Sample records for rejeitos radioativos na

  1. Application of biosorbents in treatment of the radioactive liquid waste; Aplicacao de biossorventes no tratamento de rejeitos radioativos liquidos

    Ferreira, Rafael Vicente de Padua


    Radioactive liquid waste containing organic compounds need special attention, because the treatment processes available are expensive and difficult to manage. The biosorption is a potential treatment technique that has been studied in simulated wastes. The biosorption term is used to describe the removal of metals, non-metals and/or radionuclides by a material from a biological source, regardless of its metabolic activity. Among the potential biomasses, agricultural residues have very attractive features, as they allow for the removal of radionuclides present in the waste using a low cost biosorbent. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential use of different biomass originating from agricultural products (coconut fiber, coffee husk and rice husk) in the treatment of real radioactive liquid organic waste. Experiments with these biomass were made including 1) Preparation, activation and characterization of biomasses; 2) Conducting biosorption assays; and 3) Evaluation of the product of immobilization of biomasses in cement. The biomasses were tested in raw and activated forms. The activation was carried out with diluted HNO{sub 3} and NaOH solutions. Biosorption assays were performed in polyethylene bottles, in which were added 10 mL of radioactive waste or waste dilutions in deionized water with the same pH and 2% of the biomass (w/v). At the end of the experiment, the biomass was separated by filtration and the remaining concentration of radioisotopes in the filtrate was determined by ICP-OES and gamma spectrometry. The studied waste contains natural uranium, americium-241 and cesium-137. The adopted contact times were 30 min, 1, 2 and 4 hours and the concentrations tested ranged between 10% and 100%. The results were evaluated by maximum experimental sorption capacity and isotherm and kinetics ternary models. The highest sorption capacity was observed with raw coffee husk, with approximate values of 2 mg/g of U (total), 40 x 10{sup -6} mg/g of Am-241 and

  2. Radioactive waste management; Gerencia de rejeitos radioativos



    This eighth chapter presents the radioactive wastes and waste disposal; classification of radioactive wastes; basis requests of the radioactive waste management; conditions for a radioactive waste disposal; registers and inventories; transport of radioactive wastes from a facility to another and the radioactive waste management plan.


    Lana Lopes de Souza Nobre


    Full Text Available A indústria de cerâmica vermelha é importante na composição da economia do Rio Grande do Norte, em particular pela sua empregabilidade. A produção de telha é responsável por cerca de 60,0% dos artefatos cerâmicos, com mais de 50 milhões de peças fabricadas por mês. O baixo nível tecnológico leva a geração de cerca de 20,0% de rejeito das peças produzidas, equivalendo a valores da ordem de 10 milhões de peças. Estas são dispostas inadequadamente no meio ambiente. Estes rejeitos foram amostrados e caracterizados, identificando em média de 4% de óxido de potássio em sua composição. Este trabalho analisa o potencial do rejeito da cerâmica estrutural como fonte de potássio, das quais foram coletadas amostras submetidas a processo de moagem em moinho de martelos, seguida de análise granulométrica, química e mineralógica. Foram realizados estudos de extração de potássio utilizando ácidos orgânicos (cítrico e oxálico na concentração de 0,01 mol.l-1. O trabalho foi realizado em incubadora Shaker sob agitação de 150 rpm, temperatura de 30ºC e tempo de contato de 24h.

  4. Radiation protection in transference of radioactive wastes among buildings of an intermediary deposit; Radioprotecao na transferencia de rejeitos radioativos entre edificios de um deposito intermediario

    Mitake, Malvina Boni; Suzuki, Fabio Fumio, E-mail: mbmitake@ipen.b, E-mail: ffsuzuki@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/-CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Gerencia de Radioprotecao


    This paper describes the planning of radioprotection realized for transfer operation of radioactive wastes from two old buildings for a one of the new buildings. For planning purposes the operation was divided into nine stages and, for evaluation of collective dose, it was considered various relevant factors. The result of radioprotection optimization it was expected a total collective dose of 58.6 mSv per person. The measured dose per dosemeter of direct reading was of 3.9 mSv per person. These difference among the values is due to conservative factors used in the calculation

  5. Virtual reality in simulation of operational procedures in radioactive waste deposits; Realidade virtual na simulacao de procedimentos operacionais em depositos de rejeitos radioativos

    Freitas, Victor Goncalves Gloria


    One of the biggest problems in the nuclear area are still the radioactive waste generated in the various applications of this form of energy, all these tailings are stored in warehouses that often are monitored and restructured for better allocation of then. These tailings are stored until it is safe to release into the environment. This work presents a methodology based on virtual reality, for the development of virtual deposits of radioactive waste in order to enable virtual simulations in these deposits. As application will be developed virtually the nuclear waste repository located at the Institute of Nuclear Engineering IEN/CNEN. The development of a virtual warehouse, more specifically, makes it possible to simulate/train the allocation and reallocation of materials with low and medium level of radioactivity, seen the possibility of locomotion of virtual objects and dynamic calculation of the rate of radiation in this environment. Using this methodology it also possible know the accumulated dose, by the virtual character, during the procedures run in the virtual environment. (author)

  6. Application of artificial neural networks on the characterization of radioactive waste drums; Aplicacao de redes neurais artificiais na caracterizacao de tambores de rejeito radioativo

    Potiens Junior, Ademar Jose; Hiromoto, Goro, E-mail: apotiens@ipen.b, E-mail: hiromoto@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    The methodology consist of system simulation of drum-detector by Monte Carlo for obtention of counting efficiency. The obtained data were treated and a neural artificial network (RNA) were constructed for evaluation of total activity of drum. For method evaluation measurements were performed in ten position parallel to the drum axis and the results submitted to the RNA. The developed methodology showed to be effective for isotopic characterization of gamma emitter radioactive wastes distributed in a heterogeneous way in a 200 litters drum. The objective of this work as to develop a methodology of analyse for quantification and localization of radionuclides not homogeneous distributed in a 200 liters drum based on the mathematical techniques

  7. Management of radioactive waste from {sup 99}Mo production by nuclear fission; Gestao dos rejeitos radioativos gerados na producao do {sup 99}Mo por fissao nuclear

    Rego, Maria Eugenia de Melo


    Brazil intends to build a facility for the {sup 99}Mo production through {sup 235}U fission, once this radioisotope is largely used in nuclear medicine. This study aimed at estimating the physical, chemical and radiological characteristics of radioactive waste expected to be generated in that facility, and to provide theoretical subsides that can be used on the definition of a proper waste management system. Two production scenarios were established and the radioisotope inventories of the wastes were calculated by Scale®. From the chemical processing of the uranium targets the wastes were characterized on their chemical and radiological features. MicroShield® was used to determine the activity concentrations up to three months of {sup 99}Mo production. In addition, this work presents dose rate calculation for several sizes of shielding and different amount of wastes, collected in a proper package for in-site transportation. Radionuclides responsible for higher doses were identified in order to facilitate choosing the most appropriate method for managing the wastes after their chemical separation and before their storage. These results are part of what is expected on radioactive wastes at a {sup 99}Mo production facility and might help on the development of the waste management planning for that facility. (author)

  8. Geophysical investigations applied to site selection for the radioactive waste disposal; Investigacoes geofisicas aplicadas na selecao de um repositorio de rejeitos radioativos

    Saad, Samir; Dornelles, Gerson; Pedrozo, Geraldo Arholdi [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    In this work the geophysical exploratory techniques and the results obtained for the selection of a candidate site for the final repository of the radioactive waste containing cesium-137 generated by the Goiania accident occurred in September 1987, are described. The studies were performed in an area of about 100 hectares where is located the present radioactive waste provisional repository. the geophysical investigations using electromagnetic methods (VLF-EM), electric drillings and surface and sub-surface radiometry allowed for the area monitoring and provided the geophysical parameters necessary for understanding the structural and stratigraphic context. Furthermore, they will provide data for the geotechnical, geochemical and hydrogeological investigations as well as for the engineering conceptual project for the repository construction. (author)

  9. Técnicas de previsão aplicadas para tomada de decisão na minimização de rejeitos industriais

    Marco Antonio Gaya de Figueiredo


    Full Text Available Atualmente muitas empresas, face as modernas legislações em vigor com respeito ao meio ambiente e, em decorrência da rápida evolução nos mecanismos adotados para a minimização dos rejeitos industriais, estão se defrontando com os seguintes questionamentos; como decidir pela melhor alternativa para a minimização dos rejeitos industriais; considerar apenas o aspecto econômico em termos de rentabilidade ou retorno do investimento. Este trabalho apresenta um levantamento das diversas metodologias existentes para auxílio no processo de tomada de decisão correlacionados com esta nova realidade, enfocando o uso da técnica conhecida como "Brainstorming", para o levantamento das alternativas para a minimização dos rejeitos industriais numa planta em operação.Many industries are now concerned whether decision taking on industrial waste minimization strategy should be based either on methods rentabilility or investment return rate. This is mostly due to the severe requirements of modern environmental legislation, and to the consequent rapid evolution of the current methods for industrial waste minimization. This work presents a search on the forcasting methods for industrial waste minimization, applicable to different stages of an enterprise (development, design and operation. Special emphasis is given to the "brainstorm technique", applied to an industrial unit in operation.

  10. Radioactive wastes from {sup 99}Mo production by nuclear fission according to the irradiation time; Rejeitos radioativos gerados na producao de {sup 99}Mo por fissao nuclear, em funcao dos tempos de irradiacao

    Hiromoto, Goro; Dellamano, Jose Claudio, E-mail: [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    One of the premises, provided for in Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor, is a {sup 99} Mo production facility by nuclear fission. In this study, it was verified the influence of tow parameters, the mass of {sup 235}U and the irradiation time of the target, in the total activity of radioactive wastes generated by the process. The simulation was performed using the computational code Origen S®, considering that the target would be composed of an alloy of UAl{sub x} with {sup 235}U enriched to 19.9% and irradiated in a flux of thermal neutrons of 1 x 10{sup 14}{sup -2}.s{sup -1} for the production of 185 TBq of {sup 99}Mo per week. The results obtained for 3 to 21 days of continuous irradiation targets with different masses of {sup 235}U show that the amount of radioactive waste generated in terms of activity, does not seem to be dominant aspect to be considered in the choice for the {sup 99}Mo production parameters, since it was observed an increase of a factor of at most 4 in the total activity of the wastes over the 100,000 years considered.

  11. Application of geographic information system as support technique in site selection for radioactive waste disposal; Exemplo da aplicacao de sistema de informacao geografica como tecnica auxiliar na selecao de local para deposito de rejeitos radioativos

    Barreto, Alberto A.; Carvalho Filho, Carlos A. de; Aquino Branco, Octavio E. de [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)


    The present work describes an application of Geographic Information System (GIS). This technology was used to select, hypothetically, a site to disposal of radioactive wastes. In this work, the methodology is applied in an area of the Projeto Hidrogeologico do Engenho Nogueira (PROHBEN), located at Pampulha`s region, in Belo Horizonte city. The GIS used the software Idrisi. This software was used to create the Digital Elevation Model, maps of declivity, thickness of unsaturated zone and geology of the region. This database was processed using GIS`s recourses capability to create a vulnerability map of the aquifer, of the region. The site to disposal of radioactive wastes was select using the vulnerability map. (author). 4 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Hazard and socioenvironmental weakness: radioactive waste final disposal in the perception of the Abadia de Goias residents, GO, Brazil; Risco e vulnerabilidade socioambiental: o deposito definitivo de rejeitos radioativos na percepcao dos moradores de Abadia de Goias

    Pereira, Elaine Campos


    The work searches into the hazard and the weakness which involves the community around the radioactive waste final disposal, localized in Abadia de Goias municipality, Goias state, Brazil. In order to obtain a deep knowledge on the characteristic hazards of the modernity, the sociological aspects under discussion has been researched in the Anthony Giddens and Ulrich Beck works. The phenomenon was analyzed based on the the subjective experiences of the residents, which live there for approximately 16 years. This temporal analysis is related to the social impact suffered by the residents due to the radioactive wastes originated from the radiation accident with 137 cesium in Goiania, GO, Brazil, in 1987. In spite of the local security, they identified the disposal as a hazard source, although the longer time residents have been better adaptation. The weakness of the local is significant by the proximity of residences near the area of the radioactive waste final disposal. (author)

  13. Piso intertravado produzido com rejeito de sinter feed

    A. V. Costa

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho apresenta a viabilidade técnica do aproveitamento e da conveniência ecológica do emprego do rejeito de sinter feed,oriundo de atividades mineradoras de ferro, como agregado na produção do concreto, inicialmente para a fabricação de elementos pré-fabrica dos destinados à pavimentação, com possibilidade de expansão para outras finalidades. Inicialmente, foram realizados os seguintes ensaios de caracterização dos materiais: caracterização física, química e ambiental do rejeito, caracterização física dos demais agregados utilizadose ensaio de qualidade do rejeito quando empregado como agregado miúdo na produção de argamassas, por comparativo de resistência àcompressão das mesmas. Posteriormente, após a produção de peças para piso intertravado, em uma indústria de pré-fabricados, os mesmosforam amostrados e submetidos aos ensaios resistência à compressão, absorção e desgaste por abrasão, segundo as normas NBR 9780[33], NBR 12118 [34] e NBR 12042 [35]. Quanto aos resultados, as resistências à compressão aos 28 dias, sofreram variações entre -2,5% e -11%; quanto às absorções de água, as variações ficaram entre -14% e +3,8%; quanto à abrasão, observaram-se variações entre -80% e -62%, percentuais estes referidos sempre aos valores de referência. A grande relevância do uso do rejeito de sinter feed como agregado naprodução de concreto se refere ao desenvolvimento sustentável da indústria da construção civil. Para as indústrias mineradoras, o descarte desse rejeito de maneira produtiva significa grande vantagem na relação custo-benefício que se caracterizará pela ausência tanto das pilhas de estocagem em suas áreas quanto pela ausência de despesas com sua operacionalização.

  14. Radioactive wastes management in a radiochemistry laboratory; Gerencia de rejeitos radioativos em um laboratorio de radioquimica

    Silva, Ana C.A., E-mail: [Universidade Federal de Alfenas (UNIFAL), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Curso de Bacharelado em Ciencia e Tecnologia; Pereira, Wagner de S; Py Junior, Delcy de A.; Antunes, Ivan M., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Industrias Nucleares do Brazil (INB), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Unidade de Tratamento de Minerios. Coordenacao de Protecao Radiologica; Kelecom, Alphonse, E-mail: [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia Marinha. Curso de Pos-Graduacao em Biologia Marinha


    The Laboratorio de Monitoracao Ambiental (AMB) of the Unidade de Tratamento de Minerio (UTM) belonging to the Industrias Nucleares do Brasil is a chemical, radiochemical and radiometric laboratory, that analyses the natural radionuclides present in samples coming from the various installation of Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (INB). To minimize the radiological environmental impact, that laboratory has adopted a washing system of the chapel exhausting, that recirculate the washing water. These water can accumulate the radionuclides coming from the samples, that are liberated together the exhaustion gases from the chapels. Also, the water coming from the analyses and the sample releases (environmental and of the process) represent the liquid effluents of the AMB. The release of this effluent must pass by chemical and radiological criteria. From the radiological viewpoint, that release must be based on the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) regulations. This work try to establish the monitoring frequency, the radionuclides to be analysed, the form of liberation of those effluents, and the analytical techniques to be used. The radionuclides to be analysed will be U-nat, Ra-226 and Pb-210, of the uranium series, and the Th-232 and Ra-228, of the thorium series. The effluents must be monitored either before the release or, at least, twice a year. The effluents considered radioactive wastes, will be send to waste dam by the radioprotection service, or to the effluent treatment for controlled liberation for the environment

  15. Management of radioactive wastes of iodine therapy; Gerenciamento de rejeitos radioativos da iodoterapia

    Silva, Andre R.M.; Santos, Helena C., E-mail: [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Pernambuco (IFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)


    The main objective of waste radioactive management is to ensure the protection of man and the preservation of the environment. The regulation that established the basis for the good radioactive waste management was elaborated by the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), in 1985. It is the CNEN-NE-6:05: 'Management radioactive waste in radioactive facilities', which although it an important standard related to radioactive waste management and help largely in the design of a management system in radioactive facilities of radioisotope users, covers the topics in a general way and does not consider individuals aspects of the different plants, as is the case of nuclear medicine units. The main objective of this study is to show the segregation and safe packaging, avoiding unnecessary exposure of professionals involved and public individuals in general.

  16. Produção de tomate hidropônico utilizando rejeito da dessalinização na solução nutritiva aplicados em diferentes épocas Hydroponic tomato production using reject of desalination in the nutrient solution applied at different stages

    Christiano R. Cosme


    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar a resposta do tomateiro (Lycopersicon esculentum em cultivo hidropônico, adicionando água de rejeito da dessalinização na composição da solução nutritiva, obtendo-se três níveis de salinidade da solução nutritiva: 7,1; 8,7 e 10,1 dS m-1, além da testemunha (sem adição do rejeito: 2,1 dS m-1, iniciando-se sua aplicação em diferentes estágios de desenvolvimento da cultura: 7; 32 e 58 dias após o transplantio (DAT. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado, com 9 tratamentos e três repetições cada, arranjados em um esquema fatorial 3x3 (níveis de salinidade x época de início da aplicação da salinidade, mais a testemunha. A salinidade da solução nutritiva produzida pelo rejeito salino reduziu, de forma significativa, a matéria fresca da parte aérea, matéria seca da parte aérea e a produção dos frutos da cultura do tomate. A época de início da aplicação do rejeito à solução nutritiva, reduziu apenas a matéria seca da parte aérea e a produção de frutos do tomateiro, quando aplicado a partir dos 7 DAT, enquanto a interação desses fatores não produziu efeito significativo para as variáveis estudadas.The objective of this study was to evaluate the response of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum in a hydroponic system, adding water from desalination in the composition of the nutrient solution, resulting in three levels of salinity of nutrient solution: 7,1; 8,7 and 10 ,1 dS m-1, and the control (without addition of water from desalination: 2.1 dS m-1, starting its application at different stages of crop development: 7, 32 and 58 days after transplanting (DAT. The design was completely randomized with 9 treatments and 3 replications, arranged in a 3x3 factorial design (levels of salinity x starting time of the application of salinity, and control. The salinity of the nutrient solution produced by the saline water, significantly reduced the fresh weight of shoot, dry

  17. Infrared thermography applied to monitoring of radioactive waste drums; Termografia infravermelha aplicada ao monitoramento de tambores de rejeitos radioativos

    Kelmer, P.; Camarano, D.M. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Calado, F.; Phillip, B.; Viana, C.; Andrade, R.M., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Eletrica


    The use of thermography in the inspection of drums containing radioactive waste is being stimulated by the absence of physical contact. In Brazil the majority of radioactive wastes are compacted solids packed in metal drums stored temporarily for decades and requires special attention. These drums have only one qualitative indication of the radionuclides present. However, its structural condition is not followed systematically. The aim of this work is presents a methodology by applying thermography for monitoring the structural condition of drums containing radioactive waste in order to detect degraded regions of the drums. (author)

  18. Evaluation of external exposure in a radioactive waste deposit; Avaliacao da exposicao externa em um deposito de rejeitos radioativos

    Oliveira, Sergio Quinet de; Pereira, Wagner de Souza; Py Junior, Delcy de Azevedo; Dores, Luis Augusto de Carvalho Bresser; Dantas, Marcelino Vicente de Almeida; Silva, Ana Claudia Antunes; Garcia Filho, Oswaldo, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: marcelino@inb.go.b, E-mail:, E-mail: [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (UTM/INB), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Unidade de Tratamento de Minerio


    The ore treatment unit (OTU) of Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (INB), located at Caldas municipality - Minas Gerais, Brazil, posses a radioactive deposit, coming mainly from the chemical processing of monazite sands for obtention of 'rare earths'. The main components of these waste are the 'torta II (thorium rich residues) and the 'mesothorium' ({sup 228}Ra rich residues) - conditioned in steel drums (200 liters), plastic pumps (100 liters) or underground silos. These loaders are deposited in waste loading warehouses existent at the OTU and periodic evaluations of the external exposure rates (mR/h) are part of the 'Programa de Monitoracao Radiologica Ocupacional' of the unit. This paper presents a brief history of origins of this waste deposit and the material found there, and also the result of a routine monitoring of the external exposure rates

  19. Radioactive waste management of the nuclear medicine services; Gestao de rejeitos radioativos em servicos de medicina nuclear

    Barboza, Alex


    Radioisotope applications in nuclear medicine services, for diagnosis and therapy, generate radioactive wastes. The general characteristics and the amount of wastes that are generated in each facility are function of the number of patients treated, the procedures adopted, and the radioisotopes used. The management of these wastes embraces every technical and administrative activity necessary to handle the wastes, from the moment of their generation, till their final disposal, must be planned before the nuclear medicine facility is commissioned, and aims at assuring people safety and environmental protection. The regulatory framework was established in 1985, when the National Commission on Nuclear Energy issued the regulation CNEN-NE-6.05 'Radioactive waste management in radioactive facilities'. Although the objective of that regulation was to set up the rules for the operation of a radioactive waste management system, many requirements were broadly or vaguely defined making it difficult to ascertain compliance in specific facilities. The objective of the present dissertation is to describe the radioactive waste management system in a nuclear medicine facility and provide guidance on how to comply with regulatory requirements. (author)

  20. Evaluation of kerma rate in radioactive waste disposal; Avaliacao da taxa de kerma em deposito de rejeitos radioativos

    Rosa, Rodolfo O.; Silva, Joao C.P.; Santos, Joao R. dos, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    This study aims to assess the progression of kerma rate levels in the air due to the increase of collection, storing and storage of radioactive waste in the new building (after expansion) of the radioactive waste disposal (RWD) of the Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Brazil. This review is carried out every six months at IEN with thermoluminescent dosimeter lithium fluoride LiF: Mg, Cu, P (TLD-100H). Here are the average values of kerma rate for the period 2008- 2012. In this context, the methodology used for selection and choices of detectors used in dosimeters is presented. The detectors were chosen through homogeneity criteria of the pack, standardization factor and coefficient of variation (CV%). The monitoring points and the exposure time of the detectors are chosen considering various factors, including the rate of occupation and indoor and outdoor positions to RWD. These evaluations showed that the contribution of the new waste disposal in increasing kerma rate of IEN, has proved to be insignificant, that is, the presence of RWD does not contribute to increased environmental kerma rate in the region around this installation.

  1. Development of radiometric methods for radioactive waste characterization; Desenvolvimento de metodos radiometricos para a caracterizacao de rejeitos radioativos

    Tessaro, Ana Paula Gimenes


    The admission of radioactive waste in a final repository depends among other things on the knowledge of the radioisotopic inventory of the waste. To obtain this information it is necessary make the primary characterization of the waste so that it is composition is known, to guide the next steps of radioactive waste management. Filter cartridges that are used in the water polishing system of IEA-R1 research reactor is one of these wastes. The IEA-R1 is a pool-type research reactor, operating between 2 and 5 MW that uses water as coolant, moderator and biological shield. Besides research, it is used for production of radioisotopes and irradiation of samples with neutron and gamma beams. It is located in the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute at the University of Sao Paulo campus. The filter cartridges are used to retain particles that are suspended in the cooling water. When filters become saturated and are unable to maintain the flow within the established limits, they are replaced and disposed of as radioactive waste. After a period of decay, they are sent to the Radioactive Waste Management Department. The aim of this work is to present the studies to determine the activity of gamma emitters present in the cartridge filters. The activities were calculated using the dose rates measured with hand held detectors, after the ratios of the emission rates of photons were evaluated by gamma spectrometry, by the Point Kernel method, which correlates the activity of a source with dose rates at various distances. The method described can be used to determine routinely the radioactive inventory of these filters, avoiding the necessity of destructive radiochemical analysis, or the necessity of calibrating the geometry of measurement. (author)

  2. The waste management at research laboratories - problems and solutions; Gestao de rejeitos radioativos em laboratorios de pesquisa - problemas e solucoes

    Dellamano, Jose Claudio; Vicente, Roberto, E-mail: jcdellam@ipen.b, E-mail: rvicente@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Gerencia de Rejeitos Radioativos


    The radioactive management in radioactive installations must be planned and controlled. However, in the case of research laboratories, that management is compromised due to the common use of materials and installations, the lack of trained personnel and the nonexistence of clear and objective orientations by the regulator organism. Such failures cause an increasing of generated radioactive wastes and the imprecision or nonexistence of record of radioactive substances, occasioning a financial wastage, and the cancelling of licences for use of radioactive substances. This paper discusses and proposes solutions for the problems found at radioactive waste management in research laboratories

  3. Treatment of wastes in the production of radioactive patterns of {sup 241}Am, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 57}Co e {sup 60}Co; Tratamento de rejeitos na producao de padroes radioativos de {sup 241}Am, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 57}Co e {sup 60}Co

    Gomes, Regio dos Santos; Silva, Carlos Jose da; Veras, Eduardo Vieira de; Silva, Ronaldo Lins da; Poledna, Roberto; Laranjeiras, Adilson Silva; Delgado, Jose Ubiratan, E-mail: [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. Nacional de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes


    Standardized sources of {sup 241}Am, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 57}Co and {sup 60}Co are the most requested solutions by customers of LNMRI. After preparation, the remainder of the stock is transferred to a new vial, with the generation of waste in glass and plastic pycnometers and high activity levels which can be recovered. By means of the rinse procedure, this work reduced the activity remaining for master solutions above 1 MBq/g. The treatment adopted here allowed to produce new standardized sources of radionuclides in the range of 20 to 70 kBq/g, with uncertainty below 3%, which may be offered to different users. (author)

  4. Comparison among the rice bark in the raw and active forms in the removal of {sup 241}Am and {sup 137}Cs from liquid radioactive wastes; Comparacao entre a casca de arroz nas formas brutas e ativada na remocao de {sup 241}Am e {sup 137}Cs de rejeitos radioativos liquidos

    Ferreira, Rafael V.P.; Lima, Josenilson B. de; Bellini, Maria Helena; Sakata, Solange Kazumi; Marumo, Julio Takehiro, E-mail: rpadua@ipen.b, E-mail: sksakata@ipen.b, E-mail: jblima@ipen.b, E-mail: mbmarumo@ipen.b, E-mail: jtmarumo@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    New techniques involving treatment of radioactive wastes which associate simplicity and low cost have been directed the attention for the bio sorption, which is a process were solid vegetable or micro-organism for the retention, removing, or recovering of heavy metals from a liquid environment. This study evaluated the capacity of a bio sorbent to remove Am-241 and Cs-137 from liquid radioactive waste. The chosen material was the rice bark employed in the raw or activated forms. The obtained results suggest that the bio sorption, with the activated rice bark, can be a viable technique for the treatment of liquid radioactive wastes containing Am-241 and Cs-137 present in liquid radioactive wastes

  5. Energia de briquetes produzidos com rejeitos de resíduos sólidos urbanos e madeira de Eucalyptus grandis

    José E Gonçalves; Sartori, Maria M. P. [UNESP; Alcides L. Leão


    O incentivo ao consumo e à produção em grande quantidade na sociedade atual gera, exageros de resíduos sólidos urbanos que, em alguns casos, podem ser utilizados para a geração de energia. Neste sentido e visando reduzir os resíduos dos aterros municipais e gerar energia, buscou-se produzir briquetes com mistura de rejeitos de resíduos sólidos urbanos (RRSU) e resíduos de madeira de Eucalyptus grandis. Os briquetes foram fabricados com 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 e 25% de RRSU na mistura com resíduos ma...

  6. A Utilização do Rejeito Industrial Cerâmico - Chamote - como Fator de Qualidade na Fabricação de Elementos Cerâmicos: um Estudo Experimental The Use of Industrial Ceramic Waste - Brick Powder - to Improve Product Quality in Ceramic Elements Manufacture: an Experimental Study

    Francisco Ripoli Filho


    Full Text Available Este trabalho descreve pesquisa desenvolvida sobre a fabricação de elementos cerâmicos, através da utilização de chamote adicionado à argila. Chamote pode ser definido como um subproduto proveniente de rejeitos de material cerâmico. O experimento envolveu a utilização de sete tipos de amostras obtidas em olaria próxima à UFSM, as quais serviram para estudar as seguintes variáveis: teor de umidade de moldagem, proporção das misturas, argila-base e temperatura de queima. As principais características físicas e mecânicas observadas foram: retração linear de queima, absorção de água, porosidade, massa específica aparente e sucção inicial. A partir dessas observações chegou-se às seguintes conclusões: a possibilidade de utilizar o chamote homogeneizado na fabricação de elementos cerâmicos, desde que em proporção ideal e queimado a temperatura adequada; b as tensões de ruptura e absorção de água obtidas estão de acordo com aquelas previstas pelas normas brasileiras; c a adição de chamote à argila contribui potencialmente para o controle da retração. Por fim, verifica-se que a adição de chamote à argila permite o aproveitamento desse tipo de resíduo na fabricação de produtos de boa qualidade e contribui para reduzir a poluição ambiental.This work describes a reseach carried out on the manufacture of ceramic elements through the addition of brick powder to clay. Brick powder can the defined as a waste resulted from processing of ceramic materials. That experiment was developed using seven different clay samples from pottery located in the surroundings of UFSM. This material was used to study the following variables: basic clay, proportion of each component of the mixture, moisture drift to the moulding and burning temperature. The main physical and mechanical characteristics observed were: drying linear retraction, rupture tension, fire damage, burning linear contraction, water absorption, porosity

  7. Synthesis of zeolite using as precursor reject of kaolin of the Amazon Region: application as an adsorbent in gas drying; Sintese de zeolita P utilizando como precursor rejeito de caulim da regiao amazonica: aplicacao como adsorvente na secagem de gases

    Morais, M.R.C.; Santana, D.L. de; Martelli, M.C.; Neves, R.F., E-mail:, E-mail: [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), PA (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Quimica


    Zeolites have large variety of technological applications, accounting for an increasing interest in various industries. In the State of Para, located three industries from kaolin for paper, where large amounts of waste are stored in ponds in becoming environmental problem. This work aims to develop a process for obtaining a zeolite P from the kaolin waste as the starting material. The synthesis was performed with kaolin waste from Capim River region, calcined at 700 ° C for 2 h, and reacted in the presence of aqueous NaOH and diatomite (silica source supplement), and the process hydrothermal temperature of 110 ° C for varied times. The characterization of the starting material and the synthesized materials was carried out using XRD and SEM. At the end of the experiment, the zeolite P synthesized was tested for moisture adsorption and was effective for this purpose. (author)

  8. Decaimento radioativo: uma analogia para o circuito

    Teixeira, Sonia Krapas; UFF - Rio de Janeiro; Borges, Alexandre Motta; UFF - Rio de Janeiro


    No mapeamento da estrutura do pensamento analógico proposto por Guentner e Guentner inferências conceituais sobre um novo conhecimento surgem a partir de um domínio baseado na forma de um modelo analógico. Essas idéias são aplicáveis aos conteúdos de física, em especial ao circuito RC. Em geral os livros textos de física tratam o circuito RC do ponto de vista macroscópico, fazem uso da equação diferencial que rege o fenômeno da descarga do capacitor e apresentam a solução...


    Raphael Silva Tomáz


    Full Text Available A magnetita (Fe3O4 é um óxido magnético de ferro natural formado por íons Fe+2 e Fe+3. É o mais comum mineral fortemente magnético, estando presente em pequenas quantidades em quase todas as rochas e também nos meteoritos. A nanotecnologia está largamente presente em todo nosso dia a dia. É possível encontrar diferentes aplicações nas mais diversas áreas da indústria: Eletroeletrônicos, metalurgia, cerâmicos, tintas, tecidos, indústria de polímeros, medicina entre outras. Atualmente a Anglo American Fosfatos do Brasil não produz magnetita, mas possui uma produção de rejeito de 2 Mt (milhões toneladas com teores de magnetita por volta de 40%, na granulometria de 2 mm, sendo esse material enviado integralmente para a barragem de rejeito. O aproveitamento desse material, dada uma recuperação de 60%, traria um crescimento de 78,5 milhões de dólares no PIB do estado. A maior parte da produção de ferro do Brasil é feita por flotação, sendo que tal tipo de produção prejudica a utilização da magnetita, especificamente, para a produção de ferrofluidos nanomagnéticos, devido a enorme quantidade de produtos químicos, principalmente surfactantes, envolvidos na etapa de flotação. Contudo o objetivo desse trabalho é obter um concentrado de magnetita proveniente do rejeito da produção de rocha fosfática por jigagem, para que a mesma possa ser usada na produção de ferrofluidos. Os resultados da utilização do jigue como separador dos minerais são satisfatórios na produção de magnetita para ferrofluidos como coproduto da produção de concentrado de rocha fosfática.

  10. Efeito de aditivos no comportamento reológico do rejeito da bauxita

    S. G. Gonçalves


    Full Text Available Na mineração da bauxita no município de Paragominas-PA, são descartados no processo de beneficiamento rejeitos com teor de sólido de 33,5% e granulometria muito fina com D50 abaixo de 5 µm. Esses fatores contribuem para que esta suspensão formada basicamente por silico-aluminatos, com elevada concentração de argila caulinitica, apresente aumento na viscosidade e na tensão inicial de escoamento, fatores importantes durante o processo de bombeamento. Foi realizada análise granulométrica e determinadas as composições químicas e mineralógicas do material. Avaliou-se a utilização dos aditivos hexametafosfato de sódio e poliacrilamida 25% aniônica visando à diminuição da viscosidade. Os resultados mostram diminuição da viscosidade com a adição de 23,8 g/ton para a poliacrilamida e 101,75 g/ton para o hexametafosfato de sódio. A granulometria da polpa de bauxita descartada e o pH influenciam no comportamento dos aditivos reológicos.

  11. Remoção e concentração de urânio de rejeito de mina

    Elizângela Augusta Santos


    Full Text Available A utilização de agentes lixiviantes como citrato de sódio e carbonato de amônio foram estudados para a recuperação de urânio (U de um rejeito de mina. Técnicas de concentração como precipitação e troca iônica foram avaliadas. O rejeito estudado apresenta 0,25% de U. Resultados mostraram extração máxima de aproximadamente 40% para ambos os reagentes. 62% de U foram precipitados do licor da lixiviação empregando-se solução a 10 mol L-1 de NaOH. Os carregamentos máximos do metal obtidos a pH 3,9 apontaram uma maior capacidade de remoção empregando-se a resina IRA 910 U cujo valor de carregamento máximo foi de 126,9 mg g-1 e de 148,3 mg g-1 para a DOWEX RPU.Abstract The use of leaching agents, such as sodium citrateand ammonium carbonate, were assessed for the extraction ofuranium from one mining residue containing 0.25% U.Concentration techniques such as precipitation and ion exchangewere employed to recover the uranium from the leaching liquor.Leaching results showed maximum uranium extraction of about 40% for both reagents. The use 10 mol L-1 NaOH to precipitatethe uranium from the leach liquor leads to a recovery of 62%;what was considered not satisfactory. In view of this, resins wereused to concentrate the uranium from the liquor and the metalloading obtained at pH 3.9 was higher for the resin DOWEXRPU, whose maximum loading maximum capacity was148,3 mg g-1, compared to 126,9 mg g-1 presented by the resinIRA 910 U.

  12. Evaluation of pulp and mortar to pack bitumen radioactive waste; Avaliacao de pastas e argamassas para o embalado de rejeitos radioativos betuminizados

    Gregorio, Marina da S.; Vieira, Vanessa M.; Tello, Cledola C.O., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)


    According to international experience, for the deposition of cement in surface repository, is necessary the use of cement mortar pastes to immobilize the product. Determining the most efficient folder or for the packed mortar, as well as its ideal formulation, is the goal of this study. To do various experiments with samples of cement paste and mortar, with presence of fluxing and / or clay were performed. Viscosity, density, setting time and compressive strength were evaluated. This study will be presented only the results found in testing of compressive strength to be an essential parameter in the transport, storage and disposal of the product. From the results found will be selected the best formulations for use in packed bitumen tailings from the National Radioactive Waste Repository.

  13. Evaluation of nanofiltration membranes for treatment of liquid radioactive waste; Avaliacao de membranas de nanofiltracao para o tratamento de rejeito radioativo liquido

    Oliveira, Elizabeth Eugenio de Mello


    The physicochemical behavior of two nanofiltration membranes for treatment of a low-level radioactive liquid waste (carbonated water) was investigated through static, dynamic and concentration tests. This waste was produced during conversion of uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) to uranium dioxide (UO{sub 2}) in the cycle of nuclear fuel. This waste contains about 7.0 mg L{sup -1} of uranium and cannot be discarded to the environment without an adequate treatment. In static tests membrane samples were immersed in the waste for 24 to 5000 h. Their transport properties (hydraulic permeability, permeate flux, sulfate and chloride ions rejection) were evaluated before and after immersion in the waste using a permeation flux front system under 0.5 MPa. The selective layer (polyamide) was characterized by zeta potential, contact angle, scanning electron microscopy for field emission, atomic force microscopy, infrared spectroscopy, x-ray fluorescence and thermogravimetric analysis before and after static tests. In dynamic tests the waste was permeated under 0.5 MPa, and the membranes showed rejection to uranium above 85% were obtained. The short-term static tests (24-72 h) showed that the selective layer and surface charge of the membranes were not chemical changed, according infrared spectra data. After 5000 h a coating layer was released from the membranes, poly(vinyl alcohol), PVA. After this loss the rejection for uranium decreased. Permeation and concentration of the waste were carried out in permeation flux tangential system under 1.5 MPa. The rejection of uranium was around 90% for permeation tests. In concentration tests the permeated was collected continuously until about 80% reduction of the feed volume. The rejection of uranium was of the 97%. The nanofiltration membranes tested were efficient to concentrate the uranium from the waste. (author)

  14. Radioactive waste transmutation in a fission-fusion hybrid system; Transmutacao de rejeitos radioativos em sistemas hibridos de fusao-fissao

    Cabrera, Carlos Eduardo Velasquez


    A fission-fusion hybrid reactor is proposed for recycling and transmutation of highly radioactive waste. Two fusion systems were evaluated. A Tokamak, based on magnetic confinement, and another based on inertial confinement. These systems have been modified and designed to place a transmutation layer loaded with transuranic elements from spent fuel of nuclear power plants. The transmutation layer is the first presented in specific literature to be used with fuel reprocessed by the method UREX + and further spiked with depleted uranium or thorium to reduce the amount of fissile material in order to keep a subcritical system. The evaluations were carried out by varying geometric parameters such as the thickness of transmutation layer and the radius of the fuel rod. Depending on the case this variations increase the efficiency to reduce the transuranic contained in the fuel. The results show the possibility of reducing the transuranic for each model and transmutation efficiency compared to the initial amount of recycled fuel for each fusion reactor. Furthermore, a comparison of both hybrid fusion-fission systems is performed in order to find the best system to reduce transuranics efficiently. (author)

  15. {sup 222}Rn monitoring in the radioactive storage of IPEN/CNEN-SP, Brazil; Monitoracao de Rn-222 nos galpoes de armazenamento de rejeitos radioativos do IPEN

    Manocchi, Fabio Henrique


    Some radionuclides that make up the radioactive series are noted for their contribution to the total exposure to which individuals are subjected, an important example is known as radon {sup 222}Rn and their descendants, responsible for more than half of the radiation dose received by the population due to natural sources. In this work the effective dose received by the workers of the Management of Radioactive Waste in IPEN due to inhalation of {sup 222}Rn in storage sheds from treated and untreated radioactive waste was evaluated. Concentrations of {sup 222}Rn inside the sheds of treated and untreated radioactive waste G3 and G4 were determined by the technique of passive detection with solid state nuclear track (SSNTD) detectors. The detector used was CR-39 inserted in a diffusion chamber type NRPB. A total of 12 internal points and 1 external point were monitored in the shed radioactive waste treated G4 and 13 points in the shed radioactive waste untreated G3, for a period of 11 months between June 2012 and May 2013. Concentrations ranged 0.73 ± 0.08 to 4.55 ± 0.16 kBq∙m{sup -3} among the monitoring periods in the shed G4 and between 0.61 ± 0.07 and 2.94 ± 0.12 kBq∙m{sup -3} in the shed G3. The effective dose due to inhalation of {sup 222}Rn inside the sheds radioactive waste was calculated according to the procedures of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) from a conversion factor of dose, the mean concentration of {sup 222}Rn in the air and time of exposure of individuals. The dose values for G4 and G3 are 15.70 and 9.27 mSv∙a{sup -1} respectively, this being greater than the value established by the National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) and recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) 20 mSv / a for occupationally exposed individuals, thus indicating the need for mitigation measures. It should, however, report that was considered a very conservative assumption of 2,000 hours of work on site. (author)

  16. Bioremoval of Am-241 and Cs-137 from liquid radioactive wasters by bacterial consortiums; Biorremocao de Am-241 e Cs-137 de rejeitos radioativos liquidos por consorcios bacterianos

    Ferreira, Rafael Vicente de Padua; Lima, Josenilson B. de; Gomes, Mirella C.; Borba, Tania R.; Bellini, Maria Helena; Marumo, Julio Takehiro; Sakata, Solange Kazumi, E-mail: rpadua@ipen.b, E-mail: sksakata@ipen.b, E-mail: jblima@ipen.b, E-mail: mbmarumo@ipen.b, E-mail: jtmarumo@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    This paper evaluates the capacity of two bacterial consortiums of impacted areas in removing the Am-241 and Cs-137 from liquid radioactive wastes.The experiments indicated that the two study consortiums were able to remove 100% of the Cs-137 and Am-241 presents in the waste from 4 days of contact. These results suggest that the bio removal with the selected consortiums, can be a viable technique for the treatment of radioactive wastes containing Am-241 and Cs-137

  17. Development of software for management of radioactive waste in biological research and clinical assistance; Desenvolvimento do software para gerenciamento de rejeitos radioativos em pesquisa biologica e assistencia clinica

    Maciel, Bianca; Mattos, Maria Fernanda S.S.; Medeiros, Regina B. [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP/EPM), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Diagnostico por Imagem. Nucleo de Protecao Radiologica; Franca Junior, Jose Antonio de, E-mail: fernanda@cfhr.epm.b, E-mail: rbitelli@cfhr.epm.b, E-mail: jafjunior@unifesp.b [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP/EPM), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Tecnologia da Informacao. Div. de Sistema de Informacao


    This paper describes the development of software which facilitates the automation of this process by mean of the Safety Analysis Report generating a data base allowing the statistic analysis and elaboration of radioactive wastes inventory. The software was developed in PHP language and the information is stored in a data base generated in Oracle and organized in different tables which allows to calculate the storage time of waste and to register the specificities of radioisotopes, cadastral data of the professionals which handle that radioisotope and also the characteristics of handling laboratories. That tool collaborates for a effective control on the use of radioisotopes in research laboratories and assistance areas as well

  18. Study of biosorbents application on the treatment of radioactive liquid wastes with americium-241; Estudo da aplicacao de biossorventes no tratamento de rejeitos radioativos liquidos contendo americio-241

    Borba, Tania Regina de


    The use of nuclear energy for many different purposes has been intensified and highlighted by the benefits that it provides. Medical diagnosis and therapy, agriculture, industry and electricity generation are examples of its application. However, nuclear energy generates radioactive wastes that require suitable treatment ensuring life and environmental safety. Biosorption and bioaccumulation represent an emergent alternative for the treatment of radioactive liquid wastes, providing volume reduction and physical state change. This work aimed to study biosorbents for the treatment of radioactive liquid wastes contaminated with americium-241 in order to reduce the volume and change the physical state from liquid to solid. The biosorbents evaluated were Saccharomyces cerevisiae immobilized in calcium alginate beads, inactivated and free cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, calcium alginate beads, Bacillus subtilis, Cupriavidus metallidurans and Ochrobactrum anthropi. The results were quite satisfactory, achieving 100% in some cases. The technique presented in this work may be useful and viable for implementing at the Waste Management Laboratory of IPEN - CNEN/SP in short term, since it is an easy and low cost method. (author)

  19. Application of macrophytes as biosorbents for radioactive liquid waste treatment; Aplicacao de macrofitas como biossorventes no tratamento de rejeitos radioativos liquidos

    Vieira, Ludmila Cabreira


    Radioactive waste as any other type of waste should be treated and disposed adequately. It is necessary to consider its physical, chemical and radiological characteristics for choosing the appropriate action for the treatment and final disposal. Many treatment techniques currently used are economically costly, often invalidating its use and favoring the study of other treatment techniques. One of these techniques is biosorption, which demonstrates high potential when applied to radioactive waste. This technology uses materials of biological origin for removing metals. Among potential biosorbents found, macrophyte aquatics are useful because they may remove uranium present in the liquid radioactive waste at low cost. This study aims to evaluate the biosorption capacity of macrophyte aquatics Pistia stratiotes, Limnobium laevigatum, Lemna sp and Azolla sp in the treatment of liquid radioactive waste. This study was divided into two stages, the first one is characterization and preparation of biosorption and the other is tests, carried out with uranium solutions and real samples. The biomass was tested in its raw form and biosorption assays were performed in polypropylene vials containing 10 ml of solution of uranium or 10ml of radioactive waste and 0.20g of biomass. The behavior of biomass was evaluated by sorption kinetics and isotherm models. The highest sorption capacities found was 162.1 mg / g for the macrophyte Lemna sp and 161.8 mg / g for the Azolla sp. The equilibrium times obtained were 1 hour for Lemna sp, and 30 minutes for Azolla sp. With the real waste, the macrophyte Azolla sp presented a sorption capacity of 2.6 mg / g. These results suggest that Azolla sp has a larger capacity of biosorption, therefore it is more suitable for more detailed studies of treatment of liquid radioactive waste. (author)

  20. Polymeric foam characterization for packing use for radioactive wastes transportation; Caracterizacao de espuma polimerica para uso em embalagens para transporte de rejeitos radioativos

    Mourao, Rogerio Pimenta [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)] E-mail:; Mattar Neto, Miguel [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)] E-mail:


    Impact limiters are sacrificial components widely used to protect radioactive waste packages against damage arising from falls, fires and collisions with protruding objects. Several materials have been used as impact limiter filling: wood, expanded cement and polymeric foams. One of the most popular materials among package designers is the petroleum rigid polyurethane foam, owing to its toughness, workability, low specific weight, low costs and commercial availability. In Brazil, a new foam was developed using the polymer extracted from the castor-oil plant (Ricinus communis), a renewable source. Besides, no greenhouse gases are used during its manufacture. For a better performance, a detailed knowledge of the foam physical and mechanical properties is essential. A relatively vast amount of data about regular polymeric foams can be found in the literature and in several manufacturers' brochures, but no data has been published so far about the properties of the castor-oil foam. This paper presents the testing program carried out as part of ongoing research program aimed at developing a packaging for the transport of radioactive wastes. The results obtained reveal that the castor-oil foam has a mechanical behavior similar to that of regular foams, with good property reproducibility and homogeneity. (author)

  1. Biodegradation of radioactive organic liquid waste from spent fuel reprocessing; Biodegradacao de rejeitos radioativos liquidos organicos provenientes do reprocessamento do combustivel nuclear

    Ferreira, Rafael Vicente de Padua


    The research and development program in reprocessing of low burn-up spent fuel elements began in Brazil in 70's, originating the lab-scale hot cell, known as Celeste located at Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, IPEN - CNEN/SP. The program was ended at the beginning of 90's, and the laboratory was closed down. Part of the radioactive waste generated mainly from the analytical laboratories is stored waiting for treatment at the Waste Management Laboratory, and it is constituted by mixture of aqueous and organic phases. The most widely used technique for the treatment of radioactive liquid wastes is the solidification in cement matrix, due to the low processing costs and compatibility with a wide variety of wastes. However, organics are generally incompatible with cement, interfering with the hydration and setting processes, and requiring pre -treatment with special additives to stabilize or destroy them. The objective of this work can be divided in three parts: organic compounds characterization in the radioactive liquid waste; the occurrence of bacterial consortia from Pocos de Caldas uranium mine soil and Sao Sebastiao estuary sediments that are able to degrade organic compounds; and the development of a methodology to biodegrade organic compounds from the radioactive liquid waste aiming the cementation. From the characterization analysis, TBP and ethyl acetate were chosen to be degraded. The results showed that selected bacterial consortia were efficient for the organic liquid wastes degradation. At the end of the experiments the biodegradation level were 66% for ethyl acetate and 70% for the TBP. (author)

  2. Radioactive waste repository of Cesium of Abadia de Goias. Construction and design; Repositorio de rejeitos radioativos de cesio - Abadia de Goias. Concepcao e projeto

    Tranjan Filho, Alfredo [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Alves, Antonio Sergio de Martin; Santos, Cicero Durval Pacifici dos; Passos, Erivaldo Mario dos; Coutinho, Fernando Paulo Millen [NUCLEN Engenharia e Servicos S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    The main criteria, the methodology, the solutions and parameters that were utilized in the design of the Intermediate and Low Level Radioactive Waste Repository of Abadia de Goias are shortly described. The various design steps are analysed from the preparation of the Safety Analysis Report to the detailing engineering tasks. The safety analysis for the constructed repository had the goal of verifying the magnitude of radioecological impacts corresponding to idealized activity release scenarios, allowing also the possible effects of human intrusion in the repository. These safety studies are intrinsically connected to computer calculations envisaged to simulate the long term performance of the repository. (author) 18 refs., 7 figs., 7 tabs.

  3. Simplified analytical model to simulate radionuclide release from radioactive waste trenches; Modelo simplificado para simulacao da liberacao de radionuclideos de repositorios de rejeitos radioativos

    Sa, Bernardete Lemes Vieira de


    In order to evaluate postclosure off-site doses from low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities, a computer code was developed to simulate the radionuclide released from waste form, transport through vadose zone and transport in the saturated zone. This paper describes the methodology used to model these process. The radionuclide released from the waste is calculated using a model based on first order kinetics and the transport through porous media was determined using semi-analytical solution of the mass transport equation, considering the limiting case of unidirectional convective transport with three-dimensional dispersion in an isotropic medium. The results obtained in this work were compared with other codes, showing good agreement. (author)

  4. Produção de um pellet feed a partir da concentração do rejeito da flotação mecânica da SAMARCO


    Este trabalhou investigou a possibilidade de se produzir um pellet feed com 1,0% de silica a partir de uma amostra representativa do rejeito da flotacao mecanica. Essa amostra continha 11,0% de ferro e um F80 e um d50 de 116Êm e 63Êm, respectivamente. Verificou-se uma alta concentracao de silica nas fracoes grosseiras e uma maior concentracao de ferro na fracao -37Êm, sendo que a hematita especular e a fase mineralogica mais abundante nessa fracao. Os ensaios tecnologicos envolveram quatro ro...

  5. Desempenho de alevinos de jundiá alimentados com silagem de rejeito de peixe

    Dariane Beatriz Schoffen Enke


    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho zootécnico de alevinos de jundiá, alimentados com silagem de rejeitos de pescado, em substituição ao farelo de soja e à levedura de cana. Durante 35 dias, 375 alevinos de jundiá com peso inicial de 1,73±0,17 g, distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, foram avaliados em cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições. Os tratamentos consistiram de inclusão de silagem de pescado a 0, 12,5, 25, 37,5 e 50%. Todos os parâmetros zootécnicos avaliados, exceto o fator de condição, mostraram que a substituição do farelo de soja e da levedura pela silagem de rejeito de pescado melhora o desempenho produtivo de alevinos de jundiá.

  6. Durabilidade de peças cerâmicas vermelhas com adição de rejeito de rocha ornamental isenta de granalha Durability of red ceramic samples with addition of ornamental rock waste free of steel particles

    D. V. Rodrigues


    Full Text Available Para avaliação da degradação acelerada em laboratório sofrida pelos corpos de prova de cerâmica vermelha com adição de rejeito de rocha ornamental isento de granalha, foi utilizado um equipamento que lixivia com água quente e fria em tempos controlados, e também, congela a amostra em até -4 ºC. Os corpos de prova cerâmicos foram confeccionados com até 10% em massa de rejeito de rocha ornamental a seco, e em seguida, umedecidos e moldados por extrusão. Os materiais produzidos foram calcinados nas temperaturas de 700 ºC, 800 ºC e 900 ºC. Após 1060 h de degradação acelerada em equipamento de laboratório, analisaram-se as propriedades cerâmicas do material. Os resultados das resistências mecânicas foram comparados através da distribuição de Weibull, antes e depois da degradação. Nota-se que o material com adição de 10% de rejeito de rocha ornamental na massa cerâmica é mais confiável quando queimada a 900 ºC após a degradação, quando comparados com as amostras sem adição de rejeito, proporcionando maior durabilidade.For the evaluation of the accelerated degradation in laboratory of red ceramic specimens with addition of ornamental rock waste free from steel particles, an equipment that leach with hot and cool water and time control, and also freezing the specimen at -4 ºC was used,. The ceramic samples were made with up to 10 wt.% of the dry ornamental rock waste, and after humidifying and molding by extrusion. The specimens were fired at 700 ºC, 800 ºC and 900 ºC. After 1060 h of accelerated degradation lab test, ceramic properties were evaluated. The results of the strength were compared for Weibull distribution, before and after degradation. The specimens with addition of 10 wt.% waste is more durable and reliable when fired to 900 ºC after the degradation.

  7. Filtragem de rejeitos de minério de ferro visando à sua disposição em pilhas Filtering of iron ore tailings for its disposal in stockpiles

    Nilton Caixeta Guimarães


    Full Text Available A metodologia tradicional de disposição de rejeitos em forma de polpa requer grandes áreas para disposição e apresenta grande impacto ambiental e, por conseguinte, as empresas têm dificuldade na aquisição de novos licenciamentos. A proximidade de áreas urbanas e a pressão pública têm despertado a necessidade de se buscarem alternativas a essa metodologia. Uma solução viável para essa questão contribuirá com o processo de licenciamento ambiental, garantindo a sobrevivência da mineração no Quadrilátero Ferrífero. Foram realizados ensaios de filtragem em bancada com amostras de rejeitos nas principais tecnologias de filtragem: a vácuo, sob pressão, capilar e hiperbárica. Os resultados mostraram que, com exceção das lamas, é possível filtrar os rejeitos com uma boa taxa de filtragem e umidade adequada para empilhamento. A filtragem das lamas sob pressão resultou em taxa unitária de filtragem relativamente baixa e alta umidade da torta (próximo a 20%. A torta derivada das lamas poderia ser misturada à torta de rejeitos grossos e/ou o estéril da mina para permitir o seu empilhamento, porém requerendo estudos geotécnicos complementares.The traditional method for the disposal of slurry in tailing dams requires large areas, with large environmental impact and therefore makes it difficult to acquire new licenses. The proximity of urban areas, together with public pressure, has raised the need to seek alternatives for this methodology. A viable solution to this issue will contribute to the environmental licensing process for new projects, ensuring the survival of mining in the Iron Quadrangle. Laboratory-scale filtration tests were conducted with tailing's samples using the main filtering technologies: vacuum filtration, pressure, hyperbaric and capillary filters. The results showed that with the exception of the slimes, it is possible to filter the tailings from the processing plants with a good filtration rate and


    José Carlos Oliveira


    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de dar suporte atividades diárias de controle e para auxiliar a tomada de decisões na operação das barragens das minas de ferro da CVRD, Carajás-PA, foi desenvolvido, em parceria com a empresa Geoexplore Consultoria e Serviços, um sistema de Gestão de Barragens baseado em geotecnologias. O GeoBarragem foi concebido para atuar na coleta de dados de campo, no armazenamento dos dados relacionados à gestão das barragens, na análise e integração espacial e na simulação do preenchimento das barragens. É composto por um coletor de dados através de Handheld, um Sistema Gerenciador de Banco de Dados, um software para integração e análise espacial de dados e um simulador de preenchimento de barragens. Palavras chave: Monitoramento; Sedimentos e rejeitos; Geobarragem Minas de Ferro de Carajás.

  9. Metais pesados em solos de área de rejeitos de indústria de processamento de zinco

    M. R. Ribeiro-Filho


    Full Text Available Apesar de a poluição do solo ser amplamente constatada, estudos sobre as concentrações e formas dos metais pesados em solos e seus efeitos no ecossistema são ainda pouco enfatizados, principalmente em condições tropicais. O presente estudo foi desenvolvido em área de rejeitos de uma unidade de extração e industrialização de zinco pertencente à Companhia Mineira de Metais-CMM, em Três Marias (MG, com o objetivo de avaliar as quantidades e formas de metais pesados em sete locais representativos da área. Os locais foram selecionados para amostragem, baseando-se em diferenças na forma de contaminação, aspectos de solo, topografia e vegetação. Realizaram-se análises químicas de fracionamento de metais pesados e extrações simples com DTPA e Mehlich-1, buscando determinar os teores e formas dos metais na superfície e em profundidade e fazer inferências sobre o potencial de risco ambiental desses metais. Os teores totais dos metais nas camadas superficiais dos locais estudados foram, em média, de: 13.533 mg kg-1, para Zn; 170 mg kg-1, para Cd; 865 mg kg-1, para Cu, e 612 mg kg-1, para Pb, enquanto os teores trocáveis (MgCl2 nessas mesmas camadas variaram de 231 a 1.407 mg kg-1, para Zn; 14 a 390 mg kg-1, para Cd, e 11 a 33 mg kg-1, para Pb; o Cu raramente ocorreu nesta forma. Os solos dos locais estudados, com teores excessivos de Zn, Cd, Cu e Pb, são considerados poluídos. Em determinados locais contaminados por escoamento (superficial e subsuperficial e arraste de material de solo e rejeito, a poluição mostrou-se mais evidente nas camadas superficiais. No local da ustulação, verificou-se maior percentagem de Zn trocável em todos os níveis de profundidade. Nos demais locais, o Cd apresentou também grandes concentrações nas formas trocáveis, razão por que tal elemento oferece maior risco de contaminação ambiental. De modo geral, a ocorrência de Zn foi maior nas formas carbonato e residual, enquanto o Cd

  10. Diagnóstico e localização de tumores intracranianos mediante mapeamento com mercúrio radioativo (Hg203

    Paul C. Bucy


    Full Text Available Os autores discutem sua experiência com o emprêgo de mercúrio radioativo para o mapeamento de tumores e granulomas intracranianos, concluindo que êste método é atualmente o melhor para demonstrar e localizar lesões expansivas intracranianas, pois seu valor foi demonstrado em 83,1% dos casos. Entretanto nem todos os tumores são demonstráveis por êste método: os glioblastomas e meningeomas forneceram mapas de valor diagnóstico na maioria dos casos; os astrocitomas podem passar despercebidos: os epidermóides não foram demonstrados. Os tumores da base do crânio e os da fossa posterior podem ser mascarados pela alta apacidade dos músculos do pescoço e das mucosas dos seios paranasai m absorver a substância radioativa. O método é segúro, de aplicação econômica e não causa desconfôrto ao doente. Êle não deve ser usado por médicos que não estejam orientados no sentido neurológico para o diagnóstico de tumores intracranianos. Infelizmente os tumores que não são evidenciados por êste método são de caráter relativamente benigno e, portanto, os mais suscetíveis de tratamento cirúrgico.

