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Sample records for related anthropometric traits

  1. Common SNPs in FTO gene are associated with obesity related anthropometric traits in an island population from the eastern Adriatic coast of Croatia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ge Zhang

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Multiple studies have provided compelling evidence that the FTO gene variants are associated with obesity measures. The objective of the study was to investigate whether FTO variants are associated with a broad range of obesity related anthropometric traits in an island population.We examined genetic association between 29 FTO SNPs and a comprehensive set of anthropometric traits in 843 unrelated individuals from an island population in the eastern Adriatic coast of Croatia. The traits include 11 anthropometrics (height, weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, bicondilar upper arm width, upper arm circumference, and biceps, triceps, subscapular, suprailiac and abdominal skin-fold thicknesses and two derived measures (BMI and WHR. Using single locus score tests, 15 common SNPs were found to be significantly associated with "body fatness" measures such as weight, BMI, hip and waist circumferences with P-values ranging from 0.0004 to 0.01. Similar but less significant associations were also observed between these markers and bicondilar upper arm width and upper arm circumference. Most of these significant findings could be explained by a mediating effect of "body fatness". However, one unique association signal between upper arm width and rs16952517 (P-value = 0.00156 could not be explained by this mediating effect. In addition, using a principle component analysis and conditional association tests adjusted for "body fatness", two novel association signals were identified between upper arm circumference and rs11075986 (P-value = 0.00211 and rs16945088 (P-value = 0.00203.The current study confirmed the association of common variants of FTO gene with "body fatness" measures in an isolated island population. We also observed evidence of pleiotropic effects of FTO gene on fat-free mass, such as frame size and muscle mass assessed by bicondilar upper arm width and upper arm circumference respectively and these pleiotropic effects might be

  2. A principal component meta-analysis on multiple anthropometric traits identifies novel loci for body shape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ried, Janina S; Jeff M, Janina; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L; van Dongen, Jenny; Huffman, Jennifer E; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S; Cadby, Gemma; Eklund, Niina; Eriksson, Joel; Esko, Tõnu; Feitosa, Mary F; Goel, Anuj; Gorski, Mathias; Hayward, Caroline; Heard-Costa, Nancy L; Jackson, Anne U; Jokinen, Eero; Kanoni, Stavroula; Kristiansson, Kati; Kutalik, Zoltán; Lahti, Jari; Luan, Jian'an; Mägi, Reedik; Mahajan, Anubha; Mangino, Massimo; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Monda, Keri L; Nolte, Ilja M; Pérusse, Louis; Prokopenko, Inga; Qi, Lu; Rose, Lynda M; Salvi, Erika; Smith, Megan T; Snieder, Harold; Stančáková, Alena; Ju Sung, Yun; Tachmazidou, Ioanna; Teumer, Alexander; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; van der Harst, Pim; Walker, Ryan W; Wang, Sophie R; Wild, Sarah H; Willems, Sara M; Wong, Andrew; Zhang, Weihua; Albrecht, Eva; Couto Alves, Alexessander; Bakker, Stephan J L; Barlassina, Cristina; Bartz, Traci M; Beilby, John; Bellis, Claire; Bergman, Richard N; Bergmann, Sven; Blangero, John; Blüher, Matthias; Boerwinkle, Eric; Bonnycastle, Lori L; Bornstein, Stefan R; Bruinenberg, Marcel; Campbell, Harry; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Chiang, Charleston W K; Chines, Peter S; Collins, Francis S; Cucca, Fracensco; Cupples, L Adrienne; D'Avila, Francesca; de Geus, Eco J C; Dedoussis, George; Dimitriou, Maria; Döring, Angela; Eriksson, Johan G; Farmaki, Aliki-Eleni; Farrall, Martin; Ferreira, Teresa; Fischer, Krista; Forouhi, Nita G; Friedrich, Nele; Gjesing, Anette Prior; Glorioso, Nicola; Graff, Mariaelisa; Grallert, Harald; Grarup, Niels; Gräßler, Jürgen; Grewal, Jagvir; Hamsten, Anders; Harder, Marie Neergaard; Hartman, Catharina A; Hassinen, Maija; Hastie, Nicholas; Hattersley, Andrew Tym; Havulinna, Aki S; Heliövaara, Markku; Hillege, Hans; Hofman, Albert; Holmen, Oddgeir; Homuth, Georg; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Hui, Jennie; Husemoen, Lise Lotte; Hysi, Pirro G; Isaacs, Aaron; Ittermann, Till; Jalilzadeh, Shapour; James, Alan L; Jørgensen, Torben; Jousilahti, Pekka; Jula, Antti; Marie Justesen, Johanne; Justice, Anne E; Kähönen, Mika; Karaleftheri, Maria; Tee Khaw, Kay; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka M; Kinnunen, Leena; Knekt, Paul B; Koistinen, Heikki A; Kolcic, Ivana; Kooner, Ishminder K; Koskinen, Seppo; Kovacs, Peter; Kyriakou, Theodosios; Laitinen, Tomi; Langenberg, Claudia; Lewin, Alexandra M; Lichtner, Peter; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Lindström, Jaana; Linneberg, Allan; Lorbeer, Roberto; Lorentzon, Mattias; Luben, Robert; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Männistö, Satu; Manunta, Paolo; Leach, Irene Mateo; McArdle, Wendy L; Mcknight, Barbara; Mohlke, Karen L; Mihailov, Evelin; Milani, Lili; Mills, Rebecca; Montasser, May E; Morris, Andrew P; Müller, Gabriele; Musk, Arthur W; Narisu, Narisu; Ong, Ken K; Oostra, Ben A; Osmond, Clive; Palotie, Aarno; Pankow, James S; Paternoster, Lavinia; Penninx, Brenda W; Pichler, Irene; Pilia, Maria G; Polašek, Ozren; Pramstaller, Peter P; Raitakari, Olli T; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rao, D C; Rayner, Nigel W; Ribel-Madsen, Rasmus; Rice, Treva K; Richards, Marcus; Ridker, Paul M; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Ryan, Kathy A; Sanna, Serena; Sarzynski, Mark A; Scholtens, Salome; Scott, Robert A; Sebert, Sylvain; Southam, Lorraine; Sparsø, Thomas Hempel; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Stirrups, Kathleen; Stolk, Ronald P; Strauch, Konstantin; Stringham, Heather M; Swertz, Morris A; Swift, Amy J; Tönjes, Anke; Tsafantakis, Emmanouil; van der Most, Peter J; Van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V; Vandenput, Liesbeth; Vartiainen, Erkki; Venturini, Cristina; Verweij, Niek; Viikari, Jorma S; Vitart, Veronique; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Vonk, Judith M; Waeber, Gérard; Widén, Elisabeth; Willemsen, Gonneke; Wilsgaard, Tom; Winkler, Thomas W; Wright, Alan F; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M; Hua Zhao, Jing; Carola Zillikens, M; Boomsma, Dorret I; Bouchard, Claude; Chambers, John C; Chasman, Daniel I; Cusi, Daniele; Gansevoort, Ron T; Gieger, Christian; Hansen, Torben; Hicks, Andrew A; Hu, Frank; Hveem, Kristian; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Kajantie, Eero; Kooner, Jaspal S; Kuh, Diana; Kuusisto, Johanna; Laakso, Markku; Lakka, Timo A; Lehtimäki, Terho; Metspalu, Andres; Njølstad, Inger; Ohlsson, Claes; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Palmer, Lyle J; Pedersen, Oluf; Perola, Markus; Peters, Annette; Psaty, Bruce M; Puolijoki, Hannu; Rauramaa, Rainer; Rudan, Igor; Salomaa, Veikko; Schwarz, Peter E H; Shudiner, Alan R; Smit, Jan H; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Spector, Timothy D; Stefansson, Kari; Stumvoll, Michael; Tremblay, Angelo; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uitterlinden, André G; Uusitupa, Matti; Völker, Uwe; Vollenweider, Peter; Wareham, Nicholas J; Watkins, Hugh; Wilson, James F; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Abecasis, Goncalo R; Boehnke, Michael; Borecki, Ingrid B; Deloukas, Panos; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Fox, Caroline; Groop, Leif C; Heid, Iris M; Hunter, David J; Kaplan, Robert C; McCarthy, Mark I; North, Kari E; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Schlessinger, David; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Strachan, David P; Frayling, Timothy; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Loos, Ruth J F

    2016-01-01

    Large consortia have revealed hundreds of genetic loci associated with anthropometric traits, one trait at a time. We examined whether genetic variants affect body shape as a composite phenotype that is represented by a combination of anthropometric traits. We developed an approach that calculates

  3. A principal component meta-analysis on multiple anthropometric traits identifies novel loci for body shape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ried, Janina S; Jeff M, Janina; Chu, Audrey Y

    2016-01-01

    Large consortia have revealed hundreds of genetic loci associated with anthropometric traits, one trait at a time. We examined whether genetic variants affect body shape as a composite phenotype that is represented by a combination of anthropometric traits. We developed an approach that calculate...

  4. A principal component meta-analysis on multiple anthropometric traits identifies novel loci for body shape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.S. Ried (Janina); J. Jeff (Janina); A.Y. Chu (Audrey Y); Bragg-Gresham, J.L. (Jennifer L.); J. van Dongen (Jenny); J.E. Huffman (Jennifer); T.S. Ahluwalia (Tarunveer Singh); G. Cadby (Gemma); N. Eklund (Niina); J. Eriksson (Joel); T. Esko (Tõnu); M.F. Feitosa (Mary Furlan); A. Goel (Anuj); M. Gorski (Mathias); C. Hayward (Caroline); N.L. Heard-Costa (Nancy); A.U. Jackson (Anne); Jokinen, E. (Eero); S. Kanoni (Stavroula); K. Kristiansson (Kati); Z. Kutalik (Zoltán); J. Lahti (Jari); J. Luan (Jian'An); R. Mägi (Reedik); A. Mahajan (Anubha); M. Mangino (Massimo); M.C. Medina-Gomez (Carolina); K.L. Monda (Keri); I.M. Nolte (Ilja); L. Perusse (Louis); I. Prokopenko (Inga); Qi, L. (Lu); L.M. Rose (Lynda); Salvi, E. (Erika); Smith, M.T. (Megan T.); H. Snieder (Harold); Standáková, A. (Alena); Ju Sung, Y. (Yun); I. Tachmazidou (Ioanna); A. Teumer (Alexander); G. Thorleifsson (Gudmar); P. van der Harst (Pim); Walker, R.W. (Ryan W.); S.R. Wang (Sophie); S.H. Wild (Sarah); S.M. Willems (Sara); A. Wong (Andrew); W. Zhang (Weihua); E. Albrecht (Eva); A. Couto-Alves (Alexessander); S.J.L. Bakker (Stephan); Barlassina, C. (Cristina); T.M. Bartz (Traci M.); J.P. Beilby (John); C. Bellis (Claire); Bergman, R.N. (Richard N.); S.M. Bergmann (Sven); J. Blangero (John); M. Blüher (Matthias); E.A. Boerwinkle (Eric); L.L. Bonnycastle (Lori); S.R. Bornstein (Stefan R.); M. Bruinenberg (M.); H. Campbell (Harry); Y.-D.I. Chen (Yii-Der Ida); Chiang, C.W.K. (Charleston W. K.); P.S. Chines (Peter); F.S. Collins (Francis); Cucca, F. (Fracensco); L.A. Cupples (Adrienne); D'avila, F. (Francesca); E.J.C. de Geus (Eco); G.V. Dedoussis (George); M. Dimitriou (Maria); A. Döring (Angela); K. Hagen (Knut); A.-E. Farmaki (Aliki-Eleni); M. Farrall (Martin); T. Ferreira (Teresa); K. Fischer (Krista); N.G. Forouhi (Nita); N. Friedrich (Nele); A.P. Gjesing (Anette); N. Glorioso (Nicola); M.J. Graff (Maud J.L.); H. Grallert (Harald); N. Grarup (Niels); J. Gräßler (Jürgen); J. Grewal (Jagvir); A. Hamsten (Anders); Harder, M.N. (Marie Neergaard); Hartman, C.A. (Catharina A.); Hassinen, M. (Maija); N. Hastie (Nick); A.T. Hattersley (Andrew); A.S. Havulinna (Aki); M. Heliovaara (Markku); H.L. Hillege (Hans); A. Hofman (Albert); O.L. Holmen (Oddgeir); G. Homuth (Georg); J.J. Hottenga (Jouke Jan); J. Hui (Jennie); L.L.N. Husemoen (Lise Lotte); P.G. Hysi (Pirro); A.J. Isaacs (Aaron); T. Ittermann (Till); S. Jalilzadeh (Shapour); A. James (Alan); T. Jorgensen (Torben); P. Jousilahti (Pekka); A. Jula (Antti); Marie Justesen, J. (Johanne); A.E. Justice (Anne); M. Kähönen (Mika); M. Karaleftheri (Maria); Tee Khaw, K. (Kay); S. Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi (Sirkka); L. Kinnunen (Leena); P. Knekt; H. Koistinen (Heikki); I. Kolcic (Ivana); I.K. Kooner (Ishminder K.); S. Koskinen (Seppo); P. Kovacs (Peter); T. Kyriakou (Theodosios); Laitinen, T. (Tomi); C. Langenberg (Claudia); A. Lewin (Alex); P. Lichtner (Peter); C.M. Lindgren (Cecilia); J. Lindström (Jaana); A. Linneberg (Allan); R. Lorbeer (Roberto); M. Lorentzon (Mattias); R.N. Luben (Robert); V. Lyssenko (Valeriya); S. Männistö (Satu); P. Manunta (Paolo); I.M. Leach (Irene Mateo); W.L. McArdle (Wendy); Mcknight, B. (Barbara); K.L. Mohlke (Karen); E. Mihailov (Evelin); L. Milani (Lili); R. Mills (Rebecca); M.E. Montasser (May E.); A.P. Morris (Andrew); G. Müller (Gabriele); Musk, A.W. (Arthur W.); N. Narisu (Narisu); K.K. Ong (Ken K.); B.A. Oostra (Ben); C. Osmond (Clive); A. Palotie (Aarno); J.S. Pankow (James); L. Paternoster (Lavinia); B.W.J.H. Penninx (Brenda); I. Pichler (Irene); M.G. Pilia (Maria Grazia); O. Polasek (Ozren); P.P. Pramstaller (Peter Paul); O.T. Raitakari (Olli T.); T. Rankinen (Tuomo); Rao, D.C.; N.W. Rayner (Nigel William); Ribel-Madsen, R. (Rasmus); Rice, T.K. (Treva K.); Richards, M. (Marcus); P.M. Ridker (Paul); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); Ryan, K.A. (Kathy A.); S. Sanna (Serena); M.A. Sarzynski (Mark A.); S. Scholtens (Salome); R.A. Scott (Robert); S. Sebert (Sylvain); L. Southam (Lorraine); T. Sparsø (Thomas); V. Steinthorsdottir (Valgerdur); K. Stirrups (Kathy); R.P. Stolk (Ronald); K. Strauch (Konstantin); H.M. Stringham (Heather); M. Swertz (Morris); A.J. Swift (Amy); A. Tönjes (Anke); E. Tsafantakis (Emmanouil); P.J. van der Most (Peter); J.V. van Vliet-Ostaptchouk (Jana); L. Vandenput (Liesbeth); Vartiainen, E. (Erkki); C. Venturini (Cristina); N. Verweij (Niek); J. Viikari (Jorma); Vitart, V. (Veronique); M.-C. Vohl (Marie-Claude); J.M. Vonk (Judith); G. Waeber (Gérard); E. Widen (Elisabeth); G.A.H.M. Willemsen (Gonneke); T. Wilsgaard (Tom); T.W. Winkler (Thomas W.); A.F. Wright (Alan); L.M. Yerges-Armstrong (Laura); Zhao, J.H. (Jing Hua); M.C. Zillikens (Carola); D.I. Boomsma (Dorret); C. Bouchard (Claude); J.C. Chambers (John); D.I. Chasman (Daniel); D. Cusi (Daniele); R.T. Gansevoort (Ron); C. Gieger (Christian); T. Hansen (T.); A.A. Hicks (Andrew); Hu, F. (Frank); K. Hveem (Kristian); M.-R. Jarvelin (Marjo-Riitta); E. Kajantie (Eero); J.S. Kooner (Jaspal S.); D. Kuh (Diana); J. Kuusisto (Johanna); M. Laakso (Markku); T.A. Lakka (Timo); T. Lehtimäki (Terho); A. Metspalu (Andres); I. Njølstad (Inger); C. Ohlsson (Claes); A.J. Oldehinkel (Albertine); Palmer, L.J. (Lyle J.); O. Pedersen (Oluf); M. Perola (Markus); A. Peters (Annette); B.M. Psaty (Bruce); Puolijoki, H. (Hannu); R. Rauramaa (Rainer); I. Rudan (Igor); V. Salomaa (Veikko); P.E.H. Schwarz (Peter); Shudiner, A.R. (Alan R.); J.H. Smit (Jan); T.I.A. Sørensen (Thorkild); T.D. Spector (Timothy); J-A. Zwart (John-Anker); M. Stumvoll (Michael); Tremblay, A. (Angelo); J. Tuomilehto (Jaakko); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); Uusitupa, M. (Matti); U. Völker (Uwe); P. Vollenweider (Peter); N.J. Wareham (Nick); H. Watkins (Hugh); J.F. Wilson (James); E. Zeggini (Eleftheria); G.R. Abecasis (Gonçalo); M. Boehnke (Michael); I.B. Borecki (Ingrid); P. Deloukas (Panagiotis); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); C.S. Fox (Caroline); L. Groop (Leif); I.M. Heid (Iris); Hunter, D.J. (David J.); R.C. Kaplan (Robert); M.I. McCarthy (Mark); K.E. North (Kari); J.R. O´Connell; Schlessinger, D. (David); U. Thorsteinsdottir (Unnur); D.P. Strachan (David); T.M. Frayling (Timothy); J.N. Hirschhorn (Joel); M. Müller-Nurasyid (Martina); R.J.F. Loos (Ruth)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractLarge consortia have revealed hundreds of genetic loci associated with anthropometric traits, one trait at a time. We examined whether genetic variants affect body shape as a composite phenotype that is represented by a combination of anthropometric traits. We developed an approach that

  5. Genome-wide association study of anthropometric traits and evidence of interactions with age and study year in Filipino women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croteau-Chonka, Damien C; Marvelle, Amanda F; Lange, Ethan M; Lee, Nanette R; Adair, Linda S; Lange, Leslie A; Mohlke, Karen L

    2011-05-01

    Increased values of multiple adiposity-related anthropometric traits are important risk factors for many common complex diseases. We performed a genome-wide association (GWA) study for four quantitative traits related to body size and adiposity (BMI, weight, waist circumference, and height) in a cohort of 1,792 adult Filipino women from the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey (CLHNS). This is the first GWA study of anthropometric traits in Filipinos, a population experiencing a rapid transition into a more obesogenic environment. In addition to identifying suggestive evidence of additional single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) association signals (P Filipinos and provide further insight into the effects of BDNF, FTO, and MC4R on BMI.

  6. Geographical and temporal changes of anthropometric traits in historical Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danubio, Maria Enrica; Milia, Nicola; Coppa, Alfredo; Rufo, Fabrizio; Sanna, Emanuele

    2016-02-01

    This study investigates secular changes of anthropometric variables among four geographic groups in historical Yemen, to evaluate possible regional differences in the evolution of living standards. Nineteen somatic and cephalic measures collected by Coon in 1939, and 8 anthropometric indices in 1244 Yemenite adult males were analyzed. The individuals were divided into 10-year age groups. Within-group variations were tested by One-way ANCOVA (age as covariate). ANCOVA (controlling for age), and Forward stepwise discriminant analysis were used to evaluate and represent regional differences. ANCOVA and discriminant analysis confirmed and enhanced previous findings. At the time, the Yemenite population presented high intergroup heterogeneity. The highest mean values of height at all ages were found in the "mountain" region, which is characterized by very fertile soils and where, nowadays, most of the cereals and pulses are grown and where most livestock is raised. Within-group variations were limited and generally inconsistent in all geographic regions and concern vertical dimensions, but mean values of height never differed. The prolonged internal isolation of these groups resulted in significant regional morphometric differentiation. The main evidence comes from height which suggests that socioeconomic factors have played a role. Nevertheless, the possible better living conditions experienced by the "mountain" group, with the highest mean values of stature in all periods, did not allow the secular trend to take place in that region, too. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  7. A principal component meta-analysis on multiple anthropometric traits identifies novel loci for body shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ried, Janina S.; Jeff M., Janina; Chu, Audrey Y.; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L.; van Dongen, Jenny; Huffman, Jennifer E.; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S.; Cadby, Gemma; Eklund, Niina; Eriksson, Joel; Esko, Tõnu; Feitosa, Mary F.; Goel, Anuj; Gorski, Mathias; Hayward, Caroline; Heard-Costa, Nancy L.; Jackson, Anne U.; Jokinen, Eero; Kanoni, Stavroula; Kristiansson, Kati; Kutalik, Zoltán; Lahti, Jari; Luan, Jian'an; Mägi, Reedik; Mahajan, Anubha; Mangino, Massimo; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Monda, Keri L.; Nolte, Ilja M.; Pérusse, Louis; Prokopenko, Inga; Qi, Lu; Rose, Lynda M.; Salvi, Erika; Smith, Megan T.; Snieder, Harold; Stančáková, Alena; Ju Sung, Yun; Tachmazidou, Ioanna; Teumer, Alexander; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; van der Harst, Pim; Walker, Ryan W.; Wang, Sophie R.; Wild, Sarah H.; Willems, Sara M.; Wong, Andrew; Zhang, Weihua; Albrecht, Eva; Couto Alves, Alexessander; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Barlassina, Cristina; Bartz, Traci M.; Beilby, John; Bellis, Claire; Bergman, Richard N.; Bergmann, Sven; Blangero, John; Blüher, Matthias; Boerwinkle, Eric; Bonnycastle, Lori L.; Bornstein, Stefan R.; Bruinenberg, Marcel; Campbell, Harry; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Chiang, Charleston W. K.; Chines, Peter S.; Collins, Francis S; Cucca, Fracensco; Cupples, L Adrienne; D'Avila, Francesca; de Geus, Eco J .C.; Dedoussis, George; Dimitriou, Maria; Döring, Angela; Eriksson, Johan G.; Farmaki, Aliki-Eleni; Farrall, Martin; Ferreira, Teresa; Fischer, Krista; Forouhi, Nita G.; Friedrich, Nele; Gjesing, Anette Prior; Glorioso, Nicola; Graff, Mariaelisa; Grallert, Harald; Grarup, Niels; Gräßler, Jürgen; Grewal, Jagvir; Hamsten, Anders; Harder, Marie Neergaard; Hartman, Catharina A.; Hassinen, Maija; Hastie, Nicholas; Hattersley, Andrew Tym; Havulinna, Aki S.; Heliövaara, Markku; Hillege, Hans; Hofman, Albert; Holmen, Oddgeir; Homuth, Georg; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Hui, Jennie; Husemoen, Lise Lotte; Hysi, Pirro G.; Isaacs, Aaron; Ittermann, Till; Jalilzadeh, Shapour; James, Alan L.; Jørgensen, Torben; Jousilahti, Pekka; Jula, Antti; Marie Justesen, Johanne; Justice, Anne E.; Kähönen, Mika; Karaleftheri, Maria; Tee Khaw, Kay; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka M.; Kinnunen, Leena; Knekt, Paul B.; Koistinen, Heikki A.; Kolcic, Ivana; Kooner, Ishminder K.; Koskinen, Seppo; Kovacs, Peter; Kyriakou, Theodosios; Laitinen, Tomi; Langenberg, Claudia; Lewin, Alexandra M.; Lichtner, Peter; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Lindström, Jaana; Linneberg, Allan; Lorbeer, Roberto; Lorentzon, Mattias; Luben, Robert; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Männistö, Satu; Manunta, Paolo; Leach, Irene Mateo; McArdle, Wendy L.; Mcknight, Barbara; Mohlke, Karen L.; Mihailov, Evelin; Milani, Lili; Mills, Rebecca; Montasser, May E.; Morris, Andrew P.; Müller, Gabriele; Musk, Arthur W.; Narisu, Narisu; Ong, Ken K.; Oostra, Ben A.; Osmond, Clive; Palotie, Aarno; Pankow, James S.; Paternoster, Lavinia; Penninx, Brenda W.; Pichler, Irene; Pilia, Maria G.; Polašek, Ozren; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Raitakari, Olli T; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rao, D. C.; Rayner, Nigel W.; Ribel-Madsen, Rasmus; Rice, Treva K.; Richards, Marcus; Ridker, Paul M.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Ryan, Kathy A.; Sanna, Serena; Sarzynski, Mark A.; Scholtens, Salome; Scott, Robert A.; Sebert, Sylvain; Southam, Lorraine; Sparsø, Thomas Hempel; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Stirrups, Kathleen; Stolk, Ronald P.; Strauch, Konstantin; Stringham, Heather M.; Swertz, Morris A.; Swift, Amy J.; Tönjes, Anke; Tsafantakis, Emmanouil; van der Most, Peter J.; Van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V.; Vandenput, Liesbeth; Vartiainen, Erkki; Venturini, Cristina; Verweij, Niek; Viikari, Jorma S.; Vitart, Veronique; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Vonk, Judith M.; Waeber, Gérard; Widén, Elisabeth; Willemsen, Gonneke; Wilsgaard, Tom; Winkler, Thomas W.; Wright, Alan F.; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M.; Hua Zhao, Jing; Carola Zillikens, M.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Bouchard, Claude; Chambers, John C.; Chasman, Daniel I.; Cusi, Daniele; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Gieger, Christian; Hansen, Torben; Hicks, Andrew A.; Hu, Frank; Hveem, Kristian; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Kajantie, Eero; Kooner, Jaspal S.; Kuh, Diana; Kuusisto, Johanna; Laakso, Markku; Lakka, Timo A.; Lehtimäki, Terho; Metspalu, Andres; Njølstad, Inger; Ohlsson, Claes; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Palmer, Lyle J.; Pedersen, Oluf; Perola, Markus; Peters, Annette; Psaty, Bruce M.; Puolijoki, Hannu; Rauramaa, Rainer; Rudan, Igor; Salomaa, Veikko; Schwarz, Peter E. H.; Shudiner, Alan R.; Smit, Jan H.; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.; Spector, Timothy D.; Stefansson, Kari; Stumvoll, Michael; Tremblay, Angelo; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uitterlinden, André G.; Uusitupa, Matti; Völker, Uwe; Vollenweider, Peter; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Watkins, Hugh; Wilson, James F.; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Abecasis, Goncalo R.; Boehnke, Michael; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Deloukas, Panos; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Fox, Caroline; Groop, Leif C.; Heid, Iris M.; Hunter, David J.; Kaplan, Robert C.; McCarthy, Mark I.; North, Kari E.; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Schlessinger, David; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Strachan, David P.; Frayling, Timothy; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Loos, Ruth J. F.

    2016-01-01

    Large consortia have revealed hundreds of genetic loci associated with anthropometric traits, one trait at a time. We examined whether genetic variants affect body shape as a composite phenotype that is represented by a combination of anthropometric traits. We developed an approach that calculates averaged PCs (AvPCs) representing body shape derived from six anthropometric traits (body mass index, height, weight, waist and hip circumference, waist-to-hip ratio). The first four AvPCs explain >99% of the variability, are heritable, and associate with cardiometabolic outcomes. We performed genome-wide association analyses for each body shape composite phenotype across 65 studies and meta-analysed summary statistics. We identify six novel loci: LEMD2 and CD47 for AvPC1, RPS6KA5/C14orf159 and GANAB for AvPC3, and ARL15 and ANP32 for AvPC4. Our findings highlight the value of using multiple traits to define complex phenotypes for discovery, which are not captured by single-trait analyses, and may shed light onto new pathways. PMID:27876822

  8. Genetic susceptibility to obesity and related traits in childhood and adolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    den Hoed, Marcel; Ekelund, Ulf; Brage, Søren

    2010-01-01

    Large-scale genome-wide association (GWA) studies have thus far identified 16 loci incontrovertibly associated with obesity-related traits in adults. We examined associations of variants in these loci with anthropometric traits in children and adolescents.......Large-scale genome-wide association (GWA) studies have thus far identified 16 loci incontrovertibly associated with obesity-related traits in adults. We examined associations of variants in these loci with anthropometric traits in children and adolescents....

  9. CNV-association meta-analysis in 191,161 European adults reveals new loci associated with anthropometric traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macé, Aurélien; Tuke, Marcus A; Deelen, Patrick; Kristiansson, Kati; Mattsson, Hannele; Nõukas, Margit; Sapkota, Yadav; Schick, Ursula; Porcu, Eleonora; Rüeger, Sina; McDaid, Aaron F; Porteous, David; Winkler, Thomas W; Salvi, Erika; Shrine, Nick; Liu, Xueping; Ang, Wei Q; Zhang, Weihua; Feitosa, Mary F; Venturini, Cristina; van der Most, Peter J; Rosengren, Anders; Wood, Andrew R; Beaumont, Robin N; Jones, Samuel E; Ruth, Katherine S; Yaghootkar, Hanieh; Tyrrell, Jessica; Havulinna, Aki S; Boers, Harmen; Mägi, Reedik; Kriebel, Jennifer; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Perola, Markus; Nieminen, Markku; Lokki, Marja-Liisa; Kähönen, Mika; Viikari, Jorma S; Geller, Frank; Lahti, Jari; Palotie, Aarno; Koponen, Päivikki; Lundqvist, Annamari; Rissanen, Harri; Bottinger, Erwin P; Afaq, Saima; Wojczynski, Mary K; Lenzini, Petra; Nolte, Ilja M; Sparsø, Thomas; Schupf, Nicole; Christensen, Kaare; Perls, Thomas T; Newman, Anne B; Werge, Thomas; Snieder, Harold; Spector, Timothy D; Chambers, John C; Koskinen, Seppo; Melbye, Mads; Raitakari, Olli T; Lehtimäki, Terho; Tobin, Martin D; Wain, Louise V; Sinisalo, Juha; Peters, Annette; Meitinger, Thomas; Martin, Nicholas G; Wray, Naomi R; Montgomery, Grant W; Medland, Sarah E; Swertz, Morris A; Vartiainen, Erkki; Borodulin, Katja; Männistö, Satu; Murray, Anna; Bochud, Murielle; Jacquemont, Sébastien; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Hansen, Thomas F; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Mangino, Massimo; Province, Michael A; Deloukas, Panos; Kooner, Jaspal S; Freathy, Rachel M; Pennell, Craig; Feenstra, Bjarke; Strachan, David P; Lettre, Guillaume; Hirschhorn, Joel; Cusi, Daniele; Heid, Iris M; Hayward, Caroline; Männik, Katrin; Beckmann, Jacques S; Loos, Ruth J F; Nyholt, Dale R; Metspalu, Andres; Eriksson, Johan G; Weedon, Michael N; Salomaa, Veikko; Franke, Lude; Reymond, Alexandre; Frayling, Timothy M; Kutalik, Zoltán

    2017-01-01

    There are few examples of robust associations between rare copy number variants (CNVs) and complex continuous human traits. Here we present a large-scale CNV association meta-analysis on anthropometric traits in up to 191,161 adult samples from 26 cohorts. The study reveals five CNV associations at

  10. The metabochip, a custom genotyping array for genetic studies of metabolic, cardiovascular, and anthropometric traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voight, Benjamin F; Kang, Hyun Min; Ding, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies have identified hundreds of loci for type 2 diabetes, coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction, as well as for related traits such as body mass index, glucose and insulin levels, lipid levels, and blood pressure. These studies also have pointed to thousands...... dramatic cost efficiencies compared to designing single-trait follow-up reagents, and provides the opportunity to compare results across a range of related traits. The metabochip and similar custom genotyping arrays offer a powerful and cost-effective approach to follow-up large-scale genotyping...

  11. The relation between the anthropometric characteristics of fingers and cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Mardanshahi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Anthropometry is a science of human body measurement that could be used for manufacturing artificial limbs or prosthesis, investigating body differences between populations, utilizing in forensics and criminology, or even in the diagnosis of some diseases. Two of the most important anthropometric characteristics are dermatoglyphic patterns and finger length. Many studies have evaluated the relation between these two characteristics in different diseases such as cancers. It assumed that dermatoglyphic patterns and finger length could be used as predictors of some cancers such as gastric, ovarian, prostate, testicular, and breast cancers. In this review, we evaluated the relation between dermatoglyphic variability and finger length in different cancers more precisely.

  12. The CODAtwins project: the cohort description of COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins to study macro-environmental variation in genetic and environmental effects on anthropometric traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silventoinen, Karri; Jelenkovic, Aline; Sund, Reijo; Honda, Chika; Aaltonen, Sari; Yokoyama, Yoshie; Tarnoki, Adam D; Tarnoki, David L; Ning, Feng; Ji, Fuling; Pang, Zengchang; Ordoñana, Juan R; Sánchez-Romera, Juan F; Colodro-Conde, Lucia; Burt, S Alexandra; Klump, Kelly L; Medland, Sarah E; Montgomery, Grant W; Kandler, Christian; McAdams, Tom A; Eley, Thalia C; Gregory, Alice M; Saudino, Kimberly J; Dubois, Lise; Boivin, Michel; Haworth, Claire MA; Plomin, Robert; Öncel, Sevgi Y; Aliev, Fazil; Stazi, Maria A; Fagnani, Corrado; D'Ippolito, Cristina; Craig, Jeffrey M; Saffery, Richard; Siribaddana, Sisira H; Hotopf, Matthew; Sumathipala, Athula; Spector, Timothy; Mangino, Massimo; Lachance, Genevieve; Gatz, Margaret; Butler, David A; Bayasgalan, Gombojav; Narandalai, Danshiitsoodol; Freitas, Duarte L; Maia, José Antonio; Harden, K Paige; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M; Christensen, Kaare; Skytthe, Axel; Kyvik, Kirsten O; Hong, Changhee; Chong, Youngsook; Derom, Catherine A; Vlietinck, Robert F; Loos, Ruth JF; Cozen, Wendy; Hwang, Amie E; Mack, Thomas M; He, Mingguang; Ding, Xiaohu; Chang, Billy; Silberg, Judy L; Eaves, Lindon J; Maes, Hermine H; Cutler, Tessa L; Hopper, John L; Aujard, Kelly; Magnusson, Patrik KE; Pedersen, Nancy L; Dahl-Aslan, Anna K; Song, Yun-Mi; Yang, Sarah; Lee, Kayoung; Baker, Laura A; Tuvblad, Catherine; Bjerregaard-Andersen, Morten; Beck-Nielsen, Henning; Sodemann, Morten; Heikkilä, Kauko; Tan, Qihua; Zhang, Dongfeng; Swan, Gary E; Krasnow, Ruth; Jang, Kerry L; Knafo-Noam, Ariel; Mankuta, David; Abramson, Lior; Lichtenstein, Paul; Krueger, Robert F; McGue, Matt; Pahlen, Shandell; Tynelius, Per; Duncan, Glen E; Buchwald, Dedra; Corley, Robin P; Huibregtse, Brooke M; Nelson, Tracy L; Whitfield, Keith E; Franz, Carol E; Kremen, William S; Lyons, Michael J; Ooki, Syuichi; Brandt, Ingunn; Nilsen, Thomas Sevenius; Inui, Fujio; Watanabe, Mikio; Bartels, Meike; van Beijsterveldt, Toos CEM; Wardle, Jane; Llewellyn, Clare H; Fisher, Abigail; Rebato, Esther; Martin, Nicholas G; Iwatani, Yoshinori; Hayakawa, Kazuo; Rasmussen, Finn; Sung, Joohon; Harris, Jennifer R; Willemsen, Gonneke; Busjahn, Andreas; Goldberg, Jack H; Boomsma, Dorret I; Hur, Yoon-Mi; Sørensen, Thorkild IA; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2015-01-01

    For over one hundred years, the genetics of human anthropometric traits has attracted scientific interest. In particular, height and body mass index (BMI, calculated as kg/m2) have been under intensive genetic research. However, it is still largely unknown whether and how heritability estimates vary between human populations. Opportunities to address this question have increased recently because of the establishment of many new twin cohorts and the increasing accumulation of data in established twin cohorts. We started a new research project to analyze systematically 1) the variation of heritability estimates of height, BMI and their trajectories over the life course between birth cohorts, ethnicities and countries, and 2) to study the effects of birth related factors, education and smoking on these anthropometric traits and whether these effects vary between twin cohorts. We identified 67 twin projects including both monozygotic and dizygotic twins using various sources. We asked for individual level data on height and weight including repeated measurements, birth related traits, background variables, education and smoking. By the end of 2014, 48 projects participated. Together, we have 893,458 height and weight measures (52% females) from 434,723 twin individuals, including 201,192 complete twin pairs (40% monozygotic, 40% same-sex dizygotic and 20% opposite-sex dizygotic) representing 22 countries. This project demonstrates that large-scale international twin studies are feasible and can promote the use of existing data for novel research purposes. PMID:26014041

  13. The CODATwins Project: The Cohort Description of Collaborative Project of Development of Anthropometrical Measures in Twins to Study Macro-Environmental Variation in Genetic and Environmental Effects on Anthropometric Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silventoinen, Karri; Jelenkovic, Aline; Sund, Reijo; Honda, Chika; Aaltonen, Sari; Yokoyama, Yoshie; Tarnoki, Adam D; Tarnoki, David L; Ning, Feng; Ji, Fuling; Pang, Zengchang; Ordoñana, Juan R; Sánchez-Romera, Juan F; Colodro-Conde, Lucia; Burt, S Alexandra; Klump, Kelly L; Medland, Sarah E; Montgomery, Grant W; Kandler, Christian; McAdams, Tom A; Eley, Thalia C; Gregory, Alice M; Saudino, Kimberly J; Dubois, Lise; Boivin, Michel; Haworth, Claire M A; Plomin, Robert; Öncel, Sevgi Y; Aliev, Fazil; Stazi, Maria A; Fagnani, Corrado; D'Ippolito, Cristina; Craig, Jeffrey M; Saffery, Richard; Siribaddana, Sisira H; Hotopf, Matthew; Sumathipala, Athula; Spector, Timothy; Mangino, Massimo; Lachance, Genevieve; Gatz, Margaret; Butler, David A; Bayasgalan, Gombojav; Narandalai, Danshiitsoodol; Freitas, Duarte L; Maia, José Antonio; Harden, K Paige; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M; Christensen, Kaare; Skytthe, Axel; Kyvik, Kirsten O; Hong, Changhee; Chong, Youngsook; Derom, Catherine A; Vlietinck, Robert F; Loos, Ruth J F; Cozen, Wendy; Hwang, Amie E; Mack, Thomas M; He, Mingguang; Ding, Xiaohu; Chang, Billy; Silberg, Judy L; Eaves, Lindon J; Maes, Hermine H; Cutler, Tessa L; Hopper, John L; Aujard, Kelly; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Pedersen, Nancy L; Aslan, Anna K Dahl; Song, Yun-Mi; Yang, Sarah; Lee, Kayoung; Baker, Laura A; Tuvblad, Catherine; Bjerregaard-Andersen, Morten; Beck-Nielsen, Henning; Sodemann, Morten; Heikkilä, Kauko; Tan, Qihua; Zhang, Dongfeng; Swan, Gary E; Krasnow, Ruth; Jang, Kerry L; Knafo-Noam, Ariel; Mankuta, David; Abramson, Lior; Lichtenstein, Paul; Krueger, Robert F; McGue, Matt; Pahlen, Shandell; Tynelius, Per; Duncan, Glen E; Buchwald, Dedra; Corley, Robin P; Huibregtse, Brooke M; Nelson, Tracy L; Whitfield, Keith E; Franz, Carol E; Kremen, William S; Lyons, Michael J; Ooki, Syuichi; Brandt, Ingunn; Nilsen, Thomas Sevenius; Inui, Fujio; Watanabe, Mikio; Bartels, Meike; van Beijsterveldt, Toos C E M; Wardle, Jane; Llewellyn, Clare H; Fisher, Abigail; Rebato, Esther; Martin, Nicholas G; Iwatani, Yoshinori; Hayakawa, Kazuo; Rasmussen, Finn; Sung, Joohon; Harris, Jennifer R; Willemsen, Gonneke; Busjahn, Andreas; Goldberg, Jack H; Boomsma, Dorret I; Hur, Yoon-Mi; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2015-08-01

    For over 100 years, the genetics of human anthropometric traits has attracted scientific interest. In particular, height and body mass index (BMI, calculated as kg/m2) have been under intensive genetic research. However, it is still largely unknown whether and how heritability estimates vary between human populations. Opportunities to address this question have increased recently because of the establishment of many new twin cohorts and the increasing accumulation of data in established twin cohorts. We started a new research project to analyze systematically (1) the variation of heritability estimates of height, BMI and their trajectories over the life course between birth cohorts, ethnicities and countries, and (2) to study the effects of birth-related factors, education and smoking on these anthropometric traits and whether these effects vary between twin cohorts. We identified 67 twin projects, including both monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins, using various sources. We asked for individual level data on height and weight including repeated measurements, birth related traits, background variables, education and smoking. By the end of 2014, 48 projects participated. Together, we have 893,458 height and weight measures (52% females) from 434,723 twin individuals, including 201,192 complete twin pairs (40% monozygotic, 40% same-sex dizygotic and 20% opposite-sex dizygotic) representing 22 countries. This project demonstrates that large-scale international twin studies are feasible and can promote the use of existing data for novel research purposes.

  14. The metabochip, a custom genotyping array for genetic studies of metabolic, cardiovascular, and anthropometric traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin F Voight

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies have identified hundreds of loci for type 2 diabetes, coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction, as well as for related traits such as body mass index, glucose and insulin levels, lipid levels, and blood pressure. These studies also have pointed to thousands of loci with promising but not yet compelling association evidence. To establish association at additional loci and to characterize the genome-wide significant loci by fine-mapping, we designed the "Metabochip," a custom genotyping array that assays nearly 200,000 SNP markers. Here, we describe the Metabochip and its component SNP sets, evaluate its performance in capturing variation across the allele-frequency spectrum, describe solutions to methodological challenges commonly encountered in its analysis, and evaluate its performance as a platform for genotype imputation. The metabochip achieves dramatic cost efficiencies compared to designing single-trait follow-up reagents, and provides the opportunity to compare results across a range of related traits. The metabochip and similar custom genotyping arrays offer a powerful and cost-effective approach to follow-up large-scale genotyping and sequencing studies and advance our understanding of the genetic basis of complex human diseases and traits.

  15. CNV-association meta-analysis in 191,161 European adults reveals new loci associated with anthropometric traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macé, Aurélien; Tuke, Marcus A; Deelen, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    at 1q21.1, 3q29, 7q11.23, 11p14.2, and 18q21.32 and confirms two known loci at 16p11.2 and 22q11.21, implicating at least one anthropometric trait. The discovered CNVs are recurrent and rare (0.01-0.2%), with large effects on height (>2.4 cm), weight (>5 kg), and body mass index (BMI) (>3.5 kg/m(2...

  16. Handgrip strength and its relation with anthropometric parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Luís Fischer Eichinger

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The handgrip strength (HS is related to ADL, when reduced can lead to significant functional limitations. Its measurement allows estimating the strength general state and is a health indicator. Objective: Analyze the correlation between HS and anthropometry in box genders. Methods: This is a descriptive correlational study with 100 healthy individuals, aged between 17 and 40 years, 50 men, mean age 28.0 years (± 7.0 and 50 women, mean age 23 years (± 4.2. We evaluated HS and forearm, wrist and hand perimeter. Statistical analyzes were obtained using means, standard deviations and Pearson Correlation Test. Results: Compared to women, men had higher HS mean values on both sides. Men showed 49.0 kgf (± 8.3 on the right and 46.0 kgf (± 8.5 on the left side; while women showed 26.0 kgf (± 5.4 on the right side and 24.0 kgf (± 5.3 on the left side. Discussion: The hand perimeter was the only anthropometric data that showed a significant correlation with the HS in both genders. The forearm and wrist perimeter was only significant in men, with a slight difference between the sides; the right side prevails over the left. Although women showed no significant correlations with the HS it was noted discrepancy of force in relation to laterality, with a predominance of HS on the right side. Conclusions: We conclude that there is a correlation between HS and anthropometry, and that laterality and gender are factors influencing HS.

  17. The CODATwins Project: The Cohort Description of Collaborative Project of Development of Anthropometrical Measures in Twins to Study Macro-Environmental Variation in Genetic and Environmental Effects on Anthropometric Traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silventoinen, K.; Jelenkovic, A.; Sund, R.; Honda, C.; Aaltonen, S.; Yokoyama, Y.; Tarnoki, A.D.; Tarnoki, D.L.; Ning, F.; Ji, F.; Pang, Z.; Ordonana, J.R.; Sanchez-Romera, J.F.; Colodro-Conde, L.; Burt, S.A.; Klump, K.L.; Medland, S.E.; Montgomery, G.W.; Kandler, C.; McAdams, T.A.; Eley, T.C.; Gregory, A.M.; Saudino, K.J.; Dubois, L.; Boivin, M.; Haworth, C.M.A.; Plomin, R.; Oncel, S.Y.; Aliev, F.; Stazi, M.A.; Fagnani, C.; D'Ippolito, C.; Craig, J.M.; Saffery, R.; Siribaddana, S.H.; Hotopf, M.; Sumathipala, A.; Spector, T.; Mangino, M.; Lachance, G.; Gatz, M.; Butler, D.A.; Bayasgalan, G.; Narandalai, D.; Freitas, D.L.; Maia, J.A.; Harden, K.P.; Tucker-Drob, E.M.; Christensen, K.; Skytthe, A.; Kyvik, K.O.; Hong, C.; Chong, Y.; Derom, C.A.; Vlietinck, R.F.; Loos, R.J.F.; Cozen, W.; Hwang, A.E.; Mack, T.M.; He, M.; Ding, X.; Chang, B.; Silberg, J.L.; Eaves, L.J.; Maes, H.H.; Cutler, T.L.; Hopper, J.L.; Aujard, K.; Magnusson, P.K.E.; Pedersen, N.L.; Aslan, A.K.D.; Song, Y.; Yang, S.; Lee, K; Baker, L.A.; Tuvblad, C.; Bjerregaard-Andersen, M.; Beck-Nielsen, H.; Sodemann, M.; Heikkila, K.; Tan, Q.; Zhang, D.; Swan, G.E.; Krasnow, R.; Jang, K.L.; Knafo-Noam, A.; Mankuta, D.; Abramson, L.; Lichtenstein, P.; Krueger, R.F.; McGue, M.; Pahlen, S.; Tynelius, P.; Duncan, G.E.; Buchwald, D.; Corley, R.P.; Huibregtse, B.M.; Nelson, T.L.; Whitfield, K.E.; Franz, C.E.; Kremen, W.S.; Lyons, M.J.; Ooki, S.; Brandt, I.; Nilsen, T.S.; Inui, F.; Watanabe, M.; Bartels, M.; van Beijsterveldt, T.C.E.M.; Wardle, J.; Llewellyn, C.H.; Fisher, A.; Rebato, E.; Martin, N.G.; Iwatani, Y.; Hayakawa, K.; Rasmussen, F.; Sung, J.; Harris, J.R.; Willemsen, G.; Busjahn, A.; Goldberg, J.H.; Boomsma, D.I.; Hur, Y.; Sorensen, T.I.A.; Kaprio, J.

    2015-01-01

    For over 100 years, the genetics of human anthropometric traits has attracted scientific interest. In particular, height and body mass index (BMI, calculated as kg/m2) have been under intensive genetic research. However, it is still largely unknown whether and how heritability estimates vary between

  18. Body adiposity index versus body mass index and other anthropometric traits as correlates of cardiometabolic risk factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlene T Lichtash

    Full Text Available The worldwide prevalence of obesity mandates a widely accessible tool to categorize adiposity that can best predict associated health risks. The body adiposity index (BAI was designed as a single equation to predict body adiposity in pooled analysis of both genders. We compared body adiposity index (BAI, body mass index (BMI, and other anthropometric measures, including percent body fat (PBF, in their correlations with cardiometabolic risk factors. We also compared BAI with BMI to determine which index is a better predictor of PBF.The cohort consisted of 698 Mexican Americans. We calculated correlations of BAI, BMI, and other anthropometric measurements (PBF measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, waist and hip circumference, height, weight with glucose homeostasis indices (including insulin sensitivity and insulin clearance from euglycemic clamp, lipid parameters, cardiovascular traits (including carotid intima-media thickness, and biomarkers (C-reactive protein, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and adiponectin. Correlations between each anthropometric measure and cardiometabolic trait were compared in both sex-pooled and sex-stratified groups.BMI was associated with all but two measured traits (carotid intima-media thickness and fasting glucose in men, while BAI lacked association with several variables. BAI did not outperform BMI in its associations with any cardiometabolic trait. BAI was correlated more strongly than BMI with PBF in sex-pooled analyses (r = 0.78 versus r = 0.51, but not in sex-stratified analyses (men, r = 0.63 versus r = 0.79; women, r = 0.69 versus r = 0.77. Additionally, PBF showed fewer correlations with cardiometabolic risk factors than BMI. Weight was more strongly correlated than hip with many of the cardiometabolic risk factors examined.BAI is inferior to the widely used BMI as a correlate of the cardiometabolic risk factors studied. Additionally, BMI's relationship with total adiposity

  19. Improved Genetic Profiling of Anthropometric Traits Using a Big Data Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oriol Canela-Xandri

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies (GWAS promised to translate their findings into clinically beneficial improvements of patient management by tailoring disease management to the individual through the prediction of disease risk. However, the ability to translate genetic findings from GWAS into predictive tools that are of clinical utility and which may inform clinical practice has, so far, been encouraging but limited. Here we propose to use a more powerful statistical approach, the use of which has traditionally been limited due to computational requirements and lack of sufficiently large individual level genotyped cohorts, but which improve the prediction of multiple medically relevant phenotypes using the same panel of SNPs. As a proof of principle, we used a shared panel of 319,038 common SNPs with MAF > 0.05 to train the prediction models in 114,264 unrelated White-British individuals for height and four obesity related traits (body mass index, basal metabolic rate, body fat percentage, and waist-to-hip ratio. We obtained prediction accuracies that ranged between 46% and 75% of the maximum achievable given the captured heritable component. For height, this represents an improvement in prediction accuracy of up to 68% (184% more phenotypic variance explained over SNPs reported to be robustly associated with height in a previous GWAS meta-analysis of similar size. Across-population predictions in White non-British individuals were similar to those in White-British whilst those in Asian and Black individuals were informative but less accurate. We estimate that the genotyping of circa 500,000 unrelated individuals will yield predictions between 66% and 82% of the SNP-heritability captured by common variants in our array. Prediction accuracies did not improve when including rarer SNPs or when fitting multiple traits jointly in multivariate models.

  20. The relation between bone demineralization, physical activity and anthropometric standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Barbosa Camara

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to verify the correlation between bone mineral density and the level of physical activity, as well as the food intake and the anthropometric parameters. It intended to analyse the bone mineral density (BMD of menopausal women through the bone densitometry test (DO in the lumbar region (L1 to L4, femoral neck and total femur, and also use Bouchard’s self-recall of daily activities; employing the food record from Buker and Stuart to dose and quantify the daily intake of calcium and vitamin D. The data were analysed via Kolmogorov-Smirnov’s test, and default value of α = 0.05 was set to compare the BMD averages. It was observed that one hundred percent of the assessed individuals had a BMD level below the average fixed by WHO: 14.4% with osteopenia and 85.6% with osteoporosis; a lower BMD in the femoral area (0.721g and the biggest loss among the sedentary ones (0.698g. It was noticed that there was a correlation between the physical activities and the BMD only when associated with anthropometric standards and the daily ingestion of vitamin D.

  1. CNV-association meta-analysis in 191,161 European adults reveals new loci associated with anthropometric traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macé, Aurélien; Tuke, Marcus A; Deelen, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    There are few examples of robust associations between rare copy number variants (CNVs) and complex continuous human traits. Here we present a large-scale CNV association meta-analysis on anthropometric traits in up to 191,161 adult samples from 26 cohorts. The study reveals five CNV associations......-scale genome-wide meta-analysis of structural variation and find rare CNVs associated with height, weight and BMI with large effect sizes.......)). Burden analysis shows a 0.41 cm decrease in height, a 0.003 increase in waist-to-hip ratio and increase in BMI by 0.14 kg/m(2) for each Mb of total deletion burden (P = 2.5 × 10(-10), 6.0 × 10(-5), and 2.9 × 10(-3)). Our study provides evidence that the same genes (e.g., MC4R, FIBIN, and FMO5) harbor...

  2. Relating Stomatal Conductance to Leaf Functional Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröber, Wenzel; Plath, Isa; Heklau, Heike; Bruelheide, Helge

    2015-10-12

    Leaf functional traits are important because they reflect physiological functions, such as transpiration and carbon assimilation. In particular, morphological leaf traits have the potential to summarize plants strategies in terms of water use efficiency, growth pattern and nutrient use. The leaf economics spectrum (LES) is a recognized framework in functional plant ecology and reflects a gradient of increasing specific leaf area (SLA), leaf nitrogen, phosphorus and cation content, and decreasing leaf dry matter content (LDMC) and carbon nitrogen ratio (CN). The LES describes different strategies ranging from that of short-lived leaves with high photosynthetic capacity per leaf mass to long-lived leaves with low mass-based carbon assimilation rates. However, traits that are not included in the LES might provide additional information on the species' physiology, such as those related to stomatal control. Protocols are presented for a wide range of leaf functional traits, including traits of the LES, but also traits that are independent of the LES. In particular, a new method is introduced that relates the plants' regulatory behavior in stomatal conductance to vapor pressure deficit. The resulting parameters of stomatal regulation can then be compared to the LES and other plant functional traits. The results show that functional leaf traits of the LES were also valid predictors for the parameters of stomatal regulation. For example, leaf carbon concentration was positively related to the vapor pressure deficit (vpd) at the point of inflection and the maximum of the conductance-vpd curve. However, traits that are not included in the LES added information in explaining parameters of stomatal control: the vpd at the point of inflection of the conductance-vpd curve was lower for species with higher stomatal density and higher stomatal index. Overall, stomata and vein traits were more powerful predictors for explaining stomatal regulation than traits used in the LES.

  3. Longitudinal and cross-sectional changes with age in selected anthropometric and physiological traits in hospitalized adults: an insight from the Polish Longitudinal Study of Aging (PLSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chmielewski Piotr

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Longitudinal studies of aging concerning individuals with comparable lifestyle, diet, health profile, socioeconomic status, and income remain extraordinarily rare. The purposes of our ongoing project are as follows: (i to collect extensive data on biological and medical aspects of aging in the Polish population, (ii to determine factors affecting the rate and course of aging, (iii to understand how aging unfolds as a dynamic and malleable process in ontogeny, and (iv to find novel predictors of longevity. Our investigation followed 142 physically healthy asylum inmates, including 68 males and 74 females, for at least 25 years from the age of 45 years onward. Cross-sectional assessment involved 225 inmates, including 113 males and 112 females. All the patients lived for a very long time under similar and good environmental conditions at the hospital in Cibórz, Lubuskie Province. They maintained virtually the same daily schedule and lifestyle. The rate and direction of changes with age in selected anthropometric and physiological traits were determined using ANOVA, t-test, and regression analysis. There were sex differences in the rate and pattern of age-related changes in certain characteristics such as relative weight, red blood cell count, monocyte count, thymol turbidity value, systolic blood pressure, and body temperature. Body weight, the body mass index (BMI, and total bilirubin level increased with advancing age, while body height decreased with age in both sexes. In conclusion, the aging process was associated with many regressive alterations in biological traits in both sexes but the rate and pattern of these changes depended on biological factors such as age and sex. There were only few characteristics which did not change significantly during the period under study. On the basis of comparison between the pattern of longitudinal changes with aging and the pattern of cross-sectional changes with age in the analyzed traits, we were able

  4. Relative Age Effect: Relationship between Anthropometric and Fitness Skills in Youth Soccer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristotelis GIOLDASIS

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between anthropometric and fitness skills in youth soccer players according to their related age. The existence of relative age effect was also examined. Anthropometric as well fitness variables such as height, weight, BMI, body mass, flexibility, balance, reaction time, jumping ability, and endurance of the lower limb were assessed in 347 amateur young players. Participants’ age ranged from 9 to 16 (M= 12.43, SD= 2.17. Analyses of variance indicated many significant differences among players of different birth quartile (from P< .001 to P< .05 for all the skills that were examined. The chi square test that was conducted to assess the distribution of players, showed that for all four different age groups no statistically significant difference was found regarding the birth quartile of players. In countries that training groups include 2 different age categories, anthropometric and fitness differences because of relative age effect are heightened. However, physical and physiological variables are inaccurate in predicting later success of players. Thus talent identification systems should provide equal opportunities for talented but related younger players. It is suggested an on-going talent identification using a multidimensional evaluation form including technical, physiological, physical, tactical, and psychological parameters.

  5. Foot Type Biomechanics Part 2: are structure and anthropometrics related to function?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mootanah, Rajshree; Song, Jinsup; Lenhoff, Mark W; Hafer, Jocelyn F; Backus, Sherry I; Gagnon, David; Deland, Jonathan T; Hillstrom, Howard J

    2013-03-01

    Many foot pathologies are associated with specific foot types. If foot structure and function are related, measurement of either could assist with differential diagnosis of pedal pathologies. Biomechanical measures of foot structure and function are related in asymptomatic healthy individuals. Sixty-one healthy subjects' left feet were stratified into cavus (n=12), rectus (n=27) and planus (n=22) foot types. Foot structure was assessed by malleolar valgus index, arch height index, and arch height flexibility. Anthropometrics (height and weight), age, and walking speed were measured. Foot function was assessed by center of pressure excursion index, peak plantar pressure, maximum force, and gait pattern parameters. Foot structure and anthropometric variables were entered into stepwise linear regression models to identify predictors of function. Measures of foot structure and anthropometrics explained 10-37% of the model variance (adjusted R(2)) for gait pattern parameters. When walking speed was included, the adjusted R(2) increased to 45-77% but foot structure was no longer a factor. Foot structure and anthropometrics predicted 7-47% of the model variance for plantar pressure and 16-64% for maximum force parameters. All multivariate models were significant (pFoot structure and function are related in asymptomatic healthy individuals. The structural parameters employed are basic measurements that do not require ionizing radiation and could be used in a clinical setting. Further research is needed to identify additional predictive parameters (plantar soft tissue characteristics, skeletal alignment, and neuromuscular control) and to include individuals with pathology. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Relation of anthropometric measurements to ocular biometric changes and refractive error in children with thalassemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkitkat, Rania S; El-Shazly, Amany A; Ebeid, Weam M; Deghedy, Marwa R

    2018-03-01

    To evaluate and correlate anthropometric, biometric, and refractive error changes in thalassemia major (TM). One hundred children with TM and another hundred healthy controls were recruited. Height, weight, body mass index (BMI), and occipitofrontal circumference (OFC) were the anthropometric parameters recorded. Full ophthalmologic examination was performed, including best-corrected visual acuity, cycloplegic refraction, slit-lamp examination, Goldmann applanation tonometry, indirect ophthalmoscopy, keratometry (K readings), and ocular biometry. Compared to controls, children with TM were shorter and lighter, with a smaller BMI (pbiometric data, patients with thalassemia had steeper mean K readings (p = 0.03), shorter axial length (AXL) (p = 0.005), shorter vitreous chamber depth (pbiometric changes (steeper corneas and thicker lenses) to reach emmetropization, with an exaggerated response and subsequent myopic shift. However, growth retardation is not directly related to ocular growth changes, myopic shift, or variations in biometric parameters.

  7. Age related differences of selected Hatha yoga practices on anthropometric characteristics, muscular strength and flexibility of healthy individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushik Halder

    2015-01-01

    Summary and Conclusion: Hatha yoga can improve anthropometric characteristics, muscular strength and flexibility among volunteers of different age group and can also be helpful in preventing and attenuating age related deterioration of these parameters.

  8. Sex-stratified Genome-wide Association Studies Including 270000 Individuals Show Sexual Dimorphism in Genetic Loci for Anthropometric Traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Randall, J.C.; Winkler, T.W.; Kutalik, Z.; Berndt, S.I.; Jackson, A.U.; Monda, K.L.; Kilpeläinen, T.O.; Esko, T.; Mägi, R.; Li, S.; Workalemahu, T.; Feitosa, M.F.; Croteau-Chonka, D.C.; Day, F.R.; Fall, T.; Ferreira, T.; Gustafsson, S.; Locke, A.E.; Mathieson, I.; Scherag, A.; Vedantam, S.; Wood, A.R.; Liang, L.; Steinthorsdottir, V.; Thorleifsson, G.; Dermitzakis, E.T.; Dimas, A.S.; Karpe, F.; Min, J.L.; Nicholson, G.; Clegg, D.J.; Person, T.; Krohn, J.P.; Bauer, S.; Buechler, C.; Eisinger, K.; Bonnefond, A.; Froguel, P.; Hottenga, J.J.; Prokopenko, I.; Waite, L.L.; Harris, T.B.; Smith, A.V.; Shuldiner, A.R.; McArdle, W.L.; Caulfield, M.J.; Munroe, P.B.; Grönberg, H.; Chen, Y.D.; Li, G.; Beckmann, J.S.; Johnson, T.; Thorsteinsdottir, U.; Teder-Laving, M.; Khaw, K.T.; Wareham, N.J.; Zhao, J.H.; Amin, N.; Oostra, B.A.; Kraja, A.T.; Province, M.A.; Cupples, L.A.; Heard-Costa, N.L.; Kaprio, J.; Ripatti, S.; Surakka, I.; Collins, F.S.; Saramies, J.; Tuomilehto, J.; Jula, A.; Salomaa, V.; Erdmann, J.; Hengstenberg, C.; Loley, C.; Schunkert, H.; Lamina, C.; Wichmann, H.E.; Albrecht, E.; Gieger, C.; Hicks, A.A.; Johansson, A.; Pramstaller, P.P.; Kathiresan, S.; Speliotes, E.K.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Hartikainen, A.L.; Järvelin, M.R.; Gyllensten, U.; Boomsma, D.I.; Campbell, H.; Wilson, J.F.; Chanock, S.J.; Farrall, M.; Goel, A.; Medina-Gomez, C.; Rivadeneira, F.; Estrada, K.; Uitterlinden, A.G.; Hofman, A.; Zillikens, M.C.; den Heijer, M.; Kiemeney, L.A.; Maschio, A.; Hall, P.; Tyrer, J.; Teumer, A.; Völzke, H.; Kovacs, P.; Tönjes, A.; Mangino, M.; Spector, T.D.; Hayward, C.; Rudan, I.; Hall, A.S.; Samani, N.J.; Attwood, A.P.; Sambrook, J.G.; Hung, J.; Palmer, L.J.; Lokki, M.L.; Sinisalo, J.; Boucher, G.; Huikuri, H.V.; Lorentzon, M.; Ohlsson, C.; Eklund, N.; Eriksson, J.G.; Barlassina, C.; Rivolta, C.; Nolte, I.M.; Snieder, H.; van der Klauw, M.M.; van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, J.V.; Gejman, P.V.; Shi, J.; Jacobs, K.B.; Wang, Z.; Bakker, S.J.; Mateo Leach, I.; Navis, G.; van der Harst, P.; Martin, N.G.; Medland, S.E.; Montgomery, G.W.; Yang, J.; Chasman, D.I.; Ridker, P.M.; Rose, L.M.; Lehtimäki, T.; Raitakari, O.; Absher, D.; Iribarren, C.; Basart, H.; Hovingh, K.G.; Hyppönen, E.; Power, C.; Anderson, D.; Beilby, J.P.; Hui, J.; Jolley, J.; Sager, H.; Bornstein, S.R.; Schwarz, P.E.; Kristiansson, K.; Perola, M.; Lindström, J.; Swift, A.J.; Uusitupa, M.; Atalay, M.; Lakka, T.A.; Rauramaa, R.; Bolton, J.L.; Fowkes, G.; Fraser, R.M.; Price, J.F.; Fischer, K.; Krjuta Kov, K.; Metspalu, A.; Mihailov, E.; Langenberg, C.; Luan, J.; Ong, K.K.; Chines, P.S.; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemie, S.; Saaristo, T.E.; Edkins, S.; Franks, P.W.; Hallmans, G.; Shungin, D.; Morris, A.D.; Palmer, C.N.A.; Erbel, R.; Moebus, S.; Nöthen, M.M.; Pechlivanis, S.; Hveem, K.; Narisu, N.; Hamsten, A.; Humphries, S.E.; Strawbridge, R.J.; Tremoli, E.; Grallert, H.; Thorand, B.; Illig, T.; Koenig, W.; Müller-Nurasyid, M.; Peters, A.; Boehm, B.O.; Kleber, M.E.; März, W.; Winkelmann, B.R.; Kuusisto, J.; Laakso, M.; Arveiler, D.; Cesana, G.; Kuulasmaa, K.; Virtamo, J.; Yarnell, J.W.; Kuh, D; Wong, A.; Lind, L.; de Faire, U.; Gigante, B.; Magnusson, P.K.E.; Pedersen, N.L.; Dedoussis, G.; Dimitriou, M.; Kolovou, G.; Kanoni, S.; Stirrups, K.; Bonnycastle, L.L.; Njolstad, I.; Wilsgaard, T.; Ganna, A.; Rehnberg, E.; Hingorani, A.D.; Kivimaki, M.; Kumari, M.; Assimes, T.L.; Barroso, I.; Boehnke, M.; Borecki, I.B.; Deloukas, P.; Fox, C.S.; Frayling, T.M.; Groop, L.C.; Haritunians, T.; Hunter, D.; Ingelsson, E.; Kaplan, R.; Mohlke, K.L.; O'Connell, J.R.; Schlessinger, D.; Strachan, D.P.; Stefansson, K.; van Duijn, C.M.; Abecasis, G.R.; McCarthy, M.I.; Hirschhorn, J.N.; Qi, L.; Loos, R.J.; Lindgren, C.M.; North, K.E.; Heid, I.M.

    2013-01-01

    Given the anthropometric differences between men and women and previous evidence of sex-difference in genetic effects, we conducted a genome-wide search for sexually dimorphic associations with height, weight, body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, and waist-to-hip-ratio (133,723

  9. Sex-stratified Genome-wide Association Studies Including 270,000 Individuals Show Sexual Dimorphism in Genetic Loci for Anthropometric Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Anne U.; Monda, Keri L.; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O.; Esko, Tõnu; Mägi, Reedik; Li, Shengxu; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; Feitosa, Mary F.; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C.; Day, Felix R.; Fall, Tove; Ferreira, Teresa; Gustafsson, Stefan; Locke, Adam E.; Mathieson, Iain; Scherag, Andre; Vedantam, Sailaja; Wood, Andrew R.; Liang, Liming; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T.; Dimas, Antigone S.; Karpe, Fredrik; Min, Josine L.; Nicholson, George; Clegg, Deborah J.; Person, Thomas; Krohn, Jon P.; Bauer, Sabrina; Buechler, Christa; Eisinger, Kristina; Bonnefond, Amélie; Froguel, Philippe; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Prokopenko, Inga; Waite, Lindsay L.; Harris, Tamara B.; Smith, Albert Vernon; Shuldiner, Alan R.; McArdle, Wendy L.; Caulfield, Mark J.; Munroe, Patricia B.; Grönberg, Henrik; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Li, Guo; Beckmann, Jacques S.; Johnson, Toby; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Teder-Laving, Maris; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Zhao, Jing Hua; Amin, Najaf; Oostra, Ben A.; Kraja, Aldi T.; Province, Michael A.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Heard-Costa, Nancy L.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Ripatti, Samuli; Surakka, Ida; Collins, Francis S.; Saramies, Jouko; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Jula, Antti; Salomaa, Veikko; Erdmann, Jeanette; Hengstenberg, Christian; Loley, Christina; Schunkert, Heribert; Lamina, Claudia; Wichmann, H. Erich; Albrecht, Eva; Gieger, Christian; Hicks, Andrew A.; Johansson, Åsa; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Kathiresan, Sekar; Speliotes, Elizabeth K.; Penninx, Brenda; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Gyllensten, Ulf; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Campbell, Harry; Wilson, James F.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Farrall, Martin; Goel, Anuj; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Estrada, Karol; Uitterlinden, André G.; Hofman, Albert; Zillikens, M. Carola; den Heijer, Martin; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Maschio, Andrea; Hall, Per; Tyrer, Jonathan; Teumer, Alexander; Völzke, Henry; Kovacs, Peter; Tönjes, Anke; Mangino, Massimo; Spector, Tim D.; Hayward, Caroline; Rudan, Igor; Hall, Alistair S.; Samani, Nilesh J.; Attwood, Antony Paul; Sambrook, Jennifer G.; Hung, Joseph; Palmer, Lyle J.; Lokki, Marja-Liisa; Sinisalo, Juha; Boucher, Gabrielle; Huikuri, Heikki; Lorentzon, Mattias; Ohlsson, Claes; Eklund, Niina; Eriksson, Johan G.; Barlassina, Cristina; Rivolta, Carlo; Nolte, Ilja M.; Snieder, Harold; Van der Klauw, Melanie M.; Van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V.; Gejman, Pablo V.; Shi, Jianxin; Jacobs, Kevin B.; Wang, Zhaoming; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Mateo Leach, Irene; Navis, Gerjan; van der Harst, Pim; Martin, Nicholas G.; Medland, Sarah E.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Yang, Jian; Chasman, Daniel I.; Ridker, Paul M.; Rose, Lynda M.; Lehtimäki, Terho; Raitakari, Olli; Absher, Devin; Iribarren, Carlos; Basart, Hanneke; Hovingh, Kees G.; Hyppönen, Elina; Power, Chris; Anderson, Denise; Beilby, John P.; Hui, Jennie; Jolley, Jennifer; Sager, Hendrik; Bornstein, Stefan R.; Schwarz, Peter E. H.; Kristiansson, Kati; Perola, Markus; Lindström, Jaana; Swift, Amy J.; Uusitupa, Matti; Atalay, Mustafa; Lakka, Timo A.; Rauramaa, Rainer; Bolton, Jennifer L.; Fowkes, Gerry; Fraser, Ross M.; Price, Jackie F.; Fischer, Krista; KrjutÅ¡kov, Kaarel; Metspalu, Andres; Mihailov, Evelin; Langenberg, Claudia; Luan, Jian'an; Ong, Ken K.; Chines, Peter S.; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka M.; Saaristo, Timo E.; Edkins, Sarah; Franks, Paul W.; Hallmans, Göran; Shungin, Dmitry; Morris, Andrew David; Palmer, Colin N. A.; Erbel, Raimund; Moebus, Susanne; Nöthen, Markus M.; Pechlivanis, Sonali; Hveem, Kristian; Narisu, Narisu; Hamsten, Anders; Humphries, Steve E.; Strawbridge, Rona J.; Tremoli, Elena; Grallert, Harald; Thorand, Barbara; Illig, Thomas; Koenig, Wolfgang; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Peters, Annette; Boehm, Bernhard O.; Kleber, Marcus E.; März, Winfried; Winkelmann, Bernhard R.; Kuusisto, Johanna; Laakso, Markku; Arveiler, Dominique; Cesana, Giancarlo; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Virtamo, Jarmo; Yarnell, John W. G.; Kuh, Diana; Wong, Andrew; Lind, Lars; de Faire, Ulf; Gigante, Bruna; Magnusson, Patrik K. E.; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Dedoussis, George; Dimitriou, Maria; Kolovou, Genovefa; Kanoni, Stavroula; Stirrups, Kathleen; Bonnycastle, Lori L.; Njølstad, Inger; Wilsgaard, Tom; Ganna, Andrea; Rehnberg, Emil; Hingorani, Aroon; Kivimaki, Mika; Kumari, Meena; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Barroso, Inês; Boehnke, Michael; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Deloukas, Panos; Fox, Caroline S.; Frayling, Timothy; Groop, Leif C.; Haritunians, Talin; Hunter, David; Ingelsson, Erik; Kaplan, Robert; Mohlke, Karen L.; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Schlessinger, David; Strachan, David P.; Stefansson, Kari; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Abecasis, Gonçalo R.; McCarthy, Mark I.; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Qi, Lu; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; North, Kari E.; Heid, Iris M.

    2013-01-01

    Given the anthropometric differences between men and women and previous evidence of sex-difference in genetic effects, we conducted a genome-wide search for sexually dimorphic associations with height, weight, body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, and waist-to-hip-ratio (133,723 individuals) and took forward 348 SNPs into follow-up (additional 137,052 individuals) in a total of 94 studies. Seven loci displayed significant sex-difference (FDR<5%), including four previously established (near GRB14/COBLL1, LYPLAL1/SLC30A10, VEGFA, ADAMTS9) and three novel anthropometric trait loci (near MAP3K1, HSD17B4, PPARG), all of which were genome-wide significant in women (P<5×10−8), but not in men. Sex-differences were apparent only for waist phenotypes, not for height, weight, BMI, or hip circumference. Moreover, we found no evidence for genetic effects with opposite directions in men versus women. The PPARG locus is of specific interest due to its role in diabetes genetics and therapy. Our results demonstrate the value of sex-specific GWAS to unravel the sexually dimorphic genetic underpinning of complex traits. PMID:23754948

  10. Sex-stratified genome-wide association studies including 270,000 individuals show sexual dimorphism in genetic loci for anthropometric traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua C Randall

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Given the anthropometric differences between men and women and previous evidence of sex-difference in genetic effects, we conducted a genome-wide search for sexually dimorphic associations with height, weight, body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, and waist-to-hip-ratio (133,723 individuals and took forward 348 SNPs into follow-up (additional 137,052 individuals in a total of 94 studies. Seven loci displayed significant sex-difference (FDR<5%, including four previously established (near GRB14/COBLL1, LYPLAL1/SLC30A10, VEGFA, ADAMTS9 and three novel anthropometric trait loci (near MAP3K1, HSD17B4, PPARG, all of which were genome-wide significant in women (P<5×10(-8, but not in men. Sex-differences were apparent only for waist phenotypes, not for height, weight, BMI, or hip circumference. Moreover, we found no evidence for genetic effects with opposite directions in men versus women. The PPARG locus is of specific interest due to its role in diabetes genetics and therapy. Our results demonstrate the value of sex-specific GWAS to unravel the sexually dimorphic genetic underpinning of complex traits.

  11. The Relation between Diverse Phenotypes of PCOS with Clinical Manifestations, Anthropometric Indices and Metabolic Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahrami, Seyedeh Hajar; Abbasi Ranjbar, Zahra; Milani, Forozan; Kezem-Nejad, Ehsan; Hassanzadeh Rad, Afagh; Dalil Heirat, Seyedeh Fatemeh

    2016-02-01

    Critical issue regarding to variation of findings based on different phenotypes led investigators to define whether they are distinct features or overlapping ones. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the association between diverse phenotypes of PCOS (Poly Cystic Ovary Syndrome) with clinical manifestations, anthropometric indices, and metabolic characteristics. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted in 15-39 years old women with PCOS referred to infertility clinics in the north part of Iran, Rasht during 2010-2011. Data were gathered through an interview by a form consisted of demographic characteristics, laboratory findings, ovarian volume and anthropometric indices. A total of 214 patients consisted of 161 PCOS (cases) and 53 normal women (controls) participated in this study. The most prevalent phenotype in PCOS population was IM/PCO/HA (54%), followed by IM/HA (28%) and IM/PCO (13%). PCO/HA was present only in 6 PCOS patients (5%). PCOS patients were significantly younger than controls (P=0.07). Results showed that increased ovarian volume were higher in PCOS group in comparison with controls and IM/PCO/HA, and IM/PCO had respectively the largest ovarian volumes. Also, a significant relation was observed based on Cholesterol, 17OHP, LH, TG, 2hpp, and LH/FSH between patients with PCOS and control groups. There were significant differences in demographic, anthropometric, hormonal and ultrasound findings between PCOS and controls. Therefore, it seems that classification of the characteristics of each phenotype could offer an appropriate guide for screening risks of PCOS and may facilitate performing most favorable treatment for these complications.

