WorldWideScience

Sample records for related analytical techniques

  1. Air pollution in Thailand using nuclear-related analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leelhaphunt, N.; Chueinta, W.

    1994-01-01

    The methods of neutron activation, both instrumental and radiochemical, and atomic absorption spectrophotometry are used in a study of the concentrations of Al, As, Br, Cd, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Sb, Sc, Se, Si, V, Zn and Pb in airborne particulate matter collected from 7 permanent and 9 temporary air quality monitoring stations. The location of the stations are urban residential, suburban residential, mixed (commercial and residential), commercial and industrial areas and near major roads in Bangkok Metropolitan areas. Air sampling is performed once a month for 24 hours continuously using the high volume air sampler (GMW 2000 H) and for 5, 10, and 15 days continuously using an Anderson Air Sampler (SIBATA AN-200). The elements As, Cd and Cu are determined destructively using ion exchange chromatography while Hg and Se are determined by the dry combustion technique. The determination of Pb was done by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The results of Pb concentrations in airborne particulate matters, collected during 1987 to 1991, were reported by the Office of the National Environment Board. Levels of Pb content were found to be lower than the National Ambient Air Quality Standards. (author). 3 refs, 4 tabs

  2. Analytical system availability techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwers, J.J.H.; Verbeek, P.H.J.; Thomson, W.R.

    1987-01-01

    Analytical techniques are presented to assess the probability distributions and related statistical parameters of loss of production from equipment networks subject to random failures and repairs. The techniques are based on a theoretical model for system availability, which was further developed

  3. Applied research on air pollution using nuclear-related analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    A co-ordinated research programme (CRP) on applied research on air pollution using nuclear-related techniques is a global CRP which will run from 1992-1996, and will build upon the experience gained by the Agency from the laboratory support that it has been providing for several years to BAPMoN - the Background Air Pollution Monitoring Network programme organized under the auspices of the World Meterological Organization. The purpose of this CRP is to promote the use of nuclear analytical techniques in air pollution studies, e.g. NAA, XFR, and PIXE for the analysis of toxic and other trace elements in suspended particulate matter (including air filter samples), rainwater and fog-water samples, and in biological indicators of air pollution (e.g. lichens and mosses). The main purposes of the core programme are i) to support the use of nuclear and nuclear-related analytical techniques for practically-oriented research and monitoring studies on air pollution ii) to identify major sources of air pollution affecting each of the participating countries with particular reference to toxic heavy metals, and iii) to obtain comparative data on pollution levels in areas of high pollution (e.g. a city centre or a populated area downwind of a large pollution source) and low pollution (e.g. rural areas). This document reports the discussions held during the first Research Co-ordination Meeting (RCM) for the CRP which took place at the IAEA Headquarters in Vienna. Refs, figs and tabs

  4. Advanced analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mrochek, J.E.; Shumate, S.E.; Genung, R.K.; Bahner, C.T.; Lee, N.E.; Dinsmore, S.R.

    1976-01-01

    The development of several new analytical techniques for use in clinical diagnosis and biomedical research is reported. These include: high-resolution liquid chromatographic systems for the early detection of pathological molecular constituents in physiologic body fluids; gradient elution chromatography for the analysis of protein-bound carbohydrates in blood serum samples, with emphasis on changes in sera from breast cancer patients; electrophoretic separation techniques coupled with staining of specific proteins in cellular isoenzymes for the monitoring of genetic mutations and abnormal molecular constituents in blood samples; and the development of a centrifugal elution chromatographic technique for the assay of specific proteins and immunoglobulins in human blood serum samples

  5. Analysis and analytical techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batuecas Rodriguez, T [Department of Chemistry and Isotopes, Junta de Energia Nuclear, Madrid (Spain)

    1967-01-01

    The technology associated with the use of organic coolants in nuclear reactors depends to a large extent on the determination and control of their physical and chemical properties, and particularly on the viability, speed, sensitivity, precision and accuracy (depending on the intended usage) of the methods employed in detection and analytical determination. This has led to the study and development of numerous techniques, some specially designed for the extreme conditions involved in working with the types of product in question and others adapted from existing techniques. In the specific case of polyphenyl and hydropolyphenyl mixtures, which have been the principal subjects of study to date and offer greatest promise, the analytical problems are broadly as follows: Composition of initial product or virgin coolant composition of macro components and amounts of organic and inorganic impurities; Coolant during and after operation. Determination of gases and organic compounds produced by pyrolysis and radiolysis (degradation and polymerization products); Control of systems for purifying and regenerating the coolant after use. Dissolved pressurization gases; Detection of intermediate products during decomposition; these are generally very unstable (free radicals); Degree of fouling and film formation. Tests to determine potential formation of films; Corrosion of structural elements and canning materials; Health and safety. Toxicity, inflammability and impurities that can be activated. Although some of the above problems are closely interrelated and entail similar techniques, they vary as to degree of difficulty. Another question is the difficulty of distinguishing clearly between techniques for determining physical and physico-chemical properties, on one hand, and analytical techniques on the other. Any classification is therefore somewhat arbitrary (for example, in the case of dosimetry and techniques for determining mean molecular weights or electrical conductivity

  6. Use of nuclear and related analytical techniques in environmental research as exemplified by selected air pollution studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smodis, B.; Jacimovic, R.; Jeran, Z.; Stropnik, B.; Svetina, M.

    2000-01-01

    Among nuclear and nuclear related analytical techniques, neutron activation analysis and X-ray fluorescence spectrometry proved to be particularly useful for environmental studies owing to their nondestructive character and multi element capability. This paper emphasizes their importance among other multielement analytical methods by discussing their specific role due to specific physics basis, quite different to other destructive non-nuclear methods, and by summarizing results obtained in several studies related to air pollution research, including analyses of airborne particulate matter, water samples, lichens and mosses. (author)

  7. Multielement determination in Cuban red mangrove samples using nuclear and related analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estevez Alvarez, J.R.; Aguiar Lambert, D.; Montero Alvarez, A.; Pupo Gonzalez, I.; Padilla Alvarez, R.; Gonzalez Garcia, H.; Ramirez Sasco, M.

    1998-01-01

    In the present work the contents of Al; K; Ca; Mn; Fe; Ni; Cu; Zn; Sr; Cd and Pb in red mangroves (Rhizophora mangle) from different Cuban regions are determined, using Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (Emission-Transmission (Et) and I/C methods), Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS), and Polarography (Anodic Stripping Voltametry method). Biological Certified Reference Materials (CRM) are employed for the tracing of the tracing of the curves of the relative I/C method and for the evaluation of the analytical results accuracy. The reliability of the results is also checked by statistical means. Standard deviations and the detection limits of each method are reported. Finally, the obtained values for the concentration of the different elements in each studied ecosystem are presented; a detailed discussion about their significance will be performed in a further paper

  8. Biomonitoring of air pollution in Jamaica through trace-element analysis of epiphytic plants using nuclear and related analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vutchkov, Mitko

    2001-01-01

    The main goal of the Coordinated Research Project (No:9937/R0), entitled 'Biomonitoring of Air Pollution in Jamaica Through Trace-Element Analysis of Epiphytic Plants Using Nuclear and Related Analytical Techniques', is to identify and validate site specific epiphytic plants for biomonitoring the atmospheric pollution in Jamaica using nuclear analytical techniques at the International Centre for Environmental and Nuclear Sciences (ICENS). The specific objectives for the second year of the project were: Development of HOP for sampling epiphytic plants in Jamaica; Sampling design and sample collection; Sample preparation and analysis; Development of an in-house SRM and participation in the NAT-5 inter-laboratory study; Data analysis and interpretation of the results; Development of a work plan of the third year of the project

  9. Nuclear techniques in analytical chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Moses, Alfred J; Gordon, L

    1964-01-01

    Nuclear Techniques in Analytical Chemistry discusses highly sensitive nuclear techniques that determine the micro- and macro-amounts or trace elements of materials. With the increasingly frequent demand for the chemical determination of trace amounts of elements in materials, the analytical chemist had to search for more sensitive methods of analysis. This book accustoms analytical chemists with nuclear techniques that possess the desired sensitivity and applicability at trace levels. The topics covered include safe handling of radioactivity; measurement of natural radioactivity; and neutron a

  10. Applied research on air pollution using nuclear-related analytical techniques. Report on the second research co-ordination meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    A co-ordinated research programme (CRP) on applied research on air pollution using nuclear-related techniques is a global CRP which started in 1992, and is scheduled to run until early 1997. The purpose of this CRP is to promote the use of nuclear analytical techniques in air pollution studies, e.g. NAA, XRF, and PIXE for the analysis of toxic and other trace elements in air particulate matter. The main purposes of the core programme are i) to support the use of nuclear and nuclear-related analytical techniques for research and monitoring studies on air pollution, ii) to identify major sources of air pollution affecting each of the participating countries with particular reference to toxic heavy metals, and iii) to obtain comparative data on pollution levels in areas of high pollution (e.g. a city centre or a populated area downwind of a large pollution source) and low pollution (e.g. rural area). This document reports the discussions held during the second Research Co-ordination Meeting (RCM) for the CRP which took place at ANSTO in Menai, Australia. (author)

  11. Applied research on air pollution using nuclear-related analytical techniques. Report on the second research co-ordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    A co-ordinated research programme (CRP) on applied research on air pollution using nuclear-related techniques is a global CRP which started in 1992, and is scheduled to run until early 1997. The purpose of this CRP is to promote the use of nuclear analytical techniques in air pollution studies, e.g. NAA, XRF, and PIXE for the analysis of toxic and other trace elements in air particulate matter. The main purposes of the core programme are i) to support the use of nuclear and nuclear-related analytical techniques for research and monitoring studies on air pollution, ii) to identify major sources of air pollution affecting each of the participating countries with particular reference to toxic heavy metals, and iii) to obtain comparative data on pollution levels in areas of high pollution (e.g. a city centre or a populated area downwind of a large pollution source) and low pollution (e.g. rural area). This document reports the discussions held during the second Research Co-ordination Meeting (RCM) for the CRP which took place at ANSTO in Menai, Australia. (author)

  12. The use of nuclear related analytical techniques for the determination of ingestion and body content of trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djojosubroto, H.; Santoso, D.; Widjajakusuma, B.

    1998-01-01

    A number of observations revealed that various human disease states are associated with measurable abnormalities of trace element levels. Until present there is no data on trace element levels in human tissues and dietary intake representing the population in Indonesia. Trace element level in various biological materials, especially human serum related to health syndrome (e.g. acute myocardial infarction and goiter prevalences) was performed by National Atomic Energy Agency in cooperation with relevant institutes. The present study is concerned with determination of ingestion and organ content of trace elements of importance in radiological protection (Cs, Sr, I, Th and U). Quantitation of the elements in the samples will be determined by neutron activation analysis, complemented by nuclear related analytical techniques, e.g. inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry and atomic absorption spectrometry. Samples to be analyzed consist of (a) total diets and individual staple foodstuffs, (b) autopsy specimens of liver, lung, kidney, muscle, thyroid and bone, and (c) drinking water. It seems difficult for us to define nationally representative specimens of total diets and individual staple foodstuffs. Based on these facts, in the first year activity samples of dietary intake from various socio economic levels of population in West Java will be collected. Human tissue sample is obtained from autopsy of normal persons who are killed in traffic accident or homicide victim. Traces of Th and U in drinking water are determined by neutron activation analysis following preconcentration of these elements in chelating resin Chlelex 100. (author)

  13. Glycoprotein Enrichment Analytical Techniques: Advantages and Disadvantages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, R; Zacharias, L; Wooding, K M; Peng, W; Mechref, Y

    2017-01-01

    Protein glycosylation is one of the most important posttranslational modifications. Numerous biological functions are related to protein glycosylation. However, analytical challenges remain in the glycoprotein analysis. To overcome the challenges associated with glycoprotein analysis, many analytical techniques were developed in recent years. Enrichment methods were used to improve the sensitivity of detection, while HPLC and mass spectrometry methods were developed to facilitate the separation of glycopeptides/proteins and enhance detection, respectively. Fragmentation techniques applied in modern mass spectrometers allow the structural interpretation of glycopeptides/proteins, while automated software tools started replacing manual processing to improve the reliability and throughput of the analysis. In this chapter, the current methodologies of glycoprotein analysis were discussed. Multiple analytical techniques are compared, and advantages and disadvantages of each technique are highlighted. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Speciation of trace elements in biological samples by nuclear analytical and related techniques coupled with chemical and biochemical separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.Y.; Gao, Y.X.; Li, B.; Yu, H.W.; Li, Y.F.; Sun, J.; Chai, Z.F.

    2005-01-01

    In the past, most analytical problems relating to biological systems were addressed by measuring the total concentrations of elements. Now there is increasing interest of the importance of their chemical forms, in which an element is present in biological systems, e.g., the oxidation state, the binding state with macromolecules, or even the molecular structure. The biological effects of chromium, which is classified as an essential nutrient, are dependent upon its oxidation. state. In general, trivalent chromium is biochemically active, whereas hexavalent chromium is considered to be toxic. Mercury is one of serious environmental persistent pollutants. However, organic forms of mercury are known to possess much higher toxicity than inorganic mercury. Therefore, information on speciation is critically required in order to better understanding of their bioavailability, metabolism, transformation, and toxicity in vivo. Recently, chemical speciation of selenium, mercury, copper, zinc, iron, and so on, has been investigated by INAA, ICP-MS, XRF, EXAFS and related techniques combined with chemical and biochemical separation (extraction, chromatography, gel electrophoresis, etc.). INAA, XRF, and ICP-MS have superior advantages in aspect of multielemental analysis with high accuracy and sensitivity, which render the possibility of analyzing various elements of interest simultaneously. These offline or online techniques have been flexibly applied to different biological matrixes, such as human hair, serum, urine, various tissues and organs in our researches. In addition, EXAFS provides structural information about the moiety of metal centers up to a distance of approximately 4-5 Anstrom. For instance, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide. Imbalance of elements, such as Se, Zn, Fe, Cu, Cd, Ca, etc., has been found in the whole blood or serum of patients with HCC. We found that the profiles of Se, Cd, Fe, Zn and Cu-containing proteins

  15. Biomonitoring of air pollution in Jamaica through trace-element analysis of epiphytic plants using nuclear and related analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vutchkov, M.; Lalor, G.C.; Preston, J.

    1999-01-01

    Air quality has been monitored at selected areas in Jamaica using high volume samplers. The results obtained, showed elevated levels of aluminium in bauxitic areas and very high lead concentrations in urban areas, from 5 to 35 times greater than in rural areas. The lower throughput of the conventional air particulate samplers however, restricts the air quality and health assessment on a nation-wide scale. Biomonitoring offers a cost-effective alternative to air-quality assessment if appropriate indicator species are chosen. The epiphytic lower plants such as lichens and mosses have been used as indicators of regional air quality in several European countries and USA. However, there is not enough studies on lichens and mosses in tropical countries, probably due to the lower occurrence of these species, which cover only 8% of the world's land surface. In Jamaica the epiphytic higher plants, represented by the genus Tillandsia are widely distributed, which make them along with the lichens and mosses potential site-specific bioindicators of air quality. The IAEA Co-ordinated Research Project entitled 'Biomonitoring of Air Pollution in Jamaica Through Trace-Element Analysis of Epiphytic Plants Using Nuclear And Related Analytical Techniques' will address these needs of the country. The primary purpose of the present study was to develop specific bioindicators of atmospheric air pollution in Jamaica, which will provide baseline information for health hazards assessment

  16. Use of nuclear and nuclear-related analytical techniques in studies of trace and minor elements in air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smodis, Borut; Stropnik, Boris

    1994-01-01

    Among nuclear and nuclear-related analytical techniques, neutron activation and X-ray fluorescence analysis are particularly useful for environmental studies owing to their non-destructive character and multi-element capability. In this work, procedures for k o -standardized instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometry for trace and minor elements in air pollution studies were investigated. The methods applied were validated by the analysis of suitable reference materials. Using INAA, 20 experimentally obtained elemental values out of 21 certified and all 29 experimentally obtained values compared with 'consensus' values (for the elements where no certified numbers are available) in two SRMs were statistically indistinguishable. Also, the contents of 28 elements in candidate NIST SRM 1573a Tomato Leaves are reported. The EDXRF results were statistically indistinguishable from certified values for eight out of nine elements in NIST SRM 3087. The detection limit for this method is around at 0.1 μg cm -2 per element, so in BCR CRM No. 128, which is intended for ambient air pollution data, only Fe and Zn out of 14 elements reported in the certificate were detected with acceptable precision (i.e., 10%) owing to the very low air particulate matter loading, lying in the region of only 250 μg cm -2 . (Author)

  17. Analytical chemistry: Principles and techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hargis, L.G.

    1988-01-01

    Although this text seems to have been intended for use in a one-semester course in undergraduate analytical chemistry, it includes the range of topics usually encountered in a two-semester introductory course in chemical analysis. The material is arranged logically for use in a two-semester course: the first 12 chapters contain the subjects most often covered in the first term, and the next 10 chapters pertain to the second (instrumental) term. Overall breadth and level of treatment are standards for an undergraduate text of this sort, and the only major omission is that of kinetic methods (which is a common omission in analytical texts). In the first 12 chapters coverage of the basic material is quite good. The emphasis on the underlying principles of the techniques rather than on specifics and design of instrumentation is welcomed. This text may be more useful for the instrumental portion of an analytical chemistry course than for the solution chemistry segment. The instrumental analysis portion is appropriate for an introductory textbook

  18. Nuclear analytical techniques in medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesareo, R.

    1988-01-01

    This book acquaints one with the fundamental principles and the instrumentation relevant to analytical technique based on atomic and nuclear physics, as well as present and future biomedical applications. Besides providing a theoretical description of the physical phenomena, a large part of the book is devoted to applications in the medical and biological field, particularly in hematology, forensic medicine and environmental science. This volume reviews methods such as the possibility of carrying out rapid multi-element analysis of trace elements on biomedical samples, in vitro and in vivo, by XRF-analysis; the ability of the PIXE-microprobe to analyze in detail and to map trace elements in fragments of biomedical samples or inside the cells; the potentiality of in vivo nuclear activation analysis for diagnostic purposes. Finally, techniques are described such as radiation scattering (elastic and inelastic scattering) and attenuation measurements which will undoubtedly see great development in the immediate future

  19. Nuclear analytical techniques in medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cesareo, R.

    1988-01-01

    This book acquaints one with the fundamental principles and the instrumentation relevant to analytical technique based on atomic and nuclear physics, as well as present and future biomedical applications. Besides providing a theoretical description of the physical phenomena, a large part of the book is devoted to applications in the medical and biological field, particularly in hematology, forensic medicine and environmental science. This volume reviews methods such as the possibility of carrying out rapid multi-element analysis of trace elements on biomedical samples, in vitro and in vivo, by XRF-analysis; the ability of the PIXE-microprobe to analyze in detail and to map trace elements in fragments of biomedical samples or inside the cells; the potentiality of in vivo nuclear activation analysis for diagnostic purposes. Finally, techniques are described such as radiation scattering (elastic and inelastic scattering) and attenuation measurements which will undoubtedly see great development in the immediate future.

  20. Atmospheric deposition of heavy metals in transilvanian plateau of romania studied by the moss bio monitoring Technique employing nuclear and related analytical Techniques and gis technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucaciu, Adriana; Craciun, L.; Cuculeanu, V.; Eseanu, D.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents data for 39 elements of 69 moss samples (Hypnum cupressiforme) collected in the Transilvanian Plateau of Romania. This results have obtained in the framework of the project Atmospheric Deposition of Heavy Metals in Rural and Urban Areas of Romania Studied by the Moss Bio monitoring Technique Employing Nuclear and Related Analytical Techniques and GIS Technology carried out under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna.The samples collected have been analyzed by ENAA with the exception of Cu, Cd, and Pb which were determined by AAS. IAEA certified materials were used to ensure the quality of the measurements. The regional concentration variations of selected elements are presented in the form of maps constructed by GIS technology. Extremely high values are observed for elements such as Cu, Zn, As and Sb in parts of this territory affected by local metal industries. The levels are among the highest observed in the world, and could be partly responsible for the unfortunate health situation in some of these areas

  1. Investigation of size-fractionated urban aerosol and trace gases in Budapest by nuclear-related and other analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salma, I.; Maenhaut, W.; Zemplen-Papp, E.; Bobvos, J.

    1998-01-01

    An air pollution study was conducted at two urban residential sites in Budapest (one representing the downtown, the other representing a wooded suburb) from 9 April till 17 May 1996. Size-fractionated aerosol samples were simultaneously collected on a daily basis, and meteorological conditions were recorded at both sampling sites. Stacked filter units (SFUs) with an upper size inlet cut-off were used as sampling device separating the urban aerosol into a coarse (about 10-2 μm equivalent aerodynamic diameter, EAD) and a fine ( 2 , SO 2 , CO and the total mass of the suspended particulate matter were measured every half hour at one of the sampling sites by commercial equipment. The SFU filters were analyzed by gravimetry for the total particle mass, by a light reflectance technique for black carbon, by particle-induced X-ray emission analysis and instrumental neutron activation analysis for elemental composition (in combination for up to 40-45 elements). The analytical results were used for characterizing the levels and the multi-elemental composition of the urban aerosol at both sampling sites and for both size fractions, for investigating the atmospheric concentrations and diurnal variation of some criteria pollutants, and for comparing the time-trends of aerosols and trace gases. Identification of the major source types of the aerosol fractions and trace gases, and assessment of the relative contribution from these sources are to be accomplished by multivariate receptor modeling. The present paper reports on the status of the air pollution study, and gives a discussion of the results

  2. Are we Breathing Clean Air in Metro Manila? (Nuclear and Related Analytical Techniques and Receptor Modeling Revealing the Real Score)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pabroa, Preciosa Corazon B.

    2015-01-01

    Air Particulate matter (APM) is a mixture of different pollutant sources which can be of anthropogenic and/or natural origin, of which the size of great concern with regard to adverse effects on human health are generally less than 10μm (Referred to as PM10). Identification and apportionment of pollutant sources is important to be able to have better understanding of prevailing conditions in the area and thus better air quality management can be applied. APM (PM10) at sampling sites in Metro Manila (Philippines) has been monitored since 1998 for the primary purpose of source identification and source apportionment. APM samples (fractionated into coarse (PM2.5-10) and fine (PM2.5) fractions) were collected using a Gent air sampler. Particulate mass was determined by gravimetry and black carbon by reflectometry organic carbon/elemental carbon by thermal optical reflectance. Elemental concentrations were determined using nuclear and related analytical techniques such as the particle-induced x-ray emission (PIXE) spectrometry and x-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry. Source apportionment of fine air particles was done using PMF2. Result show PM10 levels to be in compliance to the Philippine 1-year guideline value of 60 μg m“-“3 but in exceedance of the US EPA 1-year standard of 15 μg m“-“3 and the WHO 1-year guideline value of 10 μg m“-“3. Annual mean % Fine BC levels range from 33% to 59%, but individual points can reach up to more than 80% of the PM2.5 levels. Pb level in the fine fraction exhibit decreasing trend coinciding with the introduction of unleaded-gasoline starting in 1998 and the eventual phase-out of the use of leaded-gasoline in 2001. Six air pollution sources have been identified in the fine fraction with vehicular emissions making up the bulk at about 50%. Other sources are smoke, secondary S, fine soil and industry. Addressing problems regarding traffic-related activities can greatly reduce the fine particulate pollution problems

  3. ARPEFS as an analytic technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schach von Wittenau, A.E.

    1991-04-01

    Two modifications to the ARPEFS technique are introduced. These are studied using p(2 x 2)S/Cu(001) as a model system. The first modification is the obtaining of ARPEFS χ(k) curves at temperatures as low as our equipment will permit. While adding to the difficulty of the experiment, this modification is shown to almost double the signal-to-noise ratio of normal emission p(2 x 2)S/Cu(001) χ(k) curves. This is shown by visual comparison of the raw data and by the improved precision of the extracted structural parameters. The second change is the replacement of manual fitting of the Fourier filtered χ(k) curves by the use of the simplex algorithm for parameter determination. Again using p(2 x 2)S/Cu(001) data, this is shown to result in better agreement between experimental χ(k) curves and curves calculated based on model structures. The improved ARPEFS is then applied to p(2 x 2)S/Ni(111) and (√3 x √3) R30 degree S/Ni(111). For p(2 x 2)S/Cu(001) we find a S-Cu bond length of 2.26 Angstrom, with the S adatom 1.31 Angstrom above the fourfold hollow site. The second Cu layer appears to be corrugated. Analysis of the p(2 x 2)S/Ni(111) data indicates that the S adatom adatom adsorbs onto the FCC threefold hollow site 1.53 Angstrom above the Ni surface. The S-Ni bond length is determined to be 2.13 Angstrom, indicating an outwards shift of the first layer Ni atoms. We are unable to assign a unique structure to (√3 x √3)R30 degree S/Ni(111). An analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of ARPEFS as an experimental and analytic technique is presented, along with a summary of problems still to be addressed

  4. Determination of trace elements and heavy metals in agricultural products cultivated at the Rimac river valley in Lima city using nuclear and related analytical techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Bedregal, Patricia; Torres, Blanca; Olivera, Paula; Mendoza, Pablo; Ubillús, Marco; Creed-Kanashiro, H.; Penny, M.; Junco, J.; Ganoza, L.

    2004-01-01

    There are strong indications that the Rimac river valley is being contaminated with heavy metals and an excess of trace elements that come from some industrial and mining activities developed along the Rimac river valley. The agricultural products cultivated there in could be suffering the same effect. Nuclear and related analytical techniques will play an important role in the study of pollution by providing information concerning the degree of contamination in some agricultural products cul...

  5. A study on environmental pollution monitoring and occupational health in the Capital Iron and Steel Company, Beijing, China, using nuclear and related analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai Zhifang; Qian Qinfang; Feng Xiangqian; Ding Wenjun; Kuang Minxu; Wang Hongyu; Zhang Yongchen

    2000-01-01

    Since the First Research Coordination Meeting in Vienna, 20-24 October 1997, on the CRP on Assessment of Levels and Health-effects of Airborne Particulate Matter in Mining, Metal Refining and Metal Working Industries using Nuclear and related Analytical Techniques, our research group has completed the work plan defined by the contract with the Agency, including: (1) collection of airborne particulate, plant and soil samples from sites around the Capital Iron and Steel Company and of human hair, urine, and blood samples from the exposed workers and the control group; (2) validation of the analytical methods (NAA, XRF, SRXRF, JCP-AES etc.) by analyzing appropriate reference materials and by participating in relevant Agency's quality assurance exercises; and (3) analysis of part of the collected samples and preliminary discussion on the available analytical results. Finally, plan for future work was outlined as well. (author)

  6. Assessment of levels and 'health-effects' of airborne particulate matter in mining, metal refining and metal working industries using nuclear and related analytical techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-01-15

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been supporting, over the years, several coordinated research programmes (CRPs) on various research topics related to environmental issues impacting human health. A variety of industrial environments such as: galvanisation, iron and steel production, steel construction, coal fired thermal power plants, mining and mineral beneficiation of monazite, zinc smelters, and phosphate fertilizer production plants were included in this CRP. Toxic elements specific for particular industries as potential pollutants were monitored within individual projects. The CRP focussed on the use of nuclear and related analytical techniques for studies of exposure to inorganic constituents and radionuclides from naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs), in the workplaces and their impacts on the health of the workers. The objectives were to: develop strategies and techniques for sampling of workplace airborne particulate matter (APM) and of bio-markers (e.g. hair, blood, nails, teeth, urine, breath) of exposed and non-exposed individuals; develop reliable analytical procedures for the analysis of such samples, using nuclear and related analytical techniques; carry out workplace and personal monitoring surveys, and assess workers' exposure to toxic elements on the basis of measurements results. This document provides an overview of the activities performed under the CRP by the participants. The overall achievements are summarized and those aspects that require a further deeper look are also pointed out. The individual country reports include details on the progress made by the respective participants during the CRP period.

  7. Background air pollution studies in urban and rural areas of Bangladesh using nuclear-related analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.H.; Khaliquzzaman, M.; Tarafdar, S.A.; Biswas, S.K.; Islam, A.

    1994-01-01

    The trace element constituents of aerosols such as Hg, Pb, Cd, Se, As, Cu, Zn, Cr, V, etc. are permanent pollutants affecting the biosphere and the general ecosystem. The measurements of these elements collected on air filters, in rainwater, and also in some bioindicators such as moss and lichen, can yield very significant information on the origin, transport, removal and deposition of these pollutants. A set of sensitive and precise nuclear-related and chemical methods such as PIXE, EDXRF, FAAS and DPASV have, therefore, been developed and applied to analyze a number of trace and minor elements in air particulates, coal fly ash, plant materials, moss and water. Further analytical developments would include INAA and TRXRF. Some of the results from air particulates (integral), coal fly ash and moss analyses are presented to illustrate the experience level of the Laboratory. A core programme of study on the trace element composition of aerosols from urban and rural atmosphere in Bangladesh has been planned for implementation within the framework of this CRP. 10 refs, 1 fig., 5 tabs

  8. Quality system implementation for nuclear analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    techniques. The methodology provided is appropriate for: (a) Analysis of radionuclides as in alpha, beta, and gamma spectrometry for environmental and human-made radioactivity investigations; (b) Analysis of trace, minor and major elements using nuclear and related analytical techniques such as neutron activation analysis, X ray fluorescence, PIXE, etc. This training guidebook can be used by staff of analytical laboratories as a starting kit to better understand the quality assurance and quality control principles as prescribed in the ISO 17025 standard. It follows a logical order related to practical laboratory work rather than the formal clauses as given by the standard. It can be used as a stand alone textbook. However, in some cases, cross-reference is given to the ISO 17025 clauses hence it is recommended to consult the ISO standard for exact wording of specific requirements

  9. Assessment of levels and 'health-effects' of airborne particulate matter in mining, metal refining and metal working industries using nuclear and related analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been supporting, over the years, several coordinated research programmes (CRPs) on various research topics related to environmental issues impacting human health. The primary aim of these CRPs has been to help enhance the research and development capabilities in the Member States, particularly among developing countries; to identify the sources of various environmental contaminants and evaluate their fate; and to provide for the basis of improved health among human populations by the use of nuclear and related analytical techniques. The CRP on Assessment of Levels and Health-Effects of Airborne Particulate Matter in Mining, Metal Refining and Metal Working Industries using nuclear and related analytical techniques focused on improving the competence for research on workplace monitoring in a variety of industrial environments. The personal monitoring of the APM (airborne particulate matter) of the exposed workforce was carried out for the first time by many participants. Nuclear and related analytical techniques, including the application of proton micro-beam, were used to generate the trace element concentration profiles in various biomarkers tissues of the exposed workers. The quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) aspects related to the CRP were addressed through intercomparison analyses of APM on filter paper samples and freeze dried human urine samples to generate validated data. These data have helped to generate correlations between the occupational exposure measured and the magnitude of the biological response. Such new information is essential to evolve procedures to considerably reduce/eliminate the pollutants in the workplace environment and to make informed decisions on the evolution of standards in working environments aimed at preserving the health of workers. The purpose of this TECDOC is to provide an overview of the activities performed under the CRP by the participants. The overall achievements

  10. Studies of the long-range transport of atmospheric pollutant using nuclear-related analytical techniques. Appendix 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Shaojin

    1995-01-01

    Atmospheric aerosol and rainwater samples collected in the different Western Pacific areas were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation and proton induced x-ray emission to (1) determine the atmospheric concentrations of trace elements over the Western Pacific and (2) to estimate the atmospheric deposition of trace elements and dust-soil material to this region. High abundance of pollutant and crustal elements relative to oceanic sources was observed. Some characteristics of marine atmosphere relating to long-range transport of crustal and anthropogenic elements from continent to the remote ocean are discussed. The total dust-soil particle mass is estimated to be 0.066-1.2 μg/m 3 over the Western Pacific Ocean areas. Atmospheric inputs of dust-soil particles control the marine particle concentrations of crustal elements. A total of 99 atmospheric samples with the 'Gent' filter unit were collected during October 1993 and September 1994 at a western suburb of Beijing, China (40 deg. N,116 deg. E), and completed the analysis of these filters by both INAA and PIXE. (author)

  11. Appendix 1: Analytical Techniques (Online supplementary material ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    HP

    Further details of analytical techniques are given in http://www.actlabs.com. Zircon U–Pb dating and trace element analysis. The zircons were separated using standard procedures including crushing (in iron mortar and pestle), sieving (375 to 75 micron), tabling, heavy liquid separation (bromoform and methylene iodide) ...

  12. Hyphenated analytical techniques for materials characterisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Gordon; Kailas, Lekshmi

    2017-09-01

    This topical review will provide a survey of the current state of the art in ‘hyphenated’ techniques for characterisation of bulk materials, surface, and interfaces, whereby two or more analytical methods investigating different properties are applied simultaneously to the same sample to better characterise the sample than can be achieved by conducting separate analyses in series using different instruments. It is intended for final year undergraduates and recent graduates, who may have some background knowledge of standard analytical techniques, but are not familiar with ‘hyphenated’ techniques or hybrid instrumentation. The review will begin by defining ‘complementary’, ‘hybrid’ and ‘hyphenated’ techniques, as there is not a broad consensus among analytical scientists as to what each term means. The motivating factors driving increased development of hyphenated analytical methods will also be discussed. This introduction will conclude with a brief discussion of gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy and energy dispersive x-ray analysis in electron microscopy as two examples, in the context that combining complementary techniques for chemical analysis were among the earliest examples of hyphenated characterisation methods. The emphasis of the main review will be on techniques which are sufficiently well-established that the instrumentation is commercially available, to examine physical properties including physical, mechanical, electrical and thermal, in addition to variations in composition, rather than methods solely to identify and quantify chemical species. Therefore, the proposed topical review will address three broad categories of techniques that the reader may expect to encounter in a well-equipped materials characterisation laboratory: microscopy based techniques, scanning probe-based techniques, and thermal analysis based techniques. Examples drawn from recent literature, and a concluding case study, will be used to explain the

  13. Hyphenated analytical techniques for materials characterisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, Gordon; Kailas, Lekshmi

    2017-01-01

    This topical review will provide a survey of the current state of the art in ‘hyphenated’ techniques for characterisation of bulk materials, surface, and interfaces, whereby two or more analytical methods investigating different properties are applied simultaneously to the same sample to better characterise the sample than can be achieved by conducting separate analyses in series using different instruments. It is intended for final year undergraduates and recent graduates, who may have some background knowledge of standard analytical techniques, but are not familiar with ‘hyphenated’ techniques or hybrid instrumentation. The review will begin by defining ‘complementary’, ‘hybrid’ and ‘hyphenated’ techniques, as there is not a broad consensus among analytical scientists as to what each term means. The motivating factors driving increased development of hyphenated analytical methods will also be discussed. This introduction will conclude with a brief discussion of gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy and energy dispersive x-ray analysis in electron microscopy as two examples, in the context that combining complementary techniques for chemical analysis were among the earliest examples of hyphenated characterisation methods. The emphasis of the main review will be on techniques which are sufficiently well-established that the instrumentation is commercially available, to examine physical properties including physical, mechanical, electrical and thermal, in addition to variations in composition, rather than methods solely to identify and quantify chemical species. Therefore, the proposed topical review will address three broad categories of techniques that the reader may expect to encounter in a well-equipped materials characterisation laboratory: microscopy based techniques, scanning probe-based techniques, and thermal analysis based techniques. Examples drawn from recent literature, and a concluding case study, will be used to explain the

  14. Analytical research using synchrotron radiation based techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, Shambhu Nath

    2015-01-01

    There are many Synchrotron Radiation (SR) based techniques such as X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS), X-ray Fluorescence Analysis (XRF), SR-Fourier-transform Infrared (SRFTIR), Hard X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (HAXPS) etc. which are increasingly being employed worldwide in analytical research. With advent of modern synchrotron sources these analytical techniques have been further revitalized and paved ways for new techniques such as microprobe XRF and XAS, FTIR microscopy, Hard X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (HAXPS) etc. The talk will cover mainly two techniques illustrating its capability in analytical research namely XRF and XAS. XRF spectroscopy: XRF spectroscopy is an analytical technique which involves the detection of emitted characteristic X-rays following excitation of the elements within the sample. While electron, particle (protons or alpha particles), or X-ray beams can be employed as the exciting source for this analysis, the use of X-ray beams from a synchrotron source has been instrumental in the advancement of the technique in the area of microprobe XRF imaging and trace level compositional characterisation of any sample. Synchrotron radiation induced X-ray emission spectroscopy, has become competitive with the earlier microprobe and nanoprobe techniques following the advancements in manipulating and detecting these X-rays. There are two important features that contribute to the superb elemental sensitivities of microprobe SR induced XRF: (i) the absence of the continuum (Bremsstrahlung) background radiation that is a feature of spectra obtained from charged particle beams, and (ii) the increased X-ray flux on the sample associated with the use of tunable third generation synchrotron facilities. Detection sensitivities have been reported in the ppb range, with values of 10 -17 g - 10 -14 g (depending on the particular element and matrix). Keeping in mind its demand, a microprobe XRF beamline has been setup by RRCAT at Indus-2 synchrotron

  15. Nuclear forensics: strategies and analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marin, Rafael C.; Sarkis, Jorge E.S.; Pestana, Rafael C.B.

    2013-01-01

    The development of nuclear forensics as a field of science arose in response to international demand for methods to investigate the illicit trafficking of nuclear materials. After being seized, unknown nuclear material is collected and analyzed by a set of analytical methods. The fingerprints of these materials can be identified and further used during the investigations. Data interpretation is an extensive process aiming to validate the hypotheses made by the experts, and can help confirm the origin of seized nuclear materials at the end of the process or investigation. This work presents the set of measures and analytical methods that have been inherited by nuclear forensics from several fields of science. The main characteristics of these methods are evaluated and the analytical techniques employed to determine the fingerprint of nuclear materials are described. (author)

  16. Nuclear analytical techniques in Cuban Sugar Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Riso, O.; Griffith Martinez, J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper is a review concerning the applications of Nuclear Analytical Techniques in the Cuban sugar industry. The most complete elemental composition of final molasses (34 elements ) and natural zeolites (38) this last one employed as an auxiliary agent in sugar technological processes has been performed by means of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis (XRFA). The trace elements sugar cane soil plant relationship and elemental composition of different types of Cuban sugar (rawr, blanco directo and refine) were also studied. As a result, valuable information referred to the possibilities of using these products in animal and human foodstuff so as in other applications are given

  17. Elemental composition of coal fly ash: Malta coal power station in the Mpumalanga province in South Africa case study using nuclear and related analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eze, Ch.P.; Fatoba, O.; Madzivire, G.; Petrik, L.F.; Ostrovnaya, T.M.; Frontas'eva, M.V.; Nechaev, A.N.

    2013-01-01

    Epithermal neutron activation analysis along with ICP-OES, LA ICP-MS, and XRF were used to determine the elemental composition of coal fly ash from the Malta coal power station in the Mpumalanga province of South Africa. A total of 54 major, trace and rare-earth elements were obtained by the four analytical techniques. The results were compared and the discrepancies discussed to show the merits and drawbacks of each of the techniques. It was shown that the elemental content of this particular coal fly ash is of the same order as the NIST standard reference material Coal Fly Ash 1633b

  18. Nuclear analytical techniques applied to forensic chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolau, Veronica; Montoro, Silvia; Pratta, Nora; Giandomenico, Angel Di

    1999-01-01

    Gun shot residues produced by firing guns are mainly composed by visible particles. The individual characterization of these particles allows distinguishing those ones containing heavy metals, from gun shot residues, from those having a different origin or history. In this work, the results obtained from the study of gun shot residues particles collected from hands are presented. The aim of the analysis is to establish whether a person has shot a firing gun has been in contact with one after the shot has been produced. As reference samples, particles collected hands of persons affected to different activities were studied to make comparisons. The complete study was based on the application of nuclear analytical techniques such as Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy Dispersive X Ray Electron Probe Microanalysis and Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. The essays allow to be completed within time compatible with the forensic requirements. (author)

  19. Nuclear analytical techniques in Cuban sugar industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz R, O.; Griffith M, J.

    1997-01-01

    This paper is a review concerning the application of Nuclear Analytical Techniques in the Cuban sugar industry. The most complete elemental composition of final molasses (34 elements) and natural zeolites (38) this last one employed as an auxiliary agent in sugar technological processe4s has been performed by means of instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis (XRFA). The trace elemental sugar cane soill-plant relationship and elemental composition of different types of Cuban sugar (raw, blanco-directo and refine) were also studied. As a result, valuable information referred to the possibilities of using these products in animal and human foodstuff so as in the other applications are given. (author). 34 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  20. New analytical techniques for cuticle chemical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulten, H.R.

    1994-01-01

    1) The analytical methodology of pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) and direct pyrolysis-mass spectrometry (Py-MS) using soft ionization techniques by high electric fields (FL) are briefly described. Recent advances of Py-GC/MS and Py-FIMS for the analyses of complex organic matter such as plant materials, humic substances, dissolved organic matter in water (DOM) and soil organic matter (SOM) in agricultural and forest soils are given to illustrate the potential and limitations of the applied methods. 2) Novel applications of Py-GC/MS and Py-MS in combination with conventional analytical data in an integrated, chemometric approach to investigate the dynamics of plant lipids are reported. This includes multivariate statistical investigations on maturation, senescence, humus genesis, and environmental damages in spruce ecosystems. 3) The focal point is the author's integrated investigations on emission-induced changes of selected conifer plant constituents. Pattern recognition of Py-MS data of desiccated spruce needles provides a method for distinguishing needles damaged in different ways and determining the cause. Spruce needles were collected from both controls and trees treated with sulphur dioxide (acid rain), nitrogen dioxide, and ozone under controlled conditions. Py-MS and chemometric data evaluation are employed to characterize and classify leaves and their epicuticular waxes. Preliminary mass spectrometric evaluations of isolated cuticles of different plants such as spruce, ivy, holly, and philodendron, as well as ivy cuticles treated in vivo with air pollutants such as surfactants and pesticides are given. (orig.)

  1. Nuclear analytical techniques for nanotoxicology studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Z.Y.; Zhao, Y.L.; Chai, Z.F.

    2011-01-01

    With the rapid development of nanotechnology and its applications, a wide variety of nanomaterials are now used in commodities, pharmaceutics, cosmetics, biomedical products, and industries. The potential interactions of nanomaterials with living systems and the environment have attracted increasing attention from the public, as well as from manufacturers of nanomaterial-based products, academic researchers and policymakers. It is important to consider the environmental, health and safety aspects at an early stage of nanomaterial development and application in order to more effectively identify and manage potential human and environmental health impacts from nanomaterial exposure. This will require research in a range of areas, including detection and characterization, environmental fate and transport, ecotoxicology and toxicology. Nuclear analytical techniques (NATs) can play an important role in such studies due to their intrinsic merits such as high sensitivity, good accuracy, high space resolution, ability to distinguish the endogenous or exogenous sources of materials, and ability of in situ and in vivo analysis. In this paper, the applications of NATs in nanotoxicological and nano-ecotoxicological studies are outlined, and some recent results obtained in our laboratory are reported. (orig.)

  2. Application of on-line analytical processing technique in accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Dong; Li Weimin; He Duohui; Liu Gongfa; Xuan Ke

    2005-01-01

    A method of application of the on-line analytical processing technique in accelerator is described, which includes data pre-processing, the process of constructing of data warehouse and on-line analytical processing. (authors)

  3. Multielement determination in Cuban red mangrove samples using nuclear and related analytical techniques; Determinacion multielemental en muestras de mangles cubanos utilizando tecnicas analiticas nucleares y conexas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estevez Alvarez, J R; Aguiar Lambert, D; Montero Alvarez, A; Pupo Gonzalez, I; Padilla Alvarez, R [Centro de Estudios Aplicados al Desarrollo Nuclear, La Habana (Cuba); Gonzalez Garcia, H; Ramirez Sasco, M [Centro de Ingenieria y Manejo Ambiental de Bahias y Costas, La Habana (Cuba)

    1999-12-31

    In the present work the contents of Al; K; Ca; Mn; Fe; Ni; Cu; Zn; Sr; Cd and Pb in red mangroves (Rhizophora mangle) from different Cuban regions are determined, using Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (Emission-Transmission (Et) and I/C methods), Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS), and Polarography (Anodic Stripping Voltametry method). Biological Certified Reference Materials (CRM) are employed for the tracing of the tracing of the curves of the relative I/C method and for the evaluation of the analytical results accuracy. The reliability of the results is also checked by statistical means. Standard deviations and the detection limits of each method are reported. Finally, the obtained values for the concentration of the different elements in each studied ecosystem are presented; a detailed discussion about their significance will be performed in a further paper.

  4. Analytical Techniques in the Pharmaceutical Sciences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leurs, Ulrike; Mistarz, Ulrik Hvid; Rand, Kasper Dyrberg

    2016-01-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS) offers the capability to identify, characterize and quantify a target molecule in a complex sample matrix and has developed into a premier analytical tool in drug development science. Through specific MS-based workflows including customized sample preparation, coupling...

  5. Semi-analytic techniques for calculating bubble wall profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akula, Sujeet; Balazs, Csaba; White, Graham A.

    2016-01-01

    We present semi-analytic techniques for finding bubble wall profiles during first order phase transitions with multiple scalar fields. Our method involves reducing the problem to an equation with a single field, finding an approximate analytic solution and perturbing around it. The perturbations can be written in a semi-analytic form. We assert that our technique lacks convergence problems and demonstrate the speed of convergence on an example potential. (orig.)

  6. X-ray fluorescence in Member States (Spain): Main activities related to the use of XRF techniques at the Analytical and Environmental Chemistry Research Group of the University of Girona (UdG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marguí, Eva; Hidalgo, Manuela

    2014-01-01

    The Analytical and Environmental Chemistry Group (QAA) is a consolidated research group of the Department of Chemistry of the University of Girona (North- East Spain). The main research topics of the group are related to the development and application of analytical methodologies for the determination of inorganic and organic species in different kind of environmental, clinical and industrial samples. From the beginning of the 2000’s, one of the research focuses of the group, is the use of X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) for the determination of trace amounts of metals and metalloids mostly in samples related to the environmental and industrial fields. For instance, in collaboration with the Institute of Earth Sciences “Jaume Almera” (ICTJA-CSIC, Spain), we have developed and successfully applied several analytical approaches based on the use of EDXRF (Energy dispersive XRF), WDXRF (Wavelength dispersive XRF) and PEDXRF (Polarised EDXRF) for the determination of metals at trace levels in complex liquid samples such as sea water or electroplating waters in vegetation samples collected around mining environments or in active pharmaceutical ingredients. At present, the evaluation of the analytical possibilities of TXRF (Total reflection XRF) in the chemical analysis field is also one of the research topics of QAA. In this sense, several contributions related to the use of this technique for element determination in liquid and solid samples have been developed. A summary of these contributions is summarized in the last section of this review

  7. A study on environmental pollution monitoring and occupational health in the capital iron and steel company, Beijing, China, using nuclear and related analytical techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chifang, Chai; Xiaolin, Hou; Qinfang, Qian; Wenjun, Ding; Xiangqian, Feng [Institute of High Energy Physics and Laboratory of Nuclear Analysis Techniques, Academia Sinica, Beijing (China); Minxu, Kuang; Hongyu, Wang; Yongchen, Zhang [General Hospital of the Capital Iron and Steel Company, Beijing (China)

    1999-12-31

    The atmosphere pollution in some Chinese cities is becoming more and more serious with the industrial development in the past decades. The airborne particulate concentration in Beijing, the Capital of China, far exceeds the allowable level set by the Chinese government and by the related international organizations. The main contribution source for the Beijing atmospheric particulate is the Capital Iron and Steel Company, which constitutes 55% of total air-borne particulate in Beijing. In the framework of this CRP organized by IAEA, we select this company as a target workplace. The INAA (instrumental neutron activation analysis), PIXE (proton induced X-ray emission analysis), SRXRF (synchronous radiation X-ray fluorescence spectrometry) and other related techniques will be applied to determine the concentrations of some target elements, e.g. heavy metal and toxic elements, in environmental samples (including airborne particulate, soil and plants) and human samples (including head hair, urine and blood) collected from this company, its surrounding region and a non-polluted region as a control. The activity completed at the first year and the working plan for next year is outlined in this report. Other related information will be dealt with as well. (author) 7 refs, 1 tab

  8. A study on environmental pollution monitoring and occupational health in the capital iron and steel company, Beijing, China, using nuclear and related analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai Chifang; Hou Xiaolin; Qian Qinfang; Ding Wenjun; Feng Xiangqian; Kuang Minxu; Wang Hongyu; Zhang Yongchen

    1998-01-01

    The atmosphere pollution in some Chinese cities is becoming more and more serious with the industrial development in the past decades. The airborne particulate concentration in Beijing, the Capital of China, far exceeds the allowable level set by the Chinese government and by the related international organizations. The main contribution source for the Beijing atmospheric particulate is the Capital Iron and Steel Company, which constitutes 55% of total air-borne particulate in Beijing. In the framework of this CRP organized by IAEA, we select this company as a target workplace. The INAA (instrumental neutron activation analysis), PIXE (proton induced X-ray emission analysis), SRXRF (synchronous radiation X-ray fluorescence spectrometry) and other related techniques will be applied to determine the concentrations of some target elements, e.g. heavy metal and toxic elements, in environmental samples (including airborne particulate, soil and plants) and human samples (including head hair, urine and blood) collected from this company, its surrounding region and a non-polluted region as a control. The activity completed at the first year and the working plan for next year is outlined in this report. Other related information will be dealt with as well. (author)

  9. Analytical detection techniques for droplet microfluidics—A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Ying; Fang, Qun

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •This is the first review paper focused on the analytical techniques for droplet-based microfluidics. •We summarized the analytical methods used in droplet-based microfluidic systems. •We discussed the advantage and disadvantage of each method through its application. •We also discuss the future development direction of analytical methods for droplet-based microfluidic systems. -- Abstract: In the last decade, droplet-based microfluidics has undergone rapid progress in the fields of single-cell analysis, digital PCR, protein crystallization and high throughput screening. It has been proved to be a promising platform for performing chemical and biological experiments with ultra-small volumes (picoliter to nanoliter) and ultra-high throughput. The ability to analyze the content in droplet qualitatively and quantitatively is playing an increasing role in the development and application of droplet-based microfluidic systems. In this review, we summarized the analytical detection techniques used in droplet systems and discussed the advantage and disadvantage of each technique through its application. The analytical techniques mentioned in this paper include bright-field microscopy, fluorescence microscopy, laser induced fluorescence, Raman spectroscopy, electrochemistry, capillary electrophoresis, mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, absorption detection, chemiluminescence, and sample pretreatment techniques. The importance of analytical detection techniques in enabling new applications is highlighted. We also discuss the future development direction of analytical detection techniques for droplet-based microfluidic systems

  10. Analytical mechanics for relativity and quantum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Johns, Oliver Davis

    2011-01-01

    Analytical Mechanics for Relativity and Quantum Mechanics is an innovative and mathematically sound treatment of the foundations of analytical mechanics and the relation of classical mechanics to relativity and quantum theory. It is intended for use at the introductory graduate level. A distinguishing feature of the book is its integration of special relativity into teaching of classical mechanics. After a thorough review of the traditional theory, Part II of the book introduces extended Lagrangian and Hamiltonian methods that treat time as a transformable coordinate rather than the fixed parameter of Newtonian physics. Advanced topics such as covariant Langrangians and Hamiltonians, canonical transformations, and Hamilton-Jacobi methods are simplified by the use of this extended theory. And the definition of canonical transformation no longer excludes the Lorenz transformation of special relativity. This is also a book for those who study analytical mechanics to prepare for a critical exploration of quantum...

  11. Co-ordinated research project on assessment of levels and health-effects of airborne particulate matter in mining, metal refining and metal working industries using nuclear and related analytical techniques. Report on the second research co-ordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Overall objectives: To demonstrate the applicability of nuclear and related techniques in studies that may impact on human health, giving emphasis to the solution of problems that have been identified to be of high priority in national and international programmes for sustainable development. Specific objectives: To develop strategies and techniques for sampling of workplace airborne particulate matter (APM) and of human tissues and body fluids (hair, blood, etc.) of exposed and non-exposed persons; To development suitable analytical procedures for analysis of such types of samples, using nuclear and related analytical techniques; To carry out workplace and personal monitoring of APM and characterise the health effects of such exposure in terms of the observed elemental concentration; To carry out tissue analyses of the workers so exposed for biological monitoring and the health effects studies. Achievements: a) Specific industries not previously monitored in individual countries have been targeted in respect of pollution assessment. Some examples are: Stainless steel processing and construction; Galvanising industry; Zinc smelting operations; Mineral fertiliser industry. b) Validation of analytical techniques through quality control exercises: NAT-3 Interlaboratory comparison for the determination of trace and minor elements in urban dust artificially loaded on air filters; NAT-4 Proficiency test on selected trace elements in lyophilised urine and air filters. c) Capacity building through the establishment of new multidisciplinary teams, personnel training and laboratory expertise. d) The sampling procedures have been harmonised through: The application of the ''Gent'' sampler for APM collection, IAEA procedures and IUPAC guidelines for sampling and sample handling of hair, blood and urine. e) All participants performed surveys on targeted industries and selected pollutants. f) The scientific output of the CRP is materialised in various national and international

  12. Identification of Microorganisms by Modern Analytical Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buszewski, Bogusław; Rogowska, Agnieszka; Pomastowski, Paweł; Złoch, Michał; Railean-Plugaru, Viorica

    2017-11-01

    Rapid detection and identification of microorganisms is a challenging and important aspect in a wide range of fields, from medical to industrial, affecting human lives. Unfortunately, classical methods of microorganism identification are based on time-consuming and labor-intensive approaches. Screening techniques require the rapid and cheap grouping of bacterial isolates; however, modern bioanalytics demand comprehensive bacterial studies at a molecular level. Modern approaches for the rapid identification of bacteria use molecular techniques, such as 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing based on polymerase chain reaction or electromigration, especially capillary zone electrophoresis and capillary isoelectric focusing. However, there are still several challenges with the analysis of microbial complexes using electromigration technology, such as uncontrolled aggregation and/or adhesion to the capillary surface. Thus, an approach using capillary electrophoresis of microbial aggregates with UV and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight MS detection is presented.

  13. Analytical Techniques and the Air Force Logistics Readiness Officer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Main, Bryan D

    2008-01-01

    .... Over 500 LROs and supervisors provided inputs. Analysis of survey responses found that Forecasting, Graphical Statistics, and Descriptive Statistics are the analytical techniques valued most by both LROs and their supervisors...

  14. Structural level characterization of base oils using advanced analytical techniques

    KAUST Repository

    Hourani, Nadim; Muller, Hendrik; Adam, Frederick M.; Panda, Saroj K.; Witt, Matthias; Al-Hajji, Adnan A.; Sarathy, Mani

    2015-01-01

    cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) equipped with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) and atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) sources. First, the capabilities and limitations of each analytical technique were evaluated

  15. Surface analytical techniques applied to minerals processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smart, R.St.C.

    1991-01-01

    An understanding of the chemical and physical forms of the chemically altered layers on the surfaces of base metal sulphides, particularly in the form of hydroxides, oxyhydroxides and oxides, and the changes that occur in them during minerals processing lies at the core of a complete description of flotation chemistry. This paper reviews the application of a variety of surface-sensitive techniques and methodologies applied to the study of surface layers on single minerals, mixed minerals, synthetic ores and real ores. Evidence from combined XPS/SAM/SEM studies have provided images and analyses of three forms of oxide, oxyhydroxide and hydroxide products on the surfaces of single sulphide minerals, mineral mixtures and complex sulphide ores. 4 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs

  16. Activities at Forschungszentrum Juelich in Safeguards Analytical Techniques and Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duerr, M.; Knott, A.; Middendorp, R.; Niemeyer, I.; Kueppers, S.; Zoriy, M.; Froning, M.; Bosbach, D.

    2015-01-01

    The application of safeguards by the IAEA involves analytical measurements of samples taken during inspections. The development and advancement of analytical techniques with support from the Member States contributes to strengthened and more efficient verification of compliance with non-proliferation obligations. Since recently, a cooperation agreement has been established between Forschungszentrum Juelich and the IAEA in the field of analytical services. The current working areas of Forschungszentrum Juelich are: (i) Production of synthetic micro-particles as calibration standard and reference material for particle analysis, (ii) qualification of the Forschungszentrum Juelich as a member of the IAEA network of analytical laboratories for safeguards (NWAL), and (iii) analysis of impurities in nuclear material samples. With respect to the synthesis of particles, a dedicated setup for the production of uranium particles is being developed, which addresses the urgent need for material tailored for its use in quality assurance and quality control measures for particle analysis of environmental swipe samples. Furthermore, Forschungszentrum Juelich has been nominated as a candidate laboratory for membership in the NWAL network. To this end, analytical capabilities at Forschungszentrum Juelich have been joined to form an analytical service within a dedicated quality management system. Another activity is the establishment of analytical techniques for impurity analysis of uranium-oxide, mainly focusing on inductively coupled mass spectrometry. This contribution will present the activities at Forschungszentrum Juelich in the area of analytical measurements and techniques for nuclear verification. (author)

  17. Optimization of analytical techniques to characterize antibiotics in aquatic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Mokh, S.

    2013-01-01

    Antibiotics are considered as pollutants when they are present in aquatic ecosystems, ultimate receptacles of anthropogenic substances. These compounds are studied as their persistence in the environment or their effects on natural organisms. Numerous efforts have been made worldwide to assess the environmental quality of different water resources for the survival of aquatic species, but also for human consumption and health risk related. Towards goal, the optimization of analytical techniques for these compounds in aquatic systems remains a necessity. Our objective is to develop extraction and detection methods for 12 molecules of aminoglycosides and colistin in sewage treatment plants and hospitals waters. The lack of analytical methods for analysis of these compounds and the deficiency of studies for their detection in water is the reason for their study. Solid Phase Extraction (SPE) in classic mode (offline) or online followed by Liquid Chromatography analysis coupled with Mass Spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) is the most method commonly used for this type of analysis. The parameters are optimized and validated to ensure the best conditions for the environmental analysis. This technique was applied to real samples of wastewater treatment plants in Bordeaux and Lebanon. (author)

  18. Implementation of an analytical technique for Samarium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia G, N.

    2004-01-01

    Since the Samarium presents the same chemical properties that the plutonium, it has been used as homologous in studies that allow us to know the behavior that the plutonium presents in solution, with the advantage of working with an inactive and not very dangerous element. At the moment studies of sorption of plutonium or samarium are made on some mineral matrices that present certain surface properties. Due to the low concentrations that are used in the studies of sorption of samarium on those reagent substrates, their detection becomes very difficult for the conventional analysis media. The luminescence is a technique that can detect lower concentrations, smaller at 1 X 10 - 2 M, but when fluorofors are used this limit of detection increases in several orders of magnitude. In this work it has been used the arsenazo-III as fluorofor agent since it reacts in a specific way with the samarium, forming a complex that presents a proportional luminescence to the concentration of the present samarium. The advantage of making the quantification of samarium by luminescence is that it can use the same instrumental equipment to determine the speciation of the samarium sipped in the zircon. (Author)

  19. Derivative analyticity relations and asymptotic energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, J.

    1976-01-01

    On the basis of general principles of the S-matrix theory theorems are derived showing that derivative analyticity relations analogous to those of Bronzen, Kane and Sukhatme hold at asymptotic energies if the high-energy limits of certain physical quantities exist

  20. Characterization of marine sediments using analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Rosales, G.; Longoria-Gandara, L.C.