  11. Síntese de zeólita do tipo faujasita a partir de um rejeito de caulim Synthesis of faujasite-type zeolite from kaolin waste

    E. A. Hildebrando


    Full Text Available Materiais zeolíticos foram sintetizados utilizando como fonte principal de silício e alumínio um rejeito industrial gerado durante o beneficiamento do caulim para cobertura de papel; o material de partida e as fases formadas como produtos de reação foram caracterizados por difração de raios X, microscopia eletrônica de varredura e espectroscopia de refletância difusa no infravermelho com transformada de Fourier. O processo de síntese ocorreu em condições hidrotermais através de autoclavagem estática e os efeitos tempo-temperatura, assim como também as relações Si/Al e Na/Al foram considerados. Os resultados mostram que na metodologia desenvolvida com o rejeito de caulim, inicialmente calcinado a 700 ºC por 2 h, submetido em seguida à reação em meio alcalino a 90 ºC por 48 h na presença de uma fonte adicional de sílica foi obtida zeólita do tipo faujasita com boa cristalinidade como fase predominante no produto de síntese.Zeolitic materials were synthesized using as main source of silicon and aluminum an industrial waste generated during the processing of kaolin for paper coating, the starting material and formed phases as reaction products were characterized by XRD, SEM and DRIFT. The synthesis process occurred in hydrothermal conditions and the effects, time-temperature, as well as the relations Si/Al and Na/Al were considered. The results show that in the methodology developed from kaolin waste, initially calcined at 700 ºC for 2 h, subjected then reaction in alkaline medium at 90 ºC for 48 h in presence of additional silica was obtained faujasite-type zeolite with good crystallinity as phase predominant in the synthesis product.


    Milton Berreza Vale; Pedro Vieira de Azevedo


    O Experimento de campo foi conduzido (22/08/2012 a 02/01/2013) na comunidade “Riacho Salgado”, município de São Paulo do Potengi–RN, objetivando avaliar a produtividade e a qualidade do capim elefante e do sorgo cujo solo foi irrigado com água do lençol freático e do rejeito do dessalinizador. Foram analisados os seguintes parâmetros de produtividade e qualidade nutricional: massa verde, massa seca e teor de proteína bruta das duas culturas. O aumento da salinidade da água de irrigação de 2,8...

  13. Metais pesados provenientes de rejeitos de mineração e seus efeitos sobre a saúde e o meio ambiente - doi: 10.5102/ucs.v4i1.24

    Daphne Heloisa de Freitas Muniz


    Full Text Available O aumento nas concentrações de metais pesados no solo e na água próximos a zonas de mineração pode estar relacionado com processos químicos e biológicos que controlam a solubilidade, a disponibilidade e a mobilidade desses metais. Os efeitos tóxicos dos metais pesados no ser humano estão associados aos compostos orgânicos e inorgânicos por eles formados e são determinados pela quantidade do metal envolvida e pelo tempo de exposição. Com base em revisão bibliográfica, o presente artigo enfoca e discute aspectos relevantes sobre o estudo de metais, como arsênio, cádmio, cromo e mercúrio, provenientes de rejeitos de mineração.

  14. Development of a method for the radioisotopic characterization of waste packages



    Atualmente, a caracterização dos resíduos radioativos gerados na operação do reator nuclear de pesquisas IEA-R1 está em curso. O reator IEA-R1 é um reator do tipo piscina aberta, moderado e refrigerado por água leve, utilizando dois leitos de resinas de troca iônica e de carvão ativado para purificação de água de refrigeração. Estes meios filtrantes são substituídos quando já não são capazes de manter a qualidade da água dentro dos limites exigidos e são tratados como rejeitos radioativos. Co...

  15. Alumina para utilização cerâmica, obtida a partir do rejeito de beneficiamento de caulim Alumina for ceramic manufacture using residues of kaolin processing

    S. M. P. Flores


    Full Text Available O beneficiamento de caulim para cobertura de papel produz grandes volumes de rejeito, constituído essencialmente do argilomineral caulinita, usado neste trabalho como material de partida para síntese de alúmen de amônio, visando a obtenção de alumina livre de sódio e de baixa granulometria para utilização cerâmica. O método de síntese desenvolvido para obtenção do alúmen de amônio constitui-se das etapas: calcinação do rejeito, lixiviação sulfúrica da metacaulinita, seguida da neutralização/cristalização da solução de Al2(SO43 com NH4OH concentrado. No processo, são estudadas as variáveis: temperatura de calcinação (650 °C, 700 °C, 750 °C e tempo de calcinação do rejeito (30, 60 e 120 min, concentração de H2SO4, temperatura de lixiviação (70 °C, 80 °C e 90 °C sobre a cinética de lixiviação do alumínio. Estudou-se também o efeito do pH na cristalização do alúmen de amônio, apresentando-se as análises químicas, DRX, ATD, ATG e granulometria dos materiais utilizados e sintetizados.The kaolin processing for paper covering produces a great volume of residues formed primarily by kaolinite claymineral, here the starting material for the synthesis of ammonium alumen aiming to obtain free sodium alumina with fine grade for ceramic manufacturing. The synthesis process to obtain ammonium alumen consisted of the following procedures: residues calcination and sulphuric leaching of metakaolinite followed by neutralization/crystallisation of aluminum sulphate solution with ammonium hydroxide concentrated solution. The effect of calcination temperature (650 °C, 700 °C and 750 °C, calcination time of residues (30 min, 60 min and 120 min, sulphuric acid concentration as well as leaching temperature (70 °C, 80 °C and 90 °C on the kinetics of aluminum leaching were studied. The influence of pH on ammonium alumen crystallization was also studied. Data on chemical analysis, XRD, DTA, TGA and granulometry of

  16. Crescimento e produção de tomate cereja em sistema hidropônico com rejeito de dessalinização Cherry tomato growth and yield in soilless system using wastewater from desalination process

    Jonath Werissimo da Silva Gomes


    Full Text Available A produtividade agrícola sustentável é o maior desafio nas regiões áridas e semiáridas por causa da escassez de água para irrigação, sendo comum o uso de água salobra para irrigação. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar a resposta do tomate cereja (Lycopersicon esculentum L., cv. Samambaia sob quatro níveis de salinidade da solução nutritiva com adição de rejeito salino em sistema de produção hidropônico. As plantas de tomate foram cultivadas em vasos com substrato de fibra de coco e irrigadas com soluções nutritivas preparadas com água de abastecimento e com águas salinas preparadas diluindo-se água de rejeito coletado em um dessalinizador a 75%; 50% e 25% e 0%, correspondendo à condutividades elétricas de 2,1; 3,55; 4,88, 6,02 e 6,96 dS m-1, respectivamente. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com 5 tratamentos (níveis de salinidade da solução nutritiva e quatro repetições. A altura e a massa seca das plantas reduziram com o aumento da salinidade da água de irrigação. O consumo hídrico da cultura foi influenciada pela adição de rejeito salino na solução nutritiva e a salinidade limiar, considerando-se a produtividade da cultura, ficou em torno de 3,51 dS m-1. A adição de até 25% de rejeito de dessalinizador (diluição de 75% à solução nutritiva permite o cultivo do tomate cereja, cv. 'Samambaia', sem haver redução na produtividade.Sustainable agricultural production is the most challenge facing many arid and semiarid regions due to the severe shortage of water for irrigation, thus the use of saline water for irrigation is common. The aim of this research was to examine the response of cherry tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L., cv. Samambaia under four levels of salinity of the nutritional solution with added water reject from desalting under soilless conditions. Plants were grown in pots filled with coconut fiber and irrigated with nutrient solutions prepared with tap

  17. Study of the surface crystallization and resistance to dissolution of niobium phosphate glasses for nuclear waste immobilization; Estudo da cristalizacao superficial e da resistencia a dissolucao de vidros niobofosfatos visando a imobilizacao de rejeitos radioativos

    Vieira, Heveline


    The surface crystallization and the dissolution rate of three phosphate glass compositions containing different amounts of niobium oxide were studied. The glasses were named Nb30, Nb37, and Nb44 according to the nominal content of niobium oxide in the glass composition. The three compositions were evaluated keeping the P{sub 2}O{sub 5}/K{sub 2}O ratio constant and varying the amount of Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}. These glasses were produced by melting appropriate chemical compounds at 1500 deg C for 0.5 hour. The crystalline phases which were nucleated on the glass surface after heat treatment were determined by X-ray diffraction. The crystalline structures depend on the amount of niobium oxide in the glass composition. The crystal morphologies were observed by using an optical microscope, and their characteristics are specific for each kind of crystalline phase. The crystal growth rate and the surface nuclei density were determined for each glass composition, and they depend on each crystalline phase nucleated on the surface. From the differential thermal analysis curves it was determined that the Nb44 glass containing 46.5 mol por cent of niobium oxide is the most thermally stable against crystallization when compared to the Nb30 and Nb37 glasses. According to the activation energies determined for crystal growth on the surface of each glass type, the Nb44 glass can also be considered the most resistant one against crystallization. The dissolution rate for the Nb44 glass after 14 days immersed in an aqueous solution with pH equals to 7 at 90 deg C is the lowest (9.0 x 10{sup -7} g. cm{sup -2} . day{sup -1}) when compared to the other two glass compositions. The dissolution rates in acidic and neutral solutions of all studied glasses meet the international standards for materials which can be used in the immobilization of nuclear wastes. (author)

  18. Preliminary studies of radioactive wastes immobilization, using microwaves, in asphaltic matrices and elastomeric residues; Estudos preliminares da imobilizacao de rejeitos radioativos, com microondas, em matrizes asfalticas e residuos elastomericos

    Caratin, Reinaldo Leonel; Araujo, Sumair Gouveia de; Landini, Liliane; Jaquier, Gilberto da Silva; Lugao, Ademar Benevolo [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail:;;;;


    The present work consists of preliminary studies for immobilization of radioactive waste by using monolithic solid matrices compounded by bitumen (asphalt) and production leftovers of EVA shoe soles (polymeric residues). Those matrices were obtained through high microwave energy heating aiming to reduce possible dispersion of radioactive material in the environment during the stages of intermediate storage, transportation and final disposal. The radioactive waste that was used results from the purification of thorium long made at Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP). The obtained precipitate is named Retoter (thorium residue and rare earth elements). The compounded samples of bitumen and rubber were heated by electromagnetic radiation (high microwave energy); the time was varied and the temperature was controlled. Variables such as mass percent of bitumen/rubber, dosage, microwave power, heating period and temperature were analyzed in order to get the most homogeneous formulations that might be most resistant to environmental agents. The geometry of samples is still being studied to obtain the best distribution of radioactive waste on the polymeric compound (bitumen/rubber). To prove the efficiency of the method, physics and chemistry characterizations have been initially made through assays in order to evidence properties like: porosity, density, leaching rate, resistance to radiation, resistance to aging, thermal, mechanical and structural properties. (author)

  19. Acceptance criteria for deposition of low-level and intermediate-level radiation levels radioactive wastes; Criterios de aceitacao para deposicao de rejeitos radioativos de baixo e medio niveis de radiacao



    This norm establishes the criteria for acceptance low and intermediate radiation level for safe deposition in repositories, for assuring the protection of workers, population and environment against the hazardous effects of the ionizing radiations. The criteria of this norm applies to the low and intermediate radiation levels.

  20. Project of an information integrated system to provide support to the regulatory control of the radioactive waste inventory; Projeto de um sistema integrado de informacao para suporte ao controle regulatorio do inventario de rejeitos radioativos

    Christovao, Marilia Tavares


    Sources and radioactive waste deriving from industry activities, medical practice and other areas are collected, received, and stored as waste on Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) Institutes, that also generate, treat and store their own radioactive waste. The object of this project is to present an Integrated Information System named SICORR, having as guidelines, the referred processes to the radioactive waste regulatory control, under the responsibility of the Radioactive Waste Division (DIREJ), the General Coordination of Licensing and Control (CGLC), the Directorate of Safety and Radiation Protection (DRS) and the CNEN. The main objective of the work was reached, once the project SICORR modeling considers the radioactive waste control inventory, enclosing the treatment and integration of the radioactive waste and the radionuclides data and processes; the installations that produce, use, transport or store radiation sources data; and, CNEN Institutes responsible for the radioactive waste management data. The SICORR functions or essential modules involve the data treatment, integration, standardization and consistency between the processes. The SICORR specification and the analysis results are registered in documents, Software Specification Proposal (PESw) and Software Requirements Specification (ERSw), and are presented in text, in diagrams and user interfaces. Use cases have been used in the SICORR context diagram. The user interfaces for each use case have been detailed, defining the graphical layout, the relationships description with other interfaces, the interface details properties and the commands and the product entrances and exits. For objects radioactive waste and radionuclides, states diagrams have been drawn. The activities diagram represents the business model process. The class diagram represents the static objects and relationships that exist between them, under the specification point of view. The class diagram have been determined, mainly, using the use cases flows. The main future perspective is the software implantation, being necessary to fulfill the more stages of the development process that not boarded in the present work: construction (codification), tests, installation and training. (author)

  1. Viability study for the implantation of an incineration unit for low level radioactive wastes; Estudo de viabilidade para implantacao de uma unidade de incineracao para rejeitos radioativos de nivel baixo

    Andrade, Andre Wagner Oliani


    Incineration have been a world-wide accepted volume reduction technique for combustible materials due to its high efficiency and excellent results. This technique is used since the last century as an alternative to reduce cities garbage and during the last four decades for the hazardous wastes. The nuclear industry is also involved in this technique development related to the low level radioactive waste management. There are different types of incineration installations and the definition of the right system is based on a criterious survey of its main characteristics, related to the rad wastes as well technical, economical and burocratic parameters. After the autonomous Brazilian nuclear programme development and the onlook of the future intensive nuclear energy uses, a radwaste generation increase is expected. One of the installations where these radwastes volumes are awaited to be high is the Experimental Center of ARAMAR (CEA). Nuclear reactors for propulsion and power generation have been developed in CEA beyond other nuclear combustible cycle activities. In this panorama it is important to evaluate the incineration role in CEA installations, as a volume reduction technique for an appropriate radioactive wastes management implementation. In this work main aspects related to the low level radwaste incineration systems were up rised. This information are important to a coherent viability study and also to give a clear and impartial about a topic that is still non discussed in the national scenery. (author)

  2. Analysis of the systems for management of radioactive wastes from nuclear medicine clinics of the city of Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil; Analise dos sistemas de gerenciamento de rejeitos radioativos de clinicas de medicina nuclear da cidade de Recife, PE

    Lira, Renata Farias de; Lopes, Ferdinand de Jesus; Passos, Robson Silva; Silva, Valeria Cosma Bento da; Belo, Igor Burgo, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil); Santos, Marcus Aurelio Pereira dos, E-mail: [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)


    In nuclear medicine compounds marked with radionuclides, called radiopharmaceuticals, for obtention diagnostic information and for diseases treatment. The physicochemical characteristics of the radiopharmaceuticals determine his fixation at target-organ, and the physical characteristics determine the compound application in diagnostic or therapy. The handling of radiopharmaceuticals generates solid, liquid and gas wastes. The presence of these wastes implies in a adequate management according to regulation standards established by the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN). The objective of safe management of radioactive wastes is to protect the human being and the preservation of the environment, limiting possible radiological impacts for the future generation, and comprehend a set of technical and administrative activities involved in the collection, segregation, handling, conditioning, transportation, storage, control and elimination, or the final deposition. This work intends to verify if the radioactive waste management systems from the nuclear medicine clinics at the city of Recife are conformal with te normative regulations issued by the CNEN. The initial obtained results are used to elaboration of conformal verification spreadsheet and its application in six nuclear medicine clinics at Recife

  3. Fluid geochemistry associated associated to rocks: preliminary tests om minerals of granite rocks potentially hostess of radioactive waste repository; Geoquimica de fluidos associados a rochas: testes preliminares em minerais de rochas granitoides potencialmente hospedeiras de repositorios de rejeitos radioativos

    Amorim, Lucas E.D.; Rios, Francisco J.; Oliveira, Lucilia A.R. de; Alves, James V.; Fuzikawa, Kazuo; Garcia, Luiz; Ribeiro, Yuri, E-mail: LDAmorim@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Matos, Evandro C. de [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil S.A. (INB), Caetite, BA (Brazil)


    Fluid inclusions (FI) are micro cavities present on crystals and imprison the mineralizer fluids, and are formed during or posterior to the mineral formation. Those kind of studies are very important for orientation of the engineer barrier projects for this purpose, in order to avoid that the solutions present in the mineral FI can affect the repository walls. This work proposes the development of FI micro compositional studies in the the hostess minerals viewing the contribution for a better understanding of the solution composition present in the metamorphosis granitoid rocks. So, micro thermometric, microchemical and characterization of the material confined in the FI, and the hostess minerals. Great part of the found FI are present in the quartz and plagioclase crystals. The obtained data on the mineral compositions and their inclusions will allow to formulate hypothesis on the process which could occurs at the repository walls, decurrens from of the corrosive character (or not) of the fluids present in the FI, and propose measurements to avoid them

  4. Study of immobilization of radioactive wastes in asphaltic matrices and elastomeric residues by using microwave technique; Estudo da imobilizacao de rejeitos radioativos em matrizes asfalticas e residuos elastomericos utilizando a tecnica de microondas

    Caratin, Reinaldo Leonel


    In the present work, the technique of microwave heating was used to study the immobilization of low and intermediate activity level radioactive waste, such as spent ion exchange resin used to remove undesirable ions of primary circuits of refrigeration in water refrigerated nuclear reactors, and those used in chemical and radionuclide separation columns in the quality control of radioisotopes. Bitumen matrices reinforced with some kinds of rubber (Neoprene{sup R}, silicon and ethylene-vinyl-acetate), from production leftovers or scraps, were used for incorporation of radioactive waste. The samples irradiation was made in a home microwave oven that operates at a frequency of 2.450 MHZ with 1.000 W power. The samples were characterized by developing assays on penetration, leaching resistance, softening, flash and combustion points, thermogravimetry and optical microscopy. The obtained results were compatible with the pattern of matrices components, which shows that technique is a very useful alternative to conventional immobilization methods and to those kinds of radioactive waste. (author)

  5. Proposal for a questionnaire to assess risk perception concerning a radioactive waste repository; Proposta de um questionario destinado a avaliar a percepcao de risco relativa a um repositorio de rejeitos radioativos

    Tanimoto, Katia Suemi


    One of the key features for public acceptance of nuclear energy is the belief that radioactive waste can be managed safely, in order to protect human beings from its possible harmful effects in present and future generations. In this sense, it is essential to understand how people perceive the risk associated with radioactive waste and which the main factors driving their attitudes toward its disposal are. One of the ways to achieve this understanding is through opinion polls. In this study, a questionnaire focused on the nuclear energy acceptability issue and its association with radioactive waste management was proposed, covering the following aspects: attitudes towards radioactive waste and nuclear power, credibility on institutions and sectors responsible by the nuclear safety, identification of perceived benefits, risk perception of specific technologies and activities, perception of real risk, emotional reaction comprehension and precautionary principle. Results obtained from a pilot questionnaire application are presented and discussed in this paper. (author)

  6. Bases for an environmental liability management system: application to a repository for radioactive waste; Bases para um sistema de gerenciamento de responsabilidades ambientais: aplicacao a um repositorio de rejeitos radioativos

    Tostes, Marcelo Mallat


    This thesis aims the establishment of conceptual bases for the development of Environmental Liability Management System - instruments designed to provide financial and managerial coverage to financial liabilities arising from activities that impact the environment. The document analyses the theories that link the evolution of economic thought and environment, as a means of establish the necessary framework for the development of up-to-date environmental policy instruments. From these concepts and from the analysis of environmental liability system being implemented in several countries, the bases for environmental liability systems development are drawn. Finally, a study is carried out on the application of these bases for the development of an environmental liability management system for a radioactive waste repository. (author)

  7. Use of radioanalytical methods for determination of uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium and curium isotopes in radioactive wastes; Utilizacao de metodos radioanaliticos para a determinacao de isotopos de uranio, plutonio, americio e curio em rejeitos radioativos

    Geraldo, Bianca


    Activated charcoal is a common type of radioactive waste that contains high concentrations of fission and activation products. The management of this waste includes its characterization aiming the determination and quantification of the specific radionuclides including those known as Difficult-to-Measure Radionuclides (RDM). The analysis of the RDM's generally involves complex radiochemical analysis for purification and separation of the radionuclides, which are expensive and time-consuming. The objective of this work was to define a methodology for sequential analysis of the isotopes of uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium and curium present in a type of radioactive waste, evaluating chemical yield, analysis of time spent, amount of secondary waste generated and cost. Three methodologies were compared and validated that employ ion exchange (TI + EC), extraction chromatography (EC) and extraction with polymers (ECP). The waste chosen was the activated charcoal from the purification system of primary circuit water cooling the reactor IEA-R1. The charcoal samples were dissolved by acid digestion followed by purification and separation of isotopes with ion exchange resins, extraction and chromatographic extraction polymers. Isotopes were analyzed on an alpha spectrometer, equipped with surface barrier detectors. The chemical yields were satisfactory for the methods TI + EC and EC. ECP method was comparable with those methods only for uranium. Statistical analysis as well the analysis of time spent, amount of secondary waste generated and cost revealed that EC method is the most effective for identifying and quantifying U, Np, Pu, Am and Cm present in charcoal. (author)

  8. Painéis de partículas provenientes de rejeitos de Pinus sp. tratado com preservante cca e resina derivada de biomassa

    Marília Silva Bertolini


    Full Text Available A utilização do preservante CCA (sais de cromo, cobre e arsênio tem sido questionada devido ao impacto relacionado à dispersão, principalmente, do cobre e do arsênio para o ambiente, antes de sua completa fixação na madeira. Outra questão se relaciona à disposição indevida dos resíduos provenientes da madeira tratada, viabilizando a lixiviação devido à maior área passível desses rejeitos sujeita a tal fenômeno. Este trabalho teve como objetivo a produção de painéis de partículas, avaliando o efeito da adição de resíduos de Pinus sp. tratado com sais de cromo, cobre e arsênio (CCA, em associação com material da mesma espécie sem preservantes, além de alterações no teor de adesivo poliuretano à base de mamona empregado na produção. As propriedades dos painéis produzidos foram determinadas conforme recomendações da NBR 14810-3: 2006. Por meio de análise estatística, observou-se que a adição da madeira tratada proporcionou desempenho superior no inchamento em espessura (2 h, ao passo que esse insumo utilizado na mesma proporção que a madeira sem preservantes foi significante, obtendo os melhores resultados na adesão interna. Os módulos de ruptura e de elasticidade na flexão não sofreram influência das variações nos insumos utilizados nos painéis. Os painéis, em grande parte, apresentaram-se em conformidade com os principais requisitos nesse âmbito, mostrando a possibilidade da utilização dos referidos insumos na produção, além da obtenção de um produto com considerável apelo ambiental.

  9. Uso do rejeito da dessalinização de água salobra no cultivo da alface (Lactuca sativa L. em sistema hidropônico NFT Use of the desalted wastewater for lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. production in NFT hydroponic system

    Rafaelly Suzanye da Silva Santos


    Full Text Available A dessalinização por osmose reversa tem sido bastante utilizada para o tratamento de água salobra, possibilitando a sua utilização para o consumo humano, especialmente em regiões semiáridas. Esse processo tem um fator limitante que é a produção de um rejeito de água com alta salinidade. Com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos da utilização de água de rejeito da dessalinização no cultivo de alface cultivar Vera (Lactuca sativa L. em sistema hidropônico NFT foi conduzido um experimento em casa de vegetação no departamento de ciências ambientais da UFERSA, em delineamento em blocos casualizados, com seis tratamentos e quatro repetições. Os níveis de salinidade da água entre os tratamentos foram obtidos com, ou sem a necessidade de diluição da água de rejeito da dessalinização acrescido da solução nutritiva com salinidade de 1 dS m-1 (100% de água potável de abastecimento - 1,4 dS m-1; 85% abastecimento e 15% água de rejeito - 1,9 dS m-1; 75 % água de rejeito + 25 % água de abastecimento - 2,7 dS m-1; 50% água de rejeito e 50% água de abastecimento - 3,8 dS m-1; 25 % água de rejeito e 75 % água de abastecimento - 4,9 dS m-1 e água de rejeito coletada no dessalinizador - 5,5 dS m-1. Os parâmetros analisados foram área foliar, diâmetro do caule, número de folhas, peso de matéria fresca e o peso de matéria seca. Todas as variáveis estudadas foram influenciadas negativamente de forma linear pelo efeito da concentração de sais na água de irrigação, sendo que a área foliar e a matéria fresca da parte aérea são as que melhor representam a sensibilidade ao estresse salino na cultivar estudada, tendo a produção em termos de matéria fresca uma redução de 94,83%, ao se elevar a CEa de 1,4 a 5,5 dS m-1.The desalination process by reverse osmosis was used for the treatment of brackish water, making possible the usage human consume in semiarid zones. This process has a limiting factor: it produces

  10. Tragédias brasileiras contemporâneas: o caso do rompimento da barragem de rejeitos de Fundão/Samarco

    Francisco Antonio de Castro Lacaz

    Full Text Available Resumo Introdução: o rompimento da barragem de rejeitos de Fundão, da empresa Samarco, ocorrido em 2015, em Minas Gerais, é considerado uma das grandes e graves tragédias socioambientais do Brasil. Objetivo: discutir o episódio do rompimento da barragem, seus danos e repercussões sobre os trabalhadores e a população atingida, assim como o papel do Estado na defesa dos interesses dessas populações. Método: ensaio baseado em relatórios elaborados por órgãos oficiais, grupos acadêmicos e movimentos sociais e em notícias veiculadas pela imprensa. Discussão: os documentos indicam incapacidade do Estado para exercer seu papel como agente controlador e fiscalizador de maneira efetiva e revelam a vulnerabilidade da população atingida, esmagada por um modelo de desenvolvimento que fragiliza a organização coletiva, a representatividade social e a capacidade política de fazer valer seus direitos. As apurações sobre as responsabilidades, as ações de indenização e as medidas de recuperação dos danos socioambientais, ocupacionais e sanitários poderão não atender de forma justa e satisfatória os interesses coletivos dos trabalhadores e seus familiares, assim como de toda a população atingida, apontando para a necessidade de um amplo processo de mobilização social para recuperar a dignidade e os direitos violados por essa grave tragédia.


    Álvaro César Pontes Galvão


    Full Text Available O isolamento térmico é empregado na proteção de superfícies aquecidas ou resfriadas através de materiais de baixa condutividade térmica, onde as espumas rígidas de poliuretano (PUR são as mais utilizadas. O rejeito de vidro não é aproveitável pela indústria recicladora, por isto algumas pesquisas buscam um aproveitamento desse resíduo vítreo aplicando-o como reforço em materiais. Neste trabalho foram desenvolvidos compósitos de PUR carregadas com pó de vidro (PV refinado objetivando uma comparação com o PUR puro e sua adequação como isolante térmico. O PV foi triturado e moído, obtendo-se duas granulometrias diferentes, as quais foram caracterizadas por Análise de Granulometria a Laser, DRX e FRX. Os corpos-de-prova de PUR+PV foram produzidos aplicando-se percentuais mássicos de PV a 5, 10 e 20, cujas características foram analisadas através de ensaios de condutividade térmica, massa específica e resistência à compressão. Os resultados demonstraram que as propriedades dos compósitos de PUR são influenciadas pelos percentuais de PV adicionados na matriz de PUR. Assim, constatou-se que a resistência à compressão (exceto o PV20-100 e a massa específica dos compósitos PUR+PV foi superior à do PUR puro. A condutividade térmica dos compósitos PUR+PV permaneceu numa faixa de 0,035 a 0,045 W/m-K, o que pode sugerir que a inclusão do PV não afetou significativamente as propriedades termofísicas, quando comparadas às do PUR puro (0,040 W/m-K. A partir destas análises, a aplicabilidade do rejeito vítreo contribuiu como reforço do PUR e a sua função de isolação térmica não foi reduzida. Isto possibilita maior economia e preservação ambiental.

  12. Potencial poluidor de rejeitos carboníferos: II- efeitos da recuperação com camadas de solo sobre as plantas e a população microbiana Pollutant potencial of coal rejects: II- recuperation effects with soil layers in plants and microbial population

    Larisa Ho Bech Gaivizzo


    Full Text Available A minimização do impacto sobre o ambiente advindo da mineração do carvão pode ser obtida pela recomposição topográfica da área minerada, seguida da cobertura dos rejeitos com uma camada de solo e de práticas de revegetação. Em vista disso, desenvolveu-se o presente trabalho com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da adição de camadas de solo com diferentes espessuras aplicadas na superfície do rejeito carbonífero (RC, em posições de subsuperfície e do solo misturado ao rejeito sobre a produção de matéria seca das plantas de trevo-branco, milho e aveia-preta, e sobre a população microbiana. A utilização de uma camada de solo de 10cm na superfície do RC mostrou-se a mínima necessária ao estabelecimento de trevo e aveia. As culturas não apresentaram concentrações tóxicas de metais pesados. A elevada acidez do RC reduziu a densidade populacional de bactérias, actinomicetos e fungos, principalmente nas camadas de solo de subsuperfície.The landscape recomposition with soil layer and the introduction of plants have been used as an alternative to minimize the environmental impact caused by coal mining. The main concern for this practice is the low avaibility of soil from surface horizons and economic viability, consequently it is basic to determine the minimum soil layer thickness to be disposed on the reject. An experiment was carried out with addition of soil (Paleudult layers with different thickness disposed on the surface of coal rejects, and in subsurface positions, and soil mixed with rejects, concerning effects on biomass yield of white clover (Trifolium repens L., corn (Zea mays L., and oat (Avena strigosa L. as well as on soil microbial abundance. It was established that a soil layer of 10cm thickness was the minimum necessary for clover and oat growth. Toxic concentrations of heavy metals in plants were not detected. However, soil microbial population represented by bacteria, fungi and actinomyces showed a lower

  13. Produção de alface em NFT e Floating aproveitando água salobra e o rejeito da dessalinização Lettuce production under NFT and Floating using brackish groundwater and the reject from its desalination

    Alexandre Nascimento dos Santos


    Full Text Available Plantas de alface cv. Elba foram cultivadas em dois sistemas hidropônicos, Floating e NFT, com o objetivo de avaliar três tipos de água: a água salobra natural (2,47 dS m-1 obtida a partir de um poço profundo; água doce (0,11 dS m-1 produzido por dessalinização por osmose inversa, e o rejeito salino (5,15 dS m-1, um efluente do processo de dessalinização. Estas águas foram combinadas em seis tratamentos resultantes da sua utilização alternada para preparar a solução nutritiva (SN e/ou substituir as perdas por evapotranspiração (ETc. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação na região semiárida de Pernambuco, utilizando 48 unidades experimentais em blocos casualizados em esquema fatorial 6x2 com quatro repetições. O rendimento da alface (massa de matéria fresca foi maior nas condições do Floating. O uso exclusivo da água do poço profundo e do rejeito de dessalinizadores diminuiu 22,7 e 39,6% a produção de alface, respectivamente. Para uma melhor combinação de águas doces e salobras, o uso de água salobra para repor a perda por ETc pode aumentar a produção de alface em relação ao uso dessas águas para preparar a SN, estes resultados foram registrados para a água do poço profundo e o rejeito.Plants of lettuce cv. Elba were grown under two hydroponic systems, Floating and NFT, aiming to evaluate three water resources: natural brackish water (2,47 dS m-1 obtained from a deep well; fresh water (0,11 dS m-1 produced by reverse osmosis desalination; and reject brine (5,15 dS m-1, a wastewater from desalination process. These waters were combined in six treatments resulted from their alternated use to prepare nutrient solution (NS and/or replace the evapotranspiration loss (ETc. The experiment was carried out under a greenhouse condition in the semiarid region of Pernambuco State, Brazil; 48 experimental units were used for both hydroponic systems. The lettuce yield (shoot fresh matter was higher under

  14. Resposta de cultivares de alface à salinidade da solução nutritiva com rejeito salino em hidroponia Response of lettuce cultivars to nutrient solution salinity with saline rejects in hydropony

    Nildo da S Dias


    Full Text Available No processo de dessalinização se gera, além da água potável, um rejeito altamente salino e de poder poluente elevado, o qual pode ser utilizado na produção agrícola rentável dependendo da adoção de práticas culturais adequadas e da tolerância das plantas às condições salinas. Nos últimos anos a tendência tem sido a substituição da agricultura convencional por sistemas hidropônicos de cultivos, considerados um dos mais eficientes no uso de água. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi analisar a resposta de duas cultivares de alface sob sistema hidropônico de cultivo (Lactuca sativa L., cvs. Verônica e Babá de verão em diferentes níveis de salinidade da solução nutritiva preparadas com água de abastecimento, água de rejeito coletada no dessalinizador e da sua diluição com água de abastecimento a 75, 50 e 25%, resultando em condutividades elétricas da solução nutritiva (CEs de 1,1; 2,4; 3,6; 4,7 e 5,7 dS m-1 após as diluições e adição de fertilizantes. Ocorreu variação genotípica sob as variáveis de crescimento e produção da alface, exceto para o número de folhas, sendo a cultivar Babá de verão a que produziu maior rendimento, independentemente do nível de salinidade e, portanto, a cultivar mais tolerante à salinidade da água com rejeito salino.In desalination process, besides the potable water, highly salty and polluted water (brine is generated, which can be used for producing profitable crops depending on the adequate cultural practices as well as on the plant ability of reacting to saline conditions. The trend in recent years has been towards conversion of conventional agriculture to soilless agriculture which is considered to be a more efficient use of water system. The aim of this research was to examine the response of two lettuce cultivars (Lactuca sativa L. cvs. Veronica, Babá de verão under hydroponic system to different levels of salinity of the nutrient solutions prepared with tap water


    Milton Berreza Vale


    Full Text Available O Experimento de campo foi conduzido (22/08/2012 a 02/01/2013 na comunidade “Riacho Salgado”, município de São Paulo do Potengi–RN, objetivando avaliar a produtividade e a qualidade do capim elefante e do sorgo cujo solo foi irrigado com água do lençol freático e do rejeito do dessalinizador. Foram analisados os seguintes parâmetros de produtividade e qualidade nutricional: massa verde, massa seca e teor de proteína bruta das duas culturas. O aumento da salinidade da água de irrigação de 2,89 dS/m para 3,69 dS/m reduziu a altura das plantas, o teor de proteína bruta, a produtividade de massa verde e seca das duas culturas. A produtividade do sorgo em relação a todos esses parâmetros foi superior àquela das duas cultivares do capim elefante, sendo a produtividade da cultivar do capim roxo relativamente superior àquela do capim verde. Dessa forma, o sorgo BRS Ponta Negra se apresenta como alternativa de sustentabilidade socioeconômica para o aproveitamento da água residual da dessalinização em sistema que apresente condições de salinidade igual ou inferior à estudada, garantindo, assim, uma fonte alternativa de renda e emprego para a agricultura familiar ou para Associação de Usuários de Água na região semiárida.

  16. Caracterização de rejeito de mineração de ouro para avaliação de solubilização de metais pesados e arsênio e revegetação local Characterization of gold mine tailing to evaluate the arsenic and heavy metal solubility and local revegetation

    S. R. Silva


    Full Text Available Depósitos de rejeitos e pilhas de estéril, decorrentes de atividades de mineração, podem ser fontes de contaminação ambiental, por causa da presença de metais pesados e arsênio, principalmente quando esses materiais contêm minerais sulfetados e teores elevados de metais. O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar o rejeito proveniente do beneficiamento de minério de ouro de uma mineração no estado de Minas Gerais, para avaliação de problemas de drenagem ácida e solubilização de metais e para planejamento da revegetação do local. Amostras de rejeito foram coletadas na camada superficial (0-20 cm, sendo submetidas a análises químicas de rotina da fertilidade do solo e a uma caracterização química específica de Ni, Cu, Pb, Cd, Fe, Zn, Cr, As e S extraídos em Água Régia, Mehlich-1, EDTA e água deionizada. Foram determinados o potencial de acidez (PA, o potencial de neutralização (PN e equilíbrio ácido-base (EAB; além da realização de análise granulométrica e difração de raios-X. As amostras analisadas apresentaram baixos teores de matéria orgânica, P e K, alta acidez e salinidade, além de alto teor de As, o que indica sérias restrições ao estabelecimento de espécies vegetais. O rejeito apresentou potencial de geração de acidez e solubilização de elementos como As, Fe e S, o que pode acarretar problemas ambientais, como a drenagem ácida e a contaminação de solos e cursos d'água, bem como a incorporação desses elementos na cadeia trófica.Dumps of waste and sterile matter from mine activities are potential sources of environmental contamination with their contents of heavy metals and arsenic, especially when these materials contain sulfide minerals and high metal levels. The objective of this study was the characterization of refuse from a gold mine area in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, in order to evaluate acid drainage and metal solubilization problems, and local revegetation planning


    Nairam Félix de Barros


    Full Text Available

    Em área sob influência da mineração de ferro, na Mina de Alegria, em Mariana-MG, coletaram-se amostras de quatro materiais, constituídos de três diferentes estéreis, que, para identificação, foram denominados filito, solo e saprolito e um rejeito da mineração, com o objetivo de caracterizá-los química, física e mineralogicamente. Os materiais (rejeito, solo, rocha e filito são pobres em macro e micronutrientes, apresentam baixo teor de carbono orgânico e características físicas que dificultam o desenvolvimento do sistema radicular de plantas. Apresentaram altos valores de densidade do solo e de partículas, que estão relacionados à presença de minerais pesados em suas composições mineralógicas, principalmente os minerais de ferro. Os materiais estudados, à exceção do filito, apresentaram alta quantidade de areia: mais de 50% do total. O filito apresenta maior capacidade de retenção de água, mas, para revegetação pode proporcionar excesso de água, além de propiciar a formação de uma crosta na superfície devido ao alto teor de silte. A mineralogia das frações argila, silte e areia do saprolito, do solo e do rejeito é basicamente formada por goethita, hematita e quartzo. O filito apresenta, além destes minerais, caulinita, microclínio, gibbsita e mica.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Mineração de ferro; caracterização de estéreis e rejeito.

    In the area under the Alegria iron mine influence (Mariana, Minas Gerais, Brazil, samples of fours materials were collected, identified as phyllite, soil, overburden rock, and mine spoil, for chemical, physical, and mineralogical characterization. All four materials are poor in plant macro and micronutrients, presenting low amounts of organic carbon and physical characteristics which hinder the development of

  18. Utilização de rejeito de dessalinizador como meio de cultura alternativo para cultivo de Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis

    Volkmann, Harriet


    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro de Ciências Agrárias. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciência dos Alimentos. Este estudo teve como objetivo a utilização de rejeito de dessalinizador no cultivo de Arthrospira platensis, cultivada em fotobiorreatores de 4 L, sob condições laboratoriais controladas de 30°C, iluminação de 140 µmol.m-2.s-1, fotoperíodo de 12 horas claro/escuro e insuflação constante de ar atmosférico. Utilizaram-se os seguintes meios de cult...

  19. Adsorção de nitrato em caulinita a partir de rejeito de caulim modificado com uréia

    L. C. Tavares


    Full Text Available Este estudo avalia a eficiência, viabilidade e espontaneidade de processos de adsorção do íon nitrato em caulinita sem tratamento e modificada com uréia, empregando como material de partida o rejeito de processamento de caulim do rio Jari. Os materiais foram caracterizados por difração de raios X, fluorescência de raios X e espectroscopia IV (DRX, FRX e FTIR. As medidas de pH de equilíbrio foram efetuadas por potenciometria e as concentrações de equilíbrio (Ce de nitrato medidas por cromatografia iônica. Quantidades adsorvidas no equilíbrio (qe, constantes de distribuição (Kd=qe/Ce, fator de separação (R L e variação de energia livre de Gibbs (ΔGº, foram calculados com base nos dados experimentais de adsorção. Os resultados de DRX e FTIR confirmaram a formação do complexo caulinita-uréia a partir do tratamento efetuado no rejeito de caulim. Os seguintes dados foram obtidos nos processos de adsorção de nitrato, no rejeito de caulim natural e tratado com uréia: q max= 18,17 e 14,1 mmol kg-1; Kd=0,7-2,2 e 0,45-1,5 L Kg-1; R L= 0,35-0,85 e 0,25-0,80; ΔGº= -9,3 a -5,8 e -9,1 a -5,4 kJ mol-1, respectivamente. Os valores de Kd, ΔGº e R L são típicos de processos de adsorção física (fisissorção, viáveis e espontâneos e os de q max indicam que a retenção de nitrato em rejeito de caulim natural é mais eficiente do que em rejeito modificado com uréia.

  20. Cultivation of Arthrospira (spirulina platensis in desalinator wastewater and salinated synthetic medium: protein content and amino-acid profile Cultivo de Arthrospira (Spirulina platensis em rejeito de dessalinizador e meio sintético salinizado: teor protéico e perfil de aminoácidos

    Harriet Volkmann


    Full Text Available Arthrospira (Spirulina platensis was cultivated in laboratory under controlled conditions (30ºC, photoperiod of 12 hours light/dark provided by fluorescent lamps at a light intensity of 140 µmol photons.m-2.s-1 and constant bubbling air in three different culture media: (1 Paoletti medium (control, (2 Paoletti supplemented with 1 g.L-1 NaCl (salinated water and (3 Paoletti medium prepared with desalinator wastewater. The effects of these treatments on growth, protein content and amino acid profile were measured. Maximum cell concentrations observed in Paoletti medium, Paoletti supplemented with salinated water or with desalinator wastewater were 2.587, 3.545 and 4.954 g.L-1, respectively. Biomass in medium 3 presented the highest protein content (56.17%, while biomass in medium 2 presented 48.59% protein. All essential amino acids, except lysine and tryptophan, were found in concentrations higher than those requiried by FAO.Arthrospira (Spirulina platensis foi cultivada em laboratório sob condições controladas (30ºC, intensidade luminosa de 140 µmol fótons.m-2.s-1, 12 horas claro/escuro e insuflação constante de ar atmosférico, em três meios de cultivo: (1 meio de Paoletti (controle, (2 meio de Paoletti suplementado com 1,0 g.L-1 de NaCl (água salinizada e (3 meio de Paoletti preparado com rejeito de dessalinizador. Foi verificado o efeito destes tratamentos no crescimento, teor de proteínas e aminoácidos. As concentrações celulares máximas obtidas foram de 2,587; 3,545 e 4,954 g.L-1 no meio controle, meio de Paoletti suplementado com água salinizada ou com rejeito de dessalinizador, respectivamente. Com relação às concentrações protéicas, estas foram maiores na biomassa cultivada no meio 3, com 56,17%, enquanto que a biomassa cultivada no meio 2 apresentou 48,59%. A maioria dos aminoácidos essenciais encontrou-se acima dos limites requeridos pela FAO, com exceção apenas de lisina e triptofano.

  1. Caracterização de misturas de rejeitos de minério de ferro melhoradas com adição de cimento com vistas à aplicação em estradas e aterros

    Oliveira,Tales Moreira de


    Neste trabalho, foi realizada uma campanha de ensaios de caracterização das propriedades físico-mecânicas e hidráulicas de misturas de rejeitos provenientes do beneficiamento de minério de ferro, com e sem adição de cimento Portland composto com escória, tipo CP II-E-32, visando à aplicação em camadas de pavimentos rodoviários e à construção de aterros. As amostras de rejeito foram obtidas de pontos específicos dos processos de beneficiamento do minério de ferro pelos processos de flotação e ...

  2. Crescimento e produção de tomate cereja em sistema hidropônico com rejeito de dessalinização.

    Gomes,Jonath Werissimo da Silva; Dias,Nildo da Silva; Oliveira,André Moreira de; BLANCO, Flávio Favaro; Sousa Neto,Osvaldo Nogueira de


    A produtividade agrícola sustentável é o maior desafio nas regiões áridas e semiáridas por causa da escassez de água para irrigação, sendo comum o uso de água salobra para irrigação. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar a resposta do tomate cereja (Lycopersicon esculentum L., cv. Samambaia) sob quatro níveis de salinidade da solução nutritiva com adição de rejeito salino em sistema de produção hidropônico. As plantas de tomate foram cultivadas em vasos com substrato de fibra de coco e irriga...

  3. Estabilidade térmica da zeólita A sintetizada a partir de um rejeito de caulim da Amazônia Thermal stability of the zeolite A synthesized after kaolin waste from Amazon region

    A. A. B. Maia


    Full Text Available Zeólita A foi calcinada nas temperaturas de 200, 400, 600, 800 e 1000 °C/2 h para estudar sua estabilidade térmica. A síntese foi feita a partir de um rejeito de beneficiamento de caulim para a produção de papel de uma empresa mineradora localizada na região Amazônica. A caracterização da zeólita A calcinada nas diferentes temperaturas foi realizada por difração de raios X e microscopia eletrônica de varredura. A zeólita A permaneceu estável até 600 °C, havendo apenas variações nas intensidades dos picos em função da temperatura. A 800 °C o padrão de difração apresentado pelo material continuava sendo da zeólita A mas com ausência de alguns picos. A 1000 °C foi constatado que o produto de calcinação era constituído de nefelina, mulita e provavelmente sodalita. Essa zeólita também foi aquecida em mais duas temperaturas, 900 e 950 °C, com o objetivo de confirmar os dois picos exotérmicos observados em curva de análise térmica diferencial. Os produtos de calcinação nessas temperaturas eram constituídos de nefelina, sodalita e mulita.Zeolite A was calcined at 200, 400, 600, 800 and 1000 °C for 2h to evaluate its thermal stability. The zeolite A was synthesized using kaolin waste from kaolin processing industries for paper coating located in the Amazon region. Both zeolite A and further calcined products were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis and scanning electron microscopy. The zeolite A structure remained stable up to 600 °C, where only small variations in peak intensities were observed. At 800 °C the diffraction pattern still exhibited zeolite A but with the absence of some peaks. At 1000 °C nepheline, mullite and probably sodalite were formed. The zeolite A was also heated at 900 and 950 °C to check the two exothermic peaks observed in the DTA curve. The X-ray diffraction analysis indicated the presence of nepheline, sodalite and mullite.

  4. Establishment of methodology for determination of {sup 93}Zr in radioactive wastes by Liquid Scintillation Counting (LSC) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS); Estabelecimento de metodologia para determinacao de {sup 93}Zr em rejeitos radioativos por Espectrometria de Cintilacao Liquida (LSC) e Espectrometria de Massa com Plasma Indutivamente Acoplado (ICP-MS)

    Oliveira, Thiago Cesar de


    The zirconium-93 is a long-lived pure β-particle-emitting radionuclide produced from {sup 235}U fission and from neutron activation of the stable isotope {sup 92}Zr and thus occurring as one of the radionuclides found in nuclear reactors. Due to its long half life, {sup 93}Zr is one of the radionuclides of interest for the performance of assessment studies of waste storage or disposal. Measurement of {sup 93}Zr is difficult owing to its trace level concentration and its low activity in nuclear wastes and further because its certified standards are not frequently available. The aim of this work was to develop a selective radiochemical separation methodology for the determination of {sup 93}Zr in nuclear waste and analyze it by Liquid Scintillation Counting (LSC) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). To set up the radiochemical separation procedure for zirconium, a tracer solution of {sup 95}Zr and its 724 keV γ-ray measurements by γ- spectrometry were used in order to follow the behavior of zirconium during the radiochemical separation. For the LSC technique a {sup 55}Fe solution, which is one of the major interfering measures zirconium, was used to verify the decontamination factor during the separation process. The efficiency detection for {sup 63}Ni was used to determination of {sup 93}Zr activity in the matrices analyzed. The limit of detection of the 0.05 Bq 1{sup −1} was obtained for {sup 63}Ni standard solutions by using a sample:cocktail ratio of 3:17 mL for Optiphase Hisafe 3 cocktail. For the ICP-MS technique a zirconium stable solution was used to verify the zirconium behavior and recovery during radiochemical separation and a solution of Ba, Co, Eu, Fe, Mn, Nb, Sr and Y was used to verify the decontamination factor during the separation process. A standard solution {sup 93}Nb as isotope for determining the {sup 93}Zr by ICP-MS was used for calibration and analysis. The detection limit of 0.039 ppb was obtained for the standard solution of zirconium. Then, the protocol was applied to low level waste (LLW) and intermediate level waste (ILW) from nuclear power plants. (author)

  5. Repository for high level radioactive wastes in Brazil: the importance of geochemical (Micro thermometric) studies and fluid migration in potential host rocks; Repositorios para rejeitos radioativos de alto nivel (RANR) no Brasil: a importancia de estudos geoquimicos (microtermometricos) e de migracao de fluidos em rochas potenciamente hospedeiras

    Rios, Francisco Javier; Fuzikawa, Kazuo; Alves, James Vieira; Neves, Jose Marques Correia [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN-CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Inclusoes Fluidas e Metalogenese]. E-mail:


    A detailed fluid inclusion study of host rocks, is of fundamental importance in the selection of geologically suitable areas for high level nuclear waste repository constructions (HLRW). The LIFM-CDTN is enabled to develop studies that confirm: the presence or not, of corrosive fluid in minerals from host rocks of the repository and the possible presence of micro fractures (and fluid leakage) when these rocks are submitted to high temperatures. These fluid geochemistry studies, with permeability determinations by means of pressurized air injection must be carried out in rocks hosting nuclear waste. Micro fracture determination is of vital importance since many naturally corrosive solutions, present in the mineral rocks, could flow out through these plans affecting the walls of the repository. (author)

  6. Energia de briquetes produzidos com rejeitos de resíduos sólidos urbanos e madeira de Eucalyptus grandis Energy from briquettes produced from remains of urban solid residues and wood of Eucalyptus grandis

    José E. Gonçalves


    Full Text Available O incentivo ao consumo e à produção em grande quantidade na sociedade atual gera, exageros de resíduos sólidos urbanos que, em alguns casos, podem ser utilizados para a geração de energia. Neste sentido e visando reduzir os resíduos dos aterros municipais e gerar energia, buscou-se produzir briquetes com mistura de rejeitos de resíduos sólidos urbanos (RRSU e resíduos de madeira de Eucalyptus grandis. Os briquetes foram fabricados com 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 e 25% de RRSU na mistura com resíduos madeireiros contendo 12% de umidade. Os parâmetros analisados para a escolha da melhor mistura, foram: análise de combustibilidade x cinzas, resistência e energia utilizável. Os briquetes com até 10% de RRSU se mostraram com baixa resistência e os acima de 15% apresentaram grande aumento no teor de cinzas; portanto, os que melhor atenderam aos requisitos combustibilidade x cinzas e resistência mecânica, foram aqueles com 15% de RRSU, pois não se conhece a procedência das cinzas. Considerando-se a energia utilizável, o briquete com 25% de RRSU é o que apresenta maior poder calorífico útil na ordem de 17.175 kJ kg-1 motivo pelo qual se indica a produção de briquetes com adição RRSU; ressalta-se, porém, a necessidade de estudos sobre a emissão de gases.The incentive for consumption and production in large quantity in modern society generates enormous amounts of urban solid residues in the form of municipal solid waste (MSW. With the intention of reducing these residues of the municipal waste tips and to generate energy, briquettes with mixtures of MSW and residues of Eucalyptus grandis were produced. The briquettes were manufactured with 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25% of MSW in the mixture with wood waste and 12% of moisture content. The analyzed parameters used to choose the best treatments were combustion analysis versus ash content, mechanical strength and energy content. The briquettes up to 10% of MSW showed low resistance, and above

  7. Cultivo hidropônico de alface com água salobra subterrânea e rejeito da dessalinização em Ibimirim, PE Hydroponic lettuce production with brackish groundwater and desalination waste in Ibimirim, PE, Brazil

    Alexandre N. Santos


    Full Text Available O Município de Ibimirim, em Pernambuco, está localizado no Semiárido e muitos de seus poços fornecem águas salobras, cujo uso tem sido evitado, em virtude de ensejar doenças humanas (como hipertensão e cálculos renais e a redução da produtividade agrícola (com depreciação do solo. Propôs-se, no trabalho, avaliar o aproveitamento da água salobra subterrânea e do rejeito da sua dessalinização no cultivo hidropônico de duas variedades de alface (Vera e AF-1743. Avaliaram-se seis níveis de salinidade da água (CEa: 0.2; 1.2; 2.2; 3.2; 4.2 e 5.2 dS m-1. As águas foram usadas em todo o processo produtivo (preparo da solução nutritiva e reposição do consumo hídrico. O aumento da salinidade levou à redução linear do crescimento das plantas de alface. As plantas apresentaram clorose generalizada no início do ciclo mas este sintoma não foi detectado na colheita. A variedade 'Vera' teve menor crescimento e rendimento absoluto que a 'AF-1743'. Por outro lado, para ambas as variedades a redução percentual em função da salinidade foi equivalente: o acúmulo de massa fresca da parte aérea foi reduzido à razão de 17,06 e 15,74% (dS m-1-1 para 'Vera' e 'AF-1743', respectivamente.Ibimirim in Pernambuco is a municipal district located in the Brazilian semiarid region and most of its wells produce brackish water. The use of this water has been avoided since it may cause human diseases (such as hypertension and kidney stones and crop yield reduction (with soil degradation. The objective of this work was to evaluate the utilization of brackish groundwater and the waste from its desalination for hydroponic production of two lettuce varieties (Vera and AF-1743. Six levels of water salinity (CEa: 0.2, 1.2, 2.2, 3.2, 4.2 and 5.2 dS m-1 were analyzed. The waters were used in overall production process (to prepare the nutrient solution and to restore the water consumed. The salinity increase caused a linear reduction in the growth




    Full Text Available Waste brine from water desalination is a highly salty residue that can be used to grow crops if carefully managed. The aim of this research was to examine the response of two species of the Caatinga (Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth and Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd.Poir to five salinity levels [0.46 (control, 3.2, 3.78, 5.02 and 5.96 dS m-1] of irrigation water obtained by dilution of the waste brine from water desalination. The 2 x 5 factorial treatments were arranged according to a completely randomized design with three replications. At 81 days of cultivation, plants of sabiá and jurema preta were sensitive to salinity increase with the addition of waste water in irrigation, especially the sabiá, which decreases more intensely its dry weight of roots and leaves and leaf area. This decrease however, does not rule out the possibility of production of forest tree seedlings using reject water desalination.

  9. The effectivity of bentonites in cesium retention of cemented waste products; Efetividade das bentonitas na retencao de cesio em produtos de rejeitos cimentados

    Tello, Cledola Cassia Oliveira de


    The nuclear energy has been used for the human development in different areas, as in the medicine, in the agriculture, in the industry and in the environmental protection, besides the electricity generation. As in other activities, in the use of nuclear energy, residues are also generated. They are considered radioactive wastes when the contaminant content can bring a potential negative impact in the human health and in the environment. In this case they should be properly managed and should not be released without treatment. In general the waste processing consists in a volume reduction followed by solidification and/or conditioning. A number of materials can be considered as immobilisation matrices for the wastes, with the objective of maintain the radioactive material physical and chemically stable. The cement is extensively used because it is easy to obtain, there is large. experience in its use and the processing is done at room temperature. Many materials have been studied to improve the fixation characteristics of the radionuclides in the cemented product. The aim of this study was to search, among Brazilian natural materials, those that could be effective in the contaminant retention without jeopardising the process and other characteristics of the waste product. Four types of bentonite were selected to the process and product evaluation tests. Many mixtures were prepared with simulated waste, cement and bentonite in different proportions. The viscosity, set time, compressive strength and leaching were evaluated. In addition it was verified if the products were monolithic and without free water. Inactive caesium was used as tracer. The leaching resistance is the most important parameter in the product evaluation, because it indicates the retention capacity of the matrix for radionuclides when the product is in contact with the water. In 1985 leaching tests were begun and they have been continued till now and from their results it was proved that the bentonites were efficient in the caesium retention. The leaching data were analysed by a BNL computer program that models four release mechanisms. A good fit was obtained for the partition mechanism. The results obtained in this study can be used in the repository safety assessment. (author)

  10. Salinidade, sodicidade e propriedades microbiológicas de Argissolo cultivado com erva-sal e irrigado com rejeito salino Salinity, sodicity and microbiological properties of an Ultisol cultivated with saltbush and irrigated with saline effluents

    Célia Maria Maganhotto de Souza Silva


    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da irrigação com rejeito da dessalinização, oriundo de tanques de produção de tilápia-rosa, sobre as propriedades químicas e microbiológicas de solos cultivados com erva-sal (Atriplex nummularia Lindl.. Quatro áreas foram usadas, das quais duas foram irrigadas com rejeito salino e cultivadas, durante um e cinco anos, com erva-sal. As outras duas áreas foram conduzidas sem irrigação: uma cultivada com vegetação natural e outra com a halófita. Avaliaram-se os parâmetros relativos à salinidade e sodicidade do solo, e também as seguintes características: carbono da biomassa microbiana (Cmic; relação Cmic/carbono orgânico; atividade das enzimas fosfatase ácida, fosfatase alcalina, beta-glucosidase, protease, L-asparaginase, L-glutaminase. A adição de sais afetou as propriedades físicas e químicas dos solos irrigados com rejeito salino, com tendência à salinização e sodificação. A salinidade afetou as propriedades microbiológicas nos solos irrigados, mas o cultivo da halófita favoreceu a produção das enzimas estudadas. O cultivo da erva-sal em áreas que recebem rejeito salino pela irrigação melhora a qualidade biológica dos solos e sua fertilidade, mas não impede a salinização.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of irrigation with saline effluents, from red tilapia production ponds, on chemical and microbiological properties of soils cultivated with saltbush (Atriplex nummularia Lindl. Four areas were used, from which two were irrigated with saline waste and cultivated with A. nummularia, during one and five years. The other two areas were not irrigated, and one was cultivated with natural vegetation and the other with the halophyte. The parameters related to soil salinity and sodicity were evaluated, as well as the following characteristics: microbial biomass carbon (Cmic; Cmic/organic carbon; the activity of acid and alcaline phosphatase

  11. Avaliação da recomposição da cobertura vegetal de dunas de rejeito de mineração, em Mataraca/PB Evaluation of tailing sand dunes restauration in mining area, in municipality of Mataraca, Paraíba State

    Douglas Antônio de Carvalho


    Full Text Available Realizou-se o levantamento fitossociológieo da vegetação estabelecida sobre dunas de rejeito de mineração da Companhia Rutilo & Ilmenita do Brasil (RIB - na área de mineração do Guaju, no município de Mataraca, extremo norte do litoral do estado da Paraíba (6º29'S, 34º56'W, 10 a 75m de altitude, com o objetivo de subsidiar os trabalhos de recuperação ambiental, promovidos pela empresa. Foram registradas em 30 parcelas de 3 X 3m, a composição florística e a estrutura (cobertura, sociabilidade e altura da comunidade vegetal que se formou sobre a duna em dois setores diferentes: a área onde houve a deposição de uma camada de 20cm de solo de mata; b área onde houve o plantio de quatro espécies pioneiras após adubação orgânica nas covas. No primeiro caso, encontram-se 51 espécies pertencentes a 21 famílias botânicas e no segundo 44 espécies pertencentes a 17 famílias. Os valores de cobertura, tanto para parcelas como para espécies foram maiores no tratamento que recebeu solo de mata.A phytosociological survey of the vegetation established on tailing sand dunes was carried out in the area of the mining company Rutilo & Ilmenita do Brasil (RIB, municipality of Mataraca, northern coastland of the state of Paraiba, NE Brazil (6º29'S, 34º56'W, 10 to 75 m of altitude. The purpose was to provide basic information to the environmental restauration programs which have been implemented by the company. The floristic composition and the structure (percent cover, sociability and height of the plant community that grew on the dune were registered in 30 plots with 3 x 3m in two different sectors: a area where a pioneer plant community regenerated after the deposition of a 20 cm layer of forest topsoil; b area where four pioneer species were planted after localized organic fertilization. In the first sector, 51 plant species of 21 families were found whilst in the other sector the figures were 44 species and 17 families. The cover

  12. Influência da natureza do rejeito agroindustrial fermentado por Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis nas propriedades das gomas xantana resultantes

    Denilson de Jesus Assis


    Full Text Available Um destino para resíduos agro-industriais é usá-los como substratos fermentescíveis, diminuindo o custo na produção de produtos com alto valor agregado. Este trabalho avaliou a influência da natureza dos resíduos fermentescíveis e das cepas de Xanthomonas sobre a produção e propriedades do biopolímero resultante. A produção foi realizada em agitador orbital (250 rpm / 28 °C / 120 h por fermentação de sacarose (controle, glicerina residual do biodiesel e resíduo líquido de sisal. Tanto a composição do substrato como as cepas mostraram um forte efeito sobre a produção (0,36-2,40 gL- 1, viscosidade aparente (13,73 para 36,31 mPa.s e massa molecular (2,1-5,9 × 10(6 Da da goma de xantana resultante, não influenciando o comportamento pseudoplástico de soluções aquosas dos biopolímeros.