  12. Salivary adiponectin concentration in healthy adult males in relation to anthropometric measures and fat distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdalla Mona Mohamed Ibrahim

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Body fat content, fat distribution, and adiponectin level are important variables in the development of obesity related complications. Anthropometric indices may provide an economic and faster method in measuring the risk for complications through their predictive effect of fat distribution and adiponectin concentration. We aimed to determine, which of the waist circumference (WC, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR, and body mass index (BMI may be the best predictor for the total fat percentage (WF, visceral fat level (VF, and subcutaneous whole-body fat (SCWBF. We aimed also to investigate the potential use of the anthropometric measures and fat distribution as predictors for the salivary adiponectin level in the healthy adult males. Subjects. A total of 88 adult males aged between 18−25 years with a wide range of BMI were studied. Anthropometric indices were measured using standardized methods and salivary adiponectin level was assessed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results. In path analysis of the Structural Equation Model (SEM using IBM@SPSS AMOS, version22, BMI and WC, but not WHR, were strong predictors for WF and SCWBF (p<0.05. BMI but not WC was a strong predictor for VF (p<0.001. WF was strong predictor for SCWBF (p<0.001, but not for VF. BMI, WC, WHR, WF, VF, and SCWBF were poor predictors of the salivary adiponectin level. Conclusion. BMI is the best predictor for the total body fat and fat distribution. However, WHR seems to be of a little value and the salivary adiponectin level independent of BMI and body fat in healthy adult Malay males.

  13. Anthropometric measures in relation to Basal Cell Carcinoma: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandeya Nirmala

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between anthropometric indices and risk of basal cell carcinoma (BCC is largely unknown. We aimed to examine the association between anthropometric measures and development of BCC and to demonstrate whether adherence to World Health Organisation guidelines for body mass index, waist circumference, and waist/hip ratio was associated with risk of BCC, independent of sun exposure. Methods Study participants were participants in a community-based skin cancer prevention trial in Nambour, a town in southeast Queensland (latitude 26°S. In 1992, height, weight, and waist and hip circumferences were measured for all 1621 participants and weight was remeasured at the end of the trial in 1996. Prevalence proportion ratios were calculated using a log-binomial model to estimate the risk of BCC prior to or prevalent in 1992, while Poisson regression with robust error variances was used to estimate the relative risk of BCC during the follow-up period. Results At baseline, 94 participants had a current BCC, and 202 had a history of BCC. During the 5-year follow-up period, 179 participants developed one or more new BCCs. We found no significant association between any of the anthropometric measures or indices and risk of BCC after controlling for potential confounding factors including sun exposure. There was a suggestion that short-term weight gain may increase the risk of developing BCC for women only. Conclusion Adherence to World Health Organisation guidelines for body mass index, waist circumference and waist/hip ratio is not significantly associated with occurrence of basal cell carcinomas of the skin.

  14. Anthropometric measures in relation to Basal Cell Carcinoma: a longitudinal study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, Catherine M; Hughes, Maria Celia; Pandeya, Nirmala; Green, Adèle C

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between anthropometric indices and risk of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is largely unknown. We aimed to examine the association between anthropometric measures and development of BCC and to demonstrate whether adherence to World Health Organisation guidelines for body mass index, waist circumference, and waist/hip ratio was associated with risk of BCC, independent of sun exposure. Study participants were participants in a community-based skin cancer prevention trial in Nambour, a town in southeast Queensland (latitude 26°S). In 1992, height, weight, and waist and hip circumferences were measured for all 1621 participants and weight was remeasured at the end of the trial in 1996. Prevalence proportion ratios were calculated using a log-binomial model to estimate the risk of BCC prior to or prevalent in 1992, while Poisson regression with robust error variances was used to estimate the relative risk of BCC during the follow-up period. At baseline, 94 participants had a current BCC, and 202 had a history of BCC. During the 5-year follow-up period, 179 participants developed one or more new BCCs. We found no significant association between any of the anthropometric measures or indices and risk of BCC after controlling for potential confounding factors including sun exposure. There was a suggestion that short-term weight gain may increase the risk of developing BCC for women only. Adherence to World Health Organisation guidelines for body mass index, waist circumference and waist/hip ratio is not significantly associated with occurrence of basal cell carcinomas of the skin

  15. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis of pod related traits in different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-26

    Sep 26, 2011 ... assistant breeding selection. Key words: Soybean, pod traits, QTL, different environments. INTRODUCTION. Yield related traits in soybean are generally controlled by multiple genes and environmental dependent (Kwon and. Torrie, 1964). Epigenetics of genes controlling these traits also affect the yield.

  16. Genome-wide meta-analysis identifies 11 new loci for anthropometric traits and provides insights into genetic architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.I. Berndt (Sonja); S. Gustafsson (Stefan); R. Mägi (Reedik); A. Ganna (Andrea); E. Wheeler (Eleanor); M.F. Feitosa (Mary Furlan); A.E. Justice (Anne); K.L. Monda (Keri); D.C. Croteau-Chonka (Damien); F.R. Day (Felix); T. Esko (Tõnu); M. Fall (Magnus); T. Ferreira (Teresa); D. Gentilini (Davide); A.U. Jackson (Anne); J. Luan; J.C. Randall (Joshua); S. Vedantam (Sailaja); C.J. Willer (Cristen); T.W. Winkler (Thomas); A.R. Wood (Andrew); T. Workalemahu (Tsegaselassie); Y.-J. Hu (Yi-Juan); S.H. Lee (Sang Hong); L. Liang (Liming); D.Y. Lin (Dan); J. Min (Josine); B.M. Neale (Benjamin); G. Thorleifsson (Gudmar); J. Yang (Jian); E. Albrecht (Eva); N. Amin (Najaf); J.L. Bragg-Gresham (Jennifer L.); G. Cadby (Gemma); M. den Heijer (Martin); N. Eklund (Niina); K. Fischer (Krista); A. Goel (Anuj); J.J. Hottenga (Jouke Jan); J.E. Huffman (Jennifer); I. Jarick (Ivonne); A. Johansson (Åsa); T. Johnson (Toby); S. Kanoni (Stavroula); M.E. Kleber (Marcus); I.R. König (Inke); K. Kristiansson (Kati); Z. Kutalik (Zoltán); C. Lamina (Claudia); C. Lecoeur (Cécile); G. Li (Guo); M. Mangino (Massimo); W.L. McArdle (Wendy); M.C. Medina-Gomez (Carolina); M. Müller-Nurasyid (Martina); J.S. Ngwa; I.M. Nolte (Ilja); L. Paternoster (Lavinia); S. Pechlivanis (Sonali); M. Perola (Markus); M.J. Peters (Marjolein); M. Preuss (Michael); L.M. Rose (Lynda); J. Shi (Jianxin); D. Shungin (Dmitry); G.D. Smith; R.J. Strawbridge (Rona); I. Surakka (Ida); A. Teumer (Alexander); M.D. Trip (Mieke); J.P. Tyrer (Jonathan); J.V. van Vliet-Ostaptchouk (Jana); L. Vandenput (Liesbeth); L. Waite (Lindsay); J.H. Zhao (Jing Hua); D. Absher (Devin); F.W. Asselbergs (Folkert); M. Atalay (Mustafa); A.P. Attwood (Antony); A.J. Balmforth (Anthony); D.C.G. Basart (Dick); J.P. Beilby (John); L.L. Bonnycastle (Lori); P. Brambilla (Paolo); M. Bruinenberg (M.); H. Campbell (Harry); D.I. Chasman (Daniel); P.S. Chines (Peter); F.S. Collins (Francis); J. Connell (John); W. O Cookson (William); U. de Faire (Ulf); F. de Vegt (Femmie); M. Dei (Mariano); M. Dimitriou (Maria); T. Edkins (Ted); K. Estrada Gil (Karol); D.M. Evans (David); M. Farrall (Martin); F. Ferrario (Franco); J. Ferrières (Jean); L. Franke (Lude); F. Frau (Francesca); P.V. Gejman (Pablo); H. Grallert (Harald); H. Grönberg (Henrik); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); A. Hall (Anne); A.S. Hall (Alistair); A.L. Hartikainen; C. Hayward (Caroline); N.L. Heard-Costa (Nancy); A.C. Heath (Andrew); J. Hebebrand (Johannes); G. Homuth (Georg); F.B. Hu (Frank); S.E. Hunt (Sarah); E. Hyppönen (Elina); C. Iribarren (Carlos); K.B. Jacobs (Kevin); J.-O. Jansson (John-Olov); A. Jula (Antti); M. Kähönen (Mika); S. Kathiresan (Sekar); F. Kee (F.); K-T. Khaw (Kay-Tee); M. Kivimaki (Mika); W. Koenig (Wolfgang); A. Kraja (Aldi); M. Kumari (Meena); K. Kuulasmaa (Kari); J. Kuusisto (Johanna); J. Laitinen (Jaana); T.A. Lakka (Timo); C. Langenberg (Claudia); L.J. Launer (Lenore); L. Lind (Lars); J. Lindstrom (Jaana); J. Liu (Jianjun); A. Liuzzi (Antonio); M.L. Lokki; M. Lorentzon (Mattias); P.A. Madden (Pamela); P.K. Magnusson (Patrik); P. Manunta (Paolo); D. Marek (Diana); W. März (Winfried); I.M. Leach (Irene Mateo); B. McKnight (Barbara); S.E. Medland (Sarah Elizabeth); E. Mihailov (Evelin); L. Milani (Lili); G.W. Montgomery (Grant); V. Mooser (Vincent); T.W. Mühleisen (Thomas); P. Munroe (Patricia); A.W. Musk (Arthur); N. Narisu (Narisu); G. Navis (Gerjan); G. Nicholson (Ggeorge); C. Nohr (Christian); K. Ong (Ken); B.A. Oostra (Ben); C.N.A. Palmer (Colin); A. Palotie (Aarno); J. Peden (John); N. Pedersen; A. Peters (Annette); O. Polasek (Ozren); A. Pouta (Anneli); P.P. Pramstaller (Peter Paul); I. Prokopenko (Inga); C. Pütter (Carolin); A. Radhakrishnan (Aparna); O. Raitakari (Olli); A. Rendon (Augusto); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); I. Rudan (Igor); T. Saaristo (Timo); J.G. Sambrook (Jennifer); A.R. Sanders (Alan); S. Sanna (Serena); J. Saramies (Jouko); S. Schipf (Sabine); S. Schreiber (Stefan); H. Schunkert (Heribert); S.-Y. Shin; S. Signorini (Stefano); J. Sinisalo (Juha); B. Skrobek (Boris); N. Soranzo (Nicole); A. Stancáková (Alena); K. Stark (Klaus); J. Stephens (Jonathan); K. Stirrups (Kathy); R.P. Stolk (Ronald); M. Stumvoll (Michael); A.J. Swift (Amy); E.V. Theodoraki (Eirini); B. Thorand (Barbara); D.-A. Tregouet (David-Alexandre); E. Tremoli (Elena); M.M. van der Klauw (Melanie); J.B.J. van Meurs (Joyce); S.H.H.M. Vermeulen (Sita); J. Viikari (Jorma); J. Virtamo (Jarmo); V. Vitart (Veronique); G. Waeber (Gérard); Z. Wang (Zhaoming); E. Widen (Elisabeth); S.H. Wild (Sarah); G.A.H.M. Willemsen (Gonneke); B. Winkelmann; J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); B.H.R. Wolffenbuttel (Bruce); A. Wong (Andrew); A.F. Wright (Alan); M.C. Zillikens (Carola); P. Amouyel (Philippe); B.O. Boehm (Bernhard); E.A. Boerwinkle (Eric); D.I. Boomsma (Dorret); M. Caulfield (Mark); S.J. Chanock (Stephen); L.A. Cupples (Adrienne); D. Cusi (Daniele); G.V. Dedoussis (George); J. Erdmann (Jeanette); J.G. Eriksson (Johan); P.W. Franks (Paul); P. Froguel (Philippe); C. Gieger (Christian); U. Gyllensten (Ulf); A. Hamsten (Anders); T.B. Harris (Tamara); C. Hengstenberg (Christian); A.A. Hicks (Andrew); A. Hingorani (Aroon); A. Hinney (Anke); A. Hofman (Albert); G.K. Hovingh (Kees); K. Hveem (Kristian); T. Illig (Thomas); M.-R. Jarvelin (Marjo-Riitta); K.-H. Jöckel (Karl-Heinz); S. Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi (Sirkka); L.A.L.M. Kiemeney (Bart); D. Kuh (Diana); M. Laakso (Markku); T. Lehtimäki (Terho); D.F. Levinson (Douglas); N.G. Martin (Nicholas); A. Metspalu (Andres); A.D. Morris (Andrew); M.S. Nieminen (Markku); I. Njølstad (Inger); C. Ohlsson (Claes); A.J. Oldehinkel (Albertine); W.H. Ouwehand (Willem); C. Palmer (Cameron); B.W.J.H. Penninx (Brenda); C. Power (Christopher); M.A. Province (Mike); B.M. Psaty (Bruce); L. Qi (Lu); R. Rauramaa (Rainer); P.M. Ridker (Paul); S. Ripatti (Samuli); V. Salomaa (Veikko); N.J. Samani (Nilesh); H. Snieder (Harold); H.G. Sorensen; T.D. Spector (Timothy); J-A. Zwart (John-Anker); A. Tönjes (Anke); J. Tuomilehto (Jaakko); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); M. Uusitupa (Matti); P. van der Harst (Pim); P. Vollenweider (Peter); H. Wallaschofski (Henri); N.J. Wareham (Nick); H. Watkins (Hugh); H.E. Wichmann (Heinz Erich); J.F. Wilson (James F); G.R. Abecasis (Gonçalo); T.L. Assimes (Themistocles); I.E. Barroso (Inês); M. Boehnke (Michael); I.B. Borecki (Ingrid); P. Deloukas (Panagiotis); C. Fox (Craig); T.M. Frayling (Timothy); L. Groop (Leif); T. Haritunian (Talin); I.M. Heid (Iris); D. Hunter (David); R.C. Kaplan (Robert); F. Karpe (Fredrik); M.F. Moffatt (Miriam); K.L. Mohlke (Karen); J.R. O´Connell; Y. Pawitan (Yudi); E.E. Schadt (Eric); D. Schlessinger (David); V. Steinthorsdottir (Valgerdur); D.P. Strachan (David); U. Thorsteinsdottir (Unnur); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); P.M. Visscher (Peter); A.M. Di Blasio (Anna Maria); J.N. Hirschhorn (Joel); C.M. Lindgren (Cecilia); A.D. Morris (Andrew); D. Meyre (David); A. Scherag (Andre); M.I. McCarthy (Mark); E.K. Speliotes (Elizabeth); K.E. North (Kari); R.J.F. Loos (Ruth); E. Ingelsson (Erik)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractApproaches exploiting trait distribution extremes may be used to identify loci associated with common traits, but it is unknown whether these loci are generalizable to the broader population. In a genome-wide search for loci associated with the upper versus the lower 5th percentiles of

  17. Genome-wide meta-analysis identifies 11 new loci for anthropometric traits and provides insights into genetic architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berndt, Sonja I; Gustafsson, Stefan; Mägi, Reedik; Ganna, Andrea; Wheeler, Eleanor; Feitosa, Mary F; Justice, Anne E; Monda, Keri L; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C; Day, Felix R; Esko, Tõnu; Fall, Tove; Ferreira, Teresa; Gentilini, Davide; Jackson, Anne U; Luan, Jian'an; Randall, Joshua C; Vedantam, Sailaja; Willer, Cristen J; Winkler, Thomas W; Wood, Andrew R; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; Hu, Yi-Juan; Lee, Sang Hong; Liang, Liming; Lin, Dan-Yu; Min, Josine L; Neale, Benjamin M; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Yang, Jian; Albrecht, Eva; Amin, Najaf; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L; Cadby, Gemma; den Heijer, Martin; Eklund, Niina; Fischer, Krista; Goel, Anuj; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Huffman, Jennifer E; Jarick, Ivonne; Johansson, Åsa; Johnson, Toby; Kanoni, Stavroula; Kleber, Marcus E; König, Inke R; Kristiansson, Kati; Kutalik, Zoltán; Lamina, Claudia; Lecoeur, Cecile; Li, Guo; Mangino, Massimo; McArdle, Wendy L; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Ngwa, Julius S; Nolte, Ilja M; Paternoster, Lavinia; Pechlivanis, Sonali; Perola, Markus; Peters, Marjolein J; Preuss, Michael; Rose, Lynda M; Shi, Jianxin; Shungin, Dmitry; Smith, Albert Vernon; Strawbridge, Rona J; Surakka, Ida; Teumer, Alexander; Trip, Mieke D; Tyrer, Jonathan; Van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V; Vandenput, Liesbeth; Waite, Lindsay L; Zhao, Jing Hua; Absher, Devin; Asselbergs, Folkert W; Atalay, Mustafa; Attwood, Antony P; Balmforth, Anthony J; Basart, Hanneke; Beilby, John; Bonnycastle, Lori L; Brambilla, Paolo; Bruinenberg, Marcel; Campbell, Harry; Chasman, Daniel I; Chines, Peter S; Collins, Francis S; Connell, John M; Cookson, William O; de Faire, Ulf; de Vegt, Femmie; Dei, Mariano; Dimitriou, Maria; Edkins, Sarah; Estrada, Karol; Evans, David M; Farrall, Martin; Ferrario, Marco M; Ferrières, Jean; Franke, Lude; Frau, Francesca; Gejman, Pablo V; Grallert, Harald; Grönberg, Henrik; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Hall, Alistair S; Hall, Per; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Hayward, Caroline; Heard-Costa, Nancy L; Heath, Andrew C; Hebebrand, Johannes; Homuth, Georg; Hu, Frank B; Hunt, Sarah E; Hyppönen, Elina; Iribarren, Carlos; Jacobs, Kevin B; Jansson, John-Olov; Jula, Antti; Kähönen, Mika; Kathiresan, Sekar; Kee, Frank; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kivimäki, Mika; Koenig, Wolfgang; Kraja, Aldi T; Kumari, Meena; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Kuusisto, Johanna; Laitinen, Jaana H; Lakka, Timo A; Langenberg, Claudia; Launer, Lenore J; Lind, Lars; Lindström, Jaana; Liu, Jianjun; Liuzzi, Antonio; Lokki, Marja-Liisa; Lorentzon, Mattias; Madden, Pamela A; Magnusson, Patrik K; Manunta, Paolo; Marek, Diana; März, Winfried; Mateo Leach, Irene; McKnight, Barbara; Medland, Sarah E; Mihailov, Evelin; Milani, Lili; Montgomery, Grant W; Mooser, Vincent; Mühleisen, Thomas W; Munroe, Patricia B; Musk, Arthur W; Narisu, Narisu; Navis, Gerjan; Nicholson, George; Nohr, Ellen A; Ong, Ken K; Oostra, Ben A; Palmer, Colin N A; Palotie, Aarno; Peden, John F; Pedersen, Nancy; Peters, Annette; Polasek, Ozren; Pouta, Anneli; Pramstaller, Peter P; Prokopenko, Inga; Pütter, Carolin; Radhakrishnan, Aparna; Raitakari, Olli; Rendon, Augusto; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rudan, Igor; Saaristo, Timo E; Sambrook, Jennifer G; Sanders, Alan R; Sanna, Serena; Saramies, Jouko; Schipf, Sabine; Schreiber, Stefan; Schunkert, Heribert; Shin, So-Youn; Signorini, Stefano; Sinisalo, Juha; Skrobek, Boris; Soranzo, Nicole; Stančáková, Alena; Stark, Klaus; Stephens, Jonathan C; Stirrups, Kathleen; Stolk, Ronald P; Stumvoll, Michael; Swift, Amy J; Theodoraki, Eirini V; Thorand, Barbara; Tregouet, David-Alexandre; Tremoli, Elena; Van der Klauw, Melanie M; van Meurs, Joyce B J; Vermeulen, Sita H; Viikari, Jorma; Virtamo, Jarmo; Vitart, Veronique; Waeber, Gérard; Wang, Zhaoming; Widén, Elisabeth; Wild, Sarah H; Willemsen, Gonneke; Winkelmann, Bernhard R; Witteman, Jacqueline C M; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H R; Wong, Andrew; Wright, Alan F; Zillikens, M Carola; Amouyel, Philippe; Boehm, Bernhard O; Boerwinkle, Eric; Boomsma, Dorret I; Caulfield, Mark J; Chanock, Stephen J; Cupples, L Adrienne; Cusi, Daniele; Dedoussis, George V; Erdmann, Jeanette; Eriksson, Johan G; Franks, Paul W; Froguel, Philippe; Gieger, Christian; Gyllensten, Ulf; Hamsten, Anders; Harris, Tamara B; Hengstenberg, Christian; Hicks, Andrew A; Hingorani, Aroon; Hinney, Anke; Hofman, Albert; Hovingh, Kees G; Hveem, Kristian; Illig, Thomas; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka M; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Kuh, Diana; Laakso, Markku; Lehtimäki, Terho; Levinson, Douglas F; Martin, Nicholas G; Metspalu, Andres; Morris, Andrew D; Nieminen, Markku S; Njølstad, Inger; Ohlsson, Claes; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Ouwehand, Willem H; Palmer, Lyle J; Penninx, Brenda; Power, Chris; Province, Michael A; Psaty, Bruce M; Qi, Lu; Rauramaa, Rainer; Ridker, Paul M; Ripatti, Samuli; Salomaa, Veikko; Samani, Nilesh J; Snieder, Harold; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Spector, Timothy D; Stefansson, Kari; Tönjes, Anke; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uitterlinden, André G; Uusitupa, Matti; van der Harst, Pim; Vollenweider, Peter; Wallaschofski, Henri; Wareham, Nicholas J; Watkins, Hugh; Wichmann, H-Erich; Wilson, James F; Abecasis, Goncalo R; Assimes, Themistocles L; Barroso, Inês; Boehnke, Michael; Borecki, Ingrid B; Deloukas, Panos; Fox, Caroline S; Frayling, Timothy; Groop, Leif C; Haritunian, Talin; Heid, Iris M; Hunter, David; Kaplan, Robert C; Karpe, Fredrik; Moffatt, Miriam F; Mohlke, Karen L; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Pawitan, Yudi; Schadt, Eric E; Schlessinger, David; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Strachan, David P; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Visscher, Peter M; Di Blasio, Anna Maria; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Morris, Andrew P; Meyre, David; Scherag, André; McCarthy, Mark I; Speliotes, Elizabeth K; North, Kari E; Loos, Ruth J F; Ingelsson, Erik

    Approaches exploiting trait distribution extremes may be used to identify loci associated with common traits, but it is unknown whether these loci are generalizable to the broader population. In a genome-wide search for loci associated with the upper versus the lower 5th percentiles of body mass

  18. Genome-wide meta-analysis identifies 11 new loci for anthropometric traits and provides insights into genetic architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berndt, Sonja I.; Gustafsson, Stefan; Mägi, Reedik; Ganna, Andrea; Wheeler, Eleanor; Feitosa, Mary F.; Justice, Anne E.; Monda, Keri L.; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C.; Day, Felix R.; Esko, Tõnu; Fall, Tove; Ferreira, Teresa; Gentilini, Davide; Jackson, Anne U.; Luan, Jian'an; Randall, Joshua C.; Vedantam, Sailaja; Willer, Cristen J.; Winkler, Thomas W.; Wood, Andrew R.; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; Hu, Yi-Juan; Lee, Sang Hong; Liang, Liming; Lin, Dan-Yu; Min, Josine L.; Neale, Benjamin M.; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Yang, Jian; Albrecht, Eva; Amin, Najaf; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L.; Cadby, Gemma; den Heijer, Martin; Eklund, Niina; Fischer, Krista; Goel, Anuj; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Huffman, Jennifer E.; Jarick, Ivonne; Johansson, Asa; Johnson, Toby; Kanoni, Stavroula; Kleber, Marcus E.; König, Inke R.; Kristiansson, Kati; Kutalik, Zoltán; Lamina, Claudia; Lecoeur, Cecile; Li, Guo; Mangino, Massimo; McArdle, Wendy L.; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Ngwa, Julius S.; Nolte, Ilja M.; Paternoster, Lavinia; Pechlivanis, Sonali; Perola, Markus; Peters, Marjolein J.; Preuss, Michael; Rose, Lynda M.; Shi, Jianxin; Shungin, Dmitry; Smith, Albert Vernon; Strawbridge, Rona J.; Surakka, Ida; Teumer, Alexander; Trip, Mieke D.; Tyrer, Jonathan; van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V.; Vandenput, Liesbeth; Waite, Lindsay L.; Zhao, Jing Hua; Absher, Devin; Asselbergs, Folkert W.; Atalay, Mustafa; Attwood, Antony P.; Balmforth, Anthony J.; Basart, Hanneke; Beilby, John; Bonnycastle, Lori L.; Brambilla, Paolo; Bruinenberg, Marcel; Campbell, Harry; Chasman, Daniel I.; Chines, Peter S.; Collins, Francis S.; Connell, John M.; Cookson, William O.; de Faire, Ulf; de Vegt, Femmie; dei, Mariano; Dimitriou, Maria; Edkins, Sarah; Estrada, Karol; Evans, David M.; Farrall, Martin; Ferrario, Marco M.; Ferrières, Jean; Franke, Lude; Frau, Francesca; Gejman, Pablo V.; Grallert, Harald; Grönberg, Henrik; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Hall, Alistair S.; Hall, Per; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Hayward, Caroline; Heard-Costa, Nancy L.; Heath, Andrew C.; Hebebrand, Johannes; Homuth, Georg; Hu, Frank B.; Hunt, Sarah E.; Hyppönen, Elina; Iribarren, Carlos; Jacobs, Kevin B.; Jansson, John-Olov; Jula, Antti; Kähönen, Mika; Kathiresan, Sekar; Kee, Frank; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kivimäki, Mika; Koenig, Wolfgang; Kraja, Aldi T.; Kumari, Meena; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Kuusisto, Johanna; Laitinen, Jaana H.; Lakka, Timo A.; Langenberg, Claudia; Launer, Lenore J.; Lind, Lars; Lindström, Jaana; Liu, Jianjun; Liuzzi, Antonio; Lokki, Marja-Liisa; Lorentzon, Mattias; Madden, Pamela A.; Magnusson, Patrik K.; Manunta, Paolo; Marek, Diana; März, Winfried; Mateo Leach, Irene; McKnight, Barbara; Medland, Sarah E.; Mihailov, Evelin; Milani, Lili; Montgomery, Grant W.; Mooser, Vincent; Mühleisen, Thomas W.; Munroe, Patricia B.; Musk, Arthur W.; Narisu, Narisu; Navis, Gerjan; Nicholson, George; Nohr, Ellen A.; Ong, Ken K.; Oostra, Ben A.; Palmer, Colin N. A.; Palotie, Aarno; Peden, John F.; Pedersen, Nancy; Peters, Annette; Polasek, Ozren; Pouta, Anneli; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Prokopenko, Inga; Pütter, Carolin; Radhakrishnan, Aparna; Raitakari, Olli; Rendon, Augusto; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rudan, Igor; Saaristo, Timo E.; Sambrook, Jennifer G.; Sanders, Alan R.; Sanna, Serena; Saramies, Jouko; Schipf, Sabine; Schreiber, Stefan; Schunkert, Heribert; Shin, So-Youn; Signorini, Stefano; Sinisalo, Juha; Skrobek, Boris; Soranzo, Nicole; Stančáková, Alena; Stark, Klaus; Stephens, Jonathan C.; Stirrups, Kathleen; Stolk, Ronald P.; Stumvoll, Michael; Swift, Amy J.; Theodoraki, Eirini V.; Thorand, Barbara; Tregouet, David-Alexandre; Tremoli, Elena; van der Klauw, Melanie M.; van Meurs, Joyce B. J.; Vermeulen, Sita H.; Viikari, Jorma; Virtamo, Jarmo; Vitart, Veronique; Waeber, Gérard; Wang, Zhaoming; Widén, Elisabeth; Wild, Sarah H.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Winkelmann, Bernhard R.; Witteman, Jacqueline C. M.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; Wong, Andrew; Wright, Alan F.; Zillikens, M. Carola; Amouyel, Philippe; Boehm, Bernhard O.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Caulfield, Mark J.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Cusi, Daniele; Dedoussis, George V.; Erdmann, Jeanette; Eriksson, Johan G.; Franks, Paul W.; Froguel, Philippe; Gieger, Christian; Gyllensten, Ulf; Hamsten, Anders; Harris, Tamara B.; Hengstenberg, Christian; Hicks, Andrew A.; Hingorani, Aroon; Hinney, Anke; Hofman, Albert; Hovingh, Kees G.; Hveem, Kristian; Illig, Thomas; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka M.; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Kuh, Diana; Laakso, Markku; Lehtimäki, Terho; Levinson, Douglas F.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Metspalu, Andres; Morris, Andrew D.; Nieminen, Markku S.; Njølstad, Inger; Ohlsson, Claes; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Ouwehand, Willem H.; Palmer, Lyle J.; Penninx, Brenda; Power, Chris; Province, Michael A.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Qi, Lu; Rauramaa, Rainer; Ridker, Paul M.; Ripatti, Samuli; Salomaa, Veikko; Samani, Nilesh J.; Snieder, Harold; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.; Spector, Timothy D.; Stefansson, Kari; Tönjes, Anke; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uitterlinden, André G.; Uusitupa, Matti; van der Harst, Pim; Vollenweider, Peter; Wallaschofski, Henri; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Watkins, Hugh; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Wilson, James F.; Abecasis, Goncalo R.; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Barroso, Inês; Boehnke, Michael; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Deloukas, Panos; Fox, Caroline S.; Frayling, Timothy; Groop, Leif C.; Haritunian, Talin; Heid, Iris M.; Hunter, David; Kaplan, Robert C.; Karpe, Fredrik; Moffatt, Miriam F.; Mohlke, Karen L.; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Pawitan, Yudi; Schadt, Eric E.; Schlessinger, David; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Strachan, David P.; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Visscher, Peter M.; Di Blasio, Anna Maria; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Morris, Andrew P.; Meyre, David; Scherag, André; McCarthy, Mark I.; Speliotes, Elizabeth K.; North, Kari E.; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Ingelsson, Erik

    2013-01-01

    Approaches exploiting trait distribution extremes may be used to identify loci associated with common traits, but it is unknown whether these loci are generalizable to the broader population. In a genome-wide search for loci associated with the upper versus the lower 5th percentiles of body mass

  19. Genome-wide meta-analysis identifies 11 new loci for anthropometric traits and provides insights into genetic architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berndt, Sonja I; Gustafsson, Stefan; Mägi, Reedik

    2013-01-01

    Approaches exploiting trait distribution extremes may be used to identify loci associated with common traits, but it is unknown whether these loci are generalizable to the broader population. In a genome-wide search for loci associated with the upper versus the lower 5th percentiles of body mass ...

  20. Anthropometric, cardiovascular and functional variables as indicators of health related physical fitness in university professors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Costa Moreira

    Full Text Available AbstractObjective To verify the behavior of anthropometric, cardiovascular and functional variables as indicators of health-related physical fitness in university professors and perform a comparison of these variables between sexes.Materials and methods We conducted an observational epidemiological cross-sectional study in 145 professors (45.86 ± 9.7 years, 103 men (71.03%, which were evaluated by measuring heart rate (HR and systolic (SBP and diastolic (DBP pressure at rest, body weight, height, body mass index (BMI, body fat percentage (BF%, handgrip strength (HGS, flexibility and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF. We proceeded to the descriptive analysis, Student t-test for comparison between sexes and multiple regression analysis to verify the association between the variables analyzed. It was adopted a significance level of p < 0.05.Results The sex affected all variables. Women had better levels of BMI, flexibility, SBP and DBP. The BF% and CRF were associated with SBP and BMI in both sexes.Conclusion The behavior of anthropometric, cardiovascular and functional variables indicated unsatisfactory values for flexibility, HGS and BMI, with the worst levels among men. Furthermore, the variables that showed better association with HRPF were BF% and CRF.

  1. A hybrid algorithm for selecting head-related transfer function based on similarity of anthropometric structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiang-Yang; Wang, Shu-Guang; Gao, Li-Ping

    2010-09-01

    As the basic data for virtual auditory technology, head-related transfer function (HRTF) has many applications in the areas of room acoustic modeling, spatial hearing and multimedia. How to individualize HRTF fast and effectively has become an opening problem at present. Based on the similarity and relativity of anthropometric structures, a hybrid HRTF customization algorithm, which has combined the method of principal component analysis (PCA), multiple linear regression (MLR) and database matching (DM), has been presented in this paper. The HRTFs selected by both the best match and the worst match have been applied into obtaining binaurally auralized sounds, which are then used for subjective listening experiments and the results are compared. For the area in the horizontal plane, the localization results have shown that the selection of HRTFs can enhance the localization accuracy and can also abate the problem of front-back confusion.

  2. The role of anthropometric, growth and maturity index (AGaMI) influencing youth soccer relative performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisyri Husin Musawi Maliki, Ahmad; Razali Abdullah, Mohamad; Juahir, Hafizan; Muhamad, Wan Siti Amalina Wan; Afiqah Mohamad Nasir, Nur; Muazu Musa, Rabiu; Musliha Mat-Rasid, Siti; Adnan, Aleesha; Azura Kosni, Norlaila; Abdullah, Farhana; Ain Shahirah Abdullah, Nurul

    2018-04-01

    The main purpose of this study was to develop Anthropometric, Growth and Maturity Index (AGaMI) in soccer and explore its differences to soccer player physical attributes, fitness, motivation and skills. A total 223 adolescent soccer athletes aged 12 to 18 years old were selected as respondent. AGaMI was develop based on anthropometric components (bicep, tricep, subscapular, suprailiac, calf circumference and muac) with growth and maturity component using tanner scale. Meanwhile, relative performance namely physical, fitness, motivation and skills attributes of soccer were measured as dependent variables. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) are used to achieve the objective in this study. AGaMI had categorized players into three different groups namely; high (5 players), moderate (88 players) and low (91 players). PCA revealed a moderate to very strong dominant range of 0.69 to 0.90 of factor loading on AGaMI. Further analysis assigned AGaMI groups as treated as independent variables (IV) and physical, fitness, motivation and skills attributes were treated as dependent variables (DV). Finally, ANOVA showed that flexibility, leg power, age, weight, height, sitting height, short and long pass are the most significant parameters statistically differentiate by the groups of AGaMI (p<0.05). As a summary, body fat mass, growth and maturity are an essential component differentiating the output of the soccer players relative performance. In future, information of the AGaMI model are useful to the coach and players for identifying the suitable biological and physiological demand reflects more comprehensive means of youth soccer relative performance. This study further highlights the importance of assessing AGaMI when identifying soccer relative performance.

  3. Anthropometric factors related to sprint and agility performance in young male soccer players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathisen G

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Gunnar Mathisen, Svein Arne Pettersen School of Sport Sciences, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway Objective: To investigate the relationship between anthropometrics and sprint and agility performance and describe the development of sprint (acceleration and agility performance in 10- to 16-year-old male soccer players. Methods: One hundred and thirty-two participants were divided into three age groups, 10–12 years (mean 10.8±0.50, 13–14 years (mean 13.9±0.50, and 15–16 years (mean 15.5±0.24, with assessment of 20 m sprint with 10 m split time and agility performance related to body height and body mass within groups. Results: In the 10- to 12-year-olds, there were no significant correlations between height, weight, and the performance variables, except for body mass, which was correlated to 10–20 m sprint (r=0.30. In the 13- to 14-year-olds, body height was significantly correlated with 10 m sprint (r=0.50 and 20 m sprint (r=0.52, as well as 10–20 m sprint (r=0.50 and agility performance (r=0.28. In the 15- to 16-year-old group, body height was correlated to 20 m (r=0.38 and 10–20 m (r=0.45 sprint. Body mass was significantly correlated to 10 m spring (r=0.35 in the 13- to 14-year-olds, as well as 20 m (r=0.33 and 10–20 m (r=0.35 sprint in the 15- to 16-year-olds. Conclusion: Height and body mass were significantly correlated with sprint performance in 13- to 16-year-old male soccer players. However, the 10- to 12-year-olds showed no significant relationship between sprint performance and anthropometrics, except for a small correlation in 10–20 m sprint. This may be attributed to maturation, with large differences in body height and body mass due to different patterns in the growth spurt. The agility performance related to anthropometrics was insignificant apart from a moderate correlation in the 13- to 14-year-olds. Keywords: youth soccer, running speed, development, football, puberty, skills 

  4. The relative age effect on anthropometric characteristics and motor performances in Turkish children aged between 8 and 12 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haslofça Ercan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the effect of relative age on anthropometric properties and motor performance in Turkish children (girls n=423, boys n=601. Anthropometric measurement sites and techniques have been set out by the ISAK (International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry. A group of tests involved in Eurofit Test Battery and other standard tests were used. For each age, the data of those who were born within the first three months and the last three months of the year were compared. The MedCalc Statistics Program was used for the differentiation and variation percentages between two periods were studied (p≤ 0.001, p= 0.05. Consequently effect of relative age was observed on anthropometric characteristics and motor performances of Turkish girls and boys between 8 and 12 years old. Researchers, trainers, families, sports managers and organizers are advised to consider Effect of Relative Age.

  5. Plants with useful traits and related methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Sally Ann; De la Rosa Santamaria, Roberto

    2016-10-25

    The present invention provides methods for obtaining plants that exhibit useful traits by transient suppression of the MSH1 gene of the plants. Methods for identifying genetic loci that provide for useful traits in plants and plants produced with those loci are also provided. In addition, plants that exhibit the useful traits, parts of the plants including seeds, and products of the plants are provided as well as methods of using the plants.

  6. Genome-wide meta-analysis identifies 11 new loci for anthropometric traits and provides insights into genetic architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, Sonja I.; Gustafsson, Stefan; Mägi, Reedik; Ganna, Andrea; Wheeler, Eleanor; Feitosa, Mary F.; Justice, Anne E.; Monda, Keri L.; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C.; Day, Felix R.; Esko, Tõnu; Fall, Tove; Ferreira, Teresa; Gentilini, Davide; Jackson, Anne U.; Luan, Jian’an; Randall, Joshua C.; Vedantam, Sailaja; Willer, Cristen J.; Winkler, Thomas W.; Wood, Andrew R.; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; Hu, Yi-Juan; Lee, Sang Hong; Liang, Liming; Lin, Dan-Yu; Min, Josine L.; Neale, Benjamin M.; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Yang, Jian; Albrecht, Eva; Amin, Najaf; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L.; Cadby, Gemma; den Heijer, Martin; Eklund, Niina; Fischer, Krista; Goel, Anuj; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Huffman, Jennifer E.; Jarick, Ivonne; Johansson, Åsa; Johnson, Toby; Kanoni, Stavroula; Kleber, Marcus E.; König, Inke R.; Kristiansson, Kati; Kutalik, Zoltán; Lamina, Claudia; Lecoeur, Cecile; Li, Guo; Mangino, Massimo; McArdle, Wendy L.; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Ngwa, Julius S.; Nolte, Ilja M.; Paternoster, Lavinia; Pechlivanis, Sonali; Perola, Markus; Peters, Marjolein J.; Preuss, Michael; Rose, Lynda M.; Shi, Jianxin; Shungin, Dmitry; Smith, Albert Vernon; Strawbridge, Rona J.; Surakka, Ida; Teumer, Alexander; Trip, Mieke D.; Tyrer, Jonathan; Van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V.; Vandenput, Liesbeth; Waite, Lindsay L.; Zhao, Jing Hua; Absher, Devin; Asselbergs, Folkert W.; Atalay, Mustafa; Attwood, Antony P.; Balmforth, Anthony J.; Basart, Hanneke; Beilby, John; Bonnycastle, Lori L.; Brambilla, Paolo; Bruinenberg, Marcel; Campbell, Harry; Chasman, Daniel I.; Chines, Peter S.; Collins, Francis S.; Connell, John M.; Cookson, William; de Faire, Ulf; de Vegt, Femmie; Dei, Mariano; Dimitriou, Maria; Edkins, Sarah; Estrada, Karol; Evans, David M.; Farrall, Martin; Ferrario, Marco M.; Ferrières, Jean; Franke, Lude; Frau, Francesca; Gejman, Pablo V.; Grallert, Harald; Grönberg, Henrik; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Hall, Alistair S.; Hall, Per; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Hayward, Caroline; Heard-Costa, Nancy L.; Heath, Andrew C.; Hebebrand, Johannes; Homuth, Georg; Hu, Frank B.; Hunt, Sarah E.; Hyppönen, Elina; Iribarren, Carlos; Jacobs, Kevin B.; Jansson, John-Olov; Jula, Antti; Kähönen, Mika; Kathiresan, Sekar; Kee, Frank; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kivimaki, Mika; Koenig, Wolfgang; Kraja, Aldi T.; Kumari, Meena; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Kuusisto, Johanna; Laitinen, Jaana H.; Lakka, Timo A.; Langenberg, Claudia; Launer, Lenore J.; Lind, Lars; Lindström, Jaana; Liu, Jianjun; Liuzzi, Antonio; Lokki, Marja-Liisa; Lorentzon, Mattias; Madden, Pamela A.; Magnusson, Patrik K.; Manunta, Paolo; Marek, Diana; März, Winfried; Mateo Leach, Irene; McKnight, Barbara; Medland, Sarah E.; Mihailov, Evelin; Milani, Lili; Montgomery, Grant W.; Mooser, Vincent; Mühleisen, Thomas W.; Munroe, Patricia B.; Musk, Arthur W.; Narisu, Narisu; Navis, Gerjan; Nicholson, George; Nohr, Ellen A.; Ong, Ken K.; Oostra, Ben A.; Palmer, Colin N.A.; Palotie, Aarno; Peden, John F.; Pedersen, Nancy; Peters, Annette; Polasek, Ozren; Pouta, Anneli; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Prokopenko, Inga; Pütter, Carolin; Radhakrishnan, Aparna; Raitakari, Olli; Rendon, Augusto; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rudan, Igor; Saaristo, Timo E.; Sambrook, Jennifer G.; Sanders, Alan R.; Sanna, Serena; Saramies, Jouko; Schipf, Sabine; Schreiber, Stefan; Schunkert, Heribert; Shin, So-Youn; Signorini, Stefano; Sinisalo, Juha; Skrobek, Boris; Soranzo, Nicole; Stančáková, Alena; Stark, Klaus; Stephens, Jonathan C.; Stirrups, Kathleen; Stolk, Ronald P.; Stumvoll, Michael; Swift, Amy J.; Theodoraki, Eirini V.; Thorand, Barbara; Tregouet, David-Alexandre; Tremoli, Elena; Van der Klauw, Melanie M.; van Meurs, Joyce B.J.; Vermeulen, Sita H.; Viikari, Jorma; Virtamo, Jarmo; Vitart, Veronique; Waeber, Gérard; Wang, Zhaoming; Widén, Elisabeth; Wild, Sarah H.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Winkelmann, Bernhard R.; Witteman, Jacqueline C.M.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H.R.; Wong, Andrew; Wright, Alan F.; Zillikens, M. Carola; Amouyel, Philippe; Boehm, Bernhard O.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Caulfield, Mark J.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Cusi, Daniele; Dedoussis, George V.; Erdmann, Jeanette; Eriksson, Johan G.; Franks, Paul W.; Froguel, Philippe; Gieger, Christian; Gyllensten, Ulf; Hamsten, Anders; Harris, Tamara B.; Hengstenberg, Christian; Hicks, Andrew A.; Hingorani, Aroon; Hinney, Anke; Hofman, Albert; Hovingh, Kees G.; Hveem, Kristian; Illig, Thomas; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka M.; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Kuh, Diana; Laakso, Markku; Lehtimäki, Terho; Levinson, Douglas F.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Metspalu, Andres; Morris, Andrew D.; Nieminen, Markku S.; Njølstad, Inger; Ohlsson, Claes; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Ouwehand, Willem H.; Palmer, Lyle J.; Penninx, Brenda; Power, Chris; Province, Michael A.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Qi, Lu; Rauramaa, Rainer; Ridker, Paul M.; Ripatti, Samuli; Salomaa, Veikko; Samani, Nilesh J.; Snieder, Harold; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.; Spector, Timothy D.; Stefansson, Kari; Tönjes, Anke; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uitterlinden, André G.; Uusitupa, Matti; van der Harst, Pim; Vollenweider, Peter; Wallaschofski, Henri; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Watkins, Hugh; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Wilson, James F.; Abecasis, Goncalo R.; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Barroso, Inês; Boehnke, Michael; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Deloukas, Panos; Fox, Caroline S.; Frayling, Timothy; Groop, Leif C.; Haritunian, Talin; Heid, Iris M.; Hunter, David; Kaplan, Robert C.; Karpe, Fredrik; Moffatt, Miriam; Mohlke, Karen L.; O’Connell, Jeffrey R.; Pawitan, Yudi; Schadt, Eric E.; Schlessinger, David; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Strachan, David P.; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Visscher, Peter M.; Di Blasio, Anna Maria; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Morris, Andrew P.; Meyre, David; Scherag, André; McCarthy, Mark I.; Speliotes, Elizabeth K.; North, Kari E.; Loos, Ruth J.F.; Ingelsson, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Approaches exploiting extremes of the trait distribution may reveal novel loci for common traits, but it is unknown whether such loci are generalizable to the general population. In a genome-wide search for loci associated with upper vs. lower 5th percentiles of body mass index, height and waist-hip ratio, as well as clinical classes of obesity including up to 263,407 European individuals, we identified four new loci (IGFBP4, H6PD, RSRC1, PPP2R2A) influencing height detected in the tails and seven new loci (HNF4G, RPTOR, GNAT2, MRPS33P4, ADCY9, HS6ST3, ZZZ3) for clinical classes of obesity. Further, we show that there is large overlap in terms of genetic structure and distribution of variants between traits based on extremes and the general population and little etiologic heterogeneity between obesity subgroups. PMID:23563607

  7. Stereotypes about sex related personality traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreja Avsec

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available In present research, stereotypes about sex differences in personality traits were examined. They were compared to traits, included in two masculinity and femininity questionnaires and to big five factors. Results indicate the presence of gender stereotypes and their similarity to stereotypes, discovered in other studies. The majority of attributes that comprise stereotypes about average man pertain to assertive and controlling tendency, but in stereotypes about average woman caring and nurturant qualities predominate.

  8. The Relations of Motivational Traits with Workplace Deviance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diefendorff, James M.; Mehta, Kajal

    2007-01-01

    The authors developed and tested new theoretical relations between approach and avoidance motivational traits and deviant work behaviors. Approach motivation was divided into 3 traits: personal mastery (i.e., desire to achieve), competitive excellence (i.e., desire to perform better than others), and behavioral activation system (BAS) sensitivity…

  9. Anthropometric and training variables related to half-marathon running performance in recreational female runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Barandun, Ursula; Rosemann, Thomas

    2011-05-01

    The relationship between skin-fold thickness and running has been investigated in distances ranging from 100 m to the marathon distance (42.195 km), with the exclusion of the half-marathon distance (21.0975 km). We investigated the association between anthropometric variables, prerace experience, and training variables with race time in 42 recreational, nonprofessional, female half-marathon runners using bi- and multivariate analysis. Body weight (r, 0.60); body mass index (r, 0.48); body fat percentage (r, 0.56); pectoral (r, 0.61), mid-axilla (r, 0.69), triceps (r, 0.49), subscapular (r, 0.61), abdominal (r, 0.59), suprailiac (r, 0.55), and medial calf (r, 0.53) skin-fold thickness; mean speed of the training sessions (r, -0.68); and personal best time in a half-marathon (r, 0.69) correlated with race time after bivariate analysis. Body weight (P = 0.0054), pectoral skin-fold thickness (P = 0.0068), and mean speed of the training sessions (P = 0.0041) remained significant after multivariate analysis. Mean running speed during training was related to mid-axilla (r, -0.31), subscapular (r, -0.38), abdominal (r, -0.44), and suprailiac (r, -0.41) skin-fold thickness, the sum of 8 skin-fold thicknesses (r, -0.36); and percent body fat (r, -0.31). It was determined that variables of both anthropometry and training were related to half-marathon race time, and that skin-fold thicknesses were associated with running speed during training. For practical applications, high running speed during training (as opposed to extensive training) may both reduce upper-body skin-fold thicknesses and improve race performance in recreational female half-marathon runners.

  10. Response Monitoring and Adjustment: Differential Relations with Psychopathic Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresin, Konrad; Finy, M. Sima; Sprague, Jenessa; Verona, Edelyn

    2014-01-01

    Studies on the relation between psychopathy and cognitive functioning often show mixed results, partially because different factors of psychopathy have not been considered fully. Based on previous research, we predicted divergent results based on a two-factor model of psychopathy (interpersonal-affective traits and impulsive-antisocial traits). Specifically, we predicted that the unique variance of interpersonal-affective traits would be related to increased monitoring (i.e., error-related negativity) and adjusting to errors (i.e., post-error slowing), whereas impulsive-antisocial traits would be related to reductions in these processes. Three studies using a diverse selection of assessment tools, samples, and methods are presented to identify response monitoring correlates of the two main factors of psychopathy. In Studies 1 (undergraduates), 2 (adolescents), and 3 (offenders), interpersonal-affective traits were related to increased adjustment following errors and, in Study 3, to enhanced monitoring of errors. Impulsive-antisocial traits were not consistently related to error adjustment across the studies, although these traits were related to a deficient monitoring of errors in Study 3. The results may help explain previous mixed findings and advance implications for etiological models of psychopathy. PMID:24933282

  11. The relations of motivational traits with workplace deviance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diefendorff, James M; Mehta, Kajal

    2007-07-01

    The authors developed and tested new theoretical relations between approach and avoidance motivational traits and deviant work behaviors. Approach motivation was divided into 3 traits: personal mastery (i.e., desire to achieve), competitive excellence (i.e., desire to perform better than others), and behavioral activation system (BAS) sensitivity (i.e., responsiveness to rewards). Avoidance motivation, which reflects one's sensitivity to negative stimuli and the desire to escape such stimuli, was conceptualized as a unitary construct. Using structural equation modeling, the authors examined the relations of these 4 motivational traits with interpersonal and organizational deviance in a sample of primarily part-time employees. For the approach motivation traits, results showed that personal mastery was negatively related to interpersonal and organizational deviance, BAS sensitivity was positively related to interpersonal and organizational deviance, and competitive excellence was unrelated to both types of workplace deviance. Finally, avoidance motivation was positively related to organizational deviance and interacted with organizational constraints to predict interpersonal deviance.

  12. The Relation of Q Angle and Anthropometric Measures with Ankle Sprain; a Case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Zamani Moghadam

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Since most studies on ankle sprain are medical and sports-related and not much epidemiologic and etiologic data from the general population exist in this field, the present study evaluates the relationship between Q angle and anthropometric measures with ankle sprain in the general population.Methods: In the present case-control study, all of the patients over 18 years age presenting to emergency departments (ED of two educational Hospitals, complaining from ankle sprain, were evaluated during more than 1 year. A checklist consisting of demographic data, height, weight, body mass index (BMI, and history of ankle sprain, as well as degree of Q angle was filled for all participants. The correlation of mentioned variables with incidence of ankle sprain was calculated using SPSS 22.Results: 300 patients with ankle sprain were evaluated (53.5% male. Mean age of the patients was 37.03 ± 14.20 years. Mean weight, height, and BMI were 71.71 ± 11.26 (43 – 114, 168.74 ± 8.63 (143 – 190 and 25.14 ± 3.19 (18.41 – 38.95, respectively. Mean Q angle of the patients was 12.78 ± 3.19 degrees (5 – 23. There was a significant correlation between weight (p < 0.001, BMI (p = 0.001, history of sprain (r: 0.26, p < 0.001 and Q angle (p = 0.002 with incidence of ankle sprain. In addition, there was a significant statistical correlation between weight (p = 0.031, BMI (p = 0.020 and Q angle (p = 0.004 with history of ankle sprain. In patients with a history of ankle sprain, Q angle was wider by about 2 degrees.Conclusion: It seems that the prevalence of ankle sprain directly correlates with high weight, BMI, and Q angle and is more prevalent in those with a history of sprain. Although the findings of the present study show a statistically significant correlation between these factors and ankle sprain, the correlation is not clinically significant.

  13. Workstation Related Anthropometric and Body Composition Parameters of Indian Women of Different Geographical Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inderjeet Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anthropometry plays an important role in industrial design, clothing design, ergonomics and architecture where statistical data about the distribution of body dimensions in the population are used to optimize products. Changes in lifestyles, nutrition, and ethnic composition of populations lead to changes in the distribution of body dimensions (e.g. the obesity epidemic, and require regular updating of anthropometric data collections. Aim and Objectives: This study analyzed the variation in anthropometric dimensions and body composition parameters of working women employees of different geographical zones. Material and Methods: The study was undertaken on nine hundred forty (940 women employees of Defence Research and Development Organization (DRDO working in seventeen different laboratories and belonged to different states of India. The age range of studied women was between 20-60 years. Fourteen body dimensions namely stature, popliteal height, knee height, buttock to popliteal length, hip breadth, waist breadth, shoulder breadth, forearm length, arm length, eye height (sitting, sitting shoulder height, hand length, hand breadth and elbow width were measured in cm using Martin anthropometers and Martin's sliding caliper. Body composition parameters like weight, percentage body fat, fat mass and fat free mass were recorded. Results: All anthropometric parameters were found significantly different (p<0.001. Body composition variables of women were also found significantly different in all three zones but fat free mass was not significantly different. Conclusion:It can be concluded that diet, environmental conditions and living style of different regions can influence the anthropometry and body composition of the individuals, however the influence of ethnic, genetic and hereditary factor are not controlled in this study.

  14. Comparative mapping of quantitative trait loci for tassel-related traits ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    QIANG YI

    2018-03-15

    Mar 15, 2018 ... in maize have evaluated flowering-related traits (Li et al. ... with Upadyayula et al. (2006). The measurements taken were TTL, the length (cm) of the tassel ...... M. Banziger, H. R. Mickelson and C. B. Penã–Valdivia), pp.

  15. Cassava traits and end-user preference: Relating traits to consumer liking, sensory perception, and genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechoff, Aurélie; Tomlins, Keith; Fliedel, Geneviève; Becerra Lopez-Lavalle, Luis Augusto; Westby, Andrew; Hershey, Clair; Dufour, Dominique

    2018-03-04

    Breeding efforts have focused on improving agronomic traits of the cassava plant however little research has been done to enhance the crop palatability. This review investigates the links between cassava traits and end-user preference in relation with sensory characteristics. The main trait is starch and its composition related to the textural properties of the food. Pectin degradation during cooking resulted in increased mealiness. Nutritional components such as carotenoids made the cassava yellow but also altered sweetness and softness; however, yellow cassava was more appreciated by consumers than traditional (white) varieties. Components formed during processing such as organic acids gave fermented cassava products an acidic taste that was appreciated but the fermented smell was not always liked. Anti-nutritional compounds such as cyanogenic glucosides were mostly related to bitter taste. Post-harvest Physiological Deterioration (PPD) affected the overall sensory characteristics and acceptability. Genes responsible for some of these traits were also investigated. Diversity in cassava food products can provide a challenge to identifying acceptance criteria. Socio-economic factors such as gender may also be critical. This review leads to questions in relation to the adaptation of cassava breeding to meet consumer needs and preference in order to maximize income, health and food security.

  16. Anthropometric measurements of students athletes in relation to physically inactive students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namik Trtak

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Anthropometry is a method of anthropology that refers to the measuring and testing the human body and to the relationship between the size of its individual parts.The task of anthropometry is as accurately as possible quantitatively characterize the morphological features of the human body.Measurements are made due to the anthropometric points which can be: fixed (standard on the site of prominence and virtual (change due to the bodyposition. Goals of research: To evaluate the impact of basketball on the growth and development of seventeen years old adolescents and prevention of deformities of the spinal column and chest.Methods: The study included 40 respondents. Criteria for inclusion: male respondents aged 17 years who played basketball for more than one year, male respondents aged 17 years who are physically inactive. Criteria for exclusion: female respondents, respondents who played basketball for less than one year, respondents who are engaged in some other sport professionally or recreationally, respondents younger and olderthan 17 years. In the study,there were made measurements of thorax scope in the axillary and mamilar level, measurements of body weight and height and measurements of Body mass index.Results of research: Out of 40 respondents 20 are basketball players and 20 physically inactive. Compared to the average value between the two groups of respondents certain differences were observed, which aremost noticeable in body weight (basketball players had more weigh about, 5 kg on average and height (basketball players are taller, about 7 cm on average. During the anthropometric measurements of thoraxdeformities of the spinal column have been observed which affect the deformation of the thorax. Of the 20 players one has a deformity of the spinal column, and out of the same number of physically inactive studentseven 12 have deformed spine.Conclusion: Basketball has a positive effect on the proper growth and development

  17. and maturity-related traits in white yam ( Dioscorea rotundata )

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... tuber fresh weight (tuber yield), tuber number/plant, tuber parenchyma colour, tuber dry matter content and tuber dormancy period were assessed in eight accessions of D. rotundata (white Guinea yam) on the field in 2008 and 2009. Shoot dry weight and plant height were identified as the major tuber yield-related traits.

  18. Exploiting wild relatives of S. lycopersicum for quality traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Víquez Zamora, A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Exploiting wild relatives of S. lycopersicum for quality traits Ana Marcela Víquez Zamora Tomatoes are consumed worldwide and became a model for crop plant research. A part of the research aims at expanding genetic diversity in tomato; this can be done by incorporating

  19. Relation between clinical and anthropometric data and systemic inflammation in patients with COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pertseva Т.А.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Recently, much attention is devoted to systemic inflammation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. The aim of our study was to determine the relationship between clinical and anthropometric data with systemic inflammation in stable COPD patients. According to the study CRP levels were raised in 44% of patients (7.9 [7,1-10,9. Serum CRP was significantly higher in stable COPD patients than in control subjects (p=0.04. CRP correlated well with the pack/years index(p = 0,032 and disease duration (p=0,01. It wasn’t established link between CRP levels and height, weight, stage, disease category. CRP level affected the frequency of exacerbations (r=0,50; p=0,01. Patients with high CRP level had significantly more exacerbations in the past year (p=0.01. Patients who received any type of therapy for a long period of time had lower CRP levels, than patients who did not reseive any therapy.

  20. RELATIONS BETWEEN ANTHROPOMETRIC CHARACTERISTICS AND COORDINATION IN PEOPLE WITH ABOVE-AVERAGE MOTOR ABILITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Cvetković

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The sample of 149 male persons whose average age is 20.15 in decimal years (±0.83, and all of whom are students at the Faculty of Sport and Physical Education, underwent a battery of tests consisting of 17 anthropometric measures taken from the measures index of the International Biological Program and 4 tests designed to assess coordination as follows: Coordination with stick, Hand and leg drumming, Nonrhythmic drumming and Slalom with three balls. One statistically significant canonical correlation was determined by means of the canonical correlation analysis. The isolated canonical correlation from the space of coordination variables, was the one used for assessment of coordination of the whole body – Coordination with stick. On the other hand, out of the variables from the right array, the ones which covered longinality were singled out – Body height and Arm length, circular dimensionality – Circumference of stretched upper arm, Circumference of bent upper arm and Circumference of upper leg, as well as subcutaneous fat tissue – Skin fold of the back.

  1. Sex-stratified genome-wide association studies including 270,000 individuals show sexual dimorphism in genetic loci for anthropometric traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Randall, Joshua C.; Winkler, Thomas W.; Kutalik, Zoltán; Berndt, Sonja I.; Jackson, Anne U.; Monda, Keri L.; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O.; Esko, Tõnu; Mägi, Reedik; Li, Shengxu; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; Feitosa, Mary F.; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C.; Day, Felix R.; Fall, Tove; Ferreira, Teresa; Gustafsson, Stefan; Locke, Adam E.; Mathieson, Iain; Scherag, Andre; Vedantam, Sailaja; Wood, Andrew R.; Liang, Liming; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T.; Dimas, Antigone S.; Karpe, Fredrik; Min, Josine L.; Nicholson, George; Clegg, Deborah J.; Person, Thomas; Krohn, Jon P.; Bauer, Sabrina; Buechler, Christa; Eisinger, Kristina; Bonnefond, Amélie; Froguel, Philippe; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Prokopenko, Inga; Waite, Lindsay L.; Harris, Tamara B.; Smith, Albert Vernon; Shuldiner, Alan R.; McArdle, Wendy L.; Caulfield, Mark J.; Munroe, Patricia B.; Grönberg, Henrik; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Li, Guo; Beckmann, Jacques S.; Johnson, Toby; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Teder-Laving, Maris; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Zhao, Jing Hua; Amin, Najaf; Oostra, Ben A.; Kraja, Aldi T.; Province, Michael A.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Heard-Costa, Nancy L.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Ripatti, Samuli; Surakka, Ida; Collins, Francis S.; Saramies, Jouko; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Jula, Antti; Salomaa, Veikko; Erdmann, Jeanette; Hengstenberg, Christian; Loley, Christina; Schunkert, Heribert; Lamina, Claudia; Wichmann, H. Erich; Albrecht, Eva; Gieger, Christian; Hicks, Andrew A.; Johansson, Asa; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Kathiresan, Sekar; Speliotes, Elizabeth K.; Penninx, Brenda; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Gyllensten, Ulf; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Campbell, Harry; Wilson, James F.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Farrall, Martin; Goel, Anuj; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Estrada, Karol; Uitterlinden, André G.; Hofman, Albert; Zillikens, M. Carola; den Heijer, Martin; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Maschio, Andrea; Hall, Per; Tyrer, Jonathan; Teumer, Alexander; Völzke, Henry; Kovacs, Peter; Tönjes, Anke; Mangino, Massimo; Spector, Tim D.; Hayward, Caroline; Rudan, Igor; Hall, Alistair S.; Samani, Nilesh J.; Attwood, Antony Paul; Sambrook, Jennifer G.; Hung, Joseph; Palmer, Lyle J.; Lokki, Marja-Liisa; Sinisalo, Juha; Boucher, Gabrielle; Huikuri, Heikki; Lorentzon, Mattias; Ohlsson, Claes; Eklund, Niina; Eriksson, Johan G.; Barlassina, Cristina; Rivolta, Carlo; Nolte, Ilja M.; Snieder, Harold; van der Klauw, Melanie M.; van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V.; Gejman, Pablo V.; Shi, Jianxin; Jacobs, Kevin B.; Wang, Zhaoming; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Mateo Leach, Irene; Navis, Gerjan; van der Harst, Pim; Martin, Nicholas G.; Medland, Sarah E.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Yang, Jian; Chasman, Daniel I.; Ridker, Paul M.; Rose, Lynda M.; Lehtimäki, Terho; Raitakari, Olli; Absher, Devin; Iribarren, Carlos; Basart, Hanneke; Hovingh, Kees G.; Hyppönen, Elina; Power, Chris; Anderson, Denise; Beilby, John P.; Hui, Jennie; Jolley, Jennifer; Sager, Hendrik; Bornstein, Stefan R.; Schwarz, Peter E. H.; Kristiansson, Kati; Perola, Markus; Lindström, Jaana; Swift, Amy J.; Uusitupa, Matti; Atalay, Mustafa; Lakka, Timo A.; Rauramaa, Rainer; Bolton, Jennifer L.; Fowkes, Gerry; Fraser, Ross M.; Price, Jackie F.; Fischer, Krista; Krjutå Kov, Kaarel; Metspalu, Andres; Mihailov, Evelin; Langenberg, Claudia; Luan, Jian'an; Ong, Ken K.; Chines, Peter S.; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka M.; Saaristo, Timo E.; Edkins, Sarah; Franks, Paul W.; Hallmans, Göran; Shungin, Dmitry; Morris, Andrew David; Palmer, Colin N. A.; Erbel, Raimund; Moebus, Susanne; Nöthen, Markus M.; Pechlivanis, Sonali; Hveem, Kristian; Narisu, Narisu; Hamsten, Anders; Humphries, Steve E.; Strawbridge, Rona J.; Tremoli, Elena; Grallert, Harald; Thorand, Barbara; Illig, Thomas; Koenig, Wolfgang; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Peters, Annette; Boehm, Bernhard O.; Kleber, Marcus E.; März, Winfried; Winkelmann, Bernhard R.; Kuusisto, Johanna; Laakso, Markku; Arveiler, Dominique; Cesana, Giancarlo; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Virtamo, Jarmo; Yarnell, John W. G.; Kuh, Diana; Wong, Andrew; Lind, Lars; de Faire, Ulf; Gigante, Bruna; Magnusson, Patrik K. E.; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Dedoussis, George; Dimitriou, Maria; Kolovou, Genovefa; Kanoni, Stavroula; Stirrups, Kathleen; Bonnycastle, Lori L.; Njølstad, Inger; Wilsgaard, Tom; Ganna, Andrea; Rehnberg, Emil; Hingorani, Aroon; Kivimaki, Mika; Kumari, Meena; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Barroso, Inês; Boehnke, Michael; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Deloukas, Panos; Fox, Caroline S.; Frayling, Timothy; Groop, Leif C.; Haritunians, Talin; Hunter, David; Ingelsson, Erik; Kaplan, Robert; Mohlke, Karen L.; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Schlessinger, David; Strachan, David P.; Stefansson, Kari; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Abecasis, Gonçalo R.; McCarthy, Mark I.; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Qi, Lu; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; North, Kari E.; Heid, Iris M.

    2013-01-01

    Given the anthropometric differences between men and women and previous evidence of sex-difference in genetic effects, we conducted a genome-wide search for sexually dimorphic associations with height, weight, body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, and waist-to-hip-ratio (133,723

  2. Sex-stratified Genome-wide Association Studies Including 270,000 Individuals Show Sexual Dimorphism in Genetic Loci for Anthropometric Traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randall, Joshua C; Winkler, Thomas W; Kutalik, Zoltán

    2013-01-01

    Given the anthropometric differences between men and women and previous evidence of sex-difference in genetic effects, we conducted a genome-wide search for sexually dimorphic associations with height, weight, body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, and waist-to-hip-ratio (133...

  3. Sex-stratified Genome-wide Association Studies Including 270,000 Individuals Show Sexual Dimorphism in Genetic Loci for Anthropometric Traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Randall, J.C.; Winkler, T.W.; Kutalik, Z.; Berndt, S.I.; Jackson, A.U.; Monda, K.L.; Kilpelainen, T.O.; Esko, T.; Magi, R.; Li, S.; Workalemahu, T.; Feitosa, M.F.; Croteau-Chonka, D.C.; Day, F.R.; Fall, T.; Ferreira, T.; Gustafsson, S.; Locke, A.E.; Mathieson, I.; Scherag, A.; Vedantam, S.; Wood, A.R.; Liang, L.; Steinthorsdottir, V.; Thorleifsson, G.; Dermitzakis, E.T.; Dimas, A.S.; Karpe, F.; Min, J.L.; Nicholson, G.; Clegg, D.J.; Person, T.; Krohn, J.P.; Bauer, S.; Buechler, C.; Eisinger, K.; Bonnefond, A.; Froguel, P.; Hottenga, J.J.; Prokopenko, I.; Waite, L.L.; Harris, T.B.; Smith, A.V.; Shuldiner, A.R.; McArdle, W.L.; Caulfield, M.J.; Munroe, P.B.; Gronberg, H.; Chen, Y.D.; Li, G.; Beckmann, J.S.; Johnson, T.; Thorsteinsdottir, U.; Teder-Laving, M.; Khaw, K.T.; Wareham, N.J.; Zhao, J.H.; Amin, N.; Oostra, B.A.; Kraja, A.T.; Province, M.A.; Cupples, L.A.; Heard-Costa, N.L.; Kaprio, J.; Ripatti, S.; Surakka, I.; Collins, F.S.; Saramies, J.; Tuomilehto, J.; Jula, A.; Salomaa, V.; Erdmann, J.; Hengstenberg, C.; Loley, C.; Schunkert, H.; Lamina, C.; Wichmann, H.E.; Albrecht, E.; Gieger, C.; Hicks, A.A.; Johansson, A; Pramstaller, P.P.; Kathiresan, S.; Speliotes, E.K.; Penninx, B.; Hartikainen, A.L.; Jarvelin, M.R.; Gyllensten, U.; Boomsma, D.I.; Campbell, H.; Wilson, J.F.; Chanock, S.J.; Farrall, M.; Goel, A.; Medina-Gomez, C.; Rivadeneira, F.; Estrada, K.; Uitterlinden, A.G.; Heijer, M. den; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; et al.,

    2013-01-01

    Given the anthropometric differences between men and women and previous evidence of sex-difference in genetic effects, we conducted a genome-wide search for sexually dimorphic associations with height, weight, body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, and waist-to-hip-ratio (133,723

  4. Sex-stratified genome-wide association studies including 270,000 individuals show sexual dimorphism in genetic loci for anthropometric traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Randall, Joshua C; Winkler, Thomas W; Kutalik, Zoltán; Berndt, Sonja I; Jackson, Anne U; Monda, Keri L; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O; Esko, Tõnu; Mägi, Reedik; Li, Shengxu; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; Feitosa, Mary F; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C; Day, Felix R; Fall, Tove; Ferreira, Teresa; Gustafsson, Stefan; Locke, Adam E; Mathieson, Iain; Scherag, Andre; Vedantam, Sailaja; Wood, Andrew R; Liang, Liming; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T; Dimas, Antigone S; Karpe, Fredrik; Min, Josine L; Nicholson, George; Clegg, Deborah J; Person, Thomas; Krohn, Jon P; Bauer, Sabrina; Buechler, Christa; Eisinger, Kristina; Bonnefond, Amélie; Froguel, Philippe; Smith, Albert Vernon; Zhao, Jing Hua; Penninx, Brenda; Nolte, Ilja M; Snieder, Harold; Van der Klauw, Melanie M; Van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V; Bakker, Stephan J L; Mateo Leach, Irene; Navis, Gerjan; van der Harst, Pim; Kumari, Meena

    Given the anthropometric differences between men and women and previous evidence of sex-difference in genetic effects, we conducted a genome-wide search for sexually dimorphic associations with height, weight, body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, and waist-to-hip-ratio (133,723

  5. Impulsivity-related traits and their relation to DSM-5 section II and III personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Few, Lauren R; Lynam, Donald R; Miller, Joshua D

    2015-07-01

    Difficulties with impulse control are considered a core feature of personality disorders (PDs) as assessed by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th edition [DSM-5]; American Psychiatric Association, 2013). Despite this, there has been relatively little examination of the manner in which DSM-5 PDs are characterized by multidimensional models of impulsivity that parse this broad umbrella construct into smaller, more unidimensional constructs. Using the UPPS model and measure of impulsivity (Whiteside & Lynam, 2001), the relations between 4 impulsivity-related traits and interview-rated scores on both DSM-5 Section II and III PDs and PD traits were examined in a community sample of individuals currently receiving psychological or psychiatric care (N = 106). As expected, the UPPS traits manifested correlations with the new Section III trait model that were generally consistent with the assertion that this new DSM-5 trait model reflects a pathological variant of the Five-Factor Model (FFM; e.g., UPPS traits associated with FFM conscientiousness were most strongly related to DSM-5 disinhibition traits). Overall, the UPPS traits accounted best for variance in DSM-5 Section II and III Cluster B PDs, consistent with these PDs being characterized, in part, by emotionally and cognitively based forms of impulsivity. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Estimating Body Related Soft Biometric Traits in Video Frames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olasimbo Ayodeji Arigbabu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Soft biometrics can be used as a prescreening filter, either by using single trait or by combining several traits to aid the performance of recognition systems in an unobtrusive way. In many practical visual surveillance scenarios, facial information becomes difficult to be effectively constructed due to several varying challenges. However, from distance the visual appearance of an object can be efficiently inferred, thereby providing the possibility of estimating body related information. This paper presents an approach for estimating body related soft biometrics; specifically we propose a new approach based on body measurement and artificial neural network for predicting body weight of subjects and incorporate the existing technique on single view metrology for height estimation in videos with low frame rate. Our evaluation on 1120 frame sets of 80 subjects from a newly compiled dataset shows that the mentioned soft biometric information of human subjects can be adequately predicted from set of frames.

  7. Relations between anthropometric and motor variables of seven-year-old girls with the differentiated level of nutritional status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanović Miroljub

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to examine the frequency of nutritional status and the relations between anthropometric characteristics and motor skills of the first-grade elementary schools girls from Valjevo. A battery of 16 anthropometric measurements and 9 motor tests was conducted on the pertinent sample (N = 332 of seven-year-old girls. Data were analyzed using common measures of central tendency, measures of variability and canonical correlation analysis. Based on the measured body mass index, 75% of participants have normal body mass, 21% has increased body mass, and 4% is overweight. The results showed that in the group of participants with normal body mass there is no significant connection between two systems of variables (morphological characteristics and motor skills. Data from the group of overweight participants show that the two statistically relevant correlations were extracted in the morpho-motoric space and were interpreted as canonical functions: (1 circular dimensionality of the skeleton and body mass, and explosive strength and (2 subcutaneous fatty tissue and segmented run and running speed. Canonical factors indicate that the greater the size of chest, thigh, shin and body mass, the lower are the results of the composite motor tests (plyometric jump, forward lean-backward lean-throw, long jump and standing jump, that is the girls who had higher values of back skinfold, stomach skinfold, thigh skinfold and shin skinfold, had worse result realization of motor tasks (hand-tapping, foot-tapping and running 5 x 10 m. Empirical data of the research on the isolated canonical structure are relevant from the theoretical point of view, but they also have relevant implications for identifying increased level of nutritional status and the advancement of physical education in elementary school education.