    2011-01-01

    This study deals with the characterization of a marine sediments profile from the Gulf of Tehuantepec, Mexico. Ten sediment samples obtained from a core of 18.3 m of length were analysed. Although there have been numerous marine sediments studies carried out in Mexico, more are needed to better understand the sea floor formation. Crystallographic, morphologic, physical, chemical and gamma ray activity analysis were carried out on the samples. The analysis results showed a decrease in organic matter content as a function of sea depth; this value is related to the specific surface area. Some hazardous materials as Cr, Mn, Ni, Sr and Hg were also identified by PIXE in some samples, probably due to anthropogenic activity. The presence of uranium a naturally occurring element was found in all the samples, suggesting a migration through all materials of strata, radioactive elements such as 226 Ra, 235 U, 212 Pb, 214 Pb, 228 Ac, 208 Ti, 214 Bi, 228 Ac and 40 K were detected. (author)

  1. Analytical Technique of Selection of Constructive Parameters Pneumatichydraulic Springs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Tsipilev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article "Technique for Analytical Selection of Design Parameters of Pneumatichydraulic Springs concerns the ride smoothness of high-speed vehicles. Author of article Tsipilev A.A. is an assistant at chair "Multi-purpose Tracked Vehicles and Mobile Robots" of BMSTU. The article represents a synthesis of known information on the springing systems and an analysis of relation between spring design data and running gear. It describes standard units of running gear of vehicle in the context of springing systems. Classification of springing systems is considered. Modernization general policy for existing suspensions and prospects for creation of new ones are given. The article considers a design of various pneumatic-hydraulic springs to be set on domestic tracked vehicles. A developed technique allows us to have elastic characteristics of pneumatic-hydraulic springs of various types using these design data and kinematics of the running gear. The article provides recommendations to calculate characteristics of springing systems. The adequacy analysis of the given technique based on the comparison of real and rated characteristics of the existing suspension is conducted. This article can be useful to the experts dealing with springing systems of wheel and tracked vehicles.

  2. Development of analytical techniques for safeguards environmental samples at JAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Satoshi; Magara, Masaaki; Usuda, Shigekazu; Watanabe, Kazuo; Esaka, Fumitaka; Hirayama, Fumio; Lee, Chi-Gyu; Yasuda, Kenichiro; Inagawa, Jun; Suzuki, Daisuke; Iguchi, Kazunari; Kokubu, Yoko S.; Miyamoto, Yutaka; Ohzu, Akira

    2007-01-01

    JAEA has been developing, under the auspices of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan, analytical techniques for ultra-trace amounts of nuclear materials in environmental samples in order to contribute to the strengthened safeguards system. Development of essential techniques for bulk and particle analysis, as well as screening, of the environmental swipe samples has been established as ultra-trace analytical methods of uranium and plutonium. In January 2003, JAEA was qualified, including its quality control system, as a member of the JAEA network analytical laboratories for environmental samples. Since 2004, JAEA has conducted the analysis of domestic and the IAEA samples, through which JAEA's analytical capability has been verified and improved. In parallel, advanced techniques have been developed in order to expand the applicability to the samples of various elemental composition and impurities and to improve analytical accuracy and efficiency. This paper summarizes the trace of the technical development in environmental sample analysis at JAEA, and refers to recent trends of research and development in this field. (author)

  3. Nuclear and Related Analytical Techniques Used to Study the Anthropogenic Impact on the Sister River in the Vicinity of the Town of Klin (Moscow Region, Russia)

    CERN Document Server

    Morzhukhina, S V; Chermnykh, L P; Khodakovsky, L P; Frontasyeva, M V; Gundorina, S F

    2001-01-01

    The ecological fate of small rivers, tributaries of the Volga River, is of great concern in the national program of the Russian Federation "Restoration of the Volga River". The results on the elaborated hydrochemical and saprobiological water examination of the Sister River are reported along with the results on the multielement chemical analysis of surface sediments in the catchment of the town of Klin (Moscow Region) known for its numerous industrial and chemical enterprises with heavy contaminant inputs. Epithermal neutron activation analysis was used to study heavy metals and other toxic elements in bottom sediments. A total of 42 elements including Pb, Cu, Cd and Hg were determined by polarography (method of inverse voltamperometry). Metal/Al rations which express the relative mobility of the elements follow the sequence: Fe > Mg > K > Na > Ca >> Zr > Mn > Zn = Sr > Cr > V > Ni = As > Co. Elevated concentrations of Cd, Pb, Zn and Cu in the bottom sediments of the Sister River reinforced us to determine t...

  4. Nuclear and related analytical techniques used to study the anthropogenic impact on the Sister River in the vicinity of the town of Klin (Moscow Region, Russia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morzhukhina, S.V.; Uspenskaya, V.V.; Chermnykh, L.P.; Khodakovskij, I.L.; Frontas'eva, M.V.; Gundorina, S.F.

    2001-01-01

    The ecological fate of small rivers, tributaries of the Volga River, is of great concern in the national program of the Russian Federation 'Restoration of the Volga River'. The results on the elaborated hydrochemical and saprobiological water examination of the Sister River are reported along with the results on the multielement chemical analysis of surface sediments in the catchment of the town of Klin (Moscow Region) known for its numerous industrial and chemical enterprises with heavy contaminant inputs. Epithermal neutron activation analysis was used to study heavy metals and other toxic elements in bottom sediments. A total of 42 elements including Pb, Cu, Cd and Hg were determined by polarography (method of inverse voltamperometry). Metal/Al rations which express the relative mobility of the elements follow the sequence: Fe > Mg > K > Na > Ca >> Zr > Mn > Zn = Sr > Cr > V > Ni = As > Co. Elevated concentrations of Cd, Pb, Zn and Cu in the bottom sediments of the Sister River reinforced us to determine their chemical forms using fractionation scheme. Cadmium is mostly associated with carbonate content and thus has a possibility of becoming readily bioavailable. Its toxicity and bioavailability poses a serious problem to ecosystem. Copper and zinc besides having less environmental risk are present in forms in which they cannot be easily leached out. Accumulation of toxic metals, arsenic and oil products are of potential hazard for the secondary pollution of the surface waters. It is shown that the main sources of pollution in the vicinity of the town of Klin are the domestic sewage waters and sewage waters from the chemical complex 'Klin-Fiber' producing synthetic materials. The extremes of the distribution patterns of pollutants in the bottom sediments and water are to be found approximately 50 km down the stream from the discharge sources. The second source of geochemical anomaly is located upstream of the Sister River, before the town of Klin

  5. Reference materials for micro-analytical nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valkovic, V.; Zeisler, R.; Bernasconi, G.; Danesi, P.R.

    1994-01-01

    Direct application of many existing reference materials in micro-analytical procedures such as energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence (EDXRF), particle induced x-ray emission spectroscopy (PIXE) and ion probe techniques for the determination of trace elements is often impossible or difficult because: 1) other constituents present in large amounts interfere with the determination; 2) trace components are not sufficiently homogeneously distributed in the sample. Therefore specific natural-matrix reference materials containing very low levels of trace elements and having high degree of homogeneity are required for many micro-analytical procedures. In this report, selection of the types of environmental and biological materials which are suitable for micro-analytical techniques will be discussed. (author)

  6. Improvement of Analytical Technique for Determination of Gold in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article elucidates the improvement of analytical technique for determination of gold in geological matrix. Samples suspected to have gold in them were subjected to neutron flux from the Nigeria Research Reactor (NRR-1), a Miniature Neutron Source Reactor (MNSR). Two geological samples – one sample was ...

  7. Quality assurance and quality control of nuclear analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cincu, Emanuelathor

    2001-01-01

    Test and analytical laboratories in East and Central European countries need to prove the reliability and credibility of their economic, environmental, medical and legal decisions and their capacity of issuing reliable, verifiable reports. These demands imposed by the European Union aimed at avoiding a possible barrier to trade for the developing countries. In June 1999, in order to help Member States to develop according to EU objectives and the overall situation of the European market, IAEA launched a new co-operation programme designed to help the nuclear analytical laboratories in nuclear institutions and universities of Member States by training in the use of some Nuclear Analytical Techniques (NAT) that include: alpha, beta and gamma-ray spectrometry, radiochemical and neutron activation analysis, total reflection X-ray fluorescence. The Regional IAEA Project, named 'Quality Assurance/Quality Control of Nuclear Analytical Techniques' (NAT) aims at implementing the QA principles via a system of defined consecutive steps leading to a level on which the QA system is self-sustainable for formal accreditation or certification and satisfies the EU technical performance criteria; the requirements are in accordance with the new ISO/IEC 17025 Standard/Dec.1999 'General requirements for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories' - First edition. The Horia Hulubei National Institute for Nuclear Physics and Engineering, IFIN-HH, was admitted for participation in the IAEA Project in June 1999 account taken of its experience in the QA and metrology fields and its performance in the fields of beta and gamma-ray spectrometry, and radiochemical and neutron activation analysis, employed in both basic research and applications for external clients. Two working groups of specialists with the QA and Standardization and Metrology Departments and six analytical groups with the departments of Nuclear Applied Physics, Life Physics and Ionising Radiation Metrology are

  8. Advanced analytical techniques for boiling water reactor chemistry control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alder, H P; Schenker, E [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-02-01

    The analytical techniques applied can be divided into 5 classes: OFF-LINE (discontinuous, central lab), AT-LINE (discontinuous, analysis near loop), ON-LINE (continuous, analysis in bypass). In all cases pressure and temperature of the water sample are reduced. In a strict sense only IN-LINE (continuous, flow disturbance) and NON-INVASIVE (continuous, no flow disturbance) techniques are suitable for direct process control; - the ultimate goal. An overview of the analytical techniques tested in the pilot loop is given. Apart from process and overall water quality control, standard for BWR operation, the main emphasis is on water impurity characterization (crud particles, hot filtration, organic carbon); on stress corrosion crackling control for materials (corrosion potential, oxygen concentration) and on the characterization of the oxide layer on austenites (impedance spectroscopy, IR-reflection). The above mentioned examples of advanced analytical techniques have the potential of in-line or non-invasive application. They are different stages of development and are described in more detail. 28 refs, 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  9. Determination of uranium in ground water using different analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahu, S.K.; Maity, Sukanta; Bhangare, R.C.; Pandit, G.G.; Sharma, D.N.

    2014-10-01

    The concern over presence of natural radionuclides like uranium in drinking water is growing recently. The contamination of aquifers with radionuclides depends on number of factors. The geology of an area is the most important factor along with anthropogenic activities like mining, coal ash disposal from thermal power plants, use of phosphate fertilizers etc. Whatever may be the source, the presence of uranium in drinking waters is a matter of great concern for public health. Studies show that uranium is a chemo-toxic and nephrotoxic heavy metal. This chemotoxicity affects the kidneys and bones in particular. Seeing the potential health hazards from natural radionuclides in drinking water, many countries worldwide have adopted the guideline activity concentration for drinking water quality recommended by the WHO (2011). For uranium, WHO has set a limit of 30μgL-1 in drinking water. The geological distribution of uranium and its migration in environment is of interest because the element is having environmental and exposure concerns. It is of great interest to use an analytical technique for uranium analysis in water which is highly sensitive especially at trace levels, specific and precise in presence of other naturally occurring major and trace metals and needs small amount of sample. Various analytical methods based on the use of different techniques have been developed in the past for the determination of uranium in the geological samples. The determination of uranium requires high selectivity due to its strong association with other elements. Several trace level wet chemistry analytical techniques have been reported for uranium determination, but most of these involve tedious and pain staking procedures, high detection limits, interferences etc. Each analytical technique has its own merits and demerits. Comparative assessment by different techniques can provide better quality control and assurance. In present study, uranium was analysed in ground water samples

  10. Linear circuit transfer functions an introduction to fast analytical techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Basso, Christophe P

    2016-01-01

    Linear Circuit Transfer Functions: An introduction to Fast Analytical Techniques teaches readers how to determine transfer functions of linear passive and active circuits by applying Fast Analytical Circuits Techniques. Building on their existing knowledge of classical loop/nodal analysis, the book improves and expands their skills to unveil transfer functions in a swift and efficient manner. Starting with simple examples, the author explains step-by-step how expressing circuits time constants in different configurations leads to writing transfer functions in a compact and insightful way. By learning how to organize numerators and denominators in the fastest possible way, readers will speed-up analysis and predict the frequency resp nse of simple to complex circuits. In some cases, they will be able to derive the final expression by inspection, without writing a line of algebra. Key features: * Emphasizes analysis through employing time constant-based methods discussed in other text books but not widely us...

  11. Evaluation of analytical techniques to determine matals in Sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biancifiori, M.A.; Zappa, G.; Amico, A.

    1985-01-01

    The influence of some instrumental parameters on the analysis of CA, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, and Ni in Sodium solutions, by means of Flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (FAAS), is evaluated. The best operating parameters are established and the possibility of application of this analytical technique to the detection of the metallic impurities in Sodium is evaluated, considering the concentration values of nuclear interest

  12. Conference on Nuclear and Conventional Analytical Techniques and their Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Full text : A panoply analytic techniques methods has emerged in recent decades due to the challenges of society in quality of products and the increasing demand of chemical analysis services. The industrial progress which came along with an instrumental perfection of devices with analytical use, led to the development of new techniques more and more advanced in this field. These come as well, to answer the disturbing effects of this industrialization and the wishes of a public increasingly conscious and requiring globally. The leaders in this field of analysis and material characterization are more than ever confronted with problems of identification and quantification of different chemical forms of a multitude of products in varied circles; Industrial pollutants, soil, water, air, food, medicines, ceramics, concrete, plants etc. It was from that perspective that the unifying theme ''geomaterials: characterization to applications '' of the conference on nuclear and conventional analytical techniques and their applications (TANCA 2010) was chosen. It contributes to the debate of these subjects and builds relationships between stakeholders in this field, both technically and practically [fr

  13. Analytical techniques for wine analysis: An African perspective; a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villiers, André de; Alberts, Phillipus; Tredoux, Andreas G.J.; Nieuwoudt, Hélène H.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Analytical techniques developed for grape and wine analysis in Africa are reviewed. ► The utility of infrared spectroscopic methods is demonstrated. ► An overview of separation of wine constituents by GC, HPLC, CE is presented. ► Novel LC and GC sample preparation methods for LC and GC are presented. ► Emerging methods for grape and wine analysis in Africa are discussed. - Abstract: Analytical chemistry is playing an ever-increasingly important role in the global wine industry. Chemical analysis of wine is essential in ensuring product safety and conformity to regulatory laws governing the international market, as well as understanding the fundamental aspects of grape and wine production to improve manufacturing processes. Within this field, advanced instrumental analysis methods have been exploited more extensively in recent years. Important advances in instrumental analytical techniques have also found application in the wine industry. This review aims to highlight the most important developments in the field of instrumental wine and grape analysis in the African context. The focus of this overview is specifically on the application of advanced instrumental techniques, including spectroscopic and chromatographic methods. Recent developments in wine and grape analysis and their application in the African context are highlighted, and future trends are discussed in terms of their potential contribution to the industry.

  14. Analytical techniques for wine analysis: An African perspective; a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villiers, Andre de, E-mail: ajdevill@sun.ac.za [Department of Chemistry and Polymer Science, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, Matieland 7602, Stellenbosch (South Africa); Alberts, Phillipus [Department of Chemistry and Polymer Science, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, Matieland 7602, Stellenbosch (South Africa); Tredoux, Andreas G.J.; Nieuwoudt, Helene H. [Institute for Wine Biotechnology, Department of Viticulture and Oenology, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, Matieland 7602, Stellenbosch (South Africa)

    2012-06-12

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Analytical techniques developed for grape and wine analysis in Africa are reviewed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The utility of infrared spectroscopic methods is demonstrated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An overview of separation of wine constituents by GC, HPLC, CE is presented. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Novel LC and GC sample preparation methods for LC and GC are presented. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Emerging methods for grape and wine analysis in Africa are discussed. - Abstract: Analytical chemistry is playing an ever-increasingly important role in the global wine industry. Chemical analysis of wine is essential in ensuring product safety and conformity to regulatory laws governing the international market, as well as understanding the fundamental aspects of grape and wine production to improve manufacturing processes. Within this field, advanced instrumental analysis methods have been exploited more extensively in recent years. Important advances in instrumental analytical techniques have also found application in the wine industry. This review aims to highlight the most important developments in the field of instrumental wine and grape analysis in the African context. The focus of this overview is specifically on the application of advanced instrumental techniques, including spectroscopic and chromatographic methods. Recent developments in wine and grape analysis and their application in the African context are highlighted, and future trends are discussed in terms of their potential contribution to the industry.

  15. Instrumental analytical techniques in geochemistry: Requirements and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willis, J.P.

    1986-01-01

    Geochemists must analyse an extremely wide range of terrestrial and planetary materials. The instrumental techniques necessary to cope with this difficult task are considered. The most important analytical techniques in use by the geochemist today are AAS, ICP-OES, INAA, MSID and XRFS, and the electron microscope for in situ mineral analysis. Some applications of these techniques to solving major problems in geochemistry are discussed. The importance of certified reference materials and of high quality geochemical data are emphasized. It is concluded that the general quality of trace element data has improved over the past 25 years, as a direct result of the application of modern instrumental techniques. Surprisingly, the quality of data reported for certain major elements has deteriorated over that time, when compared with data obtainable by classical chemical methods. Predictions are made concerning the instrumentation needs of the next generation of geochemists. (orig.) [de

  16. A Novel Analytic Technique for the Service Station Reliability in a Discrete-Time Repairable Queue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renbin Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a decomposition technique for the service station reliability in a discrete-time repairable GeomX/G/1 queueing system, in which the server takes exhaustive service and multiple adaptive delayed vacation discipline. Using such a novel analytic technique, some important reliability indices and reliability relation equations of the service station are derived. Furthermore, the structures of the service station indices are also found. Finally, special cases and numerical examples validate the derived results and show that our analytic technique is applicable to reliability analysis of some complex discrete-time repairable bulk arrival queueing systems.

  17. International conference on isotopic and nuclear analytical techniques for health and environment. Book of abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    Decision makers and stakeholders are becoming increasingly dependent on reliable chemical measurements that serve as a basis for decisions related to health, consumer safety, commerce, environment protection and compliance to regulations. Several millions of analytical results are produced annually, thus consuming appreciable amounts of resources. Reliability of these data is of major concern if cost-benefit figures are applied. Nuclear and isotopic analytical techniques (NATs) have been supported by the IAEA as part of their mandate to foster the peaceful use of nuclear energy for many years. Nuclear analytical laboratories have been installed and upgraded through Technical Co-operation assistance in many Member State laboratories. These techniques, including INAA, XRF, PIXE, stable and radioisotopes, spectrometroscopy, etc. have been applied to a wide range of subjects with varying success. Nuclear analytical techniques, featuring some intrinsic quality control aspects, such as multi-nuclide analysis, frequently serve as 'reference methods' to cross-check critical results. As nuclear properties of elements are targeted, matrix problems seem to be negligible to a great extent. The International Conference on Isotopic and Nuclear Analytical Techniques for Health and Environment was held 10-13 June 2003 in Vienna, Austria. The main purpose of this Conference was to bring together scientists, technologists, representatives of industry and regulatory authorities to exchange information and review the status of current developments and applications of isotopic and nuclear analytical techniques, and to discuss future trends and developments. A further objective is to identify potential opportunities for developing countries for applying isotopic and nuclear analytical techniques in health and environmental studies, and to consider the promotion and transfer of such technology. International developments and trends in health care, nutrition, and environmental monitoring

  18. Analysis of Cultural Heritage by Accelerator Techniques and Analytical Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ide-Ektessabi, Ari; Toque, Jay Arre; Murayama, Yusuke

    2011-12-01

    In this paper we present the result of experimental investigation using two very important accelerator techniques: (1) synchrotron radiation XRF and XAFS; and (2) accelerator mass spectrometry and multispectral analytical imaging for the investigation of cultural heritage. We also want to introduce a complementary approach to the investigation of artworks which is noninvasive and nondestructive that can be applied in situ. Four major projects will be discussed to illustrate the potential applications of these accelerator and analytical imaging techniques: (1) investigation of Mongolian Textile (Genghis Khan and Kublai Khan Period) using XRF, AMS and electron microscopy; (2) XRF studies of pigments collected from Korean Buddhist paintings; (3) creating a database of elemental composition and spectral reflectance of more than 1000 Japanese pigments which have been used for traditional Japanese paintings; and (4) visible light-near infrared spectroscopy and multispectral imaging of degraded malachite and azurite. The XRF measurements of the Japanese and Korean pigments could be used to complement the results of pigment identification by analytical imaging through spectral reflectance reconstruction. On the other hand, analysis of the Mongolian textiles revealed that they were produced between 12th and 13th century. Elemental analysis of the samples showed that they contained traces of gold, copper, iron and titanium. Based on the age and trace elements in the samples, it was concluded that the textiles were produced during the height of power of the Mongol empire, which makes them a valuable cultural heritage. Finally, the analysis of the degraded and discolored malachite and azurite demonstrates how multispectral analytical imaging could be used to complement the results of high energy-based techniques.

  19. Simple analytical relations for ship bow waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noblesse, Francis; Delhommeau, G.?Rard; Guilbaud, Michel; Hendrix, Dane; Yang, Chi

    Simple analytical relations for the bow wave generated by a ship in steady motion are given. Specifically, simple expressions that define the height of a ship bow wave, the distance between the ship stem and the crest of the bow wave, the rise of water at the stem, and the bow wave profile, explicitly and without calculations, in terms of the ship speed, draught, and waterline entrance angle, are given. Another result is a simple criterion that predicts, also directly and without calculations, when a ship in steady motion cannot generate a steady bow wave. This unsteady-flow criterion predicts that a ship with a sufficiently fine waterline, specifically with waterline entrance angle 2, may generate a steady bow wave at any speed. However, a ship with a fuller waterline (25E) can only generate a steady bow wave if the ship speed is higher than a critical speed, defined in terms of αE by a simple relation. No alternative criterion for predicting when a ship in steady motion does not generate a steady bow wave appears to exist. A simple expression for the height of an unsteady ship bow wave is also given. In spite of their remarkable simplicity, the relations for ship bow waves obtained in the study (using only rudimentary physical and mathematical considerations) are consistent with experimental measurements for a number of hull forms having non-bulbous wedge-shaped bows with small flare angle, and with the authors' measurements and observations for a rectangular flat plate towed at a yaw angle.

  20. Recent developments and future trends in solid phase microextraction techniques towards green analytical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spietelun, Agata; Marcinkowski, Łukasz; de la Guardia, Miguel; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2013-12-20

    Solid phase microextraction find increasing applications in the sample preparation step before chromatographic determination of analytes in samples with a complex composition. These techniques allow for integrating several operations, such as sample collection, extraction, analyte enrichment above the detection limit of a given measuring instrument and the isolation of analytes from sample matrix. In this work the information about novel methodological and instrumental solutions in relation to different variants of solid phase extraction techniques, solid-phase microextraction (SPME), stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) and magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) is presented, including practical applications of these techniques and a critical discussion about their advantages and disadvantages. The proposed solutions fulfill the requirements resulting from the concept of sustainable development, and specifically from the implementation of green chemistry principles in analytical laboratories. Therefore, particular attention was paid to the description of possible uses of novel, selective stationary phases in extraction techniques, inter alia, polymeric ionic liquids, carbon nanotubes, and silica- and carbon-based sorbents. The methodological solutions, together with properly matched sampling devices for collecting analytes from samples with varying matrix composition, enable us to reduce the number of errors during the sample preparation prior to chromatographic analysis as well as to limit the negative impact of this analytical step on the natural environment and the health of laboratory employees. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Degradation of glass artifacts: application of modern surface analytical techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melcher, Michael; Wiesinger, Rita; Schreiner, Manfred

    2010-06-15

    A detailed understanding of the stability of glasses toward liquid or atmospheric attack is of considerable importance for preserving numerous objects of our cultural heritage. Glasses produced in the ancient periods (Egyptian, Greek, or Roman glasses), as well as modern glass, can be classified as soda-lime-silica glasses. In contrast, potash was used as a flux in medieval Northern Europe for the production of window panes for churches and cathedrals. The particular chemical composition of these potash-lime-silica glasses (low in silica and rich in alkali and alkaline earth components), in combination with increased levels of acidifying gases (such as SO(2), CO(2), NO(x), or O(3)) and airborne particulate matter in today's urban or industrial atmospheres, has resulted in severe degradation of important cultural relics, particularly over the last century. Rapid developments in the fields of microelectronics and computer sciences, however, have contributed to the development of a variety of nondestructive, surface analytical techniques for the scientific investigation and material characterization of these unique and valuable objects. These methods include scanning electron microscopy in combination with energy- or wavelength-dispersive spectrometry (SEM/EDX or SEM/WDX), secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). In this Account, we address glass analysis and weathering mechanisms, exploring the possibilities (and limitations) of modern analytical techniques. Corrosion by liquid substances is well investigated in the glass literature. In a tremendous number of case studies, the basic reaction between aqueous solutions and the glass surfaces was identified as an ion-exchange reaction between hydrogen-bearing species of the attacking liquid and the alkali and alkaline earth ions in the glass, causing a depletion of the latter in the outermost surface layers. Although mechanistic analogies to liquid corrosion are obvious, atmospheric

  2. Radioimmunoassay and other related techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarkawi, Moutaz

    1993-04-01

    The article reviews principles, requirements and reliability criteria of radioimmunoassay (RIA). Since basic reactions involved in RIA and related techniques are derived from reactions which take place in the immune system (IS) of humans and animals, the IS and the way it works will be described. In addition to RIA which involves the use of isotopes as tracers (labels), other non-radioisotopic and recent immunoassay techniques i.e. enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA) and fluoroimmunoassay (FIA) will be dealt with. Some important and related terms will be defined and explained. (author). 59 refs., 4 figs

  3. Nuclear analytical techniques and their application to environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lieser, K.H.

    1986-01-01

    A survey is given on nuclear analytical techniques and their application to environmental samples. Measurement of the inherent radioactivity of elements or radionuclides allows determination of natural radioelements (e.g. Ra), man-made radioelements (e.g. Pu) and radionuclides in the environment. Activation analysis, in particular instrumental neutron activation analysis, is a very reliable and sensitive method for determination of a great number of trace elements in environmental samples, because the most abundant main constituents are not activated. Tracer techniques are very useful for studies of the behaviour and of chemical reactions of trace elements and compounds in the environment. Radioactive sources are mainly applied for excitation of characteristic X-rays (X-ray fluorescence analysis). (author)

  4. Study of trace elements in milk by nuclear analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gharib, A.; Rahimi, H.; Pyrovan, H.; Raoffi, N.J.; Taherpoor, H.

    1985-01-01

    This work is part of project with the IAEA in a coordinated program on 'Trace Elements in Human and Bio-environmental Systems' to evaluate their nutritional requierements, interrelations and the role of trace elements in health, metabolism, etc. Cow's milk is regarded to be one of the most important and most nutritious foodstuffs of mankind. Hence, as a first step, an elemental analysis for milk was carried out: a few samples of pasteurized milk and local samples were investigated for essential and toxic trace elements. The secondary aim of the project was the assessment of various analytical techniques involved. AAS, PIXE and NAA are presented here. The latter was applied both instrumentally and radiochemically. Although the results pertaining to the various methods employed are not in good agreement, there is, however, some justification to clarify this internal inconsistency. PIXE analysis is very fast and rather routine, but the technique for trace element analysis needs certain adaptations and improvement. (author)

  5. The use of decision analytic techniques in energy policy decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haemaelaeinen, R.P.; Seppaelaeinen, T.O.

    1986-08-01

    The report reviews decision analytic techniques and their applications to energy policy decision making. Decision analysis consists in techniques for structuring the essential elements of a decision problem and mathematical methods for ranking the alternatives from a set of simple judgments. Because modeling subjective judgments is characteristic of decision analysis, the models can incorporate qualitative factors and values, which escape traditional energy modeling. Decision analysis has been applied to choices among energy supply alternatives, siting energy facilities, selecting nuclear waste repositories, selecting research and development projects, risk analysis and prioritizing alternative energy futures. Many applications are done in universities and research institutions, but during the 70's the use of decision analysis has spread both to the public and the private sector. The settings where decision analysis has been applied range from aiding a single decision maker to clarifying opposing points of view. Decision analytic methods have also been linked with energy models. The most valuable result of decision analysis is the clarification of the problem at hand. Political decisions cannot be made solely on the basis of models, but models can be used to gain insight of the decision situation. Models inevitably simplify reality, so they must be regarded only as aids to judgment. So far there has been only one decision analysis of energy policy issues in Finland with actual political decision makers as participants. The experiences of this project and numerous foreign applications do however suggest that the decision analytic approach is useful in energy policy questions. The report presents a number of Finnish energy policy decisions where decision analysis might prove useful. However, the applicability of the methods depends crucially on the actual circumstances at hand

  6. Waste minimization in analytical chemistry through innovative sample preparation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, L. L.

    1998-01-01

    water samples. In this SPME technique, a fused-silica fiber coated with a polymeric film is exposed to the sample, extraction is allowed to take place, and then the analytes are thermally desorbed for GC analysis. Unlike liquid-liquid extraction or solid-phase extraction, SPME consumes all of the extracted sample in the analysis, significantly reducing the required sample volume

  7. Co-ordinated research project on use of nuclear and related analytical techniques in studying human health impacts of toxic elements consumed through foodstuffs contaminated by industrial activities. Report on the first research co-ordination meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    The overall objective of the Co-ordinated research project is to provide a scientific basis for better assessment of selected pollutants in the food chain with a view to elucidating their impacts on human health and nutrition. Results of this study will enhance the existing body of knowledge and can be used to develop preventive strategies. Specific objectve: To determine the extent to which toxic element levels in food are affected by surrounding industrial activities and to assess potential human exposure from the consumption of such foodstuffs. EXPECTED RESEARCH OUTPUTS (RESULTS): Harmonized protocols and procedures for sampling and analyses; ? Compiled results for toxic element levels and their average daily dietary intake (ADDI) / dietary intake; Evaluated toxic element exposure levels based on biological indicators (where applicable); Publications of the study results in an IAEA TECDOC, and in peer-reviewed journals by participants. ACTION PLAN (ACTIVITIES) a. Core research activities: 1 Identification of the study areas and population groups. 2 Collection of information on food consumption patterns of the population groups under study (e.g. through questionnaires). 3 Development of harmonized protocols and validation of analytical methodologies in compliance with ISO/IEC 17025. 4 Collection and analysis of food samples, and estimation of the dietary intake. 5 Collection and analysis of biological indicators where applicable. 6 Evaluation of possible relationships between human exposures and biological indicators for the pollutants studied. 4b. Supplementary activities: ? Speciation studies of pollutants. ? Comparison of present and previous data on relevant parameters. ? Possible production and distribution of laboratory intercomparison samples. 7. Recommendations for nuclear analytical techniques ? Nuclear analytical technique (NAT) such as INAA, PIXE, PIGE, XRF should be the primary technique of analysis; Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA

  8. Macro elemental analysis of food samples by nuclear analytical technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syahfitri, W. Y. N.; Kurniawati, S.; Adventini, N.; Damastuti, E.; Lestiani, D. D.

    2017-06-01

    Energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometry is a non-destructive, rapid, multi elemental, accurate, and environment friendly analysis compared with other detection methods. Thus, EDXRF spectrometry is applicable for food inspection. The macro elements calcium and potassium constitute important nutrients required by the human body for optimal physiological functions. Therefore, the determination of Ca and K content in various foods needs to be done. The aim of this work is to demonstrate the applicability of EDXRF for food analysis. The analytical performance of non-destructive EDXRF was compared with other analytical techniques; neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrometry. Comparison of methods performed as cross checking results of the analysis and to overcome the limitations of the three methods. Analysis results showed that Ca found in food using EDXRF and AAS were not significantly different with p-value 0.9687, whereas p-value of K between EDXRF and NAA is 0.6575. The correlation between those results was also examined. The Pearson correlations for Ca and K were 0.9871 and 0.9558, respectively. Method validation using SRM NIST 1548a Typical Diet was also applied. The results showed good agreement between methods; therefore EDXRF method can be used as an alternative method for the determination of Ca and K in food samples.

  9. Nuclear Analytical Techniques for Commercial Applications in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai, Z.; Zhang, Z.; Feng, S.; Yang, J.; Ouyang, H.; Feng, X.; Mao, X.

    2013-01-01

    Since the establishment of the first Chinese nuclear reactor and accelerator in 1958, the nuclear analytical techniques (NATs) in China have dramatically developed in past half century. Nowadays 10 research nuclear reactors and over 100 small accelerators are available in China. Roughly, about 50 % of the machine time is applied for commercial purpose at the moment. The versatile nuclear analytical methods, mainly NAA, PIXE, XRF, etc., in China have been and are being applied widely and extensively in the following three fields: scientific, training, and commercial. This paper will briefly describe the past experience and present status about NATs for commercial applications. Some practical examples to demonstrate the role of NATs in this aspect will be given as well. Basically, the NATs used for the commercial applications in China can be divided into two types, i.e. off-line and on-line. The former mainly includes instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) for compositional determination, particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) also for compositional analysis, accelerator-based mass-spectrometry (AMS) for analysis of C-14, Be-7, Cl-36 and other long-lived radioactive nuclides, solid state nuclear track detector

  10. Application of multivariate techniques to analytical data on Aegean ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieber, A.M.; Brooks, D.W.; Harbottle, G.; Sayre, E.V.

    1976-01-01

    The general problems of data collection and handling for multivariate elemental analyses of ancient pottery are considered including such specific questions as the level of analytical precision required, the number and type of elements to be determined and the need for comprehensive multivariate statistical analysis of the collected data in contrast to element by element statistical analysis. The multivariate statistical procedures of clustering in a multidimensional space and determination of the numerical probabilities of specimens belonging to a group through calculation of the Mahalanobis distances for these specimens in multicomponent space are described together with supporting univariate statistical procedures used at Brookhaven. The application of these techniques to the data on Late Bronze Age Aegean pottery (largely previously analysed at Oxford and Brookhaven with some new specimens considered) have resulted in meaningful subdivisions of previously established groups. (author)

  11. Development of analytical techniques for water and environmental samples (2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eum, Chul Hun; Jeon, Chi Wan; Jung, Kang Sup; Song, Kyung Sun; Kim, Sang Yeon [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop new analytical methods with good detection limit for toxic inorganic and organic compounds. The analyses of CN, organic acids, particulate materials in environmental samples have been done using several methods such as Ion Chromatography, SPE, SPME, GC/MS, GC/FID, SPLITT (split-flow thin cell fractionation) during the second year of this project. Advantage and disadvantage of several distillation method (by KS, JIS, EPA) for CN analysis in wastewater were investigated. As the results, we proposed new distillation apparatus for CN analysis, which was proved to be simpler, faster and to get better recovery than conventional apparatus. And ion chromatograph/pulsed amperometric detector (IC/PAD) system instead of colorimetry for CN detection was setup to solve matrix interference. And SPE(solid phase extraction) and SPME (solid phase micro extraction) as liquid-solid extraction technique were applied to the analysis of phenols in wastewater. Optimum experimental conditions and factors influencing analytical results were determined. From these results, It could be concluded that C{sub 18} cartridge and polystyrene-divinylbenzene disk in SPE method, polyacrylate fiber in SPME were proper solid phase adsorbent for phenol. Optimum conditions to analyze phenol derivatives simultaneously were established. Also, Continuous SPLITT (Split-flow thin cell) Fractionation (CSF) is a new preparative separation technique that is useful for fractionation of particulate and macromolecular materials. CSF is carried out in a thin ribbon-like channel equipped with two splitters at both inlet and outlet of the channel. In this work, we set up a new CSF system, and tested using polystyrene latex standard particles. And then we fractionated particles contained in air and underground water based on their sedimentation coefficients using CSF. (author). 27 refs., 13 tabs., 31 figs.

  12. Analytical techniques for thin films treatise on materials science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Tu, K N

    1988-01-01

    Treatise on Materials Science and Technology, Volume 27: Analytical Techniques for Thin Films covers a set of analytical techniques developed for thin films and interfaces, all based on scattering and excitation phenomena and theories. The book discusses photon beam and X-ray techniques; electron beam techniques; and ion beam techniques. Materials scientists, materials engineers, chemical engineers, and physicists will find the book invaluable.

  13. Fluvial sediment transport: Analytical techniques for measuring sediment load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-07-01

    Sediment transport data are often used for the evaluation of land surface erosion, reservoir sedimentation, ecological habitat quality and coastal sediment budgets. Sediment transport by rivers is usually considered to occur in two major ways: (1) in the flow as a suspended load and (2) along the bed as a bed load. This publication provides guidance on selected techniques for the measurement of particles moving in both modes in the fluvial environment. The relative importance of the transport mode is variable and depends on the hydraulic and sedimentary conditions. The potential user is directed in the selection of an appropriate technique through the presentation of operating principles, application guidelines and estimated costs. Techniques which require laboratory analysis are grab sample, pump sample, depth sample, point integrated and radioactive tracers. Techniques which will continuously record data are optical backscattering, nuclear transmission, single frequency acoustic and laser diffraction

  14. Study of trace elements in milk by nuclear analytical techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gharib, A.; Rahimi, H.; Peyrovan, H.; Raofei, H.N.J.; Taherpour, H. (Atomic Energy Organization of Iran, Teheran. Nuclear Research Centre)

    This work is part of a project with the IAEA, in a coordinated programme on ''trace elements in Human Nutrition and Bio-Environmental Systems'' to evaluate their nutritional requirements, interrelations and the role of trace elements in health, metabolism etc. Cow's milk is regarded as one of the most important and nutritious foodstuffs consumed by people. Hence, as a first step, an elemental analysis for milk was carried out for this purpose so a few samples of pasteurized milk and local samples were investigated for essential and toxic trace elements. The secondary aim of this project was the assessment of various analytical techniques involved. However, in the present work, the methods involved were AAS, PIXE and NAA. The latter method applied, both instrumentally and radiochemically. Although the results pertaining to the various methods employed are not in good agreement, there is however, some justification to clarify this internal inconsistency. The precision for NAA and AAS allows greater degree of acceptance respectively. Although PIXE is very fast and rather routine, the technique of trace element analysis needs certain adaptations and developments.

  15. Voltammetric technique, a panacea for analytical examination of environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahir, E.; Mohiuddin, S.; Naqvi, I.I.

    2012-01-01

    Voltammetric methods for trace metal analysis in environmental samples of marine origin like mangrove, sediments and shrimps are generally recommended. Three different electro-analytical techniques i.e. polarography, anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) and adsorptive stripping voltammetry (ADSV) have been used. Cd/sub 2/+, Pb/sub 2/+, Cu/sub 2/+ and Mn/sub 2/+ were determined through ASV, Cr/sub 6/+ was analyzed by ADSV and Fe/sub 2/+, Zn/sub 2/+, Ni/sub 2/+ and Co/sub 2/+ were determined through polarography. Out of which pairs of Fe/sub 2/+Zn/sub 2/+ and Ni/sub 2/+Co/sub 2/+ were determined in two separate runs while Cd/sub 2/+, Pb/sub 2/+, Cu/sub 2/+ were analyzed in single run of ASV. Sensitivity and speciation capabilities of voltammetric methods have been employed. Analysis conditions were optimized that includes selection of supporting electrolyte, pH, working electrodes, sweep rate etc. Stripping voltammetry was adopted for analysis at ultra trace levels. Statistical parameters for analytical method development like selectivity factor, interference, repeatability (0.0065-0.130 macro g/g), reproducibility (0.08125-1.625 macro g/g), detection limits (0.032-5.06 macro g/g), limits of quantification (0.081-12.652 macro g/g), sensitivities (5.636-2.15 nA mL macro g-1) etc. were also determined. The percentage recoveries were found in between 95-105% using certified reference materials. Real samples of complex marine environment from Karachi coastline were also analyzed. The standard addition method was employed where any matrix effect was evidenced. (author)

  16. Characterization of pre-hispanic pigments by modern analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortega A, M.

    2003-01-01

    In this work, the study of mural painting pigments from two archaeological sites (The Great Temple in Mexico city and Cacaxtla) was performed to know their materials composition, identify their structural characteristics and properties by using modern analytical techniques. Blue, ochre, red and black pigments of Mexica culture (1325-1521 a.C. / late Post Classic period); blue, ochre, red, brown, pink, green and white of Olmeca- Xicalanca culture (700-900 a.C. / Epiclassic period) were studied. Data about materials used, technological evolution, mineralogical background, cultural interchange and origin was obtained. Environmental exposition of these paintings since their discovering has produced changes and damage on their materials. Therefore, stability of some pigments has been notorious, ''Maya Blue'' specially presents extraordinary resistance to diluted and concentrated acids and alkalis including boiling condition, acqua regia, solvents, oxidant and reducing agents, moderate heat and biocorrosi6n; for that reason its study was emphasized. ''Maya Blue'' pigment was synthesized in laboratory using the processes described by historic sources (with indigophera suffruticosa leaves and synthetic indigo) up to obtain a stable pigment including acqua regia action. Clay matrix sorbs nearly 0.4 weight percent of organic dye, which cover 79% of palygorskita surface area. (Author)

  17. Applications of nuclear analytical techniques to environmental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, M.C.; Marques, A.P.; Reis, M.A.; Pacheco, A.M.G.; Barros, L.I.C.

    2001-01-01

    A few examples of application of nuclear-analytical techniques to biological monitors - natives and transplants - are given herein. Parmelia sulcata Taylor transplants were set up in a heavily industrialized area of Portugal - the Setubal peninsula, about 50 km south of Lisbon - where indigenous lichens are rare. The whole area was 10x15 km around an oil-fired power station, and a 2.5x2.5 km grid was used. In north-western Portugal, native thalli of the same epiphytes (Parmelia spp., mostly Parmelia sulcata Taylor) and bark from olive trees (Olea europaea) were sampled across an area of 50x50 km, using a 10x10 km grid. This area is densely populated and features a blend of rural, urban-industrial and coastal environments, together with the country's second-largest metro area (Porto). All biomonitors have been analyzed by INAA and PIXE. Results were put through nonparametric tests and factor analysis for trend significance and emission sources, respectively

  18. Analytical considerations for stress related remedies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rybicki, E.F.; McGuire, P.A.

    1984-01-01

    The study described here focuses on reducing the impact of one of the factors, contributing to integranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) in BWR reactor piping, e.g., tensile residual stresses in the areas of observed cracking. There are several techniques for controlling residual stresses on the inside surface of girth welded pipes. The work described here is part of a larger study where various remedies and pipe geometries were considered. The stress remedy technique utilizes an induction heating method to alter residual stresses due to welding. The method is referred to as Induction Heating for Stress Improvement (IHSI). While IHSI was first applied to pipe-to-pipe weldments with successful results, many field applications of IHSI will be to pipe-to-tee or pipe-to-component geometries. Therefore, this study is directed toward obtaining a better understanding of the weld induced residual stress and the effect of IHSI on weldments with this type of geometry

  19. Selected methods of waste monitoring using modern analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hlavacek, I.; Hlavackova, I.

    1993-11-01

    Issues of the inspection and control of bituminized and cemented waste are discussed, and some methods of their nondestructive testing are described. Attention is paid to the inspection techniques, non-nuclear spectral techniques in particular, as employed for quality control of the wastes, waste concentrates, spent waste leaching solutions, as well as for the examination of environmental samples (waters and soils) from the surroundings of nuclear power plants. Some leaching tests used abroad for this purpose and practical analyses by the ICP-AES technique are given by way of example. The ICP-MS technique, which is unavailable in the Czech Republic, is routinely employed abroad for alpha nuclide measurements; examples of such analyses are also given. The next topic discussed includes the monitoring of organic acids and complexants to determine the degree of their thermal decomposition during the bituminization of wastes on an industrial line. All of the methods and procedures highlighted can be used as technical support during the monitoring of radioactive waste properties in industrial conditions, in the chemical and radiochemical analyses of wastes and related matter, in the calibration of nondestructive testing instrumentation, in the monitoring of contamination of the surroundings of nuclear facilities, and in trace analysis. (author). 10 tabs., 1 fig., 14 refs

  20. Spectral interference of zirconium on 24 analyte elements using CCD based ICP-AES technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adya, V.C.; Sengupta, Arijit; Godbole, S.V.

    2014-01-01

    In the present studies, the spectral interference of zirconium on different analytical lines of 24 critical analytes using CCD based ICP-AES technique is described. Suitable analytical lines for zirconium were identified along with their detection limits. The sensitivity and the detection limits of analytical channels for different elements in presence of Zr matrix were calculated. Subsequently analytical lines with least interference from Zr and better detection limits were selected for their determinations. (author)

  1. Analytical vs. Simulation Solution Techniques for Pulse Problems in Non-linear Stochastic Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwankiewicz, R.; Nielsen, Søren R. K.

    Advantages and disadvantages of available analytical and simulation techniques for pulse problems in non-linear stochastic dynamics are discussed. First, random pulse problems, both those which do and do not lead to Markov theory, are presented. Next, the analytical and analytically-numerical tec......Advantages and disadvantages of available analytical and simulation techniques for pulse problems in non-linear stochastic dynamics are discussed. First, random pulse problems, both those which do and do not lead to Markov theory, are presented. Next, the analytical and analytically...

  2. Structural level characterization of base oils using advanced analytical techniques

    KAUST Repository

    Hourani, Nadim

    2015-05-21

    Base oils, blended for finished lubricant formulations, are classified by the American Petroleum Institute into five groups, viz., groups I-V. Groups I-III consist of petroleum based hydrocarbons whereas groups IV and V are made of synthetic polymers. In the present study, five base oil samples belonging to groups I and III were extensively characterized using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC), and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) equipped with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) and atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) sources. First, the capabilities and limitations of each analytical technique were evaluated, and then the availed information was combined to reveal compositional details on the base oil samples studied. HPLC showed the overwhelming presence of saturated over aromatic compounds in all five base oils. A similar trend was further corroborated using GC×GC, which yielded semiquantitative information on the compound classes present in the samples and provided further details on the carbon number distributions within these classes. In addition to chromatography methods, FT-ICR MS supplemented the compositional information on the base oil samples by resolving the aromatics compounds into alkyl- and naphtheno-subtituted families. APCI proved more effective for the ionization of the highly saturated base oil components compared to APPI. Furthermore, for the detailed information on hydrocarbon molecules FT-ICR MS revealed the presence of saturated and aromatic sulfur species in all base oil samples. The results presented herein offer a unique perspective into the detailed molecular structure of base oils typically used to formulate lubricants. © 2015 American Chemical Society.

  3. Recent Developments in the Speciation and Determination of Mercury Using Various Analytical Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshmi Narayana Suvarapu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the speciation and determination of mercury by various analytical techniques such as atomic absorption spectrometry, voltammetry, inductively coupled plasma techniques, spectrophotometry, spectrofluorometry, high performance liquid chromatography, and gas chromatography. Approximately 126 research papers on the speciation and determination of mercury by various analytical techniques published in international journals since 2013 are reviewed.

  4. Analytical techniques for mechanistic characterization of EUV photoresists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzeskowiak, Steven; Narasimhan, Amrit; Murphy, Michael; Ackerman, Christian; Kaminsky, Jake; Brainard, Robert L.; Denbeaux, Greg

    2017-03-01

    Extreme ultraviolet (EUV, 13.5 nm) lithography is the prospective technology for high volume manufacturing by the microelectronics industry. Significant strides towards achieving adequate EUV source power and availability have been made recently, but a limited rate of improvement in photoresist performance still delays the implementation of EUV. Many fundamental questions remain to be answered about the exposure mechanisms of even the relatively well understood chemically amplified EUV photoresists. Moreover, several groups around the world are developing revolutionary metal-based resists whose EUV exposure mechanisms are even less understood. Here, we describe several evaluation techniques to help elucidate mechanistic details of EUV exposure mechanisms of chemically amplified and metal-based resists. EUV absorption coefficients are determined experimentally by measuring the transmission through a resist coated on a silicon nitride membrane. Photochemistry can be evaluated by monitoring small outgassing reaction products to provide insight into photoacid generator or metal-based resist reactivity. Spectroscopic techniques such as thin-film Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy can measure the chemical state of a photoresist system pre- and post-EUV exposure. Additionally, electrolysis can be used to study the interaction between photoresist components and low energy electrons. Collectively, these techniques improve our current understanding of photomechanisms for several EUV photoresist systems, which is needed to develop new, better performing materials needed for high volume manufacturing.

  5. An Analytical Study of Tools and Techniques for Movie Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garima Maik

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Bollywood or Hindi movie industry is one of the fastest growing sector in the media and entertainment space creating numerous business and employment opportunities. Movies in India are a major source of entertainment for all sects of society. They not only face competition from other movie industries and movies but from other source of entertainment such as adventure sports, amusement parks, theatre and drama, pubs and discothèques. A lot of man power, man hours, creative brains, and money are put in to build a quality feature film. Bollywood is the industry which continuously works towards providing the 7 billion population with something new always. So it is important for the movie and production team to stand out, to grab the due attention of the maximum audience. Movie makers employ various tools and techniques today to market their movies. They leave no stone unturned. They roll out teasers, First look, Theatrical trailer release, Music launch, City tours, Producer’s and director’s interview, Movie premier, Movie release, post release follow up and etc. to pull the viewers to the Cineplex. The audience today which comprises mainly of youth requires photos, videos, meet ups, gossip, debate, collaboration and content creation. These requirements of today’s generation are most fulfilled through digital platforms. However, the traditional media like newspapers, radio, and television are not old school. They reach out to mass audience and play an upper role in effective marketing. This study aims at analysing these tools for their effectiveness. The objectives are fulfilled through a consumer survey. This study will bring out the effectiveness and relational importance of various tools which are employed by movie marketers to generate maximum returns on the investments by using various data reduction techniques like factor analysis and statistical techniques like chi-square test with data visualization using pie charts

  6. Analytical techniques and quality control in biomedical trace element research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, K.

    1994-01-01

    The small number of analytical results in trace element research calls for special methods of quality control. It is shown that when the analytical methods are in statistical control, only small numbers of duplicate or replicate results are needed to ascertain the absence of systematic errors....../kg. Measurement compatibility is obtained by control of traceability to certified reference materials, (C) 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc....

  7. Analytical Estimation of Water-Oil Relative Permeabilities through Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saboorian-Jooybari Hadi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Modeling multiphase flow through fractures is a key issue for understanding flow mechanism and performance prediction of fractured petroleum reservoirs, geothermal reservoirs, underground aquifers and carbon-dioxide sequestration. One of the most challenging subjects in modeling of fractured petroleum reservoirs is quantifying fluids competition for flow in fracture network (relative permeability curves. Unfortunately, there is no standard technique for experimental measurement of relative permeabilities through fractures and the existing methods are very expensive, time consuming and erroneous. Although, several formulations were presented to calculate fracture relative permeability curves in the form of linear and power functions of flowing fluids saturation, it is still unclear what form of relative permeability curves must be used for proper modeling of flow through fractures and consequently accurate reservoir simulation. Basically, the classic linear relative permeability (X-type curves are used in almost all of reservoir simulators. In this work, basic fluid flow equations are combined to develop a new simple analytical model for water-oil two phase flow in a single fracture. The model gives rise to simple analytic formulations for fracture relative permeabilities. The model explicitly proves that water-oil relative permeabilities in fracture network are functions of fluids saturation, viscosity ratio, fluids density, inclination of fracture plane from horizon, pressure gradient along fracture and rock matrix wettability, however they were considered to be only functions of saturations in the classic X-type and power (Corey [35] and Honarpour et al. [28, 29] models. Eventually, validity of the proposed formulations is checked against literature experimental data. The proposed fracture relative permeability functions have several advantages over the existing ones. Firstly, they are explicit functions of the parameters which are known for

  8. Contactless conductivity detection for analytical techniques — Developments from 2014 to 2016

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubáň, Pavel; Hauser, P.C.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 1 (2017), s. 95-114 ISSN 0173-0835 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-09135S Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection * capillary electrophoresis * contactless conductivity detection * analytical techniques * review Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry Impact factor: 2.744, year: 2016

  9. Applied predictive analytics principles and techniques for the professional data analyst

    CERN Document Server

    Abbott, Dean

    2014-01-01

    Learn the art and science of predictive analytics - techniques that get results Predictive analytics is what translates big data into meaningful, usable business information. Written by a leading expert in the field, this guide examines the science of the underlying algorithms as well as the principles and best practices that govern the art of predictive analytics. It clearly explains the theory behind predictive analytics, teaches the methods, principles, and techniques for conducting predictive analytics projects, and offers tips and tricks that are essential for successful predictive mode

  10. In-depth characterization of prebiotic galactooligosaccharides by a combination of analytical techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coulier, L.; Timmermans, J.; Richard, B.; Dool, R. van den; Haaksman, I.; Klarenbeek, B.; Slaghek, T.; Dongen, W. van

    2009-01-01

    A commercial prebiotic galacto-oligosaccharide mixture (Vivinal GOS) was extensively characterized using a combination of analytical techniques. The different techniques were integrated to give complementary information on specific characteristics of the oligosaccharide mixture, ranging from global

  11. Synchrotron radiation based analytical techniques (XAS and XRF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, Shambhu Nath

    2014-01-01

    A brief description of the principles of X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) techniques is given in this article with emphasis on the advantages of using synchrotron radiation-based instrumentation/beamline. XAS technique is described in more detail to emphasize the strength of the technique as a local structural probe. (author)

  12. Challenges of Using Learning Analytics Techniques to Support Mobile Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrigo, Marco; Fulantelli, Giovanni; Taibi, Davide

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation of Mobile Learning remains an open research issue, especially as regards the activities that take place outside the classroom. In this context, Learning Analytics can provide answers, and offer the appropriate tools to enhance Mobile Learning experiences. In this poster we introduce a task-interaction framework, using learning analytics…

  13. Social Data Analytics Using Tensors and Sparse Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Miao

    2014-01-01

    The development of internet and mobile technologies is driving an earthshaking social media revolution. They bring the internet world a huge amount of social media content, such as images, videos, comments, etc. Those massive media content and complicate social structures require the analytic expertise to transform those flood of information into…

  14. Analytical solution of dispersion relations for the nuclear optical model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VanderKam, J.M. [Center for Communications Research, Thanet Road, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Weisel, G.J. [Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, and Duke University, Box 90308, Durham, NC 27708-0308 (United States); Penn State Altoona, 3000 Ivyside Park, Altoona, PA 16601-3760 (United States); Tornow, W. [Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, and Duke University, Box 90308, Durham, NC 27708-0308 (United States)

    2000-12-01

    Analytical solutions of dispersion integral relations, linking the real and imaginary parts of the nuclear optical model, have been derived. These are displayed for some widely used forms of the volume- and surface-absorptive nuclear potentials. When the analytical solutions are incorporated into the optical-model search code GENOA, replacing a numerical integration, the code runs three and a half to seven times faster, greatly aiding the analysis of direct-reaction, elastic scattering data. (author)

  15. Statistical evaluation of recorded knowledge in nuclear and other instrumental analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, T.

    1987-01-01

    The main points addressed in this study are the following: Statistical distribution patterns of published literature on instrumental analytical techniques 1981-1984; structure of scientific literature and heuristics for identifying active specialities and emerging hot spot research areas in instrumental analytical techniques; growth and growth rates of the literature in some of the identified hot research areas; quality and quantity in instrumental analytical research output. (orig.)

  16. Atmospheric aerosol studies using the 'Gent' stacked filter unit and other aerosol collectors, with multi-elemental analysis of the samples by nuclear-related analytical techniques. Appendix 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maenhaut, Willy; Francois, Filip; Cafmeyer, Jan; Okunade, Olusola

    1995-01-01

    Our research within the core programme of the Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on Air Pollution is described. This included the analysis of the analytical quality control Nuclepore filter samples, work on the calibration of the PM10 inlet of the 'Gent' stacked filter unit (SFU) sampler, and an aerosol study with this SFU sampler at an urban residential site in Gent. The calibration of the Gent PM10 inlet was done through intercomparisons with commercially available PM10 samplers, and quite reasonable agreement was obtained. For the study at the urban residential site, a total of 118 SFU samples were collected. The samples were analyzed for the particulate mass, black carbon and up to 29 elements. The elements were measured by PIXE and short-irradiation INAA. Median atmospheric concentrations and enrichment factors were calculated for the fine and coarse size fractions, and average FINE/COARSE ratios were derived. The median concentrations were compared with those from a study, done at the same site in the fall of 1986. The levels of the automotive elements Pb and Br had decreased by a factor of about three relative to 1986, but most other elements exhibited very similar concentrations. A brief overview is given of the status in our various regional and global scale aerosol studies. Finally, our plans for future work are given. (author)

  17. Co-ordinated research project on assessment of levels and health-effects of airborne particulate matter in mining, metal refining and metal working industries using nuclear and related analytical techniques. Report on the first research co-ordination meeting (RCM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-12-31

    The objectives of the CRP are to: (1) improve competence for research on workplace monitoring in terms of proper sampling and analytical procedures, (2) obtain relevant and reliable data on sources and levels of workplace pollution in various countries, (3) promote a better understanding of methods for the interpretation of such data including occupational heath studies, and (4) encourage closer collaboration between analytical scientists and researchers in the field of occupational health in the countries concerned. The CRP focuses on the use of nuclear and related analytical techniques for the following kinds of studies: (1) strategies and techniques for sampling of workplace airborne particulate matter and of human tissues and body fluids (hair, blood, etc.) sampling of exposed and non-exposed persons; (2) development of suitable analytical procedures for analysis of such types of samples; (3) workplace and personal monitoring of airborne particulate matter in the mining, refining and metal working industries, and the health effects of such exposure; and (4) tissue analysis of the workers exposed for biological monitoring and the health effects studies. This report includes the core and supplementary programme of the CRP; technical aspects of sampling, analysis, data processing, and quality assurance; and organizational aspects. The report includes also 10 papers contributed by the participants. Each individual contribution was indexed and provided with an abstract. Refs, figs, tabs

  18. Co-ordinated research project on assessment of levels and health-effects of airborne particulate matter in mining, metal refining and metal working industries using nuclear and related analytical techniques. Report on the first research co-ordination meeting (RCM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The objectives of the CRP are to: (1) improve competence for research on workplace monitoring in terms of proper sampling and analytical procedures, (2) obtain relevant and reliable data on sources and levels of workplace pollution in various countries, (3) promote a better understanding of methods for the interpretation of such data including occupational heath studies, and (4) encourage closer collaboration between analytical scientists and researchers in the field of occupational health in the countries concerned. The CRP focuses on the use of nuclear and related analytical techniques for the following kinds of studies: (1) strategies and techniques for sampling of workplace airborne particulate matter and of human tissues and body fluids (hair, blood, etc.) sampling of exposed and non-exposed persons; (2) development of suitable analytical procedures for analysis of such types of samples; (3) workplace and personal monitoring of airborne particulate matter in the mining, refining and metal working industries, and the health effects of such exposure; and (4) tissue analysis of the workers exposed for biological monitoring and the health effects studies. This report includes the core and supplementary programme of the CRP; technical aspects of sampling, analysis, data processing, and quality assurance; and organizational aspects. The report includes also 10 papers contributed by the participants. Each individual contribution was indexed and provided with an abstract

  19. Application of X-ray fluorescence analytical techniques in phytoremediation and plant biology studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Necemer, Marijan; Kump, Peter; Scancar, Janez; Jacimovic, Radojko; Simcic, Jurij; Pelicon, Primoz; Budnar, Milos; Jeran, Zvonka; Pongrac, Paula; Regvar, Marjana; Vogel-Mikus, Katarina

    2008-01-01

    Phytoremediation is an emerging technology that employs the use of higher plants for the clean-up of contaminated environments. Progress in the field is however handicapped by limited knowledge of the biological processes involved in plant metal uptake, translocation, tolerance and plant-microbe-soil interactions; therefore a better understanding of the basic biological mechanisms involved in plant/microbe/soil/contaminant interactions would allow further optimization of phytoremediation technologies. In view of the needs of global environmental protection, it is important that in phytoremediation and plant biology studies the analytical procedures for elemental determination in plant tissues and soil should be fast and cheap, with simple sample preparation, and of adequate accuracy and reproducibility. The aim of this study was therefore to present the main characteristics, sample preparation protocols and applications of X-ray fluorescence-based analytical techniques (energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry-EDXRF, total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry-TXRF and micro-proton induced X-ray emission-micro-PIXE). Element concentrations in plant leaves from metal polluted and non-polluted sites, as well as standard reference materials, were analyzed by the mentioned techniques, and additionally by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). The results were compared and critically evaluated in order to assess the performance and capability of X-ray fluorescence-based techniques in phytoremediation and plant biology studies. It is the EDXRF, which is recommended as suitable to be used in the analyses of a large number of samples, because it is multi-elemental, requires only simple preparation of sample material, and it is analytically comparable to the most frequently used instrumental chemical techniques. The TXRF is compatible to FAAS in sample preparation, but relative to AAS it is fast, sensitive and

  20. On numerical-analytic techniques for boundary value problems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rontó, András; Rontó, M.; Shchobak, N.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 3 (2012), s. 5-10 ISSN 1335-8243 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : numerical-analytic method * periodic successive approximations * Lyapunov-Schmidt method Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http://www.degruyter.com/view/j/aeei.2012.12.issue-3/v10198-012-0035-1/v10198-012-0035-1.xml?format=INT

  1. An alternative technique for the implementation of an analytical approximation for transients with temperature feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palma, Daniel A.P.; Silva, Adilson C. da; Goncalves, Alessandro C.; Martinez, Aquilino S.