  13. Separation and radiometric determination of {sup 59}Ni, {sup 63}Ni, {sup 55}Fe, {sup 99}Tc and {sup 94}Nb in radioactive wastes of low and intermediate activities from PWR nuclear power plants; Separacao e determinacao radiometrica dos radionuclideos {sup 59}Ni, {sup 63}Ni, {sup 55}Fe, {sup 99}Tc e {sup 94}Nb em rejeitos radioativos de baixa e media atividades provenientes de centrais nucleares do tipo PWR

    Temba, Eliane Silvia Codo


    The objective of this work was the development and establishment of a specific analytical protocol for the determination of the {sup 59}Ni, {sup 63}Ni, {sup 55}Fe, {sup 99}Tc and {sup 94}Nb radionuclides in low and intermediate radioactive waste samples of Almirante Alvaro Alberto Nuclear Power Plant, CNAAA, located in the city of Angra dos Reis, RJ. The separation and purification techniques used have taken into account the particularities of each radionuclide studied. Chemical separation methods were used, as well as carriers and radioisotope tracers, and ion-exchange and extraction chromatography involving specific resins. The main techniques used for the analysis and determination of the radionuclides were Liquid Scintillation Counting (LSC) and Gamma Spectrometry. Also used were Atomic Emission Spectroscopy with Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP-AES) and Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) for the chemical yield determination. Concerning to the {sup 59}Ni, {sup 63}Ni, {sup 55}Fe radionuclides, the methodology of sequential separation proved to be very appropriate for their separation and determination, as could be observed by the results obtained. Chemical yields in the range from 39 to 100%, and LSC counting efficiencies in the range of 37.8% for {sup 55}Fe, and 71.5% for {sup 63}Ni, are in accordance with the results found in the literature. The spectra of LSC showed that the methodology used to separation and purification of these radionuclides was very successful. The results for {sup 59}Ni have shown that the use of a {sup 55}Fe certified standard for calibration of the equipment was a viable alternative. In the case of the {sup 99}Tc radionuclide the use of rhenium as carrier and chemical yield monitor, resulted in high chemical yields. Use of Gamma Spectrometry analysis made it possible to check that the main interfering agents were actually removed with the combined use of anion exchange chromatography and TEVA resin. The chemical yield of {sup 94}Nb was measured by Gamma Spectrometry analysis of the {sup 94}mNb nuclide formed by neutron activation of {sup 93}Nb, and quite satisfactory values close to 70% were obtained. The gamma spectra exhibited the two well-defined peaks characteristic of {sup 94}Nb and no peaks from possible interfering nuclides, showing that the process of separation and purification was very effective. (author)

  14. Rendimento da Atriplex nummularia irrigada com efluentes da criação de tilápia em rejeito da dessalinização de água Behavior of saltbush (Atriplex nummularia irrigated with effluents from tilapia raised in brackish water

    Everaldo R. Porto


    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a influência no rendimento da erva-sal (Atriplex nummularia e em algumas características do solo, quando irrigada com efluentes da criação de tilápia (Oreochromis sp. em rejeito da dessalinização de água salobra no semi-árido brasileiro, a erva-sal foi irrigada durante um ano com quatro volumes de efluentes na Embrapa Semi-Árido, em Petrolina, PE, cuja salinidade média foi, de 8,29 dS m-1. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso com quatro tratamentos e três repetições. Os tratamentos T1, T2, T3 e T4 correspondem, respectivamente, aos volumes de efluentes aplicados semanalmente, de 75, 150, 225 e 300 L planta-1 . A salinidade média do solo na profundidade 0 - 90 cm foi de 0,40 dS m-1, antes de serem iniciadas as irrigações. Após a colheita, respectivamente para os tratamentos T1, T2, T3 e T4, as salinidades médias dos perfis de solo na mesma profundidade (0 - 90 cm foram de 8,02, 6,09, 4,97 e 4,60 dS m-1 e os rendimentos de matéria seca da erva-sal, de 9,75, 12,26, 14,49 e 13,81 t ha-1. O maior rendimento de matéria seca por litro de efluente aplicado foi para o tratamento T1, com 4,84 g L-1 que apresentou, também, a melhor relação entrada/saída de sal, removendo 13,84% do total de sal incorporado ao solo.Looking forward to reduce environmental impacts resulting from desalinization of brackish water in the region of the crystalline rocks in the semi-arid Brazil, saltbush (Atriplex nummularia was cultivated during one year with four different volumes of aquiculture effluent generated from an intensive tilapia (Oreochromis sp raising system, with a mean salinity of 8.29 dS m-1, in an experimental field of Embrapa Semi-Arid. A completely randomized block design, with four treatments and three replications was used. The treatments T1, T2, T3 and T4 corresponded, respectively, to the weekly volumes of irrigation of 75, 150, 225 and 300 L of water per plant. The mean soil salinity of the

  15. Solução oxidante gerada a partir da eletrólise de rejeitos de dessalinizadores de água Oxidant solution generated by electrolysis from residue of water desalinators

    Jeruza Feitosa de Matos


    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foram realizados estudos para a produção de solução oxidante a partir de rejeito de dessalinizadores de água pelo processo de eletrólise, visando a sua utilização como desinfetante. O experimento foi realizado em escala de laboratório. Três soluções oxidantes foram geradas eletroliticamente, a partir de rejeitos de dessalinizadores de água com concentrações de 1,7 x 10³ mg; 5,5 x 10³ mg e 10,2 x 10³ mg de Cl-/L. O processo de eletrólise tinha duração de oito horas e, a cada hora da reação, o pH, a condutividade elétrica, a temperatura e o cloro total eram monitorados. Foi observado que a produção de cloro está diretamente relacionada com a concentração de cloreto; o teor médio de cloro das soluções oxidantes geradas foi de 0,10%; 0,24 % e 0,27 % m/m.This work carried out studies about the use of the electrolysis process to produce oxidant solutions from water desalinators wastes for water disinfection. The experiment was conducted in laboratory scale. Three oxidant solutions were generated by electrolysis from wastes of water desalinators that presented concentrations of 1.7 x 10³ mg, 5.5 x 10³ mg and 10.2 x 10³ mg of Cl-/L.The electrolysis process lasted eight hours and the following parameters were monitored every hour: pH, electrical conductivity, temperature, total chlorine. It was observed that the production of chlorine is directly related to chloride concentration; the average content of chlorine of the oxidant solutions generated from the desalinators wastes was 0.10%, 0.24% and 0.27% m/m.

  16. Reciclagem secundária de rejeitos de porcelanas elétricas em estruturas de concreto: determinação do desempenho sob envelhecimento acelerado Secondary recycling of electrical insulator porcelain waste in Portland concrete structures: determination of the performance under accelerated aging

    K. F. Portella


    Full Text Available O uso de entulhos, entre outros rejeitos industriais e domésticos, pela construção civil vem sendo prática comum em diversos países desenvolvidos, em razão tanto do aumento da quantidade de rejeitos e conseqüente esgotamento de espaços apropriados para seu destino final, quanto da constante e cada vez mais rigorosa fiscalização e punição pelos organismos ambientais competentes. Antecipando maneiras para solução desses problemas, propôs-se o estudo da reciclagem e imobilização de rejeitos de porcelanas elétricas em concreto, em substituição parcial aos agregados graúdos e miúdos naturais. A vantagem não foi total por causa do indício de reações expansivas que poderiam prejudicar determinadas aplicações. Assim, foi proposto o estudo das condições ideais de dosagem para mitigar os efeitos de tais reações pela presença de contaminantes destes rejeitos. Os resultados demonstraram a efetiva promoção de reações do tipo álcali-agregado, e que o uso de cimentos especiais poderá diminuir o efeito prejudicial dos subprodutos formados.The use of rubbish and other kinds of domestic and industrial wastes on civil construction has been a common practice in many developed countries, due either to the increase in the amount of waste and the resultant reduction of appropriate places to its final disposal, as well as to the severity and steadiness of environmental inspection organizations. In order to provide beforehand manners to solve or reduce these problems, study of recycling and co-disposal of waste from porcelain electrical insulators in concrete was proposed. Besides the occurrence of expansive reactions, which may be harmful to the stability of important structures, the overall results were encouraging. Some contaminants found in the three phases of porcelain contributed to the happening of alkali-aggregate reaction, which can easily inhibited by the using of special cements, such as a sulfur-resistant one.


    Gilson Pereira Silva


    Full Text Available

    An experiment was conducted to verify the potentiality of some plant species to revegetate areas under the influence of iron mining. Field conditions were simulated laying mining overburden (soil, phyllite and rock over the mine spoil to cultivate the plants. Four plant species and two irrigation frequencies were tested for pile covering and plant tops dry matter production. Plants showed larger dry matter production when substrate was either soil or mixtures in which soil was one of the components. Among the plants utilized, Brachiaria brizantha and Melinis minutiflora produced the larger amounts of dry matter as compared to Cajanus cajan and Panicum maximum. The frequency of irrigation markedly affected plant growth and development. P. maximum was the species with the least decrease n dry matter production with the reduction of irrigation frequency.

    KEY-WORDS: Iron mining revegetation; irrigation; grasses; legumes.

    Foi conduzido, em casa de vegetação, um experimento para verificar a potencialidade de diversas plantas para a revegetação de áreas de mineração de ferro. Nesse sentido, procurou-se simular a condição de campo colocando-se camadas de estéreis da mina (solo, filito e rocha sobre o rejeito da mineração para o cultivo das diversas plantas utilizadas. Testaram-se quatro espécies vegetais para recobrimento da pilha, duas freqüências de irrigação e avaliou-se a produção de matéria seca da parte aérea das plantas. As plantas apresentaram maior produção de matéria seca da parte aérea quando o substrato foi solo ou misturas nas quais o solo aparecia como componente. Dentre as plantas utilizadas, Brachiaria brizantha (brizantão e Melinis minutiflora (capim-gordura produziram maior quantidade de matéria seca da parte aérea do que Cajanus cajan (guandu e

  18. Development of radioactive standards in epoxy matrix for the control of quality of activimeters; Desenvolvimento de padroes radioativos em matriz epoxi para controle da qualidade de ativimetros

    Fragoso, Maria da Conceicao de Farias; Monteiro, Luciane Carollyne de Oliveira Reis; Oliveira, Marcia Liane de, E-mail: [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE), Recife, PE (Brazil)


    In the present study, a new approach for development of the standards for positron emitting radionuclides in epoxy matrix is presented. Different formulations were prepared using epoxy resin (bisphenol A diglycidyl ether - DGEBA) and curing agents, to immobilize the radioactive material. The efficiency curve and standard sample methods were applied for activity determination of a long-lived positron emitter ({sup 22}Na). Satisfactory results were obtained in the 3{sup rd} combination. Thus, these radioactive standards can be used to evaluate the metrological behavior of the systems used for the measurement of the radiopharmaceuticals (activimeters) in the production centers and in nuclear medicine services. (author)

  19. Boundary integral method application in the transportation modeling of radioactive tracers in porous ways; Aplicacao do metodo da integral de contorno na modelagem do transporte de tracadores radioativos em meios porosos

    Ferroni, Jose Geraldo


    This work describes a method for estimating the effluent concentrations of radioactive tracers in production wells, considering well to well injection tests and piston-like displacements of fluids in the reservoir. The model for tracer transportation takes into account effects of convection and hydrodynamic dispersion. (author)

  20. Evaluation of urban and industrial wastewater treatment plants using radioactive tracers; Otimizacao de unidades de tratamento de aguas residuais urbanas e industriais empregando-se tracadores radioativos

    Brandao, Luis Eduardo Barreira


    A methodology for studies and evaluation of sewage treatment plants with radioactive tracers is presented.. Radioisotopes as {sup 82} Br ( for the liquid phase), {sup 110m} Ag and {sup 140} La, (for the solid phase) was used to evaluate sewage flow rates, mixing pattern in equalization tank and test effluent treatment units. The tracer was injected in the unit (instantaneously or in a constant rate with a pump) and NaI-scintillation detectors measured the output signal. The Fortran program TRACADORES was developed to analyze the response function of the units in form of residence times distribution curves (RTD), which represents the probability of an element of the material to interact with the unit, and calculate the mean residence time {gamma}, the central moment of this distribution function. This fundamental parameter characterizes the tank and serves as a quantitative evaluation for its performance. With the radiotracer techniques was possible to identify dead zone, channeling, internal circulation of the solid phase inside the tanks. The technique represents a guideline for redesign a imperfect unit and eliminate the problem. (author)

  1. Análise da estabilidade estrutural da esmectita sob altas pressões e altas temperaturas

    Frederico Gil Alabarse


    A estabilidade térmica da bentonita (rocha composta pelo argilomineral montmorilonita, do grupo da esmectita) é de particular interesse no uso de barreira de contenção para rejeitos radioativos de alto nível. No entanto, muito pouco se sabe sobre a estabilidade da argila esmectita sob condições de altas pressões e altas temperaturas (APAT). O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar a estabilidade estrutural da esmectita sob condições de APAT. Os experimentos foram realizados em câmaras toroida...

  2. O texto traduzido sob a perspectiva do avaliador: um estudo exploratório

    Camila Nathalia de Oliveira Braga


    Esta tese busca contribuir para os Estudos da Tradução, mais especificamente os estudos voltados para a avaliação de traduções, ao apresentar um estudo sobre o texto traduzido sob a perspectiva do avaliador. Para tanto, dezoito avaliadores (seis pesquisadores da área de Engenharia, seis linguistas / linguistas aplicados e seis tradutores profissionais) receberam a tarefa de avaliar oito traduções para o inglês de um resumo de uma tese da área de rejeitos radioativos escrito originalmente em p...

  3. Produção de melão rendilhado em sistema hidropônico com rejeito da dessalinização de água em solução nutritiva Melon yield in a hydroponic system with wastewater from desalination plant added in the nutrient solution

    Nildo da S. Dias


    Full Text Available Desenvolveu-se esta pesquisa visando o aproveitamento do rejeito da dessalinização da água no cultivo hidropônico do meloeiro. O experimento foi conduzido no Departamento de Ciências Ambientais da UFERSA, localizado no município de Mossoró, RN, em vasos com substrato de fibra de coco sob condições protegidas. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi blocos ao acaso, com 3 repetições cujos tratamentos corresponderam a cinco níveis de salinidade da solução nutritiva obtidos com ou sem a necessidade de diluição do rejeito da dessalinização da água (2,1; 3,6; 4,9; 6,0 e 7,0 dS m-1. Avaliaram-se: altura de plantas, diâmetro de colo, área foliar, rendimento total e comercial de frutos por planta e, ainda, peso médio de frutos comerciais e totais. Em geral, as variáveis estudadas decresceram linearmente com o incremento da salinidade da solução nutritiva demonstrando que a salinidade da solução com água de rejeito reduz a disponibilidade de água para as plantas, devido ao efeito osmótico.To use of waster water from desalting in the hydroponic cultivation, an experiment was carried out at the Department of Environmental Science of the Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Árido-UFERSA, in the municipal district of Mossoró-RN, in pots with substrates of coconut fiber under greenhouse conditions. The experimental design was in randomized blocks, with three repetitions. Treatments were composed of five levels of salinity of the nutrient solution obtained with, and without, dilution of the waster water from desalting (2.1, 3.6, 4.9, 6.0 and 7.0 dS m-1. The variables plant height, stem diameter, leaf area, mean weight of fruit and total and marketable yield were detemined. In general, the variables decreased linearly with the increase of the salinity of the nutrient solution, showing that the salinity with waster water from desalting reduces the absorption of water by the plants due to the osmotic effect.

  4. Basalt mine-tailings as raw-materials for Portland clinker Rejeitos da mineração de basalto como matérias-primas para clínquer Portland

    F. R. D Andrade


    com matérias-primas contendo rejeitos da mineração de basalto para a produção de agregados para concreto. Os clínqueres experimentais foram produzidos a partir de uma farinha crua padrão com adições de teores variáveis de materiais basálticos, sendo que o fator de saturação em cal e os módulos de sílica e alumina da farinha crua foram mantidos constantes pelo ajuste das proporções de calcário, argila e minério de ferro em relação ao teor de material basáltico adicionado. Uma das séries de clínqueres foi produzida com finos de pedreira, usados em parte como agregados finos, mas também acumulados como pilhas de rejeitos no pátio da mina. A outra série foi feita com basalto vesicular, uma variedade de basalto poroso e de baixa resistência, não aproveitada como agregado. O estudo revela que a composição dos materiais basálticos é plenamente compatível com a produção de clínquer, não sendo necessária a adição de fundentes ou outros corretivos químicos. A composição dos clínqueres experimentais produzidos foi determinada por análises químicas, por análise quantitativa de fases em microscopia óptica (contagem de pontos e por difratometria de raios X. Os clínqueres experimentais produzidos a partir de farinhas contendo materiais basálticos são similares aos clínqueres industriais convencionais, em termos de composição química e de proporção entre fases cristalinas.

  5. Groundwater flow modelling in the region of the repository site of the radioactive wastes from Goiania accident-Brazil; Modelamento do fluxo de agua subterranea na regiao do repositorio dos rejeitos decorrentes do acidente radiologico de Goiania

    Aquino Branco, Otavio Eurico de; Carvalho Filho, Carlos Alberto [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)


    The radioactive wastes from Goiania`s accident, with be deposited at the repository site of Abadia de Goias, located 20 km away from the city of Goiania. This paper presents a groundwater flow in confined or unconfined, heterogeneous and anisotropic porous media with variable layer thicknesses. The necessary parameters to simulate the flow were taken from technical reports and from specific studies about the region. The geological and hydrogeological studies evidence that in this area there is one aquifer type water table. The permeability coefficient evaluated for aquifer formation was 1.88x10{sup -4}cm/s and for the porosity 0.47. The average annual rate of recharge was evaluated in 0.22 m. The potentiometric map generated using the MODFLOW code showed a good a agreement between the hydraulic head simulated and that measured in the field. (author) 8 refs., 3 figs.

  6. Estudo experimental de linfonodo sentinela na mama da cadela com azul patente e Tecnécio Tc99m Experimental study of the sentinel lymph node in the dog breast using blue dye and technetium Tc99m

    Luiz Gonzaga Porto Pinheiro


    Full Text Available Pesquisa do Linfonodo Sentinela (LS tem se mostrado efetiva na avaliação axilar nas portadoras de neoplasia mamária. O LS negativo torna desnecessário o esvaziamento axilar. OBJETIVO: Identificar o LS da região subareolar da mama em cadelas utilizando corante azul patente (AP, Tecnécio Tc99m ou a associação de ambas as técnicas e compará-las quanto à sensibilidade na detecção do linfonodo sentinela. MÉTODOS: Foram estudadas dezessete cães fêmeas. Um total de 55 mamas foram analisadas. Utilizou-se AP (2,5%/0,5 ml e/ou Tc99m (1,0 mC/0,8ml para identificação do LS. A aplicação do Tc99m era realizada duas horas antes da realização do experimento. O AP era injetado na região subareolar da mama. Localizado o LS, realizava-se sua exérese. RESULTADOS: Dos 44 linfonodos em que se utilizou AP, pôde-se verificar que 40 estavam corados (90,90%. Dos 48 linfonodos em que se utilizou Tc99m, 47 linfonodos estavam radioativos (97,91% (p=0.18; k= - 0.067. Nas 37 mamas em que se associou AP ao Tc99m, apesar de 02 linfonodos não estarem corados, todos estavam radioativos (AP vs AP+Tc: p=0.12; k=0.083; Tc vs AP+Tc: p=1.0; k=0.018. CONCLUSÃO: O Tc99m e o corante azul patente, isolados ou associados, prestam-se à identificação do LS da mama do animal.The sentinel lymph node research (SLN has been effective in the evaluation of nodal status in patients with breast cancer. A negative SLN makes an axillary lymphadenectomy unnecessary. PURPOSE: To identify the SLN of the subareolar region in female dog breasts using blue dye (BD, Technetium (Tc99m or the association of both techniques and to compare their sensibility in the detection of the SLN. METHODS: Seventeen female dogs were studied. 55 breasts were analyzed. DB and/or Tc99m were used for the identification of SLN. Tc99m was introduced two hours before the experiment. BD was introduced some minutes before the procedure. Once the SLN was localized its dissection was performed. RESULTS


    Zovico Cristiane


    Full Text Available Quarenta e dois lotes comerciais de 300 kg de amendoim descascado, produzidos em 1997 e contaminados com aflatoxinas, foram submetidos à seleção eletrônica pela cor para verificar a eficiência desse processo na melhoria da qualidade de lotes de amendoim quanto à diminuição da contaminação com aflatoxinas. Os lotes de amendoim foram classificados pelo tamanho como normalmente utilizados pela cerealista, sendo 22 lotes de amendoim graúdo (7,5 a 7,9mm e 20 lotes de amendoim miúdo (6,4 a 7,1mm, nos quais os níveis de contaminação inicial variaram de 7 a 3.763 mg/kg e de 76 a 3.309 mg/kg, respectivamente. Nos 42 lotes, não foram detectadas aflatoxinas em dois lotes de amendoim graúdo e 1 de amendoim miúdo. Este trabalho demonstrou que o processo de seleção eletrônica retirou grãos altamente contaminados, concentrando-os na porção rejeito. Apesar disso, não houve uma melhora substancial nos níveis iniciais médios de contaminação dos lotes indicando que a distribuição das aflatoxinas estava generalizada, uma vez que, os grãos selecionados também estavam contaminados. Em lotes com menor contaminação pode funcionar. Novos estudos serão realizados.

  8. Efeito de tratamento cirúrgico sobre a atividade da enzima hepática lecitina: colesterol aciltransferase (LCAT na esquistossomose mansônica

    Silva Cesar Augusto da


    Full Text Available A esquistossomose mansônica é uma doença tropical que constitui um importante problema de saúde pública, na Região Nordeste do Brasil, onde é encontrada em alta endemicidade. Essa parasitose tem o fígado como principal alvo de suas lesões histológicas, alterações fisiopatológicas e manifestações clínicas. Estudos anteriores reportam alterações no metabolismo lipídico associadas à forma hepatoesplênica da esquistosomose.Uma das principais alterações consiste na redução da atividade da enzima hepática LCAT, responsável pela esterificação do colesterol no plasma. Neste trabalho, avaliamos a atividade da LCAT no plasma de pacientes portadores da esquistossomose mansônica hepatoesplênica, os quais foram submetidos a esplenectomia e reimplante de parte de tecido do baço. A atividade enzimática da LCAT foi determinada com substrato radioativo. O [14C]colesterol livre e esterificado, formados por ação da LCAT, foram separados por cromatografia em camada delgada e a radioatividade das amostras foi contada em analisador de cintilação líquida. A atividade da LCAT nos pacientes submetidos a esplenectomia e reimplante de tecido do baço apresentou redução de 32 %, em relação ao grupo controle. Contudo, nos portadores da doença que não foram submetidos ao procedimento cirúrgico a redução na atividade da LCAT foi o dobro (64% da observada em pacientes esplenectomizados e com reimplante de parte do tecido do baço. Esses resultados sugerem haver uma melhora significativa no efeito da forma grave da esquistossomose mansônica sobre a atividade da LCAT.

  9. NA44 experiment


    General view of NA44 experiment. NA44 is one of the seven experiments (NA44, NA45, NA49, NA50, NA52, WA97/NA57 and WA98) involved in CERN'S Heavy Ion programme which provided evidence for the existence of a new state of matter in which quarks, instead of being bound up into more complex particles such as protons and neutrons, are liberated and roam freely. Theory predicts that this state must have existed at about 10 microseconds after the Big Bang, before the formation of matter as we know it today.

  10. Evaluation of oil/water separators units in industrial effluents using radioactive tracers; Avaliacao de unidades para separacao de fase aquosa/organica em efluentes industriais pelo metodo de tracadores radioativos

    Brandao, Luis E.B. [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Div. de Radiofarmacos]. E-mail:; Nobrega, Armi Wanderley da [Instituto Nacional de Controle da Qualidade na Saude (INCQS/FIOCRUZ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail:; Oliveira, Rene L. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica


    In this work is presented a methodology to study and evaluate with radioactive tracers oil/water separators in industrial sewage treatment plants. These units are present, mainly in the petrochemical industry, make possible to remove residues of organic phase present in the effluent and allow to reusing the water in other operations. As radioactive tracers we use {sup 82} Br for the aqueous phase and {sup 123} I for organic phase and two radioactive detectors (NaI 2x2'') register the displacement of the tracers in the unit. With this methodology was possible to analyze the response of the unit in various experimental situations and identify problems in its operation which interfere in the final quality of the effluent treatment. (author)

  11. Angelite: Paziteli na vhoda

    Gerov Georgi


    Full Text Available (bugarski Statijata prosledjava ikonografskata evoljucija na izobraženijata na arhangelite Mihail i Gavriil, pomesteni pri vhoda na pravoslavnija hram. Povraten moment v neja e 13 vek. Togava arhangel Mihail započva da se izobrazjava kato voin. S tova apotropejnite mu funkcii namirat adekvaten vizualen izraz. K'm kraja na stoletieto arhangel Gavriil započva da se izobrazjava kato pisar - ikonografija, kojato šče b'de dorazvita i utv'rdena prez 14 vek. Prez postvizantijskata epoha v obraza na Mihail se pojavjavat elementi, koito akcentirat v'rhu roljata mu na psihopomp.

  12. Characterization of the geochemical processes present in the radionuclides and metals mobilization in the tailing dam at the Uranium Mining and Milling Facilities - Pocos de Caldas, MG, Brazil; Caracterizacao dos processos geoquimicos atuantes na mobilizacao de radionuclideos e metais na bacia de rejeitos do complexo minero-industrial de Pocos de Caldas, MG, Brazil

    Pinto, Patricia Freitas


    In Brazil, the first step of nuclear fuel cycle - the mining and milling of the uranium ore - is developed at the Uranium Mining and Milling Facilities of Pocos de Caldas, Minas Gerais state. The wastes management is a very important aspect of the process. The understanding of the geochemical processes that occur in the tailings dam is a key question to define a plan of action concerning the decommissioning strategy of the facility. The objective of the present work was to give some issues to help in the adoption of the remedial actions concerning the decommissioning of the facility. It focused on the characterization of the most important geochemical processes regulating the mobilization of radionuclides and heavy metals in the tailings dam. Two cores from the tailings dam (uncovered area) were collected. Seepage and drainage waters were sampled, the same being true for the tailings dam lake. Groundwater form an aquifer bellow the tailings dam and superficial waters from a river that receives the effluents of the dam (Soberbo River) were also sampled. Data from the mining company were used to calculate the inventory of radionuclides and heavy metals deposited in the waste dam.The obtained results showed that pyrite oxidation is the key process in the mobilization of radionuclides and heavy metals from the wastes. Pyrite oxidation is a process regulated by oxygen diffusion and water. In the studied scenario it could be shown that the process was limited to a one meter deep layer in the uncovered part of the waste dam. Because of this, Fe, Al, Mn, Zn, Th and {sup 238} U showed higher concentrations in the bottom layers of the cores in relation to the upper ones. {sup 226} Ra and {sup 210} Pb showed opposite patterns. The coprecipitation with Ca SO{sub 4} was the most relevant mechanism in both radionuclides immobilization in the wastes. Sulfate was the only chemical species that could be assigned as a contaminant in aquifer bellow the waste dam. As a conclusion, the target environmental compartment in respect to radionuclide and heavy metal pollution, caused by effluent releases from the tailings dam, will be superficial water from Soberbo River. Pyrite oxidation is the diving force in metal and radionuclide mobilization. therefore, any mitigating action concerning the permanent stabilization of the tailings in the dam should be directed toward the limitation of oxy gem diffusion in the wastes. Strategies that could be considered to reduce the overall oxidation rate should include soil cover, water cover, isolation and vegetation of wastes. The adopting of any of these strategies should only be done after a cost X benefit analysis. (author)

  13. Utilização de surfactantes, na polpação kraft de madeira de eucalipto, como auxiliar na remoção de extrativos lipofílicos Surfactant utilization in kraft pulping of eucalyptus wood to improve lipophilic extractives removal

    Deusanilde de Jesus Silva


    Full Text Available Problemas de deposição de "pitch" em fábricas de celulose e de papel são atribuídos aos extrativos lipofílicos existentes na madeira. Uma das maneiras mais eficientes de controlar essa deposição é através da remoção de seus precursores do sistema, logo que possível, nas etapas de cozimento, lavagem da polpa marrom e pré-deslignificação com oxigênio. O uso de surfactantes como aditivos da polpação tem sido investigado, mas há grande deficiência de informações técnicas, e a aplicação industrial é, ainda, incipiente. A proposta deste trabalho foi analisar a viabilidade de minimizar a deposição de "pitch", intensificando a remoção de suas substâncias precursoras na etapa de polpação pelo uso de tensoativos sintéticos com propriedades umectantes e solubilizantes. Foram testados 20 princípios ativos de surfactantes em cozimento kraft convencional de madeira de eucalipto. Os resultados, alguns estatisticamente significativos, apontaram redução do teor de substâncias lipofílicas na polpa marrom. Foi observado que a remoção dos extrativos lipofílicos da madeira é afetada, inversamente, pelo teor de óxido de eteno na molécula do surfactante. Outros parâmetros de cozimento, como deslignificação, rendimento, teor de rejeitos e viscosidade da polpa, foram também avaliados.Extractives are pitch precursors and may decrease pulping efficiency and affect pulp quality. Probably, the most efficient way to minimize pitch problems is to remove their precursors from the system during cooking, pulp washing and oxygen delignification. Use of surfactants as pulping additives has been investigated but technical information is deficient and industrial application is very incipient. The objective of this study was to analyze the performance of different surfactants as additives for kraft pulping of Eucalyptus wood. Twenty surfactants with different basic chemical structures were used. The results demonstrated that

  14. Study of the sodalite Bayer synthesis process from reject of kaolin of the Amazon region, Brazil; Estudo do processo de sintese da sodalita Bayer a partir de rejeito de caulim da regiao amazonia

    Maia, A.A.B.; Neves, R.F.; Angelica, R.S., E-mail: [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), PA (Brazil); Pöllmann, H. [Martin-Luther Universität, Halle Winttenberg (Germany)


    This work presents an application for the kaolin rejects from Amazonia through the synthesis of sodalite, in addition, the series of sodalites was synthesized with the same conditions of the Bayer process to understand and control their formation when necessary. These tailings are generated by companies located in the state of Para and are mainly composed of kaolinite, thus forming an excellent starting material for the production of zeolites. The synthesis process was carried out in autoclaves and two synthesis temperatures, 150 and 200 deg C, were evaluated, the same ones used in the Bayer process. The anions used in the reaction mixture to obtain the sodalite series were: carbonate chloride and sulfate, and NaOH solution was used as the sodium source. Sodalite was produced in all the synthesis conditions, showing that through the kaolin rejects from the Amazon it was possible to study the sodalite synthesis process.

  15. Efektite na prostaciklin vo tretmanot na dijabeticnata nefropatija kaj staorci

    Jasmina Trojacanec


    Full Text Available Mikrovaskularnite komplikacii, a pred se dijabeticnata nefropatija, se edni od najteskite komplikacii na dijabetot, od koi vo golema mera zavisi i prognozata na dijabetot kaj ovie pacienti. Etiopatogenezata na ovaa komplikacija e multifaktorijalna i za sega se uste ne kompletno rasvetlena, a vklucuva morfoloski, patolosko-anatomski i biohemiski metabolni narusuvanja. Se smeta deka narusuvanjeto na modularnata funkcija na endoteliumot moze da bide kriticen i inicijalen faktor vo razvojot na dijabeticnite vaskularni komplikacii. Vrz osnova na farmakodinamskite efekti koi sto gi poseduva prostaciklinot (PGI2 i negovite analozi, se smeta deka istite moze da bidat korisni vo tretmanot na dijabeti~nata nefropatija. Osnovna cel na ovaa studija be{e da se procenat efektite na prostaciklin (PGI2 vo tretmanot na dijabeticnata nefropatija, eksperimentalno predizvikana so streptozocin. Kaj normotenzivni staorci od sojot Wistar, eksperimentalno bese induciran najprvin dijabet so ednokratna i.p. administracija na streptozocin (STZ, a kako komplikacija na dijabetot i jasni znaci i simptomi na dijabeticna nefropatija (proteinurija, zgolemeno serumsko nivo na urea i kreatinin, poliurija, zgolemena aktivnost na NAG vo mockata. Tretman so prostaciklin (p.o. vo doza od 0.1 mg/kg /t.t./den, vo tekot na 4 nedeli, dovede do signifikantno namaluvanje na simptomite i znacite na bubreznite ostetuvanja, vo odnos na grupata zivotni koi ne primaa prostaciklin. Vrz osnova na dobienite rezultati moze da se zakluci deka prostaciklinot moze da ima znacajna uloga vo tretmanot na dijabeticnata nefropatija, eksperimentalno inducirana so streptozocin.

  16. Irradiation effects on meat: a review Efeito da irradiação na carne: uma revisão

    Fábio Costa Henry


    Full Text Available Food irradiation is a process exposing food to ionizing radiations such as gamma rays emitted from the radioisotopes 60Co and 137Cs, or, high energy electrons and X-rays produced by machine sources. Irradiation can induce formation of isooctane-soluble carbonyl compounds in the lipid fraction and acid-soluble carbonyls in the protein fraction of meat. Increasing irradiation dose increases these compounds however, cooking reduces them. Among the volatile components, 1-heptene and 1-nonene are influenced most by irradiation dose, and aldehydes (propanal, pentanal, hexanal are influenced most by packaging type (aerobiose vs vacuum. Sulfur-containing volatiles formed from sulfur-containing compounds (primarily amino acids also contribute to irradiation odor. Reducing the temperature during the irradiation process reduces the effects on odor/flavor because free radical generation and dispersion are reduced. Ultimately, radiolysis of water into free radical species may be the initiators of both lipid oxidation breakdown products and sulfur-containing volatiles responsible for irradiation odor. Methods to decrease the detrimental effects of irradiation include oxygen exclusion (vacuum packaging, replacement with inert gases (nitrogen and addition of protective agents (antioxidants.A irradiação de alimentos é um processo que expõe o alimento às radiações ionizantes tais como os raios gama, emitidos pelos isótopos radioativos 60Co e 137Cs, ou, os elétrons de alta energia e os raios X. A irradiação pode induzir a formação de compostos de carbonil isooctano solúveis na fração do lipídio e carbonils solúveis nos ácidos da fração proteica da carne. A dose crescente da irradiação aumenta estes compostos, entretanto o cozimento pode reduzi-los. Entre os componentes voláteis, 1 heptene e 1 nonene são mais influenciados pela dose de radiação, e os aldeídos (propanal, pentanal, hexanal são mais influenciados pelo tipo de embalagem

  17. A serendipidade na medicina e na anestesiologia

    Vale,Nilton Bezerra do; Delfino,José; Vale,Lúcio Flávio Bezerra do


    JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Neste trabalho foram examinados mais de uma centena dos mais felizes acoplamentos de uma mente brilhante com a sorte benfazeja (serendipidade), através da releitura das mais relevantes histórias sobre invenções e descobertas relacionadas à ciência (n = 46), à Medicina (n = 46) e à Anestesiologia (n = 16). CONTEÚDO: Conceito de serendipidade; exemplos célebres de serendipidade em Ciência e Tecnologia; serendipidade na pesquisa e prática médicas; serendipidade na Anes...

  18. Bolonja na hrvatski način

    Krstović, Jasna


    Iako je osnovna značajka obrazovnog sustava Republike Hrvatske horizontalna i okomita protočnost, ova se značajka još uvijek ne odnosi na obrazovanje odgajatelja. No u posljednje vrijeme događaju se pomaci i kvalitativne promjene koje su zahvatile i sustav obrazovanja hrvatskih odgajatelja.

  19. Transport of radioactive materials; Transporte de materiais radioativos



    This ninth chapter presents de CNEN-NE--5.01 norm 'Transport of radioactive material'; the specifications of the radioactive materials for transport; the tests of the packages; the requests for controlling the transport and the responsibilities during the transport of radioactive material.

  20. Radioactive material air transportation; Transporte aereo de material radioativo

    Pader y Terry, Claudio Cosme [Varig Logistica (VARIGLOG), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    As function of the high aggregated value, safety regulations and the useful life time, the air transportation has been used more regularly because is fast, reliable, and by giving great security to the cargo. Based on the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the IATA (International Air Transportation Association) has reproduced in his dangerous goods manual (Dangerous Goods Regulations - DGR IATA), the regulation for the radioactive material air transportation. Those documents support this presentation.

  1. At NA2


    One of the NA2 calorimeter sections is moved in. The NA2 calorimeter was divided in two halves, to the left and the right of the beam, each half consisting of sheets of passive high Z material interleaved with blades of plastic scintillators. The photo shows on the right, the upstream 'electron' module with eleven lead plates for a total radiation length of 20.


    Cvetko, Tadej


    Etažna lastnina je lastnina posameznega dela zgradbe in solastnina na skupnih delih, ki služijo vsem ali nekaterim posameznim delom zgradbe. Etažna lastnino na območju Republike Slovenije je uvedel Zakon o lastnini na delih stavbe kot odgovor na potrebo po hitri nacionalizaciji stanovanj in odrazu doslednega uvajanja osnovne ideje takratnega socialističnega duha t.j. družbene lastnine. Slovenija kot mlada demokratična država je ob tranziciji iz socialističnega v demokratični sistem poskušala ...

  3. Evaluation of radon and their daughters concentration and estimative of effective dose in a waste deposits at the ore treatment unity of INB/Pocos de Caldas, Brazil; Avaliacao da concentracao de radonio e seus filhos e estimativa de dose efetiva em um deposito de rejeitos na unidade de tratamento de minerios da INB/Caldas

    Dantas, Marcelino V.A.; Garcia Filho, Oswaldo; Antunes, Marcos M.; Junior, Joao V.S.; Py Junior, Delcy A., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (UTM/INB), Caldas, MG (Brazil). Unidade de Tratamento de Minerios; Pereira, Wagner S. [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (UTM/INB), Caldas, MG (Brazil). Unidade de Tratamento de Minerios; Universidade Federal Fluminense (IB/UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Lab. de Radiobiologia e Radiometria Pedro Lopes dos Santos


    This paper conducts a surveillance of radon and their short half-life daughters gas concentration, inside the warehouse due to these gas inhalation. The results showed that the average concentration inside the warehouse ix approximately 700 Bq/m{sup 3} and the effective dose of an IOE, related to that concentration would be 5.0 mSv/year, therefore being 4 times lower than the established limit of 20 mSv/year

  4. Efeito da adição de rejeito na redução de coração negro em cerâmicas vermelhas Effect of solid waste addition in the decrease of black core occurrence in red ceramic

    I. M. G. Santos


    Full Text Available Um dos problemas que afeta a indústria cerâmica é a elevada perda de produtos acabados, decorrente do próprio processamento, levando a trincas e peças fora de conformidade. Deste modo, é necessário o reaproveitamento desses resíduos, como forma de reduzir o impacto ambiental. Neste trabalho, os resíduos de duas indústrias de cerâmica vermelha foram moídos e adicionados à própria massa, levando, também, a um ganho econômico. As porcentagens variaram de 10% a 30%, em peso. As peças foram conformadas por extrusão e sinterizadas a 950 ºC e 1000 ºC. Os resultados obtidos mostram que a adição levou a uma melhoria nas propriedades das amostras, pois diminuem a possibilidade de ocorrência de coração negro, levando a peças mais uniformes e menos porosasOne of the problems of the ceramic industry is the high level of finished product loss, due to ceramic processing, leading to cracks and materials out of conformity. In this way it is necessary to recycle these solid wastes in order to reduce the environment impact. In this work, the solid waste of two red ceramic industries were milled and incorporated to the formulation of the industry, leading also to an economic gain. Incorporation percentages varied from 10% to 30 wt %. Samples were processed by extrusion and sintered at 950 ºC and 1000 ºC. The results indicate that the addition led to an improvement of sample properties, due to the decrease of black core formation, producing samples with higher uniformity and lower porosity.

  5. Pilhas de combustíveis microbianas utilizadas na produção de eletricidade a partir de rejeitos orgânicos: uma perspectiva de futuro Microbial fuel cells used in the production of electricity from organic waste: a perspective of future

    Silvio Rachinski


    Full Text Available In this review is presented an innovative technology for use of animal and vegetable waste with high pollution levels in microbial fuel cell (MFC as an alternative to waste remediation and simultaneously producing electricity and fertilizer for agriculture. A brief history of MFC, the studies about the electron transfer mechanisms, discussion of the biological nanowires in bacteria and the use of chemical mediators or carriers of electrons are explained. The factors influencing the performance of MFCs, the application in waste and sewage treatment and power generation are also discussed.


    Visenjak, Monika


    Nakupovanje na spletu je prihodnost poslovanja. Za podjetja pomeni manjše stroške, lažje prilagajanje tržnim pogojem. Hitreje lahko razvijajo odnose in analizirajo uporabnike, saj jim je dan dostop o nakupnih podatkih uporabnika. Za potrošnike je nakupovanje na spletu možnost hitrega, preprostega in učinkovitega nakupovanja od doma ali pisarne. Pomembno je, da se seznanijo z vsemi informacijami in pogoji spletnih trgovin, saj se lahko le tako izognejo nezadovoljstvu ob nakupu v spletni trgovi...

  7. Riso na epilepsia

    Edymar Jardim


    Full Text Available São estudados três casos de síndrome convulsiva temporal, com manifestações concomitantes de riso na sua fase inicial. As características principais foram a imotivação e á incoercibilidade do riso. Esses sintomas desapareceram com o uso de anticonvulsivantes.

  8. The NA48 experiment


    The NA48 experiment is designed to study the Charge-Parity (CP) violation. CP violation is observed in certain very rare decays. Its study is important in understanding Nature's preference of matter over antimatter, which resulted in asymmetry soon after the Big Bang, creating a matter-dominated Universe.

  9. Biotecnologia na agricultura

    Helaine Carrer


    Full Text Available A expectativa de o crescimento populacional atingir 9 bilhões de habitantes em 2050 em adição às questões da sustentabilidade e do aquecimento global nos desafiam a aumentar a oferta de alimentos. Uma metodologia alternativa que contribua para a redução do impacto desse cenário envolve a biotecnologia, que, nas últimas décadas, trouxe marcantes oportunidades tecnológicas na agricultura, resultando em relevante desenvolvimento na obtenção de novas variedades de plantas, na melhoria da qualidade de diversos alimentos e atualmente também na bioenergia. As técnicas biotecnológicas envolvendo os marcadores moleculares, a genômica e a transformação genética estão transformando a agricultura e são discutidas neste artigo.The expected population growth to reach 9 billion by 2050 in addition to issues of sustainability and global warming challenges us to increase the supply of food. An alternative approach to help reducing the impact of this scenario involves biotechnology which in recent decades has brought remarkable technological opportunities in the agriculture that resulted in relevant development in obtaining new plant varieties, improved quality of different foods, and now also in bioenergy. The biotechnology techniques involving molecular markers, genomics and genetic transformation are transforming agriculture and will be discussed in this article.


    Beatriz Marocco


    Full Text Available O jornalista tem sido objeto das artes e das ciências. Nesta incisão no tema do painel “Configurações e perspectivas da pesquisa em jornalismo no Brasil em diálogo com os estudos latinoamericanos em jornalismo”, realizado no Encontro Nacional da Sociedade Brasileira de Pesquisadores em Jornalismo/SBPJor (Curitiba, 10/11/2012, reconheci que o âmbito acadêmico projeta dois tipos de ação: em rede de pesquisadores de diferentes países e regiões do mundo, com participação de países da América Latina, na pesquisa colaborativa e em projetos de investigação com outras bases de colaboração. Ambas as modalidades dialogam com a produção do cinema e da literatura – que visibiliza a grande potência do profissional para tramas e tensões. 

  11. Vaginose Bacteriana na Colpocitologia

    Consolaro,Márcia Edilaine Lopes; Suzuki, Linda Emiko


    A flora vaginal representa um ecossistema dinâmico influenciado por fatores diversos, existindo mecanismos desconhecidos que alteram esta flora, desencadeando distúrbios como vaginoses bacterianas. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a incidência de vaginoses bacterianas detectadas por colpocitologia na população atendida pelo Setor de Citologia Clínica do Laboratório de Ensino e Pesquisa em Análises Clínicas (LEPAC) da Univers...

  12. Preparing for NA4


    Here, in one of the EF workshop, Albert Duchêne works on a pretty piece of mechanics. A few others await to be attended on the left. There are indications that the pipes were meant to house the carbon target (subdivided in eight sections) to be installed inside the toroid magnet of the NA4 experiment. The external strips were designed to possibly correct the magnetic field (???).

  13. A epilepsia na neurocisticercose

    Luís Marques-Assis


    Full Text Available Foram estudados 131 casos de epilepsia com etiologia cisticercótica comprovada. A idade variou de 2 a 68 anos; 75 pacientes eram de sexo masculino e 56 de sexo feminino; 117 eram brancos, 10 pardos, três pretos e um amarelo. A idade de início da doença predominou na primeira década. O estudo foi feito em relação ao tipo de epilepsia, ao tempo decorrido após a primeira crise, à freqüência das crises e ao eletrencefalograma relativamente às epilepsias em geral. Investigação foi feita também em relação à cefaléia, aos achados neurológicos, liquóricos, radiológicos simples e contrastados e anátomo-patológicos. A análise dos resultados permitiu aos autores as seguintes conclusões: 1 No grupo de neurocisticercose o início da doença predominou na primeira e a partir da quarta década em relação às epilepsias em geral. 2 Dentre as manifestações clínicas predominaram as formas convulsivas da doença (61%, sendo as crises bravas-jacksonianas as menos freqüentes (4%; quando comparadas com as epilepsias em geral, verifica-se incidência menor das convulsões generalizadas na neurocisticercose. 3 Quanto ao tempo de doença, verifica-se predomínio das formas de duração mais curta (um ano ou menos na neurocisticercose. 4 A severidade da epilepsia, traduzida pela freqüência das crises, foi menor no grupo com neurocisticercose. 5 Excluídos os casos com anormalidades eletrencefalográficas contínuas, foram encontrados maiores índices percentuais de EEG normal na neurocisticercose que nas epilepsias em geral. 6 A cefaléia estava presente em 68% dos casos, assumindo caráter paroxístico na maior parte (78%; em 67% dos casos com cefaléia paroxística não havia concomitantemente sinais de hipertensão intracraniana; nos casos com cefaléia contínua, em apenas dois (13% esses sinais não estavam presentes. 7 Na maior parte dos casos (62% as manifestações epilépticas se apresentaram isoladamente, sem sinais neurol

  14. na Perua

    Jorge Carvalho


    Full Text Available Antes de se caracterizar como tentativa de ensaio ou de análise a qualquer coisa, o presente artigo tem, antes de mais nada, a pretensão de se constituir uma provocação ao debate acerca da questão do esporte na escola. A provocação parte basicamente do relato da minha experiência pessoal como Secretário da Educação do Município de Aracaju, cargo que exerci no período de 1º de janeiro de 1986 a 27 de janeiro de 1987.

  15. Fractais na arquitectura


    Uma forma de inovar na simplicidade, em Arquitectura, é usar a geometria dos fractais. Uma técnica simples de iterativamente chegar a formas fantásticas e muito agradáveis de integrar no desenho de uma obra de arte: sejam edifícios, pontes, jardins, e outros. Vamos abordar o conceito essencial da geometria dos fractais e analisar exemplos da sua aplicação em edifícios e cidades. Para isso faz-se uma introdução ao tema pelos primórdios da geometria fractal referindo exemplos como o Co...

  16. A escola na internet

    Albino, Ayrán Lavra


    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro Tecnológico. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Produção. O presente trabalho pretendeu analisar o uso do suporte tecnológico do ensino a distância (computador e internet) como elemento complementar do ensino presencial. Procurou-se demonstrar, na fundamentação teórica, que as tendências pedagógicas contemporâneas e as características da tecnologia digital viabilizam esta possibilidade. Operacionalizou-se essa ...

  17. Fractais na arquitectura

    Ganhão, Susana Maria Gouveia Rosado


    Uma forma de inovar na simplicidade, em Arquitectura, é usar a geometria dos fractais. Uma técnica simples de iterativamente chegar a formas fantásticas e muito agradáveis de integrar no desenho de uma obra de arte: sejam edifícios, pontes, jardins, e outros. Vamos abordar o conceito essencial da geometria dos fractais e analisar exemplos da sua aplicação em edifícios e cidades. Para isso faz-se uma introdução ao tema pelos primórdios da geometria fractal referindo exemplos como o Co...

  18. Report from NA49

    Gazdzicki, M; Anticic, T; Baatar, B; Barna, D; Bartke, Jerzy; Betev, L; Bialkowska, H; Billmeier, A; Blume, C; Boimska, B; Botje, M; Bracinik, J; Bramm, R; Brun, R; Buncic, P; Cerny, V; Christakoglou, P; Chvala, O; Cramer, J G; Csató, P; Darmenov, N; Dimitrov, A; Dinkelaker, P; Eckardt, V; Farantatos, G; Filip, P; Flierl, D; Fodor, Z; Foka, P Y; Freund, P; Friese, V; Gál, J; Georgopoulos, G; Gladysz-Dziadus, E; Grebieszkow, K; Hegyi, S; Höhne, C; Kadija, K; Karev, A; Kliemant, M; Kniege9, S; Kolesnikov, V I; Kollegger, T; Kornas, E; Korus, R; Kowalski, M; Kraus, I; Kreps, M; Van Leeuwen, M; Lévai, Peter; Litov, L; Lungwitz, B; Makariev, M; Malakhov, A I; Markert, C; Mateev, M; Mayes, B W; Melkumov, G L; Meurer, C; Mischke, A; Mitrovski, M; Molnár, J; Mrówczynski, S; Pálla, G; Panagiotou, A D; Panayotov, D; Petridis, A; Pikna, M; Pinsky, L; Pühlhofer, F; Reid, J G; Renfordt, R E; Richard, A; Roland, C; Roland, G; Rybczynski, M; Rybicki, A; Sandoval, A; Sann, H; Schmitz, N; Seyboth, P; Siklér, F; Sitár, B; Skrzypczak, E; Stefanek, G; Stock, R; Ströbele, H; Susa, T; Szentpétery, I; Sziklai, J; Trainor, T A; Varga, D; Vassiliou, Maria; Veres, G I; Vesztergombi, G; Vranic, D; Wetzler, A; Wlodarczyk, Z; Yoo, I K; Zaranek, J; Zimányi, J


    The most recent data of NA49 on hadron production in nuclear collisions at CERN SPS energies are presented. Anomalies in the energy dependence of pion and kaon production in central Pb+Pb collisions are observed. They suggest that the onset of deconfinement is located at about 30 AGeV. Large multiplicity and transverse momentum fluctuations are measured for collisions of intermediate mass systems at 158 AGeV. The need for a new experimental programme at the CERN SPS is underlined.

  19. Comprometimento pulmonar na leptospirose

    Jorge Eduardo Manhães de Carvalho


    Full Text Available Em 23 pacientes com leptospirose apresentando comprometimento pulmonar, internados no Hospital Universitário Antônio Pedro da XJFF, Niterói, hemoptise e hemoptóicos foram observados em 21,7% e 30,4%, respectivajnente. Gasometria arterial revelou hipoxemia e hipocapnia na maioria dos casos. Radiografia de tórax em 15 pacientes mostrou comprometimento alveolar em 60%, comprometimento intersticial-reticular em 6%, padrão misto (alveolar e intersticial em20%e ausência de alterações radiológicas em 14%. A necrópsiade 13 pacientes mostrou edema, congestão e hemorragia nos pulmões em 100% dos casos. A hemorragia foi focal em 46% e difusa em 54% dos casos. Houve formação de membrana hialina em 30% e trombos de fibrina em 46% dos pulmões estudados, o que estabelece o diagnóstico da coagulação intravascular disseminada e a ocorrência da síndrome de angústia respiratória na leptospirose.

  20. Laser na medicina: avanços na Oftalmologia

    João Alberto Holanda de Freitas


    Entre os grandes avanços tecnológicos dos últimos anos, o laser sem dúvida ocupa lugar de destaque. Desde a construção do primeiro aparelho a laser em 1959, novas aplicações surgem continuadamente. O laser está presente de maneira marcante na pesquisa básica, na indústria e na medicina.

  1. Utilização de farinha de silagem de pescado em dietas para o jundiá na fase juvenil Use of fish silage flour in diets for the jundiá in the juvenile phase

    Dariane Beatriz Schoffen Enke


    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, foram avaliados o desempenho e o rendimento de carcaça em juvenis de jundiá Rhamdia quelen, alimentados com farinha de silagem química de rejeitos de pescado em substituição à levedura de cana, em dietas à base de ingredientes vegetais (dieta controle. Os 135 animais (peso médio inicial de 48,11±5,54g foram distribuídos em cinco tratamentos com três repetições ao acaso. Cada unidade de observação foi composta por um tanque circular (1000 litros abastecido com 200 litros de água, com temperatura controlada, em um sistema fechado de criação contendo nove animais cada. Os peixes foram alimentados durante 75 dias, duas vezes ao dia, na proporção de 10% da biomassa total. Foram testadas dietas contendo: 0, 12,5, 25, 37,5 e 50% de farinha de silagem. Os resultados indicaram um efeito quadrático (PThis study evaluated the productive performance and carcass yield of jundiá (Rhamdia quelen fed with different fish dregs chemical silage flour concentrations in substitution to the sugar cane yeast in a diet based on vegetable ingredients (control diet. Animals with initial weight of 48.11±5.54g were distributed in 5 treatments with 3 replicates, in a completely randomized design. Each observation unit consisted of a 1,000 liter polipropilene tank, with 200 liters of water, with 9 animals, in a thermo-regulated system with water recirculation. During 75 days, twice daily (9h and 17h the following diets were offered, in the proportion of 7% total biomass: 0% (control, 12.5%, 25%, 37.5% and 50% of silage flour. Results showed a quadratic effect (P<0.05 for inclusion levels of fish silage flour on final weight, weight gain, total length and specific growth rate. The inclusion of 30-35% of fish dregs chemical silage flour in the diet, results in better production performance of jundiá juveniles without affecting the survival and the water quality.

  2. Medidas dos níveis de radônio em diferentes tipos de ambientes internos na região da Baixada Santista, SP Measurements of radon levels in different indoor environments in Baixada Santista, São Paulo, Brazil

    Luiz Paulo Geraldo


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Exposições a altos níveis do gás radioativo radônio podem causar câncer de pulmão e, conseqüentemente, o conhecimento da concentração deste gás em ambientes internos é importante, do ponto de vista de proteção radiológica, para a população de um modo geral. Neste trabalho realizaram-se monitorações passiva e integrada de radônio em alguns tipos de ambientes fechados na região da Baixada Santista, SP, tais como túneis, galpão de fertilizantes, "shopping center", lojas de cerâmica e residências, com o objetivo de se avaliar os níveis de concentração existentes nestes locais. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: As medidas de concentração de radônio foram realizadas utilizando a técnica do registro de traços de partículas alfa em folhas plásticas de Makrofol E, na geometria de copo fechado ("cup method". RESULTADOS: Os teores de radônio encontrados nos ambientes internos estudados neste trabalho variaram entre 17 e 263 Bq/m³, em razoável acordo com os valores divulgados na literatura por outros autores para ambientes similares. CONCLUSÃO: De modo geral, os resultados obtidos estão abaixo dos limites máximos recomendados pela Comissão Internacional de Proteção Radiológica (ICRP, não necessitando, portanto, que sejam implementadas ações de intervenção nos locais estudados.OBJECTIVE: Exposure to high levels of radioactive radon gas can cause lung cancer, therefore, it is important to measure the concentration levels of this gas in indoor environments in order to provide radiological protection for the general population. In this study, passive and time-integrated radon monitoring was performed in different types of indoor environments in Baixada Santista, São Paulo, Brazil including tunnels, fertilizer shops, shopping malls, ceramics shops and houses to evaluate the actual radon levels in these locations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Radon concentration measurements were performed using the alpha particle track

  3. Na Cauda do Cometa

    Voelzke, M. R.


    Quando viam um cometa, os antigos gregos imaginavam uma estrela com uma vasta cabeleira. Não à toa, a palavra deriva do termo koma, que significa cabelo. Constituídos por fragmentos de gelo e gases, os cometas possuem um núcleo sólido, que pode ter vários quilômetros de diâmetro, e uma cauda que sempre aponta na direção contrária ao Sol, devido aos ventos solares. Graças à aparência de pontos luminosos em movimento (ao contrário de outros astros, que parecem estáticos), esses corpos celestes foram interpretados por diferentes povos com muito misticismo, inspirando mitos tanto de boas-novas como de maus presságios. Conheça algumas dessas histórias:

  4. O real na psicose

    Maurício Castejón Herrmann


    Full Text Available Este artigo discute a noção de real na psicose, a partir das formulações de Lacan sobre o tema, presentes no Seminário 3 - As Psicoses, no Seminário 20 - Mais, Ainda e no texto Televisão. Considerando-se que a concepção de real tem uma indicação clínica, a hipótese que se formula é a de que a noção de real trabalhada no Seminário 20, Mais, Ainda representa uma continuidade da concepção de real desenvolvida no Seminário 3, As Psicoses

  5. NA48 prototype calorimeter


    This is a calorimeter, a detector which measures the energy of particles. When in use, it is filled with liquid krypton at -152°C. Electrons and photons passing through interact with the krypton, creating a shower of charged particles which are collected on the copper ribbons. The ribbons are aligned to an accuracy of a tenth of a millimetre. The folding at each end allows them to be kept absolutely flat. Each shower of particles also creates a signal in scintillating material embedded in the support disks. These flashes of light are transmitted to electronics by the optical fibres along the side of the detector. They give the time at which the interaction occurred. The photo shows the calorimeter at NA48, a CERN experiment which is trying to understand the lack of anti-matter in the Universe today.