  8. Maternal and pregnancy related predictors of cardiometabolic traits in newborns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine M Morrison

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The influence of multiple maternal and pregnancy characteristics on offspring cardiometabolic traits at birth is not well understood and was evaluated in this study. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The Family Atherosclerosis Monitoring In earLY life (FAMILY Study prospectively evaluated 11 cardiometabolic traits in 901 babies born to 857 mothers. The influence of maternal age, health (pre-pregnancy weight, blood pressure, glycemic status, lipids, health behaviors (diet, activity, smoking and pregnancy characteristics (gestational age at birth, gestational weight gain and placental-fetal ratio were examined. Greater gestational age influenced multiple newborn cardiometabolic traits including cord blood lipids, glucose and insulin, body fat and blood pressure. In a subset of 442 singleton mother/infant pairs, principal component analysis grouped 11 newborn cardiometabolic traits into 5 components (anthropometry/insulin, 2 lipid components, blood pressure and glycemia, accounting for 74% of the variance of the 11 outcome variables. Determinants of these components, corrected for sex and gestational age, were examined. Baby anthropometry/insulin was independently predicted by higher maternal pre-pregnancy weight (standardized estimate 0.30 and gestational weight gain (0.30; both p<0.0001 and was inversely related to smoking during pregnancy (-0.144; p = 0.01 and maternal polyunsaturated to saturated fat intake (-0.135;p = 0.01. Component 2 (HDL-C/Apo Apolipoprotein1 was inversely associated with maternal age. Component 3 (blood pressure was not clustered with any other newborn cardiometabolic trait and no associations with maternal pregnancy characteristics were identified. Component 4 (triglycerides was positively associated with maternal hypertension and triglycerides, and inversely associated with maternal HDL and age. Component 5 (glycemia was inversely associated with placental/fetal ratio (-0.141; p = 0.005. LDL-C was a bridging

  9. Impulsivity traits and addiction-related behaviors in youth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rømer Thomsen, Kristine; Callesen, Mette Buhl; Hesse, Morten

    2018-01-01

    problems to achieve a broad distribution of involvement in addiction-related behaviors. Participants completed the UPPS-P Questionnaire and standardized questionnaires assessing problematic use of substances (alcohol, cannabis, and other drugs) and non-substances (Internet gaming, pornography, and food...... eating and lack of perseverance was associated with problematic use of pornography. Discussion and conclusions We emphasize the role of trait impulsivity across multiple addiction-related behaviors. Our findings in at-risk youth highlight urgency and lack of perseverance as potential predictors...

  10. Trait aggression and trait impulsivity are not related to frontal cortex 5-HT2A receptor binding in healthy individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Cunha-Bang, Sophie; Stenbæk, Dea Siggaard; Holst, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    age 47.0±18.7, range 23-86) to determine if trait aggression and trait impulsivity were related to frontal cortex 5-HT2A receptor binding (5-HT2AR) as measured with [(18)F]-altanserin PET imaging. Trait aggression and trait impulsivity were assessed with the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (AQ...... and the AQ or BIS-11 total scores. Also, there was no significant interaction between gender and frontal cortex 5-HT2AR in predicting trait aggression and trait impulsivity. This is the first study to examine how 5-HT2AR relates to trait aggression and trait impulsivity in a large sample of healthy......Numerous studies indicate that the serotonergic (5-HT) transmitter system is involved in the regulation of impulsive aggression and there is from post-mortem, in vivo imaging and genetic studies evidence that the 5-HT2A receptor may be involved. We investigated 94 healthy individuals (60 men, mean...

  11. Borderline personality disorder and related traits in forensic psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, William H

    2009-05-01

    Persons with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and related traits appear in many forensic psychiatry settings. Their clinical hallmarks affecting judgment, insight, impulsivity, motivations, and regulation of emotions, as well as their frequently chaotic lives (internal and external), inaccurate perceptions, rationalizations, and comorbid syndromes can have a marked effect on many civil, criminal, and institutional (eg, corrections) issues. Individuals with BPD are overrepresented in civil, criminal, and child custody forensic situations. The character psychopathology of these individuals is substantial, but is often not obvious to laypersons, including lawyers, judges, and jurors. The presence of BPD rarely affects basic responsibility for the person's actions, nor does it usually compromise most forms of competency. Function, not diagnosis, is the key arbiter of forensic relevance. BPD is associated with an increase in the likelihood of doctor-patient problems, including patient complaints and lawsuits that may not be deserved. Forensic professionals evaluating persons with BPD and related traits should be aware of personal and professional bias, particularly that associated with true countertransference.

  12. Sense of Coherence and Personality Traits Related to Depressive State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko Kikuchi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. The current study aims to examine the influence of job stress, SOC, and personality traits on depressive state. Methods. A self-reported survey was conducted among 347 female nurses in a general hospital. Job stress was measured using the Japanese version of the Brief-Job Stress Questionnaire scale. Depressive state was assessed by the K6 scale. We used 13-item SOC scale. Personality traits were assessed by the Japanese version of Ten-Item Personality Inventory. Multiple liner regression analyses were conducted to examine predictors that significantly affect depressive state. Results. Job and life satisfaction and SOC negatively related to the depressive state (β=-0.76,  P<0.01;  β=-0.18,  P<0.001, resp. while neuroticism was positively correlated (β=0.49,  P<0.001. Also, intrinsic rewards tended to negatively relate (β=-0.80,  P<0.1. Conclusions. From a practical perspective, the possible influence of SOC and neurotic personality on depressive state should be considered for health care professionals.

  13. Varied definitions of risk related to sensation seeking trait

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daastoel, P.Oe.U.; Drottz-Sjoeberg, B.M.

    1999-01-01

    This pilot study is based on the assumption and the knowledge that previous results show that the normal use of the word risk varies across subjects. The risk definitions the subjects use have also been shown to be related to various educational interests. A related field of research has developed measures for Sensation Seeking personality trait, with four facets. Three independent groups of first year psychology students reported their normal definition of the word risk using one of three measurement formats. The results showed, e.g. that the typical open-ended response to the personal definition of risk was danger. Subjects who defined risk as the combination of probability and consequences tended to score higher on the total Sensation Seeking Scale, as compared to those defining risk as the probability of an event

  14. Varied definitions of risk related to sensation seeking trait

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daastoel, P.Oe.U.; Drottz-Sjoeberg, B.M. [Norwegian Univ. of Science and Technology, Trondheim (Norway). Dept. of Psychology

    1999-12-01

    This pilot study is based on the assumption and the knowledge that previous results show that the normal use of the word risk varies across subjects. The risk definitions the subjects use have also been shown to be related to various educational interests. A related field of research has developed measures for Sensation Seeking personality trait, with four facets. Three independent groups of first year psychology students reported their normal definition of the word risk using one of three measurement formats. The results showed, e.g. that the typical open-ended response to the personal definition of risk was danger. Subjects who defined risk as the combination of probability and consequences tended to score higher on the total Sensation Seeking Scale, as compared to those defining risk as the probability of an event.

  15. Broad and Narrow Personality Traits of Women's College Students in Relation to Early Departure from College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Sarah E.; Scepansky, James A.; Lounsbury, John W.; Gibson, Lucy W.

    2010-01-01

    Personality traits of coeducational students have been shown to correlate with early withdrawal intention from college (Lounsbury, Saudargas, & Gibson, 2004). The current study investigated the relationship between the Big Five personality traits as well as seven narrow personality traits in relation to withdrawal intention among 103 female…

  16. Are Youth Psychopathic Traits Related to Bullying? Meta-analyses on Callous-Unemotional Traits, Narcissism, and Impulsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Geel, Mitch; Toprak, Fatih; Goemans, Anouk; Zwaanswijk, Wendy; Vedder, Paul

    2017-10-01

    In the current manuscript meta-analyses are performed to analyze the relations between three aspects of psychopathy in youth, Callous-Unemotional (CU) traits, Narcissism, and Impulsivity, and bullying behaviors. The databases PsycINFO, MEDLINE, ERIC, Web of Science and Proquest were searched for relevant articles on bullying and CU traits, Narcissism, or Impulsivity in youth under 20 years of age. Two authors each independently screened 842 studies that were found in the literature search. Two authors independently coded ten studies on bullying and CU (N = 4115) traits, six studies on bullying and Narcissism (N = 3376) and 14 studies on bullying and Impulsivity (N = 33,574) that met the inclusion criteria. Significant correlations were found between bullying and CU traits, Narcissism, and Impulsivity. These results were not affected by publication bias. Anti-bullying interventions could potentially benefit from including elements that have been found effective in the treatment of youth psychopathy.

  17. Circulating sex hormones in relation to anthropometric, sociodemographic and behavioural factors in an international dataset of 12,300 men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Watts, Eleanor L; Appleby, Paul N.; Albanes, Demetrius; Black, Amanda; Chan, June M; Chen, Chu; Cirillo, Piera M; Cohn, Barbara A; Cook, Michael B; Donovan, Jenny L.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Garland, Cedric F; Giles, Graham G.; Goodman, Phyllis J; Habel, Laurel A; Haiman, Christopher A.; Holly, Jeff M P; Hoover, Robert N.; Kaaks, Rudolf; Knekt, Paul; Kolonel, Laurence N; Kubo, Tatsuhiko; Le Marchand, Loïc; Luostarinen, Tapio; MacInnis, Robert J; Mäenpää, Hanna O; Männistö, Satu; Metter, E Jeffrey; Milne, Roger L.; Nomura, Abraham M Y; Oliver, Steven E; Parsons, J Kellogg; Peeters, Petra H; Platz, Elizabeth A; Riboli, Elio; Ricceri, Fulvio; Rinaldi, Sabina; Rissanen, Harri; Sawada, Norie; Schaefer, Catherine A; Schenk, Jeannette M; Stanczyk, Frank Z; Stampfer, Meir; Stattin, Pär; Stenman, Ulf-Håkan; Tjønneland, Anne; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Thompson, Ian M; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Vatten, Lars; Whittemore, Alice S.; Ziegler, Regina G.; Allen, Naomi E.; Key, Timothy J.; Travis, Ruth C.

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Sex hormones have been implicated in the etiology of a number of diseases. To better understand disease etiology and the mechanisms of disease-risk factor associations, this analysis aimed to investigate the associations of anthropometric, sociodemographic and behavioural factors with

  18. Genomic prediction of traits related to canine hip dysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique eSanchez-Molano

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Increased concern for the welfare of pedigree dogs has led to development of selection programs against inherited diseases. An example is canine hip dysplasia (CHD, which has a moderate heritability and a high prevalence in some large-sized breeds. To date, selection using phenotypes has led to only modest improvement, and alternative strategies such as genomic selection may prove more effective. The primary aims of this study were to compare the performance of pedigree- and genomic-based breeding against CHD in the UK Labrador retriever population and to evaluate the performance of different genomic selection methods. A sample of 1179 Labrador Retrievers evaluated for CHD according to the UK scoring method (hip score, HS was genotyped with the Illumina CanineHD BeadChip. Twelve functions of HS and its component traits were analyzed using different statistical methods (GBLUP, Bayes C and Single-Step methods, and results were compared with a pedigree-based approach (BLUP using cross-validation. Genomic methods resulted in similar or higher accuracies than pedigree-based methods with training sets of 944 individuals for all but the untransformed HS, suggesting that genomic selection is an effective strategy. GBLUP and Bayes C gave similar prediction accuracies for HS and related traits, indicating a polygenic architecture. This conclusion was also supported by the low accuracies obtained in additional GBLUP analyses performed using only the SNPs with highest test statistics, also indicating that marker-assisted selection would not be as effective as genomic selection. A Single-Step method that combines genomic and pedigree information also showed higher accuracy than GBLUP and Bayes C for the log-transformed HS, which is currently used for pedigree based evaluations in UK. In conclusion, genomic selection is a promising alternative to pedigree-based selection against CHD, requiring more phenotypes with genomic data to improve further the accuracy

  19. Remote Sensing of plant functional types: Relative importance of biochemical and structural plant traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattenborn, Teja; Schmidtlein, Sebastian

    2017-04-01

    Monitoring ecosystems is a key priority in order to understand vegetation patterns, underlying resource cycles and changes their off. Driven by biotic and abiotic factors, plant species within an ecosystem are likely to share similar structural, physiological or phenological traits and can therefore be grouped into plant functional types (PFT). It can be assumed that plants which share similar traits also share similar optical characteristics. Therefore optical remote sensing was identified as a valuable tool for differentiating PFT. Although several authors list structural and biochemical plant traits which are important for differentiating PFT using hyperspectral remote sensing, there is no quantitative or qualitative information on the relative importance of these traits. Thus, little is known about the explicit role of plant traits for an optical discrimination of PFT. One of the main reasons for this is that various optical traits affect the same wavelength regions and it is therefore difficult to isolate the discriminative power of a single trait. A way to determine the effect of single plant traits on the optical reflectance of plant canopies is given by radiative transfer models. The most established radiative transfer model is PROSAIL, which incorporates biochemical and structural plant traits, such as pigment contents or leaf area index. In the present study 25 grassland species of different PFT were cultivated and traits relevant for PROSAIL were measured for the entire vegetation season of 2016. The information content of each trait for differentiating PFTs was determined by applying a Multi-response Permutation Procedure on the actual traits, as well as on simulated canopy spectra derived from PROSAIL. According to our results some traits, especially biochemical traits, show a weaker separability of PFT on a spectral level than compared to the actual trait measurements. Overall structural traits (leaf angle and leaf area index) are more important for

  20. Anthropometric comparison of Anthropometric Test Device (ATD ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anthropometric test device (ATD) is surrogate used in automotive crash testing. Female ATDs used worldwide in the evaluation of vehicle safety performance was produced based on anthropometry of U.S. population. This work is aimed at assessing the difference between the anthropometric dimensions of Nigerian female ...

  1. Heritability, parental transmission and environment correlation of pediatric-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome-related traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda-Lora, América L; Vilchis-Gil, Jenny; Molina-Díaz, Mario; Flores-Huerta, Samuel; Klünder-Klünder, Miguel

    2017-04-01

    To estimate the heritability, parental transmission and environmental contributions to the phenotypic variation in type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome-related traits in families of Mexican children and adolescents. We performed a cross-sectional study of 184 tri-generational pedigrees with a total of 1160 individuals (99 families with a type 2 diabetes mellitus proband before age 19). The family history of type 2 diabetes mellitus in three generations was obtained by interview. Demographic, anthropometric, biochemical and lifestyle information was corroborated in parents and offspring. We obtained correlations for metabolic traits between relative pairs, and variance component methods were used to determine the heritability and environmental components. The heritability of early-onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus was 0.50 (p1.0e-7). The heritability was greater than 0.5 for hypertension, hypoalphalipoproteinemia, hypercholesterolemia, body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, 2-h insulin, and cholesterol (p1). In contrast, we observed a high environmental correlation (>0.50) for blood pressure, HbA1c and HDL-cholesterol after multivariate adjustment (ptype 2 diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance, were significantly correlated only through the mother and others, such as hypertriglyceridemia, were significantly correlated only through the father. This study demonstrates that type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome-related traits are highly heritable among Mexican children and adolescents. Furthermore, several cardiometabolic factors have strong heritability and/or high environmental contributions that highlight the complex architecture of these alterations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Relationships between nutrient-related plant traits and combinations of soil N and P fertility measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Yuki; van Bodegom, Peter M; Witte, Jan-Philip M

    2013-01-01

    Soil fertility and nutrient-related plant functional traits are in general only moderately related, hindering the progress in trait-based prediction models of vegetation patterns. Although the relationships may have been obscured by suboptimal choices in how soil fertility is expressed, there has never been a systematic investigation into the suitability of fertility measures. This study, therefore, examined the effect of different soil fertility measures on the strength of fertility-trait relationships in 134 natural plant communities. In particular, for eight plot-mean traits we examined (1) whether different elements (N or P) have contrasting or shared influences, (2) which timescale of fertility measures (e.g. mineralization rates for one or five years) has better predictive power, and (3) if integrated fertility measures explain trait variation better than individual fertility measures. Soil N and P had large mutual effects on leaf nutrient concentrations, whereas they had element-specific effects on traits related to species composition (e.g. Grime's CSR strategy). The timescale of fertility measures only had a minor impact on fertility-trait relationships. Two integrated fertility measures (one reflecting overall fertility, another relative availability of soil N and P) were related significantly to most plant traits, but were not better in explaining trait variation than individual fertility measures. Using all fertility measures together, between-site variations of plant traits were explained only moderately for some traits (e.g. 33% for leaf N concentrations) but largely for others (e.g. 66% for whole-canopy P concentration). The moderate relationships were probably due to complex regulation mechanisms of fertility on traits, rather than to a wrong choice of fertility measures. We identified both mutual (i.e. shared) and divergent (i.e. element-specific and stoichiometric) effects of soil N and P on traits, implying the importance of explicitly

  3. Personality Traits Related to Binge Drinking: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Adan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The pattern of alcohol consumption in the form of binge drinking (BD or heavy episodic drinking has increased notably worldwide in recent years, especially among adolescent and young people, being currently recognized as a global health problem. Although only a minority of binge drinkers will develop a substance use disorder, BD may have negative personal and social consequences in the short and medium term. The objective of this article is to review the findings on personality traits related to binge drinkers and to emphasize the aspects that should be examined in order to make progress in this area. The main characteristics of personality related to the practice of BD, regardless of the theoretical model used, are high Impulsivity and high Sensation seeking, as well as Anxiety sensitivity, Neuroticism (Hopelessness, Extraversion and low Conscientiousness. The data obtained may have theoretical implications to elucidate the endophenotype of BD, but they are especially useful for their preventive applications. Integration into prevention programs of emotional self-control skills, decision-making, social skills, and strategies to manage negative emotions will minimize the risk factors or consequences of BD associated with personality and will improve their effectiveness. In the future, it is necessary to harmonize a common measurement instrument for the assessment of personality, develop longitudinal studies with large samples that also integrate biological and neurocognitive measurements, and determine the reciprocal relationship between personality and BD together with its modulating variables, as well as the possible cultural differences.

  4. Predicting personality traits related to consumer behavior using SNS analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baik, Jongbum; Lee, Kangbok; Lee, Soowon; Kim, Yongbum; Choi, Jayoung

    2016-07-01

    Modeling a user profile is one of the important factors for devising a personalized recommendation. The traditional approach for modeling a user profile in computer science is to collect and generalize the user's buying behavior or preference history, generated from the user's interactions with recommender systems. According to consumer behavior research, however, internal factors such as personality traits influence a consumer's buying behavior. Existing studies have tried to adapt the Big 5 personality traits to personalized recommendations. However, although studies have shown that these traits can be useful to some extent for personalized recommendation, the causal relationship between the Big 5 personality traits and the buying behaviors of actual consumers has not been validated. In this paper, we propose a novel method for predicting the four personality traits-Extroversion, Public Self-consciousness, Desire for Uniqueness, and Self-esteem-that correlate with buying behaviors. The proposed method automatically constructs a user-personality-traits prediction model for each user by analyzing the user behavior on a social networking service. The experimental results from an analysis of the collected Facebook data show that the proposed method can predict user-personality traits with greater precision than methods that use the variables proposed in previous studies.

  5. The Impact of Psychological Traits on Judgments Related to Ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Agarwalla, Sobhesh Kumar; Desai, Naman; Tripathy, Arindam

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines how two contradictory psychological traits, self-deception (SD) and professional skepticism (PS), affect managers and auditors assessments of the ethicality of various earnings management choices. Whereas, self-deception allows individuals to reduce cognitive dissonance (Festinger 1957) arising from their self-serving behavior which could be unethical (Audi 1988; Sanford 1988), professional skepticism or trait skepticism (Hurtt 2010) would force individuals to question suc...

  6. Economic values of pork production related traits in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. SERENIUS

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to estimate economic values for sow efficiency and meat production traits in the Finnish pork production system including the consideration for subsidies. Economic values were estimated by developing a bio-economic model that describes the Finnish production system. Genetic improvement estimates for meat production traits were also developed in order to evaluate how much genetic gain is reduced due to selection for meat quality. Results showed that the highest economic values, when expressed in genetic standard deviations, were obtained for total number of piglets born (€2.07 per piglet, feed conversion ratio (€2.07 per feed unit per kg, and lean meat percentage (€1.69 per %. Economic values for litter size, piglet mortality, sows length of productive life, and lean meat percentage increased when subsidies were not accounted for in the bio-economic model. Results show further that meat quality should have 15–20 percent weight in the Finnish production trait index in order to prevent its deterioration. When the selection weights are 15–20% for meat quality, the expected loss in genetic gain is approximately 3 percent for other production traits when compared to selection indices where meat quality traits are not included.;

  7. Achievement Is a Relation, Not a Trait: The Gravity of the Situation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrado, Gail

    2012-01-01

    Ability and achievement are not traits: they are relations. Mistaking traits for relations has a history even in science (our understanding of gravity). This mistake is possibly responsible for the lackluster performance of the results of our educational research when we have tried to use it to inform policy. It is particularly troublesome for…

  8. Impact of a non-restrictive satiating diet on anthropometrics, satiety responsiveness and eating behaviour traits in obese men displaying a high or a low satiety phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arguin, Hélène; Tremblay, Angelo; Blundell, John E; Després, Jean-Pierre; Richard, Denis; Lamarche, Benoît; Drapeau, Vicky

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a non-restrictive satiating diet in men displaying various degrees of satiety efficiency. In all, sixty-nine obese men aged 41·5 (sd 5·7) years were randomly assigned to a control (10-15, 55-60 and 30 % energy as protein, carbohydrate and lipid, respectively; n 34) or satiating (20-25, 45-50 and 30-35 % energy as protein, carbohydrate and lipid, respectively; n 35) diet for 16 weeks, and were classified as having a low (LSP) or high (HSP) satiety phenotype. Both diets were consumed ad libitum. Changes in body weight, BMI, percent fat mass, waist circumference, satiety responsiveness and eating behaviour traits were assessed following the intervention. Dropout rates were higher in the control diet (44·1 %) compared with the satiating diet (8·6 %). Decreases in body weight, BMI and waist circumference were significant in both groups, yet HSP individuals lost more body weight than LSP individuals (P=0·048). Decreases in % fat mass were greater in the satiating diet (LSP: -2·1 (sd 2·1) %; Pdiet (LSP: -1·1 (sd 2·5) % and HSP: -1·3 (sd 2·6) %) (P=0·034). Satiety responsiveness was markedly improved in the satiating diet, whereas no significant changes were observed in the control group. Changes in dietary restraint (+3·3 (sd 2·9) to +7·2 (sd 5·5)), flexible control (+0·9 (sd 1·4) to +2·3 (sd 2·7)), rigid control (+2·2 (sd 1·5) to +2·5 (sd 2·8)), disinhibition (-2·8 (sd 3·7) to -3·2 (sd 2·6)) and susceptibility to hunger (-2·7 (sd 4·1) to -4·6 (sd 3·9)) were similar between the diets. Compared with the control diet, the satiating diet favoured adherence, decreased % fat mass and improved satiety responsiveness in both HSP and LSP individuals.

  9. Genetic analysis of relative traits for a drought-sensitive mutant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Kangning; Wang Huaqi

    2009-01-01

    A drought-sensitive mutant (M616), selected from Handao 616 (HD616) by 60 Co γ-irradiation at 200Gy, was used. Some morphological and yield related traits of M166 and HD616 related to drought resistance were investigated. We further developed F 1 and F 2 reciprocal hybrid combinations derived from the crosses between M616 and HD616, between M616 and IRAT109, respectively, and genetic analysis of 3 traits including plant height, culm width of main stem and seed setting rate on main panicle were camed out. The results showed that M616 showed obviously sensitive to drought stress. Analysis of variance for three traits in upland and paddy between F 1 reciprocal hybrid combinations showed that each trait had no significant difference, and indicated that there were no differences of cytoplasmic hereditary effect. In addition, 3 traits of F 2 populations, were found that the frequency distributions of culm width showed normal distribution, indicating that culm width was polygenic trait, and the frequency distribution of plant height and seed setting rate did not show normal distribution, indicating that the two traits were qualitative-quantitative traits. Genetic analysis of relative traits for a drought-sensitive mutant of upland rice was a basic work for the gene location and cloning. (authors)

  10. Heritability estimates for yield and related traits in bread wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Din, R.; Jehan, S.; Ibraullah, A.

    2009-01-01

    A set of 22 experimental wheat lines along with four check cultivars were evaluated in in-irrigated and unirrgated environments with objectives to determine genetic and phenotypic variation and heritability estimates for yield and its traits- The two environments were statistically at par for physiological maturity, plant height, spikes m/sub -2/. spike lets spike/sup -1/ and 1000-grain weight. Highly significant genetic variability existed among wheat lines (P < 0.0 I) in the combined analysis across two test environments for traits except 1000- grain weight. Genotypes x environment interactions were non-significant for traits indicating consistent performance of lines in two test environments. However lines and check cultivars were two to five days early in maturity under unirrigated environment. Plant height, spikes m/sup -2/ and 1000-grain weight also reduced under unirrigated environments. Genetic variances were greater than Environmental variances for most of traits- Heritability estimates were of higher magnitude (0.74 to 0.96) for plant height, medium (0.31 to 0.56) for physiological maturity. spikelets spike/sup -1/ (unirrigated) and 1000-grain weight, and low for spikes m/sup -2/. (author)

  11. How are personality trait and profile agreement related?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Allik, J.; Borkenau, P.; Hřebíčková, Martina; Kuppens, P.; Realo, A.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 6 (2015), s. 785 ISSN 1664-1078 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : self-other agreement * trait-centered approach * varable-cenetered approach Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 2.463, year: 2015 http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00785/abstract

  12. Remembering and knowing personality traits: figure/ground asymmetries in person-related retrieval experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehr, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    In two experiments, the effect of category salience on retrieval experience was investigated. In Experiment 1, participants rated typicality or concreteness of personality traits that differed in stereotype reference (i.e., consistent, inconsistent, and neutral in relation to the age stereotype). More remember judgments were given for consistent and inconsistent traits in contrast to neutral traits, thereby indicating a figure/ground asymmetry. In Experiment 2, neutral traits were excluded and a classical figure/ground phenomenon was demonstrated for the retrieval experience of traits (i.e., reversibility of an ambiguous figure after typicality and untypicality ratings). Altogether, the results suggest that metacognitive trait representations depend on principles of figure/ground asymmetries rather than on functional principles of social information processing.

  13. Genetic Evidence for Causal Relationships Between Maternal Obesity-Related Traits and Birth Weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tyrrell, Jessica; Richmond, Rebecca C; Palmer, Tom M

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: Neonates born to overweight or obese women are larger and at higher risk of birth complications. Many maternal obesity-related traits are observationally associated with birth weight, but the causal nature of these associations is uncertain. OBJECTIVE: To test for genetic evidence...... of causal associations of maternal body mass index (BMI) and related traits with birth weight. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Mendelian randomization to test whether maternal BMI and obesity-related traits are potentially causally related to offspring birth weight. Data from 30,487 women in 18 studies...

  14. Enhanced fire-related traits may contribute to the invasiveness of Downy Brome (Bromus tectorum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although several invasive species have induced changes to the fire regime of invaded ecosystems, potential intraspecific shifts in fire-related traits that might enhance their invasion success, have never been addressed. We assumed that traits conferring persistence and competitiveness in post-fire ...

  15. Supplementary data: Table 1. QTL for tassel related traits of F2:3 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    User

    Supplementary data: Table 1. QTL for tassel related traits of F2:3 population across and RIL population through single-environment analysis (SEA). Trait. Population. Environment. QTL. Binlocusa. Flanking marker. Peak position. (cM). Range. (cM)b. Ac. Dd. Gene actione. R2(%)f. Subtotal R2. (%)g. F(0.05)h type. TTL. F2:3.

  16. Are Autistic Traits in the General Population Related to Global and Regional Brain Differences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koolschijn, P. Cédric M. P.; Geurts, Hilde M.; van der Leij, Andries R.; Scholte, H. Steven

    2015-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence that autistic-related traits in the general population lie on a continuum, with autism spectrum disorders representing the extreme end of this distribution. Here, we tested the hypothesis of a possible relationship between autistic traits and brain morphometry in the general population. Participants completed the…

  17. How Are Traits Related to Problem Behavior in Preschoolers? Similarities and Contrasts between Temperament and Personality

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pauw, Sarah S. W.; Mervielde, Ivan; Van Leeuwen, Karla G.

    2009-01-01

    The lack of empirical research relating temperament models and personality hinders conceptual integration and holds back research linking childhood traits to problem behavior or maladjustment. This study evaluates, within a sample of 443 preschoolers, the relationships between children's maladaptation and traits measured by three temperament…

  18. Estrus Traits Derived from Activity Measurements are Heritable and Closely Related to Conventional

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ismael, Ahmed Ismael Sayed; Kargo, Morten; Fogh, Anders

    This study was aimed at assessing the genetic parameters for fertility-related traits, comparing the interval from calving to first insemination (ICF) to physical activity traits, especially days from calving to first high activity, DFHA. Data from commercial Holstein herds included insemination ...

  19. Relation between observed locomotion traits and locomotion score in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlageter Tello, A.A.; Bokkers, E.A.M.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.; Hertem, van T.; Viazzi, S.; Lokhorst, Kees

    2015-01-01

    Lameness is still an important problem in modern dairy farming. Human observation of locomotion, by looking at different traits in one go, is used in practice to assess locomotion. The objectives of this article were to determine which individual locomotion traits are most related to locomotion

  20. The relation of the dynamics of anthropometric data in obese women of childbearing age with treatment type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.I. Ismailov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim was to study efficiency of pathogenetic therapy and dynamics of anthropometric indexes in obese women of childbearing age having different endocrine patho­logy before and 6 months later after treatment. Materials and methods. Under an etiologic factor the obese patients were divided into three groups: with polycystic syndrome of ovaries (PCOS (n = 30, hypothalamic obesity (n = 21 and with obesity and primary hypothyroidism (n = 20. All patients were examined using biochemical, hormonal methods of research, magnetic resonance tomography of pituitary. Results. The patients of the first and second groups had significant decrease of body mass index (BMI after 6 months of treatment, while patients of the third group did not attain significant decrease of BMI over 6 months of treatment. In addition, 10 patients of the first group became pregnant (19.5 %. The patients of the first and second groups had significant improvement of indexes as compared to average data of waist circumference and waist — hip ratio against the treatment, while the patients of the third group did not find significant changes of those indexes over 6 months of treatment. Conclusions. The treatment with metformine in obese patients significantly improves clinical indices and declines BMI. Optimization of treatment of obesity in women of reproductive age is based on the individual programs, the choice of which is determined by the values of anthropometric indices, hormonal and metabolic status, features of food behavior and personality-emotional sphere, menstrual and reproductive functioning. Realization of curative measures complex considering the worked out algorithm of individual selection of obesity therapy allows reduce effectively and retain the attained body weight, improves somatic and reproductive health for the women of reproductive age.

  1. Differences in anthropometric characteristics in relation to throwing velocity and competitive level in professional male team handball: a tool for talent profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fieseler, Georg; Hermassi, Souhail; Hoffmeyer, Birgit; Schulze, Stephan; Irlenbusch, Lars; Bartels, Thomas; Delank, Karl-Stefan; Laudner, Kevin G; Schwesig, René

    2017-01-01

    The primary aim of the study was to examine the anthropometric characteristics as well as throwing and sprinting performance of professional handball players classified by playing position and competition level. 21 male players (age: 25.2±5.1 years) from the first German handball league (FGL) and 34 male players (age: 26.1±4.1 years) from the third German handball league (TGL) were categorized as backs, pivots, wings and goalkeepers. Measurements included anthropometric data (height, mass and body mass index (BMI)), throwing and sprinting performance selected out of a complex handball test (HBCT), which was conducted twice (2 rounds). During the HBCT, the subjects performed two sprints (10, 20 m), two standing throws with run-up (ST) and four vertical jump throws (VJT) over a hurdle (20 cm) with and without precision for goal shot. The anthropometric data revealed a significantly (P=0.038 and η2=0.079) shorter body height for TGL than for FGL players. In the cohort of first league athletes the pivots were the tallest (1.98±0.04 m), backs in the third league showed the maximum body height (1.90±0.05 m). Regarding body mass, pivots were the heaviest players independent from the league membership. The FGL players showed a significantly (P0.10) higher throwing velocity in all type of throws. Body height was significantly related to ST (r=0.53) and VJT (r=0.52) in the first round of HBCT but only for the FGL athletes. Throwing velocity was also correlated with BMI (r=-0.50) among the TGL players. Substantial differences of body characteristics, throwing and sprinting performance between playing positions and competitive levels underline the importance of a careful scouting and position-specific training for professional handball players.

  2. Relation between flower head traits and florivory in Asteraceae: a phylogenetically controlled approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguro, Michio; Sakai, Satoki

    2015-03-01

    • While much research has examined the relation between leaf traits and herbivory, very little is known about the interaction between floral traits, particularly biochemical traits, and florivory. We investigated patterns between floral traits and florivory across multiple species using phylogenetic comparative approaches to enhance our understanding of the evolution of plant-florivore interactions.• The relation between the intensity of florivory and five biochemical traits (concentrations of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, water, and total phenolics) and two morphological traits (diameter and number of flower heads) were investigated in wild individuals of 18 native species of Asteraceae. The phylogenetic signals in the morphological traits and intensity of florivory were also tested.• We found that species with higher nitrogen, water, and total phenolics and lower phosphorus concentrations in the flower heads and species with a large number and diameter of flower heads tended to be attacked by florivores. In addition, we found significant phylogenetic signals in florivory and morphological traits.• Our results clearly show that biochemical traits also play important roles in plant-florivore interactions, as previously shown in plant-leaf herbivore interactions. The positive relationship between florivory and total phenolics implies that phenolic compounds in flower heads may not act as a defense in the species. In addition, the observed pattern of signals in florivory might not be solely explained by the signals of the measured traits and other plant traits may also play significant roles in plant-florivore interaction in these species. © 2015 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  3. Genomic Prediction and Association Mapping of Curd-Related Traits in Gene Bank Accessions of Cauliflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorwarth, Patrick; Yousef, Eltohamy A A; Schmid, Karl J

    2018-02-02

    Genetic resources are an important source of genetic variation for plant breeding. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and genomic prediction greatly facilitate the analysis and utilization of useful genetic diversity for improving complex phenotypic traits in crop plants. We explored the potential of GWAS and genomic prediction for improving curd-related traits in cauliflower ( Brassica oleracea var. botrytis ) by combining 174 randomly selected cauliflower gene bank accessions from two different gene banks. The collection was genotyped with genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) and phenotyped for six curd-related traits at two locations and three growing seasons. A GWAS analysis based on 120,693 single-nucleotide polymorphisms identified a total of 24 significant associations for curd-related traits. The potential for genomic prediction was assessed with a genomic best linear unbiased prediction model and BayesB. Prediction abilities ranged from 0.10 to 0.66 for different traits and did not differ between prediction methods. Imputation of missing genotypes only slightly improved prediction ability. Our results demonstrate that GWAS and genomic prediction in combination with GBS and phenotyping of highly heritable traits can be used to identify useful quantitative trait loci and genotypes among genetically diverse gene bank material for subsequent utilization as genetic resources in cauliflower breeding. Copyright © 2018 Thorwarth et al.

  4. Genomic Prediction and Association Mapping of Curd-Related Traits in Gene Bank Accessions of Cauliflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Thorwarth

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Genetic resources are an important source of genetic variation for plant breeding. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS and genomic prediction greatly facilitate the analysis and utilization of useful genetic diversity for improving complex phenotypic traits in crop plants. We explored the potential of GWAS and genomic prediction for improving curd-related traits in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis by combining 174 randomly selected cauliflower gene bank accessions from two different gene banks. The collection was genotyped with genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS and phenotyped for six curd-related traits at two locations and three growing seasons. A GWAS analysis based on 120,693 single-nucleotide polymorphisms identified a total of 24 significant associations for curd-related traits. The potential for genomic prediction was assessed with a genomic best linear unbiased prediction model and BayesB. Prediction abilities ranged from 0.10 to 0.66 for different traits and did not differ between prediction methods. Imputation of missing genotypes only slightly improved prediction ability. Our results demonstrate that GWAS and genomic prediction in combination with GBS and phenotyping of highly heritable traits can be used to identify useful quantitative trait loci and genotypes among genetically diverse gene bank material for subsequent utilization as genetic resources in cauliflower breeding.

  5. Plant traits related to nitrogen uptake influence plant-microbe competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Delphine; Pivato, Barbara; Bru, David; Busset, Hugues; Deau, Florence; Faivre, Céline; Matejicek, Annick; Strbik, Florence; Philippot, Laurent; Mougel, Christophe

    2015-08-01

    Plant species are important drivers of soil microbial communities. However, how plant functional traits are shaping these communities has received less attention though linking plant and microbial traits is crucial for better understanding plant-microbe interactions. Our objective was to determine how plant-microbe interactions were affected by plant traits. Specifically we analyzed how interactions between plant species and microbes involved in nitrogen cycling were affected by plant traits related to 'nitrogen nutrition in interaction with soil nitrogen availability. Eleven plant species, selected along an oligotrophic-nitrophilic gradient, were grown individually in a nitrogen-poor soil with two levels of nitrate availability. Plant traits for both carbon and nitrogen nutrition were measured and the genetic structure and abundance of rhizosphere. microbial communities, in particular the ammonia oxidizer and nitrate reducer guilds, were analyzed. The structure of the bacterial community in the rhizosphere differed significantly between plant species and these differences depended on nitrogen availability. The results suggest that the rate of nitrogen uptake per unit of root biomass and per day is a key plant trait, explaining why the effect of nitrogen availability on the structure of the bacterial community depends on the plant species. We also showed that the abundance of nitrate reducing bacteria always decreased with increasing nitrogen uptake per unit of root biomass per day, indicating that there was competition for nitrate between plants and nitrate reducing bacteria. This study demonstrates that nitrate-reducing microorganisms may be adversely affected by plants with a high nitrogen uptake rate. Our work puts forward the role of traits related to nitrogen in plant-microbe interactions, whereas carbon is commonly considered as the main driver. It also suggests that plant traits related to ecophysiological processes, such as nitrogen uptake rates, are more

  6. Implications of central obesity-related variants in LYPLAL1, NRXN3, MSRA, and TFAP2B on quantitative metabolic traits in adult Danes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorthe S Bille

    Full Text Available Two meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies (GWAS have suggested that four variants: rs2605100 in lysophospholipase-like 1 (LYPLAL1, rs10146997 in neuroxin 3 (NRXN3, rs545854 in methionine sulfoxide reductase A (MSRA, and rs987237 in transcription factor activating enhancer-binding protein 2 beta (TFAP2B associate with measures of central obesity. To elucidate potential underlying phenotypes we aimed to investigate whether these variants associated with: 1 quantitative metabolic traits, 2 anthropometric measures (waist circumference (WC, waist-hip ratio, and BMI, or 3 type 2 diabetes, and central and general overweight and obesity.The four variants were genotyped in Danish individuals using KASPar®. Quantitative metabolic traits were examined in a population-based sample (n = 6,038 and WC and BMI were furthermore analyzed in a combined study sample (n = 13,507. Case-control studies of diabetes and adiposity included 15,326 individuals. The major G-allele of LYPLAL1 rs2605100 associated with increased fasting serum triglyceride concentrations (per allele effect (β = 3%(1;5(95%CI, p(additive = 2.7×10(-3, an association driven by the male gender (p(interaction = 0.02. The same allele associated with increased fasting serum insulin concentrations (β = 3%(1;5, p(additive = 2.5×10(-3 and increased insulin resistance (HOMA-IR (β = 4%(1;6, p(additive = 1.5×10(-3. The minor G-allele of rs10146997 in NRXN3 associated with increased WC among women (β = 0.55cm (0.20;0.89, p(additive = 1.7×10(-3, p(interaction = 1.0×10(-3, but showed no associations with obesity related metabolic traits. The MSRA rs545854 and TFAP2B rs987237 showed nominal associations with central obesity; however, no underlying metabolic phenotypes became obvious, when investigating quantitative metabolic traits. None of the variants influenced the prevalence of type 2 diabetes.We demonstrate that several of the central

  7. Are anthropometric, flexibility, muscular strength, and endurance variables related to clubhead velocity in low- and high-handicap golfers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, Justin W L; Marnewick, Michel C; Maulder, Peter S; Nortje, Jacques P; Hume, Patria A; Bradshaw, Elizabeth J

    2009-09-01

    The present study assessed the anthropometric profile (International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry protocol), flexibility, muscular strength, and endurance of 20 male golfers. These data were collected in order to determine: a) the relationship between these kinanthropometric measures and clubhead velocity; and b) if these measures could distinguish low-handicap (LHG) and high-handicap (HHG) golfers. Ten LHG (handicap of 0.3 +/- 0.5) and 10 HHG (handicap of 20.3 +/- 2.4) performed 10 swings for maximum velocity and accuracy with their own 5-iron golf club at a wall-mounted target. LHG hit the target significantly more (115%) and had a 12% faster clubhead velocity than HHG (p bench press strength and longer (5%) upper am and total arm (4%) length and less (24%) right hip internal rotation than HHG (0.01 velocity (p bench press and hack squat strength as well as upper arm and total arm length also approaching significance (0.01 bench press strength and longer arms may therefore be at a competitive advantage, as these characteristics allow the production of greater clubhead velocity and resulting ball displacement. Such results have implications for golf talent identification programs and for the prescription and monitoring of golf conditioning programs. While golf conditioning programs may have many aims, specific trunk rotation exercises need to be included if increased clubhead velocity is the goal. Muscular hypertrophy development may not need to be emphasized as it could reduce golf performance by limiting range of motion and/or increasing moment of inertia.

  8. Circulating sex hormones in relation to anthropometric, sociodemographic and behavioural factors in an international dataset of 12,300 men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Eleanor L; Appleby, Paul N; Albanes, Demetrius; Black, Amanda; Chan, June M; Chen, Chu; Cirillo, Piera M; Cohn, Barbara A; Cook, Michael B; Donovan, Jenny L; Ferrucci, Luigi; Garland, Cedric F; Giles, Graham G; Goodman, Phyllis J; Habel, Laurel A; Haiman, Christopher A; Holly, Jeff M P; Hoover, Robert N; Kaaks, Rudolf; Knekt, Paul; Kolonel, Laurence N; Kubo, Tatsuhiko; Le Marchand, Loïc; Luostarinen, Tapio; MacInnis, Robert J; Mäenpää, Hanna O; Männistö, Satu; Metter, E Jeffrey; Milne, Roger L; Nomura, Abraham M Y; Oliver, Steven E; Parsons, J Kellogg; Peeters, Petra H; Platz, Elizabeth A; Riboli, Elio; Ricceri, Fulvio; Rinaldi, Sabina; Rissanen, Harri; Sawada, Norie; Schaefer, Catherine A; Schenk, Jeannette M; Stanczyk, Frank Z; Stampfer, Meir; Stattin, Pär; Stenman, Ulf-Håkan; Tjønneland, Anne; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Thompson, Ian M; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Vatten, Lars; Whittemore, Alice S; Ziegler, Regina G; Allen, Naomi E; Key, Timothy J; Travis, Ruth C

    2017-01-01

    Sex hormones have been implicated in the etiology of a number of diseases. To better understand disease etiology and the mechanisms of disease-risk factor associations, this analysis aimed to investigate the associations of anthropometric, sociodemographic and behavioural factors with a range of circulating sex hormones and sex hormone-binding globulin. Statistical analyses of individual participant data from 12,330 male controls aged 25-85 years from 25 studies involved in the Endogenous Hormones Nutritional Biomarkers and Prostate Cancer Collaborative Group. Analysis of variance was used to estimate geometric means adjusted for study and relevant covariates. Older age was associated with higher concentrations of sex hormone-binding globulin and dihydrotestosterone and lower concentrations of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, free testosterone, androstenedione, androstanediol glucuronide and free estradiol. Higher body mass index was associated with higher concentrations of free estradiol, androstanediol glucuronide, estradiol and estrone and lower concentrations of dihydrotestosterone, testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin, free testosterone, androstenedione and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate. Taller height was associated with lower concentrations of androstenedione, testosterone, free testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin and higher concentrations of androstanediol glucuronide. Current smoking was associated with higher concentrations of androstenedione, sex hormone-binding globulin and testosterone. Alcohol consumption was associated with higher concentrations of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, androstenedione and androstanediol glucuronide. East Asians had lower concentrations of androstanediol glucuronide and African Americans had higher concentrations of estrogens. Education and marital status were modestly associated with a small number of hormones. Circulating sex hormones in men are strongly associated with age and body mass index, and to a

  9. Circulating sex hormones in relation to anthropometric, sociodemographic and behavioural factors in an international dataset of 12,300 men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor L Watts

    Full Text Available Sex hormones have been implicated in the etiology of a number of diseases. To better understand disease etiology and the mechanisms of disease-risk factor associations, this analysis aimed to investigate the associations of anthropometric, sociodemographic and behavioural factors with a range of circulating sex hormones and sex hormone-binding globulin.Statistical analyses of individual participant data from 12,330 male controls aged 25-85 years from 25 studies involved in the Endogenous Hormones Nutritional Biomarkers and Prostate Cancer Collaborative Group. Analysis of variance was used to estimate geometric means adjusted for study and relevant covariates.Older age was associated with higher concentrations of sex hormone-binding globulin and dihydrotestosterone and lower concentrations of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, free testosterone, androstenedione, androstanediol glucuronide and free estradiol. Higher body mass index was associated with higher concentrations of free estradiol, androstanediol glucuronide, estradiol and estrone and lower concentrations of dihydrotestosterone, testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin, free testosterone, androstenedione and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate. Taller height was associated with lower concentrations of androstenedione, testosterone, free testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin and higher concentrations of androstanediol glucuronide. Current smoking was associated with higher concentrations of androstenedione, sex hormone-binding globulin and testosterone. Alcohol consumption was associated with higher concentrations of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, androstenedione and androstanediol glucuronide. East Asians had lower concentrations of androstanediol glucuronide and African Americans had higher concentrations of estrogens. Education and marital status were modestly associated with a small number of hormones.Circulating sex hormones in men are strongly associated with age and body mass

  10. Dissociable relations between amygdala subregional networks and psychopathy trait dimensions in conduct-disordered juvenile offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghajani, Moji; Colins, Olivier F; Klapwijk, Eduard T; Veer, Ilya M; Andershed, Henrik; Popma, Arne; van der Wee, Nic J; Vermeiren, Robert R J M

    2016-11-01

    Psychopathy is a serious psychiatric phenomenon characterized by a pathological constellation of affective (e.g., callous, unemotional), interpersonal (e.g., manipulative, egocentric), and behavioral (e.g., impulsive, irresponsible) personality traits. Though amygdala subregional defects are suggested in psychopathy, the functionality and connectivity of different amygdala subnuclei is typically disregarded in neurocircuit-level analyses of psychopathic personality. Hence, little is known of how amygdala subregional networks may contribute to psychopathy and its underlying trait assemblies in severely antisocial people. We addressed this important issue by uniquely examining the intrinsic functional connectivity of basolateral (BLA) and centromedial (CMA) amygdala networks in relation to affective, interpersonal, and behavioral traits of psychopathy, in conduct-disordered juveniles with a history of serious delinquency (N = 50, mean age = 16.83 ± 1.32). As predicted, amygdalar connectivity profiles exhibited dissociable relations with different traits of psychopathy. Interpersonal psychopathic traits not only related to increased connectivity of BLA and CMA with a corticostriatal network formation accommodating reward processing, but also predicted stronger CMA connectivity with a network of cortical midline structures supporting sociocognitive processes. In contrast, affective psychopathic traits related to diminished CMA connectivity with a frontolimbic network serving salience processing and affective responding. Finally, behavioral psychopathic traits related to heightened BLA connectivity with a frontoparietal cluster implicated in regulatory executive functioning. We suggest that these trait-specific shifts in amygdalar connectivity could be particularly relevant to the psychopathic phenotype, as they may fuel a self-centered, emotionally cold, and behaviorally disinhibited profile. Hum Brain Mapp 37:4017-4033, 2016. © 2016 The Authors Human

  11. Impulsivity-related traits distinguish women with co-occurring bulimia nervosa in a psychiatric sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reas, Deborah L; Pedersen, Geir; Rø, Øyvind

    2016-12-01

    This study investigated impulsivity-related personality traits using the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R) in women diagnosed with co-occurring bulmia nervosa and borderline personality disorder (BN-BPD), borderline personality disorder (BPD no-BN), or major depressive disorder (MDD-only). The sample included 672 adult female admissions to a psychiatric day hospital treatment program. The NEO PI-R facets of impulsiveness (N5), excitement-seeking (E5), self-discipline (C5), and deliberation (C6) provided a proxy assessment of impulsivity-related traits tapping negative urgency, sensation-seeking, lack of perseverance, and lack of premeditation/planning. After adjusting for age, BN-BPD displayed significantly higher levels of negative urgency and lack of premeditation than BPD without co-occurring BN. Women with BN-BPD also had significantly higher levels of impulsivity traits than MDD across domains, except for lack of perseverance. Impulsivity-related traits of negative urgency and lack of premeditation significantly differentiated women with versus without co-occurring BN among women with borderline personality disorder. Lower levels of impulsivity-related traits in women with MDD indicated that effects were not simply attributable to any form of psychopathology. Of the impulsivity traits, negative urgency demonstrated the strongest effect, providing further evidence of the important relationship between negative urgency and the expression of bulimic symptomology. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2016; 49:1093-1096). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Trait Emotional Intelligence Is Related to Risk Taking when Adolescents Make Deliberative Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Panno

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Most forms of risky behavior reach their peak during adolescence. A prominent line of research is exploring the relationship between people’s emotional self-efficacy and risk taking, but little is known about this relationship in the cognitive-deliberative domain among adolescents. The main aim of the present study consists in investigating whether trait EI (Emotional Intelligence is positively related to risk taking under predominantly cognitive-deliberative conditions among adolescents. Ninety-four adolescents played the cold version of the Columbia Card Task one month following an assessment of their trait EI. Results showed that trait EI is associated with risk taking under cognitive-deliberative conditions among adolescents. Moreover, the present research showed that trait EI is related to risk taking through the decision makers’ self-motivation. These results provide novel insights into research investigating the connections between emotional intelligence, decision science and adolescence research.

  13. Variation in CHI3LI in relation to type 2 diabetes and related quantitative traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Noelle Rathcke

    Full Text Available CHI3LI encoding the inflammatory glycoprotein YKL-40 is located on chromosome 1q32.1. YKL-40 is involved in inflammatory processes and patients with Type 2 Diabetes (T2D have elevated circulating YKL-40 levels which correlate with their level of insulin resistance. Interestingly, it has been reported that rs10399931 (-329 G/A of CHI3LI contributes to the inter-individual plasma YKL-40 levels in patients with sarcoidosis, and that rs4950928 (-131 C/G is a susceptibility polymorphism for asthma and a decline in lung function. We hypothesized that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs or haplotypes thereof the CHI3LI locus might influence risk of T2D. The aim of the present study was to investigate the putative association between SNPs and haplotype blocks of CHI3LI and T2D and T2D related quantitative traits.Eleven SNPs of CHI3LI were genotyped in 6514 individuals from the Inter99 cohort and 2924 individuals from the outpatient clinic at Steno Diabetes Center. In cas-control studies a total of 2345 T2D patients and 5302 individuals with a normal glucose tolerance test were examined. We found no association between rs10399931 (OR, 0.98 (CI, 0.88-1.10, p = 0.76, rs4950928 (0.98 (0.87-1.10, p = 0.68 or any of the other SNPs with T2D. Similarly, we found no significant association between any of the 11 tgSNPs and T2D related quantitative traits, all p>0.14. None of the identified haplotype blocks of CHI3LI showed any association with T2D, all p>0.16.None of the examined SNPs or haplotype blocks of CHI3LI showed any association with T2D or T2D related quantitative traits. Estimates of insulin resistance and dysregulated glucose homeostasis in T2D do not seem to be accounted for by the examined variations of CHI3LI.

  14. Quantitative trait local analysis of growth-related traits in a new Arabidopsis recombinant inbred population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El-Lithy, M.E.M.; Clerkx, E.J.M.; Ruijs, G.J.; Koornneef, M.; Vreugdenhil, D.

    2004-01-01

    Arabidopsis natural variation was used to analyze the genetics of plant growth rate. Screening of 22 accessions revealed a large variation for seed weight, plant dry weight and relative growth rate but not for water content. A positive correlation was observed between seed weight and plant area 10 d

  15. CARDIORESPIRATORY FITNESS, ACTIVITY LEVEL, HEALTH-RELATED ANTHROPOMETRIC VARIABLES, SEDENTARY BEHAVIOUR AND SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS IN A SAMPLE OF IRANIAN 7-11 YEAR OLD BOYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samad Esmaeilzadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF, activity level, some health-related anthropometric variables, sedentary behaviour and socioeconomic status (SES of 7-11 year old boys in the city of Ardabil, Iran. Of 21 253 school boys aged 7-11 years, 766 participated in this study using the cluster sampling method. Subjects underwent standard anthropometry. One-mile test was used to evaluate ·VO2max. BMI cut-off points were used to identify weight status. Child’s TV watching and video playing daily time (TVVPT was taken for sedentary behaviour evaluation. SES and activity level were measured by standard questionnaires. Of all participants, 8.9�0(N=68 of students had CRF lower than normal and 58.6�0(N=449 of them had inadequate physical activity. There was a significant adverse relationship between ·VO2max and body mass index (BMI, waist to height ratio (WHtR, waist circumference (WC, and fat mass (FM (p<0.05. A significant direct association between SES and both FM and TVVPT was observed (p<0.05. Significantly lower physical activity and ·VO2max, and higher TVVPT were observed in the obese boys than their counterparts (p<0.05. The results of this study indicated a significant relationship between CRF and physical activity, and health-related anthropometric variables in a selected sample of 7-11 year boys. Moreover, the obese subjects had not only lower physical activity but also longer sedentary behaviour time than their counterparts.

  16. Fat-Related Anthropometric Variables and Regional Patterns of Body Size and Adiposity of Adolescents in Aba South LGA, Abia State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eme, Paul Eze; Onuoha, Nnenna Ola; Mbah, Obioma B

    2016-05-04

    This study assessed fat-related anthropometric variables and regional patterns of body size and adiposity of adolescents in Aba South LGA. A total number of 600 adolescents who were secondary school students aged 10 to 19 years wereselected from 61 registered secondary schools. A multi-random sampling technique was used to select the patients. Ethical approval and informed consent were obtained from the patients who participated in the study. Each patient was subjected to weight, height, mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC), and skinfolds measurements using standard methods. Body fat percentage was calculated by the formulas described by Slaughter, Siris, and Shailk equations. Descriptive statistics of frequencies, percentages, mean, and standard deviation were used to examine the gender-specific anthropometric indices. Chi-square and independent t test were also applied to determine the differences between the parameters or variables of the genders at P< .05. The respondents aged 19 years had the highest measurement for triceps (14.60 mm), thigh (35.05 mm), and MUAC (25.95 mm), while those aged 18 years had the highest measurement for suprailiac (15.00 mm) and subscapular (16.94 mm). Females had more fat deposits than males in all the skinfold sites. They also had a significantly (P = .05) higher body fat percentage than males. A multiple regression analysis revealed that maximum calf fat was a strong predictor of body fat percentage of the patients. High prevalence of obesity was found in this study, and the 3 equations of body fat percentage showed similar findings that more females than males had higher body fat percentage. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. Dissociable relations between amygdala subregional networks and psychopathy trait dimensions in conduct‐disordered juvenile offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colins, Olivier F.; Klapwijk, Eduard T.; Veer, Ilya M.; Andershed, Henrik; Popma, Arne; van der Wee, Nic J.; Vermeiren, Robert R.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Psychopathy is a serious psychiatric phenomenon characterized by a pathological constellation of affective (e.g., callous, unemotional), interpersonal (e.g., manipulative, egocentric), and behavioral (e.g., impulsive, irresponsible) personality traits. Though amygdala subregional defects are suggested in psychopathy, the functionality and connectivity of different amygdala subnuclei is typically disregarded in neurocircuit‐level analyses of psychopathic personality. Hence, little is known of how amygdala subregional networks may contribute to psychopathy and its underlying trait assemblies in severely antisocial people. We addressed this important issue by uniquely examining the intrinsic functional connectivity of basolateral (BLA) and centromedial (CMA) amygdala networks in relation to affective, interpersonal, and behavioral traits of psychopathy, in conduct‐disordered juveniles with a history of serious delinquency (N = 50, mean age = 16.83 ± 1.32). As predicted, amygdalar connectivity profiles exhibited dissociable relations with different traits of psychopathy. Interpersonal psychopathic traits not only related to increased connectivity of BLA and CMA with a corticostriatal network formation accommodating reward processing, but also predicted stronger CMA connectivity with a network of cortical midline structures supporting sociocognitive processes. In contrast, affective psychopathic traits related to diminished CMA connectivity with a frontolimbic network serving salience processing and affective responding. Finally, behavioral psychopathic traits related to heightened BLA connectivity with a frontoparietal cluster implicated in regulatory executive functioning. We suggest that these trait‐specific shifts in amygdalar connectivity could be particularly relevant to the psychopathic phenotype, as they may fuel a self‐centered, emotionally cold, and behaviorally disinhibited profile. Hum Brain Mapp 37:4017–4033, 2016. © 2016

  18. Gene Co-expression Analysis to Characterize Genes Related to Marbling Trait in Hanwoo (Korean) Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Dajeong; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Kim, Nam-Kuk; Cho, Yong-Min; Chai, Han-Ha; Seong, Hwan-Hoo; Kim, Heebal

    2013-01-01

    Marbling (intramuscular fat) is an important trait that affects meat quality and is a casual factor determining the price of beef in the Korean beef market. It is a complex trait and has many biological pathways related to muscle and fat. There is a need to identify functional modules or genes related to marbling traits and investigate their relationships through a weighted gene co-expression network analysis based on the system level. Therefore, we investigated the co-expression relationships of genes related to the 'marbling score' trait and systemically analyzed the network topology in Hanwoo (Korean cattle). As a result, we determined 3 modules (gene groups) that showed statistically significant results for marbling score. In particular, one module (denoted as red) has a statistically significant result for marbling score (p = 0.008) and intramuscular fat (p = 0.02) and water capacity (p = 0.006). From functional enrichment and relationship analysis of the red module, the pathway hub genes (IL6, CHRNE, RB1, INHBA and NPPA) have a direct interaction relationship and share the biological functions related to fat or muscle, such as adipogenesis or muscle growth. This is the first gene network study with m.logissimus in Hanwoo to observe co-expression patterns in divergent marbling phenotypes. It may provide insights into the functional mechanisms of the marbling trait.

  19. Gene Co-expression Analysis to Characterize Genes Related to Marbling Trait in Hanwoo (Korean Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dajeong Lim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Marbling (intramuscular fat is an important trait that affects meat quality and is a casual factor determining the price of beef in the Korean beef market. It is a complex trait and has many biological pathways related to muscle and fat. There is a need to identify functional modules or genes related to marbling traits and investigate their relationships through a weighted gene co-expression network analysis based on the system level. Therefore, we investigated the co-expression relationships of genes related to the ‘marbling score’ trait and systemically analyzed the network topology in Hanwoo (Korean cattle. As a result, we determined 3 modules (gene groups that showed statistically significant results for marbling score. In particular, one module (denoted as red has a statistically significant result for marbling score (p = 0.008 and intramuscular fat (p = 0.02 and water capacity (p = 0.006. From functional enrichment and relationship analysis of the red module, the pathway hub genes (IL6, CHRNE, RB1, INHBA and NPPA have a direct interaction relationship and share the biological functions related to fat or muscle, such as adipogenesis or muscle growth. This is the first gene network study with m.logissimus in Hanwoo to observe co-expression patterns in divergent marbling phenotypes. It may provide insights into the functional mechanisms of the marbling trait.

  20. Evolution of cultural traits occurs at similar relative rates in different world regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Thomas E; Mace, Ruth

    2014-11-22

    A fundamental issue in understanding human diversity is whether or not there are regular patterns and processes involved in cultural change. Theoretical and mathematical models of cultural evolution have been developed and are increasingly being used and assessed in empirical analyses. Here, we test the hypothesis that the rates of change of features of human socio-cultural organization are governed by general rules. One prediction of this hypothesis is that different cultural traits will tend to evolve at similar relative rates in different world regions, despite the unique historical backgrounds of groups inhabiting these regions. We used phylogenetic comparative methods and systematic cross-cultural data to assess how different socio-cultural traits changed in (i) island southeast Asia and the Pacific, and (ii) sub-Saharan Africa. The relative rates of change in these two regions are significantly correlated. Furthermore, cultural traits that are more directly related to external environmental conditions evolve more slowly than traits related to social structures. This is consistent with the idea that a form of purifying selection is acting with greater strength on these more environmentally linked traits. These results suggest that despite contingent historical events and the role of humans as active agents in the historical process, culture does indeed evolve in ways that can be predicted from general principles.

  1. Trait self-esteem and neural activities related to self-evaluation and social feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Juan; Xu, Xiaofan; Chen, Yu; Shi, Zhenhao; Han, Shihui

    2016-01-01

    Self-esteem has been associated with neural responses to self-reflection and attitude toward social feedback but in different brain regions. The distinct associations might arise from different tasks or task-related attitudes in the previous studies. The current study aimed to clarify these by investigating the association between self-esteem and neural responses to evaluation of one’s own personality traits and of others’ opinion about one’s own personality traits. We scanned 25 college students using functional MRI during evaluation of oneself or evaluation of social feedback. Trait self-esteem was measured using the Rosenberg self-esteem scale after scanning. Whole-brain regression analyses revealed that trait self-esteem was associated with the bilateral orbitofrontal activity during evaluation of one’s own positive traits but with activities in the medial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate, and occipital cortices during evaluation of positive social feedback. Our findings suggest that trait self-esteem modulates the degree of both affective processes in the orbitofrontal cortex during self-reflection and cognitive processes in the medial prefrontal cortex during evaluation of social feedback. PMID:26842975

  2. Trait self-esteem and neural activities related to self-evaluation and social feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Juan; Xu, Xiaofan; Chen, Yu; Shi, Zhenhao; Han, Shihui

    2016-02-04

    Self-esteem has been associated with neural responses to self-reflection and attitude toward social feedback but in different brain regions. The distinct associations might arise from different tasks or task-related attitudes in the previous studies. The current study aimed to clarify these by investigating the association between self-esteem and neural responses to evaluation of one's own personality traits and of others' opinion about one's own personality traits. We scanned 25 college students using functional MRI during evaluation of oneself or evaluation of social feedback. Trait self-esteem was measured using the Rosenberg self-esteem scale after scanning. Whole-brain regression analyses revealed that trait self-esteem was associated with the bilateral orbitofrontal activity during evaluation of one's own positive traits but with activities in the medial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate, and occipital cortices during evaluation of positive social feedback. Our findings suggest that trait self-esteem modulates the degree of both affective processes in the orbitofrontal cortex during self-reflection and cognitive processes in the medial prefrontal cortex during evaluation of social feedback.

  3. Assessing the relative importance of health and conformation traits in the cavalier king Charles spaniel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnrocx, Katrien; François, Liesbeth; Goos, Peter; Buys, Nadine; Janssens, Steven

    2018-01-01

    The selection of a future breeding dog is a complicated task, in which disease characteristics and different traits have to be combined and weighed against one another. Truncation selection, that is the exclusion of affected animals, may be very inefficient when selecting on a large number of traits, and may result in a reduction of the genetic diversity in a population or breed. Selection could be facilitated by the use of a selection index that combines multiple traits or breeding values into one score. This however requires a consideration of their relative value according to their economic weight, which is difficult to express in monetary units for health traits. The use of a choice experiment to derive non-market values might be a solution to this problem. This is a pilot study to assess the potential use of choice experiments to ascertain the public preference and relative importance attached to health- and conformation traits in the selection of a Cavalier King Charles spaniel. The focus was on two prevalent disorders, mitral valve disease and syringomyelia, and on several important conformation traits such as muzzle length and eye shape. Based on available prior information, a Bayesian D-optimal design approach was used to develop a choice experiment and the resulting choice sets. Every participant (breeder or owner) in the choice experiment was presented with a total of 17 choice sets, in which at most four traits could vary to reduce the cognitive burden. A total of 114 respondents participated in the choice experiment and results showed that respondents (breeders/owners) current attitudes were directed towards health (syringomyelia and mitral valve disease), followed by eye shape and level of inbreeding. This approach identifies the value breeders and owners attach to certain traits in the breeding objective. The resulting relative weights, represented as the logworths obtained from the choice experiment, could be an alternative to economic weights. They

  4. Dark personality traits and impulsivity among adolescents : Differential links to problem behaviors and family relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubas, Judith Semon; Baams, Laura; Doornwaard, Suzan M.; van Aken, Marcel A.G.

    2017-01-01

    Research on how dark personality traits develop and relate to risky behaviors and family relations during adolescence is scarce. This study used a person-oriented approach to examine (a) whether distinct groups of adolescents could be identified based on their developmental profiles of

  5. Traits related to species persistence and dispersal explain changes in plant communities subjected to habitat loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marini, Lorenzo; Bruun, Hans Henrik; Heikkinen, Risto

    2012-01-01

    Aim Habitat fragmentation is a major driver of biodiversity loss but it is insufficiently known how much its effects vary among species with different life-history traits; especially in plant communities, the understanding of the role of traits related to species persistence and dispersal in dete...... rural landscapes in NW Europe, mitigating the spatial isolation of remaining grasslands should be accompanied by restoration measures aimed at improving habitat quality for low competitors, abiotically dispersed and perennial, clonal species.......Aim Habitat fragmentation is a major driver of biodiversity loss but it is insufficiently known how much its effects vary among species with different life-history traits; especially in plant communities, the understanding of the role of traits related to species persistence and dispersal...... in determining dynamics of species communities in fragmented landscapes is still limited. The primary aim of this study was to test how plant traits related to persistence and dispersal and their interactions modify plant species vulnerability to decreasing habitat area and increasing isolation. Location Five...

  6. Delayed effects of chlorpyrifos across metamorphosis on dispersal-related traits in a poleward moving damselfly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinh, Khuong Van; Janssens, Lizanne; Therry, Lieven; Bervoets, Lieven; Bonte, Dries; Stoks, Robby

    2016-11-01

    How exposure to contaminants may interfere with the widespread poleward range expansions under global warming is largely unknown. Pesticide exposure may negatively affect traits shaping the speed of range expansion, including traits related to population growth rate and dispersal-related traits. Moreover, rapid evolution of growth rates during poleward range expansions may come at a cost of a reduced investment in detoxification and repair thereby increasing the vulnerability to contaminants at expanding range fronts. We tested effects of a sublethal concentration of the widespread pesticide chlorpyrifos on traits related to range expansion in replicated edge and core populations of the poleward moving damselfly Coenagrion scitulum reared at low and high food levels in a common garden experiment. Food limitation in the larval stage had strong negative effects both in the larval stage and across metamorphosis in the adult stage. Exposure to chlorpyrifos during the larval stage did not affect larval traits but caused delayed effects across metamorphosis by increasing the incidence of wing malformations during metamorphosis and by reducing a key component of the adult immune response. There was some support for an evolutionary trade-off scenario as the faster growing edge larvae suffered a higher mortality during metamorphosis. Instead, there was no clear support for the faster growing edge larvae being more vulnerable to chlorpyrifos. Our data indicate that sublethal delayed effects of pesticide exposure, partly in association with the rapid evolution of faster growth rates, may slow down range expansions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Plant functional traits in relation to fire in crown-fire ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pausas, Juli G.; Bradstock, Ross A.; Keith, David A.; Keeley, Jon E.

    2004-01-01

    Disturbance is a dominant factor in many ecosystems, and the disturbance regime is likely to change over the next decades in response to land-use changes and global warming. We assume that predictions of vegetation dynamics can be made on the basis of a set of life-history traits that characterize the response of a species to disturbance. For crown-fire ecosystems, the main plant traits related to postfire persistence are the ability to resprout (persistence of individuals) and the ability to retain a persistent seed bank (persistence of populations). In this context, we asked (1) to what extent do different life-history traits co-occur with the ability to resprout and/or the ability to retain a persistent seed bank among differing ecosystems and (2) to what extent do combinations of fire-related traits (fire syndromes) change in a fire regime gradient? We explored these questions by reviewing the literature and analyzing databases compiled from different crown-fire ecosystems (mainly eastern Australia, California, and the Mediterranean basin). The review suggests that the pattern of correlation between the two basic postfire persistent traits and other plant traits varies between continents and ecosystems. From these results we predict, for instance, that not all resprouters respond in a similar way everywhere because the associated plant traits of resprouter species vary in different places. Thus, attempts to generalize predictions on the basis of the resprouting capacity may have limited power at a global scale. An example is presented for Australian heathlands. Considering the combination of persistence at individual (resprouting) and at population (seed bank) level, the predictive power at local scale was significantly increased.

  8. Analysis of heterosis and quantitative trait loci for kernel shape related traits using triple testcross population in maize.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Jiang

    Full Text Available Kernel shape related traits (KSRTs have been shown to have important influences on grain yield. The previous studies that emphasize kernel length (KL and kernel width (KW lack a comprehensive evaluation of characters affecting kernel shape. In this study, materials of the basic generations (B73, Mo17, and B73 × Mo17, 82 intermated B73 × Mo17 (IBM individuals, and the corresponding triple testcross (TTC populations were used to evaluate heterosis, investigate correlations, and characterize the quantitative trait loci (QTL for six KSRTs: KL, KW, length to width ratio (LWR, perimeter length (PL, kernel area (KA, and circularity (CS. The results showed that the mid-parent heterosis (MPH for most of the KSRTs was moderate. The performance of KL, KW, PL, and KA exhibited significant positive correlation with heterozygosity but their Pearson's R values were low. Among KSRTs, the strongest significant correlation was found between PL and KA with R values was up to 0.964. In addition, KW, PL, KA, and CS were shown to be significant positive correlation with 100-kernel weight (HKW. 28 QTLs were detected for KSRTs in which nine were augmented additive, 13 were augmented dominant, and six were dominance × additive epistatic. The contribution of a single QTL to total phenotypic variation ranged from 2.1% to 32.9%. Furthermore, 19 additive × additive digenic epistatic interactions were detected for all KSRTs with the highest total R2 for KW (78.8%, and nine dominance × dominance digenic epistatic interactions detected for KL, LWR, and CS with the highest total R2 (55.3%. Among significant digenic interactions, most occurred between genomic regions not mapped with main-effect QTLs. These findings display the complexity of the genetic basis for KSRTs and enhance our understanding on heterosis of KSRTs from the quantitative genetic perspective.

  9. The relations between interpersonal self-support traits and emotion regulation strategies: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Ling-Xiang; Gao, Xin; Wang, Qian; Hollon, Steven D

    2014-08-01

    Although several cross-sectional surveys have shown that certain traits such as extraversion and neuroticism are related to emotion regulation, few studies have explored the nature of this relationship. The present study tried to explore the longitudinal relation between traits and emotion regulation strategies. The Interpersonal Self-Support Scale for Middle School Students (ISSS-MSS) and the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ) were administrated to 374 middle school students two times across a 6-month interval. A path analysis via structural equation modeling of the five interpersonal self-support traits and the two emotion regulation strategies was tested. The results showed that interpersonal independence predicted expressive suppression and cognitive reappraisal, and that interpersonal initiative also predicted reappraisal, while reappraisal predicted interpersonal flexibility and interpersonal openness 6 month later. These results support the hypotheses that some personality traits influence certain emotion regulation strategies, while other traits may be influenced by specific emotion regulation strategies. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Variation in CHI3LI in relation to type 2 diabetes and related quantitative traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathcke, Camilla Noelle; Holmkvist, Johan; Jørgensen, Torben

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: CHI3LI encoding the inflammatory glycoprotein YKL-40 is located on chromosome 1q32.1. YKL-40 is involved in inflammatory processes and patients with Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) have elevated circulating YKL-40 levels which correlate with their level of insulin resistance. Interestingly...... in 6514 individuals from the Inter99 cohort and 2924 individuals from the outpatient clinic at Steno Diabetes Center. In cas-control studies a total of 2345 T2D patients and 5302 individuals with a normal glucose tolerance test were examined. We found no association between rs10399931 (OR, 0.98 (CI, 0...... (SNPs) or haplotypes thereof the CHI3LI locus might influence risk of T2D. The aim of the present study was to investigate the putative association between SNPs and haplotype blocks of CHI3LI and T2D and T2D related quantitative traits. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Eleven SNPs of CHI3LI were genotyped...

  11. Temperament and character traits in patients with conversion disorder and their relations with dissociation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarisoy, Gökhan; Kaçar, Ö Mer Faruk; Öztürk, Arif; Yilman, Tuba; Mor, Sema; Özturan, Deniz Deniz; Yazici, Neslihan; Gümüş, Kübra

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate temperament and character traits in patients with conversion disorder and the relation of these traits with dissociative symptoms. Sixty patients (60) diagnosed with conversion disorder according to DSM-IV-TR and 60 healthy volunteers were included in the study. All participants' temperament and character traits were determined using Cloninger's Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Patients with conversion disorder were divided into two subgroups using the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES), dissociative (n=30, 50%) and non-dissociative (n=30, 50%). The two conversion disorder subgroups were compared with the control group in terms of temperament and character traits. Correlation analysis was also performed between TCI and DES scores in the entire conversion group. Novelty seeking (NS) scores were lower in both the dissociative and non-dissociative groups compared to the control group. Harm avoidance (HA) scores were higher in the dissociative group than in the control group. Reward dependence (RD) scores were lower in the dissociative group than in the non-dissociative and control group. Self-directedness (SD) scores were lower in the dissociative group than in the control group. Self-transcendence (ST) scores were higher in the dissociative group than in the non-dissociative group. DES scores were negatively correlated with RD and SD scores in the entire conversion group and positively correlated with ST scores. Low NS temperament traits may be associated with conversion disorder. High HA and low RD temperament traits and low SD and high ST character traits may be associated with pathological dissociation in patients with conversion disorder.

  12. QTL Analysis of Kernel-Related Traits in Maize Using an Immortalized F2 Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yanmin; Li, Weihua; Fu, Zhiyuan; Ding, Dong; Li, Haochuan; Qiao, Mengmeng; Tang, Jihua

    2014-01-01

    Kernel size and weight are important determinants of grain yield in maize. In this study, multivariate conditional and unconditional quantitative trait loci (QTL), and digenic epistatic analyses were utilized in order to elucidate the genetic basis for these kernel-related traits. Five kernel-related traits, including kernel weight (KW), volume (KV), length (KL), thickness (KT), and width (KWI), were collected from an immortalized F2 (IF2) maize population comprising of 243 crosses performed at two separate locations over a span of two years. A total of 54 unconditional main QTL for these five kernel-related traits were identified, many of which were clustered in chromosomal bins 6.04–6.06, 7.02–7.03, and 10.06–10.07. In addition, qKL3, qKWI6, qKV10a, qKV10b, qKW10a, and qKW7a were detected across multiple environments. Sixteen main QTL were identified for KW conditioned on the other four kernel traits (KL, KWI, KT, and KV). Thirteen main QTL were identified for KV conditioned on three kernel-shape traits. Conditional mapping analysis revealed that KWI and KV had the strongest influence on KW at the individual QTL level, followed by KT, and then KL; KV was mostly strongly influenced by KT, followed by KWI, and was least impacted by KL. Digenic epistatic analysis identified 18 digenic interactions involving 34 loci over the entire genome. However, only a small proportion of them were identical to the main QTL we detected. Additionally, conditional digenic epistatic analysis revealed that the digenic epistasis for KW and KV were entirely determined by their constituent traits. The main QTL identified in this study for determining kernel-related traits with high broad-sense heritability may play important roles during kernel development. Furthermore, digenic interactions were shown to exert relatively large effects on KL (the highest AA and DD effects were 4.6% and 6.7%, respectively) and KT (the highest AA effects were 4.3%). PMID:24586932

  13. Analysis of personality traits as a risk factor in crash related trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vineet; Goyal, Rahul; Singh, Ajai; Sharma, Vineet; Srivastava, Rajeshwer Nath; Kumar, Santosh; Kumar, Ashish

    2016-09-01

    Due to increasing stress, individual personality traits are becoming a significant contributor to CRT (Crash Related Trauma). In the present study, we hypothesized that there will be no difference in personality characteristics of CRT patients and control subjects and there will be no association between trauma and personality characteristics of CRT patients. A total of 119 cases and 112 controls of age >18 years were selected as per criteria decided. After obtaining ethical clearance, patients presenting to the emergency orthopedic unit were included in the study. After primary management all enrolled subjects were assessed by ICD 10 module screening questionnaire and analyzed for nine personality traits, subject to written informed consent. Of all the cases enrolled 82.35% were males. Impulsive personality trait is found in 84.78% (39/46) cases. There were 46 motorcyclists out of 119 cases enrolled. Most of the personality traits showed a statistical significant association (p personality characteristics which accounted for 84.78% and 82.61% cases respectively. These traits showed a statistical significant association with CRT.