    2009-01-01

    The analytical solution of point kinetics equations with a group of delayed neutrons is useful in predicting neutron density variation during the operation of a nuclear reactor. Although different approximate solutions for the system of point kinetics equations with temperature feedback may be found in literature, some of them do not present an explicit dependence in time, which makes the computing implementation difficult and, as a result, its applicability in practical cases. The present paper uses the polynomial adjustment technique to overcome this problem in the analytical approximation as proposed by Nahla. In a systematic comparison with other existing approximations it is concluded that the method is adequate, presenting small deviations in relation to the reference values obtained from the reference numerical method. (author)

  2. An alternative technique for the implementation of an analytical approximation for transients with temperature feedback

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palma, Daniel A.P. [Instituto Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Nilopolis, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: dpalmaster@gmail.com; Silva, Adilson C. da; Goncalves, Alessandro C.; Martinez, Aquilino S. [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear], e-mail: asilva@con.ufrj.br, e-mail: agoncalves@con.ufrj.br, e-mail: aquilino@lmp.ufrj.br

    2009-07-01

    The analytical solution of point kinetics equations with a group of delayed neutrons is useful in predicting neutron density variation during the operation of a nuclear reactor. Although different approximate solutions for the system of point kinetics equations with temperature feedback may be found in literature, some of them do not present an explicit dependence in time, which makes the computing implementation difficult and, as a result, its applicability in practical cases. The present paper uses the polynomial adjustment technique to overcome this problem in the analytical approximation as proposed by Nahla. In a systematic comparison with other existing approximations it is concluded that the method is adequate, presenting small deviations in relation to the reference values obtained from the reference numerical method. (author)

  3. Prompt nuclear analytical techniques for material research in accelerator driven transmutation technologies: Prospects and quantitative analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vacik, J.; Hnatowicz, V.; Cervena, J.; Perina, V.; Mach, R.

    1998-01-01

    Accelerator driven transmutation technology (ADTT) is a promising way toward liquidation of spent nuclear fuel, nuclear wastes and weapon grade Pu. The ADTT facility comprises a high current (proton) accelerator supplying a sub-critical reactor assembly with spallation neutrons. The reactor part is supposed to be cooled by molten fluorides or metals which serve, at the same time, as a carrier of nuclear fuel. Assumed high working temperature (400-600 C) and high radiation load in the subcritical reactor and spallation neutron source put forward the problem of optimal choice of ADTT construction materials, especially from the point of their radiation and corrosion resistance when in contact with liquid working media. The use of prompt nuclear analytical techniques in ADTT related material research is considered and examples of preliminary analytical results obtained using neutron depth profiling method are shown for illustration. (orig.)

  4. Wireless network development for the automatic registration of parameters in laboratories of nuclear analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tincopa, Jean Pierre; Baltuano, Oscar; Bedregal, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents in detail the development of a low-cost wireless network for automatic recording of temperature and relative humidity parameters in the laboratory of nuclear analytical techniques. This prototype has a DHT22 sensor which gives us both parameters with high precision and are automatically read and displayed by a ATmega328P microcontroller. This data is then transmitted through transceivers Xbee Pro S2B forming a mesh network for real time storage using an RTC (Real Time Clock). We present the experimental results obtained in its implementation. (author)

  5. Analytical techniques for the study of polyphenol-protein interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poklar Ulrih, Nataša

    2017-07-03

    This mini review focuses on advances in biophysical techniques to study polyphenol interactions with proteins. Polyphenols have many beneficial pharmacological properties, as a result of which they have been the subject of intensive studies. The most conventional techniques described here can be divided into three groups: (i) methods used for screening (in-situ methods); (ii) methods used to gain insight into the mechanisms of polyphenol-protein interactions; and (iii) methods used to study protein aggregation and precipitation. All of these methods used to study polyphenol-protein interactions are based on modifications to the physicochemical properties of the polyphenols or proteins after binding/complex formation in solution. To date, numerous review articles have been published in the field of polyphenols. This review will give a brief insight in computational methods and biosensors and cell-based methods, spectroscopic methods including fluorescence emission, UV-vis adsorption, circular dichroism, Fourier transform infrared and mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance, X-ray diffraction, and light scattering techniques including small-angle X-ray scattering and small-angle neutron scattering, and calorimetric techniques (isothermal titration calorimetry and differential scanning calorimetry), microscopy, the techniques which have been successfully used for polyphenol-protein interactions. At the end the new methods based on single molecule detection with high potential to study polyphenol-protein interactions will be presented. The advantages and disadvantages of each technique will be discussed as well as the thermodynamic, kinetic or structural parameters, which can be obtained. The other relevant biophysical experimental techniques that have proven to be valuable, such electrochemical methods, hydrodynamic techniques and chromatographic techniques will not be described here.

  6. Structural Analysis of Composite Laminates using Analytical and Numerical Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanghi Divya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A laminated composite material consists of different layers of matrix and fibres. Its properties can vary a lot with each layer’s or ply’s orientation, material property and the number of layers itself. The present paper focuses on a novel approach of incorporating an analytical method to arrive at a preliminary ply layup order of a composite laminate, which acts as a feeder data for the further detailed analysis done on FEA tools. The equations used in our MATLAB are based on analytical study code and supply results that are remarkably close to the final optimized layup found through extensive FEA analysis with a high probabilistic degree. This reduces significant computing time and saves considerable FEA processing to obtain efficient results quickly. The result output by our method also provides the user with the conditions that predicts the successive failure sequence of the composite plies, a result option which is not even available in popular FEM tools. The predicted results are further verified by testing the laminates in the laboratory and the results are found in good agreement.

  7. A semi-analytical iterative technique for solving chemistry problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majeed Ahmed AL-Jawary

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The main aim and contribution of the current paper is to implement a semi-analytical iterative method suggested by Temimi and Ansari in 2011 namely (TAM to solve two chemical problems. An approximate solution obtained by the TAM provides fast convergence. The current chemical problems are the absorption of carbon dioxide into phenyl glycidyl ether and the other system is a chemical kinetics problem. These problems are represented by systems of nonlinear ordinary differential equations that contain boundary conditions and initial conditions. Error analysis of the approximate solutions is studied using the error remainder and the maximal error remainder. Exponential rate for the convergence is observed. For both problems the results of the TAM are compared with other results obtained by previous methods available in the literature. The results demonstrate that the method has many merits such as being derivative-free, and overcoming the difficulty arising in calculating Adomian polynomials to handle the non-linear terms in Adomian Decomposition Method (ADM. It does not require to calculate Lagrange multiplier in Variational Iteration Method (VIM in which the terms of the sequence become complex after several iterations, thus, analytical evaluation of terms becomes very difficult or impossible in VIM. No need to construct a homotopy in Homotopy Perturbation Method (HPM and solve the corresponding algebraic equations. The MATHEMATICA® 9 software was used to evaluate terms in the iterative process.

  8. Analytical and critical thinking skills in public relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalibor Jakus

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents more or less independent reasons why analytical and critical thinking skills should be essential part of public relations. Generally, it is considered that the analytical and critical thinking skills are part of public relations, as well as creative thinking, but they should be considered separately and given the codes of ethics of the profession used as initial criteria. For the purpose of the study, in this article is presented the result of the survey in which determine importance of using analytical and critical thinking skills in the implementation of PR projects. The second aim in the survey was to identify the target audience and how they react to the placed information.

  9. New analytical technique for carbon dioxide absorption solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pouryousefi, F.; Idem, R.O. [University of Regina, Regina, SK (Canada). Faculty of Engineering

    2008-02-15

    The densities and refractive indices of two binary systems (water + MEA and water + MDEA) and three ternary systems (water + MEA + CO{sub 2}, water + MDEA + CO{sub 2}, and water + MEA + MDEA) used for carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture were measured over the range of compositions of the aqueous alkanolamine(s) used for CO{sub 2} absorption at temperatures from 295 to 338 K. Experimental densities were modeled empirically, while the experimental refractive indices were modeled using well-established models from the known values of their pure-component densities and refractive indices. The density and Gladstone-Dale refractive index models were then used to obtain the compositions of unknown samples of the binary and ternary systems by simultaneous solution of the density and refractive index equations. The results from this technique have been compared with HPLC (high-performance liquid chromatography) results, while a third independent technique (acid-base titration) was used to verify the results. The results show that the systems' compositions obtained from the simple and easy-to-use refractive index/density technique were very comparable to the expensive and laborious HPLC/titration techniques, suggesting that the refractive index/density technique can be used to replace existing methods for analysis of fresh or nondegraded, CO{sub 2}-loaded, single and mixed alkanolamine solutions.

  10. Nuclear analytical techniques with neutron beams at the Univ. of Texas at Austin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uenlue, K.; Wehring, B.W.

    1996-01-01

    Neutron beams produced by nuclear research reactors can be used for analytical chemical analysis by measuring nuclear radiation produced by neutron capture. Prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA) and neutron depth profiling (NDP) are two such analytical techniques. For the last three decades, these techniques have been applied at a number of research reactors around the world. Within the last 4 yr, we have developed NDP and PGAA facilities at The University of Texas at Austin research reactor, a 1-MW TRIGA Mark II reactor. Brief descriptions of the facilities and summaries of activities for these analytical techniques at the University of Texas at Austin are provided in this paper

  11. Determination of palladium in biological samples applying nuclear analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavalcante, Cassio Q.; Sato, Ivone M.; Salvador, Vera L. R.; Saiki, Mitiko

    2008-01-01

    This study presents Pd determinations in bovine tissue samples containing palladium prepared in the laboratory, and CCQM-P63 automotive catalyst materials of the Proficiency Test, using instrumental thermal and epithermal neutron activation analysis and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence techniques. Solvent extraction and solid phase extraction procedures were also applied to separate Pd from interfering elements before the irradiation in the nuclear reactor. The results obtained by different techniques were compared against each other to examine sensitivity, precision and accuracy. (author)

  12. Measuring efficiency in health care: analytic techniques and health policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, Peter C; Street, Andrew; Jacobs, Rowena

    2006-01-01

    ... the efficiency of systems and organisations, including data envelopment analysis and stochastic frontier analysis, and also presents some promising new methodological approaches. Such techniques offer the prospect of many new and fruitful insights into health care performance. Nevertheless, they also pose many practical and methodological c...

  13. Applications of nuclear analytical techniques to the Geology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aspiazu F, J.A.; Lopez M, J.; Ramirez T, J.J.; Montero M, E.; Villasenor S, P.

    2001-01-01

    It is applied the PIXE technique for to measure the ratio Sr/Ca in different stages of the stalactite growth. As the ratio depends of the temperature, information about the variations of atmospheric temperature along thousand of years is obtained. (Author)

  14. Analytic tests and their relation to jet fuel thermal stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heneghan, S.P.; Kauffman, R.E. [Univ. of Dayton Research Institute, OH (United States)

    1995-05-01

    The evaluation of jet fuel thermal stability (TS) by simple analytic procedures has long been a goal of fuels chemists. The reason is obvious: if the analytic chemist can determine which types of material cause his test to respond, the refiners will know which materials to remove to improve stability. Complicating this quest is the lack of an acceptable quantitative TS test with which to compare any analytic procedures. To circumvent this problem, we recently compiled the results of TS tests for 12 fuels using six separate test procedures. The results covering a range of flow and temperature conditions show that TS is not as dependent on test conditions as previously thought. Also, comparing the results from these tests with several analytic procedures shows that either a measure of the number of phenols or the total sulfur present in jet fuels is strongly indicative of the TS. The phenols have been measured using a cyclic voltammetry technique and the polar material by gas chromatography (atomic emission detection) following a solid phase extraction on silica gel. The polar material has been identified as mainly phenols (by mass spectrometry identification). Measures of the total acid number or peroxide concentration have little correlation with TS.

  15. Analytical techniques for determination and control of silica content in the water in thermal power plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignjatović Nataša R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrapure water with minimum contents of impurities is used for the preparation of steam in thermal power plants. More recently it has been found that the corrosion process is also influenced by sodium ions, chloride ions, and all forms of silicon in water. At higher temperatures and under high pressure the less soluble compounds of silicon are extracted, which form deposits on the walls of the boiler, the piping system and the turbine blades. Silicon is found in water in the form of different types (species which are characterized by specific physical and chemical properties. Distinctions can be made between highly reactive species of ionic (silicate anions and molecular forms (silicic acid and relatively inert types (suspended, colloidal, and polymerized silicon. The determination of various forms of silicon in water is a complex analytical task. This paper covers relevant research in the field of silicon specification analysis. Maintaining the unchanged, original composition of silicon species during various stages of analysis (sample collection, storage, and conservation has been given special attention. A large number of methods and procedures have been developed for the analysis of species of silicon, including chromatographic, spectroscopic and electrochemical techniques and combinations thereof. The techniques used for determining both the total amount and individual forms of silicon have been singled out. There is also an overview of the coupled techniques used most frequently in practice by using the methodology which involves preliminary separation of species and then individual specification. The paper offers an overview of analytical properties, advantages and disadvantages of the most representative analytical methods developed specifically for the analysis of silicon species in ultrapure water. The most important studies focusing on the silicon species in water have been highlighted and presented in detail. The determination of

  16. On the validity and practical applicability of derivative analyticity relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolar, P.; Fischer, J.

    1983-09-01

    We examine derivative analyticity relations (DAR), which were originally proposed by Bronzan as an alternative to dispersion relations and in which the dispersion integral is replaced by a tangent series of derivatives. We characterize the class of functions satisfying DAR, and show that outside this class the dispersion integral represents a Borel-like sum of tangent series. We point out difficulties connected with the application of DAR. (author)

  17. In situ analytical techniques for battery interface analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Alok M; Su, Wei-Nien; Hwang, Bing Joe

    2018-02-05

    Lithium-ion batteries, simply known as lithium batteries, are distinct among high energy density charge-storage devices. The power delivery of batteries depends upon the electrochemical performances and the stability of the electrode, electrolytes and their interface. Interfacial phenomena of the electrode/electrolyte involve lithium dendrite formation, electrolyte degradation and gas evolution, and a semi-solid protective layer formation at the electrode-electrolyte interface, also known as the solid-electrolyte interface (SEI). The SEI protects electrodes from further exfoliation or corrosion and suppresses lithium dendrite formation, which are crucial needs for enhancing the cell performance. This review covers the compositional, structural and morphological aspects of SEI, both artificially and naturally formed, and metallic dendrites using in situ/in operando cells and various in situ analytical tools. Critical challenges and the historical legacy in the development of in situ/in operando electrochemical cells with some reports on state-of-the-art progress are particularly highlighted. The present compilation pinpoints the emerging research opportunities in advancing this field and concludes on the future directions and strategies for in situ/in operando analysis.

  18. Application of thermo-analytical techniques in nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raje, Naina; Ghonge, Darshana K.; Reddy, A.V.R.

    2015-01-01

    Sodium nitrate solution is the byproduct of nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. It is produced during the neutralization of nitric acid received through purex process and stored in tanks or immobilized in bitumen/cement at site as waste packets. In order to minimize the environmental impact due to these waste packets, it is desirable to reduce nitrate ion to harmless gases like nitrogen. Biodegradation, ion exchange, electrodialysis and chemical treatment are the methods for nitrate reduction in the case of non nuclear industrial waste. Chemical treatment seems to be the most viable process to treat the waste from nuclear reprocessing plant in comparison to the other methods used for the non nuclear industrial waste. During chemical treatment, the nitrate ions can be converted to nitrogen by using a suitable reductant in presence of a catalyst. Formaldehyde has been chosen as the reducing agent for the nitrate - nitrogen conversion and in the process, formaldehyde gets converted to formic acid. In order to optimize the reduction process, it is essential to determine the formaldehyde and formic acid content in the waste feed solution and no direct analytical methodology is available for the same. Present work describes the attempts made to apply evolved gas analysis for understanding the mechanism of conversion of formaldehyde to formic acid. The developed method can be applied for the qualitative/quantitative determination of formaldehyde and formic acid in the waste feed solution. Waste feed samples were received from PSDD, BARC

  19. Analytical techniques and method validation for the measurement of selected semivolatile and nonvolatile organofluorochemicals in air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reagen, William K; Lindstrom, Kent R; Thompson, Kathy L; Flaherty, John M

    2004-09-01

    The widespread use of semi- and nonvolatile organofluorochemicals in industrial facilities, concern about their persistence, and relatively recent advancements in liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) technology have led to the development of new analytical methods to assess potential worker exposure to airborne organofluorochemicals. Techniques were evaluated for the determination of 19 organofluorochemicals and for total fluorine in ambient air samples. Due to the potential biphasic nature of most of these fluorochemicals when airborne, Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) versatile sampler (OVS) tubes were used to simultaneously trap fluorochemical particulates and vapors from workplace air. Analytical methods were developed for OVS air samples to quantitatively analyze for total fluorine using oxygen bomb combustion/ion selective electrode and for 17 organofluorochemicals using LC/MS and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The experimental design for this validation was based on the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Guidelines for Air Sampling and Analytical Method Development and Evaluation, with some revisions of the experimental design. The study design incorporated experiments to determine analytical recovery and stability, sampler capacity, the effect of some environmental parameters on recoveries, storage stability, limits of detection, precision, and accuracy. Fluorochemical mixtures were spiked onto each OVS tube over a range of 0.06-6 microg for each of 12 compounds analyzed by LC/MS and 0.3-30 microg for 5 compounds analyzed by GC/MS. These ranges allowed reliable quantitation at 0.001-0.1 mg/m3 in general for LC/MS analytes and 0.005-0.5 mg/m3 for GC/MS analytes when 60 L of air are sampled. The organofluorochemical exposure guideline (EG) is currently 0.1 mg/m3 for many analytes, with one exception being ammonium perfluorooctanoate (EG is 0.01 mg/m3). Total fluorine results may be used

  20. Analytical Techniques and Pharmacokinetics of Gastrodia elata Blume and Its Constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jinyi; Wu, Bingchu; Tang, Chunlan; Zhao, Jinshun

    2017-07-08

    Gastrodia elata Blume ( G. elata ), commonly called Tianma in Chinese, is an important and notable traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), which has been used in China as an anticonvulsant, analgesic, sedative, anti-asthma, anti-immune drug since ancient times. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the abundant efforts of scientists in developing analytical techniques and performing pharmacokinetic studies of G. elata and its constituents, including sample pretreatment methods, analytical techniques, absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion (ADME) and influence factors to its pharmacokinetics. Based on the reported pharmacokinetic property data of G. elata and its constituents, it is hoped that more studies will focus on the development of rapid and sensitive analytical techniques, discovering new therapeutic uses and understanding the specific in vivo mechanisms of action of G. elata and its constituents from the pharmacokinetic viewpoint in the near future. The present review discusses analytical techniques and pharmacokinetics of G. elata and its constituents reported from 1985 onwards.

  1. Analytical techniques applied to study cultural heritage objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizzutto, M.A.; Curado, J.F.; Bernardes, S.; Campos, P.H.O.V.; Kajiya, E.A.M.; Silva, T.F.; Rodrigues, C.L.; Moro, M.; Tabacniks, M.; Added, N.

    2015-01-01

    The scientific study of artistic and cultural heritage objects have been routinely performed in Europe and the United States for decades. In Brazil this research area is growing, mainly through the use of physical and chemical characterization methods. Since 2003 the Group of Applied Physics with Particle Accelerators of the Physics Institute of the University of Sao Paulo (GFAA-IF) has been working with various methodologies for material characterization and analysis of cultural objects. Initially using ion beam analysis performed with Particle Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE), Rutherford Backscattering (RBS) and recently Ion Beam Induced Luminescence (IBIL), for the determination of the elements and chemical compounds in the surface layers. These techniques are widely used in the Laboratory of Materials Analysis with Ion Beams (LAMFI-USP). Recently, the GFAA expanded the studies to other possibilities of analysis enabled by imaging techniques that coupled with elemental and compositional characterization provide a better understanding on the materials and techniques used in the creative process in the manufacture of objects. The imaging analysis, mainly used to examine and document artistic and cultural heritage objects, are performed through images with visible light, infrared reflectography (IR), fluorescence with ultraviolet radiation (UV), tangential light and digital radiography. Expanding more the possibilities of analysis, new capabilities were added using portable equipment such as Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (ED-XRF) and Raman Spectroscopy that can be used for analysis 'in situ' at the museums. The results of these analyzes are providing valuable information on the manufacturing process and have provided new information on objects of different University of Sao Paulo museums. Improving the arsenal of cultural heritage analysis it was recently constructed an 3D robotic stage for the precise positioning of samples in the external beam setup

  2. Analytical techniques applied to study cultural heritage objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizzutto, M.A.; Curado, J.F.; Bernardes, S.; Campos, P.H.O.V.; Kajiya, E.A.M.; Silva, T.F.; Rodrigues, C.L.; Moro, M.; Tabacniks, M.; Added, N., E-mail: rizzutto@if.usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica

    2015-07-01

    The scientific study of artistic and cultural heritage objects have been routinely performed in Europe and the United States for decades. In Brazil this research area is growing, mainly through the use of physical and chemical characterization methods. Since 2003 the Group of Applied Physics with Particle Accelerators of the Physics Institute of the University of Sao Paulo (GFAA-IF) has been working with various methodologies for material characterization and analysis of cultural objects. Initially using ion beam analysis performed with Particle Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE), Rutherford Backscattering (RBS) and recently Ion Beam Induced Luminescence (IBIL), for the determination of the elements and chemical compounds in the surface layers. These techniques are widely used in the Laboratory of Materials Analysis with Ion Beams (LAMFI-USP). Recently, the GFAA expanded the studies to other possibilities of analysis enabled by imaging techniques that coupled with elemental and compositional characterization provide a better understanding on the materials and techniques used in the creative process in the manufacture of objects. The imaging analysis, mainly used to examine and document artistic and cultural heritage objects, are performed through images with visible light, infrared reflectography (IR), fluorescence with ultraviolet radiation (UV), tangential light and digital radiography. Expanding more the possibilities of analysis, new capabilities were added using portable equipment such as Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (ED-XRF) and Raman Spectroscopy that can be used for analysis 'in situ' at the museums. The results of these analyzes are providing valuable information on the manufacturing process and have provided new information on objects of different University of Sao Paulo museums. Improving the arsenal of cultural heritage analysis it was recently constructed an 3D robotic stage for the precise positioning of samples in the external beam setup

  3. Analytical techniques for measurement of 99Tc in environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Three new methods have been developed for measuring 99 Tc in environmental samples. The most sensitive method is isotope dilution mass spectrometry, which allows measurement of about 1 x 10 -12 grams of 99 Tc. Results on analysis of five samples by this method compare very well with values obtained by a second independent method, which involves counting of beta particles from 99 Tc and internal conversion electrons from /sup 97m/Tc. A third method involving electrothermal atomic absorption has also been developed. Although this method is not as sensitive as the first two techniques, the cost per analysis is expected to be considerably less for certain types of samples

  4. Advanced analytical techniques: platform for nano materials science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, F.; Van Vaeck, L.; Barrett, R.

    2005-01-01

    This paper reviews a range of instrumental microanalytical techniques for their potential in following the development of nanotechnology. Needs for development in secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Auger emission spectrometry (AES) laser mass spectrometry, X-ray photon spectroscopy are discussed as well as synchrotron-based methods for analysis. Objectives for development in all these areas for the coming 5 years are defined. Developments of instrumentation in three European synchrotron installations are given as examples of ongoing development in this field

  5. Modern trends: analytical chemistry - techniques and application to biodetection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khurshid, S.J.

    1993-01-01

    Microorganism isolated from specimens are usually identified by conventional bacterial identification procedures of morphological evaluation and cultural techniques. These complex methods of studying organisms are extremely tedious and time consuming. This causes serious problems by delaying the decision concerning the presence of pathogens and therefore the adequate drug therapy. Frequently, the decision about the presence of pathogens has to be made prior to the results of microbiological tests. In order to overcome these conditions, workers explored new instrumental methods for characterization, rapid acquisition, high reproducibility, computer aided data recording and interpretation of microorganisms. This article brief reviews application of these modern instrumental approaches such as Infrared Spectroscopy (IR), Gas Chromatography (GC), Fluorescence Spectroscopy, Bioluminescence, Chemiluminescence, FLow Cytometry, Micro calorimetry, GC-MASS Spectrometry, Electrical Impedance, Bio sensors and Radiometry. These techniques have increased the capacity of doing basic research with a major impact on both the clinical laboratories and industry. The radiometric procedure is being used for research and biological quality control of radiopharmaceuticals in our laboratory at PINSTECH. (author)

  6. Real-time analytics techniques to analyze and visualize streaming data

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, Byron

    2014-01-01

    Construct a robust end-to-end solution for analyzing and visualizing streaming data Real-time analytics is the hottest topic in data analytics today. In Real-Time Analytics: Techniques to Analyze and Visualize Streaming Data, expert Byron Ellis teaches data analysts technologies to build an effective real-time analytics platform. This platform can then be used to make sense of the constantly changing data that is beginning to outpace traditional batch-based analysis platforms. The author is among a very few leading experts in the field. He has a prestigious background in research, development,

  7. Investigation of ceramic devices by analytical electron microscopy techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiojiri, M.; Saijo, H.; Isshiki, T.; Kawasaki, M.; Yoshioka, T.; Sato, S.; Nomura, T.

    1999-01-01

    Ceramics are widely used as capacitors and varistors. Their electrical properties depend on the structure, which is deeply influenced not only by the composition of raw materials and additives but also by heating treatments in the production process. This paper reviews our investigations of SrTiO 3 ceramic devices, which have been performed using various microscopy techniques such as high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), cathodoluminescence scanning electron microscopy (CLSEM), field emission SEM (FE-SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) and high angle annular dark field (HAADF) imaging method in a FE-(scanning) transmission electron microscope(FE-(S)TEM). (author)

  8. A Study of Online Exams Procrastination Using Data Analytics Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Yair; Ramim, Michelle M.

    2012-01-01

    Procrastination appears to be an inevitable part of daily life, especially for activities that are bounded by deadlines. It has implications for performance and is known to be linked to poor personal time management. Although research related to procrastination as a general behavior has been well established, studies assessing procrastination in…

  9. ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES FOR THE DETERMINATION OF MELOXICAM IN PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATIONS AND BIOLOGICAL SAMPLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisha Noreen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Meloxicam (MX belongs to the family of oxicams which is the most important group of non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs and is widely used for their analgesics and antipyretic activities. It inhibits both COX-I and COX-II enzymes with less gastric and local tissues irritation. A number of analytical techniques have been used for the determination of MX in pharmaceutical as well as in biological fluids. These techniques include titrimetry, spectrometry, chromatography, flow injection spectrometry, fluorescence spectrometry, capillary zone electrophoresis and electrochemical techniques. Many of these techniques have also been used for the simultaneous determination of MX with other compounds. A comprehensive review of these analytical techniques has been done which could be useful for the analytical chemists and quality control pharmacists.

  10. Trends in analytical techniques applied to particulate matter characterization: A critical review of fundaments and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvão, Elson Silva; Santos, Jane Meri; Lima, Ana Teresa; Reis, Neyval Costa; Orlando, Marcos Tadeu D'Azeredo; Stuetz, Richard Michael

    2018-05-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown the association of airborne particulate matter (PM) size and chemical composition with health problems affecting the cardiorespiratory and central nervous systems. PM also act as cloud condensation nuclei (CNN) or ice nuclei (IN), taking part in the clouds formation process, and therefore can impact the climate. There are several works using different analytical techniques in PM chemical and physical characterization to supply information to source apportionment models that help environmental agencies to assess damages accountability. Despite the numerous analytical techniques described in the literature available for PM characterization, laboratories are normally limited to the in-house available techniques, which raises the question if a given technique is suitable for the purpose of a specific experimental work. The aim of this work consists of summarizing the main available technologies for PM characterization, serving as a guide for readers to find the most appropriate technique(s) for their investigation. Elemental analysis techniques like atomic spectrometry based and X-ray based techniques, organic and carbonaceous techniques and surface analysis techniques are discussed, illustrating their main features as well as their advantages and drawbacks. We also discuss the trends in analytical techniques used over the last two decades. The choice among all techniques is a function of a number of parameters such as: the relevant particles physical properties, sampling and measuring time, access to available facilities and the costs associated to equipment acquisition, among other considerations. An analytical guide map is presented as a guideline for choosing the most appropriated technique for a given analytical information required. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Nuclear and nuclear related analytical methods applied in environmental research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popescu, Ion V.; Gheboianu, Anca; Bancuta, Iulian; Cimpoca, G. V; Stihi, Claudia; Radulescu, Cristiana; Oros Calin; Frontasyeva, Marina; Petre, Marian; Dulama, Ioana; Vlaicu, G.

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear Analytical Methods can be used for research activities on environmental studies like water quality assessment, pesticide residues, global climatic change (transboundary), pollution and remediation. Heavy metal pollution is a problem associated with areas of intensive industrial activity. In this work the moss bio monitoring technique was employed to study the atmospheric deposition in Dambovita County Romania. Also, there were used complementary nuclear and atomic analytical methods: Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA), Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES). These high sensitivity analysis methods were used to determine the chemical composition of some samples of mosses placed in different areas with different pollution industrial sources. The concentrations of Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni and Zn were determined. The concentration of Fe from the same samples was determined using all these methods and we obtained a very good agreement, in statistical limits, which demonstrate the capability of these analytical methods to be applied on a large spectrum of environmental samples with the same results. (authors)

  12. Incident detection and isolation in drilling using analytical redundancy relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willersrud, Anders; Blanke, Mogens; Imsland, Lars

    2015-01-01

    must be avoided. This paper employs model-based diagnosis using analytical redundancy relations to obtain residuals which are affected differently by the different incidents. Residuals are found to be non-Gaussian - they follow a multivariate t-distribution - hence, a dedicated generalized likelihood...... measurements available. In the latter case, isolation capability is shown to be reduced to group-wise isolation, but the method would still detect all serious events with the prescribed false alarm probability...

  13. On the analytical demonstration of Planck-Einstein relation

    OpenAIRE

    Molina Morales, Eddy Luis

    2016-01-01

    In this paper a possible analytical demonstration of Planck's Law for the spectral distribution of the electromagnetic energy radiated by hot bodies is presented, but in this case, the solutions of Maxwell's equations for the electromagnetic radiation problem of Hertz’s dipole are used. The concepts of quantum energy and of photon are redefined from the classical point of view, relating them to the possible electronic nature of electromagnetic waves and the electromagnetic field in general. B...

  14. Comparison of analytical techniques for dynamic trace metal speciation in natural freshwaters.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sigg, Laura; Black, Frank; Buffle, Jacques; Cao, Jun; Cleven, Rob; Davison, William; Galceran, Josep; Gunkel, Peggy; Kalis, Erwin; Kistler, David; Martin, Michel; Noël, Stéphane; Nur, Yusuf; Odzak, Niksa; Puy, Jaume; Riemsdijk, Willem van; Temminghoff, Erwin; Tercier-Waeber, Mary-Lou; Toepperwien, Stefanie; Town, Raewyn M; Unsworth, Emily R; Warnken, Kent W; Weng, Liping; Xue, Hanbin; Zhang, Hao

    2006-01-01

    Several techniques for speciation analysis of Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, and Ni are used in freshwater systems and compared with respect to their performance and to the metal species detected. The analytical techniques comprise the following: (i) diffusion gradients in thin-film gels (DGT); (ii) gel integrated

  15. An Example of a Hakomi Technique Adapted for Functional Analytic Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collis, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP) is a model of therapy that lends itself to integration with other therapy models. This paper aims to provide an example to assist others in assimilating techniques from other forms of therapy into FAP. A technique from the Hakomi Method is outlined and modified for FAP. As, on the whole, psychotherapy…

  16. Assessing the Value of Structured Analytic Techniques in the U.S. Intelligence Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Analytic Techniques, and Why Do Analysts Use Them? SATs are methods of organizing and stimulating thinking about intelligence problems. These methods... thinking ; and imaginative thinking techniques encourage new perspectives, insights, and alternative scenarios. Among the many SATs in use today, the...more transparent, so that other analysts and customers can bet - ter understand how the judgments were reached. SATs also facilitate group involvement

  17. Application of metabonomic analytical techniques in the modernization and toxicology research of traditional Chinese medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lao, Yong-Min; Jiang, Jian-Guo; Yan, Lu

    2009-08-01

    In the recent years, a wide range of metabonomic analytical techniques are widely used in the modern research of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). At the same time, the international community has attached increasing importance to TCM toxicity problems. Thus, many studies have been implemented to investigate the toxicity mechanisms of TCM. Among these studies, many metabonomic-based methods have been implemented to facilitate TCM toxicity investigation. At present, the most prevailing methods for TCM toxicity research are mainly single analysis techniques using only one analytical means. These techniques include nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), etc.; with these techniques, some favourable outcomes have been gained in the toxic reaction studies of TCM, such as the action target organs assay, the establishment of action pattern, the elucidation of action mechanism and the exploration of action material foundation. However, every analytical technique has its advantages and drawbacks, no existing analytical technique can be versatile. Multi-analysed techniques can partially overcome the shortcomings of single-analysed techniques. Combination of GC-MS and LC-MS metabolic profiling approaches has unravelled the pathological outcomes of aristolochic acid-induced nephrotoxicity, which can not be achieved by single-analysed techniques. It is believed that with the further development of metabonomic analytical techniques, especially multi-analysed techniques, metabonomics will greatly promote TCM toxicity research and be beneficial to the modernization of TCM in terms of extending the application of modern means in the TCM safety assessment, assisting the formulation of TCM safety norms and establishing the international standards indicators.

  18. An Overview of Analytical Determination of Diltiazem, Cimetidine, Ranitidine, and Famotidine by UV Spectrophotometry and HPLC Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nighat Shafi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This review article recapitulates the analytical methods for the quantitative determinations of diltiazem and three H2 receptor antagonists (cimetidine, ranitidine, and famotidine by one of the spectroscopic technique (UV spectrophotometery and separation technique such as high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. The clinical and pharmaceutical analysis of these drugs requires effective analytical procedures for quality control, pharmaceutical dosage formulations, and biological fluids. An extensive survey of the literature published in various analytical and pharmaceutical chemistry-related journals has been compiled in its review. A synopsis of reported spectrophotometric and high-performance liquid chromatographic methods for individual drug is integrated. This appraisal illustrates that majority of the HPLC methods reviewed are based on the quantitative analysis of drugs in biological fluids, and they are appropriate for therapeutic drug monitoring purpose.

  19. Evaluating empirical/analytical techniques to predict structural integrity of pipe containing surface flaws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuter, W.G.; Server, W.L.

    1982-01-01

    Data from flat-plate specimens containing either triangular-, ellipsoidal- or rectangular-shaped surface flaws were evaluated by several potential analytical techniques. These techniques were modified as needed to predict conditions for initiation of subcritical crack growth, for the defect to penetrate the 6.4 mm (0.25 in.) wall thickness, and for instability (plastic or unstable). The modified analytical techniques developed from the plate specimens were then used to make predictions which are compared with test results obtained from pipe specimens containing triangular-shaped surface flaws

  20. Regional and global atmospheric aerosol studies using the ''Gent'' stacked filter unit sampler and other aerosol collectors, with multi-elemental analysis of the samples by nuclear-related analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maenhaut, W.; Francois, F.; Salma, I.; Cafmeyer, J.; Gilot, C.

    1994-01-01

    The ''Gent'' staked filter unit sampler and other collection devices are used in regional and global scale studies on the tropospheric atmospheric aerosols, its composition, sources and fate. The aerosol samples are analyzed by particle-induced X-ray emission analysis, instrumental neutron activation analysis, ion chromatography, a light reflectance technique (for determining black carbon), and gravimetry (for measuring the particular mass). In evaluating the data, use is made of receptor modelling techniques, transport models and wind sector analysis, and also of air mass trajectories and other meteorological information. Preliminary results from a long-term study in southern Norway are presented. It is suggested that the anthropogenic and soil dust aerosol components are mainly adverted to southern Norway by long-range transport and that the major fraction of the submicrometer particle mass is from anthropogenic origin. Preliminary results are also presented for an intensive study in southern Africa. On the basis of the data for two sites (about 40 km apart) in the Kruger National Park it was concluded that regionally representative aerosol samples were collected and that the biomass burning products account for more than 50% of the fine particle mass. Finally, our plans for future work are given. (author). 70 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  1. Toward greener analytical techniques for the absolute quantification of peptides in pharmaceutical and biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Eeckhaut, Ann; Mangelings, Debby

    2015-09-10

    Peptide-based biopharmaceuticals represent one of the fastest growing classes of new drug molecules. New reaction types included in the synthesis strategies to reduce the rapid metabolism of peptides, along with the availability of new formulation and delivery technologies, resulted in an increased marketing of peptide drug products. In this regard, the development of analytical methods for quantification of peptides in pharmaceutical and biological samples is of utmost importance. From the sample preparation step to their analysis by means of chromatographic or electrophoretic methods, many difficulties should be tackled to analyze them. Recent developments in analytical techniques emphasize more and more on the use of green analytical techniques. This review will discuss the progresses in and challenges observed during green analytical method development for the quantification of peptides in pharmaceutical and biological samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. An analytical simulation technique for cone-beam CT and pinhole SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xuezhu; Qi Yujin

    2011-01-01

    This study was aimed at developing an efficient simulation technique with an ordinary PC. The work involved derivation of mathematical operators, analytic phantom generations, and effective analytical projectors developing for cone-beam CT and pinhole SPECT imaging. The computer simulations based on the analytical projectors were developed by ray-tracing method for cone-beam CT and voxel-driven method for pinhole SPECT of degrading blurring. The 3D Shepp-Logan, Jaszczak and Defrise phantoms were used for simulation evaluations and image reconstructions. The reconstructed phantom images were of good accuracy with the phantoms. The results showed that the analytical simulation technique is an efficient tool for studying cone-beam CT and pinhole SPECT imaging. (authors)

  3. Development of analytical techniques in support of waste and effluent characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, W.J.

    1991-01-01

    The Analytical Services Group within Sellafield Technical Department has been established for >40 yr and employs >150 analysts. The group operates >400 analytical methods across a wide range of techniques and has a yearly workload of ∼250,000 determinations. The group operates under a quality system based on statistical process control that has achieved national recognition through the accreditation of its mass spectrometry and radiochemical services to the standard of national testing laboratories. The group offers services ranging from the characterization of highly active wastes to trace elemental and radiochemical measurements in environmental, biological, and effluent streams. The group has vast experience in the management of analytical services to tight time scales and has pioneered developments not only in analytical instrumentation, but also in the adaptation of equipment to radioactive environments and the design of dedicated analytical facilities

  4. Selecting public relations personnel of hospitals by analytic network process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Sen-Kuei; Chang, Kuei-Lun

    2009-01-01

    This study describes the use of analytic network process (ANP) in the Taiwanese hospital public relations personnel selection process. Starting with interviewing 48 practitioners and executives in north Taiwan, we collected selection criteria. Then, we retained the 12 critical criteria that were mentioned above 40 times by theses respondents, including: interpersonal skill, experience, negotiation, language, ability to follow orders, cognitive ability, adaptation to environment, adaptation to company, emotion, loyalty, attitude, and Response. Finally, we discussed with the 20 executives to take these important criteria into three perspectives to structure the hierarchy for hospital public relations personnel selection. After discussing with practitioners and executives, we find that selecting criteria are interrelated. The ANP, which incorporates interdependence relationships, is a new approach for multi-criteria decision-making. Thus, we apply ANP to select the most optimal public relations personnel of hospitals. An empirical study of public relations personnel selection problems in Taiwan hospitals is conducted to illustrate how the selection procedure works.

  5. Analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, G.V.; McAnulty, L.T.

    1976-01-01

    Optical emission spectroscopy was conducted on 20,000 biological specimens for metallic trace elements. Determinations of 13 C in biological tissues were made by charged particle activation, and carrier-free 123 I was isolated from proton irradiated 124 Te

  6. Industrial and environmental applications of nuclear analytical techniques. Report of a workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    The IAEA has programme the utilisation of nuclear analytical techniques (NATs), in particular for industrial and environmental applications. A major purpose is to help the developing Member States apply their analytical capabilities optimally for socio-economic progress and development. A large number of institutions in Europe, Africa, Latin America and Asia have established X ray fluorescence (XRF) and gamma ray measurement techniques and facilities for neutron activation analysis (NAA) have been initiated in institutions in these regions. Moreover, there is a growing interest among many institutes in applying more advanced analytical techniques, such as particle induced X ray emission (PIXE) and microanalytical techniques based on X ray emission induced by conventional sources or synchrotron radiation to the analysis of environmental and biological materials and industrial products. In order to define new areas of application of NATs and to extend the range of these techniques, a number of initiatives have recently been taken. It includes a workshop on industrial and environmental applications of nuclear analytical techniques, organized by the IAEA in Vienna, 7-11 September 1998. The main objectives of the workshop were as follows: (1) to review recent applications of NATs in industrial and environmental studies; (2) to identify emerging trends in methodologies and applications of NATs; (3) to demonstrate analytical capabilities of selected NATs. The following topics were reviewed during the workshop: (1) XRF and accelerator based analytical techniques; (2) portable XRF systems and their applications in industry, mineral prospecting and processing, (3) portable gamma ray spectrometers; and (4) NAA and its applications in industry and environmental studies. Micro-XRF and micro-PIXE methods and their applications in the above fields were also discussed, including aspects of synchrotron radiation induced X ray emission.

  7. Industrial and environmental applications of nuclear analytical techniques. Report of a workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-11-01

    The IAEA has programme the utilisation of nuclear analytical techniques (NATs), in particular for industrial and environmental applications. A major purpose is to help the developing Member States apply their analytical capabilities optimally for socio-economic progress and development. A large number of institutions in Europe, Africa, Latin America and Asia have established X ray fluorescence (XRF) and gamma ray measurement techniques and facilities for neutron activation analysis (NAA) have been initiated in institutions in these regions. Moreover, there is a growing interest among many institutes in applying more advanced analytical techniques, such as particle induced X ray emission (PIXE) and microanalytical techniques based on X ray emission induced by conventional sources or synchrotron radiation to the analysis of environmental and biological materials and industrial products. In order to define new areas of application of NATs and to extend the range of these techniques, a number of initiatives have recently been taken. It includes a workshop on industrial and environmental applications of nuclear analytical techniques, organized by the IAEA in Vienna, 7-11 September 1998. The main objectives of the workshop were as follows: (1) to review recent applications of NATs in industrial and environmental studies; (2) to identify emerging trends in methodologies and applications of NATs; (3) to demonstrate analytical capabilities of selected NATs. The following topics were reviewed during the workshop: (1) XRF and accelerator based analytical techniques; (2) portable XRF systems and their applications in industry, mineral prospecting and processing, (3) portable gamma ray spectrometers; and (4) NAA and its applications in industry and environmental studies. Micro-XRF and micro-PIXE methods and their applications in the above fields were also discussed, including aspects of synchrotron radiation induced X ray emission

  8. Role of thermo-analytical techniques in compositional characterization of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raje, Naina

    2015-01-01

    The study of heat effects on different materials has a long history. Extraction of metals from the ores, pottery production, glasses making etc. are the examples, where the performance of products obtained from raw materials depends on the processing temperatures. Concrete, pottery, bricks etc., are severely damaged due to uncontrolled high temperatures. Therefore, the heating of raw materials in controlled manner is of pivotal importance to get products of the desired quality. Thermo-analytical techniques provide the information on the effect of heat under controlled heating conditions. In thermo-analytical techniques, physical properties of materials are measured as a function of temperature. Simultaneous thermo-analytical techniques are beneficial in comparison to any single thermo-analytical technique. Simultaneous techniques refer to the measurement of two or more signals on the same sample at the same time in the same instrument. Nowadays, simultaneous thermo-analytical technique are extensively in use for the analysis of materials. Ammonium diuranate (ADU) and magnesium diuranate (MDU), also known as yellowcake, are intermediate precursors in fuel fabrication process, with stringent specifications along with the need to understand its thermal behavior. In the processing of lowgrade ores, higher levels of impurities are being encountered in the leach solution that affects the properties of ADU/MDU. In order to meet the fuel specifications, quality assurance of these nuclear materials is essential. Current studies describe the application of simultaneous Thermogravimetry (TG) - differential thermal analysis (DTA) - evolved gas analysis (EGA) techniques for the compositional characterization of ADU/MDU with respect to the impurities present in the matrices

  9. Application of advanced nuclear and instrumental analytical techniques for characterisation of environmental materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudersanan, M.; Pawaskar, P.B.; Kayasth, S.R.; Kumar, S.C.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Increasing realisation about the toxic effects of metal ions in environmental materials has given an impetus to research on analytical techniques for their characterization. The large number of analytes present at very low levels has necessitated the use of sensitive, selective and element specific techniques for their characterization. The concern about precision and accuracy on such analysis, which have socio-economic bearing, has emphasized the use of Certified Reference Materials and the use of multi-technique approach for the unambiguous characterization of analytes. The recent work carried out at Analytical Chemistry Division, BARC on these aspects is presented in this paper. Increasing use of fossil fuels has led to the generation of large quantities of fly ash which pose problems of safe disposal. The utilization of these materials for land filling is an attractive option but the presence of trace amounts of toxic metals like mercury, arsenic, lead etc may cause environmental problems. In view of the inhomogeneous nature of the material, efficient sample processing is an important factor, in addition to the validation of the results by the use of proper standards. Analysis was carried out on flyash samples received as reference materials and also as samples from commercial sources using a combination of both nuclear techniques like INAA and RNAA as well as other techniques like AAS, ICPAES, cold vapour AAS for mercury and hydride generation technique for arsenic. Similar analysis using nuclear techniques was employed for the characterization of air particulates. Biological materials often serve as sensitive indicator materials for pollution measurements. They are also employed for studies on the uptake of toxic metals like U, Th, Cd, Pb, Hg etc. The presence of large amounts of organic materials in them necessitate an appropriate sample dissolution procedure. In view of the possibility of loss of certain analytes like Cd, Hg, As, by high

  10. Workplace and occupational health: The first metal evaluation using nuclear and analytical techniques in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros Correia Menezes, M.A. de; Vilhena Schayer Sabino, C. de; Melo Mattos, S.V. de; Santos Filho, S.; Diniz, E.

    1998-01-01

    Belo Horizonte, the capital of the State of Minas Gerais and its neighbourhood are the second industrial center of Brazil, concentrating many industries in several areas mainly metal refining and transformation. There are no registers about the level of metal concentration in the environmental air in the industry, nor even of the level of workers' contamination. The overall objective of this Project is to make a survey of the exposures to metals related to occupational diseases in galvanizing industry, which is responsible for the majority of occurrences of occupational diseases. The survey will be accomplished using as bio-indicators hair, nails, blood, urine, and individual air filters. These matrixes will indicate the incorporation of metals and the exposure level. The analytical techniques that will be applied are the neutron activation joined to related non nuclear analytical techniques, such as atomic absorption. (author)

  11. Workplace and occupational health: The first metal evaluation using nuclear and analytical techniques in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros Correia Menezes, M.A. de; Vilhena Schayer Sabino, C de [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Sector de Radioquimica, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Melo Mattos, S.V. de [FUNED, Divisao de Bromatologia e Toxicologia, Servico de Quimica Especializada, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Santos Filho, S [Secretaria Minicipal de Saude de Belo Horizonte, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Diniz, E [FUNDACENTRO/BH, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    1999-12-31

    Belo Horizonte, the capital of the State of Minas Gerais and its neighbourhood are the second industrial center of Brazil, concentrating many industries in several areas mainly metal refining and transformation. There are no registers about the level of metal concentration in the environmental air in the industry, nor even of the level of workers` contamination. The overall objective of this Project is to make a survey of the exposures to metals related to occupational diseases in galvanizing industry, which is responsible for the majority of occurrences of occupational diseases. The survey will be accomplished using as bio-indicators hair, nails, blood, urine, and individual air filters. These matrixes will indicate the incorporation of metals and the exposure level. The analytical techniques that will be applied are the neutron activation joined to related non nuclear analytical techniques, such as atomic absorption. (author) 7 refs, 2 tabs

  12. Pedestrian-vehicle crashes and analytical techniques for stratified contingency tables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ghamdi, Ali S

    2002-03-01

    In 1999 there were 450 fatalities due to road crashes in Riyadh, the capital of Saudi Arabia, of which 130 were pedestrians. Hence, every fourth person killed on the roads is a pedestrian. The aim of this study is to investigate pedestrian-vehicle crashes in this fast-growing city with two objectives in mind: to analyze pedestrian collisions with regard to their causes, characteristics, location of injury on the victim's body, and most common patterns and to determine the potential for use of the odds ratio technique in the analysis of stratified contingency tables. Data from 638 pedestrian-vehicle crashes reported by police, during the period 1997-1999, were used. A systematic sampling technique was followed in which every third record was used. The analysis showed that the pedestrian fatality rate per 10(5) population is 2.8. The rates were relatively high within the childhood (1-9 years) and young adult (10-19 years) groups, and the old-age groups (60 - > 80 years), which indicate that young as well as the elderly people in this city are more likely to be involved in fatal accidents of this type than are those in other age groups. The analysis revealed that 77.1% of pedestrians were probably struck while crossing a roadway either not in a crosswalk or where no crosswalk existed. In addition, the distribution of injuries on the victims' bodies was determined from hospital records. More than one-third of the fatal injuries were located on the head and chest. An attempt was made to conduct an association analysis between crash severity (i.e. injury or fatal) and some of the study variables using chi-square and odds ratio techniques. The categorical nature of the data helped in using these analytical techniques.

  13. [Clinical Application of Analytical and Medical Instruments Mainly Using MS Techniques].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Koichi

    2016-02-01

    Analytical instruments for clinical use are commonly required to confirm the compounds and forms related to diseases with the highest possible sensitivity, quantitative performance, and specificity and minimal invasiveness within a short time, easily, and at a low cost. Advancements of technical innovation for Mass Spectrometer (MS) have led to techniques that meet such requirements. Besides confirming known substances, other purposes and advantages of MS that are not fully known to the public are using MS as a tool to discover unknown phenomena and compounds. An example is clarifying the mechanisms of human diseases. The human body has approximately 100 thousand types of protein, and there may be more than several million types of protein and their metabolites. Most of them have yet to be discovered, and their discovery may give birth to new academic fields and lead to the clarification of diseases, development of new medicines, etc. For example, using the MS system developed under "Contribution to drug discovery and diagnosis by next generation of advanced mass spectrometry system," one of the 30 projects of the "Funding Program for World-Leading Innovative R&D on Science and Technology" (FIRST program), and other individual basic technologies, we succeeded in discovering new disease biomarker candidates for Alzheimer's disease, cancer, etc. Further contribution of MS to clinical medicine can be expected through the development and improvement of new techniques, efforts to verify discoveries, and communications with the medical front.

  14. A Visual Analytics Technique for Identifying Heat Spots in Transportation Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Sorin Nistor

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The decision takers of the public transportation system, as part of urban critical infrastructures, need to increase the system resilience. For doing so, we identified analysis tools for biological networks as an adequate basis for visual analytics in that domain. In the paper at hand we therefore translate such methods for transportation systems and show the benefits by applying them on the Munich subway network. Here, visual analytics is used to identify vulnerable stations from different perspectives. The applied technique is presented step by step. Furthermore, the key challenges in applying this technique on transportation systems are identified. Finally, we propose the implementation of the presented features in a management cockpit to integrate the visual analytics mantra for an adequate decision support on transportation systems.

  15. Pre-concentration technique for reduction in "Analytical instrument requirement and analysis"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Sangita; Singha, Mousumi; Meena, Sher Singh

    2018-04-01

    Availability of analytical instruments for a methodical detection of known and unknown effluents imposes a serious hindrance in qualification and quantification. Several analytical instruments such as Elemental analyzer, ICP-MS, ICP-AES, EDXRF, ion chromatography, Electro-analytical instruments which are not only expensive but also time consuming, required maintenance, damaged essential parts replacement which are of serious concern. Move over for field study and instant detection installation of these instruments are not convenient to each and every place. Therefore, technique such as pre-concentration of metal ions especially for lean stream elaborated and justified. Chelation/sequestration is the key of immobilization technique which is simple, user friendly, most effective, least expensive, time efficient; easy to carry (10g - 20g vial) to experimental field/site has been demonstrated.

  16. Application gives the technique the analytic tree in the evaluation the effectiveness programs to radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Gonzalez, F.; Perez Velazquez, R.S.; Fornet Rodriguez, O.; Mustelier Hechevarria, A.; Miller Clemente, A.

    1998-01-01

    In the work we develop the IAEA recommendations in the application the analytic tree as instrument for the evaluation the effectiveness the occupational radiological protection programs. Is reflected like it has been assimilated and converted that technique in daily work istruments in the evaluation process the security conditions in the institutions that apply the nuclear techniques with a view to its autorization on the part of the regulatory organ

  17. Nuclear analytical techniques for on-line elemental analysis in industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-06-01

    This report is the result of an advisory group meeting held in Espoo, Finland, 1-5 June, 1987. The purpose of the meeting was to assess the present status and development of nuclear analytical techniques used for industrial process control. The report gives an overview of the different nuclear techniques used for process control and the most important applications. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 7 papers presented at the meeting. Refs, figs and tabs

  18. Cellular imaging electron tomography and related techniques

    CERN Document Server

    2018-01-01

    This book highlights important techniques for cellular imaging and covers the basics and applications of electron tomography and related techniques. In addition, it considers practical aspects and broadens the technological focus by incorporating techniques that are only now becoming accessible (e.g. block face imaging).  The first part of the book describes the electron microscopy 3D technique available to scientists around the world, allowing them to characterize organelles, cells and tissues. The major emphasis is on new technologies like scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) tomography, though the book also reviews some of the more proven technologies like electron tomography. In turn, the second part is dedicated to the reconstruction of data sets, signal improvement and interpretation.

  19. Critical review of analytical techniques for safeguarding the thorium-uranium fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakkila, E.A.

    1978-10-01

    Conventional analytical methods applicable to the determination of thorium, uranium, and plutonium in feed, product, and waste streams from reprocessing thorium-based nuclear reactor fuels are reviewed. Separations methods of interest for these analyses are discussed. Recommendations concerning the applicability of various techniques to reprocessing samples are included. 15 tables, 218 references

  20. Analytical and numerical techniques for predicting the interfacial stresses of wavy carbon nanotube/polymer composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yazdchi, K.; Salehi, M.; Shokrieh, M.M.

    2009-01-01

    By introducing a new simplified 3D representative volume element for wavy carbon nanotubes, an analytical model is developed to study the stress transfer in single-walled carbon nanotube-reinforced polymer composites. Based on the pull-out modeling technique, the effects of waviness, aspect ratio,

  1. A review of analytical techniques for the determination of carbon-14 in environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milton, G.M.; Brown, R.M.

    1993-11-01

    This report contains a brief summary of analytical techniques commonly used for the determination of radiocarbon in a variety of environmental samples. Details of the applicable procedures developed and tested in the Environmental Research Branch at Chalk River Laboratories are appended

  2. Application of nuclear analytical techniques to investigate trace element content in foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gharib, A.

    1985-01-01

    The study performed as a joint project with the IAEA includes those foodstuffs which are being used widely in Iran. It was investigated their nutritional requirements, interrelations and the role of their trace elements in metabolism. Various analytical techniques was assessed and compared. The methods involved in the study were ASS, PIXE and NAA (instrumental and radiochemical)

  3. Constrained principal component analysis and related techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Takane, Yoshio

    2013-01-01

    In multivariate data analysis, regression techniques predict one set of variables from another while principal component analysis (PCA) finds a subspace of minimal dimensionality that captures the largest variability in the data. How can regression analysis and PCA be combined in a beneficial way? Why and when is it a good idea to combine them? What kind of benefits are we getting from them? Addressing these questions, Constrained Principal Component Analysis and Related Techniques shows how constrained PCA (CPCA) offers a unified framework for these approaches.The book begins with four concre

  4. Analytical techniques for the determination of radiochemical purity of radiopharmaceuticals prepared from kits. Pt. III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLean, J.R.; Rockwell, L.J.; Welsh, W.J.

    1982-01-01

    The evaluation of efficacy of commercially available kits used for the preparation of radiopharmaceuticals is one aspect of the Radiation Protection Bureau's radiopharmaceutical quality control program. This report describes some of the analytical methodology employed in the program. The techniques may be of interest to hospital radiopharmacy personnel since many of the tests can be performed rapidly and with a minimum of special equipment, thus enabling the confirmation of radiopharmaceutical purity prior to patient administration. Manufacturers of kits may also be interested in learning of the analytical methods used in the assessment of their products

  5. Analytical techniques for the determination of radiochemical purity of radiopharmaceuticals prepared from kits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLean, J.R.; Rockwell, L.J.; Welsh, W.J.

    1977-01-01

    The evaluation of efficacy of commercially available kits used for the preparation of radiopharmaceuticals is one aspect of the Radiation Protection Bureau's radiopharmaceutical quality control program. This report describes some of the analytical methodology employed in the program. The techniques may be of interest to hospital radiopharmacy personnel as many of the tests can be performed rapidly and with a minimum of special equipment, thus enabling the confirmation of radiopharmaceutical purity prior to patient administration. Manufacturers of kits may also be interested in learning of the analytical methods used in the assessment of their products. (auth)

  6. International conference on isotopic and nuclear analytical techniques for health and environment. Unedited papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The IAEA has been supporting nuclear and isotopic analytical techniques as part of its mandate to foster the peaceful uses of nuclear energy for many years. Nuclear analytical laboratories have been installed and upgraded through technical co-operation assistance in many laboratories of Member States. These techniques, including INAA, CRF, PIXE, stable isotopes and radioisotopes, α, β, γ spectrometry, Moessbauer spectrometry, etc., have been applied to a wide range of subjects with varying success. Nuclear analytical techniques, featuring some intrinsic quality control aspects, such as multi-nuclide analysis, frequently serve as 'reference methods' to crosscheck critical results. As nuclear properties of elements are targeted, matrix problems seem to be negligible. In light of its continued commitment and support, the IAEA organized the International Conference on Isotopic and Nuclear Analytical Techniques for Health and Environment. Out of 220 from 61 countries who applied for participation, 155 official participants and five observers from 47 countries were in attendance, with 67 from 32 developing countries and 21 from international organizations, including the World Health Organization. Eleven plenary sessions were held. Also conducted was a panel discussion on Human Capacity Development Needs in the Areas of Analytical Quality Control Services (AQCS), Radiochemistry and Nutrition. The scientific sessions were divided into several topics, which reflect some of the important activities of the IAEA's Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications (NA): - Isotopic and nuclear techniques (general); - Metrology and quality assurance in nuclear measurements; - Nuclear analytical techniques for environmental monitoring; - Radioecology; - Environmental monitoring; - Radiological safety of food and water; - Methodological aspects of stable isotope techniques in health and environment; - Applications of isotopic techniques in health and environment; - New

  7. Advantages and disadvantages of relational and non-relational (NoSQL) databases for analytical tasks

    OpenAIRE

    Klapač, Milan

    2015-01-01

    This work focuses on NoSQL databases, their use for analytical tasks and on comparison of NoSQL databases with relational and OLAP databases. The aim is to analyse the benefits of NoSQL databases and their use for analytical purposes. The first part presents the basic principles of Business Intelligence, Data Warehousing, and Big Data. The second part deals with the key features of relational and NoSQL databases. The last part of the thesis describes the properties of four basic types of NoSQ...

  8. A Simplified Analytical Technique for High Frequency Characterization of Resonant Tunneling Diode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DESSOUKI, A. A. S.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available his paper proposes a simplified analytical technique for high frequency characterization of the resonant tunneling diode (RTD. An equivalent circuit of the RTD that consists of a parallel combination of conductance, G (V, f, and capacitance, C (V, f is formulated. The proposed approach uses the measured DC current versus voltage characteristic of the RTD to extract the equivalent circuit elements parameters in the entire bias range. Using the proposed analytical technique, the frequency response - including the high frequency range - of many characteristic aspects of the RTD is investigated. Also, the maximum oscillation frequency of the RTD is calculated. The results obtained have been compared with those concluded and reported in the literature. The reported results in literature were obtained through simulation of the RTD at high frequency using either a computationally complicated quantum simulator or through difficult RF measurements. A similar pattern of results and highly concordant conclusion are obtained. The proposed analytical technique is simple, correct, and appropriate to investigate the behavior of the RTD at high frequency. In addition, the proposed technique can be easily incorporated into SPICE program to simulate circuits containing RTD.