  6. Leadeship: na effective relationship

    Sergio Roberto Guimarães Pantoja


    Resumo: O presente trabalho tem por objetivo analisar a eficácia da liderança em três instituições de ensino superior em São Luís -MA, sendo a instituição A (particular), a B (pública federal) e a C (pública estadual). Adotou-se os estilos de liderança: democrático, autocrático e liberal, baseando-se na Teoria dos Estilos de Kurt Lewin e seus colaboradores e nas qualidades de liderança (objetividade, compreensão dos outros, flexibilidade, comunicação e autoridade), definidas por Uris A.(196...

  7. Raytracing na GPU

    Straňák, Marek


    Raytracing je základnou technikou pro vizualizaci trojrozměrných objektů. Cílem práce je demonstrovat možnost implementace sledovaní paprsků pomocí grafického akcelerátoru.  Popíšem základní algoritmus a jeho modifikovanou verzi, která byla implementována pomocí jazyka CUDA C. Výsledný raytracer je optimalizovaný pro dynamické scény. Pro tento účel byla použita akcelerační struktura KD strom, hierarchické obalové tělesa a přenos dat pomocí PBO. Pro realističtější výstupy byla také implementov...

  8. Comprometimento pulmonar na leptospirose

    Jorge Eduardo Manhães de Carvalho


    Full Text Available Em 23 pacientes com leptospirose apresentando comprometimento pulmonar, internados no Hospital Universitário Antônio Pedro da XJFF, Niterói, hemoptise e hemoptóicos foram observados em 21,7% e 30,4%, respectivajnente. Gasometria arterial revelou hipoxemia e hipocapnia na maioria dos casos. Radiografia de tórax em 15 pacientes mostrou comprometimento alveolar em 60%, comprometimento intersticial-reticular em 6%, padrão misto (alveolar e intersticial em20%e ausência de alterações radiológicas em 14%. A necrópsiade 13 pacientes mostrou edema, congestão e hemorragia nos pulmões em 100% dos casos. A hemorragia foi focal em 46% e difusa em 54% dos casos. Houve formação de membrana hialina em 30% e trombos de fibrina em 46% dos pulmões estudados, o que estabelece o diagnóstico da coagulação intravascular disseminada e a ocorrência da síndrome de angústia respiratória na leptospirose.Tostudy thepulmonary complications in leptospirosis case records of 23 such patients admitted at the Hospital Universitário Antônio Pedro, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, Brasil, were reviewed. Hemoptysis were seen in 21.7% and sputal blood in 30.4% of patients. Arterial gasometry detected hypoxemia and hypocapnia in most cases. Thoracic radiology showed an alveolar pattern in 60% of the patients, alveolo-interstitial in 20%, interstitial in 6%, and in 14% the lungs were considered to be normal Necropsy of 13 cases showed edema, congestion and hemorrhage in the lungs in all cases. Hyaline membrane was found in 30% and fibrin thrombi in 46% of these cases, resulting in a diagnosis of adult respiratory distress syndrome and acute disseminated intravascular coagulation (consumption coagulopathy in leptospirosis.


    Valéria Pelizzer Casara


    Full Text Available Este projeto teve por objetivo principal mostrar às jovens do ensino médio, como as áreas de exatas e de engenharia podem estar inseridas em situações rotineiras por elas vivenciadas e incentivá-las para ingressarem nessas áreas. O projeto foi executado na escola de ensino Médio Nelson Horostecki na cidade de Chapecó, Santa Catarina. Mostrou-se de forma simples que as áreas de exatas e de engenharia têm aplicações práticas nas nossas vidas. No desenvolvimento do projeto, realizaram-se oficinas na escola cujo tema principal abordado foi o processo de fabricação do chocolate, visto que o mesmo é um produto muito apreciado pelas adolescentes. Dentro dessa temática, foram trabalhadas as questões que envolvem conhecimentos das áreas de exatas e de engenharia, mais especificamente a Engenharia Ambiental. O projeto auxiliou na formação cidadã e também na escolha profissional das meninas. Muitas das alunas participantes nunca haviam tido contato direto com alunos graduandos de cursos na área das exatas. Mais ainda, este projeto oportunizou a aproximação da universidade com a comunidade externa. Palavras-chave: Extensão Universitária, Ciências Exatas e Engenharia, Chocolate, Oficinas.   Engineering in the school Abstract: The main objective of this project was to show high school female students how the exact sciences and engineering can be included in their routine situations encouraging them to entering in these areas. The project was carried out at the Nelson Horostecki High School in Chapecó, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. It was showed in a simple manner how exact sciences and engineering have practical applications in our lives. Workshops were conducted in the school during the execution of the project in which the main subject was the chocolate manufacturing process, since chocolate is a product greatly appreciated by the young female people. Within this matter, the activities were performed using the knowledge of

  10. Valores na escola

    Menin Maria Suzana De Stefano


    Full Text Available Neste texto pretende-se discorrer sobre valores morais na escola e suas implicações para a formação de professores. Para tanto discutir-se-á, em primeiro lugar, e brevemente, o que são valores morais, ou éticos, e como a escola pode situar-se em relação a eles. Em seguida, serão relatadas algumas observações a respeito de valores de professores e práticas daí decorrentes. São comentados resultados de pesquisa que ilustram a transmissão de valores de forma doutrinal e a educação moral e cívica tal como realizada na ditadura militar, e, por outro lado, a posição relativista e/ou de laissez-faire que certas escolas podem adotar, metodologicamente, sobre a educação em valores. Finalmente, defender-se-á a idéia de que é necessária uma discussão sobre valores pelos diversos membros da escola e uma opção por uma metodologia para ensiná-los, seja os professores, em sua formação inicial e continuada, seja os alunos. A teoria de desenvolvimento moral de Jean Piaget será apresentada como uma referência possível para a educação em valores. Exemplos de situações escolares de conflito de valores entre direção, pais e alunos são discutidas para ilustrar como uma escola pode adotar um procedimento democrático de educação em valores, que se apresenta como um terceiro caminho possível de educação moral nas escolas, além das posições doutrinárias ou relativistas.


    Márcio Xavier Bonorino Figueiredo


    Full Text Available Com este estudo, visa-se a investigar como a escola tem construído um corporeidade para a submissão dos estudantes ao sistema de dominação vigente. Propõe-se, também, a descobrir a corporeidade expressa nas brincadeiras, jogos e desenhos das crianças. Realizaram-se observações do espaço escolar de uma sala de aula durante um ano letivo, bem como duas entrevistas com cada uma das crianças de uma turma de 1ª série do 1º grau, em uma escola pública de periferia. Constatou-se que a escola, através de uma série de normas, explícitas ou implícitas, vai construindo uma corporeidade baseada no individualismo, na massificação e nos privilégios de uma minoria. A análise das brincadeiras, jogos e desenhos infantis revelou que estes veiculam valores contrários àqueles impostos pela escola. Em vista disso, elaborou-se uma proposta incipiente de trabalho corporal que tenha nas brincadeiras, jogos e desenhos das crianças o seu ponto de partida para uma práxis transformadora.


    Martha de Almeida


    Full Text Available A obra Uma investigação filosófica sobre a origem de nossas idéias do sublime e dobelo, do sensualista inglês Edmund Burke (1757, data as origens do sublime na Modernidade. Nosublime ocorre é um prazer ligado à dor, um "horror delicioso" que sentimos quando acreditamosque estamos em perigo sem que isso esteja ocorrendo realmente. Em O mundo como Vontade erepresentação Schopenhauer assume as influências que sofreu de Kant no que diz respeito à suainterpretação sobre o belo e o sublime, porém difere dele quanto à natureza dessa impressão. ParaSchopenhauer a experiência estética pressupõe a dissolução da subjetividade num movimento decontemplação das idéias livre do querer imposto pela vontade individual. As idéias deSchopenhauer influenciaram a estética do Nietzsche de O nascimento da tragédia.

  13. A aposta na filosofia

    Márcio Suzuki


    Full Text Available Para Hume, filosofar é uma atividade semelhante às demais ocupações humanas. A decisão que leva à atividade filosófica é menos resultado de uma argumentação teórica do que fruto de um cálculo prático, que é entendido como uma caça ou um jogo. O objetivo deste trabalho será o de mostrar que no jogo filosófico perde quem joga sério demais. A aposta na filosofia tem que passar pelo bom humor e pela diversão: uma resposta a Pascal?For Hume, philosophy is in itself neither more nor less important than other human activities. On the contrary, it can be explained from its resemblance with game and hunting. If one chooses to dedicate himself to philosophy, his decision is not the consequence of logical reasoning, but depends on practical evaluation, which has something to do with gambling. The following text tries to show that in philosophy, like in other games, the loser will be the one who plays too earnestly. The philosophical game requires good humour and some relaxation: Is this a good answer to Pascal's pari?

  14. Ulogata na endoetelin-1 vo razvojot na dijabeticna nefropatija inducirana so streptozocin

    Jasmina Trojacanec


    Full Text Available Dijabeticnata nefropatija pretstavuva edna od hronicnite mikrovaskularni komplikacii na dijabetot, so multifaktorijalna i ne do kraj rasvetlena etiopatogeneza. So ogled na toa sto kaj pacientite so dijabet, osobeno kaj onie so dijabeticna nefropatija, se najdeni zgolemeni vrednosti na endotelin-1, se pretpostavuva deka istiot moze da ima znacajna uloga vo razvojot na dijabeticnata nefropatija. Osnovna cel na nasata studija bese da se detektiraat promenite vo plazmatskoto nivo na endotelin-1 po eksperimentalno induciran dijabet, i dijabeticna nefropatija kaj staorci so streptozocin. So ogled na dobro poznatite efekti na AKE-inhibitorite, vo ovaa studija go ispituvavme i vlijanieto na enalapril (AKE inhibitor na plazmatskite koncentracii na endotelin-1, kako i negovite efekti vo tretmanot na dijabeti~na nefropatija. Ednokratnata i.p. administracija na streptozocin (STZ predizvika signifikantno zgolemuvanje na plazmatskite koncentracii na endotelin-1, proprateni so jasno izrazeni simptomi i znaci na dijabeticna nefropatija (mikroalbuminurija, zgolemeni urinarni vrednosti na N-acetyl-fl-D-glucosamidase, zgolemeni serumski koncentracii na urea, poliurija. Cetiri nedelniot tretman so enalapril dovede do signifikantno namaluvanje na plazmatskite koncentracii na endotelin-1 i do podobruvanje na simtomite i znacite na dijabeticnata nefropatija. Dobienite rezultati potvrduvaat deka endotelin-1 moze da ima znacajna uloga vo razvojot i progresijata na dijabeticnata nefropatija, a AKE inhibitorite, odnosno enalapril, mozat da ja ublazat i usporat progresijata na dijabeticnata nefropatija

  15. Contribuição ao estudo de compósitos de espuma rígida de poliuretana reforçada com resíduos de celulose

    Merces Coelho da Silva


    Este trabalho apresenta o estudo de um rejeito industrial da produção de polpa de celulose branqueada, visando a sua valorização como matéria-prima renovável e o estudo sobre o efeito da mercerização nesse rejeito. O rejeito industrial não tratado e o mercerizado foram caracterizados segundo a sua composição química, propriedades estrutural, térmica, morfológica e mecânica através da análise de Espectroscopia na Região do Infravermelho, Difração de Raios X (DRX), Termogravimetria (TG), Micros...

  16. Dificuldades da aprendizagem na leitura

    Nascimento, Solange Oliveira; Trugillo, Edneuza Alves


    Este presente artigo propôs verificar os fatores que influenciam no desenvolvimento da aprendizagem na leitura dos alunos da 4º ano no Ensino Fundamental na Escola Municipal Armando Dias no município de Sinop/MT, cujo tema é dificuldade da aprendizagem na leitura. O objetivo do trabalho foi investigar as relações interpessoais em sala de aula e de que forma a professora introduz a leitura nos conteúdos dados aos alunos. Como fundamentação teórica, recorremos a vários autores, entre eles: Enri...


    Rubič, Gašper


    V diplomskem delu smo v uvodu predstavili problem spolnega nadlegovanja na delovnem mestu in predstavili podjetje TEKSTIL d.d. V nadaljevanju smo z anketo raziskali, ali problem spolnega nadlegovanja na delovnem mestu v obravnavanem podjetju obstaja in če, kako se nanj odziva okolje. V teoretičnem delu smo nadaljevali in predstavili definicijo spolnega nadlegovanja, ki je kakršna koli oblika nezaželenega verbalnega in neverbalnega ali fizičnega ravnanja spolne narave z učinkom ali nameno...

  18. Studies on NaXe Clusters


    The chemical shift of 23Na in excimer NaXe was measured by using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra, which is in good agreement with the theoretical value obtained by ab initio calculations. The bond length, dissociation energy, dipole of NaXe and Mulliken charges at Na and Xe in NaXe were calculated, respectively. The spectra of ultraviolet (UV) fluorescence and surface-enhanced Raman scattering of NaXe were also measured.

  19. Na via do Behemoth

    Gérard Rabinovitch


    Full Text Available O momento nazista permanece um enigma impensado de que a cultura contemporânea continua cativa. O autor levanta a hipótese de que a persistência desse enigma e seus estragos duráveis se devem à insistência dos pensamentos político, sociológico e filosófico em construírem o nazismo à luz da metáfora hobbesiana do Leviatã. Propõe retomar a questão do nazismo sob a perspectiva do Behemoth, antônimo do Leviatã. Para tanto, sugere a necessidade de retornar a Freud e à psicanálise, balizas de um possível novo pensamento do político que escrutine a destrutividade nazista. Propõe ainda sondar as homologias entre nazismo, corjas e máfias, com base na figura da " heroicização da violência" que lhes seria comum. E avança um modelo " econômico" : a quimera, suscetível de capturar o caráter heterotópico e heterocrônico de sua construção criminosa.The paths of Behemoth. The Nazi moment remains as the thoughtless enigma of which contemporary culture is still captive. The author raises the hypothesis where the persistency of this enigma and its durable damages are due to the insistence of the political, social and philosophical thoughts in building the Nazism at the view of the Hobbesian metaphor of Leviathan. It is here proposed to resume the Nazism matter under Behemoth's perspective, antonym to Leviathan. For such, it is suggested a necessity to look back at Freud and the psychoanalysis, structured by a possible new political thought which scrutinizes the destructivity of the Nazism. It is also here proposed to gaze at the homologies between Nazism, mafias and gangs, with a base in the figure of " violence as a heroically act" that are their common ground. The author also advances an economical model: the chimera susceptible to capture the heterotopic and heterochronic character of its criminal construction.

  20. Results from NA61/SHINE

    Unger M.


    Full Text Available In this paper we summarize recent results from NA61/SHINE relevant for heavy ion physics, neutrino oscillations and the interpretation of air showers induced by ultra-high energy cosmic rays.

  1. Risbjerg: Historisk stemmeskred med NA

    Thomsen, Søren Risbjerg


    ANALYSE: NA flytter 12,3 pct. af stemmerne i majs meningsmålinger - historisk mange vælgere på en måned, skriver professor Risbjerg. Udgivelsesdato: 3. juni 2007......ANALYSE: NA flytter 12,3 pct. af stemmerne i majs meningsmålinger - historisk mange vælgere på en måned, skriver professor Risbjerg. Udgivelsesdato: 3. juni 2007...

  2. Na+ recirculation and isosmotic transport.

    Larsen, E H; Møbjerg, N


    The Na(+) recirculation theory for solute-coupled fluid absorption is an expansion of the local osmosis concept introduced by Curran and analyzed by Diamond & Bossert. Based on studies on small intestine the theory assumes that the observed recirculation of Na(+) serves regulation of the osmolarity of the absorbate. Mathematical modeling reproducing bioelectric and hydrosmotic properties of small intestine and proximal tubule, respectively, predicts a significant range of observations such as isosmotic transport, hyposmotic transport, solvent drag, anomalous solvent drag, the residual hydraulic permeability in proximal tubule of AQP1 (-/-) mice, and the inverse relationship between hydraulic permeability and the concentration difference needed to reverse transepithelial water flow. The model reproduces the volume responses of cells and lateral intercellular space (lis) following replacement of luminal NaCl by sucrose as well as the linear dependence of volume absorption on luminal NaCl concentration. Analysis of solvent drag on Na(+) in tight junctions provides explanation for the surprisingly high metabolic efficiency of Na(+) reabsorption. The model predicts and explains low metabolic efficiency in diluted external baths. Hyperosmolarity of lis is governed by the hydraulic permeability of the apical plasma membrane and tight junction with 6-7 mOsm in small intestine and < or = 1 mOsm in proximal tubule. Truly isosmotic transport demands a Na(+) recirculation of 50-70% in small intestine but might be barely measurable in proximal tubule. The model fails to reproduce a certain type of observations: The reduced volume absorption at transepithelial osmotic equilibrium in AQP1 knockout mice, and the stimulated water absorption by gallbladder in diluted external solutions. Thus, it indicates cellular regulation of apical Na(+) uptake, which is not included in the mathematical treatment.

  3. Aspectos socioambientais e qualidade da água de dessalinizadores nas comunidades rurais de Pentecoste-CE

    Antônia Leila Rocha Neves


    Full Text Available Os dessalinizadores de água salobra de poços são bastante utilizados para dotar as comunidades rurais do semiárido brasileiro com água potável, sendo considerada uma tecnologia social de convivência com a seca. No entanto, na dessalinização, além da água potável, é gerada uma água residuária (rejeito altamente salina que pode gerar sérios impactos ambientais negativos. Objetivou-se avaliar a qualidade da água e a percepção dos usuários quanto aos aspectos socioambientais relacionados à utilização de equipamentos de dessalinização instalados em oito localidades em Pentecoste, Ceará (Mulungu, Muquenzinho, Irapuá, Macacos, Barra do Leme, Capivara, Lagoa da Porta e Providência. Em cada localidade, foram coletadas três amostras de água do poço, dessalinizada e de rejeito, para caracterização físico-química. Os valores de CE para o rejeito variaram de 4,2 a 7,6 dS m-1, representando riscos para o ambiente de acordo com padrões estabelecidos mundialmente. A localidade de Muquenzinho apresenta os maiores valores de pH, CE, Na e Ca para água do poço, dessalinizada e rejeito, em relação às demais localidades. A maior parte do rejeito gerado é utilizada para alimentação animal e a grande maioria da população, independente da localidade, não tem conhecimento se o uso desse rejeito causa algum dano à saúde humana ou ao ambiente.

  4. Dificuldades da aprendizagem na leitura

    Solange Oliveira Nascimento


    Full Text Available Este presente artigo propôs verificar os fatores que influenciam no desenvolvimento da aprendizagem na leitura dos alunos da 4º ano no Ensino Fundamental na Escola Municipal Armando Dias no município de Sinop/MT, cujo tema é dificuldade da aprendizagem na leitura. O objetivo do trabalho foi investigar as relações interpessoais em sala de aula e de que forma a professora introduz a leitura nos conteúdos dados aos alunos. Como fundamentação teórica, recorremos a vários autores, entre eles: Enrique Cártula Fita, Elisabete da Assunção Jóse, Jésus Alonso Tapia, Maria Tereza Coelho e Ruth Caribe da Rocha Drouet. A metodologia usada consistiu na pesquisa qualitativa, no estudo de caso e questionário com perguntas abertas e fechadas aplicadas à professora e três alunos que estão com dificuldades na leitura. Através dos relatos dos sujeitos realizamos um estudo analítico confrontando os dados da pesquisa com os autores principais que fundamentam a mesma. O presente trabalho pretende contribuir e mostrar ao professor em sala de aula a importância de incentivar os alunos a aprenderem a ler com prazer motivando-os a despertar o interesse e gosto pela leitura. Os resultados da investigação revelam que a professora pesquisada está ciente de seu papel e procura meios para enfrentar os problemas existentes em sala de aula, em especial às dificuldades da aprendizagem na leitura e os alunos percebem a importância da leitura e tem vontade em avançar nesse aprendizado.Palavras-chave: educação; dificuldades na aprendizagem. professor; aluno; sala de aula.

  5. Na Deposition on MnO(100)

    Feng, Xu; Cox, David F.


    Na deposition on the MnO(100) surface was investigated by temperature programmed desorption (TPD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and low energy electron diffraction (LEED). Na TPD and XPS results indicate that adsorbed Na interacts strongly with the MnO substrate to form an irreversibly-adsorbed, oxidic Na compound on the surface for coverages up to 1 monolayer (ML). This strongly-bound Na diffuses into the MnO subsurface and bulk at elevated temperatures above 500 K. For Na coverages above 1 ML, metallic Na is present and desorbs from the surface below 500 K. The deposition of Na on MnO(100) follows a Stranski-Krastanov (SK) growth mode, with the formation of metallic Na islands following completion of the first Na monolayer. After Na deposition, the surface exhibits a diffuse (1 × 1) LEED pattern, suggesting the formation of disordered Na overlayers. After heating to 1000 K, the surface presents a (2 × 2) LEED pattern indicating that a surface reconstruction is induced by the diffusion of Na into the near surface region. CO2 can be used as a probe molecule in TPD to distinguish between metallic Na islands and oxidic Na in the first ML, and to indicate when Na that is still observable by XPS goes subsurface.

  6. Jezična analiza lista Naš glas


    U radu se analizira jezik Našega glasa (list „Riviere“ – radne organizacije za ugostiteljstvo, turizam, trgovinu i proizvodnju) koji je izlazio u Poreču od 1969. do 1982. godine. Nakon kratkoga osvrta na strukturu, sadržaj i ulogu toga lista te njegov značaj za stanovništvo lokalne zajednice, slijedi prikaz jezičnih zbivanja u vrijeme njegova izlaženja. U žarištu su istraživanja pravopisne, morfološke, sintaktičke, tvorbene, leksičke i stilske karakteristike lista. Rezultati istraživanja poka...

  7. All new for NA62

    Antonella Del Rosso


    This week sees the start of the first run of the new NA62 experiment. This will be a unique opportunity for the collaboration to test its new beam, new detectors and new data acquisition system before the physics run in 2014. Speaking to the Bulletin, the NA62 technical coordinator Ferdinand Hahn shares the many challenges that the various teams faced to be on time for beam. Ready, steady, start!   A Large Angle Veto detector (white) in place in the NA62 decay volume (blue). With components from almost all the detectors in place downstream of the decay point of the mother particles – the kaons – and of the KTAG detector that tags the kaons before they decay, NA62 is ready for its first technical run. This unique run will test all the equipment as well as the trigger and the data acquisition systems. “This year, we will have about five weeks of beam from the SPS before the long shutdown of all the CERN machines,” says Ferdinand Hahn, NA62 Technical Co-...

  8. Corpo e sexualidade na gravidez

    Natalúcia Matos Araújo


    Full Text Available Estudo etnográfico que teve como objetivo compreender como as gestantes vivenciam os processos fisiológicos do seu corpo durante a gestação e a sua repercussão na sexualidade. A pesquisa envolveu sete mulheres residentes em bairro popular de São Paulo. Na coleta de dados, utilizou-se observação participante e entrevista com questões norteadoras. Os dados foram apresentados na forma de narrativa e posteriormente organizados nas categorias: Percebendo as transformações corporais; Convivendo com as mudanças no corpo; Sentimentos e sensações na vida sexual durante a gestação e imaginando o corpo e a sexualidade após a gestação. As mulheres referiram-se às transformações do corpo como desconfortos e expressaram a preocupação de que fossem definitivas. Expressaram o desejo de que, após o parto, o corpo volte a ser como era e que volte a sentir desejo sexual. O reconhecimento destes fatos constitui-se numa ferramenta primordial na adequação das práticas profissionais.

  9. gigapanorama of NA 62 cavern

    Brice, Maximilien


    The image shows the new rare Kaon decay experiment at CERN, called NA62. The NA62 experiment is 270 metres long and includes a 120-metre-long vacuum tank, shown here, housing several of the particle detectors. (Note: the experiment axis is a straight line, the curving of the tank is an optical effect of the photo.) Kaons are particles that decay into lighter elementary particles. The kaon decay processes are mostly well known, except for some very rare decay modes. For example, NA62 is investigating a rare decay predicted by the Standard Model in which a kaon decays into one pion and two neutrinos. This process occurs only once every 10 billion decays. The understanding of such ultra-rare decays are of great importance because they test the Standard Model in energy ranges not accessible by direct measurements. They are therefore complementary to the measurements at the LHC. ultra high definition on demand (

  10. Alcool e drogas na esquizofrenia

    Marilia Montoya Boscolo


    Resumo: O objetivo deste trabalho é estudar o fenômeno do uso de álcool e drogas ilícitas (maconha e cocaína) na esquizoftenia. Trata-se de estudo comparativo, casocontrole, de dois grupos de esquizoftênicos pareados para sexo e idade, que preencheram os critérios diagnósticos do DSMIV para esquizoftenia. O grupo caso é definido por esquizofrênicos que têm história de ter feito uso de álcool, pelo menos no último mês e/ ou história de ter feito uso de drogas (maconha e cocaína), pelo menos al...

  11. Criatividade na Gestalt–terapia

    Patrícia Albuquerque Lima


    Full Text Available Como se conceitua criatividade na teoria da Gestalt–terapia? Qual o papel e a função da criatividade nesta abordagem? O que se considera como um comportamento criativo no senso comum é tão diferente do que compreendemos, na abordagem gestáltica, como criatividade? Estas são algumas das perguntas sobre as quais buscaremos transcorrer ao longo deste artigo. Partimos de simples perguntas, pois talvez um bom recurso para se “tratar” da criatividade seja a curiosidade. Para isto, iremos apresentar a contribuição de alguns autores que discorreram sobre o tema da criatividade em suas obras, iniciando por Kurt Goldstein e sua Teoria Organísmica, que consideramos o principal substrato teórico para se pensar a criatividade na Gestalt–terapia.

  12. The NA48 trigger supervisor

    Arcidiacono, R; Berotto, F; Bertolino, F; Govi, G; Menichetti, E; Sozzi, M


    The NA48 experiment aims to measure direct CP violation in the K/sub L//sup 0/ decays system with an accuracy of 2*10/sup -4/. High performances are required to the trigger and acquisition systems. This paper describes the NA48 Trigger Supervisor, a 40 MHz pipelined hardware system which correlates and processes trigger informations from local trigger sources, searching for interesting patterns. The trigger packet include a timestamp information used by the readout systems to retrieve detector data. The design architecture and functionality during 98 data taking are described. (5 refs).

  13. Criatividade na Gestalt–terapia

    Patrícia Albuquerque Lima


    Como se conceitua criatividade na teoria da Gestalt–terapia? Qual o papel e a função da criatividade nesta abordagem? O que se considera como um comportamento criativo no senso comum é tão diferente do que compreendemos, na abordagem gestáltica, como criatividade? Estas são algumas das perguntas sobre as quais buscaremos transcorrer ao longo deste artigo. Partimos de simples perguntas, pois talvez um bom recurso para se “tratar” da criatividade seja a curiosidade. Para isto, iremos apresentar...

  14. Determination of the (Na+) Sternheimer antishielding factor by 23Na NMR spectroscopy on sodium oxide chloride, Na3OCl.

    Klösters, G; Jansen, M


    The (Na+) Sternheimer antishielding factor gammainifinity (Na+) was determined by 23Na NMR spectroscopy on sodium oxide-chloride, Na3OCl. The quadrupolar coupling constant of the sodium ion in Na3OCI was determined to QCC = 11.34 MHz, which presents the largest coupling constant of a sodium nucleus observed so far. Applying a simple point charge model, the largest principal value of the electric field gradient at the sodium site was calculated to V(zz) = -6.76762 x 10(20) V/m2. From these values we calculated the (Na+) Sternheimer antishielding factor to gammainifinity (Na+)= -5.36. In sodium oxide, Na2O, we observed an isotropic chemical shift of deltaCS = 55.1 ppm, referenced to 1 M aqueous NaCI (delta = 0 ppm).

  15. O estilo científico de Einstein na exploração do domínio quântico (uma visão da relação entre a teoria e seu objeto Einstein's scientific style in the exploration of the quantum domain (a view on the relationship between theory and its object

    Michel Paty


    Full Text Available As primeiras pesquisas físicas de Einstein (principalmente aquelas do ano de ouro de 1905 concentraram-se em dois domínios que ele tratava independentemente: o domínio atômico e radioativo, de um lado, e a teoria eletromagnética, de outro. Posteriormente essas duas direções de pesquisa cristalizaramse na direção da teoria quântica para a primeira, e das teorias da relatividade e do campo contínuo para a segunda. Pode-se discernir desde o início, ao seguir o trabalho de Einstein nessas duas direções (que ele conduzirá constantemente em paralelo, dois tipos de aproximações diferentes: uma, heurística, que põe em obra um método probabilista de investigação suscitado pela termodinâmica (cálculos de flutuações, tendo em vista caracterizar as propriedades específicas do novo domínio da física quântica; a outra, imediatamente fundamental, que organiza o trabalho teórico em torno de princípios físicos, em particular, de invariância. Esses dois modos de abordagem não correspondem a uma oposição entre duas atitudes de pensamento, empirista de um lado e teórico-racional do outro (como muitos comentadores quiseram crer, reportando-os a dois períodos distintos da obra de Einstein, mas a uma maneira diferenciada que lhe é própria de conceber o trabalho teórico, em função da inteligibilidade possível de seu objeto, em termos de conceitos e de princípios sempre pensados fisicamente. Essa maneira define o estilo próprio de Einstein enquanto pesquisador em física, ao mesmo tempo crítico e construtivo, que se constitui desde seus primeiros trabalhos.Einstein's first researches in physics (particularly those of the golden year 1905 delt with two domains which he treated independently: the atomic and radiative domain on one side, electrodynamics on the other side. Later on, these two directions would cristallize, the first one towards quantum theory, the second one towards the theories of relativity and of the

  16. Diagnóstico da deficiência de fósforo em ovinos pela técnica de incorporação de fósforo radioativo nos eritrócitos Phosphorus deficiency diagnosis in sheep using labeled phosphorus uptake by erythrocytes

    Dalton Araujo Antunes


    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a técnica de incorporação de 32P pelos eritrócitos de ovinos jovens, mantidos em pastejo de Andropogon gayanus, como método de diagnóstico da deficiência de fósforo. Vinte ovinos, com peso vivo inicial de 13,88±2,51 kg, foram divididos em dois tratamentos de dez animais cada; num dos tratamentos, os animais foram suplementados com 3 g de P por animal por dia e, no outro, os animais não receberam suplementação de P. Foram realizadas cinco pesagens dos animais, coletas de sangue e fezes nos 8º, 29º, 43º, 57º e 71º dias do experimento, para avaliar a incorporação de 32P pelos eritrócitos, determinar as concentrações de Ca, glicose e P no soro e a porcentagem de P nas fezes. Foi encontrada diferença significativa na concentração de Ca no 57º dia. Na concentração de glicose, porcentagem de P nas fezes e peso vivo não foram observadas diferenças significativas entre os tratamentos. A partir da segunda coleta, a concentração de P no soro foi mais elevada e a incorporação de 32P foi menor no grupo de animais suplementados com P. A incorporação de 32P pelos eritrócitos é uma técnica adicional para avaliar o status de P e identificar sua deficiência subclínica em ovinos jovens.This work had the objective of evaluating the method of 32P uptake by the erythrocytes of young sheep, supplemented with phosphorus and kept at pasture of Andropogon gayanus, as a tool for phosphorus deficiency diagnosis. Twenty lambs, initially weighing 13.88±2.51 kg, were divided in two treatments of ten animals each. In one of them, animals were supplemented with 3 g of phosphorus per animal per day and, in the other, animals did not receive supplementation of phosphorus. Weighing, and blood and faeces collection were carried out in the 8th, 29th, 43rd, 57th e 71st days of the experiment, to evaluate the incorporation of 32P by the erythrocytes, to determine calcium, glucose and phosphorus

  17. NA60 frees the quarks


    Fitted with new state-of-the-art silicon detectors, NA60 is prepared to study the phase transition from confined hadronic matter to a deconfined (free) quark-gluon plasma, a state of matter which probably existed an instant after the Big Bang.

  18. NA62: Hidden Sector Physics

    Cesarotti, Carissa Joyce


    Modern experimental physics is often probing for new physics by either finding deviations from predictions on extremely precise measurements, or by looking for a new signal that cannot be explained with existing models. The NA62 experiment at CERN does the former by measuring the ultra-rare decay $K^+ \\rightarrow \\pi^+ \

  19. Li Na Aces French Open


    Chinese tennis player becomes the first Asian to win a Grand Slam singles title Chinese tennis player Li Na beat defending champion Francesca Schiavone from Italy,6-4,7-6,on the clay court at Roland Garros,winning the 2011 French Open Tennis Tournament on June 4.She made history by becoming the first Chinese to win a grand slam singles title.

  20. Astrocytes generate Na+-mediated metabolic waves.

    Bernardinelli, Yann; Magistretti, Pierre J; Chatton, Jean-Yves


    Glutamate-evoked Na+ increase in astrocytes has been identified as a signal coupling synaptic activity to glucose consumption. Astrocytes participate in multicellular signaling by transmitting intercellular Ca2+ waves. Here we show that intercellular Na+ waves are also evoked by activation of single cultured cortical mouse astrocytes in parallel with Ca2+ waves; however, there are spatial and temporal differences. Indeed, maneuvers that inhibit Ca2+ waves also inhibit Na+ waves; however, inhibition of the Na+/glutamate cotransporters or enzymatic degradation of extracellular glutamate selectively inhibit the Na+ wave. Thus, glutamate released by a Ca2+ wave-dependent mechanism is taken up by the Na+/glutamate cotransporters, resulting in a regenerative propagation of cytosolic Na+ increases. The Na+ wave gives rise to a spatially correlated increase in glucose uptake, which is prevented by glutamate transporter inhibition. Therefore, astrocytes appear to function as a network for concerted neurometabolic coupling through the generation of intercellular Na+ and metabolic waves.

  1. Europlanet NA2 Science Networking

    Harri, Ari-Matti; Szego, Karoly; Genzer, Maria; Schmidt, Walter; Krupp, Norbert; Lammer, Helmut; Kallio, Esa; Haukka, Harri


    Europlanet RI / NA2 Science Networking [1] focused on determining the major goals of current and future European planetary science, relating them to the Research Infrastructure that the Europlanet RI project [2] developed, and placing them in a more global context. NA2 also enhanced the ability of European planetary scientists to participate on the global scene with their own agenda-setting projects and ideas. The Networking Activity NA2 included five working groups, aimed at identifying key science issues and producing reference books on major science themes that will bridge the gap between the results of present and past missions and the scientific preparation of the future ones. Within the Europlanet RI project (2009-2012) the NA2 and NA2-WGs organized thematic workshops, an expert exchange program and training groups to improve the scientific impact of this Infrastructure. The principal tasks addressed by NA2 were: • Science activities in support to the optimal use of data from past and present space missions, involving the broad planetary science community beyond the "space club" • Science activities in support to the preparation of future planetary missions: Earth-based preparatory observations, laboratory studies, R&D on advanced instrumentation and exploration technologies for the future, theory and modeling etc. • Develop scientific activities, joint publications, dedicated meetings, tools and services, education activities, engaging the public and industries • Update science themes and addressing the two main scientific objectives • Prepare and support workshops of the International Space Science Institute (ISSI) in Bern and • Support Trans National Activities (TNAs), Joined Research Activities (JRAs) and the Integrated and Distributed Information Service (IDIS) of the Europlanet project These tasks were achieved by WG workshops organized by the NA2 working groups, by ISSI workshops and by an Expert Exchange Program. There were 17 official WG

  2. Cultivation of Arthrospira (spirulina) platensis in desalinator wastewater and salinated synthetic medium: protein content and amino-acid profile Cultivo de Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis em rejeito de dessalinizador e meio sintético salinizado: teor protéico e perfil de aminoácidos

    Harriet Volkmann; Ulisses Imianovsky; Jorge L.B. Oliveira; Ernani S. Sant'Anna


    Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis was cultivated in laboratory under controlled conditions (30ºC, photoperiod of 12 hours light/dark provided by fluorescent lamps at a light intensity of 140 µmol photons.m-2.s-1 and constant bubbling air) in three different culture media: (1) Paoletti medium (control), (2) Paoletti supplemented with 1 g.L-1 NaCl (salinated water) and (3) Paoletti medium prepared with desalinator wastewater. The effects of these treatments on growth, protein content and amino ...

  3. Verdade na Cena, Verdade na Vida: Boal e Stanislavski



    Full Text Available À luz do conceito de verdade cênica, o presente artigo discute a influência do método Stanislavski nos primeiros experimentos no seio do Teatro Arena de São Paulo e também aponta rastros do mestre russo nos princípios da Poética do Oprimido de Augusto Boal. O objetivo primordial consiste em incentivar a construção de espetáculos-fórum, partindo de um trabalho com rigor físico e detalhamento psicológico stanislavskianos. Trabalho este, que pode ser desenvolvido na lógica interna do processo, na fase que precede a todo produto de criação, antes da intervenção do espectador e no âmbito de montagens profissionais de teatro-fórum, em projetos mais duradouros.

  4. Thermal treatment of aluminous phosphates of the crandallite group and its effect on phosphorus solubility Tratamento térmico de fosfatos aluminosos do grupo da crandallita e seu efeito na solubilidade do fósforo

    Eros Artur Bohac Francisco


    Full Text Available Optimization in the use of phosphate rocks is important and the residues of fertilizer production in the form of crandallite may be suitable for agronomic use after calcination. With the objective of evaluating the effect of thermal treatment of the aluminous phosphates of the crandallite group as related to solubility, crystalline structure and morphology, samples from the mine residues of three Brazilian phosphate deposits (Tapira-MG, Catalão-GO, and Juquiá-SP were collected, air-dried, and screened to 100 mesh. Sub samples were thermally treated at 300, 500, 700, and 900°C for 2 hours. Treated and untreated materials were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, scanning electronic microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry, and for the total and soluble P contents. The treatment of samples: (i raised P solubility in neutral ammonium citrate solution, (ii caused the disorganization of the crystalline structure of crandallite at 500°C and above, and (iii altered their morphology (cracking and rounding. The increase in P solubility of samples after calcination indicates that the agronomic utilization of these marginal P sources may be of interest since plant growth may be favored due to higher P availability. New studies to evaluate these materials in order to determine their agronomic effectiveness must be carried out to establish adequate conditions that favor their use by plants.A otimização do uso de rochas fosfáticas é importante e resíduos da indústria de fertilizantes fosfatados na forma de crandallita poderão ser agronomicamente eficientes após calcinação. Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito do tratamento térmico em fosfatos aluminosos do tipo crandallita quanto à solubilidade, estrutura cristalina, e morfologia, amostras do rejeito de mineração de três depósitos fosfáticos brasileiros (Tapira-MG, Catalão-GO e Juquiá-SP foram coletadas, secas ao ar e separadas por peneiramento 100 mesh. Sub-amostras foram submetidas ao

  5. NA


    Significant research in high performance analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) has been directed at retaining part of the high-speed flash ADC architecture, while reducing the total number of comparators in the circuit. The symmetrical number system (SNS) can be used to preprocess the analog input signal, reducing the number of comparators and thus reducing the chip area and power consumption of the ADC. This thesis examines a Very Large Scale Integrated (VLSI) design for a folding circuit for ...

  6. Kolesarske poti in prostorski razvoj na Ptuju

    Novak, Matjaž


    Diplomska naloga Kolesarske poti in prostorski razvoj na Ptuju govori o kolesarjenju kot alternativi osebnemu avtomobilu za dnevne vožnje na delo, v šolo ali po opravkih. Predstavljene so prednosti in slabosti kolesarjenja ter primerjava med kolesom in osebnim avtomobilom, predvsem na kratkih razdaljah, kjer lahko kolo več kot uspešno nadomesti uporabo osebnega avtomobila. V diplomski nalogi je prav tako podrobno predstavljena kolesarska infrastruktura ter pravilno načrtovanje gradnje kolesar...

  7. Hrvatska milja na starim kartama

    Marina Viličić


    Full Text Available Karta Stjepana Glavača iz 1673. godine vrijedan je i jedinstven primjerak hrvatske kartografske baštine. Na njoj je ucrtana hrvatska milja kojoj nema traga na kartama izrađenima prije Glavačeve karte. Više autora spominje vrijednost duljine hrvatske milje, ali nisu suglasni s iznosom njezine vrijednosti. Za potrebe ovoga rada, pored kopije Glavačeve karte pribavljene su i istražene kopije karata Janeza Vajkarda Valvasora iz 1689., Giacoma Cantellija da Vignole iz 1690., Antuna Belavića iz 1739. i karta Kraljevinâ Dalmacije, Hrvatske i Slavonije… iz 1746. na kojima je, pored ostalih milja, ucrtana i hrvatska milja. S pomoću tih ucrtanih milja izračunan je odnos između hrvatske i njemačke milje, zatim talijanske i hrvatske milje te potom francuske i hrvatske milje. Pored tih odnosa, dan je i pregled odnosa hrvatske milje i nekih drugih milja. Utvrđeno je da je duljina hrvatske milje jednaka 1/10 duljine ekvatorskog stupnja. Duljina hrvatske milje za Zemljin radijus R = 6371 km iznosi 11 120 m, odnosno približno 11 km.

  8. Corpo e velhice na contemporaneidade

    Gabriela Felten da Maia


    Full Text Available A inegável atenção dada ao corpo na sociedade inspirou a construção deste trabalho, visto que os imperativos atuais são a beleza, a forma e o vigor. A velhice e a inexorabilidade da morte apresentam-se para este ideal como incômodos que devem ser afastados através de diversos hábitos "saudáveis" e “rejuvenescedores”, como a ginástica, os cosméticos, as vitaminas, procedimentos estético-cirúrgicos, entre outros. O modo de “ser velho”, então, passa a ser configurado não mais por estereótipos negativos, mas a partir de um ethos em que os idosos são apresentados como saudáveis, joviais, engajados, produtivos e autoconfiantes. São corpos que ultrapassam as marcas do tempo, atléticos, firmes e lisos. Logo, aqueles que não aderem a este ethos podem tornar-se desviantes, estranhos, velhos, ultrapassados e precisam, portanto, serem descartados ou escamoteados. Tendo em vista estas questões, o presente trabalho propõe-se a discutir sobre o tema velhice, corpo e sociedade, na tentativa de problematizar sobre os atuais modos de subjetivação e o envelhecimento na contemporaneidade.

  9. Homocisteína Homocysteine

    Lindalva Batista Neves


    Full Text Available A homocisteína, formada a partir da metionina hepática, é metabolizada nas vias de desmetilação e de transulfuração, sendo que seus valores plasmáticos e urinários refletem a síntese celular. Sua determinação, realizada em jejum e após sobrecarga de metionina, caracteriza as diferenças dessas vias metabólicas, principalmente quando de natureza genética. A hiper-homocisteinemia tem sido associada a maior risco de eventos aterotrombóticos, e a literatura sugere associação causal, independente de outros fatores de risco para doença arterial. Diminuição da homocisteína plasmática para valores normais é seguida de redução significante na incidência de doença aterotrombótica. A relação entre homocisteína e o fígado vem adquirindo importância nos dias atuais, uma vez que alterações das lipoproteínas e da depuração de metionina são comuns em pacientes com doença hepática crônica (hepatocelular e canalicular. O tratamento da hiper-homocisteinemia fundamenta-se na suplementação alimentar e medicamentosa de ácido fólico e vitaminas B6 e B12.Homocysteine, formed from hepatic methionine, is metabolized through the pathways of demethylation and transsulfuration. Its plasmatic and urinary values reflect the cell synthesis. Its determination after fasting and increased infusion of methionine shows the differences of these two metabolic pathways, mainly when it is related to genetic diseases. Hyperhomocysteinemia has been associated with a higher risk of vascular thrombotic events. Several authors suggest a causal relationship between these events independently of other risk factors for vascular diseases. Decrease in plasmatic homocysteine to normal levels is followed by a significant reduction on the incidence of vascular thrombotic events. The correlation between the liver and homocysteine is becoming more important because of the recent findings that alterations of lipoproteins and methionine clearance are

  10. Utjecaj načina zrenja na udjel vode u bezmasnoj tvari i na udjel masti u siru Trapistu

    Kirin, Slavko


    U radu je istraživan utjecaj načina zrenja na udjel vode u bezmasnoj tvari i na udjel masti u siru Trapistu. U sadašnjoj proizvodnji (Lura, Tvornica Bjelovar), sir Trapist zrije na prirodan način s oblikovanjem kore, te vakuumski upakiran u termoskupljajuče plastične vrećice, čime se dobije sir bez kore. Utvrđeno je da spomenuti načini zrenja uvjetuju signifikantne razlike u udjelu vode u bezmasnoj tvari sira. On je 5,34 % viši kod sira Trapista u vrećici u odnosu na sir Trapist s korom. Udje...

  11. Na+,K+-ATPase Na+ affinity in rat skeletal muscle fiber types

    Kristensen, Michael; Juel, Carsten


    Previous studies in expression systems have found different ion activation of the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase isozymes, which suggest that different muscles have different ion affinities. The rate of ATP hydrolysis was used to quantify Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity, and the Na(+) affinity of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase...

  12. Estudo prospectivo dos efeitos da amiodarona na função tiroidiana de pacientes chagásicos em área de deficiência de iodo

    Maria Aparecida Enes de Barros


    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a junção tiroidiana após uso crônico da amiodarona, em área de deficiência de iodo e endemia chagásica, 24 pacientes foram analisados antes e após três e nove meses de uso da droga. A avaliação constou de exame clínico, dosagem sérica de T4, T3, rT3, TSH, anticorpo antitiroglobulina e TSH 30 minutos após infusão venosa de uma ampola de 200µg de TRH. A captação do iodo radioativo 131 e a cintilografia datiróide foram realizadas antes e aos 9 meses após tratamento. Disfunção tiroidiana ocorreu em 20,8% dos pacientes sendo 12,5% de hipertiroidismo e 8,3% de hipotiroidismo, com anticorpos antitiroglobulina negativos. Captação do iodo radioativo 131 foi positiva em um paciente hipertiroideo com bócio. O diagnóstico de hipertiroidismo foi melhor evidenciado pela resposta reduzida ou bloqueada do TSH ao TRH e não pela concentração do T3 no soro e o de hipotiroidismo pela concentração elevada do TSH. O TSH elevado desde o início do tratamento pode predispor ao aparecimento de bócio. Concluímos que o uso da amiodarona em nossa região deve serjudiciosamente analisado, sendo a função tiroidiana cuidadosamente monitorizada antes e durante o tratamento.

  13. A Perspectiva de estudos sobre os sujeitos na Arquivologia, na Biblioteconomia e na Museologia

    Carlos Alberto Ávila Araújo


    Full Text Available Arquivologia, Biblioteconomia e Museologia se constituíram, como disciplinas científicas, no final do século XIX, a partir da consolidação de um modelo custodial patrimonialista e, depois, com sua superação a partir de duas perspectivas: uma funcionalista e outra crítica. Posteriormente, uma outra tradição de pesquisa se desenvolveu: estudos realizados a partir do ponto de vista dos sujeitos (usuários, públicos que se relacionam com as instituições arquivo, biblioteca, museu, e que experimentam seus espaços e se apropriam dos conteúdos de seus acervos. O objetivo deste texto é analisar o desenvolvimento desta perspectiva na Arquivologia, na Biblioteconomia e na Museologia, bem como defender a importância de um diálogo maior entre os achados de pesquisa realizados neste âmbito em cada uma das três áreas analisadas.

  14. NaCl Potentiates Human Fibrocyte Differentiation

    Nehemiah Cox; Darrell Pilling; Gomer, Richard H.


    Excessive NaCl intake is associated with a variety of fibrosing diseases such as renal and cardiac fibrosis. This association has been attributed to increased blood pressure as the result of high NaCl intake. However, studies in patients with high NaCl intake and fibrosis reveal a connection between NaCl intake and fibrosis that is independent of blood pressure. We find that increasing the extracellular concentration of NaCl to levels that may occur in human blood after high-salt intake can p...

  15. The hydrogen storage properties of Na decorated small boron cluster B6Na8

    Tang, Chunmei; Wang, Zhiguo; Zhang, Xue; Wen, Ninghua


    The binding energy of the Na atoms to the hollow sites of the B6 cage is larger than the experimental cohesive energy of bulk Na, so the clustering of Na atoms can be avoided. The polarization interaction dominates the adsorption of H2 by the B6Na8 cluster. The Na-coated B6Na8sbnd B8sbnd B6Na8 complex with the dispersive Na atoms and four H2 molecules adsorbed per Na can serve as better building blocks of polymers than the (B6Na8)2 dimer. These findings suggest a new route to design cluster-assembled hydrogen storage materials based on sp2-terminated boron chains.

  16. Conversion and Distribution of Lead and Tin in NaOH-NaNO3 Fusion Process

    Liu, Jingxin; Guo, Xueyi


    Oxidizing alkali fusion process has been studied to extract amphoteric metals. Transformation and distribution behaviors of typical amphoteric metals Pb and Sn in the NaOH-NaNO3 fusion process are systemically studied by theoretical analysis and experimental verification done in this work. Functions of NaOH and NaNO3 in the fusion process were also investigated. The results show the fused products, Na2PbO3 and Na2SnO3, are captured in the flux, and Na2PbO4 is speculated to reduce to Pb(II) in the following leaching process. By measuring solubility data of NaOH-Na2SnO3-PbO-H2O system, a strategy of crystallization is proposed to separate Sn with Pb in concentrated alkaline solution, and slice Na2Sn(OH)6 is obtained as a product.

  17. Avaliação da efetividade de arranjos processuais na melhoria do desempenho ambiental da produção de álcool laurílico etoxilado sulfatado.

    Maria da Graça Carraro Busica Popi


    Tensoativo aniônico com amplo espectro de utilização, o álcool laurílico etoxilado sulfatado (SLES) é um dos álcoois graxos mais consumidos nos segmentos de cosméticos e detergentes. Da forma como esse processamento ocorre no Brasil, a cadeia de produção compreende transformações nos segmentos agrícola e industrial, cujos consumos de recursos e geração de rejeitos podem proporcionar impactos ambientais significantes, que devem ser conhecidos e dimensionados. Este estudo realizou uma avaliação...

  18. Silicene for Na-ion battery applications

    Zhu, Jiajie


    Na-ion batteries are promising candidates to replace Li-ion batteries in large scale applications because of the advantages in natural abundance and cost of Na. Silicene has potential as the anode in Li-ion batteries but so far has not received attention with respect to Na-ion batteries. In this context, freestanding silicene, a graphene-silicene-graphene heterostructure, and a graphene-silicene superlattice are investigated for possible application in Na-ion batteries, using first-principles calculations. The calculated Na capacities of 954mAh/g for freestanding silicene and 730mAh/g for the graphenesilicene superlattice (10% biaxial tensile strain) are highly competitive and potentials of >0.3 V against the Na/Na potential exceed the corresponding value of graphite. In addition, the diffusion barriers are predicted to be <0.3 eV.

  19. Silicene for Na-ion battery applications

    Zhu, Jiajie; Schwingenschlögl, Udo


    Na-ion batteries are promising candidates to replace Li-ion batteries in large scale applications because of the advantages in natural abundance and cost of Na. Silicene has potential as the anode in Li-ion batteries but so far has not received attention with respect to Na-ion batteries. In this context, freestanding silicene, a graphene-silicene-graphene heterostructure, and a graphene-silicene superlattice are investigated for possible application in Na-ion batteries, using first-principles calculations. The calculated Na capacities of 954 mAh/g for freestanding silicene and 730 mAh/g for the graphene-silicene superlattice (10% biaxial tensile strain) are highly competitive and potentials of \\gt 0.3 {{V}} against the Na{}+/Na potential exceed the corresponding value of graphite. In addition, the diffusion barriers are predicted to be \\lt 0.3 {eV}.

  20. Docência na universidade: professores inovadores na USP

    Chamlian Helena Coharik


    Full Text Available O artigo trata de pesquisa realizada com um grupo de professores inovadores da Universidade de São Paulo tendo como objetivo procurar subsídios para a formação do professor universitário. Esses docentes foram entrevistados, solicitando que detalhassem melhor suas experiências inovadoras; explicassem as razões pelas quais haviam introduzido modificações em sua forma de trabalho; explicitassem as relações entre sua atividade de docência e de pesquisa, expressassem o papel que atribuíam ao ensino na universidade, bem como a forma pela qual sua trajetória acadêmica havia se cumprido até então. A diversidade de experiências relatadas e, ao mesmo tempo, a convergência de visões a respeito de suas funções de ensino e de pesquisa na universidade permitem-nos afirmar que, mais do que uma formação pedagógica específica, a sensibilização para as dificuldades do ensino e a valorização institucional dessa atividade consistiriam em grande avanço para a formação do professor.

  1. Pneumonia bacteriana adquirida na comunidade

    Machado, Lais Del Prá Netto


    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Farmácia, Florianópolis, 2015. A pneumonia pode ser causada por diversos microrganismos e classificada de forma abrangente, havendo poucos e frágeis estudos clínicos e epidemiológicos sobre pneumonias adquiridas na comunidade (PACs). Os patógenos mais frequentes nas PACs são Streptococcus pneumoniae e Haemophilus influenzae (em pneumonias típicas) e Mycoplasma pneumoni...

  2. New results from NA49

    Afanasiev, S V; Bächler, J; Barna, D; Barnby, L S; Bartke, Jerzy; Barton, R A; Behler, M; Betev, L; Bialkowska, H; Billmeier, A; Blume, C; Blyth, C O; Boimska, B; Botje, M; Bracinik, J; Brady, F P; Bramm, R; Brun, R; Buncic, P; Carr, L; Cebra, D; Cerny, V; Cooper, G E; Cramer, J G; Csató, P; Dinkelaker, P; Eckardt, V; Eckhardt, F; Ferenc, D; Filip, P; Fischer, H G; Foder, Z; Foka, P Y; Freund, P; Friese, V; Gál, J; Ganz, R E; Gazdzicki, M; Georgopoulos, G; Gladysz-Dziadus, E; Harris, J W; Hegyi, S; Höhne, C; Igo, G; Jacobs, P; Jones, P G; Kadija, K; Kolesnikov, V I; Kollegger, T; Kowalski, M; Kraus, I; Kreps, M; Lasiuk, B; Van Leeuwen, M; Lévai, Peter; Malakhov, A I; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Mayes, B W; Melkumov, G L; Mischke, A; Molnár, J; Nelson, J M; Odyniec, Grazyna Janina; Oldenburg, M; Pálla, G; Panagiotou, A D; Perl, K; Petridis, A; Pikna, M; Pinsky, L; Poskanzer, A M; Prindle, D J; Pühlhofer, F; Putschke, J; Reid, J G; Renfordt, A; Retyk, W; Ritter, H G; Röhrich, D; Roland, C; Roland, G; Rybicki, A; Sammer, T; Sann, H; Schäfer, E; Schmitz, N; Seyboth, P; Siklér, F; Sitár, B; Skrzypczak, E; Snellings, R; Squier, G T A; Stock, Reinhard; Ströbele, H; Susa, T; Szentpétery, I; Sziklai, J; Toy, M; Trainor, T A; Trentalange, S; Ullrich, T S; Varga, D; Vassiliou, Maria; Veres, G I; Vesztergombi, G; Voloshin, S A; Vranic, D; Wang, F; Weerasundara, D D; Wenig, S; Wetzler, A; Whitten, C; Xu, N; Yates, T A; Koo, I K; Zaranek, J; Zimányi, J


    Recent results of the NA49 experiment are presented. These cover first results on pion and kaon production, HBT, and charge fluctuations from Pb+Pb reactions at 40 AGeV and their comparison to 158 AGeV beam energy. Furthermore a study on baryon number transfer in p+p, centrality selected p+Pb and Pb+Pb collisions at 158 AGeV and new results on the system size dependence of kaon yields, including C+C and Si+Si data, are presented. Additionally, a first result on Lambda Lambda correlations is shown. (11 refs).

  3. The NA52 strangelet search

    Weber, M; Baglin, C; Beck, H P; Borer, K; Bussière, A; Elsener, K; Gorodetzky, P; Guillaud, J P; Kabana, S; Klingenberg, R; Lehmann, G; Lindén, T; Lohmann, K D; Mommsen, R K; Moser, U; Pretzl, Klaus P; Schacher, J; Spiwoks, R; Tuominiemi, Jorma


    The NA52 experiment searches for long-lived charged strangelets in 158 a GeV c/sup -1/ Pb+Pb collisions at CERN SPS. The experiment is able to identify single particles coming from the collisions at p/sub t/=0. We collected 10/sup 13/ Pb+Pb interactions looking for negatively charged strangelets and 3*10/sup 11/ Pb+Pb interactions for positively charged ones. No evidence for the production of strangelets has been observed. We present here resulting experimental differential and total upper production limits. (8 refs).

  4. Identidades Homossexuais na Territorialidade Tradicionalista

    Edipo Djavan dos Reis Göergen


    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta o debate teórico que sustenta a pesquisa de mestrado desenvolvida pelo autor. Tendo por base suas vivências em contextos de tradicionalismo gaúcho, o autor deste trabalho tem percebido a grande quantidade de homossexuais, ou indivíduos que se auto-denominam não-heterossexuais, integrando as atividades artísticas do Movimento Tradicionalista Gaúcho, ou a territorialidade tradicionalista. Interessado em investigar tal fenômeno, o autor tem desenvolvido o projeto de pesquisa “Os Espaços Paradoxais de Relações Homoeróticas na Territorialidade Tradicionalista”, sob orientação do prof. Dr. Benhur Pinós da Costa, no Programa de Pós-Graduação em Geografia (UFSM. Para que essa pesquisa seja realizada, levam-se em conta as relações de gênero e de sexualidade que estão envolvidas no tema. Dessa forma, por ainda se tratarem de temáticas tidas como insignificantes na sociedade em geral e marginalizadas no campo científico, para que o presente trabalho fosse empreendido, buscou-se amparo teórico nas geografias feministas e queer, segmentos contemporâneos da ciência geográfica.