  14. Personality traits predict perceived health-related quality of life in persons with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarbo, Ignazio Roberto; Minacapelli, Eleonora; Falautano, Monica; Demontis, Silvia; Carpentras, Giovanni; Pugliatti, Maura

    2016-04-01

    Personality traits can affect health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in different disorders. In multiple sclerosis (MS), personality traits can determine patients' willingness to take on more risky treatment options, predispose to neuropsychiatric symptoms and affect coping strategies. We investigated the role of personality traits as possible predictors of HRQoL in a large cohort of persons with MS (PwMS). In total, 253 consecutively recruited PwMS were screened for intellectual deficits with Raven Colour Progressive Matrices (RCPM), state anxiety with STAI-X1 and major depression on a clinical basis. PwMS' self-perceived mental and physical health status was measured with the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), and the personality profile with the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ-R). The correlation between HRQoL and personality traits was investigated by means of analysis of variance, adjusting for possible confounders. Of the 253 MS patients, 195 (F:M=2.75), aged 41.7±10.2 years were included in the analysis. The variance of SF-36 mental and physical composite score was largely explained by extraversion and neuroticism. Our data confirm that PwMS' HRQoL is largely influenced by personality traits, which may therefore act as predictors of perceived quality of life and should be included in clinical and experimental settings focusing on HRQoL. © The Author(s), 2015.

  15. [The God image in relation to autistic traits and religious denomination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaap-Jonker, H; van Schothorst-van Roekel, J; Sizoo, B

    2012-01-01

    Estimates of the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) range from 0.6 to 1.0 per cent of the general population. Among the characteristic traits of ASD are qualitative impairments in social reciprocity and in abstract imagination. Not surprisingly, these traits can affect the personal religion of ASD patients, in the same manner as religious background does. To determine to what extent the religiousness of religious patients is associated with autistic traits and religious background. Dutch adults attending a Protestant mental healthcare institution as outpatients were asked to complete the 'Questionnaire God Image' (QGI) and the 'Autism Quotient' (AQNL). In this cross-sectional study various aspects of the God image were related to autistic traits and religious background. The more that respondents reported autistic traits, the greater was their fear of God and the less positive were their feelings. Respondents who were strict Calvinists experienced greater fear of God than did other respondents. Treatment of religious patients with asd needs to take into account these patients' greater fear of God and their less positive feelings. Those patients who had had a strict Calvinist upbringing had a more pronounced fear of God.

  16. Mapping of genes for flower-related traits and QTLs for flowering ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mapping of genes for flower-related traits and QTLs for flowering time ... which would greatly enhance the use of G. darwinii-specific desirable genes in ... used to determine all linkage groups, the order of groups on the same ... age groups.

  17. Genetic evidence for causal relationships between maternal obesity-related traits and birth weight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.W.R. Tyrrell; R.C. Richmond (Rebecca C.); T.M. Palmer (Tom); B. Feenstra (Bjarke); J. Rangarajan (Janani); S. Metrustry (Sarah); A. Cavadino (Alana); L. Paternoster (Lavinia); L.L. Armstrong (Loren L.); N.M.G. De Silva (N. Maneka G.); A.R. Wood (Andrew); M. Horikoshi (Momoko); F. Geller (Frank); R. Myhre (Ronny); J.P. Bradfield (Jonathan); E. Kreiner-Møller (Eskil); I. Huikari (Ille); J.N. Painter (Jodie N.); J.J. Hottenga (Jouke Jan); C. Allard (Catherine); D. Berry (Diane); L. Bouchard (Luigi); S. Das (Shikta); D.M. Evans (David); H. Hakonarson (Hakon); M.G. Hayes (M. Geoffrey); J. Heikkinen (Jani); A. Hofman (Albert); B.A. Knight (Bridget); P.A. Lind (Penelope); M.I. McCarthy (Mark); G. Mcmahon (George); S.E. Medland (Sarah Elizabeth); M. Melbye (Mads); A.P. Morris (Andrew); M. Nodzenski (Michael); C. Reichetzeder (Christoph); S.M. Ring (Susan); S. Sebert (Sylvain); V. Sengpiel (Verena); T.I.A. Sørensen (Thorkild); G.A.H.M. Willemsen (Gonneke); E.J.C. de Geus (Eco); N.G. Martin (Nicholas); T.D. Spector (Timothy); C. Power (Christine); M.-R. Jarvelin (Marjo-Riitta); H. Bisgaard (Hans); S.F.A. Grant (Struan); C. Nohr (Christian); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); B. Jacobsson (Bo); J.C. Murray (Jeffrey C.); B. Hocher (Berthold); A.T. Hattersley (Andrew); D.M. Scholtens (Denise M.); G.D. Smith; M.-F. Hivert (Marie-France); J.F. Felix (Janine); E. Hypponen (Elina); W.L. Lowe Jr. (William); T.M. Frayling (Timothy); D.A. Lawlor (Debbie); R.M. Freathy (Rachel)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractIMPORTANCE Neonates born to overweight or obese women are larger and at higher risk of birth complications. Many maternal obesity-related traits are observationally associated with birth weight, but the causal nature of these associations is uncertain. OBJECTIVE To test for genetic

  18. Analysis of QTLs for yield-related traits in Yuanjiang common wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qiang; Zhang, Peijiang; Tan, Lubin; Zhu, Zuofeng; Ma, Dan; Fu, Yongcai; Zhan, Xinchun; Cai, Hongwei; Sun, Chuanqing

    2010-02-01

    Using an accession of common wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.) collected from Yuanjiang County, Yunnan Province, China, as the donor and an elite cultivar 93-11, widely used in two-line indica hybrid rice production in China, as the recurrent parent, an advanced backcross populations were developed. Through genotyping of 187 SSR markers and investigation of six yield-related traits of two generations (BC(4)F(2) and BC(4)F(4)), a total of 26 QTLs were detected by employing single point analysis and interval mapping in both generations. Of the 26 QTLs, the alleles of 10 (38.5%) QTLs originating from O. rufipogon had shown a beneficial effect for yield-related traits in the 93-11 genetic background. In addition, five QTLs controlling yield and its components were newly identified, indicating that there are potentially novel alleles in Yuanjiang common wild rice. Three regions underling significant QTLs for several yield-related traits were detected on chromosome 1, 7 and 12. The QTL clusters were founded and corresponding agronomic traits of those QTLs showed highly significant correlation, suggesting the pleiotropism or tight linkage. Fine-mapping and cloning of these yield-related QTLs from wild rice would be helpful to elucidating molecular mechanism of rice domestication and rice breeding in the future. Copyright 2010 Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology and the Genetics Society of China. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Mapping of genes for flower-related traits and QTLs for flowering ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mapping of genes for flower-related traits and QTLs for flowering time in an interspecific population of Gossypium hirsutum × G. darwinii. Shuwen Zhang, Qianqian Lan, Xiang Gao, Biao Yang, Caiping Cai, Tianzhen Zhang and Baoliang Zhou. J. Genet. 95, 197–201. Table 1. Loci composition and recombination distances of ...

  20. Identification of QTL for maize grain yield and kernel-related traits

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    [Yang C., Zhang L., Jia A. and Rong T. 2016 Identification of QTL for maize grain yield and kernel-related traits. ... 2010; Zhang et al. ...... in the structure and evolution of genetic systems. ... 2013 Fine mapping a major QTL for kernel number per.

  1. Emotional processing and psychopathic traits in male college students: An event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Amy L; Kirilko, Elvira; Grose-Fifer, Jillian

    2016-08-01

    Emotional processing deficits are often considered a hallmark of psychopathy. However, there are relatively few studies that have investigated how the late positive potential (LPP) elicited by both positive and negative emotional stimuli is modulated by psychopathic traits, especially in undergraduates. Attentional deficits have also been posited to be associated with emotional blunting in psychopathy, consequently, results from previous studies may have been influenced by task demands. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between the neural correlates of emotional processing and psychopathic traits by measuring event-related potentials (ERPs) during a task with a relatively low cognitive load. A group of male undergraduates were classified as having either high or low levels of psychopathic traits according to their total scores on the Psychopathic Personality Inventory - Revised (PPI-R). A subgroup of these participants then passively viewed complex emotional and neutral images from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) while their EEGs were recorded. As hypothesized, in general the late LPP elicited by emotional pictures was found to be significantly reduced for participants with high Total PPI-R scores relative to those with low scores, especially for pictures that were rated as less emotionally arousing. Our data suggest that male undergraduates with high, but subclinical levels of psychopathic traits did not maintain continued higher-order processing of affective information, especially when it was perceived to be less arousing in nature. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Schizotypal traits in painters: Relations with intelligence, creativity and creative productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Međedović Janko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present research we explored the presence of schizotypal traits in painters. Furthermore, the relations of schizotypy and creativity-related variables (intelligence, creativity and creative productivity were analyzed. Study participants were divided into the criterion (132 students of art academy and art high school and control group (119 psychology students and members of grammar school. Two hypotheses were set: 1 schizotypal traits are more pronounced in painters than in control group; 2 schizotypy is more closely associated with the creativitylinked variables in the criterion than in control group. Schizotypy was operationalized by Disintegration construct and measured via DELTA 10 inventory. Intelligence was assessed by Advanced Progressive Matrices-18; creativity was measured by the same labeled scale from HEXACO-PI-R inventory and creative productivity was explored by a set of questions regarding the frequency of creative behavior. Results showed that Magical thinking, Enhanced awareness, Somatoform Dysregulation, Perceptual distortions and Social anhedonia were the schizotypal traits which were more pronounced in painters as compared to the control group. Factor analyses performed in each group separately revealed a latent component loaded both with schizotypal traits, creativity and creative productivity, but only in the group of painters: schizotypy and creativity were not so closely related in the control group. Thus, the study hypotheses were largely confirmed. Results provide a more detailed understanding of the relations between schizotypy and creativity.

  3. Identification of QTL controlling domestication-related traits in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Sassoum; Muñoz-Amatriaín, María; Boukar, Ousmane; Herniter, Ira; Cisse, Ndiaga; Guo, Yi-Ning; Roberts, Philip A; Xu, Shizhong; Fatokun, Christian; Close, Timothy J

    2018-04-19

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) is a warm-season legume with a genetically diverse gene-pool composed of wild and cultivated forms. Cowpea domestication involved considerable phenotypic changes from the wild progenitor, including reduction of pod shattering, increased organ size, and changes in flowering time. Little is known about the genetic basis underlying these changes. In this study, 215 recombinant inbred lines derived from a cross between a cultivated and a wild cowpea accession were used to evaluate nine domestication-related traits (pod shattering, peduncle length, flower color, days to flowering, 100-seed weight, pod length, leaf length, leaf width and seed number per pod). A high-density genetic map containing 17,739 single nucleotide polymorphisms was constructed and used to identify 16 quantitative trait loci (QTL) for these nine traits. Based on annotations of the cowpea reference genome, genes within these regions are reported. Four regions with clusters of QTL were identified, including one on chromosome 8 related to increased organ size. This study provides new knowledge of the genomic regions controlling domestication-related traits in cowpea as well as candidate genes underlying those QTL. This information can help to exploit wild relatives in cowpea breeding programs.

  4. An Investigation of Personality Traits in Relation to Job Performance of Online Instructors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Charles; Kirwan, Jeral R.; Bova, Mark; Belcher, Trevor

    2015-01-01

    This quantitative study examined the relationship between the Big 5 personality traits and how they relate to online teacher effectiveness. The primary method of data collection for this study was through the use of surveys primarily building upon the Personality Style Inventory (PSI) (Lounsbury & Gibson, 2010), a work-based personality…

  5. Relating adaptive genetic traits to climate for Sandberg bluegrass from the intermountain western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard C. Johnson; Matthew E. Horning; Erin Espeland; Ken Vance-Borland

    2015-01-01

    Genetic variation for potentially adaptive traits of the key restoration species Sandberg bluegrass (Poa secunda J. Presl) was assessed over the intermountain western United States in relation to source population climate. Common gardens were established at two intermountain west sites with progeny from two maternal parents from each of 130 wild populations. Data were...

  6. Psycholexical Value Factors in Spain and Their Relation with Personality Traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morales-Vives, Fabia; De Raad, Boele; Vigil-Colet, Andreu

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to determine the structure of values in the Spanish population and its relation to the Big Five personality traits. Using a psycholexical approach, 566 words were identified as values and administered to a sample of participants who were instructed to rate the extent

  7. Relations between female students' personality traits and reported handicaps to rhythmic gymnastics performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrand, Claude; Champely, Stephane; Brunel, Philippe C

    2005-04-01

    The present study evaluated the relative contributions of Self-esteem, Trait anxiety, and Public Self-consciousness to self-handicapping on a sex-typed task, within a specific academic sport context. Prior to the competitive examination used to recruit French Physical Education Teachers, female sport students (N = 74) were asked to list and rate on a 7-point scale handicaps which could be disruptive to their Rhythmic Gymnastics performance. Self-esteem did not account for significant variance in any category of handicaps. Trait Anxiety was negatively related to handicaps related to Rhythmic Gymnastics and to Social and Work Commitments. Public Self-consciousness was significantly related to endorsement of Friends and Family Commitments handicaps. These results were discussed in relation to the literature.

  8. Relationship between anthropometric and haematological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relationship between anthropometric and haematological parameters among third trimester pregnant women in Sokoto State, Northwest Nigeria. ... access to good healthcare so that the ideal anthropometric and haematological parameters can be achieved during pregnancy to guarantee good feto-maternal outcome.

  9. Relationships between different nutritional anthropometric statuses and health-related fitness of South African primary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, M E G; Lambert, M I; Lambert, E V

    2017-05-01

    A double burden of both under- and over-nutrition exists among South African children. To describe associations between nutritional statuses and health-related fitness test performances. Height and weight of 10 285 children (6-13 years; n = 5604 boys and 4681 girls) were measured and used to calculate body mass index (BMI) and prevalence of overweight and obesity, stunting, wasting and underweight. Physical fitness scores for standing long jump, shuttle run, sit-and-reach, sit-up (EUROFIT) and cricket ball throw were assessed. Age- and gender-specific z-scores were calculated for these variables. Physical fitness for each nutritional status group was compared to children of normal weight. Compared to normal weight children, overweight and obese children scored lower on all fitness tests (p fitness tests (p fitness tests.

  10. Genome-Wide Association Study of Major Agronomic Traits Related to Domestication in Peanut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingguo Zhang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Peanut (Arachis hypogaea consists of two subspecies, hypogaea and fastigiata, and has been cultivated worldwide for hundreds of years. Here, 158 peanut accessions were selected to dissect the molecular footprint of agronomic traits related to domestication using specific-locus amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq method. Then, a total of 17,338 high-quality single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the whole peanut genome were revealed. Eleven agronomic traits in 158 peanut accessions were subsequently analyzed using genome-wide association studies (GWAS. Candidate genes responsible for corresponding traits were then analyzed in genomic regions surrounding the peak SNPs, and 1,429 genes were found within 200 kb windows centerd on GWAS-identified peak SNPs related to domestication. Highly differentiated genomic regions were observed between hypogaea and fastigiata accessions using FST values and sequence diversity (π ratios. Among the 1,429 genes, 662 were located on chromosome A3, suggesting the presence of major selective sweeps caused by artificial selection during long domestication. These findings provide a promising insight into the complicated genetic architecture of domestication-related traits in peanut, and reveal whole-genome SNP markers of beneficial candidate genes for marker-assisted selection (MAS in future breeding programs.

  11. Examining Dark Triad traits in relation to mental toughness and physical activity in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabouri, Sarah; Gerber, Markus; Sadeghi Bahmani, Dena; Lemola, Sakari; Clough, Peter J; Kalak, Nadeem; Shamsi, Mahin; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge

    2016-01-01

    The Dark Triad (DT) describes a set of three closely related personality traits: Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy. Mental toughness (MT) refers to a psychological construct combining confidence, commitment, control, and challenge. High MT is related to greater physical activity (PA) and, relative to men, women have lower MT scores. The aims of the present study were 1) to investigate the association between DT, MT, and PA, and 2) to compare the DT, MT, and PA scores of men and women. A total of 341 adults (M=29 years; 51.6% women; range: 18-37 years) took part in the study. Participants completed a series of questionnaires assessing DT, MT, and PA. Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy were all significantly associated with higher MT scores (rs =0.45, 0.50, and 0.20, respectively). DT traits and MT were associated with more vigorous PA. Compared to men, women participants had lower scores for DT traits (overall score and psychopathy), while no differences were found for MT or PA in both sexes. DT traits, high MT, and vigorous PA are interrelated. This pattern of results might explain why, for instance, successful professional athletes can at the same time be tough and ruthless.

  12. Exercise adherence, cardiopulmonary fitness and anthropometric changes improve exercise self-efficacy and health-related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imayama, Ikuyo; Alfano, Catherine M; Mason, Caitlin E; Wang, Chiachi; Xiao, Liren; Duggan, Catherine; Campbell, Kristin L; Foster-Schubert, Karen E; Wang, Ching-Yun; McTiernan, Anne

    2013-07-01

    Regular exercise increases exercise self-efficacy and health-related quality of life (HRQOL); however, the mechanisms are unknown. We examined the associations of exercise adherence and physiological improvements with changes in exercise self-efficacy and HRQOL. Middle-aged adults (N = 202) were randomized to 12 months aerobic exercise (360 minutes/week) or control. Weight, waist circumference, percent body fat, cardiopulmonary fitness, HRQOL (SF-36), and exercise self-efficacy were assessed at baseline and 12 months. Adherence was measured in minutes/day from activity logs. Exercise adherence was associated with reduced bodily pain, improved general health and vitality, and reduced role-emotional scores (P(trend) ≤ 0.05). Increased fitness was associated with improved physical functioning, bodily pain and general health scores (P(trend) ≤ 0.04). Reduced weight and percent body fat were associated with improved physical functioning, general health, and bodily pain scores (P(trend) exercise adherence, increased cardiopulmonary fitness and reduced weight, waist circumference and percent body fat were associated with increased exercise self-efficacy (P(trend) exercise programs to induce changes in cardiopulmonary fitness and body composition may lead to greater improvements in HRQOL and self-efficacy that could promote exercise maintenance.

  13. Genetic disparity and relationship among quantitatively inherited yield related traits in diallel crosses of upland cotton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibi, M.; Khan, N.U.; Mohammad, F.; Gul, R.; Idrees, M.; Sayal, O.U.; Khakwani, A.A.; Khan, I.A.

    2011-01-01

    In quantitative genetics, development of high yielding genotypes from parental cultivars of same ancestry is some what confusing as compared to genetically diverse parents. However, sufficient recombinations through allelic variations in mating of closely-related populations result in superior agronomic performance. Development of improved cotton genotypes is one of the prime objectives of any cotton breeding programmes. Genetic divergence and yield potential of parental cotton genotypes versus their diallel hybrids, relationship of yield with various morpho-yield traits and their heritability were studied in 8 X 8 F/sub 1/ diallel hybrids and their parental cultivars in Gossypium hirsutum L. during 2008-09 at Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Agricultural University, Peshawar, Pakistan. Highly significant (p less than or equal to 0.01) differences were observed among parental genotypes and F/sub 1/ populations for all the traits. Results revealed that F/sub 1/ hybrids i.e., CIM-506 X CIM-554, CIM-473 X CIM-554, CIM-446 X CIM-496 and CIM-446 X CIM-554 produced significantly higher number of sympodia, bolls per populations showed incredible performance for plant height, locules per boll and seeds plant and seed cotton yield. Some F/sub 1/ per locule. Seed cotton yield manifested positive association with morpho-yield traits which also accounted for greater genetic variations to yield being dependent trait. Heritabilities (broad sense) were moderate to high in magnitude for all populations with larger genetic potential, positive relationship between yield and yield traits. Results revealed that F1 contributing traits and moderate to high heritability can guide intensive selection and improvement per se in segregating populations. (author)

  14. Height-related changes in leaf photosynthetic traits in diverse Bornean tropical rain forest trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenzo, Tanaka; Inoue, Yuta; Yoshimura, Mitsunori; Yamashita, Megumi; Tanaka-Oda, Ayumi; Ichie, Tomoaki

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of variations in morphophysiological leaf traits with forest height is essential for quantifying carbon and water fluxes from forest ecosystems. Here, we examined changes in leaf traits with forest height in diverse tree species and their role in environmental acclimation in a tropical rain forest in Borneo that does not experience dry spells. Height-related changes in leaf physiological and morphological traits [e.g., maximum photosynthetic rate (Amax), stomatal conductance (gs), dark respiration rate (Rd), carbon isotope ratio (δ(13)C), nitrogen (N) content, and leaf mass per area (LMA)] from understory to emergent trees were investigated in 104 species in 29 families. We found that many leaf area-based physiological traits (e.g., A(max-area), Rd, gs), N, δ(13)C, and LMA increased linearly with tree height, while leaf mass-based physiological traits (e.g., A(max-mass)) only increased slightly. These patterns differed from other biomes such as temperate and tropical dry forests, where trees usually show decreased photosynthetic capacity (e.g., A(max-area), A(max-mass)) with height. Increases in photosynthetic capacity, LMA, and δ(13)C are favored under bright and dry upper canopy conditions with higher photosynthetic productivity and drought tolerance, whereas lower R d and LMA may improve shade tolerance in lower canopy trees. Rapid recovery of leaf midday water potential to theoretical gravity potential during the night supports the idea that the majority of trees do not suffer from strong drought stress. Overall, leaf area-based photosynthetic traits were associated with tree height and the degree of leaf drought stress, even in diverse tropical rain forest trees.

  15. QTL variations for growth-related traits in eight distinct families of common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Weihua; Zheng, Xianhu; Kuang, Youyi; Cao, Dingchen; Yan, Yunqin; Sun, Xiaowen

    2016-05-05

    Comparing QTL analyses of multiple pair-mating families can provide a better understanding of important allelic variations and distributions. However, most QTL mapping studies in common carp have been based on analyses of individual families. In order to improve our understanding of heredity and variation of QTLs in different families and identify important QTLs, we performed QTL analysis of growth-related traits in multiple segregating families. We completed a genome scan for QTLs that affect body weight (BW), total length (TL), and body thickness (BT) of 522 individuals from eight full-sib families using 250 microsatellites evenly distributed across 50 chromosomes. Sib-pair and half-sib model mapping identified 165 QTLs on 30 linkage groups. Among them, 10 (genome-wide P <0.01 or P < 0.05) and 28 (chromosome-wide P < 0.01) QTLs exhibited significant evidence of linkage, while the remaining 127 exhibited a suggestive effect on the above three traits at a chromosome-wide (P < 0.05) level. Multiple QTLs obtained from different families affect BW, TL, and BT and locate at close or identical positions. It suggests that same genetic factors may control variability in these traits. Furthermore, the results of the comparative QTL analysis of multiple families showed that one QTL was common in four of the eight families, nine QTLs were detected in three of the eight families, and 26 QTLs were found common to two of the eight families. These common QTLs are valuable candidates in marker-assisted selection. A large number of QTLs were detected in the common carp genome and associated with growth-related traits. Some of the QTLs of different growth-related traits were identified at similar chromosomal regions, suggesting a role for pleiotropy and/or tight linkage and demonstrating a common genetic basis of growth trait variations. The results have set up an example for comparing QTLs in common carp and provided insights into variations in the identified QTLs

  16. Agreeableness and alcohol-related aggression: the mediating effect of trait aggressivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Cameron A; Parrott, Dominic J; Giancola, Peter R

    2009-12-01

    This study investigated the mediating effect of trait aggressivity on the relation between agreeableness and alcohol-related aggression in a laboratory setting. Participants were 116 healthy male social drinkers between 21 and 30 years of age. Agreeableness and trait aggressivity were measured using the Big Five Inventory and the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire, respectively. Following the consumption of an alcohol or no-alcohol control beverage, participants completed a modified version of the Taylor Aggression Paradigm, in which electric shocks were received from and administered to a fictitious opponent during a competitive task. Aggression was operationalized as the proportion of the most extreme shocks delivered to the fictitious opponent under conditions of low and high provocation. Results indicated that lower levels of agreeableness were associated with higher levels of trait aggressivity. In turn, higher levels of trait aggressivity predicted extreme aggression in intoxicated, but not sober, participants under low, but not high, provocation. Findings highlight the importance of examining determinants of intoxicated aggression within a broader theoretical framework of personality.

  17. Exploring the relation between childhood trauma, temperamental traits and mindfulness in borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elices, Matilde; Pascual, Juan C; Carmona, Cristina; Martín-Blanco, Ana; Feliu-Soler, Albert; Ruiz, Elisabet; Gomà-I-Freixanet, Montserrat; Pérez, Víctor; Soler, Joaquim

    2015-07-29

    Deficits in mindfulness-related capacities have been described in borderline personality disorder (BPD). However, little research has been conducted to explore which factors could explain these deficits. This study assesses the relationship between temperamental traits and childhood maltreatment with mindfulness in BPD. A total of 100 individuals diagnosed with BPD participated in the study. Childhood maltreatment was assessed using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ-SF), temperamental traits were assessed using the Zuckerman-Khulman Personality Questionnaire (ZKPQ), and mindfulness capabilities were evaluated with the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ). Hierarchical regression analyses were performed including only those CTQ-SF and ZKPQ subscales that showed simultaneous significant correlations with mindfulness facets. Results indicated that neuroticism and sexual abuse were predictors of acting with awareness; and neuroticism, impulsiveness and sexual abuse were significant predictors of non-judging. Temperamental traits did not have a moderator effect on the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and mindfulness facets. These results provide preliminary evidence for the effects of temperamental traits and childhood trauma on mindfulness capabilities in BPD individuals. Further studies are needed to better clarify the impact of childhood traumatic experiences on mindfulness capabilities and to determine the causal relations between these variables.

  18. PERCEPTION OF SUPERVISOR SUPPORT, PERSONALITY TRAITS OF EMPLOYEES AND THEIR SATISFACTION WITH WORK-RELATED FACETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Hadzic

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The planned downsizing in many organizations which are under the state ownership in Serbia produce a high level of uncertainty and a very specific organi-zational environment. Investigation of the satisfaction with work-related facets of the employees at the beginning of organizational changes is a very important step toward the building of an appropriate strategy for human resource management. We investigate the moderating effect of the variable “supervisor support“ on the correla-tions between variables “Big Five personality traits of employees” and “satisfaction with work-related facets”.Sample consists of 117 employees from a big state owned organization during an important organizational change. The following instruments are used: Big Five Locator - BFL, Communication Satisfaction Questionnaire - CSQ and Job Satisfac-tion Questionnaire - JS.Our results prove that the variable “supervisor support” moderate the correlati-ons between variable “personality trait conscientiousness” and variables “satisfacti-on with pay” and “satisfaction with benefit”; the correlation between variable “personality trait openness” and variable “satisfaction with pay”; the correlations between variable “personality trait negative affectivity” and variables ”satisfaction with pay”, “satisfaction with benefit”, and “satisfaction with recognition”.

  19. Dysfunctional error-related processing in incarcerated youth with elevated psychopathic traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, J. Michael; Steele, Vaughn R.; Cope, Lora M.; Vincent, Gina M.; Stephen, Julia M.; Calhoun, Vince D.; Kiehl, Kent A.

    2016-01-01

    Adult psychopathic offenders show an increased propensity towards violence, impulsivity, and recidivism. A subsample of youth with elevated psychopathic traits represent a particularly severe subgroup characterized by extreme behavioral problems and comparable neurocognitive deficits as their adult counterparts, including perseveration deficits. Here, we investigate response-locked event-related potential (ERP) components (the error-related negativity [ERN/Ne] related to early error-monitoring processing and the error-related positivity [Pe] involved in later error-related processing) in a sample of incarcerated juvenile male offenders (n = 100) who performed a response inhibition Go/NoGo task. Psychopathic traits were assessed using the Hare Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL:YV). The ERN/Ne and Pe were analyzed with classic windowed ERP components and principal component analysis (PCA). Using linear regression analyses, PCL:YV scores were unrelated to the ERN/Ne, but were negatively related to Pe mean amplitude. Specifically, the PCL:YV Facet 4 subscale reflecting antisocial traits emerged as a significant predictor of reduced amplitude of a subcomponent underlying the Pe identified with PCA. This is the first evidence to suggest a negative relationship between adolescent psychopathy scores and Pe mean amplitude. PMID:26930170

  20. Serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein A levels in the first, second and third trimester of pregnancy: relation to newborn anthropometric parameters and maternal tobacco smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chełchowska, Magdalena; Gajewska, Joanna; Mazur, Joanna; Ambroszkiewicz, Jadwiga; Maciejewski, Tomasz M; Leibschang, Jerzy

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the associations of the first, second and third trimester serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) concentrations with neonatal anthropometric parameters. The effect of tobacco smoking during pregnancy on PAPP-A level was also studied. One hundred and fifty healthy pregnant women were divided into smoking and tobacco-abstinent groups. Serum PAPP-A level was measured with the KRYPTOR rapid random-access immunoassay analyzer. The relationship between PAPP-A and newborn related outcome as well as markers of estimated intensity of cigarette smoking was evaluated by univariate and multivariate linear regression. Pregnancy-associated plasma protein A concentration was positively correlated with birth weight in the first (β = 31.6; p < 0.001), second (β = 10.6; p < 0.05), and third (β = 4.6; p < 0.001) trimester of gestation. A significant association between PAPP-A and birth body length and head circumference in the second (β = 0.02; p < 0.05) and third trimester (β = 0.01; p < 0.01) was also found. The serum PAPP-A levels were significantly lower in the smoking than in the tobacco-abstinent group in each trimester of pregnancy ( p < 0.001). The largest impact of the number of cigarettes smoked per day on PAPP-A level was found in the second (β = -1.2; p = 0.004) and third trimester (β = -2.6; p = 0.001). Maternal serum PAPP-A levels during gestation might be significant predictors for birth weight. Increased PAPP-A concentrations in the second and third trimester appeared to also be predictive for newborn body length and head circumference. Smoking alters maternal PAPP-A levels in all trimesters, with the greatest impact related to the number of cigarettes smoked per day.

  1. Effects of parental emotional warmth on the relationship between regional gray matter volume and depression-related personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Junyi; Yin, Ping; Wei, Dongtao; Wang, Kangcheng; Li, Yongmei; Qiu, Jiang

    2017-06-01

    The depression-related personality trait is associated with the severity of patients' current depressive symptoms and with the vulnerability to depression within the nonclinical groups. However, little is known about the anatomical structure associated with the depression-related personality traits within the nonclinical sample. Parenting behavior is associated with the depression symptoms; however, whether or not parenting behavior influence the neural basis of the depression-related personality traits is unclear. Thus in current study, first, we used voxel-based morphometry to identify the brain regions underlying individual differences in depression-related personality traits, as measured by the revised Neuroticism-Extraversion-Openness Personality Inventory, in a large sample of young healthy adults. Second, we use mediation analysis to investigate the relationship between parenting behavior and neural basis of depression-related personality traits. The results revealed that depression-related personality traits were positively correlated with gray matter volume mainly in medial frontal gyrus (MFG) that is implicated in the self-referential processing and emotional regulation. Furthermore, parental emotional warmth acted as a mediational mechanism underlying the association between the MFG volume and the depression-related personality trait. Together, our findings suggested that the family environment might play an important role in the acquisition and process of the depression-related personality traits.

  2. Variation in relative growth rate and growth traits in wild and cultivated Capsicum accessions grown under different temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, de E.A.M.; Marcelis, L.F.M.; Voorrips, R.E.

    2006-01-01

    Differences in environmental conditions are known to influence plant growth and growth-related traits. The aim of this study was to identify the variation in relative growth rate (RGR), and its underlying physiological and morphological traits, in a group of ten wild and cultivated Capsicum

  3. The Relation Between Supervisors' Big Five Personality Traits and Employees' Experiences of Abusive Supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camps, Jeroen; Stouten, Jeroen; Euwema, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigates the relation between supervisors' personality traits and employees' experiences of supervisory abuse, an area that - to date - remained largely unexplored in previous research. Field data collected from 103 supervisor-subordinate dyads showed that contrary to our expectations supervisors' agreeableness and neuroticism were not significantly related to abusive supervision, nor were supervisors' extraversion or openness to experience. Interestingly, however, our findings revealed a positive relation between supervisors' conscientiousness and abusive supervision. That is, supervisors high in conscientiousness were more likely to be perceived as an abusive supervisor by their employees. Overall, our findings do suggest that supervisors' Big Five personality traits explain only a limited amount of the variability in employees' experiences of abusive supervision.

  4. The Relation Between Supervisors’ Big Five Personality Traits and Employees’ Experiences of Abusive Supervision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camps, Jeroen; Stouten, Jeroen; Euwema, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigates the relation between supervisors’ personality traits and employees’ experiences of supervisory abuse, an area that – to date – remained largely unexplored in previous research. Field data collected from 103 supervisor-subordinate dyads showed that contrary to our expectations supervisors’ agreeableness and neuroticism were not significantly related to abusive supervision, nor were supervisors’ extraversion or openness to experience. Interestingly, however, our findings revealed a positive relation between supervisors’ conscientiousness and abusive supervision. That is, supervisors high in conscientiousness were more likely to be perceived as an abusive supervisor by their employees. Overall, our findings do suggest that supervisors’ Big Five personality traits explain only a limited amount of the variability in employees’ experiences of abusive supervision. PMID:26903919

  5. Urgency traits moderate daily relations between affect and drinking to intoxication among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bold, Krysten W; Fucito, Lisa M; DeMartini, Kelly S; Leeman, Robert F; Kranzler, Henry R; Corbin, William R; O'Malley, Stephanie S

    2017-01-01

    Young adults with higher trait urgency (i.e., a tendency to act rashly in response to heightened affect) may be especially vulnerable to heavy drinking. The current study examined 1) the influence of urgency on daily relations between affect and drinking to intoxication, and 2) whether urgency influenced the effectiveness of naltrexone (vs. placebo) for reducing alcohol use. This study is a secondary analysis of data from 126 (n=40 female) heavy drinking young adults, ages 18-25, enrolled in a double-blind, 8-week clinical trial comparing brief motivational intervention and either naltrexone or placebo. Multilevel models examined whether trait urgency moderated daily relations between positive and negative affect and drinking to intoxication, measured by an estimated blood-alcohol concentration (eBAC) at or above the legal limit (≥0.08g%). Person-level interactions examined whether naltrexone was more effective than placebo at reducing the odds of eBAC≥0.08g% for individuals with higher vs. lower trait urgency. On days of greater within-person positive or negative affect, young adults with higher urgency were more likely to drink to intoxication than those with lower urgency. Naltrexone reduced the odds of drinking to intoxication significantly more than placebo, independent of positive or negative urgency. Although naltrexone treatment reduced drinking overall, young adults with higher trait urgency were still at increased risk for hazardous drinking following times of strong positive or negative mood. Targeted interventions are needed to reduce the risk of heavy drinking among young adults with high trait urgency. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The modulating effect of personality traits on neural error monitoring: evidence from event-related FMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosic-Vasic, Zrinka; Ulrich, Martin; Ruchsow, Martin; Vasic, Nenad; Grön, Georg

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the association between traits of the Five Factor Model of Personality (Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness for Experiences, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness) and neural correlates of error monitoring obtained from a combined Eriksen-Flanker-Go/NoGo task during event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging in 27 healthy subjects. Individual expressions of personality traits were measured using the NEO-PI-R questionnaire. Conscientiousness correlated positively with error signaling in the left inferior frontal gyrus and adjacent anterior insula (IFG/aI). A second strong positive correlation was observed in the anterior cingulate gyrus (ACC). Neuroticism was negatively correlated with error signaling in the inferior frontal cortex possibly reflecting the negative inter-correlation between both scales observed on the behavioral level. Under present statistical thresholds no significant results were obtained for remaining scales. Aligning the personality trait of Conscientiousness with task accomplishment striving behavior the correlation in the left IFG/aI possibly reflects an inter-individually different involvement whenever task-set related memory representations are violated by the occurrence of errors. The strong correlations in the ACC may indicate that more conscientious subjects were stronger affected by these violations of a given task-set expressed by individually different, negatively valenced signals conveyed by the ACC upon occurrence of an error. Present results illustrate that for predicting individual responses to errors underlying personality traits should be taken into account and also lend external validity to the personality trait approach suggesting that personality constructs do reflect more than mere descriptive taxonomies.

  7. The modulating effect of personality traits on neural error monitoring: evidence from event-related FMRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zrinka Sosic-Vasic

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the association between traits of the Five Factor Model of Personality (Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness for Experiences, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness and neural correlates of error monitoring obtained from a combined Eriksen-Flanker-Go/NoGo task during event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging in 27 healthy subjects. Individual expressions of personality traits were measured using the NEO-PI-R questionnaire. Conscientiousness correlated positively with error signaling in the left inferior frontal gyrus and adjacent anterior insula (IFG/aI. A second strong positive correlation was observed in the anterior cingulate gyrus (ACC. Neuroticism was negatively correlated with error signaling in the inferior frontal cortex possibly reflecting the negative inter-correlation between both scales observed on the behavioral level. Under present statistical thresholds no significant results were obtained for remaining scales. Aligning the personality trait of Conscientiousness with task accomplishment striving behavior the correlation in the left IFG/aI possibly reflects an inter-individually different involvement whenever task-set related memory representations are violated by the occurrence of errors. The strong correlations in the ACC may indicate that more conscientious subjects were stronger affected by these violations of a given task-set expressed by individually different, negatively valenced signals conveyed by the ACC upon occurrence of an error. Present results illustrate that for predicting individual responses to errors underlying personality traits should be taken into account and also lend external validity to the personality trait approach suggesting that personality constructs do reflect more than mere descriptive taxonomies.

  8. Factorial correspondence analysis of fear-related behaviour traits in Japanese quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignon-Grasteau, S; Roussot, O; Delaby, C; Faure, J M.; Mills, A; Leterrier, C; Guéméné, D; Constantin, P; Mills, M; Lepape, G; Beaumont, C

    2003-02-28

    Factorial correspondence analysis was performed on 341 quails from a F2 cross between two lines divergently selected on the duration of tonic immobility over 29 generations. Several fear- or stress-related traits were recorded, i.e. tonic immobility duration, number of inductions needed to induce tonic immobility, open-field behaviour (time spent walking, latency before first movement and number of defecations), asymmetry of tibia lengths and corticosterone concentration after restraint stress. Variables were categorised in classes and analysed by factorial correspondence analysis. The first axis was mostly described by open-field behaviour, and the second by tonic immobility traits (duration of tonic immobility and number of inductions), which showed that these behaviours were almost independent. No relationship was found between axes of the factorial correspondence analysis and corticosterone concentration or asymmetry of tibia lengths, showing that these variables reflected other characteristics of stress susceptibility than those described by tonic immobility and open-field behaviour. These results show that reaction to stress of quails is a multidimensional trait and cannot be summarised by one trait.

  9. The relation between trait mindfulness and aggression in men seeking residential substance use treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorey, Ryan C; Anderson, Scott; Stuart, Gregory L

    2015-06-01

    There has been an abundance of research in recent years on mindfulness, including mindfulness within individuals seeking substance use treatment. However, to date, there has been no research on whether trait mindfulness is associated with increased aggression among individuals seeking substance use treatment. Past research has demonstrated that individuals in substance use treatment evidence higher levels of aggression than non-substance abusers, and preliminary research has shown that trait mindfulness is inversely associated with aggression in non-substance-use treatment-seeking populations. The current study examined whether trait mindfulness was associated with aggression among men seeking residential substance use treatment (N = 116). Results demonstrated that lower trait mindfulness was associated with increased aggression (physical, verbal, and aggressive attitude). Moreover, this relation held for both verbal aggression and aggressive attitude after controlling for alcohol use, drug use, and age, all known predictors of aggression. Findings provide the first evidence that mindfulness is negatively associated with aggression among men in substance use treatment, which could have important implications for intervention. That is, mindfulness-based interventions may prove helpful for the treatment of both substance use and aggression. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Affective touch awareness in mental health and disease relates to autistic traits - An explorative neurophysiological investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croy, Ilona; Geide, Helen; Paulus, Martin; Weidner, Kerstin; Olausson, Håkan

    2016-11-30

    Affective touch is important for social interaction within families and groups and there is evidence that unmyelinated C tactile fibers are involved in this process. Individuals with autism spectrum disorders show alterations in the perception and processing of affective touch. sThus, we hypothesized that affective touch awareness based on C tactile fiber activation is impaired in individuals with high levels of autistic trait. The pleasantness perception of optimal and suboptimal C tactile stimuli was tested in an explorative study in 70 patients recruited from an outpatient psychotherapy clinic and 69 healthy comparison subjects. All participants completed questionnaires about autistic traits, depressive symptomatology, childhood maltreatment, and about the daily amount of touch. Relative to comparison subjects, patients reported engaging in touch less frequently in daily life and rated touch less pleasant. Reduced valence ratings of touch were explained by childhood maltreatment but not by any particular disorder or depression severity. Among all tested variables, the affective touch awareness correlated with autistic traits only - in patients as well as in comparison subjects. Taken together, individuals with mental health issues have a lower baseline of expression and reception of affective touch. Autistic traits and childhood maltreatment modulate the experience of affective touch. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Are leaf physiological traits related to leaf water isotopic enrichment in restinga woody species?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BRUNO H.P. ROSADO

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available During plant-transpiration, water molecules having the lighter stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen evaporate and diffuse at a faster rate through the stomata than molecules having the heavier isotopes, which cause isotopic enrichment of leaf water. Although previous models have assumed that leaf water is well-mixed and isotopically uniform, non-uniform stomatal closure, promoting different enrichments between cells, and different pools of water within leaves, due to morpho-physiological traits, might lead to inaccuracies in isotopic models predicting leaf water enrichment. We evaluate the role of leaf morpho-physiological traits on leaf water isotopic enrichment in woody species occurring in a coastal vegetation of Brazil known as restinga. Hydrogen and oxygen stable isotope values of soil, plant stem and leaf water and leaf traits were measured in six species from restinga vegetation during a drought and a wet period. Leaf water isotopic enrichment relative to stem water was more homogeneous among species during the drought in contrast to the wet period suggesting convergent responses to deal to temporal heterogeneity in water availability. Average leaf water isotopic enrichment relative to stem water during the drought period was highly correlated with relative apoplastic water content. We discuss this observation in the context of current models of leaf water isotopic enrichment as a function of the Péclet effect. We suggest that future studies should include relative apoplastic water content in isotopic models.

  12. Are leaf physiological traits related to leaf water isotopic enrichment in restinga woody species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosado, Bruno H P; De Mattos, Eduardo A; Sternberg, Leonel Da S L

    2013-09-01

    During plant-transpiration, water molecules having the lighter stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen evaporate and diffuse at a faster rate through the stomata than molecules having the heavier isotopes, which cause isotopic enrichment of leaf water. Although previous models have assumed that leaf water is well-mixed and isotopically uniform, non-uniform stomatal closure, promoting different enrichments between cells, and different pools of water within leaves, due to morpho-physiological traits, might lead to inaccuracies in isotopic models predicting leaf water enrichment. We evaluate the role of leaf morpho-physiological traits on leaf water isotopic enrichment in woody species occurring in a coastal vegetation of Brazil known as restinga. Hydrogen and oxygen stable isotope values of soil, plant stem and leaf water and leaf traits were measured in six species from restinga vegetation during a drought and a wet period. Leaf water isotopic enrichment relative to stem water was more homogeneous among species during the drought in contrast to the wet period suggesting convergent responses to deal to temporal heterogeneity in water availability. Average leaf water isotopic enrichment relative to stem water during the drought period was highly correlated with relative apoplastic water content. We discuss this observation in the context of current models of leaf water isotopic enrichment as a function of the Péclet effect. We suggest that future studies should include relative apoplastic water content in isotopic models.

  13. The relations between personality traits and psychopathy as measured by ratings and self-report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kujačić Daliborka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine the relations between psychopathy - as assessed by ratings (PCL-R and by self-report (SRP3 - on one side, and The Five-Factor personality Model - expanded to include the traits Amorality and Disintegration - on the other. Both methods examined four traits of psychopathy: interpersonal, affective, lifestyle and antisocial characteristics. Data were collected on a sample of 112 male convicts. The results show the absence of congruence between the two methods - self-report and rating - in case of interpersonal and affective psychopathic dispositions. This incongruence is also reflected in their relations with personality traits. The self-report measures and the ratings of Lifestyle and Antisocial tendencies are related to amorality, aggressiveness, schizotypy, Neuroticism and impulsivity. However, the ratings of affective and interpersonal style are related to the integrated, organized, and emotionally stable aspects of personality. The results are interpreted in the light of differences between the methods of assessment and in the light of the essential characteristics of the psychopathic phenomena.

  14. Coordination of Leaf Photosynthesis, Transpiration, and Structural Traits in Rice and Wild Relatives (Genus Oryza).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, Rita; Koteyeva, Nuria; Voznesenskaya, Elena; Evans, Marc A; Cousins, Asaph B; Edwards, Gerald E

    2013-07-01

    The genus Oryza, which includes rice (Oryza sativa and Oryza glaberrima) and wild relatives, is a useful genus to study leaf properties in order to identify structural features that control CO(2) access to chloroplasts, photosynthesis, water use efficiency, and drought tolerance. Traits, 26 structural and 17 functional, associated with photosynthesis and transpiration were quantified on 24 accessions (representatives of 17 species and eight genomes). Hypotheses of associations within, and between, structure, photosynthesis, and transpiration were tested. Two main clusters of positively interrelated leaf traits were identified: in the first cluster were structural features, leaf thickness (Thick(leaf)), mesophyll (M) cell surface area exposed to intercellular air space per unit of leaf surface area (S(mes)), and M cell size; a second group included functional traits, net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, M conductance to CO(2) diffusion (g(m)), stomatal conductance to gas diffusion (g(s)), and the g(m)/g(s) ratio.While net photosynthetic rate was positively correlated with gm, neither was significantly linked with any individual structural traits. The results suggest that changes in gm depend on covariations of multiple leaf (S(mes)) and M cell (including cell wall thickness) structural traits. There was an inverse relationship between Thick(leaf) and transpiration rate and a significant positive association between Thick(leaf) and leaf transpiration efficiency. Interestingly, high g(m) together with high g(m)/g(s) and a low S(mes)/g(m) ratio (M resistance to CO(2) diffusion per unit of cell surface area exposed to intercellular air space) appear to be ideal for supporting leaf photosynthesis while preserving water; in addition, thick M cell walls may be beneficial for plant drought tolerance.

  15. Dark personality traits and impulsivity among adolescents: Differential links to problem behaviors and family relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubas, Judith Semon; Baams, Laura; Doornwaard, Suzan M; van Aken, Marcel A G

    2017-10-01

    Research on how dark personality traits develop and relate to risky behaviors and family relations during adolescence is scarce. This study used a person-oriented approach to examine (a) whether distinct groups of adolescents could be identified based on their developmental profiles of callous-unemotional (CU), grandiose manipulative (GM), and dysfunctional impulsivity (DI) traits and (b) whether these groups differ in their problem behaviors and parent-adolescent relationship quality. Latent class growth analyses on 4-wave data of 1,131 Dutch adolescents revealed 3 personality profiles: (1) a dark impulsive group (13.9%), with high scores on all 3 traits (CU, GM, and DI) that were stable over time; (2) an impulsive group (26.1%), with high and increasing levels of impulsivity and relatively low scores on CU and GM; and (3) and a low risk group (60.0%), with relatively low levels on all 3 personality characteristics, with impulsivity decreasing over time. Compared with adolescents in the low risk group, adolescents in the dark impulsive and impulsive groups reported higher initial levels of substance use, sexual risk behaviors, permissive sexual attitudes, parent-adolescent conflict, and lower parent-adolescent satisfaction, as well as greater increases in sexual risk behavior over time. Compared with adolescents in the impulsive group, those in the dark impulsive group showed the highest levels of risk behaviors. Hence, dark personality traits coupled with impulsivity may be indicative of an earlier and more severe trajectory of problem behaviors that may differ from the trajectory of youth who are only impulsive. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Estimation of Relative Economic Weights of Hanwoo Carcass Traits Based on Carcass Market Price

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choy, Yun Ho; Park, Byoung Ho; Choi, Tae Jung; Choi, Jae Gwan; Cho, Kwang Hyun; Lee, Seung Soo; Choi, You Lim; Koh, Kyung Chul; Kim, Hyo Sun

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate economic weights of Hanwoo carcass traits that can be used to build economic selection indexes for selection of seedstocks. Data from carcass measures for determining beef yield and quality grades were collected and provided by the Korean Institute for Animal Products Quality Evaluation (KAPE). Out of 1,556,971 records, 476,430 records collected from 13 abattoirs from 2008 to 2010 after deletion of outlying observations were used to estimate relative economic weights of bid price per kg carcass weight on cold carcass weight (CW), eye muscle area (EMA), backfat thickness (BF) and marbling score (MS) and the phenotypic relationships among component traits. Price of carcass tended to increase linearly as yield grades or quality grades, in marginal or in combination, increased. Partial regression coefficients for MS, EMA, BF, and for CW in original scales were +948.5 won/score, +27.3 won/cm2, −95.2 won/mm and +7.3 won/kg when all three sex categories were taken into account. Among four grade determining traits, relative economic weight of MS was the greatest. Variations in partial regression coefficients by sex categories were great but the trends in relative weights for each carcass measures were similar. Relative economic weights of four traits in integer values when standardized measures were fit into covariance model were +4:+1:−1:+1 for MS:EMA:BF:CW. Further research is required to account for the cost of production per unit carcass weight or per unit production under different economic situations. PMID:25049531

  17. Introgression of novel traits from a wild wheat relative improves drought adaptation in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Placido, Dante F; Campbell, Malachy T; Folsom, Jing J; Cui, Xinping; Kruger, Greg R; Baenziger, P Stephen; Walia, Harkamal

    2013-04-01

    Root architecture traits are an important component for improving water stress adaptation. However, selection for aboveground traits under favorable environments in modern cultivars may have led to an inadvertent loss of genes and novel alleles beneficial for adapting to environments with limited water. In this study, we elucidate the physiological and molecular consequences of introgressing an alien chromosome segment (7DL) from a wild wheat relative species (Agropyron elongatum) into cultivated wheat (Triticum aestivum). The wheat translocation line had improved water stress adaptation and higher root and shoot biomass compared with the control genotypes, which showed significant drops in root and shoot biomass during stress. Enhanced access to water due to higher root biomass enabled the translocation line to maintain more favorable gas-exchange and carbon assimilation levels relative to the wild-type wheat genotypes during water stress. Transcriptome analysis identified candidate genes associated with root development. Two of these candidate genes mapped to the site of translocation on chromosome 7DL based on single-feature polymorphism analysis. A brassinosteroid signaling pathway was predicted to be involved in the novel root responses observed in the A. elongatum translocation line, based on the coexpression-based gene network generated by seeding the network with the candidate genes. We present an effective and highly integrated approach that combines root phenotyping, whole-plant physiology, and functional genomics to discover novel root traits and the underlying genes from a wild related species to improve drought adaptation in cultivated wheat.

  18. Reproductive traits and evolutionary divergence between Mediterranean crops and their wild relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriondo, J M; Milla, R; Volis, S; Rubio de Casas, R

    2018-01-01

    Changes in reproductive traits associated with domestication critically determine the evolutionary divergence between crops and their wild relatives, as well as the potential of crop plants to become feral. In this review, we examine the genetic mechanisms of plant domestication and the different types of selection involved, and describe the particularities of domestication of Mediterranean field crops with regard to their reproductive traits, showing illustrative examples. We also explore gene flow patterns between Mediterranean field crops and their wild relatives, along with their ecological, evolutionary and economic implications. Domestication entails multiple selective processes, including direct selection, environmental adaptation and developmental constraints. In contrast to clonal propagation in perennials, sexual reproduction and seed propagation in annuals and biennials have led to a distinct pathway of evolution of reproductive traits. Thus, the initial domestication and further breeding of Mediterranean field crops has brought about changes in reproductive traits, such as higher mean values and variance of seed and fruit sizes, reduced fruit and seed toxicity, non-shattering seeds and loss of seed dormancy. Evolution under domestication is not a linear process, and bi-directional gene flow between wild and crop taxa is a frequent phenomenon. Thus, hybridisation and introgression have played a very important role in determining the genetics of current cultivars. In turn, gene flow from crops to wild relatives can lead to introgression of crop genes into wild populations and potentially alter the characteristics of natural communities. In conclusion, plant evolution under domestication has not only changed the reproductive biology of cultivated taxa, its effects are multifaceted and have implications beyond agriculture. © 2017 German Society for Plant Sciences and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  19. Examining Dark Triad traits in relation to mental toughness and physical activity in young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabouri S

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sarah Sabouri,1 Markus Gerber,2 Dena Sadeghi Bahmani,3 Sakari Lemola,4 Peter J Clough,5 Nadeem Kalak,3 Mahin Shamsi,1 Edith Holsboer-Trachsler,3 Serge Brand2,3 1Faculty of Educational Sciences and Psychology, AllamehTabataba’i University, Tehran, Iran; 2Department of Sport, Exercise and Health, Sport Science Section, University of Basel, 3Center for Affective, Stress and Sleep Disorders, Psychiatric Clinics of the University of Basel, 4Faculty of Psychology, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; 5Department of Psychology, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, UK Objective: The Dark Triad (DT describes a set of three closely related personality traits: Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy. Mental toughness (MT refers to a psychological construct combining confidence, commitment, control, and challenge. High MT is related to greater physical activity (PA and, relative to men, women have lower MT scores. The aims of the present study were 1 to investigate the association between DT, MT, and PA, and 2 to compare the DT, MT, and PA scores of men and women.Methods: A total of 341 adults (M=29 years; 51.6% women; range: 18–37 years took part in the study. Participants completed a series of questionnaires assessing DT, MT, and PA.Results: Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy were all significantly associated with higher MT scores (rs =0.45, 0.50, and 0.20, respectively. DT traits and MT were associated with more vigorous PA. Compared to men, women participants had lower scores for DT traits (overall score and psychopathy, while no differences were found for MT or PA in both sexes.Conclusion: DT traits, high MT, and vigorous PA are interrelated. This pattern of results might explain why, for instance, successful professional athletes can at the same time be tough and ruthless. Keywords: dark triad, mental toughness, physical activity, young adults, sex

  20. The Longitudinal Relation between Childhood Autistic Traits and Psychosexual Problems in Early Adolescence: The Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, Linda P.; Hartman, Catharina A.; van der Vegt, Esther J. M.; Verhulst, Frank C.; van Oort, Floor V. A.; Greaves-Lord, Kirstin

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with autistic traits are considered to be prone to develop psychosexual problems due to their limited social skills and insight. This study investigated the longitudinal relation between autistic traits in childhood (T1; age 10-12 years) and parent-reported psychosexual problems in early adolescence (T2; age 12-15 years). In a general…

  1. The longitudinal relation between childhood autistic traits and psychosexual problems in early adolescence : The Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, Linda P.; Hartman, Catharina A.; van der Vegt, Esther J. M.; Verhulst, Frank C.; van Oort, Floor V. A.; Greaves-Lord, Kirstin

    Individuals with autistic traits are considered to be prone to develop psychosexual problems due to their limited social skills and insight. This study investigated the longitudinal relation between autistic traits in childhood (T1; age 10-12 years) and parent-reported psychosexual problems in early

  2. Stability of agronomic and yield related traits of Jatropha curcas accessions raised from cuttings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mat, Nurul Hidayah Che; Yaakob, Zahira; Ratnam, Wickneswari

    2016-11-01

    Monitoring stability of agronomic and yield related traits is important for prediction of crop yields. This study was a latter study for the evaluation of 295 J. curcas individuals representing 21 accessions from eight countries at Biodiesel Research Station of Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Pilah planted in December 2012. In this study, 183 J. curcas individuals were selected randomly from the population and their growth performance evaluated from December 2013 to December 2014. All the individual plants were raised from cuttings. The yield related data were recorded periodically and performance of each accession was analyzed using Statistical Analysis System (SAS) 9.4. Five traits which were number of fruits per plant (NFPP), number of fruits per inflorescence (NFPI), hundred seed weight (g) (HSW), number of seeds per plant (NSPP) and yield per plant (g) (YPP) showed significant differences among the accessions after two years of planting. Maximum values for each trait were 208 cm for plant height (PH), 31 for number of branches per plant (BPP), 115 for number of inflorescence per plant (NIPP), 582 for NFPP, 7 for NFPI, 307 for number of flowers per inflorescence (NFI), 17 for number of female flowers per inflorescence (NFFPI), 91.6 g for HSW, 1647.1 for NSPP and 927.6 g for YPP. Most of the plants which had performed well in the first year were among the best performers in the second year.

  3. Age-related reduced prefrontal-amygdala structural connectivity is associated with lower trait anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clewett, David; Bachman, Shelby; Mather, Mara

    2014-07-01

    A current neuroanatomical model of anxiety posits that greater structural connectivity between the amygdala and ventral prefrontal cortex (vPFC) facilitates regulatory control over the amygdala and helps reduce anxiety. However, some neuroimaging studies have reported contradictory findings, demonstrating a positive rather than negative association between trait anxiety and amygdala-vPFC white matter integrity. To help reconcile these findings, we tested the regulatory hypothesis of anxiety circuitry using aging as a model of white matter decline in the amygdala-vPFC pathway. We used probabilistic tractography to trace connections between the amygdala and vPFC in 21 younger, 18 middle-aged, and 15 healthy older adults. The resulting tract estimates were used to extract 3 indices of white-matter integrity: fractional anisotropy (FA), radial diffusivity (RD), and axial diffusivity (AD). The relationship between these amygdala-vPFC structural connectivity measures and age and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) scores were assessed. The tractography results revealed age-related decline in the FA (p = .005) and radial diffusivity (p = .002) of the amygdala-vPFC pathway. Contrary to the regulatory hypothesis, we found a positive rather than negative association between trait anxiety and right amygdala-vPFC FA (p = .01). These findings argue against the notion that greater amygdala-vPFC structural integrity facilitates better anxiety outcomes in healthy adults. Instead, our results suggest that white matter degeneration in this network relates to lower anxiety in older adults.

  4. Age-related reduced prefrontal-amygdala structural connectivity is associated with lower trait anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clewett, David; Bachman, Shelby; Mather, Mara

    2014-01-01

    Objective A current neuroanatomical model of anxiety posits that greater structural connectivity between the amygdala and ventral prefrontal cortex (vPFC) facilitates regulatory control over the amygdala and helps reduce anxiety. However, some neuroimaging studies have reported contradictory findings, demonstrating a positive rather than negative association between trait anxiety and amygdala-vPFC white matter integrity. To help reconcile these findings, we tested the regulatory hypothesis of anxiety circuitry using aging as a model of white matter decline in the amygdala-vPFC pathway. Methods We used probabilistic tractography to trace connections between the amygdala and vPFC in 21 younger, 18 middle-aged, and 15 healthy older adults. The resulting tract estimates were used to extract three indices of white-matter integrity: fractional anisotropy (FA), radial diffusivity (RD) and axial diffusivity (AD). The relationship between these amygdala-vPFC structural connectivity measures and age and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) scores were assessed. Results The tractography results revealed age-related decline in the FA (p = .005) and radial diffusivity (p = .002) of the amygdala-vPFC pathway. Contrary to the regulatory hypothesis, we found a positive rather than negative association between trait anxiety and right amygdala-vPFC FA (p = .01). Conclusion These findings argue against the notion that greater amygdala-vPFC structural integrity facilitates better anxiety outcomes in healthy adults. Instead, our results suggest that white matter degeneration in this network relates to lower anxiety in older adults. PMID:24635708

  5. Roles in violent interactions in early adolescence: Relations with personality traits, friendship and gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čolović Petar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine the relations between roles in violent interactions and personality traits (congruent to dimensions of Big Seven lexical model, number of friends, and gender. The study was conducted on a sample of 1095 elementary school students from Serbia (51.4% female, aged 11-14. The results revealed that membership in the victims group corresponds to smaller number of friends, low Extraversion, high Neuroticism and Conscientiousness and male gender, while higher Aggressiveness, Negative and Positive Valence, lower Neuroticism, and male gender increase the odds of membership in the bullies group. The role of bully-victims corresponds to smaller number of friends, higher Negative Valence and Neuroticism, and male gender. The results point to differences between roles in violent interaction with regard to patterns of personality traits and social behavior. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. ON179006: Psychological foundations of mental health: hereditary and environmental factors

  6. Anthropometric indices of failure to thrive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynor, P.; Rudolf, M.

    2000-01-01

    AIMS—To compare five anthropometric methods of classifying failure to thrive in order to ascertain their relative merits in predicting developmental, dietary, and eating problems.
METHODS—The five anthropometric methods were compared in 83 children with failure to thrive.
RESULTS—The methods were inconsistent in classification of severity, and no one method was superior in predicting problems.
CONCLUSIONS—Weight alone, being the simplest, is still the most reasonable marker for failure to thrive and associated problems.

 PMID:10799424

  7. Phenotypic Microdiversity and Phylogenetic Signal Analysis of Traits Related to Social Interaction in Bacillus spp. from Sediment Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Torres, María Dolores; Islas-Robles, África; Gómez-Lunar, Zulema; Delaye, Luis; Hernández-González, Ismael; Souza, Valeria; Travisano, Michael; Olmedo-Álvarez, Gabriela

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between phylogeny and predicted traits is important to uncover the dimension of the predictive power of a microbial composition approach. Numerous works have addressed the taxonomic composition of bacteria in communities, but little is known about trait heterogeneity in closely related bacteria that co-occur in communities. We evaluated a sample of 467 isolates from the Churince water system of the Cuatro Cienegas Basin (CCB), enriched for Bacillus spp. The 16S rRNA gene revealed a random distribution of taxonomic groups within this genus among 11 sampling sites. A subsample of 141 Bacillus spp. isolates from sediment, with seven well-represented species was chosen to evaluate the heterogeneity and the phylogenetic signal of phenotypic traits that are known to diverge within small clades, such as substrate utilization, and traits that are conserved deep in the lineage, such as prototrophy, swarming and biofilm formation. We were especially interested in evaluating social traits, such as swarming and biofilm formation, for which cooperation is needed to accomplish a multicellular behavior and for which there is little information from natural communities. The phylogenetic distribution of traits, evaluated by the Purvis and Fritz's D statistics approached a Brownian model of evolution. Analysis of the phylogenetic relatedness of the clusters of members sharing the trait using consenTRAIT algorithm, revealed more clustering and deeper phylogenetic signal for prototrophy, biofilm and swimming compared to the data obtained for substrate utilization. The explanation to the observed Brownian evolution of social traits could be either loss due to complete dispensability or to compensated trait loss due to the availability of public goods. Since many of the evaluated traits can be considered to be collective action traits, such as swarming, motility and biofilm formation, the observed microdiversity within taxonomic groups might be explained

  8. Association of the Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in , , and with Blood Related Traits in Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Bong Lee

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to detect positional candidate genes located within the support interval (SI regions based on the results of red blood cell, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin quantitative trait locus (QTL in Sus scrofa chromosome 13, and to verify the correlation between specific single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs located in the exonic region of the positional candidate gene and the three genetic traits. The flanking markers of the three QTL SI regions are SW38 and S0215. Within the QTL SI regions, 44 genes were located, and runt-related transcription factor 1, dual-specificity tyrosine-(Y-phosphorylation regulated kinase 1A (DYRK1A, and potassium inwardly-rectifying channel, subfamily J, member 15 KCNJ15–which are reported to be related to the hematological traits and clinical features of Down syndrome–were selected as positional candidate genes. The ten SNPs located in the exonic region of the three genes were detected by next generation sequencing. A total of 1,232 pigs of an F2 resource population between Landrace and Korean native pigs were genotyped. To investigate the effects of the three genes on each genotype, a mixed-effect model which is the considering family structure model was used to evaluate the associations between the SNPs and three genetic traits in the F2 intercross population. Among them, the MCV level was highly significant (nominal p = 9.8×10−9 in association with the DYRK1A-SNP1 (c.2989 G

  9. Relations of Distinct Psychopathic Personality Traits with Anxiety and Fear: Findings from Offenders and Non-Offenders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven M Gillespie

    Full Text Available Early descriptions of psychopathy emphasise fearlessness and a lack of nervousness or anxiety as key characteristics of the disorder. However, conflicting evidence suggests that anxiety may be positively correlated with some aspects of the psychopathy construct. This position may seem somewhat paradoxical when considered alongside impaired processing of fear related stimuli in psychopathic personality. The aim of the current paper was to examine the distinct relations of callous, egocentric, and antisocial psychopathic traits with measures of anxiety and social anxiety in samples of non-offenders (Study 1 and violent offenders (Study 2. In Study 2 we also used an emotion recognition task to examine fearful face recognition. In Studies 1 and 2 we showed distinct and opposite significant relationships of egocentric and antisocial psychopathic traits with trait anxiety. Thus, while trait anxiety was negatively predicted by egocentric traits, it was predicted in a positive direction by antisocial traits in both samples. In Study 2 we found that callous traits were predictive of greater impairments in fearful face recognition. These findings suggest that anxiety and fear are distinguishable constructs in relation to psychopathic personality traits, and are discussed in terms of potentially separable mechanisms for these two constructs.

  10. Anthropometric indices and energy intakes of alcoholic adolescent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed the nutritional status of alcoholics in relation to non-alcoholic adolescent students, as well as the relationship between alcohol consumption, and energy intake, and the anthropometric indices of the adolescent students of Abia state university. Anthropometric measurements (weight and height) of 513 ...

  11. Trait correlates of relational aggression in a nonclinical sample: DSM-IV personality disorders and psychopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeelk, Kelly M; Sylvers, Patrick; Lilienfeld, Scott O

    2008-06-01

    The implications of adult relational aggression in adults for personality pathology are poorly understood. We investigated the association between relational aggression and features of DSM-IV personality disorders and psychopathy in a sample of undergraduates (N = 220). In contrast to the childhood literature, we found no significant difference in relational aggression between men and women. Unlike overt aggression, which correlated about equally highly with features of all three personality disorder clusters, relational aggression correlated significantly more highly with features of Cluster B than Clusters A or C. In addition, even after controlling for overt aggression, relational aggression correlated significantly with features of psychopathy, although only with Factor 2 traits. With the exception of sadistic personality disorder features, gender did not moderate the relationship between relational aggression and personality pathology. Further research on the psycho-pathological implications of relational aggression in more severely affected samples is warranted.

  12. Long-term prediction of prostate cancer diagnosis and death using PSA and obesity related anthropometrics at early middle age: data from the malmö preventive project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assel, Melissa J; Gerdtsson, Axel; Thorek, Daniel L J; Carlsson, Sigrid V; Malm, Johan; Scardino, Peter T; Vickers, Andrew; Lilja, Hans; Ulmert, David

    2018-01-19

    To evaluate whether anthropometric parameters add to PSA measurements in middle-aged men for risk assessment of prostate cancer (PCa) diagnosis and death. After adjusting for PSA, both BMI and weight were significantly associated with an increased risk of PCa death with the odds of a death corresponding to a 10 kg/m2 or 10 kg increase being 1.58 (95% CI 1.10, 2.28; p = 0.013) and 1.14 (95% CI 1.02, 1.26; p = 0.016) times greater, respectively. AUCs did not meaningfully increase with the addition of weight or BMI to prediction models including PSA. In 1974 to 1986, 22,444 Swedish men aged 44 to 50 enrolled in Malmö Preventive Project, Sweden, and provided blood samples and anthropometric data. Rates of PSA screening in the cohort were very low. Documentation of PCa diagnosis and disease-specific death up to 2014 was retrieved through national registries. Among men with anthropometric measurements available at baseline, a total of 1692 men diagnosed with PCa were matched to 4190 controls, and 464 men who died of disease were matched to 1390 controls. Multivariable conditional logistic regression was used to determine whether diagnosis or death from PCa were associated with weight and body mass index (BMI) at adulthood after adjusting for PSA. Men with higher BMI and weight at early middle age have an increased risk of PCa diagnosis and death after adjusting for PSA. However, in a multi-variable numerical statistical model, BMI and weight do not importantly improve the predictive accuracy of PSA. Risk-stratification of screening should be based on PSA without reference to anthropometrics.

  13. Genetic basis of yield and some yield related traits in basmati rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleem, M.Y.; Haq, M.A.; Mirza, J.I.

    2010-01-01

    Additive, dominance and epistasis components of genetic variation for yield and some yield related traits were assessed through modified triple test cross technique in Basmati rice. Epistasis was found an important part of genetic variation for plant height, tillers per plant, secondary branches per panicle, grains per panicle, 1000-grain weight and yield per plant except primary branches per panicle and panicle length. Bifurcation of epistasis showed that additive x additive (i) type and additive x dominance + dominance x dominance (j + l) types of non-allelic interactions were involved in the expression of these traits. Additive and dominance type of gene action influenced the expression of primary branches per panicle and panicle length. No evidence of directional dominance was observed for these two traits. For plant height, tillers per plant, secondary branches per panicle, grains per panicle, 1000-grain weight and yield per plant, recurrent selection or bi parental mating may be exercised in F2 and following generations however, selection of desired plants may be postponed till F5 or F6 generations to permit maximum obsession of epistatic effects to develop desired cultivar(s) in Basmati rice.(author)

  14. QTL mapping of flag leaf-related traits in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kaiye; Xu, Hao; Liu, Gang; Guan, Panfeng; Zhou, Xueyao; Peng, Huiru; Yao, Yingyin; Ni, Zhongfu; Sun, Qixin; Du, Jinkun

    2018-04-01

    QTL controlling flag leaf length, flag leaf width, flag leaf area and flag leaf angle were mapped in wheat. This study aimed to advance our understanding of the genetic mechanisms underlying morphological traits of the flag leaves of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). A recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from ND3331 and the Tibetan semi-wild wheat Zang1817 was used to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling flag leaf length (FLL), flag leaf width (FLW), flag leaf area (FLA), and flag leaf angle (FLANG). Using an available simple sequence repeat genetic linkage map, 23 putative QTLs for FLL, FLW, FLA, and FLANG were detected on chromosomes 1B, 2B, 3A, 3D, 4B, 5A, 6B, 7B, and 7D. Individual QTL explained 4.3-68.52% of the phenotypic variance in different environments. Four QTLs for FLL, two for FLW, four for FLA, and five for FLANG were detected in at least two environments. Positive alleles of 17 QTLs for flag leaf-related traits originated from ND3331 and 6 originated from Zang1817. QTLs with pleiotropic effects or multiple linked QTL were also identified on chromosomes 1B, 4B, and 5A; these are potential target regions for fine-mapping and marker-assisted selection in wheat breeding programs.

  15. The Relationship between Nutritional Status and Anthropometric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three hundred and six (306) children of both sexes aged 1-5 years were classified into three groups: Normal, protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) and vitamin deficiency (VD). The relative importance of the various anthropometric measurements was assessed in these three categories of children through comparison of their ...

  16. Historical changes in northeastern US bee pollinators related to shared ecological traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartomeus, Ignasi; Ascher, John S; Gibbs, Jason; Danforth, Bryan N; Wagner, David L; Hedtke, Shannon M; Winfree, Rachael

    2013-03-19

    Pollinators such as bees are essential to the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems. However, despite concerns about a global pollinator crisis, long-term data on the status of bee species are limited. We present a long-term study of relative rates of change for an entire regional bee fauna in the northeastern United States, based on >30,000 museum records representing 438 species. Over a 140-y period, aggregate native species richness weakly decreased, but richness declines were significant only for the genus Bombus. Of 187 native species analyzed individually, only three declined steeply, all of these in the genus Bombus. However, there were large shifts in community composition, as indicated by 56% of species showing significant changes in relative abundance over time. Traits associated with a declining relative abundance include small dietary and phenological breadth and large body size. In addition, species with lower latitudinal range boundaries are increasing in relative abundance, a finding that may represent a response to climate change. We show that despite marked increases in human population density and large changes in anthropogenic land use, aggregate native species richness declines were modest outside of the genus Bombus. At the same time, we find that certain ecological traits are associated with declines in relative abundance. These results should help target conservation efforts focused on maintaining native bee abundance and diversity and therefore the important ecosystems services that they provide.

  17. Alpha-amylase reactivity in relation to psychopathic traits in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Andrea L; Remmel, Rheanna J; Raine, Adrian; Schug, Robert A; Gao, Yu; Granger, Douglas A

    2015-04-01

    Recent investigations of the psychobiology of stress in antisocial youth have benefited from a multi-system measurement model. The inclusion of salivary alpha-amylase (sAA), a surrogate marker of autonomic/sympathetic nervous system (ANS) activity, in addition to salivary cortisol, a biomarker of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning, has helped define a more complete picture of individual differences and potential dysfunction in the stress response system of these individuals. To the authors' knowledge, no studies have examined sAA in relation to antisocial behavior in adults or in relation to psychopathic traits specifically. In the present study, we examined sAA, in addition to salivary cortisol, in a relatively large sample (n=158) of adult males (M age=36.81, range=22-67 years; 44% African-American, 34% Caucasian, 16% Hispanic) recruited from temporary employment agencies with varying levels of psychopathic traits. Males scoring highest in psychopathy were found to have attenuated sAA reactivity to social stress compared to those scoring lower in psychopathy. No differential relationships with the different factors of psychopathy were observed. In contrast to studies of antisocial youth, there were no interactions between sAA and cortisol levels in relation to psychopathy, but there was a significant interaction between pre-stressor levels of sAA and cortisol. Findings reveal potential regulatory deficits in the fast-acting, 'fight or flight', component of the stress response in adult males with psychopathic traits, as well as abnormalities in how this system may interact with the HPA axis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Feeding-Related Traits Are Affected by Dosage of the foraging Gene in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Aaron M; Anreiter, Ina; Neville, Megan C; Sokolowski, Marla B

    2017-02-01

    Nutrient acquisition and energy storage are critical parts of achieving metabolic homeostasis. The foraging gene in Drosophila melanogaster has previously been implicated in multiple feeding-related and metabolic traits. Before foraging's functions can be further dissected, we need a precise genetic null mutant to definitively map its amorphic phenotypes. We used homologous recombination to precisely delete foraging, generating the for 0 null allele, and used recombineering to reintegrate a full copy of the gene, generating the {for BAC } rescue allele. We show that a total loss of foraging expression in larvae results in reduced larval path length and food intake behavior, while conversely showing an increase in triglyceride levels. Furthermore, varying foraging gene dosage demonstrates a linear dose-response on these phenotypes in relation to foraging gene expression levels. These experiments have unequivocally proven a causal, dose-dependent relationship between the foraging gene and its pleiotropic influence on these feeding-related traits. Our analysis of foraging's transcription start sites, termination sites, and splicing patterns using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) and full-length cDNA sequencing, revealed four independent promoters, pr1-4, that produce 21 transcripts with nine distinct open reading frames (ORFs). The use of alternative promoters and alternative splicing at the foraging locus creates diversity and flexibility in the regulation of gene expression, and ultimately function. Future studies will exploit these genetic tools to precisely dissect the isoform- and tissue-specific requirements of foraging's functions and shed light on the genetic control of feeding-related traits involved in energy homeostasis. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  19. QTLs for seed vigor-related traits identified in maize seeds germinated under artificial aging conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zanping; Ku, Lixia; Zhang, Zhenzhen; Zhang, Jun; Guo, Shulei; Liu, Haiying; Zhao, Ruifang; Ren, Zhenzhen; Zhang, Liangkun; Su, Huihui; Dong, Lei; Chen, Yanhui

    2014-01-01

    High seed vigor is important for agricultural production due to the associated potential for increased growth and productivity. However, a better understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms is required because the genetic basis for seed vigor remains unknown. We used single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers to map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for four seed vigor traits in two connected recombinant inbred line (RIL) maize populations under four treatment conditions during seed germination. Sixty-five QTLs distributed between the two populations were identified and a meta-analysis was used to integrate genetic maps. Sixty-one initially identified QTLs were integrated into 18 meta-QTLs (mQTLs). Initial QTLs with contribution to phenotypic variation values of R(2)>10% were integrated into mQTLs. Twenty-three candidate genes for association with seed vigor traits coincided with 13 mQTLs. The candidate genes had functions in the glycolytic pathway and in protein metabolism. QTLs with major effects (R(2)>10%) were identified under at least one treatment condition for mQTL2, mQTL3-2, and mQTL3-4. Candidate genes included a calcium-dependent protein kinase gene (302810918) involved in signal transduction that mapped in the mQTL3-2 interval associated with germination energy (GE) and germination percentage (GP), and an hsp20/alpha crystallin family protein gene (At5g51440) that mapped in the mQTL3-4 interval associated with GE and GP. Two initial QTLs with a major effect under at least two treatment conditions were identified for mQTL5-2. A cucumisin-like Ser protease gene (At5g67360) mapped in the mQTL5-2 interval associated with GP. The chromosome regions for mQTL2, mQTL3-2, mQTL3-4, and mQTL5-2 may be hot spots for QTLs related to seed vigor traits. The mQTLs and candidate genes identified in this study provide valuable information for the identification of additional quantitative trait genes.