  9. Atmospheric pollution in the Tula Industrial Corridor studied using a bio monitor and nuclear analytical techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez C, M. A.; Solis, C.; Andrade, E. [UNAM, Instituto de Fisica, Apdo. Postal 20-364, 01000 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Beltran H, R. I. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Hidalgo, Centro de Investigaciones Quimicas, Carretera Pachuca-Tulancingo Km. 4.5, 42184 Pachuca, Hidalgo (Mexico); Issac O, K. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Facultad de Medicina, Paseo Tollocan s/n, esq. Jesus Carranza, 50120 Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Lucho C, C. A. [Universidad Politecnica de Pachuca, Carretera Pachuca-Cd. Sahagun Km. 20, Hidalgo (Mexico); Lopez R, M. C.; Longoria, L. C. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2011-02-15

    This study deals with the application of nuclear analytical techniques to analyze trace elements in the biological monitor Tillandsia usneoides. Biological monitors provides an alternative advantageous way of particulate matter sampling in air pollution studies, since there is no need of special sampling devices, accumulation time can be as long as desired. T. usneoides, which occurs naturally throughout Mexico, was used to monitor air quality of Tula-Vito-Apasco (TVA) industrial corridor at central Mexico. This area is considered one of the critical zones of the country because of atmospheric contaminants high concentration. Particulate matter is regulated by Mexican norms, but its chemical composition is not. Plants were transplanted from a clean environment to four sites at the TVA corridor, and exposed for 12 weeks from February to April 2008. Trace element accumulation of plants was determined by particle induced X-ray emission and neutron activation analysis. Results reveal differences in trace elements distribution among sites in the TVA corridor. Furthermore, anthropogenic elements (S, V) and crustal elements (Ca) in T. usneoides exhibit high levels. Highly toxic elements such as Hg, As and Cr although present at trace levels, showed un enrichment relative to the initial values, when transplanted to the TVA corridor. Results show that monitoring with T. usneoides allows a first approximation of air sources to provide insights of the atmospheric pollution in the TVA corridor. (Author)

  10. Atmospheric pollution in the Tula Industrial Corridor studied using a bio monitor and nuclear analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez C, M. A.; Solis, C.; Andrade, E.; Beltran H, R. I.; Issac O, K.; Lucho C, C. A.; Lopez R, M. C.; Longoria, L. C.

    2011-01-01

    This study deals with the application of nuclear analytical techniques to analyze trace elements in the biological monitor Tillandsia usneoides. Biological monitors provides an alternative advantageous way of particulate matter sampling in air pollution studies, since there is no need of special sampling devices, accumulation time can be as long as desired. T. usneoides, which occurs naturally throughout Mexico, was used to monitor air quality of Tula-Vito-Apasco (TVA) industrial corridor at central Mexico. This area is considered one of the critical zones of the country because of atmospheric contaminants high concentration. Particulate matter is regulated by Mexican norms, but its chemical composition is not. Plants were transplanted from a clean environment to four sites at the TVA corridor, and exposed for 12 weeks from February to April 2008. Trace element accumulation of plants was determined by particle induced X-ray emission and neutron activation analysis. Results reveal differences in trace elements distribution among sites in the TVA corridor. Furthermore, anthropogenic elements (S, V) and crustal elements (Ca) in T. usneoides exhibit high levels. Highly toxic elements such as Hg, As and Cr although present at trace levels, showed un enrichment relative to the initial values, when transplanted to the TVA corridor. Results show that monitoring with T. usneoides allows a first approximation of air sources to provide insights of the atmospheric pollution in the TVA corridor. (Author)

  11. Analytical model and error analysis of arbitrary phasing technique for bunch length measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qushan; Qin, Bin; Chen, Wei; Fan, Kuanjun; Pei, Yuanji

    2018-05-01

    An analytical model of an RF phasing method using arbitrary phase scanning for bunch length measurement is reported. We set up a statistical model instead of a linear chirp approximation to analyze the energy modulation process. It is found that, assuming a short bunch (σφ / 2 π → 0) and small relative energy spread (σγ /γr → 0), the energy spread (Y =σγ 2) at the exit of the traveling wave linac has a parabolic relationship with the cosine value of the injection phase (X = cosφr|z=0), i.e., Y = AX2 + BX + C. Analogous to quadrupole strength scanning for emittance measurement, this phase scanning method can be used to obtain the bunch length by measuring the energy spread at different injection phases. The injection phases can be randomly chosen, which is significantly different from the commonly used zero-phasing method. Further, the systematic error of the reported method, such as the influence of the space charge effect, is analyzed. This technique will be especially useful at low energies when the beam quality is dramatically degraded and is hard to measure using the zero-phasing method.

  12. Multi-criteria approach with linear combination technique and analytical hierarchy process in land evaluation studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orhan Dengiz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Land evaluation analysis is a prerequisite to achieving optimum utilization of the available land resources. Lack of knowledge on best combination of factors that suit production of yields has contributed to the low production. The aim of this study was to determine the most suitable areas for agricultural uses. For that reasons, in order to determine land suitability classes of the study area, multi-criteria approach was used with linear combination technique and analytical hierarchy process by taking into consideration of some land and soil physico-chemical characteristic such as slope, texture, depth, derange, stoniness, erosion, pH, EC, CaCO3 and organic matter. These data and land mapping unites were taken from digital detailed soil map scaled as 1:5.000. In addition, in order to was produce land suitability map GIS was program used for the study area. This study was carried out at Mahmudiye, Karaamca, Yazılı, Çiçeközü, Orhaniye and Akbıyık villages in Yenişehir district of Bursa province. Total study area is 7059 ha. 6890 ha of total study area has been used as irrigated agriculture, dry farming agriculture, pasture while, 169 ha has been used for non-agricultural activities such as settlement, road water body etc. Average annual temperature and precipitation of the study area are 16.1oC and 1039.5 mm, respectively. Finally after determination of land suitability distribution classes for the study area, it was found that 15.0% of the study area has highly (S1 and moderately (S2 while, 85% of the study area has marginally suitable and unsuitable coded as S3 and N. It was also determined some relation as compared results of linear combination technique with other hierarchy approaches such as Land Use Capability Classification and Suitability Class for Agricultural Use methods.

  13. Nuclear analytical techniques applied to the large scale measurements of atmospheric aerosols in the amazon region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerab, Fabio

    1996-03-01

    This work presents the characterization of the atmosphere aerosol collected in different places of the Amazon Basin. We studied both the biogenic emission from the forest and the particulate material which is emitted to the atmosphere due to the large scale man-made burning during the dry season. The samples were collected during a three year period at two different locations in the Amazon, namely the Alta Floresta (MT) and Serra do Navio (AP) regions, using stacked unit filters. These regions represent two different atmospheric compositions: the aerosol is dominated by the forest natural biogenic emission at Serra do Navio, while at Alta Floresta it presents an important contribution from the man-made burning during the dry season. At Alta Floresta we took samples in gold in order to characterize mercury emission to the atmosphere related to the gold prospection activity in Amazon. Airplanes were used for aerosol sampling during the 1992 and 1993 dry seasons to characterize the atmospheric aerosol contents from man-made burning in large Amazonian areas. The samples were analyzed using several nuclear analytic techniques: Particle Induced X-ray Emission for the quantitative analysis of trace elements with atomic number above 11; Particle Induced Gamma-ray Emission for the quantitative analysis of Na; and Proton Microprobe was used for the characterization of individual particles of the aerosol. Reflectancy technique was used in the black carbon quantification, gravimetric analysis to determine the total atmospheric aerosol concentration and Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy for quantitative analysis of mercury in the particulate from the Alta Floresta gold shops. Ionic chromatography was used to quantify ionic contents of aerosols from the fine mode particulate samples from Serra do Navio. Multivariate statistical analysis was used in order to identify and characterize the sources of the atmospheric aerosol present in the sampled regions. (author)

  14. Assessment of analytical techniques for characterization of crystalline clopidogrel forms in patent applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Marcelo Lira

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate two important aspects of patent applications of crystalline forms of drugs: (i the physicochemical characterization of the crystalline forms; and (ii the procedure for preparing crystals of the blockbuster drug clopidogrel. To this end, searches were conducted using online patent databases. The results showed that: (i the majority of patent applications for clopidogrel crystalline forms failed to comply with proposed Brazilian Patent Office guidelines. This was primarily due to insufficient number of analytical techniques evaluating the crystalline phase. In addition, some patent applications lacked assessment of chemical/crystallography purity; (ii use of more than two analytical techniques is important; and (iii the crystallization procedure for clopidogrel bisulfate form II were irreproducible based on the procedure given in the patent application.

  15. Proceedings of the national seminar on recent developments in electro analytical techniques: souvenir and abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    In view of deliberations on 'Recent Developments in Electro Analytical Techniques' with special emphasis on batteries, fuel cells, biosensors, chemical sensors modified electrodes, nano electrodes, electrode synthesis and co-ordination compounds, go a long way in creating the necessary awareness and enthusiasm amongst students, young scholars and industrialists to lay their attention on the subject. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  16. Quantitative determination of the intensities of known components in spectra obtained from surface analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, G.C.

    1984-01-01

    Linear least-squares methods have been used to quantitatively decompose experimental data obtained from surface analytical techniques into its separate components. The mathematical procedure for accomplishing this is described and examples are given of the use of this method with data obtained from Auger electron spectroscopy [both N(E) and derivative], x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and low energy ion scattering spectroscopy. The requirements on the quality of the data are discussed

  17. Development and evaluation of analytical techniques for total chlorine in used oils and oil fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaskill, A. Jr.; Estes, E.D.; Hardison, D.L.; Friedman, P.H.

    1990-01-01

    A current EPA regulation prohibits the sale for burning in nonindustrial boilers of used oils and oil fuels. This paper discusses how analytical techniques for determining total chlorine were evaluated to provide regulatory agencies and the regulated community with appropriate chlorine test methods. The techniques evaluated included oxygen bomb combustion followed by chemical titration or ion chromatography, instrumental microcoulometry, field test kits, and instrumental furnace/specific ion electrode determinator, a device based on the Beilstein reaction, and x-ray fluorescence spectrometry. These techniques were subjected to interlaboratory testing to estimate their precision, accuracy, and sensitivity. Virgin and used crankcase oils, hydraulic and metalworking oils, oil fuels and oil fuel blends with used oils were tested. The bomb techniques, one of the test kits, microcoulometry and all but one x-ray analyzer were found to be suitable for this application. The chlorine furnace and the Beilstein device were found to be inapplicable at the levels of interest

  18. A Novel Analytical Technique for Optimal Allocation of Capacitors in Radial Distribution Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarfaraz Nawaz

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel analytical technique is proposed to determine the optimal size and location of shunt capacitor units in radial distribution systems. An objective function is formulated to reduce real power loss, to improve the voltage profile and to increase annual cost savings. A new constant, the Loss Sensitivity Constant (LSC, is proposed here. The value of LSC decides the location and size of candidate buses. The technique is demonstrated on an IEEE-33 bus system at different load levels and the 130-bus distribution system of Jamawa Ramgarh village, Jaipur city. The obtained results are compared with the latest optimization techniques to show the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed technique.

  19. Various extraction and analytical techniques for isolation and identification of secondary metabolites from Nigella sativa seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X; Abd El-Aty, A M; Shim, J-H

    2011-10-01

    Nigella sativa L. (black cumin), commonly known as black seed, is a member of the Ranunculaceae family. This seed is used as a natural remedy in many Middle Eastern and Far Eastern countries. Extracts prepared from N. sativa have, for centuries, been used for medical purposes. Thus far, the organic compounds in N. sativa, including alkaloids, steroids, carbohydrates, flavonoids, fatty acids, etc. have been fairly well characterized. Herein, we summarize some new extraction techniques, including microwave assisted extraction (MAE) and supercritical extraction techniques (SFE), in addition to the classical method of hydrodistillation (HD), which have been employed for isolation and various analytical techniques used for the identification of secondary metabolites in black seed. We believe that some compounds contained in N. sativa remain to be identified, and that high-throughput screening could help to identify new compounds. A study addressing environmentally-friendly techniques that have minimal or no environmental effects is currently underway in our laboratory.

  20. Application of the partitive analytical forecasting (PAF) technique to the United States controlled thermonuclear research effort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, S.P.

    1975-01-01

    The Partitive Analytical Forecasting (PAF) technique is applied to the overall long-term program plans for the Division of Controlled Thermonuclear Research (DCTR) of the United States Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA). As part of the PAF technique, the Graphical Evaluation and Review Technique (GERTS) IIIZ computer code is used to perform simulations on a logic network describing the DCTR long-term program plan. Logic networks describing the tokamak, mirror, and theta-pinch developments are simulated individually and then together to form an overall DCTR program network. The results of the simulation of the overall network using various funding schemes and strategies are presented. An economic sensitivity analysis is provided for the tokamak logic networks. An analysis is also performed of the fusion-fission hybrid concept in the context of the present DCTR goals. The results mentioned above as well as the PAF technique itself are evaluated, and recommendations for further research are discussed

  1. Conference on Bootstrapping and Related Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Rothe, Günter; Sendler, Wolfgang

    1992-01-01

    This book contains 30 selected, refereed papers from an in- ternational conference on bootstrapping and related techni- ques held in Trier 1990. Thepurpose of the book is to in- form about recent research in the area of bootstrap, jack- knife and Monte Carlo Tests. Addressing the novice and the expert it covers as well theoretical as practical aspects of these statistical techniques. Potential users in different disciplines as biometry, epidemiology, computer science, economics and sociology but also theoretical researchers s- hould consult the book to be informed on the state of the art in this area.

  2. Some special techniques related to XAFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Lidun; Kang Litao; Shi Guoshun

    2001-01-01

    Some special techniques related to XAFS are simply introduced. Atomic XAFS is produced by the photoelectron scattering by the outer valance electrons of the absorption atoms, which can be used for studying the outer electron structure of the absorption atoms and the relationship between electron structure and the local structure. NEXAFS-STXM is an image technique by the combination of NEXAFS and STXM. The image is produced by the difference of the absorption of the different matters consisted by the same elements in the range of NEXAFS. In addition, NEXAFS-STXM can quantitatively map the organic and inorganic components of biological tissue. Photoacoustic XAFS is obtained by the measurements of the photoacoustic signal on the both sides of the absorption edge. The film thickness can be measured by the phase delay of the photoacoustic signal. DAFS technique is a complex of XAFS and XRD. The local structure of the atom with special site and appointed valence can be determined by DAFS. Furthermore, the XAFS can be complexed with X-ray Raman scattering, XRD, XPS and FTIR for structural studies, respectively

  3. Characterization by FTIR and nuclear analytical techniques of CNx films elaborated by laser ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olea M, O.F.

    2003-01-01

    At the present time the technique of deposit of laser ablation is used to produce different types of thin films. At the moment in the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ) it is carried out an investigation on the thermoluminescent response of thin films of CN x with possible application in dosimetry of electromagnetic radiation. Under this context, the present work is part of this investigation and has as objective to characterize thin films of CN x by means of Infrared spectrometry and nuclear analytical techniques. The deposits were elaborated by laser ablation under different such experimental conditions as: pressure of Nitrogen in the system (3 x 10 -3 and 7.5 X 10 -2 Torr), Distance target-substrate (3 and 5 cm) and density of incident energy in the target (from 17.5 up to 23.8 J/cm 2 ). Graphite of high purity was used like target and the deposits were made on their substrates of intrinsic silicon (100). By means of infrared spectrometry by Fourier Transform (Ftir) the type of bonds which are in the structure of the films of CN x were determined. The spectra of this type of samples present in general four characteristic bands related with different types of bonds among the elements C, O, H, N such as: C-C, C-N, C-H, N-H, O-H, C=N, C≡N, among others. It was carried out a semi quantitative study of the samples isolating each band of the total infrared spectra and making a comparison between their intensities and forms. This study allowed to observe that there is a dependence of the structure of the films with regard to the time, since mainly bonds of the type Sp 3 between Hydrogen and Carbon (C-H) they presented a remarkable variation in intensity, increasing as it lapsed the time until reaching to a stabilization where the bonds already not varying. This increase probably is due to the absorption of water of the atmosphere, although one has seen in the literature that the incorporation of this compound in this type of samples affects mainly to the

  4. Analytical studies related to Indian PHWR containment system performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haware, S.K.; Markandeya, S.G.; Ghosh, A.K.; Kushwaha, H.S.; Venkat Raj, V.

    1998-01-01

    Build-up of pressure in a multi-compartment containment after a postulated accident, the growth, transportation and removal of aerosols in the containment are complex processes of vital importance in deciding the source term. The release of hydrogen and its combustion increases the overpressure. In order to analyze these complex processes and to enable proper estimation of the source term, well tested analytical tools are necessary. This paper gives a detailed account of the analytical tools developed/adapted for PSA level 2 studies. (author)

  5. Regional technical cooperation model project, IAEA - RER/2/2004 ''quality control and quality assurance for nuclear analytical techniques'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arikan, P.

    2002-01-01

    An analytical laboratory should produce high quality analytical data through the use of analytical measurements that is accurate, reliable and adequate for the intended purpose. This objective can be accomplished in a cost-effective manner under a planned and documented quality system of activities. It is well-known that serious deficiencies can occur in laboratory operations when insufficient attention is given to the quality of the work. It requires not only a thorough knowledge of the laboratory's purpose and operation, but also the dedication of the management and operating staff to standards of excellence. Laboratories employing nuclear and nuclear-related analytical techniques are sometimes confronted with performance problems which prevent them from becoming accepted and respected by clients, such as industry, government and regulatory bodies, and from being eligible for contracts. The International Standard ISO 17025 has been produced as the result of extensive experience in the implementation of ISO/IEC Guide 25:1990 and EN 45001:1989, which replaces both of them now. It contains all of the requirements that testing and calibration laboratories must meet if they wish to demonstrate that they operate a quality system that is technically competent, and are able to generate technically valid results. The use of ISO 17025 should facilitate cooperation between laboratories and other bodies to assist in the exchange of information and experience, and in the harmonization of standards and procedures. IAEA model project RER/2/004 entitled 'Quality Assurance/Quality Control in Nuclear Analytical Techniques' was initiated in 1999 as a Regional TC project in East European countries to assist Member State laboratories in the region to install a complete quality system according to the ISO/IEC 17025 standard. 12 laboratories from 11 countries plus the Agency's Laboratories in Seibersdorf have been selected as participants to undergo exercises and training with the

  6. Technical meeting on commercial applications of nuclear analytical techniques. Meeting report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This report summarizes the findings of the Technical Meeting on the Commercial Applications of Nuclear Analytical Techniques held in Vienna on 23-26 November 2004, where an assessment was initiated of the world capacity and market potentials for neutron activation analysis and nuclear spectroscopy, including an estimation of economic revenues. Industry and governmental agencies were identified as stakeholders for these laboratories. Examples are given of potential benefits of these techniques to the stakeholders. The potentials for commercial applications of neutron activation analysis and nuclear spectroscopy (measurement of alpha, beta and gamma ray emitting radionuclides) are addressed. First estimates are given of the worldwide capacity of these laboratories, suggestions and examples are given for potential markets and the typical organizational and technical constraints are discussed. Two case studies of commercial neutron activation analysis laboratories at a small and a medium-size reactor are given in the 'individual contributions' section of this document. An assessment of other nuclear analytical techniques such as X ray Fluorescence Spectrometry, Particle Induced X ray Emission Spectrometry or Ion Beam Analysis Spectrometry has been completed after a comprehensive collection of background information

  7. An Accurate Approximate-Analytical Technique for Solving Time-Fractional Partial Differential Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bishehniasar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The demand of many scientific areas for the usage of fractional partial differential equations (FPDEs to explain their real-world systems has been broadly identified. The solutions may portray dynamical behaviors of various particles such as chemicals and cells. The desire of obtaining approximate solutions to treat these equations aims to overcome the mathematical complexity of modeling the relevant phenomena in nature. This research proposes a promising approximate-analytical scheme that is an accurate technique for solving a variety of noninteger partial differential equations (PDEs. The proposed strategy is based on approximating the derivative of fractional-order and reducing the problem to the corresponding partial differential equation (PDE. Afterwards, the approximating PDE is solved by using a separation-variables technique. The method can be simply applied to nonhomogeneous problems and is proficient to diminish the span of computational cost as well as achieving an approximate-analytical solution that is in excellent concurrence with the exact solution of the original problem. In addition and to demonstrate the efficiency of the method, it compares with two finite difference methods including a nonstandard finite difference (NSFD method and standard finite difference (SFD technique, which are popular in the literature for solving engineering problems.

  8. Technical meeting on commercial applications of nuclear analytical techniques. Meeting report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This report summarizes the findings of the Technical Meeting on the Commercial Applications of Nuclear Analytical Techniques held in Vienna on 23-26 November 2004, where an assessment was initiated of the world capacity and market potentials for neutron activation analysis and nuclear spectroscopy, including an estimation of economic revenues. Industry and governmental agencies were identified as stakeholders for these laboratories. Examples are given of potential benefits of these techniques to the stakeholders. The potentials for commercial applications of neutron activation analysis and nuclear spectroscopy (measurement of alpha, beta and gamma ray emitting radionuclides) are addressed. First estimates are given of the worldwide capacity of these laboratories, suggestions and examples are given for potential markets and the typical organizational and technical constraints are discussed. Two case studies of commercial neutron activation analysis laboratories at a small and a medium-size reactor are given in the 'individual contributions' section of this document. An assessment of other nuclear analytical techniques such as X ray Fluorescence Spectrometry, Particle Induced X ray Emission Spectrometry or Ion Beam Analysis Spectrometry has been completed after a comprehensive collection of background information.

  9. Commissioning of the laboratory of Atucha II NPP. Implementation and optimization of analytical techniques, quality aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenbrod, Betina; Quispe, Benjamin; Cattaneo, Alberto; Rodriguez, Ivanna; Chocron, Mauricio; Farias, Silvia

    2012-09-01

    Atucha II NPP is a Pressurized Vessel Heavy Water Reactor (PVHWR) of 740 MWe designed by SIEMENSKWU. After some years of delay, this NPP is in advanced construction state, being the beginning of commercial operation expected for 2013. Nucleoelectrica Argentina (N.A.S.A.) is the company in charge of the finalization of this project and the future operation of the plant. The Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (C.N.E.A.) is the R and D nuclear institution in the country that, among many other topics, provides technical support to the stations. The Commissioning Chemistry Division of CNAII is in charge of the commissioning of the demineralization water plant and the organization of the chemical laboratory. The water plant started operating successfully in July 2010 and is providing the plant with nuclear grade purity water. Currently, in the conventional ('cold') laboratory several activities are taking place. On one hand, analytical techniques for the future operation of the plant are being tested and optimized. On the other hand, the laboratory is participating in the cleaning and conservation of the different components of the plant, providing technical support and the necessary analysis. To define the analytical techniques for the normal operation of the plant, the parameters to be measured and their range were established in the Chemistry Manual. The necessary equipment and reagents were bought. In this work, a summary of the analytical techniques that are being implemented and optimized is presented. Common anions (chloride, sulfate, fluoride, bromide and nitrate) are analyzed by ion chromatography. Cations, mainly sodium, are determined by absorption spectrometry. A UV-Vis spectrometer is used to determine silicates, iron, ammonia, DQO, total solids, true color and turbidity. TOC measurements are performed with a TOC analyzer. To optimize the methods, several parameters are evaluated: linearity, detection and quantification limits, precision and

  10. Recent Trends in Microextraction Techniques Employed in Analytical and Bioanalytical Sample Preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abuzar Kabir

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sample preparation has been recognized as a major step in the chemical analysis workflow. As such, substantial efforts have been made in recent years to simplify the overall sample preparation process. Major focusses of these efforts have included miniaturization of the extraction device; minimizing/eliminating toxic and hazardous organic solvent consumption; eliminating sample pre-treatment and post-treatment steps; reducing the sample volume requirement; reducing extraction equilibrium time, maximizing extraction efficiency etc. All these improved attributes are congruent with the Green Analytical Chemistry (GAC principles. Classical sample preparation techniques such as solid phase extraction (SPE and liquid-liquid extraction (LLE are being rapidly replaced with emerging miniaturized and environmentally friendly techniques such as Solid Phase Micro Extraction (SPME, Stir bar Sorptive Extraction (SBSE, Micro Extraction by Packed Sorbent (MEPS, Fabric Phase Sorptive Extraction (FPSE, and Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Micro Extraction (DLLME. In addition to the development of many new generic extraction sorbents in recent years, a large number of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs created using different template molecules have also enriched the large cache of microextraction sorbents. Application of nanoparticles as high-performance extraction sorbents has undoubtedly elevated the extraction efficiency and method sensitivity of modern chromatographic analyses to a new level. Combining magnetic nanoparticles with many microextraction sorbents has opened up new possibilities to extract target analytes from sample matrices containing high volumes of matrix interferents. The aim of the current review is to critically audit the progress of microextraction techniques in recent years, which has indisputably transformed the analytical chemistry practices, from biological and therapeutic drug monitoring to the environmental field; from foods to phyto

  11. Atomic and nuclear analytical methods. XRF, Moessbauer, XPS, NAA and ion-beam spectroscopic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, H.R.

    2007-01-01

    This book is a blend of analytical methods based on the phenomenon of atomic and nuclear physics. It comprises comprehensive presentations about X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), Moessbauer Spectroscopy (MS), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Neutron- Activation Analysis (NAA), Particle Induced X-ray Emission Analysis (PIXE), Rutherford Backscattering Analysis (RBS), Elastic Recoil Detection (ERD), Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA), Particle Induced Gamma-ray Emission Analysis (PIGE), and Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS). These techniques are commonly applied in the fields of medicine, biology, environmental studies, archaeology or geology et al. and pursued in major international research laboratories. (orig.)

  12. Nuclear analytical techniques applied to characterization of atmospheric aerosols in Amazon Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerab, Fabio; Artaxo, Paulo

    1996-01-01

    This work presents the atmospheric aerosols characterization that exist in different regions of Amazon basin. The biogenic aerosol emission by forest, as well as the atmospheric emissions of particulate materials due to biomass burning, were analyzed. Samples of aerosol particles were collected during three years in two different locations of Amazon region using Stacked Unit Filters. In order to study these samples some analytical nuclear techniques were used. The high concentrations of aerosols as a result of biomass burning process were observed in the period of june-september

  13. Evaluation of available analytical techniques for monitoring the quality of space station potable water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geer, Richard D.

    1989-01-01

    To assure the quality of potable water (PW) on the Space Station (SS) a number of chemical and physical tests must be conducted routinely. After reviewing the requirements for potable water, both direct and indirect analytical methods are evaluated that could make the required tests and improvements compatible with the Space Station operation. A variety of suggestions are made to improve the analytical techniques for SS operation. The most important recommendations are: (1) the silver/silver chloride electrode (SB) method of removing I sub 2/I (-) biocide from the water, since it may interfere with analytical procedures for PW and also its end uses; (2) the orbital reactor (OR) method of carrying out chemistry and electrochemistry in microgravity by using a disk shaped reactor on an orbital table to impart artificial G force to the contents, allowing solution mixing and separation of gases and liquids; and (3) a simple ultra low volume highly sensitive electrochemical/conductivity detector for use with a capillary zone electrophoresis apparatus. It is also recommended, since several different conductivity and resistance measurements are made during the analysis of PW, that the bipolar pulse measuring circuit be used in all these applications for maximum compatibility and redundancy of equipment.

  14. Multiple Solutions of Nonlinear Boundary Value Problems of Fractional Order: A New Analytic Iterative Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Abu Arqub

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present a new kind of analytical method, the so-called residual power series, to predict and represent the multiplicity of solutions to nonlinear boundary value problems of fractional order. The present method is capable of calculating all branches of solutions simultaneously, even if these multiple solutions are very close and thus rather difficult to distinguish even by numerical techniques. To verify the computational efficiency of the designed proposed technique, two nonlinear models are performed, one of them arises in mixed convection flows and the other one arises in heat transfer, which both admit multiple solutions. The results reveal that the method is very effective, straightforward, and powerful for formulating these multiple solutions.

  15. Intracavity optogalvanic spectroscopy. An analytical technique for 14C analysis with subattomole sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murnick, Daniel E; Dogru, Ozgur; Ilkmen, Erhan

    2008-07-01

    We show a new ultrasensitive laser-based analytical technique, intracavity optogalvanic spectroscopy, allowing extremely high sensitivity for detection of (14)C-labeled carbon dioxide. Capable of replacing large accelerator mass spectrometers, the technique quantifies attomoles of (14)C in submicrogram samples. Based on the specificity of narrow laser resonances coupled with the sensitivity provided by standing waves in an optical cavity and detection via impedance variations, limits of detection near 10(-15) (14)C/(12)C ratios are obtained. Using a 15-W (14)CO2 laser, a linear calibration with samples from 10(-15) to >1.5 x 10(-12) in (14)C/(12)C ratios, as determined by accelerator mass spectrometry, is demonstrated. Possible applications include microdosing studies in drug development, individualized subtherapeutic tests of drug metabolism, carbon dating and real time monitoring of atmospheric radiocarbon. The method can also be applied to detection of other trace entities.

  16. Determination of Rare Earth Elements in Thai Monazite by Inductively Coupled Plasma and Nuclear Analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busamongkol, Arporn; Ratanapra, Dusadee; Sukharn, Sumalee; Laoharojanaphand, Sirinart

    2003-10-01

    The inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) for the determination of individual rare-earth elements (REE) was evaluated by comparison with instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and x-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF). The accuracy and precision of INAA and ICP-AES were evaluated by using standard reference material IGS-36, a monazite concentrate. For INAA, the results were close to the certified value while ICP-AES were in good agreement except for some low concentration rare earth. The techniques were applied for the analysis of some rare earth elements in two Thai monazite samples preparing as the in-house reference material for the Rare Earth Research and Development Center, Chemistry Division, Office of Atoms for Peace. The analytical results obtained by these techniques were in good agreement with each other

  17. Studies on Pt–Mo phases using analytical techniques with high resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Topic, M., E-mail: mtopic@tlabs.ac.za [iThemba LABS, National Research Foundation, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); Khumalo, Z. [iThemba LABS, National Research Foundation, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); University of Cape Town, Physics Department, Private Bag X3, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Pineda-Vargas, C.A. [iThemba LABS, National Research Foundation, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); Faculty of Health and Wellness Sciences, CPUT, Belville (South Africa)

    2014-01-01

    Pt–Mo coated system annealed at 1050 °C for 24 h was investigated using several analytical techniques with high resolution (SEM/EDX, μ-PIXE, RBS and XRD). These techniques provide structural and compositional data throughout the material depth and probing area. The results depend on the applied beam, its energy and size. They contribute to a better understanding of thermal annealing effects on the solid-state phase transformation and morphological changes in Pt–Mo coatings. The results indicate the presence of Pt- and Mo-solid solutions and two Pt–Mo phases (PtMo and Pt{sub 2}Mo{sub 3}), changes in the coating morphology, such as increased surface roughness and formation of “lace morphology”, as well as an increase in coating thickness.

  18. Sampling practices and analytical techniques used in the monitoring of steam and water in CEGB nuclear boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodfellow, G.I.

    1978-01-01

    The steam and water in CEGB Magnox and AGR nuclear boilers are continuously monitored, using both laboratory techniques and on-line instrumentation, in order to maintain the chemical quality within pre-determined limits. The sampling systems in use and some of the difficulties associated with sampling requirements are discussed. The relative merits of chemical instruments installed either locally in various parts of the plant or in centralized instrument rooms are reviewed. The quality of water in nuclear boilers, as with all high-pressure steam-raising plant, is extremely high; consequently very sensitive analytical procedures are required, particularly for monitoring the feed-water of 'once-through boiler' systems. Considerable progress has been made in this field and examples are given of some of the techniques developed for analyses at the 'μ/kg' level together with some of the current problems.(author)

  19. In Situ Analytical Characterization of Contaminated Sites Using Nuclear Spectrometry Techniques. Review of Methodologies and Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    Past and current human activities can result in the contamination of sites by radionuclides and heavy metals. The sources of contamination are various. The most important sources for radionuclide release include global fallout from nuclear testing, nuclear and radiological accidents, waste production from nuclear facilities, and activities involving naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). Contamination of the environment by heavy metals mainly originates from industrial applications and mineralogical background concentration. Contamination of sites by radionuclides and heavy metals can present a risk to people and the environment. Therefore, the estimation of the contamination level and the identification of the source constitute important information for the national authorities with the responsibility to protect people and the environment from adverse health effects. In situ analytical techniques based on nuclear spectrometry are important tools for the characterization of contaminated sites. Much progress has been made in the design and implementation of portable systems for efficient and effective monitoring of radioactivity and heavy metals in the environment directly on-site. Accordingly, the IAEA organized a Technical Meeting to review the current status and trends of various applications of in situ nuclear spectrometry techniques for analytical characterization of contaminated sites and to support Member States in their national environmental monitoring programmes applying portable instrumentation. This publication represents a comprehensive review of the in situ gamma ray spectrometry and field portable X ray fluorescence analysis techniques for the characterization of contaminated sites. It includes papers on the use of these techniques, which provide useful background information for conducting similar studies, in the following Member States: Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Czech Republic, Egypt, France, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Lithuania

  20. Does leaf chemistry differentially affect breakdown in tropical vs temperate streams? Importance of standardized analytical techniques to measure leaf chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcelo Ard& #243; n; Catherine M. Pringle; Susan L. Eggert

    2009-01-01

    Comparisons of the effects of leaf litter chemistry on leaf breakdown rates in tropical vs temperate streams are hindered by incompatibility among studies and across sites of analytical methods used to measure leaf chemistry. We used standardized analytical techniques to measure chemistry and breakdown rate of leaves from common riparian tree species at 2 sites, 1...

  1. Impact of accelerator-based analytical techniques on the knowledge and conservation of cultural heritage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dran, Jean Claude

    2001-01-01

    A large set of modern analytical techniques is currently applied to get a better insight on art and archaeological objects as well as to contribute to their conservation and restoration. Because of the precious and sometimes unique character of the works, non-destructive techniques and even those requiring no (or only minute) sampling, are preferred. From this standpoint, ion beam analysis (IBA) constitutes one of the best choices, since it combines quite good analytical performance and non-destructiveness. For over 10 years, an IBA facility has been installed in the Research Laboratory of the Museums of France. Until now it is the only facility of this kind entirely devoted to the study of cultural heritage. A special set-up, namely an external beam line, has been developed which permits the in-air analysis of large or fragile works of art without sampling. This facility is used for both short investigations at the request of museum curators and extensive research works in art history and archaeology. Numerous examples will be given to highlight the impact of this tool on cultural heritage. (author)

  2. Contribution of analytical techniques coupled to the knowledge of the uranium speciation in natural conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petit, J.

    2009-06-01

    To understand the transport mechanisms and the radionuclides behaviour in the bio-geosphere is necessary to evaluate healthy and environmental risks of nuclear industry. These mechanisms are monitored by radioelements speciation, namely the distribution between their different physico-chemical forms in the environment. From this perspective, this PhD thesis deals with uranium speciation in a natural background. A detailed summary of uranium biogeochemistry has been written, which enables to restrict the PhD issue to uranium complexation with oxalic acid, a hydrophilic organic acid with good binding properties, ubiquitous in soil waters. Analytical conditions have been established by means of speciation diagrams. The speciation diagrams building by means of literature stability constants has allowed to define the analytical conditions of complex formation. The chosen analytical technique is the hyphenation of a separative technique (liquid chromatography LC or capillary electrophoresis CE) with mass spectrometry (ICPMS). The studied complexes presence in the synthetic samples has been confirmed with UV/visible spectrophotometry. LC-ICPMS analyses have proved the lability of the uranyl-organic acid complexes, namely their tendency to dissociate during analysis, which prevents from studying uranium speciation. CE-ICPMS study of labile complexes from a metal-ligand system has been made possible by employing affinity capillary electrophoresis, which enables to determine stability constants and electrophoretic mobilities. This PhD thesis has allowed to compare the different mathematical treatments of binding isotherm and to take into account ionic strength and real ligand concentration. Affinity CE has been applied successfully to lanthanum-oxalate (model system) and uranium-oxalate systems. The obtained results have been applied to a real system (situated in Le Bouchet). This shows the contribution of the developed method to the modelling of uranium speciation. (author)

  3. Development and evaluation of analytical techniques for total chlorine in burner fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaskill, A. Jr.; Estes, E.D.; Hardison, D.L.; Friedman, P.H.

    1987-01-01

    A current EPA regulation prohibits the sale for burning in non-industrial boilers of used oils and oil fuels contaminated above specified levels with certain metals and total chlorine. When burned as fuel in a small boiler, the contaminants may be emitted to the ambient air at hazardous levels. This regulation establishes a rebuttable presumption that used oil containing more than 1,000 ppm total chlorine has been mixed with halogenated solvents and is a hazardous waste. Rebutting the presumption requires the seller of the oil to prove that this chlorine is not due to halogenated solvents or other hazardous halogenated organics. If the rebuttal is successful, the oil can be sold as fuel up to a level of 4000 ppm total chlorine. Analytical techniques for determination of total chlorine were evaluated or developed to provide regulatory agencies and the regulated community with appropriate chlorine test methods. The techniques evaluated included chemical titrations following oxygen bomb combustion, disposable field test kits, instrumental microcoulometry, and x-ray fluorescence spectrometry. These candidate techniques were subjected to interlaboratory testing to estimate their precision, accuracy, sensitivity, and susceptibility to matrix effects. Information on ease of use and analysis costs was also collected. Based on this pilot study, test methods will be written for the most promising techniques and subjected to a formal collaborative study to generate precision and accuracy data for each method. These methods are to be proposed in the Federal Register as mandatory for compliance with the existing used oil regulation

  4. Harmonization of health related environmental measurements using nuclear and isotopic techniques. Proceedings of an international symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    One of the particular strengths of nuclear methods is in analytical quality assurance, including the validation of analytical methods and the development of new analytical reference materials. These methodologies are therefore helping to harmonize the data produced not only by nuclear techniques themselves, but also by other non-nuclear methods of analysis. The aim of this symposium was to provide an international forum for discussion of these topics. Its programme covered a wide variety of applications of nuclear (and related) analytical techniques (mainly neutron activation analysis, energy dispersive X ray fluorescence, particle induced X ray emission and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry) as used in the study of air particulates, solid waste products, sediments, food, water, human tissues, biomonitors and other kinds of environmental samples

  5. Simple analytical technique for liquid scintillation counting of environmental carbon-14 using gel suspension method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okai, Tomio; Wakabayashi, Genichiro; Nagao, Kenjiro; Matoba, Masaru; Ohura, Hirotaka; Momoshima, Noriyuki; Kawamura, Hidehisa

    2000-01-01

    A simple analytical technique for liquid scintillation counting of environmental 14 C was developed. Commercially available gelling agent, N-lauroyl-L -glutamic -α,γ-dibutylamide, was used for the gel-formation of the samples (gel suspension method) and for the subsequent liquid scintillation counting of 14 C in the form of CaCO 3 . Our procedure for sample preparation is much simpler than that of the conventional methods and requires no special equipment. Self absorption, stability and reproducibility of gel suspension samples were investigated in order to evaluate the characteristics of the gel suspension method for 14 C activity measurement. The self absorption factor is about 70% and slightly decrease as CaCO 3 weight increase. This is considered to be mainly due to the absorption of β-rays and scintillation light by the CaCO 3 sample itself. No change of the counting rate for the gel suspension sample was observed for more than 2 years after the sample preparation. Four samples were used for checking the reproducibility of the sample preparation method. The same values were obtained for the counting rate of 24 C activity within the counting error. No change of the counting rate was observed for the 're-gelated' sample. These results show that the gel suspension method is appropriate for the 14 C activity measurement by the liquid scintillation counting method and useful for a long-term preservation of the sample for repeated measurement. The above analytical technique was applied to actual environmental samples in Fukuoka prefecture, Japan. Results obtained were comparable with those by other researchers and appear to be reasonable. Therefore, the newly developed technique is useful for the routine monitoring of environmental 14 C. (author)

  6. Uncovering category specificity of genital sexual arousal in women: The critical role of analytic technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulverman, Carey S; Hixon, J Gregory; Meston, Cindy M

    2015-10-01

    Based on analytic techniques that collapse data into a single average value, it has been reported that women lack category specificity and show genital sexual arousal to a large range of sexual stimuli including those that both match and do not match their self-reported sexual interests. These findings may be a methodological artifact of the way in which data are analyzed. This study examined whether using an analytic technique that models data over time would yield different results. Across two studies, heterosexual (N = 19) and lesbian (N = 14) women viewed erotic films featuring heterosexual, lesbian, and gay male couples, respectively, as their physiological sexual arousal was assessed with vaginal photoplethysmography. Data analysis with traditional methods comparing average genital arousal between films failed to detect specificity of genital arousal for either group. When data were analyzed with smoothing regression splines and a within-subjects approach, both heterosexual and lesbian women demonstrated different patterns of genital sexual arousal to the different types of erotic films, suggesting that sophisticated statistical techniques may be necessary to more fully understand women's genital sexual arousal response. Heterosexual women showed category-specific genital sexual arousal. Lesbian women showed higher arousal to the heterosexual film than the other films. However, within subjects, lesbian women showed significantly different arousal responses suggesting that lesbian women's genital arousal discriminates between different categories of stimuli at the individual level. Implications for the future use of vaginal photoplethysmography as a diagnostic tool of sexual preferences in clinical and forensic settings are discussed. © 2015 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  7. Entry format for representation of analytical relations on the ES computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katan, I.B.; Sal'nikova, O.V.; Blokhin, A.I.

    1981-01-01

    Structure and description of an input format for representation of analytical relations on the ES compUter as well as dictionaries of key words and system identificators for thermal-physical and hydraulic data are presented. It is shown that the format considered can be the basis at the formation of library of analytical relations [ru

  8. Advances in speckle metrology and related techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Kaufmann, Guillermo H

    2010-01-01

    Speckle metrology includes various optical techniques that are based on the speckle fields generated by reflection from a rough surface or by transmission through a rough diffuser. These techniques have proven to be very useful in testing different materials in a non-destructive way. They have changed dramatically during the last years due to the development of modern optical components, with faster and more powerful digital computers, and novel data processing approaches. This most up-to-date overview of the topic describes new techniques developed in the field of speckle metrology over the l

  9. Beta Autoradiography. An analytical technique to investigate radionuclides contamination on surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ficher, P.; Goutelard, F.; Siitari-Kauppi, M.

    2012-01-01

    In decommissioning of old buildings and after disposal of nuclear facilities (materials, glove boxes,...), the inventory of the radioactive contamination of various building materials needs to be obtained in order to fix the working condition for dismantling. The challenge of this study was to classify different building materials of a whole research laboratory that was dedicated to research on organic molecules labeled with H-3 and C-14. The problem of waste classification is essential for safety treatment of waste and also for its cost. The analytical technique of beta autoradiography particularly well known for biological researches has been tested to investigate radionuclides contamination on surface. This technique is mainly interesting for beta and alpha emitters but also sensitive to gamma radiation. The first step of this technique is the deposit of a film on the surface of material to be analyzed. Films can be deposited on the ground or also fixed on the walls or even on the ceiling. The film is a plastic sheet covered with an emulsion containing photostimulable crystals and Eu that is activated when the film is exposed on radioactive source. The exposed films are then scanned with the Cyclone Plus equipment to get a digitized image. This image represents the radioactivity of the surface studied. The possibility to re-use the films is very important to investigate a large area. This autoradiography technique has retained our attention for its sensitivity and moreover the possibility of 2-dimensional investigation has been found as a real advantage. However it remains now as a qualitative technique and new studies must be launched to prove its quantitative potentialities. The high spatial resolution was not as important as in biological observation, and the mm resolution is totally sufficient

  10. Facility and application of nuclear and supplementary analytical techniques at Dalat Nuclear Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Mong Sinh; Ho Manh Dung; Nguyen Thanh Binh

    2006-01-01

    The main applications of the nuclear and supplementary analytical techniques (N and SATs) in the Dalat Nuclear Research Institute (DNRI) and the facilities for the techniques are presented. The NATs in DNRI include the neutron activation analysis (NAA) with instrumental, radiochemical and prompt gamma methods (INAA, RNAA, PGNAA), the X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRFA) and the low-level counting and spectrometry. The sample irradiation sites for NAA, the automatic and manual pneumatic transfer systems, were installed at channels 7-1 and 13-2 and rotary rack on the Dalat research reactor. An ORTEC automatic sample changer (model ASC2) for γ-ray counting was equipped. A computer software for NAA based on the k 0 -standardization method for calculation of elemental concentration was developed. The low-level counting and spectrometry techniques have been setup. The devices required for sampling, sample preparation and data processing have also been equipped. The applications of N and SATs for determination of elemental composition, particularly important in providing data so-called trace elements, radionuclides and multi-element have been enlarged for objects of geology, archaeology, bio-agriculture, health-nutrition and environment. The implementation a quality system for N and SATs has been planned and initiated. (author)

  11. Development of an analytical theory to describe the PNAR and CIPN nondestructive assay techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolind, Alan Michael

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Neutron albedo is modeled by a discrete and iterative reflection process. • The theory enables the PNAR and CIPN NDA techniques to be compared quantitatively. • Improvements to the data analysis and to the CIPN instrument design are suggested. • A correction to translate real no-reflection PNAR data into ideal data is provided. - Abstract: This paper develops an analytical theory to describe how neutron albedo (reflection) increases the multiplication of neutrons by a used fuel assembly. With this theory, the two nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques of Passive Neutron Albedo Reactivity (PNAR) and Californium-252 Interrogation with Prompt Neutron Detection (CIPN) can be compared directly. Specifically, the theory derives expressions for the PNAR and CIPN metrics in terms of the physical properties of the used fuel assembly, such as the neutron multiplications and fate probabilities. The theory thus clarifies the interpretation of these two NDA techniques and suggests ways to improve both the design of the NDA instruments and the algorithms for analyzing the measurement results

  12. Complementarities of nuclear-based analytical techniques for the characterization of thin film technological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamford, Samuel; Kregsamer, Peter; Fazinic, Stjepko; Jaksic, Milko; Wegrzynek, Dariusz; Chinea-Cano, Ernesto; Markowicz, Andrzej

    2007-01-01

    Two thin film technological materials (A/B) from the aerospace industry have been characterized for their elemental composition, for the purpose of determining their purity and trace element distribution. The results contribute to the assessment of the materials' suitability as part of a spacecraft's thermal hardware. Analysis was done using a combination of PIXE/RBS and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) analytical techniques. Samples of the materials were analyzed with PIXE/RBS system using 2 MeV proton beam from a 1 MV Tandetron accelerator and also with separate EDXRF systems employing Am-241 and Mo-secondary target as excitation sources. PIXE/RBS measurements enabled identification of the elemental composition and elucidation of the layer structure of the materials. From the PIXE/RBS results, Am-241-excited EDXRF technique was selected for quantitative determination of indium (In) and tin (Sn) by their K-X-rays, after reasonable absorption corrections. A comparison has been made of the results obtained from EDXRF and PIXE/RBS. Material A has been found to be a thin film with three layers, while material B is a thin film comprised of four layers. Thicknesses and compositions (including trace elements) of all layers have been determined. The limitation of EDXRF in the analysis of inhomogeneously distributed elements was overcome by using PIXE/RBS as an appropriate complimentary technique

  13. Determination of alpha-naphthol by an oscillating chemical reaction using the analyte pulse perturbation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Wu; Sun Kanjun; Lv Weilian; Bo Lili; He Xiaoyan; Suo Nan; Gao Jinzhang

    2005-01-01

    An analytical method for the determination of alpha-naphthol (α-NP) is proposed by the sequential perturbation caused by different amounts of alpha-naphthol on the oscillating chemical system involving the Cu(II)-catalyzed oscillating reaction between hydrogen peroxide and sodium thiocyanate in an alkaline medium with the aid of continuous-flow stirred tank reactor (CSTR). The method relies on the linear relationship between the changes in the oscillation amplitude of the chemical system and the concentration of alpha-naphthol. The use of the analyte pulse perturbation technique permits sequential determinations in the same oscillating system owing to the expeditiousness with which the steady state is regained after each perturbation. The calibration curve obeys a linear equation very well when the concentration of alpha-naphthol is over the range 0.034-530 umol/L (r = 0.9991). Influences of temperature, injection points, flow rate and reaction variables on the oscillating system are investigated in detail and the possible mechanism of action of alpha-naphthol to the chemical oscillating system is also discussed. The method has been successfully used for the determination of α-naphthol in carbaryl hydrolysates

  14. Hazardous Waste Landfill Siting using GIS Technique and Analytical Hierarchy Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozeair Abessi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Disposal of large amount of generated hazardous waste in power plants, has always received communities' and authori¬ties attentions. In this paper using site screening method and Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP a sophisticated approach for siting hazardous waste landfill in large areas is presented. This approach demonstrates how the evaluation criteria such as physical, socio-economical, technical, environmental and their regulatory sub criteria can be introduced into an over layer technique to screen some limited appropriate zones in the area. Then, in order to find the optimal site amongst the primary screened site utilizing a Multiple Criteria Decision Making (MCDM method for hierarchy computations of the process is recommended. Using the introduced method an accurate siting procedure for environmental planning of the landfills in an area would be enabled. In the study this approach was utilized for disposal of hazardous wastes of Shahid Rajaee thermal power plant located in Qazvin province west central part of Iran. As a result of this study 10 suitable zones were screened in the area at first, then using analytical hierarchy process a site near the power plant were chosen as the optimal site for landfilling of the hazardous wastes in Qazvin province.

  15. Study of the analytic quality in the determinations of Cr, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb and Hg through conventional and nuclear analytical techniques in mosses of the MATV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caballero S, B.

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the environmental risks of air pollution and to facilitate the decision-making for control, is necessary to have the capacity to generate data with analytical quality. A comparison between nuclear (Neutron activation analysis and total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry) and no nuclear analytical techniques (atomic absorption spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry) for simultaneous determination of metal content (Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Pb and Zn) in mosses from Metropolitan Area of the Toluca Valley (MATV) was performed. Epiphytic mosses (Fabriona ciliaris and Leskea angustata) were sampled in two campaigns, 16 sites (urban, transition and natural) and were prepared for each technique. The biological certified reference materials were used for the quality control and to evaluate accuracy, precision, linearity, detection and quantification limits. Results show that nuclear analytical techniques and no nuclear applied in chemical analysis of Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Pb and Zn in moss from MATV are comparable and therefore all of these can potentially be used for this purpose. However, if its considered both, the performance parameters and economic/operational characteristics is widely recommended inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry, conventional analytical technique, which showed the highest analytical grade quality. Also were observed spatial and temporal variations in the concentrations of Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Pb and Zn in mosses from MATV and was discussed its potential origin. The urban sites had the highest concentration of anthropogenic elements as Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Pb and Zn because are strongly impacted by roads with high vehicle traffic. (Author)

  16. Role of nuclear analytical probe techniques in biological trace element research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, K.W.; Pounds, J.G.

    1985-01-01

    Many biomedical experiments require the qualitative and quantitative localization of trace elements with high sensitivity and good spatial resolution. The feasibility of measuring the chemical form of the elements, the time course of trace elements metabolism, and of conducting experiments in living biological systems are also important requirements for biological trace element research. Nuclear analytical techniques that employ ion or photon beams have grown in importance in the past decade and have led to several new experimental approaches. Some of the important features of these methods are reviewed here along with their role in trace element research, and examples of their use are given to illustrate potential for new research directions. It is emphasized that the effective application of these methods necessitates a closely integrated multidisciplinary scientific team. 21 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  17. An Analytical Technique to Determine the Potential for Moisture Accumulation in Deactivated Structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MINICHAN, RL

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes an analytical technique developed to predict an order of magnitude volume of moisture accumulation in massive structures after deactivation. This work was done to support deactivation of a Department of Energy nuclear materials processing facility. The structure is a four-story, concrete building with a rectangular footprint that is approximately 250m long by 37m wide by 22m high. Its walls are 1.2m thick. The building will be supplied with unconditioned ventilation air after deactivation. The objective of the work was to provide a cost effective engineering evaluation to determine if the un-conditioned ventilation air would result in condensate accumulating inside the building under study. The analysis described is a simple representation of a complex problem. The modeling method is discussed in sufficient detail to allow its application to the study of similar structures

  18. Use of the analytical tree technique to develop a radiological protection program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domenech N, H.; Jova S, L.

    1996-01-01

    The results obtained by the Cuban Center for Radiological Protection and Hygiene by using an analytical tree technique to develop its general operational radiation protection program are presented. By the application of this method, some factors such as the organization of the radiation protection services, the provision of administrative requirements, the existing general laboratories requirements, the viability of resources and the current documentation was evaluated. Main components were considered such as: complete normative and regulatory documentation; automatic radiological protection data management; scope of 'on the-job'and radiological protection training for the personnel; previous radiological appraisal for the safety performance of the works and application of dose constrains for the personnel and the public. The detailed development of the program allowed to identify the basic aims to be achieved in its maintenance and improvement. (authors). 3 refs

  19. Development of statistical and analytical techniques for use in national quality control schemes for steroid hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, D.W.; Gaskell, S.J.; Fahmy, D.R.; Joyce, B.G.; Groom, G.V.; Griffiths, K.; Kemp, K.W.; Nix, A.B.J.; Rowlands, R.J.

    1979-01-01

    Adopting the rationale that the improvement of intra-laboratory performance of immunometric assays will enable the assessment of national QC schemes to become more meaningful, the group of participating laboratories has developed statistical and analytical techniques for the improvement of accuracy, precision and monitoring of error for the determination of steroid hormones. These developments are now described and their relevance to NQC schemes discussed. Attention has been focussed on some of the factors necessary for improving standards of quality in immunometric assays and their relevance to laboratories participating in NQC schemes as described. These have included the 'accuracy', precision and robustness of assay procedures as well as improved methods for internal quality control. (Auth.)

  20. Production of candidate natural matrix reference materials for micro-analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeisler, R.; Fajgelj, A.; Zeiller, E.

    2002-01-01

    Homogeneity is considered to be the most vital prerequisite for a certified reference material (CRM); more stringent requirements exist for the analysis of small subsamples. Many of the natural matrix CRMs are prepared from bulk samples by grinding and milling them to a certain particle size, which is expected to provide a more homogenous material; however recommended sample sizes for biological and environmental reference materials are found to be more than 100 mg. Since the milling of materials is costly and has some drawbacks, natural materials that already occur as small particles such as air particulate matter, certain sediments, and cellular biological materials may form the basis of the required reference materials. The nature of these materials, i.e. naturally occurring particles, may provide ideal model reference material. We describe here the production of the materials and preliminary tests, the evaluation for the micro-analytical techniques

  1. Investigation of different types of filters for atmospheric trace elements analysis by three analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, A.E.; Bacso, J.

    1996-01-01

    Different atmospheric aerosol samples were collected on three types of filters. Disks of both loaded and clean areas of each kind of filter were investigated by XRF, PIXE and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) methods. The blank concentration values of the elements Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Br and Pb in the three types of filters are discussed. It is found that for trace elemental analysis, the Nuclepore membrane filters are the most suitable for sampling. These have much lower blank element concentration values than the glass fibres and ash free filters. It was found also that the PIXE method is a more reliable analytical technique for atmospheric aerosol particles than the other methods. (author). 20 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  2. Preparation of uranium targets and application of analytical techniques for its evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luna Z, D.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this work is to establish a method to produce uranium targets. The method selected for this purpose was the molecular plating. The first part of this work is devoted to the proper selection of an analytical technique to evaluate the different steps of the molecular plating method. Neutron Activation Analysis was chosen, because its high sensitivity and can be adapted easily to follow the whole procedure. The second part presents the experimental procedure and the study of the different parameters involved in the molecular plating and the evaluation of its uniformity was made using plastic track detectors. The results obtained are presented and a procedure is suggested to produce uranium targets. (Author)

  3. New analytical techniques for traffic management on the basis of system studies in logistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олександр Павлович Кіркін

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In today's market conditions, it is necessary for enterprises to constantly maintain their competitiveness. This is achieved through raising customer service standards and use of the latest management techniques. In most cases, enterprises adhere to the logistic principles to optimize production. Over time, however, the development of logistics resulted in emergence of its principal subdivisions: transport, storage, etc. Thus, nowadays there are several parallel methodological developments in the field of logistics and making up logistics chains and systems at different stages of the life cycle of the goods. System research in the field of warehouse logistics showed that the majority of its analytical models of management are based on task conflict. Similar tasks of managing traffic flows in transport logistics are solved by methods of SMO, graph theory, linear programming and differential equations of state etc. These methods are not more accurate than the methods of warehouse logistics, have similar important assumptions and simplifications, and require appropriate mathematical training and knowledge in the field of transport, and sometimes lack visible correlation with economic performance. New analytical techniques for the management of transportation systems based on task conflict will reduce the time and resources for optimization and finding solutions. Methods of warehousing logistics can only be used for the continuous transport quantities (intensity, speed, performance, capacity, execution of works, etc.. In the static condition the search for the optimal service intensity can be found in warehouse logistics. In the study of object in dynamics it is better to use transport approach. Some problems such as supplement of warehouse logistics models with elements of the transport task, are still to be decided

  4. Constructing and deriving reciprocal trigonometric relations: a functional analytic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninness, Chris; Dixon, Mark; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot; Rehfeldt, Ruth Anne; Rumph, Robin; McCuller, Glen; Holland, James; Smith, Ronald; Ninness, Sharon K; McGinty, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Participants were pretrained and tested on mutually entailed trigonometric relations and combinatorially entailed relations as they pertained to positive and negative forms of sine, cosine, secant, and cosecant. Experiment 1 focused on training and testing transformations of these mathematical functions in terms of amplitude and frequency followed by tests of novel relations. Experiment 2 addressed training in accordance with frames of coordination (same as) and frames of opposition (reciprocal of) followed by more tests of novel relations. All assessments of derived and novel formula-to-graph relations, including reciprocal functions with diversified amplitude and frequency transformations, indicated that all 4 participants demonstrated substantial improvement in their ability to identify increasingly complex trigonometric formula-to-graph relations pertaining to same as and reciprocal of to establish mathematically complex repertoires.

  5. China-ASEAN Relations in Higher Education: An Analytical Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    China's dramatic economic rise has tended to overshadow other wider perspectives on the developing China and Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) relationship, including in higher education. The article examines contemporary relations between China and ASEAN, set against the longer term development of cultural and trade relations. It is…

  6. Analytical solutions of weakly coupled map lattices using recurrence relations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sotelo Herrera, Dolores, E-mail: dsh@dfmf.uned.e [Applied Maths, EUITI, UPM, Ronda de Valencia, 3-28012 Madrid (Spain); San Martin, Jesus [Applied Maths, EUITI, UPM, Ronda de Valencia, 3-28012 Madrid (Spain); Dep. Fisica Matematica y de Fluidos, UNED, Senda del Rey 9-28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2009-07-20

    By using asymptotic methods recurrence relations are found that rule weakly CML evolution, with both global and diffusive coupling. The solutions obtained from these relations are very general because they do not hold restrictions about boundary conditions, initial conditions and number of oscilators in the CML. Furthermore, oscillators are ruled by an arbitraty C{sup 2} function.

  7. An integrated approach using orthogonal analytical techniques to characterize heparan sulfate structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beccati, Daniela; Lech, Miroslaw; Ozug, Jennifer; Gunay, Nur Sibel; Wang, Jing; Sun, Elaine Y; Pradines, Joël R; Farutin, Victor; Shriver, Zachary; Kaundinya, Ganesh V; Capila, Ishan

    2017-02-01

    Heparan sulfate (HS), a glycosaminoglycan present on the surface of cells, has been postulated to have important roles in driving both normal and pathological physiologies. The chemical structure and sulfation pattern (domain structure) of HS is believed to determine its biological function, to vary across tissue types, and to be modified in the context of disease. Characterization of HS requires isolation and purification of cell surface HS as a complex mixture. This process may introduce additional chemical modification of the native residues. In this study, we describe an approach towards thorough characterization of bovine kidney heparan sulfate (BKHS) that utilizes a variety of orthogonal analytical techniques (e.g. NMR, IP-RPHPLC, LC-MS). These techniques are applied to characterize this mixture at various levels including composition, fragment level, and overall chain properties. The combination of these techniques in many instances provides orthogonal views into the fine structure of HS, and in other instances provides overlapping / confirmatory information from different perspectives. Specifically, this approach enables quantitative determination of natural and modified saccharide residues in the HS chains, and identifies unusual structures. Analysis of partially digested HS chains allows for a better understanding of the domain structures within this mixture, and yields specific insights into the non-reducing end and reducing end structures of the chains. This approach outlines a useful framework that can be applied to elucidate HS structure and thereby provides means to advance understanding of its biological role and potential involvement in disease progression. In addition, the techniques described here can be applied to characterization of heparin from different sources.

