system of government with a unitary monarchy that centralized

  18. Jamaica: Background and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-09

    increased since 2008, and is currently over 13%. The decrease in demand for mining exports led to the closure of two bauxite /alumina plants in 2009...price and demand for Jamaican bauxite /alumina exports. A difficult economic challenge for the government is dealing with a large external debt burden...remittances, and bauxite /alumina production. From 1990-2007, economic growth averaged about 1.5%, not much above population growth. Major constraints for

  19. Adaptive memory: young children show enhanced retention of fitness-related information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Alp; Bäuml, Karl-Heinz T

    2012-01-01

    Evolutionary psychologists propose that human cognition evolved through natural selection to solve adaptive problems related to survival and reproduction, with its ultimate function being the enhancement of reproductive fitness. Following this proposal and the evolutionary-developmental view that ancestral selection pressures operated not only on reproductive adults, but also on pre-reproductive children, the present study examined whether young children show superior memory for information that is processed in terms of its survival value. In two experiments, we found such survival processing to enhance retention in 4- to 10-year-old children, relative to various control conditions that also required deep, meaningful processing but were not related to survival. These results suggest that, already in very young children, survival processing is a special and extraordinarily effective form of memory encoding. The results support the functional-evolutionary proposal that young children's memory is "tuned" to process and retain fitness-related information. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Retrieval of Legal Information Through Discovery Layers: A Case Study Related to Indian Law Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kushwah, Shivpal Singh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of this paper is to analyze and evaluate discovery layer search tools for retrieval of legal information in Indian law libraries. This paper covers current practices in legal information retrieval with special reference to Indian academic law libraries, and analyses its importance in the domain of law.Design/Methodology/Approach. A web survey and observational study method are used to collect the data. Data related to the discovery tools were collected using email and further discussion held with the discovery layer/ tool /product developers and their representatives.Findings. Results show that most of the Indian law libraries are subscribing to bundles of legal information resources such as Hein Online, JSTOR, LexisNexis Academic, Manupatra, Westlaw India, SCC web, AIR Online (CDROM, and so on. International legal and academic resources are compatible with discovery tools because they support various standards related to online publishing and dissemination such as OAI/PMH, Open URL, MARC21, and Z39.50, but Indian legal resources such as Manupatra, Air, and SCC are not compatible with the discovery layers. The central index is one of the important components in a discovery search interface, and discovery layer services/tools could be useful for Indian law libraries also if they can include multiple legal and academic resources in their central index. But present practices and observations reveal that discovery layers are not providing facility to cover legal information resources. Therefore, in the present form, discovery tools are not very useful; they are an incomplete and half solution for Indian libraries because all available Indian legal resources available in the law libraries are not covered.Originality/Value. Very limited research or published literature is available in the area of discovery layers and their compatibility with legal information resources.