  20. Prenatal and postnatal maternal contributions to reproductive, maternal, and size-related traits of beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, K E; Maurer, R R

    1991-03-01

    Brown Swiss-Hereford (BS-H) reciprocal cross embryos were transferred to BS and H recipient cows and Red Poll-Angus (RP-A) reciprocal cross embryos were transferred to RP and A recipient cows to estimate the relative contributions of ovum cytoplasm and uterine influences to prenatal maternal effects. Calves resulting from embryo transfers (ET) were weaned early (3 to 5 d). Reciprocal cross mating also were made by natural service (NS) between BS and H and between RP and A breeds; part of the offspring were weaned at 3 to 5 d, and the remainder nursed their dams to an age of 150 to 180 d. This was done to estimate breed differences in prenatal and postnatal effects combined and to separate the effects of prenatal maternal influences from postnatal maternal influences of these breeds. Females produced in both ET and NS parts of the experiment were retained to produce three calf crops to an age of about 4.5 yr. The following traits were analyzed: percentage of conception rate; percentage of calf survival; percentage of calves produced per cow exposed; birth and weaning weights of calves produced; and periodic weights, heights, and condition scores of females to an age of 4.5 yr. Neither breed of donor (cytoplasmic influence) nor breed of recipient (uterine influence) had consistently important effects on the traits evaluated. In NS matings, differences between reciprocal crosses were small for most of the traits evaluated. Method of rearing (nursed vs weaned at 3 to 5 d) had no effect on reproductive and maternal traits for RP-A reciprocal cross females, but females that nursed generally were heavier, were taller, and had higher condition scores at most ages than early-weaned females. For the BS-H reciprocal cross, early-weaned females were favored over females reared by their dams in percentage of calves produced per cow exposed, but the method of rearing did not affect other reproductive or maternal traits. BS-H reciprocal cross females that nursed their dams were

  1. QTLs for seed vigor-related traits identified in maize seeds germinated under artificial aging conditions.

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    Zanping Han

    Full Text Available High seed vigor is important for agricultural production due to the associated potential for increased growth and productivity. However, a better understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms is required because the genetic basis for seed vigor remains unknown. We used single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers to map quantitative trait loci (QTLs for four seed vigor traits in two connected recombinant inbred line (RIL maize populations under four treatment conditions during seed germination. Sixty-five QTLs distributed between the two populations were identified and a meta-analysis was used to integrate genetic maps. Sixty-one initially identified QTLs were integrated into 18 meta-QTLs (mQTLs. Initial QTLs with contribution to phenotypic variation values of R(2>10% were integrated into mQTLs. Twenty-three candidate genes for association with seed vigor traits coincided with 13 mQTLs. The candidate genes had functions in the glycolytic pathway and in protein metabolism. QTLs with major effects (R(2>10% were identified under at least one treatment condition for mQTL2, mQTL3-2, and mQTL3-4. Candidate genes included a calcium-dependent protein kinase gene (302810918 involved in signal transduction that mapped in the mQTL3-2 interval associated with germination energy (GE and germination percentage (GP, and an hsp20/alpha crystallin family protein gene (At5g51440 that mapped in the mQTL3-4 interval associated with GE and GP. Two initial QTLs with a major effect under at least two treatment conditions were identified for mQTL5-2. A cucumisin-like Ser protease gene (At5g67360 mapped in the mQTL5-2 interval associated with GP. The chromosome regions for mQTL2, mQTL3-2, mQTL3-4, and mQTL5-2 may be hot spots for QTLs related to seed vigor traits. The mQTLs and candidate genes identified in this study provide valuable information for the identification of additional quantitative trait genes.

  2. Beyond face validity - A comment on Nicholls, Licht, and Pearl. [gender-related personality traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Janet T.; Helmreich, Robert L.

    1983-01-01

    In their discussion of the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI; Bem, 1974) and the Personal Attributes Questionnaire (PAQ; Spence and Helmrich, 1978), Nicholls, et al. (1982) blur two issues. The first concerns the legitimacy of equating the clusters of gender-related personality traits tapped by these instruments with the global constructs of masculinity and feminity. The second concerns item similarity between the PAQ and BSRI M scales and measures of self-esteem and the question of whether the several instruments measure the same or separable constructs. Decisions about each of these issues involve complex considerations that do not directly involve face validity.

  3. Fine mapping and candidate gene prediction of a pleiotropic quantitative trait locus for yield-related trait in Zea mays.

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    Ruixiang Liu

    Full Text Available The yield of maize grain is a highly complex quantitative trait that is controlled by multiple quantitative trait loci (QTLs with small effects, and is frequently influenced by multiple genetic and environmental factors. Thus, it is challenging to clone a QTL for grain yield in the maize genome. Previously, we identified a major QTL, qKNPR6, for kernel number per row (KNPR across multiple environments, and developed two nearly isogenic lines, SL57-6 and Ye478, which differ only in the allelic constitution at the short segment harboring the QTL. Recently, qKNPR6 was re-evaluated in segregating populations derived from SL57-6×Ye478, and was narrowed down to a 2.8 cM interval, which explained 56.3% of the phenotypic variance of KNPR in 201 F(2∶3 families. The QTL simultaneously affected ear length, kernel weight and grain yield. Furthermore, a large F(2 population with more than 12,800 plants, 191 recombinant chromosomes and 10 overlapping recombinant lines placed qKNPR6 into a 0.91 cM interval corresponding to 198Kb of the B73 reference genome. In this region, six genes with expressed sequence tag (EST evidence were annotated. The expression pattern and DNA diversity of the six genes were assayed in Ye478 and SL57-6. The possible candidate gene and the pathway involved in inflorescence development were discussed.

  4. White-Matter Structural Connectivity Underlying Human Laughter-Related Traits Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ching-Lin; Zhong, Suyu; Chan, Yu-Chen; Chen, Hsueh-Chih; Gong, Gaolang; He, Yong; Li, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Most research into the neural mechanisms of humor has not explicitly focused on the association between emotion and humor on the brain white matter networks mediating this connection. However, this connection is especially salient in gelotophobia (the fear of being laughed at), which is regarded as the presentation of humorlessness, and two related traits, gelotophilia (the enjoyment of being laughed at) and katagelasticism (the enjoyment of laughing at others). Here, we explored whether the topological properties of white matter networks can account for the individual differences in the laughter-related traits of 31 healthy adults. We observed a significant negative correlation between gelotophobia scores and the clustering coefficient, local efficiency and global efficiency, but a positive association between gelotophobia scores and path length in the brain's white matter network. Moreover, the current study revealed that with increasing individual fear of being laughed at, the linking efficiencies in superior frontal gyrus, anterior cingulate cortex, parahippocampal gyrus, and middle temporal gyrus decreased. However, there were no significant correlations between either gelotophilia or katagelasticism scores or the topological properties of the brain white matter network. These findings suggest that the fear of being laughed at is directly related to the level of local and global information processing of the brain network, which might provide new insights into the neural mechanisms of the humor information processing.

  5. Differentiation of water-related traits in terrestrial and epiphytic Cymbidium species

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    Shi-Bao eZhang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Epiphytes that grow in the canopies of tropical and subtropical forests experience different water regimes when compared with terrestrial plants. However, the differences in adaptive strategies between epiphytic and terrestrial plants with respect to plant water relations remain poorly understood. To understand how water-related traits contrast between epiphytic and terrestrial growth forms within the Cymbidium (Orchidaceae, we assessed leaf anatomy, hydraulics, and physiology of seven terrestrial and 13 epiphytic species using a common garden experiment. Compared with terrestrial species, epiphytic species had higher values for leaf mass per unit area (LMA, leaf thickness (LT, epidermal thickness, saturated water content (SWC and the time required to dry saturated leaves to 70% relative water content (T70. However, vein density (Dvein, stomatal density (SD, and photosynthetic capacity (Amax did not differ significantly between the two forms. T70 was positively correlated with LT, LMA, and SWC, and negatively correlated with stomatal index (SI. Amax showed positive correlations with SD and SI, but not with Dvein. Vein density was marginally correlated with SD, and significantly correlated with SI. Overall, epiphytic orchids exhibited substantial ecophysiological differentiations from terrestrial species, with the former type showing trait values indicative of greater drought tolerance and increased water storage capacity. The ability to retain water in the leaves plays a key role in maintaining a water balance in those epiphytes. Therefore, the process of transpiration depends less upon the current substrate water supply and enables epiphytic Cymbidium species to adapt more easily to canopy habitats.

  6. Consumption of Dairy Products in Relation to Changes in Anthropometric Variables in Adult Populations: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Cohort Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Schwingshackl

    Full Text Available The current state of knowledge regarding the association of dairy products and weight gain, overweight, and obesity is based on studies reporting contradicting and inconclusive results. The aim of the present study was thus to clarify the link between dairy consumption in relation to changes in anthropometric measures/adiposity by a meta-analytical approach.For the meta-analysis PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Sciences, and google scholar were searched by two independent authors up to May 2016 with no restriction to language or calendar date. Prospective cohort studies reporting about intake of dairy consumption (including milk, yogurt, cheese, butter and changes in body weight or waist circumference, risk of overweight, obesity, or weight gain were eligible. Pooled effects were calculated using a random effects model, and also a fixed effect model for sensitivity analysis. Due to the heterogeneity of statistical analytical approaches of the studies the analysis were done separately for beta-coefficients of changes in body weight and/or waist circumference per serving of dairy, for differences in weight gain/gain in waist circumference when comparing extreme categories of dairy consumption, and for odds ratios in regard to weight gain, overweight/obesity, or abdominal obesity.24 studies (27 reports met the inclusion criteria for the systematic review, and 22 studies provided sufficient data for inclusion in the meta-analysis. The meta-analysis of the five studies on changes in body weight per serving of dairy no significant results could be found for whole fat dairy and low fat dairy. However, there was inverse association between changes in body weight for each serving's increase of yogurt (beta: -40.99 gram/year, 95% CI, -48.09 to -33.88, whereas each serving's increase of cheese was positively associated (beta: -10.97 gram/year, 95% CI, 2.86 to 19.07. Furthermore, the highest dairy intake category was associated with a reduced risk of abdominal

  7. Individual differences at high perceptual load: the relation between trait anxiety and selective attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeh, Naomi; Bredemeier, Keith

    2011-06-01

    Attentional control theory (Eysenck et al., 2007) posits that taxing attentional resources impairs performance efficiency in anxious individuals. This theory, however, does not explicitly address if or how the relation between anxiety and attentional control depends upon the perceptual demands of the task at hand. Consequently, the present study examined the relation between trait anxiety and task performance using a perceptual load task (Maylor & Lavie, 1998). Sixty-eight male college students completed a visual search task that indexed processing of irrelevant distractors systematically across four levels of perceptual load. Results indicated that anxiety was related to difficulty suppressing the behavioural effects of irrelevant distractors (i.e., decreased reaction time efficiency) under high, but not low, perceptual loads. In contrast, anxiety was not associated with error rates on the task. These findings are consistent with the prediction that anxiety is associated with impairments in performance efficiency under conditions that tax attentional resources.

  8. Daily stress interacts with trait dissociation to predict sleep-related experiences in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soffer-Dudek, Nirit; Shahar, Golan

    2011-08-01

    Building on the previously documented effects of stress and dissociation on sleep and dreaming, we examined their interactive role in general sleep-related experiences (GSEs; e.g., nightmares, falling dreams, hypnagogic hallucinations; see Watson, 2001). Stress, sleep quality, and GSEs were assessed daily for 14 days among young adults. Baseline assessment included life stress, sleep quality, psychopathology, dissociation, and related dimensions. Multilevel analyses indicated that daily stress brings about GSEs among highly dissociative young adults. Additionally, baseline trait dissociation predicted within-subject elevation in GSEs when daily stress was high. Flawed sleep-wake transitions, previously linked to dissociation and sleep-related experiences, might account for this effect. © 2011 American Psychological Association

  9. Emotion-related personality traits and peer social standing: unique and interactive effects in cyberbullying behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciucci, Enrica; Baroncelli, Andrea

    2014-09-01

    This study investigated the unique and interactive effects of emotion-related personality traits (i.e., callousness and uncaring traits) and peer social standing (i.e., social preference and perceived popularity) on cyberbullying behaviors in preadolescents. A total of 529 preadolescents (247 boys, 46.69%) were recruited from an Italian middle school (Mage=12 years and 7 months; SD=1 year and 2 months). The participants primarily consisted of Italian children (91.12%). A series of binary logistic regression analyses parted by gender were conducted to examine the main and interactive effects of self-reported emotion-related variables and peer-reported social standing in the prediction of self-reported cyberbullying behaviors, while controlling for cyber victimization and grade effects. In girls, an uncaring disposition was directly associated with cyberbullying behaviors, whereas in boys this association only emerged for those with low perceived popularity. Our results indicated that, in developing anti(cyber)bullying programs, school researchers and practitioners should jointly consider individual and contextual factors.

  10. Three year stability of Five-Factor Model personality traits in relation to changes in symptom levels in patients with schizophrenia or related disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyette, Lindy-Lou; Nederlof, Jan; Meijer, Carin; de Boer, Froukje; de Haan, Lieuwe

    2015-09-30

    Five-Factor Model (FFM) personality traits are related to a wide range of clinical outcome in patients with psychotic disorders. However, it is not sufficiently clear whether psychotic illness, particularly fluctuation in negative symptoms and psychotic relapse, affects personality. The current study examined the 3-year temporal stability of FFM traits in 91 patients with non-affective psychotic disorders with a maximum duration of illness of 10 years and 32 control subjects without a (family member with) a diagnosis of psychotic illness. In patients, change in negative symptoms predicted changes in Neuroticism and (inversely) in Extraversion and Openness. However, when correcting for depressive symptoms, negative symptoms no longer predicted change in any FFM trait. Clinical characteristics, such as psychotic relapse, were also not found to be related to change in FFM traits. Patients showed a slight increase in Conscientiousness levels, the other FFM traits showed mean-level stability. Rank-order stability of the FFM traits was moderate to strong, although weaker for Neuroticism in patients. Our findings indicate that psychotic symptoms exert limited effect on the stability of FFM traits in patients with psychotic disorders. Consistent with general population findings, one should guard against state-trait confusion between Neuroticism/Extraversion and depression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Association of cocaine- and amphetamine-related transcript, leptin and leptin receptor gene polymorphisms with anthropometric obesity phenotype indicators in South African learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yako, Y Y; Fanampe, B L; Hassan, M S; Erasmus, R T; van der Merwe, L; van Rensburg, S J; Matsha, T E

    2011-01-01

    Obesity has increased rapidly in South African children and adolescents. Genes involved in appetite regulation have been extensively studied worldwide, but their role in the obesity phenotype in South African Black and mixed-ancestry school adolescents is unknown. Seven common polymorphisms in LEP, GHRL, CART and LEPR were analysed for genotype and haplotype association with anthropometric obesity phenotype indicators in South African Black and mixed-ancestry adolescent school learners. The CART c.517A→G polymorphism was significantly associated with obesity susceptibility. The LEPR Lys(109)Arg G allele was associated with an average reduction of 2.36 kg/m(2) in body mass index (BMI), 5.66 cm in waist circumference (WC) and 1.61 cm in mid-upper-arm circumference (MUAC). This was confirmed by haplotype analysis. Additionally, a haplotype of the LEP polymorphisms significantly increased BMI, MUAC and hip circumference, while LEPR haplotypes were associated with differences in MUAC. Our findings suggest that c.517A→G and Lys(109)Arg contribute to the variation in anthropometric obesity phenotype indicators observed among Black African and mixed-ancestry South African learners. Furthermore, haplotypes of LEP, LEPR and GHRL polymorphisms were associated with varying measurements of weight, BMI and WC. Further studies are required to confirm our results in a larger and homogeneous study population group. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Genetic control of late blight, yield and some yield related traits in tomato (lycopersicon esculentum mill.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleem, M.Y.; Asghar, M.; Khan, A.R.; Iqbal, Q.

    2011-01-01

    Genetic control of late blight (LB) and some economic traits was assessed to identify genotypes suitable for the hybrids were derived from crossing of 2 male sterile lines viz., development of late blight resistant hybrids in tomato. 10 F/sub 1/ hybrid were derived from crossing of 2 male sterile lines viz., TMS1 and TMS2 with 5 elite lines viz., Nagina, Riogrande, Roma, 88572 and Picdenato according to line x tester technique. Disease resistance was measured using detached leaf and whole plant assay techniques. Data were also recorded for days to maturity, number of fruit per plant, single fruit weight and yield per plant. The analysis of variance showed significant differences among crosses, lines, testers and line x tester interaction for almost all parameters. Estimate of genetic components indicated preponderance of additive type of gene action for detached leaf assay, whole plant assay, number of fruit per plant and yield per plant whereas non-additive type of gene action for days to maturity and single fruit weight. Among parents, TMS2, Nagina, Roma and Picdenato showed significant favorable general combing ability (GCA) effects for disease rating traits while TMS1 and Riogrande indicated desirable GCA effects for yield and some yield related traits. Among hybrids, TMS2 x Roma and TMS1 x Riogrande had significant specific combing ability (SCA) effects for detached and whole plant assays. However, hybrid TMS2 x Roma appeared as good combination of LB resistance as it had both parents with desirable GCA effects. All hybrids showed average type of SCA effects for yield and yield components. Genetic control of LB revealed that a multiple crossing program involving genotypes with high GCA effects would be rewarding to identify LB resistant genotypes in early generations. (author)

  13. Examining Dark Triad traits in relation to sleep disturbances, anxiety sensitivity and intolerance of uncertainty in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabouri, Sarah; Gerber, Markus; Lemola, Sakari; Becker, Stephen P; Shamsi, Mahin; Shakouri, Zeinab; Sadeghi Bahmani, Dena; Kalak, Nadeem; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge

    2016-07-01

    The Dark Triad (DT) describes a set of three closely related personality traits, Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy. The aim of this study was to examine the associations between DT traits, sleep disturbances, anxiety sensitivity and intolerance of uncertainty. A total of 341 adults (M=29years) completed a series of questionnaires related to the DT traits, sleep disturbances, anxiety sensitivity, and intolerance of uncertainty. A higher DT total score was associated with increased sleep disturbances, and higher scores for anxiety sensitivity and intolerance of uncertainty. In regression analyses Machiavellianism and psychopathy were predictors of sleep disturbances, anxiety sensitivity, and intolerance of uncertainty. Results indicate that specific DT traits, namely Machiavellianism and psychopathy, are associated with sleep disturbances, anxiety sensitivity and intolerance of uncertainty in young adults. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Preliminary Survey on TRY Forest Traits and Growth Index Relations - New Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyubenova, Mariyana; Kattge, Jens; van Bodegom, Peter; Chikalanov, Alexandre; Popova, Silvia; Zlateva, Plamena; Peteva, Simona

    2016-04-01

    Forest ecosystems provide critical ecosystem goods and services, including food, fodder, water, shelter, nutrient cycling, and cultural and recreational value. Forests also store carbon, provide habitat for a wide range of species and help alleviate land degradation and desertification. Thus they have a potentially significant role to play in climate change adaptation planning through maintaining ecosystem services and providing livelihood options. Therefore the study of forest traits is such an important issue not just for individual countries but for the planet as a whole. We need to know what functional relations between forest traits exactly can express TRY data base and haw it will be significant for the global modeling and IPBES. The study of the biodiversity characteristics at all levels and functional links between them is extremely important for the selection of key indicators for assessing biodiversity and ecosystem services for sustainable natural capital control. By comparing the available information in tree data bases: TRY, ITR (International Tree Ring) and SP-PAM the 42 tree species are selected for the traits analyses. The dependence between location characteristics (latitude, longitude, altitude, annual precipitation, annual temperature and soil type) and forest traits (specific leaf area, leaf weight ratio, wood density and growth index) is studied by by multiply regression analyses (RDA) using the statistical software package Canoco 4.5. The Pearson correlation coefficient (measure of linear correlation), Kendal rank correlation coefficient (non parametric measure of statistical dependence) and Spearman correlation coefficient (monotonic function relationship between two variables) are calculated for each pair of variables (indexes) and species. After analysis of above mentioned correlation coefficients the dimensional linear regression models, multidimensional linear and nonlinear regression models and multidimensional neural networks models are

  15. Intellect: a theoretical framework for personality traits related to intellectual achievements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussel, Patrick

    2013-05-01

    The present article develops a theoretical framework for the structure of personality traits related to intellectual achievements. We postulate a 2-dimensional model, differentiating between 2 processes (Seek and Conquer) and 3 operations (Think, Learn, and Create). The framework was operationalized by a newly developed measure, which was validated based on 2 samples. Subsequently, in 3 studies (overall N = 1,478), the 2-dimensional structure of the Intellect framework was generally supported. Additionally, subdimensions of the Intellect framework specifically predicted conceptually related criteria, including scholastic performance, vocational interest, and leisure activities. Furthermore, results from multidimensional scaling and higher order confirmatory factor analyses show that the framework allows for the incorporation of several constructs that have been proposed on different theoretical backgrounds, such as need for cognition, typical intellectual engagement, curiosity, intrinsic motivation, goal orientation, and openness to ideas. It is concluded that based on the Intellect framework, these constructs, which have been researched separately in the literature, can be meaningfully integrated.

  16. Big Five personality traits and performance anxiety in relation to marching arts satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Jacob J; Lounsbury, John W

    2011-01-01

    To examine the Big Five personality traits and performance anxiety in relation to marching arts satisfaction. Data were collected from 278 instrumentalists (i.e., brass players and percussionists) and color guard performers (e.g., dancers) representing six world class drum and bugle corps. PARTICIPANTS completed three measures: the Adolescent Personal Style Inventory was used to measure the Big Five personality factors: Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Emotional Stability, Extraversion, and Openness; the Performance Anxiety Questionnaire - used to assess somatic and cognitive symptoms of performance anxiety; and the Marching Arts Satisfaction - used to assess for the physical, social, and contextual environments of drum and bugle corps. Correlation and multiple regression analyses revealed concurrent relationships between the Big Five and performance anxiety with satisfaction. A linear combination of the Big Five traits and Performance Anxiety accounted for 36% of the total variance in satisfaction, with Extraversion, Emotional Stability, and Performance Anxiety contributing significant unique variance. The findings of the present study suggest that performers who are extraverted, conscientious, and effective at managing general stress - and performance stress in particular - find a greater sense of satisfaction with their participation in world class drum and bugle corps.

  17. Variability of hair coat and skin traits as related to adaptation in Criollo Limonero cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landaeta-Hernández, Antonio; Zambrano-Nava, Sunny; Hernández-Fonseca, Juan P; Godoy, Rosario; Calles, Marcos; Iragorri, José L; Añez, Lauderys; Polanco, Miguel; Montero-Urdaneta, Merilio; Olson, Tim

    2011-03-01

    The variation in hair coat and skin histology traits of Criollo Limonero cattle was analyzed using 213 Criollo Limonero females. Skin biopsies were obtained from slick-haired (N=16) and normal-haired (N=14) animals. Measured traits included hair length (HL), color coat (CC), number of hair follicles per square centimeter (NHF), sweat glands per square centimeter (NSG), sweat glands size (SGS), sebaceous glands per square centimeter (NSBG), blood vessels per square centimeter (NBV), and thickness of epidermis (TE). Hair length differed (P0.05) were found between slick-haired and normal-haired animals in NHF (637 ± 164 vs 587 ± 144, respectively), NSG (556 ± 134 vs 481 ± 118, respectively), NSBG (408 ± 87 vs 366 ± 77, respectively), NBV (1628 ± 393 vs 1541 ± 346, respectively), and TE (1.24 ± 0.14 vs 1.32 ± 0.12, respectively). However, SGS was greater (PCriollo Limonero cattle are predominantly bayo-coated, slick-haired, with a reduced number of hair follicles relative to Zebu cattle, sweat and sebaceous glands in proportion to hair follicle numbers, and with a high blood flow irrigating the skin. There is a sub-group of red-coated animals with yellow or cream skin, thicker epidermis, and with a higher frequency of normal-haired animals. It appears that the slick hair gene has been favored by natural selection in this breed.

  18. Are personality traits of juvenile myoclonic epilepsy related to frontal lobe dysfunctions? A proton MRS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo Filho, Gerardo Maria; Lin, Katia; Lin, Jaime; Peruchi, Mirella M; Caboclo, Luís Otávio S F; Guaranha, Mirian S B; Guilhoto, Laura M F F; Carrete, Henrique; Yacubian, Elza Márcia T

    2009-05-01

    Personality traits characterized by emotional instability and immaturity, unsteadiness, lack of discipline, hedonism, frequent and rapid mood changes, and indifference toward one's disease have been associated with patients who have juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME). Literature data demonstrate worse seizure control and more psychosocial dysfunctions among patients with JME who have those traits. In this controlled study we performed a correlation analysis of psychiatric scores with magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) values across JME patients, aiming to verify the existence of a possible relation between frontal lobe dysfunction and the prevalence of personality disorders (PDs) in JME. Sixteen JME patients with cluster B PDs, 41 JME patients without any psychiatric disorder, and 30 healthy controls were submitted to a psychiatric evaluation and to a quantitative multivoxel MRS of thalamus; insula; cingulate gyrus; striatum; and frontal, parietal, and occipital lobes. Groups were homogeneous according to age, gender, and manual dominance. Psychiatric evaluation was performed through the Scheduled Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, Axis I and II (SCID I and II, respectively). A significant reduction of N-acetyl-aspartate over creatinine (NAA/Cr) ratio was observed mainly in the left frontal lobe in the JME and PD group. In addition, a significant increase in the glutamate-glutamine over creatinine GLX/Cr ratio was also observed in this referred region in the same group. These data support the hypothesis that PDs in JME could represent neuronal dysfunction and possibly a more severe form of this epileptic syndrome.

  19. Molecular evolution of candidate genes for crop-related traits in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Jennifer R; McAssey, Edward V; Nambeesan, Savithri; Garcia-Navarro, Elena; Burke, John M

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary analyses aimed at detecting the molecular signature of selection during crop domestication and/or improvement can be used to identify genes or genomic regions of likely agronomic importance. Here, we describe the DNA sequence-based characterization of a pool of candidate genes for crop-related traits in sunflower. These genes, which were identified based on homology to genes of known effect in other study systems, were initially sequenced from a panel of improved lines. All genes that exhibited a paucity of sequence diversity, consistent with the possible effects of selection during the evolution of cultivated sunflower, were then sequenced from a panel of wild sunflower accessions an outgroup. These data enabled formal tests for the effects of selection in shaping sequence diversity at these loci. When selection was detected, we further sequenced these genes from a panel of primitive landraces, thereby allowing us to investigate the likely timing of selection (i.e., domestication vs. improvement). We ultimately identified seven genes that exhibited the signature of positive selection during either domestication or improvement. Genetic mapping of a subset of these genes revealed co-localization between candidates for genes involved in the determination of flowering time, seed germination, plant growth/development, and branching and QTL that were previously identified for these traits in cultivated × wild sunflower mapping populations.

  20. Do Depressive Traits and Hostility Predict Age-Related Decline in General Intelligence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Lykke Mortensen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Certain personality traits are likely to be associated with stress and distress through the lifespan, and as a consequence these traits may influence the rate of age-related cognitive decline. The present study uses data from the Glostrup 1914 cohort to analyze potential effects of personality on decline in general intelligence over a 30-year period. The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory was administered at a 50-year baseline exam, and from this inventory the Obvious Depression Scale and an abbreviated version of the Cook-Medley Hostility Scale were derived. At the 50-year baseline and at the 60-, 70-, and 80-year followups the full version of Wechsler's Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS was administered to 673, 513, 136, and 184 participants. Mixed effects statistical models were used to evaluate both the effect of the personality scores on level of intelligence and the interaction between the personality scores and the time since followup. Analyses were adjusted for demographic background and a wide range of lifestyle factors. Both obvious depression and hostility were negatively associated with level of intelligence, but personality scores did not influence rate of decline in general intelligence.

  1. Combining Ability of Pod Yield and Related Traits of Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L. under Salinity Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Abul Kalam Azad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was performed using 6×6 F1 diallel population without reciprocals to assess the mode of inheritance of pod yield and related traits in groundnut with imposed salinity stress. Heterosis was found for pod number and yield. Data on general and specific combining ability (gca and sca indicated additive and nonadditive gene actions. The gca: sca ratios were much less than unity suggesting predominant role of nonadditive gene effects. Cultivars “Binachinabadam-2” and “Dacca-1” and mutant M6/25/64-82 had the highest, second highest, and third highest pod number, as well as gca values, respectively. These two cultivars and another mutant M6/15/70-19 also had the highest, second highest, and third highest pod yield, as well as gca values, respectively. Therefore, “Dacca-1”, “Binachinabadam-2”, M6/25/64-82, and M6/15/70-19 could be used as source of salinity tolerance. Cross combinations showing high sca effects arising from parents with high and low gca values for any trait indicate the influence of nonadditive genes on their expression. Parents of these crosses can be used for biparental mating or reciprocal recurrent selection for developing high yielding varieties. Crosses with high sca effects having both parents with good gca effects could be exploited by pedigree breeding to get transgressive segregants.

  2. [Personal traits and a sense of job-related stress in a military aviation crew].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabarkapa, Milanko; Korica, Vesna; Rodjenkov, Sanja

    2011-02-01

    Accelerated technological and organizational changes in numerous professions lead to increase in job-related stress. Since these changes are particularly common in military aviation, this study examined the way military aviation crew experiences job-related stress during a regular aviation drill, depending on particular social-demographic factors and personal traits. The modified Cooper questionnaire was used to examine the stress related factors at work. The questionnaire was adapted for the aviation crew in the army environment. Personal characteristics were examined using the NEO-PI-R personality inventory. The study included 50 examinees (37 pilots and 13 other crew members) employed in the Serbian Army. The studies were performed during routine physical examinations at the Institute for Aviation Medicine during the year 2007. Statistical analysis of the study results contained descriptive analysis, one-way analysis of variance and correlation analysis. It was shown that army aviation crew works under high stress. The highest stress value had the intrinsic factor (AS = 40.94) and role in organisation (AS = 39.92), while the lowest one had the interpersonal relationship factor (AS = 29.98). The results also showed that some social-demographic variables (such as younger examinees, shorter working experience) and neuroticism as a personality trait, were in correlation with job-related stress. Stress evaluation and certain personality characteristics examination can be used for the development of the basic anti-stress programs and measures in order to achieve better psychological selection, adaptation career leadership and organization of military pilots and other crew members.

  3. Coping with Self-Threat and the Evaluation of Self-Related Traits: An fMRI Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Hoefler

    Full Text Available A positive view of oneself is important for a healthy lifestyle. Self-protection mechanisms such as suppressing negative self-related information help us to maintain a positive view of ourselves. This is of special relevance when, for instance, a negative test result threatens our positive self-view. To date, it is not clear which brain areas support self-protective mechanisms under self-threat. In the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study the participants (N = 46 received a (negative vs. positive performance test feedback before entering the scanner. In the scanner, the participants were instructed to ascribe personality traits either to themselves or to a famous other. Our results showed that participants responded slower to negative self-related traits compared to positive self-related traits. High self-esteem individuals responded slower to negative traits compared to low self-esteem individuals following a self-threat. This indicates that high self-esteem individuals engage more in self-enhancing strategies after a threat by inhibiting negative self-related information more successfully than low self-esteem individuals. This behavioral pattern was mirrored in the fMRI data as dACC correlated positively with trait self-esteem. Generally, ACC activation was attenuated under threat when participants evaluated self-relevant traits and even more for negative self-related traits. We also found that activation in the ACC was negatively correlated with response times, indicating that greater activation of the ACC is linked to better access (faster response to positive self-related traits and to impaired access (slower response to negative self-related traits. These results confirm the ACC function as important in managing threatened self-worth but indicate differences in trait self-esteem levels. The fMRI analyses also revealed a decrease in activation within the left Hippocampus and the right thalamus under threat. This

  4. Coping with Self-Threat and the Evaluation of Self-Related Traits: An fMRI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Katja; Ebner, Franz

    2015-01-01

    A positive view of oneself is important for a healthy lifestyle. Self-protection mechanisms such as suppressing negative self-related information help us to maintain a positive view of ourselves. This is of special relevance when, for instance, a negative test result threatens our positive self-view. To date, it is not clear which brain areas support self-protective mechanisms under self-threat. In the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study the participants (N = 46) received a (negative vs. positive) performance test feedback before entering the scanner. In the scanner, the participants were instructed to ascribe personality traits either to themselves or to a famous other. Our results showed that participants responded slower to negative self-related traits compared to positive self-related traits. High self-esteem individuals responded slower to negative traits compared to low self-esteem individuals following a self-threat. This indicates that high self-esteem individuals engage more in self-enhancing strategies after a threat by inhibiting negative self-related information more successfully than low self-esteem individuals. This behavioral pattern was mirrored in the fMRI data as dACC correlated positively with trait self-esteem. Generally, ACC activation was attenuated under threat when participants evaluated self-relevant traits and even more for negative self-related traits. We also found that activation in the ACC was negatively correlated with response times, indicating that greater activation of the ACC is linked to better access (faster response) to positive self-related traits and to impaired access (slower response) to negative self-related traits. These results confirm the ACC function as important in managing threatened self-worth but indicate differences in trait self-esteem levels. The fMRI analyses also revealed a decrease in activation within the left Hippocampus and the right thalamus under threat. This indicates that a down

  5. Common variants near MC4R in relation to body fat, body fat distribution, metabolic traits and energy expenditure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kring, Sofia Inez Iqbal; Holst, C; Toubro, Søren

    2010-01-01

    Common variants near melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4R) have been related to fatness and type 2 diabetes. We examined the associations of rs17782313 and rs17700633 in relation to body fat, body fat distribution, metabolic traits, weight development and energy expenditure.......Common variants near melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4R) have been related to fatness and type 2 diabetes. We examined the associations of rs17782313 and rs17700633 in relation to body fat, body fat distribution, metabolic traits, weight development and energy expenditure....

  6. Gender-related personality traits, self-efficacy, and social support: how do they relate to women's waist circumference change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankonen, Nelli; Konttinen, Hanna; Absetz, Pilvikki

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated whether gender-role related traits agency and communion contribute to successful health behavior change, in an interplay with domain-specific psychosocial factors, namely, agency, mediated by health-related self-efficacy, and communion, moderated by social support. Data from women (N = 282) participating in the GOAL Lifestyle Implementation Trial were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Agency and increase in self-efficacy both independently predicted waist circumference reduction in the 1-year follow-up. Individuals high in communion succeeded in waist reduction only if they received social support. Initial self-efficacy increase predicted 3-year waist reduction. Gender-role orientation, together with social environment, influences behavior change intervention outcomes. © The Author(s) 2013.

  7. [Pregnancy-related anxiety and subthreshold autism trait in preschool children based a birth cohort study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yanli; Shao, Ting; Yao, Yuyou; Tao, Huihui; Ni, Lingling; Yan, Shuangqin; Gu, Chunli; Cao, Hui; Huang, Kun; Tao, Fangbiao

    2016-02-01

    To analyze the associations between pregnancy-related anxiety and the prevalence of subthreshold autism trait (SAT) in preschool children. Baseline data came from the Ma'anshan Birth Cohort Study, a part of the China-Anhui Birth Cohort Study (C-ABCS). All the participants were enrolled among pregnant women who received prenatal health care in 4 municipal medical centers during Oct. 2008 to Oct. 2010. A total of 5 084 pregnant women were recruited at the beginning and 4 669 singleton live births were included until childbirth. The situation about pregnancy-specific anxiety during trimester and third trimester of women were evaluated by Pregnancy-specific Anxiety Questionnaire (PAQ). Between April 2014 and April 2015, the cohort was followed up again, and the Clancy Autism Behavior Scale (CABRS) filled out by parents was used for telling the SAT children from the healthy children among 3 663 preschool children. Univariate and binary regression model was used to estimate associations between the pregnancy-related anxiety during trimester and third trimester and the subthreshold autism trait in children. During the pregnancy, the detected rates of women with pregnancy-specific anxiety in trimester and the third trimester were 25.5%(935/3 663), 13.9%(501/3 592) respectively, and the detected rate of maternal pregnancy-specific anxiety in both periods was 7.7%(278/3 592). There were 290 positive children with SAT and the detection rate was 7.9%. After controlling possible confounding factors including children's genders, place of residence, supplement folic acid during pregnancy, preterm birth, exposure to second-hand smoke during pregnancy, the father (mother) cultural levels, the father (mother) nature of work and family income, the results of multinomial logistic regression analysis showed that maternal pregnancy-specific anxiety in trimester was the risk factor for SAT in preschool children (OR=1.51, 95% CI: 1.11-2.04), and there was no association between maternal

  8. Relations between Anthropometric Characteristics and Motor Abilities of 14 – 15U Female Swimmers on 50m Result for each Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Dimitrić

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In aim of correlation between antropometric characteristics, motor abilities and results of swimming 50m in all swimming techniques, a group of 22 swimmers (girls of Serbian national team, aged 14-15, underwent some anthropometric measurements as well as some motor abilities. Observed longitudinal dimensions were: body height, body mass, arm span and torax circumference and observed motor abilities were: body strength (arms, legs, stomach and flexibility (trunk and arms. Regression analisys showed that arm span corellated with 50m butterfly and free style score as well as strenght of body and legs corellated with 50m backstroke and free style score. Other measures didn΄t corelatted significantly on this sample. Study results confirms importance of arm span and some segments of body strenhgt of swimmers (girls for successful swimm on 50m in butterfly, backstroke and freestyle techniques in the age 14-15 years.

  9. Personal traits and a sense of job-related stress in a military aviation crew

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čabarkapa Milanko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Accelerated technological and organizational changes in numerous professions lead to increase in jobrelated stress. Since these changes are particularly common in military aviation, this study examined the way military aviation crew experiences job-related stress during a regular aviation drill, depending on particular social-demographic factors and personal traits. Methods. The modified Cooper questionnaire was used to examine the stress related factors at work. The questionnaire was adapted for the aviation crew in the army environment. Personal characteristics were examined using the NEO-PI-R personality inventory. The study included 50 examinees (37 pilots and 13 other crew members employed in the Serbian Army. The studies were performed during routine physical examinations at the Institute for Aviation Medicine during the year 2007. Statistical analysis of the study results contained descriptive analysis, one-way analysis of variance and correlation analysis. Results. It was shown that army aviation crew works under high stress. The highest stress value had the intrinsic factor (AS = 40.94 and role in organisation (AS = 39.92, while the lowest one had the interpersonal relationship factor (AS = 29.98. The results also showed that some social-demographic variables (such as younger examinees, shorter working experience and neuroticism as a personality trait, were in correlation with job-related stress. Conclusion. Stress evaluation and certain personality characteristics examination can be used for the devalopment of the basic anti-stress programs and measures in order to achieve better psychological selection, adaptation career leadership and organization of military pilots and other crew members.

  10. Age-related differences in recommended anthropometric cut-off point validity to identify cardiovascular risk factors in ostensibly healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramoney, Sreevidya; Björkelund, Cecilia; Guo, Xinxin; Skoog, Ingmar; Bosaeus, Ingvar; Lissner, Lauren

    2014-12-01

    To investigate validity of widely recommended anthropometric and total fat percentage cut-off points in screening for cardiovascular risk factors in women of different ages. A population-based sample of 1002 Swedish women aged 38, 50, 75 (younger, middle-aged and elderly, respectively) underwent anthropometry, health examinations and blood tests. Total fat was estimated (bioimpedance) in 670 women. Sensitivity, specificity of body mass index (BMI; ≥25 and ≥30), waist circumference (WC; ≥80 cm and ≥88 cm) and total fat percentage (TF; ≥35%) cut-off points for cardiovascular risk factors (dyslipidaemias, hypertension and hyperglycaemia) were calculated for each age. Cut-off points yielding high sensitivity together with modest specificity were considered valid. Women reporting hospital admission for cardiovascular disease were excluded. The sensitivity of WC ≥80 cm for one or more risk factors was ~60% in younger and middle-aged women, and 80% in elderly women. The specificity of WC ≥80 cm for one or more risk factors was 69%, 57% and 40% at the three ages (p < .05 for age trends). WC ≥80 cm yielded ~80% sensitivity for two or more risk factors across all ages. However, specificity decreased with increasing age (p < .0001), being 33% in elderly. WC ≥88 cm provided better specificity in elderly women. BMI and TF % cut-off points were not better than WC. Validity of recommended anthropometric cut-off points in screening asymptomatic women varies with age. In younger and middle-age, WC ≥80 cm yielded high sensitivity and modest specificity for two or more risk factors, however, sensitivity for one or more risk factor was less than optimal. WC ≥88 cm showed better validity than WC ≥80 cm in elderly. Our results support age-specific screening cut-off points for women. © 2014 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  11. Callous-unemotional traits moderate executive function in children with ASD and ADHD: A pilot event-related potential study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Tye

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and autism spectrum disorder (ASD are associated with varied executive function (EF difficulties. Callous-unemotional (CU traits, a proposed antecedent of adult psychopathy, are often associated with intact or enhanced EF. Here we test whether CU traits may therefore modulate EF in ASD and ADHD, in which EF is typically impaired. We collected CU traits and measured event-related potentials (ERPs that index EF during a cued-continuous performance test (CPT-OX in boys with ASD, ADHD, comorbid ASD + ADHD and typical controls. We examined attentional orienting at cues (Cue-P3, inhibitory processing at non-targets (NoGo-P3 and conflict monitoring between target and non-target trials (Go-N2 vs. NoGo-N2. In children with ASD, higher CU traits were associated with an enhanced increase in N2 amplitude in NoGo trials compared to Go trials, which suggests relatively superior conflict monitoring and a potential cognitive strength associated with CU traits. The results emphasise the importance of considering the effects of co-occurring traits in the assessment of heterogeneity of EF profiles in neurodevelopmental disorders.

  12. Impact of prebiotic supplementation on T-cell subsets and their related cytokines, anthropometric features and blood pressure in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A randomized placebo-controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghan, Parvin; Farhangi, Mahdieh Abbasalizad; Tavakoli, Farnaz; Aliasgarzadeh, Akbar; Akbari, Aliakbar Movasaghpour

    2016-02-01

    Type 2 diabetic mellitus (T2DM) asone of the main causes of morbidity and mortality is associated with immune system disturbances and metabolic abnormalities. In the current study we aimed to evaluate the effects of oligofructose-enriched inulin on T-cell subsets and their related cytokines, anthropometric and metabolic parameters in patients with T2DM. Forty-six diabetic females patients were randomly allocated into intervention (n=27) and control (n=22) groups. Subjects in the intervention group received a daily dose of 10g of oligofructose-enriched inulin and subjects in control group received a placebo for two months. Anthropometric variables, metabolic parameters including fasting serum glucose (FSG), hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), lipid profile and blood pressure were measured at the beginning and after two months. Immune markers also included serum interleukin (IL)-4, IL-12 and interferon (IFN)-γ concentrations were assessed and CD3(+), CD4(+), CD8(+) and CD11b(+)T-cell counts were determined by flow cytometry at baseline and end of the trial. After two months intervention, significant improvements in anthropometric variables, blood pressure and serum lipids occurred in prebiotic-treated group (P<0.001). Serum IL-4, IL-12 and IFN-γ concentrationsalso significantly decreased in intervention group (P<0.001). No significant changes in CD3(+), CD4(+), CD8(+) and CD11b(+) T-cell counts were observed in treatment groups after intervention. The present study showed several beneficial effects of oligofructose-enriched inulin on the improvement of the glycemic status, lipid profile, and immune markers in patients with T2DM. Further studies are needed to confirming our findings and to better clarify the underlying mechanisms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Exploring personality traits related to dopamine D2/3 receptor availability in striatal subregions of humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caravaggio, Fernando; Fervaha, Gagan; Chung, Jun Ku; Gerretsen, Philip; Nakajima, Shinichiro; Plitman, Eric; Iwata, Yusuke; Wilson, Alan; Graff-Guerrero, Ariel

    2016-04-01

    While several studies have examined how particular personality traits are related to dopamine D2/3 receptor (D2/3R) availability in the striatum of humans, few studies have reported how multiple traits measured in the same persons are differentially related to D2/3R availability in different striatal sub-regions. We examined how personality traits measured with the Karolinska Scales of Personality are related to striatal D2/3R availability measured with [(11)C]-raclopride in 30 healthy humans. Based on previous the literature, five personality traits were hypothesized to be most likely related to D2/3R availability: impulsiveness, monotony avoidance, detachment, social desirability, and socialization. We found self-reported impulsiveness was negatively correlated with D2/3R availability in the ventral striatum and globus pallidus. After controlling for age and gender, monotony avoidance was also negatively correlated with D2/3R availability in the ventral striatum and globus pallidus. Socialization was positively correlated with D2/3R availability in the ventral striatum and putamen. After controlling for age and gender, the relationship between socialization and D2/3R availability in these regions survived correction for multiple comparisons (p-threshold=.003). Thus, within the same persons, different personality traits are differentially related to in vivo D2/3R availability in different striatal sub-regions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  14. Traits across the personality hierarchy differentially relate to positive and negative affect: Evidence for the predictive validity of empirically derived meta-traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengartner, Michael P; Graf, Markus; Schreiber, Marc

    2017-05-01

    There is increasing interest in the construct validity of higher-order domains of the Big Five personality traits. A total of 831 persons from the Swiss population completed the International Personality Item Pool and an adaptation of the Positive and Negative Affect Scales. Using Goldberg's bass-ackwards method, we found evidence for the general factor of personality (GFP) and the two meta-traits of positive emotionality (blend of low neuroticism and high extraversion) and constraint (blend of high agreeableness and conscientiousness). In association with positive affect, the explanatory power of the GFP (r = 0.43) and positive emotionality (r = 0.37) was largely superior to extraversion (r = 0.24), conscientiousness (r = 0.18), agreeableness (r = 0.09) and openness (r = 0.04), although not neuroticism (r = -0.34). In association with negative affect, neuroticism (r = 0.41), the GFP (r = -0.36) and positive emotionality (r = -0.35) were the most powerful single predictors. We conclude that the higher-order structure of personality is best explained by the meta-traits of positive emotionality and constraint, which correspond closely to the well-established superfactors of internalizing and externalizing. We further demonstrate that these have substantial criterion validity when broad positive and negative affect is the outcome of interest. These findings help to relate Big Five meta-traits to pathological personality. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Big Five Traits Related to Short-Term Mating: From Personality to Promiscuity across 46 Nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David P. Schmitt

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available As part of the International Sexuality Description Project, 13,243 participants from 46 nations responded to self-report measures of personality and mating behavior. Several traits showed consistent links with short-term mating. Extraversion positively correlated with interest in short-term mating, unrestricted sociosexuality, having engaged in short-term mate poaching attempts, having succumbed to short-term poaching attempts of others, and lacking relationship exclusivity. Low levels of agreeableness and conscientiousness also related to short-term mating, especially with extra-pair mating. Neuroticism and openness were associated with short-term mating as well, but these links were less consistent across sex and nation. Nation-level links between personality and sexuality replicated within-region findings, such as the strong association between national extraversion and national sociosexuality. Discussion focuses on the origins of personality-sexuality links and their implications across nations.

  16. Fine-mapping diabetes-related traits, including insulin resistance, in heterogeneous stock rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holl, Katie L.; Oreper, Daniel; Xie, Yuying; Tsaih, Shirng-Wern; Valdar, William

    2012-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a disease of relative insulin deficiency resulting from both insulin resistance and beta cell failure. We have previously used heterogeneous stock (HS) rats to fine-map a locus for glucose tolerance. We show here that glucose intolerance in the founder strains of the HS colony is mediated by different mechanisms: insulin resistance in WKY and an insulin secretion defect in ACI, and we demonstrate a high degree of variability for measures of insulin resistance and insulin secretion in HS rats. As such, our goal was to use HS rats to fine-map several diabetes-related traits within a region on rat chromosome 1. We measured blood glucose and plasma insulin levels after a glucose tolerance test in 782 male HS rats. Using 97 SSLP markers, we genotyped a 68 Mb region on rat chromosome 1 previously implicated in glucose and insulin regulation. We used linkage disequilibrium mapping by mixed model regression with inferred descent to identify a region from 198.85 to 205.9 that contains one or more quantitative trait loci (QTL) for fasting insulin and a measure of insulin resistance, the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index. This region also encompasses loci identified for fasting glucose and Insulin_AUC (area under the curve). A separate <3 Mb QTL was identified for body weight. Using a novel penalized regression method we then estimated effects of alternative haplotype pairings under each locus. These studies highlight the utility of HS rats for fine-mapping genetic loci involved in the underlying causes of T2D. PMID:22947656

  17. The Impact of Emotions and Empathy-Related Traits on Punishment Behavior: Introduction and Validation of the Inequality Game.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga M Klimecki

    Full Text Available In the prevention and resolution of conflicts in social contexts, an important step is to understand how different emotions and empathic traits are linked to punishment behaviors. Unfortunately, few paradigms exist to study these phenomena. Here, we developed the Inequality Game (IG as an economic and verbal interaction paradigm in which participants are faced with an "unfair other" as opposed to a "fair other" and subsequently have the opportunity to engage in a range of social behaviors. These social behaviors include cooperative or competitive economic choices and nice or derogatory verbal behavior toward the unfair and fair other. Participants could thus engage in punishment or forgiveness behavior toward the unfair other as well as in cooperative or aggressive behavior toward the fair other. We validated the IG through multimodal measures comprising the assessment of personality traits, emotions (by means of facial expressions and self-reports, arousal (by means of skin conductance responses, physical effort (force exertion, and behavioral reactions. Second, we examined the influence of emotions and empathy-related traits on punishment behavior. With regard to emotions, we observed a positive relation between malicious joy and punishment behavior. This result highlights the role of reward-related mechanisms in favoring punishment behavior. In addition, different empathic traits had opposing effects on antisocial behavior. Whereas personal distress predicted aggressive verbal behavior, perspective taking and empathic concern predicted a reduction in punishment behavior. Empathic traits also modulated emotional experience and person evaluations, such that perspective taking was related to more positive affect (less frowning and more smiling and a more favorable evaluation of the unfair other. The current data validate the IG, reveal that malicious joy is positively related to punishment behavior, and show that different types of empathic

  18. The Impact of Emotions and Empathy-Related Traits on Punishment Behavior: Introduction and Validation of the Inequality Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimecki, Olga M.; Vuilleumier, Patrik; Sander, David

    2016-01-01

    In the prevention and resolution of conflicts in social contexts, an important step is to understand how different emotions and empathic traits are linked to punishment behaviors. Unfortunately, few paradigms exist to study these phenomena. Here, we developed the Inequality Game (IG) as an economic and verbal interaction paradigm in which participants are faced with an “unfair other” as opposed to a “fair other” and subsequently have the opportunity to engage in a range of social behaviors. These social behaviors include cooperative or competitive economic choices and nice or derogatory verbal behavior toward the unfair and fair other. Participants could thus engage in punishment or forgiveness behavior toward the unfair other as well as in cooperative or aggressive behavior toward the fair other. We validated the IG through multimodal measures comprising the assessment of personality traits, emotions (by means of facial expressions and self-reports), arousal (by means of skin conductance responses), physical effort (force exertion), and behavioral reactions. Second, we examined the influence of emotions and empathy-related traits on punishment behavior. With regard to emotions, we observed a positive relation between malicious joy and punishment behavior. This result highlights the role of reward-related mechanisms in favoring punishment behavior. In addition, different empathic traits had opposing effects on antisocial behavior. Whereas personal distress predicted aggressive verbal behavior, perspective taking and empathic concern predicted a reduction in punishment behavior. Empathic traits also modulated emotional experience and person evaluations, such that perspective taking was related to more positive affect (less frowning and more smiling) and a more favorable evaluation of the unfair other. The current data validate the IG, reveal that malicious joy is positively related to punishment behavior, and show that different types of empathic traits can

  19. Quantitative variation in obesity-related traits and insulin precursors linked to the OB gene region on human chromosome 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duggirala, R.; Stern, M.P.; Reinhart, L.J. [Univ. of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX (United States)] [and others

    1996-09-01

    Despite the evidence that human obesity has strong genetic determinants, efforts at identifying specific genes that influence human obesity have largely been unsuccessful. Using the sibship data obtained from 32 low-income Mexican American pedigrees ascertained on a type II diabetic proband and a multipoint variance-components method, we tested for linkage between various obesity-related traits plus associated metabolic traits and 15 markers on human chromosome 7. We found evidence for linkage between markers in the OB gene region and various traits, as follows: D7S514 and extremity skinfolds (LOD = 3.1), human carboxypeptidase A1 (HCPA1) and 32,33-split proinsulin level (LOD = 4.2), and HCPA1 and proinsulin level (LOD = 3.2). A putative susceptibility locus linked to the marker D7S514 explained 56% of the total phenotypic variation in extremity skinfolds. Variation at the HCPA1 locus explained 64% of phenotypic variation in proinsulin level and {approximately}73% of phenotypic variation in split proinsulin concentration, respectively. Weaker evidence for linkage to several other obesity-related traits (e.g., waist circumference, body-mass index, fat mass by bioimpedance, etc.) was observed for a genetic location, which is {approximately}15 cM telomeric to OB. In conclusion, our study reveals that the OB region plays a significant role in determining the phenotypic variation of both insulin precursors and obesity-related traits, at least in Mexican Americans. 66 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Quantitative trait loci controlling leaf appearance and curd initiation of cauliflower in relation to temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Yaser; Briggs, William; Matschegewski, Claudia; Ordon, Frank; Stützel, Hartmut; Zetzsche, Holger; Groen, Simon; Uptmoor, Ralf

    2016-07-01

    QTL regions on chromosomes C06 and C09 are involved in temperature dependent time to curd induction in cauliflower. Temperature is the main environmental factor influencing curding time of cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis). Temperatures above 20-22 °C inhibit development towards curding even in many summer cultivars. To identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling curding time and its related traits in a wide range of different temperature regimes from 12 to 27 °C, a doubled haploid (DH) mapping population segregating for curding time was developed and days to curd initiation (DCI), leaf appearance rate (LAR), and final leaf number (FLN) were measured. The population was genotyped with 176 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. Composite interval mapping (CIM) revealed repeatedly detected QTL for DCI on C06 and C09. The estimated additive effect increased at high temperatures. Significant QTL × environment interactions (Q × E) for FLN and DCI on C06 and C09 suggest that these hotspot regions have major influences on temperature mediated curd induction. 25 % of the DH lines did not induce curds at temperatures higher than 22 °C. Applying a binary model revealed a QTL with LOD >15 on C06. Nearly all lines carrying the allele of the reliable early maturing parental line (PL) on that locus induced curds at high temperatures while only half of the DH lines carrying the allele of the unreliable PL reached the generative phase during the experiment. Large variation in LAR was observed. QTL for LAR were detected repeatedly in several environments on C01, C04 and C06. Negative correlations between LAR and DCI and QTL co-localizations on C04 and C06 suggest that LAR has also effects on development towards curd induction.

  1. Genetic Evidence for Causal Relationships Between Maternal Obesity-Related Traits and Birth Weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrrell, Jessica; Richmond, Rebecca C; Palmer, Tom M; Feenstra, Bjarke; Rangarajan, Janani; Metrustry, Sarah; Cavadino, Alana; Paternoster, Lavinia; Armstrong, Loren L; De Silva, N Maneka G; Wood, Andrew R; Horikoshi, Momoko; Geller, Frank; Myhre, Ronny; Bradfield, Jonathan P; Kreiner-Møller, Eskil; Huikari, Ville; Painter, Jodie N; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Allard, Catherine; Berry, Diane J; Bouchard, Luigi; Das, Shikta; Evans, David M; Hakonarson, Hakon; Hayes, M Geoffrey; Heikkinen, Jani; Hofman, Albert; Knight, Bridget; Lind, Penelope A; McCarthy, Mark I; McMahon, George; Medland, Sarah E; Melbye, Mads; Morris, Andrew P; Nodzenski, Michael; Reichetzeder, Christoph; Ring, Susan M; Sebert, Sylvain; Sengpiel, Verena; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Willemsen, Gonneke; de Geus, Eco J C; Martin, Nicholas G; Spector, Tim D; Power, Christine; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Bisgaard, Hans; Grant, Struan F A; Nohr, Ellen A; Jaddoe, Vincent W; Jacobsson, Bo; Murray, Jeffrey C; Hocher, Berthold; Hattersley, Andrew T; Scholtens, Denise M; Davey Smith, George; Hivert, Marie-France; Felix, Janine F; Hyppönen, Elina; Lowe, William L; Frayling, Timothy M; Lawlor, Debbie A; Freathy, Rachel M

    2016-03-15

    Neonates born to overweight or obese women are larger and at higher risk of birth complications. Many maternal obesity-related traits are observationally associated with birth weight, but the causal nature of these associations is uncertain. To test for genetic evidence of causal associations of maternal body mass index (BMI) and related traits with birth weight. Mendelian randomization to test whether maternal BMI and obesity-related traits are potentially causally related to offspring birth weight. Data from 30,487 women in 18 studies were analyzed. Participants were of European ancestry from population- or community-based studies in Europe, North America, or Australia and were part of the Early Growth Genetics Consortium. Live, term, singleton offspring born between 1929 and 2013 were included. Genetic scores for BMI, fasting glucose level, type 2 diabetes, systolic blood pressure (SBP), triglyceride level, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level, vitamin D status, and adiponectin level. Offspring birth weight from 18 studies. Among the 30,487 newborns the mean birth weight in the various cohorts ranged from 3325 g to 3679 g. The maternal genetic score for BMI was associated with a 2-g (95% CI, 0 to 3 g) higher offspring birth weight per maternal BMI-raising allele (P = .008). The maternal genetic scores for fasting glucose and SBP were also associated with birth weight with effect sizes of 8 g (95% CI, 6 to 10 g) per glucose-raising allele (P = 7 × 10(-14)) and -4 g (95% CI, -6 to -2 g) per SBP-raising allele (P = 1×10(-5)), respectively. A 1-SD ( ≈ 4 points) genetically higher maternal BMI was associated with a 55-g higher offspring birth weight (95% CI, 17 to 93 g). A 1-SD ( ≈ 7.2 mg/dL) genetically higher maternal fasting glucose concentration was associated with 114-g higher offspring birth weight (95% CI, 80 to 147 g). However, a 1-SD ( ≈ 10 mm Hg) genetically higher maternal SBP was associated with a 208-g

  2. Latent Personality Profiles and the Relations with Psychopathology and Psychopathic Traits in Detained Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decuyper, Mieke; Colins, Olivier F.; De Clercq, Barbara; Vermeiren, Robert; Broekaert, Eric; Bijttebier, Patricia; Roose, Annelore; De Fruyt, Filip

    2013-01-01

    The present study constructed empirically derived subtypes of adolescent offenders based on general traits and examined their associations with psychopathology and psychopathic traits. The sample included 342 detained minors (172 boys and 170 girls; mean age 15.85 years, SD = 1.07) recruited in various Youth Detention Centers across the Flemish…

  3. Evaluation and Exploration of Favorable QTL Alleles for Salt Stress Related Traits in Cotton Cultivars (G. hirsutum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Lei; Cai, Caiping; Wu, Shuang; Zhang, Fang; Hou, Sen; Guo, Wangzhen

    2016-01-01

    Soil salinization is one of the major problems in global agricultural production. Cotton is a pioneer crop with regard to salt stress tolerance, and can be used for saline-alkali land improvement. The large-scale detection of salt tolerance traits in cotton accessions, and the identification of elite quantitative trait loci (QTLs)/genes for salt-tolerance have been very important in salt tolerance breeding. Here, 43 advanced salt-tolerant and 31 highly salt-sensitive cultivars were detected by analyzing ten salt tolerance related traits in 304 upland cotton cultivars. Among them, 11 advanced salt-tolerance and eight highly salt-sensitive cultivars were consistent with previously reported results. Association analysis of ten salt-tolerance related traits and 145 SSRs was performed, and a total of 95 significant associations were detected; 17, 41, and 37 of which were associated with germinative index, seedling stage physiological index, and four seedling stage biochemical indexes, respectively. Of these associations, 20 SSR loci were simultaneously associated with two or more traits. Furthermore, we detected 117 elite alleles associated with salt-tolerance traits, 4 of which were reported previously. Among these loci, 44 (37.60%) were rare alleles with a frequency of less than 5%, 6 only existed in advanced salt-tolerant cultivars, and 2 only in highly salt-sensitive cultivars. As a result, 13 advanced salt-tolerant cultivars were selected to assemble the optimal cross combinations by computer simulation for the development of salt-tolerant accessions. This study lays solid foundations for further improvements in cotton salt-tolerance by referencing elite germplasms, alleles associated with salt-tolerance traits, and optimal crosses. PMID:26943816

  4. Gender-related traits of heterosexual and homosexual men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippa, Richard A

    2002-02-01

    Two studies investigated the relation between sexual orientation and gender-related traits. Analyzing data from an Internet survey, Study 1 found that gay men and lesbians differed from same-sex heterosexuals most strongly on gender diagnosticity (GD) measures, which assess male- versus female-typicality of occupational preferences (effect sizes were 1.14 for men and 0.53 for women) and least strongly on instrumentality (I) and expressiveness (E). Study 2 found that GD measures showed large differences between 289 gay and 200 heterosexual men (d = 0.95) and between 296 lesbian and 435 heterosexual women (d = 1.32), whereas I and E showed much smaller differences. In Study 2 homosexual-heterosexual diagnosticity measures, computed from men's and women's occupational preferences, correlated very strongly with GD measures (r = 0.88 for men and 0.89 for women), indicating that occupational preference items that distinguished men from women also tended to distinguish heterosexual from homosexual individuals. LISREL 8 analyses showed that self-ascribed masculinity-femininity did not mediate the strong relation between sexual orientation and GD for men or for women.

  5. Phenotypic and genetic relations between the HEXACO dimensions and trait emotional intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veselka, Livia; Petrides, K V; Schermer, Julie Aitken; Cherkas, Lynn F; Spector, Tim D; Vernon, Philip A

    2010-02-01

    The present study investigated the location of trait emotional intelligence (trait EI or trait emotional self-efficacy) within the context of the HEXACO model - a more comprehensive personality framework than the conventional Big Five structure. A total of 666 MZ and 526 DZ adult twin pairs from the United Kingdom completed the short form of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue-SF) and the short form of the HEXACO Personality Inventory (HEXACO-60). Many significant phenotypic correlations between the TEIQue-SF and the HEXACO-60 were obtained, which were strongest for HEXACO Extraversion, and weakest for HEXACO Honesty-Humility. As was expected, Emotionality was the only HEXACO dimension to correlate negatively with TEIQue-SF scores. Bivariate behavioral genetic analyses revealed that all phenotypic correlations were attributable to common genetic and common nonshared environmental factors. The study confirms the validity of trait EI as a constellation of emotional self-perceptions located at the lower levels of personality.

  6. Ergonomics, anthropometrics, and kinetic evaluation of gait: A case study

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, Rosa; Fontes, Liliana Magalhães Campos; Arezes, P.; Carvalho, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to develop appropriate changes in a pair of shoes in order to improve the gait of an individual selected for this case study. This analysis took into account ergonomic aspects, namely those relating to the individual’s anthropometrics. Gait analysis was done with the adapted footwear both before and after intervention.A conventional X-ray was performed, which revealed a 29-mm left lower limb shortening and possible foot adduction. The anthropometric assessment confir...

  7. Genetic association study with metabolic syndrome and metabolic-related traits in a cross-sectional sample and a 10-year longitudinal sample of chinese elderly population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinghui Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The metabolic syndrome (MetS has been known as partly heritable, while the number of genetic studies on MetS and metabolic-related traits among Chinese elderly was limited. METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis was performed among 2 014 aged participants from September 2009 to June 2010 in Beijing, China. An additional longitudinal study was carried out among the same study population from 2001 to 2010. Biochemical profile and anthropometric parameters of all the participants were measured. The associations of 23 SNPs located within 17 candidate genes (MTHFR, PPARγ, LPL, INSIG, TCF7L2, FTO, KCNJ11, JAZF1, CDKN2A/B, ADIPOQ, WFS1, CDKAL1, IGF2BP2, KCNQ1, MTNR1B, IRS1, ACE with overweight and obesity, diabetes, metabolic phenotypes, and MetS were examined in both studies. RESULTS: In this Chinese elderly population, prevalence of overweight, central obesity, diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and MetS were 48.3%, 71.0%, 32.4%, 75.7%, 68.3% and 54.5%, respectively. In the cross-sectional analyses, no SNP was found to be associated with MetS. Genotype TT of SNP rs4402960 within the gene IGF2BP2 was associated with overweight (odds ratio (OR  = 0.479, 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.316-0.724, p = 0.001 and genotype CA of SNP rs1801131 within the gene MTHFR was associated with hypertension (OR = 1.560, 95% CI: 1.194-2.240, p = 0.001. However, these associations were not observed in the longitudinal analyses. CONCLUSIONS: The associations of SNP rs4402960 with overweight as well as the association of SNP rs1801131 with hypertension were found to be statistically significant. No SNP was identified to be associated with MetS in our study with statistical significance.

  8. Suppressing images of desire: Neural correlates of chocolate-related thoughts in high and low trait chocolate cravers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miedl, Stephan F; Blechert, Jens; Meule, Adrian; Richard, Anna; Wilhelm, Frank H

    2018-03-05

    Chocolate is the most often craved food in Western societies and many individuals try to resist its temptation due to weight concerns. Suppressing chocolate-related thoughts might, however, lead to paradoxical enhancements of these thoughts and this effect might be more pronounced in individuals with frequent chocolate cravings. In the current study, neural and cognitive correlates of chocolate thought suppression were investigated as a function of trait chocolate craving. Specifically, 20 high and 20 low trait chocolate cravers followed suppression vs. free thinking instructions after being exposed to chocolate and neutral images. Enhanced cue reactivity was evident in high trait chocolate cravers in that they reported more chocolate-related thoughts selectively after chocolate images compared to their low trait craving counterparts. This cue reactivity was mirrored neurally by higher activation in the ventral and dorsal striatum, demonstrating enhanced reward system activity. Unexpectedly, high trait chocolate cravers successfully reduced their elevated chocolate thoughts in the suppression condition. This lends support for the use of thought suppression as a means of regulating unwanted thoughts, cravings and imagery. Whether this thought manipulation is able to curb the elevated cue reactivity and the underlying reward sensitivity in chocolate cravers in applied settings remains to be shown. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Variation in CAPN10 in relation to type 2 diabetes, obesity and quantitative metabolic traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dorit P; Urhammer, Søren A; Eiberg, Hans

    2006-01-01

    = 4659 normoglycemic and glucose-tolerant control subjects), however, no significant associations of the SNP43 or the SNP44 variant with T2D were found. Neither were the two variants associated with obesity, and no association of either variant with diabetes-related quantitative traits was found......The first type 2 diabetes (T2D) gene to be identified in a genome wide scan followed by positional cloning was CAPN10 encoding the cysteine protease calpain-10. Subsequently, a large number of studies have investigated variation in CAPN10 in relation to T2D. Two CAPN10 single nucleotide...... in a study involving a population-based sample of 5698 middle-aged subjects. Meta-analyses, however, of the present and previously published studies involving 15,368 (SNP43) or 13,628 (SNP44) subjects yielded odds ratios of 1.09 (95% CI 1.02-1.16, p = 0.007) and 1.15 (1.07-1.23, p = 0.0002), respectively...

  10. Interaction between the RGS6 gene and psychosocial stress on obesity-related traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Jin; Min, Jin-Young; Min, Kyoung-Bok

    2017-03-31

    Obesity is a major risk factor for chronic diseases and arises from the interactions between environmental factors and multiple genes. Psychosocial stress may affect the risk for obesity, modifying food intake and choice. A recent study suggested regulator of G-protein signaling 6 (RGS6) as a novel candidate gene for obesity in terms of reward-related feeding under stress. In this study, we tried to verify the unidentified connection between RGS6 and human obesity with psychosocial stress in a Korean population. A total of 1,462 adult subjects, who participated in the Korean Association Resource cohort project, were included for this analysis. Obesity-related traits including waist circumference, body mass index, and visceral adipose tissue were recorded. A total of 4 intronic SNPs for the RGS6 gene were used for this study. We found that interactions between SNP rs2239219 and psychosocial stress are significantly associated with abdominal obesity (p = 0.007). As risk allele of this SNP increased, prevalence of abdominal obesity under high-stress conditions gradually increased (p = 0.013). However, we found no SNPs-by-stress interaction effect on other adiposity phenotypes. This study suggests that RGS6 is closely linked to stress-induced abdominal obesity in Korean adults.

  11. [Relation between personality traits and personal values in cocaine-dependent patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiz, Jesús; Álvaro, José Luis; Martínez, Isabel

    2011-01-01

    To describe the relationship between personal values and personality traits in cocaine-using patients and analyze their specificity in the explanation of different types of constructs. A study was carried out to explore the association between these variables in a group of 230 patients receiving treatment for cocaine dependence. The Portrait Values Questionnaire was used for measuring personal values, while the Big-Five Factors Questionnaire was used to measure personality traits. In addition, we explored the relationship of values and traits with the variables "degree of satisfaction with life" (life satisfaction) and "belonging to a religious association" (religiosity). A significant association was found between personal values and personality traits. At the same time, their conceptual and empirical differences were revealed, as it was demonstrated that personal values better explain "belonging to a religious association", whilst personality traits better explain "degree of satisfaction with life". Thus, it was found that personal values better explain behaviours that depend on greater cognitive control, while personality traits would have more influence on tendencies and behaviours that are subject to lower cognitive control levels. Considering the relationship between the two constructs, and given that cocaine use is associated with both high and low cognitive control, in explanations of cocaine use it would be appropriate to take into account the explanatory contribution of personal values and personality traits in a complementary way.

  12. Anthropometric and physiological predispositions for elite soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, T; Bangsbo, J; Franks, A

    2000-09-01

    This review is focused on anthropometric and physiological characteristics of soccer players with a view to establishing their roles within talent detection, identification and development programmes. Top-class soccer players have to adapt to the physical demands of the game, which are multifactorial. Players may not need to have an extraordinary capacity within any of the areas of physical performance but must possess a reasonably high level within all areas. This explains why there are marked individual differences in anthropometric and physiological characteristics among top players. Various measurements have been used to evaluate specific aspects of the physical performance of both youth and adult soccer players. The positional role of a player is related to his or her physiological capacity. Thus, midfield players and full-backs have the highest maximal oxygen intakes ( > 60 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)) and perform best in intermittent exercise tests. On the other hand, midfield players tend to have the lowest muscle strength. Although these distinctions are evident in adult and elite youth players, their existence must be interpreted circumspectly in talent identification and development programmes. A range of relevant anthropometric and physiological factors can be considered which are subject to strong genetic influences (e.g. stature and maximal oxygen intake) or are largely environmentally determined and susceptible to training effects. Consequently, fitness profiling can generate a useful database against which talented groups may be compared. No single method allows for a representative assessment of a player's physical capabilities for soccer. We conclude that anthropometric and physiological criteria do have a role as part of a holistic monitoring of talented young players.

  13. Genetic variation in meat production related traits in reindeer (Rangifer t. tarandus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsi Muuttoranta

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false SV X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Normal tabell"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-language:EN-US;} In reindeer husbandry, animal breeding could offer tools for improving productivity by selection. The traits affecting meat production efficiency are primarily related to calf growth and survival, and to dam’s longevity and lifetime ability to raise heavy calves. Information on genetic (covariation in these traits is scarce but needed in estimating the potential and effectiveness of selection as well as biological constraints. The objectives of the study were to estimate these genetic parameters from the data of an experimental reindeer herd at Kutuharju (Inari, Finland. Heritabilities (h2 and genetic correlations (rg among the average daily gain of calves (ADG, dams’ age at maturity, individual fitness (λind and the cumulative sum of her calves’ weaning weight over seven years (WW7 were studied with AS-Reml software using the dataset from the experimental herd. The pedigree included also sire information to allow the separation of the maternal effects. Direct and maternal heritabilities of ADG were moderate (0.24±0.09 and 0.18±0.05, respectively and the direct-maternal correlation was highly negative (-0.73±0.17. Indeed, selection on growth necessitates information on both calf and dam. The genetic correlation of growth with birth date and birth weight could not be detected with the data. The age

  14. Five factor model personality traits relate to adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder but not to their distinct neurocognitive profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dijk, Fiona E; Mostert, Jeannette; Glennon, Jeffrey; Onnink, Marten; Dammers, Janneke; Vasquez, Alejandro Arias; Kan, Cornelis; Verkes, Robbert Jan; Hoogman, Martine; Franke, Barbara; Buitelaar, Jan K

    2017-12-01

    Deficits in multiple neuropsychological domains and specific personality profiles have been observed in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In this study we investigated whether personality traits are related to neurocognitive profiles in adults with ADHD. Neuropsychological performance and Five Factor Model (FFM) personality traits were measured in adults with ADHD (n = 133) and healthy controls (n = 132). Three neuropsychological profiles, derived from previous community detection analyses, were investigated for personality trait differences. Irrespective of cognitive profile, participants with ADHD showed significantly higher Neuroticism and lower Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness than healthy controls. Only the FFM personality factor Openness differed significantly between the three profiles. Higher Openness was more common in those with aberrant attention and inhibition than those with increased delay discounting and atypical working memory / verbal fluency. The results suggest that the personality trait Openness, but not any other FFM factor, is linked to neurocognitive profiles in ADHD. ADHD symptoms rather than profiles of cognitive impairment have associations with personality traits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Callous-Unemotional Traits, Relational and Social Aggression, and Interpersonal Maturity in a Sample of Behaviorally Disordered Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, G. Ronald; Crothers, Laura M.; Hughes, Tammy L.; Kanyongo, Gibbs Y.; Kolbert, Jered B.; Parys, Kristen

    2018-01-01

    The authors examined the degree to which callous-unemotional traits and narcissism predict relational aggression, social aggression, and prosocial skills in a sample of 79 adolescent offenders (13-18 years old; 26% girls; 74% boys) attending a school for youth with behavior disorders in the Mid-Atlantic United States. Narcissism made a significant…

  16. Evaluation of genetic components in traits related to superovulation, in vitro fertilization, and embryo transfer in Holstein cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this study were to estimate variance components and identify regions of the genome associated with traits related to embryo transfer in Holsteins. Reproductive technologies are used in the dairy industry to increase the reproductive rate of superior females. A drawback of these met...