  8. Mathematics in computed tomography and related techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawicka, B.

    1992-01-01

    The mathematical basis of computed tomography (CT) was formulated in 1917 by Radon. His theorem states that the 2-D function f(x,y) can be determined at all points from a complete set of its line integrals. Modern methods of image reconstruction include three approaches: algebraic reconstruction techniques with simultaneous iterative reconstruction or simultaneous algebraic reconstruction; convolution back projection; and the Fourier transform method. There is no one best approach. Because the experimental data do not strictly satisfy theoretical models, a number of effects have to be taken into account; in particular, the problems of beam geometry, finite beam dimensions and distribution, beam scattering, and the radiation source spectrum. Tomography with truncated data is of interest, employing mathematical approximations to compensate for the unmeasured projection data. Mathematical techniques in image processing and data analysis are also extensively used. 13 refs

  9. Quantitative and Qualitative Relations between Motivation and Critical-Analytic Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miele, David B.; Wigfield, Allan

    2014-01-01

    The authors examine two kinds of factors that affect students' motivation to engage in critical-analytic thinking. The first, which includes ability beliefs, achievement values, and achievement goal orientations, influences the "quantitative" relation between motivation and critical-analytic thinking; that is, whether students are…

  10. Integration of datasets from different analytical techniques to assess the impact of nutrition on human metabolome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela eVernocchi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria colonizing the human intestinal tract exhibit a high phylogenetic diversity that reflects their immense metabolic potentials. The catalytic activity of gut microbes has an important impact on gastrointestinal (GI functions and host health. The microbial conversion of carbohydrates and other food components leads to the formation of a large number of compounds that affect the host metabolome and have beneficial or adverse effects on human health. Meabolomics is a metabolic-biology system approach focused on the metabolic responses understanding of living systems to physio-pathological stimuli by using multivariate statistical data on human body fluids obtained by different instrumental techniques. A metabolomic approach based on an analytical platform could be able to separate, detect, characterize and quantify a wide range of metabolites and its metabolic pathways. This approach has been recently applied to study the metabolic changes triggered in the gut microbiota by specific diet components and diet variations, specific diseases, probiotic and synbiotic food intake.This review describes the metabolomic data obtained by analyzing human fluids by using different techniques and particularly Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry Solid-phase Micro Extraction (GC-MS/SPME, Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H-NMR Spectroscopy and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR Spectroscopy. This instrumental approach have a good potential in the identification and detection of specific food intake and diseases biomarkers.

  11. Air particulate pollution studies in Asian countries using nuclear analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hien, P.D.

    1998-01-01

    Air particulate pollution is regarded as critical in Asian cities. The levels of suspended particulate matter in major Asian cities far exceed the WHO's guideline. Nuclear analytical techniques have been widely used in the studies of air particulate pollution to provide aerosol elemental compositions for the purpose of deriving the structure of emission sources. This paper presents some preliminary observations and findings based on publications in scientific literatures. Data on PM-10 levels and socio-economic indicators are used for searching a relationship between air quality and the level of development across Asia. An inverse linear relationship between PM-10 levels and logarithm of per capita GDP appears to exist, although there are large fluctuations of data caused by the very different climatic and geographical conditions of cities studied. Soil dust is generally a major, or even predominant aerosol source in Asian cities. Other common sources include vehicular emissions, coal and oil combustion, burning of refuse (in open) and biomass (including forest fires). The relevance and the trends of these sources in Asian context are discussed. Multivariate receptor modelling techniques applied in source characterization are illustrated through the cases of Lahore and Hochiminh City. Although having limitations in dealing with mixing and overlapping sources, receptor modelling based on principal component factor analysis has been proven to be uncomplicated and sufficiently reliable for characterising aerosol sources in urban areas. (author)

  12. The study of trace elements in milk by nuclear analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gharib, A.; Rahimi, H.; Peyrovan, H.; Raofei, H.N.J.; Taherpour, H.

    1983-01-01

    This work is part of a project with the IAEA, in a coordinated programme on ''Trace Elements in Human Nutrition and Bio-Environmental Systems'' to evaluate their nutritional requirements, interrelations and the role of Trace Elements in health, metabolism etc. Cow's milk being regarded as one of the most important and nutritious foodstuffs consumed by people. Hence as a first step, an elemental analysis for milk was carried out for this purpose so a few samples of pasteurized milk and local samples were investigated for essential and toxic trace elements. The secondary aim of this project was the assessment of various analytical techniques involved. However, in the present work, the methods involved were AAS, PIXE and NAA. The latter method applied, both instrumentally and radiochemically. Although the results pertaining to the various methods employed are not in good agreement, there is however, some justification to clarify this internal inconsistency. The precision for NAA and AAS allows greater degree of acceptance respectively. Although PIXE is a very fast and rather a routine but the technique of trace element analysis needs certain adaptations and developments

  13. Plastics from household waste as a source of heavy metal pollution: An inventory study using INAA as the analytical technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bode, P.; De Bruin, M.; Aalbers, Th.G.; Meyer, P.J.

    1990-01-01

    An inventory study to the levels of cadmium in the plastic component of household waste was carried out utilizing INAA as the analytical technique. In a 2-h irradiation, 2-d decay, and 1-h measurement, protocol adequate sensitivities could be obtained for Cd, but also for a group of other metals: Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Sr, Zn, As, Se, Mo, Sn, Sb, Ba, and Hg. Red-, orange-, and yellow-colored plastics either contain Cd at high levels (over 1000 mg/kg) or have relatively low Cd concentrations (<50 mg/kg). High concentrations were also occasionally found for Sr,Se,Ba,Sb, and Hg. INAA appeared very well to be routinely usable for such analysis because of the absence of a destruction step, adequate sensitivity, high accuracy, and multielement results

  14. Utilization of analytical techniques in aid the implantation of nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, M.P.; Sabino, C.V.S.; Avelar, M.M.

    1984-01-01

    Nuclear, physico-chemical and classic techniques developed and utilized by Centro de Desenvolvimento de Tecnicas Nucleares are presented, as back up to the implementation and operation of nuclear installations related with several parts of fuel cycle from uranium prospecting to waste treatment samples of soils, ores, alloys, plastics, paints, biological materials, air and water were analysed. (M.C.K) [pt

  15. Nuclear and related techniques in parasitology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayunga, E.G.; Stek, M. Jr.

    1986-05-01

    The course, entitled ''Atomic Energy Applications in Parasitology'', was offered by the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, USA, during the summer of 1983. The course began with an exhaustive introduction to radiation physics, then encompassed a variety of practical applications including irradiation attenuation, radioisotope labeling, tracer techniques and radioimmunoassays. This laboratory manual was written by the faculty in an attempt to document the learning experience of the training course and to provide a detailed description of state-of-the-art technology, methods and procedures with up-to-date-references. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 25 chapters in this manual

  16. Employing socially driven techniques for framing, contextualization, and collaboration in complex analytical threads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollocko, Arthur; Danczyk, Jennifer; Farry, Michael; Jenkins, Michael; Voshell, Martin

    2015-05-01

    The proliferation of sensor technologies continues to impact Intelligence Analysis (IA) work domains. Historical procurement focus on sensor platform development and acquisition has resulted in increasingly advanced collection systems; however, such systems often demonstrate classic data overload conditions by placing increased burdens on already overtaxed human operators and analysts. Support technologies and improved interfaces have begun to emerge to ease that burden, but these often focus on single modalities or sensor platforms rather than underlying operator and analyst support needs, resulting in systems that do not adequately leverage their natural human attentional competencies, unique skills, and training. One particular reason why emerging support tools often fail is due to the gap between military applications and their functions, and the functions and capabilities afforded by cutting edge technology employed daily by modern knowledge workers who are increasingly "digitally native." With the entry of Generation Y into these workplaces, "net generation" analysts, who are familiar with socially driven platforms that excel at giving users insight into large data sets while keeping cognitive burdens at a minimum, are creating opportunities for enhanced workflows. By using these ubiquitous platforms, net generation analysts have trained skills in discovering new information socially, tracking trends among affinity groups, and disseminating information. However, these functions are currently under-supported by existing tools. In this paper, we describe how socially driven techniques can be contextualized to frame complex analytical threads throughout the IA process. This paper focuses specifically on collaborative support technology development efforts for a team of operators and analysts. Our work focuses on under-supported functions in current working environments, and identifies opportunities to improve a team's ability to discover new information and

  17. A Review of New Analytic Techniques for Quantifying Symmetry in Locomotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth T. Hsiao-Wecksler

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a review of novel techniques developed by our research group to improve quantitative assessment of human movement, especially assessments related to symmetric and asymmetric gait patterns. These new methods use motion capture data of the lower limb joints (e.g., joint and body segment angular position and/or velocity, or joint center locations and include: (1 Regions of Deviation (ROD analysis, (2 complexity and variability of phase portraits, and (3 multivariate shape-alignment and decomposition. We provide example demonstrations of these techniques using data from infants, typical and atypically developing children, simulated injuries of a knee or ankle, and wheelchair propulsion.

  18. New digital demodulator with matched filters and curve segmentation techniques for BFSK demodulation: Analytical description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Torres Gómez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present article relates in general to digital demodulation of Binary Frequency Shift Keying (BFSK. The objective of the present research is to obtain a new processing method for demodulating BFSK-signals in order to reduce hardware complexity in comparison with other methods reported. The solution proposed here makes use of the matched filter theory and curve segmentation algorithms. This paper describes the integration and configuration of a Sampler Correlator and curve segmentation blocks in order to obtain a digital receiver for a proper demodulation of the received signal. The proposed solution is shown to strongly reduce hardware complexity. In this part a presentation of the proposed solution regarding the analytical expressions is addressed. The paper covers in detail the elements needed for properly configuring the system. In a second part it is presented the implementation of the system for FPGA technology and the simulation results in order to validate the overall performance.

  19. A calibration method for fringe reflection technique based on the analytical phase-slope description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuxiang; Yue, Huimin; Pan, Zhipeng; Liu, Yong

    2018-05-01

    The fringe reflection technique (FRT) has been one of the most popular methods to measure the shape of specular surface these years. The existing system calibration methods of FRT usually contain two parts, which are camera calibration and geometric calibration. In geometric calibration, the liquid crystal display (LCD) screen position calibration is one of the most difficult steps among all the calibration procedures, and its accuracy is affected by the factors such as the imaging aberration, the plane mirror flatness, and LCD screen pixel size accuracy. In this paper, based on the deduction of FRT analytical phase-slope description, we present a novel calibration method with no requirement to calibrate the position of LCD screen. On the other hand, the system can be arbitrarily arranged, and the imaging system can either be telecentric or non-telecentric. In our experiment of measuring the 5000mm radius sphere mirror, the proposed calibration method achieves 2.5 times smaller measurement error than the geometric calibration method. In the wafer surface measuring experiment, the measurement result with the proposed calibration method is closer to the interferometer result than the geometric calibration method.

  20. Improved analytical techniques of sulfur isotopic composition in nanomole quantities by MC-ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tsai-Luen; Wang, Bo-Shian; Shen, Chuan-Chou; Wang, Pei-Ling; Yang, Tsanyao Frank; Burr, George S; Chen, Yue-Gau

    2017-10-02

    We propose an improved method for precise sulfur isotopic measurements by multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) in conjunction with a membrane desolvation nebulization system. The problems of sulfur loss through the membrane desolvation apparatus are carefully quantified and resolved. The method overcomes low intrinsic sulfur transmission through the instrument, which was initially 1% when operating at a desolvation temperature of 160 °C. Sulfur loss through the membrane desolvation apparatus was resolved by doping with sodium. A Na/S ratio of 2 mol mol -1 produced sulfur transmissions with 98% recovery. Samples of 3 nmol (100 ng) sulfur achieved an external precision of ±0.18‰ (2 SD) for δ 34 S and ±0.10‰ (2 SD) for Δ 33 S (uppercase delta expresses the extent of mass-independent isotopic fractionation). Measurements made on certified reference materials and in-house standards demonstrate analytical accuracy and reproducibility. We applied the method to examine microbial-induced sulfur transformation in marine sediment pore waters from the sulfate-methane transition zone. The technique is quite versatile, and can be applied to a range of materials, including natural waters and minerals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Pollution prevention in the analytical laboratory--Microscale and other techniques do add up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erickson, M.D.; Alvarado, J.S.; Lu, C.-S.; Peterson, D.P.; Silzer, J.

    1996-01-01

    The principles of pollution prevention in the analytical laboratory have not been addressed sufficiently. Although the amount of reagent used per sample is often only a few milliliters, the aggregate of many routine test each day in thousands of laboratories becomes significant. Current recycling practices are not practical with small streams. Therefore, we have adopted the principles of microscale chemistry, along with other modern analytical approaches, to develop routine analytical methods that significantly curtail waste but still maintain acceptable analytical figures of merit and achieve cost savings through reduced reagent consumption and reduced labor cost

  2. IBM SPSS modeler essentials effective techniques for building powerful data mining and predictive analytics solutions

    CERN Document Server

    McCormick, Keith; Wei, Bowen

    2017-01-01

    IBM SPSS Modeler allows quick, efficient predictive analytics and insight building from your data, and is a popularly used data mining tool. This book will guide you through the data mining process, and presents relevant statistical methods which are used to build predictive models and conduct other analytic tasks using IBM SPSS Modeler. From ...

  3. Analytical Modelling of the Effects of Different Gas Turbine Cooling Techniques on Engine Performance =

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, Selcuk Can

    In this research, MATLAB SimulinkRTM was used to develop a cooled engine model for industrial gas turbines and aero-engines. The model consists of uncooled on-design, mean-line turbomachinery design and a cooled off-design analysis in order to evaluate the engine performance parameters by using operating conditions, polytropic efficiencies, material information and cooling system details. The cooling analysis algorithm involves a 2nd law analysis to calculate losses from the cooling technique applied. The model is used in a sensitivity analysis that evaluates the impacts of variations in metal Biot number, thermal barrier coating Biot number, film cooling effectiveness, internal cooling effectiveness and maximum allowable blade temperature on main engine performance parameters of aero and industrial gas turbine engines. The model is subsequently used to analyze the relative performance impact of employing Anti-Vortex Film Cooling holes (AVH) by means of data obtained for these holes by Detached Eddy Simulation-CFD Techniques that are valid for engine-like turbulence intensity conditions. Cooled blade configurations with AVH and other different external cooling techniques were used in a performance comparison study. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  4. Markov-CA model using analytical hierarchy process and multiregression technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omar, N Q; Sanusi, S A M; Hussin, W M W; Samat, N; Mohammed, K S

    2014-01-01

    The unprecedented increase in population and rapid rate of urbanisation has led to extensive land use changes. Cellular automata (CA) are increasingly used to simulate a variety of urban dynamics. This paper introduces a new CA based on an integration model built-in multi regression and multi-criteria evaluation to improve the representation of CA transition rule. This multi-criteria evaluation is implemented by utilising data relating to the environmental and socioeconomic factors in the study area in order to produce suitability maps (SMs) using an analytical hierarchical process, which is a well-known method. Before being integrated to generate suitability maps for the periods from 1984 to 2010 based on the different decision makings, which have become conditioned for the next step of CA generation. The suitability maps are compared in order to find the best maps based on the values of the root equation (R 2 ). This comparison can help the stakeholders make better decisions. Thus, the resultant suitability map derives a predefined transition rule for the last step for CA model. The approach used in this study highlights a mechanism for monitoring and evaluating land-use and land-cover changes in Kirkuk city, Iraq owing changes in the structures of governments, wars, and an economic blockade over the past decades. The present study asserts the high applicability and flexibility of Markov-CA model. The results have shown that the model and its interrelated concepts are performing rather well

  5. Trace element air pollution monitoring studies in Slovenia using nuclear analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smodis, S.B.; Jacimovic, R.; Jeran, Z.; Miklavcic, V.; Stegnar, P.; Stropnik, B.

    1994-01-01

    In the past, only a few investigations have been performed in Slovenia concerning trace elements, toxic elements, heavy metals and radionuclides in the atmosphere. During recent years, several projects were initiated, involving health-related studies connected to air pollution in highly exposed areas, mapping the status of air pollution in the whole country using biomonitors, as well as some specific research, i.e. involving studies of mercury speciation in the atmosphere around a mercury mine or concentration levels of radionuclides in biomonitors around a uranium mine. Since all these projects were or are of a preliminary nature, in this report, the emphasis is mainly on the methodology and analytical development (neutron activation analysis and X-ray spectrometry), and to a lesser extent on the results obtained up to now. Efforts are being put into co-ordination of all the presently running projects in order to complement the results and to make a unified database for their later evaluation and statistical interpretation. (author). 22 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab

  6. Performance Marketing with Google Analytics Strategies and Techniques for Maximizing Online ROI

    CERN Document Server

    Tonkin, Sebastian

    2010-01-01

    An unparalleled author trio shares valuable advice for using Google Analytics to achieve your business goals. Google Analytics is a free tool used by millions of Web site owners across the globe to track how visitors interact with their Web sites, where they arrive from, and which visitors drive the most revenue and sales leads. This book offers clear explanations of practical applications drawn from the real world. The author trio of Google Analytics veterans starts with a broad explanation of performance marketing and gets progressively more specific, closing with step-by-step analysis and a

  7. Analytical chemistry in semiconductor manufacturing: Techniques, role of nuclear methods and need for quality control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-06-01

    This report is the result of a consultants meeting held in Gaithersburg, USA, 2-3 October 1987. The meeting was hosted by the National Bureau of Standards and Technology, and it was attended by 18 participants from Denmark, Finland, India, Japan, Norway, People's Republic of China and the USA. The purpose of the meeting was to assess the present status of analytical chemistry in semiconductor manufacturing, the role of nuclear analytical methods and the need for internationally organized quality control of the chemical analysis. The report contains the three presentations in full and a summary report of the discussions. Thus, it gives an overview of the need of analytical chemistry in manufacturing of silicon based devices, the use of nuclear analytical methods, and discusses the need for quality control. Refs, figs and tabs

  8. A pirólise como técnica analítica Pyrolysis as an analytical technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flaviano Oliveira Silvério

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper historical aspects of analytical pyrolysis, the equipment used, the fundamentals and the mechanisms of pyrolysis of different polymeric materials are discussed. The latest work on analytical pyrolysis applied to various types of synthetic and natural samples is reviewed. Current applications of this technique that are discussed include identification of microorganisms, analysis of trace compounds by forensic laboratories, investigation of food and agricultural products, study of the chemical composition of wood, authentication and conservation of artworks, and the study of environmental and geochemical samples.

  9. Twelfth ISAS national symposium on analytical techniques for safety and sufficiency of natural resources/products: technical papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padmanabhan, P.K.; Page, A.G.

    1997-02-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of the ISAS (Indian Society of Analytical Scientists) national symposium. The main thrust of the symposium was on new fuel cycle technologies relevant to thorium utilisation programmes. The technologies for different separation processes, techniques for measurements of various process parameters and highly sensitive analytical methods for the determination of the chemical constituents were among the other topics covered. Quality upgradation, standardisation of methods and validation of measurements which are integral parts of product evaluation were also discussed. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  10. Biomimetic polymers in analytical chemistry. Part 1: preparation and applications of MIP (Molecularly Imprinted Polymers) in extraction and separation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarley, Cesar Ricardo Teixeira; Sotomayor, Maria del Pilar Taboada; Kubota, Lauro Tatsuo

    2005-01-01

    MIPs are synthetic polymers that are used as biomimetic materials simulating the mechanism verified in natural entities such as antibodies and enzymes. Although MIPs have been successfully used as an outstanding tool for enhancing the selectivity or different analytical approaches, such as separation science and electrochemical and optical sensors, several parameters must be optimized during their synthesis. Therefore, the state-of-the-art of MIP production as well as the different polymerization methods are discussed. The potential selectivity of MIPs in the extraction and separation techniques focusing mainly on environmental, clinical and pharmaceutical samples as applications for analytical purposes is presented. (author)

  11. Radioactive particles in the environment: sources, particle characterization and analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-08-01

    Over the years, radioactive particles have been released to the environment from nuclear weapons testing and nuclear fuel cycle operations. However, measurements of environmental radioactivity and any associated assessments are often based on the average bulk mass or surface concentration, assuming that radionuclides are homogeneously distributed as simple ionic species. It has generally not been recognised that radioactive particles present in the environment often contain a significant fraction of the bulk sample activity, leading to sample heterogeneity problems and false and/or erratic measurement data. Moreover, the inherent differences in the transport and bioavailability of particle bound radionuclides compared with those existing as molecules or ions have largely been ignored in dose assessments. To date, most studies regarding radionuclide behaviour in the soil-plant system have dealt with soluble forms of radionuclides. When radionuclides are deposited in a less mobile form, or in case of a superposition of different physico-chemical forms, the behaviour of radionuclides becomes much more complicated and extra efforts are required to provide information about environmental status and behaviour of radioactive particles. There are currently no documents or international guides covering this aspect of environmental impact assessments. To fill this gap, between 2001 and 2008 the IAEA performed a Coordinated Research Programme (CRP- G4.10.03) on the 'Radiochemical, Chemical and Physical Characterization of Radioactive Particles in the Environment' with the objective of development, adoption and application of standardized analytical techniques for the comprehensive study of radioactive particles. The CRP was in line with the IAEA project intended to assist the Member States in building capacity for improving environmental assessments and for management of sites contaminated with radioactive particles. This IAEA-TECDOC presents the findings and achievements of

  12. Recent Studies on the Speciation and Determination of Mercury in Different Environmental Matrices Using Various Analytical Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshmi Narayana Suvarapu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the current research on the speciation and determination of mercury by various analytical techniques, including the atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS, voltammetry, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES, ICP-mass spectrometry (MS, atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS, spectrophotometry, spectrofluorometry, and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Approximately 96 research papers on the speciation and determination of mercury by various analytical instruments published in international journals since 2015 were reviewed. All analytical parameters, including the limits of detection, linearity range, quality assurance and control, applicability, and interfering ions, evaluated in the reviewed articles were tabulated. In this review, we found a lack of information in speciation studies of mercury in recent years. Another important conclusion from this review was that there were few studies regarding the concentration of mercury in the atmosphere.

  13. Uncertainty in soil-structure interaction analysis arising from differences in analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maslenikov, O.R.; Chen, J.C.; Johnson, J.J.

    1982-07-01

    This study addresses uncertainties arising from variations in different modeling approaches to soil-structure interaction of massive structures at a nuclear power plant. To perform a comprehensive systems analysis, it is necessary to quantify, for each phase of the traditional analysis procedure, both the realistic seismic response and the uncertainties associated with them. In this study two linear soil-structure interaction techniques were used to analyze the Zion, Illinois nuclear power plant: a direct method using the FLUSH computer program and a substructure approach using the CLASSI family of computer programs. In-structure response from two earthquakes, one real and one synthetic, was compared. Structure configurations from relatively simple to complicated multi-structure cases were analyzed. The resulting variations help quantify uncertainty in structure response due to analysis procedures

  14. Advanced techniques for analytic liquid wastes management in the Rokkasho reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madic, C.; Moulin, J.P.; Runge, S.; Schott, R.; Kashiwai, T.; Hayashi, M.

    1991-01-01

    The JNFS Rokkasho reprocessing plant is a large scale commercial reprocessing plant. Liquid waste treatment relies on concentration by evaporation. The management of liquid wastes is rather sophisticated and implies, beside the organic wastes, sorting out between process and non-process, acidic and salt-bearing, tritiated and low tritiated streams and also according to their level of activity. A particular attention had to be paid to the analytical wastes, as their particularity is to contain not only a significant amount of radioactivity but also some fissile material and exotic chemicals which are useful for analytical purpose but unwanted in the main process mainly because of their corrosive and chelating properties. The analytical wastes are sorted out according to their activity level and fissile material content. On the one hand, a specific process has been developed to recover the bulk of plutonium from the analytical wastes. On the other hand, the foreseeable amount of unwanted chemicals (such as chloride ions) has been drastically reduced by carefully selecting all the analytical methods either by modification of already known methods or in some cases by working out new methods

  15. Role of modern analytical techniques in the production of uranium metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hareendran, K.N.; Roy, S.B.

    2009-01-01

    Production of nuclear grade uranium metal conforming to its stringent specification with respect to metallic and non metallic impurities necessitates implementation of a comprehensive quality control regime. Founding members of Uranium Metal Plant realised the importance of this aspect of metal production and a quality control laboratory was set up as part of the production plant. In the initial stages of its existence, the laboratory mainly catered to the process control analysis of the plant process samples and Spectroscopy Division and Analytical Division of BARC provided analysis of trace metallic impurities in the intermediates as well as in the product uranium metal. This laboratory also provided invaluable R and D support for the optimization of the process involving both calciothermy and magnesiothermy. Prior to 1985, analytical procedures used were limited to classical methods of analysis with minimal instrumental procedures. The first major analytical instrument, a Flame AAS was installed in 1985 and a beginning to the trace analysis was made. However during the last 15 years the Quality Control Section has modernized the analytical set up by acquiring appropriate instruments. Presently the facility has implemented a complete quality control and quality assurance program required to cover all aspects of uranium metal production viz analysis of raw materials, process samples, waste disposal samples and also determination of all the specification elements in uranium metal. The current analytical practices followed in QCS are presented here

  16. The use of different analytical techniques as a backup to mineral resources assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho Tofani, P. de; Ferreira, M.P.; Gomes, H.; Avelar, M.M.

    1982-01-01

    The Empresas Nucleares Brasileiras S.A. (NUCLEBRAS) has implemented and improved, since their foundation in 1974, several laboratories at the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), in Belo Horizonte (MG, Brazil), in order to develop capabilities in the analytical chemistry field. Skillful personnel, using a large spectrum of equipment and procedures, is already able to determine, fast and accurately, almost any chemical element in any matrix. About 340.000 analytical determinations have been performed during the last seven years, concerning mostly chemical elements of great importance in the mineral technology programs. This considerable amount of results has been used, specially, as a backup to assess Brazilian uranium resources. (Author) [pt

  17. A splitting technique for analytical modelling of two-phase multicomponent flow in porous media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pires, A.P.; Bedrikovetsky, P.G.; Shapiro, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we discuss one-dimensional models for two-phase Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) floods (oil displacement by gases, polymers, carbonized water, hot water, etc.). The main result presented here is the splitting of the EOR mathematical model into thermodynamical and hydrodynamical parts...... formation water for chemical flooding can be calculated from the reduced auxiliary system. Reduction of the number of equations allows the generation of new analytical models for EOR. The analytical model for displacement of oil by a polymer slug with water drive is presented....

  18. A new multi-step technique with differential transform method for analytical solution of some nonlinear variable delay differential equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benhammouda, Brahim; Vazquez-Leal, Hector

    2016-01-01

    This work presents an analytical solution of some nonlinear delay differential equations (DDEs) with variable delays. Such DDEs are difficult to treat numerically and cannot be solved by existing general purpose codes. A new method of steps combined with the differential transform method (DTM) is proposed as a powerful tool to solve these DDEs. This method reduces the DDEs to ordinary differential equations that are then solved by the DTM. Furthermore, we show that the solutions can be improved by Laplace-Padé resummation method. Two examples are presented to show the efficiency of the proposed technique. The main advantage of this technique is that it possesses a simple procedure based on a few straight forward steps and can be combined with any analytical method, other than the DTM, like the homotopy perturbation method.

  19. Using Photocatalytic Oxidation and Analytic Techniques to Remediate Lab Wastewater Containing Methanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Qing; Luo, Mingliang; Bao, Xiaoming; Deng, Yurong; Qin, Song; Pu, Xuemei

    2018-01-01

    This experiment is dedicated to second-year and above undergraduates who are in their experimental session of the analytical chemistry course. Grouped students are required to use a TiO[subscript 2] photocatalytic oxidation process to treat the methanol-containing wastewater that resulted from their previous HPLC experiments. Students learn to…

  20. A Content Analytic Technique for Measuring the Sexiness of Women's Business Attire in Media Presentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Sylvia E.

    1995-01-01

    Describes development of an objective content analytic category scheme for measuring the sexiness of women's business attire in media presentations. Finds women's business attire in television soap operas significantly more provocative than real-world attire. Finds a significant positive correlation between the degree of sexiness as measured by…

  1. Capillary electromigration techniques for studying interactions between analytes and lipid dispersions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wiedmer, S. K.; Lokajová, Jana

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 1 (2013), s. 37-51 ISSN 1615-9306 Grant - others:Helsinki Research Funds (FI) 2105060 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : electrokinetic chromatography * frontal analysis * liposome * microchips * partial filling Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.594, year: 2013

  2. Analytical techniques for the determination of radiochemical purity of radiopharmaceuticals prepared from kits. Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacLean, J.R.; Rockwell, L.J.; Welsh, W.J.

    The evaluation of efficacy of commercially available kits used for the preparation of radiopharmaceuticals is one aspect of the Radiation Protection Bureau's radiopharmaceutical quality control program. This report describes some of the analytical methodology employed in the program. Many of the tests can be performed rapidly and with a minimum of special equipment, thus enabling the confirmation of radiopharmaceutical purity prior to patient administration

  3. The earrings of Pancas treasure: Analytical study by X-ray based techniques – A first approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tissot, I.; Tissot, M.; Manso, M.; Alves, L.C.; Barreiros, M.A.; Marcelo, T.; Carvalho, M.L.; Corregidor, V.; Guerra, M.F.

    2013-01-01

    The development of new metallurgical technologies in the Iberian Peninsula during the Iron Age is well represented by the 10 gold earrings from the treasure of Pancas. This work presents a first approach to the analytical study of these earrings and contributes to the construction of a typological evolution of the Iberian earrings. The manufacture techniques and the alloys composition were studied with three complementary X-ray spectroscopy techniques: portable EDXRF, μ-PIXE and SEM–EDS. The results were compared with earrings from the same and previous periods

  4. Comparison between energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence and other nuclear analytical techniques in mineral exploration and mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clayton, C.G.; Packer, T.W.; Wormald, M.R.

    1979-01-01

    At the present time there is an increasing awareness of the value and need for in-situ analytical methods throughout the general area of mineral exploration and mining. Of the alternative techniques, the measurement of natural gamma radiation is well established for uranium exploration and it is now being developed for sea-bed and lake-bed surveying. Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence equipment is becoming more generally accepted, especially for mine control. Neutron techniques, for so long used routinely in oil well logging, are now being developed for a wide range of applications in all aspects of exploration and mining. It is believed that these techniques will result in major applications in the future. The present paper compares the principal characteristics of energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence and neutron techniques in particular, with special emphasis being given to those factors which affect the accuracy of analytical content; such as elemental resolution, matrix effects, material heterogeneity and neutron transport. A generalised comparison between the techniques is difficult to achieve because of the different nature of radiation interactions, but a range of applications is described and these show the complementary nature of the methods and point to the areas for more active development in the future. (author)

  5. A REVIEW ON THE ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES USED FOR THE DETERMINATION OF PARACETAMOL IN PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATIONS AND BIOLOGICAL FLUIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisha Noreen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Paracetamol (PM is an active metabolite of phenacetin and belongs to p-aminophenol derivatives. It is also termed as acetaminophen. PM is one of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs which is used as an analgesic and antipyretic agent. It is an OTC drug and is used as a common household analgesic. It is not used as a substitute of aspirin or any other NSAIDs. It is a weak cyclooxygenase (COX 1 and 2 inhibitor but may inhibit COX-3 in the central nervous system. Many analytical techniques have been used for the assay of PM in pharmaceutical preparations and biological fluids. These techniques include spectrometry, chromatography, spectrofluorimetry, chemiluminescence, electrochemical techniques, flow injection spectrometry and chronoamperometry. In many pharmaceutical preparations PM is also used in combination with other drugs and these techniques have also been used for their simultaneous determination. A detailed review of various analytical techniques used for the assay of PM has been carried out which would be of great help to the chemists and pharmacists involved in the analysis and quality control of drugs.

  6. A Generalized Analytic Operator-Valued Function Space Integral and a Related Integral Equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, K.S.; Kim, B.S.; Park, C.H.; Ryu, K.S.

    2003-01-01

    We introduce a generalized Wiener measure associated with a Gaussian Markov process and define a generalized analytic operator-valued function space integral as a bounded linear operator from L p into L p-ci r cumflexprime (1< p ≤ 2) by the analytic continuation of the generalized Wiener integral. We prove the existence of the integral for certain functionals which involve some Borel measures. Also we show that the generalized analytic operator-valued function space integral satisfies an integral equation related to the generalized Schroedinger equation. The resulting theorems extend the theory of operator-valued function space integrals substantially and previous theorems about these integrals are generalized by our results

  7. Quantification of process induced disorder in milled samples using different analytical techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimper, Ulrike; Aaltonen, Jaakko; McGoverin, Cushla M.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare three different analytical methods to detect and quantify the amount of crystalline disorder/ amorphousness in two milled model drugs. X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Raman spectroscopy were used as analytical methods...... and indomethacin and simvastatin were chosen as the model compounds. These compounds partly converted from crystalline to disordered forms by milling. Partial least squares regression (PLS) was used to create calibration models for the XRPD and Raman data, which were subsequently used to quantify the milling......-induced crystalline disorder/ amorphousness under different process conditions. In the DSC measurements the change in heat capacity at the glass transition was used for quantification. Differently prepared amorphous indomethacin standards (prepared by either melt quench cooling or cryo milling) were compared...

  8. Utility of the molecular biology techniques to the analytical control of the microbiological quality of waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Codony, F.; Martin Perez, L.; Morato, J.; Dominguez Gual, M. C.

    2009-01-01

    The molecular biology techniques made accessible to the water industry the ability to detect and quantify, in a few hours, any organism known. given this scenario, it is important to realize the strengths and weaknesses of these techniques to get a better picture of the scope of its implementation and its most that probably usefulness. We must be familiar with these techniques to understand the results and properly evaluate its detection limit. (Author) 4 refs.

  9. Development of analytical techniques for determining rare earth elements in geological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraes, Noemia M.P. de; Kakazu, M.H.; Iyer, S.S.

    1987-01-01

    This work presents a comparative study between instrumental neutron activation analysis, inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry and mass spectrometric isotope dilution techniques. Some advantages and disadvantages of the techniques are presented, depending on the type of the analysis required. Emphasis in give upon mass spectrometric isotope dilution, and some procedures for the development of this technique are presented. This methodology is being established by the nuclear and isotopic geology group of the IPEN. (author) [pt

  10. Analytical techniques for characterization of raw materials in cell culture media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Chandana

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Raw materials are a critical part of any cell culture medium; therefore, it is of utmost importance to understand and characterize them for high-quality product. The raw material characterization (RMC program at SAFC focuses on individual screening of raw materials both analytically and biologically. The goal of the program is to develop the best-in-class knowledge base of the raw materials used in SAFC’s media formulations and their impact on performance of products.

  11. The role of nuclear analytical techniques in the study of aqueous corrosion of glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trocellier, P.

    1984-01-01

    Direct observation of resonant nuclear reactions, backscattering spectrometry and X ray microanalysis with a nuclear microprobe were used to determine elementary depth profiles in the near surface region of leached glasses. Some computing programs required to interpretate the analytical information detected were built. Experimental conditions to characterize glass samples without secondary effects were defined; and the influence of some leaching parameters was studied to describe the first stages of aqueous corrosion of borosilicate glasses [fr

  12. Public Relations and Publicity: Tools and Techniques for Student Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFeo, Carol Jean

    Based on the idea that to be successful, a student organization must have a sound public relations and publicity program, this handbook considers techniques of internal communication that establish good public relations with various special groups: the student body, the administration, the faculty, and the staff. The handbook states that…

  13. MS-Based Analytical Techniques: Advances in Spray-Based Methods and EI-LC-MS Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Isabel; Cappiello, Achille; Careri, Maria

    2018-01-01

    Mass spectrometry is the most powerful technique for the detection and identification of organic compounds. It can provide molecular weight information and a wealth of structural details that give a unique fingerprint for each analyte. Due to these characteristics, mass spectrometry-based analytical methods are showing an increasing interest in the scientific community, especially in food safety, environmental, and forensic investigation areas where the simultaneous detection of targeted and nontargeted compounds represents a key factor. In addition, safety risks can be identified at the early stage through online and real-time analytical methodologies. In this context, several efforts have been made to achieve analytical instrumentation able to perform real-time analysis in the native environment of samples and to generate highly informative spectra. This review article provides a survey of some instrumental innovations and their applications with particular attention to spray-based MS methods and food analysis issues. The survey will attempt to cover the state of the art from 2012 up to 2017.

  14. Proficiency Testing by Interlaboratory Comparison Performed in 2010-2015 for Neutron Activation Analysis and Other Analytical Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-12-01

    The IAEA supports its Member States to increase the utilization of their research reactors. Small and medium sized reactors are mostly used for neutron activation analysis (NAA). Although the markets for NAA laboratories have been identified, demonstration of valid analytical results and organizational quality of the work process are preconditions for expanding the stakeholder community, particularly in commercial routine application of this powerful technique. The IAEA has implemented a new mechanism for supporting NAA laboratories in demonstrating their analytical performance by participation in proficiency testing schemes by interlaboratory comparison. This activity makes possible the identification of deviations and non-conformities, their causes and the process to implement effective approaches to eliminate them. Over 30 laboratories participated between 2010 and 2015 in consecutive proficiency tests organized by the IAEA in conjunction with the Wageningen Evaluating Programmes for Analytical Laboratories (WEPAL) to assess their analytical performances. This publication reports the findings and includes lessons learned of this activity. An attached CD-ROM contains many individual participating laboratory papers sharing their individual results and experience gained through this participation.

  15. Analytical relation between effective mode field area and waveguide dispersion in microstructure fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moenster, Mathias; Steinmeyer, Günter; Iliew, Rumen; Lederer, Falk; Petermann, Klaus

    2006-11-15

    For optical fibers exhibiting a radially symmetric refractive index profile, there exists an analytical relation that connects waveguide dispersion and the Petermann-II mode field radius. We extend the usefulness of this relation to the nonradially symmetric case of microstructure fibers in the anomalous dispersion regime, yielding a simple relation between dispersion and effective mode field area. Assuming a Gaussian mode distribution, we derive a fundamental upper limit for the effective mode field area that is required to obtain a certain amount of anomalous waveguide dispersion. This relation is demonstrated to show excellent agreement for fiber designs suited for supercontinuum generation and soliton lasers in the near infrared.

  16. Determination and identification of synthetic cannabinoids and their metabolites in different matrices by modern analytical techniques – a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Znaleziona, Joanna; Ginterová, Pavlína; Petr, Jan [Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Palacký University, 17. Listopadu 12, Olomouc CZ-77146 (Czech Republic); Ondra, Peter; Válka, Ivo [Department of Forensic Medicine and Medical Law Faculty Hospital, Hněvotínská 3, Olomouc CZ-77146 (Czech Republic); Ševčík, Juraj [Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Palacký University, 17. Listopadu 12, Olomouc CZ-77146 (Czech Republic); Chrastina, Jan [Institute of Special Education Studies, Faculty of Education, Palacký University, Žižkovo náměsti 5, Olomouc CZ-77146 (Czech Republic); Maier, Vítězslav, E-mail: vitezslav.maier@upol.cz [Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Palacký University, 17. Listopadu 12, Olomouc CZ-77146 (Czech Republic)

    2015-05-18

    Highlights: • Synthetic cannabinoids from analytical point of view. • Determination and identification methods of synthetic cannabinoids in different matrices. • Analytical techniques used from thin layer chromatography to high resolution mass spectrometry. • Detailed survey of gas and liquid chromatography methods for synthetic cannabinoids analysis. - Abstract: Synthetic cannabinoids have gained popularity due to their easy accessibility and psychoactive effects. Furthermore, they cannot be detected in urine by routine drug monitoring. The wide range of active ingredients in analyzed matrices hinders the development of a standard analytical method for their determination. Moreover, their possible side effects are not well known which increases the danger. This review is focused on the sample preparation and the determination of synthetic cannabinoids in different matrices (serum, urine, herbal blends, oral fluid, hair) published since 2004. The review includes separation and identification techniques, such as thin layer chromatography, gas and liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis, mostly coupled with mass spectrometry. The review also includes results by spectral methods like infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance or direct-injection mass spectrometry.

  17. Determination and identification of synthetic cannabinoids and their metabolites in different matrices by modern analytical techniques – a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Znaleziona, Joanna; Ginterová, Pavlína; Petr, Jan; Ondra, Peter; Válka, Ivo; Ševčík, Juraj; Chrastina, Jan; Maier, Vítězslav

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Synthetic cannabinoids from analytical point of view. • Determination and identification methods of synthetic cannabinoids in different matrices. • Analytical techniques used from thin layer chromatography to high resolution mass spectrometry. • Detailed survey of gas and liquid chromatography methods for synthetic cannabinoids analysis. - Abstract: Synthetic cannabinoids have gained popularity due to their easy accessibility and psychoactive effects. Furthermore, they cannot be detected in urine by routine drug monitoring. The wide range of active ingredients in analyzed matrices hinders the development of a standard analytical method for their determination. Moreover, their possible side effects are not well known which increases the danger. This review is focused on the sample preparation and the determination of synthetic cannabinoids in different matrices (serum, urine, herbal blends, oral fluid, hair) published since 2004. The review includes separation and identification techniques, such as thin layer chromatography, gas and liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis, mostly coupled with mass spectrometry. The review also includes results by spectral methods like infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance or direct-injection mass spectrometry

  18. X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and related techniques an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Margui, Eva

    2013-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) is a well-established analytical technique for qualitative and quantitative elemental analysis of a wide variety of routine quality control and research samples. Among its many desirable features, it delivers true multi-element character analysis, acceptable speed and economy, easy of automation, and the capacity to analyze solid samples. This remarkable contribution to this field provides a comprehensive and up-to-date account of basic principles, recent developments, instrumentation, sample preparation procedures, and applications of XRF analysis. If you are a professional in materials science, analytic chemistry, or physics, you will benefit from not only the review of basics, but also the newly developed technologies with XRF. Those recent technological advances, including the design of low-power micro- focus tubes and novel X-ray optics and detectors, have made it possible to extend XRF to the analysis of low-Z elements and to obtain 2D or 3D information on a microme...

  19. Meeting report on third regional workshop on quality assurance and quality control of nuclear analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Over the last 20 years, the Agency, through its Technical Co-operation Programme, has helped to establish many nuclear analytical laboratories in nuclear institutions and universities of Member States. The project RER/2/004 has been approved in 1999 for a period of two years aiming at the implementation of a comprehensive QA/QC protocol in laboratories of Member States following the ISO guide 17025. The project involved 13 laboratories from 12 countries. This report presents the project setup, intended outputs and outcomes, achievements and conclusions. It also contains reports from participating laboratories. Each of the reports has been provided with an abstract and indexed separately

  20. Comparability of data for natural radionuclides in marine sediment obtained by different analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bojanowski, R.; Fukai, R.; Holm, E.

    1987-01-01

    The results of postassium, uranium, thorium and radium measurements performed on the natural marine sediment sample SD-N-1/2 in the framework of the IAEA-organized worldwide intercomparison excercise are presented. Analytical methods applied in this excercise were evaluated for performance, and significance of the observed discrepancies are discussed in the light of statistical and operative criteria. Possible sources of error were identified in alpha and gamma spectrometric measurements and suggestions are given about how to avoid them. Well characterized reference materials based on natural matrices are shown to be helpful in achieving better data comparability in low level measurements of environmental radioactivity. (author)

  1. Earth Science Data Analytics: Bridging Tools and Techniques with the Co-Analysis of Large, Heterogeneous Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempler, Steve; Mathews, Tiffany

    2016-01-01

    The continuum of ever-evolving data management systems affords great opportunities to the enhancement of knowledge and facilitation of science research. To take advantage of these opportunities, it is essential to understand and develop methods that enable data relationships to be examined and the information to be manipulated. This presentation describes the efforts of the Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP) Federation Earth Science Data Analytics (ESDA) Cluster to understand, define, and facilitate the implementation of ESDA to advance science research. As a result of the void of Earth science data analytics publication material, the cluster has defined ESDA along with 10 goals to set the framework for a common understanding of tools and techniques that are available and still needed to support ESDA.

  2. Analytical techniques for in-line/on-line monitoring of uranium and plutonium in process solutions : a brief literature survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marathe, S.G.; Sood, D.D.

    1991-01-01

    In-line/on-line monitoring of various parameters such as uranium-plutonium-fission product concentration, acidity, density etc. plays an important role in quickly understanding the efficiency of processes in a reprocessing plant. Efforts in studying and installation of such analytical instruments are going on since more than three decades with adaptation of newer methods and technologies. A review on the developement of in-line analytical instrumentation was carried out in this laboratory about two decades ago. This report presents a very short literature survey of the work in the last two decades. The report includes an outline of principles of the main techniques employed in the in-line/on-line monitoring. (author). 77 refs., 6 tabs

  3. Metabolomic analysis using porcine skin: a pilot study of analytical techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Julie; Fiehn, Oliver; Armstrong, April W

    2014-01-01

    Background: Metabolic byproducts serve as indicators of the chemical processes and can provide valuable information on pathogenesis by measuring the amplified output. Standardized techniques for metabolome extraction of skin samples serve as a critical foundation to this field but have not been developed. Objectives: We sought to determine the optimal cell lysage techniques for skin sample preparation and to compare GC-TOF-MS and UHPLC-QTOF-MS for metabolomic analysis. ...

  4. Evaluation and standardisation of fast analytical techniques for destructive radwaste control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Simone, A.; Troiani, F.

    2001-01-01

    The document describes the work programme carried out by the Laboratorio Nazionale per la 'Caratterizzazione dei Refit Radioattivi', in the frame of the European research project Destructive Radwaste Control. The main tasks of the research work were the evaluation of fast sample pre-treatment procedures and the development of chromatographic methods coupled to fast nuclide detection by Liquid Scintillation Counting. In order to test the High Performance Ion Chromatograph (HPIC) coupled to the Liquid Scintillation Counter (LSC) on high salt content solutions, synthetic cement solutions have been prepared and spiked with several β-emitters hard to be measured with non-destructive analyses, along with other radionuclides important for the determination of the radiological inventory in radwastes. As the validation tests for the new analytical methods involved the manipulation of radioactive solutions, a remote area for HPIC-LSC apparatus has been designed and performed, in order to operate in safe conditions. According to the research programme, fast analytical methods for the chemical separation and radionuclide detection of the radioactive elements of interest, have been developed and qualified. From the results of the work, some protocols of analysis have been defined: they contain all information about operative conditions for HPIC-LSC apparatus, field of applicability, chemical and radioactive detection limits [it

  5. Mastering data warehouse design relational and dimensional techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Imhoff, Claudia; Geiger, Jonathan G

    2003-01-01

    A cutting-edge response to Ralph Kimball''s challenge to the data warehouse community that answers some tough questions about the effectiveness of the relational approach to data warehousingWritten by one of the best-known exponents of the Bill Inmon approach to data warehousingAddresses head-on the tough issues raised by Kimball and explains how to choose the best modeling technique for solving common data warehouse design problemsWeighs the pros and cons of relational vs. dimensional modeling techniquesFocuses on tough modeling problems, including creating and maintaining keys and modeling c

  6. Nuclear and related techniques in animal production and health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The international symposium was attended by about 130 participants from 45 countries and included 83 scientific presentations of which 42 were posters. This volume covers four principal and interrelated topics: adaptation of animals to the environment, and animal reproduction, health and nutrition. Within each topic, consideration is given to those nuclear and related techniques currently employed in investigative research and their usefulness in studying animal production systems. Progress towards new areas of application and new techniques is also covered, particularly the development and practicability of immunoassay and related biotechnological methods for the diagnosis of livestock diseases. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the papers in this volume

  7. Reliable screening of various foodstuffs with respect to their irradiation status: A comparative study of different analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Jae-Jun; Akram, Kashif; Kwak, Ji-Young; Jeong, Mi-Seon; Kwon, Joong-Ho

    2013-01-01

    Cost-effective and time-efficient analytical techniques are required to screen large food lots in accordance to their irradiation status. Gamma-irradiated (0–10 kGy) cinnamon, red pepper, black pepper, and fresh paprika were investigated using photostimulated luminescence (PSL), direct epifluorescent filter technique/the aerobic plate count (DEFT/APC), and electronic-nose (e-nose) analyses. The screening results were also confirmed with thermoluminescence analysis. PSL analysis discriminated between irradiated (positive, >5000 PCs) and non-irradiated (negative, <700 PCs) cinnamon and red peppers. Black pepper had intermediate results (700–5000 PCs), while paprika had low sensitivity (negative results) upon irradiation. The DEFT/APC technique also showed clear screening results through the changes in microbial profiles, where the best results were found in paprika, followed by red pepper and cinnamon. E-nose analysis showed a dose-dependent discrimination in volatile profiles upon irradiation through principal component analysis. These methods can be used considering their potential applications for the screening analysis of irradiated foods. - Highlights: • Detection of irradiated food is important to enforce the applied regulations. • Gamma-irradiated spices were investigated to confirm their irradiation status. • Screening techniques such as PSL, DEFT/APC, and E-nose were tested. • Specificity and potential applications of screening techniques were evaluated. • The screening results were confirmed by promising thermoluminescence technique

  8. Inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry: analytical assessment of the technique at the beginning of the 90's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanz-Medel, A.

    1991-01-01

    The main application of the inductively coupled plasma (ICP) today is in atomic emission spectroscopy (AES), as an excitation spectrochemical source, although uses of an ICP for fluorescence as just an atomizer, and specially for mass spectrometry, as an ionization source, are rocketing in the last few years. Since its inception, only a quarter of a century ago, ICP-AES has rapidly evolved to one of the preferred routine analytical techniques for convenient determination of many elements with high speed, at low levels and in the most varied samples. Perhaps its comparatively high kinetic temperature (capable of atomizing virtually every compound of any sample), its high excitation and ionization temperatures, and its favourable spatial structure at the core of the ICP success. By now, the ICP-AES can be considered as having achieved maturity in that a huge amount of analytical problems can be tackled with this technique, while no major or fundamental changes have been adopted for several years. Despite this fact, important driving forces are still in operation to further improve the ICP-AES sensitivity, selectivity, precision, sample throughput, etc. Moreover, proposals to extend the scope of the technique to traditionally elusive fields (e.g. non-metals and organic compound analysis) are also appearing in the recent literature. In this paper the 'state of the art', the last developments and the expectations in trying to circumvent the limitations of the ICP-AES (on the light of literature data and personal experience) are reviewed. (author)

  9. Introduction to analytical techniques of beam-target interactions and resolutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruste, J.

    1995-08-01

    For several years, new analysis and observation techniques have been developed, which have considerably improved material research. Almost all these techniques are based on the interaction of a beam of 'primary particles' (electrons, photons, ions, particles, etc) with target. Correct and appropriate use of these techniques requires a good knowledge of these interactions and their consequences (emissions of 'secondary particles', modifications of the primary beam and target, etc). The first part of this report deals with the radiation/material interactions according to the nature of the radiation and its energy. The nature and consequences of the interaction of an electromagnetic wave, a beam of electrons, ions and neutrons are examined over an extended range of energy from MeV to MeV. Certain notions such as the analysis area, spatial resolutions or limits of detection can also be defined. In the second part, some of the most important and widespread techniques of analysis and observation are compared in terms of properties and performance. In particular, there is a brief principle of the technique, nature of the data obtained, spatial resolution, and the limits of detection with today's methods permit. (author). 5 refs., 23 figs., 9 tabs

  10. Analytical-scale separations of lanthanides : a review of techniques and fundamentals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nash, K. L.; Jensen, M. P.

    1999-01-01

    Separations chemistry is at the heart of most analytical procedures to determine the rare earth content of both man-made and naturally occurring materials. Such procedures are widely used in mineral exploration, fundamental geology and geochemistry, material science, and in the nuclear industry. Chromatographic methods that rely on aqueous solutions containing complexing agents sensitive to the lanthanide cationic radius and cation-exchange phase transfer reactions (using a variety of different solid media) have enjoyed the greatest success for these procedures. In this report, they will briefly summarize the most important methods for completing such analyses. they consider in some detail the basic aqueous (and two-phase) solution chemistry that accounts for separations that work well and offer explanations for why others are less successful

  11. Kinetic calculations for miniature neutron source reactor using analytical and numerical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ampomah-Amoako, E.

    2008-06-01

    The analytical methods, step change in reactivity and ramp change in reactivity as well as numerical methods, fixed point iteration and Runge Kutta-gill were used to simulate the initial build up of neutrons in a miniature neutron source reactor with and without temperature feedback effect. The methods were modified to include photo neutron concentration. PARET 7.3 was used to simulate the transients behaviour of Ghana Research Reactor-1. The PARET code was capable of simulating the transients for 2.1 mk and 4 mk insertions of reactivity with peak powers of 49.87 kW and 92.34 kW, respectively. PARET code however failed to simulate 6.71 mk of reactivity which was predicted by Akaho et al through TEMPFED. (au)

  12. Atomic and Nuclear Analytical Methods XRF, Mössbauer, XPS, NAA and Ion-Beam Spectroscopic Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Verma, H R

    2007-01-01

    This book is a blend of analytical methods based on the phenomenon of atomic and nuclear physics. It comprises comprehensive presentations about X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), Mössbauer Spectroscopy (MS), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Neutron- Activation Analysis (NAA), Particle Induced X-ray Emission Analysis (PIXE), Rutherford Backscattering Analysis (RBS), Elastic Recoil Detection (ERD), Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA), Particle Induced Gamma-ray Emission Analysis (PIGE), and Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS). These techniques are commonly applied in the fields of medicine, biology, environmental studies, archaeology or geology et al. and pursued in major international research laboratories.

  13. Applications of nuclear analytical techniques in human nutrition research as exemplified by research programmes of the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parr, R.M.

    1987-01-01

    In human nutrition research, nuclear analytical techniques, particularly neutron activation analysis (NAA), are used mainly for the in vitro study of trace elements. According to work sponsored by the IAEA, up to 15 trace elements and 5 minor elements of nutritional interest may be determined in biological materials by NAA with good accuracy and precision. A programme is described in which NAA was used for the determination of 14 trace elements and one minor element in human milk. NAA also plays an important role in the certification of reference materials for nutritional studies. (author) 17 refs.; 6 tables

  14. Scanning tunneling microscopy II further applications and related scanning techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Güntherodt, Hans-Joachim

    1995-01-01

    Scanning Tunneling Microscopy II, like its predecessor, presents detailed and comprehensive accounts of the basic principles and broad range of applications of STM and related scanning probe techniques. The applications discussed in this volume come predominantly from the fields of electrochemistry and biology. In contrast to those described in STM I, these studies may be performed in air and in liquids. The extensions of the basic technique to map other interactions are described in chapters on scanning force microscopy, magnetic force microscopy, and scanning near-field optical microscopy, together with a survey of other related techniques. Also described here is the use of a scanning proximal probe for surface modification. Together, the two volumes give a comprehensive account of experimental aspects of STM. They provide essential reading and reference material for all students and researchers involved in this field. In this second edition the text has been updated and new methods are discussed.

  15. Scanning tunneling microscopy II further applications and related scanning techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Güntherodt, Hans-Joachim

    1992-01-01

    Scanning Tunneling Microscopy II, like its predecessor, presents detailed and comprehensive accounts of the basic principles and broad range of applications of STM and related scanning probe techniques. The applications discussed in this volume come predominantly from the fields of electrochemistry and biology. In contrast to those described in Vol. I, these sudies may be performed in air and in liquids. The extensions of the basic technique to map other interactions are described inchapters on scanning force microscopy, magnetic force microscopy, scanning near-field optical microscopy, together with a survey of other related techniques. Also described here is the use of a scanning proximal probe for surface modification. Togehter, the two volumes give a comprehensive account of experimental aspcets of STM. They provide essentialreading and reference material for all students and researchers involvedin this field.

  16. Evaluating internal public relations using the critical incident technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, K.H.; de Jong, Menno D.T.; van Vuuren, Hubrecht A.

    2015-01-01

    Although the critical incident technique (CIT) is one of the current methods in communication audits, little is known about the way it works. The validity of the CIT in the context of internal public relations depends on 3 assumptions: that participants can describe discrete communication events,

  17. Review of decontamination techniques in relation to decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, J.M.; Wakefield, J.R.

    1987-12-01

    A review is presented of decontamination procedures currently in use in relation to the decommissioning of nuclear plant. Contributions were invited from Canada, France, Japan, Sweden, USA and the UK and are appended. They present an overview of the techniques employed in each country and identify areas of future development. (author)

  18. Relative therapeuctic efficacy of vertebral mobilization technique in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relative therapeuctic efficacy of vertebral mobilization technique in the management of mechanical low back pain. ... Pre- and post-treatment pain scores among the subjects were compared to determine if there was any significant difference in the severity of pain. The difference in the severity of pain perception before and ...

  19. Characterization of thin films and surfaces by ion-beam analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelicon, P.; Budnar, M.; Zorko, B.; Razpet, A.

    1999-01-01

    The optimization of Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS) and Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis (ERDA) at the tandetron facility of J. Stefan Inst.e is reported. The most recent applications of these techniques for the analysis of thin films and surfaces are presented. The construction of the isotope - resolved Time-Of-Flight ERDA telescope for depth profiling of light elements is reviewed.(author)

  20. A review of analytical techniques to determine long-lived radiobiologically significant nuclides in encapsulated waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amey, M.H.D.; Kenward, D.; Symons, W.J.

    1985-05-01

    Methods have been identified, or are proposed for, most of the radionuclides considered important for long term storage. From the information obtained the development of liquid chromatography together with an in-line radiochemical detector is proposed as a powerful technique for sequential separation and analysis of multi-component systems. (UK)

  1. Comparative analysis of toxic elements in snuff by analytical techniques of X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza, Mario; Olivera, Paula

    2013-01-01

    Six samples of different commercial brands of cigarettes expended in the Peruvian market have been analyzed along with two IAEA certified reference material using the technique of X-ray fluorescence energy dispersive. The results obtained in the study showed the presence of toxic metals such as Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu and Zn.

  2. Identification of purple dye from molluscs on an excavated textile by non-destructive analytical techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Margariti, Christina; Protopapas, Stavros; Allen, Norman

    2013-01-01

    been preserved in association with copper. The techniques applied were Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-Ray (EDX) analysis, Cathodoluminescence and micro Raman. For the first time Cathodoluminescence from an indigoid compound is reported. Comparison of the analysis results...

  3. SFC-MS/MS as an orthogonal technique for improved screening of polar analytes in anti-doping control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, Maria Kristina; Wuest, Bernhard; Naegele, Edgar; Joseph, Jan F; Wenzel, Maxi; Schmidt, Alexander H; Stanic, Mijo; de la Torre, Xavier; Botrè, Francesco

    2016-09-01

    HPLC is considered the method of choice for the separation of various classes of drugs. However, some analytes are still challenging as HPLC shows limited resolution capabilities for highly polar analytes as they interact insufficiently on conventional reversed-phase (RP) columns. Especially in combination with mass spectrometric detection, limitations apply for alterations of stationary phases. Some highly polar sympathomimetic drugs and their metabolites showed almost no retention on different RP columns. Their retention remains poor even on phenylhexyl phases that show different selectivity due to π-π interactions. Supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) as an orthogonal separation technique to HPLC may help to overcome these issues. Selected polar drugs and metabolites were analyzed utilizing SFC separation. All compounds showed sharp peaks and good retention even for the very polar analytes, such as sulfoconjugates. Retention times and elution orders in SFC are different to both RP and HILIC separations as a result of the orthogonality. Short cycle times could be realized. As temperature and pressure strongly influence the polarity of supercritical fluids, precise regulation of temperature and backpressure is required for the stability of the retention times. As CO2 is the main constituent of the mobile phase in SFC, solvent consumption and solvent waste are considerably reduced. Graphical Abstract SFC-MS/MS vs. LC-MS/MS.