  5. Identidades Homossexuais na Territorialidade Tradicionalista

    Edipo Djavan dos Reis Göergen


    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta o debate teórico que sustenta a pesquisa de mestrado desenvolvida pelo autor. Tendo por base suas vivências em contextos de tradicionalismo gaúcho, o autor deste trabalho tem percebido a grande quantidade de homossexuais, ou indivíduos que se auto-denominam não-heterossexuais, integrando as atividades artísticas do Movimento Tradicionalista Gaúcho, ou a territorialidade tradicionalista. Interessado em investigar tal fenômeno, o autor tem desenvolvido o projeto de pesquisa “Os Espaços Paradoxais de Relações Homoeróticas na Territorialidade Tradicionalista”, sob orientação do prof. Dr. Benhur Pinós da Costa, no Programa de Pós-Graduação em Geografia (UFSM. Para que essa pesquisa seja realizada, levam-se em conta as relações de gênero e de sexualidade que estão envolvidas no tema. Dessa forma, por ainda se tratarem de temáticas tidas como insignificantes na sociedade em geral e marginalizadas no campo científico, para que o presente trabalho fosse empreendido, buscou-se amparo teórico nas geografias feministas e queer, segmentos contemporâneos da ciência geográfica.

  6. NaCl potentiates human fibrocyte differentiation.

    Cox, Nehemiah; Pilling, Darrell; Gomer, Richard H


    Excessive NaCl intake is associated with a variety of fibrosing diseases such as renal and cardiac fibrosis. This association has been attributed to increased blood pressure as the result of high NaCl intake. However, studies in patients with high NaCl intake and fibrosis reveal a connection between NaCl intake and fibrosis that is independent of blood pressure. We find that increasing the extracellular concentration of NaCl to levels that may occur in human blood after high-salt intake can potentiate, in serum-free culture conditions, the differentiation of freshly-isolated human monocytes into fibroblast-like cells called fibrocytes. NaCl affects the monocytes directly during their adhesion. Potassium chloride and sodium nitrate also potentiate fibrocyte differentiation. The plasma protein Serum Amyloid P (SAP) inhibits fibrocyte differentiation. High levels of extracellular NaCl change the SAP Hill coefficient from 1.7 to 0.8, and cause a four-fold increase in the concentration of SAP needed to inhibit fibrocyte differentiation by 95%. Together, our data suggest that NaCl potentiates fibrocyte differentiation. NaCl-increased fibrocyte differentiation may thus contribute to NaCl-increased renal and cardiac fibrosis.

  7. NaCl potentiates human fibrocyte differentiation.

    Nehemiah Cox

    Full Text Available Excessive NaCl intake is associated with a variety of fibrosing diseases such as renal and cardiac fibrosis. This association has been attributed to increased blood pressure as the result of high NaCl intake. However, studies in patients with high NaCl intake and fibrosis reveal a connection between NaCl intake and fibrosis that is independent of blood pressure. We find that increasing the extracellular concentration of NaCl to levels that may occur in human blood after high-salt intake can potentiate, in serum-free culture conditions, the differentiation of freshly-isolated human monocytes into fibroblast-like cells called fibrocytes. NaCl affects the monocytes directly during their adhesion. Potassium chloride and sodium nitrate also potentiate fibrocyte differentiation. The plasma protein Serum Amyloid P (SAP inhibits fibrocyte differentiation. High levels of extracellular NaCl change the SAP Hill coefficient from 1.7 to 0.8, and cause a four-fold increase in the concentration of SAP needed to inhibit fibrocyte differentiation by 95%. Together, our data suggest that NaCl potentiates fibrocyte differentiation. NaCl-increased fibrocyte differentiation may thus contribute to NaCl-increased renal and cardiac fibrosis.

  8. Micotoxinas e Micotoxicoses na Avicultura

    Santurio JM


    Full Text Available Esta revisão tem como objetivo principal mostrar, baseado em dezenas de pesquisas realizadas, os efeitos tóxicos das micotoxinas aflatoxinas, tricotecenos, zealenona e fumonisinas sobre o desempenho das aves. O descobrimento das propriedades hepatotóxicas e hepatocarcinogênicas de algumas linhagens de Aspergillus flavus e A. parasiticus em perus, na Inglaterra, no início da década de 1960, seguida pela elucidação da estrutura de seus metabólitos tóxicos, as aflatoxinas, deu novo enfoque e prioridade para a pesquisa sobre micotoxinas. Análises de aflatoxinas realizadas no Laboratório de Análises Micotoxicológicas (LAMIC da Universidade Fedaral de Santa Maria, entre os anos de 1986 e janeiro de 2000, em 15.600 amostras de alimentos destinados principalmente ao consumo animal, demonstram que no milho analisado, 41,9% das amostras estavam contaminadas por aflatoxinas. Em surtos de aflatoxicose no campo, uma das características mais marcantes é a má absorção que se manifesta como partículas de ração mal digeridas na excreta das aves. Também observa-se, em frangos e poedeiras que recebem AFL, extrema palidez das mucosas e pernas. Dietas deficientes em riboflavina ou colecalciferol (vit. D tornaram frangos sensíveis, nos índices de desenvolvimento corporal, a concentrações muito baixas de AFL. O efeito aflatoxina nos frangos é maior na fase inicial de crescimento, ou seja, quando as aves ingeriram aflatoxina nos primeiros 21 dias de vida, e quanto maior o nível de stress do lote, menor a quantidade de AFL para afetar negativamente seu desempenho, seja na produção de carne ou de ovos. As principais micotoxinas do grupo dos tricotecenos são: toxina T-2; deoxynivalenol (DON; diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS, todas produzidas através de diversas espécies de fungos do gênero Fusarium. Além dos tricotecenos, o fusarium também pode produzir zearalenona e fumonisinas. Dessas fusarium-toxinas, somente toxina T-2 gera patologias s

  9. Fotografia na Imprensa: conflitos na câmara escura

    José Lúcio da Silva Menezes


    Full Text Available Este artigo recupera o teor ideológico do discurso que a Revista Veja elaborou sobre a classe trabalhadora que emergiu no cenário brasileiro, no final da década de 1970. O destaque dado aos trabalhadores como temática central resgatada, deve-se aos movimentos grevistas por eles encetados, após anos de ocultamento de sua resistência sob a repressão da ditadura civil-militar (1964-1985. Com a rebeldia operária, as matérias a respeito deste grupo, na Revista,foram se tornando mais constantes e visíveis, pois já não era mais possível, para a Revista Veja, ignorar a existência da classe operária que, com a força insurgente das greves, ocupava as ruas do Brasil.

  10. Relative contributions of Na+/H+ exchange and Na+/HCO3- cotransport to ischemic Na-i(+) overload in isolated rat hearts

    Ten Hove, M; Nederhoff, MGJ; Van Echteld, CJA


    The Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE) and/or the Na+/HCO3- cotransporter (NBC) were blocked during ischemia in isolated rat hearts. Intracellular Na+ concentration ([Na+](i)), intracellular pH (pH(i)), and energy-related phosphates were measured by using simultaneous Na-23 and P-31 NMR spectroscopy. Hearts wer



    Diplomsko delo obravnava arhitekture sistemov IPTV na IP multimedijskem podsistemu ter pripadajoče storitve in funkcije IPTV na IP multimedijskem podsistemu. Predstavljene arhitekture prinašajo veliko novih funkcionalnosti, ki so podrobneje predstavljene po posameznih enotah. V nalogi je tudi podrobneje opisana arhitektura IP multimedijskega podsistema z ravninami in protokoli. Naloga se zaključuje s storitvami na takšnih arhitekturah.


    Šegula Seršen, Pina


    Diplomsko delo podaja predlog za ohranitev ostalin razvalin gradu na Piramidi v Mariboru. V njem načrtujemo ureditev arheološkega območja Piramida ter problematiko prezentiranja izkopanin v povezavi z umestitvijo novih kulturnih in izobraževalnih funkcij. Diplomsko delo je sestavljeno iz analitičnega in projektnega dela. V prvem delu so raziskani arhitekturni, zgodovinski in kulturnovarstveni aspekti, na podlagi katerih je razvit idejni projekt, opisan v drugem delu naloge.

  13. O consumo na vida digital

    Iuri Yudi Furukita Baptista


    Full Text Available O modelo de consumo não possui as mesmas características sempre: suas relações, motivações, formatos, espaços, interesses e atividades são construções sociais que se modificam atreladas ao cenário econômico, político e tecnológico. O presente trabalho repassa o surgimento da sociedade do consumidor para então conjecturar sobre as propriedades distintivas do consumo na vida digital. O que se defende ao final é que o consumidor já não se restringe ao papel de consumir.

  14. Fabrication of implanted $^{22}$Na targets


    A knowledge of the $^{22}$Na(p,$\\gamma$)$^{23}$ Mg reaction rate is of significant astrophysical interest. In order to complete previous studies of this reaction, radioactive $^{22}$Na targets of high purity are required. We ask for support to fabricate these targets via the implantation technique at ISOLDE GPS (off—line mode) using $^{22}$Na nuclides in an Al matrix produced in Nov. 1990 at the PSI (Zürich). The $^{22}$Na nuclides are released and ionized in a surface ionisation source, mass-analyzed at ISOLDE GPS, and implanted in a Ni-Ta backing and a C—foil in a special implantation setup.

  15. NA-NET numerical analysis net

    Dongarra, J. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Rosener, B. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science)


    This report describes a facility called NA-NET created to allow numerical analysts (na) an easy method of communicating with one another. The main advantage of the NA-NET is uniformity of addressing. All mail is addressed to the Internet host'' at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Hence, members of the NA-NET do not need to remember complicated addresses or even where a member is currently located. As long as moving members change their e-mail address in the NA-NET everything works smoothly. The NA-NET system is currently located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It is running on the same machine that serves netlib. Netlib is a separate facility that distributes mathematical software via electronic mail. For more information on netlib consult, or send the one-line message send index'' to netlib{at} The following report describes the current NA-NET system from both a user's perspective and from an implementation perspective. Currently, there are over 2100 members in the NA-NET. An average of 110 mail messages pass through this facility daily.

  16. NA-NET numerical analysis net

    Dongarra, J. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science]|[Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Rosener, B. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science


    This report describes a facility called NA-NET created to allow numerical analysts (na) an easy method of communicating with one another. The main advantage of the NA-NET is uniformity of addressing. All mail is addressed to the Internet host ```` at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Hence, members of the NA-NET do not need to remember complicated addresses or even where a member is currently located. As long as moving members change their e-mail address in the NA-NET everything works smoothly. The NA-NET system is currently located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It is running on the same machine that serves netlib. Netlib is a separate facility that distributes mathematical software via electronic mail. For more information on netlib consult, or send the one-line message ``send index`` to netlib{at} The following report describes the current NA-NET system from both a user`s perspective and from an implementation perspective. Currently, there are over 2100 members in the NA-NET. An average of 110 mail messages pass through this facility daily.


    Brezočnik, Simon


    Namen diplomske naloge je izgradnja mikro hidroelektrarne na Skrbinskem potoku. Predstavljene so splošne komponente potrebne za proizvajanje električne energije na manjšem vodotoku ˝Skrbinski˝ potok z možnostjo agregata do moči 36 kVA. Tema diplomske naloge je zanimiva, saj je nekoč visokogorska kmetija že imela manjšo postrojenje za samooskrbo domačije z električno energijo v mlinu na potoku Žavc in na potoku Radoljna, kjer je proizvajala električno energijo za potrebe žage torej za razrez ...

  18. A Biotecnologia na esfera pública


    Este trabalho foca o envolvimento de cidadãos ligados à agricultura, à I&D agronómica e ao meio rural em assuntos de inovação na agricultura,tomando como caso de estudo ‘a biotecnologia na agricultura’ designada por agrobiotecnologia ou biotecnologia verde, na qual se incluem os organismos geneticamente modificados (‘OGM’) ou transgénicos. O seu uso na agricultura tem gerado desacordo entre os seus adeptos e os seus opositores, incluindo-se nestes dois grupos diversos actores. Pelo facto d...


    Trtnik, Matjaž


    POVZETEK Namen tega diplomskega dela je predstaviti dejstva o prisotnosti stresa na delovnem mestu v X banki, ki sem jih pridobil s pomočjo raziskave v konkretni organizaciji. Cilj dela je zajeti različna poglavja in področja izbrane teme, jih preučiti in oceniti obstoječe stanje v podjetju, ter na podlagi zbranih podatkov podati predloge za izboljšave. Diplomsko delo sestavlja osem poglavij, kot celoto pa bi ga lahko razdelil na tri dele: V prvem, teoretičnem delu, bom za boljše r...

  20. NaHCO3 and NaC1 tolerance in chronic renal failure.

    Husted, F C; Nolph, K D; Maher, J F


    In patients with chronic renal failure, NaHCO3 therapy may correct or prevent acidemia. It has been proposed that the NaHCO3 required will not result in clinically significant Na retention comparable to that from similar increases in NaC1 intake. In each of ten patients with chronic renal failure, creatinine clearance (Ccr) range 2.5-16.8 ml/min, on an estimated 10-meq Na and C1 diet, electrolyte excretion was compared on NaHCO3 vs NaC1 supplements of 200 meq/day. Periods of NaHCO3 and NaC1 (in alternate order for successive patients) lasted 4 days, separated by reequilibration to base-line weight. Mean +/- SEM excretion (ex) of Na, C1, and HCO3 and deltaCcr and deltaweight (day 4-1) are compared below for the 4th day of NaC1 vs. NaHCO3 intake. Mean Ccr +/-SEM on day 4 of NaC1 and NaHCO3 were 10.8 +/-1.6 and 9.0 +/-1.4 ml/min, respectively (P less than 0.02). Mean systolic blood pressure (but not diastolic) increased significantly on NaC1 (P less than 0.05). No significant blood pressure changes were seen on NaHCO3. Net positive HCO3 balance occurred on NaHCO3 as indicated above and reflected a rise in mean serum HCO3 from 19 to 30 meq/liter (day 1 vs. 4) (P less than 0.01). Mechanisms for the greater excretion of Na on NaHCO3 may relate to C1 wasting as noted above on low C1 intake and limited HCO3 reabsorptive capacity. Thus, Na excretion by day 4 was greater on NaHCO3 than on NaHCO3 did Na excretion near intake (210 meq/day).

  1. Odpowiedź na pytanie

    Michel Foucault


    Full Text Available Prezentowany artykuł Michela Foucaulta został opublikowany w 1963 roku. Foucault rozwija w nim koncepcję archeologii wiedzy – metody analizy historycznych dyskursów, którą zaprezentuje w sześć lat później w książce o tym właśnie tytule. Artykuł powstał na kanwie pytania wybranego przez autora spośród zadanych mu przez redakcję „Esprit”, które dotyczyło możliwości pojęciowego opracowania przymusu systemu dyskursywnego przy jednoczesnym zaakcentowaniu nieciągłości w jego obrębie a tym samym możliwości twórczego działania w historii ducha. A także, czy tak sformułowana aporia zakładałaby z konieczności zgodę na przymus systemu lub afirmację siły zdolnej do przekształcenia go za pomocą zewnętrznej przemocy? Tekst jest wprawką do sformułowania dojrzałej teorii dyskursu, rodzajem autoanalizy, która pozwala Foucaultowi powiązać własną metodę historyczną z „progresywistyczną polityką” myśli i rozwiązać w ten sposób dylemat pełnej determinacji i wolnego sprawstwa obecny w rozważaniach wielu strukturalistów.

  2. Acidente radioativo de Goiânia: "o tempo cura todos os males"?

    Fábio Jesus Miranda


    Full Text Available The Radioactive accident with Cesium 137 in Goiânia is the second largest incident involving radioactive substance after Chernobyl. This study is a follow up and aims at studying the perception of the people directly affected by the accident, with emphasis on surveys of the victims' views of their problems at the critical moment and remnants after 3 years, and those manifested in their statements to the newspapers after 15 years of the accident launching. It also registers a systematic evaluation of the accident, as well as the reactions and feelings described by the victims. It concludes that radioactive contaminated people underwent severe physical, psychological and social suffering. The comparison between the results of both studies points out the victims' problems and concerns: health and psychological issues, prejudice, disregard and omission of the authorities, the impossibility of overcoming the trauma. Such problems and concerns are still part of their lives, being their present and future most acute fears.

  3. Education and training in transport of radioactive material; Educacao e treinamento em transporte de material radioativo

    Carvalho, Bruno Natanael; Pastura, Valeria da Fonseca e Silva; Mattar, Patricia; Dias, Carlos R. [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    This paper presents the approach adopted by the Department of Transportation of the Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission - CNEN, in the creation of the course of education and training distance for transport companies, as well as for national institutions directly involved with the theme transportation of radioactive materials. The course will consist of 20 modules containing exercises and further assessment of learning, and enable participants to understand the regulatory terminology, assimilating the philosophy of nuclear and radiation safety, prepare the shipment and identify and fill the complete documents required in an operation transport.

  4. Decision theory applied to radioactive repository construction; Teoria da decisao aplicada a construcao de depositos radioativos

    Heilbron Filho, Paulo Fernando Lavalle; Pontedeiro, Elizabeth May [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Diretoria de Radioprotecao e Seguranca Nuclear


    The objective of this article is to present, through the presentation of an example, the applicability of the decision theory on the selection and construction of a repository for low and intermediate radioactive waste. (author)

  5. Interaction between Na+/K+-pump and Na+/Ca2+-exchanger modulates intercellular communication

    Matchkov, Vladimir; Gustafsson, Helena; Rahman, Awahan;


    of Na(+)/K(+)-pump activity by removal of extracellular potassium ([K(+)](o)) also uncoupled cells, but only after inhibition of K(ATP) channels. Inhibition of the Na(+)/Ca(2+)-exchange activity by SEA0400 or by a reduction of the equilibrium potential (making it more negative) also uncoupled the cells....... Depletion of intracellular Na(+) and clamping of [Ca(2+)](i) at low concentrations prevented the uncoupling. The experiments suggest that the Na(+)/K(+)-pump may affect gap junction conductivity via localized changes in [Ca(2+)](i) through modulation of Na(+)/Ca(2+)-exchanger activity.......Ouabain, a specific inhibitor of the Na(+)/K(+)-pump, has previously been shown to interfere with intercellular communication. Here we test the hypothesis that the communication between vascular smooth muscle cells is regulated through an interaction between the Na(+)/K(+)-pump and the Na(+)/Ca(2...

  6. Relationship between intracellular Na+ concentration and reduced Na+ affinity in Na+,K+-ATPase mutants causing neurological disease

    Toustrup-Jensen, Mads Schak; Einholm, Anja P.; Schack, Vivien;


    The neurological disorders familial hemiplegic migraine type 2 (FHM2), alternating hemiplegia of childhood (AHC), and rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism (RDP) are caused by mutations of Na+,K+-ATPase α2- and α3-isoforms, expressed in glial and neuronal cells, respectively. Although these disorders...... are distinct, they overlap in phenotypical presentation. Two Na+,K+-ATPase mutations, extending the C-terminus by either 28 residues ("+28" mutation) or an extra tyrosine ("+Y"), are associated with FHM2 and RDP, respectively. We describe here functional consequences of these and other neurological disease......, addressing the question to what extent they cause a change of the intracellular Na+ and K+ concentrations ([Na+]i and [K+]i) in COS cells. C-terminal extension mutants generally showed dramatically reduced Na+ affinity without disturbance of K+ binding, as did other RDP mutants. No phosphorylation from ATP...

  7. Kinetin Reversal of NaCl Effects

    Katz, Adriana; Dehan, Klara; Itai, Chanan


    Leaf discs of Nicotiana rustica L. were floated on NaCl in the presence of kinetin or abscisic acid. On the 5th day 14CO2 fixation, [3H]leucine incorporation, stomatal conductance, and chlorophyll content were determined. Kinetin either partially or completely reversed the inhibitory effects of NaCl while ABA had no effect. PMID:16660618

  8. Inelastic processes in Na+-Ne, Na+-Ar, Ne+-Na, and Ar+-Na collisions in the energy range 0.5-14 keV

    Lomsadze, R. A.; Gochitashvili, M. R.; Kezerashvili, R. Ya.


    Absolute cross sections for charge-exchange, ionization, and excitation in Na+-Ne and Na+-Ar collisions were measured in the ion energy range 0.5 -10 keV using a refined version of a capacitor method and collision and optical spectroscopy methods simultaneously in the same experimental setup. Ionization cross sections for Ne+-Na and Ar+-Na collisions are measured at energies of 2 -14 keV using a crossed-beam spectroscopy method. The experimental data and the schematic correlation diagrams are used to analyze and determine the mechanisms for these processes. For the charge-exchange process in Na+-Ar collisions two nonadiabatic regions are revealed and mechanisms responsible for these regions are explained. Structural peculiarity on the excitation function for the resonance lines of argon atoms in Na+-Ar collisions are observed and the possible mechanisms of this phenomenon are explored. The measured ionization cross sections for Na+-Ne and Ne+-Na collisions in conjunction with the Landau-Zener formula are used to determine the coupling matrix element and transition probability in a region of pseudocrossing of the potential curves.

  9. Bullying na Escola: um sofrimento

    Marlene Silva Sardinha Gurpilhares


    Full Text Available O bullying é uma forma de violência presente nas escolas e o termo é utilizado para caracterizar todas as formas de agressões repetitivas psicológicas e físicas, direta ou indiretamente. Esta violência causa sofrimentos, intimidação e medo, sempre numa relação de poder entre pares. Esta pesquisa trata de um estudo do bullying escolar: o que é, como surgiu, como identificá-lo e sua caracterização, conseqüências, causas, o papel da escola, de professores e pais e uma proposta prática que pode ser adotada para sua prevenção e contenção. O objetivo é organizar materiais para leitura dos atores educacionais para uma possível reflexão, através de pesquisas bibliográficas. Esta violência é grave e deveria ser tratada como saúde pública, devido às conseqüências que traz, como queda na aprendizagem, na autoestima e em casos mais graves, até o suicido e outras tragédias. A escola necessita atentar para esse tipo de violência, revendo suas ações em todos os momentos, tendo um olhar integral e diferenciado em relação aos alunos. É fundamental que o bullying não seja tratado como brincadeira de criança e para ser identificado e combatido é necessária uma ação entre a família e todos da escola, que pode ser desenvolvida através de projetos que ajudem a apontar caminhos para a solução do problema. Tais ações devem ser pautadas por constantes debates e reflexões, nas quais o aluno se torne o protagonista. Não existem fórmulas prontas, pois a intervenção deve ser feita através da realidade de cada escola.

  10. Razvitak naselja na kvarnerskim otocima - primjer Dobrinja

    Marijan Bradanović


    Full Text Available Na dosad slabo poznatom i sa stajališta povijesti umjetnosti još posve neobrađenom primjeru Dobrinja na otoku Krku, raspravlja se o razvitku naselja na kvarnerskim otocima. Uz isticanje štetnosti dosad prevladavajućih uopćavanja, karakteristični položaj i razvitak Dobrinja tumače se u širem, komparativnom kontekstu. Analiziraju se prostiranje i obilježja pojedinih dijelova ovog naselja, a naglasak je na vremenu kasnog srednjeg i ranijeg novog vijeka. Tada je najuži dio povijesnog središta Dobrinja poprimio čvrstu, na tlorisnoj osnovi i danas, usprkos opsežnim pregradnjama i arhitektonskim preinakama, jasno uočljivu, urbanu fizionomiju.

  11. Negative electrodes for Na-ion batteries.

    Dahbi, Mouad; Yabuuchi, Naoaki; Kubota, Kei; Tokiwa, Kazuyasu; Komaba, Shinichi


    Research interest in Na-ion batteries has increased rapidly because of the environmental friendliness of sodium compared to lithium. Throughout this Perspective paper, we report and review recent scientific advances in the field of negative electrode materials used for Na-ion batteries. This paper sheds light on negative electrode materials for Na-ion batteries: carbonaceous materials, oxides/phosphates (as sodium insertion materials), sodium alloy/compounds and so on. These electrode materials have different reaction mechanisms for electrochemical sodiation/desodiation processes. Moreover, not only sodiation-active materials but also binders, current collectors, electrolytes and electrode/electrolyte interphase and its stabilization are essential for long cycle life Na-ion batteries. This paper also addresses the prospect of Na-ion batteries as low-cost and long-life batteries with relatively high-energy density as their potential competitive edge over the commercialized Li-ion batteries.

  12. Anodic Synthesis and Characterization of Na-Pb-O, Na-Pb-Bi-O Crystals

    Li Mei QIU; Fen LIU; Liang Zhong ZHAO


    Crystals of Na-Pb-O and Na-Pb-Bi-O were electrosynthesized on the anode from molten salts. The resulting crystals have a hexagonal structure, in which the base ions (Pb and Bi) are in high oxidation states. By using KOH/NaOH (atomic ratio K:Na=1:1) mixture as a flux,incorporation of K ions into the lattice is inhibited while incorporation of Bi ions is enhanced. The magnetic measurement shows that the Na-Pb-Bi-O crystals are dominated by diamagnetism.

  13. Barroco: A tempestade na Biblioteca

    Diego Cervelin


    Full Text Available Desde que Heinrich Wölfflin, nos últimos vinte anos do século XIX, se interessou por trazer à tona as formas arquitetônicas do século XVII conferindo-lhes caráter autônomo de estilo histórico determinável, não é nenhuma novidade que os estudos sobre o barroco pudessem polarizar – quase sempre em um tom colérico – os pesquisadores da arte e da cultura. Em terras do Brasil, não chega a ser de todo descabido recordar a severíssima crítica operada por Sérgio Buarque de Holanda em Raízes do Brasil. O livro, que pretende detectar a avalanche de equívocos que teria povoado o passado nacional com as vistas voltadas para a concretização de um projeto de emancipação e progresso na linha da história brasileira, apresenta em seu quarto capítulo uma impugnação explícita ao passado colonial.

  14. Barroco: A tempestade na Biblioteca

    Diego Cervelin


    Full Text Available Desde que Heinrich Wölfflin, nos últimos vinte anos do século XIX, se interessou por trazer à tona as formas arquitetônicas do século XVII conferindo-lhes caráter autônomo de estilo histórico determinável, não é nenhuma novidade que os estudos sobre o barroco pudessem polarizar – quase sempre em um tom colérico – os pesquisadores da arte e da cultura. Em terras do Brasil, não chega a ser de todo descabido recordar a severíssima crítica operada por Sérgio Buarque de Holanda em Raízes do Brasil. O livro, que pretende detectar a avalanche de equívocos que teria povoado o passado nacional com as vistas voltadas para a concretização de um projeto de emancipação e progresso na linha da história brasileira, apresenta em seu quarto capítulo uma impugnação explícita ao passado colonial.

  15. Terapia de linguagem na afasia

    Mauro Spinelli


    Full Text Available A terapia da linguagem na afasia foi estudada em 15 pacientes, 8 do sexo masculino e 7 do sexo feminino; a idade variou de menos de 10 anos a mais de 50 anos; em 11 casos a afasia era sequela de acidente vascular cerebral e, em 4, de traumatismo crânio-encefálico. Quanto ao tipo de afasia, 5 pacientes apresentavam déficits predominantemente de expressão e 10 apresentavam déficits receptivos e expressivos em graus equiparáveis. Em 6 casos a terapia foi iniciada dentro dos 3 primeiros meses de instalação do quadro; nos restantes foi iniciada mais tardiamente. Dos 15 pacientes, 11 apresentaram evolução satisfatória, a qual não depndeu do grau de afasia, do tipo de afasia, da idade do paciente, do tipo de patologia e do intervalo entre a instalação do quadro afásico e o início da terapia. A terapia da linguagem no paciente afásico é efetiva, o prognóstico não pode ser feito a priori. Somente a evolução do caso com sua retestagem criteriosa poderá dar dados realmente úteis para se falar em evolução.

  16. Determination of migration speed and the partition ratios of {sup 137} Cs in the soils of the future waste repository in Abadia de Goias, GO, Brazil; Determinacao da velocidade de migracao e das razoes de particao de {sup 137} Cs em solos da regiao do futuro repositorio de rejeitos de Abadia de Goias, GO

    Pereira, Jose Carlos Alves


    The dispersion of a 51 TBq {sup 137} Cs source to the environment in Goiania city, has originated approximately 3500 m{sup 3} of radioactive waste. In order to segregate such waste in a definite form, a repository is being built in Abadia de Goias, GO near the site where it has been temporarily stored. This study had the following objectives: the determination of the {sup 137} Cs partition rate (K{sub D}) and the estimate of its migration velocity in soil samples from the site where the repository is being built. The determination of {sup 137} Cs K{sub D} was carried out by using two methods: 'batch method' and 'in-situ' method. In relation to the 'batch method'; 6 soil profiles cut into sections according to its pedologic horizons and 13 surface soil samples were collected, whereas for the 'in-situ' method 6 soil profiles with 28 cm depth were collected and each profile has been cut into 14 soil sections of a 1-3 cm range. Studies were carried out by using the 'batch method' to relate the influence from v/m and from shaking in K{sub D} determination and also studies about {sup 137} Cs adsorption reversibility in soil, time necessary for the equilibrium of {sup 137} Cs between water/soil phases to be reached and K{sub D} correlation with pedological parameters (pH values in water and clay, silt and organic material percent concentration, electrical conductivity of solution and the cation exchange - Ca{sup +2}, Mg {sup +2}, K{sup +2}, Na{sup +}, Al{sup +3}, H{sup +}). It has been noticed that in work conditions, K{sub D} has increased according to the rate increase v/m and the use of agitation in water/soil phases had no influence in K{sub D} determination. The absorbed {sup 137} Cs desorption process by water has shown to be slow but continued. Nevertheless, {sup 137} Cs cationic exchange for NH{sub 4}{sup +} has presented two steps: the first one very fast where approximately 50% of {sup 137} Cs adsorbed has been

  17. Breakup studies with {sup 23}Na

    Jarvis, N.S.; Watson, D.L.; Gyapong, G.J.; Jones, C.D. [University of York, York YO1 5DD (United Kingdom); Bennett, S.J.; Freer, M.; Fulton, B.R.; Karban, O.; Murgatroyd, J.T.; Tungate, G. [University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Rae, W.D.M.; Smith, A.E. [University of Oxford, Oxford, OX1 3RA (United Kingdom)


    The breakup of {sup 23}Na nuclei into {sup 11}B+{sup 12}C and of {sup 24}Mg nuclei into {sup 12}C+{sup 12}C has been studied using the reactions {sup 12}C({sup 23}Na,{sup 11}B{sup 12}C){sup 12}C and {sup 12}C({sup 23}Na,{sup 12}C{sup 12}C){sup 11}B. Clear evidence was found for the breakup of the {sup 23}Na and {sup 24}Mg nuclei into the ground states of both fragments. The yieldrotect from the {sup 12}C({sup 23}Na,{sup 11}B{sub g.s.}{sup 12}C{sub g.s.}){sup 12}C{sub g.s.} reaction was concentrated in the region of excitationrotect energy in {sup 23}Na between 24 and 28 MeV and fragmented among a number of states. Therotect {sup 12}C({sup 23}Na,{sup 12}C{sub g.s.} {sup 12}C{sub g.s.)}{sup 11}B{sub g.s.} reaction was found to proceed chiefly via broad states at 22.1 and 23.9 MeV in {sup 24}Mg.

  18. Gasotransmitters: novel regulators of epithelial na(+) transport?

    Althaus, Mike


    The vectorial transport of Na(+) across epithelia is crucial for the maintenance of Na(+) and water homeostasis in organs such as the kidneys, lung, or intestine. Dysregulated Na(+) transport processes are associated with various human diseases such as hypertension, the salt-wasting syndrome pseudohypoaldosteronism type 1, pulmonary edema, cystic fibrosis, or intestinal disorders, which indicate that a precise regulation of epithelial Na(+) transport is essential. Novel regulatory signaling molecules are gasotransmitters. There are currently three known gasotransmitters: nitric oxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO), and hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S). These molecules are endogenously produced in mammalian cells by specific enzymes and have been shown to regulate various physiological processes. There is a growing body of evidence which indicates that gasotransmitters may also regulate Na(+) transport across epithelia. This review will summarize the available data concerning NO, CO, and H(2)S dependent regulation of epithelial Na(+) transport processes and will discuss whether or not these mediators can be considered as true physiological regulators of epithelial Na(+) transport biology.

  19. Gasotransmitters: Novel regulators of epithelial Na+ transport?

    Mike eAlthaus


    Full Text Available The vectorial transport of Na+ across epithelia is crucial for the maintenance of Na+ and water homeostasis in organs such as the kidneys, lung or intestine. Dysregulated Na+ transport processes are associated with various human diseases such as hypertension, the salt-wasting syndrome pseudohypoaldosteronism type 1, pulmonary edema, cystic fibrosis or intestinal disorders, which indicate that a precise regulation of epithelial Na+ transport is essential. Novel regulatory signaling molecules are gasotransmitters. There are currently three known gasotransmitters: nitric oxide (NO, carbon monoxide (CO and hydrogen sulfide (H2S. These molecules are endogenously produced in mammalian cells by specific enzymes and have been shown to regulate various physiological processes. There is a growing body of evidence, which indicates that gasotransmitters may also regulate Na+ transport across epithelia. This review will summarize the available data concerning NO, CO and H2S dependent regulation of epithelial Na+ transport processes and will discuss whether or not these mediators can be considered as true physiological regulators of epithelial Na+ transport biology.

  20. NMR studies on Na+ transport in Synechococcus PCC 6311

    Nitschmann, W. H.; Packer, L.


    The freshwater cyanobacterium Synechococcus PCC 6311 is able to adapt to grow after sudden exposure to salt (NaCl) stress. We have investigated the mechanism of Na+ transport in these cells during adaptation to high salinity. Na+ influx under dark aerobic conditions occurred independently of delta pH or delta psi across the cytoplasmic membrane, ATPase activity, and respiratory electron transport. These findings are consistent with the existence of Na+/monovalent anion cotransport or simultaneous Na+/H+ +anion/OH- exchange. Na+ influx was dependent on Cl-, Br-, NO3-, or NO2-. No Na+ uptake occurred after addition of NaI, NaHCO3, or Na2SO4. Na+ extrusion was absolutely dependent on delta pH and on an ATPase activity and/or on respiratory electron transport. This indicates that Na+ extrusion via Na+/H+ exchange is driven by primary H+ pumps in the cytoplasmic membrane. Cells grown for 4 days in 0.5 m NaCl medium, "salt-grown cells," differ from control cells by a lower maximum velocity of Na+ influx and by lower steady-state ratios of [Na+]in/[Na+]out. These results indicate that cells grown in high-salt medium increase their capacity to extrude Na+. During salt adaptation Na+ extrusion driven by respiratory electron transport increased from about 15 to 50%.


    Krajnc, Jožica; Zaponšek, Mojca


    Diplomsko delo z naslovom Plesno ustvarjanje na podlagi literarnega besedila je zapisano v okviru plesnega ustvarjanja otrok ob slikanici Bravo, putka!. V teoretičnem delu je obravnavan ples v povezavi z njegovim izražanjem in vzgojo. Ob tem je posebej izpostavljena estetika v plesu, sodobni ples ter balet. Poudarek je tudi na improviziranju in oblikovanju ter na dihanju in ritmu. Ob tem sta izpostavljena glasba in književnost kot pomembna motivacijska dejavnika. Teoretični del je nadgrajen s...

  2. Nalaz tombusvirusa na vrsti Erigeron canadensis L.

    Jeknić, Zoran; Erić, Živojin; Grbelja, Julijana


    Iz listova zaraženih primjeraka korovne biljke Erigeron canadensis L. koji su rasli na nekoliko lokaliteta u Sarajevu izoliran je virus iz skupine tombusvirusi. Identifikacija virusa izvršena je na osnovi reakcije pokusnih biljaka, analize ultratankih presjeka kroz zaraženo tkivo, morfologije i veličine virusnih čestica, te na osnovi seroloških reakcija metodom dvostruke imunodifuzije u agarskom gelu i čvrsto fazne imunoelektronske mikroskopije (SPIEM). U serološkim pokusima upotrijebljen je ...

  3. Kornati na starim geografskim i pomorskim kartama

    Faričić, Josip; Simičić, Zdenko


    U radu se na temelju analize kartografskih izvora analizira historijsko-geografski razvitak Kornatskih otoka, koji čine najbrojniju skupinu među hrvatskim otocima. Stare se karte koriste ponajprije kao sredstvo geografskih istraživanja, koje u nužnoj korelaciji s istovremenim povijesnim pisanim izvorima te modernim topografskim i pomorskim kartama čine osnovu za oblikovanje istraživačke platforme na kojoj se mogu graditi relevantni znanstveni rezultati. Na temelju starih karata moguće je, uz ...


    Kozel, Rok


    Diplomsko delo se ukvarja z vibracijami pralnega stroja. Eksperimentalno analizo smo opravili na laboratorijskem preizkuševališču, kjer je pralna grupa obešena na namenskem ogrodju. Na pralni grupi sta nameščena pospeškomera ADXL345, ki sta s serijsko SPI komunikacijo povezana z NI PXI-7841R karto. NI PXI-7841R karta je v ohišju NI PXI 1003 in je povezana z računalnikom. Pralna grupa je opremljena tudi z BLAC motorjem, s katerim operira razvojna plošča NEXYS 2. Vse skupaj nadziramo preko raču...

  5. Qualidade da água em região alterada pela mineração de carvão na microbacia do rio Fiorita (Siderópolis, Estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v26i2.1610 Water quality in disturbed area by coal mining, Fiorita river basin (Siderópolis, State of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v26i2.1610

    Eder Santo


    Full Text Available A mineração de carvão constitui importante atividade econômica na região sul catarinense. A área da bacia hidrográfica do rio Fiorita (Município de Siderópolis, SC foi intensamente minerada e atualmente apresenta inúmeros locais com rejeitos, estéreis de mineração e lagos ácidos. Este trabalho teve como principal objetivo verificar os efeitos da mineração de carvão na qualidade da água dos corpos de água na microbacia do rio Fiorita. As análises gráficas e multivariada (“cluster” sugerem que a microbacia apresenta um gradiente horizontal, com redução da qualidade da água em direção à parte baixa da bacia, com diminuição do pH e elevação nos valores de acidez total, condutividade elétrica, Eh e nos teores de sólidos totais, sulfato, alumínio, cálcio, ferro II e total, magnésio e manganês. Esses dados sugerem o efeito da concentração de metais. Como primeira aproximação, de acordo com a Resolução Conama 20 de 1986, as águas da microbacia do rio Fiorita apresentam-se com elevado grau de comprometimento de sua qualidade e de uso restrito. Também são apresentadas considerações visando contribuir com subsídios à recuperação ambiental da área em questãoCoal mining is an important economical activity in the south of Santa Catarina, Brazil. The em>Fiorita River basin (municipality of Siderópolis was heavily mined out and nowadays several places with mining spoils and sterile soil, as well as acid lakes, can be found in its area. This study aimed to carry out an environmental diagnosis on the water bodies quality in that region. Graphic and cluster analysis suggested that the Fiorita River basin was compartmented. It seemed that there was a deterioration gradient in water quality toward the lower portion of the basin, with pH decrease and a rise in values of total acidity, electric conductivity, Eh, total solids contents, sulphate, aluminium, calcium, iron II and totals, manganese and magnesium




    2014 PERUBAHAN KEKERASAN DENTIN PADA SALURAN AKAR SETELAH APLIKASI NaOCl 3%, KOMBINASI NaOCl 3% - EDTA 17%, DAN NaOCl 3% - KLORHEKSIDIN 2% Risca Alfina Fakultas Kedokteran Gigi Universitas Hasanuddin ABSTRAK Latar Belakang: Beberapa larutan irigasi yang biasa digunakan saat pembersihan dan preparasi saluran akar yaitu sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), klorheksidin, dan ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). Larutan irigasi tersebut berinteraks...

  7. Chemical thermodynamics of metallic alloy formation. Final report. [Na-K; Mg-Cd; NaCl-NaBr

    Wallace, W.E.


    Methods and apparatus required in determining the heats of formation at 25/sup 0/C of sodium-potassium alloys, magnesium-cadmium alloys and sodium chloride-sodium bromide ionic solid solutions have been developed. Method for determining free energies of formation of magnesium-cadmium alloys at elevated temperatures has been developed. Apparatus for determining the specific heats of magnesium-cadmium alloys at low temperatures has been prepared. The heat of reaction of pure potassium with water was determined. Provisional values for the heats of formation of four sodium-potassium alloys were obtained. A density-composition curve for magnesium-cadmium alloys was constructed. Heats of formation of nine NaCl-NaBr solid solutions were measured and the data used to calculate thermodynamically the phase diagram describing the mutual solid solubility of the two salts. Lattice spacings of NaCl-NaBr solid solutions were determined by x-ray diffraction techniques and the results compared with Vegnard's Rule and the additivity rule for molar volumes. A theoretical study based upon the Born-Mayer model for ionic solids was made to attempt to account for the variation with composition of the energy and lattice spacings of the alkali halide solid solutions. Comparison of results for the NaCl-NaBr system with those obtained in a similar study of Fontell indicated some discrepancies which were removed by a retreatment of Fontell's data.

  8. Perfil nutricional na artrite reumatoide

    Rachel Simone Maccarini Zarpellon


    Full Text Available Objetivo: Estudar o perfil nutricional de pacientes com artrite reumatoide (AR. Métodos: Estudo transversal observacional de 102 pacientes com AR. Os pacientes foram estudados para dados clínicos, demográficos, sorológicos, atividade de doença e perfil nutricional. Neste último incluiu-se a medida do índice de massa corporal (IMC, relação quadril/cintura, pregas cutâneas bicipitais (PCB e sua adequação; prega cutânea tricipital (PCT e sua adequação e circunferência muscular do braço (CMB e sua adequação. Estudos de associação foram feitos usando os testes de Fisher e qui-quadrado para dados nominais e teste t não pareado e Mann Whitney para dados numéricos. Para cálculo de correlação usou-se o teste de Spearman. Resultado: Na amostra existiam 14/102 homens e 88/102 mulheres com idade média de 52,1 ± 11,5 anos e duração média de doença de 10,6 ± 7,4 anos. A relação cintura/quadril média era de 0,92 ± 0,07. De acordo com IMC, 30,3% tinham peso normal e 65,5% tinham peso acima do normal. De acordo com PCB, 74,5% eram normais e 25,5% tinham depleção; de acordo com a PCT, 83,3% eram normais e 16,7% tinham depleção. Associação de variáveis nutricionais com gênero, fator reumatoide, nódulos e atividade da doença não mostraram diferenças (p = NS exceto, por uma relação cintura/quadril menor em indivíduos com nódulos (p = 0,02 e uma correlação modesta da PCT com a duração de doença (p = 0,02; R = 0,22; 95% IC = 0,01-0,40. Conclusão: Existe uma alta prevalência de sobrepeso e obesidade em artrite reumatoide e uma pequena frequência de depleção muscular.

  9. NaCl (mM)



    Apr 3, 2012 ... MDA was determined for aerial parts following a published procedure .... MDA, a generic biomarker for membrane damage. (Elkahoui et al. ..... acid and essential oil composition of sage (Salvia officinalis L,) leaves under NaCl ...

  10. Aerobe zuivering van vergiste varkensdrijfmest na aanzuren

    Goossens, W.


    Onderzoeksverslag betreffende een vorm van nazuivering, bedoeld om de vluchtige componenten (vetzuren), die na vergisting nog aanwezig zijn, te oxideren. De mest wordt belucht onder toevoeging van zwavelzuur. Het zure milieu voorkomt ammoniakemissie tijdens het beluchten. Bovendien zullen in volgend

  11. Erythrocyte 22Na+ influx in hypertension

    Shalev, O.; Eaton, J.W.; Ben-Ishay, D.


    We assessed 22Na+ uptake by erythrocytes (RBC) from 38 individuals with essential hypertension and 37 healthy controls. All subjects were male, white, non-obese and with normal renal function, obviating sex, race, hormonal, ponderal and renal factors known to influence RBC Na+ handling. The mean +/- sem 22Na+ uptake of the patients was 284 +/- 16 mumole/liter RBC/hour while that of normal controls was 249 +/- 11 mumole/liter RBC/hour; although the difference reached borderline significance, individual values showed considerable overlap. Consequently, in our population, RBC 22Na+ uptake is not a reliable marker for essential hypertension. We believe that previous studies should be reassessed with regard to patients' characteristics and future studies employ rigorous criteria in selection of subjects.

  12. Waardevolle lessen na overstromingen in Thailand

    Jonkman, S.N.; Van der Meer, M.T.; Hardeman, B.


    Een verkenningsmissie na de overstromingen in Thailand in 2011 heeft meer inzicht gegeven in het functioneren van het waterkeringssysteem tijdens de ramp. Dijken bleken kwetsbaar door overloop, evenals de aansluitingen tussen dijken en constructies.

  13. Painful Na-channelopathies: an expanding universe.

    Waxman, Stephen G


    The universe of painful Na-channelopathies--human disorders caused by mutations in voltage-gated sodium channels--has recently expanded in three dimensions. We now know that mutations of sodium channels cause not only rare genetic 'model disorders' such as inherited erythromelalgia and channelopathy-associated insensitivity to pain but also common painful neuropathies. We have learned that mutations of NaV1.8, as well as mutations of NaV1.7, can cause painful Na-channelopathies. Moreover, recent studies combining atomic level structural models and pharmacogenomics suggest that the goal of genomically guided pain therapy may not be unrealistic. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Hydrogen-fluorine exchange in NaBH4-NaBF4.

    Rude, L H; Filsø, U; D'Anna, V; Spyratou, A; Richter, B; Hino, S; Zavorotynska, O; Baricco, M; Sørby, M H; Hauback, B C; Hagemann, H; Besenbacher, F; Skibsted, J; Jensen, T R


    Hydrogen-fluorine exchange in the NaBH4-NaBF4 system is investigated using a range of experimental methods combined with DFT calculations and a possible mechanism for the reactions is proposed. Fluorine substitution is observed using in situ synchrotron radiation powder X-ray diffraction (SR-PXD) as a new Rock salt type compound with idealized composition NaBF2H2 in the temperature range T = 200 to 215 °C. Combined use of solid-state (19)F MAS NMR, FT-IR and DFT calculations supports the formation of a BF2H2(-) complex ion, reproducing the observation of a (19)F chemical shift at -144.2 ppm, which is different from that of NaBF4 at -159.2 ppm, along with the new absorption bands observed in the IR spectra. After further heating, the fluorine substituted compound becomes X-ray amorphous and decomposes to NaF at ~310 °C. This work shows that fluorine-substituted borohydrides tend to decompose to more stable compounds, e.g. NaF and BF3 or amorphous products such as closo-boranes, e.g. Na2B12H12. The NaBH4-NaBF4 composite decomposes at lower temperatures (300 °C) compared to NaBH4 (476 °C), as observed by thermogravimetric analysis. NaBH4-NaBF4 (1:0.5) preserves 30% of the hydrogen storage capacity after three hydrogen release and uptake cycles compared to 8% for NaBH4 as measured using Sievert's method under identical conditions, but more than 50% using prolonged hydrogen absorption time. The reversible hydrogen storage capacity tends to decrease possibly due to the formation of NaF and Na2B12H12. On the other hand, the additive sodium fluoride appears to facilitate hydrogen uptake, prevent foaming, phase segregation and loss of material from the sample container for samples of NaBH4-NaF.

  15. Positron-impact ionization of Na

    Mukherjee, K.K. (Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalaya, Ramchandraghat, West Tripura 799207, Tripura (India)); Singh, N.R. (Thambal Marik College, Oinam, Bishanpur, Manipur (India)); Choudhury, K.B. (Department of Physics, Jadavpur University, Calcutta 700032, West Bengal (India)); Mazumdar, P.S. (Department of Physics, Manipur University, Canchipur, Imphal 795003, Manipur (India))


    In this paper we present the total cross sections for the positron-impact ionization of Na in the range 8--30 eV of the energy of the incident positron. Calculations are done by using a distorted-wave approximation incorporating the effects of screening and distortion. The present results are compared with the experimental results for the electron-impact ionization of Na.


    Obal, Aleš


    V Diplomskem delu je opisan postopek izdelave kontrolno nadzornega sistema za vodenje robota po prostoru. Ključni deli tega sistema so senzorji za merjenje orientacije in pozicije vozila na mikrokrmilniškem sistemu. Vozilu smo dodali komunikacijo z osebnim računalnikom za oddaljen nadzor in na koncu povzeli še program, ki smo ga napisali v mikroC programskem okolju.

  17. Elastic Coulomb breakup of $^{34}$Na

    Singh, G; Chatterjee, R


    Purpose : The aim of this paper is to study the elastic Coulomb breakup of $^{34}$Na on $^{208}$Pb to give us a core of $^{33}$Na with a neutron and in the process we try and investigate the one neutron separation energy and the ground state configuration of $^{34}$Na. Method : A fully quantum mechanical Coulomb breakup theory within the architecture of post-form finite range distorted wave Born approximation extended to include the effects of deformation is used to research the elastic Coulomb breakup of $^{34}$Na on $^{208}$Pb at 100 MeV/u. The triple differential cross-section calculated for the breakup is integrated over the desired components to find the total cross-section, momentum and angular distributions as well as the average momenta, along with the energy-angular distributions. Results : The total one neutron removal cross-section is calculated to test the possible ground state configurations of $^{34}$Na. The average momentum results along with energy-angular calculations indicate $^{34}$Na to ha...

  18. Efeitos imediatos da MWM na dor, amplitude de movimento e funcionalidade, na osteoartrite da anca.

    Beselga, Carlos


    Introdução: A mobilização com movimento (MWM), segundo o Conceito Mulligan tem apresentado bons resultados na melhoria da dor, amplitude de movimento e funcionalidade em diversas disfunções. No entanto, existem poucos estudos sobre a articulação da anca e, até este momento, não foi avaliada a sua efetividade em indivíduos com osteoartrite da anca. Objectivo(s): Avaliar os efeitos imediatos da técnica de MWM na dor, na amplitude de movimento e na função física em indivíduos com ...

  19. Glutamate Water Gates in the Ion Binding Pocket of Na+ Bound Na+, K+-ATPase

    Han, Minwoo; Kopec, Wojciech; Solov’yov, Ilia A.; Khandelia, Himanshu


    The dynamically changing protonation states of the six acidic amino acid residues in the ion binding pocket of the Na+, K+ -ATPase (NKA) during the ion transport cycle are proposed to drive ion binding, release and possibly determine Na+ or K+ selectivity. We use molecular dynamics (MD) and density functional theory (DFT) simulations to determine the protonation scheme of the Na+ bound conformation of NKA. MD simulations of all possible protonation schemes show that the bound Na+ ions are most stably bound when three or four protons reside in the binding sites, and that Glu954 in site III is always protonated. Glutamic acid residues in the three binding sites act as water gates, and their deprotonation triggers water entry to the binding sites. From DFT calculations of Na+ binding energies, we conclude that three protons in the binding site are needed to effectively bind Na+ from water and four are needed to release them in the next step. Protonation of Asp926 in site III will induce Na+ release, and Glu327, Glu954 and Glu779 are all likely to be protonated in the Na+ bound occluded conformation. Our data provides key insights into the role of protons in the Na+ binding and release mechanism of NKA. PMID:28084301

  20. Sementes geneticamente modificadas: seguranca e racionalidade na adocao de transgenicos no Brasil e na Argentina

    Fuck, Marcos Paulo; Bonacelli, Maria Beatriz


    Esse artigo analisa as principais questoes relacionadas ao processo de introducao de sementes geneticamente modificadas no Brasil e na Argentina, com especial atencao as variedades de soja transgenica...

  1. Elastic Coulomb breakup of 34Na

    Singh, G.; Shubhchintak, Chatterjee, R.


    Background: 34Na is conjectured to play an important role in the production of seed nuclei in the alternate r -process paths involving light neutron rich nuclei very near the β -stability line, and as such, it is important to know its ground state properties and structure to calculate rates of the reactions it might be involved in, in the stellar plasma. Found in the region of `island of inversion', its ground state might not be in agreement with normal shell model predictions. Purpose: The aim of this paper is to study the elastic Coulomb breakup of 34Na on 208Pb to give us a core of 33Na with a neutron and in the process we try and investigate the one neutron separation energy and the ground state configuration of 34Na. Method: A fully quantum mechanical Coulomb breakup theory within the architecture of post-form finite range distorted wave Born approximation extended to include the effects of deformation is used to research the elastic Coulomb breakup of 34Na on 208Pb at 100 MeV/u. The triple differential cross section calculated for the breakup is integrated over the desired components to find the total cross-section, momentum, and angular distributions as well as the average momenta, along with the energy-angular distributions. Results: The total one neutron removal cross section is calculated to test the possible ground state configurations of 34Na. The average momentum results along with energy-angular calculations indicate 34Na to have a halo structure. The parallel momentum distributions with narrow full widths at half-maxima signify the same. Conclusion: We have attempted to analyze the possible ground state configurations of 34Na and in congruity with the patterns in the `island of inversion' conclude that even without deformation, 34Na should be a neutron halo with a predominant contribution to its ground state most probably coming from 33Na(3 /2+)⊗ 2 p3 /2ν configuration. We also surmise that it would certainly be useful and rewarding to test our

  2. Quasi-solid state rechargeable Na-CO2 batteries with reduced graphene oxide Na anodes.

    Hu, Xiaofei; Li, Zifan; Zhao, Yaran; Sun, Jianchao; Zhao, Qing; Wang, Jianbin; Tao, Zhanliang; Chen, Jun


    Na-CO2 batteries using earth-abundant Na and greenhouse gas CO2 are promising tools for mobile and stationary energy storage, but they still pose safety risks from leakage of liquid electrolyte and instability of the Na metal anode. These issues result in extremely harsh operating conditions of Na-CO2 batteries and increase the difficulty of scaling up this technology. We report the development of quasi-solid state Na-CO2 batteries with high safety using composite polymer electrolyte (CPE) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) Na anodes. The CPE of PVDF-HFP [poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene)]-4% SiO2/NaClO4-TEGDME (tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether) has high ion conductivity (1.0 mS cm(-1)), robust toughness, a nonflammable matrix, and strong electrolyte-locking ability. In addition, the rGO-Na anode presents fast and nondendritic Na(+) plating/stripping (5.7 to 16.5 mA cm(-2)). The improved kinetics and safety enable the constructed rGO-Na/CPE/CO2 batteries to successfully cycle in wide CO2 partial pressure window (5 to 100%, simulated car exhaust) and especially to run for 400 cycles at 500 mA g(-1) with a fixed capacity of 1000 mA·hour g(-1) in pure CO2. Furthermore, we scaled up the reversible capacity to 1.1 A·hour in pouch-type batteries (20 × 20 cm, 10 g, 232 Wh kg(-1)). This study makes quasi-solid state Na-CO2 batteries an attractive prospect.

  3. Quasi–solid state rechargeable Na-CO2 batteries with reduced graphene oxide Na anodes

    Hu, Xiaofei; Li, Zifan; Zhao, Yaran; Sun, Jianchao; Zhao, Qing; Wang, Jianbin; Tao, Zhanliang; Chen, Jun


    Na-CO2 batteries using earth-abundant Na and greenhouse gas CO2 are promising tools for mobile and stationary energy storage, but they still pose safety risks from leakage of liquid electrolyte and instability of the Na metal anode. These issues result in extremely harsh operating conditions of Na-CO2 batteries and increase the difficulty of scaling up this technology. We report the development of quasi–solid state Na-CO2 batteries with high safety using composite polymer electrolyte (CPE) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) Na anodes. The CPE of PVDF-HFP [poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene)]–4% SiO2/NaClO4–TEGDME (tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether) has high ion conductivity (1.0 mS cm−1), robust toughness, a nonflammable matrix, and strong electrolyte-locking ability. In addition, the rGO-Na anode presents fast and nondendritic Na+ plating/stripping (5.7 to 16.5 mA cm−2). The improved kinetics and safety enable the constructed rGO-Na/CPE/CO2 batteries to successfully cycle in wide CO2 partial pressure window (5 to 100%, simulated car exhaust) and especially to run for 400 cycles at 500 mA g−1 with a fixed capacity of 1000 mA·hour g−1 in pure CO2. Furthermore, we scaled up the reversible capacity to 1.1 A·hour in pouch-type batteries (20 × 20 cm, 10 g, 232 Wh kg−1). This study makes quasi–solid state Na-CO2 batteries an attractive prospect. PMID:28164158

  4. O Passeio Público do Rio de Janeiro na Literatura, na Pintura e na Fotografia do Século XIX

    Solange de Aragão


    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como objetivo geral e mais amplo chamar a atenção dos pesquisadores para a importância da literatura, da pintura e da fotografia como fontes documentais para a construção da História do Paisagismo no Brasil por meio de um estudo de caso muito particular: o Passeio Público do Rio de Janeiro no século XIX. São objetivos específicos apresentar e analisar o modo como esse espaço livre público aparece na literatura, na pintura e na fotografia desse período, considerando suas transformações paisagísticas.

  5. Voltage dependence of Na translocation by the Na/K pump.

    Nakao, M; Gadsby, D C

    During each complete reaction cycle, the Na/K pump transports three Na ions out across the cell membrane and two K ions in. The resulting net extrusion of positive charge generates outward membrane current but, until now, it was unclear how that net charge movement occurs. Reasonable possibilities included a single positive charge moving outwards during Na translocation; or a single negative charge moving inwards during K translocation; or either positive or negative charges moving during both translocation steps, but in unequal quantities. Any step that involves net charge movement through the membrane must have voltage-dependent transition rates. Here we report measurements of transient, voltage-dependent, displacement currents generated by the pump when its normal Na/K transport cycle has been interrupted by removal of external K and it is thus constrained to carry out Na/Na exchange. The quantity and voltage sensitivity of the charge moved during these transient currents suggests that Na translocation includes a voltage-dependent transition involving movement of one positive charge across the membrane. This single step can thus fully account for the electrogenic nature of Na/K exchange. The result provides important new insight into the molecular mechanism of active cation transport.

  6. Efeitos da cafeína na performance de exercícios de endurance

    Giuliano Roberto da Silva


    Full Text Available Objetivo: verificar os efeitos da cafeína na performance de exercícios de endurance, através do teste de exaustão na bicicleta ergométrica. Método: participaram 50 indivíduos do sexo masculino, submetidos ao teste de exaustão em cicloergômetro após ingestão de 6mg/kg de cafeína (CAF (n=25; grupo cafeína, e 6mg/kg de placebo (PLA (n=25; grupo placebo, 40 minutos antes do teste. Os dados foram tratados estatisticamente, submetidos ao teste t de Student (p

  7. Metallic Na formation in NaCl crystals with irradiation of electron or vacuum ultraviolet photon

    Owaki, Shigehiro [Osaka Prefecture Univ., Sakai, Osaka (Japan). Coll. of Integrated Arts and Sciences; Koyama, Shigeko; Takahashi, Masao; Kamada, Masao; Suzuki, Ryouichi


    Metallic Na was formed in NaCl single crystals with irradiation of a variety of radiation sources and analyzed the physical states with several methods. In the case of irradiation of 21 MeV electron pulses to the crystal blocks, the optical absorption and lifetime measurement of positron annihilation indicated appearance of Na clusters inside. Radiation effects of electron beam of 30 keV to the crystals in vacuum showed the appearance of not only metallic Na but atomic one during irradiation with Auger electron spectroscopy. Intense photon fluxes in vacuum ultraviolet region of synchrotron radiation were used as another source and an analyzing method of ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy. The results showed the metallic Na layered so thick that bulk plasmon can exist. (author)

  8. Summer sudden Na number density enhancements measured with the ALOMAR Weber Na Lidar

    D. Heinrich


    Full Text Available We present summer Na-densities and atmospheric temperatures measured 80 to 110 km above the Arctic Lidar Observatory for Middle Atmosphere Research (ALOMAR. The Weber Na Lidar is part of ALOMAR, located at 69° N in Norway, 150 km north of the Arctic Circle. The sun does not set here during the summer months, and measurements require a narrowband Faraday Anomalous Dispersion Optical Filter (FADOF.