  17. Panic disorder and health-related quality of life: the predictive roles of anxiety sensitivity and trait anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Eun-Ho; Kim, Borah; Choe, Ah Young; Lee, Jun-Yeob; Choi, Tai Kiu; Lee, Sang-Hyuk

    2015-01-30

    Panic disorder (PD) is a very common anxiety disorder and is often a chronic disabling condition. However, little is known about the factors that predict health-related quality of life (HRQOL) other than sociodemographic factors and illness-related symptomatology that explain HRQOL in only small to modest degrees. This study explored whether anxiety-related individual traits including anxiety sensitivity and trait anxiety can predict independently HRQOL in panic patients. Patients with panic disorder with or without agoraphobia (N=230) who met the diagnostic criteria in the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV were recruited. Stepwise regression analysis was performed to determine the factors that predict HRQOL in panic disorder. HRQOL was assessed by the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36). Anxiety sensitivity was an independent predictor of bodily pain and social functioning whereas trait anxiety independently predicted all of the eight domains of the SF-36. Our data suggests that the assessment of symptomatology as well as individual anxiety-related trait should be included in the evaluation of HRQOL in panic patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. On Individual Differences in Person Perception: Raters' Personality Traits Relate to Their Psychopathy Checklist-Revised Scoring Tendencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Audrey K.; Rufino, Katrina A.; Boccaccini, Marcus T.; Jackson, Rebecca L.; Murrie, Daniel C.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated raters' personality traits in relation to scores they assigned to offenders using the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R). A total of 22 participants, including graduate students and faculty members in clinical psychology programs, completed a PCL-R training session, independently scored four criminal offenders using the…

  19. Parturition in gilts: duration of farrowing, birth intervals and placenta expulsion in relation to maternal, piglet and placental traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rens, van B.T.T.M.; Lende, van der T.

    2004-01-01

    Large White×Meishan F2 crossbred gilts (n=57) were observed continuously during farrowing while the placentae of their offspring were labeled in order to examine the duration of farrowing and placenta expulsion in relation to maternal-, piglet- and placental traits and the duration of birth interval

  20. FTO gene associated fatness in relation to body fat distribution and metabolic traits throughout a broad range of fatness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kring, Sofia I I; Holst, Claus; Zimmermann, Esther

    2008-01-01

    A common single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of FTO (rs9939609, T/A) is associated with total body fatness. We investigated the association of this SNP with abdominal and peripheral fatness and obesity-related metabolic traits in middle-aged men through a broad range of fatness present already...

  1. [Alimentation dependent health disorders among adult population of Bashkortostan Republic and their relation with nutritional traits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaev, R M; Kondrova, N S; Baĭkina, I M; Larionova, T K

    2008-01-01

    The authors demonstrated relationship between alimentation dependent diseases among adult population of the Republic and nutritional traits of the population, defined major directions of program to optimize nutrition of the population.

  2. Effects of body-size variation on flight-related traits in latitudinal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-04-21

    Apr 21, 2014 ... quantitative traits (Endler 1977; Coyne and Beecham 1987;. Imasheva et al ... Journal of Genetics, Vol. 93, No. 1, April ... ple regression analysis as a function of average tempera- ture(Tave) and ...... Financial assistance (F 41-.

  3. Sleep spindles are related to schizotypal personality traits and thalamic glutamine/glutamate in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustenberger, Caroline; O'Gorman, Ruth L; Pugin, Fiona; Tüshaus, Laura; Wehrle, Flavia; Achermann, Peter; Huber, Reto

    2015-03-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder affecting approximately 1% of the worldwide population. Yet, schizophrenia-like experiences (schizotypy) are very common in the healthy population, indicating a continuum between normal mental functioning and the psychosis found in schizophrenic patients. A continuum between schizotypy and schizophrenia would be supported if they share the same neurobiological origin. Two such neurobiological markers of schizophrenia are: (1) a reduction of sleep spindles (12-15 Hz oscillations during nonrapid eye movement sleep), likely reflecting deficits in thalamo-cortical circuits and (2) increased glutamine and glutamate (Glx) levels in the thalamus. Thus, this study aimed to investigate whether sleep spindles and Glx levels are related to schizotypal personality traits in healthy subjects. Twenty young male subjects underwent 2 all-night sleep electroencephalography recordings (128 electrodes). Sleep spindles were detected automatically. After those 2 nights, thalamic Glx levels were measured by magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Subjects completed a magical ideation scale to assess schizotypy. Sleep spindle density was negatively correlated with magical ideation (r = -.64, P .1). The common relationship of sleep spindle density with schizotypy and thalamic Glx levels indicates a neurobiological overlap between nonclinical schizotypy and schizophrenia. Thus, sleep spindle density and magical ideation may reflect the anatomy and efficiency of the thalamo-cortical system that shows pronounced impairment in patients with schizophrenia. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Common bean genotypes for agronomic and market-related traits in VCU trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisson Fernando Chiorato

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Value for Cultivation and Use (VCU trials are undertaken when evaluating improved common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. lines, and knowledge of agronomic and market-related traits and disease reaction is instrumental in making cultivar recommendations. This study evaluates the yield, cooking time, grain color and reaction to anthracnose (Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, Fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. phaseoli and Curtobacterium wilt (Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens pv. flaccumfaciens of 25 common bean genotypes derived from the main common bean breeding programs in Brazil. Seventeen VCU trials were carried out in the rainy season, dry season and winter season from 2009 to 2011 in the state of São Paulo. Analyses of grain color and cooking time were initiated 60 days after harvest, and disease reaction analyses were performed in the laboratory under controlled conditions. In terms of yield, no genotype superior to the controls was observed for any of the seasons under consideration. Grains from the dry season exhibited better color, while the rainy season led to the shortest cooking times. The following genotypes BRS Esteio, BRS Esplendor and IAC Imperador were resistant to anthracnose, Fusarium wilt and Curtobacterium wilt and, in general, genotypes with lighter-colored grains were more susceptible to anthracnose and Fusarium wilt.

  5. Vagal activity is quadratically related to prosocial traits, prosocial emotions, and observer perceptions of prosociality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, Aleksandr; Oveis, Christopher; Carr, Evan W; Gruber, June; Mauss, Iris B; Shallcross, Amanda; Impett, Emily A; van der Lowe, Ilmo; Hui, Bryant; Cheng, Cecilia; Keltner, Dacher

    2014-12-01

    In the present article, we introduce the quadratic vagal activity-prosociality hypothesis, a theoretical framework for understanding the vagus nerve's involvement in prosociality. We argue that vagus nerve activity supports prosocial behavior by regulating physiological systems that enable emotional expression, empathy for others' mental and emotional states, the regulation of one's own distress, and the experience of positive emotions. However, we contend that extremely high levels of vagal activity can be detrimental to prosociality. We present 3 studies providing support for our model, finding consistent evidence of a quadratic relationship between respiratory sinus arrhythmia--the degree to which the vagus nerve modulates the heart rate--and prosociality. Individual differences in vagal activity were quadratically related to prosocial traits (Study 1), prosocial emotions (Study 2), and outside ratings of prosociality by complete strangers (Study 3). Thus, too much or too little vagal activity appears to be detrimental to prosociality. The present article provides the 1st theoretical and empirical account of the nonlinear relationship between vagal activity and prosociality.

  6. "Lacking warmth": Alexithymia trait is related to warm-specific thermal somatosensory processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borhani, Khatereh; Làdavas, Elisabetta; Fotopoulou, Aikaterini; Haggard, Patrick

    2017-09-01

    Alexithymia is a personality trait involving deficits in emotional processing. The personality construct has been extensively validated, but the underlying neural and physiological systems remain controversial. One theory suggests that low-level somatosensory mechanisms act as somatic markers of emotion, underpinning cognitive and affective impairments in alexithymia. In two separate samples (total N=100), we used an established Quantitative Sensory Testing (QST) battery to probe multiple neurophysiological submodalities of somatosensation, and investigated their associations with the widely-used Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20). Experiment one found reduced sensitivity to warmth in people with higher alexithymia scores, compared to individuals with lower scores, without deficits in other somatosensory submodalities. Experiment two replicated this result in a new group of participants using a full-sample correlation between threshold for warm detection and TAS-20 scores. We discuss the relations between low-level thermoceptive function and cognitive processing of emotion. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A genetic risk score is associated with polycystic ovary syndrome-related traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyejin; Oh, Jee-Young; Sung, Yeon-Ah; Chung, Hye Won

    2016-01-01

    Is a genetic risk score (GRS) associated with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and its related clinical features? The GRS calculated by genome-wide association studies (GWASs) was significantly associated with PCOS status and its related clinical features. PCOS is a heterogeneous disorder and is characterized by oligomenorrhea, hyperandrogenism and polycystic ovary morphology. Although recent GWASs have identified multiple genes associated with PCOS, a comprehensive genetic risk study of these loci with PCOS and related traits (e.g. free testosterone, menstruation number/year and ovarian morphology) has not been performed. This study was designed as a cross-sectional case-control study. We recruited 862 women with PCOS and 860 controls. Women with PCOS were divided into four subgroups: (1) oligomenorrhea + hyperandrogenism + polycystic ovary, (2) oligomenorrhea + hyperandrogenism, (3) oligomenorrhea + polycystic ovary and (4) hyperandrogenism + polycystic ovary. Genomic DNA was genotyped for the PCOS susceptibility loci using the HumanOmni1-Quad v1 array. Venous blood was drawn in the early follicular phase to measure baseline metabolic and hormonal parameters. A GRS was calculated by summing the number of risk alleles from 11 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that were identified in previous GWASs on PCOS. A weighted GRS (wGRS) was calculated by multiplying the number of risk alleles for each SNP by its estimated effect (beta) obtained from the association analysis. The GRS was higher in women with PCOS than in controls (8.8 versus 8.2, P treatment approaches, which could potentially improve health outcomes. None of the authors have any conflicts of interest to declare. No funding was obtained for the study. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Measures of Narcissism and Their Relations to DSM-5 Pathological Traits: A Critical Reappraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joshua D; Lynam, Donald R; Campbell, W Keith

    2016-02-01

    There exists substantial debate about how to best assess pathological narcissism with a variety of measures designed to assess grandiose and vulnerable narcissism, as well as the DSM-IV and DSM-5 based conceptualizations of narcissistic personality disorder (NPD). Wright and colleagues published correlations between several narcissism measures (Narcissistic Personality Inventory [NPI]; Pathological Narcissism Inventory [PNI]; Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire [PDQ] NPD) with the traits comprising the DSM-5 Section III personality trait model. In the current study, we examine the agreement manifested by Wright and colleagues' narcissism-DSM-5 trait profiles with expert ratings of the DSM-5 traits most relevant to descriptions of DSM-IV NPD. Despite concerns regarding the NPI's ability to measure pathological narcissism, its trait profile was strongly correlated with expert ratings, as was PDQ NPD's profile. Conversely, the trait profiles associated with the PNI were primarily uncorrelated with the expert rated NPD profile. The implications of these findings with regard to the assessment of narcissism are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Onion Hybrid Seed Production: Relation with Nectar Composition and Flower Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Veronica C; Caselles, Cristian A; Silva, Maria F; Galmarini, Claudio R

    2018-05-28

    Onion (Allium cepa L.) is one of the main vegetable crops. Pollinators are required for onion seed production, being honeybees the most used. Around the world, two types of onion varieties are grown: open pollinated (OP) and hybrids. Hybrids offer numerous advantages to growers, but usually have lower seed yields than OP cultivars, which in many cases compromise the success of new hybrids. As pollination is critical for seed set, understanding the role of floral rewards and attractants to pollinator species is the key to improve crop seed yield. In this study, the correlation of nectar-analyzed compounds, floral traits, and seed yield under open field conditions in two experimental sites was determined. Nectar composition was described through the analysis of sugars, phenol, and alkaloid compounds. Length and width of the style and tepals of the flowers were measured to describe floral traits. Floral and nectar traits showed differences among the studied lines. For nectar traits, we found a significant influence of the environment where plants were cultivated. Nonetheless, flower traits were not influenced by the experimental sites. The OP and the male-sterile lines (MSLs) showed differences in nectar chemical composition and floral traits. In addition, there were differences between and within MSLs, some of which were correlated with seed yield, bringing the opportunity to select the most productive MSL, using simple determinations of morphological characters like the length of the style or tepals size.

  10. Violence Exposure Subtypes Differentially Mediate the Relation between Callous-Unemotional Traits and Adolescent Delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberth, Carla; Zheng, Yao; McMahon, Robert J

    2017-11-01

    Research with children and adolescents has established a link between callous-unemotional (CU) traits and delinquency, as well as a link between violence exposure (witnessing and direct victimization) and diverse negative and antisocial outcomes. Little attention has been paid to investigating the association among CU traits, violence exposure, and various forms of delinquency. Using a sample of 753 adolescents (male =58%; African American =46%), the current study aimed to elucidate the mediating role of violence exposure (measured in grades 7, 8, 10, 11) on the relationship between CU traits measured in grade 7 and later delinquency (i.e., property, violent, drug, and sexual) assessed in grade 12. Total violence exposure (witnessing and direct victimization) mediated the association between CU traits and all forms of delinquency. When looking at witnessing and direct victimization separately, however, only witnessing violence mediated the relationship between CU traits and all forms of delinquency. These results highlight the importance of violence exposure in the CU-delinquency link, and showed the differential roles of indirect and direct forms of violence exposure on the association. Witnessing and direct victimization may involve different underlying mechanisms influencing developmental outcomes in youth. These findings have important implications for understanding developmental models of violence exposure, CU traits, and delinquency, as well as interventions for youth who have experienced both indirect and direct forms of violence.

  11. On individual differences in person perception: raters' personality traits relate to their psychopathy checklist-revised scoring tendencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Audrey K; Rufino, Katrina A; Boccaccini, Marcus T; Jackson, Rebecca L; Murrie, Daniel C

    2011-06-01

    This study investigated raters' personality traits in relation to scores they assigned to offenders using the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R). A total of 22 participants, including graduate students and faculty members in clinical psychology programs, completed a PCL-R training session, independently scored four criminal offenders using the PCL-R, and completed a comprehensive measure of their own personality traits. A priori hypotheses specified that raters' personality traits, and their similarity to psychopathy characteristics, would relate to raters' PCL-R scoring tendencies. As hypothesized, some raters assigned consistently higher scores on the PCL-R than others, especially on PCL-R Facets 1 and 2. Also as hypothesized, raters' scoring tendencies related to their own personality traits (e.g., higher rater Agreeableness was associated with lower PCL-R Interpersonal facet scoring). Overall, findings underscore the need for future research to examine the role of evaluator characteristics on evaluation results and the need for clinical training to address evaluators' personality influences on their ostensibly objective evaluations.

  12. Relating DSM-5 section III personality traits to section II personality disorder diagnoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morey, L C; Benson, K T; Skodol, A E

    2016-02-01

    The DSM-5 Personality and Personality Disorders Work Group formulated a hybrid dimensional/categorical model that represented personality disorders as combinations of core impairments in personality functioning with specific configurations of problematic personality traits. Specific clusters of traits were selected to serve as indicators for six DSM categorical diagnoses to be retained in this system - antisocial, avoidant, borderline, narcissistic, obsessive-compulsive and schizotypal personality disorders. The goal of the current study was to describe the empirical relationships between the DSM-5 section III pathological traits and DSM-IV/DSM-5 section II personality disorder diagnoses. Data were obtained from a sample of 337 clinicians, each of whom rated one of his or her patients on all aspects of the DSM-IV and DSM-5 proposed alternative model. Regression models were constructed to examine trait-disorder relationships, and the incremental validity of core personality dysfunctions (i.e. criterion A features for each disorder) was examined in combination with the specified trait clusters. Findings suggested that the trait assignments specified by the Work Group tended to be substantially associated with corresponding DSM-IV concepts, and the criterion A features provided additional diagnostic information in all but one instance. Although the DSM-5 section III alternative model provided a substantially different taxonomic structure for personality disorders, the associations between this new approach and the traditional personality disorder concepts in DSM-5 section II make it possible to render traditional personality disorder concepts using alternative model traits in combination with core impairments in personality functioning.

  13. Demographic features and premorbid personality disorder traits in relation to age of onset and sex in paranoid schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skokou, Maria; Gourzis, Philippos

    2014-03-30

    Personality disorders in the premorbid period of schizophrenia and particularly in relation to age of onset and sex, seem to be a rather under-researched area. In the present study, 88 patients with paranoid schizophrenia were examined, regarding demographic characteristics and premorbid personality disorder traits, in order to investigate for differences in the premorbid period of the disease, in relation to age of onset and sex. Age cutoff points were set at personality disorder traits were retrospectively assessed by using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-Patient Edition for Axis II disorders (SCID-II). Comparisons were performed by applying the two-tailed Wilcoxon rank-sum and the χ(2) statistical tests. Young onset patients were characterized by significantly higher proportion of urban birth, single status, more avoidant premorbid personality disorder traits, and less passive-aggressive premorbid personality disorder traits, than late onset counterparts. Differences were more prominently shown in men. Earlier age of onset seems to be associated to increased social inhibition and worse psychosocial adaptation in the premorbid period of paranoid schizophrenia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Influence of allelic variations in relation to norepinephrine and mineralocorticoid receptors on psychopathic traits: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Durand

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Past findings support a relationship between abnormalities in the amygdala and the presence of psychopathic traits. Among other genes and biomarkers relevant to the amygdala, norepinephrine and mineralocorticoid receptors might both play a role in psychopathy due to their association with traits peripheral to psychopathy. The purpose is to examine if allelic variations in single nucleotide polymorphisms related to norepinephrine and mineralocorticoid receptors play a role in the display of psychopathic traits and executive functions. Methods Fifty-seven healthy participants from the community provided a saliva sample for SNP sampling of rs5522 and rs5569. Participants then completed the Psychopathic Personality Inventory–Short Form (PPI-SF and the Tower of Hanoi. Results Allelic variations of both rs5522 and rs5569 were significant when compared to PPI-SF total score and the fearless dominance component of the PPI-SF. A significant result was also obtained between rs5522 and the number of moves needed to complete the 5-disk Tower of Hanoi. Conclusion This pilot study offers preliminary results regarding the effect of allelic variations in SNPs related to norepinephrine and mineralocorticoid receptors on the presence of psychopathic traits. Suggestions are provided to enhance the reliability and validity of a larger-scale study.

  15. Regression Association Analysis of Yield-Related Traits with RAPD Molecular Markers in Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.

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    Saeid Mirzaei

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The pistachio (Pistacia vera, a member of the cashew family, is a small tree originating from Central Asia and the Middle East. The tree produces seeds that are widely consumed as food. Pistacia vera often is confused with other species in the genus Pistacia that are also known as pistachio. These other species can be distinguished by their geographic distributions and their seeds which are much smaller and have a soft shell. Continual advances in crop improvement through plant breeding are driven by the available genetic diversity. Therefore, the recognition and measurement of such diversity is crucial to breeding programs. In the past 20 years, the major effort in plant breeding has changed from quantitative to molecular genetics with emphasis on quantitative trait loci (QTL identification and marker assisted selection (MAS. The germplasm-regression-combined association studies not only allow mapping of genes/QTLs with higher level of confidence, but also allow detection of genes/QTLs, which will otherwise escape detection in linkage-based QTL studies based on the planned populations. The development of the marker-based technology offers a fast, reliable, and easy way to perform multiple regression analysis and comprise an alternative approach to breeding in diverse species of plants. The availability of many makers and morphological traits can help to regression analysis between these markers and morphological traits. Materials and Methods: In this study, 20 genotypes of Pistachio were studied and yield related traits were measured. Young well-expanded leaves were collected for DNA extraction and total genomic DNA was extracted. Genotyping was performed using 15 RAPD primers and PCR amplification products were visualized by gel electrophoresis. The reproducible RAPD fragments were scored on the basis of present (1 or absent (0 bands and a binary matrix constructed using each molecular marker. Association analysis between

  16. Similar traits, different genes? Examining convergent evolution in related weedy rice populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Carrie S; Jia, Melissa H; Jia, Yulin; Caicedo, Ana L

    2013-02-01

    Convergent phenotypic evolution may or may not be associated with convergent genotypic evolution. Agricultural weeds have repeatedly been selected for weed-adaptive traits such as rapid growth, increased seed dispersal and dormancy, thus providing an ideal system for the study of convergent evolution. Here, we identify QTL underlying weedy traits and compare their genetic architecture to assess the potential for convergent genetic evolution in two distinct populations of weedy rice. F(2) offspring from crosses between an indica cultivar and two individuals from genetically differentiated U.S. weedy rice populations were used to map QTL for four quantitative (heading date, seed shattering, plant height and growth rate) and two qualitative traits. We identified QTL on nine of the twelve rice chromosomes, yet most QTL locations do not overlap between the two populations. Shared QTL among weed groups were only seen for heading date, a trait for which weedy groups have diverged from their cultivated ancestors and from each other. Sharing of some QTL with wild rice also suggests a possible role in weed evolution for genes under selection during domestication. The lack of overlapping QTL for the remaining traits suggests that, despite a close evolutionary relationship, weedy rice groups have adapted to the same agricultural environment through different genetic mechanisms. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Analysis of linseed (Linum usitatissiumum L. plant branching as related to variability and interdependence of traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Zając

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Branching process of two linseed cultivars ('Hungarian Gold' and 'Opal' was analysed each year of vegetation between 1999 and 2002 characterised by different weather course. The estimation included also the extent and variability of selected morphological traits and structural traits. as well as correlation between them. On the basis of biometric measurements the hierarchy of plant shoots has been established within a plant, and four plant groups were distinguished: 1-. 2-, 3- and 4-shoot plants. It was demonstrated that the intensity of linseed branching depended mainly on young plant planting density and, to a certain extent also the weather conditions in April and May. In the years when the weather course favoured vegetation. between 23 and 40% plants per stand were branched. Beside increasing its productivity linseed branching may also inhibit a development of secondary weed infestation of the canopy. Similar plant groups with analogous shoot hierarchy formed in both linseed cultivars. Bio social position of shoot on a plant determined the extent of its traits. A dominance of the maiii shoot over lateral shoots was marked, especially concerning the number of seed vessels. Particularly big prevalence of the main shoot over lateral ones was visible in 3- and 4-9hoot plants. Lateral shoots had greater variability of morphological traits, especially concerning the number of seed vessels per shoot. Linear, exponential and power interdependencies between traits of linseed cultivars were also revealed.

  18. Testing the Relations Between Impulsivity-Related Traits, Suicidality, and Nonsuicidal Self-Injury: A Test of the Incremental Validity of the UPPS Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynam, Donald R.; Miller, Joshua D.; Miller, Drew J.; Bornovalova, Marina A.; Lejuez, C. W.

    2011-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) has received significant attention as a predictor of suicidal behavior (SB) and nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI). Despite significant promise, trait impulsivity has received less attention. Understanding the relations between impulsivity and SB and NSSI is confounded, unfortunately, by the heterogeneous nature of impulsivity. This study examined the relations among 4 personality pathways to impulsive behavior studied via the UPPS model of impulsivity and SB and NSSI in a residential sample of drug abusers (N = 76). In this study, we tested whether these 4 impulsivity-related traits (i.e., Negative Urgency, Sensation Seeking, Lack of Premeditation, and Lack of Perseverance) provide incremental validity in the statistical prediction of SB and NSSI above and beyond BPD; they do. We also tested whether BPD symptoms provide incremental validity in the prediction of SB and NSSI above and beyond these impulsivity-related traits; they do not. In addition to the main effects of Lack of Premeditation and Negative Urgency, we found evidence of a robust interaction between these 2 personality traits. The current results argue strongly for the consideration of these 2 impulsivity-related domains—alone and in interaction—when attempting to understand and predict SB and NSSI. PMID:21833346

  19. Testing the relations between impulsivity-related traits, suicidality, and nonsuicidal self-injury: a test of the incremental validity of the UPPS model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynam, Donald R; Miller, Joshua D; Miller, Drew J; Bornovalova, Marina A; Lejuez, C W

    2011-04-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) has received significant attention as a predictor of suicidal behavior (SB) and nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI). Despite significant promise, trait impulsivity has received less attention. Understanding the relations between impulsivity and SB and NSSI is confounded, unfortunately, by the heterogeneous nature of impulsivity. This study examined the relations among 4 personality pathways to impulsive behavior studied via the UPPS model of impulsivity and SB and NSSI in a residential sample of drug abusers (N = 76). In this study, we tested whether these 4 impulsivity-related traits (i.e., Negative Urgency, Sensation Seeking, Lack of Premeditation, and Lack of Perseverance) provide incremental validity in the statistical prediction of SB and NSSI above and beyond BPD; they do. We also tested whether BPD symptoms provide incremental validity in the prediction of SB and NSSI above and beyond these impulsivity-related traits; they do not. In addition to the main effects of Lack of Premeditation and Negative Urgency, we found evidence of a robust interaction between these 2 personality traits. The current results argue strongly for the consideration of these 2 impulsivity-related domains--alone and in interaction--when attempting to understand and predict SB and NSSI.

  20. Genetic parameters between feed-intake-related traits and conformation in 2 separate dairy populations—the Netherlands and United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    To include feed-intake-related traits in the breeding goal, accurate estimates of genetic parameters of feed intake, and its correlations with other related traits (i.e., production, conformation) are required to compare different options. However, the correlations between feed intake and conformati...

  1. RELATIONS AMONG WESTERN CORN ROOTWORM RESISTANCE TRAITS AND ELEMENTS CONCENTRATION IN MAIZE GERMPLASM ROOTS

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    Andrija Brkić

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Western corn rootworm – WCR (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte is an important maize pest in Croatia. Using native resistance of maize germplasm could reduce chemical treatments and other costs in maize production. Objectives of this study were: i to assess variability of WCR resistance traits (root injury, regrowth and size and concentrations of nine elements in roots of 128 maize genotypes, and ii to determine correlations among the traits and ion concentrations. Results revealed high variability of maize genotypes for both WCR resistance traits and ion concentrations. Significant moderate negative correlations (>-0.4 were detected between root injury and boron as well as between root regrowth and iron, manganese and zinc concentrations in root. Consequently, ion concentration in maize roots might have an impact on WCR resistance research.

  2. Plant mycorrhizal traits in Europe in relation to climatic and edaphic gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillermo Bueno, C.; Gerz, Maret; Zobel, Martin; Moora, Mari

    2017-04-01

    Around 90% of plant species associate with mycorrhizal fungi. The symbiosis is known to provide plants with soil N, P and water, and fungi with plant photosynthesized carbohydrates. However, not all mycorrhizal symbioses are identical. The identity of associated plant and fungal species differs, as does the effect of the symbiosis on nutrient cycling and ecosystems more generally. In this study, we analysed the European distribution of two plant mycorrhizal traits in relation to climatic and edaphic drivers. We used the European distribution of the frequency of mycorrhizal colonization (plant mycorrhizal status); whether mycorrhizal fungi either always (obligately mycorrhizal, OM), or sometimes (facultatively mycorrhizal, FM) colonize plant roots, and the four main plant mycorrhizal types; arbuscular (AM), ecto-(ECM), ericoid (ERM), and non-mycorrhizal (NM) plants. We expected AM species to predominate in ecosystems where most soil nutrients occur in inorganic forms (lower latitudes) and those with higher soil pH. By contrast, due to the saprophytic abilities of ECM and ERM fungi, we expected ECM and ERM plants to predominate in ecosystems where nutrients are bound to organic compounds (higher latitudes) and those with lower soil pH. NM plant species are known to be common in disturbed habitats or in extremely phosphorus poor ecosystems, such as the Arctic tundra. Our results showed that the distribution of mycorrhizal types was driven by temperature and soil pH, with increases of NM, ECM and ERM, and decreases of AM, with latitude. FM predominated over OM species and this difference increased with latitude and was dependent on temperature drivers only. These results represent the first evidence at a European scale of plant mycorrhizal distribution patterns linked with climatic and edaphic gradients, supporting the idea of a tight relationship between the mycorrhizal symbiosis and nutrient cycling.

  3. Self-esteem and trait anxiety in relation to drug misuse in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    al-Najjar, M; Clarke, D D

    1996-05-01

    This study was designed to document knowledge about Kuwaiti drug users and to investigate whether or not there is an association between their poor self-concept and high level of anxiety. One hundred and seven incarcerated drug users, 107 individuals serving prison terms for offenses other than drug use, and 107 "normal" individuals were included in this pilot study. The Arabic version of Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale and Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory were used to measure the subjects' self-esteem and state-trait anxiety, respectively. The results documented revealed that there is a relationship between levels of self-esteem and anxiety in Kuwaiti drug user behavior.

  4. How do different dimensions of adolescent narcissism impact the relation between callous-unemotional traits and self-reported aggression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee-Rowland, Lauren M; Barry, Christopher T; Gillen, Christopher T A; Hansen, Laura K

    2017-01-01

    The current study examined the moderating influence that different aspects of narcissism have on the relation between callous-unemotional (CU) traits and aggression in a sample of 720 adolescents (500 males), ages 16-19 enrolled in a 22-week residential program. Findings from the two studies revealed that psychopathy-linked narcissism as assessed by the Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD; Frick & Hare, 2001; Antisocial process screening device. Toronto: Multi-Health Systems.) and vulnerable narcissism as assessed using the Pathological Narcissism Inventory (PNI; Pincus et al., 2009; Initial construction and validation of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory. Psychological Assessment, 21, 365-379) significantly moderated the relation between CU traits and aggression in adolescents. Conversely, non-pathological narcissism assessed by the Narcissistic Personality Inventory for Children (NPIC; Barry, Frick, & Killian, 2003; The relation of narcissism and self-esteem to conduct problems in children. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 32, 139-152) and PNI grandiose narcissism did not significantly impact this relation. These results suggest that forms of narcissism most closely connected to internalizing problems combined with CU traits are associated with relatively heightened aggression in youth. The implications of these findings are discussed. Aggr. Behav. 43:14-25, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Three year stability of Five-Factor Model personality traits in relation to changes in symptom levels in patients with schizophrenia or related disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boyette, L.L.; Nederlof, J.; Meijer, C.; de Boer, F.; de Haan, L.

    2015-01-01

    Five-Factor Model (FFM) personality traits are related to a wide range of clinical outcome in patients with psychotic disorders. However, it is not sufficiently clear whether psychotic illness, particularly fluctuation in negative symptoms and psychotic relapse, affects personality. The current

  6. Emotion Regulation Difficulties in Boys with Oppositional Defiant Disorder/Conduct Disorder and the Relation with Comorbid Autism Traits and Attention Deficit Traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jantiene Schoorl

    Full Text Available Previous research has pointed towards a link between emotion dysregulation and aggressive behavior in children. Emotion regulation difficulties are not specific for children with persistent aggression problems, i.e. oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder (ODD/CD, children with other psychiatric conditions, such as autism spectrum disorders or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, have emotion regulation difficulties too. On a behavioral level some overlap exists between these disorders and comorbidity is high. The aim of this study was therefore twofold: 1 to examine emotion regulation difficulties in 65 boys with ODD/CD in comparison to a non-clinical control group (NC of 38 boys (8-12 years using a performance measure (Ultimatum Game, parent report and self-report, and 2 to establish to what extent emotion regulation in the ODD/CD group was correlated with severity of autism and/or attention deficit traits. Results on the Ultimatum Game showed that the ODD/CD group rejected more ambiguous offers than the NC group, which is seen as an indication of poor emotion regulation. Parents also reported that the ODD/CD group experienced more emotion regulation problems in daily life than the NC group. In contrast to these cognitive and behavioral measures, self-reports did not reveal any difference, indicating that boys with ODD/CD do not perceive themselves as having impairments in regulating their emotions. Emotional decision making within the ODD/CD group was not related to variation in autism or attention deficit traits. These results support the idea that emotion dysregulation is an important problem within ODD/CD, yet boys with ODD/CD have reduced awareness of this.

  7. Emotion Regulation Difficulties in Boys with Oppositional Defiant Disorder/Conduct Disorder and the Relation with Comorbid Autism Traits and Attention Deficit Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoorl, Jantiene; van Rijn, Sophie; de Wied, Minet; van Goozen, Stephanie; Swaab, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has pointed towards a link between emotion dysregulation and aggressive behavior in children. Emotion regulation difficulties are not specific for children with persistent aggression problems, i.e. oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder (ODD/CD), children with other psychiatric conditions, such as autism spectrum disorders or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, have emotion regulation difficulties too. On a behavioral level some overlap exists between these disorders and comorbidity is high. The aim of this study was therefore twofold: 1) to examine emotion regulation difficulties in 65 boys with ODD/CD in comparison to a non-clinical control group (NC) of 38 boys (8-12 years) using a performance measure (Ultimatum Game), parent report and self-report, and 2) to establish to what extent emotion regulation in the ODD/CD group was correlated with severity of autism and/or attention deficit traits. Results on the Ultimatum Game showed that the ODD/CD group rejected more ambiguous offers than the NC group, which is seen as an indication of poor emotion regulation. Parents also reported that the ODD/CD group experienced more emotion regulation problems in daily life than the NC group. In contrast to these cognitive and behavioral measures, self-reports did not reveal any difference, indicating that boys with ODD/CD do not perceive themselves as having impairments in regulating their emotions. Emotional decision making within the ODD/CD group was not related to variation in autism or attention deficit traits. These results support the idea that emotion dysregulation is an important problem within ODD/CD, yet boys with ODD/CD have reduced awareness of this.

  8. The Relation of Personality Traits Wth Depression Severity in Active and Non-Active Elderly Women in Tehran City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Aslankhani

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relation of personality traits with depression in active and non – active elderly women in Tehran city. Methods & Materials: The present research is descriptive–correlation. For this purpose, 188 elderly women (94 active and 94 non - active elders in the age range of 63-82 in Tehran city availably selected as statistical sample. Measurement instrument were demographic questionnaire, Beck depression questionnaire and NEO personality traits questionnaire. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistic (mean and standard deviation and inferential statistic (independent t test, Pearson correlation and Enter multi variant Regression. Results: Results showed that there was significant difference in personality traits and depression between active women with non-active women elders (P<0.05. Also, the result showed that significant correlation between depression score on neuroticism, extroversion, openness and conscientiousness in active women elders and conscientiousness and openness in non-active women elders (P<0.05. The results of multi variant regression also indicated that openness and extroversion variants in active elders and conscientiousness variant in non-active elders have linear relationship with criteria variant (depression and can predict its changes. Conclusion: Based on results of present research, sport and physical activity can be afforded the increase of positive personality traits (for example extroversion and openness and decrease of depression in women elders.

  9. Expression and Regulation of Attachment-Related Emotions in Children with Conduct Problems and Callous-Unemotional Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadds, Mark R; Gale, Nyree; Godbee, Megan; Moul, Caroline; Pasalich, Dave S; Fink, Elian; Hawes, David J

    2016-08-01

    Callous-unemotional traits (CU) are defined by low responsiveness to, and unfeeling disregard for the emotions of others. There is controversial evidence, however, that children with high CU traits can demonstrate affective responsiveness under certain conditions, namely those associated with attachment threat. We tested this using 'fear + amusing' and 'attachment rich' stimuli from the Lion King film. Of N = 76, 4-14 years old children, 56 were clinic-referred children divided into high and low CU traits groups, and 20 children were drawn from the community. Participants watched film sequences of fearful, attachment-related and neutral stimuli and their affective responses and emotion-regulation strategies were coded by independent observers. Children in the high CU traits group were able to disengage from the fear stimuli by showing more 'happiness' to a brief slapstick interlude. In the attachment scenario, high CU children expressed similar or trends toward higher emotional responses and emotion regulation strategies, compared to low-CU children and control children. The results support the idea that high CU children may have the potential for emotional responsiveness to complex emotional stimuli in attachment contexts. Implications of these results for the development of interventions are discussed.

  10. In situ genetic association for serotiny, a fire-related trait, in Mediterranean maritime pine (Pinus pinaster).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budde, Katharina B; Heuertz, Myriam; Hernández-Serrano, Ana; Pausas, Juli G; Vendramin, Giovanni G; Verdú, Miguel; González-Martínez, Santiago C

    2014-01-01

    Wildfire is a major ecological driver of plant evolution. Understanding the genetic basis of plant adaptation to wildfire is crucial, because impending climate change will involve fire regime changes worldwide. We studied the molecular genetic basis of serotiny, a fire-related trait, in Mediterranean maritime pine using association genetics. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) set was used to identify genotype : phenotype associations in situ in an unstructured natural population of maritime pine (eastern Iberian Peninsula) under a mixed-effects model framework. RR-BLUP was used to build predictive models for serotiny in this region. Model prediction power outside the focal region was tested using independent range-wide serotiny data. Seventeen SNPs were potentially associated with serotiny, explaining approximately 29% of the trait phenotypic variation in the eastern Iberian Peninsula. Similar prediction power was found for nearby geographical regions from the same maternal lineage, but not for other genetic lineages. Association genetics for ecologically relevant traits evaluated in situ is an attractive approach for forest trees provided that traits are under strong genetic control and populations are unstructured, with large phenotypic variability. This will help to extend the research focus to ecological keystone non-model species in their natural environments, where polymorphisms acquired their adaptive value. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  11. Genetics of serum carotenoid concentrations and their correlation with obesity-related traits in Mexican American children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farook, Vidya S; Reddivari, Lavanya; Mummidi, Srinivas; Puppala, Sobha; Arya, Rector; Lopez-Alvarenga, Juan Carlos; Fowler, Sharon P; Chittoor, Geetha; Resendez, Roy G; Kumar, Birunda Mohan; Comuzzie, Anthony G; Curran, Joanne E; Lehman, Donna M; Jenkinson, Christopher P; Lynch, Jane L; DeFronzo, Ralph A; Blangero, John; Hale, Daniel E; Duggirala, Ravindranath; Vanamala, Jairam Kp

    2017-07-01

    Background: Dietary intake of phytonutrients present in fruits and vegetables, such as carotenoids, is associated with a lower risk of obesity and related traits, but the impact of genetic variation on these associations is poorly understood, especially in children. Objective: We estimated common genetic influences on serum carotenoid concentrations and obesity-related traits in Mexican American (MA) children. Design: Obesity-related data were obtained from 670 nondiabetic MA children, aged 6-17 y. Serum α- and β-carotenoid concentrations were measured in ∼570 (α-carotene in 565 and β-carotene in 572) of these children with the use of an ultraperformance liquid chromatography-photodiode array. We determined heritabilities for both carotenoids and examined their genetic relation with 10 obesity-related traits [body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, fat mass (FM), systolic and diastolic blood pressure, fasting insulin and glucose, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance] by using family data and a variance components approach. For these analyses, carotenoid values were inverse normalized, and all traits were adjusted for significant covariate effects of age and sex. Results: Carotenoid concentrations were highly heritable and significant [α-carotene: heritability ( h 2 ) = 0.81, P = 6.7 × 10 -11 ; β-carotene: h 2 = 0.90, P = 3.5 × 10 -15 ]. After adjusting for multiple comparisons, we found significant ( P ≤ 0.05) negative phenotypic correlations between carotenoid concentrations and the following traits: BMI, WC, FM, and triglycerides (range: α-carotene = -0.19 to -0.12; β-carotene = -0.24 to -0.13) and positive correlations with HDL cholesterol (α-carotene = 0.17; β-carotene = 0.24). However, when the phenotypic correlations were partitioned into genetic and environmental correlations, we found marginally significant ( P = 0.051) genetic correlations only between

  12. Genetic Dissection of Root Morphological Traits Related to Nitrogen Use Efficiency in Brassica napus L. under Two Contrasting Nitrogen Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Wang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available As the major determinant for nutrient uptake, root system architecture (RSA has a massive impact on nitrogen use efficiency (NUE. However, little is known the molecular control of RSA as related to NUE in rapeseed. Here, a rapeseed recombinant inbred line population (BnaZNRIL was used to investigate root morphology (RM, an important component for RSA and NUE-related traits under high-nitrogen (HN and low-nitrogen (LN conditions by hydroponics. Data analysis suggested that RM-related traits, particularly root size had significantly phenotypic correlations with plant dry biomass and N uptake irrespective of N levels, but no or little correlation with N utilization efficiency (NUtE, providing the potential to identify QTLs with pleiotropy or specificity for RM- and NUE-related traits. A total of 129 QTLs (including 23 stable QTLs, which were repeatedly detected at least two environments or different N levels were identified and 83 of them were integrated into 22 pleiotropic QTL clusters. Five RM-NUE, ten RM-specific and three NUE-specific QTL clusters with same directions of additive-effect implied two NUE-improving approaches (RM-based and N utilization-based directly and provided valuable genomic regions for NUE improvement in rapeseed. Importantly, all of four major QTLs and most of stable QTLs (20 out of 23 detected here were related to RM traits under HN and/or LN levels, suggested that regulating RM to improve NUE would be more feasible than regulating N efficiency directly. These results provided the promising genomic regions for marker-assisted selection on RM-based NUE improvement in rapeseed.

  13. Association between the SPRY1 gene polymorphism and obesity-related traits and osteoporosis in Korean women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hyun-Seok; Kim, Bo-Young; Kim, Jeonghyun; Hong, Kyung-Won; Jung, Suk-Yul; Lee, Yun-Seok; Huh, Dam; Oh, Bermseok; Chung, Yoon-Sok; Jeong, Seon-Yong

    2013-01-01

    Emerging evidence has revealed a close relationship between obesity and osteoporosis. It was reported recently that conditional knockout of the Spry1 gene in mice adipocytes causes an increase in body fat and a decrease in bone mass, and that these phenotypes are rescued by Spry1 overexpression in adipose tissue. In this study, we investigated whether genetic variation in the human SPRY1 gene is associated with obesity-related phenotypes and/or osteoporosis in humans. We performed a candidate gene association analysis between the four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 14 imputed SNPs in the SPRY1 gene and obesity-related traits and osteoporosis in a Korean women cohort (3013 subjects). All four SPRY1 gene SNPs were significantly associated with either obesity-related traits or osteoporosis. The TGCC haplotype in the SRPY1 gene showed simultaneous association with an increased risk for obesity-related traits, percentage body fat (p=0.0087) and percentage abdominal fat (p=0.047), and osteoporosis (odds ratio=1.50; p=0.025) in the recessive genetic model. Our results support a previous finding in conditional Spry1 gene knockout mice and suggest that the SPRY1 gene is an important genetic factor for determining the risk of both obesity and osteoporosis in humans. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Vocational Interest Themes and Personality Traits in Relation to College Major Satisfaction of Business Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logue, Christen T.; Lounsbury, John W.; Gupta, Arpana; Leong, Frederick T. L.

    2007-01-01

    Based on 164 undergraduate business majors, we examined the relationship between satisfaction with major and Holland's vocational interests and with the Big Five and narrow personality traits. Contrary to our hypothesis, enterprising scores were unrelated to major satisfaction. As hypothesized, using ipsative and normative scores, investigative,…

  15. Relative climatic, edaphic and management controls of plant functional trait signatures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pakeman, R. J.; Lepš, Jan; Kleyer, M.; Lavorel, S.; Garnier, E.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 1 (2009), s. 148-159 ISSN 1100-9233 Grant - others:EU project VISTA(BE) EVK2-2001-000356 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : disturbance * environment-trait relationships * land-use change Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.376, year: 2009

  16. Inheritance of seed yield and related traits in some lentil (lens culinaris medik) genotypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasheed, S.; Hanif, M.; Sadiq, S.; Abbas, G.; Asghar, M.J.; Haq, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    The study was conducted at Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology (NIAB), Faisalabad during the year 2006-2007. Fifteen lentil lines/varieties were evaluated to exploit yield components to the maximum extent and to formulate section criteria for the improvement of seed yield. Significant genetic variation was observed for all the traits. All the traits under study had high heritability values except number of primary branches. Higher values of heritability coupled with genetic advance were observed for seed yield (98.30%, 128.20%), harvest index (97.10%, 79.40%), biological yield (94.30%, 56.10%) and hundred seed weight (88.30%, 50.80%) which indicates The role of additive genes to control these traits. Hundred seed weight (0.67, 0.65), harvest index (0.94, 0.93) and Biological yield (0.81, 0.80) had positive and highly significant correlation with seed yield at both genotypic and phenotypic levels. Number of primary branches, hundred seed weight, harvest index and biological yield showed positive direct effect along with positive genotypic correlation with seed yield. Finally, it was concluded that the traits like hundred seed weight, harvest index and biological yield can be exploited for the improvement of seed yield in lentil. (author)

  17. Analysis of Traits Related to Weed Competitiveness in Sweet Corn (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia de Leon

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Weed management in sweet corn can be costly; genetic improvements in sweet corn competitiveness may reduce this expense. Competitive ability can exist as weed suppressive ability (WSA, or crop tolerance (CT. Previous studies in corn have found year of hybrid release, maturity, plant height, leaf angle and leafiness may affect WSA, while hybrid era, maturity, and plant height may affect CT. However, many of these studies were limited to very few genotypes. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of phenomorphological traits on sweet corn competitiveness and the inheritance of these traits. An incomplete half-diallel from seven historic sweet corn inbred lines of varying morphologies was evaluated in a split-block randomized complete block design in three environments. Forage sorghum was interplanted in half of the blocks to act as a model weed. Significant differences among hybrids were generally found for both phenomorphological traits and traits measuring WSA and CT, such as sorghum biomass and yield stability, respectively. Crop plant height was most predictive of WSA and CT. In this set of genotypes, competitive ability may be passed with reasonable fidelity from parent to offspring, suggesting that sweet corn could be bred for competitive ability.

  18. How Are Trait Emotional Intelligence and Social Skills Related to Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties in Adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulou, Maria S.

    2014-01-01

    Trait emotional intelligence construct shifted the interest in personality research to the investigation of the effect of global personality characteristics on behaviour. The Social and Emotional Learning (SEL) movement emphasised the cultivation of social skills for positive relationships. In this paper we investigate the role of students' global…

  19. An Examination of Authentic Leadership Traits and Their Relation to Student Achievement Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Robin C.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative, single case study was to examine principal perceptions of their own leadership traits which may impact student achievement. Principals in one Florida district were invited to participate in an open ended interview, providing their own perceptions of their personal leadership behaviors. By examining the data…

  20. Effect of feed-related farm characteristics on relative values of genetic traits in dairy cows to reduce greenhouse gas emissions along the chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Middelaar, C E; Berentsen, P B M; Dijkstra, J; Van Arendonk, J A M; De Boer, I J M

    2015-07-01

    Breeding has the potential to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from dairy farming. Evaluating the effect of a 1-unit change (i.e., 1 genetic standard deviation improvement) in genetic traits on GHG emissions along the chain provides insight into the relative importance of genetic traits to reduce GHG emissions. Relative GHG values of genetic traits, however, might depend on feed-related farm characteristics. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of feed-related farm characteristics on GHG values by comparing the values of milk yield and longevity for an efficient farm and a less efficient farm. The less efficient farm did not apply precision feeding and had lower feed production per hectare than the efficient farm. Greenhouse gas values of milk yield and longevity were calculated by using a whole-farm model and 2 different optimization methods. Method 1 optimized farm management before and after a change in genetic trait by maximizing labor income; the effect on GHG emissions (i.e., from production of farm inputs up to the farm gate) was considered a side effect. Method 2 optimized farm management after a change in genetic trait by minimizing GHG emissions per kilogram of milk while maintaining labor income and milk production at least at the level before the change in trait; the effect on labor income was considered a side effect. Based on maximizing labor income (method 1), GHG values of milk yield and longevity were, respectively, 279 and 143kg of CO2 equivalents (CO2e)/unit change per cow per year on the less efficient farm, and 247 and 210kg of CO2e/unit change per cow per year on the efficient farm. Based on minimizing GHG emissions (method 2), GHG values of milk yield and longevity were, respectively, 538 and 563kg of CO2e/unit change per cow per year on the less efficient farm, and 453 and 441kg of CO2e/unit change per cow per year on the efficient farm. Sensitivity analysis showed that, for both methods, the absolute effect of a

  1. Sex- and Subtype-Related Differences of Personality Disorders (Axis II) and Personality Traits in Persistent ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Christian P; Gross-Lesch, Silke; Reichert, Susanne; Geissler, Julia; Jans, Thomas; Kittel-Schneider, Sarah; Nguyen, Trang T; Romanos, Marcel; Reif, Andreas; Dempfle, Astrid; Lesch, Klaus-Peter

    2016-12-01

    Despite growing awareness of adult ADHD and its comorbidity with personality disorders (PDs), little is known about sex- and subtype-related differences. In all, 910 patients (452 females, 458 males) affected with persistent adult ADHD were assessed for comorbid PDs with the Structured Clinical Interview of DSM-IV and for personality traits with the revised NEO personality inventory, and the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire. The most prevalent PDs were narcissistic PD in males and histrionic PD in females. Affected females showed higher Neuroticism, Openness to Experience, and Agreeableness scores as well as Harm Avoidance and Reward Dependence scores. Narcissistic PD and antisocial PD have the highest prevalence in the H-type, while Borderline PD is more frequent in the C-type. Sex- and subtype-related differences in Axis II disorder comorbidity as well as impairment-modifying personality traits have to be taken into account in epidemiological studies of persistent ADHD. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. Phenotypic selection on leaf water use efficiency and related ecophysiological traits for natural populations of desert sunflowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Lisa A; Dudley, Susan A; Rosenthal, David M; Ludwig, Fulco

    2007-05-01

    Plant water-use efficiency (WUE) is expected to affect plant fitness and thus be under natural selection in arid habitats. Although many natural population studies have assessed plant WUE, only a few related WUE to fitness. The further determination of whether selection on WUE is direct or indirect through functionally related traits has yielded no consistent results. For natural populations of two desert annual sunflowers, Helianthus anomalus and H. deserticola, we used phenotypic selection analysis with vegetative biomass as the proxy for fitness to test (1) whether there was direct and indirect selection on WUE (carbon isotope ratio) and related traits (leaf N, area, succulence) and (2) whether direct selection was consistent with hypothesized drought/dehydration escape and avoidance strategies. There was direct selection for lower WUE in mesic and dry H. anomalus populations, consistent with dehydration escape, even though it is the longer lived of the two species. For mesic H. anomalus, direct selection favored lower WUE and higher N, suggesting that plants may be "wasting water" to increase N delivery via the transpiration stream. For the shorter lived H. deserticola in the direr habitat, there was indirect selection for lower WUE, inconsistent with drought escape. There was also direct selection for higher leaf N, succulence and leaf size. There was no direct selection for higher WUE consistent with dehydration avoidance in either species. Thus, in these natural populations of two desert dune species higher fitness was associated with some combination direct and indirect selection for lower WUE, higher leaf N and larger leaf size. Our understanding of the adaptive value of plant ecophysiological traits will benefit from further consideration of related traits such as leaf nitrogen and more tests in natural populations.

  3. The Relation of Smart Phone Addiction to Social Media Usage and Five Factor Personality Trait: A Research on University Students

    OpenAIRE

    IŞIK, Metin; KAPTANGİL, İrem

    2018-01-01

    In today’s society, social media usage through smartphones has becomean indispensable part of everyday life, especially among university students.This situation brings up the smartphone addiction problem with it and it isthought that it can be explained by associating the case with personalitytraits. Therefore, in this research; smartphone dependency levels and socialmedia usage in students' relation to the Five Factor Personality traits havebeen reviewed. To acquire the relevant researc...

  4. The Relation of Personality Traits Wth Depression Severity in Active and Non-Active Elderly Women in Tehran City

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Ali Aslankhani; Ahmad Farokhi; Parvane Shamsipour Dehkordi; Amir Shams; Mohammad Reza Ghasemian Moghaddam

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relation of personality traits with depression in active and non – active elderly women in Tehran city. Methods & Materials: The present research is descriptive–correlation. For this purpose, 188 elderly women (94 active and 94 non - active elders) in the age range of 63-82 in Tehran city availably selected as statistical sample. Measurement instrument were demographic questionnaire, Beck depression questionnaire and...

  5. The relation of trait and state mindfulness with satisfaction and physical activity: A cross-sectional study in 305 Dutch participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsafou, Kalliopi-Eleni; Lacroix, Joyca Pw; van Ee, Raymond; Vinkers, Charlotte Dw; De Ridder, Denise Td

    2017-09-01

    Previous research has shown that satisfaction mediates the relationship of state mindfulness (i.e. during physical activity) with physical activity. This study aimed to replicate this finding and to explore the role of trait mindfulness with a cross-sectional design. In all, 305 participants completed measures on trait and state mindfulness, satisfaction with physical activity, and physical activity. Mediation analyses were used. Satisfaction mediated the effect of state mindfulness on physical activity. Trait mindfulness related to physical activity via an indirect path, namely through two consecutive mediators, first state mindfulness and then satisfaction. Our results suggest that to enhance satisfaction, both state and trait mindfulness should be considered.

  6. You are fair, but I expect you to also behave unfairly: Positive asymmetry in trait-behavior relations for moderate morality information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusconi, Patrice; Sacchi, Simona; Capellini, Roberta; Brambilla, Marco; Cherubini, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    Trait inference in person perception is based on observers' implicit assumptions about the relations between trait adjectives (e.g., fair) and the either consistent or inconsistent behaviors (e.g., having double standards) that an actor can manifest. This article presents new empirical data and theoretical interpretations on people' behavioral expectations, that is, people's perceived trait-behavior relations along the morality (versus competence) dimension. We specifically address the issue of the moderate levels of both traits and behaviors almost neglected by prior research by using a measure of the perceived general frequency of behaviors. A preliminary study identifies a set of competence- and morality-related traits and a subset of traits balanced for valence. Studies 1-2 show that moral target persons are associated with greater behavioral flexibility than immoral ones where abstract categories of behaviors are concerned. For example, participants judge it more likely that a fair person would behave unfairly than an unfair person would behave fairly. Study 3 replicates the results of the first 2 studies using concrete categories of behaviors (e.g., telling the truth/omitting some information). Study 4 shows that the positive asymmetry in morality-related trait-behavior relations holds for both North-American and European (i.e., Italian) individuals. A small-scale meta-analysis confirms the existence of a positive asymmetry in trait-behavior relations along both morality and competence dimensions for moderate levels of both traits and behaviors. We discuss these findings in relation to prior models and results on trait-behavior relations and we advance a motivational explanation based on self-protection.

  7. You are fair, but I expect you to also behave unfairly: Positive asymmetry in trait-behavior relations for moderate morality information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusconi, Patrice; Sacchi, Simona; Capellini, Roberta; Brambilla, Marco; Cherubini, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    Trait inference in person perception is based on observers’ implicit assumptions about the relations between trait adjectives (e.g., fair) and the either consistent or inconsistent behaviors (e.g., having double standards) that an actor can manifest. This article presents new empirical data and theoretical interpretations on people’ behavioral expectations, that is, people’s perceived trait-behavior relations along the morality (versus competence) dimension. We specifically address the issue of the moderate levels of both traits and behaviors almost neglected by prior research by using a measure of the perceived general frequency of behaviors. A preliminary study identifies a set of competence- and morality-related traits and a subset of traits balanced for valence. Studies 1–2 show that moral target persons are associated with greater behavioral flexibility than immoral ones where abstract categories of behaviors are concerned. For example, participants judge it more likely that a fair person would behave unfairly than an unfair person would behave fairly. Study 3 replicates the results of the first 2 studies using concrete categories of behaviors (e.g., telling the truth/omitting some information). Study 4 shows that the positive asymmetry in morality-related trait-behavior relations holds for both North-American and European (i.e., Italian) individuals. A small-scale meta-analysis confirms the existence of a positive asymmetry in trait-behavior relations along both morality and competence dimensions for moderate levels of both traits and behaviors. We discuss these findings in relation to prior models and results on trait-behavior relations and we advance a motivational explanation based on self-protection. PMID:28700702

  8. You are fair, but I expect you to also behave unfairly: Positive asymmetry in trait-behavior relations for moderate morality information.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrice Rusconi

    Full Text Available Trait inference in person perception is based on observers' implicit assumptions about the relations between trait adjectives (e.g., fair and the either consistent or inconsistent behaviors (e.g., having double standards that an actor can manifest. This article presents new empirical data and theoretical interpretations on people' behavioral expectations, that is, people's perceived trait-behavior relations along the morality (versus competence dimension. We specifically address the issue of the moderate levels of both traits and behaviors almost neglected by prior research by using a measure of the perceived general frequency of behaviors. A preliminary study identifies a set of competence- and morality-related traits and a subset of traits balanced for valence. Studies 1-2 show that moral target persons are associated with greater behavioral flexibility than immoral ones where abstract categories of behaviors are concerned. For example, participants judge it more likely that a fair person would behave unfairly than an unfair person would behave fairly. Study 3 replicates the results of the first 2 studies using concrete categories of behaviors (e.g., telling the truth/omitting some information. Study 4 shows that the positive asymmetry in morality-related trait-behavior relations holds for both North-American and European (i.e., Italian individuals. A small-scale meta-analysis confirms the existence of a positive asymmetry in trait-behavior relations along both morality and competence dimensions for moderate levels of both traits and behaviors. We discuss these findings in relation to prior models and results on trait-behavior relations and we advance a motivational explanation based on self-protection.

  9. Novel Nucleotide Variations, Haplotypes Structure and Associations with Growth Related Traits of Goat AT Motif-Binding Factor ( Gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyan Zhang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The AT motif-binding factor (ATBF1 not only interacts with protein inhibitor of activated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3 (PIAS3 to suppress STAT3 signaling regulating embryo early development and cell differentiation, but is required for early activation of the pituitary specific transcription factor 1 (Pit1 gene (also known as POU1F1 critically affecting mammalian growth and development. The goal of this study was to detect novel nucleotide variations and haplotypes structure of the ATBF1 gene, as well as to test their associations with growth-related traits in goats. Herein, a total of seven novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs (SNP 1-7 within this gene were found in two well-known Chinese native goat breeds. Haplotypes structure analysis demonstrated that there were four haplotypes in Hainan black goat while seventeen haplotypes in Xinong Saanen dairy goat, and both breeds only shared one haplotype (hap1. Association testing revealed that the SNP2, SNP5, SNP6, and SNP7 loci were also found to significantly associate with growth-related traits in goats, respectively. Moreover, one diplotype in Xinong Saanen dairy goats significantly linked to growth related traits. These preliminary findings not only would extend the spectrum of genetic variations of the goat ATBF1 gene, but also would contribute to implementing marker-assisted selection in genetics and breeding in goats.

  10. The Effects Foliar Application of Methanol at Different Growth Stages on Kernel Related Traits in Chickpea var. ILC 482

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Naeimi,

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to evaluate the effects of foliar application of methanol on certain kernel related traits at different growth stages of pea var. ILC482 at the Research Station of Faculty of Agriculture in Islamic Azad University, Tabriz Branch in 2011. The study was conducted in split plot experiment based on Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. Treatments were three levels methanol foliar application at different growth stages (vegetative, reproductive and foliar application at both two stages which considered as main factor, six levels of foliar application of methanol concentrations: (0 [control], 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30% as sub factor. Results showed that the interactions of methanol applications growth stages and its concentrations on grain number per plant, 100 kernel weight, grain yield, grain filing rate and harvest index were significantly different. Foliar application of methanol at reproductive stage decrease kernel related traits, but this application at both growth stages had positive effect on grain production and kernel related traits. This positive effect on number and 100 kernel weight were significant. The highest grain yield (2460 kg/ha was obtained by 20% concentration of methanol at both growth stages that increased grain yield above 13.5% compared to the control condition.

  11. Combining ability, heritability and genotypic relations of different physiological traits in cacao hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Allan Silva; de Almeida, Alex-Alan Furtado; Branco, Márcia Christina da Silva; Costa, Marcio Gilberto Cardoso; Ahnert, Dario

    2017-01-01

    Selecting parents and evaluating progenies is a very important step in breeding programs and involves approaches such as understanding the initial stages of growth and characterizing the variability among genotypes for different parameters, such as physiological, growth, biomass partitioning and nutrient translocation to the aerial part. In these cases, facilitating tools can be used to understand the involved gene dynamics, such as diallel crosses and genetic and phenotypic correlations. Our main hypothesis is that the contrasting phenotypes of these parental genotypes of cocoa used are due to genetic factors, and progenies derived from crosses of these parental genotypes are useful for breeding programs related to plant architecture, physiological parameters and translocation of mineral nutrients. We aimed to evaluate the combining abilities in progenies of cacao (Theobroma cacao L) originating from contrasting parents for canopy vigor. Emphasis was given to the evaluation of morphological and physiological parameters and the phenotypic and genotypic correlations to understand the dynamics of the action of the genes involved, as well as in expression profile from genes of gibberellins biosynthesis pathway in the parents. Fifteen F1 progenies were obtained from crosses of six clones (IMC 67, P4B, PUCALA, SCA 6, SCA 24 and SJ 02) that were evaluated in a randomized complete block design with four replicates of 12 plants per progeny, in a balanced half table diallel scheme. It is possible to identify and select plants and progenies of low, medium and high height, as there is expressive genetic variability for the evaluated parameters, some of these on higher additive effects, others on larger nonadditive effects and others under a balance of these effects. Most physiological parameters evaluated show that for selection of plants with the desired performance, no complex breeding methods would be necessary due to the high and medium heritability observed. Strong

  12. Influences of State and Trait Affect on Behavior, Feedback-Related Negativity, and P3b in the Ultimatum Game.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korbinian Riepl

    Full Text Available The present study investigates how different emotions can alter social bargaining behavior. An important paradigm to study social bargaining is the Ultimatum Game. There, a proposer gets a pot of money and has to offer part of it to a responder. If the responder accepts, both players get the money as proposed by the proposer. If he rejects, none of the players gets anything. Rational choice models would predict that responders accept all offers above 0. However, evidence shows that responders typically reject a large proportion of all unfair offers. We analyzed participants' behavior when they played the Ultimatum Game as responders and simultaneously collected electroencephalogram data in order to quantify the feedback-related negativity and P3b components. We induced state affect (momentarily emotions unrelated to the task via short movie clips and measured trait affect (longer-lasting emotional dispositions via questionnaires. State happiness led to increased acceptance rates of very unfair offers. Regarding neurophysiology, we found that unfair offers elicited larger feedback-related negativity amplitudes than fair offers. Additionally, an interaction of state and trait affect occurred: high trait negative affect (subsuming a variety of aversive mood states led to increased feedback-related negativity amplitudes when participants were in an angry mood, but not if they currently experienced fear or happiness. We discuss that increased rumination might be responsible for this result, which might not occur, however, when people experience happiness or fear. Apart from that, we found that fair offers elicited larger P3b components than unfair offers, which might reflect increased pleasure in response to fair offers. Moreover, high trait negative affect was associated with decreased P3b amplitudes, potentially reflecting decreased motivation to engage in activities. We discuss implications of our results in the light of theories and research on

  13. Discovery of Consistent QTLs of Wheat Spike-Related Traits under Nitrogen Treatment at Different Development Stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiying Deng

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Spike-related traits such as spike length (Sl, fertile spikelet number (Fsn, sterile spikelet number (Ssn, grain number per spike (Gns, and thousand-kernel weight (Tkw are important factors influencing wheat yield. However, reliably stable markers that can be used for molecular breeding in different environments have not yet been identified. In this study, a double haploid (DH population was used for quantitative trait locus (QTL mapping of five spike-related traits under four different nitrogen (N supply dates in two locations and years. Seventy additive QTLs with phenotypic variation ranging from 4.12 to 34.74% and 10 major epistatic QTLs were identified. Eight important chromosomal regions on five chromosomes (1B, 2B, 2D, 5D, and 6A were found. Sixteen stable QTLs were detected for which N application had little effect. Among those stable QTLs, QSl.sdau-2D-1, and QSl.sdau-2D-2, with phenotypic variation explained (PVE of 10.4 and 24.2%, respectively, were flanked by markers Xwmc112 and Xcfd53 in the same order. The QTLs QSsn.sdau-2B-1, QFsn.sdau-2B-1, and QGns.sdau-2B, with PVE ranging from 4.37 to 28.43%, collocated in the Xwmc179-Xbarc373 marker interval. The consistent kernel wheat QTL (QTkw.sdau-6A on the long arm of chromosome 6A, flanked by SSR markers Xbarc1055 and Xwmc553, showed PVE of 5.87–15.18%. Among these stable QTLs, the two flanking markers Xwmc112 and Xcfd53 have been validated using different varieties and populations for selecting Sl. Therefore, these results will be of great value for marker-assisted selection (MAS in breeding programs and will accelerate the understanding of the genetic relationships among spike-related traits at the molecular level.

  14. Influences of State and Trait Affect on Behavior, Feedback-Related Negativity, and P3b in the Ultimatum Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riepl, Korbinian; Mussel, Patrick; Osinsky, Roman; Hewig, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigates how different emotions can alter social bargaining behavior. An important paradigm to study social bargaining is the Ultimatum Game. There, a proposer gets a pot of money and has to offer part of it to a responder. If the responder accepts, both players get the money as proposed by the proposer. If he rejects, none of the players gets anything. Rational choice models would predict that responders accept all offers above 0. However, evidence shows that responders typically reject a large proportion of all unfair offers. We analyzed participants' behavior when they played the Ultimatum Game as responders and simultaneously collected electroencephalogram data in order to quantify the feedback-related negativity and P3b components. We induced state affect (momentarily emotions unrelated to the task) via short movie clips and measured trait affect (longer-lasting emotional dispositions) via questionnaires. State happiness led to increased acceptance rates of very unfair offers. Regarding neurophysiology, we found that unfair offers elicited larger feedback-related negativity amplitudes than fair offers. Additionally, an interaction of state and trait affect occurred: high trait negative affect (subsuming a variety of aversive mood states) led to increased feedback-related negativity amplitudes when participants were in an angry mood, but not if they currently experienced fear or happiness. We discuss that increased rumination might be responsible for this result, which might not occur, however, when people experience happiness or fear. Apart from that, we found that fair offers elicited larger P3b components than unfair offers, which might reflect increased pleasure in response to fair offers. Moreover, high trait negative affect was associated with decreased P3b amplitudes, potentially reflecting decreased motivation to engage in activities. We discuss implications of our results in the light of theories and research on depression and

  15. Discovery of Consistent QTLs of Wheat Spike-Related Traits under Nitrogen Treatment at Different Development Stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhiying; Cui, Yong; Han, Qingdian; Fang, Wenqi; Li, Jifa; Tian, Jichun

    2017-01-01

    Spike-related traits such as spike length (Sl), fertile spikelet number (Fsn), sterile spikelet number (Ssn), grain number per spike (Gns), and thousand-kernel weight (Tkw) are important factors influencing wheat yield. However, reliably stable markers that can be used for molecular breeding in different environments have not yet been identified. In this study, a double haploid (DH) population was used for quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping of five spike-related traits under four different nitrogen (N) supply dates in two locations and years. Seventy additive QTLs with phenotypic variation ranging from 4.12 to 34.74% and 10 major epistatic QTLs were identified. Eight important chromosomal regions on five chromosomes (1B, 2B, 2D, 5D, and 6A) were found. Sixteen stable QTLs were detected for which N application had little effect. Among those stable QTLs, QSl.sdau-2D-1 , and QSl.sdau-2D-2 , with phenotypic variation explained (PVE) of 10.4 and 24.2%, respectively, were flanked by markers Xwmc112 and Xcfd53 in the same order. The QTLs QSsn.sdau-2B-1, QFsn.sdau-2B-1 , and QGns.sdau-2B , with PVE ranging from 4.37 to 28.43%, collocated in the Xwmc179 - Xbarc373 marker interval. The consistent kernel wheat QTL ( QTkw.sdau-6A ) on the long arm of chromosome 6A, flanked by SSR markers Xbarc1055 and Xwmc553 , showed PVE of 5.87-15.18%. Among these stable QTLs, the two flanking markers Xwmc112 and Xcfd53 have been validated using different varieties and populations for selecting Sl. Therefore, these results will be of great value for marker-assisted selection (MAS) in breeding programs and will accelerate the understanding of the genetic relationships among spike-related traits at the molecular level.

  16. Identification of QTLs for grain yield and grain-related traits of maize (Zea mays L.) using an AFLP-map, different testers, and cofactor analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ajimone Marsan, P.; Gorni, C.; Chitto, A.; Redaelli, R.; Vijk, van R.; Stam, P.; Motto, M.

    2001-01-01

    Abstract We exploited the AFLP?1(AFLP? is a registered trademark of Keygene, N.V.) technique to map and characterise quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for grain yield and two grain-related traits of a maize segregating population. Two maize elite inbred lines were crossed to produce 229 F2 individuals

  17. The personality trait openness is related to cerebral 5-HTT levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalbitzer, Jan; Frøkjær, Vibe G.; Erritzøe, David

    2009-01-01

    Potentiation of serotonergic transmission increases cognitive flexibility, but can in other circumstances increase sensitivity to stressful environmental cues. The personality trait Openness to Experience reflects and is also associated with an increased risk for mood disorders. We hypothesized...... that the personality trait has an association with a biomarker of serotonergic transmission, the plasma membrane serotonin transporter (5-HTT). In 50 healthy volunteers, we tested for correlations between scores on the NEO-PI-R scale Openness to Experience and its subscales, and cerebral binding of the 5-HTT selective...... in openness scores. Thus, high scores in personality facets indicative of cognitive flexibility and openness to change are associated with lower [11C]DASB binding. Lower abundance of 5-HTT sites may result in potentiation of serotonergic signaling, which occurs during treatment with SSRIs. We speculate...

  18. Relating life-history traits, environmental constraints and local extinctions in river fish

    OpenAIRE

    Bergerot, B.; Hugueny, Bernard; Belliard, J.

    2015-01-01

    The life histories of freshwater fish are widely studied because they represent fundamental determinants of population performances. However, a gap remains in our understanding of how species traits may predispose species to extinction in a changing environment. In this study, based on a large data set provided by the French National Agency for Water and Aquatic Environment (325 sites), we analysed factors that explain the probability of local extinction in 40 freshwater species across French...

  19. A global meta-analysis oft he relative extent of intraspecific trait variation in plant communities

    OpenAIRE

    Siefert A.; Violle C.; Chalmandrier L.; Albert C.H.; Taudiere A.; Fajardo A.; Aarssen L.W.; Baraloto C.; Carlucci M.B.; Cianciaruso M.V.; Dantas V. de L.; de Bello F.; Duarte L.D.S.; Fonseca C.R.; Freschet G.T.

    2015-01-01

    We thank Mark Westoby, Ian Wright and three anonymous reviewers for providing valuable comments on an earlier version of the manuscript. AS was supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship (DGE-1247399) and NSF grant DEB-03089. CV was supported by a Marie Curie International Outgoing Fellowship within the 7th European Community Framework Program (DiversiTraits project, no. 221060) and by the European Research Council (ERC) Starting Grant Project ‘Ecophysiological ...

  20. GABA content within the ventromedial prefrontal cortex is related to trait anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delli Pizzi, Stefano; Padulo, Caterina; Brancucci, Alfredo; Bubbico, Giovanna; Edden, Richard A; Ferretti, Antonio; Franciotti, Raffaella; Manippa, Valerio; Marzoli, Daniele; Onofrj, Marco; Sepede, Gianna; Tartaro, Armando; Tommasi, Luca; Puglisi-Allegra, Stefano; Bonanni, Laura

    2016-05-01

    The ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) plays a key role in emotion processing and regulation. vmPFC dysfunction may lead to disinhibition of amygdala causing high anxiety levels. γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) inter-neurons within vmPFC shape the information flow to amygdala. Thus, we hypothesize that GABA content within vmPFC could be relevant to trait anxiety. Forty-three healthy volunteers aged between 20 and 88 years were assessed for trait anxiety with the Subscale-2 of the State-Trait-Anxiety Inventory (STAI-Y2) and were studied with proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy to investigate GABA and Glx (glutamate+glutamine) contents within vmPFC. Total creatine (tCr) was used as internal reference. Partial correlations assessed the association between metabolite levels and STAI-Y2 scores, removing the effect of possible nuisance factors including age, educational level, volumes of gray matter and white matter within magnetic resonance spectroscopy voxel. We observed a positive relationship between GABA/tCr and STAI-Y2 scores. No significant relationships were found between Glx/tCr and STAI-Y2 and between tCr/water and STAI-Y2. No differences were found between males and females as regards to age, STAI-Y2, GABA/tCr, Glx/tCr, tCr/water, gray matter and white matter volumes. We suggest a close relationship between GABA content within vmPFC and trait anxiety providing new insights in the physiology of emotional brain. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Emotional Meaning in Context in Relation to Hypomanic Personality Traits: An ERP Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrien, Sarah; Gobin, Pamela; Coutté, Alexandre; Thuaire, Flavien; Iakimova, Galina; Mazzola-Pomietto, Pascale; Besche-Richard, Chrystel

    2015-01-01

    The ability to integrate contextual information is important for the comprehension of emotional and social situations. While some studies have shown that emotional processes and social cognition are impaired in people with hypomanic personality trait, no results have been reported concerning the neurophysiological processes mediating the processing of emotional information during the integration of contextual social information in this population. We therefore chose to conduct an ERP study dealing with the integration of emotional information in a population with hypomanic personality trait. Healthy participants were evaluated using the Hypomanic Personality Scale (HPS), and ERPs were recorded during a linguistic task in which participants silently read sentence pairs describing short social situations. The first sentence implicitly conveyed the positive or negative emotional state of a character. The second sentence was emotionally congruent or incongruent with the first sentence. We analyzed the difference in the modulation of two components (N400 and LPC) in response to the emotional word present at the end of the "target" sentences as a function of the HPS score and the emotional valence of the context. Our results showed a possible modulation of the N400 component in response to both positive and negative context among the participants who scored high on the Mood Volatility subscale of the Hypomanic Personality Scale. These results seem to indicate that the participants with hypomanic personality traits exhibited specificities in the integration of emotions at the level of the early-mobilized neurocognitive processes (N400). Participants with hypomanic personality traits found it difficult to integrate negative emotional contexts, while simultaneously exhibiting an enhanced integration of positive emotional contexts.