  4. Analytical method for the identification and assay of 12 phthalates in cosmetic products: application of the ISO 12787 international standard "Cosmetics-Analytical methods-Validation criteria for analytical results using chromatographic techniques".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimeno, Pascal; Maggio, Annie-Françoise; Bousquet, Claudine; Quoirez, Audrey; Civade, Corinne; Bonnet, Pierre-Antoine

    2012-08-31

    Esters of phthalic acid, more commonly named phthalates, may be present in cosmetic products as ingredients or contaminants. Their presence as contaminant can be due to the manufacturing process, to raw materials used or to the migration of phthalates from packaging when plastic (polyvinyl chloride--PVC) is used. 8 phthalates (DBP, DEHP, BBP, DMEP, DnPP, DiPP, DPP, and DiBP), classified H360 or H361, are forbidden in cosmetics according to the European regulation on cosmetics 1223/2009. A GC/MS method was developed for the assay of 12 phthalates in cosmetics, including the 8 phthalates regulated. Analyses are carried out on a GC/MS system with electron impact ionization mode (EI). The separation of phthalates is obtained on a cross-linked 5%-phenyl/95%-dimethylpolysiloxane capillary column 30 m × 0.25 mm (i.d.) × 0.25 mm film thickness using a temperature gradient. Phthalate quantification is performed by external calibration using an internal standard. Validation elements obtained on standard solutions, highlight a satisfactory system conformity (resolution>1.5), a common quantification limit at 0.25 ng injected, an acceptable linearity between 0.5 μg mL⁻¹ and 5.0 μg mL⁻¹ as well as a precision and an accuracy in agreement with in-house specifications. Cosmetic samples ready for analytical injection are analyzed after a dilution in ethanol whereas more complex cosmetic matrices, like milks and creams, are assayed after a liquid/liquid extraction using ter-butyl methyl ether (TBME). Depending on the type of cosmetics analyzed, the common limits of quantification for the 12 phthalates were set at 0.5 or 2.5 μg g⁻¹. All samples were assayed using the analytical approach described in the ISO 12787 international standard "Cosmetics-Analytical methods-Validation criteria for analytical results using chromatographic techniques". This analytical protocol is particularly adapted when it is not possible to make reconstituted sample matrices. Copyright © 2012

  5. Evaluation and standardisation of fast analytical techniques for destructive radwaste control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Simone, A.; Troiani, F. [ENEA, Unita' Rifiuti Radioattivi e Disattivazione Impianti, Centro Ricerche Saluggia, Vercelli (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    The document describes the work programme carried out by the Laboratorio Nazionale per la 'Caratterizzazione dei Rifiuti Radioattivi', in the frame of the European research project Destructive Radwaste Control. The main tasks of the research work were the evaluation of fast sample pre-treatment procedures and the development of chromatographic methods coupled to fast nuclide detection by Liquid Scintillation Counting. In order to test the High Performance Ion Chromatograph (HPIC) coupled to the Liquid Scintillation Counter (LSC) on high salt content solutions, synthetic cement solutions have been prepared and spiked with several {beta}-emitters hard to be measured with non-destructive analyses, along with other radionuclides important for the determination of the radiological inventory in radwastes. As the validation tests for the new analytical methods involved the manipulation of radioactive solutions, a remote area for HPIC-LSC apparatus has been designed and performed, in order to operate in safe conditions. According to the research programme, fast analytical methods for the chemical separation and radionuclide detection of the radioactive elements of interest, have been developed and qualified. From the results of the work, some protocols of analysis have been defined: they contain all information about operative conditions for HPIC-LSC apparatus, field of applicability, chemical and radioactive detection limits. [Italian] Questo documento riporta il lavoro realizzato dal Laboratorio Nazionale per la Caratterizzazione dei Rifiuti Radioattivi, nell'ambito del progetto di ricerca Europeo sulle tecniche di misura distruttive per rifiuti radioattivi. Il lavoro era finalizzato sia alla valutazione di nuove procedure veloci per la preparazione dei campioni da analizzare sia allo sviluppo di metodi Cromatografici accoppiati alla rivelazione di radionuclidi mediante Conteggio a Scintillazione Liquida. La sperimentazione della Cromatografia Ionica ad

  6. Side-by-side comparison of analytical techniques; organic acids, total organic carbon, and anions in PWR secondary cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobart, S.A.; Byers, W.A.; Miller, M.R.; Richards, J.; Silva, H.; Palino, G.F.; Wall, P.S.

    1986-01-01

    Total Organic Carbon TOC samples should be analyzed no later than one week after they are taken and they should be stored in a refrigerated condition, if at all possible. It can be inferred that for TOC levels in the range of 50 to 120 ppb, state-of-the-art sampling and analysis techniques can produce results varying by 20 to 50 ppb. Any proposed limits for TOC should be reviewed in that light. Agreement between anion results appeared to improve over the course of the project. Both contractors agree that increased attention and care with sampling and analytical techniques probably accounted for this improvement. Utility personnel can therefore conclude that proper employee training, supervision, and motivation for proper sampling and analysis are critical if accurate anion results are to be obtained. Resonable agreement between calculated and measured values of cation conductivity suggest that both contractors had accurately determined all major anionic species

  7. Analytical study of nonlinear phase shift through stimulated Brillouin scattering in single mode fiber with the pump power recycling technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Asadi, H A; Mahdi, M A; Bakar, A A A; Adikan, F R Mahamd

    2011-01-01

    We present a theoretical study of nonlinear phase shift through stimulated Brillouin scattering in single mode optical fiber. Analytical expressions describing the nonlinear phase shift for the pump and Stokes waves in the pump power recycling technique have been derived. The dependence of the nonlinear phase shift on the optical fiber length, the reflectivity of the optical mirror and the frequency detuning coefficient have been analyzed for different input pump power values. We found that with the recycling pump technique, the nonlinear phase shift due to stimulated Brillouin scattering reduced to less than 0.1 rad for 5 km optical fiber length and 0.65 reflectivity of the optical mirror, respectively, at an input pump power equal to 30 mW

  8. Shaded computer graphic techniques for visualizing and interpreting analytic fluid flow models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parke, F. I.

    1981-01-01

    Mathematical models which predict the behavior of fluid flow in different experiments are simulated using digital computers. The simulations predict values of parameters of the fluid flow (pressure, temperature and velocity vector) at many points in the fluid. Visualization of the spatial variation in the value of these parameters is important to comprehend and check the data generated, to identify the regions of interest in the flow, and for effectively communicating information about the flow to others. The state of the art imaging techniques developed in the field of three dimensional shaded computer graphics is applied to visualization of fluid flow. Use of an imaging technique known as 'SCAN' for visualizing fluid flow, is studied and the results are presented.

  9. A technique for analytical calculation of observables in lattice gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayanan, R.; Vranas, P.

    1990-01-01

    It is shown that the partition function for a finite lattice factorizes into terms that can be associated with each vertex in the finite lattice. This factorization property forms the basis of well defined and efficient technique developed to calculate partition functions to high accuracy, on finite lattices for gauge theories. This technique along with the expansion in finite lattices, provides a powerful means for calculating observables in lattice gauge theories. This is applied to SU(2) lattice gauge theory in four dimensions. The free energy, expectation value of a plaquette and specific heat are calculated. The results are very good in the strong coupling region, succeed in entering the weak coupling region and describe the crossover region quite well, agreeing all the way with the Monte Carlo data. (orig.)

  10. Equilibrium relations and bipolar cognitive mapping for online analytical processing with applications in international relations and strategic decision support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen-Ran

    2003-01-01

    Bipolar logic, bipolar sets, and equilibrium relations are proposed for bipolar cognitive mapping and visualization in online analytical processing (OLAP) and online analytical mining (OLAM). As cognitive models, cognitive maps (CMs) hold great potential for clustering and visualization. Due to the lack of a formal mathematical basis, however, CM-based OLAP and OLAM have not gained popularity. Compared with existing approaches, bipolar cognitive mapping has a number of advantages. First, bipolar CMs are formal logical models as well as cognitive models. Second, equilibrium relations (with polarized reflexivity, symmetry, and transitivity), as bipolar generalizations and fusions of equivalence relations, provide a theoretical basis for bipolar visualization and coordination. Third, an equilibrium relation or CM induces bipolar partitions that distinguish disjoint coalition subsets not involved in any conflict, disjoint coalition subsets involved in a conflict, disjoint conflict subsets, and disjoint harmony subsets. Finally, equilibrium energy analysis leads to harmony and stability measures for strategic decision and multiagent coordination. Thus, this work bridges a gap for CM-based clustering and visualization in OLAP and OLAM. Basic ideas are illustrated with example CMs in international relations.

  11. Analytical and laser scanning techniques to determine shape properties of aggregates used in pavements

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Komba, Julius J

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available and volume of an aggregate particle, the sphericity computed by using orthogonal dimensions of an aggregate particle, and the flat and elongated ratio computed by using longest and smallest dimensions of an aggregate particle. The second approach employed.... Further validation of the laser-based technique was achieved by correlating the laser-based aggregate form indices with the results from two current standard tests; the flakiness index and the flat and elongated particles ratio tests. The laser...

  12. Multi analytical technique study of human bones from an archaeological discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachowicz, J I; Palomba, S; Meloni, P; Carboni, M; Sanna, G; Floris, R; Pusceddu, V; Sarigu, M

    2017-03-01

    In 1953, during the building restoration of San Michele church (Bono, Sardinia, 16th-19th Century), a high number of disarticulated skeletons were recovered. From a group of 412 hip bones, two of these, affected by several pathological lesions, were analysed. The two coxal bones can be referred to the same individual, an adult man. A multi-analytical study, started with the purpose of investigating the bone pathology, was extended to characterize the mineral components of a large representative set of bones from the same ossuary, all attributed to adult men who lived in the region four-two centuries ago. A quantitative ICP-AES analysis for Ca, Fe, Mg, Mn, Na, Pb and Zn was executed, and a chemometric investigation on the results was performed. This approach gave evidence of the effects of diagenesis, allowed some hypothesis of the incidence of the known dietary habits on bone composition, and completely differentiated the pathological bones from those of a normal population on the basis of the mineral composition. Moreover, porosity, crystallinity and FT-IR analysis were conducted on both non- and pathological sample. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Elementary mechanics using Matlab a modern course combining analytical and numerical techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Malthe-Sørenssen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    This book – specifically developed as a novel textbook on elementary classical mechanics – shows how analytical and numerical methods can be seamlessly integrated to solve physics problems. This approach allows students to solve more advanced and applied problems at an earlier stage and equips them to deal with real-world examples well beyond the typical special cases treated in standard textbooks. Another advantage of this approach is that students are brought closer to the way physics is actually discovered and applied, as they are introduced right from the start to a more exploratory way of understanding phenomena and of developing their physical concepts. While not a requirement, it is advantageous for the reader to have some prior knowledge of scientific programming with a scripting-type language. This edition of the book uses Matlab, and a chapter devoted to the basics of scientific programming with Matlab is included. A parallel edition using Python instead of Matlab is also available. Last but not...

  14. Elementary mechanics using Python a modern course combining analytical and numerical techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Malthe-Sørenssen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    This book – specifically developed as a novel textbook on elementary classical mechanics – shows how analytical and numerical methods can be seamlessly integrated to solve physics problems. This approach allows students to solve more advanced and applied problems at an earlier stage and equips them to deal with real-world examples well beyond the typical special cases treated in standard textbooks. Another advantage of this approach is that students are brought closer to the way physics is actually discovered and applied, as they are introduced right from the start to a more exploratory way of understanding phenomena and of developing their physical concepts. While not a requirement, it is advantageous for the reader to have some prior knowledge of scientific programming with a scripting-type language. This edition of the book uses Python, and a chapter devoted to the basics of scientific programming with Python is included. A parallel edition using Matlab instead of Python is also available. Last but not...

  15. Determination of trace elements in drinking tea by various analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chufang; Ke Chenghsiung; Yang Jenqyann

    1993-01-01

    Tea has been one of the most popular simulating beverages which is both heavily produced and consumed in Taiwan. The determination of minor or trace elements in drinking tea and tea leaves is therefore important for estimating the daily intake of Taiwanese considered as a safety indicator. In order to accurately and precisely determine the concentrations of trace elements in samples, several analytical methods such as AAS, NAA and ICP-AES are suggested. This paper attempts to utilize all three methods to determine the concentrations of minor or trace elements in different types of tea leaves and the extracts percolated from them. The influence of fermentation processes on the concentration levels of minor or trace elements in tea samples is investigated. Because only free metal ions are bioavailable for the human body, it is necessary to determine their concentrations in drinking tea. The dissolution of trace elements in drinking tea is therefore studied by simulating the common Chinese style of tea percolation. Concentrations of thirteen elements including Zn, Mn, Ca, Cu, Ni, Al, K, Mg, Cd, Pb, Na, Co and Sc are determined. (author) 14 refs.; 1 fig.; 6 tabs

  16. Predicting core losses and efficiency of SRM in continuous current mode of operation using improved analytical technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsapour, Amir; Dehkordi, Behzad Mirzaeian; Moallem, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    In applications in which the high torque per ampere at low speed and rated power at high speed are required, the continuous current method is the best solution. However, there is no report on calculating the core loss of SRM in continuous current mode of operation. Efficiency and iron loss calculation which are complex tasks in case of conventional mode of operation is even more involved in continuous current mode of operation. In this paper, the Switched Reluctance Motor (SRM) is modeled using finite element method and core loss and copper loss of SRM in discontinuous and continuous current modes of operation are calculated using improved analytical techniques to include the minor loop losses in continuous current mode of operation. Motor efficiency versus speed in both operation modes is obtained and compared. - Highlights: • Continuous current method for Switched Reluctance Motor (SRM) is explained. • An improved analytical technique is presented for SRM core loss calculation. • SRM losses in discontinuous and continuous current operation modes are presented. • Effect of mutual inductances on SRM performance is investigated

  17. Predicting core losses and efficiency of SRM in continuous current mode of operation using improved analytical technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parsapour, Amir, E-mail: amirparsapour@gmail.com [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Isfahan, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Dehkordi, Behzad Mirzaeian, E-mail: mirzaeian@eng.ui.ac.ir [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Isfahan, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moallem, Mehdi, E-mail: moallem@cc.iut.ac.ir [Department of Electrical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-03-15

    In applications in which the high torque per ampere at low speed and rated power at high speed are required, the continuous current method is the best solution. However, there is no report on calculating the core loss of SRM in continuous current mode of operation. Efficiency and iron loss calculation which are complex tasks in case of conventional mode of operation is even more involved in continuous current mode of operation. In this paper, the Switched Reluctance Motor (SRM) is modeled using finite element method and core loss and copper loss of SRM in discontinuous and continuous current modes of operation are calculated using improved analytical techniques to include the minor loop losses in continuous current mode of operation. Motor efficiency versus speed in both operation modes is obtained and compared. - Highlights: • Continuous current method for Switched Reluctance Motor (SRM) is explained. • An improved analytical technique is presented for SRM core loss calculation. • SRM losses in discontinuous and continuous current operation modes are presented. • Effect of mutual inductances on SRM performance is investigated.

  18. Systematically reviewing and synthesizing evidence from conversation analytic and related discursive research to inform healthcare communication practice and policy: an illustrated guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, Ruth H; Land, Victoria

    2013-05-30

    Healthcare delivery is largely accomplished in and through conversations between people, and healthcare quality and effectiveness depend enormously upon the communication practices employed within these conversations. An important body of evidence about these practices has been generated by conversation analysis and related discourse analytic approaches, but there has been very little systematic reviewing of this evidence. We developed an approach to reviewing evidence from conversation analytic and related discursive research through the following procedures: • reviewing existing systematic review methods and our own prior experience of applying these • clarifying distinctive features of conversation analytic and related discursive work which must be taken into account when reviewing • holding discussions within a review advisory team that included members with expertise in healthcare research, conversation analytic research, and systematic reviewing • attempting and then refining procedures through conducting an actual review which examined evidence about how people talk about difficult future issues including illness progression and dying We produced a step-by-step guide which we describe here in terms of eight stages, and which we illustrate from our 'Review of Future Talk'. The guide incorporates both established procedures for systematic reviewing, and new techniques designed for working with conversation analytic evidence. The guide is designed to inform systematic reviews of conversation analytic and related discursive evidence on specific domains and topics. Whilst we designed it for reviews that aim at informing healthcare practice and policy, it is flexible and could be used for reviews with other aims, for instance those aiming to underpin research programmes and projects. We advocate systematically reviewing conversation analytic and related discursive findings using this approach in order to translate them into a form that is credible and

  19. Xpey’ Relational Environments: an analytic framework for conceptualizing Indigenous health equity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Kent

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Both health equity research and Indigenous health research are driven by the goal of promoting equitable health outcomes among marginalized and underserved populations. However, the two fields often operate independently, without collaboration. As a result, Indigenous populations are underrepresented in health equity research relative to the disproportionate burden of health inequities they experience. In this methodological article, we present Xpey’ Relational Environments, an analytic framework that maps some of the barriers and facilitators to health equity for Indigenous peoples. Methods: Health equity research needs to include a focus on Indigenous populations and Indigenized methodologies, a shift that could fill gaps in knowledge with the potential to contribute to ‘closing the gap’ in Indigenous health. With this in mind, the Equity Lens in Public Health (ELPH research program adopted the Xpey’ Relational Environments framework to add a focus on Indigenous populations to our research on the prioritization and implementation of health equity. The analytic framework introduced an Indigenized health equity lens to our methodology, which facilitated the identification of social, structural and systemic determinants of Indigenous health. To test the framework, we conducted a pilot case study of one of British Columbia’s regional health authorities, which included a review of core policies and plans as well as interviews and focus groups with frontline staff, managers and senior executives. Conclusion: ELPH’s application of Xpey’ Relational Environments serves as an example of the analytic framework’s utility for exploring and conceptualizing Indigenous health equity in BC’s public health system. Future applications of the framework should be embedded in Indigenous research methodologies.

  20. Study of emission episodes of urban aerosol by ion beam analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angyal, A.; Kertesz, Zs.; Szikszai, Z.; Szoboszlai, Z.; Furu, E.; Csedreki, L.; Daroczi, L.

    2010-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Aerosol pollution has impact on the climate and on human health. Thus investigation of atmospheric aerosol is important in urban environment such as Debrecen. One of the main goals of our study was to define the sources of the particles. The hourly evolution of atmospheric aerosol concentration was used to identify sources of fine (aerodynamic diameter < 2,5 μm) and coarse (10 μm ≥ aerodynamic diameter ≥ 2.5 μm) urban particulate matter in Debrecen. In both size fractions sources were found which were characterized by high heavy metal content. In this study we provide accurate information of the sources of coarse mode heavy metals by using nuclear and scanning electron microscopy. Single particle analysis of chosen samples was carried out on the ATOMKI Scanning Nuclear Microprobe Facility. Elemental composition for Z ≥ 6, morphology and size of around 500 coarse mode particles were determined by Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy, light-element PIXE and PIXE analytical methods. Furthermore Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) was used to investigate particles morphology. The main components of the particles were Na, K, Ca, S, P and Fe with traces of Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Co, Pb. S-rich particles were enriched in one or more of the following elements: Na, Ca, K, Fe, Zn. Trace metals (Mn, Cu, Zn, Cr) occurred together Fe supposedly originated from industrial emission or traffic. P appeared in the Ca-rich particles. Particles with high concentration of Ni were rich in V, Fe and S. Thus this source was identified as residual combustion. V-rich particles occurred together with Fe, Mn and Cr. Their possible source was industry. Pb was attached to Ca, Fe, S containing particles. As result of the SEM study the following particle types (Figure 1.) were identified: semitransparent material (S-K-rich, S-Zn-rich, PCa-rich), spherical (FeO, Fe-Ni-Cr-V-rich), cubic (KCl, CaCl) and crystalline (S-Ca-rich). The main sources of

  1. New analytic and computational techniques for finite temperature condensed matter systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arias, T.A.

    1992-01-01

    By employing a special summation technique we find that the breakdown of the Meissner-Ochsenfeld effect in the three dimensional Bose gas as the applied field passes;through its critical value is an entropy driven weakly first order transition, rather than the second order transition usually ascribed to the system. The transition is second order at the usual Bose condensation temperature T c as well as at T = O, with a line o first order transition connecting these critical points. The first order transitions make the Bose gas resemble familiar superconductors, and a Landau-Ginzburg analysis indicates that the Bose gas is always a type I superconductor. We employ the recently introduce conjugate-gradient methods for minimization of the electronic energy functional to perform an extensive ab initio study of the Σ = 5 tilt [310] grain boundary in germanium. We find that the boundary reliably reconstructs to the tetrahedrally bonded network observed in HREM experiments without the proliferation of false local minima observed in similar twist boundaries. The reduced density of bonds crossing the grain boundary plan leads us to conjecture that the boundary may be a preferred fracture interface. We then combine these conjugate-gradient methods with a new technique for generating trail wavefunctions to produce an efficient ab initio molecular dynamics scheme that is that is at least two orders of magnitude more accurate than previous schemes and thus allows accurate calculation of dynamic correlation functions while maintaining tolerable energy conservation for microcanonical averages of those correlation function over picosecond time scales. We present two advances which greatly enhance the efficiency of our new ab initio molecular dynamics technique. We introduce a class of generalizations of traditional Fermionic energy functionals which allow us to lift the orthonormality constraints on the single particle orbitals and thus speed convergence

  2. Metabolomic analysis using porcine skin: a pilot study of analytical techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Julie; Fiehn, Oliver; Armstrong, April W

    2014-06-15

    Metabolic byproducts serve as indicators of the chemical processes and can provide valuable information on pathogenesis by measuring the amplified output. Standardized techniques for metabolome extraction of skin samples serve as a critical foundation to this field but have not been developed. We sought to determine the optimal cell lysage techniques for skin sample preparation and to compare GC-TOF-MS and UHPLC-QTOF-MS for metabolomic analysis. Using porcine skin samples, we pulverized the skin via various combinations of mechanical techniques for cell lysage. After extraction, the samples were subjected to GC-TOF-MS and/or UHPLC-QTOF-MS. Signal intensities from GC-TOF-MS analysis showed that ultrasonication (2.7x107) was most effective for cell lysage when compared to mortar-and-pestle (2.6x107), ball mill followed by ultrasonication (1.6x107), mortar-and-pestle followed by ultrasonication (1.4x107), and homogenization (trial 1: 8.4x106; trial 2: 1.6x107). Due to the similar signal intensities, ultrasonication and mortar-and-pestle were applied to additional samples and subjected to GC-TOF-MS and UHPLC-QTOF-MS. Ultrasonication yielded greater signal intensities than mortar-and-pestle for 92% of detected metabolites following GC-TOF-MS and for 68% of detected metabolites following UHPLC-QTOF-MS. Overall, ultrasonication is the preferred method for efficient cell lysage of skin tissue for both metabolomic platforms. With standardized sample preparation, metabolomic analysis of skin can serve as a powerful tool in elucidating underlying biological processes in dermatological conditions.

  3. Analytical technique to address terrorist threats by chemical weapons of mass destruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Patrick M.

    1997-01-01

    Terrorism is no longer an issue without effect on the American mind. We now live with the same concerns and fears that have been commonplace in other developed and third world countries for a long time. Citizens of other countries have long lived with the specter of terrorism and now the U.S. needs to be concerned and prepared for terrorist activities.T he terrorist has the ability to cause great destructive effects by focusing their effort on unaware and unprepared civilian populations. Attacks can range from simple explosives to sophisticated nuclear, chemical and biological weapons. Intentional chemical releases of hazardous chemicals or chemical warfare agents pose a great threat because of their ready availability and/or ease of production, and their ability to cause widespread damage. As this battlefront changes from defined conflicts and enemies to unnamed terrorists, we must implement the proper analytical tools to provide a fast and efficient response. Each chemical uses in a terrorists weapon leaves behind a chemical signature that can be used to identify the materials involved and possibly lead investigators to the source and to those responsible. New tools to provide fast and accurate detection for battlefield chemical and biological agent attack are emerging. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) is one of these tools that has found increasing use by the military to respond to chemical agent attacks. As the technology becomes smaller and more portable, it can be used by law enforcement personnel to identify suspected terrorist releases and to help prepare the response; define contaminated areas for evacuation and safety concerns, identify the proper treatment of exposed or affected civilians, and suggest decontamination and cleanup procedures.

  4. Judgments in the selection of path generation techniques: a meta-analytic approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2012-01-01

    objective judgments for effective route choice set generation. Initially, path generation techniques are implemented within a synthetic network to generate possible subjective choice sets considered by travelers. Next, “true model estimates” and “postulated predicted routes” are assumed from the simulation...... of a route choice model. Then, objective choice sets are applied for model estimation and results are compared to the “true model estimates”. Last, predictions from the simulation of models estimated with objective choice sets are compared to the “postulated predicted routes”. Meta-analysis allows...

  5. Review of analytical techniques to determine the chemical forms of vapours and aerosols released from overheated fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowsher, B.R.; Nichols, A.L.

    1989-12-01

    A comprehensive review has been undertaken of appropriate analytical techniques to monitor and measure the chemical effects that occur in large-scale tests designed to study severe reactor accidents. Various methods have been developed to determine the chemical forms of the vapours, aerosols and deposits generated during and after such integral experiments. Other specific techniques have the long-term potential to provide some of the desired data in greater detail, although considerable efforts are still required to apply these techniques to the study of radioactive debris. Such in-situ and post-test methods of analysis have been also assessed in terms of their applicability to the analysis of samples from the Phebus-FP tests. The recommended in-situ methods of analysis are gamma-ray spectroscopy, potentiometry, mass spectrometry, and Raman/UV-visible absorption spectroscopy. Vapour/aerosol and deposition samples should also be obtained at well-defined time intervals during each experiment for subsequent post-test analysis. No single technique can provide all the necessary chemical data from these samples, and the most appropriate method of analysis involves a complementary combination of autoradiography, AES, IR, MRS, SEMS/EDS, SIMS/LMIS, XPS and XRD

  6. Characterization of Natural Dyes and Traditional Korean Silk Fabric by Surface Analytical Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeonhee Lee

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS are well established surface techniques that provide both elemental and organic information from several monolayers of a sample surface, while also allowing depth profiling or image mapping to be carried out. The static TOF-SIMS with improved performances has expanded the application of TOF-SIMS to the study of a variety of organic, polymeric and biological materials. In this work, TOF-SIMS, XPS and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR measurements were used to characterize commercial natural dyes and traditional silk fabric dyed with plant extracts dyes avoiding the time-consuming and destructive extraction procedures necessary for the spectrophotometric and chromatographic methods previously used. Silk textiles dyed with plant extracts were then analyzed for chemical and functional group identification of their dye components and mordants. TOF-SIMS spectra for the dyed silk fabric showed element ions from metallic mordants, specific fragment ions and molecular ions from plant-extracted dyes. The results of TOF-SIMS, XPS and FTIR are very useful as a reference database for comparison with data about traditional Korean silk fabric and to provide an understanding of traditional dyeing materials. Therefore, this study shows that surface techniques are useful for micro-destructive analysis of plant-extracted dyes and Korean dyed silk fabric.

  7. Characterization of Natural Dyes and Traditional Korean Silk Fabric by Surface Analytical Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jihye; Kang, Min Hwa; Lee, Kang-Bong; Lee, Yeonhee

    2013-01-01

    Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) are well established surface techniques that provide both elemental and organic information from several monolayers of a sample surface, while also allowing depth profiling or image mapping to be carried out. The static TOF-SIMS with improved performances has expanded the application of TOF-SIMS to the study of a variety of organic, polymeric and biological materials. In this work, TOF-SIMS, XPS and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) measurements were used to characterize commercial natural dyes and traditional silk fabric dyed with plant extracts dyes avoiding the time-consuming and destructive extraction procedures necessary for the spectrophotometric and chromatographic methods previously used. Silk textiles dyed with plant extracts were then analyzed for chemical and functional group identification of their dye components and mordants. TOF-SIMS spectra for the dyed silk fabric showed element ions from metallic mordants, specific fragment ions and molecular ions from plant-extracted dyes. The results of TOF-SIMS, XPS and FTIR are very useful as a reference database for comparison with data about traditional Korean silk fabric and to provide an understanding of traditional dyeing materials. Therefore, this study shows that surface techniques are useful for micro-destructive analysis of plant-extracted dyes and Korean dyed silk fabric. PMID:28809257

  8. Characterization of Some Iraqi Archaeological Samples Using IBA, Analytical X-ray and Other Complementary Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Sarraj, Ziyad Shihab; Damboos, Hassan I; Roumie, Mohamad

    2012-01-01

    The present work aimed at investigating the compositions and microstructures of some archaeological samples which dated back to various periods of the ancient Iraqi civilizations using PIXE, XRF, XRD, and SEM techniques. The models selected for the study (ceramics, glaze, etc.) were diverse in size and nature, therefore a limited number of samples were then butted from them by a small diamond wheel. Conventional powder metallurgy method was then used to prepare the samples. Dried samples were then coated with a thin layer of carbon, and analyzed using the ion beam accelerator of the LAEC. Three other groups of samples were also prepared for the purpose of analysis by X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Analysis results of the chemical composition showed good agreement between the various techniques as well as for phases, while the fine structure analysis obtained by optical and scanning microscopy exhibited features of a structure where it got an intensified densification in the final stage of sintering and accompanied by quasi-homogeneous distribution of the closed pores. This will lead to the conclusion that the temperature used for sintering by ancient Iraqi was sufficient and it may fall in the range between 950-1200°C, also the mixes and the forming methods used by them, were both suitable to obtain good sintered bodies with even distribution of pores. A ring-shaped trace noticed in SEM micrographs need more work and study to explain what it is?

  9. Theory and practical understanding of the migration behavior of proteins and peptides in CE and related techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitag, Ruth; Hilbrig, Frank

    2007-07-01

    CEC is defined as an analytical method, where the analytes are separated on a chromatographic column in the presence of an applied voltage. The separation of charged analytes in CEC is complex, since chromatographic interaction, electroosmosis and electrophoresis contribute to the experimentally observed behavior. The putative contribution of effects such as surface electrodiffusion has been suggested. A sound theoretical treatment incorporating all effects is currently not available. The question of whether the different effects contribute in an independent or an interdependent manner is still under discussion. In this contribution, the state-of-the-art in the theoretical description of the individual contributions as well as models for the retention behavior and in particular possible dimensionless 'retention factors' is discussed, together with the experimental database for the separation of charged analytes, in particular proteins and peptides, by CEC and related techniques.

  10. Application of modern analytical techniques to ensure seafood safety and authenticity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martinez, Iciar; James, David; Loréal, Henri

    2005-01-01

    .... The second part deals with methods to ensure seafood authenticity. One section of this report is dedicated to current legislation related to traceability and labelling in the United States of America and Europe...

  11. New Insights into Amino Acid Preservation in the Early Oceans Using Modern Analytical Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Eric T.; Brinton, Karen L.; Burton, Aaron S.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Bada, Jeffrey L.

    2015-01-01

    Protein- and non-protein-amino acids likely occupied the oceans at the time of the origin and evolution of life. Primordial soup-, hydrothermal vent-, and meteoritic-processes likely contributed to this early chemical inventory. Prebiotic synthesis and carbonaceous meteorite studies suggest that non-protein amino acids were likely more abundant than their protein-counterparts. Amino acid preservation before abiotic and biotic destruction is key to biomarker availability in paleoenvironments and remains an important uncertainty. To constrain primitive amino acid lifetimes, a 1992 archived seawater/beach sand mixture was spiked with D,L-alanine, D,L-valine (Val), alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (alpha-AIB), D,L-isovaline (Iva), and glycine (Gly). Analysis by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FD) showed that only D-Val and non-protein amino acids were abundant after 2250 days. The mixture was re-analyzed in 2012 using HPLC-FD and a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (QqQ-MS). The analytical results 20 years after the inception of the experiment were strikingly similar to those after 2250 days. To confirm that viable microorganisms were still present, the mixture was re-spiked with Gly in 2012. Aliquots were collected immediately after spiking, and at 5- and 9-month intervals thereafter. Final HPLC-FD/QqQ-MS analyses were performed in 2014. The 2014 analyses revealed that only alpha-AIB, D,L-Iva, and D-Val remained abundant. The disappearance of Gly indicated that microorganisms still lived in the mixture and were capable of consuming protein amino acids. These findings demonstrate that non-protein amino acids are minimally impacted by biological degradation and thus have very long lifetimes under these conditions. Primitive non-protein amino acids from terrestrial synthesis, or meteorite in-fall, likely experienced great-er preservation than protein amino acids in paleo-oceanic environments. Such robust molecules may have reached a

  12. Cutaneous leishmaniasis susceptibility mapping using multi-criteria decision-making techniques, analytic hierarchy process (AHP and analytic network process (ANP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SEYED VAHID RAZAVI TERMEH

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background & objective:Cutaneous leech is one of the six major diseases and an example of epidemic diseases in tropical regions. Prevalence and spread of this disease is affected by environmental factors and climatic conditions as well as economic, social and cultural issues. In this research, Analytic Hierarchy Process and network analyzes are used to prepare susceptible cutaneous leeches map. Considering high incidence of cutaneous leech in Khuzestan province, Izeh city was selected as a case study.   Materials & Methods: For this purpose, the number of patients affected by this disease in Izeh was obtained from the Provincial Health Center from 2009 to 2014. Information layers of elevation, rainfall, temperature, humidity, distance from river, distance from rural areas and land use were identified as effective parameter and their maps were prepared in GIS environment. Parameters were compared in pairs by using AHP and ANP and weight of each factors determining their impacts was calculated in Expert Choice and Super Decision software. Then these parameters were combined based on their obtained weights in ArcGIS software and the final cutaneous leech map was prepared. Evaluation of these methods was performed using relative operation curve (ROC and 16 points related to leech disease. Result: The results of weighting effective parameters using AHP and ANP showed that the highest weight is related to elevation, temperature and rainfall parameters, respectively. The results of ROC assessment showed that in preparing the map, ANP had an accuracy of 87.8% and AHP had an accuracy of 68.9%. Conclusion:The results of ANP showed that this model had suitable accuracy in preparing susceptible cutaneous leech map and AHP had moderate accuracy in preparing susceptible cutaneous leech map.

  13. Analytical techniques for assessment of coastal impact of natural disasters Tsunami

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, S.K.; Gothankar, S.S.; Tripathi, R.M.; Puranik, V.D.

    2010-01-01

    Tsunami is a less known and less frequent coastal hazard, in comparison to the other commonly occurring hazards namely the storm surge, oil spills, coastal pollution, coastal erosion, algal bloom and effect of climate change on flora and fauna. Marine sediments contain a record of past events and proved to be an interesting indicator matrix for this study. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) techniques offer adequate sensitivity for analysis of trace elements for conducting geo-chemical studies. Grain size analysis of sediment samples before and after tsunami showed a shift in textural characteristics of the sediment which is not observed during regular monsoon and seasonal changes

  14. INAA in combination with other analytical techniques in the study of urban aerosol sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binh, N.T.; Truong, Y.; Ngo, N.T.; Sieu, L.N.; Hien, P.D.

    2000-01-01

    Concentrations of elements in fine and coarse PM10 samples collected in Ho Chi Minh City were determined by INAA for the purpose of characterising air pollution sources using multivariate receptor modeling techniques. Seven sources common to coarse and fine samples were identified. Resuspended soil dust is dominant in the coarse samples accounting for 41% of the particulate mass. In the fine samples, vehicle emissions and coal burning are most important accounting for about 20% each. Although a great number of elements were included in the input data for receptor modeling, the interpretation of emission sources was not always straightforward. Information on other source markers were needed. Therefore, a polarography method was used for quantifying lead, and recently, ion chromatography method became available for quantifying secondary sulphates, nitrates and other water soluble ions. (author)

  15. Ion implanters contamination on wafer surface analyzed by ToF-SIMS and SPV analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricciari, R.; Bertini, M.; Ferlito, E.P.; Pizzo, G.; Anastasi, G.; Mello, D.; Franco, G.

    2007-01-01

    In ULSI processes, metallic contamination controls are very important issues. For the ion implantation process it is known that several sources of contaminations still need to be controlled: metals from sputtering of the apertures or wafer holders, Na + contaminations from filament impurities and messy maintenance procedure. ToF-SIMS is one of the most promising candidates to perform in-line surface analysis due to its high sensitivity. It is very common to use surface photo-voltage (SPV) techniques to control ion implanter equipments but this kind of analysis is an indirect measure for metallic contamination. The aim of this work is to study the possibility to use ToF-SIMS instead of SPV for in line equipment contamination monitoring. For this reason a comparison between SPV and ToF-SIMS data occurred. Good correlation between the data is shown; moreover ToF-SIMS spectra give detailed information about the other contaminations present on the wafer surface

  16. Analytical techniques for determination of framework oxygen isotope ratio of wairakite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noto, Masami; Kusakabe, Minoru; Uchida, Tetsuo.

    1990-01-01

    Dehydration techniques were developed for the analysis of isotopic ratios of framework oxygen of wairakite, one of calcium zeolites often encountered in geothermal systems. Channel water in wairakite were separated from aluminosilicate framework by dehydration in vacuum at 300 deg, 400 deg, 450 deg, 500 deg, 550 deg, 650 deg, 750 deg, 850 deg, and 950 degC, and by stepwise heating at temperatures from 300 deg to 700 degC. The oxygen isotopic analyses of the separated channel water and the residual aluminosilicate framework of wairakite indicated that dehydration at temperatures higher than 400 degC is accompanied by isotopic exchang between the framework oxygen and dehydrating water vapor. The isotopic exchange during the high temperature dehydration makes the δ 18 O of framework oxygen lower and that of channel water higher than those obtained by dehydration at 300 degC. These results are consistent with dehydration behavior of wairakite under vacuum that the maximum rate of dehydration of channel water is attained at about 400 degC. Consequently it is recommended to dehydrate wairakite at a temperature as low as possible in order to avoid the effect of the isotopic exchange. Time required to attain complete dehydration becomes longer with lowering the temperature of dehydration. To compromise these conflicting effects, the optimum conditions of dehydration have been found that most of the channel water is dehydrated at 300 degC for 24 hours, followed by stepwise heating for additional 17 hours up to 700 degC. We obtained a better than ± 0.1 reproducibility for the framework oxygen isotopic determinations with this technique. (author)

  17. Singular perturbation theory mathematical and analytical techniques with applications to engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, RS

    2005-01-01

    Written in a form that should enable the relatively inexperienced (or new) worker in the field of singular perturbation theory to learn and apply all the essential ideasDesigned as a learning tool. The numerous examples and set exercises are intended to aid this process.

  18. Implementation of an analytical technique for Samarium; Implementacion de una tecnica analitica para Samario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia G, N. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca Km. 36.5, 52045 Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    Since the Samarium presents the same chemical properties that the plutonium, it has been used as homologous in studies that allow us to know the behavior that the plutonium presents in solution, with the advantage of working with an inactive and not very dangerous element. At the moment studies of sorption of plutonium or samarium are made on some mineral matrices that present certain surface properties. Due to the low concentrations that are used in the studies of sorption of samarium on those reagent substrates, their detection becomes very difficult for the conventional analysis media. The luminescence is a technique that can detect lower concentrations, smaller at 1 X 10{sup -} {sup 2} M, but when fluorofors are used this limit of detection increases in several orders of magnitude. In this work it has been used the arsenazo-III as fluorofor agent since it reacts in a specific way with the samarium, forming a complex that presents a proportional luminescence to the concentration of the present samarium. The advantage of making the quantification of samarium by luminescence is that it can use the same instrumental equipment to determine the speciation of the samarium sipped in the zircon. (Author)

  19. Zinc phthalocyanine thin film and chemical analyte interaction studies by density functional theory and vibrational techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saini, G S S; Singh, Sukhwinder; Kumar, Ranjan; Tripathi, S K; Kaur, Sarvpreet; Sathe, Vasant

    2009-01-01

    Thin films of zinc phthalocyanine have been deposited on KBr and glass substrates by the thermal evaporation method and characterized by the x-ray diffraction, optical, infrared and Raman techniques. The observed x-ray diffraction and infrared absorption spectra of as-deposited thin films suggest the presence of an α crystalline phase. Infrared and Raman spectra of thin films after exposure to vapours of ammonia and methanol have also been recorded. Shifts in the position of some IR and Raman bands in the spectra of exposed films have been observed. Some bands also show changes in their intensity on exposure. Increased charge on the phthalocyanine ring and out-of-plane distortion of the core due to interaction between zinc phthalocyanine and vapour molecules involving the fifth coordination site of the central metal ion may be responsible for the band shifts. Changes in the intensity of bands are interpreted in terms of the lowering of molecular symmetry from D 4h to C 4v due to doming of the core. Molecular parameters and Mulliken atomic charges of zinc phthalocyanine and its complexes with methanol and ammonia have been calculated from density functional theory. The binding energy of the complexes have also been calculated. Calculated values of the energy for different complexes suggest that axially coordinated vapour molecules form the most stable complex. Calculated Mulliken atomic charges show net charge transfer from vapour molecules to the phthalocyanine ring for the most stable complex.

  20. Development of methodology for certification of Type B shipping containers using analytical and testing techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharp, R.R.; Varley, D.T.

    1992-01-01

    The Analysis and Testing Group (WX-11) of the Design Engineering Division at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is developing methodology for designing and providing a basis for certification of Type B shipping containers. This methodology will include design, analysis, testing, fabrication, procurement, and obtaining certification of the Type B containers, allowing usage in support of the United States Department of Energy programs. While all aspects of the packaging development are included in this methodology, this paper focuses on the use of analysis and testing techniques for enhancing the design and providing a basis for certification. This methodology is based on concurrent engineering principles. Multidisciplinary teams within LANL are responsible for the design and certification of specific Type B Radioactive Material Shipping Containers. These teams include personnel with the various backgrounds and areas of expertise required to support the design, testing, analysis and certification tasks. To demonstrate that a package can pass all the performance requirements, the design needs to be characterized as completely as possible. Understanding package responses to the various environments and how these responses influence the effectiveness of the packaging requires expertise in several disciplines. In addition to characterizing the shipping container designs, these multidisciplinary teams should be able to provide insight into improving new package designs

  1. INSTRUMENTS MEASURING PERCEIVED RACISM/RACIAL DISCRIMINATION: REVIEW AND CRITIQUE OF FACTOR ANALYTIC TECHNIQUES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Rahshida

    2015-01-01

    Several compendiums of instruments that measure perceived racism and/or discrimination are present in the literature. Other works have reviewed the psychometric properties of these instruments in terms of validity and reliability and have indicated if the instrument was factor analyzed. However, little attention has been given to the quality of the factor analysis performed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the exploratory factor analyses done on instruments measuring perceived racism/racial discrimination using guidelines from experts in psychometric theory. The techniques used for factor analysis were reviewed and critiqued and the adequacy of reporting was evaluated. Internet search engines and four electronic abstract databases were used to identify 16 relevant instruments that met the inclusion/exclusion criteria. Principal component analysis was the most frequent method of extraction (81%). Sample sizes were adequate for factor analysis in 81 percent of studies. The majority of studies reported appropriate criteria for the acceptance of un-rotated factors (81%) and justified the rotation method (75%). Exactly 94 percent of studies reported partially acceptable criteria for the acceptance of rotated factors. The majority of articles (69%) reported adequate coefficient alphas for the resultant subscales. In 81 percent of the studies, the conceptualized dimensions were supported by factor analysis. PMID:25626225

  2. A novel modular multilevel converter modelling technique based on semi-analytical models for HVDC application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Zama

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Thanks to scalability, performance and efficiency, the Modular Multilevel Converter (MMC, since its invention, becomes an attractive topology in industrial applications such as high voltage direct current (HVDC transmission system. However, modelling challenges related to the high number of switching elements in the MMC are highlighted when such systems are integrated into large simulated networks for stability or protection algorithms testing. In this work, a novel dynamic models for MMC is proposed. The proposed models are intended to simplify modeling challenges related to the high number of switching elements in the MMC. The models can be easily used to simulate the converter for stability analysis or protection algorithms for HVDC grids.

  3. Analytical solution of the multigroup neutron diffusion kinetic equation in one-dimensional cartesian geometry by the integral transform technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceolin, Celina

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this work is to obtain an analytical solution of the neutron diffusion kinetic equation in one-dimensional cartesian geometry, to monoenergetic and multigroup problems. These equations are of the type stiff, due to large differences in the orders of magnitude of the time scales of the physical phenomena involved, which make them difficult to solve. The basic idea of the proposed method is applying the spectral expansion in the scalar flux and in the precursor concentration, taking moments and solving the resulting matrix problem by the Laplace transform technique. Bearing in mind that the equation for the precursor concentration is a first order linear differential equation in the time variable, to enable the application of the spectral method we introduce a fictitious diffusion term multiplied by a positive value which tends to zero. This procedure opened the possibility to find an analytical solution to the problem studied. We report numerical simulations and analysis of the results obtained with the precision controlled by the truncation order of the series. (author)

  4. Towards a green analytical laboratory: microextraction techniques as a useful tool for the monitoring of polluted soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Garcia, Ignacio; Viñas, Pilar; Campillo, Natalia; Hernandez Cordoba, Manuel; Perez Sirvent, Carmen

    2016-04-01

    Microextraction techniques are a valuable tool at the analytical laboratory since they allow sensitive measurements of pollutants to be carried out by means of easily available instrumentation. There is a large number of such procedures involving miniaturized liquid-liquid or liquid-solid extractions with the common denominator of using very low amounts (only a few microliters) or even none of organic solvents. Since minimal amounts of reagents are involved, and the generation of residues is consequently minimized, the approach falls within the concept of Green Analytical Chemistry. This general methodology is useful both for inorganic and organic pollutants. Thus, low amounts of metallic ions can be measured without the need of using ICP-MS since this instrument can be replaced by a simple AAS spectrometer which is commonly present in any laboratory and involves low acquisition and maintenance costs. When dealing with organic pollutants, the microextracts obtained can be introduced into liquid or gas chromatographs equipped with common detectors and there is no need for the most sophisticated and expensive mass spectrometers. This communication reports an overview of the advantages of such a methodology, and gives examples for the determination of some particular contaminants in soil and water samples The authors are grateful to the Comunidad Autonóma de la Región de Murcia , Spain (Fundación Séneca, 19888/GERM/15) for financial support

  5. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry: a technique to access the information beyond the molecular weight of the analyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Shibdas; Mazumdar, Shyamalava

    2012-01-01

    The Electrospray Ionization (ESI) is a soft ionization technique extensively used for production of gas phase ions (without fragmentation) of thermally labile large supramolecules. In the present review we have described the development of Electrospray Ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) during the last 25 years in the study of various properties of different types of biological molecules. There have been extensive studies on the mechanism of formation of charged gaseous species by the ESI. Several groups have investigated the origin and implications of the multiple charge states of proteins observed in the ESI-mass spectra of the proteins. The charged analytes produced by ESI can be fragmented by activating them in the gas-phase, and thus tandem mass spectrometry has been developed, which provides very important insights on the structural properties of the molecule. The review will highlight recent developments and emerging directions in this fascinating area of research.

  6. Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry: A Technique to Access the Information beyond the Molecular Weight of the Analyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Shibdas; Mazumdar, Shyamalava

    2012-01-01

    The Electrospray Ionization (ESI) is a soft ionization technique extensively used for production of gas phase ions (without fragmentation) of thermally labile large supramolecules. In the present review we have described the development of Electrospray Ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) during the last 25 years in the study of various properties of different types of biological molecules. There have been extensive studies on the mechanism of formation of charged gaseous species by the ESI. Several groups have investigated the origin and implications of the multiple charge states of proteins observed in the ESI-mass spectra of the proteins. The charged analytes produced by ESI can be fragmented by activating them in the gas-phase, and thus tandem mass spectrometry has been developed, which provides very important insights on the structural properties of the molecule. The review will highlight recent developments and emerging directions in this fascinating area of research. PMID:22611397

  7. Accelerator-based analytical technique in the evaluation of some Nigeria's natural minerals: Fluorite, tourmaline and topaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olabanji, S.O. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), viale dell' Universita 2, 35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy)]. E-mail: skayode2002@yahoo.co.uk; Ige, O.A. [Natural History Museum, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife (Nigeria); Mazzoli, C. [Dipartimento di Mineralogia e Petrologia, Universita di Padova, 35100 Padova (Italy); Ceccato, D. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), viale dell' Universita 2, 35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Padova, via Marzolo 8, 35100 Padova (Italy); Akintunde, J.A. [CERD, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife (Nigeria); De Poli, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), viale dell' Universita 2, 35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy); Moschini, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), viale dell' Universita 2, 35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Padova, via Marzolo 8, 35100 Padova (Italy)

    2005-10-15

    For the first time, the complementary accelerator-based analytical technique of PIXE and electron microprobe analysis (EMPA) were employed for the characterization of some Nigeria's natural minerals namely fluorite, tourmaline and topaz. These minerals occur in different areas in Nigeria. The minerals are mainly used as gemstones and for other scientific and technological applications and therefore are very important. There is need to characterize them to know the quality of these gemstones and update the geochemical data on them geared towards useful applications. PIXE analysis was carried out using the 1.8 MeV collimated proton beam from the 2.5 MV AN 2000 Van de Graaff accelerator at INFN, LNL, Legnaro, Padova, Italy. The novel results which show many elements at different concentrations in these minerals are presented and discussed.

  8. Modeling Protein Structures in Feed and Seed Tissues Using Novel Synchrotron-Based Analytical Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, P.

    2008-01-01

    Traditional 'wet' chemical analyses usually looks for a specific known component (such as protein) through homogenization and separation of the components of interest from the complex tissue matrix. Traditional 'wet' chemical analyses rely heavily on the use of harsh chemicals and derivatization, therefore altering the native feed protein structures and possibly generating artifacts. The objective of this study was to introduce a novel and non-destructive method to estimate protein structures in feed and seeds within intact tissues using advanced synchrotron-based infrared microspectroscopy (SFTIRM). The experiments were performed at the National Synchrotron Light Source in Brookhaven National Laboratory (US Dept. of Energy, NY). The results show that with synchrotron-based SFTIRM, we are able to localize relatively 'pure' protein without destructions of the feed and seed tissues and qualify protein internal structures in terms of the proportions and ratios of a-helix, β-sheet, random coil and β-turns on a relative basis using multi-peak modeling procedures. These protein structure profile (a-helix, β-sheet, etc.) may influence protein quality and availability in animals. Several examples of feed and seeds were provided. The implications of this study are that we can use this new method to compare internal protein structures between feeds and between seed verities. We can also use this method to detect heat-induced the structural changes of protein in feeds.

  9. Ethical leadership: meta-analytic evidence of criterion-related and incremental validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Thomas W H; Feldman, Daniel C

    2015-05-01

    This study examines the criterion-related and incremental validity of ethical leadership (EL) with meta-analytic data. Across 101 samples published over the last 15 years (N = 29,620), we observed that EL demonstrated acceptable criterion-related validity with variables that tap followers' job attitudes, job performance, and evaluations of their leaders. Further, followers' trust in the leader mediated the relationships of EL with job attitudes and performance. In terms of incremental validity, we found that EL significantly, albeit weakly in some cases, predicted task performance, citizenship behavior, and counterproductive work behavior-even after controlling for the effects of such variables as transformational leadership, use of contingent rewards, management by exception, interactional fairness, and destructive leadership. The article concludes with a discussion of ways to strengthen the incremental validity of EL. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Nuclear analytical technique for the study of ancient pottery from a Ghanaian archaeological site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forson, A.

    2006-01-01

    Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) was utilized to determine the elemental concentrations of the archaeological pottery samples from Jenini slave camp in the Brong Ahafo Region, Ghana, employing the 30kW tank-in-pool Miniature Neutron Source Reactor (MNSR) at the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission (GAEC). Jenini was a slave camp of Samory Toure during the indigenous slavery and the Trans-Atlantic slave trade. The samples were obtained during the excavations of the tombs of the slaves who died at the camp. The accuracy of the INAA method was evaluated using IAEA Soil-7 reference material. The precision was calculated as relative standard deviation and was found to be within ±10%. Thirty-two (32) ceramic fragment samples from the archaeological site were analyzed to determine the concentration of 20 elements: Al, As, Ba, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Dy, Eu, Fe, Hf, La, Mn, Na, Sc, Sm,Th, U, and V. Two multivariate statistical methods, cluster and factor analyses, were performed on the data set in order to determine similarities and correlations between the various samples. The results of the cluster and factor analyses indicate a considerable overlap in the chemistry of the pottery shards from the three sampling points (i.e. Trench 1, Trench 2 and Pit 1) indicating that the pot shards were made from a single type of clay or clays of similar geochemical signatures. (au)

  11. IMPROVING THE STUDENTS‘ READING COMPREHENSION THROUGH KNOW-WANT-LEARN (KWL TECHNIQUE TO TEACH ANALYTICAL EXPOSITION ( Class Action Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meike Imelda Wachyu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at finding out the impacts of the use of Know-Want-Learn technique in improving the reading comprehension to teach analytical exposition among eleventh grade students of SMA N 2 Indramayu in the academic year of 2017/2018. The study was action research in two research cycles. In the study, the researcher collaborated with the English teachers and the students. The data of this study were qualitative in nature supported by quantitative data. Qualitative data were obtained from the results of classroom observation and collaborators‘ discussion. Quantitative data were obtained from pre-test and post test results. The instruments for collecting the data were observation guides, interview guides, and the pre-test and posttest. The data were in the form of field notes, interview transcripts, and the scores of the students‘ pre-test and posttest. The results of the two cycles show that the use of Know-WantLearn technique is effective to improve the students‘ reading comprehension. It is supported by the qualitative data which show that (1 Know-Want-Learn technique can help the teacher to scaffold the students‘ comprehension of the text by focusing on the steps before, during, and after reading; (2 Know-Want-Learn technique can help the students to preview the text, assess what they have learned after reading, and motivate their interest in reading; (3 The kind of activities given such as preeteaching vocabulary, using skimming and scanning, using fix-up strategies, and guessing meaning can help the students to read the text efficiently.

  12. ICP-MS as advantageous analytical technique for the determination of long-lived /sup 99/Tc in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ihsanullah

    1992-05-01

    Technetium (Tc) was the first artificially created by man and has no stable isotope. The most crucial technetium isotope environmentally /sup 99/Tc is a pure beta emitter with a half-life of 2.1 X 105 years. The main source of /sup 99/Tc to the environment is the disposal of liquid wastes from nuclear installations or during separation and recovery of spent nuclear fuels. Because of its long half life, high fission yield, mobility and current interest in the collective long term doses, it is necessary to establish a knowledge of the behavior of /sup 99/Tc in the environment for complete assessment of the impact of nuclear industry. Due to various analytical difficulties however, data on the behavior of Tc in the environment are limited. In the literature, many techniques are reported for the analysis of Tc. A very sensitive, precise and powerful technique is required which can be applied to environmental samples in order to gain information by obtaining more precise data to assess the impact of Tc releases on man. Attention has been focussed for this purpose on a new powerful technique i.e. inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). This report has been directed towards the development of ICP-MS. The technique gives a very high sensitivity enabling long lived radionuclides including /sup 99/Tc to be measured directly down to pg ml-1 levels in solution. Because of its versatility ICP-MS is finding applications for trace multielement analysis and low detection limits in almost all fields. (author)

  13. Assessing the service quality of Iran military hospitals: Joint Commission International standards and Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadori, Mohammadkarim; Ravangard, Ramin; Yaghoubi, Maryam; Alimohammadzadeh, Khalil

    2014-01-01

    Background: Military hospitals are responsible for preserving, restoring and improving the health of not only armed forces, but also other people. According to the military organizations strategy, which is being a leader and pioneer in all areas, providing quality health services is one of the main goals of the military health care organizations. This study was aimed to evaluate the service quality of selected military hospitals in Iran based on the Joint Commission International (JCI) standards and comparing these hospitals with each other and ranking them using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) technique in 2013. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional and descriptive study conducted on five military hospitals, selected using the purposive sampling method, in 2013. Required data collected using checklists of accreditation standards and nominal group technique. AHP technique was used for prioritizing. Furthermore, Expert Choice 11.0 was used to analyze the collected data. Results: Among JCI standards, the standards of access to care and continuity of care (weight = 0.122), quality improvement and patient safety (weight = 0.121) and leadership and management (weight = 0.117) had the greatest importance, respectively. Furthermore, in the overall ranking, BGT (weight = 0.369), IHM (0.238), SAU (0.202), IHK (weight = 0.125) and SAB (weight = 0.066) ranked first to fifth, respectively. Conclusion: AHP is an appropriate technique for measuring the overall performance of hospitals and their quality of services. It is a holistic approach that takes all hospital processes into consideration. The results of the present study can be used to improve hospitals performance through identifying areas, which are in need of focus for quality improvement and selecting strategies to improve service quality. PMID:25250364

  14. Assessing the service quality of Iran military hospitals: Joint Commission International standards and Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadori, Mohammadkarim; Ravangard, Ramin; Yaghoubi, Maryam; Alimohammadzadeh, Khalil

    2014-01-01

    Military hospitals are responsible for preserving, restoring and improving the health of not only armed forces, but also other people. According to the military organizations strategy, which is being a leader and pioneer in all areas, providing quality health services is one of the main goals of the military health care organizations. This study was aimed to evaluate the service quality of selected military hospitals in Iran based on the Joint Commission International (JCI) standards and comparing these hospitals with each other and ranking them using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) technique in 2013. This was a cross-sectional and descriptive study conducted on five military hospitals, selected using the purposive sampling method, in 2013. Required data collected using checklists of accreditation standards and nominal group technique. AHP technique was used for prioritizing. Furthermore, Expert Choice 11.0 was used to analyze the collected data. Among JCI standards, the standards of access to care and continuity of care (weight = 0.122), quality improvement and patient safety (weight = 0.121) and leadership and management (weight = 0.117) had the greatest importance, respectively. Furthermore, in the overall ranking, BGT (weight = 0.369), IHM (0.238), SAU (0.202), IHK (weight = 0.125) and SAB (weight = 0.066) ranked first to fifth, respectively. AHP is an appropriate technique for measuring the overall performance of hospitals and their quality of services. It is a holistic approach that takes all hospital processes into consideration. The results of the present study can be used to improve hospitals performance through identifying areas, which are in need of focus for quality improvement and selecting strategies to improve service quality.

  15. An introduction to radioimmunoassay and related techniques. 3. rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chard, T.

    1987-01-01

    This book is designed as an introductory text for the staff of clinical or research laboratories who conduct or intend to conduct radioimmunoassay and related immunoassay techniques, and will also be of great value to the clinicians who make use of such services. The emphasis is on general principles with practical illustrations rather than a detailed and encyclopaedic review of the literature. This 3rd revised edition places more emphasis on alternative labels (non-isotopic immunoassays), the use of labelled antibodies (immunometric assays), and the use of monoclonal antibodies. Both principles and practice are illustrated by diagrams and illustrations. (Auth.)

  16. Percutaneous embolization of varicocele: technique, indications, relative contraindications, and complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Halpern

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There are several options for the treatment of varicocele, including surgical repair either by open or microsurgical approach, laparoscopy, or through percutaneous embolization of the internal spermatic vein. The ultimate goal of varicocele treatment relies on the occlusion of the dilated veins that drain the testis. Percutaneous embolization offers a rapid recovery and can be successfully accomplished in approximately 90% of attempts. However, the technique demands interventional radiologic expertise and has potential serious complications, including vascular perforation, coil migration, and thrombosis of pampiniform plexus. This review discusses the common indications, relative contraindications, technical details, and risks associated with percutaneous embolization of varicocele.

  17. Recent advancements in nuclear analytical techniques for measurement of radioactivity in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puranik, V.D.; Jha, S.K.

    2010-01-01

    The understanding of environmental system is of crucial importance and a challenge to all those who are interested in the condition, behavior and control of our environment. It is a challenge because of the complexity of the environment system, and its analysis requires a great deal of sophistication. By environmental analysis, we mean the holistic study of an environmental system, its components, parts, inter and intra relationships, and its interactions within its surroundings. The common feature of radionuclide measurement is the detection and measurement of nuclear radiation and/or characteristics X-rays. Two basic situations are included, i.e.. the use of external and internal radiation. Internal radiation is emitted by sample itself or a radioactive isotope of an element in the sample which may be originally present, added or produced by natural process of activation. External radiation is produced external to the sample, and interacts with it by absorption, scattering and capture effects. Generally changes in external radiation caused by sample interaction are measured. Both qualitative and quantitative measurements can be made, the later being more commonly used. Basis of all quantitative measurements is the direct proportionality between the amount of substance in the sample and the intensity of the measured radiation. In most cases, there are relative or comparative measurements. Qualitative measurements are also made in which nuclides are identified on the basis of half life nature and the energy of the emitted radiation. The various nuclear methods available can be classified into two major groups, viz, direct and indirect methods. Direct methods are the direct measurement of the radionuclide in an environmental sample, for example, 137 Cs in sediment and 238 U in soil. The largest group of indirect methods for measurement of environmental samples is comprised of activation used for environmental trace pollutants. Discoveries of radioactivity and X

  18. Introduction on microbiological and biological methods and their possible combination with other analytical techniques for the detection of irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonardi, M.