    We discuss an observed sudden enhancement in the Na number density around 22:00 UT on 1 to 2 June 2006. We compare this observation with previous summer measurements and find a frequent appearance of Na number density enhancements near local midnight. We describe the time of appearance, the altitude distribution, the duration and the strength of these enhancements and compare them to winter observations. We investigate possible formation mechanisms and, as others before, we find a strong link between these Na number density enhancements and sporadic E layers.

  9. Functional coupling of renal K+ and Na+ handling causes high blood pressure in Na+ replete mice.

    Vitzthum, Helga; Seniuk, Anika; Schulte, Laura Helene; Müller, Maxie Luise; Hetz, Hannah; Ehmke, Heimo


    A network of kinases, including WNKs, SPAK and Sgk1, is critical for the independent regulation of K+ and Na+ transport in the distal nephron. Angiotensin II is thought to act as a key hormone in orchestrating these kinases to switch from K+ secretion during hyperkalaemia to Na+ reabsorption during intravascular volume depletion, thus keeping disturbances in electrolyte and blood pressure homeostasis at a minimum. It remains unclear, however, how K+ and Na+ transport are regulated during a high Na+ intake, which is associated with suppressed angiotensin II levels and a high distal tubular Na+ load. We therefore investigated the integrated blood pressure, renal, hormonal and gene and protein expression responses to large changes of K+ intake in Na+ replete mice. Both low and high K+ intake increased blood pressure and caused Na+ retention. Low K+ intake was accompanied by an upregulation of the sodium-chloride cotransporter (NCC) and its activating kinase SPAK, and inhibition of NCC normalized blood pressure. Renal responses were unaffected by angiotensin AT1 receptor antagonism, indicating that low K+ intake activates the distal nephron by an angiotensin-independent mode of action. High K+ intake was associated with elevated plasma aldosterone concentrations and an upregulation of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) and its activating kinase Sgk1. Surprisingly, high K+ intake increased blood pressure even during ENaC or mineralocorticoid receptor antagonism, suggesting the contribution of aldosterone-independent mechanisms. These findings show that in a Na+ replete state, changes in K+ intake induce specific molecular and functional adaptations in the distal nephron that cause a functional coupling of renal K+ and Na+ handling, resulting in Na+ retention and high blood pressure when K+ intake is either restricted or excessively increased.

  10. Changes in Intracellular Na+ following Enhancement of Late Na+ Current in Virtual Human Ventricular Myocytes

    Giles, Wayne R.


    The slowly inactivating or late Na+ current, INa-L, can contribute to the initiation of both atrial and ventricular rhythm disturbances in the human heart. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie these pro-arrhythmic influences are not fully understood. At present, the major working hypothesis is that the Na+ influx corresponding to INa-L significantly increases intracellular Na+, [Na+]i; and the resulting reduction in the electrochemical driving force for Na+ reduces and (may reverse) Na+/Ca2+ exchange. These changes increase intracellular Ca2+, [Ca2+]i; which may further enhance INa-L due to calmodulin-dependent phosphorylation of the Na+ channels. This paper is based on mathematical simulations using the O’Hara et al (2011) model of baseline or healthy human ventricular action potential waveforms(s) and its [Ca2+]i homeostasis mechanisms. Somewhat surprisingly, our results reveal only very small changes (≤ 1.5 mM) in [Na+]i even when INa-L is increased 5-fold and steady-state stimulation rate is approximately 2 times the normal human heart rate (i.e. 2 Hz). Previous work done using well-established models of the rabbit and human ventricular action potential in heart failure settings also reported little or no change in [Na+]i when INa-L was increased. Based on our simulations, the major short-term effect of markedly augmenting INa-L is a significant prolongation of the action potential and an associated increase in the likelihood of reactivation of the L-type Ca2+ current, ICa-L. Furthermore, this action potential prolongation does not contribute to [Na+]i increase. PMID:27875582

  11. Tecnologia simplificada na enfermagem materno infantil

    Selma Campestrini


    Full Text Available A autora apresenta três modelos de tecnologia simplificada da enfermagem materno infantil: o equipamento didático SEIO COBAIA para treinar exercícios e massagens da mama e mamilo; a peça indumentária SUPRETRAUMA - sutiã preventivo de traumatismo mamilar - usado por gestantes; e, a técnica para reverter mamilo umbilicado durante o puerperio imediato. Além de corroborar na promoção do aleitamento materno e na prevenção de desmame precoce, demonstra a possibilidade da enfermagem relacionar o saber teórico-científico com o saber tecnico-prático, na saúde da mulher e da criança, com tecnologia adequada às necessidades, à compreensão e ao bem estar da população.

  12. Labirintos na cidade contemporânea

    Edson Luiz André de Sousa

    Full Text Available Este artigo pretende tensionar pontos de conexão e diluição de fronteiras entre as categorias público/privado, conversando com a literatura de Baudelaire e W. Benjamin, Fredric Jamenson e Marc Augé. Através da imagem do labirinto, símbolo da cidade antiga que se quis extinguir na cidade moderna, busca-se refletir sobre alguns caminhos e caminhantes considerados excedentes na cidade contemporânea. O cenário propulsor dessa reflexão é a experiência do jornal Boca de Rua, elaborado por moradores de rua na cidade de Porto Alegre.

  13. Recent results from MoNA-LISA

    Spyrou, Artemisia


    Studies of the nuclear properties of nuclei close and even beyond the limits of stability have revealed exotic modes of decay and new structural characteristics. The MoNA-LISA array is used at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory at Michigan State University to study nuclei along the neutron dripline. In a typical experiment, a radioactive beam is employed to produce the neutron-unbound state of interest. This state/resonance immediately decay into a neutron, which is detected by MoNA-LISA and a remaining charged nucleus detected by the sweeper magnet detector suite. In this talk, new exciting findings from recent MoNA-LISA experiments will be presented. These include the first observation of a dineutron decay from ^16Be, the exploration of the ``south shore'' of the Island of Inversion and the first evidence of the decay of the troubling nucleus ^26O.

  14. Rastreabilidade de componentes na cadeia de fornecimento


    Como pouco se conhece sobre a aplicação e uso da tecnologia de RFID (Identificação por rádio frequência) na Identificação automática e recolha e dados de componentes na cadeia de fornecimento num contexto de rastreabilidade, o presente trabalho visa procurar conhecer melhor os fenómenos em estudo através de novas questões, novas explicações, tentando indagar as características e as alterações que esta tecnologia irá provocar na gestão da cadeia de fornecimento. A cadeia d...

  15. Knjige o kartografskim projekcijama na internetu

    Nedjeljko Frančula


    Full Text Available U ovom prikazu skrećemo pozornost na neke knjige o kartografskim projekcijama koje su prvobitno objavljene u tisku, a potom digitalizirane i besplatno stavljene na mrežu. Neke od tih knjiga nude se na mreži kao Google e-knjige. Google godinama skuplja knjige kojima su istekla autorska prava i digitalizira ih. Fotografira se svaka stranica te zatim spaja u jednu veliku fotografiju iz koje se izvlači tekst softverom OCR. Google čuva originalnu digitalnu fotografiju u svom arhivu, a izvučeni tekst pretvara u formate HTML, PDF ili EPUB. Google danas nudi više od milijun besplatnih e-knjiga (


    Fagan, John


    Gotovo svi znanstvenici se slažu da su danas uobičajene metode za ugradnju novog gena u genom biljke putem genetičkog inženjerstva (genetičke modifikacije): (1) neprecizne i slučajne, (2) pa je njihov utjecaj na biološke funkcije biljke nepredvidiv, (3) a neželjeni učinci GMO na zdravlje konzumenta i na okoliš mogući. Korištenje GMO u ekološkoj poljoprivredi je zabranjeno, stoga potrošač vjeruje da oznaka “ekološki” zakonski štiti od prisustva GMO u hrani. Međutim, povećano korištenje GMO u k...

  17. Eletrencefalograma na síndrome parkinsoniana

    José Geraldo Camargo Lima


    Full Text Available Foram estudados os eletrencefalogramas de 50 pacientes parkinsonianos livres de qualquer antecedente convulsivo, sendo registrados traçados anormais em 40% dos casos. A incidência de traçados anormais foi maior na síndrome parkinsoniana bilateral do que na unilateral (52% e 25%, respectivamente. Entre as anormalidades assinaladas foram as paroxísticas as mais freqüentes (65% dos casos, caracterizando-se predominantemente por surtos de ondas teta. O registro de anormalidades paroxísticas do tipo irritativo encontrado em três casos é salientado. Alterações da atividade de base foram assinaladas em 35% dos pacientes. A idade dos pacientes não parece ter tido importante papel na gênese das anormalidades eletrencefalográficas.

  18. Recent results from NA61/SHINE

    Kowalski, Seweryn


    The aim of the NA61/SHINE ion programme is to explore the QCD phase diagram within the range of thermodynamical variables accessible by the SPS. Moreover the experiment provides precision hadron production measurements to improve computation of neutrino fluxes in neutrino oscillation experiments and for improving air shower simulations of cosmic-ray experiments. The main physics goals of the NA61/SHINE ion programme are the study of the properties of the onset of deconfinement and the search for signatures of the critical point of strongly interacting matter. These goals are pursued by performing an energy (beam momentum 13A – 158 A GeV/c) and system size (p+p, p+Pb, Be+Be, Ar+Sc, Xe+La) scan. This paper reviews the status and results of the NA61/SHINE experiment.

  19. Cementation of wastes with boric acid; Cimentacao de rejeitos contendo acido borico

    Tello, Cledola C.O.; Haucz, Maria Judite A. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Alves, Lilian J.L.; Oliveira, Arno H. [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear


    In nuclear power plants (PWR) are generated wastes, such as concentrate, which comes from the evaporation of liquid radioactive wastes, and spent resins. Both have boron in their composition. The cementation process is one of the options to solidify these wastes, but the boron has a negative effect on the setting of the cement mixture. In this paper are presented the experiments that are being carried out in order to overcome this problem and also to improve the efficiency of the process. Simulated wastes were cemented using additives (clays, admixtures etc.). In the process and product is being evaluated the effect of the amount, type and addition order of the materials. The mixtures were selected in accordance with their workability and incorporated waste. The solidified products are monolithic without free water with a good mechanical resistance. (author)

  20. Na+ deposition in the fibrotic skin of systemic sclerosis patients detected by 23Na-magnetic resonance imaging.

    Kopp, Christoph; Beyer, Christian; Linz, Peter; Dahlmann, Anke; Hammon, Matthias; Jantsch, Jonathan; Neubert, Patrick; Rosenhauer, Daniela; Müller, Dominik N; Cavallaro, Alexander; Eckardt, Kai-Uwe; Schett, Georg; Luft, Friedrich C; Uder, Michael; Distler, Jörg H W; Titze, Jens


    Skin fibrosis is the predominant feature of SSc and arises from excessive extracellular matrix deposition. Glycosaminoglycans are macromolecules of the extracellular matrix, which facilitate Na + accumulation in the skin. We used 23 Na-MRI to quantify Na + in skin. We hypothesized that skin Na + might accumulate in SSc and might be a biomarker for skin fibrosis. In this observational case-control study, skin Na + was determined by 23 Na-MRI using a Na + volume coil in 12 patients with diffuse cutaneous SSc and in 21 control subjects. We assessed skin fibrosis by the modified Rodnan skin score prior to 23 Na-MRI and on follow-up 12 months later. 23 Na-MRI demonstrated increased Na + in the fibrotic skin of SSc patients compared with skin from controls [mean ( s . d .): 27.2 (5.6) vs 21.4 (5.3) mmol/l, P skin [26.2 (4.8) vs 19.2 (3.4) mmol/l, P skin Na + amount was correlated with changes in follow-up modified Rodnan skin score (R 2 = 0.68). 23 Na-MRI detected increased Na + in the fibrotic SSc skin; high Na + content was associated with progressive skin disease. Our findings provide the first evidence that 23 Na-MRI might be a promising tool to assess skin Na + and thereby predict progression of skin fibrosis in SSc.

  1. Diffusion of propylene adsorbed in Na-Y and Na-ZSM5 zeolites: Neutron scattering and FTIR studies

    S Gautam; A K Tripathi; V S Kamble; S Mitra; R Mukhopadhyay


    Here we report the quasielastic neutron scattering and FTIR studies on the dynamics of propylene adsorbed in Na-Y and Na-ZSM5 zeolites. QENS data show that although the mechanism of translational motion of propylene is jump diffusion in both the cases of Na-Y and Na-ZSM5 zeolites, the diffusivity is affected by the host size and is hindered in the case of Na-ZSM5. FTIR studies showed that guest–host interaction in Na-ZSM5 is stronger than that in Na-Y zeolite corroborating the QENS results.

  2. Concentration dependence of Li+/Na+ diffusion in manganese hexacyanoferrates

    Takachi, Masamitsu; Fukuzumi, Yuya; Moritomo, Yutaka


    Manganese hexacyanoferrates (Mn-HCFs) with a jungle-gym-type structure are promising cathode materials for Li+/Na+ secondary batteries (LIBs/SIBs). Here, we investigated the diffusion constants D Li/D Na of Li+/Na+ against the Li+/Na+ concentration x Na/x Li and temperature (T) of A 1.32Mn[Fe(CN)6]0.833.6H2O (A = Li and Na). We evaluated the activation energy E\\text{a}\\text{Li}/E\\text{a}\\text{Na} of D Li/D Na against x Na/x Li. We found that E\\text{a}\\text{Na} steeply increases with x Na from 0.41 eV at x Na = 0.69 to 0.7 eV at 1.1. The increase in E\\text{a}\\text{Na} is ascribed to the occupancy effect of the Na+ site. The increase in E\\text{a}\\text{Li} is suppressed, probably because the number of Li+ sites is three times that of Na+ sites.


    Uršič, Tine


    V sklopu diplomskega dela smo razvili aplikacijo, katere cilj je nižanje stroškov klicev s pomočjo tehnologije VoIP. Ta za komunikacijo uporablja protokol IP in zaobide potrebo po navadnih in dražjih GSM klicih. V času načrtovanja aplikacije je bilo okolje Symbian najbolj razširjena mobilna platforma za dovolj zmogljive, t.i. »pametne telefone«, ki lahko poganjajo VoIP aplikacije. Izbrali smo skupek knjižnic, poimenovanih Qt, ki omogočajo enostavno prenosljivost na druge platforme. Podr...

  4. Recent results and prospects from NA62

    Bizzeti Andrea


    K+ → π+ vv̄ is a theoretically very clean decay where indirect effects of new physics may be detectable. The NA62 apparatus has been significantly upgraded between 2008 and 2014 in order to measure the branching ratio of this decay with 10% precision. The NA62 experiment took data with the new setup in pilot runs in 2014 and 2015, reaching the design beam intensity. Results of first data quality studies in view of the 2016-2017 physics runs are presented.


    Cascelli Farinasso, Gabriela


    O presente artigo busca explorar a arte como ferramenta para mudanças sociais na modernidade relacionando-a com os conceitos apresentados por Nicolas Bourriaud em seu livro Estética Relacional. A Street Art é apresentada como recorte dentre os movimentos artísticos, ressaltando-se sua importância e suas características do ponto de vista espacial e temporal e na criação de “lugares de pausa” no meio urbano, que levam o observador a refletir sobre a obra e o desviam do seu percurso. A transgres...

  6. Abordagem neurologica na sindrome do X fragil

    Marilisa Mantovani Guerreiro


    Resumo: Com o propósito de realizar a abordagem neurológica na Síndrome do X Frágil (SXF), estudaram-se 11 pacientes com este diagnóstico citogenético. A idade variou de 8 a 19 anos. Nove pacientes eram do sexo masculino e dois do feminino. Todos os indivíduos apresentaram pavilhões auriculares grandes e faces alongadas. Observou-se fronte proeminente em 63% dos casos e macrorquidia em 33% dentre aqueles do sexo masculino. Atraso na aquisição da fala, fala repetitiva, perseverativa, impulsiva...

  7. O problema do conhecimento verdadeiro na epidemiologia

    Ayres José Ricardo de Carvalho Mesquita


    Full Text Available São examinadas as bases filosóficas da validação do conhecimento científico, com o intuito de estabelecer uma visão crítica a respeito da adoção das proposições de Popper na epidemiologia. Ressalta-se o caráter conservador que resulta das limitações técnicas implicadas na sua adoção, não obstante o evidente aumento da racionalidade e da criatividade heurística que propicia.

  8. Status for 2017, CERN NA63

    Uggerhoej, UI


    In the NA63 experiment of May-June 2017 the purpose was to look for the effect of classical radiation reaction as described in \\cite{DiPiazza20171} but for 50 GeV positrons aligned to the (110) plane of silicon crystals of varying thicknesses in the range 1-6 mm. The data which was taken during the run shows promising results, but the final verdict awaits accurate calculations of the theoretically expected spectra, and a final analysis. For the 2016 results on quantum radiation reaction obtained by CERN NA63, we have submitted a manuscript, which is presently under refereeing \\cite{Wist17}.

  9. Dificuldades de aprendizagem na leitura e na escrita: o contributo de jogos eletrónicos na motivação e na aprendizagem

    Nogueira, Joana Maria Duarte


    Projeto de Intervenção apresentado à Escola Superior de Educação de Lisboa para obtenção do grau de Mestre em Educação Especial, Especialização em Problemas de Aprendizagem e Comportamento A dislexia carateriza-se por habilidades alteradas dos processos de leitura (fluência, compreensão e leitura correta de palavras). Além destas pode envolver ainda dificuldades no reconhecimento de palavras escritas, na descodificação, na adequação e habilidades ortográficas, podendo ainda manifestar-se n...

  10. Qualidade de vida sexual na menopausa


    A Qualidade de Vida Sexual é um termo habitualmente usado, para abranger aspectos relacionados com a ausência ou presença de problemas sexuais, satisfação e bem-estar sexual, sendo esta bastante subjectiva. Neste sentido, é fundamental rememorar que a presença de problemas sexuais não é, de todo sinónimo de má qualidade de vida sexual. Na verdade, a sexualidade na menopausa inclui, igualmente, sexo, relaxamento, comunicação e intimidade partilhada entre o casal, como em qualquer outra etapa d...

  11. Emprego da cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência na determinação de cortisol sérico em substituição à técnica de radioimunoensaio High-performance liquid chromatography application for serum cortisol quantification as a substitute for radioimmunoassay

    Eduardo Kinio Sugawara


    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A determinação de cortisol nos diferentes fluídos orgânicos tem sido aplicada como auxílio diagnóstico em distintas condições nosológicas em humanos, bem como empregada em estudos envolvendo pesquisa clínica. No intervalo de aplicação clínica, rotineiramente é determinado pela técnica de radioimunoensaio (RIE. Na determinação do cortisol urinário livre essa técnica vem sendo substituída pelo emprego da cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (HPLC, principalmente no diagnóstico da síndrome de Cushing. Já para a determinação do cortisol sérico não se têm evidências do emprego da cromatografia líquida em substituição a outras técnicas analíticas. OBJETIVOS: O desenvolvimento de metodologia analítica empregando HPLC no modo fase reversa (RP-HPLC para a determinação de cortisol sérico em substituição ao RIE visando à redução da geração de resíduos radioativos. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: O cortisol foi quantificado diretamente empregando-se RP-HPLC em amostras de soro previamente extraídas com éter utilizando-se acetonido de triancinolona como padrão interno (PI. Utilizou-se coluna analítica BDS-Hypesil-C18® (125 x 4 mm, 5 µm, fase móvel composta de água e acetonitrila (72:28; v/v a 1 ml/min e detecção a 243 nm. RESULTADOS: O cortisol e o PI apresentaram tempo de retenção de 3,4 e 7,1 min, respectivamente. O coeficiente de variação (CV% obtido no estudo da precisão foi menor que 10%, e a exatidão apresentou um desvio inferior a 4%. DISCUSSÃO: O método mostrou-se eficaz e eficiente, com sensibilidade e linearidade na faixa estudada de 2,5 a 60 µµg/dl. CONCLUSÃO: O método proposto substitui o RIE no intervalo de sua aplicação clínica.BACKGROUND: The quantification of cortisol in different organic fluids has not only been applied to different human nosological conditions as a diagnostic aid but it has also been used in clinical research. In clinical application, cortisol

  12. Probing luminescence centers in Na rich feldspar

    Prasad, Amit Kumar; Lapp, Torben; Kook, Myung Ho;


    our understanding of the luminescence mechanisms and recombination sites, in a sample of Na rich plagioclase feldspar (oligoclase). Both the UV and violet–blue emissions show resonant excitations arising from a distribution of energy levels. We propose, contrary to the general understanding...

  13. Trapping of radioactive {sup 21}Na

    Kruithof, Wilbert L.; Hoek, Duurt J. van der; Giri, Gouri S.; Hoekstra, Ronnie; Hoekstra, Steven; Jungmann, Klaus; Onderwater, Gerco; Santra, Bodhaditya; Shildling, Praveen D.; Sohani, Moslem; Versolato, Oscar O.; Willmann, Lorenz; Wilschut, Hans W. [Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, University Groningen (Netherlands)


    Radioactive {sup 21}Na atoms in a magneto-optical trap (MOT) provide an excellent opportunity to search for non-Standard Model contributions in the weak interactions. In particular, correlations between the {beta}-particle and the neutrino are sensitive to time reversal symmetry violating effects. The Na isotope is produced at the TRI{mu}P facility of the KVI using intense {sup 20}Ne beams from the AGOR cyclotron on a cooled deuterium target. The isotopes are stopped and re-thermalized in a Thermal Ionizer. They are transported as a low energy ion beam to a MOT cell where they are neutralized and subsequently captured by laser light. The trapped Na atoms will be transferred to a second MOT which is placed inside a reaction microscope to measure the momentum distribution of the recoiling daughter nuclei after the {beta}-decay. The {beta}-particle will be detected in a scintillation detector. These two devices have been characterized. A pulsed UV laser was used to ionize trapped Na atoms in order to simulate the {beta}-decay in the reaction microscope. The momentum distribution of the recoil ions is measured. The setup of the whole experiment will be presented.

  14. Pijn tijdens of na de wortelkanaalbehandeling

    Wesselink, P.R.


    Een wortelkanaalbehandeling kan pijn veroorzaken tijdens en/of na de behandeling. Tijdens de behandeling moet dan onderscheid worden gemaakt tussen pijn bij een pulpitis en pijn bij een necrotische pulpa. In beide gevallen kan die pijn effectief worden bestreden, afhankelijk van de toestand waarin h

  15. NA48: Wiring up for Change


    The NA48 Collaboration is rebuilding its drift chambers ready for the experiment to start up again this coming July. An intricate task involving the soldering of over 24,000 wires! The future of the NA48 experiment is coming right down to the wire, that is, the wires which the Collaboration is installing in the clean room of Hall 887 on the Prévessin site. Six days a week, technicians are working in shifts to rebuild the experiment's drift chambers. The original chambers were damaged when a section of a vacuum tube imploded at the end of 1999. A year ago, CERN gave the green light for this essential part of the spectrometer to be rebuilt, so the NA48 experiment, which studies CP violation (see box), still has a bright future ahead of it. Three years of data-taking ahead The NA48 experiment aims to penetrate the secrets of CP (Charge Parity) violation. Charge and parity are two parameters which distinguish a particle from an antiparticle. In other words, an electron possesses a negative electric ...

  16. Habitus professoral na sala de aula virtual

    Alexandre Marinho Pimenta


    Full Text Available Entendendo que a indiferença na ação pedagógica contribui para a reprodução das desigualdades no sistema de ensino, o presente artigo busca captar, a partir de entrevistas semiestruturadas, traços do habitus de professores supervisores de disciplinas do curso de Licenciatura em Pedagogia na modalidade a distância na Universidade de Brasília - UnB no âmbito do Sistema Universidade Aberta do Brasil - UAB. As orientações metodológicas de Bourdieu (2007 foram um dos elementos orientadores na análise das entrevistas, considerando ainda o uso heurístico do conceito de habitus. Conclui-se que o habitus professoral envolve esforços voluntários em busca de uma ação pedagógica diferenciada. No entanto, ele é ambíguo e condescendente frente aos limites do modelo de EaD no âmbito da UAB. Ao fim, os dados analisados permitem fornecer elementos para reorientação político-pedagógica que vise a um novo modelo de EaD nacional.

  17. Electronic Polarisability of NaNO2-NaNO3 and NaOH-NaNO3 Ionic Melts and Effective Ionic Radius of OH-

    Iwadate, Yasuhiko; Ohnishi, Ryosuke; Ohkubo, Takahiro


    Molar volumes and refractive indexes of molten NaNO2-NaNO3 and NaOH-NaNO3 systems were measured by dilatometry and goniometry, respectively. The molar volumes of both systems increased with increasing temperature. Refractive indexes decreased with a rise of temperature or with increasing wavelength of the incident visible light. Assuming that the electronic polarisability is inherent in an ion, the electronic polarisability of a OH- ion in the melt was estimated from the Lorentz-Lorenz equation to be 1.26×10-30 m3, being comparable with that in the crystal. The effective ionic radius of a OH- ion was evaluated from the obtained electronic polarisability to be 1.34×10-10 m, using the correlation between the third power of the ionic radius and the electronic polarisability of an ion so far reported. The effective ionic radius obtained in this work was in good agreement with that assigned by Shannon.

  18. NA49: lead-lead collision


    This is an image of an actual lead ion collision taken from tracking detectors on the NA49 experiment, part of the heavy ion project at CERN. These collisions produce a very complicated array of hadrons as the heavy ions break up. It is hoped that one of these collisions will eventually create a new state of matter known as quark-gluon plasma.

  19. Categoria de gênero na enfermagem

    Alcione Leite da Silva


    Full Text Available Este estudo teve por objetivo analisar as categorias de gênero, a partir de periódicos sobre estudo de gênero na enfermagem brasileira. Usando uma abordagem exploratória, analisamos os artigos na área, publicados em dez periódicos nacionais de enfermagem, no período de 1955 a 1997/1. Com base na análise dos discursos, as categorias centrais para as quais convergiram as atenções das/os autoras/es foram: gênero e determinantes históricos e sociais no desenvolvimento da profissão de enfermagem, gênero e trabalho, gênero e saúde, gênero e educação e gênero e feminismo. Outras perspectivas importantes, menos enfatizadas, mas emergentes na literatura de enfermagem foram: gênero e cuidado, gênero e família, gênero e violência.

  20. Concentratie gewasbeschermingsmiddelen na verhitting dompelbad bloembollen

    Bulle, A.A.E.; Lans, van der A.M.; Aanholt, van J.T.M.


    De meest gebruikte methode van ontsmetting van bloembollen en –knollen is een dompeling in een mix van fungiciden. In het proces van bolontsmetting worden partijen bollen na elkaar ontsmet in hetzelfde dompelbad. Met een partij bollen kan een dompelbad behoorlijk vervuild raken met bijvoorbeeld (ste

  1. Pijn tijdens of na de wortelkanaalbehandeling

    Wesselink, P.R.


    Een wortelkanaalbehandeling kan pijn veroorzaken tijdens en/of na de behandeling. Tijdens de behandeling moet dan onderscheid worden gemaakt tussen pijn bij een pulpitis en pijn bij een necrotische pulpa. In beide gevallen kan die pijn effectief worden bestreden, afhankelijk van de toestand waarin

  2. Recent results and prospects from NA62

    Bizzeti, Andrea


    A large sample of charged kaon decays in 2007 has been collected by the NA62 experiment at CERN SPS using the experimental setup of the former NA48 experiment. Its intense kaon beam provides an abundant source of tagged neutral pions in vacuum. A measurement of the electromagnetic transition form factor slope of the neutral pion from 1:05 × 106 fully reconstructed π0 Dalitz decays is presented. The obtained preliminary value a = (3.70 ± 0.53stat ± 0.36syst) × 10-2 is the first 5.8σ observation of a non-zero slope in the time-like region of momentum transfer. K+ → π+ vv¯ is a theoretically very clean decay where indirect effects of new physics may be detectable. The NA62 apparatus has been significantly upgraded between 2008 and 2014 in order to measure the branching ratio of this decay with 10% precision. The NA62 experiment took data with the new setup in pilot runs in 2014 and 2015, reaching the design beam intensity. Results of first data quality studies in view of the 2016-2017 physics runs are presented.

  3. Water transport by the renal Na(+)-dicarboxylate cotransporter

    Meinild, A K; Loo, D D; Pajor, A M;


    This study investigated the ability of the renal Na(+)-dicarboxylate cotransporter, NaDC-1, to transport water. Rabbit NaDC-1 was expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, cotransporter activity was measured as the inward current generated by substrate (citrate or succinate), and water transport...... was monitored by the changes in oocyte volume. In the absence of substrates, oocytes expressing NaDC-1 showed an increase in osmotic water permeability, which was directly correlated with the expression level of NaDC-1. When NaDC-1 was transporting substrates, there was a concomitant increase in oocyte volume....... This solute-coupled influx of water took place in the absence of, and even against, osmotic gradients. There was a strict stoichiometric relationship between Na(+), substrate, and water transport of 3 Na(+), 1 dicarboxylate, and 176 water molecules/transport cycle. These results indicate that the renal Na...

  4. Water transport by the renal Na(+)-dicarboxylate cotransporter

    Meinild, A K; Loo, D D; Pajor, A M


    was monitored by the changes in oocyte volume. In the absence of substrates, oocytes expressing NaDC-1 showed an increase in osmotic water permeability, which was directly correlated with the expression level of NaDC-1. When NaDC-1 was transporting substrates, there was a concomitant increase in oocyte volume....... This solute-coupled influx of water took place in the absence of, and even against, osmotic gradients. There was a strict stoichiometric relationship between Na(+), substrate, and water transport of 3 Na(+), 1 dicarboxylate, and 176 water molecules/transport cycle. These results indicate that the renal Na......This study investigated the ability of the renal Na(+)-dicarboxylate cotransporter, NaDC-1, to transport water. Rabbit NaDC-1 was expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, cotransporter activity was measured as the inward current generated by substrate (citrate or succinate), and water transport...

  5. Presoja notranjih kontrol pri obračunu davka na dodano vrednost na primeru "Podjetja x"

    Majcen, Borut


    Poslovanje podjetja si je ob odsotnosti notranjih kontrol nemogoče predstavljati. Podjetja so podvržena raznim tveganjem, še posebej v današnjih razmerah globalnega poslovanja, ko se podjetja soočajo z vedno novimi izzivi, kar prinaša tudi nova tveganja. Najučinkovitejši ukrep za obvladovanje tveganj predstavlja vzpostavitev sistema notranjih kontrol. Obvladovanje tveganj pa ne poteka samo na ravni podjetja kot celote, ampak je prisotno na vseh področjih delovanja podjetja, torej tudi na p...

  6. Biossegurança na odontologia

    André Luiz Dantas Bezerra


    Full Text Available Introdução: As atividades laborais, de modo geral, expõem os trabalhadores a riscos ocupacionais dos mais variados. Esses riscos incluem agentes físicos, químicos, ergonômicos, de acidentes e biológicos. O contato rotineiro com esses últimos deve ser motivo de reflexão e intervenção. Objetivo: Descrever os aspectos da biossegurança na odontologia. Métodos: Foi realizada uma revisão do estado da arte, adotando-se critérios para análise dos trabalhos mais diretamente relacionados à prática odontológica. A partir dos descritores controlados (DeCS "biossegurança" e "odontologia", procederam-se a busca na Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde, na Scientific Electronic Library Online, na National Library of Medicine e na Biblioteca Cochrane. Resultados: Com a associação entre os DeCS, chegou-se a 66 artigos, porém, após refinamento foram incluídos nesta revisão 12 artigos. Nos resultados foi evidenciado que a produção científica sobre biossegurança é vasta, bem como é ampla na odontologia, contudo, quando da concentração de trabalhos contempladores da associação dos termos biossegurança e odontologia, a quantidade de estudos diminui consideravelmente. Não obstante, as pesquisas foram, em sua maioria, desenvolvidas por estudiosos nacionais, da região nordeste e evidenciaram que o conhecimento e a adoção de medidas de segurança biológica na área ainda são insuficientes para garantir a proteção da equipe e dos pacientes qualitativamente. Conclusão: Sugere-se que as normas de precaução padrão sejam seguidas rigidamente e que ações de educação sejam promovidas entre os profissionais.

  7. Effects of non-uniform root zone salinity on water use, Na+ recirculation, and Na+ and H+ flux in cotton.

    Kong, Xiangqiang; Luo, Zhen; Dong, Hezhong; Eneji, A Egrinya; Li, Weijiang


    A new split-root system was established through grafting to study cotton response to non-uniform salinity. Each root half was treated with either uniform (100/100 mM) or non-uniform NaCl concentrations (0/200 and 50/150 mM). In contrast to uniform control, non-uniform salinity treatment improved plant growth and water use, with more water absorbed from the non- and low salinity side. Non-uniform treatments decreased Na(+) concentrations in leaves. The [Na(+)] in the '0' side roots of the 0/200 treatment was significantly higher than that in either side of the 0/0 control, but greatly decreased when the '0' side phloem was girdled, suggesting that the increased [Na(+)] in the '0' side roots was possibly due to transportation of foliar Na(+) to roots through phloem. Plants under non-uniform salinity extruded more Na(+) from the root than those under uniform salinity. Root Na(+) efflux in the low salinity side was greatly enhanced by the higher salinity side. NaCl-induced Na(+) efflux and H(+) influx were inhibited by amiloride and sodium orthovanadate, suggesting that root Na(+) extrusion was probably due to active Na(+)/H(+) antiport across the plasma membrane. Improved plant growth under non-uniform salinity was thus attributed to increased water use, reduced leaf Na(+) concentration, transport of excessive foliar Na(+) to the low salinity side, and enhanced Na(+) efflux from the low salinity root.

  8. Synthesis of Na-A and/or Na-X zeolite/porous carbon composites from carbonized rice husk

    Katsuki, Hiroaki; Komarneni, Sridhar


    Na-A and/or Na-X zeolite/porous carbon composites were prepared under hydrothermal conditions by NaOH dissolution of silica first from carbonized rice husk followed by addition of NaAlO 2 and in situ crystallization of zeolites i.e., using a two-step process. When a one-step process was used, both Na-A and Na-X zeolites crystallized on the surface of carbon. Na-A or Na-X zeolite crystals were prepared on the porous carbonized rice husk at 90 °C for 2-6 h by changing the SiO 2/Al 2O 3, H 2O/Na 2O and Na 2O/SiO 2 molar ratios of precursors in the two-step process. The surface area and NH 4+-cation exchange capacity (CEC) of Na-A zeolite/porous carbon were found to be 171 m 2/g and 506 meq/100 g, respectively, while those of Na-X zeolite/porous carbon composites were 676 m 2/g and 317 meq/100 g, respectively. Na-A and Na-X zeolites are well-known microporous and hydrophilic materials while carbonized rice husk was found to be mesoporous (pores of ˜3.9 nm) and hydrophobic. These hybrid microporous-mesoporous and hydrophilic-hydrophobic composites are expected to be useful for decontamination of metal cations as well as organic contaminants simultaneously.

  9. Phase Equilibria of Quaternary SystemNaCl-NaBr-Na2B4O7-H2O at 348 K

    LI Ting; SANG Shi-hua; CUI Rui-zhi; ZHANG Kai-jie


    The phase equilibria of quatemary system NaC1-NaBr-Na2B4O7-H2O at 348 K were studied by the isothermal equilibrium method.The solubilities and densities of the equilibrium solution were determined.According to the experimental data,the phase diagram,density-composition diagrams and water content diagram of the quaternary system at 348 K were plotted respectively.And the phase diagram consists of one univariant curve,two crystallization fields and without any invariant point of the quaternary system.The equilibrium solid phases of the two crystallization fields were Na(C1,Br) and Na2B4O7·SH2O.The experimental results show that the quaternary system contained solid solution.The densities of the solution decrease with increasing NaC1 concentration and increase with increasing NaBr concentration.

  10. Asphericity in the Fermi Surface and Fermi Energy of Na-K, Na-Rb and Na-Cs Binary Alloys

    Minal H. Patel; A.M. Vora; P.N. Gajjar; A.R. Jani


    Detailed theoretical investigations into asphericity in the Fermi surface (FS) and Fermi energy (FE) ofNa1_xKx, Na1_xRbx, and Na1_xCsx binary solid solutions are carried out for the first time. The alloying behavior ofthe K, Rb, and Cs with the Na generates the Fermi surface distortion (FSD) of bce simple metals. The FS of Na-K,Na-Rb, and Na-Cs solid solution is a distorted sphere with the largest deviation along [110]. We have found that theimpact of local-field correction function on FSD is maximun at [100] point and minimum at [111] point. The exchangeand correlation effect is found to suppress the value of FE.

  11. Alternativas de utilização de resíduos sólidos alcalinos na disposição de resíduos contaminados: estudo de caso no estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Alkaline residues alternatives for use in the landfill of a contaminated solid residues: case study from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Wilma de Carvalho Pereira


    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem como objetivo o estudo dos elementos potencialmente contaminantes presentes nos rejeitos industriais que são dispostos no meio ambiente e, por processo de lixiviação, carreados para os corpos hídricos. Dois tipos de resíduos foram estudados. Um deles, proveniente da indústria de produção de aço (escória da aciaria, de características alcalina. Este rejeito é considerado relativamente estável pelos padrões vigentes devido às suas características (CdThe goal of this work is to study the potentially contaminating trace elements present in industrial waste that is discharged into the environment though lixiviation process to water resources. Two types of waste were studied. The first one, a refuse slag from steel industry, an alkaline residue. Even though this waste is considered relatively stable within the established standards set by current legislation due to its characteristics (Cd<0.5 mg/Kg, Pb<10 mg/Kg, Co<5 mg/Kg, Cu=61 mg/Kg, Ni<1.5 mg/Kg, Zn=75 mg/Kg, there is so far no feasible alternative for its total reutilization. The other one a residue from the electroplating industry (Class I: ABNT, 1987, closed down in 1998.

  12. $^{24}$Mg($p$, $\\alpha$)$^{21}$Na reaction study for spectroscopy of $^{21}$Na

    Cha, S M; Kim, A; Lee, E J; Ahn, S; Bardayan, D W; Chipps, K A; Cizewski, J A; Howard, M E; Manning, B; O'Malley, P D; Ratkiewicz, A; Strauss, S; Kozub, R L; Matos, M; Pain, S D; Pittman, S T; Smith, M S; Peters, W A


    The $^{24}$Mg($p$, $\\alpha$)$^{21}$Na reaction was measured at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in order to better constrain spins and parities of energy levels in $^{21}$Na for the astrophysically important $^{17}$F($\\alpha, p$)$^{20}$Ne reaction rate calculation. 31 MeV proton beams from the 25-MV tandem accelerator and enriched $^{24}$Mg solid targets were used. Recoiling $^{4}$He particles from the $^{24}$Mg($p$, $\\alpha$)$^{21}$Na reaction were detected by a highly segmented silicon detector array which measured the yields of $^{4}$He particles over a range of angles simultaneously. A new level at 6661 $\\pm$ 5 keV was observed in the present work. The extracted angular distributions for the first four levels of $^{21}$Na and Distorted Wave Born Approximation (DWBA) calculations were compared to verify and extract angular momentum transfer.

  13. Regulation of cardiac myocyte contractility by phospholemman: Na+/Ca2+ exchange versus Na+ -K+ -ATPase.

    Song, Jianliang; Zhang, Xue-Qian; Wang, JuFang; Cheskis, Ellina; Chan, Tung O; Feldman, Arthur M; Tucker, Amy L; Cheung, Joseph Y


    Phospholemman (PLM) regulates cardiac Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX1) and Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase in cardiac myocytes. PLM, when phosphorylated at Ser(68), disinhibits Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase but inhibits NCX1. PLM regulates cardiac contractility by modulating Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase and/or NCX1. In this study, we first demonstrated that adult mouse cardiac myocytes cultured for 48 h had normal surface membrane areas, t-tubules, and NCX1 and sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase levels, and retained near normal contractility, but alpha(1)-subunit of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase was slightly decreased. Differences in contractility between myocytes isolated from wild-type (WT) and PLM knockout (KO) hearts were preserved after 48 h of culture. Infection with adenovirus expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) did not affect contractility at 48 h. When WT PLM was overexpressed in PLM KO myocytes, contractility and cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) transients reverted back to those observed in cultured WT myocytes. Both Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase current (I(pump)) and Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchange current (I(NaCa)) in PLM KO myocytes rescued with WT PLM were depressed compared with PLM KO myocytes. Overexpressing the PLMS68E mutant (phosphomimetic) in PLM KO myocytes resulted in the suppression of I(NaCa) but had no effect on I(pump). Contractility, [Ca(2+)](i) transient amplitudes, and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) contents in PLM KO myocytes overexpressing the PLMS68E mutant were depressed compared with PLM KO myocytes overexpressing GFP. Overexpressing the PLMS68A mutant (mimicking unphosphorylated PLM) in PLM KO myocytes had no effect on I(NaCa) but decreased I(pump). Contractility, [Ca(2+)](i) transient amplitudes, and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) contents in PLM KO myocytes overexpressing the S68A mutant were similar to PLM KO myocytes overexpressing GFP. We conclude that at the single-myocyte level, PLM affects cardiac contractility and [Ca(2+)](i) homeostasis primarily by its direct

  14. Hidroginástica na terceira idade

    Karla Campos de Paula


    Full Text Available O processo de envelhecimento no indivíduo saudável está relacionado com inúmeras alterações psicológicas e físicas que interferem na área motora, concorrendo para a inatividade e contribuindo para o aparecimento e agravamento de determinadas doenças, além de influenciar negativamente a realização das atividades de vida diária. Portanto, a prática de atividade física é fundamental para o idoso, não só na prevenção de doenças como na reabilitação de suas habilidades motoras, promovendo um estilo de vida saudável que é fator preponderante para a melhoria da qualidade de vida. Contudo, algumas precauções devem ser adotadas na prescrição da atividade direcionada para o idoso, a fim de que esta seja segura e prazerosa. Dentre os exercícios mais adequados aos idosos estão a caminhada, o ciclismo, a natação e a hidroginástica. Devido a sua grande procura, a hidroginástica vem aumentando o número de adeptos na terceira idade. Ela propicia ao idoso o aumento de sua capacidade aeróbia, força muscular, flexibilidade articular e o treinamento de habilidades específicas como equilíbrio e coordenação motora. Soma-se ainda o fato de esta atividade oferecer ambiente de relaxamento e incentivo ao contato social, atuando no combate ao estresse, depressão, na melhoria da autopercepção corporal e da auto-estima. Devemos, então, estar atentos às particularidades da hidroginástica, a fim de aproveitar todas as vantagens que esta oferece para o programa de exercícios direcionado para a terceira idade.

  15. Transport of Na48 Drift Chambers to Dubna



    On 22 July, in the occasion of the departure of the Na48 Drift Chambers from CERN, Mikhail Itkis (acting Director of the JIINR) and Rolf Heuer (CERN Director General) visited the NA62 experimental area.

  16. Mechanisms and regulation of Na(+) uptake by freshwater fish.

    Kumai, Yusuke; Perry, Steve F


    Mechanisms of ion uptake by freshwater (FW) fish have received considerable attention over the past 80 years. Through an assortment of techniques incorporating whole animal physiology, electrophysiology and molecular biological approaches, three models have been proposed to account for Na(+) uptake. (1) Direct exchange of Na(+) and H(+) via one or more types of Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (slc9), (2) uptake of Na(+) through epithelial Na(+) channels energized by an electrical gradient created by H(+)-ATPase and (3) Na(+)/Cl(-) co-transport (slc12). While each mechanism is supported at least in part by theoretical or experimental data, there are several outstanding questions that have not yet been fully resolved. Furthermore, there are few details concerning how these Na(+) uptake mechanisms are fine tuned in response to the fluctuating FW environments. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of these three Na(+) uptake mechanisms and discuss their regulation by endocrine (cortisol and prolactin) and neurohumoral (catecholamines) factors.

  17. Fundamental symmetries in {sup 21}Na decay

    Hoek, D.J. van der; Hoekstra, R.; Jungmann, K.; Kruithof, W.L.; Onderwater, C.J.G.; Sohani, M.; Willmann, L.; Wilschut, H.W. [KVI, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)


    The {beta}-{nu} correlations in {beta}-decay allows searching for contributions that go beyond the V-A description of the Standard Model for the electroweak interaction. We are developing an experimental setup to measure correlations in the {beta}-decay of {sup 21}Na. By trapping the radioactive atoms, the recoiling nucleus (kinetic energy <230 eV) can be measured in a reaction microscope in coincidence with the emitted {beta} particle. The first step is to study {beta}-{nu} correlations that allows to set limits on scalar and tensor contributions. By polarizing the parent nucleus it becomes possible to search for time reversal violation. The production and trapping of {sup 21}Na has been accomplished. Details of the setup with a two laser system and the status of this phase of the program are described.

  18. Kaizen: Uma Metodologia Inovadora na Siderurgia

    Hericson Estanislau Prata


    Full Text Available A racionalização do processo produtivo industrial, por meio da redução dos desperdícios e da modernização do processo produtivo, com a adoção do Sistema Toyota de Produção (Produção Enxuta, tem sido adotada por uma parte importante das indústrias no mundo. O objetivo deste artigo é descrever essa metodologia empregada pelo grupo de melhoria de fase intensiva adotado na Vallourec Tubos do Brasil S.A. Como resultado, verificou-se que o processo utilizado para a implantação de mudanças em curto prazo foi a semana intensiva, também conhecida como evento Kaizen na indústria automotiva.

  19. NA62 experiment at CERN SPS

    Kozhuharov Venelin


    Full Text Available The NA62 experiment at SPS is a continuation of the long standing CERN kaon physics program. The high statistics and the unprecedent precision allow to probe the Standard Model and test the description of the strong interactions at low energy. The final results on the the lepton universality test by measuring the ratio RK = Γ(K+ → e+ν/Γ(K+ → µ+ν and the study of the K± → π±γγ decay are presented. The major goal of the NA62 experiment is to perform a measurement of the Br(K+ → π+νν̄ with a precision of 10% in two years of data taking. The detector setup together with the analysis technique is described.

  20. Fotografia na rynku aukcyjnym w Polsce

    Bednarek, Anna


    Full Text Available W artykule podjęta została analiza stanu aukcyjnego rynku fotografii w Polsce w oparciu o wyniki sprzedaży z okresu od pierwszej aukcji fotografii (1996 do końca 2011 roku. Dane te pozwalają czytelnikowi na zapoznanie się z rozmiarami tego rynku (obrót, liczba sprzedanych obiektów, charakterystyką nabywanych obiektów (rekordy cenowe, średnie ceny, popularni twórcy i okresy oraz z trudnościami, które można napotkać podczas badania tego zjawiska. W podsumowaniu znalazły się przewidywania dotyczące dalszego rozwoju rynku.

  1. Recent results from NA61/SHINE

    Andronov, Evgeny


    The NA61/SHINE experiment aims to discover the critical point of strongly interacting matter and study the properties of the onset of deconfinement. For these goals a scan of the two dimensional phase diagram (T-$\\mu_B$) is being performed at the SPS by measurements of hadron production in proton-proton, proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus interactions as a function of collision energy and system size. In this contribution intriguing results on the energy dependence of hadron spectra and yields in inelastic p+p and centrality selected Be+Be collisions will be presented. In particular, the energy dependence of the signals of deconfinement, the 'horn', 'step' and 'kink', in p+p interactions will be presented and compared with the corresponding results from central Pb+Pb collisions from NA49.


    Adriano Naves de Brito


    Full Text Available O que pretendo defender neste texto é que uma posição empirista na moral é compatível com uma pretensão de validade intersubjetiva de juízos morais. Essa pretensão deve, nesse caso, estar calcada na naturalização dos fundamentos da moralidade, mas tem de conviver com limites acerca da justificação de enunciados de valor. Para defender esse ponto, sirvo-me da filosofia moral de Hume, como ele a expôs no seu texto Uma investigação sobre os princípios da moral. No que diz respeito à filosofia de Hume, o objetivo deste texto é explicitar o caráter empírico seja de seu método de investigação da moral, seja do princípio que para ela ele encontra.

  3. The NA60 experiment readout architecture

    Floris, M; Usai, G L; David, A; Rosinsky, P; Ohnishi, H


    The NA60 experiment was designed to identify signatures of a new state of matter, the Quark Gluon Plasma, in heavy-ion collisions at the CERN Super Proton Synchroton. The apparatus is composed of four main detectors: a muon spectrometer (MS), a zero degree calorimeter (ZDC), a silicon vertex telescope (VT), and a silicon microstrip beam tracker (BT). The readout of the whole experiment is based on a PCI architecture. The basic unit is a general purpose PCI card, interfaced to the different subdetectors via custom mezzanine cards. This allowed us to successfully implement several completely different readout protocols (from the VME like protocol of the MS to the custom protocol of the pixel telescope). The system was fully tested with proton and ion beams, and several million events were collected in 2002 and 2003. This paper presents the readout architecture of NA60, with particular emphasis on the PCI layer common to all the subdetectors. (16 refs).

  4. O Personal Trainer na Perspectiva do Marketing

    Cibele Biehl Bossle


    Full Text Available Esse estudo apresenta mapeamento das referências dedicadas à formação do personal trainer em bases de dados eletrônicas. Essa garimpagem revelou baixa produção científica sobre o assunto e mostrou que na literatura sobre personal trainer predominam livros com linguagem corrente no mundo dos negócios. Esses achados nos levaram a indagar sobre a força do discurso físico-empresarial, especialmente o marketing, na constituição desta ocupação profissional. Jeremy Rifkin, Zygmunt Bauman, Paula Sibilia e Denise Sant'Anna permitiram visualizar que o marketing dirigido ao personal trainer tem como tarefa reinventar, ressignificar e "repaginar" esta modalidade de serviço em nome da sobrevivência no disputado mercado da vida ativa.

  5. Luzes portuguesas na caverna do patriarcado brasileiro

    Constância Lima Duarte


    Full Text Available Novas cartas portuguesas revelou literariamente as diversas formas de opressão a que as mulheres estavam submetidas através dos séculos, pela distorcida mística imposta pelo patriarcalismo – verdadeira caverna que cerceava o pensamento das mulheres e seu lugar na sociedade. A publicação do livro das três marias contribuiu para a formação de um senso crítico, ampliou a consciência feminista, e propiciou o surgimento de uma literatura engajada também entre nós. O texto pretende refletir sobre a repercussão da publicação da obra na mídia impressa e entre as feministas brasileiras.

  6. The two C-terminal tyrosines stabilize occluded Na/K pump conformations containing Na or K ions.

    Vedovato, Natascia; Gadsby, David C


    Interactions of the three transported Na ions with the Na/K pump remain incompletely understood. Na/K pump crystal structures show that the extended C terminus of the Na,K-adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) alpha subunit directly contacts transmembrane helices. Deletion of the last five residues (KETYY in almost all Na/K pumps) markedly lowered the apparent affinity for Na activation of pump phosphorylation from ATP, a reflection of cytoplasmic Na affinity for forming the occluded E1P(Na3) conformation. ATPase assays further suggested that C-terminal truncations also interfere with low affinity Na interactions, which are attributable to extracellular effects. Because extracellular Na ions traverse part of the membrane's electric field to reach their binding sites in the Na/K pump, their movements generate currents that can be monitored with high resolution. We report here electrical measurements to examine how Na/K pump interactions with extracellular Na ions are influenced by C-terminal truncations. We deleted the last two (YY) or five (KESYY) residues in Xenopus laevis alpha1 Na/K pumps made ouabain resistant by either of two kinds of point mutations and measured their currents as 10-mM ouabain-sensitive currents in Xenopus oocytes after silencing endogenous Xenopus Na/K pumps with 1 microM ouabain. We found the low affinity inhibitory influence of extracellular Na on outward Na/K pump current at negative voltages to be impaired in all of the C-terminally truncated pumps. Correspondingly, voltage jump-induced transient charge movements that reflect pump interactions with extracellular Na ions were strongly shifted to more negative potentials; this signals a several-fold reduction of the apparent affinity for extracellular Na in the truncated pumps. Parallel lowering of Na affinity on both sides of the membrane argues that the C-terminal contacts provide important stabilization of the occluded E1P(Na3) conformation, regardless of the route of Na ion entry into the

  7. The temperature dependence of the cross section for the energy pooling process Na(3P)+Na(3P) to Na(4D)+Na(3S)

    Horvatic, V.; Movre, M.; Vadla, C.


    We report the measurements of the temperature dependence of the cross section σ4D for the energy pooling process Na(3P)+Na(3P) to Na(4D)+Na(3S). The latest two, as yet undisputed, results for σ4D obtained by different authors at T = 597 K and T = 483 K suggest that this cross section decreases with increasing T, which contradicts the theory and other experiments on similar processes. To resolve this controversy and to examine the temperature trend of the cross section, we have measured the σ4D in the temperature range 567-705 K, covering the high-temperature region that has not yet been investigated experimentally. To determine σ4D we have excited sodium atoms in the quasistatic wing of the D1 line using a cw dye laser and measured the fluorescence intensity for the 4D to 3P3/2 transition, relative to the intensity of the optically thin quasistatic wing of the D2 line. The spatial distribution of the number density of the sodium atoms in the 3P3/2 state and the sodium ground-state number density were measured too. The method used for the determination of the cross section is advantageous since it entirely circumvents the need to account for the radiation trapping of 3P level radiation, which was substantial under experimental conditions of the ground-state densities being 1014-1016 cm-3. The measurements of the cross section σ4D in the investigated temperature range have shown that it increases as ~exp(-Δ E/kT). From the experiment we obtained Δ E = (608±95) cm-1, which is in excellent agreement with the energy defect (613 cm-1) for the considered process, and in fair agreement with the values which follow from recent theoretical calculations.

  8. NA35: sulphur-gold collision


    In this image the real particles produced by the collision of a 6400 GeV sulphur ion with a gold target can be seen as they pass through a streamer chamber. Streamer chambers consist of a gas chamber through which a strong pulsed electric field is passed, creating sparks as a charged particle passes through it. The NA35 experiment, which was in operation in the 1980s, was part of CERN's ongoing heavy ion project.

  9. Acetylene diffusion in Na-Y zeolite

    S Mitra; S Sumitra; A M Umarji; R Mukhopadhyay; S Yashonath; S L Chaplot


    Study of diffusivity of acetylene adsorbed in Na-Y zeolite by quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS) measurements at temperatures of 300, 325 and 350 K is reported. A model in which the acetylene molecules undergo random-walk diffusion characterized by a Gaussian distribution of jump lengths inside zeolite cages describes the data consistently. The diffusion constant, residence time between jumps and root mean square jump length are determined.

  10. Prototype calorimeters for the NA3 experiment


    The NA3 Experiment was set-up on the North Area of the SPS by the CERN/ Ecole Polytechnique/College de France/ Orsay/Saclay Collaboration, to study high transverse momentum leptons and hadrons from hadron collisions. The calorimeters measured the energy of hadrons (prototype on the right) and leptons (prototype on the left). They used a new type of plastic scintillator (plexipop). (see CERN Courier of November 1975) energy (prototype on the right)

  11. Clubes carnavalescos negros na cidade de Pelotas

    Loner, Beatriz Ana


    Full Text Available O artigo trata da organização negra na cidade de Pelotas, particularmente com relação aos seus clubes carnavalescos, que tiveram seu auge entre os anos de 1920 e 1950. Pretende-se descrever os principais clubes e sua evolução, analisando seu papel e sua importância para a comunidade negra pelotense


    Babić, Aleksandra


    Prilagajanje spremembam v poslovnem okolju je temeljnega pomena za obstoj slehernega podjetja. Sodobno trženje postaja temeljna filozofija vseh sodobnih, tržno usmerjenih podjetij. Z elektronskim poslovanjem so podjetja s pomočjo računalnikov in informatizacije procesov posodobila del ali celotno poslovanje, kot na primer komunikacijo z dobavitelji in odjemalci, skladiščenje, distribucijo, trženje, prodajo in podobno. Vendar je elektronska trgovina le del elektronskega poslovanja podjetja. ...

  13. Posso ser eu mesmo na escola?

    Wilton Orlando Trapp


    Full Text Available Este texto faz uma reflexão acerca da importância de se pensar a escola como um lugar da convivência humana e do respeito à cultura do brincar/jogar, trazendo contribuições à superação da influência mercadológica presente nas práticas de movimento e na forma de planejar o uso do espaço escolar.


    Taciga, Matej


    V diplomski nalogi je opisan je razvoj aplikacije za mobilno napravo na platformi Windows Phone, ki omogoča branje QR kode. Aplikacijo smo razvili v programskem jeziku C#. Zajete in opisane so možnosti uporabe QR kode. Opisano je testiranje obstoječih aplikacij s QR čitalci. Predstavljena sta tudi razvoj in struktura QR kode. S primerom je razloženo kako so podatki zakodirani v kodo.

  15. The NA62 experiment at CERN

    Venditti, Stefano


    The goal of the NA62 experiment at CERN is to collect O(100) events of the ultrarare K+→ π +ν bar {ν } decay in two years. After a long R&D phase and a successful pilot run in 2014, the first data-taking phase took place in 2015. In this paper the importance of the experiment's physics goal, as well as the experimental solutions adopted in order to attain it, will be reviewed.

  16. Cultura Política na Antiguidade

    José Petrúcio Farias Júnior


    Full Text Available

    Pretendemos discutir nesse artigo algumas implicações do termo cultura política na Antiguidade, especificamente, na sociedade romana imperial. Dessa forma, acreditamos que as considerações que apresentaremos a seguir contribuam para reflexão da utilização desse termo, produto das investigações contemporâneas, sobre os estudos das sociedades antigas. Para a historiadora Profa. Dra. Margarida Maria de Carvalho, tais reflexões representam ainda uma lacuna na historiografia concernente a essa temática. Isso posto, discorreremos, inicialmente, sobre o conceito de cultura e seus desdobramentos para, em seguida, refletirmos sobre o viés interpretativo que fundamenta estudos históricos que se desenvolvem sob o beneplácito da linha de pesquisa intitulada História e Cultura Política.