  2. Evaluation of the chemical quality traits of soybean seeds, as related to sensory attributes of soymilk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lei; Li, Bin; Han, Fenxia; Yan, Shurong; Wang, Lianzheng; Sun, Junming

    2015-04-15

    The soybean seed chemical quality traits (including protein content, oil content, fatty acid composition, isoflavone content, and protein subunits), soymilk chemical character (soluble solid), and soymilk sensory attributes were evaluated among 70 genotypes to determine the correlation between seed chemical quality traits and soymilk sensory attributes. Six sensory parameters (i.e., soymilk aroma, smoothness in the mouth, thickness in the mouth, sweetness, colour and appearance, and overall acceptability) and a seven-point hedonic scale for each parameter were developed. Significant positive correlations were observed between overall acceptability and the other five evaluation parameters, suggesting that overall acceptability is an ideal parameter for evaluating soymilk flavour. The soymilk sensory attributes were significantly positively correlated with the characteristics of the glycinin (11S)/beta-conglycinin (7S) protein ratio, soluble solid, and oil content but negatively correlated with glycitein and protein content. Our results indicated that soymilk sensory attributes could be improved by selecting the desirable seed chemical quality traits in practical soybean breeding programs. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Relating Attentional Biases for Stimuli Associated with Social Reward and Punishment to Autistic Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian A. Anderson

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Evidence for impaired attention to social stimuli in autism has been mixed. The role of social feedback in shaping attention to other, non-social stimuli that are predictive of such feedback has not been examined in the context of autism. In the present study, participants searched for a color-defined target during a training phase, with the color of the target predicting the emotional reaction of a face that appeared after each trial. Then, participants performed visual search for a shape-defined target while trying to ignore the color of stimuli. On a subset of trials, one of the non-targets was rendered in the color of a former target from training. Autistic traits were measured for each participant using the Autism Quotient (AQ. Our findings replicate robust attentional capture by stimuli learned to predict valenced social feedback. There was no evidence that autistic traits are associated with blunted attention to predictors of social outcomes. Consistent with an emerging body of literature, our findings cast doubt on strong versions of the claim that autistic traits can be explained by a blunted influence of social information on the attention system. We extend these findings to non-social stimuli that predict socially relevant information.

  4. Identification of heterotic loci associated with yield-related traits in Chinese common wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiaojin; Wu, Shuang; Tian, Feng; Xin, Xiaoyun; Zha, Xiaojun; Dong, Xianxin; Fu, Yongcai; Wang, Xiangkun; Yang, Jinshui; Sun, Chuanqing

    2011-07-01

    Many rice breeding programs have currently reached yield plateaus as a result of limited genetic variability in parental strains. Dongxiang common wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.) is the progenitor of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) and serves as an important gene pool for the genetic improvement of rice cultivars. In this study, heterotic loci (HLs) associated with six yield-related traits were identified in wild and cultivated rice and investigated using a set of 265 introgression lines (ILs) of O. rufipogon Griff. in the background of the Indica high-yielding cultivar Guichao 2 (O. sativa L.). Forty-two HLs were detected by a single point analysis of mid-parent heterosis values from test cross F(1) offspring, and 30 (71.5%) of these HLs showed significantly positive effects, consistent with the superiority shown by the F(1) test cross population in the six yield-related traits under study. Genetic mapping of hsp11, a locus responsible for the number of spikelets per panicle, confirmed the utility of these HLs. The results indicate that favorable HLs capable of improving agronomic traits are available. The identification of HLs between wild rice and cultivated rice could lead to a new strategy for the application of heterosis in rice breeding. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  5. Phylogeny, Traits, and Biodiversity of a Neotropical Bat Assemblage: Close Relatives Show Similar Responses to Local Deforestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Hannah K; Frishkoff, Luke O; Mendenhall, Chase D; Daily, Gretchen C; Hadly, Elizabeth A

    2017-08-01

    If species' evolutionary pasts predetermine their responses to evolutionarily novel stressors, then phylogeny could predict species survival in an increasingly human-dominated world. To understand the role of phylogenetic relatedness in structuring responses to rapid environmental change, we focused on assemblages of Neotropical bats, an ecologically diverse and functionally important group. We examined how taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity shift between tropical forest and farmland. We then explored the importance of evolutionary history by ascertaining whether close relatives share similar responses to environmental change and which species traits might mediate these trends. We analyzed a 5-year data set (5,011 captures) from 18 sites in a countryside landscape in southern Costa Rica using statistical models that account and correct for imperfect detection of species across sites, spatial autocorrelation, and consideration of spatial scale. Taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity decreased with deforestation, and assemblages became more phylogenetically clustered. Species' responses to deforestation were strongly phylogenetically correlated. Body mass and absolute wing loading explained a substantial portion of species variation in species' habitat preferences, likely related to these traits' influence on maneuverability in cluttered forest environments. Our findings highlight the role that evolutionary history plays in determining which species will survive human impacts and the need to consider diversity metrics, evolutionary history, and traits together when making predictions about species persistence for conservation or ecosystem functioning.

  6. Relation of myeloperoxidase-463G/A polymorphism with metabolic syndrome and its component traits in Egyptian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehanna, Eman T; Saleh, Samy M; Ghattas, Maivel H; Mesbah, Noha M; Abo-Elmatty, Dina M

    2015-02-01

    Myeloperoxidase is a heme protein secreted by activated macrophages and generates intermediates that oxidize lipoproteins. Myeloperoxidase-463G/A is a functional polymorphism involved in regulation of myeloperoxidase expression. The aim of this study is to assess the relation of myeloperoxidase-463G/A polymorphism with metabolic syndrome and its component traits in Egyptian women from the Suez Canal area. The study includes 100 healthy female subjects and 100 metabolic syndrome patients. The component traits of metabolic syndrome are determined and the genotypes of the polymorphisms assessed using the PCR-RFLP technique. There was no significant difference in the allele frequencies between the metabolic syndrome and control groups. However, the GA and AA genotypes were associated with lower total cholesterol, LDL-C, systolic and diastolic blood pressure in the patients. Myeloperoxidase-463G/A polymorphism is not associated with the incidence of metabolic syndrome.

  7. Anthropometric and hormonal risk factors for male breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinton, Louise A; Cook, Michael B; McCormack, Valerie

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The etiology of male breast cancer is poorly understood, partly because of its relative rarity. Although genetic factors are involved, less is known regarding the role of anthropometric and hormonally related risk factors. METHODS: In the Male Breast Cancer Pooling Project, a consorti...

  8. Comorbid Depression and Suicide Ideation in Patients with Combat-Related PTSD: The Role of Temperament, Character, and Trait Impulsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakšić, Nenad; Margetić, Branka Aukst; Marčinko, Darko

    2017-03-01

    War veterans with PTSD have a high chance of developing major depressive disorder (MDD) at some point, while they can also exhibit increased suicidal tendencies. The primary goal of this research was to investigate whether personality dimensions, including temperament, character, and trait impulsivity, were associated with comorbid MDD, as well as with suicidal ideation in psychiatric patients suffering from combat-related PTSD. The sample consisted of 148 Croatian male war veterans (mean age 49.53 years) treated for PTSD at the National Center for Psychotrauma, Department of Psychiatry, University Hospital Center Zagreb. Fifty-one (34%) of them met ICD-10 diagnostic criteria for current or lifetime MDD, while 97 (66%) were diagnosed with PTSD alone. All the participants were assessed with the M.I.N.I. diagnostic interview and they completed the following battery of self-report instruments: the Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition (BDI-II), the Suicidal Behaviors Questionnaire-Revised (SBQ-R), the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised (TCI-R), and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 (BIS-11). Comparisons between the two clinical groups showed that PTSD+MDD patients were more suicidal and differed with regard to temperament dimensions Harm Avoidance, Reward Dependence and Persistence, character dimension Self-Directedness, and trait impulsivity. In three multivariate regression analyses, it was revealed that character dimension Cooperativeness as well as trait impulsivity were unique predictors of suicidal ideation, while controlling for the influence of sociodemographics, length of treatment and comorbid depression. Combat-related PTSD patients with comorbid depression exhibit increased suicide thoughts and different personality profiles in comparison with those suffering from PTSD alone. Character dimension Cooperativeness and trait impulsivity seem to be uniquely predictive of suicide ideation in this population. Elucidation of individual psychological

  9. Functional traits determine heterospecific use of risk-related social information in forest birds of tropical South-East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Fangyuan; Yong, Ding Li; Janra, Muhammad Nazri; Fitri, Liza M; Prawiradilaga, Dewi; Sieving, Kathryn E

    2016-12-01

    In birds and mammals, mobbing calls constitute an important form of social information that can attract numerous sympatric species to localized mobbing aggregations. While such a response is thought to reduce the future predation risk for responding species, there is surprisingly little empirical evidence to support this hypothesis. One way to test the link between predation risk reduction and mobbing attraction involves testing the relationship between species' attraction to mobbing calls and the functional traits that define their vulnerability to predation risk. Two important traits known to influence prey vulnerability include relative prey-to-predator body size ratio and the overlap in space use between predator and prey; in combination, these measures strongly influence prey accessibility, and therefore their vulnerability, to predators. Here, we combine community surveys with behavioral experiments of a diverse bird assemblage in the lowland rainforest of Sumatra to test whether the functional traits of body mass (representing body size) and foraging height (representing space use) can predict species' attraction to heterospecific mobbing calls. At four forest sites along a gradient of forest degradation, we characterized the resident bird communities using point count and mist-netting surveys, and determined the species groups attracted to standardized playbacks of mobbing calls produced by five resident bird species of roughly similar body size and foraging height. We found that (1) a large, diverse subcommunity of bird species was attracted to the mobbing calls and (2) responding species (especially the most vigorous respondents) tended to be (a) small (b) mid-storey foragers (c) with similar trait values as the species producing the mobbing calls. Our findings from the relatively lesser known bird assemblages of tropical Asia add to the growing evidence for the ubiquity of heterospecific information networks in animal communities, and provide empirical

  10. QTL Mapping of Kernel Number-Related Traits and Validation of One Major QTL for Ear Length in Maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Dongao; Ning, Qiang; Shen, Xiaomeng; Liu, Lei; Zhang, Zuxin

    2016-01-01

    The kernel number is a grain yield component and an important maize breeding goal. Ear length, kernel number per row and ear row number are highly correlated with the kernel number per ear, which eventually determines the ear weight and grain yield. In this study, two sets of F2:3 families developed from two bi-parental crosses sharing one inbred line were used to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for four kernel number-related traits: ear length, kernel number per row, ear row number and ear weight. A total of 39 QTLs for the four traits were identified in the two populations. The phenotypic variance explained by a single QTL ranged from 0.4% to 29.5%. Additionally, 14 overlapping QTLs formed 5 QTL clusters on chromosomes 1, 4, 5, 7, and 10. Intriguingly, six QTLs for ear length and kernel number per row overlapped in a region on chromosome 1. This region was designated qEL1.10 and was validated as being simultaneously responsible for ear length, kernel number per row and ear weight in a near isogenic line-derived population, suggesting that qEL1.10 was a pleiotropic QTL with large effects. Furthermore, the performance of hybrids generated by crossing 6 elite inbred lines with two near isogenic lines at qEL1.10 showed the breeding value of qEL1.10 for the improvement of the kernel number and grain yield of maize hybrids. This study provides a basis for further fine mapping, molecular marker-aided breeding and functional studies of kernel number-related traits in maize.

  11. Post-traumatic stress disorder and depression co-occurrence: Structural relations among disorder constructs and trait and symptom dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Loren M; Feeny, Norah C; Zoellner, Lori A; Connell, Arin M

    2016-12-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) in response to trauma co-occur at high rates. A better understanding of the nature of this co-occurrence is critical to developing an accurate conceptualization of the disorders. This study examined structural relations among the PTSD and MDD constructs and trait and symptom dimensions within the framework of the integrative hierarchical model of anxiety and depression. Study participants completed clinician-rated and self-report measures during a pre-treatment assessment. The sample consisted of 200 treatment-seeking individuals with a primary DSM-IV PTSD diagnosis. Structural equation modelling was used to examine the relationship between the constructs. The trait negative affect/neuroticism construct had a direct effect on both PTSD and MDD. The trait positive affect/extraversion construct had a unique, negative direct effect on MDD, and PTSD had a unique, direct effect on the physical concerns symptoms construct. An alternative model with the PTSD and MDD constructs combined into an overall general traumatic stress construct produced a decrement in model fit. These findings provide a clearer understanding of the relationship between co-occurring PTSD and MDD as disorders with shared trait negative affect/neuroticism contributing to the overlap between them and unique trait positive affect/extraversion and physical concerns differentiating them. Therefore, PTSD and MDD in response to trauma may be best represented as two distinct, yet strongly related constructs. In assessing individuals who have been exposed to trauma, practitioners should recognize that co-occurring PTSD and MDD appears to be best represented as two distinct, yet strongly related constructs. Negative affect may be the shared vulnerability directly influencing both PTSD and MDD; however, in the presence of both PTSD and MDD, low positive affect appears to be more specifically related to MDD and fear of physical

  12. Energy Balance-Related Behavior and Anthropometric Measures Among Adolescents Across Three Educational Levels : A Cross-Sectional Study in Dutch Schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridder, Monica A M; Koning, Maaike; Visscher, Tommy L S; Hirasing, Remy A; Seidell, Jacob C; Renders, Carry M

    2017-01-01

    Energy balance-related behavior on schooldays and beliefs about school-based interventions may differ between students in different educational levels, sexes, and BMI (body mass index) categories. In Zwolle (the Netherlands), 1,084 adolescents (13-15 years) at 9 secondary schools completed a

  13. Selection for production-related traits in Pelargonium zonale: improved design and analysis make all the difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenaar, Heike; Glawe, Martin; Boehm, Robert; Piepho, Hans-Peter

    2017-01-01

    Ornamental plant variety improvement is limited by current phenotyping approaches and neglected use of experimental designs. The present study was conducted to show the benefits of using an experimental design and corresponding analysis in ornamental breeding regarding simulated response to selection in Pelargonium zonale for production-related traits. This required establishment of phenotyping protocols for root formation and stem cutting counts, with which 974 genotypes were assessed in a two-phase experimental design. The present paper evaluates this protocol. The possibility of varietal improvement through indirect selection on secondary traits such as branch count and flower count was assessed by genetic correlations. Simulated response to selection varied greatly, depending on the genotypic variances of the breeding population and traits. A varietal improvement of over 20% is possible for stem cutting count, root formation, branch count and flower count. In contrast, indirect selection of stem cutting count by branch count or flower count was found to be ineffective. The established phenotypic protocols and two-phase experimental designs are valuable tools for breeding of P. zonale .

  14. The relevance of personality traits in impulsivity-related disorders: From substance use disorders and gambling disorder to bulimia nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Pino-Gutiérrez, Amparo; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Agüera, Zaida; Granero, Roser; Hakansson, Anders; Fagundo, Ana B.; Bolao, Ferran; Valdepérez, Ana; Mestre-Bach, Gemma; Steward, Trevor; Penelo, Eva; Moragas, Laura; Aymamí, Neus; Gómez-Peña, Mónica; Rigol-Cuadras, Assumpta; Martín-Romera, Virginia; Menchón, José M.

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims The main aim of this study was to analyze and describe the clinical characteristics and shared personality traits in different impulsivity–compulsivity spectrum disorders: substance use disorders (SUD), gambling disorder (GD), and bulimia nervosa (BN). The specific aims were to compare personality differences among individuals with pure SUD, BN with and without SUD, and GD with and without SUD. In addition, we assessed the differential predictive capacity of clinical and personality variables in relation to diagnostic subtype. Methods The sample comprised 998 subjects diagnosed according to DSM-IV-TR criteria: 101 patients were diagnosed with SUD, 482 with GD, 359 with BN, 11 with GD + SUD, and 45 patients with BN + SUD. Various assessment instruments were administered, as well as other clinical measures, to evaluate their predictive capacity. Results Marked differences in personality traits were observed between groups. Novelty seeking, harm avoidance, self-directedness, cooperation, and self-transcendence best differentiated the groups. Notably, novelty seeking was significantly higher in the two dual pathology subgroups. Patients with dual pathology showed the most dysfunctional personality profiles. Discussion and conclusion Our results indicate the existence of shared dysfunctional personality traits among the groups studied, especially in novelty seeking and self-directedness. PMID:28838248

  15. The relevance of personality traits in impulsivity-related disorders: From substance use disorders and gambling disorder to bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Pino-Gutiérrez, Amparo; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Agüera, Zaida; Granero, Roser; Hakansson, Anders; Fagundo, Ana B; Bolao, Ferran; Valdepérez, Ana; Mestre-Bach, Gemma; Steward, Trevor; Penelo, Eva; Moragas, Laura; Aymamí, Neus; Gómez-Peña, Mónica; Rigol-Cuadras, Assumpta; Martín-Romera, Virginia; Menchón, José M

    2017-09-01

    Background and aims The main aim of this study was to analyze and describe the clinical characteristics and shared personality traits in different impulsivity-compulsivity spectrum disorders: substance use disorders (SUD), gambling disorder (GD), and bulimia nervosa (BN). The specific aims were to compare personality differences among individuals with pure SUD, BN with and without SUD, and GD with and without SUD. In addition, we assessed the differential predictive capacity of clinical and personality variables in relation to diagnostic subtype. Methods The sample comprised 998 subjects diagnosed according to DSM-IV-TR criteria: 101 patients were diagnosed with SUD, 482 with GD, 359 with BN, 11 with GD + SUD, and 45 patients with BN + SUD. Various assessment instruments were administered, as well as other clinical measures, to evaluate their predictive capacity. Results Marked differences in personality traits were observed between groups. Novelty seeking, harm avoidance, self-directedness, cooperation, and self-transcendence best differentiated the groups. Notably, novelty seeking was significantly higher in the two dual pathology subgroups. Patients with dual pathology showed the most dysfunctional personality profiles. Discussion and conclusion Our results indicate the existence of shared dysfunctional personality traits among the groups studied, especially in novelty seeking and self-directedness.

  16. A tight association in two genetically unlinked dispersal related traits in sympatric and allopatric salt marsh beetle populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Belleghem, Steven M; Hendrickx, Frederik

    2014-02-01

    Local adaptation likely involves selection on multiple, genetically unlinked traits to increase fitness in divergent habitats. Conversely, recombination is expected to counteract local adaptation under gene flow by breaking down adaptive gene combinations. Western European populations of the salt marsh beetle Pogonus chalceus are characterized by large interpopulation variation at various geographical ranges in two traits related to dispersal ability, i.e. wing size and different allozymes of the mitochondrial NADP(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (mtIdh) gene. In this study, we tested whether variation in wing length was as strongly genetically determined in locally adapted populations in a sympatric mosaic compared to allopatric populations, and if variation in mtIDH and wing size was genetically unlinked. We demonstrate that the genetic determination of wing size is very high (h (2) = 0.90) in sympatry and of comparable magnitude as geographically separated populations. Second, we show that, although frequencies of mtIDH allozymes are tightly associated with mean population wing size across Western European populations, the correlation is strongly reduced within some of the populations. These findings demonstrate that the divergence involves at least two traits under independent genetic control and that the genetically distinct ecotypes are retained at geographical distances with ample opportunity for gene flow.

  17. Explicit and implicit memory in female college students with schizotypal traits: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Bo-Yeon; Kim, Bit-Na; Kim, Myung-Sun

    2011-04-01

    The explicit and implicit memory of nonclinical individuals with schizotypal traits was investigated using event-related potentials. Explicit and implicit memory was measured with continuous recognition and categorization tasks, respectively. On the recognition task, the control group demonstrated a greater old/new effect in response to the old than to the new words during the 250-750 ms post-stimulus period, whereas schizotypal trait group did not exhibit an old/new effect during the 550-650 ms period. The control group demonstrated faster response times to the old than to the new words, whereas the schizotypal group demonstrated longer response times to the old than to the new words. On the categorization task, both groups showed old/new effects during the 250-550 ms after stimulus onset and responded more rapidly and with fewer errors to the old than to the new words. These results suggest that individuals with schizotypal traits have impaired explicit but preserved implicit memory. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Genetic control and combining ability of flag leaf area and relative water content traits of bread wheat cultivars under drought stress condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golparvar Ahmad Reza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to compare mode of inheritance, combining ability, heterosis and gene action in genetic control of traits flag leaf area, relative water content and grain filling rate of bread wheat under drought stress, a study was conducted on 8 cultivars using of Griffing’s method2 in fixed model. Mean square of general combining ability was significant also for all traits and mean square of specific combining ability was significant also for all traits except relative water content of leaf which show importance of both additive and dominant effects of genes in heredity of these traits under stress. GCA to SCA mean square ratio was significant for none of traits. Results of this study showed that non additive effects of genes were more important than additive effect for all traits. According to results we can understand that genetic improvement of mentioned traits will have low genetic efficiency by selection from the best crosses of early generations. Then it is better to delay selection until advanced generations and increase in heritability of these traits.

  19. Exploring a Tomato Landraces Collection for Fruit-Related Traits by the Aid of a High-Throughput Genomic Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacco, Adriana; Ruggieri, Valentino; Parisi, Mario; Festa, Giovanna; Rigano, Maria Manuela; Picarella, Maurizio Enea; Mazzucato, Andrea; Barone, Amalia

    2015-01-01

    During its evolution and domestication Solanum lycopersicum has undergone various genetic 'bottlenecks' and extreme inbreeding of limited genotypes. In Europe the tomato found a secondary centre for diversification, which resulted in a wide array of fruit shape variation given rise to a range of landraces that have been cultivated for centuries. Landraces represent a reservoir of genetic diversity especially for traits such as abiotic stress resistance and high fruit quality. Information about the variation present among tomato landrace populations is still limited. A collection of 123 genotypes from different geographical areas was established with the aim of capturing a wide diversity. Eighteen morphological traits were evaluated, mainly related to the fruit. About 45% of morphological variation was attributed to fruit shape, as estimated by the principal component analysis, and the dendrogram of relatedness divided the population in subgroups mainly on the basis of fruit weight and locule number. Genotyping was carried out using the tomato array platform SolCAP able to interrogate 7,720 SNPs. In the whole collection 87.1% markers were polymorphic but they decreased to 44-54% when considering groups of genotypes with different origin. The neighbour-joining tree analysis clustered the 123 genotypes into two main branches. The STRUCTURE analysis with K = 3 also divided the population on the basis of fruit size. A genomic-wide association strategy revealed 36 novel markers associated to the variation of 15 traits. The markers were mapped on the tomato chromosomes together with 98 candidate genes for the traits analyzed. Six regions were evidenced in which candidate genes co-localized with 19 associated SNPs. In addition, 17 associated SNPs were localized in genomic regions lacking candidate genes. The identification of these markers demonstrated that novel variability was captured in our germoplasm collection. They might also provide a viable indirect selection tool

  20. Exploring a Tomato Landraces Collection for Fruit-Related Traits by the Aid of a High-Throughput Genomic Platform.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Sacco

    Full Text Available During its evolution and domestication Solanum lycopersicum has undergone various genetic 'bottlenecks' and extreme inbreeding of limited genotypes. In Europe the tomato found a secondary centre for diversification, which resulted in a wide array of fruit shape variation given rise to a range of landraces that have been cultivated for centuries. Landraces represent a reservoir of genetic diversity especially for traits such as abiotic stress resistance and high fruit quality. Information about the variation present among tomato landrace populations is still limited. A collection of 123 genotypes from different geographical areas was established with the aim of capturing a wide diversity. Eighteen morphological traits were evaluated, mainly related to the fruit. About 45% of morphological variation was attributed to fruit shape, as estimated by the principal component analysis, and the dendrogram of relatedness divided the population in subgroups mainly on the basis of fruit weight and locule number. Genotyping was carried out using the tomato array platform SolCAP able to interrogate 7,720 SNPs. In the whole collection 87.1% markers were polymorphic but they decreased to 44-54% when considering groups of genotypes with different origin. The neighbour-joining tree analysis clustered the 123 genotypes into two main branches. The STRUCTURE analysis with K = 3 also divided the population on the basis of fruit size. A genomic-wide association strategy revealed 36 novel markers associated to the variation of 15 traits. The markers were mapped on the tomato chromosomes together with 98 candidate genes for the traits analyzed. Six regions were evidenced in which candidate genes co-localized with 19 associated SNPs. In addition, 17 associated SNPs were localized in genomic regions lacking candidate genes. The identification of these markers demonstrated that novel variability was captured in our germoplasm collection. They might also provide a viable

  1. On the relation between 2D:4D and sex-dimorphic personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampson, Elizabeth; Ellis, Connie L; Tenk, Christine M

    2008-02-01

    Several personality traits, including aggressiveness and sensation seeking, have been hypothesized to be influenced by prenatal androgen exposure, though evidence for this proposition is limited. We investigated whether individual differences in aggressiveness, sensation seeking, and several prosocial personality traits can be predicted from differences in the 2D:4D digit ratio, a putative marker of prenatal androgen activity. A total of 164 undergraduates (87 men, 77 women) completed self-report measures of physical and verbal aggression, as well as a standardized measure of sensation seeking, and five scales to assess empathy, nurturance, expressivity/femininity, instrumentality/masculinity, and assertiveness. Two sex-dimorphic tests of spatial ability also were included. Men had a lower 2D:4D ratio than women, confirming the typical sex difference in digit proportions. Significant sex differences were observed on 10 of the 11 personality scales purported to show sex differences and on both tests of spatial ability. The 2D:4D ratio was a significant predictor of scores on three of the four aggression subscales, total aggression, thrill and adventure seeking, and total sensation-seeking, in the sample as a whole and in women. In men, correlations with 2D:4D were significant only for total sensation-seeking and verbal aggression. In both sexes, lower 2D:4D ratios were associated with increased aggressiveness and sensation seeking. For the spatial tests, there was no evidence of any association with 2D:4D in either men or women. The 2D:4D digit ratio may be a valid, though weak, predictor of selective sex-dependent traits that are sensitive to testosterone.

  2. Combining ability analysis for yield and related traits in basmati rice (oryza sativa L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleem, M.Y.; Haq, M.A.; Mirza, J.I.

    2010-01-01

    Line X tester experiment was conducted to evaluate the performance of 27 F1 hybrids along with 12 parents in Basmati rice. Analysis of variance revealed highly significant differences among treatments, parents, parents vs. crosses and crosses for number of tillers per plant, panicle length, number of grains per panicle, fertility percentage, 1000-grain weight and yield per plant. Lines were significant for number of tillers per plant, number of grains per panicle and 1000-grain weight while testers and lines X testers were significant for all the traits. The estimates of variance of specific combining ability effects, ratio of variance of general combining ability to specific combining ability and degree of dominance indicated preponderance of non-additive gene effects for each trait. On over all basis, role of testers in the expression of most of the yield components was more than lines and line X tester interaction. However, line X tester interaction contributed more than lines and testers for yield per plant. Three lines viz., Basmati 2000, Super Basmati and Kashmir Basmati and one tester Basmati-385 were identified as good general combiners based on their mean performance and GCA effects for yield and its various traits. Hybrids like Basmati Pak X Basmati-385, Super Basmati X Basmati-385, DM-107-4 X Basmati-385, Basmati 2000 X EL-30- 2-1, Basmati 2000 X DM-25, DM-16-5-1 X Basmati-385 and Kashmir Basmati X DM-25 showed high mean performance, SCA effects and heterobeltiosis for grain yield and are proposed for heterosis breeding. (author)

  3. Modulation of the N400 component in relation to hypomanic personality traits in a word meaning ambiguity resolution task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raucher-Chéné, Delphine; Terrien, Sarah; Gobin, Pamela; Gierski, Fabien; Kaladjian, Arthur; Besche-Richard, Chrystel

    2017-09-01

    High levels of hypomanic personality traits have been associated with an increased risk of developing bipolar disorder (BD). Changes in semantic content, impaired verbal associations, abnormal prosody, and abnormal speed of language are core features of BD, and are thought to be related to semantic processing abnormalities. In the present study, we used event-related potentials to investigate the relation between semantic processing (N400 component) and hypomanic personality traits. We assessed 65 healthy young adults on the Hypomanic Personality Scale (HPS). Event-related potentials were recorded during a semantic ambiguity resolution task exploring semantic ambiguity (polysemous word ending a sentence) and congruency (target word semantically related to the sentence). As expected, semantic ambiguity and congruency both elicited an N400 effect across our sample. Correlation analyses showed a significant positive relationship between the Social Vitality subscore of the HPS and N400 modulation in the frontal region of interest in the incongruent unambiguous condition, and in the frontocentral region of interest in the incongruent ambiguous condition. We found differences in semantic processing (i.e., detection of incongruence and semantic inhibition) in individuals with higher Social Vitality subscores. In the light of the literature, we discuss the notion that a semantic processing impairment could be a potential marker of vulnerability to BD, and one that needs to be explored further in this clinical population. © 2017 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2017 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  4. Methylomic analysis of monozygotic twins discordant for autism spectrum disorder and related behavioural traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, C C Y; Meaburn, E L; Ronald, A; Price, T S; Jeffries, A R; Schalkwyk, L C; Plomin, R; Mill, J

    2014-04-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) defines a group of common, complex neurodevelopmental disorders. Although the aetiology of ASD has a strong genetic component, there is considerable monozygotic (MZ) twin discordance indicating a role for non-genetic factors. Because MZ twins share an identical DNA sequence, disease-discordant MZ twin pairs provide an ideal model for examining the contribution of environmentally driven epigenetic factors in disease. We performed a genome-wide analysis of DNA methylation in a sample of 50 MZ twin pairs (100 individuals) sampled from a representative population cohort that included twins discordant and concordant for ASD, ASD-associated traits and no autistic phenotype. Within-twin and between-group analyses identified numerous differentially methylated regions associated with ASD. In addition, we report significant correlations between DNA methylation and quantitatively measured autistic trait scores across our sample cohort. This study represents the first systematic epigenomic analyses of MZ twins discordant for ASD and implicates a role for altered DNA methylation in autism.

  5. Urbanization-related changes in European aspen (Populus tremula L.): Leaf traits and litter decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikula, Suvi; Vapaavuori, Elina; Manninen, Sirkku

    2010-01-01

    We investigated foliar and litter responses of European aspen (Populus tremula L.) to urbanization, including factors such as increased temperature, moisture stress and nitrogen (N) deposition. Leaf samples were collected in 2006-2008 from three urban and three rural forest stands in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area, southern Finland, and reciprocal litter transplantations were established between urban and rural sites. Urban leaves exhibited a higher amount of epicuticular waxes and N concentration, and a lower C:N ratio than rural ones, but there was no difference in specific leaf area. Urban litter had a slightly higher N concentration, lower concentrations of lignin and total phenolics, and was more palatable to a macrofaunal decomposer. Moreover, litter decay was faster at the urban site and for urban litter. Urbanization thus resulted in foliar acclimatization in terms of increased amount of epicuticular waxes, as well as in accelerated decomposition of the N-richer leaf litter. - Urbanization can modify leaf traits of aspen and accelerate litter decomposition through changes in litter traits as well as in environmental conditions at the decomposition site.

  6. Energy Balance-Related Behavior and Anthropometric Measures Among Adolescents Across Three Educational Levels: A Cross-Sectional Study in Dutch Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridder, Monica A M; Koning, Maaike; Visscher, Tommy L S; Hirasing, Remy A; Seidell, Jacob C; Renders, Carry M

    2018-06-01

    Energy balance-related behavior on schooldays and beliefs about school-based interventions may differ between students in different educational levels, sexes, and BMI (body mass index) categories. In Zwolle (the Netherlands), 1,084 adolescents (13-15 years) at 9 secondary schools completed a questionnaire. Overweight prevalence (boys 18.1%, girls 19.3%) increased with decreasing educational level, especially in boys. Girls reported healthier behavior than boys regarding daily consumption of fruit (35% vs. 29%), vegetables (58% vs. 48%), ≤1 snack/candy (36% vs. 26%), ≤3 glasses of sugared drinks (80% vs. 73%; all p stimulate physical activity, boys suggested more physical education classes (63%), girls advised more variation (47%) and choice (43%). A healthy school canteen (57%) and offering free fruit (67%) were suggested as promising interventions to stimulate healthy behavior. Educational and environmental interventions to tackle unhealthy dietary and physical activity behavior should be developed in collaboration with parents and tailored to educational level and gender.

  7. Types of Relational Aggression in Girls Are Differentiated by Callous-Unemotional Traits, Peers and Parental Overcontrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centifanti, Luna C M; Fanti, Kostas A; Thomson, Nicholas D; Demetriou, Vasiliki; Anastassiou-Hadjicharalambous, Xenia

    2015-11-13

    Adolescent girls often perpetrate aggression by gossiping and spreading rumours about others, by attempting to ruin relationships and by manipulating and excluding others. Further, males and females engage in reactive and proactive relational aggression differently. In this study, we examined the individual, peer and parental contextual factors that best explained the use of reactive and proactive relational aggression in girls. Female participants (n = 614; ages 11-18 years) completed questionnaires on aggression, callous-unemotional (CU) traits, delinquency, peer delinquency, gender composition of their peer group, resistance to peer influence and perceived parental overcontrol. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the effects of individual, peer- and parent-related variables on the likelihood of being classified as a low aggressor, reactive aggressor or proactive/reactive aggressor. Girls in the combined reactive/proactive aggression group were younger, had greater CU traits, a lower proportion of male peers and greater perception of parental control than both the reactive and low aggressive groups. Both highly aggressive groups were more delinquent and had greater peer delinquency than the low aggressive group. This study suggests those girls who show relational aggression for the purpose of gaining status and revenge feel restrained by their parents and may gravitate toward relationships that support their behaviour.

  8. Types of Relational Aggression in Girls Are Differentiated by Callous-Unemotional Traits, Peers and Parental Overcontrol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luna C. M. Centifanti

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Adolescent girls often perpetrate aggression by gossiping and spreading rumours about others, by attempting to ruin relationships and by manipulating and excluding others. Further, males and females engage in reactive and proactive relational aggression differently. In this study, we examined the individual, peer and parental contextual factors that best explained the use of reactive and proactive relational aggression in girls. Female participants (n = 614; ages 11–18 years completed questionnaires on aggression, callous-unemotional (CU traits, delinquency, peer delinquency, gender composition of their peer group, resistance to peer influence and perceived parental overcontrol. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the effects of individual, peer- and parent-related variables on the likelihood of being classified as a low aggressor, reactive aggressor or proactive/reactive aggressor. Girls in the combined reactive/proactive aggression group were younger, had greater CU traits, a lower proportion of male peers and greater perception of parental control than both the reactive and low aggressive groups. Both highly aggressive groups were more delinquent and had greater peer delinquency than the low aggressive group. This study suggests those girls who show relational aggression for the purpose of gaining status and revenge feel restrained by their parents and may gravitate toward relationships that support their behaviour.

  9. Variability in the Anthropometric Status of Four South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variability in the Anthropometric Status of Four South African Populations. PJ Smith. Abstract. Coefficients of variation (V) of 4 populations were compared for each of 11 parameters. Males differed significantly in cristal height and 3 skinfolds. It has been suggested that negroids vary more in relation to their means in cristal ...

  10. Effect of chronic escitalopram versus placebo on personality traits in healthy first-degree relatives of patients with depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knorr, Ulla; Vinberg, Maj; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2012-01-01

    The serotonergic neurotransmitter system is closely linked to depression and personality traits. It is not known if selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) have an effect on neuroticism that is independent of their effect on depression. Healthy individuals with a genetic liability...... for depression represent a group of particular interest when investigating if intervention with SSRIs affects personality. The present trial is the first to test the hypothesis that escitalopram may reduce neuroticism in healthy first-degree relatives of patients with major depressive disorder (MD)....

  11. Environmental heterogeneity generates opposite gene-by-environment interactions for two fitness-related traits within a population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culumber, Zachary W; Schumer, Molly; Monks, Scott; Tobler, Michael

    2015-02-01

    Theory predicts that environmental heterogeneity offers a potential solution to the maintenance of genetic variation within populations, but empirical evidence remains sparse. The live-bearing fish Xiphophorus variatus exhibits polymorphism at a single locus, with different alleles resulting in up to five distinct melanistic "tailspot" patterns within populations. We investigated the effects of heterogeneity in two ubiquitous environmental variables (temperature and food availability) on two fitness-related traits (upper thermal limits and body condition) in two different tailspot types (wild-type and upper cut crescent). We found gene-by-environment (G × E) interactions between tailspot type and food level affecting upper thermal limits (UTL), as well as between tailspot type and thermal environment affecting body condition. Exploring mechanistic bases underlying these G × E patterns, we found no differences between tailspot types in hsp70 gene expression despite significant overall increases in expression under both thermal and food stress. Similarly, there was no difference in routine metabolic rates between the tailspot types. The reversal of relative performance of the two tailspot types under different environmental conditions revealed a mechanism by which environmental heterogeneity can balance polymorphism within populations through selection on different fitness-related traits. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  12. Prescribing by pharmacists in Alberta and its relation to culture and personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Meagen M; Houle, Sherilyn K D; Eberhart, Greg; Tsuyuki, Ross T

    2015-01-01

    As evidence for the efficacy of pharmacists' interventions, governments worldwide are developing legislation to formalize new practice approaches, including independent prescribing by pharmacists. Pharmacists in Alberta became the first in Canada availed of this opportunity; however, uptake of such has been slow. One approach to understanding this problem is through an examination of pharmacists who have already gained this ability. The primary objective of this study was to gain descriptive insight into the culture and personality traits of innovator, and early adopter, Alberta pharmacists with Additional Prescribing Authorization using the Organizational Culture Profile and Big Five Inventory. The study was a cross-sectional online survey of Alberta pharmacists who obtained Additional Prescribing Authorization (independent prescribing authority), in the fall of 2012. The survey contained three sections; the first contained basic demographic, background and practice questions; the second section contained the Organizational Culture Profile; and the third section contained the Big Five Inventory. Sixty-five survey instruments were returned, for a response rate of 39%. Respondents' mean age was 40 (SD 10) years. The top reason cited by respondents for applying for prescribing authority was to improve patient care. The majority of respondents perceived greater value in the cultural factors of competitiveness, social responsibility, supportiveness, performance orientation and stability, and may be more likely to exhibit behavior in line with the personality traits of extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness and openness. Inferential statistical analysis revealed a significant linear relationship between Organizational Culture Profile responses to cultural factors of social responsibility and competitiveness and the number of prescription adaptations provided. This insight into the experiences of innovators and early adopter pharmacist prescribers can be used to

  13. Combining ability studies on yield related traits in wheat under normal and water stress conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeed, A.; Khan, A.S.; Khaliq, I.

    2010-01-01

    Six diverse wheat cultivars/lines viz; Baviacore, Nesser, 9247, 9252, 9258 and 9267 were crossed in a complete diallel fashion to develop 30 F1 crosses, which were tested along with their parents under normal and water stress conditions. Numerical analysis was made for spike density, number of grains per spike, 100-grain weight, biological yield, grain yield and harvest index. Significant differences among genotypic mean were observed in all of the traits under both conditions. GCA and SCA differences were significant for all the traits under study except spike density and 100-grain weight in both conditions. Wheat variety Nesser showed maximum general combining ability value for spike density under water stress conditions and maximum GCA value for biological yield and grain yield under irrigated condition. The variety Baviacore proved best general combiner for number of grains per spike and harvest index under both conditions while biological yield and grain yield under water stress condition. Variety 9252 found best general combiner for 100-grain weight under both condition. The cross 9252 x Nesser showed maximum specific combining ability value for spike density and biological yield under irrigated while for 100-grain weight under water stress condition. 9258 x 9252 exhibited maximum SCA for number of grains per spike under irrigated while 9258 x Nesser under water stress condition. 9267 x Nesser showed maximum SCA for 100-grain weight under irrigated condition while spike density under water stress condition. 9258 x 9247 was proved best combiner for grain yield and harvest index irrigated while 9267 x 9258 for biological yield, grain yield and harvest index under water stress condition. (author)

  14. Evidence for specificity of the impact of punishment on error-related brain activity in high versus low trait anxious individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Alexandria; Gawlowska, Magda

    2017-10-01

    A previous study suggests that when participants were punished with a loud noise after committing errors, the error-related negativity (ERN) was enhanced in high trait anxious individuals. The current study sought to extend these findings by examining the ERN in conditions when punishment was related and unrelated to error commission as a function of individual differences in trait anxiety symptoms; further, the current study utilized an electric shock as an aversive unconditioned stimulus. Results confirmed that the ERN was increased when errors were punished among high trait anxious individuals compared to low anxious individuals; this effect was not observed when punishment was unrelated to errors. Findings suggest that the threat-value of errors may underlie the association between certain anxious traits and punishment-related increases in the ERN. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Exploring single nucleotide polymorphisms previously related to obesity and metabolic traits in pediatric-onset type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda-Lora, América Liliana; Cruz, Miguel; Aguirre-Hernández, Jesús; Molina-Díaz, Mario; Gutiérrez, Jorge; Flores-Huerta, Samuel; Klünder-Klünder, Miguel

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the association of 64 obesity-related polymorphisms with pediatric-onset type 2 diabetes and other glucose- and insulin-related traits in Mexican children. Case-control and case-sibling designs were followed. We studied 99 patients with pediatric-onset type 2 diabetes, their siblings (n = 101) without diabetes, 83 unrelated pediatric controls and 137 adult controls. Genotypes were determined for 64 single nucleotide polymorphisms, and a possible association was examined between those genotypes and type 2 diabetes and other quantitative traits, after adjusting for age, sex and body mass index. In the case-pediatric control and case-adult control analyses, five polymorphisms were associated with increased likelihood of pediatric-onset type 2 diabetes; only one of these polymorphisms (CADM2/rs1307880) also showed a consistent effect in the case-sibling analysis. The associations in the combined analysis were as follows: ADORA1/rs903361 (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.2; 3.0); CADM2/rs13078807 (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.2; 4.0); GNPDA2/rs10938397 (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.4; 3.7); VEGFA/rs6905288 (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.1; 2.1) and FTO/rs9939609 (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.0; 3.2). We also identified 16 polymorphisms nominally associated with quantitative traits in participants without diabetes. ADORA/rs903361, CADM2/rs13078807, GNPDA2/rs10938397, VEGFA/rs6905288 and FTO/rs9939609 are associated with an increased risk of pediatric-onset type 2 diabetes in the Mexican population.

  16. Biomechanical, anthropometric, and psychological determinants of barbell back squat strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigotsky, Andrew D; Bryanton, Megan A; Nuckols, Greg; Beardsley, Chris; Contreras, Bret; Evans, Jessica; Schoenfeld, Brad J

    2018-02-27

    Previous investigations of strength have only focused on biomechanical or psychological determinants, while ignoring the potential interplay and relative contributions of these variables. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relative contributions of biomechanical, anthropometric, and psychological variables to the prediction of maximum parallel barbell back squat strength. Twenty-one college-aged participants (male = 14; female = 7; age = 23 ± 3 years) reported to the laboratory for two visits. The first visit consisted of anthropometric, psychometric, and parallel barbell back squat one-repetition maximum (1RM) testing. On the second visit, participants performed isometric dynamometry testing for the knee, hip, and spinal extensors in a sticking point position-specific manner. Multiple linear regression and correlations were used to investigate the combined and individual relationships between biomechanical, anthropometric, and psychological variables and squat 1RM. Multiple regression revealed only one statistically predictive determinant: fat free mass normalized to height (standardized estimate ± SE = 0.6 ± 0.3; t(16) = 2.28; p = 0.037). Correlation coefficients for individual variables and squat 1RM ranged from r = -0.79-0.83, with biomechanical, anthropometric, experiential, and sex predictors showing the strongest relationships, and psychological variables displaying the weakest relationships. These data suggest that back squat strength in a heterogeneous population is multifactorial and more related to physical rather than psychological variables.

  17. Trait-abundance relation in response to nutrient addition in a Tibetan alpine meadow: The importance of species trade-off in resource conservation and acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huiying; Li, Ying; Ren, Fei; Lin, Li; Zhu, Wenyan; He, Jin-Sheng; Niu, Kechang

    2017-12-01

    In competition-dominated communities, traits promoting resource conservation and competitive ability are expected to have an important influence on species relative abundance (SRA). Yet, few studies have tested the trait-abundance relations in the line of species trade-off in resource conservation versus acquisition, indicating by multiple traits coordination. We measured SRA and key functional traits involving leaf economic spectrum (SLA, specific leaf area; LDMC, leaf dry matter content; LCC, leaf carbon concentration; LNC, leaf nitrogen concentration; LPC, leaf phosphorus concentration; Hs, mature height) for ten common species in all plots subjected to addition of nitrogen fertilizer (N), phosphorus fertilizer (P), or both of them (NP) in a Tibetan alpine meadow. We test whether SRA is positively related with traits promoting plant resource conservation, while negatively correlated with traits promoting plant growth and resource acquisition. We found that species were primarily differentiated along a trade-off axis involving traits promoting nutrient acquisition and fast growth (e.g., LPC and SLA) versus traits promoting resource conservation and competition ability (e.g., large LDMC). We further found that SRA was positively correlated with plant height, LDMC, and LCC, but negatively associated with SLA and leaf nutrient concentration irrespective of fertilization. A stronger positive height-SRA was found in NP-fertilized plots than in other plots, while negative correlations between SRA and SLA and LPC were found in N or P fertilized plots. The results indicate that species trade-off in nutrient acquisition and resource conservation was a key driver of SRA in competition-dominated communities following fertilization, with the linkage between SRA and traits depending on plant competition for specific soil nutrient and/or light availability. The results highlight the importance of competitive exclusion in plant community assembly following fertilization and

  18. Reliability, construct and criterion-related validity of the Serbian adaptation of the trait emotional intelligence questionnaire (TEIQue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolić-Marjanović Zorana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents evidence on the reliability and validity of the Serbian adaptation of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue, an instrument designed to comprehensively assess emotional intelligence conceived as a constellation of emotionrelated self-perceptions. Study participants were 254 adults, who completed the Serbian TEIQue, NEO-FFI, MSCEIT, EQ-short, and RSPWB. The results indicate that the adapted TEIQue is a psychometrically sound assessment tool: internal consistencies were mostly acceptable at facet, generally good at factor, and excellent at whole-scale level; the fourfactor structure was confirmed by means of CFA; convergent-discriminant validity was established through meaningful associations with related constructs, indicating that trait EI is closely aligned with affect and self-efficacy related constructs from the realm of personality (i.e., E, N, C, and Empathy, but shows only moderate overlap with ability EI; finally, incremental validity was demonstrated in the prediction of psychological wellbeing, over and above the Big Five. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179018

  19. Exploring individual differences in task switching: Persistence and other personality traits related to anterior cingulate cortex function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umemoto, A; Holroyd, C B

    2016-01-01

    Anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is involved in cognitive control and decision-making but its precise function is still highly debated. Based on evidence from lesion, neurophysiological, and neuroimaging studies, we have recently proposed a critical role for ACC in motivating extended behaviors according to learned task values (Holroyd and Yeung, 2012). Computational simulations based on this theory suggest a hierarchical mechanism in which a caudal division of ACC selects and applies control over task execution, and a rostral division of ACC facilitates switches between tasks according to a higher task strategy (Holroyd and McClure, 2015). This theoretical framework suggests that ACC may contribute to personality traits related to persistence and reward sensitivity (Holroyd and Umemoto, 2016). To explore this possibility, we carried out a voluntary task switching experiment in which on each trial participants freely chose one of two tasks to perform, under the condition that they try to select the tasks "at random" and equally often. The participants also completed several questionnaires that assessed personality trait related to persistence, apathy, anhedonia, and rumination, in addition to the Big 5 personality inventory. Among other findings, we observed greater compliance with task instructions by persistent individuals, as manifested by a greater facility with switching between tasks, which is suggestive of increased engagement of rostral ACC. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Investigation of TXNIP (thioredoxin-interacting protein) and TRX (thioredoxin) genes for growth-related traits in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Mei; Geiger, Becky; Deeb, Nader; Rothschild, Max F

    2007-03-01

    It is well known that TRX and its endogenous inhibitor TXNIP help sustain the cellular reduction/oxidation balance in response to various stresses and both play a crucial role in cell proliferation and growth. Five SNPs were found in TXNIP and these allowed us to map it by linkage to SSC4. Three of the SNPs were used for association analyses in three commercial pig populations (Duroc, Hampshire, and synthetic line) with more than 1200 animals. Both the single-marker and haplotype analyses revealed significant effects of TXNIP on hot carcass weight, test daily gain, and lifetime daily gain. TRX was mapped on SSC1 but no significant associations with growth-related traits were found in the synthetic pig line in which the SNP was informative. The expression levels of TXNIP and TRX were then detected in two groups (fast growth and slow growth, respectively) with different genetic backgrounds for growth. Compared with the slow-growth group, TXNIP expression was significantly lower in the fast-growth group, whereas a marked increase in TRX expression was observed in fast-growth group. Our findings suggest that TXNIP has effects on growth-related traits in pigs and further investigations will be necessary to elucidate the underlying mechanisms involved.

  1. Omega-3 fatty acids are inversely related to callous and unemotional traits in adolescent boys with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gow, Rachel V; Vallee-Tourangeau, Frederic; Crawford, Michael Angus; Taylor, Eric; Ghebremeskel, Kebreab; Bueno, Allain A; Hibbeln, Joseph R; Sumich, Alexander; Rubia, Katya

    2013-06-01

    A number of research studies have reported abnormal plasma fatty acid profiles in children with ADHD along with some benefit of n-3 to symptoms of ADHD. However, it is currently unclear whether (lower) long chain-polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) are related to ADHD pathology or to associated behaviours. The aim of this study was to test whether (1) ADHD children have abnormal plasma LC-PUFA levels and (2) ADHD symptoms and associated behaviours are correlated with LC-PUFA levels. Seventy-two, male children with (n=29) and without a clinical diagnosis of ADHD (n=43) were compared in their plasma levels of LC-PUFA. Plasma DHA was higher in the control group prior to statistical correction. Callous-unemotional (CU) traits were found to be significantly negatively related to both eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and total omega-3 in the ADHD group. The findings unveil for the first time that CU and anti-social traits in ADHD are associated with lower omega-3 levels. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Common Variants of Homocysteine Metabolism Pathway Genes and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes and Related Traits in Indians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh Chauhan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperhomocysteinemia, a risk factor for cardiovascular disorder, obesity, and type 2 diabetes, is prevalent among Indians who are at high risk of these metabolic disorders. We evaluated association of common variants of genes involved in homocysteine metabolism or its levels with type 2 diabetes, obesity, and related traits in North Indians. We genotyped 90 variants in initial phase (2.115 subjects and replicated top signals in an independent sample set (2.085 subjects. The variant MTHFR-rs1801133 was the top signal for association with type 2 diabetes (OR=0.78 (95%  CI=0.67–0.92, P=0.003 and was also associated with 2 h postload plasma glucose (P=0.04, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P=0.004, and total cholesterol (P=0.01 in control subjects. These associations were neither replicated nor significant after meta-analysis. Studies involving a larger study population and different ethnic groups are required before ruling out the role of these important candidate genes in type 2 diabetes, obesity, and related traits.

  3. Vocations as a source of identity: reciprocal relations between Big Five personality traits and RIASEC characteristics over 15 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wille, Bart; De Fruyt, Filip

    2014-03-01

    Although work is a core part of life, the direction of influence from personality to work has typically been conceived as only unidirectional. The present study aims to contribute to the literature by considering reciprocal relations between personality and occupational characteristics, drawing on current perspectives from personality psychology (i.e., the social investment principle) and using a well-established framework to conceptualize career development (i.e., Holland's RIASEC theory). For this purpose, a longitudinal cohort of college alumni (N = 266) was tracked across a substantial and significant period in their professional career. Big Five personality traits and RIASEC occupational characteristics were assessed at the career start and 15 years later when their careers had unfolded. A combination of observed and latent variable analyses were used to disentangle the longitudinal and reciprocal relations between traits and occupational characteristics. Our results indicate that personality shapes and is shaped by our vocational experiences, suggesting that work can be a source of identity. The implications for theory and research on personality in the industrial and organizational literature are discussed alongside a number of practical implications for organizational and counseling settings.

  4. Association of yield-related traits in founder genotypes and derivatives of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Guo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Yield improvement is an ever-important objective of wheat breeding. Studying and understanding the phenotypes and genotypes of yield-related traits has potential for genetic improvement of crops. Results The genotypes of 215 wheat cultivars including 11 founder parents and 106 derivatives were analyzed by the 9 K wheat SNP iSelect assay. A total of 4138 polymorphic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP loci were detected on 21 chromosomes, of which 3792 were mapped to single chromosome locations. All genotypes were phenotyped for six yield-related traits including plant height (PH, spike length (SL, spikelet number per spike (SNPS, kernel number per spike (KNPS, kernel weight per spike (KWPS, and thousand kernel weight (TKW in six irrigated environments. Genome-wide association analysis detected 117 significant associations of 76 SNPs on 15 chromosomes with phenotypic explanation rates (R 2 ranging from 2.03 to 12.76%. In comparing allelic variation between founder parents and their derivatives (106 and other cultivars (98 using the 76 associated SNPs, we found that the region 116.0–133.2 cM on chromosome 5A in founder parents and derivatives carried alleles positively influencing kernel weight per spike (KWPS, rarely found in other cultivars. Conclusion The identified favorable alleles could mark important chromosome regions in derivatives that were inherited from founder parents. Our results unravel the genetic of yield in founder genotypes, and provide tools for marker-assisted selection for yield improvement.

  5. Feather pecking in chickens is genetically related to behavioural and developmental traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, P; Keeling, L; Schütz, K; Andersson, L; Mormède, P; Brändström, H; Forkman, B; Kerje, S; Fredriksson, R; Ohlsson, C; Larsson, S; Mallmin, H; Kindmark, A

    2005-09-15

    Feather pecking (FP) is a detrimental behaviour in chickens, which is performed by only some individuals in a flock. FP was studied in 54 red junglefowl (ancestor of domestic chickens), 36 White Leghorn laying hens, and 762 birds from an F(2)-intercross between these two lines. From all F(2)-birds, growth and feed consumption were measured. Age at sexual maturity and egg production in females, and corticosterone levels in males were also measured. From 333 F(2)-birds of both sexes, and 20 parental birds, body composition with respect to bone mineral content, muscle and fat was obtained by post-mortem examinations using Dual X-Ray Absorptiometry (DXA). In femurs of the same birds, the bone density and structure were analysed using DXA and Peripheral Quantitative Computerized Tomography (pQCT), and a biomechanical analysis of bone strength was performed. Furthermore, plumage condition was determined in all birds as a measure of being exposed to feather pecking. Using 105 DNA-markers in all F(2)-birds, a genome-wide scan for Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL), associated with the behaviour in the F(2)-generation was performed. FP was at least as frequent in the red junglefowl as in the White Leghorn strain studied here, and significantly more common among females both in the parental strains and in the F(2)-generation. In the F(2)-birds, FP was phenotypically linked to early sexual maturation, fast growth, weak bones, and, in males, also high fat accumulation, indicating that feather peckers have a different resource allocation pattern. Behaviourally, F(2) feather peckers were more active in an open field test, in a novel food/novel object test, and in a restraint test, indicating that feather pecking might be genetically linked to a proactive coping strategy. Only one suggestive QTL with a low explanatory value was found on chromosome 3, showing that many genes, each with a small effect, are probably involved in the causation of feather pecking. There were significant

  6. PERSONALITY TRAITS, ANGER AND PSYCHIATRIC SYMPTOMS RELATED TO QUALITY OF LIFE IN PATIENTS WITH NEWLY DIAGNOSED DIGESTIVE SYSTEM CANCER

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    Noemi Peres HONORATO

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND The presence of psychiatric symptoms, anger, and personality characteristics are factors that affect the quality of life of newly diagnosed digestive system cancer patients. OBJECTIVE This study aims to identify which stable characteristics of the individual’s personality interfere with quality of life, even when reactive emotional characteristics of falling ill are controlled. METHODS A cross-sectional study was performed at the Oncology Clinic ( Hospital das Clínicas , Marília/SP, Brazil, in which 50 adult patients with digestive system cancer and diagnosed less than 6 months answered the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory, Temperament and Character Inventory, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and WHOQOL-BREF. Multiple regression was performed to verify if quality of life was related to stable characteristics of the subject’s personality (anger trait, temperament and character after controlling to the transient emotional aspects (anger state, psychiatric symptoms. RESULTS The quality of life psychological health score was higher in presence of self-directedness character and reward dependence temperament and quality of life environment score was higher in presence of self-directedness character and lower in presence of harm avoidance temperament. CONCLUSION The psychological well-being and the adaptive needs to the environment that favoring a better quality of life were reinforced mainly by the self-directedness character; which means that patients more autonomous cope better with the disease. On the other hand, the harm avoidance temperament (meaning the patient has fear of aversive situations impaired the adaptive capacity to deal with the changes of the day-to-day imposed by the disease. Understanding these personality traits is important to the health professionals drive the patient to more successful treatment.

  7. Association Between Personality Traits and Oral Health-Related Quality of Life: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, Javier; Gómez-Polo, Cristina

    The aim of this study was to investigate the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) among subjects with typical, atypically positive, and atypically negative personality trait scores within the five basic dimensions of personality (neuroticism, extroversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness). A total of 235 subjects not seeking dental treatment were recruited from the families and acquaintances of dental students from the University of Salamanca. The 14-item Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14) was used to capture the impact on their OHRQoL. The Neouroticism-Extroversion-Openness Personality Inventory Revised was applied to assess personality profiles. People were classified as having negatively atypical, typical, or positively atypical (PAP) personality, depending on whether the sum of the Z scores was 1, respectively. Pearson correlation, analysis of variance, and logistic regression test were used for the statistical analyses. The sample was comprised of highly educated adults (aged 18-80 years) with good oral health habits. PAP subjects suffered significantly more in the dimension of psychologic discomfort (0.6 ± 0.7) than did their counterparts (0.3 ± 0.6), but the global impact in OHRQoL was comparable. Personality was weakly correlated with OHIP-14. The perception of dental treatment needs was found to be the major predictor of the impact on OHRQoL, but the number of negatively atypical deviated personality traits and the agreeableness raw score also had an effect. The risk of perceiving an impact on OHRQoL is significantly higher in individuals perceiving treatment needs and increases proportionally to the number of negatively atypical personality traits.

  8. Inflorescence and floral traits of the Colombian species of Tristerix (Loranthaceae related to hummingbird pollination

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    Favio González

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Floral diversification in Loranthaceae reaches its highest peak in the Andes. The flowers of the exclusively Andean genus Tristerix exhibit tubular and vividly coloured flowers pollinated by hummingbirds. We studied inflorescence and flower morphoanatomy of the two Colombian species, T. longebracteatus and the highly endangered T. secundus. Both species have terminal racemes with up to 26 ebracteolate flowers, of which the proximal one opens and sets fruits first. The slightly irregular calyx initiation is followed by the simultaneous initiation of petals and the successive initiation of stamens. Anthesis is fenestrate, explosive, and triggered by the tension of the style against the abaxial petals, a mode so far not reported in Loranthaceae. Anthetic petals spread symmetrically in T. longebracteatus and asymmetrically in T. secundus. Nectar is produced by a supraovarial disk and by the petal mesophyll. Floral lifespan lasts up to 20 days. The hummingbirds Eriocnemis vestita and Pterophanes cyanopterus are the likely pollinators of T. secundus. Morphological traits are inconclusive to support one of the two competing sister group relationships that involve Tristerix, as the lack of cataphylls in renewal shoots links Ligaria and Tristerix, whereas the terminal inflorescences support its relationship with Desmaria and Tupeia.

  9. Determination of yield related traits of sesame genotypes selected from world collection and mutant material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silme, R. S.; Cagirgan, M. I.

    2009-01-01

    Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) is an important plant of Turkey that secondary gen center and very used of food industry's a lot of area. Mutation breeding of sesame research continued coordinately with IAEA since 1993. it is aimed in these breeding programmes to improve lines that have dehiscent capsule, determinate growth and resistance to wilting traits. This study was conducted in Antalya City, at Akdeniz University Agricultural Faculty experiment fields under second crop conditions in 2007. At this study, 19 genotypes selected from world sesame collection, 4 mutant genotypes and 2 local cultivars were sown. The experiments were conducted according to Complete Randomized Block Design with three replications. It was found that first flowering date varied between 35 to 45 days, 50% flowering date from 39 to 54 days, last flowering date from 63 to 88 days, first capsule date from 42 to 51 days, first capsule height from 44 to 116 cm, plant height from 102 to 177 cm, number of branch per plant from 0.1 to 2.7, number of pod per plant from 28 to 63, number of seeds in capsule 2.3-4.3 g, 1000 seed weight ranged from 2.3 to 4.3 g, seed yield per da from 18 to 77 kg. The highest yield per da (77 kg/da) was obtained from mutant genotype, wt-5.

  10. Global variability in leaf respiration in relation to climate, plant functional types and leaf traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkin, Owen K; Bloomfield, Keith J; Reich, Peter B; Tjoelker, Mark G; Asner, Gregory P; Bonal, Damien; Bönisch, Gerhard; Bradford, Matt G; Cernusak, Lucas A; Cosio, Eric G; Creek, Danielle; Crous, Kristine Y; Domingues, Tomas F; Dukes, Jeffrey S; Egerton, John J G; Evans, John R; Farquhar, Graham D; Fyllas, Nikolaos M; Gauthier, Paul P G; Gloor, Emanuel; Gimeno, Teresa E; Griffin, Kevin L; Guerrieri, Rossella; Heskel, Mary A; Huntingford, Chris; Ishida, Françoise Yoko; Kattge, Jens; Lambers, Hans; Liddell, Michael J; Lloyd, Jon; Lusk, Christopher H; Martin, Roberta E; Maksimov, Ayal P; Maximov, Trofim C; Malhi, Yadvinder; Medlyn, Belinda E; Meir, Patrick; Mercado, Lina M; Mirotchnick, Nicholas; Ng, Desmond; Niinemets, Ülo; O'Sullivan, Odhran S; Phillips, Oliver L; Poorter, Lourens; Poot, Pieter; Prentice, I Colin; Salinas, Norma; Rowland, Lucy M; Ryan, Michael G; Sitch, Stephen; Slot, Martijn; Smith, Nicholas G; Turnbull, Matthew H; VanderWel, Mark C; Valladares, Fernando; Veneklaas, Erik J; Weerasinghe, Lasantha K; Wirth, Christian; Wright, Ian J; Wythers, Kirk R; Xiang, Jen; Xiang, Shuang; Zaragoza-Castells, Joana

    2015-04-01

    Leaf dark respiration (Rdark ) is an important yet poorly quantified component of the global carbon cycle. Given this, we analyzed a new global database of Rdark and associated leaf traits. Data for 899 species were compiled from 100 sites (from the Arctic to the tropics). Several woody and nonwoody plant functional types (PFTs) were represented. Mixed-effects models were used to disentangle sources of variation in Rdark . Area-based Rdark at the prevailing average daily growth temperature (T) of each site increased only twofold from the Arctic to the tropics, despite a 20°C increase in growing T (8-28°C). By contrast, Rdark at a standard T (25°C, Rdark (25) ) was threefold higher in the Arctic than in the tropics, and twofold higher at arid than at mesic sites. Species and PFTs at cold sites exhibited higher Rdark (25) at a given photosynthetic capacity (Vcmax (25) ) or leaf nitrogen concentration ([N]) than species at warmer sites. Rdark (25) values at any given Vcmax (25) or [N] were higher in herbs than in woody plants. The results highlight variation in Rdark among species and across global gradients in T and aridity. In addition to their ecological significance, the results provide a framework for improving representation of Rdark in terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs) and associated land-surface components of Earth system models (ESMs). © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  11. Global variability in leaf respiration in relation to climate and leaf traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkin, Owen K.

    2015-04-01

    Leaf respiration plays a vital role in regulating ecosystem functioning and the Earth's climate. Because of this, it is imperative that that Earth-system, climate and ecosystem-level models be able to accurately predict variations in rates of leaf respiration. In the field of photosynthesis research, the F/vC/B model has enabled modellers to accurately predict variations in photosynthesis through time and space. By contrast, we lack an equivalent biochemical model to predict variations in leaf respiration. Consequently, we need to rely on phenomenological approaches to model variations in respiration across the Earth's surface. Such approaches require that we develop a thorough understanding of how rates of respiration vary among species and whether global environmental gradients play a role in determining variations in leaf respiration. Dealing with these issues requires that data sets be assembled on rates of leaf respiration in biomes across the Earth's surface. In this talk, I will use a newly-assembled global database on leaf respiration and associated traits (including photosynthesis) to highlight variation in leaf respiration (and the balance between respiration and photosynthesis) across global gradients in growth temperature and aridity.

  12. The Self-Reference Effect on Perception: Undiminished in Adults with Autism and No Relation to Autism Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David M; Nicholson, Toby; Grainger, Catherine

    2018-02-01

    Memory for (and perception of) information about the self is superior to memory for (and perception of) other kinds of information. This self-reference effect (SRE) in memory appears diminished in ASD and related to the number of ASD traits manifested by neurotypical individuals (fewer traits = larger SRE). Here, we report the first experiments exploring the relation between ASD and the SRE in perception. Using a "Shapes" Task (Sui et al., Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 38, 1105, 2012), participants learned to associate three different shapes (triangle, circle, square) with three different labels representing self, a familiar other, or an unfamiliar other (e.g., "you", "mother", "stranger"). Participants then completed trials during which they were presented with one shape and one label for 100 ms, and made judgments about whether the shape and label was a match. In Experiment 1, neurotypical participants (n = 124) showed the expected SRE, detecting self-related matches more reliably and quickly than matches involving familiar or unfamiliar other. Most important, number of ASD traits was unrelated to the size of the SRE for either accuracy or RT. Bayesian association analyses strongly supported the null hypothesis. In Experiment 2, there were no differences between 22 adults with ASD and 21 matched comparison adults in performance on the Shapes Task. Despite showing large and significant theory of mind impairments, participants with ASD showed the typical SRE and there were no associations with ASD traits in either group. In every case, Bayesian analyses favored the null hypothesis. These findings challenge theories about self-representation in ASD, as discussed in the article. Autism Res 2018, 11: 331-341. © 2017 The Authors Autism Research published by International Society for Autism Research and Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Neurotypical people tend to find it easier to perceive and remember information that relates to

  13. Genome-wide association scan shows genetic variants in the FTO gene are associated with obesity-related traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Scuteri

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The obesity epidemic is responsible for a substantial economic burden in developed countries and is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The disease is the result not only of several environmental risk factors, but also of genetic predisposition. To take advantage of recent advances in gene-mapping technology, we executed a genome-wide association scan to identify genetic variants associated with obesity-related quantitative traits in the genetically isolated population of Sardinia. Initial analysis suggested that several SNPs in the FTO and PFKP genes were associated with increased BMI, hip circumference, and weight. Within the FTO gene, rs9930506 showed the strongest association with BMI (p = 8.6 x10(-7, hip circumference (p = 3.4 x 10(-8, and weight (p = 9.1 x 10(-7. In Sardinia, homozygotes for the rare "G" allele of this SNP (minor allele frequency = 0.46 were 1.3 BMI units heavier than homozygotes for the common "A" allele. Within the PFKP gene, rs6602024 showed very strong association with BMI (p = 4.9 x 10(-6. Homozygotes for the rare "A" allele of this SNP (minor allele frequency = 0.12 were 1.8 BMI units heavier than homozygotes for the common "G" allele. To replicate our findings, we genotyped these two SNPs in the GenNet study. In European Americans (N = 1,496 and in Hispanic Americans (N = 839, we replicated significant association between rs9930506 in the FTO gene and BMI (p-value for meta-analysis of European American and Hispanic American follow-up samples, p = 0.001, weight (p = 0.001, and hip circumference (p = 0.0005. We did not replicate association between rs6602024 and obesity-related traits in the GenNet sample, although we found that in European Americans, Hispanic Americans, and African Americans, homozygotes for the rare "A" allele were, on average, 1.0-3.0 BMI units heavier than homozygotes for the more common "G" allele. In summary, we have completed a whole genome-association scan for

  14. Genetic Determinants for Gestational Diabetes Mellitus and Related Metabolic Traits in Mexican Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta-Chagoya, Alicia; Vázquez-Cárdenas, Paola; Moreno-Macías, Hortensia; Tapia-Maruri, Leonardo; Rodríguez-Guillén, Rosario; López-Vite, Erika; García-Escalante, Guadalupe; Escobedo-Aguirre, Fernando; Parra-Covarrubias, Adalberto; Cordero-Brieño, Roberto; Manzo-Carrillo, Lizette; Zacarías-Castillo, Rogelio; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos; Tusié-Luna, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological and physiological similarities among Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) and Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) suggest that both diseases, share a common genetic background. T2D risk variants have been associated to GDM susceptibility. However, the genetic architecture of GDM is not yet completely understood. We analyzed 176 SNPs for 115 loci previously associated to T2D, GDM and body mass index (BMI), as well as a set of 118 Ancestry Informative Markers (AIMs), in 750 pregnant Mexican women. Association with GDM was found for two of the most frequently replicated T2D loci: a TCF7L2 haplotype (CTTC: rs7901695, rs4506565, rs7903146, rs12243326; P=2.16x10-06; OR=2.95) and a KCNQ1 haplotype (TTT: rs2237892, rs163184, rs2237897; P=1.98x10-05; OR=0.55). In addition, we found two loci associated to glycemic traits: CENTD2 (60’ OGTT glycemia: rs1552224, P=0.03727) and MTNR1B (HOMA B: rs1387153, P=0.05358). Remarkably, a major susceptibility SLC16A11 locus for T2D in Mexicans was not shown to play a role in GDM risk. The fact that two of the main T2D associated loci also contribute to the risk of developing GDM in Mexicans, confirm that both diseases share a common genetic background. However, lack of association with a Native American contribution T2D risk haplotype, SLC16A11, suggests that other genetic mechanisms may be in play for GDM. PMID:25973943

  15. Anatomical traits related to stress in high density populations of Typha angustifolia L. (Typhaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. F. Corrêa

    Full Text Available Abstract Some macrophytes species show a high growth potential, colonizing large areas on aquatic environments. Cattail (Typha angustifolia L. uncontrolled growth causes several problems to human activities and local biodiversity, but this also may lead to competition and further problems for this species itself. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate anatomical modifications on T. angustifolia plants from different population densities, once it can help to understand its biology. Roots and leaves were collected from natural populations growing under high and low densities. These plant materials were fixed and submitted to usual plant microtechnique procedures. Slides were observed and photographed under light microscopy and images were analyzed in the UTHSCSA-Imagetool software. The experimental design was completely randomized with two treatments and ten replicates, data were submitted to one-way ANOVA and Scott-Knott test at p<0.05. Leaves from low density populations showed higher stomatal density and index. These modifications on stomatal characteristics were more evident on the leaf abaxial surface. Plants from low density populations showed thicker mesophyll and higher proportion of aerenchymal area. Roots from low density populations showed a higher proportion of the vascular cylinder. Whereas, plants from higher density populations showed greater thickness of the endodermis, exodermis, phloem and root cortex. Higher density populations showed a higher proportion of aerenchymal gaps in the root cortex. Therefore, cattail plants from populations growing under high density population show anatomical traits typical of plants under stress, which promotes the development of less functional anatomical modifications to aquatic environments.

  16. Relations between Eastern four pillars theory and Western measures of personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Seung Ah; Yang, Chang Soon

    2015-05-01

    The present study investigated the validity of personality classification using four pillars theory, a tradition in China and northeastern Asia. Four pillars analyses were performed for 148 adults on the basis of their birth year, month, day, and hour. Participants completed two personality tests, the Korean version of Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised-Short Version (TCI) and the Korean Inventory of Interpersonal Problems; scores were correlated with four pillars classification elements. Mean difference tests (e.g., t-test, ANOVA) were compared with groups classified by four pillars index. There were no significant correlations between personality scale scores and total yin/yang number (i.e., the 8 heavenly or earthly stems), and no significant between-groups results for classifications by yin/yang day stem and the five elements. There were significant but weak (r=0.18-0.29) correlations between the five elements and personality scale scores. For the six gods and personality scales, there were significant but weak (r=0.18-0.25) correlations. Features predicted by four pillars theory were most consistent when participants were grouped according to the yin/yang of the day stem and dominance of yin/yang numbers in the eight heavenly or earthly stems. Although the major criteria of four pillars theory were not independently correlated with personality scale scores, correlations emerged when participants were grouped according to the composite yin/yang variable. Our results suggest the utility of four pillars theory (beyond fortune telling or astrology) for classifying personality traits and making behavioral predictions.

  17. Relations between Eastern Four Pillars Theory and Western Measures of Personality Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Seung Ah

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The present study investigated the validity of personality classification using four pillars theory, a tradition in China and northeastern Asia. Materials and Methods Four pillars analyses were performed for 148 adults on the basis of their birth year, month, day, and hour. Participants completed two personality tests, the Korean version of Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised-Short Version (TCI) and the Korean Inventory of Interpersonal Problems; scores were correlated with four pillars classification elements. Mean difference tests (e.g., t-test, ANOVA) were compared with groups classified by four pillars index. Results There were no significant correlations between personality scale scores and total yin/yang number (i.e., the 8 heavenly or earthly stems), and no significant between-groups results for classifications by yin/yang day stem and the five elements. There were significant but weak (r=0.18-0.29) correlations between the five elements and personality scale scores. For the six gods and personality scales, there were significant but weak (r=0.18-0.25) correlations. Features predicted by four pillars theory were most consistent when participants were grouped according to the yin/yang of the day stem and dominance of yin/yang numbers in the eight heavenly or earthly stems. Conclusion Although the major criteria of four pillars theory were not independently correlated with personality scale scores, correlations emerged when participants were grouped according to the composite yin/yang variable. Our results suggest the utility of four pillars theory (beyond fortune telling or astrology) for classifying personality traits and making behavioral predictions. PMID:25837175

  18. Genetic determinants for gestational diabetes mellitus and related metabolic traits in Mexican women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Huerta-Chagoya

    Full Text Available Epidemiological and physiological similarities among Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM and Type 2 Diabetes (T2D suggest that both diseases, share a common genetic background. T2D risk variants have been associated to GDM susceptibility. However, the genetic architecture of GDM is not yet completely understood. We analyzed 176 SNPs for 115 loci previously associated to T2D, GDM and body mass index (BMI, as well as a set of 118 Ancestry Informative Markers (AIMs, in 750 pregnant Mexican women. Association with GDM was found for two of the most frequently replicated T2D loci: a TCF7L2 haplotype (CTTC: rs7901695, rs4506565, rs7903146, rs12243326; P=2.16 x 10(-06; OR=2.95 and a KCNQ1 haplotype (TTT: rs2237892, rs163184, rs2237897; P=1.98 x 10(-05; OR=0.55. In addition, we found two loci associated to glycemic traits: CENTD2 (60' OGTT glycemia: rs1552224, P=0.03727 and MTNR1B (HOMA B: rs1387153, P=0.05358. Remarkably, a major susceptibility SLC16A11 locus for T2D in Mexicans was not shown to play a role in GDM risk. The fact that two of the main T2D associated loci also contribute to the risk of developing GDM in Mexicans, confirm that both diseases share a common genetic background. However, lack of association with a Native American contribution T2D risk haplotype, SLC16A11, suggests that other genetic mechanisms may be in play for GDM.