    1991-01-01

    Food irradiation is a physical method of processing and preserving food. One of the main purposes of the application of this technology to food is to obtain specific biological effects on the treated foodstuff. Typical examples of these treatment effects are listed in the article. A whole range of techniques is at disposal of the analyst to assure the Quality Control (QC) of various foodstuffs. They are based on microbiological, organoleptical, chemical, biochemical, immunological and/or physical methods. In the case of irradiation preserved food the opinion of the writer is that very often only a combination of analytical methods can solve the problem of detection of irradiated foodstuffs and in particular in most cases this combination could be formed by a biological or microbiological method + a chemical or physical one. The meaning of these combination of techniques is manifold. Combining the advantages of a rapid screening method with those of a more refined, reliable, even if more time consuming one; offering the possibility to carry out the analysis for the control of irradiated foodstuffs to different kinds of food control laboratories, often equipped in a different way, are some of the most evident advantages. These methods are briefly explained. At present, none method seems promising for the quantitative determination of the irradiation dose. Moreover, some of the proposed methods can only give a good presumption of the irradiation treatment applied to particular foodstuffs. (18 refs)

  19. Analytical solution of perturbed relative motion: an application of satellite formations to geodesy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wnuk, Edwin

    In the upcoming years, several space missions will be operated using a number of spacecraft flying in formation. Clusters of spacecraft with a carefully designed orbits and optimal formation geometry enable a wide variety of applications ranging from remote sensing to astronomy, geodesy and basic physics. Many of the applications require precise relative navigation and autonomous orbit control of satellites moving in a formation. For many missions a centimeter level of orbit control accuracy is required. The GRACE mission, since its launch in 2002, has been improving the Earth's gravity field model to a very high level of accuracy. This mission is a formation flying one consisting of two satellites moving in coplanar orbits and provides range and range-rate measurements between the satellites in the along-track direction. Future geodetic missions probably will employ alternative architectures using additional satellites and/or performing out-of-plane motion, e.g cartwheel orbits. The paper presents an analytical model of a satellite formation motion that enables propagation of the relative spacecraft motion. The model is based on the analytical theory of satellite relative motion that was presented in the previous our papers (Wnuk and Golebiewska, 2005, 2006). This theory takes into account the influence of the following gravitational perturbation effects: 1) zonal and tesseral harmonic geopotential coefficients up to arbitrary degree and order, 2) Lunar gravity, 3) Sun gravity. Formulas for differential perturbations were derived with any restriction concerning a plane of satellite orbits. They can be applied in both: in plane and out of plane cases. Using this propagator we calculated relative orbits and future relative satellite positions for different types of formations: in plane, out of plane, cartwheel and others. We analyzed the influence of particular parts of perturbation effects and estimated the accuracy of predicted relative spacecrafts positions

  20. Determination of trace impurities in uranium-transition metal alloy fuels by ICP-MS using extended common analyte internal standardization (ECAIS) technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha, Abhijit; Deb, S.B.; Nagar, B.K.; Saxena, M.K.

    2015-01-01

    An analytical methodology was developed for the determination of eight trace impurities viz, Al, B, Cd, Co, Cu, Mg, Mn and Ni in three different uranium-transition metal alloy fuels (U-Me; Me = Ti, Zr and Mo) employing inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The well known common analyte internal standardization (CAIS) chemometric technique was modified and then employed to minimize and account for the matrix effect on analyte intensity. Standard addition of analytes to the pure synthetic U-Me sample solutions and subsequently their ≥ 94% recovery by the ICP-MS measurement validates the proposed methodology. One real sample of each of these alloys was analyzed by the developed analytical methodology and the %RSD observed was in the range of 5-8%. The method detection limits were found to be within 4-10 μg L -1 . (author)

  1. Heuristic and analytic processes in reasoning: an event-related potential study of belief bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Adrian P; Hope, Christopher

    2014-03-01

    Human reasoning involves both heuristic and analytic processes. This study of belief bias in relational reasoning investigated whether the two processes occur serially or in parallel. Participants evaluated the validity of problems in which the conclusions were either logically valid or invalid and either believable or unbelievable. Problems in which the conclusions presented a conflict between the logically valid response and the believable response elicited a more positive P3 than problems in which there was no conflict. This shows that P3 is influenced by the interaction of belief and logic rather than either of these factors on its own. These findings indicate that belief and logic influence reasoning at the same time, supporting models in which belief-based and logical evaluations occur in parallel but not theories in which belief-based heuristic evaluations precede logical analysis.

  2. A meta-analytic investigation of the relation between interpersonal attraction and enacted behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, R Matthew; Kershaw, Christine; Prosser, Julie L

    2018-05-07

    We present a meta-analysis that investigated the relation between self-reported interpersonal attraction and enacted behavior. Our synthesis focused on (a) identifying the behaviors related to attraction; (b) evaluating the efficacy of models of the relation between attraction and behavior; (c) testing the impact of several moderators, including evaluative threat salience, cognitive appraisal salience, and the sex composition of the social interaction; and (d) investigating the degree of agreement between the meta-analytic findings and an ethnographic analysis. Using a multilevel modeling approach, an analysis of 309 effect sizes (N = 5,422) revealed a significant association (z = .20) between self-reported attraction and enacted behavior. Key findings include: (a) that the specific behaviors associated with attraction (e.g., eye contact, smiling, laughter, mimicry) are those behaviors research has linked to the development of trust/rapport; (b) direct behaviors (e.g., physical proximity, talking to), compared with indirect behaviors (e.g., eye contact, smiling, mimicry), were more strongly related to self-reported attraction; and (c) evaluative threat salience (e.g., fear of rejection) reduced the magnitude of the relation between direct behavior and affective attraction. Moreover, an ethnographic analysis revealed consistency between the behaviors identified by the meta-analysis and those behaviors identified by ethnographers as predictive of attraction. We discuss the implications of our findings for models of the relation between attraction and behavior, for the behavioral expressions of emotions, and for how attraction is measured and conceptualized. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. WHO activities in teaching radioimmunoassay and related techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncharov, N.P.; Sufi, S.B.; Donaldson, A.; Jeffcoate, S.L.

    1986-01-01

    The Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction of the World Health Organization has recognized from its beginning that training is a key component of its activities, including its immunoassay standardization programme. Since the start of the Special Programme more than 250 scientists have received training in RIA and related procedures and 27 training courses have been held in various countries. Many of the courses have been held in collaboration with the International Atomic Energy Agency, and these co-operative activities have established a core of scientific expertise worldwide which has contributed to the increased availability of modern diagnostic techniques in many countries. The increasing number of medical and non-medical applications of immunoassays and the special expertise required for some immunoassay methods create a continuing demand for training in RIA techniques. Both WHO and the IAEA have responded by organizing courses to 'train the trainers' and by supporting national and regional courses based on centrally provided material, as well as by commissioning the production of additional teaching documents and audio-visual aids in English and Spanish. It is envisaged that such materials, complete with centrally provided materials for practicals and other teaching aids, will be made available to national reagent programmes and will be used in the future as a well characterized, standardized core around which local organizers can construct training programmes geared to local needs and drawing upon local experience. (author)

  4. Relations between radiation risks and radiation protection measuring techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, K.; Kraus, W.

    Relations between radiation risks and radiation protection measuring techniques are considered as components of the radiation risk. The influence of the exposure risk on type and extent of radiation protection measurements is discussed with regard to different measuring tasks. Based upon measuring results concerning the frequency of certain external and internal occupational exposures in the GDR, it has been shown that only a small fraction of the monitored persons are subjected to a high exposure risk. As a consequence the following recommendations are presented: occupationally exposed persons with small exposure risk should be monitored using only a long-term desimeter (for instance a thermoluminescence desimeter). In the case of internal exposure, the surface and air contamination levels should be controlled so strictly that routine measurements of internal contamination need not be performed

  5. Rapid Late Holocene glacier fluctuations reconstructed from South Georgia lake sediments using novel analytical and numerical techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Bilt, Willem; Bakke, Jostein; Werner, Johannes; Paasche, Øyvind; Rosqvist, Gunhild

    2016-04-01

    The collapse of ice shelves, rapidly retreating glaciers and a dramatic recent temperature increase show that Southern Ocean climate is rapidly shifting. Also, instrumental and modelling data demonstrate transient interactions between oceanic and atmospheric forcings as well as climatic teleconnections with lower-latitude regions. Yet beyond the instrumental period, a lack of proxy climate timeseries impedes our understanding of Southern Ocean climate. Also, available records often lack the resolution and chronological control required to resolve rapid climate shifts like those observed at present. Alpine glaciers are found on most Southern Ocean islands and quickly respond to shifts in climate through changes in mass balance. Attendant changes in glacier size drive variations in the production of rock flour, the suspended product of glacial erosion. This climate response may be captured by downstream distal glacier-fed lakes, continuously recording glacier history. Sediment records from such lakes are considered prime sources for paleoclimate reconstructions. Here, we present the first reconstruction of Late Holocene glacier variability from the island of South Georgia. Using a toolbox of advanced physical, geochemical (XRF) and magnetic proxies, in combination with state-of-the-art numerical techniques, we fingerprinted a glacier signal from glacier-fed lake sediments. This lacustrine sediment signal was subsequently calibrated against mapped glacier extent with the help of geomorphological moraine evidence and remote sensing techniques. The outlined approach enabled us to robustly resolve variations of a complex glacier at sub-centennial timescales, while constraining the sedimentological imprint of other geomorphic catchment processes. From a paleoclimate perspective, our reconstruction reveals a dynamic Late Holocene climate, modulated by long-term shifts in regional circulation patterns. We also find evidence for rapid medieval glacier retreat as well as a

  6. Characterization of pre-hispanic pigments by modern analytical techniques; Caracterizacion de pigmentos prehispanicos por tecnicas analiticas modernas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega A, M

    2003-07-01

    In this work, the study of mural painting pigments from two archaeological sites (The Great Temple in Mexico city and Cacaxtla) was performed to know their materials composition, identify their structural characteristics and properties by using modern analytical techniques. Blue, ochre, red and black pigments of Mexica culture (1325-1521 a.C. / late Post Classic period); blue, ochre, red, brown, pink, green and white of Olmeca- Xicalanca culture (700-900 a.C. / Epiclassic period) were studied. Data about materials used, technological evolution, mineralogical background, cultural interchange and origin was obtained. Environmental exposition of these paintings since their discovering has produced changes and damage on their materials. Therefore, stability of some pigments has been notorious, ''Maya Blue'' specially presents extraordinary resistance to diluted and concentrated acids and alkalis including boiling condition, acqua regia, solvents, oxidant and reducing agents, moderate heat and biocorrosi6n; for that reason its study was emphasized. ''Maya Blue'' pigment was synthesized in laboratory using the processes described by historic sources (with indigophera suffruticosa leaves and synthetic indigo) up to obtain a stable pigment including acqua regia action. Clay matrix sorbs nearly 0.4 weight percent of organic dye, which cover 79% of palygorskita surface area. (Author)

  7. Application of quality function deployment (QFD and analytic hierarchy process (AHP techniques to improve the quality of postgraduate training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Pastor Sanmillán

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The importance of ensuring quality in higher education is evident in the number of local, national and transnational organizations dedicated to this end. The impressive volume of works published on quality in education is further testimony to its importance. All university, traditional or on-line, has a department dedicated to the study of quality, and the academic literature in this area is extremely broad in scope. Yet in this abundant wealth of studies, methodologies, techniques, fantasies and realities in which professors and university administrators, teachers, psychologists, marketing experts and quality professionals focus their attention, there is in our opinion something basic and elemental which is frequently forgotten: to ask the student, the end user (who should be the fundamental object of our interest what aspects of postgraduate study he truly values. The goal of the present study will be to verify the usefulness of multi-criteria analysis, and of the analytic hierarchy process (AHP in particular, attached to quality function deployment (QFD, for performing this task in multicultural environments. The population chosen for our study is comprised of the students enrolled in on-site postgraduate programs at the CEF School of Business.

  8. Characterization of pre-hispanic pigments by modern analytical techniques; Caracterizacion de pigmentos prehispanicos por tecnicas analiticas modernas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega A, M

    2003-07-01

    In this work, the study of mural painting pigments from two archaeological sites (The Great Temple in Mexico city and Cacaxtla) was performed to know their materials composition, identify their structural characteristics and properties by using modern analytical techniques. Blue, ochre, red and black pigments of Mexica culture (1325-1521 a.C. / late Post Classic period); blue, ochre, red, brown, pink, green and white of Olmeca- Xicalanca culture (700-900 a.C. / Epiclassic period) were studied. Data about materials used, technological evolution, mineralogical background, cultural interchange and origin was obtained. Environmental exposition of these paintings since their discovering has produced changes and damage on their materials. Therefore, stability of some pigments has been notorious, ''Maya Blue'' specially presents extraordinary resistance to diluted and concentrated acids and alkalis including boiling condition, acqua regia, solvents, oxidant and reducing agents, moderate heat and biocorrosi6n; for that reason its study was emphasized. ''Maya Blue'' pigment was synthesized in laboratory using the processes described by historic sources (with indigophera suffruticosa leaves and synthetic indigo) up to obtain a stable pigment including acqua regia action. Clay matrix sorbs nearly 0.4 weight percent of organic dye, which cover 79% of palygorskita surface area. (Author)

  9. Hair elemental analysis for forensic science using nuclear and related analytical methods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kučera, Jan; Kameník, Jan; Havránek, Vladimír

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 3 (2018), s. 65-74 ISSN 2468-1709 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108; GA MŠk LM2015056 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : hair * forensic analysis * neutron activation analysis * particle induced X-ray emission Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry

  10. Higher Education Teachers' Experiences with Learning Analytics in Relation to Student Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Deborah; Huijser, Henk; Heath, David; Lizzio, Alf; Toohey, Danny; Miles, Carol; Searle, Bill; Bronnimann, Jurg

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents findings from a study of Australian and New Zealand academics (n = 276) that teach tertiary education students. The study aimed to explore participants' early experiences of learning analytics in a higher education milieu in which data analytics is gaining increasing prominence. Broadly speaking participants were asked about:…

  11. Effects of Mountain Ultra-Marathon Running on ROS Production and Oxidative Damage by Micro-Invasive Analytic Techniques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Mrakic-Sposta

    Full Text Available Aiming to gain a detailed insight into the physiological mechanisms involved under extreme conditions, a group of experienced ultra-marathon runners, performing the mountain Tor des Géants® ultra-marathon: 330 km trail-run in Valle d'Aosta, 24000 m of positive and negative elevation changes, was monitored. ROS production rate, antioxidant capacity, oxidative damage and inflammation markers were assessed, adopting micro-invasive analytic techniques.Forty-six male athletes (45.04±8.75 yr, 72.6±8.4 kg, 1.76±0.05 m were tested. Capillary blood and urine were collected before (Pre-, in the middle (Middle- and immediately after (Post- Race. Samples were analyzed for: Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS production by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance; Antioxidant Capacity by Electrochemistry; oxidative damage (8-hydroxy-2-deoxy Guanosine: 8-OH-dG; 8-isoprostane: 8-isoPGF2α and nitric oxide metabolites by enzymatic assays; inflammatory biomarkers (plasma and urine interleukin-6: IL-6-P and IL-6-U by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA; Creatinine and Neopterin by HPLC, hematologic (lactate, glucose and hematocrit and urine parameters by standard analyses.Twenty-five athletes finished the race, while twenty-one dropped out of it. A significant increase (Post-Race vs Pre of the ROS production rate (2.20±0.27 vs 1.65±0.22 μmol.min-1, oxidative damage biomarkers (8-OH-dG: 6.32±2.38 vs 4.16±1.25 ng.mg-1 Creatinine and 8-isoPGF2α: 1404.0±518.30 vs 822.51±448.91 pg.mg-1Creatinine, inflammatory state (IL-6-P: 66.42±36.92 vs 1.29±0.54 pg.mL-1 and IL-6-U: 1.33±0.56 vs 0.71±0.17 pg.mL1 and lactate production (+190%, associated with a decrease of both antioxidant capacity (-7% and renal function (i.e. Creatinine level +76% was found.The used micro-invasive analytic methods allowed us to perform most of them before, during and immediately after the race directly in the field, by passing the need of storing and transporting samples for further analysis

  12. Analytical study of dispersion relations for shear horizontal wave propagation in plates with periodic stubs

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Yanlong

    2015-08-01

    The coupled mode theory with coupling of diffraction modes and waveguide modes is usually used on the calculations of transmission and reflection coefficients for electromagnetic waves traveling through periodic sub-wavelength structures. In this paper, I extend this method to derive analytical solutions of high-order dispersion relations for shear horizontal (SH) wave propagation in elastic plates with periodic stubs. In the long wavelength regime, the explicit expression is obtained by this theory and derived specially by employing an effective medium. This indicates that the periodical stubs are equivalent to an effective homogenous layer in the long wavelength. Notably, in the short wavelength regime, high-order diffraction modes in the plate and high-order waveguide modes in the stubs are considered with modes coupling to compute the band structures. Numerical results of the coupled mode theory fit pretty well with the results of the finite element method (FEM). In addition, the band structures\\' evolution with the height of the stubs and the thickness of the plate shows clearly that the method can predict well the Bragg band gaps, locally resonant band gaps and high-order symmetric and anti-symmetric thickness-twist modes for the periodically structured plates. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

  13. Hybrid Multidimensional Relational and Link Analytical Knowledge Discovery for Law Enforcement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joslyn, Cliff A.; Gillen, David S.; Burke, John S.; Critchlow, Terence J.; Damante, Matt; Fernandes, Robert

    2008-08-01

    The challenges facing the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) require not only multi-dimensional, but also multi-scale data analysis. In particular, the ability to seamlessly move from summary information, such as trends, into detailed analysis of individual entities, while critical for law enforcement, typically requires manually transferring information among multiple tools. Such time-consuming and error prone processes significantly hamper the analysts' ability to quickly explore data and identify threats. As part of a DHS Science and Technology effort, we have been developing and deploying for Immigration and Customs Enforcement the CubeLink system integrating information between relational data cubes and link analytical semantic graphs. In this paper we describe CubeLink in terms of the underlying components, their integration, and the formal mapping from multidimensional data analysis into link analysis. In so doing, we provide a formal basis for one particular form of automatic schema-ontology mapping from OLAP data cubes to semantic graphs databases, and point the way towards future ``intelligent'' OLAP data cubes equipped with meta-data about their dimensional typing.

  14. Combined approach of grey relational analysis and analytic hierarchy process for ARCAL/IAEA strategic actions prioritization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Pedro Maffia da; Martins, Eduardo Ferraz; Rondinelli Junior, Francisco; Garcia, Pauli Adriano de Almada

    2015-01-01

    The IAEA technical cooperation (TC) programme is the main mechanism through which the IAEA delivers technical services to its Member States. Through the programme, the IAEA helps Member States to build, strengthen and maintain capacities in the safe, peaceful and secure use of nuclear technology in support of sustainable socioeconomic development. The Regional Cooperation Agreement for the Promotion of Nuclear Science and Technology in Latin America and the Caribbean (ARCAL) is a TC agreement between most IAEA member states in the Latin America and the Caribbean region for technical and economic cooperation to promote the use of nuclear techniques for peace and development. The present study aims to propose a combined approach to prioritize the needs and problems of ARCAL region. To do that, this paper considers the concept of Grey Relational Analysis and Analytic Hierarchy Process for data treatment, standardization and ranking of those needs and problems. In other words, the proposition intend to reduce the biases that may be introduced along the stage of the needs and problems assessment in the regional strategic profile formulation. (author)

  15. Combined approach of grey relational analysis and analytic hierarchy process for ARCAL/IAEA strategic actions prioritization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Pedro Maffia da; Martins, Eduardo Ferraz; Rondinelli Junior, Francisco, E-mail: pmsilva@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: efmartins@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: rondinel@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Garcia, Pauli Adriano de Almada, E-mail: pauliadriano@id.uff.br [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The IAEA technical cooperation (TC) programme is the main mechanism through which the IAEA delivers technical services to its Member States. Through the programme, the IAEA helps Member States to build, strengthen and maintain capacities in the safe, peaceful and secure use of nuclear technology in support of sustainable socioeconomic development. The Regional Cooperation Agreement for the Promotion of Nuclear Science and Technology in Latin America and the Caribbean (ARCAL) is a TC agreement between most IAEA member states in the Latin America and the Caribbean region for technical and economic cooperation to promote the use of nuclear techniques for peace and development. The present study aims to propose a combined approach to prioritize the needs and problems of ARCAL region. To do that, this paper considers the concept of Grey Relational Analysis and Analytic Hierarchy Process for data treatment, standardization and ranking of those needs and problems. In other words, the proposition intend to reduce the biases that may be introduced along the stage of the needs and problems assessment in the regional strategic profile formulation. (author)

  16. Thorium: one of the analytical techniques in neutronic activation and alpha spectrometry of the CDTN (Brazilian Nuclear Technology Development Center) in the last three decades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menezes, M.A.B.C.; Sabino, C.V.S.

    1994-01-01

    For long years, the CDTN (Brazilian Nuclear Technology Development Center ) has applied several analytical techniques in the thorium determination. This work is about the evolution of the neutronic activation in the thorium 232 analysis from the 1960's to now. The importance of the analysis request and alpha spectrometry for the thorium 228 and thorium 232 determination is emphasized. (J.A.M.M.)

  17. Distribution-analytical techniques in the study of AD/HD: Delta plot analyses reveal deficits in response inhibition that are eliminated by methylphenidate treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridderinkhof, K.R.; Scheres, A.; Oosterlaan, J.; Sergeant, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    The authors highlight the utility of distribution-analytical techniques in the study of individual differences and clinical disorders. Cognitive deficits associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) were examined by using delta-plot analyses of performance data (reaction time and

  18. Disc electrophoresis and related techniques of polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maurer, H. R

    1971-01-01

    ..., enzymes, antingens and radioactively labelled materials, and detailed treatments of micro disc electrophoresis, preparative polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and many other techniques for special problems...

  19. Study of factors affecting the productivity of nurses based on the ACHIEVE model and prioritizing them using analytic hierarchy process technique, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payam Farhadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Improving productivity is one of the most important strategies for social-economic development. Human resources are known as the most important resources in the organizations′ survival and success. Aims: To determine the factors affecting the human resource productivity using the ACHIEVEa model from the nurses′ perspective and then prioritize them from the perspective of head nurses using Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP technique. Settings and Design: Iran, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences teaching hospitals in 2012. Materials and Methods: This was an applied, cross-sectional and analytical-descriptive study conducted in two phases. In the first phase, to determine the factors affecting the human resource productivity from nurses′ perspective, 110 nurses were selected using a two-stage cluster sampling method. Required data were collected using the Persian version of Hersey and Goldsmith′s Human Resource Productivity Questionnaire. In the second phase, in order to prioritize the factors affecting human resource productivity based on the ACHIEVE model using AHP technique, pairwise comparisons matrices were given to the 19 randomly selected head nurses to express their opinions about those factors relative priorities or importance. Statistical Analysis Used: Collected data and matrices in two mentioned phases were analyzed using SPSS 15.0 and some statistical tests including Independent-Samples T-Test and Pearson Correlation coefficient, as well as, Super Decisions software (Latest Beta. Results: The human resource productivity had significant relationships with nurses′ sex (P = 0.008, marital status (P < 0.001, education level (P < 0.001, and all questionnaire factors (P < 0.05. Nurses′ productivity from their perspective was below average (44.97 ΁ 7.43. Also, the priorities of factors affecting the productivity of nurses based on the ACHIEVE model from the head nurses′ perspective using AHP technique, from the

  20. Event-related potentials during individual, cooperative, and competitive task performance differ in subjects with analytic vs. holistic thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apanovich, V V; Bezdenezhnykh, B N; Sams, M; Jääskeläinen, I P; Alexandrov, YuI

    2018-01-01

    It has been presented that Western cultures (USA, Western Europe) are mostly characterized by competitive forms of social interaction, whereas Eastern cultures (Japan, China, Russia) are mostly characterized by cooperative forms. It has also been stated that thinking in Eastern countries is predominantly holistic and in Western countries analytic. Based on this, we hypothesized that subjects with analytic vs. holistic thinking styles show differences in decision making in different types of social interaction conditions. We investigated behavioural and brain-activity differences between subjects with analytic and holistic thinking during a choice reaction time (ChRT) task, wherein the subjects either cooperated, competed (in pairs), or performed the task without interaction with other participants. Healthy Russian subjects (N=78) were divided into two groups based on having analytic or holistic thinking as determined with an established questionnaire. We measured reaction times as well as event-related brain potentials. There were significant differences between the interaction conditions in task performance between subjects with analytic and holistic thinking. Both behavioral performance and physiological measures exhibited higher variance in holistic than in analytic subjects. Differences in amplitude and P300 latency suggest that decision making was easier for the holistic subjects in the cooperation condition, in contrast to analytic subjects for whom decision making based on these measures seemed to be easier in the competition condition. The P300 amplitude was higher in the individual condition as compared with the collective conditions. Overall, our results support the notion that the brains of analytic and holistic subjects work differently in different types of social interaction conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Graceful, harmonious and magic type labelings relations and techniques

    CERN Document Server

    López, Susana C

    2017-01-01

    Aimed toward upper undergraduate and graduate students in mathematics, this book examines the foremost forms of graph labelings including magic, harmonious, and graceful labelings. An overview of basic graph theory concepts and notation is provided along with the origins of graph labeling. Common methods and techniques are presented introducing readers to links between graph labels. A variety of useful techniques are presented to analyze and understand properties of graph labelings. The classical results integrated with new techniques, complete proofs, numerous exercises, and a variety of open problems, will provide readers with a solid understanding of graph labelings.

  2. Analytical scaling relations to evaluate leakage and intrusion in intermittent water supply systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slocum, Alexander H.; Whittle, Andrew J.

    2018-01-01

    Intermittent water supplies (IWS) deliver piped water to one billion people; this water is often microbially contaminated. Contaminants that accumulate while IWS are depressurized are flushed into customers’ homes when these systems become pressurized. In addition, during the steady-state phase of IWS, contaminants from higher-pressure sources (e.g., sewers) may continue to intrude where pipe pressure is low. To guide the operation and improvement of IWS, this paper proposes an analytic model relating supply pressure, supply duration, leakage, and the volume of intruded, potentially-contaminated, fluids present during flushing and steady-state. The proposed model suggests that increasing the supply duration may improve water quality during the flushing phase, but decrease the subsequent steady-state water quality. As such, regulators and academics should take more care in reporting if water quality samples are taken during flushing or steady-state operational conditions. Pipe leakage increases with increased supply pressure and/or duration. We propose using an equivalent orifice area (EOA) to quantify pipe quality. This provides a more stable metric for regulators and utilities tracking pipe repairs. Finally, we show that the volume of intruded fluid decreases in proportion to reductions in EOA. The proposed relationships are applied to self-reported performance indicators for IWS serving 108 million people described in the IBNET database and in the Benchmarking and Data Book of Water Utilities in India. This application shows that current high-pressure, continuous water supply targets will require extensive EOA reductions. For example, in order to achieve national targets, utilities in India will need to reduce their EOA by a median of at least 90%. PMID:29775462

  3. Analytical scaling relations to evaluate leakage and intrusion in intermittent water supply systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, David D J; Slocum, Alexander H; Whittle, Andrew J

    2018-01-01

    Intermittent water supplies (IWS) deliver piped water to one billion people; this water is often microbially contaminated. Contaminants that accumulate while IWS are depressurized are flushed into customers' homes when these systems become pressurized. In addition, during the steady-state phase of IWS, contaminants from higher-pressure sources (e.g., sewers) may continue to intrude where pipe pressure is low. To guide the operation and improvement of IWS, this paper proposes an analytic model relating supply pressure, supply duration, leakage, and the volume of intruded, potentially-contaminated, fluids present during flushing and steady-state. The proposed model suggests that increasing the supply duration may improve water quality during the flushing phase, but decrease the subsequent steady-state water quality. As such, regulators and academics should take more care in reporting if water quality samples are taken during flushing or steady-state operational conditions. Pipe leakage increases with increased supply pressure and/or duration. We propose using an equivalent orifice area (EOA) to quantify pipe quality. This provides a more stable metric for regulators and utilities tracking pipe repairs. Finally, we show that the volume of intruded fluid decreases in proportion to reductions in EOA. The proposed relationships are applied to self-reported performance indicators for IWS serving 108 million people described in the IBNET database and in the Benchmarking and Data Book of Water Utilities in India. This application shows that current high-pressure, continuous water supply targets will require extensive EOA reductions. For example, in order to achieve national targets, utilities in India will need to reduce their EOA by a median of at least 90%.

  4. Assessment of waste management options in the oil and gas industry in Ghana using nuclear analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahialey, W. K.

    2013-07-01

    Ghana's oil find is growing steadily as more discoveries are being made. Oil and gas exploration and production coupled with their related activities produce wastes. These wastes could be put into three primary categories such as produced water, drilling cuttings and associated wastes (any other waste related with the exploration, development and production of crude oil or natural gas). These wastes may contain varying amount of contaminants such as heavy metals, suspended solid particles and radioactive materials such as Ra-226 or Rn-228, product of U-238 decay that occur in some geologic formations and sediments. The main objective of this study is to assess the waste management practices in the oil and gas industry in Ghana by qualification and quantification of waste generated during exploration and production, examining the system put in place by oil and gas companies to manage these wastes and also determine some basic contaminants in some of these wastes brought to shore for management. Waste samples were taken from Tema Oil Refinery (TOR) and Zeal Environmental Technology Limited at Takoradi. The samples were analyzed by Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) and Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (FAAS) analytical methods to determine heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cr, Hg, As, Ag, Ba, Se) in the oily waste water, oil based mud, block and ash samples. The results showed that the levels of heavy metals were below the EPA permissible limit for discharge into the natural drainage except the level of Pb in the mud samples taken from Zeal before treatment. The levels ranged from 3.99mg/l to 7.44mgl. Even though these levels were above 0.1mg/l discharge standard limit, there was no cause for alarm because the levels dropped below the EPA limit after treatment. Furthermore, the quantity of general garbage deposited in the landfill at Takoradi be Zeal Environmental Technology Limited from 2011 to 2012 increased from 497m 3 to 1,314.29m 3 respectively. (author)

  5. ANALYSIS OF RELATIONS BETWEEN JUDO TECHNIQUES AND SPECIFIC MOTOR ABILITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik Drid

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Specific physical preparation affects the development of motor abilities required for execution of specific movements in judo. When selecting proper specific exercises for judo for a target motor ability, it is necessary to precede it with the study of the structure of specific judo techniques and activities of individual muscle groups engaged for execution of the technique. On the basis of this, one can understand which muscles are most engaged during realization of individual techniques, which serves as a standpoint for selection of a particular complex of specific exercises to produce the highest effects. In addition to the development of particular muscle groups, the means of specific preparation will take effect on the development of those motor abilities which are evaluated as the indispensable for the development of particular qualities which are characteristic for judo. This paper analyses the relationship between judo techniques field and specific motor abilities.

  6. Does leaf chemistry differentially affect breakdown in tropical versus temperate streams? Importance of standardized analytical techniques to measure leaf chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcelo Ardon; Catherine M. Pringle; Susan L. Eggert

    2009-01-01

    Comparisons of the effects of leaf litter chemistry on leaf breakdown rates in tropical vs temperate streams are hindered by incompatibility among studies and across sites of analytical methods used to...

  7. Big data analytics from strategic planning to enterprise integration with tools, techniques, NoSQL, and graph

    CERN Document Server

    Loshin, David

    2013-01-01

    Big Data Analytics will assist managers in providing an overview of the drivers for introducing big data technology into the organization and for understanding the types of business problems best suited to big data analytics solutions, understanding the value drivers and benefits, strategic planning, developing a pilot, and eventually planning to integrate back into production within the enterprise. Guides the reader in assessing the opportunities and value propositionOverview of big data hardware and software architecturesPresents a variety of te

  8. Identification of heavy metals sources in the Mexico city atmosphere, using the proton induced x-ray analytical technique and multifactorial statistics techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez M, B.

    1997-01-01

    The objectives of this work are: to identify the heavy metals present in the air, and its concentrations. To know the behavior from the polluting chemical elements to the long of an annual cycle corresponding to 1990, based on the concentrations of the same ones, obtained through the PIXE technique. To identify the suitable statistical methods to use to the data of metals concentration in form of total suspended particle (PST), found in this investigation. To relate the concentrations and the meteorological parameters considered to be able to suggest the possible pollution sources. In function of the obtained results, to serve as base to the decisions making and measures control that are planned by diverse institutions focused to the problem of the atmospheric pollution in the Metropolitan area of Mexico City (ZMCM). (Author)

  9. Examining the Job-Related, Psychological, and Physical Outcomes of Workplace Sexual Harassment: A Meta-Analytic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Darius K-S.; Lam, Chun Bun; Chow, Suk Yee; Cheung, Shu Fai

    2008-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the job-related, psychological, and physical outcomes of sexual harassment in the workplace. Using a meta-analytic approach, we analyzed findings from 49 primary studies, with a total sample size of 89,382, to obtain estimates of the population mean effect size of the association between sexual harassment and…

  10. Solid Phase Microextraction and Related Techniques for Drugs in Biological Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Moein, Mohammad Mahdi; Said, Rana; Bassyouni, Fatma; Abdel-Rehim, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    In drug discovery and development, the quantification of drugs in biological samples is an important task for the determination of the physiological performance of the investigated drugs. After sampling, the next step in the analytical process is sample preparation. Because of the low concentration levels of drug in plasma and the variety of the metabolites, the selected extraction technique should be virtually exhaustive. Recent developments of sample handling techniques are directed, from o...

  11. Tracer techniques for the study of host-parasite relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendgen, K.

    1975-01-01

    Autoradiographic techniques have been used to study the interaction of many facultative and obligate parasites, including viruses. After feeding the host plant with labelled substrates, labelled material accumulates in the infected cells and seems to penetrate into structures of the parasite. After labelling the parasite, its influence on the host may be studied. We use this technique to study the interaction of host (bean) and parasite (bean rust) during the infection process. After infection with uredospores labelled with tritiated orotic acid, the radioactivity is retained almost completely within the young haustorium at 22 h after inoculation. This may indicate a very small influence of the parasite on its compatible host. In incompatible host-parasite combinations, the infection process proceeds in a different way. The use of autoradiographic techniques to compare combinations of varying compatibilities will be discussed. (author)

  12. Analytical study of the effects of soft tissue artefacts on functional techniques to define axes of rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rosario, Helios; Page, Álvaro; Besa, Antonio

    2017-09-06

    The accurate location of the main axes of rotation (AoR) is a crucial step in many applications of human movement analysis. There are different formal methods to determine the direction and position of the AoR, whose performance varies across studies, depending on the pose and the source of errors. Most methods are based on minimizing squared differences between observed and modelled marker positions or rigid motion parameters, implicitly assuming independent and uncorrelated errors, but the largest error usually results from soft tissue artefacts (STA), which do not have such statistical properties and are not effectively cancelled out by such methods. However, with adequate methods it is possible to assume that STA only account for a small fraction of the observed motion and to obtain explicit formulas through differential analysis that relate STA components to the resulting errors in AoR parameters. In this paper such formulas are derived for three different functional calibration techniques (Geometric Fitting, mean Finite Helical Axis, and SARA), to explain why each technique behaves differently from the others, and to propose strategies to compensate for those errors. These techniques were tested with published data from a sit-to-stand activity, where the true axis was defined using bi-planar fluoroscopy. All the methods were able to estimate the direction of the AoR with an error of less than 5°, whereas there were errors in the location of the axis of 30-40mm. Such location errors could be reduced to less than 17mm by the methods based on equations that use rigid motion parameters (mean Finite Helical Axis, SARA) when the translation component was calculated using the three markers nearest to the axis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Identifying and Prioritizing Effective Factors on Classifying A Private Bank Customers by Delphi Technique and Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Khayatmoghadam

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Banking industry development and presence of different financial institutions cause to increase competition in customer and their capitals attraction so that there are about 28 banks and many credit and financial institutions from which 6 banks are public and 22 banks are private. Among them, public banks have a more appropriate situation than private banks with regard to governmental relations and support and due to geographical expansion and longer history. But due to lack of above conditions; private banks try to attract customers with regarding science areas to remedy this situation. Therefore, in this study we are decided to review banking customers from a different viewpoint. For this reason, we initially obtained ideal indications from banking viewpoint in two-story of uses and resources customers using experts and Delphi technique application which based on this, indicators such as account workflow, account average, lack of returned cheque, etc and in uses section, the amount of facility received, the amount of received warranties, etc, were determined. Then, using a Hierarchical Analysis (AHP method and experts opinions through software Expert Choice11, priority of these criteria were determined and weight of each index was determined. It should be noted that statistical population of bank experts associated with this study were queue and staff. Also obtained results can be used as input for customer grouping in line with CRM techniques implementation.

  14. Analytic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Burdette, A C

    1971-01-01

    Analytic Geometry covers several fundamental aspects of analytic geometry needed for advanced subjects, including calculus.This book is composed of 12 chapters that review the principles, concepts, and analytic proofs of geometric theorems, families of lines, the normal equation of the line, and related matters. Other chapters highlight the application of graphing, foci, directrices, eccentricity, and conic-related topics. The remaining chapters deal with the concept polar and rectangular coordinates, surfaces and curves, and planes.This book will prove useful to undergraduate trigonometric st

  15. Effects of Learning Analytics Dashboard: Analyzing the Relations among Dashboard Utilization, Satisfaction, and Learning Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeonghyun; Jo, Il-Hyun; Park, Yeonjeong

    2016-01-01

    The learning analytics dashboard (LAD) is a newly developed learning support tool for virtual classrooms that is believed to allow students to review their online learning behavior patterns intuitively through the provision of visual information. The purpose of this study was to empirically validate the effects of LAD. An experimental study was…

  16. Kirschner Wires : insertion techniques and bone related consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franssen, B.B.G.M.

    2010-01-01

    The Kirschner (K-) wire was first introduced in 1909 by Martin Kirschner. This is a thin unthreaded wire of surgical steel with a diameter of up to three millimeters and a selection of different tips. The use of K-wires is often promoted as a simple technique because of its easy placement,

  17. Technique for approximate analytical calculating the internuclear cascade initiated by medium-energy nucleons in accelerator shields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazarnovskij, M.V.; Matushko, G.K.; Matushko, V.L.; Par'ev, Eh.Ya.; Serezhnikov, S.V.

    1981-01-01

    The problem on propagation of the internuclear cascade initiated by nucleons of 0.1-1 GeV energy in accelerator schielding is solved approximately in the analytical form. Analytical expressions for the function of spatial, angular and energy distribution of the flux density of nucleons with the energy above 20 MeV and some functionals from it are obtained. The results of the calculations obtained by the developed methods are compared with calculations obtained by the method of direct simulation. It is shown that at the atomic mass of shielding material [ru

  18. Concerning the application of the nuclear and related techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desdin Garcia, Luis Felipe

    1997-01-01

    The present work intends to describe briefly, some of the nuclear and connected techniques of greater application in the conditions of developing countries, which are employed in the Center of Studies Applied to the Nuclear Development, and that can be of interest for the Latin-American countries. Within those techniques we have: radiobiology, that consists of the employment of ionizing radiations to induce mutations oriented to the improvement of the cultivations. It mentions the atmospheric contamination generated by the industry of the exposition to metals and toxic waste, and of mortiferous parasites that adapt quickly to the unhealthy environmental conditions. It also enumerates some advantages of the utilization of instruments based on radioisotopic fountains. (S. Grainger) [es

  19. Studies on osteoporosis in Chile using isotope-related techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobo, G.; Palma, T.; Cortes-Toro, E.

    1996-01-01

    Several studies on bone densitometry measurements in healthy individuals have been performed in Chile. However due to the fact that different techniques and no uniform protocols have been used to select patients, the results obtained are not suitable as reference values for a normal chilean population. Therefore, foreign reference values are used. This study will select healthy normal individuals, typical urban chilean residents, and measure bone density using the DEXA technique. The selection will be made according to a well defined protocol. Serum osteocalcin, a marker of bone remodeling, will be measured in all subjects as a means-a assessing bone metabolism. Bone trace element composition will be measured in selected subjects. Samples will be obtained by biopsy or through normal surgical procedures and will be analyzed by neutron activation analysis. (author)

  20. Influence of elemental concentration in soil on vegetables applying analytical nuclear techniques: k0-instrumental neutron activation analysis and radiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menezes, Maria Angela de B.C.; Mingote, Raquel Maia; Silva, Lucilene Guerra e; Pedrosa, Lorena Gomes

    2005-01-01

    Samples from two vegetable gardens where analysed aiming at determining the elemental concentration. The vegetables selected to be studied are grown by the people for their own use and are present in daily meal. One vegetable garden studied is close to a mining activity in a region inserted in the Iron Quadrangle (Quadrilatero Ferrifero), located in the Brazilian state of Minas Gerais. This region is considered one of the richest mineral bearing regions in the world. Another vegetable garden studied is far from this region and without any mining activity It was also studied as a comparative site. This assessment was carried out to evaluate the elemental concentration in soil and vegetables, matrixes connected with the chain food, applying the k 0 -Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (k 0 -INAA) at the Laboratory for Neutron Activation Analysis. However, this work reports only the results of thorium, uranium and rare-earth obtained in samples collected during the dry season, focusing on the influence of these elements on vegetable elemental composition. Results of natural radioactivity determined by Gross Alpha and Gross Beta measurements, are also reported. This study is related to the BRA 11920 project, entitled 'Iron Quadrangle, Brazil: assessment of health impact caused by mining pollutants through chain food applying nuclear and related techniques', one of the researches co-ordinated by the IAEA (Vienna, Austria). (author)

  1. Experiences with IAEA project: TC Regional Project on Quality Control and Quality Assurance for Nuclear Analytical Techniques (RER/2/004)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glavic-Cindro, Denis; Korun, Matjaz

    2002-01-01

    In the TC Regional Project on Quality Control and Quality Assurance for Nuclear Analytical Techniques RER/2/004, 12 laboratories from east and central European countries participated. Within this project 4 workshops, 2 audit inspections and 2 proficiency tests were organized. The aim of this project was to help these laboratories to implement quality assurance system based on the ISO 17025 standard and to help them on the way towards accreditation. (author)

  2. Carbon and nitrogen determination in Zr by photon or proton activation analysis. Comparison between the results obtained by this method and other analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petit, J.; Gosset, J.; Engelmann, C.

    1977-01-01

    Carbon and nitrogen are determined by the following nuclear reactions: 12 C(γ,n) 11 C and 14 N(p,α) 11 C. The performances of the method and the main interferences are considered. The process developed for the separation of carbon-11 from zirconium is described and its efficiency evaluated. The results obtained are compared with those given by different laboratories using various analytical techniques [fr

  3. Comparison of sediment pollution in the rivers of the Hungarian Upper Tisza Region using non-destructive analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osan, Janos; Toeroek, Szabina; Alfoeldy, Balint; Alsecz, Anita; Falkenberg, Gerald; Baik, Soo Yeun; Van Grieken, Rene

    2007-01-01

    The rivers in the Hungarian Upper Tisza Region are frequently polluted mainly due to mining activities in the catchment area. At the beginning of 2000, two major mining accidents occurred in the Romanian part of the catchment area due to the failure of a tailings dam releasing huge amounts of cyanide and heavy metals to the rivers. Surface sediment as well as water samples were collected at six sites in the years 2000-2003, from the northeast-Hungarian section of the Tisza, Szamos and Tur rivers. The sediment pollution of the rivers was compared based on measurements of bulk material and selected single particles, in order to relate the observed compositions and chemical states of metals to the possible sources and weathering of pollution. Non-destructive X-ray analytical methods were applied in order to obtain different kinds of information from the same samples or particles. In order to identify the pollution sources, their magnitude and fate, complementary analyses were carried out. Heterogeneous particulate samples were analyzed from a large geographical territory and a 4-year time period. Individual particles were analyzed only from the 'hot' samples that showed elevated concentrations of heavy metals. Particles that were classified as anthropogenic were finally analyzed to identify trace concentrations and chemical states of heavy metals. Although the Tisza river was affected by water pollution due to the two major mining accidents at the beginning of 2000, the concentration of heavy metals in sediments decreased to the mineral background level 1 year after the pollution event. In the tributaries Szamos and Tur, however, no significant decrease of the heavy metal concentrations was observed in the recent years, indicating a continuous pollution. Among the water suspended particles collected from river Tur, fibers of unknown origin were observed by electron microscopy; these particles were aluminosilicates enriched in Zn and Mn. Cd was also concentrated in

  4. Comparative study of inorganic elements determined in whole blood from Dmd(mdx)/J mice strain by EDXRF and NAA analytical techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redígolo, M M; Sato, I M; Metairon, S; Zamboni, C B

    2016-04-01

    Several diseases can be diagnosed observing the variation of specific elements concentration in body fluids. In this study the concentration of inorganic elements in blood samples of dystrophic (Dmd(mdx)/J) and C57BL/6J (control group) mice strain were determined. The results obtained from Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) were compared with Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) technique. Both analytical techniques showed to be appropriate and complementary offering a new contribution for veterinary medicine as well as detailed knowledge of this pathology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Studies of osteoporosis in Shanghai, China, using isotope related techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yongpeng

    2000-01-01

    This paper deals with the osteoporosis model of New Zealand rabbits in order to study the functions of inorganic elements for women patients with osteoporosis. The thirty cases of iliac crest are collected and determined using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) technique. The results show that the Fluorine concentrations in experimental group are higher than those in control group and the Magnesium concentrations are lower significantly (P<0.001), but the concentrations of K, Na, Ca, Ba, Mn, Sr are not remarkable difference. Combined with the serum biochemical markers of bone formation and resorption, the physiological functions of some metal elements in bone are also discussed. (author)

  6. Nuclear and related techniques in the control of communicable diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-07-01

    The IAEA has a programme component entitled ''Nuclear Techniques in Communicable Diseases'', the aims of which are to encourage research in the development of new methods of controlling communicable diseases and to transfer the technology to institutes in endemic regions. Implementation of the programme component includes information exchange through publications, symposiums and seminars. The two most recent seminars were held in Bombay in November 1988 and Belo Horizonte in November 1989, and a selection of the papers presented have been published in this Technical Document. Refs, figs and tabs

  7. Development of an absolute x-ray fluorescence technique and high accuracy analytical methods for the determination of metals in catalytic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaBrecque, J.J.; Parker, W.C.

    1982-09-01

    A technique to produce characteristic x-rays by direct beta excitation for x-ray fluorescence analysis is presented. This is carried out by the introduction of 100 uCi of Pm-147 or Ni-63 to a small sample, which is placed directly in the window of a modified Si(Li) semiconductor. Corrected intensities are only given at 300 seconds for synthetic standards oscillating within the range 22 3 was used, to which the radioisotope was directly added. Preliminary results of the determination of eleven different radionuclides by means of an elementary x-ray analysis by using a new analytical technique, are discussed. In this technique the radioisotope and the sample are directly mixed, then this source-sample in the detector window and is protected from contamination with a thin plastic film. Future and possible applications of this technique are presented

  8. Analytical theory relating the depth of the sulfate-methane transition to gas hydrate distribution and saturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, Gaurav; Chatterjee, Sayantan; Chapman, Walter G.; Dugan, Brandon; Dickens, Gerald R.; Hirasaki, George J.

    2011-03-01

    We develop a theory that relates gas hydrate saturation in marine sediments to the depth of the sulfate-methane transition (SMT) zone below the seafloor using steady state, analytical expressions. These expressions are valid for systems in which all methane transported into the gas hydrate stability zone (GHSZ) comes from deeper external sources (i.e., advective systems). This advective constraint causes anaerobic oxidation of methane to be the only sulfate sink, allowing us to link SMT depth to net methane flux. We also develop analytical expressions that define the gas hydrate saturation profile based on SMT depth and site-specific parameters such as sedimentation rate, methane solubility, and porosity. We evaluate our analytical model at four drill sites along the Cascadia Margin where methane sources from depth dominate. With our model, we calculate average gas hydrate saturations across GHSZ and the top occurrence of gas hydrate at these sites as 0.4% and 120 mbsf (Site 889), 1.9% and 70 mbsf (Site U1325), 4.7% and 40 mbsf (Site U1326), and 0% (Site U1329), mbsf being meters below seafloor. These values compare favorably with average saturations and top occurrences computed from resistivity log and chloride data. The analytical expressions thus provide a fast and convenient method to calculate gas hydrate saturation and first-order occurrence at a given geologic setting where vertically upward advection dominates the methane flux.

  9. Studies of osteoporosis in Croatia using isotope related techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dekanic, D.; Blanusa, M.; Cvijetic, S.; Prester, L.; Uzelac, V.

    1996-01-01

    A short overview is presented of research activities concerning osteoporosis and trace element exposure monitoring carried out by the Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health in Zagreb during the last forty years. The overview includes: cross-sectional and Prospective epidemiological studies in districts with habitually low and high calcium intake; clinical studies concerning peak bone mass and bone mineral density in Postmenopausal women; studies on trace element exposure monitoring. The collaborating institutions, agencies and relevant recent publications are quoted. A survey is given of relevant methods which were used in earlier studies as well as the techniques which will be used in the current IAEA project. A brief description of the work which will be undertaken (particularly during the first year) within the framework of the IAEA CRP is given. (author)

  10. The role of hypnosis and related techniques in insomnia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serban Ionela Lacramioara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypnosis is a widespread technique in psychotherapy with applicability in various psychiatric and psychosomatic disorders. Although there are very few studies in this area of research, some results argue in favor of using hypnosis for various sleep disorders. Insomnia is a common health problem, in both primary form and associated with other pathologies, causing a reduction of self-efficiency/cognitive abilities and an overall decreased life quality. Classical psychotropic medication that is commonly used to treat insomnia can cause significant side effects, produce phenomena of dependence and is generally effective only during the period of treatment. Since the current means of pharmacologic treatment for insomnia present significant limitations, especially when treating chronic insomnia, a more suitable alternative could be attained by non-pharmacological approaches such as hypnosis.

  11. Uncertainty in soil-structure interaction analysis of a nuclear power plant due to different analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J.C.; Chun, R.C.; Goudreau, G.L.; Maslenikov, O.R.; Johnson, J.J.

    1984-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of the dynamic response analysis of the Zion reactor containment building using three different soil-structure interaction (SSI) analytical procedures: the substructure method, CLASSI; the equivalent linear finite element approach, ALUSH and the nonlinear finite element procedure, DYNA3D. Uncertainties in analyzing a soil-structure system due to SSI analysis procedures were investigated. Responses at selected locations in the structure were compared: peak accelerations and response spectra

  12. MALDI-TOF MS identification of anaerobic bacteria: assessment of pre-analytical variables and specimen preparation techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Yen-Michael S; Burnham, Carey-Ann D

    2014-06-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has emerged as a tool for identifying clinically relevant anaerobes. We evaluated the analytical performance characteristics of the Bruker Microflex with Biotyper 3.0 software system for identification of anaerobes and examined the impact of direct formic acid (FA) treatment and other pre-analytical factors on MALDI-TOF MS performance. A collection of 101 anaerobic bacteria were evaluated, including Clostridium spp., Propionibacterium spp., Fusobacterium spp., Bacteroides spp., and other anaerobic bacterial of clinical relevance. The results of our study indicate that an on-target extraction with 100% FA improves the rate of accurate identification without introducing misidentification (Panaerobes grown in suboptimal conditions, such as on selective culture media and following oxygen exposure. In conclusion, we report on a number of simple and cost-effective pre- and post-analytical modifications could enhance MALDI-TOF MS identification for anaerobic bacteria. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Simple technique for measuring relative renal blood flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shames, D.M.; Korobkin, M.

    1976-01-01

    To determine whether externally monitored early renal uptake of 131 I-hippurate is proportional to renal blood flow, the renal uptake of 131 -hippurate at 1 to 2 min after injection was compared with the renal accumulation of radioactive carbonized microspheres in dogs. A renal artery catheter equipped with a balloon was used to decrease renal blood flow unilaterally. One minute after the intravenous injection of 100 μCi of 131 I-hippurate, about 1 μCi of either 85 Sr- or 95 Nb-labeled carbon microspheres was injected into the left ventricle. Radioactivity was measured over both kidneys. The total radioactivity within each kidney region of interest was corrected for background and integrated over the 1 to 2 min interval after injection. Thirteen measurements of relative renal blood flow were made for seven dogs. The dogs were then killed and both kidneys were excised and counted for the radioactivity of the microspheres. The 1 to 2-min relative renal uptake of 131 I-hippurate correlated well with relative microsphere uptake, suggesting that relative renal blood flow can be simply determined from the external measurements of renal uptake of 131 I-hippurate

  14. Sensitivity analysis and related analysis : A survey of statistical techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijnen, J.P.C.

    1995-01-01

    This paper reviews the state of the art in five related types of analysis, namely (i) sensitivity or what-if analysis, (ii) uncertainty or risk analysis, (iii) screening, (iv) validation, and (v) optimization. The main question is: when should which type of analysis be applied; which statistical

  15. Analytical methods relating to mineral matter in coal and ash from coal combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creelman, R.A. [Ultra-Systems Technology Pty. Ltd., Indooroopilly, Qld. (Australia)

    2002-07-01

    The paper begins by describing the minerals that occur in coal, as well as trace elements. The testing methods that are then described include those that are in the main the standard tools for the examination and assessment of minerals in coal and ash. The techniques discussed include optical and beam techniques, X-ray methods and a variety of other useful methods. 12 refs.

  16. Analytical methods of heat transfer compared with numerical methods as related to nuclear waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estrada-Gasca, C.A.

    1986-01-01

    Analytical methods were applied to the prediction of the far-field thermal impact of a nuclear waste repository. Specifically, the transformation of coordinates and the Kirchhoff transformation were used to solve one-dimensional nonlinear heat conduction problems. Calculations for the HLW and TRU nuclear waste with initial areal thermal loadings of 12 kW/acre and 0.7 kW/acre, respectively, are carried out for various models. Also, finite difference and finite element methods are applied. The last method is used to solve two-dimensional linear and nonlinear heat conduction problems. Results of the analysis are temperature distributions and temperature histories. Explicit analytical expressions of the maximum temperature rise as a function of the system parameters are presented. The theoretical approaches predict maximum temperature increases in the overburden with an error of 10%. When the finite solid one-dimensional NWR thermal problem is solved with generic salt and HLW thermal load as parameters, the maximum temperature rises predicted by the finite difference and finite element methods had maximum errors of 2.6 and 6.7%, respectively. In all the other cases the finite difference method also gave a smaller error than the finite element method

  17. Nuclear and related techniques in parasitology: A laboratory manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayunga, E.G.; Stek, M. Jr. (eds.)

    1986-01-01

    The course, entitled ''Atomic Energy Applications in Parasitology'', was offered by the Division of Tropical Public Health, Department of Preventive Medicine, and Biometrics, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland. It was an intensive 3-week endeavor during which students attended lectures and acquired practical hands-on experience with the most recent laboratory tools. The course began with an exhaustive introduction to radiation physics, then encompassed a variety of practical applications including irradiation attenuation, radioisotope labeling, tracer techniques and radioimmunoassays. This laboratory manual was written by the faculty in an attempt to document the learning experience of the training course and to provide a detailed description of state-of-the-art technology with up-to-date references. Clearly, the manual has value as a historical document. However, the chapters were written with the explicit intention that they be useful to future investigators who wish to apply these methods to their particular research problem.

  18. Relative strength of tailor's bunion osteotomies and fixation techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddon, Todd B; LaPointe, Stephan J

    2013-01-01

    A paucity of data is available on the mechanical strength of fifth metatarsal osteotomies. The present study was designed to provide that information. Five osteotomies were mechanically tested to failure using a materials testing machine and compared with an intact fifth metatarsal using a hollow saw bone model with a sample size of 10 for each construct. The osteotomies tested were the distal reverse chevron fixated with a Kirschner wire, the long plantar reverse chevron osteotomy fixated with 2 screws, a mid-diaphyseal sagittal plane osteotomy fixated with 2 screws, the mid-diaphyseal sagittal plane osteotomy fixated with 2 screws, and an additional cerclage wire and a transverse closing wedge osteotomy fixated with a box wire technique. Analysis of variance was performed, resulting in a statistically significant difference among the data at p chevron was statistically the strongest construct at 130 N, followed by the long plantar osteotomy at 78 N. The chevron compared well with the control at 114 N, and they both fractured at the proximal model to fixture interface. The other osteotomies were statistically and significantly weaker than both the chevron and the long plantar constructs, with no statistically significant difference among them at 36, 39, and 48 N. In conclusion, the chevron osteotomy was superior in strength to the sagittal and transverse plane osteotomies and similar in strength and failure to the intact model. Copyright © 2013 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Integrative techniques related to positive processes in psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromer, Thomas D

    2013-09-01

    This review compiles and evaluates a number of therapist interventions that have been found to significantly contribute to positive psychotherapy processes (i.e., increased alliance, patient engagement/satisfaction, and symptomatic improvement). Four forms of intervention are presented: Affect-focused, Supportive, Exploratory, and Patient-Therapist Interaction. The intention of this review is to link specific interventions to applied practice so that integrative clinicians can potentially use these techniques to improve their clinical work. To this end, there is the inclusion of theory and empirical studies from a range of orientations including Emotionally Focused, Psychodynamic, Client-Centered, Cognitive-Behavioral, Interpersonal, Eclectic, and Motivational Interviewing. Each of the four sections will include the theoretical basis and proposed mechanism of change for the intervention, research that supports its positive impact on psychotherapy processes, and conclude with examples demonstrating its use in actual practice. Clinical implications and considerations regarding the use of these interventions will also be presented. 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  20. Extensions of the Johnson-Neyman Technique to Linear Models with Curvilinear Effects: Derivations and Analytical Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jason W.; Stromeyer, William R.; Schwieterman, Matthew A.

    2013-01-01

    The past decade has witnessed renewed interest in the use of the Johnson-Neyman (J-N) technique for calculating the regions of significance for the simple slope of a focal predictor on an outcome variable across the range of a second, continuous independent variable. Although tools have been developed to apply this technique to probe 2- and 3-way…

  1. Identifying content-based and relational techniques to change behaviour in motivational interviewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardcastle, Sarah J; Fortier, Michelle; Blake, Nicola; Hagger, Martin S

    2017-03-01

    Motivational interviewing (MI) is a complex intervention comprising multiple techniques aimed at changing health-related motivation and behaviour. However, MI techniques have not been systematically isolated and classified. This study aimed to identify the techniques unique to MI, classify them as content-related or relational, and evaluate the extent to which they overlap with techniques from the behaviour change technique taxonomy version 1 [BCTTv1; Michie, S., Richardson, M., Johnston, M., Abraham, C., Francis, J., Hardeman, W., … Wood, C. E. (2013). The behavior change technique taxonomy (v1) of 93 hierarchically clustered techniques: Building an international consensus for the reporting of behavior change interventions. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 46, 81-95]. Behaviour change experts (n = 3) content-analysed MI techniques based on Miller and Rollnick's [(2013). Motivational interviewing: Preparing people for change (3rd ed.). New York: Guildford Press] conceptualisation. Each technique was then coded for independence and uniqueness by independent experts (n = 10). The experts also compared each MI technique to those from the BCTTv1. Experts identified 38 distinct MI techniques with high agreement on clarity, uniqueness, preciseness, and distinctiveness ratings. Of the identified techniques, 16 were classified as relational techniques. The remaining 22 techniques were classified as content based. Sixteen of the MI techniques were identified as having substantial overlap with techniques from the BCTTv1. The isolation and classification of MI techniques will provide researchers with the necessary tools to clearly specify MI interventions and test the main and interactive effects of the techniques on health behaviour. The distinction between relational and content-based techniques within MI is also an important advance, recognising that changes in motivation and behaviour in MI is a function of both intervention content and the interpersonal style

  2. Update on procedure-related risks for prenatal diagnosis techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tabor, Ann; Alfirevic, Zarko

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: As a consequence of the introduction of effective screening methods, the number of invasive prenatal diagnostic procedures is steadily declining. The aim of this review is to summarize the risks related to these procedures. Material and Methods: Review of the literature. Results: Data...... from randomised controlled trials as well as from systematic reviews and a large national registry study are consistent with a procedure-related miscarriage rate of 0.5-1.0% for amniocentesis as well as for chorionic villus sampling (CVS). In single-center studies performance may be remarkably good due...... not be performed before 15 + 0 weeks' gestation. CVS on the other hand should not be performed before 10 weeks' gestation due to a possible increase in risk of limb reduction defects. Discussion: Experienced operators have a higher success rate and a lower complication rate. The decreasing number of prenatal...