  17. Hadron production measurement from NA61/SHINE

    Korzenev, A


    New results from the NA61/SHINE experiment on the determination of charged hadron yields in proton-carbon interactions are presented. They aim to improve predictions of the neutrino flux in the T2K experiment. The analysis is based on the main dataset collected by NA61/SHINE in the year 2009. The data were recorded using a secondary-proton beam of 31 GeV/$c$ momentum from CERN SPS which impinges on a graphite target. To determine the inclusive production cross section for charged pions, kaons and protons a thin target was exploited. Results of this measurement are used in the T2K beam simulation program to reweight hadron yields at the interaction vertex. At the same time, NA61/SHINE results obtained with the T2K replica target allow to constrain hadron yields at the surface of the target. This allows to constrain up to 90% of the neutrino flux, thus reducing significantly the model dependence of the neutrino beam prediction. All measured spectra are compared to predictions of hadron production models.

  18. Transplante pulmonar na infância

    Camargo José J.


    Full Text Available Objetivos: este artigo faz uma revisão dos principais aspectos relacionados com o transplante pulmonar na população pediátrica, e traz a experiência da equipe pioneira na realização do procedimento na América Latina. Fontes de dados: foram utilizadas informações através de revisão bibliográfica, realizada por busca direta de artigos científicos e por pesquisa nas bases de dados Medline e Lilacs. Síntese dos dados: o artigo é estruturado em tópicos, nos quais procura identificar as semelhanças e as diferenças com o transplante pulmonar do adulto. Discute os problemas específicos da criança transplantada e enfatiza uma situação específica, a do transplante pulmonar com doadores vivos aparentados. Conclusões: os avanços observados no transplante pulmonar realizado em adultos, para tratamento de doenças pulmonares, parenquimatosas ou vasculares, têm sido transferidos, nos últimos anos, para a população pediátrica, com sucesso crescente.

  19. Imunossupressores na Dermatologia Immunosuppressive agents in Dermatology

    Aline Lopes Bressan


    Full Text Available Os imunossupressores são drogas que agem na divisão celular e têm propriedades anti-inflamatórias. Sendo assim, são essencialmente prescritos na prevenção de rejeição de transplantes e no tratamento das doenças autoimunes e inflamatórias crônicas, que, na Dermatologia, têm a psoríase como maior representante. Nesta sessão serão descritas as principais drogas imunossupressoras, com orientações para seu manejo adequado.Immunosupressants are drugs that act in cell division and have anti-inflammatory effects. Therefore, they are essentially prescribed in the prevention of transplant rejection and in the treatment of autoimmune disorders and chronic inflammatory diseases, whose main example in Dermatology is psoriasis. In this work the most important immunosuppressive drugs and orientation to properly administer them are going to be described.

  20. Envolvimento do sistema nervoso central na cisticercose

    Aristides Cheto de Queiroz


    Full Text Available No estudo do envolvimento do SNC na cisticercose, verificou-se uma freqüência de 0,3%, sempre como achado incidental no estudo de rotina de autópsias; apenas um caso mostrou boa correlação com a presença de manifestações neurológicas. Esta freqüência que é baixa em relação ao que é observado em outras regiões do Brasil, mostra que a neurocisticercose não representa um grande problema na região. As reações do hospedeiro ao embrião do cisticerco foram sempre do tipo inflamatório crônico e fibrosante. Neste estudo ficou demonstrada a importância do método de impregnação pela prata (Grocott na identificação do esqueleto do cisticerco no interior de lesões fibrosantes e/ou calcificadas.

  1. Resonances production from the NA60 experiment

    De Falco A.


    Full Text Available The NA60 experiment at the CERN SPS has studied light vector meson production in In-In collisions at 158A GeV. The ϕ meson was detected via both the K+K− and the μ+μ− decay channels. The yields and inverse slope parameters of the mT spectra observed in the two channels are compatible within errors, different from the large discrepancies seen in Pb-Pb collisions between the hadronic (NA49 and dimuon (NA50 decay channels. In the invariant mass region 0.2 1 GeV, the excess is found to be prompt, with remarkable differences with respect to the Drell-Yan process. The Teff slope parameter, extracted from the transverse mass spectra, shows a rise with mass up to the ρ, followed by a sudden decline for higher masses. The former is consistent with radial flow of a hadronic source, while the latter suggests a dominantly partonic emission source.

  2. Report from the NA61/SHINE experiment

    Aduszkiewicz, A


    This document reports on the status and plans of the NA61/SHINE experiment at the CERN SPS as of October 2015. First, an overview of the 2014 and 2015 data-taking period on p+Pb interactions at 158 GeV/c and Ar+Sc collisions at 13A GeV/c - 150A GeV/c is given. The latter data-taking with the first primary Ar beams at CERN was a major success. Second, the facility maintenance and upgrades are briefly presented. The VTX-1 magnet was damaged at the beginning of the 2015 proton period. The physics data-taking for p+p interactions at 400 GeV/c and for the Fermilab neutrino beams as well as the pilot data taking on Pb+Pb collisions at 30A GeV/c was replaced by detector tests and calibration runs. Third, the advance in the NA61/SHINE software and calibration procedures is briefly reported. Fourth, new physics results are presented. In particular, the very first results on Ar+Sc collisions are presented. Fifth, plans for data taking in 2016 - 2018 are outlined and ideas concerning the NA61/SHINE physics programme...

  3. Afasia adquirida na infância

    Eliana C. Wanderley


    Full Text Available São relatados dois casos de afasia em menina de 10 anos e menino de 8 anos, conseqüentes a lesão cerebral por projétil de arma de fogo no primeiro caso e septicemia com tromboflebite no segundo. Nos dois casos a evolução foi bastante favorável e ambos os pacientes apresentaram percepção praticamente normal com distúrbios na expressão oral que assumia várias vezes o tipo de lapso amnéstico. A expressão gráfica nos dois casos foi mais atingida como sonseqüência de estar menos automatizada. O fenômeno da perseveração foi notado na fala no primeiro caso e, na escrita, no seguno. Foi discutida a justificativa do diagnóstico e lembrado o diagnóstico diferencial com outros distúrbios da fala em crianças.

  4. Regulation of paracellular Na+ and Cl(-) conductances by hydrostatic pressure.

    Tokuda, Shinsaku; Niisato, Naomi; Nagai, Toshiki; Taruno, Akiyuki; Nakajima, Ken-Ichi; Miyazaki, Hiroaki; Yamada, Toshiki; Hosogi, Shigekuni; Ohta, Mariko; Nishio, Kyosuke; Iwasaki, Yoshinobu; Marunaka, Yoshinori


    The effect of hydrostatic pressure on the paracellular ion conductance (Gp) composed of the Na(+) conductance (G(Na)) and the Cl(-) conductance (G(Cl)) has been Investigated. Gp, G(Na) and G(Cl) were time-dependently increased after applying an osmotic gradient generated by NaCl with basolateral hypotonicity. Hydrostatic pressure (1-4cm H2O) applied from the basolateral side enhanced the osmotic gradient-induced increase in Gp, G(Na) and G(Cl) in a magnitude-dependent manner, while the hydrostatic pressure applied from the apical side diminished the osmotic gradient-induced increase in Gp, G(Na) and G(Cl). How the hydrostatic pressure influences Gp, G(Na) and G(Cl) under an isosmotic condition was also investigated. Gp, G(Na) and G(Cl) were stably constant under a condition with basolateral application of sucrose canceling the NaCl-generated osmotic gradient (an isotonic condition). Even under this stable condition, the basolaterally applied hydrostatic pressure drastically elevated Gp, G(Na) and G(Cl), while apically applied hydrostatic pressure had little effect on Gp, G(Na) or G(Cl). Taken together, these observations suggest that certain factors controlled by the basolateral osmolality and the basolaterally applied hydrostatic pressure mainly regulate the Gp, G(Na) and G(Cl).

  5. Spontaneous NA+ transients in individual mitochondria of intact astrocytes.

    Azarias, Guillaume; Van de Ville, Dimitri; Unser, Michael; Chatton, Jean-Yves


    Mitochondria in intact cells maintain low Na(+) levels despite the large electrochemical gradient favoring cation influx into the matrix. In addition, they display individual spontaneous transient depolarizations. The authors report here that individual mitochondria in living astrocytes exhibit spontaneous increases in their Na(+) concentration (Na(mit)(+) spiking), as measured using the mitochondrial probe CoroNa Red. In a field of view with approximately 30 astrocytes, up to 1,400 transients per minute were typically detected under resting conditions. Na(mit)(+) spiking was also observed in neurons, but was scarce in two nonneural cell types tested. Astrocytic Na(mit)(+) spikes averaged 12.2 +/- 0.8 s in duration and 35.5 +/- 3.2 mM in amplitude and coincided with brief mitochondrial depolarizations; they were impaired by mitochondrial depolarization and ruthenium red pointing to the involvement of a cation uniporter. Na(mit)(+) spiking activity was significantly inhibited by mitochondrial Na(+)/H(+) exchanger inhibition and sensitive to cellular pH and Na(+) concentration. Ca(2+) played a permissive role on Na(mit)(+) spiking activity. Finally, the authors present evidence suggesting that Na(mit)(+) spiking frequency was correlated with cellular ATP levels. This study shows that, under physiological conditions, individual mitochondria in living astrocytes exhibit fast Na(+) exchange across their inner membrane, which reveals a new form of highly dynamic and localized functional regulation.

  6. Explosive phenomena in heavily irradiated NaCl

    denHartog, HW; Vainshtein, DI; Matthews, GE; Williams, RT


    In heavily irradiated NaCl crystals explosive phenomena can be initiated during irradiation or afterwards when samples are heated to temperatures between 100 and 250 degrees C. During irradiation of NaCl Na and Cl-2 precipitates and void structures are produced along with the accumulation of stored

  7. Stress of Cl- is Stronger than That of Na+ on Glycine max Seedlings Under NaCl Stress

    LUO Qing-yun; YU Bing-jun; LIU You-liang


    Seedlings of six Glycine max cultivars were used to compare Cl- with Na+ in stress effects onsoybean seedlings under NaCl stress. Results showed that stress of NaCl on G. max seedlings was mainlycaused by Cl- and not by Na+. After treatment with isoosmotic solutions of Cl- (without Na+ ) and Na+ (with-out Cl-) respectively, fresh weight and height of G. max seedlings growing in solution of Cl- were much morestressed than those in solution of Na+. And the roots and leaves electrolyte leakage were much more increasedunder stress of Cl- than those under stress of Na+. Salt tolerance of G. max seedlings was mainly contributedto Cl- withheld in roots of seedlings to decrease its content in leaves.


    Aline Ferraz da Silva


    Full Text Available Nesse artigo apresento as considerações e análises presentes na pesquisa em processo, que realizo numa escola pública. Sua constituição deve seu primeiro movimento às manifestações de desconforto e homofobia com relação a um grupo específico de três estudantes gays na comunidade escolar na qual atuo como professora. Percebo que a presença desse grupo desacomoda o cotidiano escolar e desenvolvo minha argumentação com base no potencial desestabilizador desses sujeitos, na intenção de pensar o impensável no currículo escolar. Esse trabalho parte da visibilidade de uma identidade sexual que foge à norma heterossexual e desafia a tendência normalizadora e homogeneizadora da educação. A maneira como esse grupo gay se posiciona e constrói seus corpos cruza as fronteiras do masculino/feminino, desnaturalizando as identidades sexuais e de gênero que se baseiam em características biológicas e se apresentando como diferença que escapa às classificações binárias. Na construção da pesquisa utilizo como referência o pensamento de Michel Foucault, especialmente com relação à construção histórica e discursiva de conceitos como sexualidade, identidade, diferença e normalidade que têm servido para criação e manutenção de padrões de conduta. Ao levar a problematização desses conceitos para o contexto escolar, considero produtiva a teorização queer para pensar a possibilidade de uma educação não heteronormativa, produtora de diferenças, que desconstrua identidades ao invés de tentar cristalizá-las.

  9. Reflectivity of NaK Droplets

    Wiedemann, C.; Oswald, M.; Stabroth, S.; Klinkrad, H.; Vörsmann, P.

    An important contribution to the space debris population near 900 km orbital altitude are the NaK droplets. Sixteen nuclear powered satellites of the type RORSAT launched between 1980 and 1988 activated a reactor core ejection system close to this altitude. The core ejection causes an opening of the primary coolant circuit. The liquid coolant has been released into space during these core ejections, forming droplets up to a diameter of 5.5 cm. These droplets consist of an alloy of two alkali metals, sodium and potassium (NaK). In this paper the monochromatic and the total reflectivity of NaK is calculated using theoretical models. The reflectivity depends on the alloy composition and temperature of a droplet. The alloy composition may change due to evaporation, resulting in an enrichment of sodium especially at the droplet surface. According to the literature, there is only a limited number of available measurement data concerning the optical properties of NaK alloys. Furthermore the published data for pure sodium and potassium are controversial. Thus it is necessary to investigate the optical properties of alkali metals and their alloys. Mainly two types of optical absorption, the intraband and the interband absorption, are considered. The intraband absorption is calculated using the Drude-model which uses electrical properties to derive the optical constants of pure metals or alloys. Drude assumes that the valence electrons can be treated as free electrons. The electrons behave like an ideal gas of uncharged particles. The theory of free electrons is a very simple model for the description of the valence electrons in metals. This assumption is sufficient for alkali metals, because they show a nearly free electron behavior. For the interband absorption the classical Butcher-model is used. Furthermore an absorption anomaly which has been observed in some alkali metals is discussed. Especially for potassium, some measurements revealed an unexpected absorption in the

  10. Route, mechanism, and implications of proton import during Na+/K+ exchange by native Na+/K+-ATPase pumps.

    Vedovato, Natascia; Gadsby, David C


    A single Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase pumps three Na(+) outwards and two K(+) inwards by alternately exposing ion-binding sites to opposite sides of the membrane in a conformational sequence coupled to pump autophosphorylation from ATP and auto-dephosphorylation. The larger flow of Na(+) than K(+) generates outward current across the cell membrane. Less well understood is the ability of Na(+)/K(+) pumps to generate an inward current of protons. Originally noted in pumps deprived of external K(+) and Na(+) ions, as inward current at negative membrane potentials that becomes amplified when external pH is lowered, this proton current is generally viewed as an artifact of those unnatural conditions. We demonstrate here that this inward current also flows at physiological K(+) and Na(+) concentrations. We show that protons exploit ready reversibility of conformational changes associated with extracellular Na(+) release from phosphorylated Na(+)/K(+) pumps. Reversal of a subset of these transitions allows an extracellular proton to bind an acidic side chain and to be subsequently released to the cytoplasm. This back-step of phosphorylated Na(+)/K(+) pumps that enables proton import is not required for completion of the 3 Na(+)/2 K(+) transport cycle. However, the back-step occurs readily during Na(+)/K(+) transport when external K(+) ion binding and occlusion are delayed, and it occurs more frequently when lowered extracellular pH raises the probability of protonation of the externally accessible carboxylate side chain. The proton route passes through the Na(+)-selective binding site III and is distinct from the principal pathway traversed by the majority of transported Na(+) and K(+) ions that passes through binding site II. The inferred occurrence of Na(+)/K(+) exchange and H(+) import during the same conformational cycle of a single molecule identifies the Na(+)/K(+) pump as a hybrid transporter. Whether Na(+)/K(+) pump-mediated proton inflow may have any physiological or

  11. The relation between aging, aortic NaF avidity and coronary artery NaF avidity: A NaF PET CT study

    Blomberg, Björn; Thomassen, Anders; Hildebrandt, Malene;


    volunteers without traditional cardiovascular risk factors were prospectively assessed by Sodium 18-Fluoride (Na-18F) PET CT imaging. Global aortic uptake of Na-18F was determined by calculating the average aortic blood pool subtracted maximum standardized uptake value (cSUV) [maximum SUVaorta - mean...... SUVblood pool]. Global uptake of Na-18F in the coronary arteries was determined by calculating the average heart blood pool subtracted maximum SUV [maximum SUVheart - mean SUVblood pool]. Calculating regression and correlation coefficients summarized the data. Results: A strong linear relationship...... was observed between aortic and coronary artery Na-18F avidity (Pearson’s r = 0.83 [95% CI; 0.49, 0.95]; t statistic = 4.71; P = 0.0008). A quadratic relationship was observed between aging and aortic Na-18F avidity. Also, a quadratic relationship was observed between aging and coronary artery Na-18F uptake...

  12. Na+ channel function, regulation, structure, trafficking and sequestration

    Chen-Izu, Ye; Shaw, Robin M; Pitt, Geoffrey S; Yarov-Yarovoy, Vladimir; Sack, Jon T; Abriel, Hugues; Aldrich, Richard W; Belardinelli, Luiz; Cannell, Mark B; Catterall, William A; Chazin, Walter J; Chiamvimonvat, Nipavan; Deschenes, Isabelle; Grandi, Eleonora; Hund, Thomas J; Izu, Leighton T; Maier, Lars S; Maltsev, Victor A; Marionneau, Celine; Mohler, Peter J; Rajamani, Sridharan; Rasmusson, Randall L; Sobie, Eric A; Clancy, Colleen E; Bers, Donald M


    This paper is the second of a series of three reviews published in this issue resulting from the University of California Davis Cardiovascular Symposium 2014: Systems approach to understanding cardiac excitation–contraction coupling and arrhythmias: Na+ channel and Na+ transport. The goal of the symposium was to bring together experts in the field to discuss points of consensus and controversy on the topic of sodium in the heart. The present review focuses on Na+ channel function and regulation, Na+ channel structure and function, and Na+ channel trafficking, sequestration and complexing. PMID:25772290

  13. Effect of Na+ on surface fractal dimension of compacted bentonite

    Xiang, G. S.; Xu, Y. F.; Jiang, H.


    Compacted Tsukinuno bentonite was immersed into NaCl solutions of different concentrations in oedometers, and the surface fractal dimension of bentonite-saline association was measured by nitrogen adsorption isotherms. The application of the Frenkel-Halsey-Hill equation and the Neimark thermodynamic method to nitrogen adsorption isotherms indicated that the surface roughness was greater for the bentonite-saline association. The surface fractal dimension of bentonite increased in the NaCl solution with low Na+ concentration, but decreased at high Na+ concentration. This process was accompanied by the same tendency in specific surface area and microporosity with the presence of Na+ coating in the clay particles.


    Marinšek, Teja


    Nadzor na delovnem mestu je sodoben problem, v katerem smo udeleženi vsi. Z vedno manjšim zaupanjem med nadrejenimi in podrejenimi se nadzor poostruje in s tem se tudi pritiski na delovnem mestu povečujejo. V diplomskem delu smo raziskovali predvsem vpliv nadzora na vedenje človeka. Zanimalo nas je, kako tak pritisk vpliva na človeka in njegove spremembe v obnašanju. Ali nanj to vpliva pozitivno in motivacijsko ali deluje na človeka negativno. Obravnavali smo tudi zakone, ki opredeljujejo...

  15. NA48 experiment : view along the NA48 beamline with the detector in the distance.

    Hans Taureg


    Photo 02: Side view of the NA48 experiment showing the LKR calorimeter cryostat No one is sure why the Universe wound up the way it has: all matter and no antimatter. According to prevailing theories, the early universe had equal amounts of matter and antimatter. To see what might be missing from the theories, physicists search for the rare cases in which matter and antimatter behave differently. One such imbalance, called direct CP violation, showed up in the NA 31 experiment at CERN. The results from this experiment, first presented in 1993, showed that when K mesons and their antimatter cousins decay, they show a slight preference for matter over antimatter. Later experiments with neutral K mesons, including NA48 at CERN and KTeV at Fermilab in the United States, showed direct CP violation is real.

  16. A coprecipitation technique to prepare NaNbO3 and NaTaO3

    V Samuel; A B Gaikwad; V Ravi


    A simple coprecipitation technique has been used successfully for the preparation of pure, ultrafine, single phases of NaNbO3 (NN) and NaTaO3 (NT). An alcoholic solution of ammonium carbonate and ammonium hydroxide was used to precipitate Na+ and Nb5+ (or Ta5+) cations under basic conditions as carbonate and hydroxide, respectively. On heating at 700°C, these precursors produce respective products. For comparison, both NN and NT powders were also prepared by the traditional solid state method. The phase purity and lattice parameters were studied by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD). The particle size and morphology were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  17. Jahn–Teller Assisted Na Diffusion for High Performance Na Ion Batteries

    Li, Xin [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States). John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences; Wang, Yan [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Wu, Di [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Liu, Lei [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Bo, Shou-Hang [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Ceder, Gerbrand [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering


    Na energy storage technology is strategically attractive for large scale applications such as grid energy storage. Here, we show in this paper that there is a clear relation between the Jahn$-$Teller activity of a transition metal ion at the end of charge and the mobility of Na in a cathode material. This is particularly important as mobility at the end of charge limits the capacity of current materials. Consequently, by using this classical piece of physics in the battery world, it is possible to create higher capacity Na-cathode materials. Even more exciting is that the ideal element to impart this effect on cathodes is Fe, which is the least expensive of the transition metal oxides and can therefore enable low cost cathode materials.

  18. Recent results from NA61/SHINE and comparison to NA49

    Mackowiak-Pawlowska, Maja


    The NA61/SHINE experiment aims to discover the critical point of strongly interacting matter and study properties of the onset of deconfinement. It also performs precise hadron production measurements for the neutrino and cosmic rays experiments. These goals are being achieved by measurements of hadron production properties in nucleus-nucleus, proton-proton and proton/pion-nucleus interactions as a function of collision energy and size of the colliding nuclei. This contribution presents preliminary results from the NA61 ion program on single-particle spectra and identified particle multiplicity fluctuations in p+p interactions at the CERN SPS. Comparisons with results from p+p and Pb+Pb collisions obtained by the NA49 experiment are shown.

  19. Na,K-pump modulates intercellular communication in vascular wall

    Matchkov, Vladimir; Nilsson, Holger; Aalkjær, Christian

      Ouabain, a specific inhibitor of the Na,K-pump, has previously been shown to interfere with intercellular communication. Here we test the hypothesis that the communication between vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) is regulated through an interaction between the Na,K-pump and the Na,Ca-exchanger....... Immunohistochemical analysis suggested that a ouabain-sensitive α2 isoform of the Na,K-pump involved in this interaction. The experiments suggest that the Na,K-pump may affect gap junction conductivity via localized changes in intracellular calcium concentration through modulation of Na,Ca-exchanger activity....... were used as a model for electrical coupling of SMCs by measuring membrane capacitance (Cm). SMCs were uncoupled (evaluated by inhibition of vasomotion and desynchronization of calcium transients in vascular wall, or by reduction to half of Cm measured in paired A7r5 cells) when the Na,K-pump...

  20. Tecnologias na Web 2.0 : o empoderamento na educação aberta

    Santarosa, Lucila Maria Costi; Conforto, Debora; Schneider, Fernanda Chagas


    Esse artigo problematiza a utilização de recursos educacionais abertos, na perspectiva da web 2.0, como tecnologias impulsionadoras de movimentos educativos formais e não formais. Por meio de experiências na formação de educadores em cursos de pós-graduação, discutimos o conceito de empoderamento e os princípios que estruturam a Educação Aberta, para referendar a importância de aproximar sujeitos em processo de formação de sistemas Web abertos instituindo e ampliando os tempos-espaços da apre...

  1. Dieta rica em proteína na redução do peso corporal

    Pedrosa,Rogerio Graça; DONATO JUNIOR, Jose; Tirapegui, Julio


    A proporção ideal dos macronutrientes em dietas de emagrecimento é atualmente bastante discutida. Existem evidências de que dietas com maior proporção de proteína aumentam a perda de peso e de gordura corporal e diminuem a perda de massa corporal magra durante o emagrecimento. Todavia, os mecanismos responsáveis por estes efeitos não estão totalmente esclarecidos. Além disso, existem poucas conclusões a respeito dos possíveis efeitos colaterais dessas dietas na função renal e no estado nutric...

  2. Direct Reactions with MoNA-LISA

    Kuchera, Anthony


    Nuclear reactions can be used to probe the structure of nuclei. Direct reactions, which take place on short time scales, are well-suited for experiments with beams of short-lived nuclei. One such reaction is nucleon knockout where a proton or neutron is removed from the incoming beam from the interaction with a target. Single nucleon knockout reactions have been used to study the single-particle nature of nuclear wave functions. A recent experiment at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory was performed to measure cross sections from single nucleon knockout reactions for several p-shell nuclei. Detection of the residual nucleus in coincidence with any gamma rays emitted from the target allowed cross sections to ground and excited states to be measured. Together with input from reaction theory, ab initio structure theories can be tested. Simultaneously the accuracy of knockout reaction models can be validated by detecting the knocked out neutron with the Modular Neutron Array and Large multi-Institutional Scintillator Array (MoNA-LISA). Preliminary results from this experiment will be shown. Knockout reactions can also be used to populate nuclei which are neutron unbound, thus emit neutrons nearly instantaneously. The structure of these nuclei, therefore, cannot be probed with gamma ray spectroscopy. However, with large neutron detectors like MoNA-LISA the properties of these short-lived nuclei are able to be measured. Recent results using MoNA-LISA to study the structure of neutron-rich nuclei will be presented. The author would like to acknowledge support from the NNSA and NSF.

  3. NaI(Tl) response functions

    Vega C, H. R.; Ortiz R, J. M. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico); Benites R, J. L. [Centro Estatal de Cancerologia de Nayarit, Calz. de la Cruz 118 Sur, Tepic, Nayarit (Mexico); De Leon M, H. A., E-mail: [Instituto Tecnologico de Aguascalientes, Av. Adolfo Lopez Mateos 1801 Ote., 20155 Aguascalientes, Ags. (Mexico)


    The response functions of a NaI(Tl) detector have been estimated using Monte Carlo methods. Response functions were calculated for monoenergetic photon sources (0.05 to 3 MeV). Responses were calculated for point-like sources and for sources distributed in Portland cement cylinders. The responses were used to calculate the efficiency functions in term of photon energy. Commonly, sources used for calibration are point-like, and eventually sources to be measured have different features. In order to use the calibrated sources corrections due to solid angle, self-absorption and scattering, must be carried out. However, some of these corrections are not easy to perform. In this work, the calculated responses were used to estimate the detector efficiency of point-like sources, and sources distributed in Portland type cement. Samples of Portland paste were prepared and were exposed to photoneutrons produced by a 15 MV linac. Some of the elements in the cement were activated producing γ-emitting radionuclides that were measured with a NaI(Tl) gamma-ray spectrometer, that was calibrated with point-like sources. In order to determine the specific activity in the induced radioisotopes calculated efficiencies were used to make corrections due to the differences between the solid angle, photon absorption and photon scattering in the point-like calibration sources and the sources distributed in cement. During the interaction between photoneutrons and the cement samples three radioisotopes were induced: {sup 56}Mn, {sup 24}Na, and {sup 28}Al. (Author)

  4. Linguagens na TV Languages on tv

    Glaucia Guimarães


    Full Text Available Este artigo aborda questões relativas às estratégias discursivas utilizadas na produção dos textos televisivos. Com base na Análise Crítica de Discurso (ACD, nos termos em que é formulada por Norman Fairclough, o trabalho analisa os modos pelos quais as linguagens (incluindo materiais semióticos diversos são articuladas na/pela TV, sistematiza as relações entre a articulação de linguagens e a produção de efeitos de sentido, bem como os modos de sua inscrição nas tendências discursivas contemporâneas, a saber: democratização, tecnologização e comodificação. A partir das relações entre as práticas de linguagem e as tendências destacadas, o artigo tece considerações sobre as condições de produção de leituras críticas dos textos multimidiáticos, nas suas múltiplas dimensões: dos contextos e mecanismos da produção textual à pluralidade constitutiva de sua recepção.This paper deals with issues related to discursive strategies in the production of TV texts. Based on Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA, as formulated by Norman Fairclough, it analyzes the ways languages (including several semiotic materials are articulated in order to produce a range of wanted meaning effects, as well as the ways they are inscribed in the contemporary discursive trends discussed by the author, namely: democratization, technologization and commodification. Departing from the analysis of language practices and the discursive trends underlined, the paper aims at clarifying the multiple dimensions of multimedia conditions of production, focusing on both the context and the mechanisms and the diverse reception (reading possibilities.

  5. Reinterpretacija na krilatata zmija (drakon v hristijanskata tradicija: Po povod ukrasata na Divoševoto evangelie

    Džurova Aksinija


    Full Text Available (bugarski V statijata se razgležda edin ot motivite v ukrasata na Divoševoto evangelie ot XIV v. - tozi na krilatija drakon (na mesta s kozja glava i podobnata na nego ukrasa v sr'bski, gr'cki i ruski r'kopisi, povlijani v svojata dekoracija ot romanskoto izkustvo, koeto ot svoja strana interpretira rannohristijanski motivi, vlezli v r'kopisnija repertoar na gr'ckite kodeksi ošče prez X-XI v. i otnovo pojavili se v k'snovizantijskata tradicija.


    Lahovnik, Janja


    Prvo triletje osnovne šole pokriva prvo fazo opismenjevanja, to je učenje branja in pisanja, ob tem pa razvijanje sposobnosti poslušanja in govorjenja. Prvi je proces dekodiranja besed oziroma vzpostavitev odnosa med črko in glasom. Najprej učenci spoznajo znake za črke in glasove, nato pa sledita branje in pisanje. Drugi proces zajema uporabo govornih sposobnosti, ki se kažejo na razumevanju prepoznanih besed. Obvladovanje abecednega zapisovanja zahteva sposobnosti zavedanja besed, zlogov in...

  7. As emoções na fala

    Rodrigues, Américo Jorge Monteiro


    No presente trabalho analisamos algumas características acústicas (duração, frequência fundamental, F1 e F2) de um pequeno corpus de “voz emocional”, em Português Europeu, gravado por um actor. Procedemos também a testes de percepção desse corpus, a que se submeteu um grupo diversificado e o informante. Reflectimos também acerca do envolvimento emocional dos actores na construção de personagens, usando a voz. ABSTRACT: In the present work we analyse several acoustic charac...


    Santin, Elizabeth; Maiorka,Alex; Zanella,Irineo; Magon,Leandro


    Micotoxinas são metabólitos tóxicos produzidos por fungos, de natureza heterogênea e com variados princípios farmacológicos, que podem atuar sobre o organismo animal prejudicando o seu desempenho e desenvolvendo alterações patológicas graves. Nos últimos anos, as micotoxicoses têm recebido especial atenção devido às enormes perdas que vem causando na avicultura mundial. Fungos do gênero Fusarium são descritos como produtores de diversos tipos de toxinas. Assim sendo, as intoxicações causadas ...

  9. Results on leptonic probes from NA50

    Alessandro, B; Arnaldi, R; Atayan, M; Baglin, C; Baldit, A; Bedjidian, Marc; Beolè, S; Boldea, V; Bordalo, P; Borenstein, S R; Borges, G; Bussière, A; Capelli, L; Castanier, C; Castor, J I; Chaurand, B; Cheynis, B; Chiavassa, E; Cicalò, C; Claudino, T; Comets, M P; Constantinescu, S; Cortese, P; Cruz, J; De Falco, A; De Marco, N; Dellacasa, G; Devaux, A; Dita, S; Drapier, O; Espagnon, B; Fargeix, J; Force, P; Gallio, M; Gavrilov, Yu K; Gerschel, C; Giubellino, P; Golubeva, M B; Gonin, M; Grigorian, A A; Grigorian, S; Grossiord, J Y; Guber, F F; Guichard, A; Gulkanian, H R; Hakobyan, R S; Haroutunian, R; Idzik, M; Jouan, D; Karavitcheva, T L; Kluberg, L; Kurepin, A B; Le Bornec, Y; Lourenço, C; Macciotta, P; MacCormick, M; Marzari-Chiesa, A; Masera, M; Masoni, A; Monteno, M; Musso, A; Petiau, P; Piccotti, A; Pizzi, J R; Prado da Silva, W L; Prino, F; Puddu, G; Quintans, C; Ramello, L; Ramos, S; Rato-Mendes, P; Riccati, L; Romana, A; Santos, H; Saturnini, P; Scalas, E; Scomparin, E; Serci, S; Shahoyan, R; Sigaudo, F; Sitta, M; Sonderegger, P; Tarrago, X; Topilskaya, N S; Usai, G L; Vercellin, Ermanno; Villatte, L; Willis, N; Wu, T


    The NA50 Collaboration has performed a new measurement of the J/ psi yield in Pb-Pb collisions at 158 GeV/nucleon in improved experimental conditions. Our preliminary analysis of the year 2000 data sample, while confirming the onset of anomalous suppression and the non saturation of the J/ psi /Drell-Yan cross-section ratio, shows that peripheral Pb-Pb interactions follow the normal nuclear absorption pattern, which has in turn been established more precisely thanks to high statistics p-A data. (11 refs).


    Delia Catullo Goldfarb


    Full Text Available RESUMO: O presente texto reproduz os trabalhos apresentados em mesa redonda sobre depressão e envelhecimento na contemporaneidade no III Congresso Ibero-americano de Psicogerontologia, realizado em novembro de 2010 em São Paulo. Estes trabalhos são resultado de reflexões precedentes em um grupo de estudos e de discussão de casos clínicos composto por psicanalistas. A depressão é uma figura psicopatológica de presença maciça nos dias de hoje. Na velhice o acúmulo de perdas e a aproximação da morte podem produzir um estado de tristeza, fundo depressivo que caracteriza um momento de recolhimento em que ocorrem os processos de luto. Em alguns sujeitos o que se verifica é a instalação de um episódio depressivo que indica a paralisação destes processos elaborativos e a progressão de um esvaziamento do sentido para a vida, restando, neste contexto, apenas a espera pela morte. Neste trabalho serão discutidos aspectos que concernem a vivência destas duas modalidades de enfrentamento da entrada na velhice, levando-se em conta as maneiras como a cultura pode favorecer a ocorrência destes percursos distintos do envelhecer, e como ela os aloja atualmente em um movimento de desconsideração da subjetividade: desanimo da velhice ou problema neuroquímico? Serão apresentadas hipóteses para a produção da depressão como psicopatologia no envelhecimento e reflexões sobre observações clínicas que derivam destes quadros clínicos, tais como: a crise da percepção da entrada na velhice, o corpo hipocondríaco, a paralisia do tempo, a vivência do desamparo. Palavras-chave: depressão, envelhecimento, cultura, corpo, tempo

  11. Da mulher na Bíblia

    Jacó Guinsburg


    Full Text Available Este artigo discute a figura e a representação da mulher na Bíblia. Elas são multidão no relato bíblico. Desde Eva, a cada página surge um vulto de mulher. Virtuoso ou pecador, desalmado ou abnegado, terno ou tirânico, ele suscita, hoje como outrora, a impressão viva de um temperamento, de um gesto, de um sentimento. O jogo sutil da psicologia e das motivações femininas, das suas relações com o mundo masculino, continua palpitando nas heroínas das Escrituras.

  12. Laparoscopia na abordagem inicial de tumores anexiais


    OBJETIVO: Avaliar o uso da laparoscopia como método diagnóstico e terapêutico na abordagem inicial de tumores anexiais em população de risco para malignidade, bem como fatores clínicos associados à falha do método e conversão para laparotomia, e comparar taxas de complicação com pacientes cuja abordagem inicial se deu por laparotomia. MÉTODOS: Estudo prospectivo com 210 mulheres com exames de imagem prévios constando tumor an...

  13. O satanismo na obra de Julio Perneta

    Natalia Simões de Vicente


    Resumo: Este trabalho consiste, primeiramente, na compilação da obra de Júlio Perneta. Como conseqüência da compilação, passa-se a fazer a análise dos recursos literários utilizados, pelo poeta, para a construção de uma atmosfera satânica nos livros Bronzes e Malditos. inicialmente, para melhor situar o autor e sua obra, discutem-se o contexto histórico e cultural do Simbolismo no Brasil e em Curitiba, bem como se estuda o movimento anticlerical paranaense, do qual o poeta fez parte. A seg...

  14. Sindromi prenaprezanja na potkoljenici i stopalu

    Smerdelj, Miroslav; Madjarević, Mladen; OREMUŠ, KREŠIMIR


    U radu autori opisuju i objašnjavaju nastanak bolnih sindroma u području potkoljenice i stopala, vezanih uz profesiju odnosno sportsku aktivnost. Iznose se zapažanja i iskustva iz svakodnevne liječničke prakse, a i podaci iz novije medicinske literature. Značenje se daje liječenju koje je obično konzervativno, a od kirurških metoda naglasak se daje na nove manje invazivne metode. U radu su opisani najčešći sindromi prenaprezanja u području potkoljenice kao što su trkačka potkoljenica, sindrom...

  15. Cerenkov counter for the experiment NA3


    The program of the NA3 experiment included the study of hadronic interactions with a large transverse momentum pT, thus the inclusion in the set-up of three gas threshold Cerenkov counters of large acceptance. The photo shows the downstream part of the second Cerenkov (located at the output of the magnet). The yellow membrane is a temporary protection for the optics (shown in photo 7810540X) to be taken away when fixing this part to the gas tank (entering the magnet and not shown). The photomultipliers all around are heavily shielded.


    Rita Melissa Lepre


    Full Text Available O presente artigo configura-se como uma reflexão acerca da indisciplina e suas possíveis causas. Para debater sobre o assunto apresentamos a teoria do desenvolvimento moral de Jean Piaget e articulamos suas descobertas com a questão da indisciplina na escola. São feitas, ainda, reflexões sobre o ambiente em que nossas crianças encontram-se inseridas por, pelo menos, cinco horas diárias.

  17. Ensino de geometria descritiva: inovando na metodologia

    Regina Coeli Moraes Kopke


    Full Text Available Com base na observação, durante anos de magistério superior, na área de desenho, dos alunos de Engenharia, Matemática, Arquitetura e Artes, quanto às dificuldades encontradas por eles no aprendizado de desenho, em especial da Geometria Descritiva, é que nos propusemos, em 1999, lecionar essa disciplina para os cursos de Arquitetura e Artes, adotando uma metodologia diferente da convencional, para despertar, no aluno, o gosto pela disciplina e o desenvolvimento de uma habilidade pouco trabalhada na escola: a visão espacial. Mostrar para os alunos que essa disciplina não é difícil, mas apenas diferente daquilo que estudaram até então, tornou-se nossa meta. A visão espacial é uma habilidade mental localizada no lado direito do cérebro e, assim, quanto mais lúdica for esta aprendizagem, será mais bem assimilada. A proposta é iniciada no sentido de se trabalhar primeiro com sólidos: neles estarão os pontos, retas e planos normalmente abordados na metodologia convencional, nessa ordem. Como conclusão, tem-se que o importante é ressaltar o grande avanço que a Geometria Descritiva traz para quem quer representar graficamente qualquer coisa. Onde há planejamento, projeto e representação gráfica, aí estará a Geometria Descritiva.During many years observing the teaching of design at the Engineering, Mathematics, Architeture and Arts courses, we can note the difficulties of the students to learn it, specially the descriptive geometry. Because of that, we decided to teach this discipline to the Architeture and Arts courses, using a new metodology to make the students motivated to study and to learn, and trying to develop their their spatial vision. We want to show to the students that this discipline is not so difficult as they think, but show them that is only different. The spatial vision is a mental skill found at the right side of the brain and the more soft the learning is, the more it is assimilated by the brain. The

  18. The NA62 Gigatracker pixel detector system

    Mazza, G., E-mail: mazza@to.infn.i [INFN, sezione di Torino, 10125 Torino (Italy); Ceccucci, A. [CERN, CH-1211, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Cortina, E. [UCL, Louvain la Neuve (Belgium); Cotta Ramusino, A. [INFN, sezione di Ferrara, 44100 Ferrara (Italy); Dellacasa, G. [INFN, sezione di Torino, 10125 Torino (Italy); Fiorini, M. [CERN, CH-1211, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Garbolino, S. [INFN, sezione di Torino, 10125 Torino (Italy); Jarron, P.; Kaplon, J.; Kluge, A. [CERN, CH-1211, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Marchetto, F. [INFN, sezione di Torino, 10125 Torino (Italy); Martin, E. [UCL, Louvain la Neuve (Belgium); Martoiu, S. [INFN, sezione di Torino, 10125 Torino (Italy); Noy, M. [CERN, CH-1211, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Petrucci, F. [INFN, sezione di Ferrara, 44100 Ferrara (Italy); Riedler, P. [CERN, CH-1211, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Rivetti, A. [INFN, sezione di Torino, 10125 Torino (Italy); Tiuraniemi, S. [CERN, CH-1211, Geneva 23 (Switzerland)


    The silicon tracker for the NA62 experiment has to provide both a time resolution of 150 ps rms and a space resolution of about 100{mu}mrms. These challenging specifications require the development of a new readout electronics in order to address the problem of measuring the tracks arrival time with such a high channel density. Moreover, the high particle density (up to 1.5MHz/mm{sup 2} in the center and 0.8-1 GHz in total) requires a high speed measurement and data transmission in order to keep the dead time below 1%.

  19. Bullying e peer status na escola

    Sequeira, Paulo Jorge Ferreira Pinto


    O presente trabalho propõe-se realizar, na sequência da Suficiência Investigadora que se debruçou genericamente sobre o tema do bullying (acoso escolar), uma análise exaustiva da associação entre a estrutura sócio-afectiva (peer status) em sala de aula e a incidência de bullying (acoso moral), em alunos do 4.º ano de escolaridade. Sustentar-se-á essa análise no marco teórico validado em sede de defesa da suficiência, devidamente actualizado e direccionado para a reflexão autora...

  20. Erro humano na saúde

    Seitz, Eva Maria


    Tese (doutorado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro Tecnológico, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Produção, Florianópolis, 2015. O presente estudo foi desenvolvido com o objetivo propor diretrizes para impedir ocorrência do erro no preparo, administração e monitoramento de Medicamentos Potencialmente Perigosos (MPPs) por via intravenosa em um Serviço de Emergência Adulto num hospital escola, com ênfase na ergonomia, visando à segurança do paciente e trabalhadores. O...

  1. The NA62 experiment at CERN

    Piccini, Mauro


    The rare decays K → πvv¯ are excellent processes to make tests of new physics at the highest scale complementary to LHC thanks to their theoretically cleanness. The NA62 experiment at CERN SPS aims to collect of the order of 100 events in two years of data taking for the decay K+ → π+vv¯, keeping the background at the level of 10%. Part of the experimental apparatus has been commissioned during a technical run in 2012. The diverse and innovative experimental techniques will be explained and some preliminary results obtained during the 2014 pilot run will be reviewed.

  2. The NA62 experiment at CERN

    Piccini Mauro


    Full Text Available The rare decays K → πvv̄ are excellent processes to make tests of new physics at the highest scale complementary to LHC thanks to their theoretically cleanness. The NA62 experiment at CERN SPS aims to collect of the order of 100 events in two years of data taking for the decay K+ → π+vv̄, keeping the background at the level of 10%. Part of the experimental apparatus has been commissioned during a technical run in 2012. The diverse and innovative experimental techniques will be explained and some preliminary results obtained during the 2014 pilot run will be reviewed.

  3. Status of the NA62 Experiment

    Palladino, Vito


    The rare decays {{{K}}^ + } to {π ^ + }{{ν bar ν }} are excellent processes to make tests of new physics at the highest scale complementary to LHC thanks to their theoretically cleaness. The NA62 experiment at CERN SPS aims to collect of the order of 100 events in two years of data taking, keeping the background at the level of 10%. Part of the experimental apparatus has been commissioned during a technical run in 2012. The physics prospects and the status of the experiment will be reviewed after the commissioning run of 2014 and the data taking in 2015.


    Cerny, Jaroslav; Vaclavickova, Ivana


    Sažetak U radu se sažimaju utjecaji na viskoznost motornoga ulja, poput smične stabilnosti modifikatora viskoznosti, udjela goriva i/ili čađe te degradacije ulja izazvane toplinskom oksidacijom. Značaj pojedinačnih vidova praćen je za nekoliko motornih ulja različitih gradacija viskoznosti cestovnim radom vozila s benzinskim motorom, kao i onih s dizelovim motorima. Trendovi promjene viskoznosti praćeni su i procjenjivani.

  5. Torcicolo adquirido na criança

    Regala, Joana; Martins, Joana; Dias, Ana Isabel; Moreira, Ana; Neves, Manuel Cassiano


    O torcicolo adquirido na criança é uma manifestação clínica de múltiplas etiologias possíveis, que se podem agrupar em entidades musculoesqueléticas de origem traumática, infecciosa, inflamatória e tumoral, e entidades não musculo-esqueléticas de origem neurológica, oftalmológica, otorrinolaringológica,gastroenterológica e tumoral do sistema nervoso central. Assim existe um amplo espectro de gravidade,desde processos benignos e autolimitados tal como o torcicolo traumático até quadros graves ...

  6. A celulose na farmácia

    Lima Neto, Severino Antonio de; Petrovick, Pedro Ros


    Derivados de celulose ocupam um lugar de destaque entre os adjuvantes farmacêuticos modernos. A ampla gama de aplicação da celulose e de seus derivados abrange das formas farmacêuticas sólidas, como aglutinantes, desintegrantes ou filmógenos, até formas farmacêuticas semi-sólidas, onde são empregados, especialmente como formadores de hidrogéis. Esta revisão apresenta alguns dos compostos de celulose mais empregados na prática farmacêutica como adjuvantes farmacêuticos, dando ênfase aos adjuva...

  7. Ajustamento emocional e coping na compulsividade sexual


    Nos últimos anos a comunidade científica tem prestado especial atenção às características do comportamento sexual compulsivo, bem como da sua etiologia e conceptualização, existindo ainda alguma controvérsia relativamente a estes quesitos. O presente estudo teve como objectivos analisar o papel do ajustamento emocional/psicopatologia na compulsividade sexual em jovens/estudantes universitários de ambos os sexos, assim como avaliar se a resposta sexual (desejo e excitação sex...

  8. Interactions between Na+ channels and Na+-HCO3- cotransporters in the freshwater fish gill MR cell: a model for transepithelial Na+ uptake.

    Parks, Scott K; Tresguerres, Martin; Goss, Greg G


    Isolated mitochondria-rich (MR) cells from the rainbow trout gill epithelium were subjected to intracellular pH (pH(i)) imaging with the pH-sensitive dye BCECF-AM. MR cells were categorized into two distinct functional subtypes based on their ability to recover pH(i) from an NH(4)Cl-induced acidification in the absence of Na(+). An apparent link between resting pH(i) and Na(+)-independent pH(i) recovery was made. We observed a unique pH(i) acidification event that was induced by extracellular Na(+) addition. This further classified the mixed MR cell population into two functional subtypes: the majority of cells (77%) demonstrated the Na(+)-induced pH(i) acidification, whereas the minority (23%) demonstrated an alkalinization of pH(i) under the same circumstances. The focus of this study was placed on the Na(+)-induced acidification and pharmacological analysis via the use of amiloride and phenamil, which revealed that Na(+) uptake was responsible for the intracellular acidification. Further experiments revealed that pH(i) acidification could be abolished when Na(+) was allowed entry into the cell, but the activity of an electrogenic Na(+)-HCO(3)(-) cotransporter (NBC) was inhibited by DIDS. The electrogenic NBC activity was supported by a DIDS-sensitive, Na(+)-induced membrane potential depolarization as observed via imaging of the voltage-sensitive dye bis-oxonol. We also demonstrated NBC immunoreactivity via Western blotting and immunohistochemistry in gill tissue. We propose a model for transepithelial Na(+) uptake occurring via an apical Na(+) channel linked to a basolateral, electrogenic NBC in one subpopulation of MR cells.

  9. Novel regulation of cell [Na(+)] in macula densa cells: apical Na(+) recycling by H-K-ATPase.

    Peti-Peterdi, János; Bebok, Zsuzsa; Lapointe, Jean-Yves; Bell, P Darwin


    Na-K-ATPase is the nearly ubiquitous enzyme that maintains low-Na(+), high-K(+) concentrations in cells by actively extruding Na(+) in exchange for K(+). The prevailing paradigm in polarized absorbing epithelial cells, including renal nephron segments and intestine, has been that Na-K-ATPase is restricted to the basolateral membrane domain, where it plays a prominent role in Na(+) absorption. We have found, however, that macula densa (MD) cells lack functionally and immunologically detectable amounts of Na-K-ATPase protein. In fact, these cells appear to regulate their cytosolic [Na(+)] via another member of the P-type ATPase family, the colonic form of H-K-ATPase, which is located at the apical membrane in these cells. We now report that this constitutively expressed apical MD colonic H-K-ATPase can function as a Na(H)-K-ATPase and regulate cytosolic [Na(+)] in a novel manner. This apical Na(+)-recycling mechanism may be important as part of the sensor function of MD cells and represents a new paradigm in cell [Na(+)] regulation.

  10. Radionuclides as tracers of coastal processes in Brazil: review, synthesis, and perspectives

    Isaac R. Santos


    descriptive, environmental quality-based assessments to approaches that attempt to quantify chemical, physical, and biological processes in the environment.Este artigo revisa a utilidade, limitações, importância e implicações para o gerenciamento costeiro das medições de radionuclídeos em ambientes costeiros do Brasil. O artigo enfoca o uso de radioisótopos como traçadores de processos sedimentares e descarga de água subterrânea na zona costeira. Também, é apresentada uma discussão sobre contaminação por radionuclídeos e áreas de alta radioatividade natural. A interpretação de taxas de sedimentação baseadas em 14C, 137Cs e 210Pb demonstra que o uso inadequado do solo por atividades agrícolas e urbanas intensificou os processos de erosão no continente, o que é refletido em ambientes deposicionais, como lagoas costeiras, estuários e manguezais. Existem apenas dois estudos de caso sobre o uso de isótopos como traçadores de água subterrânea no Brasil demonstrando que águas subterrâneas podem ser uma importante fonte de nutrientes e outras substâncias dissolvidas para o oceano. Uma melhor avaliação dos fluxos de água subterrânea para o mar parece ser uma das maiores prioridades científicas atuais na área de radioatividade ambiental. Os níveis de base de 137Cs, 90Sr, 239+240Pu, e 238Pu na água do mar, peixes, e sedimentos brasileiros são, em geral, bastante baixos. Portanto, apesar dos problemas de contaminação no hemisfério norte, a poluição por radionuclídeos artificiais ainda é desprezível no Brasil. Indústrias de fertilizantes fosfatados e refinarias de petróleo parecem ser as principais atividades econômicas produzindo rejeitos contendo materiais radioativos. Embora algumas investigações tenham determinado o efeito radiológico dessas atividades, suas ameaças potenciais demonstram a necessidade do controle de emissões. Este artigo demonstra que o número de investigações na área de radioatividade ambiental ainda

  11. [Effects of NaCl stress on the seedling growth and K(+)- and Na(+) -allocation of four leguminous tree species].

    Mo, Hai-Bo; Yin, Yun-Long; Lu, Zhi-Guo; Wei, Xiu-Jun; Xu, Jian-Hua


    Taking the pot-cultured seedlings of four leguminous tree species (Albizia julibrissin, Robinia pseudoacacia, Sophora japonica, and Gleditsia sinensis) as test materials, this paper studied their growth indices, critical salt concentration (C50), and K+ and Na+ allocation under different levels of NaCl stress, aimed to understand the difference of test tree species in salt tolerance. NaCl stress inhibited the seedling growth of the tree species. Under NaCl stress, the dry matter accumulation decreased, while the root/shoot ratio increased, especially for A. julibrissin and G. sinensis. Quadratic regression analysis showed that the C50 of A. julibrissin, R. pseudoacacia, S. japonica, and G. sinensis was 3.0 per thousand, 5.0 per thousand, 4.5 per thousand, and 3.9 per thousand, respectively, i.e., the salt tolerance of the four tree species was in the order of R. pseudoacacia > S. japonica > G. sinensis > A. julibrissin. In the root, stem, and leaf of the four tree species seedlings, the Na+ content increased with the increase of NaCl stress, while the K+ content (except in the root of A. julibrissin) decreased after an initial increase, resulting in a larger difference in the K+/Na+ ratio in the organs. Under the same NaCl stress, the allocation of Na+ in different organs of the four tree species seedlings decreased in the order of root>stem>leaf, while that of K+ differed with tree species and NaCl stress, and leaf was the main storage organ for K+. The K+/Na+ ratio in different organs decreased in the sequence of leaf>stem>root. R. pseudoacacia under NaCl stress accumulated more K+ and less Na+ in stem and leaf, and had higher K+/Na+ ratio in all organs and higher dry mass, being assessed to be more salt-tolerant. In contrast, A. julibrissin under high NaCl stress accumulated more Na+ in stem and leaf, and had a lower K+/Na+ ratio in all organs and lower dry mass, being evaluated to be lesser salt-tolerant. The K+ accumulation in seedling stem and leaf and the Na

  12. Preparation and characterization of Na3BO3–Na2SO4 glass electrolytes with Na+ ion conductivity prepared by a mechanical milling technique

    Kenji Suzuki


    Full Text Available The (100 − xNa3BO3·xNa2SO4 (0 ≤ x (mol% ≤ 50 glasses were prepared by mechanical milling. Halo patterns were observed in the compositions 0 ≤ x ≤ 50 by XRD measurements. The Raman spectra indicated that all the glasses were composed of BO33− anions, SO42− anions and Na+ cations. The (100 − xNa3BO3·xNa2SO4 glasses showed good deformation properties and a dense pellet was prepared by cold-press. The conductivities of the glasses increased with increasing Na2SO4 content, and the 50Na3BO3·50Na2SO4 glass showed the highest conductivity of 5.9 × 10−8 S cm−1 at 25 °C.

  13. NaSrMn2F7, NaCaFe2F7, and NaSrFe2F7: novel single crystal pyrochlore antiferromagnets

    Sanders, M. B.; Krizan, J. W.; Plumb, K. W.; McQueen, T. M.; Cava, R. J.


    The crystal structures and magnetic properties of three previously unreported A2B2F7 pyrochlore materials, NaSrMn2F7, NaCaFe2F7, and NaSrFe2F7 are presented. In these compounds, either S  =  2Fe2+ or S  =  5/2Mn2+ is on the B site, while nonmagnetic Na and Ca (Na and Sr) are disordered on the A site. The materials, which were grown as crystals via the floating zone method, display high effective magnetic moments and large Curie-Weiss thetas. Despite these characteristics, no ordering transition is detected. However, freezing of the magnetic spins, characterized by peaks in the susceptibility or specific heat, is observed at very low temperatures. The empirical frustration index, f  =  -θ CW/T f, for the materials are 36 (NaSrMn2F7), 27 (NaSrFe2F7), and 19 (NaCaFe2F7). AC susceptibility, DC susceptibility, and heat capacity measurements are used to characterize the observed spin glass behavior. The results suggest that the compounds are frustrated pyrochlore antiferromagnets with weak bond disorder. The magnetic phenomena that these fluoride pyrochlores exhibit, in addition to their availability as relatively large single crystals, make them promising candidates for the study of geometric magnetic frustration.

  14. Hadron production measurement from NA61/SHINE

    Korzenev, A


    New results of NA61/SHINE on determination of charged hadron yields in proton-carbon interactions are presented. They aim to improve predictions of the neutrino flux in the T2K experiment. The data were recorded using a secondary-proton beam of 31 GeV/$c$ momentum from CERN SPS which impinges on a graphite target. To determine the inclusive production cross section for charged pions, kaons and protons the thin ($0.04\\, \\lambda_I$) target was exploited. Results of this measurement are used in the T2K beam simulation program to reweight hadron yields in the interaction vertex. At the same time, NA61/SHINE results obtained with the T2K replica target ($1.9\\, \\lambda_I$) allow to constrain hadron yields at the surface of the target. It would correspond to the constraint up to 90% of the neutrino flux, thus reducing significantly a model dependence of the neutrino beam prediction. All measured spectra are compared to predictions of hadron production models. In addition a status of the analysis of data collected by...

  15. A biotecnologia na agropecuária

    João Lúcio de Azevedo


    Full Text Available This review reports the use of biotechnology in agriculture and animal husbandry. The main techniques and the most important products both in experimental stage or in commercial use are reported. The work intends to give a global vision to the theme, chronologically and spacely, showing the main lines of research and what has been obtained in this area. The techniques and products that are related to genetics and breeding are emphasized. Revisão Bibliográfica do emprego da biotecnologia na agropecuária, mostrando um levantamento das técnicas mais promissoras e de seus principais produtos, tanto em fase experimental como em uso comercial. Pretende-se dar uma visão global do assunto, cronológica e espacialmente, não se prendendo à detalhes, mostrando, em Unhas gerais, o que foi feito e o que se faz, atualmente, em biotecnologia. As técnicas e produtos que influenciam a área de genética e melhoramento genético na agropecuária, são enfatizadas.

  16. Vinhos, Turismo e Pluriatividade na Agricultura

    Hernanda Tonini


    Full Text Available A gastronomia, além de ter importante relação com a economia, é uma forma expressiva da cultura dos indivíduos, desde o tipo de alimentos cultivados até a maneira de seu preparo e consumo. O presente artigo propõe-se a analisar a relação entre o enoturismo – centralizado na existência do vinho enquanto elemento gastronômico – e o fenômeno da pluriatividade na agricultura familiar, vista nos últimos anos como alternativa positiva para sua reprodução econômica e social. O fluxo turístico em regiões vitivinícolas gera novas oportunidades de trabalho e faz com que agricultores e suas famílias dividam a mão de obra agrícola, até então direcionada ao cultivo da uva e outros alimentos para subsistência, com atividades não agrícolas – como o artesanato, o acolhimento de visitantes em pousadas, a atuação em restaurantes, entre outras – como chance de subsistência. Este panorama transforma as realidades do mundo rural, alterando a relação do agricultor com a produção de alimentos e a forma como o mesmo os utiliza, além de reestruturar o ambiente sociocultural no seu entorno.  

  17. Direito do poeta na literatura de cordel

    Sale Mário Gaudêncio

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta uma análise situacional dos direitos autorais na literatura de cordel, especialmente no que se refere à proteção moral e patrimonial que é dada aos poetas populares. Justifica-se o estudo em função de não haver profundas nem atuais discussões teóricas sobre a preservação moral e patrimonial em torno das obras de cordel. Utiliza-se como metodologia a pesquisa bibliográfica relacionada a um corpusque analisa os folhetos impressos por poetas da literatura de cordel. O estudo mostra como resultados o estabelecimento de um modelo alternativo de prazos para os direitos autorais na poesia popular, além da necessidade de ruptura técnica, política e cultural. Conclui informando sobre a importância de se construir um banco de dados nacional para que se tenha conhecimento pleno do quê e como se está produzindo a literatura de cordel, além de saber quem verdadeiramente está sendo beneficiado com tais produções.