  19. Sequential path analysis for determining interrelationships between yield and related traits in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. under normal and abiotic stress conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayat Mahdi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work the relationships between yield and its related traits were investigated in tobacco genotypes under normal and abiotic stress conditions (Orobanche aegyptiaca weed at Urmia Tobacco Research Centre, Iran, during 2006-2009 cropping seasons. The experimental design was a randomized complete block design (RCBD with three replications in each condition every year. Analysis of variance revealed extent genetic variability among the genotypes for most of the traits studied. In comparison with normal condition, the mean value of studied traits decreased in stress condition. LAI and FD showed the maximum and minimum diminution in the mean values under stress condition compared to normal one so known as more sensitive and more tolerant traits, respectively. Based on CV values, the traits FD and DLYP showed the minimum and maximum variation among traits in both normal and stress conditions. Correlation analysis revealed significant and positive correlations between DLYP with all studied traits in both normal and stress conditions. Path analysis detected the traits including biomass, APDW and DWR as the first-order variables at normal condition and biomass, APDW, DWR and harvest index as the first-order variables under abiotic stress condition. Based on results, the traits such as biomass, APDW, DWR detected as more important factors in both conditions can be used in tobacco breeding programs for increasing yield. Abbreviation: aerial part fresh weight without leaves weight (APFW, aerial part dry weight without leaves weight (APDW, biomass (BIO, coefficient of variation (CV, dry weight of root (DWR, flowering date (FD, fresh weight of leaf (FWL, fresh weight of root (FWR, harvest index (HI, leaf area index (LAI, dry leaf yield per plant (DLYP, number of leaf (NL, plant height (PH, randomized complete block design (RCBD, standard deviation (Std.

  20. Gender-related traits in the dioecious shrub Empetrum rubrum in two plant communities in the Magellanic steppe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Barradas, Mari Cruz; Zunzunegui, María; Collantes, Marta; Álvarez-Cansino, Leonor; García Novo, Francisco

    2014-10-01

    Following the theory on costs of reproduction, sexually dimorphic plants may exhibit several trade-offs in energy and resources that can determine gender dimorphism in morphological or physiological traits, especially during the reproductive period. In this study we assess whether the sexes of the dioecious species Empetrum rubrum differ in morphological and ecophysiological traits related to water economy and photochemical efficiency and whether these differences change in nearby populations with contrasting plant communities. We conducted physiological, morphological, sex ratio, and cover measurements in E. rubrum plants in the Magellanic steppe, North-Eastern part of Tierra del Fuego (Argentina), from two types of heathlands with differing community composition. We found differences between sites in soil pH and wind speed at the canopy level. E. rubrum plants exhibited lower photosynthetic height and higher LAI (leaf area index), lower RWC (relative water content) and higher water-use efficiency (lower Δ13C) in the heathland with harsher environmental conditions. Gender dimorphism in the physiological response was patent for photochemical efficiency and water use (RWC and Δ13C discrimination), with males showing a more conservative strategy in relation to females. Accordingly, male-biased sex ratio in the stress-prone community suggested a better performance of male plants under stressful environmental conditions. The integrated analysis of all variables (photochemical efficiency, RWC, leaf dry matter content (LDMC), pigments, and Δ13C) indicated an interaction between gender and heathland community effects in the physiological response. We suggest that female plants may exhibit compensatory mechanisms to face their higher reproductive costs.

  1. Protective role of the apolipoprotein E2 allele in age-related disease traits and survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulminski, Alexander M; Raghavachari, Nalini; Arbeev, Konstantin G

    2016-01-01

    , which can link this allele with age-related phenotypes. We focused on age-related macular degeneration, bronchitis, asthma, pneumonia, stroke, creatinine, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, diseases of heart (HD), cancer, and survival. Our analysis......-related mechanism is also sensitive to gender. The LDL-C-related mechanism appears to be independent of these factors. Insights into mechanisms linking ε2 allele with age-related phenotypes given biodemographic structure of the population studied may benefit translation of genetic discoveries to health care...

  2. Crane cabins' interior space multivariate anthropometric modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essdai, Ahmed; Spasojević Brkić, Vesna K; Golubović, Tamara; Brkić, Aleksandar; Popović, Vladimir

    2018-01-01

    Previous research has shown that today's crane cabins fail to meet the needs of a large proportion of operators. Performance and financial losses and effects on safety should not be overlooked as well. The first aim of this survey is to model the crane cabin interior space using up-to-date crane operator anthropometric data and to compare the multivariate and univariate method anthropometric models. The second aim of the paper is to define the crane cabin interior space dimensions that enable anthropometric convenience. To facilitate the cabin design, the anthropometric dimensions of 64 crane operators in the first sample and 19 more in the second sample were collected in Serbia. The multivariate anthropometric models, spanning 95% of the population on the basis of a set of 8 anthropometric dimensions, have been developed. The percentile method was also used on the same set of data. The dimensions of the interior space, necessary for the accommodation of the crane operator, are 1174×1080×1865 mm. The percentiles results for the 5th and 95th model are within the obtained dimensions. The results of this study may prove useful to crane cabin designers in eliminating anthropometric inconsistencies and improving the health of operators, but can also aid in improving the safety, performance and financial results of the companies where crane cabins operate.

  3. Humor styles and personality: A meta-analysis of the relation between humor styles and the Big Five personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendiburo-Seguel, Andrés; Páez, Darío; Martínez-Sánchez, Francisco

    2015-06-01

    This research summarizes the knowledge generated in social psychology and positive psychology about the relationship between humor styles, personality and wellbeing. Specifically, a meta-analysis was performed with the results of 15 studies on humor styles measured by the Humor Styles Questionnaire (Martin, Puhlik-Doris, Larsen, Gray & Weir, 2003) in correlation with the personality traits measured by the Big Five Personality model (measured with different scales). Following the steps presented by Rosenthal (1991) for meta-analysis in the case of correlational research, we calculated the total mean r as an indicator of effect size. Results show that affiliative humor has a strong and homogeneous relation to neuroticism and extraversion. The homogeneity and heterogeneity found between variables and possible explanations are discussed in the conclusion. © 2015 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Anthropometric changes and fluid shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, W. E.; Hoffler, G. W.; Rummel, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    Several observations of body size, shape, posture, and configuration were made to document changes resulting from direct effects of weightlessness during the Skylab 4 mission. After the crewmen were placed in orbit, a number of anatomical and anthropometric changes occurred including a straightening of the thoracolumbar spine, a general decrease in truncal girth, and an increase in height. By the time of the earliest in-flight measurement on mission day 3, all crewmen had lost more than two liters of extravascular fluid from the calf and thigh. The puffy facies, the bird legs effect, the engorgement of upper body veins, and the reduced volume of lower body veins were all documented with photographs. Center-of-mass measurements confirmed a fluid shift cephalad. This shift remained throughout the mission until recovery, when a sharp reversal occurred; a major portion of the reversal was completed in a few hours. The anatomical changes are of considerable scientific interest and of import to the human factors design engineer, but the shifts of blood and extravascular fluid are of more consequence. It is hypothesized that the driving force for the fluid shift is the intrinsic and unopposed lower limb elasticity that forces venous blood and then other fluid cephalad.

  5. The effect of maternal anemia on anthropometric measurements of newborns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telatar, Berrin; Comert, Serdar; Vitrinel, Ayca; Akin, Yasemin; Erginoz, Ethem

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the relation between maternal prenatal hemoglobin concentration and neonatal anthropometric measurements. All pregnant women who gave birth at the Obstetrics Department of Dr. LK Kartal Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey, from January 1, 2005 to December 31, 2006, and their newborns were included in this prospective, cross-sectional study. The newborns weight, height, head, and chest circumference were recorded. Mothers with hemoglobin concentration less than 11g/dl were evaluated as anemic. The anemic mothers were then grouped into 3 categories according to the corresponding hemoglobin concentration: mild (10.9-9.0g/dl), moderate (8.9-7.0 g/dl), and severe anemic (less than 7 g/dl). The anthropometric measurements of newborns from non-anemic and anemic mother groups were compared. Of the 3688 pregnant women, 1588 (43%) were found to be anemic. Among the anemic mothers, 1245 had mild (78.5%), 311 had moderate (19.5%), and 32 (2%) had severe anemia. The anthropometric measurements (height, weight, head and chest circumference) of newborns of anemic and non-anemic mother groups showed a statistically significant difference (p=0.036, p=0.044, p=0.013, and p=0.0002). There was a statistically significant difference in height, weight, and chest circumference of newborns of severe anemic and mild anemic mothers (p=0.017, p=0.008 and p=0.02). The height (1.1 cm), weight (260 g), head (0.42 cm), and chest (1 cm) circumference of neonates in the severe anemic group is less than the mild anemic group. Anemia during pregnancy affect the anthropometric measurements of a newborn. Severe anemia had significant negative effect on neonatal anthropometric measurements. (author)

  6. Effect of genetic variants and traits related to glucose metabolism and their interaction with obesity on breast and colorectal cancer risk among postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Su Yon; Sobel, Eric M; Papp, Jeanette C; Zhang, Zuo-Feng

    2017-04-26

    Impaired glucose metabolism-related genetic variants and traits likely interact with obesity and related lifestyle factors, influencing postmenopausal breast and colorectal cancer (CRC), but their interconnected pathways are not fully understood. By stratifying via obesity and lifestyles, we partitioned the total effect of glucose metabolism genetic variants on cancer risk into two putative mechanisms: 1) indirect (risk-associated glucose metabolism genetic variants mediated by glucose metabolism traits) and 2) direct (risk-associated glucose metabolism genetic variants through pathways other than glucose metabolism traits) effects. Using 16 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with glucose metabolism and data from 5379 postmenopausal women in the Women's Health Initiative Harmonized and Imputed Genome-Wide Association Studies, we retrospectively assessed the indirect and direct effects of glucose metabolism-traits (fasting glucose, insulin, and homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance [HOMA-IR]) using two quantitative tests. Several SNPs were associated with breast cancer and CRC risk, and these SNP-cancer associations differed between non-obese and obese women. In both strata, the direct effect of cancer risk associated with the SNP accounted for the majority of the total effect for most SNPs, with roughly 10% of cancer risk due to the SNP that was from an indirect effect mediated by glucose metabolism traits. No apparent differences in the indirect (glucose metabolism-mediated) effects were seen between non-obese and obese women. It is notable that among obese women, 50% of cancer risk was mediated via glucose metabolism trait, owing to two SNPs: in breast cancer, in relation to GCKR through glucose, and in CRC, in relation to DGKB/TMEM195 through HOMA-IR. Our findings suggest that glucose metabolism genetic variants interact with obesity, resulting in altered cancer risk through pathways other than those mediated by glucose metabolism traits.

  7. Discovery and Fine-Mapping of Glycaemic and Obesity-Related Trait Loci Using High-Density Imputation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Momoko Horikoshi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Reference panels from the 1000 Genomes (1000G Project Consortium provide near complete coverage of common and low-frequency genetic variation with minor allele frequency ≥0.5% across European ancestry populations. Within the European Network for Genetic and Genomic Epidemiology (ENGAGE Consortium, we have undertaken the first large-scale meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWAS, supplemented by 1000G imputation, for four quantitative glycaemic and obesity-related traits, in up to 87,048 individuals of European ancestry. We identified two loci for body mass index (BMI at genome-wide significance, and two for fasting glucose (FG, none of which has been previously reported in larger meta-analysis efforts to combine GWAS of European ancestry. Through conditional analysis, we also detected multiple distinct signals of association mapping to established loci for waist-hip ratio adjusted for BMI (RSPO3 and FG (GCK and G6PC2. The index variant for one association signal at the G6PC2 locus is a low-frequency coding allele, H177Y, which has recently been demonstrated to have a functional role in glucose regulation. Fine-mapping analyses revealed that the non-coding variants most likely to drive association signals at established and novel loci were enriched for overlap with enhancer elements, which for FG mapped to promoter and transcription factor binding sites in pancreatic islets, in particular. Our study demonstrates that 1000G imputation and genetic fine-mapping of common and low-frequency variant association signals at GWAS loci, integrated with genomic annotation in relevant tissues, can provide insight into the functional and regulatory mechanisms through which their effects on glycaemic and obesity-related traits are mediated.

  8. Discovery and Fine-Mapping of Glycaemic and Obesity-Related Trait Loci Using High-Density Imputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horikoshi, Momoko; Mӓgi, Reedik; van de Bunt, Martijn; Surakka, Ida; Sarin, Antti-Pekka; Mahajan, Anubha; Marullo, Letizia; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Hӓgg, Sara; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Ladenvall, Claes; Ried, Janina S; Winkler, Thomas W; Willems, Sara M; Pervjakova, Natalia; Esko, Tõnu; Beekman, Marian; Nelson, Christopher P; Willenborg, Christina; Wiltshire, Steven; Ferreira, Teresa; Fernandez, Juan; Gaulton, Kyle J; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Hamsten, Anders; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Willemsen, Gonneke; Milaneschi, Yuri; Robertson, Neil R; Groves, Christopher J; Bennett, Amanda J; Lehtimӓki, Terho; Viikari, Jorma S; Rung, Johan; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Perola, Markus; Heid, Iris M; Herder, Christian; Grallert, Harald; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Roden, Michael; Hypponen, Elina; Isaacs, Aaron; van Leeuwen, Elisabeth M; Karssen, Lennart C; Mihailov, Evelin; Houwing-Duistermaat, Jeanine J; de Craen, Anton J M; Deelen, Joris; Havulinna, Aki S; Blades, Matthew; Hengstenberg, Christian; Erdmann, Jeanette; Schunkert, Heribert; Kaprio, Jaakko; Tobin, Martin D; Samani, Nilesh J; Lind, Lars; Salomaa, Veikko; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Slagboom, P Eline; Metspalu, Andres; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Eriksson, Johan G; Peters, Annette; Gieger, Christian; Jula, Antti; Groop, Leif; Raitakari, Olli T; Power, Chris; Penninx, Brenda W J H; de Geus, Eco; Smit, Johannes H; Boomsma, Dorret I; Pedersen, Nancy L; Ingelsson, Erik; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Stefansson, Kari; Ripatti, Samuli; Prokopenko, Inga; McCarthy, Mark I; Morris, Andrew P

    2015-07-01

    Reference panels from the 1000 Genomes (1000G) Project Consortium provide near complete coverage of common and low-frequency genetic variation with minor allele frequency ≥0.5% across European ancestry populations. Within the European Network for Genetic and Genomic Epidemiology (ENGAGE) Consortium, we have undertaken the first large-scale meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWAS), supplemented by 1000G imputation, for four quantitative glycaemic and obesity-related traits, in up to 87,048 individuals of European ancestry. We identified two loci for body mass index (BMI) at genome-wide significance, and two for fasting glucose (FG), none of which has been previously reported in larger meta-analysis efforts to combine GWAS of European ancestry. Through conditional analysis, we also detected multiple distinct signals of association mapping to established loci for waist-hip ratio adjusted for BMI (RSPO3) and FG (GCK and G6PC2). The index variant for one association signal at the G6PC2 locus is a low-frequency coding allele, H177Y, which has recently been demonstrated to have a functional role in glucose regulation. Fine-mapping analyses revealed that the non-coding variants most likely to drive association signals at established and novel loci were enriched for overlap with enhancer elements, which for FG mapped to promoter and transcription factor binding sites in pancreatic islets, in particular. Our study demonstrates that 1000G imputation and genetic fine-mapping of common and low-frequency variant association signals at GWAS loci, integrated with genomic annotation in relevant tissues, can provide insight into the functional and regulatory mechanisms through which their effects on glycaemic and obesity-related traits are mediated.

  9. Gene-Environment Interactions of Circadian-Related Genes for Cardiometabolic Traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dashti, Hassan S; Follis, Jack L; Smith, Caren E

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Common circadian-related gene variants associate with increased risk for metabolic alterations including type 2 diabetes. However, little is known about whether diet and sleep could modify associations between circadian-related variants (CLOCK-rs1801260, CRY2-rs11605924, MTNR1B-rs13871...

  10. Gene-environment interactions of circadian-related genes for cardiometabolic traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: Common circadian-related gene variants associate with increased risk for metabolic alterations including type 2 diabetes. However, little is known about whether diet and sleep could modify associations between circadian-related variants (CLOCK-rs1801260, CRY2-rs11605924, MTNR1B-rs1387153,...

  11. Gene Set Analyses of Genome-Wide Association Studies on 49 Quantitative Traits Measured in a Single Genetic Epidemiology Dataset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihye Kim

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Gene set analysis is a powerful tool for interpreting a genome-wide association study result and is gaining popularity these days. Comparison of the gene sets obtained for a variety of traits measured from a single genetic epidemiology dataset may give insights into the biological mechanisms underlying these traits. Based on the previously published single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP genotype data on 8,842 individuals enrolled in the Korea Association Resource project, we performed a series of systematic genome-wide association analyses for 49 quantitative traits of basic epidemiological, anthropometric, or blood chemistry parameters. Each analysis result was subjected to subsequent gene set analyses based on Gene Ontology (GO terms using gene set analysis software, GSA-SNP, identifying a set of GO terms significantly associated to each trait (pcorr < 0.05. Pairwise comparison of the traits in terms of the semantic similarity in their GO sets revealed surprising cases where phenotypically uncorrelated traits showed high similarity in terms of biological pathways. For example, the pH level was related to 7 other traits that showed low phenotypic correlations with it. A literature survey implies that these traits may be regulated partly by common pathways that involve neuronal or nerve systems.

  12. The influence of anthropometric, kinematic and energetic variables and gender on swimming performance in youth athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, Jorge E; Garrido, Nuno D; Marques, Mário C; Silva, António J; Marinho, Daniel A; Barbosa, Tiago M

    2013-12-18

    (i) gender; (ii) performance and; (iii) gender versus performance interactions in young swimmers' anthropometric, kinematic and energetic variables. One hundred and thirty six young swimmers (62 boys: 12.76 ± 0.72 years old at Tanner stages 1-2 by self-evaluation; and 64 girls: 11.89 ± 0.93 years old at Tanner stages 1-2 by self-evaluation) were evaluated. Performance, anthropometrics, kinematics and energetic variables were selected. There was a non-significant gender effect on performance, body mass, height, arm span, trunk transverse surface area, stroke length, speed fluctuation, swimming velocity, propulsive efficiency, stroke index and critical velocity. A significant gender effect was found for foot surface area, hand surface area and stroke frequency. A significant sports level effect was verified for all variables, except for stroke frequency, speed fluctuation and propulsive efficiency. Overall, swimmers in quartile 1 (the ones with highest sports level) had higher anthropometric dimensions, better stroke mechanics and energetics. These traits decrease consistently throughout following quartiles up to the fourth one (i.e. swimmers with the lowest sports level). There was a non-significant interaction between gender and sports level for all variables. Our main conclusions were as follows: (i) there are non-significant differences in performance, anthropometrics, kinematics and energetics between boys and girls; (ii) swimmers with best performance are taller, have higher surface areas and better stroke mechanics; (iii) there are non-significant interactions between sports level and gender for anthropometrics, kinematics and energetics.

  13. Use of GLM approach to assess the responses of tropical trees to urban air pollution in relation to leaf functional traits and tree characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Arideep; Agrawal, Madhoolika

    2018-05-15

    Responses of urban vegetation to air pollution stress in relation to their tolerance and sensitivity have been extensively studied, however, studies related to air pollution responses based on different leaf functional traits and tree characteristics are limited. In this paper, we have tried to assess combined and individual effects of major air pollutants PM 10 (particulate matter ≤ 10 µm), TSP (total suspended particulate matter), SO 2 (sulphur dioxide), NO 2 (nitrogen dioxide) and O 3 (ozone) on thirteen tropical tree species in relation to fifteen leaf functional traits and different tree characteristics. Stepwise linear regression a general linear modelling approach was used to quantify the pollution response of trees against air pollutants. The study was performed for six successive seasons for two years in three distinct urban areas (traffic, industrial and residential) of Varanasi city in India. At all the study sites, concentrations of air pollutants, specifically PM (particulate matter) and NO 2 were above the specified standards. Distinct variations were recorded in all the fifteen leaf functional traits with pollution load. Caesalpinia sappan was identified as most tolerant species followed by Psidium guajava, Dalbergia sissoo and Albizia lebbeck. Stepwise regression analysis identified maximum response of Eucalyptus citriodora and P. guajava to air pollutants explaining overall 59% and 58% variability's in leaf functional traits, respectively. Among leaf functional traits, maximum effect of air pollutants was observed on non-enzymatic antioxidants followed by photosynthetic pigments and leaf water status. Among the pollutants, PM was identified as the major stress factor followed by O 3 explaining 47% and 33% variability's in leaf functional traits. Tolerance and pollution response were regulated by different tree characteristics such as height, canopy size, leaf from, texture and nature of tree. Outcomes of this study will help in urban forest

  14. Relationship between Anthropometric Indices and Dyslipidemia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relationship between Anthropometric Indices and Dyslipidemia among Sudanese ... correlation was detected between waist circumference and total cholesterol. ... lipoprotein, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein, and TC: HDL, while no ...

  15. comparative analysis of anthropometric dimensions of male

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    workplaces keeping in view of the anthropometric data ... ergonomics is the science of fitting work to the users; instead of forcing the ..... The weighing balance was used for body ..... Research Institute of Human Engineering for Quality Life. 1994.

  16. Relationship between Zinc Levels and Anthropometric Indices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-01-24

    Jan 24, 2018 ... Keywords: Anthropometric indices, female children, serum zinc, sickle cell anemia. Relationship ... with SCA have reduced weight, height, and BMI when compared with their .... to low self‑esteem and depression. There is ...

  17. Quantitative Autism Traits in First Degree Relatives: Evidence for the Broader Autism Phenotype in Fathers, but Not in Mothers and Siblings

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Marche, Wouter; Noens, Ilse; Luts, Jan; Scholte, Evert; Van Huffel, Sabine; Steyaert, Jean

    2012-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms are present in unaffected relatives and individuals from the general population. Results are inconclusive, however, on whether unaffected relatives have higher levels of quantitative autism traits (QAT) or not. This might be due to differences in research populations, because behavioral data and molecular…

  18. LINE1 CpG-DNA Hypomethylation in Granulosa Cells and Blood Leukocytes Is Associated With PCOS and Related Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagvekar, Pooja; Mangoli, Vijay; Desai, Sadhana; Patil, Anushree; Mukherjee, Srabani

    2017-04-01

    Altered global DNA methylation is indicative of epigenomic instability concerning chronic diseases. Investigating its incidence and association with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is essential to understand the etiopathogenesis of this disorder. We assessed global DNA methylation differences in peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) and cumulus granulosa cells (CGCs) of controls and women with PCOS; and their association with PCOS and its traits. This study included a total of 102 controls and women with PCOS. Forty-one women undergoing controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) and 61 women not undergoing COH were recruited from in vitro fertilization (IVF) and infertility clinics. DNA methylation was measured by ELISA for 5'-methyl-cytosine content and bisulfite sequencing of 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) of long interspersed nucleotide element-1 (LINE1/L1). Total 5'-methyl-cytosine and L1 methylation levels in PBLs and CGCs were similar between controls and women with PCOS. Methylation assessed at CpG sites of L1 5'-UTR revealed a single CpG-site (CpG-4) to be consistently hypomethylated in PBLs of both PCOS groups and CGCs of stimulated PCOS group. In unstimulated women, hypomethylation at CpG-4 was strongly associated with PCOS susceptibility, whereas in stimulated group it showed strong associations with PCOS and its hormonal traits. Furthermore, CGCs demonstrated consistent global and CpG-DNA hypomethylation relative to PBLs, irrespective of normal or disease states. Our study revealed strong association of single hypomethylated CpG-site with PCOS. Identification and characterization of more such methyl-CpG signatures in repetitive elements in larger study populations would provide valuable epigenetic insights into PCOS. Copyright © 2017 by the Endocrine Society

  19. Estimating rice yield related traits and quantitative trait loci analysis under different nitrogen treatments using a simple tower-based field phenotyping system with modified single-lens reflex cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Hiroki; Ogawa, Satoshi; Valencia, Milton Orlando; Mohri, Hiroki; Urano, Yutaka; Hosoi, Fumiki; Shimizu, Yo; Chavez, Alba Lucia; Ishitani, Manabu; Selvaraj, Michael Gomez; Omasa, Kenji

    2017-03-01

    Application of field based high-throughput phenotyping (FB-HTP) methods for monitoring plant performance in real field conditions has a high potential to accelerate the breeding process. In this paper, we discuss the use of a simple tower based remote sensing platform using modified single-lens reflex cameras for phenotyping yield traits in rice under different nitrogen (N) treatments over three years. This tower based phenotyping platform has the advantages of simplicity, ease and stability in terms of introduction, maintenance and continual operation under field conditions. Out of six phenological stages of rice analyzed, the flowering stage was the most useful in the estimation of yield performance under field conditions. We found a high correlation between several vegetation indices (simple ratio (SR), normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), transformed vegetation index (TVI), corrected transformed vegetation index (CTVI), soil-adjusted vegetation index (SAVI) and modified soil-adjusted vegetation index (MSAVI)) and multiple yield traits (panicle number, grain weight and shoot biomass) across a three trials. Among all of the indices studied, SR exhibited the best performance in regards to the estimation of grain weight (R2 = 0.80). Under our tower-based field phenotyping system (TBFPS), we identified quantitative trait loci (QTL) for yield related traits using a mapping population of chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSLs) and a single nucleotide polymorphism data set. Our findings suggest the TBFPS can be useful for the estimation of yield performance during early crop development. This can be a major opportunity for rice breeders whom desire high throughput phenotypic selection for yield performance traits.

  20. Trait Emotional Intelligence of Greek Special Education Teachers in Relation to Burnout and Job Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platsidou, Maria

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates perceived emotional intelligence (EI) in relation to burnout syndrome and job satisfaction in primary special education teachers from Greece. EI was measured by the EIS developed by Schutte et al. (1998). Factor analysis revealed that four factors can be identified in the EIS. Results showed that Greek teachers reported…

  1. Tales of two self-control scales: Relations with Five-Factor and HEXACO traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, R.E.; van Gelder, J.L.

    2013-01-01

    This study compared the Five-Factor and HEXACO personality correlates of two common self-control constructs - Tangney self-control and Grasmick self-control - and their relations with delinquency. In both a student and a community sample, conscientiousness (mainly the prudence facet) was the most

  2. Phenotypic selection on leaf WUE and related ecophysiological traits for natural populations of desert sunflowers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donovan, L.A.; Rosenthal, D.R.; Dudley, S.A.; Ludwig, F.

    2007-01-01

    Plant water-use efficiency (WUE) is expected to affect plant fitness and thus be under natural selection in arid habitats. Although many natural population studies have assessed plant WUE, only a few related WUE to fitness. The further determination of whether selection on WUE is direct or indirect

  3. The relation of ego integrity and despair to personality traits and mental health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, Gerben J.; Bohlmeijer, Ernst T.; McAdams, Dan P.

    Objectives: Existing studies in the Eriksonian tradition found that ego integrity and despair are important indicators of life-span development. The present study relates ego integrity and despair to contemporary theories of personality and mental health. Method: A cross-sectional study of Dutch

  4. PERCEPTION OF SUPERVISOR SUPPORT, PERSONALITY TRAITS OF EMPLOYEES AND THEIR SATISFACTION WITH WORK-RELATED FACETS

    OpenAIRE

    Olga Hadzic; Nebojsa Majstorovic; Milena Nedeljkovic

    2009-01-01

    The planned downsizing in many organizations which are under the state ownership in Serbia produce a high level of uncertainty and a very specific organi-zational environment. Investigation of the satisfaction with work-related facets of the employees at the beginning of organizational changes is a very important step toward the building of an appropriate strategy for human resource management. We investigate the moderating effect of the variable “supervisor support“ on the correla-tions betw...

  5. Human factors for the Moon: the gap in anthropometric data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lia Schlacht, Irene; Foing, Bernard H.; Rittweger, Joern; Masali, Melchiorre; Stevenin, Hervé

    2016-07-01

    Since the space era began, we learned first to survive and then to live in space. In the state of the art, we know how important human factors research and development is to guarantee maximum safety and performance for human missions. With the extension of the duration of space missions, we also need to learn how habitability and comfort factors are closely related to safety and performance. Humanities disciplines such as design, architecture, anthropometry, and anthropology are now involved in mission design from the start. Actual plans for building a simulated Moon village in order to simulate and test Moon missions are now being carried out using a holistic approach, involving multidisciplinary experts cooperating concurrently with regard to the interactions among humans, technology, and the environment. However, in order to implement such plans, we need basic anthropometrical data, which is still missing. In other words: to optimize performance, we need to create doors and ceilings with dimensions that support a natural human movement in the reduced gravity environment of the Moon, but we are lacking detailed anthropometrical data on human movement on the Moon. In the Apollo missions more than 50 years ago, no anthropometrical studies were carried in hypogravity out as far as we know. The necessity to collect data is very consistent with state-of-the-art research. We still have little knowledge of how people will interact with the Moon environment. Specifically, it is not known exactly which posture, which kind of walking and running motions astronauts will use both inside and outside a Moon station. Considering recent plans for a Moon mission where humans will spend extensive time in reduced gravity conditions, the need for anthropometric, biomechanics and kinematics field data is a priority in order to be able to design the right architecture, infrastructure, and interfaces. Objective of this paper: Bring knowledge on the relevance of anthropometrical and

  6. Quantitative Trait Loci in Inbred Lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, R.C.

    2001-01-01

    Quantitative traits result from the influence of multiple genes (quantitative trait loci) and environmental factors. Detecting and mapping the individual genes underlying such 'complex' traits is a difficult task. Fortunately, populations obtained from crosses between inbred lines are relatively

  7. Job burnout and its relation with personality traits among the midwives working in Isfahan, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esfahani, Mitra Savabi; Mirzaee, Mahnaz; Boroumandfar, Khadijeh; Abedi, Mohammad Reza

    2012-03-01

    Health-related professionals are at high risk of job burnout which will in turn lead to effects on health services provision. The present study was conducted to define job burnout and its association with personal characteristics among the midwives working in Isfahan, Iran. This descriptive correlational study was performed on 193 midwives working in health centers and hospitals in Isfahan. The participants were selected through cluster random sampling. The data was collected by a researcher-made personal characteristics questionnaire as well as Maslach Burnout Inventory. The data was analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistical tests in SPSS. In the present study, the highest frequencies of job burnout dimensions were for the low levels of emotional exhaustion (58%) and depersonalization (65.8%), and high levels of personal performance (58%). There was a significant inverse association between age and depersonalization (p = 0.02). However, no significant relations were found between job burnout dimensions and variables of marital status, number of children, level of education, and residential status. Although the results of this research showed a low prevalence of job burnout among midwives, the stressful nature of midwifery as a profession necessitates educational intervent.

  8. Freshwater Biological Traits Database (Traits)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The traits database was compiled for a project on climate change effects on river and stream ecosystems. The traits data, gathered from multiple sources, focused on information published or otherwise well-documented by trustworthy sources.

  9. Do personality traits related to affect regulation predict other tobacco product use among young adult non-daily smokers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brikmanis, Kristin; Petersen, Angela; Doran, Neal

    2017-12-01

    Understanding factors that influence non-cigarette tobacco use is important given these products' prevalence and health risks. The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that personality traits related to affect regulation would be associated with greater frequency of other tobacco product (OTP) use in a sample of young adult non-daily smokers. Participants (n=518, 51% male) aged 18-24 were non-daily cigarette smokers recruited from the community for a longitudinal study of tobacco use. Personality characteristics (impulsivity, anhedonia, and negative affectivity) were measured at baseline, and participants reported recent tobacco use at baseline and 3, 6, and 9months later. Assessments were conducted online or via mobile phone. Across the 4 assessments, 33-52% of participants reported recent OTP use, with frequency of use decreasing over time. Longitudinal negative binomial regression models indicated that greater sensation seeking and lack of premeditation were associated with more frequent OTP use (psnon-daily cigarette smokers with greater propensity for immediately rewarding behaviors may use OTPs more frequently. Young, non-daily cigarette smokers with high levels of sensation seeking and/or lack of premeditation may be at increased risk for harms related to OTP use and may benefit from prevention and cessation strategies that specifically address affect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Stress Tolerance-Related Genetic Traits of Fish Pathogen Flavobacterium psychrophilum in a Mature Biofilm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor A. Levipan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Flavobacterium psychrophilum is the causative agent of bacterial cold-water disease and rainbow trout fry syndrome, and hence this bacterium is placed among the most important salmonid pathogens in the freshwater aquaculture industry. Since bacteria in biofilms differ substantially from free-living counterparts, this study sought to find the main differences in gene expression between sessile and planktonic states of F. psychrophilum LM-02-Fp and NCMB1947T, with focus on stress-related changes in gene expression occurring during biofilm formation. To this end, biofilm and planktonic samples were analyzed by RNA sequencing to detect differentially expressed candidate genes (DECGs between the two growth states, and decreasing the effects of interstrain variation by considering only genes with log2-fold changes ≤ −2 and ≥ 2 at Padj-values ≤ 0.001 as DECGs. Overall, 349 genes accounting for ~15% of total number of genes expressed in transcriptomes of F. psychrophilum LM-02-Fp and NCMB1947T (n = 2327 were DECGs between biofilm and planktonic states. Approximately 83 and 81% of all up- and down-regulated candidate genes in mature biofilms, respectively, were assigned to at least one gene ontology term; these were primarily associated with the molecular function term “catalytic activity.” We detected a potential stress response in mature biofilms, characterized by a generalized down-regulation of DECGs with roles in the protein synthesis machinery (n = 63, primarily ribosomal proteins and energy conservation (seven ATP synthase subunit genes, as well as an up-regulation of DECGs involved in DNA repair (ruvC, recO, phrB1, smf, and dnaQ and oxidative stress response (cytochrome C peroxidase, probable peroxiredoxin, and a probable thioredoxin. These results support the idea of a strategic trade-off between growth-related processes and cell homeostasis to preserve biofilm structure and metabolic functioning. In addition, LDH-based cytotoxicity

  11. Obsessive-compulsive personality traits: how are they related to OCD severity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetterneck, Chad T; Little, Tannah E; Chasson, Gregory S; Smith, Angela H; Hart, John M; Stanley, Melinda A; Björgvinsson, Thröstur

    2011-12-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that comorbid obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is associated with greater overall OCD severity, functional impairment, and poorer treatment outcomes (Coles et al., 2008; Lochner et al., 2010; Pinto, 2009). However, research has only examined the effects of OCPD categorically and has yet to thoroughly examine the impact of individual OCPD characteristics dimensionally. Thus, the present study sought to investigate the relationships between various OCPD-related dimensions (e.g., perfectionism, rigidity) and OCD symptomology and severity. The study recruited a sample of OCD patients (n=51) in the OCD units of two residential treatment facilities. Findings yielded significant relationships between OCD severity and the following OCPD dimensions: flexibility, doubts about actions (a dimension of perfectionism), and hoarding. Interpretations of these results and the implications for diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment outcome are discussed. Furthermore, the current study provides insight into a unique perspective which leaves room for more symptom overlap and variability between OCD and OCPD. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Avian phenotypic traits related to feeding preferences in two Culex mosquitoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jiayue; Gangoso, Laura; Martínez-de la Puente, Josué; Soriguer, Ramón; Figuerola, Jordi

    2017-10-01

    Host choice by mosquitoes affects the transmission dynamics of vector-borne infectious diseases. Although asymmetries in mosquito attraction to vertebrate species have been reported, the relative importance of host characteristics in mosquito blood-feeding behavior is still poorly studied. Here, we investigate the relationship between avian phenotypic traits—in particular, morphometry, plumage coloration, and nesting and roosting behavior—and the blood-feeding patterns in two common Culex mosquito species on a North American avian community. Forage ratios of the mosquito species were unrelated to the phylogenetic relationships among bird species. Culex pipiens fed preferably on birds with lighter-colored plumage and longer tarsi; furthermore, solitary roosting avian species were both bitten by Cx. pipiens and Cx. restuans more often than expected. These associations may be explained by greater mosquito attraction towards larger birds with a greater color contrast against the background. Although communally roosting birds may release more cues and attract more mosquitoes, individuals may in fact receive fewer bites due to the encounter-dilution effect. Mosquito feeding behavior is a highly complex phenomenon, and our results may improve understanding of the non-random interaction between birds and mosquitoes in natural communities.

  13. Diverse protist grazers select for virulence-related traits in Legionella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaro, Francisco; Wang, Wen; Gilbert, Jack A; Roger Anderson, O; Shuman, Howard A

    2015-01-01

    It is generally accepted that selection for resistance to grazing by protists has contributed to the evolution of Legionella pneumophila as a pathogen. Grazing resistance is becoming more generally recognized as having an important role in the ecology and evolution of bacterial pathogenesis. However, selection for grazing resistance presupposes the existence of protist grazers that provide the selective pressure. To determine whether there are protists that graze on pathogenic Legionella species, we investigated the existence of such organisms in a variety of environmental samples. We isolated and characterized diverse protists that graze on L. pneumophila and determined the effects of adding L. pneumophila on the protist community structures in microcosms made from these environmental samples. Several unrelated organisms were able to graze efficiently on L. pneumophila. The community structures of all samples were markedly altered by the addition of L. pneumophila. Surprisingly, some of the Legionella grazers were closely related to species that are known hosts for L. pneumophila, indicating the presence of unknown specificity determinants for this interaction. These results provide the first direct support for the hypothesis that protist grazers exert selective pressure on Legionella to acquire and retain adaptations that contribute to survival, and that these properties are relevant to the ability of the bacteria to cause disease in people. We also report a novel mechanism of killing of amoebae by one Legionella species that requires an intact Type IV secretion system but does not involve intracellular replication. We refer to this phenomenon as ‘food poisoning'. PMID:25575308

  14. Association analysis of 31 common polymorphisms with type 2 diabetes and its related traits in Indian sib pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, V; Vinay, D G; Rafiq, S; Kranthikumar, M V; Janipalli, C S; Giambartolomei, C; Evans, D M; Mani, K R; Sandeep, M N; Taylor, A E; Kinra, S; Sullivan, R M; Bowen, L; Timpson, N J; Smith, G D; Dudbridge, F; Prabhakaran, D; Ben-Shlomo, Y; Reddy, K S; Ebrahim, S; Chandak, G R

    2012-02-01

    Evaluation of the association of 31 common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with fasting glucose, fasting insulin, HOMA-beta cell function (HOMA-β), HOMA-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and type 2 diabetes in the Indian population. We genotyped 3,089 sib pairs recruited in the Indian Migration Study from four cities in India (Lucknow, Nagpur, Hyderabad and Bangalore) for 31 SNPs in 24 genes previously associated with type 2 diabetes in European populations. We conducted within-sib-pair analysis for type 2 diabetes and its related quantitative traits. The risk-allele frequencies of all the SNPs were comparable with those reported in western populations. We demonstrated significant associations of CXCR4 (rs932206), CDKAL1 (rs7756992) and TCF7L2 (rs7903146, rs12255372) with fasting glucose, with β values of 0.007 (p = 0.05), 0.01 (p = 0.01), 0.007 (p = 0.05), 0.01 (p = 0.003) and 0.08 (p = 0.01), respectively. Variants in NOTCH2 (rs10923931), TCF-2 (also known as HNF1B) (rs757210), ADAM30 (rs2641348) and CDKN2A/B (rs10811661) significantly predicted fasting insulin, with β values of -0.06 (p = 0.04), 0.05 (p = 0.05), -0.08 (p = 0.01) and -0.08 (p = 0.02), respectively. For HOMA-IR, we detected associations with TCF-2, ADAM30 and CDKN2A/B, with β values of 0.05 (p = 0.04), -0.07 (p = 0.03) and -0.08 (p = 0.02), respectively. We also found significant associations of ADAM30 (β = -0.05; p = 0.01) and CDKN2A/B (β = -0.05; p = 0.03) with HOMA-β. THADA variant (rs7578597) was associated with type 2 diabetes (OR 1.5; 95% CI 1.04, 2.22; p = 0.03). We validated the association of seven established loci with intermediate traits related to type 2 diabetes in an Indian population using a design resistant to population stratification.

  15. High Density Linkage Map Construction and QTL Detection for Three Silique-Related Traits in Orychophragmus violaceus Derived Brassica napus Population

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    Yi Yang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Seeds per silique (SS, seed weight (SW, and silique length (SL are important determinant traits of seed yield potential in rapeseed (Brassica napus L., and are controlled by naturally occurring quantitative trait loci (QTLs. Mapping QTLs to narrow chromosomal regions provides an effective means of characterizing the genetic basis of these complex traits. Orychophragmus violaceus is a crucifer with long siliques, many SS, and heavy seeds. A novel B. napus introgression line with many SS was previously selected from multiple crosses (B. rapa ssp. chinesis × O. violaceus × B. napus. In present study, a doubled haploid (DH population with 167 lines was established from a cross between the introgression line and a line with far fewer SS, in order to detect QTLs for silique-related traits. By screening with a Brassica 60K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP array, a high-density linkage map consisting of 1,153 bins and spanning a cumulative length of 2,209.1 cM was constructed, using 12,602 high-quality polymorphic SNPs in the DH population. The average recombination bin densities of the A and C subgenomes were 1.7 and 2.4 cM, respectively. 45 QTLs were identified for the three traits in all, which explained 4.0–34.4% of the total phenotypic variation; 20 of them were integrated into three unique QTLs by meta-analysis. These unique QTLs revealed a significant positive correlation between SS and SL and a significant negative correlation between SW and SS, and were mapped onto the linkage groups A05, C08, and C09. A trait-by-trait meta-analysis revealed eight, four, and seven consensus QTLs for SS, SW, and SL, respectively, and five major QTLs (cqSS.A09b, cqSS.C09, cqSW.A05, cqSW.C09, and cqSL.C09 were identified. Five, three, and four QTLs for SS, SW, and SL, respectively, might be novel QTLs because of the existence of alien genetic loci for these traits in the alien introgression. Thirty-eight candidate genes underlying nine QTLs for silique-related

  16. Variable feeding behavior in Orchestoidea tuberculata (Nicolet 1849): Exploring the relative importance of macroalgal traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Cristian; Acuña, Karin; Navarro, Jorge M.; Gómez, Iván; Jaramillo, Eduardo; Quijón, Pedro

    2014-03-01

    The feeding behavior of algal consumers inhabiting sandy beaches and the consequences of this behavior on their performance are poorly understood. Food quality has been shown to influence the food preference of algal consumers. However, food preference can often be altered or subordinated to habitat choice. This study analyzes the feeding behavior (preference and consumption rate), absorption efficiency and growth rates of the talitrid amphipod Orchestoidea tuberculata (Nicolet, 1849) in relation to the nutritional characteristics of two of the most common macroalgae stranded in the Chilean north-central region. Our experiments show that these amphipods prefer Macrocystis integrifolia over Lessonia nigrescens when presented with fresh fragments of both algae simultaneously. However, this preference did not match the performance of the amphipods when reared on diets of a single algal species: in that growth rates were not different. These results suggest that M. integrifolia is not a superior food item compared to L. nigrescens. The lower content of proteins and total organic matter found in M. integrifolia supports this interpretation. The preference of the amphipods for L. nigrescens over M. integrifolia when dry powdered algae of each species were provided (artificial food), suggested that some aspect of the physical structure of these two algae determined food preference. When the amphipods were maintained with each of the algal species in no choice experiments, they consumed 2 times more M. integrifolia, but showed higher absorption efficiency on L. nigrescens. These results suggest that food quantity and not absorption efficiency was used to compensate for the lower nutritional quality of M. integrifolia. The feeding behavior documented in this study differs significantly from that observed in populations of the same species inhabiting southern Chile, cautioning against generalizing results obtained even within a single species. Our results suggest that

  17. Comparing Relationships among Yield and Its Related Traits in Mycorrhizal and Nonmycorrhizal Inoculated Wheat Cultivars under Different Water Regimes Using Multivariate Statistics

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    Armin Saed-Moucheshi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Multivariate statistical techniques were used to compare the relationship between yield and its related traits under noninoculated and inoculated cultivars with mycorrhizal fungus (Glomus intraradices; each one consisted of three wheat cultivars and four water regimes. Results showed that, under inoculation conditions, spike weight per plant and total chlorophyll content of the flag leaf were the most important variables contributing to wheat grain yield variation, while, under noninoculated condition, in addition to two mentioned traits, grain weight per spike and leaf area were also important variables accounting for wheat grain yield variation. Therefore, spike weight per plant and chlorophyll content of flag leaf can be used as selection criteria in breeding programs for both inoculated and noninoculated wheat cultivars under different water regimes, and also grain weight per spike and leaf area can be considered for noninoculated condition. Furthermore, inoculation of wheat cultivars showed higher value in the most measured traits, and the results indicated that inoculation treatment could change the relationship among morphological traits of wheat cultivars under drought stress. Also, it seems that the results of stepwise regression as a selecting method together with principal component and factor analysis are stronger methods to be applied in breeding programs for screening important traits.

  18. Heritability of blood pressure traits and the genetic contribution to blood pressure variance explained by four blood-pressure-related genes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijn, M.J. van; Schut, A.F.; Aulchenko, Y.S.; Deinum, J.; Sayed-Tabatabaei, F.A.; Yazdanpanah, M.; Isaacs, A.; Axenovich, T.I.; Zorkoltseva, I.V.; Zillikens, M.C.; Pols, H.A.; Witteman, J.C.; Oostra, B.A.; Duijn, C.M. van

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the heritability of four blood pressure traits and the proportion of variance explained by four blood-pressure-related genes. METHODS: All participants are members of an extended pedigree from a Dutch genetically isolated population. Heritability and genetic correlations of

  19. The relationship between traits optimism and anxiety and health-related quality of life in patients hospitalized for chronic diseases: data from the SATISQOL study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The impact of psychological factors is often taken into account in the evaluation of quality of life. However, the effect of optimism and trait anxiety remains controversial and they are rarely studied simultaneously. We aimed to study the effect of this factor on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of patients after a hospitalization in relation with their chronic disease. Methods Using cross-sectional data from the SATISQOL cohort, we conducted a multicentric study, including patients hospitalized for an intervention in connection with their chronic disease. Six months after hospitalization, patients completed a generic HRQOL questionnaire (SF-36), and the STAI and LOT-R questionnaires to evaluate optimism and trait anxiety. We studied the effect of each trait on HRQOL separately, and simultaneously, taking account of their interaction in 3 models, using an ANOVA. Results In this study, 1529 patients were included in three participating hospitals and there existed wide diversity in the chronic diseases in our population. The HRQOL score increased for all dimensions of SF36 between 15,8 and 44,5 when the level of anxiety decreased (p optimism (optimism on HRQOL. In the model 3, assessing the effect of both anxiety and optimism on HRQOL, and their interaction, the HRQOL score for all dimensions of the SF36 increased when the level of anxiety decreased (p optimism (p optimism was significant for the Social Functioning dimension (p = 0.0021). Conclusions Optimism and trait anxiety appeared to be significantly correlated with HRQOL. Furthermore, an interaction existed between the trait anxiety and optimism for some dimensions of SF36. Contrary to optimism, it seems essential to evaluate trait anxiety in future studies about HRQOL, since it could represent a confounding factor. PMID:23914779

  20. Genetic variants and traits related to insulin-like growth factor-I and insulin resistance and their interaction with lifestyles on postmenopausal colorectal cancer risk.

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    Su Yon Jung

    Full Text Available Genetic variants and traits in metabolic signaling pathways may interact with lifestyle factors such as obesity, physical activity, and exogenous estrogen (E, influencing postmenopausal colorectal cancer (CRC risk, but these interrelated pathways are not fully understood. In this case-cohort study, we examined 33 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in genes related to insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I/ insulin resistance (IR traits and signaling pathways, using data from 704 postmenopausal women in Women's Health Initiative Observation ancillary studies. Stratifying by the lifestyle modifiers, we assessed the effects of IGF-I/IR traits (fasting total and free IGF-I, IGF binding protein-3, insulin, glucose, and homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance on CRC risk as a mediator or influencing factor. Six SNPs in the INS, IGF-I, and IGFBP3 genes were associated with CRC risk, and those associations differed between non-obese/active and obese/inactive women and between E nonusers and users. Roughly 30% of the cancer risk due to the SNP was mediated by IGF-I/IR traits. Likewise, carriers of 11 SNPs in the IRS1 and AKT1/2 genes (signaling pathway-related genetic variants had different associations with CRC risk between strata, and the proportion of the SNP-cancer association explained by traits varied from 30% to 50%. Our findings suggest that IGF-I/IR genetic variants interact with obesity, physical activity, and exogenous E, altering postmenopausal CRC risk, through IGF-I/IR traits, but also through different pathways. Unraveling gene-phenotype-lifestyle interactions will provide data on potential genetic targets in clinical trials for cancer prevention and intervention strategies to reduce CRC risk.

  1. The expression of light-related leaf functional traits depends on the location of individual leaves within the crown of isolated Olea europaea trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escribano-Rocafort, Adrián G; Ventre-Lespiaucq, Agustina B; Granado-Yela, Carlos; Rubio de Casas, Rafael; Delgado, Juan A; Balaguer, Luis

    2016-04-01

    The spatial arrangement and expression of foliar syndromes within tree crowns can reflect the coupling between crown form and function in a given environment. Isolated trees subjected to high irradiance and concomitant stress may adjust leaf phenotypes to cope with environmental gradients that are heterogeneous in space and time within the tree crown. The distinct expression of leaf phenotypes among crown positions could lead to complementary patterns in light interception at the crown scale. We quantified eight light-related leaf traits across 12 crown positions of ten isolated Olea europaea trees in the field. Specifically, we investigated whether the phenotypic expression of foliar traits differed among crown sectors and layers and five periods of the day from sunrise to sunset. We investigated the consequences in terms of the exposed area of the leaves at the tree scale during a single day. All traits differed among crown positions except the length-to-width ratio of the leaves. We found a strong complementarity in the patterns of the potential exposed area of the leaves among day periods as a result of a non-random distribution of leaf angles across the crown. Leaf exposure at the outer layer was below 60 % of the displayed surface, reaching maximum interception during morning periods. Daily interception increased towards the inner layer, achieving consecutive maximization from east to west positions within the crown, matching the sun's trajectory. The expression of leaf traits within isolated trees of O. europaea varies continuously through the crown in a gradient of leaf morphotypes and leaf angles depending on the exposure and location of individual leaves. The distribution of light-related traits within the crown and the complementarity in the potential exposure patterns of the leaves during the day challenges the assumption of low trait variability within individuals. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of

  2. Chaparral Shrub Hydraulic Traits, Size, and Life History Types Relate to Species Mortality during California's Historic Drought of 2014.

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    Martin D Venturas

    Full Text Available Chaparral is the most abundant vegetation type in California and current climate change models predict more frequent and severe droughts that could impact plant community structure. Understanding the factors related to species-specific drought mortality is essential to predict such changes. We predicted that life history type, hydraulic traits, and plant size would be related to the ability of species to survive drought. We evaluated the impact of these factors in a mature chaparral stand during the drought of 2014, which has been reported as the most severe in California in the last 1,200 years. We measured tissue water potential, native xylem specific conductivity, leaf specific conductivity, percentage loss in conductivity, and chlorophyll fluorescence for 11 species in February 2014, which was exceptionally dry following protracted drought. Mortality among the 11 dominant species ranged from 0 to 93%. Total stand density was reduced 63.4% and relative dominance of species shifted after the drought. Mortality was negatively correlated with water potential, native xylem specific conductivity, and chlorophyll fluorescence, but not with percent loss in hydraulic conductivity and leaf specific conductivity. The model that best explained mortality included species and plant size as main factors and indicated that larger plants had greater survival for 2 of the species. In general, species with greater resistance to water-stress induced cavitation showed greater mortality levels. Despite adult resprouters typically being more vulnerable to cavitation, results suggest that their more extensive root systems enable them to better access soil moisture and avoid harmful levels of dehydration. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that short-term high intensity droughts have the strongest effect on mature plants of shallow-rooted dehydration tolerant species, whereas deep-rooted dehydration avoiding species fare better in the short

  3. Exposure to a widespread non-pathogenic bacterium magnifies sublethal pesticide effects in the damselfly Enallagma cyathigerum: From the suborganismal level to fitness-related traits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janssens, Lizanne; Stoks, Robby

    2013-01-01

    While there is increasing concern that pesticide stress can interact with stress imposed by antagonistic species including pathogens, it is unknown whether this also holds for non-pathogenic bacteria. We exposed Enallagma cyathigerum damselfly larvae to the pesticide chlorpyrifos and a non-pathogenic Escherichia coli strain. Both exposure to chlorpyrifos and E. coli reduced growth rate and fat storage, probably due to the observed energetically costly increases in physiological defence (glutathione-S-transferase and Hsp70) and, for E. coli, immune defence (phenoloxidase). Moreover, these stressors interacted for both fitness-related traits. Most importantly, another fitness-related trait, bacterial load, increased drastically with chlorpyrifos concentration. A possible explanation is that the upregulation of phenoloxidase in the presence of E. coli changed into a downregulation when combined with chlorpyrifos. We argue that the observed interactive, partly synergistic effects between pesticides and widespread non-pathogenic bacteria may be common and deserves further attention to improve ecological risk assessment of pesticides. -- Highlights: ► Non-pathogens such as the bacterium E. coli are ignored in ecotoxicology. ► Both E. coli and chlorpyrifos impaired fitness-related traits in damselfly larvae. ► E. coli modulated and magnified effects of chlorpyrifos on physiology and fitness. ► Bacterial load was magnified >10× in the presence of chlorpyrifos. ► Risk assessment of pesticides should consider synergisms with non-pathogens. -- Non-pathogenic bacteria reduce fitness-related traits and can synergistically interact with sublethal pesticide effects for physiological and fitness-related traits

  4. Bone mineral density-associated polymorphisms are associated with obesity-related traits in Korean adults in a sex-dependent manner.

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    Seongwon Cha

    Full Text Available Obesity and osteoporosis share common physiological factors, including the presence of atherosclerosis, a risk factor for cardiometabolic disease, as well as a common progenitor that differentiates into both adipocytes and osteoblasts. Among the 23 polymorphisms associated with bone mineral density (BMD in recent genome-wide association studies (GWASs, an Osterix polymorphism has been identified and associated with childhood obesity in girls. Therefore, we focused on elucidating polymorphisms associated with adulthood obesity in a sex-dependent manner among the previously published BMD-associated polymorphisms from GWASs. We performed 2 screenings of 18 BMD-associated polymorphisms for obesity-related traits in 2,362 adults aged >20 years. We excluded 13 polymorphisms showing deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium or no association with obesity-related traits (body mass index, waist circumference (WC, and waist-to-hip ratio. Among 5 selected polymorphisms (rs9594738 of RANKL, rs17066364 of NUFIP1, rs7227401 of OSBPL1A, and rs1856057 and rs2982573 of ESR1 analyzed, 2 polymorphisms (rs9594738 and rs17066364 were associated with obesity-related traits. We found sex-dependent associations such that the 4 polymorphisms (excluding rs9594738 of RANKL were associated with abdominal traits such as WC and waist-to-hip ratio only in men. In addition, when the combined genetic risk score (GRS for WC increase was calculated with 4 SNPs (rs9594738, rs17066364, rs7227401, and rs1856057 exhibiting similar trends for both sexes, the magnitude of the GRS effect for the WC increase was larger in men than in women (effect size = 0.856 cm, P = 0.0000452 for men; effect size = 0.598 cm, P = 0.00228 for women. In summary, we found 4 polymorphisms, previously related to osteoporosis, to be associated to obesity-related traits in a sex-dependent manner in Korean adults, particularly in men.

  5. Stress-related eating, obesity and associated behavioural traits in adolescents: a prospective population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jääskeläinen, Anne; Nevanperä, Nina; Remes, Jouko; Rahkonen, Fanni; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Laitinen, Jaana

    2014-04-07

    Stress-related eating is associated with unhealthy eating and drinking habits and an increased risk of obesity among adults, but less is known about factors related to stress-driven eating behaviour among children and adolescents. We studied the prevalence of stress-related eating and its association with overweight, obesity, abdominal obesity, dietary and other health behaviours at the age of 16. Furthermore, we examined whether stress-related eating is predicted by early-life factors including birth size and maternal gestational health. The study population comprised 3598 girls and 3347 boys from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 (NFBC1986). Followed up since their antenatal period, adolescents underwent a clinical examination, and their stress-related eating behaviour, dietary habits and other health behaviours were assessed using a postal questionnaire. We examined associations using cross-tabulations followed by latent class analysis and logistic regression to profile the adolescents and explain the risk of obesity with behavioural traits. Stress-related eating behaviour was more common among girls (43%) than among boys (15%). Compared with non-stress-driven eaters, stress-driven eaters had a higher prevalence of overweight, obesity and abdominal obesity. We found no significant associations between stress-eating and early-life factors. Among girls, tobacco use, shorter sleep, infrequent family meals and frequent consumption of chocolate, sweets, light sodas and alcohol were more prevalent among stress-driven eaters. Among boys, the proportions of those with frequent consumption of sausages, chocolate, sweets, hamburgers and pizza were greater among stress-driven eaters. For both genders, the proportions of those bingeing and using heavy exercise and strict diet for weight control were higher among stress-eaters. Besides a 'healthy lifestyle' cluster, latent class analysis revealed two other patterns ('adverse habits', 'unbalanced weight control') that

  6. Molecular Mapping of QTLs for Yield and Yield-Related Traits in Oryza sativa cv Swarna × O. nivara (IRGC81848 Backcross Population

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    B.P. MALLIKARJUNA SWAMY

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Advanced backcross QTL analysis was used to identify QTLs for seven yield and yield-related traits in a BC2F2 population from the cross between a popular Oryza sativa cv Swarna and O. nivara IRGC81848. Transgressive segregants with more than 15% increased effect over Swarna were observed for all the traits except days to heading and days to 50% flowering. Thirty QTLs were detected for seven yield and yield-related traits using interval and composite interval mapping. Enhancing alleles at 13 (45% of these QTLs were derived from O. nivara, and enhancing alleles at all the QTLs for stem diameter and rachis diameter were derived from O. nivara. Three stem diameter QTLs, two rachis diameter QTLs and one number of secondary branches QTL identified by both Interval and composite interval mapping contributed more than 15% of the total phenotypic variance. The QTL epistasis was significant for stem diameter and plot yield. The most significant QTLs qSD7.2, qSD8.1 and qSD9.1 for stem diameter, qRD9.1 for rachis diameter and qNSB1.1 for number of secondary branches are good targets to evaluate their use in marker-assisted selection. O. nivara is a good source of novel alleles for yield related traits and reveals major effect QTLs suitable for marker-assisted selection.

  7. Geographic variation in floral traits and the capacity of autonomous selfing across allopatric and sympatric populations of two closely related Centaurium species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schouppe, Dorien; Brys, Rein; Vallejo-Marin, Mario; Jacquemyn, Hans

    2017-04-21

    Floral traits and the relative contribution of autonomous selfing to total seed set varies geographically and is often driven by the availability and abundance of suitable pollinators and/or the presence of co-flowering relatives. In the latter case, competition for pollinator services and costs of hybridization can select for floral traits that reduce interspecific gene flow and contribute to prezygotic isolation, potentially leading to geographic variation in floral divergence between allopatric and sympatric populations. In this study, we investigated variation in floral traits and its implications on the capacity of autonomous selfing in both allopatric and sympatric populations of two closely related Centaurium species(Gentianaceae) across two distinct geographic regions(UK and mainland Europe). Although the magnitude and direction of floral differentiation varied between regions, sympatric populations were always significantly more divergent in floral traits and the capacity to self autonomously than allopatric populations. These results indicate that mating systems can vary substantially within a species and that the joint occurrence of plant species can have a major impact on floral morphology and capacity of autonomous selfing, most likely as a way to reduce the probability of interspecific interference.

  8. Motor abilities and anthropometrics in youth cross-country skiing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöggl, R; Müller, E; Stöggl, T

    2015-02-01

    The purposes were to validate whether general motor abilities and anthropometrics are determinants of youth cross-country (XC) skiing performance; evaluate gender-specific differences; and to establish noninvasive diagnostics. Fifty-one youth XC skiers (34 boys; 13.8 ± 0.6 years and 17 girls; 13.4 ± 0.9 years) performed motor skill and laboratory tests, and anthropometric data were collected and correlated with XC skiing performance. Anthropometrics and maturity status were related to boys but not to girls XC skiing performance. Push-ups and 20-m sprint were correlated to XC skiing performance in both boys and girls. XC skiing performance of boys was predominantly influenced by upper body and trunk strength capacities (medicine ball throw, push-ups, and pull-ups) and jumping power (standing long and triple jump), whereas XC skiing of girls was mainly influenced by aerobic capacities (3000-m run). Laboratory measures did not reveal greater correlations to XC skiing performance compared with simple test concepts of speed, strength, and endurance. Maturity was a major confounding variable in boys but not girls. Use of noninvasive simple test concepts for determination of upper body strength, speed, and endurance represent practicable support for ski clubs, schools, or skiing federations in the guidance and evaluation of young talent, being aware of the effect of maturity especially in boys. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Physical fitness and anthropometric profile of mixed martial arts athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Ferreira Marinho

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to identify the physical fitness and anthropometric profile of mixed martial arts (MMA athletes and the correlations between these variables.Subjects and methods: Thirteen male MMA athletes (30 ± 4 years-old participated in this study. They were submitted to anthropometric measurements and the following tests: adapted flexitest, sit-ups, push-ups, long jump, flexed arm hang, 1RM bench press and squat.Results: Main results are as follows: body mass (kg: 82.1 ± 10.9; body fat (%: 11.87 ± 5.11; flexibility (score: 18.38 ± 4.07; sit-ups (rep: 43 ± 11; push-ups (rep: 41 ± 9; long jump (m: 2.19 ± 0.25; flexed arm hang (s: 34 ± 11, 1RM bench- press (kg: 76 ± 23; 1RM squat (kg: 73 ± 15. Furthermore we observed results showed significant correlations between anthropometric variables and physical fitness: body fat and long jump (R = -0.75; body fat and flexed arm hang (R= -0.67; height and squat 1RM (R = 0.67; arm circumference and bench press 1RM (R = 0.77.Conclusion: MMA athletes involved in this investigation have showed poor neuromuscular performance. Body fat was negatively correlated with both power and strength endurance performance, while arm circumference was positively related to upper body maximum strength.

  10. Genetics of Obesity Traits: A Bivariate Genome-Wide Association Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Yili; Duan, Haiping; Tian, Xiaocao

    2018-01-01

    Previous genome-wide association studies on anthropometric measurements have identified more than 100 related loci, but only a small portion of heritability in obesity was explained. Here we present a bivariate twin study to look for the genetic variants associated with body mass index and waist......-hip ratio, and to explore the obesity-related pathways in Northern Han Chinese. Cholesky decompositionmodel for 242monozygotic and 140 dizygotic twin pairs indicated a moderate genetic correlation (r = 0.53, 95%CI: 0.42–0.64) between body mass index and waist-hip ratio. Bivariate genome-wide association.......05. Expression quantitative trait loci analysis identified rs2242044 as a significant cis-eQTL in both the normal adipose-subcutaneous (P = 1.7 × 10−9) and adipose-visceral (P = 4.4 × 10−15) tissue. These findings may provide an important entry point to unravel genetic pleiotropy in obesity traits....

  11. Change in the manifestations of asthma and asthma-related traits in childhood: a latent transition analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garden, Frances L; Simpson, Judy M; Mellis, Craig M; Marks, Guy B

    2016-02-01

    It is known that asthma is a heterogeneous entity whose manifestations vary with age. Our objective was to examine changes in the manifestation of asthma and asthma-related traits in childhood by defining empirically derived childhood asthma phenotypes and examining their transitions over time.To define the phenotypes we used data on respiratory symptoms, healthcare utilisation, medications, spirometry, airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), exhaled nitric oxide concentration and atopy from a birth cohort recruited on the basis of having a first-degree relative with asthma. Data were acquired at ages 1.5-11.5 years and analysed using latent transition analysis.In a study population of 370 participants, we classified subjects into four phenotypes: 1) nonatopic, few symptoms (prevalence range from 1.5 to 5 years: 52-60%), 2) atopic, few symptoms (3-21%), 3) nonatopic, asthma and rhinitis symptoms (13-35%), and 4) atopic, asthma and rhinitis symptoms (2-14%) in early childhood; and 1) nonatopic, no respiratory disease (prevalence range from 8 to 11.5 years: 41-46%), 2) atopic, no respiratory disease (23-33%), 3) nonatopic, asthma symptoms, no AHR or airway inflammation (8-12%) and 4) atopic asthma (19%) in mid-childhood. Transitioning between phenotypes was common in early childhood, but less common in later childhood.This analysis represents the first attempt to incorporate longitudinal patterns of several manifestations of asthma into a single model to simultaneously define phenotypes and examine their transitions over time. It provides quantitative support for the view that asthma is a heterogeneous entity, and that some children with wheeze and other respiratory symptoms in early life progress to asthma in mid-childhood, while others become asymptomatic. Copyright ©ERS 2016.

  12. Determinants of child anthropometric indicators in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Davod; Amarnani, Ekta; Sen, Akankasha; Ebadi, Narges; Cortbaoui, Patrick; Melgar-Quiñonez, Hugo

    2018-05-15

    Malnutrition is one of the major contributors to child mortality in Ethiopia. Currently established, child nutrition status is assessed by four anthropometric indicators. However, there are other factors affecting children's anthropometric statuses. Thus, the main objective of this paper is to explore some of the determinants of child anthropometric indicators in Ethiopia. Data from GROW (the Growing Nutrition for Mothers and Children), a survey including 1261 mothers and 1261 children was carried out in Ethiopia in 2016. Based on the data gathered, the goal of GROW is to improve the nutritional status of women of reproductive age (15-49), as well as boys and girls under 5 years of age in Ethiopia. In order to investigate the association between different factors and child anthropometric indicators, this study employs various statistical methods, such as ANOVA, T-test, and linear regressions. Child's sex (confidence intervals for (wasting = - 0.782, - 0.151; stunting = - 0.936,-0.243) (underweight = - 0.530, - 0.008), child's age (confidence intervals for (wasting = - 0.020, 0.007; stunting = - 0.042,-0.011) (underweight = - 0.025, - 0.002), maternal MUAC (confidence intervals for (wasting = 0.189, 0.985; BMI-for-age = 0.077, 0.895), maternal education (stunting = 0.095, 0.897; underweight = 0.120, 0.729), and open defecation (stunting = 0.055, 0.332; underweight = 0.042, 0.257) were found to be significantly associated with anthropometric indicators. Contrary to some findings, maternal dietary diversity does not present significance in aforementioned child anthropometric indicators. Depending on the choice of children anthropometric indicator, different conclusions were drawn demonstrating the association between each factor to child nutritional status. Results showed child's sex, age, region, open defecation, and maternal MUAC significantly increases the risk of child anthropometric indicators

  13. Phosphorus Acquisition Efficiency Related to Root Traits: Is Mycorrhizal Symbiosis a Key Factor to Wheat and Barley Cropping?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Pedro; Borie, Fernando; Cornejo, Pablo; López-Ráez, Juan A.; López-García, Álvaro; Seguel, Alex

    2018-01-01

    all the directly related PAE traits and its return to the host plant.

  14. Genome-wide linkage mapping of yield-related traits in three Chinese bread wheat populations using high-density SNP markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Faji; Wen, Weie; He, Zhonghu; Liu, Jindong; Jin, Hui; Cao, Shuanghe; Geng, Hongwei; Yan, Jun; Zhang, Pingzhi; Wan, Yingxiu; Xia, Xianchun

    2018-06-01

    We identified 21 new and stable QTL, and 11 QTL clusters for yield-related traits in three bread wheat populations using the wheat 90 K SNP assay. Identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL) for yield-related traits and closely linked molecular markers is important in order to identify gene/QTL for marker-assisted selection (MAS) in wheat breeding. The objectives of the present study were to identify QTL for yield-related traits and dissect the relationships among different traits in three wheat recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations derived from crosses Doumai × Shi 4185 (D × S), Gaocheng 8901 × Zhoumai 16 (G × Z) and Linmai 2 × Zhong 892 (L × Z). Using the available high-density linkage maps previously constructed with the wheat 90 K iSelect single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array, 65, 46 and 53 QTL for 12 traits were identified in the three RIL populations, respectively. Among them, 34, 23 and 27 were likely to be new QTL. Eighteen common QTL were detected across two or three populations. Eleven QTL clusters harboring multiple QTL were detected in different populations, and the interval 15.5-32.3 cM around the Rht-B1 locus on chromosome 4BS harboring 20 QTL is an important region determining grain yield (GY). Thousand-kernel weight (TKW) is significantly affected by kernel width and plant height (PH), whereas flag leaf width can be used to select lines with large kernel number per spike. Eleven candidate genes were identified, including eight cloned genes for kernel, heading date (HD) and PH-related traits as well as predicted genes for TKW, spike length and HD. The closest SNP markers of stable QTL or QTL clusters can be used for MAS in wheat breeding using kompetitive allele-specific PCR or semi-thermal asymmetric reverse PCR assays for improvement of GY.

  15. Identification of sequence-related amplified polymorphism markers linked to the red leaf trait in ornamental kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y S; Liu, Z Y; Li, Y F; Zhang, Y; Yang, X F; Feng, H

    2013-04-02

    Artistic diversiform leaf color is an important agronomic trait that affects the market value of ornamental kale. In the present study, genetic analysis showed that a single-dominant gene, Re (red leaf), determines the red leaf trait in ornamental kale. An F2 population consisting of 500 individuals from the cross of a red leaf double-haploid line 'D05' with a white leaf double-haploid line 'D10' was analyzed for the red leaf trait. By combining bulked segregant analysis and sequence-related amplified polymorphism technology, we identified 3 markers linked to the Re/re locus. A genetic map of the Re locus was constructed using these sequence-related amplified polymorphism markers. Two of the markers, Me8Em4 and Me8Em17, were located on one side of Re/re at distances of 2.2 and 6.4 cM, whereas the other marker, Me9Em11, was located on the other side of Re/re at a distance of 3.7 cM. These markers could be helpful for the subsequent cloning of the red trait gene and marker-assisted selection in ornamental kale breeding programs.

  16. Crown traits of coniferous trees and their relation to shade tolerance can differ with leaf type: a biophysical demonstration using computed tomography scanning data

    OpenAIRE

    Dutilleul, Pierre; Han, Liwen; Valladares, Fernando; Messier, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Plant light interception and shade tolerance are intrinsically related in that they involve structural, morphological and physiological adaptations to manage light capture for photosynthetic utilization, in order to sustain survival, development and reproduction. At the scale of small-size trees, crown traits related to structural geometry of branching pattern and space occupancy through phyllotaxis can be accurately evaluated in 3D, using computed tomography (CT) scanning data. We demonstrat...

  17. Crown traits of coniferous trees and their relation to shade tolerance can differ with leaf type: A biophysical demonstration using computed tomography scanning data

    OpenAIRE

    Pierre eDutilleul; Liwen eHan; Fernando eValladeres; Christian eMessier; Christian eMessier

    2015-01-01

    Plant light interception and shade tolerance are intrinsically related in that they involve structural, morphological and physiological adaptations to manage light capture for photosynthetic utilization, in order to sustain survival, development and reproduction. At the scale of small-size trees, crown traits related to structural geometry of branching pattern and space occupancy through phyllotaxis can be accurately evaluated in 3D, using computed tomography (CT) scanning data. We demonstrat...

  18. How do different humanness measures relate? Confronting the attribution of secondary emotions, human uniqueness, and human nature traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Rocío; Rodriguez-Bailon, Rosa; Moya, Miguel; Vaes, Jeroen

    2017-01-01

    The present research examines the relationship between the infrahumanization approach and the two-dimensional model of humanness: an issue that has received very little empirical attention. In Study 1, we created three unknown groups (Humanized, Animalized, and Mechanized) granting/denying them Human Nature (HN) and Human Uniqueness (HU) traits. The attribution of primary/secondary emotions was measured. As expected, participants attributed more secondary emotions to the humanized compared to dehumanized groups. Importantly, both animalized and mechanized groups were attributed similar amounts of secondary emotions. In Study 2, the groups were described in terms of their capacity to express secondary emotions. We measured the attribution of HN/HU traits. Results showed that the infrahumanized group was denied both HU/HN traits. The results highlight the importance of considering the common aspects of both approaches in understanding processes of dehumanization.

  19. An empirical Bayes method for updating inferences in analysis of quantitative trait loci using information from related genome scans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kui; Wiener, Howard; Beasley, Mark; George, Varghese; Amos, Christopher I; Allison, David B

    2006-08-01

    Individual genome scans for quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping often suffer from low statistical power and imprecise estimates of QTL location and effect. This lack of precision yields large confidence intervals for QTL location, which are problematic for subsequent fine mapping and positional cloning. In prioritizing areas for follow-up after an initial genome scan and in evaluating the credibility of apparent linkage signals, investigators typically examine the results of other genome scans of the same phenotype and informally update their beliefs about which linkage signals in their scan most merit confidence and follow-up via a subjective-intuitive integration approach. A method that acknowledges the wisdom of this general paradigm but formally borrows information from other scans to increase confidence in objectivity would be a benefit. We developed an empirical Bayes analytic method to integrate information from multiple genome scans. The linkage statistic obtained from a single genome scan study is updated by incorporating statistics from other genome scans as prior information. This technique does not require that all studies have an identical marker map or a common estimated QTL effect. The updated linkage statistic can then be used for the estimation of QTL location and effect. We evaluate the performance of our method by using extensive simulations based on actual marker spacing and allele frequencies from available data. Results indicate that the empirical Bayes method can account for between-study heterogeneity, estimate the QTL location and effect more precisely, and provide narrower confidence intervals than results from any single individual study. We also compared the empirical Bayes method with a method originally developed for meta-analysis (a closely related but distinct purpose). In the face of marked heterogeneity among studies, the empirical Bayes method outperforms the comparator.

  20. Genome-Wide Association Study for Traits Related to Plant and Grain Morphology, and Root Architecture in Temperate Rice Accessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biscarini, Filippo; Cozzi, Paolo; Casella, Laura; Riccardi, Paolo; Vattari, Alessandra; Orasen, Gabriele; Perrini, Rosaria; Tacconi, Gianni; Tondelli, Alessandro; Biselli, Chiara; Cattivelli, Luigi; Spindel, Jennifer; McCouch, Susan; Abbruscato, Pamela; Valé, Giampiero; Piffanelli, Pietro; Greco, Raffaella

    2016-01-01

    In this study we carried out a genome-wide association analysis for plant and grain morphology and root architecture in a unique panel of temperate rice accessions adapted to European pedo-climatic conditions. This is the first study to assess the association of selected phenotypic traits to specific genomic regions in the narrow genetic pool of temperate japonica. A set of 391 rice accessions were GBS-genotyped yielding-after data editing-57000 polymorphic and informative SNPS, among which 54% were in genic regions. In total, 42 significant genotype-phenotype associations were detected: 21 for plant morphology traits, 11 for grain quality traits, 10 for root architecture traits. The FDR of detected associations ranged from 3 · 10-7 to 0.92 (median: 0.25). In most cases, the significant detected associations co-localised with QTLs and candidate genes controlling the phenotypic variation of single or multiple traits. The most significant associations were those for flag leaf width on chromosome 4 (FDR = 3 · 10-7) and for plant height on chromosome 6 (FDR = 0.011). We demonstrate the effectiveness and resolution of the developed platform for high-throughput phenotyping, genotyping and GWAS in detecting major QTLs for relevant traits in rice. We identified strong associations that may be used for selection in temperate irrigated rice breeding: e.g. associations for flag leaf width, plant height, root volume and length, grain length, grain width and their ratio. Our findings pave the way to successfully exploit the narrow genetic pool of European temperate rice and to pinpoint the most relevant genetic components contributing to the adaptability and high yield of this germplasm. The generated data could be of direct use in genomic-assisted breeding strategies.