  3. Observing cataclysmic variables and related objects with different techniques

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimon, Vojtěch

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 83, č. 2 (2012), s. 675-682 ISSN 0037-8720. [Workshop on the golden age of cataclysmic variables and related objects /2./. Palermo , 09.09.2013-14.09.2013] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/08/1207 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : X-rays * binaries * circumstellar matter Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  4. Scanning tunneling microscopy - STM: history, principle, construction, and related techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostadal, I.; Sobotik, P.

    1998-01-01

    The method of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) is discussed. The principle of STM and some other related methods is highlighted, and spectroscopy using STM is dealt with. A brief summary is given of problems to be solved in microscope design, and the influence of these on the resolution obtained is presented. A comparison of STM with other methods used at present in the physics of thin films and surfaces confirms its irreplaceability

  5. An appraisal of neutron activation analysis and other analytical techniques for the determination of arsenic, selenium and tin in environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, P.J.; Girling, C.A.; Klumpp, D.W.; Minski, M.J.

    1979-01-01

    The paper presents an experimental comparison between neutron activation analysis, atomic absorption spectrophotometry and fluorescence spectrophotometry used for the determination of trace amounts of As, Se and Sn and the other two analytical techniques mentioned. Gamma-ray spectrometry has been used to determine 76 As (tsub(1/2)=26.3 h) after 1 day's irradiation at a thermal neutron flux of 1.6x10 12 n.cm -2 .s -1 . High sensitivity was also obtained using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer coupled with covalent hydride generation. Advantages of the latter technique include simplicity of operation, high speed of analysis and negligible background correction. When used in conjuction with selective reduction and a cold-trap this method quantitatively distinguishes between the valence states and some methylated derivatives. Selenium has been analysed by gamma-ray spectrometry using 77 Sesup(m) (tsub(1/2)=17.5 s) after cyclic activation at a thermal neutron flux of 2x10 12 n.cm -2 .s -1 . Atomic absorption spectrophotometry following hydride generation, or fluorescence spectrophotometry of the 2,3 diaminonaphthalene complex constitute additional sensitive analytical methods for the determination of Se. These have the added advantage that valence states can be selectively measured. Low concentrations of Sn have been determined by neutron activation analysis and by spectrophotometric techniques using phenylfluorone as the complexing reagent, but these methods depend on selective extraction of Sn(IV) iodide. Whilst maintaining high sensitivity, these problems were avoided by using the hydride generation technique with an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Comparative analytical values for Bowen's kale and NBS orchard leaves are presented

  6. Contribution of analytical nuclear techniques in the reconstruction of the Brazilian pre-history analysing archaeological ceramics of Tupiguarani tradition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faria, Gleikam Lopes de Oliveira; Menezes, Maria Angela de B.C.; Silva, Maria Aparecida

    2011-01-01

    Due to the high importance of the material vestiges for a culture of a nation, the Brazilian Council for Environment determined that the license to establish new enterprises are subjected to a technical report concerning environmental impact, including archaeological sites affected by that enterprise. Therefore, answering the report related to the Program for Prospection and Rescue of the Archaeological Patrimony of the Areas impacted by the installation of the Second Line of Samarco Mining Pipeline, the archaeological interventions were carried out along the coast of Espirito Santo. Tupi-Guarani Tradition vestiges were found there, where the main evidence was a interesting ceramics. Archaeology can fill the gap between ancient population and modern society elucidating the evidences found in archaeological sites. In this context, several ceramic fragments found in the archaeological sites - Hiuton and Bota-Fora - were analyzed by neutron activation technique, k 0-standardization method, at CDTN using the TRIGA MARK I IPR-R1 reactor, in order to characterize their elemental composition. The elements As, Ba, Br, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Ga, Hf, K, La, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th, U, Yb, Zn and Zr were determined. Applying R software, a robust multivariate statistical analysis, the results pointed out that the pottery from the sites was made with clay from different sources. The X-ray powder diffraction analyses were carried out to determine the mineral composition and Moessbauer spectroscopy was applied to provide information on both the degree of burning and atmosphere in order to reconstruct the Indian burning strategies temperature used on pottery production. (author)

  7. Studies on osteoporosis in Chile using isotope-related techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobo, G.

    1998-01-01

    The relationship found between BMD of the lumbar spine with the anthropomorphic parameters (age, sex, body size and bone area) in the normal Chilean population studied, was different from the relationship found between BMD of both hips with the same parameters. To determine peak bone mass it is necessary to increase the number of individuals studied. This is specially true for BMD of the lumbar spine. It seems important for the correct interpretation of BMD studies to determine local values for normals, specially for the analysis of BMD in the lumbar spine, which is related to body and bone size. It is necessary to normalize the data base for anthropomorphic parameters specially in epidemiological studies. Knowledge of these parameters for the normal data base used in the different densitometers is highly desirable. There are some differences between this data base and that provided by Hologic, specially for spine in both sexes. This difference could be explained by size related factors. There is a correlation between osteocalcin levels and BMD in lumbar spine and both femoral necks only in women

  8. Construction of an analytic-realistic phantom for adaptation of the radiographic techniques in any conventional X-ray equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pina, D.R.; Ghilardi Netto, T.; Trad, C.S.; Brochi, M.A. Corte; Duarte, S.B.; Pina, S.R.

    2001-01-01

    In the present work we construct a homogeneous phantom, for calibrating the X-ray beam. Each homogeneous phantom was used in the time-scale sensitometric method for obtaining a radiographic technique which is able to produce in the film, an optical density around 1,0 higher than the density of base plus fog. These radiographic techniques were applied in a anthropomorphic phantom (Rando) and its images were analyzed by specialists in radiology. They identified the best image and then a ideal radiographic technique for a standard patient with smaller doses, at any conventional X-ray equipment. (author)

  9. A REVIEW ON THE ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES USED FOR THE DETERMINATION OF PARACETAMOL IN PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATIONS AND BIOLOGICAL FLUIDS

    OpenAIRE

    Aisha Noreen; Kiran Qadeer; Zubair Anwar; Iqbal Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Paracetamol (PM) is an active metabolite of phenacetin and belongs to p-aminophenol derivatives. It is also termed as acetaminophen. PM is one of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) which is used as an analgesic and antipyretic agent. It is an OTC drug and is used as a common household analgesic. It is not used as a substitute of aspirin or any other NSAIDs. It is a weak cyclooxygenase (COX) 1 and 2 inhibitor but may inhibit COX-3 in the central nervous system. Many analytical ...

  10. Hyphenated techniques in multidimensional gas chromatography for analysis of wine aroma and related odorants

    OpenAIRE

    Chin, Sung Tong

    2017-01-01

    The advent of analytical multidimensional gas chromatography (MDGC) techniques, with recent development in comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) as well as microfluidic technology in conventional heart-cut MDGC, has achieved excellent separation efficiency for advanced characterization of complex volatile and semi-volatile samples, which is unlikely to be accomplished by single dimensional chromatography. This dissertation work has highlighted the potential opportunities fo...

  11. International Congress on Analytical Chemistry. Abstracts. V. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The collection of materials of the international congress on analytical chemistry taken place in Moscow in June 1997. The main directs of investigations in such regions of analytical chemistry as quantitative and qualitative analysis, microanalysis, sample preparation and preconcentration, analytical reagents, chromatography and related techniques, flow analysis, electroanalytical and kinetic methods sensors are elucidated

  12. Eye movement dysfunction in first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia: a meta-analytic evaluation of candidate endophenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calkins, Monica E; Iacono, William G; Ones, Deniz S

    2008-12-01

    Several forms of eye movement dysfunction (EMD) are regarded as promising candidate endophenotypes of schizophrenia. Discrepancies in individual study results have led to inconsistent conclusions regarding particular aspects of EMD in relatives of schizophrenia patients. To quantitatively evaluate and compare the candidacy of smooth pursuit, saccade and fixation deficits in first-degree biological relatives, we conducted a set of meta-analytic investigations. Among 18 measures of EMD, memory-guided saccade accuracy and error rate, global smooth pursuit dysfunction, intrusive saccades during fixation, antisaccade error rate and smooth pursuit closed-loop gain emerged as best differentiating relatives from controls (standardized mean differences ranged from .46 to .66), with no significant differences among these measures. Anticipatory saccades, but no other smooth pursuit component measures were also increased in relatives. Visually-guided reflexive saccades were largely normal. Moderator analyses examining design characteristics revealed few variables affecting the magnitude of the meta-analytically observed effects. Moderate effect sizes of relatives v. controls in selective aspects of EMD supports their endophenotype potential. Future work should focus on facilitating endophenotype utility through attention to heterogeneity of EMD performance, relationships among forms of EMD, and application in molecular genetics studies.

  13. DECISIONS, METHODS AND TECHNIQUES RELATED TO DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEMS (DSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boghean Florin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Generalised uncertainty, a phenomenon that today’s managers are facing as part of their professional experience, makes it impossible to anticipate the way the business environment will evolve or what will be the consequences of the decisions they plan to implement. Any decision making process within the company entails the simultaneous presence of a number of economic, technical, juridical, human and managerial variables. The development and the approval of a decision is the result of decision making activities developed by the decision maker and sometimes by a decision support team or/and a decision support system (DSS. These aspects related to specific applications of decision support systems in risk management will be approached in this research paper. Decisions in general and management decisions in particular are associated with numerous risks, due to their complexity and increasing contextual orientation. In each business entity, there are concerns with the implementation of risk management in order to improve the likelihood of meeting objectives, the trust of the parties involved, increase the operational safety and security as well as the protection of the environment, minimise losses, improve organisational resilience in order to diminish the negative impact on the organisation and provide a solid foundation for decision making. Since any business entity is considered to be a wealth generator, the analysis of their performance should not be restricted to financial efficiency alone, but will also encompass their economic efficiency as well. The type of research developed in this paper entails different dimensions: conceptual, methodological, as well as empirical testing. Subsequently, the conducted research entails a methodological side, since the conducted activities have resulted in the presentation of a simulation model that is useful in decision making processes on the capital market. The research conducted in the present paper

  14. Studies of osteoporosis in Singapore using isotope related technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bose, K.; Goh, J.; Lee Soon Tai; Shamal Das De

    1996-01-01

    The main objectives of this study will be to determine the bone density in selected populations for the purposes of i)determining the age of peak bone mass in each study group and ii)quantifying the differences in bone density as functions of the age and sex of persons in the study group as well as quantifying the differences between study groups in different countries. Normal healthy subjects of both sexes across the age range of 15-50 will be recruited for this programme. There will be at least 15 subjects in each 5 year age range (i.e. a total of 105 subjects of each sex). The subjects will be of urban residency. The project will take a maximum of five years. Volunteers will be recruited from the hospital personnel and their friends and relatives. The subjects will be healthy individuals with no history of fractures and they should not be on any medication which may affect the bone density. A questionnaire regarding their lifestyle factors such as exercise, coffee/tea/alcohol intake and medication be filled. The subjects will also have X-rays of the dorsolumbar spine taken to ascertain the absence of scoliosis or crush fractures. Bone mineral density will be measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry using a Norland XR-26 bone densitometer. The BMD in the L2-L4 region of the lumbar spine and right hip which includes the femoral neck, trochanter and Ward's triangle will be scanned. Body composition will also be determined by doing a whole body scan on the subjects. Autopsy samples of rib bones from healthy accident victims in the age range 20-50 years will be obtained and the biomechanical strength of these bones will be tested. Biopsy specimens of the iliac crest will also be obtained to study the differences in trace element composition between osteoporotic patients and controls. (author)

  15. A note on the solution of general Falkner-Skan problem by two novel semi-analytical techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Khidir

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to give a presentation of two new iterative methods for solving non-linear differential equations, they are successive linearisation method and spectral homotopy perturbation method. We applied these techniques on the non-linear boundary value problems of Falkner-Skan type. The methods used to find a recursive former for higher order equations that are solved using the Chebyshev spectral method to find solutions that are accurate and converge rapidly to the full numerical solution. The methods are illustrated by progressively applying the technique to the Blasius boundary layer equation, the Falkner-Skan equation and finally, the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD Falkner-Skan equation. The solutions are compared to other methods in the literature such as the homotopy analysis method and the spectral-homotopy analysis method with focus on the accuracy and convergence of this new techniques.

  16. Final report of the IAEA advisory group meeting on accelerator-based nuclear analytical techniques for characterization and source identification of aerosol particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    The field of aerosol characterization and source identification covers a wide range of scientific and technical activities in many institutions, in both developed and developing countries. This field includes research and applications on urban air pollution, source apportionment of suspended particulate matter, radioactive aerosol particles, organic compounds carried on particulate matter, elemental characterization of particles, and other areas. The subject of this AGM focused on the use of accelerator-based nuclear analytical techniques for determination of elemental composition of particles (by either bulk or single particle analysis) and the use of accumulated knowledge for source identification.

  17. Final report of the IAEA advisory group meeting on accelerator-based nuclear analytical techniques for characterization and source identification of aerosol particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The field of aerosol characterization and source identification covers a wide range of scientific and technical activities in many institutions, in both developed and developing countries. This field includes research and applications on urban air pollution, source apportionment of suspended particulate matter, radioactive aerosol particles, organic compounds carried on particulate matter, elemental characterization of particles, and other areas. The subject of this AGM focused on the use of accelerator-based nuclear analytical techniques for determination of elemental composition of particles (by either bulk or single particle analysis) and the use of accumulated knowledge for source identification

  18. Analytical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    The division for Analytical Chemistry continued to try and develope an accurate method for the separation of trace amounts from mixtures which, contain various other elements. Ion exchange chromatography is of special importance in this regard. New separation techniques were tried on certain trace amounts in South African standard rock materials and special ceramics. Methods were also tested for the separation of carrier-free radioisotopes from irradiated cyclotron discs

  19. Theory of stochastic differential equations with jumps and applications mathematical and analytical techniques with applications to engineering

    CERN Document Server

    SITU, Rong

    2005-01-01

    Derivation of Ito's formulas, Girsanov's theorems and martingale representation theorem for stochastic DEs with jumpsApplications to population controlReflecting stochastic DE techniqueApplications to the stock market. (Backward stochastic DE approach)Derivation of Black-Scholes formula for market with and without jumpsNon-linear filtering problems with jumps.

  20. Determination of total iron in iron ore by x-ray fluorescence analysis using the Compton effect: comparison with others analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castilho, M.V. de; Oliveira, R.C.

    1991-01-01

    Total iron in iron ores is determines by X-ray fluorescence analysis method using the compton effect. The Bragg angle is determined for compton no-coherent scattering related to K alpha of Rhodium. This measurement procedure can be used for best fitting of analytical results in X-ray fluorescence, when compared with others methods used for results corrections. (M.V.M.)

  1. Screening key parameters related to passive system performance based on Analytic Hierarchy Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Guohang; Yu, Yu; Huang, Xiong; Peng, Yuan; Ma, Nan; Shan, Zuhua; Niu, Fenglei; Wang, Shengfei

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • An improved AHP method is presented for screening key parameters used in passive system reliability analysis. • We take the special bottom parameters as criterion for calculation and the abrupt change of the results are verified. • Combination weights are also affected by uncertainty of input parameters. - Abstract: Passive safety system is widely used in the new generation nuclear power plant (NPP) designs such as AP1000 to improve the reactor safety benefitting from its simple construction and less request for human intervene. However, the functional failure induced by uncertainty in the system thermal–hydraulic (T–H) performance becomes one of the main contributors to system operational failure since the system operates based on natural circulation, which should be considered in the system reliability evaluation. In order to improve the calculation efficiency the key parameters which significantly affect the system T–H characteristics can be screened and then be analyzed in detail. The Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) is one of the efficient methods to analyze the influence of the parameters on a passive system based on the experts’ experience. The passive containment cooling system (PCCS) in AP1000 is one of the typical passive safety systems, nevertheless too many parameters need to be analyzed and the T–H model itself is more complicated, so the traditional AHP method should be mended to use for screening key parameters efficiently. In this paper, we adapt the improved method in hierarchy construction and experts’ opinions integration, some parameters at the bottom justly in the traditional hierarchy are studied as criterion layer in improved AHP, the rationality of the method and the effect of abrupt change with the data are verified. The passive containment cooling system (PCCS) in AP1000 is evaluated as an example, and four key parameters are selected from 49 inputs

  2. Development of the double-pulse technique to improve the analytical performance of Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) on solids: Nuclear and geological applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautier, C.

    2005-10-01

    The double-pulse technique has been developed to improve the analytical performance of Laser Ablation coupled to Optical Emission Spectroscopy (LA/OES). This approach relies on the addition of a second time-resolved laser pulse to the classical LA/OES system. It has been studied on aluminium alloys according to different geometries of the two laser beams (orthogonal and collinear geometries) before being applied to different materials (synthetic glass, rock, steel, sodium chloride). The increase in emission intensity depends on the temporal parameters, on the excitation energy level of the emission line, on the concentration of the studied element and on the analyzed matrix. The double-pulse LA/OES technique can be particularly interesting to improve the sensitivity towards vitreous matrices containing elements emitting lines with high excitation energy levels. (author)

  3. Proceedings of firsts workshop on Nuclear and related techniques in health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The book presents papers submitted to the first Workshop on Nuclear and related techniques in health that was holder at the first International Symposium on Nuclear and Related Techniques in Agriculture, held in Havana, Cuba, on October 28 th and 30 th, 1997

  4. The Relational Impact of Multiple Sclerosis: An Integrative Review of the Literature Using a Cognitive Analytic Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blundell Jones, Joanna; Walsh, Sue; Isaac, Claire

    2017-12-01

    This integrative literature review uses cognitive analytic therapy (CAT) theory to examine the impact of a chronic illness, multiple sclerosis (MS), on relationships and mental health. Electronic searches were conducted in six medical and social science databases. Thirty-eight articles met inclusion criteria, and also satisfied quality criteria. Articles revealed that MS-related demands change care needs and alter relationships. Using a CAT framework, the MS literature was analysed, and five key patterns of relating to oneself and to others were identified. A diagrammatic formulation is proposed that interconnects these patterns with wellbeing and suggests potential "exits" to improve mental health, for example, assisting families to minimise overprotection. Application of CAT analysis to the literature clarifies relational processes that may affect mental health among individuals with MS, which hopefully will inform how services assist in reducing unhelpful patterns and improve coping. Further investigation of the identified patterns is needed.

  5. Various analytical techniques used for the measurement of isotopic purity of heavy water at Madras Atomic Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satyanarayanan, V.; Umapathy, P.; Bhaskaran, R.; Nagarajan, J.; Pradeep, Jeena; Ayyar, S.R.

    2008-01-01

    The paper deals with the various techniques used for the measurement of isotopic purity of heavy water samples received from different sources viz. reactor systems, heavy water upgrading plant and fresh consignment from heavy water production plants. Heavy water is used in PHWRs as moderator and primary coolant. Isotopic Purity is an important parameter to be monitored/analysed regularly for both the systems. There is a minimum isotopic purity level to be maintained in the moderator system due to neutron economy/fuel burnup and in the case of coolant system the measurement is of paramount importance due to its safety considerations. The selection of the method of analysis depends on the isotopic range. The techniques used to measure the isotopic purity of heavy water are a) Infrared Spectrophotometry b) Refractometry c) Densitometry. Infrared spectrometer uses the property of molecular absorption of IR radiation by HOD species and the absorbance is the measure of isotopic purity. This technique is generally used for measuring high isotopic (80-99.98%) and low isotopic samples. Refractometer uses the property of refractive index of heavy water. The difference in refractive indices of light water and heavy water is 0.0048. A 1 % change in D 2 O concentration would thus equal to 0.000048 refractive index units. This method is used for determining the approximate isotopic value of a sample. Density meter uses the property of difference in densities of light and heavy water. The difference in density of 99.999% D 2 O and light water is 0.107540 which covers the whole range of interest. The experience gained with these techniques in the measurements of isotopic purity of various samples are presented in this paper. (author)

  6. Comparison of 4 analytical techniques based on atomic spectrometry for the determination of total tin in canned foodstuffs

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Different techniques for the determination of total tin in beverage and canned food by atomic spectrometry were compared. The performance characteristics of Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS), Hydride Generation Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (HG-ICP-AES), Electrothermal Atomization Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (ETA-AAS) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES) were determined in term of linearity, ...

  7. Characterization and source term assessments of radioactive particles from Marshall Islands using non-destructive analytical techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jernström, J.; Eriksson, M.; Simon, R.; Tamborini, G.; Bildstein, O.; Marquez, R. Carlos; Kehl, S. R.; Hamilton, T. F.; Ranebo, Y.; Betti, M.

    2006-08-01

    Six plutonium-containing particles stemming from Runit Island soil (Marshall Islands) were characterized by non-destructive analytical and microanalytical methods. Composition and elemental distribution in the particles were studied with synchrotron radiation based micro X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Scanning electron microscope equipped with energy dispersive X-ray detector and with wavelength dispersive system as well as a secondary ion mass spectrometer were used to examine particle surfaces. Based on the elemental composition the particles were divided into two groups: particles with pure Pu matrix, and particles where the plutonium is included in Si/O-rich matrix being more heterogenously distributed. All of the particles were identified as nuclear fuel fragments of exploded weapon components. As containing plutonium with low 240Pu/ 239Pu atomic ratio, less than 0.065, which corresponds to weapons-grade plutonium or a detonation with low fission yield, the particles were identified to originate from the safety test and low-yield tests conducted in the history of Runit Island. The Si/O-rich particles contained traces of 137Cs ( 239 + 240 Pu/ 137Cs activity ratio higher than 2500), which indicated that a minor fission process occurred during the explosion. The average 241Am/ 239Pu atomic ratio in the six particles was 3.7 × 10 - 3 ± 0.2 × 10 - 3 (February 2006), which indicated that plutonium in the different particles had similar age.

  8. A Novel Environmental Performance Evaluation of Thailand’s Food Industry Using Structural Equation Modeling and Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anirut Pipatprapa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the environment and sustainability are important topics for every industry. The food industry is particularly complicated in this regard because of the dynamic and complex character of food products and their production. This study uses structural equation modeling (SEM and a fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP to investigate which factors are suitable for evaluating the environmental performance of Thailand’s food industry. A first-stage questionnaire survey was conducted with 178 managers in the food industry that obtained a certificate from the Department of Industrial Work of Thailand to synthesize the performance measurement model and the significance of the relationship between the indicators. A second-stage questionnaire measured 18 experts’ priorities regarding the criteria and sub-factors involved in the different aspects and assessment items regarding environmental performance. SEM showed that quality management, market orientation, and innovation capability have a significantly positive effect on environmental performance. The FAHP showed that the experts were most concerned about quality management, followed by market orientation and innovation capability; the assessment items for quality policy, quality assurance, and customer orientation were of the most concern. The findings of this study can be referenced and support managerial decision making when monitoring environmental performance.

  9. Characterization and source term assessments of radioactive particles from Marshall Islands using non-destructive analytical techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jernstroem, J. [Laboratory of Radiochemistry, Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 55, FI-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland)]. E-mail: jussi.jernstrom@helsinki.fi; Eriksson, M. [IAEA-MEL, International Atomic Energy Agency - Marine Environment Laboratory, 4 Quai Antoine 1er, MC 98000 Monaco (Monaco); Simon, R. [Institute for Synchrotron Radiation, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Tamborini, G. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements, P.O. Box 2340, D-76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Bildstein, O. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements, P.O. Box 2340, D-76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Marquez, R. Carlos [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements, P.O. Box 2340, D-76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Kehl, S.R. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, CA 94551-0808 (United States); Hamilton, T.F. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, CA 94551-0808 (United States); Ranebo, Y. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements, P.O. Box 2340, D-76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Betti, M. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements, P.O. Box 2340, D-76125 Karlsruhe (Germany)]. E-mail: maria.betti@ec.europa.eu

    2006-08-15

    Six plutonium-containing particles stemming from Runit Island soil (Marshall Islands) were characterized by non-destructive analytical and microanalytical methods. Composition and elemental distribution in the particles were studied with synchrotron radiation based micro X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Scanning electron microscope equipped with energy dispersive X-ray detector and with wavelength dispersive system as well as a secondary ion mass spectrometer were used to examine particle surfaces. Based on the elemental composition the particles were divided into two groups: particles with pure Pu matrix, and particles where the plutonium is included in Si/O-rich matrix being more heterogenously distributed. All of the particles were identified as nuclear fuel fragments of exploded weapon components. As containing plutonium with low {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atomic ratio, less than 0.065, which corresponds to weapons-grade plutonium or a detonation with low fission yield, the particles were identified to originate from the safety test and low-yield tests conducted in the history of Runit Island. The Si/O-rich particles contained traces of {sup 137}Cs ({sup 239+240}Pu/{sup 137}Cs activity ratio higher than 2500), which indicated that a minor fission process occurred during the explosion. The average {sup 241}Am/{sup 239}Pu atomic ratio in the six particles was 3.7 x 10{sup -3} {+-} 0.2 x 10{sup -3} (February 2006), which indicated that plutonium in the different particles had similar age.

  10. Development of an analytical model for the determination of 60Co in aqueous samples by atomic absorption and gamma spectrometry techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solis A, N. A.

    2015-01-01

    The applications of the nuclear energy in industry and medicine generate radioactive wastes that must be isolated and confined in order to limit its spread in the biosphere. These types of wastes are generated in hospitals, industry, research centers and nuclear power plants (during de fuel cycle). The radioactive elements (radionuclides) cannot be destroyed by any known method, either chemical or mechanical. Its final destruction is produced by radioactive decay, which makes them stable isotopes, or nuclear transmutation being bombarded with atomic particles. Consequently, the radioactive waste management is to control the radioactive discharges and reduce to tolerable limits, eliminating of effluents and wastes the radionuclides of interest, concentrating them so they can be stored or evacuated so that later not appear in dangerous concentration in the biosphere. In Mexico, the main generators of radioactive wastes are the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde in Veracruz, Hospitals of the public and private sector, in addition Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) some institutes and facilities of the UNAM and Instituto Politecnico Nacional (IPN) and industries among others. The aqueous radioactive wastes, particularly those from the nuclear power plants contain traces of cobalt-60. Currently there is no model or analytical technique for the separation of this radionuclide, so it became necessary to develop an analytical model for separation and facilitate their disposal. In this paper was shown that atomic absorption and gamma spectrometry techniques can separate the active concentration of the inactive, which is important because the total concentration can be associated through direct relationships with the wear of metal parts of the nuclear reactor, since the metal alloys of the same reactor containing a fraction of cobalt. Also this analytical and mathematical model that can be reproducible and applicable to full sets of samples and that this

  11. Cultural intelligence and work-related outcomes: A meta-analytic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlaegel, Christopher; Richter, Nicole Franziska; Taras, Vas

    2017-01-01

    -cultural work context. Tests of the relative incremental validity show that CQ and its dimensions explain desirable work outcomes beyond the effect of personality traits and emotional intelligence. The results of commonality analysis reveal the unique and shared contribution of CQ dimensions in explaining......Over the last 15 years the research on cultural intelligence (CQ) has grown to a point that a quantitative synthesis of the existing empirical evidence on the relationship between CQ and work-related outcomes is needed to provide a foundation for future research in this direction. Based on 110...

  12. The composition-explicit distillation curve technique: Relating chemical analysis and physical properties of complex fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Thomas J; Ott, Lisa S; Lovestead, Tara M; Huber, Marcia L

    2010-04-16

    The analysis of complex fluids such as crude oils, fuels, vegetable oils and mixed waste streams poses significant challenges arising primarily from the multiplicity of components, the different properties of the components (polarity, polarizability, etc.) and matrix properties. We have recently introduced an analytical strategy that simplifies many of these analyses, and provides the added potential of linking compositional information with physical property information. This aspect can be used to facilitate equation of state development for the complex fluids. In addition to chemical characterization, the approach provides the ability to calculate thermodynamic properties for such complex heterogeneous streams. The technique is based on the advanced distillation curve (ADC) metrology, which separates a complex fluid by distillation into fractions that are sampled, and for which thermodynamically consistent temperatures are measured at atmospheric pressure. The collected sample fractions can be analyzed by any method that is appropriate. The analytical methods we have applied include gas chromatography (with flame ionization, mass spectrometric and sulfur chemiluminescence detection), thin layer chromatography, FTIR, corrosivity analysis, neutron activation analysis and cold neutron prompt gamma activation analysis. By far, the most widely used analytical technique we have used with the ADC is gas chromatography. This has enabled us to study finished fuels (gasoline, diesel fuels, aviation fuels, rocket propellants), crude oils (including a crude oil made from swine manure) and waste oils streams (used automotive and transformer oils). In this special issue of the Journal of Chromatography, specifically dedicated to extraction technologies, we describe the essential features of the advanced distillation curve metrology as an analytical strategy for complex fluids. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Contributions of radiochemistry and nuclear analytical techniques to society and technology: some examples of 35 years’ experience in Delft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bode, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Budget cuts and the oscillating public debates on the benefits of nuclear research reactor facilities are a continuous threat to many nuclear institutions. University affiliated institutions often face additional problems if their facilities offer sufficient scientific challenge and if an education in nuclear sciences provide students a sound outlook for a professional career. Such discussions may be an excuse for non-fulfilment of vacancies and reduced priority in the academic curriculum. Universities tend to reallocate their funds to more contemporary sciences such as molecular biology and nanotechnology. Their choices are based on relevance, quality viability and productivity. Relevance is often measured on the basis of external funding of research programs as well as on career opportunities for students. However, the areas with opportunities for external funding are largely determined by socio-economic developments, sometimes even at the (inter)national political level. The thematic areas in the scientific Framework Programs of the European Union illustrate this. The relevance and viability of an expensive facility like a nuclear reactor centre can also be demonstrated by making the facilities available to provide measurements on request by outsiders. Ideally, such services should be sustainable, but even the existence may lead to consider the centre being of regional or national importance. Nuclear reactor centres have various options for such services, like production of radionuclides; neutron transmutation doping; neutron activation analysis; neutron radiography and others. This contribution gives examples of the typical analytical services provided by the Interuniversity Reactor Institute of the Delft University of Technology. This institute houses the only university research reactor in the Netherlands, a 2 MW swimming pool reactor, with associated facilities for neutron research, neutron activation and radiochemistry. Within the services provided by the

  14. Development of analytical techniques for studies on dispersion of actinides in the environment and characterization of environmental radioactive particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jernstroem, J.

    2006-01-01

    Radioactive particles from three locations were investigated for elemental composition, oxidation states of matrix elements, and origin. Instrumental techniques applied to the task were scanning electron microscopy, X-ray and gamma-ray spectrometry, secondary ion mass spectrometry, and synchrotron radiation based microanalytical techniques comprising X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, X-ray fluorescence tomography, and X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy. Uranium-containing low activity particles collected from Irish Sea sediments were characterized in terms of composition and distribution of matrix elements and the oxidation states of uranium. Indications of the origin were obtained from the intensity ratios and the presence of thorium, uranium, and plutonium. Uranium in the particles was found to exist mostly as U(IV). Studies on plutonium particles from Runit Island (Marshall Islands) soil indicated that the samples were weapon fuel fragments originating from two separate detonations: a safety test and a low-yield test. The plutonium in the particles was found to be of similar age. The distribution and oxidation states of uranium and plutonium in the matrix of weapon fuel particles from Thule (Greenland) sediments were investigated. The variations in intensity ratios observed with different techniques indicated more than one origin. Uranium in particle matrixes was mostly U(IV), but plutonium existed in some particles mainly as Pu(IV), and in others mainly as oxidized Pu(VI). The results demonstrated that the various techniques were effectively applied in the characterization of environmental radioactive particles. An on-line method was developed for separating americium from environmental samples. The procedure utilizes extraction chromatography to separate americium from light lanthanides, and cation exchange to concentrate americium before the final separation in an ion chromatography column. The separated radiochemically pure americium fraction

  15. Application of Nuclear Analytical Techniques in Elemental Characterization of Wadi El-Nakhil Alabaster, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Zain M. Alamoudi; A. El-Taher

    2016-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) is a powerful technique for trace element determination in rocks. Nine alabaster samples were collected from Wadi El-Nakhil located at the intersection of lat. 26°10′50′′N and long. 34°03′40′′E, central Eastern Desert, Egypt, for investigation by INAA and Energy Depressive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF). The samples were irradiated by thermal neutrons at the TRIGA Mainz research reactor at a neutron flux of 7 × 1011 n/cm2·s. Twenty-two elements were...

  16. Development of analytical techniques for studies on dispersion of actinides in the environment and characterization of environmental radioactive particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jernstroem, J.

    2006-07-01

    Radioactive particles from three locations were investigated for elemental composition, oxidation states of matrix elements, and origin. Instrumental techniques applied to the task were scanning electron microscopy, X-ray and gamma-ray spectrometry, secondary ion mass spectrometry, and synchrotron radiation based microanalytical techniques comprising X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, X-ray fluorescence tomography, and X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy. Uranium-containing low activity particles collected from Irish Sea sediments were characterized in terms of composition and distribution of matrix elements and the oxidation states of uranium. Indications of the origin were obtained from the intensity ratios and the presence of thorium, uranium, and plutonium. Uranium in the particles was found to exist mostly as U(IV). Studies on plutonium particles from Runit Island (Marshall Islands) soil indicated that the samples were weapon fuel fragments originating from two separate detonations: a safety test and a low-yield test. The plutonium in the particles was found to be of similar age. The distribution and oxidation states of uranium and plutonium in the matrix of weapon fuel particles from Thule (Greenland) sediments were investigated. The variations in intensity ratios observed with different techniques indicated more than one origin. Uranium in particle matrixes was mostly U(IV), but plutonium existed in some particles mainly as Pu(IV), and in others mainly as oxidized Pu(VI). The results demonstrated that the various techniques were effectively applied in the characterization of environmental radioactive particles. An on-line method was developed for separating americium from environmental samples. The procedure utilizes extraction chromatography to separate americium from light lanthanides, and cation exchange to concentrate americium before the final separation in an ion chromatography column. The separated radiochemically pure americium fraction

  17. Enhancement of Near-Real-Time Cloud Analysis and Related Analytic Support for Whole Sky Imagers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shields, Janet E; Karr, Monette E; Burden, Art R; Johnson, Richard W; Hodgkiss, William S

    2007-01-01

    ... DO #4, between 25 May 01 and 31 September 06. This work relates to the Air Force s need to characterize the cloud distribution during day and night, for a variety of applications, including support of satellite tracking, and support of research...

  18. A Comparative Study of Fouling and Bottom Ash from Woody Biomass Combustion in a Fixed-Bed Small-Scale Boiler and Evaluation of the Analytical Techniques Used

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Febrero

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, fouling and bottom ash were collected from a low-power boiler after wood pellet combustion and studied using several analytical techniques to characterize and compare samples from different areas and determine the suitability of the analysis techniques employed. TGA results indicated that the fouling contained a high amount of organic matter (70%. The XRF and SEM-EDS measurements revealed that Ca and K are the main inorganic elements and exhibit clear tendency in the content of Cl that is negligible in the bottom ash and increased as it penetrated into the innermost layers of the fouling. Calcite, magnesia and silica appeared as the major crystalline phases in all the samples. However, the bottom ash was primarily comprised of calcium silicates. The KCl behaved identically to the Cl, preferably appeared in the adhered fouling samples. This salt, which has a low melting point, condenses upon contact with the low temperature tube and played a crucial role in the early stages of fouling formation. XRD was the most useful technique applied, which provided a semi-quantitative determination of the crystalline phases. FTIR was proven to be inadequate for this type of sample. The XRF and SEM-EDS, techniques yield similar results despite being entirely different.

  19. New analytical technique for establishing the quality of Soil Organic Matter affected by a wildfire. A first approach using Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Morillo, Nicasio T.; González-Pérez, José A.; Waggoner, Derek C.; Almendros, Gonzalo; González-Vila, Francisco J.; Hatcher, Patrick G.

    2016-04-01

    Introduction: Fire is one of the most important modulator factors of the environment and the forest. It is able to induce chemical and biological shifts and these, in turn, can alter the physical properties of soil. Generally, fire affects the most reactive fraction, soil organic matter (SOM) (González-Pérez et al., 2004) resulting in changes to several soil properties and functions. To study changes in SOM following a wildfire, researchers can count on several traditional as well as new analytical techniques. One of the most recently employed techniques is Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS). This new powerful ultra-high resolution mass spectral technique, together with graphic interpretation tools such as van Krevelen diagrams (Kim et al, 2003), may be used to shed light on alterations caused by the burning of SOM. The objective of this research is to study fire impacts on SOM, using a sandy soil collected under a Cork oak (Quercus suber) in Doñana National Park, Southwest Spain. that was affected by a wildfire in August 2012. Methods: The impact of fire on SOM was studied in various different sieve fractions (coarse, 1-2 mm, and fine, tannins, lignin, lipids, protein and carbohydrate derived. The unburnt SOM in the coarse fraction was mainly composed of compounds with a high intensity in the tannin-like, lignin-like and carbohydrate-like regions of the van Krevelen diagram, whereas the SOM in the fine fraction showed a high intensity in the lipid-like and protein-like regions. These results suggest that the SOM in the coarse fraction was less altered than that of the fine fraction; the latter believed to be subjected to higher microbial activity. We suggest that the observed changes occurs via a methylation process, producing a SOM that is highly humified (Jiménez-Morillo et al., 2014). The SOM in the coarse fraction affected by fire, showed a high relative intensity of chemical compounds in the carbohydrate-like and

  20. Evaluation of the pollution and the transport of heavy metals in the Lerma river, through nuclear analytical techniques (Second stage)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldape U, F.

    2004-12-01

    In this stage of the investigation work, the water quality indexes, the heavy metals concentration in the dissolved phase and in the sediments of the four samplings were determined, it was determined too the texture of the one sediment and the analyses of the suspended matter of the water and the relative abundance relative of particles by scanning electron microscopy and the determination of the crystalline structures of the sediment by means of X-ray diffraction. (Author)

  1. Using analytic derivatives to assess the impact of phase function Fourier decomposition technique on the accuracy of a radiative transfer model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanghavi, Suniti; Natraj, Vijay

    2013-01-01

    Fourier decomposition of the phase function is essential to decouple the azimuthal component of the radiative transfer equation for multiple scattering calculations. This decomposition can be carried out by means of a direct numerical method based on the definition of the Fourier transform (numFT), or by an expansion of the phase function in terms of spherical Legendre polynomials (sphFT). numFT requires interpolation of the phase function between discrete angles, leading to spurious errors in the final computations. This error is difficult to quantify by means of intensity-only computations, since it is hard to determine the absolute accuracy of any given approach. We show that a linearization (analytic computation of derivatives) of the intensity with respect to parameters governing the phase function can be compared against results using the finite difference method, thereby providing a self-consistency test for characterizing and quantifying the error. We have applied this approach to two linearized versions of the Matrix Operator Method, which are identical in all respects except that one uses numFT while the other uses sphFT. In both cases, we compute the derivatives of the intensity with respect to aerosol parameters governing scattering in the simulated atmosphere. Comparison of the derivatives against their finite difference estimates shows a reduction of error by several orders of magnitude when Legendre polynomials are employed. We have also examined the effect of the angular resolution of the phase function on the error due to the numFT technique. A general reduction of error is seen with increasing angular resolution, indicating that interpolation is indeed the major error source. Also, we have pointed out a related source of error in numFT computations that occurs when Fourier decomposition is carried out on the composite phase function of a layer consisting of more than one scatterer. We conclude that an expansion of the phase function in terms of

  2. The Rack-Gear Tool Generation Modelling. Non-Analytical Method Developed in CATIA, Using the Relative Generating Trajectories Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodor, V. G.; Baroiu, N.; Susac, F.; Oancea, N.

    2016-11-01

    The modelling of a curl of surfaces associated with a pair of rolling centrodes, when it is known the profile of the rack-gear's teeth profile, by direct measuring, as a coordinate matrix, has as goal the determining of the generating quality for an imposed kinematics of the relative motion of tool regarding the blank. In this way, it is possible to determine the generating geometrical error, as a base of the total error. The generation modelling allows highlighting the potential errors of the generating tool, in order to correct its profile, previously to use the tool in machining process. A method developed in CATIA is proposed, based on a new method, namely the method of “relative generating trajectories”. They are presented the analytical foundation, as so as some application for knows models of rack-gear type tools used on Maag teething machines.

  3. Investigations of Archaeological Glass Bracelets and Perfume Bottles Excavated in Ancient Ainos (Enez) by Multiple Analytical Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, S.; Akyuz, T.; Akyuz, S.; Ozel, A. E.; Kecel-Gunduz, S.; Basaran, S.

    2018-03-01

    Fragments of two perfume bottles belonging to the Hellenistic and Roman periods, and five bracelets belonging to the Roman, Byzantine, and Ottoman periods, excavated in the archaeological site of Enez during the excavations in 2000, have been investigated. The samples were analyzed using micro-Raman, FTIR, and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence techniques, in order to study the ancient technology of glass production and to determine chemical compositions of the basic components and coloring elements of the glassware. All the investigated glasses can be characterized as low-magnesia-soda-lime silicate glasses, whose colors are induced by metal ions. The melting points of the investigated glasses are estimated to be quite close to each other and around 1000°C.

  4. Measuring the Effectiveness of Visual Analytics and Data Fusion Techniques on Situation Awareness in Cyber-Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacobe, Nicklaus A.

    2013-01-01

    Cyber-security involves the monitoring a complex network of inter-related computers to prevent, identify and remediate from undesired actions. This work is performed in organizations by human analysts. These analysts monitor cyber-security sensors to develop and maintain situation awareness (SA) of both normal and abnormal activities that occur on…

  5. Econometric modeling of health care costs and expenditures: a survey of analytical issues and related policy considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullahy, John

    2009-07-01

    Econometric modeling of healthcare costs and expenditures has become an important component of decision-making across a wide array of real-world settings. The objective of this article is to provide a brief summary of important conceptual and analytical issues involved in econometric healthcare cost modeling. To this end, the article explores: outcome measures typically analyzed in such work; the decision maker's perspective in econometric cost modeling exercises; specific analytical issues in econometric model specification; statistical goodness-of-fit testing; empirical implications of "upper tail" (or "high cost") phenomena; and issues relating to the reporting of findings. Some of the concepts explored here are illustrated in light of samples drawn from the 2005 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey and the 2005 Nationwide Inpatient Sample. Analysts of healthcare cost data have at their disposal an increasingly sophisticated tool kit for analyzing such data that can in principle and in fact yield increasingly interesting insights into data structures. Yet for such analyses to usefully inform policy decisions, the manner in which such studies are designed, undertaken, and reported must accommodate considerations relevant to the decision-making community. The article concludes with some preliminary thoughts on how such bridges might be constructed.

  6. Neutron flux characterization of californium-252 Neutron Research Facility at the University of Texas - Pan American by nuclear analytical technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahid, Kareem; Sanchez, Patrick; Hannan, Mohammad

    2014-03-01

    In the field of nuclear science, neutron flux is an intrinsic property of nuclear reaction facilities that is the basis for experimental irradiation calculations and analysis. In the Rio Grande Valley (Texas), the UTPA Neutron Research Facility (NRF) is currently the only neutron facility available for experimental research purposes. The facility is comprised of a 20-microgram californium-252 neutron source surrounded by a shielding cascade containing different irradiation cavities. Thermal and fast neutron flux values for the UTPA NRF have yet to be fully investigated and may be of particular interest to biomedical studies in low neutron dose applications. Though a variety of techniques exist for the characterization of neutron flux, neutron activation analysis (NAA) of metal and nonmetal foils is a commonly utilized experimental method because of its detection sensitivity and availability. The aim of our current investigation is to employ foil activation in the determination of neutron flux values for the UTPA NSRF for further research purposes. Neutron spectrum unfolding of the acquired experimental data via specialized software and subsequent comparison for consistency with computational models lends confidence to the results.

  7. Insights into metals in individual fine particles from municipal solid waste using synchrotron radiation-based micro-analytical techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yumin; Zhang, Hua; Shao, Liming; He, Pinjing

    2015-01-01

    Excessive inter-contamination with heavy metals hampers the application of biological treatment products derived from mixed or mechanically-sorted municipal solid waste (MSW). In this study, we investigated fine particles of heavy metal content, using bulk detection techniques. A total of 17 individual fine particles were evaluated using synchrotron radiation-based micro-X-ray fluorescence and micro-X-ray diffraction. We also discussed the association, speciation and source apportionment of heavy metals. Metals were found to exist in a diffuse distribution with heterogeneous intensities and intense hot-spots of metals revealed the potential sources of fine particles from size-reduced waste fractions (such as scraps of organic wastes or ceramics) or from the importation of other particles. The diverse sources of heavy metal pollutants within the fine particles suggested that separate collection and treatment of the biodegradable waste fraction (such as food waste) is a preferable means of facilitating the beneficial utilization of the stabilized products. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Insights into metals in individual fine particles from municipal solid waste using synchrotron radiation-based micro-analytical techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yumin Zhu; Hua Zhang; Liming Shao; Pinjing He

    2015-01-01

    Excessive inter-contamination with heavy metals hampers the application of biological treatment products derived from mixed or mechanically-sorted municipal solid waste (MSW).In this study,we investigated fine particles of <2 mm,which are small fractions in MSW but constitute a significant component of the total heavy metal content,using bulk detection techniques.A total of 17 individual fine particles were evaluated using synchrotron radiation-based micro-X-ray fluorescence and micro-X-ray diffraction.We also discussed the association,speciation and source apportionment of heavy metals.Metals were found to exist in a diffuse distribution with heterogeneous intensities and intense hot-spots of <10 μm within the fine particles.Zn-Cu,Pb-Fe and Fe-Mn-Cr had significant correlations in terms of spatial distribution.The overlapped enrichment,spatial association,and the mineral phases of metals revealed the potential sources of fine particles from size-reduced waste fractions (such as scraps of organic wastes or ceramics) or from the importation of other particles.The diverse sources of heavy metal pollutants within the fine particles suggested that separate collection and treatment of the biodegradable waste fraction (such as food waste) is a preferable means of facilitating the beneficial utilization of the stabilized products.

  9. Direct Trace Element Analysis of Liquid Blood Samples by In-Air Ion Beam Analytical Techniques (PIXE-PIGE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huszank, Robert; Csedreki, László; Török, Zsófia

    2017-02-07

    There are various liquid materials whose elemental composition is of interest in various fields of science and technology. In many cases, sample preparation or the extraction can be complicated, or it would destroy the original environment before the analysis (for example, in the case of biological samples). However, multielement direct analysis of liquid samples can be realized by an external PIXE-PIGE measurement system. Particle-induced X-ray and gamma-ray emission spectroscopy (PIXE, PIGE) techniques were applied in external (in-air) microbeam configuration for the trace and main element determination of liquid samples. The direct analysis of standard solutions of several metal salts and human blood samples (whole blood, blood serum, blood plasma, and formed elements) was realized. From the blood samples, Na, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Br elemental concentrations were determined. The focused and scanned ion beam creates an opportunity to analyze very small volume samples (∼10 μL). As the sample matrix consists of light elements, the analysis is possible at ppm level. Using this external beam setup, it was found that it is possible to determine elemental composition of small-volume liquid samples routinely, while the liquid samples do not require any preparation processes, and thus, they can be analyzed directly. In the case of lower concentrations, the method is also suitable for the analysis (down to even ∼1 ppm level) but with less accuracy and longer measurement times.

  10. Application of Nuclear Analytical Techniques in Elemental Characterization of Wadi El-Nakhil Alabaster, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zain M. Alamoudi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA is a powerful technique for trace element determination in rocks. Nine alabaster samples were collected from Wadi El-Nakhil located at the intersection of lat. 26°10′50′′N and long. 34°03′40′′E, central Eastern Desert, Egypt, for investigation by INAA and Energy Depressive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF. The samples were irradiated by thermal neutrons at the TRIGA Mainz research reactor at a neutron flux of 7 × 1011 n/cm2·s. Twenty-two elements were determined, namely, As, Ba, Ca, Co, Cr, Sc, Fe, Hf, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, U, Zn, Zr, Lu, Ce, Sm, La, Yb, and Eu. The chemical analysis of alabaster indicated having high contents of CaO and MgO and LOI and low contents of SiO2, Al2O3, Na2O, K2O, MnO, and Fe2O3.

  11. Accelerator-based analytical technique in the study of some anti-diabetic medicinal plants of Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olabanji, S.O.; Omobuwajo, O.R.; Ceccato, D.; Adebajo, A.C.; Buoso, M.C.; Moschini, G.

    2008-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus, a clinical syndrome characterized by hyperglycemia due to deficiency of insulin, is a disease involving the endocrine pancreas and causes considerable morbidity and mortality in the world. In Nigeria, many plants, especially those implicated in herbal recipes for the treatment of diabetes, have not been screened for their elemental constituents while information on phytochemistry of some of them is not available. There is therefore the need to document these constituents as some of these plants are becoming increasingly important as herbal drugs or food additives. The accelerator-based technique PIXE, using the 1.8 MeV collimated proton beam from the 2.5 MV AN 2000 Van de Graaff accelerator at INFN, LNL, Legnaro (Padova) Italy, was employed in the determination of the elemental constituents of these anti-diabetic medicinal plants. Leaves of Gardenia ternifolia, Caesalpina pulcherrima, Solemostenon monostachys, whole plant of Momordica charantia and leaf and stem bark of Hunteria umbellata could be taken as vegetables, neutraceuticals, food additives and supplements in the management of diabetes. However, Hexabolus monopetalus root should be used under prescription

  12. Accelerator-based analytical technique in the study of some anti-diabetic medicinal plants of Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olabanji, S.O. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), I-35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy)], E-mail: skayode2002@yahoo.co.uk; Omobuwajo, O.R. [Department of Pharmacognosy, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife (Nigeria); Ceccato, D. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), I-35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy); Dipartmento di Fisica, Universita di Padova, Padova (Italy); Adebajo, A.C. [Department of Pharmacognosy, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife (Nigeria); Buoso, M.C. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), I-35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy); Moschini, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), I-35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy); Dipartmento di Fisica, Universita di Padova, Padova (Italy)

    2008-05-15

    Diabetes mellitus, a clinical syndrome characterized by hyperglycemia due to deficiency of insulin, is a disease involving the endocrine pancreas and causes considerable morbidity and mortality in the world. In Nigeria, many plants, especially those implicated in herbal recipes for the treatment of diabetes, have not been screened for their elemental constituents while information on phytochemistry of some of them is not available. There is therefore the need to document these constituents as some of these plants are becoming increasingly important as herbal drugs or food additives. The accelerator-based technique PIXE, using the 1.8 MeV collimated proton beam from the 2.5 MV AN 2000 Van de Graaff accelerator at INFN, LNL, Legnaro (Padova) Italy, was employed in the determination of the elemental constituents of these anti-diabetic medicinal plants. Leaves of Gardenia ternifolia, Caesalpina pulcherrima, Solemostenon monostachys, whole plant of Momordica charantia and leaf and stem bark of Hunteria umbellata could be taken as vegetables, neutraceuticals, food additives and supplements in the management of diabetes. However, Hexabolus monopetalus root should be used under prescription.

  13. SVPWM Technique with Varying DC-Link Voltage for Common Mode Voltage Reduction in a Matrix Converter and Analytical Estimation of its Output Voltage Distortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padhee, Varsha

    converter. This conceivably aids the sizing and design of output passive filters. An analytical estimation method has been presented to achieve this purpose for am IMC. Knowledge of the fundamental component in output voltage can be utilized to calculate its Total Harmonic Distortion (THD). The effectiveness of the proposed SVPWM algorithms and the analytical estimation technique is substantiated by simulations in MATLAB / Simulink and experiments on a laboratory prototype of the IMC. Proper comparison plots have been provided to contrast the performance of the proposed methods with the conventional SVPWM method. The behavior of output voltage distortion and CMV with variation in operating parameters like modulation index and output frequency has also been analyzed.

  14. New analytical methods for materials characterization using the techniques of nuclear activation reactions induced by thermal neutrons and accelerated ion beams, coupled to gamma-ray spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cincu, Emanuela

    1999-01-01

    This thesis is a comprehensive collection of the author's works in the field of 'Nuclear Activation Techniques with accelerated Charged Particles and Thermal Neutrons' carried out within the framework of the research contracts the author initiated and performed in the period 1990 - 1999. The works objective was to achieve a consistent and complete methodological and instrumental assembly for accurate elemental analysis of technological samples of interest for industry, medicine, and monitoring of the environmental radioactivity. The experiments were carried out using the IFIN-HH facilities: U-120 Cyclotron, 8 MV Tandem Van de Graaff accelerator, and the WWR-S nuclear reactor. Part of the reported works were initiated and performed in collaboration with partners from the chemical industry and metallurgic industry, wishing to employ the sensitive nuclear analytical techniques, which are able to put in evidence simultaneously major, minor elements, and impurities in the investigated samples. The impact with the challenging topics and the characteristics of some investigated technological samples, generated the studies having both theoretical and experimental features, presented in this thesis, as well as the original analytical and methodological solutions. The thesis structure has two parts: The 1st part (Chapter 1) is a survey of the literature until 1999, that concerns the theory of nuclear activation reactions with accelerated charged particles (CPAA) and thermal neutrons (NAA), evidencing the analytical performance of both techniques; details are also given about the 'critical' phenomena encountered in CPAA, whose origin is still under discussion in the literature. The 2 nd part of the thesis contains the original contributions of the author in the theoretical, methodological, and software fields (Chapters 2-8), the experimental results obtained, and the nuclear database software based on the 'Fox-Pro' operation system, conceived for processing the experimental

  15. Workplace and occupational health: The first metal evaluation using nuclear and analytical techniques in the state of Minas Gerais - Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menezes, Maria Angela de B.C.; Sabino, Claudia de V.S.; Amaral, Angela M.; Mattos, Silvania V. de M.; Filho, Serafim S.

    2000-01-01

    Belo Horizonte and surrounding areas is an important industrial centre and the galvanising industry is responsible for the majority of patients who look for medical assistance because of metal contamination. Hair samples and other biological matrixes will be used as bioindicators as well as airborne particulate matter. This work is related to an IAEA Co-ordinated Research Project whose goal is to make a survey of the exposures to metals related to occupational diseases which has been conducted by CDTN and Departments of Health. The hair samples were donated by galvanising factory workers in Belo Horizonte. The Al, Co, Cu, Cr, Mn and V concentrations determined in the workers' samples suggest endogenous contamination. (author)

  16. Report of the first research co-ordination meeting on the co-ordinated research programme: Development and selection of analytical techniques for measuring accidentally released radionuclides in environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The participants at the second Research Co-ordination Meeting (Vienna, 12-16 August 1991) of the CRP on 'Rapid Instrumental and Separation Methods for Monitoring Radionuclides in Food and Environmental Samples', recommended that a new CRP be established. The current CRP on 'Development and Selection of Analytical Techniques and Procedures for Measuring Accidentally Released Radionuclides in Environment' was established based on this recommendation. The objectives of this CRP are to conduct research and development on applicable methodologies for response to accidental releases, and to improve and maintain the capabilities of the network of laboratories and provide training of individuals within member states. Thus, the CRP serves as a vehicle to maintain contact within the network of laboratories, while developing and transferring analytical techniques and procedures for measuring accidentally released radioactivity. The purpose of the Research Co-ordination Meeting is to discuss the proposed research programs, the status to date and the work planned for the duration of the CRP. The meeting also provides the opportunity for the CRP participants to exchange ideas and possibly develop collaborations in their research. The members of the CRP also need to discuss issues related to the previous CRP on Rapid methods. These include: the preparation of the final report of the previous CRP, the preparation of an addendum to TRS-295 and the ultimate revision or updating of TRS-295. Finally, it is intended that the members of the CRP should discuss the mandate and scope of work of the network of analytical laboratories and the steps needed to firmly establish this network

  17. The Use of Psychodrama Action Techniques in a Race Relations Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranz, Peter L.; Ramirez, Sylvia Z.; Lund, Nick L.

    2007-01-01

    This article describes psychodrama action techniques that were effectively implemented in a university-level race relations course. Essential elements of these techniques included acting out and critical self-examination of the individual's personal beliefs. In a semi-structured class format in which uncensored spontaneity was stressed, students…

  18. Relative Risk of Various Head and Neck Cancers among Different Blood Groups: An Analytical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Khushboo; Kote, Sunder; Patthi, Basavaraj; Singla, Ashish; Singh, Shilpi; Kundu, Hansa; Jain, Swati

    2014-04-01

    Cancer is a unique disease characterized by abnormal growth of cells which have the ability to invade the adjacent tissues and sometimes even distant organs. The limited and contrasting evidence regarding the association of ABO blood groups with the different types of head and neck cancers in the Indian population warrants the need for the present study. To assess the relative risk of various Head & Neck cancers among different blood groups. Three hundred sixty two diagnosed cases of different type of head and neck cancers and 400 controls were selected from four hospitals of New Delhi, India. The information regarding the type of head and neck cancer was obtained from the case sheets of the patients regarding their socio demographic profile, dietary history using a structured performa. The information regarding type of cancer (cases only), ABO blood group was collected. Statistical Tests: The data was analysed using the SPSS 19 version. Chi square test and odd ratios were calculated. The level of significance was fixed at 5%. The O blood group was found to be most prevalent followed by B, A and AB among the cases as well as the controls. Oral cancer patients showed maximum number in blood group O followed by B, A and AB. Significant pattern of distribution was seen among the patients of esophageal cancer, laryngeal cancer and salivary gland cancer as well (p= 0.003, p=0.000 p=0.112 respectively. The present study reveals that there is an inherited element in the susceptibility or protection against different types of head and neck cancers. Blood group A was found to be a potential risk factor for the development of oral cancers, esophageal cancers and salivary gland cancers while blood group B was found to be a potential risk factor for laryngeal cancers.

  19. Relative Risk of Various Head and Neck Cancers among Different Blood Groups: An Analytical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kote, Sunder; Patthi, Basavaraj; Singla, Ashish; Singh, Shilpi; Kundu, Hansa; Jain, Swati

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cancer is a unique disease characterized by abnormal growth of cells which have the ability to invade the adjacent tissues and sometimes even distant organs. The limited and contrasting evidence regarding the association of ABO blood groups with the different types of head and neck cancers in the Indian population warrants the need for the present study. Aim and Objective: To assess the relative risk of various Head & Neck cancers among different blood groups. Materials and Method: Three hundred sixty two diagnosed cases of different type of head and neck cancers and 400 controls were selected from four hospitals of New Delhi, India. The information regarding the type of head and neck cancer was obtained from the case sheets of the patients regarding their socio demographic profile, dietary history using a structured performa. The information regarding type of cancer (cases only), ABO blood group was collected. Statistical Tests: The data was analysed using the SPSS 19 version. Chi square test and odd ratios were calculated. The level of significance was fixed at 5%. Results: The O blood group was found to be most prevalent followed by B, A and AB among the cases as well as the controls. Oral cancer patients showed maximum number in blood group O followed by B, A and AB. Significant pattern of distribution was seen among the patients of esophageal cancer, laryngeal cancer and salivary gland cancer as well (p= 0.003, p=0.000 p=0.112 respectively. Conclusion: The present study reveals that there is an inherited element in the susceptibility or protection against different types of head and neck cancers. Blood group A was found to be a potential risk factor for the development of oral cancers, esophageal cancers and salivary gland cancers while blood group B was found to be a potential risk factor for laryngeal cancers. PMID:24959511

  20. CB4-03: An Eye on the Future: A Review of Data Virtualization Techniques to Improve Research Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Jack; McFarland, Lela; Bredfeldt, Christine

    2012-01-01

    and drawbacks of these techniques.