  18. Autonomia e vulnerabilidade na vida dos adolescentes

    Renata R. de Oliveira


    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com a finalidade de estabelecer relações entre os princípios éticos da autonomia e vulnerabilidade e a vida de adolescentes, pessoas reconhecidamente passíveis de síndromes depressivas, uso abusivo de drogas ilícitas, alcoolismo e tabagismo. Famílias desestruturadas, pais ausentes, companhia de amigos que levam a diferentes vícios, facilidade de acesso a fontes desencontradas de informações e uma sociedade indiferente afetam o desenvolvimento normal dos jovens. Considera-se, ainda, o grande desafio apresentado a profissionais de saúde em agir na busca de reduzir a vulnerabilidade dos adolescentes e permitir que os mesmo usem de autonomia com responsabilidade na tomada de decisões em suas vidas pessoais. O cuidado com os mesmos deve ser mais integral e ativo e a sociedade ainda não reconheceu adequadamente a importância de cuidar do desenvolvimento saudável desse imenso contingente humano.

  19. Plantas indicadoras de clomazone na fase vapor

    Fábio Schreiber


    Full Text Available A volatilização representa um processo importante no deslocamento de agrotóxicos para o ambiente. As características físico-químicas da molécula do clomazone indicam que este possui potencial de volatilização. Em vista do exposto, para a realização deste estudo, foram conduzidos dois experimentos com o objetivo de avaliar a suscetibilidade das espécies: pepino, melão, milho, sorgo e arroz a diferentes formulações do herbicida clomazone na fase vapor. Para isso, foram utilizadas caixas de vidro hermeticamente fechadas, com a presença de diferentes formulações de clomazone e as espécies vegetais. As formulações utilizadas foram Gamit 360 CS®, Gamit 500 EC® e Gamit Star®. Com os resultados obtidos, foi possível concluir que, dentre as espécies avaliadas, independente da formulação utilizada, a de menor tolerância ao herbicida clomazone na fase vapor foi o sorgo, seguido do milho e do arroz.

  20. Mercosul educativo na carreira de Enfermagem

    Roseli Schmoeller


    Full Text Available O Mercosul, instituído com vistas à integração econômica, política, social e cultural entre os países membros, atualmente destaca-se pelas estratégias integrativas de âmbito educacional. Este artigo aborda os movimentos acerca da formação acadêmica dos cursos de Enfermagem e o trajeto histórico de integração educacional, apresentando o Sistema de Acreditação dos Cursos Universitários do Mercosul, o ARCU-SUL, além dos setores responsáveis por esse processo e as perspectivas para a Enfermagem nos países do Mercosul. Entendemos que para o desenvolvimento de profissionais críticos, reflexivos e com compromisso político-social, é fundamental investir na formação e na qualidade dos centros de ensino em Enfermagem.

  1. The NA62 GigaTracker

    Perrin-Terrin, Mathieu


    The GigaTracker is an hybrid silicon pixel detector built for the NA62 experiment aiming at measuring the branching fraction of the ultra-rare kaon decay K + ! p + n ̄ n at the CERN SPS. The detector has to track particles in a beam with a flux reaching 1.3 MHz/mm 2 and provide single-hit timing with 200ps RMS resolution for a total material budget of less than 1.5 X 0 . The tracker comprises three 60.8mm 27mm stations installed in vacuum ( 10$^{-6}$ mbar) and cooled with liquid C 6 F 14 circulating through micro-channels etched inside few hundred of microns thick silicon plates. Each station is composed of a 200 m m thick silicon sensor readout by 2 x 5 cus- tom 100 m m thick ASIC, called TDCPix. Each chip contains 40 x 45 asynchronous pixels, each 300 m m x 300 m m and is instrumented with 100ps bin time-to-digital converters. In order to cope with the high rate, the TDCPix is equipped with four 3.2Gb/s serialisers sending out the data. We will describe the detector and the results from the 2014 NA62 ru...

  2. Hydrogen sulfide induced disruption of Na+ homeostasis in the cortex.

    Chao, Dongman; He, Xiaozhou; Yang, Yilin; Balboni, Gianfranco; Salvadori, Severo; Kim, Dong H; Xia, Ying


    Maintenance of ionic balance is essential for neuronal functioning. Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S), a known toxic environmental gaseous pollutant, has been recently recognized as a gasotransmitter involved in numerous biological processes and is believed to play an important role in the neural activities under both physiological and pathological conditions. However, it is unclear if it plays any role in maintenance of ionic homeostasis in the brain under physiological/pathophysiological conditions. Here, we report by directly measuring Na(+) activity using Na(+) selective electrodes in mouse cortical slices that H(2)S donor sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) increased Na(+) influx in a concentration-dependent manner. This effect could be partially blocked by either Na(+) channel blocker or N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) blocker alone or almost completely abolished by coapplication of both blockers but not by non-NMDAR blocker. These data suggest that increased H(2)S in pathophysiological conditions, e.g., hypoxia/ischemia, potentially causes a disruption of ionic homeostasis by massive Na(+) influx through Na(+) channels and NMDARs, thus injuring neural functions. Activation of delta-opioid receptors (DOR), which reduces Na(+) currents/influx in normoxia, had no effect on H(2)S-induced Na(+) influx, suggesting that H(2)S-induced disruption of Na(+) homeostasis is resistant to DOR regulation and may play a major role in neuronal injury in pathophysiological conditions, e.g., hypoxia/ischemia.

  3. NaCl处理对盐地碱蓬开花及Na+、K+含量的影响%Effects of NaCl Treatments on Flower Number, Na+and K+Contents of Suaeda salsa

    郭建荣; 王宝山


    To investigate the role of salinity in lfowering of euhalophyte Suaeda salsa, lfower number of differ-ent branches and per plant, Na+, K+content and Na+/K+ratio of leaves, stems and lfowers of S. salsa were deter-mined under conditions of 1 (control), 200 and 400 mmol·L-1 NaCl treatment. Compared with the control, 200 mmol·L-1NaCl treatment signiifcantly increased the lfower number of branches and individual plant of S. salsa, the lfower number per plant increased by 69.90%, Na+content, Na+/K+ratio in the lfowers increased by 1.41 and 1.77 times respectively, Na+content, Na+/K+ratio in the leaves of the ifrst branches increased by 3.96 and 4.96 times respectively, and Na+content, Na+/K+ratio in the stems increased by 7.00 and 12.39 times respectively. Flower number per plant increased by 19.00%under 400 mmol·L-1 NaCl treatment, Na+content and Na+/K+ra-tio in lfowers increased by 2.09 and 3.21 times respectively, Na+content, Na+/K+ratio in the leaves of the ifrst branches increased by 4.28 and 6.50 times respectively, and Na+content, Na+/K+ratio in the stems increased by 7.65 and 15.40 times respectively. These results suggested that certain concentration of external NaCl promotes lfowering of euhalophytes S. salsa possibly via compartmentalization of Na+into leaves and stems and mobili-zation of K+in the leaves and stems into the lfowers to maintain a proper Na+/K+ratio in the lfowers.%为探讨盐地碱蓬(Suaeda salsa)开花与盐的关系,研究了1(对照)、200和400 mmol·L-1 NaCl处理对盐地碱蓬不同分枝和单株开花数目、叶片和茎及花器官中的Na+、K+含量及Na+/K+比的影响。结果表明:与对照相比,200 mmol·L-1 NaCl处理下盐地碱蓬分枝及单株开花数目增加最显著,单株开花数目增加了69.90%,花器官中的Na+含量、Na+/K+比分别增加了1.41倍和1.77倍,而一级叶片的Na+含量、Na+/K+比分别增加了3.96倍和4.96倍,茎中Na+含量、Na+/K+比分别增加了7.00倍和12.39倍。400 mmol

  4. Apical Na+ permeability of frog skin during serosal Cl- replacement.

    Leibowich, S; DeLong, J; Civan, M M


    Gluconate substitution for serosal Cl- reduces the transepithelial short-circuit current (Isc) and depolarizes short-circuited frog skins. These effects could result either from inhibition of basolateral K+ conductance, or from two actions to inhibit both apical Na+ permeability (PapNa) and basolateral pump activity. We have addressed this question by studying whole-and split-thickness frog skins. Intracellular Na+ concentration (CcNa) and PapNa have been monitored by measuring the current-voltage relationship for apical Na+ entry. This analysis was conducted by applying trains of voltage pulses, with pulse durations of 16 to 32 msec. Estimates of PapNa and CcNa were not detectably dependent on pulse duration over the range 16 to 80 msec. Serosal Cl- replacement uniformly depolarized short-circuited tissues. The depolarization was associated with inhibition of Isc across each split skin, but only occasionally across the whole-thickness preparations. This difference may reflect the better ionic exchange between the bulk medium and the extracellular fluid in contact with the basolateral membranes, following removal of the underlying dermis in the split-skin preparations. PapNa was either unchanged or increased, and CcNa either unchanged or reduced after the anionic replacement. These data are incompatible with the concept that serosal Cl- replacement inhibits PapNa and Na,K-pump activity. Gluconate substitution likely reduces cell volume, triggering inhibition of the basolateral K+ channels, consistent with the data and conclusions of S.A. Lewis, A.G. Butt, M.J. Bowler, J.P. Leader and A.D.C. Macknight (J. Membrane Biol. 83:119-137, 1985) for toad bladder. The resulting depolarization reduces the electrical force favoring apical Na+ entry. The volume-conductance coupling serves to conserve volume by reducing K+ solute loss. Its molecular basis remains to be identified.

  5. Aspectos valorizados por porfissionais de enfermagem na higiene pessoal e na higiene corporal do paciente

    Elóide André Oliveira


    Full Text Available Survey descritivo, com o qual se objetivou identificar que aspectos da higiene corporal são valorizados pelos componentes da equipe de enfermagem, na higiene corporal pessoal e na higiene corporal do paciente. A pesquisa foi desenvolvida em oito instituições públicas de saúde e a amostra foi composta por 126 profissionais de enfermagem, correspondendo a 12,8% do total de 986 componentes das equipes de enfermagem destas instituições. Na higiene corporal pessoal, chamou a atenção o fato de que os cuidados com as unhas e com os cabelos tenham suplantado, no número de citações dos profissionais de enfermagem, aspectos básicos como o cuidado com as mãos. Na higiene corporal do paciente, o banho foi o aspecto considerado mais importante pelas três categorias profissionais; a higiene oral, pelas(os enfermeiras(os e auxiliares de enfermagem; e as unhas, pelas(os enfermeiras(os e técnicas(os de enfermagem.

  6. Theoretical calculation of low-lying states of NaAr and NaXe

    Laskowski, B. C.; Langhoff, S. R.; Stallcop, J. R.


    Potential curves as well as dipole moments and linking transition moments are calculated for the ground X 2 Sigma + and low lying excited A 2 Pi, B 2 Sigma +, C 2 Sigma +, (4) 2 Sigma +, (2) 2 Pi and (1) 2 Delta states of NaAr and NaXe. Calculations are performed using a self-consistent field plus configuration-interaction procedure with the core electrons replaced by an ab initio effective core potential. The potential curves obtained are found to be considerably less repulsive than the semiempirical curves of Pascale and Vandeplanque (1974) and to agree well with existing experimental data, although the binding energies of those states having potential minima due to van der Waals interactions are underestimated. Emission bands are also calculated for the X 2 Sigma + - C 2 Sigma + excimer transitions of NaAr and NaXe using the calculated transition moments and potential curves, and shown to agree well with experiment on the short-wavelength side of the maximum.

  7. Polarization and Velocity Dependence of Associative Ionization in Na(3p)+Na(3p) Collisions

    Meijer, H.A.J.; Meulen, H.P. van der; Morgenstern, R.


    We have excited Na atoms of two counterrunning thermal beams by means of linearly polarized laser light and have investigated associative ionization processes. To this end we measured the total ionization signal as a function of the angle θ between light polarization and the relative collision veloc

  8. Na+ overload during ischemia and reperfusion in rat hearts : Comparison of the Na+/H+ exchange blockers EIPA, cariporide and eniporide

    ten Hove, M; van Emous, JG; van Echteld, CJA


    Intracellular myocardial Na+ overload during ischemia is an important cause of reperfusion injury via reversed Na+/Ca2+ exchange. Prevention of this Na+ overload can be accomplished by blocking the different Na+ influx routes. In this study the effect of ischemic inhibition of the Na+/H+ exchanger (

  9. Efeito do plasma de oxigênio na dentina previamente exposta ao NaOCl

    Maíra do PRADO

    Full Text Available Resumo Introdução O tratamento de plasma é uma tecnologia eficaz que pode manter as propriedades internas dos materiais inalteradas após o tratamento, modificando apenas a superfície. Objetivo Avaliar o efeito do plasma de oxigênio na dentina previamente exposta ao NaOCl 6%. Material e método Foram utilizados 60 incisivos bovinos. A coroa foi removida, a raiz foi dividida e as faces planificadas, totalizando 120 segmentos referentes ao terço cervical. As amostras foram divididas em dois grupos: controle (imersa em NaOCl 6%, lavada com água destilada, seca, imersa em EDTA 17%, lavada e seca e plasma de oxigênio (após tratamento descrito no grupo controle, plasma de oxigênio foi aplicado por 30 s. As amostras foram avaliadas qualitativamente em relação à topografia por microscopia eletrônica de varredura, utilizando-se microfotografias com ampliação de 1.000×. O goniômetro Ramé-hart foi utilizado para a mensuração do ângulo de contato entre as superfícies e as seguintes soluções foram utilizadas: água, etilenoglicol e di-iodometano. Em seguida, a energia de superfície, representada pelas componentes polar e dispersiva, foi calculada. Avaliou-se também o escoamento dos cimentos Pulp Canal Sealer EWT (PCS e Real Sal SE (RS na superfície dentinária. Os dados foram analisados estatisticamente utilizando os testes Kruskal-Wallis e Mann-Whitney U (p<0,05. Resultado O tratamento com plasma levou à formação de uma camada semelhante à smear layer na superfície dentinária. Este tratamento levou a um aumento da energia de superfície e da componente polar, favorecendo a hidrofilicidade da superfície. Entretanto, desfavoreceu o escoamento do cimento PCS e não influenciou no escoamento do cimento RS. Conclusão O plasma de oxigênio ocasionou mudanças topográficas na superfície dentinária, favorecendo a hidrofilicidade desta. Contudo, não favoreceu o escoamento dos cimentos endodônticos na dentina.

  10. Regulation of persistent Na current by interactions between beta subunits of voltage-gated Na channels.

    Aman, Teresa K; Grieco-Calub, Tina M; Chen, Chunling; Rusconi, Raffaella; Slat, Emily A; Isom, Lori L; Raman, Indira M


    The beta subunits of voltage-gated Na channels (Scnxb) regulate the gating of pore-forming alpha subunits, as well as their trafficking and localization. In heterologous expression systems, beta1, beta2, and beta3 subunits influence inactivation and persistent current in different ways. To test how the beta4 protein regulates Na channel gating, we transfected beta4 into HEK (human embryonic kidney) cells stably expressing Na(V)1.1. Unlike a free peptide with a sequence from the beta4 cytoplasmic domain, the full-length beta4 protein did not block open channels. Instead, beta4 expression favored open states by shifting activation curves negative, decreasing the slope of the inactivation curve, and increasing the percentage of noninactivating current. Consequently, persistent current tripled in amplitude. Expression of beta1 or chimeric subunits including the beta1 extracellular domain, however, favored inactivation. Coexpressing Na(V)1.1 and beta4 with beta1 produced tiny persistent currents, indicating that beta1 overcomes the effects of beta4 in heterotrimeric channels. In contrast, beta1(C121W), which contains an extracellular epilepsy-associated mutation, did not counteract the destabilization of inactivation by beta4 and also required unusually large depolarizations for channel opening. In cultured hippocampal neurons transfected with beta4, persistent current was slightly but significantly increased. Moreover, in beta4-expressing neurons from Scn1b and Scn1b/Scn2b null mice, entry into inactivated states was slowed. These data suggest that beta1 and beta4 have antagonistic roles, the former favoring inactivation, and the latter favoring activation. Because increased Na channel availability may facilitate action potential firing, these results suggest a mechanism for seizure susceptibility of both mice and humans with disrupted beta1 subunits.

  11. Study on phase equilibria in Na2 B4 O7 -NaBr-Na2 SO4 -H2O quaternary system at 348 K%Na2B4O7-NaBr-Na2SO4-H2O四元体系348K相平衡研究

    宁慧逸; 桑世华; 王丹; 曾晓晓


    采用等温溶解平衡法研究Na2B4O7 -NaBr-Na2SO4-H2O四元体系在348 K的相平衡关系,测定了平衡液相的溶解度和密度.根据实验数据绘制相应相图.该四元体系相图中有1个共饱点E,3条单变量曲线E1E,E2E,E3E,3个结晶区的平衡固相分别为:NaBr,Na2SO4和Na2B4O7 · 5H2O.研究结果表明:该四元体系无复盐和固溶体生成,属于简单四元体系,NaBr对Na2B4O7·5H2O和Na2SO4有较强的盐析作用.并对NaBr和Na2B4O7在不同温度下含有的结晶水数进行了对比分析,简要讨论了密度变化规律.%The solubilities and densities of solution in Na2B4O7-NaBr- Na2SO4-H2O quaternary system at 348 K were determined by isothermal equilibrium method. Based on the experimental data, the equilibrium phase diagram was plotted, which consists of one invariant E, three univariant curves (E1E, E2E and E3E) , and three crystallization fields corresponding to NaBr, Na2SO4 and Na2B4O7 ? 5H2O. The experimental results indicate that the quaternary system is of simple eutectic type and no double salt and solid solution, and sodium bromide has the salting-out effect on Na2B4O7 ? 5H2O and Na2SO4. The densities transformation rules were discussed.

  12. Coordinated regulation of cardiac Na(+)/Ca (2+) exchanger and Na (+)-K (+)-ATPase by phospholemman (FXYD1).

    Cheung, Joseph Y; Zhang, Xue-Qian; Song, Jianliang; Gao, Erhe; Chan, Tung O; Rabinowitz, Joseph E; Koch, Walter J; Feldman, Arthur M; Wang, JuFang


    Phospholemman (PLM) is the founding member of the FXYD family of regulators of ion transport. PLM is a 72-amino acid protein consisting of the signature PFXYD motif in the extracellular N terminus, a single transmembrane (TM) domain, and a C-terminal cytoplasmic tail containing three phosphorylation sites. In the heart, PLM co-localizes and co-immunoprecipitates with Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase, Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger, and L-type Ca(2+) channel. The TM domain of PLM interacts with TM9 of the α-subunit of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase, while its cytoplasmic tail interacts with two small regions (spanning residues 248-252 and 300-304) of the proximal intracellular loop of Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger. Under stress, catecholamine stimulation phosphorylates PLM at serine(68), resulting in relief of inhibition of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase by decreasing K(m) for Na(+) and increasing V(max), and simultaneous inhibition of Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger. Enhanced Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity lowers intracellular Na(+), thereby minimizing Ca(2+) overload and risks of arrhythmias. Inhibition of Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger reduces Ca(2+) efflux, thereby preserving contractility. Thus, the coordinated actions of PLM during stress serve to minimize arrhythmogenesis and maintain inotropy. In acute cardiac ischemia and chronic heart failure, either expression or phosphorylation of PLM or both are altered. PLM regulates important ion transporters in the heart and offers a tempting target for development of drugs to treat heart failure.

  13. Use of nonradioactive labeling to detect large gene rearrangements in 21-hydroxylase deficiency Uso de marcação não radiativa para identificação de grandes rearranjos gênicos na deficiência da 21-hidroxilase

    Priscilla Cukier


    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To establish the Southern blotting technique using hybridization with a nonradioactive probe to detect large rearrangements of CYP21A2 in a Brazilian cohort with congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency (CAH-21OH. METHOD: We studied 42 patients, 2 of them related, comprising 80 non-related alleles. DNA samples were obtained from peripheral blood, digested by restriction enzyme Taq I, submitted to Southern blotting and hybridized with biotin-labeled probes. RESULTS: This method was shown to be reliable with results similar to the radioactive-labeling method. We found CYP21A2 deletion (2.5%, large gene conversion (8.8%, CYP21AP deletion (3.8%, and CYP21A1P duplication (6.3%. These frequencies were similar to those found in our previous study in which a large number of cases were studied. Good hybridization patterns were achieved with a smaller amount of DNA (5 mug, and fragment signs were observed after 5 minutes to 1 hour of exposure. CONCLUSIONS: We established a non-radioactive (biotin Southern blot/hybridization methodology for CYP21A2 large rearrangements with good results. Despite being more arduous, this technique is faster, requires a smaller amount of DNA, and most importantly, avoids problems with the use of radioactivity.OBJETIVO: Padronizar a técnica de Southern blotting usando hibridização com material não radioativo para detectar grandes rearranjos no gene CYP21A2 em uma amostra da população brasileira com hiperplasia adrenal congênita. MÉTODO: Foram estudados 42 pacientes, 2 dos quais aparentados, totalizando 80 alelos não relacionados. As amostras de DNA foram obtidas de sangue periférico, digeridas com enzima de restrição Taq I, realizado Southern blotting e hibridizadas com sonda marcada com biotina. RESULTADOS: O método se mostrou eficaz, com resultados similares aos encontrados ao utilizar a metodologia com material radioativo. Foram encontradas 2,5% de deleção do CYP21A2, 8,8% de

  14. The paranodal cytoskeleton clusters Na(+) channels at nodes of Ranvier.

    Amor, Veronique; Zhang, Chuansheng; Vainshtein, Anna; Zhang, Ao; Zollinger, Daniel R; Eshed-Eisenbach, Yael; Brophy, Peter J; Rasband, Matthew N; Peles, Elior


    A high density of Na(+) channels at nodes of Ranvier is necessary for rapid and efficient action potential propagation in myelinated axons. Na+ channel clustering is thought to depend on two axonal cell adhesion molecules that mediate interactions between the axon and myelinating glia at the nodal gap (i.e., NF186) and the paranodal junction (i.e., Caspr). Here we show that while Na(+) channels cluster at nodes in the absence of NF186, they fail to do so in double conditional knockout mice lacking both NF186 and the paranodal cell adhesion molecule Caspr, demonstrating that a paranodal junction-dependent mechanism can cluster Na(+) channels at nodes. Furthermore, we show that paranode-dependent clustering of nodal Na(+) channels requires axonal βII spectrin which is concentrated at paranodes. Our results reveal that the paranodal junction-dependent mechanism of Na(+)channel clustering is mediated by the spectrin-based paranodal axonal cytoskeleton.

  15. Sociologia na complexidade Sociology in complexity

    Gilson Lima


    Full Text Available O artigo se propõe a fazer uma introdução didática e informativa e, ao mesmo tempo, aprofundada sobre as conseqüências da emergência do paradigma da complexidade para a Sociologia. No desenrolar da narrativa, faz comparações, o que permite ao leitor não familiarizado com a temática da ciência identificar as diferenças macroparadigmáticas pré-modernas, da modernidade simples e da emergência do paradigma da complexidade. Define e exemplifica, sempre que possível, os termos, afirmações e princípios significativos para uma melhor compreensão do tema. Faz, também, inúmeras indicações, no interior da narrativa, de autores e obras, para que aqueles que desejarem continuar, possam mergulhar mais intensamente nos caminhos da sociologia da complexidade. O artigo inicia com uma introdução que define, a partir de Thomas Kuhn, o conceito de paradigma. A seguir, desenvolve de modo comparado, os princípios mais importantes do paradigma da complexidade. E, por fim, chama a atenção para alguns desafios da Sociologia na complexidade, alertando para os riscos da paralisação da complexidade na difícil tarefa de religarmos os saberes diante da hiperespecialização presente na crise do paradigma da modernidade simples.The article is a simultaneously didactic and informative deep introduction on the emergence of the paradigm of complexity for sociology. Along the narrative, we make comparisons, which allows the reader who is not familiar with the themes of science to identify the macro-paradigmatic pre-modern differences from simple modernity and the emergence of the paradigm of complexity. Whenever it is possible, we define and exemplify the terms, assertions, and principles that are significant for an understanding of the theme. We have also made numerous indications of authors and works within the narrative, thus those willing might take a deeper dive in the pathways of sociology of complexity. The article starts with an

  16. Mazungumzo na Adam Shafi juu ya uandishi wake wa riwaya

    Diegner, Lutz; Shafi, Adam


    Adam Shafi aliyezaliwa mwaka 1940 kisiwani Unguja ni mmojawapo wa waandishi mashuhuri wa riwaya ya Kiswahili. Hivi sasa mwandishi yumo mbioni kukamilisha muswada wa riwaya yake ya sita iitwayo Mtoto wa Mama. Mbali na uandishi, Adam Shafi aliwahi kufanya kazi mbalimbali za uandishi wa habari na kazi za ushirika wa kimataifa. Ni furaha yetu kubwa kuwa hatimaye tunaweza kutoa mazungumzo hayo baada ya kuyapitia na kuyahariri kidogo tu, kwa vile tunaamini utamu wa lugha inavyozungumzwa katika hali...

  17. Neutron diffraction studies of the Na-ion battery electrode materials NaCoCr2(PO4)3, NaNiCr2(PO4)3, and Na2Ni2Cr(PO4)3

    Yahia, H. Ben; Essehli, R.; Avdeev, M.; Park, J.-B.; Sun, Y.-K.; Al-Maadeed, M. A.; Belharouak, I.


    The new compounds NaCoCr2(PO4)3, NaNiCr2(PO4)3, and Na2Ni2Cr(PO4)3 were synthesized by sol-gel method and their crystal structures were determined by using neutron powder diffraction data. These compounds were characterized by galvanometric cycling and cyclic voltammetry. NaCoCr2(PO4)3, NaNiCr2(PO4)3, and Na2Ni2Cr(PO4)3 crystallize with a stuffed α-CrPO4-type structure. The structure consists of a 3D-framework made of octahedra and tetrahedra that are sharing corners and/or edges generating channels along [100] and [010], in which the sodium atoms are located. Of significance, in the structures of NaNiCr2(PO4)3, and Na2Ni2Cr(PO4)3 a statistical disorder Ni2+/Cr3+ was observed on both the 8g and 4a atomic positions, whereas in NaCoCr2(PO4)3 the statistical disorder Co2+/Cr3+ was only observed on the 8g atomic position. When tested as negative electrode materials, NaCoCr2(PO4)3, NaNiCr2(PO4)3, and Na2Ni2Cr(PO4)3 delivered specific capacities of 352, 385, and 368 mA h g-1, respectively, which attests to the electrochemical activity of sodium in these compounds.

  18. Simulation of Na D emission near Europa during eclipse

    Cassidy, T.A.; Johnson, R.E.; Geissler, P.E.; Leblanc, F.


    The Cassini imaging science subsystem observed Europa in eclipse during Cassini's Jupiter flyby. The disk-resolved observations revealed a spatially nonuniform emission in the wavelength range of 200-1050 nm (clear filters). By building on observations and simulations of Europa's Na atmosphere and torus we find that electron-excited Na in Europa's tenuous atmosphere can account for the observed emission if the Na is ejected preferentially from Europa's dark terrain. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  19. Considerations about radioactive events and their psycho social effects; Consideracoes sobre eventos radioativos e seus efeitos psicossociais

    Vasconcelos, Laercia Abreu [Brasilia Univ., DF (Brazil). Inst. de Psicologia. Dept. de Processos Psicologicos Basicos


    This study presents some behavioral patterns which are observed in the context of a radioactive accident. Comparing three different situations involving radioactive elements, Three Mile Island (USA), Chernobyl (ISC) and Goiania (Brazil), it is observed that, despite the differences in radiological levels, the populations involved show similar response characteristics. The impact of the radioactive events on health has been the main concern of the exposed population, and the response patterns observed in the different radioactive events seem to be less variable than it was proposed in the first studies. (author) 29 refs.

  20. Analysis of liquid radioactive wastes of Angra-1 reactor; Analise de efluentes liquidos radioativos de Angra-1

    Martins, Nadia Soido F.; Peres, Sueli da Silva [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); S. Filho, Aluisio Mendes [Central Nuclear Almirante Alvaro Alberto, Angra dos Reis, RJ (Brazil)


    Any activity that produces or uses radioactive materials generates radioactive wastes. Normal operation of nuclear power plant produces radioactive waste that can be in gas, liquid or solid form and its level of radioactivity can vary. Gases and liquids wastes are treated and released into environment. The main source of radioactivity released to environment from Angra 1 are liquids from Waste Monitor Tanks. Those releases are under administrative control to meet the discharge limits established by Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN). A representative sample of each batch is taken for analysis for principal gamma- emitting radionuclides and, if the analysis indicate that release can be made, the quantity of activity is recorded. Within the licensing process of Angra 1, monthly a proportional composite samples are made up with a aliquot of each batch and sent to Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD) to analyze and compare with the results reported. This comparative analyses showed that when the activity of that samples was very high, the activity measured on composite samples was higher than the sum of the activities measured on each batch. The operator was advised and requested to identify and solve the problem. This work presents the problem occurred and the solution found to improve the performance of measurements. (author)

  1. Radiation traces in exportation food samples of Parana State, Brazil; Tracos radioativos em amostras alimentares de exportacao do Parana

    Scheibel, Viviane


    This work deals with radioactive traces measurements in foodstuffs produced at the State of Parana, with large export rate and also of nutritious products of some regional trading companies. The measured foods were: sulfite treated sugar, tea, mint candy, soy in grain, soy crumb, gross soy oil, gum free oil and commercial refined soy oil. Six samples of each lot of the analyzed material were prepared, which represent a sampling with 90% of confidence. The samples were sealed in Marinelli beaker of 2.1 L completely filled and kept during 40 days until secular equilibrium was achieved. The counting time for each measure was of 48 hours. Measurements were carried out by gamma-ray spectrometry employing a HPGe detector with 10% of relative efficiency, coupled to standard nuclear electronics and a 8 l multichannel card. The acquisition of the data was accomplished with the software Maestro{sup TM}, version 3.2. The energy resolution of the {sup 137} Cs 661.62 keV gamma line was 1.75 keV. The larger intensity gamma lines observed in the spectra were from the following radionuclides: {sup 228} Ac, {sup 208} Tl, {sup 212} Pb of the {sup 232} Th series, {sup 214} Bi and {sup 214} Pb from the {sup 238} U series, {sup 227} Ac from the {sup 235} U series and {sup 40} K. Activities and lower level of detection limits were calculated according to the International Agency of Atomic Energy norms.The detector efficiency was measured using a {sup 152} Eu certified source and IAEA-375 and IAEA-326 certified reference materials. For most of the radionuclides it was possible only the measurement of the minimum activity detectable in the foodstuffs. Self-attenuation corrections were accomplished with support literature results. The most important activity observed was that of {sup 40} K, whose value measured for soy in natura was 745.0 {sup +}-{sup 9}.1 Bq/kg and for the crumb soy 1473 {+-} 15 Bq/kg.. he measured activities of the several analyzed foods were compatible with the values expected for non contaminated normal environmental samples, except for soy crumb, whose {sup 40} K activity was approximately 50% higher than the activity observed for the grain in natura. (author)

  2. Refuses and delays in the transportation by ship of radioactive material; Recusas e demoras no transporte maritimo de material radioativo

    Xavier, Clarice; Sobreira, Ana Celia [REM Industria e Comercio Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    Some Class 7 materials can only be transported by ship, making that load and unload activities can be done in a port. In the Brazil, the port of Santos posses the most volume of cargo manipulation, and cargoes which contain radioactive material are always present with all manipulation requisites according to applicable regulations. The transport and manipulation operations of radioactive material are performed in accordance with national and international requisites but, some individuals posses yet a high risk perception according to our experience, involving members of Brazilian port authorities, the Navy and cargoes handlers at the ports. So, exist yet a high quantity of refuses and delays during the transport by ship. Therefore, a communication strategy was developed and applied, to inform the risk perception, supplying information on the very principles of ionizing radiation, legislation and uses of radiation, and so, diminishing the quantity of refuses and delays. From that initial communication strategy on, it becomes evident the necessity of training and conscience making a movement for the problem of refuses and delays be diminished

  3. Phosphated minerals to be used as radioactive reference materials; Minerais fosfatados para serem utilizados como materiais de referencia radioativos

    Braganca, M.J.C.S.; Tauhata, L. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. Nacional de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes (LNMRI); Clain, A.F. [Universidade Severino Sombra, Vassouras, RJ (Brazil); Moreira, I. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC/Rio), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica


    The production and the supplying of certified reference materials, or deliberated contaminated materials containing natural radionuclides for laboratories which analyses environmental samples are fundamentals for the correct measurements of their radioactive levels. This analysis quality represents a important step for the safeguards of the population health, and quality control of the imported and exported products, such as minerals, agricultural and raw materials. The phosphate rocks, containing significant concentrations of thorium, and used as raw material and fertilizers justified a study for better characterization and distinction to be used cas certified reference radioactive materials. Therefore, samples from the two carboanalytical-alkaline chimneys (Araxa and Catalao), and one from metasedimentar origin (Patos de Minas), distant 100 km from each other, were collected and chemical and cholecystographic characterized by optical emission, X-ray diffraction and fluorescence. The element concentrations were determined by neutron activation analysis, ICP-MS and ICP-AES. The results, after multivariate statistical analysis and study of correlations among elements, have shown geochemical similarities of the phosphates from Araxa and Catalao, and differences from Patos de Minas, despite of the geographic proximity. The concentration of thorium between 200 and 500 (mg/g) allows to use such minerals as reference materials.

  4. 三元体系NaBr-Na2SO4-H2O 和 NaBr-KBr-H2O 373 K相平衡%Phase Equilibria of Two Ternary Systems NaBr-Na2SO4-H2O and NaBr-KBr-H2O at 373 K

    桑世华; 崔瑞芝; 胡咏霞


    针对川西盆地富硼钾溴地下卤水组成,采用等温溶解平衡法研究了三元体系 NaBr-Na2SO4-H2O 和NaBr-KBr-H2O在373 K时的相平衡,测定了373 K条件下平衡溶液的溶解度和密度,根据实验数据绘制相应的相图和密度图。研究发现:两个三元体系在373 K条件下均属于简单共饱和型,无复盐及固溶体生成。相图中均有一个共饱和点,2个平衡固相结晶区和2条单变量曲线。在三元体系NaBr-Na2SO4-H2O中,平衡固相分别为:NaBr和Na2SO4,三元体系NaBr-KBr-H2O相应的平衡固相分别为:NaBr和KBr。并简单讨论了密度的变化规律。%Phase equilibria of two ternary systems NaBr-Na2SO4-H2O and NaBr-KBr-H2O at 373 K were studied by an isothermal solution saturation method. The solubility and density of these systems were determined experimentally and related phase diagrams were obtained. The results show that the two systems are both of simple type with no complex salts or solid solutions formed. Both of the phase diagrams show that they have one eutectic point, two univariant curves and two regions of crystallization. The solid phase in NaBr-Na2SO4-H2O is cpmposited of sodium bromide(NaBr) and sodium sulfate(Na2SO4), while sodium bromide(NaBr) and potassium bromide(KBr) are the components of the solid phase of NaBr-KBr-H2O. Density change of the two systems was discussed.

  5. Inseminación artificial na vaca

    Becerra González, Juan J.


    A Obstetricia e Reprodución (131504) é unha materia que se imparte no quinto curso da licenciatura en Veterinaria. Non existen requisitos previos legais e calquera alumno matriculado na licenciatura en Veterinaria pode cursar esta materia. Porén, é conveniente que o alumnado teña coñecementos previos de anatomía e fisioloxía veterinaria, así como de patoloxía xeral e propedeútica clínica. Tamén sería aconsellable que os estudantes teñan coñecementos básicos de TICs, xa que serán de...

  6. The NA49 large acceptance hadron detector

    Afanasiev, S V; Appelshäuser, H; Bächler, J; Barna, D; Barnby, L S; Bartke, Jerzy; Barton, R A; Betev, L; Bialkowska, H; Bieser, F; Billmeier, A; Blyth, C O; Böck, R K; Bormann, C; Bracinik, J; Brady, F P; Brockmann, R; Brun, R; Buncic, P; Caines, H L; Cebra, D; Cooper, G E; Cramer, J G; Csató, P; Cyprian, M; Dunn, J; Eckardt, V; Eckhardt, F; Empl, T; Eschke, J; Ferguson, M I; Fessler, H; Fischer, H G; Flierl, D; Fodor, Z; Frankenfeld, Ulrich; Foka, P Y; Freund, P; Friese, V; Ftácnik, J; Fuchs, M; Gabler, F; Gál, J; Ganz, R E; Gazdzicki, M; Gladysz-Dziadus, E; Grebieszkow, J; Günther, J; Harris, J W; Hegyi, S; Henkel, T; Hill, L A; Hlinka, V; Huang, I; Hümmler, H; Igo, G; Irmscher, D; Ivanov, M; Janik, R; Jacobs, P; Jones, P G; Kadija, K; Kolesnikov, V I; Kowalski, M; Lasiuk, B; Lévai, Peter; Liebicher, K; Lynen, U; Malakhov, A I; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Marks, C; Mayes, B W; Melkumov, G L; Mock, A; Molnár, J; Nelson, J M; Oldenburg, M; Odyniec, Grazyna Janina; Pálla, G; Panagiotou, A D; Pestov, Yu N; Petridis, A; Pikna, M; Pimpl, W; Pinsky, L; Piper, A; Porter, R J; Poskanzer, A M; Poziombka, S; Prindle, D J; Pühlhofer, F; Rauch, W; Reid, J G; Renfordt, R E; Retyk, W; Ritter, H G; Röhrich, D; Roland, C; Roland, G; Rudolph, H; Rybicki, A; Sammer, T; Sandoval, A; Sann, H; Schäfer, E; Schmidt, R; Schmischke, D; Schmitz, N; Schönfelder, S; Semenov, A Yu; Seyboth, J; Seyboth, P; Seyerlein, J; Siklér, F; Sitár, B; Skrzypczak, E; Squier, G T A; Stelzer, H; Stock, Reinhard; Strmen, P; Ströbele, H; Struck, C; Susa, T; Szarka, I; Szentpétery, I; Szymanski, P; Sziklai, J; Toy, M; Trainor, T A; Trentalange, S; Ullrich, T S; Vassiliou, Maria; Veres, G I; Vesztergombi, G; Vranic, D; Wang, F; Weerasundara, D D; Wenig, S; Whitten, C; Wieman, H H; Wienold, T; Wood, L; Yates, T A; Zimányi, J; Zhu, X Z; Zybert, R


    The NA49 detector is a wide acceptance spectrometer for the study of hadron production in p+p, p+A, and A+A collisions at the CERN SPS. The main components are 4 large volume TPCs for tracking and particle identification via $dE/dx$. TOF scintillator arrays complement particle identification. Calorimeters for transverse energy determination and triggering, a detector for centrality selection in p+A collisions, and beam definition detectors complete the set-up. A description of all detector components is given with emphasis on new technical realizations. Performance and operational experience are discussed in particular with respect to the high track density environment of central Pb+Pb collisions.

  7. Natureza e economia na teoria freudiana



    O objetivo deste artigo é apontar, em primeiro lugar, para a importância das noções de "força" e de "natureza" na obra freudiana e suas implicações para a cultura e a moral. De modo geral, apontar para a importância da Biologia no processo civilizatório, tanto à respeito das prerrogativas da espécie quanto do indivíduo. Em segundo lugar, apontar para a mudança ocorrida nessas questões com a introdução do conceito de "Eros". Privilegiamos a apresentação de dois textos para nosso propósito: o "...

  8. Viva o Rock: vivenciando saberes na musicalidade

    Mosca, Maristela de Oliveira


    Este trabalho parte da narrativa de um Projeto Musicalizador que tem como foco a construção de um espetáculo musical na Escola de Educação Básica. Neste recorte refletimos epistemologicamente sob as luzes dos Sete Saberes Necessários à Educação do Futuro, em uma interligação com os cenários dos Quatro Pilares da Educação – aprender a conhecer, aprender a fazer, aprender a viver juntos, aprender a ser, e as concepções pedagógicas do Orff-Schulwerk. A interlocução com os Pressupostos da Corpore...

  9. O operar de um coletivo na web

    Karen Eidelwein

    Full Text Available Analisamos o operar de um grupo de discussão na WEB buscando identificar seu agenciamento enquanto coletivo autoprodutivo. Estabelecemos sete indicadores de operação e cinco categorias temáticas. A visualização de cada um dos indicadores de operação em cada uma das categorias temáticas possibilitou compreender o operar do grupo como decorrente das próprias relações que foram sendo estabelecidas, em um processo autoprodutivo, de causalidade recursiva. Foi possível argumentar que o grupo apresentou indícios de um modo de instituir-se capaz de apontar para outras formas de relação em torno da construção de objetos coletivos teóricos voltados para a ação fora do espaço digital.

  10. O operar de um coletivo na WEB

    Karen Eidelwein

    Full Text Available Analisamos o operar de um grupo de discussão na WEB buscando identificar seu agenciamento enquanto coletivo autoprodutivo. Estabelecemos sete indicadores de operação e cinco categorias temáticas. A visualização de cada um dos indicadores de operação em cada uma das categorias temáticas possibilitou compreender o operar do grupo como decorrente das próprias relações que foram sendo estabelecidas, em um processo autoprodutivo, de causalidade recursiva. Foi possível argumentar que o grupo apresentou indícios de um modo de instituir-se capaz de apontar para outras formas de relação em torno da construção de objetos coletivos teóricos voltados para a ação fora do espaço digital.


    Paulina SOBOLEWSKA

    Full Text Available Celem badań było wyznaczenie równowagi sorpcji jonów chromu (VI z roztworów wodnych na modyfikowanych zeolitach naturalnych pochodzących z Włoch i USA. Do syntezy organo-zeolitów zastosowano HDTMA-Br w ilości dwukrotnej pojemności kationowymiennej zeolitów (2,0 ECEC. Badania przeprowadzono w warunkach nieprzepływowych przy odczynie pH równym 3,0; 4,0 i 5,0 w temperaturze pokojowej. Największą efektywność sorpcji jonów Cr(VI uzyskano dla chabazytu przy pH=4 i uziarnienia poniżej 0,25 mm, kiedy w roztworze dominowały jony wodorochromianowe HCrO4-.


    Jakaša, Tina; Bratić, Diana; Iliopoulos, Fivos


    Promjene u poslovnom okruženju uvele su novi tip rizika u poduzeća elektroprivrede. Zbog toga je za poduzeća elektroprivrede vrlo važno identificirati rizike i naći korelaciju među njima, te to činiti redovito kako bi se zaštitile i povećale vrijednost kompanije. U ovom se radu predlažu sljedeće tri hipoteze: H1 Postoje promjene u tipu rizika u poduzećima elektroprivrede tijekom zadnjih 10 godina. H2 Postoji korelacija između intenziteta tržišne konkurencije i utjecaja prisutnih/postojećih ti...

  13. Na-Zn liquid metal battery

    Xu, Junli; Kjos, Ole Sigmund; Osen, Karen Sende; Martinez, Ana Maria; Kongstein, Ole Edvard; Haarberg, Geir Martin


    A new kind of membrane free liquid metal battery was developed. The battery employs liquid sodium and zinc as electrodes both in liquid state, and NaCl-CaCl2 molten salts as electrolyte. The discharge flat voltage is in the range of about 1.4 V-1.8 V, and the cycle efficiency achieved is about 90% at low discharge current densities (below 40 mA cm-2). Moreover, this battery can also be charged and discharged at high current density with good performance. The discharge flat voltage is above 1.1 V when it is discharged at 100 mA cm-2, while it is about 0.8 V with 100% cycle efficiency when it is discharged at 200 mA cm-2. Compared to other reported liquid metal battery, this battery has lower cost, which suggests broad application prospect in energy storage systems for power grid.

  14. Violência na Terceira Idade

    Vale, Soraia Domingues


    Projecto de Graduação apresentado à Universidade Fernando Pessoa como parte dos requisitos para obtenção do grau de Licenciada em Criminologia No presente projeto, cujo tema é violência sobre os idosos, irão ser definidos, no Capítulo I, conceitos como envelhecimento, violência, tipos de violência, as características das vítimas e dos agressores, fatores de risco e de prevenção e o “estado da arte” sobre o fenómeno da violência na terceira idade. No Capítulo II, são abordados os locais ...

  15. The NA49 large acceptance hadron detector

    Afanasiev, S.; Alber, T.; Appelshaeuser, H.; Baechler, J.; Barna, D.; Barnby, L.S.; Bartke, J.; Barton, R.A.; Betev, L.; Bialkowska, H.; Bieser, F.; Billmeier, A.; Blyth, C.O.; Bock, R.; Bormann, C.; Bracinik, J.; Brady, F.P.; Brockmann, R.; Brun, R.; Buncic, P.; Caines, H.L.; Cebra, D.; Cooper, G.E.; Cramer, J.G.; Csato, P.; Cyprian, M.; Dunn, J.; Eckardt, V.; Eckhardt, F.; Empl, T.; Eschke, J.; Ferguson, M.I.; Fessler, H.; Fischer, H.G.; Flierl, D.; Fodor, Z.; Frankenfeld, U.; Foka, P.; Freund, P.; Friese, V.; Ftacnik, J.; Fuchs, M.; Gabler, F.; Gal, J.; Ganz, R.; Gazdzicki, M.; Gladysz, E.; Grebieszkow, J.; Guenther, J.; Harris, J.W.; Hegyi, S.; Henkel, T.; Hill, L.A.; Hlinka, V.; Huang, I.; Huemmler, H.; Igo, G.; Irmscher, D.; Ivanov, M.; Janik, R.; Jacobs, P.; Jones, P.G.; Kadija, K.; Kolesnikov, V.I.; Kowalski, M.; Lasiuk, B.; Levai, P.; Liebicher, K.; Lynen, U.; Malakhov, A.I.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Marks, C.; Mayes, B.; Melkumov, G.L.; Mock, A.; Molnar, J.; Nelson, J.M.; Oldenburg, M.; Odyniec, G.; Palla, G.; Panagiotou, A.D.; Pestov, Y.; Petridis, A.; Pikna, M.; Pimpl, W.; Pinsky, L.; Piper, A.; Porter, R.J.; Poskanzer, A.M.; Poziombka, S.; Prindle, D.J.; Puehlhofer, F.; Rauch, W.; Reid, J.G.; Renfordt, R.; Retyk, W.; Ritter, H.G.; Roehrich, D.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rudolph, H.; Rybicki, A.; Sammer, T.; Sandoval, A.; Sann, H.; Schaefer, E.; Schmidt, R.; Schmischke, D.; Schmitz, N.; Schoenfelder, S.; Semenov, A.Yu.; Seyboth, J.; Seyboth, P.; Seyerlein, J.; Sikler, F.; Sitar, B.; Skrzypczak, E.; Squier, G.T.A.; Stelzer, H.; Stock, R.; Strmen, P.; Stroebele, H.; Struck, C.; Susa, T.; Szarka, I.; Szentpetery, I.; Szymanski, P.; Sziklai, J.; Toy, M.; Trainor, T.A.; Trentalange, S.; Ullrich, T.; Vassiliou, M.; Veres, G.; Vesztergombi, G.; Vranic, D.; Wang, F.Q.; Weerasundara, D.D.; Wenig, S. E-mail:; Whitten, C.; Wieman, H.; Wienold, T.; Wood, L.; Yates, T.A.; Zimanyi, J.; Zhu, X.-Z.; Zybert, R


    The NA49 detector is a wide acceptance spectrometer for the study of hadron production in p+p, p+A, and A+A collisions at the CERN SPS. The main components are 4 large-volume TPCs for tracking and particle identification via dE/dx. TOF scintillator arrays complement particle identification. Calorimeters for transverse energy determination and triggering, a detector for centrality selection in p+A collisions, and beam definition detectors complete the set-up. A description of all detector components is given with emphasis on new technical realizations. Performance and operational experience are discussed in particular with respect to the high track density environment of central Pb+Pb collisions.



    Em peixes, como nos mamíferos, partes do sistema nervoso estão envolvidas em mecanismos para regulação dos sistemas corporais em sintonia com o meio. O fotoperíodo é traduzido em informações fisiológicas a partir da secreção de melatonina.Parece não haver barreiras morfofisiológicas para esta indolamina, isto é, a melatonina perfunde-se rapidamente em cada célula do organismo e em alguns casos interage com receptores e membrana situados na superfície celular, e parece estar ligada à ingestão ...

  17. O retorno do religioso na contemporaneidade

    Tiago Ribeiro Nunes


    Full Text Available O presente trabalho pretende analisar os novos modos de relação, entre a civilização e o sagrado, que emergem no contexto da contemporaneidade. Partindo principalmente das formulações freudianas e lacanianas sobre o tema, nosso objetivo primordial ao longo deste artigo é estabelecer parâmetros para compreender a ocorrência do "retorno ao sagrado no exato momento em que a humanidade enfrenta crises cada vez mais profundas e permanentes. Tal empreendimento nos permitirá verificar até que ponto o fortalecimento dos movimentos religiosos pode ser considerado como uma das conseqüências da queda dos referenciais que se realiza na contemporaneidade.

  18. Bullying: ato esburacado na angústia

    Maria de Lourdes Soares Ornellas


    Full Text Available A noção de afeto está no campo do (desprazer, resultante de uma experiência afetiva de satisfação ou insatisfação, e que se manifesta nas necessidades do sujeito. Pode-se dizer que o afeto envolve a ambivalência de sentimentos, do mais agradável ao mais insuportável, e desempenha um papel estruturante para que o sujeito reencontre sua estrutura psíquica, exercendo uma ação mediadora e decisiva sobre a constituição do sujeito do desejo, orientando o seu projeto de vida, sua profissão, sua opção sexual, etc. Essa ambivalência de afetos deve ser exercitada na educação familiar e escolar, na fala e na escuta que o afeto (desprazeroso tem relevância e parece ser silenciado. O desprazer pode ser escandido pelos sintomas medo, depressão, irritabilidade, ansiedade, humilhação. Assim posto o bullying é também conhecido como a síndrome da humilhação. O objetivo da humilhação é a tentativa de destruição do sujeito; a perda da identificação revela um fantasma, na medida em que própria vítima se sente culpada por sofrer ou por estar sofrendo um ato esburacado porque uma das peças não é encontrada e, em lugar do encaixe, o que se mostra é um buraco, o que provoca a angústia entre quem perde e aquele que ganha. ABSTRACT: The notion of affect is thus in the field of (dis pleasure, resulting from an affective experience of satisfaction or dissatisfaction, and that manifests itself on the needs of the subject. You could say that the affection involves the ambivalence of feelings, the more enjoyable the more unbearable, and plays a structural role for the subject to rediscover his psychic structure, exerting a mediator and decisive action on the constitution of the subject of desire, directing the its design life, your profession, your sexual orientation, etc.. This ambivalence of feelings should be exercised in family education and school, talking and listening that affect (dis pleasure is relevant and appears to be

  19. 蚕豆幼苗对NaCl和NaHCO3胁迫的生理响应%Physiological responses of Viciafaba L.seedlings under NaCl and NaHCO3 stress

    乔枫; 罗桂花; 耿贵工


    Vicia faba L. Seedlings were treated with different concentrations of NaCl and NaHCO3 for 7 days,and the fresh weight, malondialdehyde (MDA) content, free proline content, and the activities of antioxidant enzymes were determined. The results were as follows. With the increase of NaCl and NaHCO3 concentrations, fresh weight of Vicia faba L. Seedlings first increased significantly and then declined, MDA and free proline contents increased significantly, and the increase extent under NaCl stress was lower than under NaHCO3. The activity of superoxide dismutase ( SOD) first increased significantly and then declined. The activity of peroxidase ( POD) increased significantly under NaCl stress, and first rose and then decreased significantly under NaHCO3 stress.The activity of catalase (CAT) increased significantly. In conclusion, Vicia faba L. Could resist salt and alkali stress to a certain degree. The responses of Vicia faba L. To alkali stress were more obvious than that to salt stress on average.%采用不同浓度的NaCl和NaHCO3处理蚕豆幼苗,处理7d后分别测定蚕豆幼苗鲜重、蚕豆叶片MDA和脯氨酸含量、蚕豆叶片抗氧化酶活性.结果显示,随NaCl和NaHCO3胁迫浓度的增加,蚕豆幼苗鲜重先显著增加后显著下降(P<0.05);叶中MDA和脯氨酸含量显著上升(P<0.05),NaCl低于NaHCO3的上升幅度;超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)活性先显著增加(P<0.05)然后下降;过氧化物酶(POD)活性在NaCl胁迫下显著升高(P<0.05),NaHCO3胁迫下先升高后显著降低(P<0.05);过氧化氢酶(CAT)活性显著增加(P<0.05).蚕豆具有一定程度的抗盐碱性,碱胁迫大于同浓度盐胁迫的伤害.

  20. NaCl胁迫对阿月浑子各器官Na+、K+吸收的影响%Effect of NaCl Stress on Na+ and K+ Uptakes by Different Organs of Pistachio

    克热木·伊力; 袁琳; 马合木提·卡热


    在温室盆栽条件下,用NaCl处理新疆长果阿月浑子与美国品种Kerman,处理浓度为50、150、250和500 mmol·L-1,盐处理后5、10、20 d分别取叶、茎和根,测定各器官中Na+、K+含量及Na+/K+变化规律.研究结果表明,随着土壤盐浓度的增加,长果阿月浑子和Kerman的叶、茎和根中Na+离子含量在盐处理5、10、20 d后每个处理都表现出升高趋势;而两个品种的叶、根和茎中的K+含量在盐处理后其变化规律都不稳定.长果阿月浑子叶片、茎和根系中Na+/K+的比值在盐处理5 d和10 d都升高.Kerman的叶和根系中Na+/K+比值在处理5、10、20 d后升高;茎中Na+/K+处理10 d后升高,但20 d后没有明显变化.实验结果表明NaCl胁迫后,长果阿月浑子的叶片中Na+含量增加幅度均大于Kerman,Kerman根和茎中的Na+含量增加幅度大于长果阿月浑子;NaCl胁迫5 d和10 d后,长果阿月浑子叶片中的Na+/K+的比值高于Kerman,Kerman茎和根部中的Na+/K+的比值高于长果阿月浑子,表明了长果阿月浑子和Kerman都具有一定的耐盐性,但Kerman的耐盐性强于长果阿月浑子.由于叶片和根中Na+和Na+/K+比值的变化很稳定,可以确定为阿月浑子主要抗盐指标,茎中Na+/K+的变化规律较稳定,可以作为抗盐性参考指标.

  1. Analiza preiskovalnih metod na primeru igre Scotland Yard



    V diplomskem delu se seznanimo s področjem umetne inteligence, ki se ukvarja z raziskovanjem namiznih iger in iskanjem njihovih programskih rešitev. Preučimo algoritem drevesnega preiskovanja Monte-Carlo in ga poskušamo čim bolj spretno prenesti na znano namizno igro Scotland Yard, pri čemer upoštevamo nasvete Nijssena in Winandsa. Osredotočimo se predvsem na tretjo fazo algoritma, simulacijo, katero se odločimo implementirati na tri različne načine (od manj naprednih do bolj naprednih), te n...

  2. Kaolin-based geopolymers with various NaOH concentrations

    Heah, C. Y.; Kamarudin, H.; Mustafa Al Bakri, A. M.; Bnhussain, M.; Luqman, M.; Khairul Nizar, I.; Ruzaidi, C. M.; Liew, Y. M.


    Kaolin geopolymers were produced by the alkali-activation of kaolin with an activator solution (a mixture of NaOH and sodium silicate solutions). The NaOH solution was prepared at a concentration of 6-14 mol/L and was mixed with the sodium silicate solution at a Na2SiO3/NaOH mass ratio of 0.24 to prepare an activator solution. The kaolin-to-activator solution mass ratio used was 0.80. This paper aimed to analyze the effect of NaOH concentration on the compressive strength of kaolin geopolymers at 80°C for 1, 2, and 3 d. Kaolin geopolymers were stable in water, and strength results showed that the kaolin binder had adequate compressive strength with 12 mol/L of NaOH concentration. When the NaOH concentration increased, the SiO2/Na2O decreased. The increased Na2O content enhanced the dissolution of kaolin as shown in X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analyses. However, excess in this content was not beneficial for the strength development of kaolin geopolymers. In addition, there was the formation of more geopolymeric gel in 12 mol/L samples. The XRD pattern of the samples showed a higher amorphous content and a more geopolymer bonding existed as proved by FTIR analysis.

  3. Movimento fenomenologico: controversias e perspectivas na pesquisa psicologica

    Gomes de Castro, Thiago; Barbosa Gomes, William


    A repercussao do movimento fenomenologico na historia da psicologia pode ser notada pelas persistentes tentativas de transposicao do carater eidetico da fenomenologia para a analise sistematica de empiria...


    Markovič, Polona


    Ustavno zagotovljena pravica do enakosti, brez kakršnegakoli razlikovanja na podlagi osebnih okoliščin, predstavlja eno izmed temeljnih človekovih pravic. Za zagotavljanje enakega obravnavanja posameznikov in različnih skupin oseb na vseh področjih družbenega življenja je neizogibno potrebna natančna zakonska opredelitev varstva pred diskriminacijo. Prepoved diskriminacije je pravno regulirana v določilih mnogih dokumentov, sprejetih na mednarodni in nacionalni ravni. Diskriminacijo lahko naj...

  5. Study of thermal neutron capture in /sup 23/Na

    Zhang Ming; Shi Zongren; Zeng Xiantang; Li Guohua; Ding Dazhao


    Energies and intensities of 117 gamma-rays produced by the capture of thermal neutron in /sup 23/Na are measured by using a single Ge(Li) detector and a pair spectrometer. 107 gamma-rays are placed in the decay scheme consisting of 35 levels. The neutron binding energy is found to be 6959.51 (21) keV. The parameters of /sup 24/Na energy level density are determined with the Back-Shift Fermi Gas Model. The /sup 23/Na(n, ..gamma..)/sup 24/Na reaction is mainly a statistical process from the resonance capture of 2.85 keV state.

  6. Study of thermal neutron capture in /sup 23/Na

    Zhang Ming; Shi Zongren; Zeng Xiantang; Li Guohua; Ding Dazhao


    Energies and intensities of 117 gamma-rays produced by the capture of thermal neutrons in /sup 23/Na are measured by using a single Ge(Li) detector and a pair spectrometer. 107 gamma-rays are placed in a decay scheme consisting of 35 levels. The neutron binding energy is found to be 6959.51 (21) keV. The parameters of /sup 24/Na energy-level density are determined with the Back-Shift Fermi Gas Model. The /sup 23/Na(/ital n/,..gamma..) /sup 24/Na reaction is mainly a statistical process from the resonance capture of the 2.85 keV state.

  7. Pragmatična lingvistika I kontrastivne študije

    Josip Jernej


    Full Text Available Nakon teoretskog uvoda analiziraju se u članku pragmatična značenja nekih često upotrebljenih "čestica" kao što su samo, lijepo, već, inače, i to tragom temeljnje rasprave Pavla Tekavčića iz god. 1989. Dodani su i njemački prijevodi hrvatskim primjerima što su u spomenutoj raspravi prevedeni na talijanski. Članak završava napomenama koji se odnose na inače zapostavljenu kategoriju uzvika i njihova moguća pragmatična značenja.

  8. Transcriptional regulators of Na, K-ATPase subunits

    Zhiqin eLi


    Full Text Available The Na,K-ATPase classically serves as an ion pump creating an electrochemical gradient across the plasma membrane that is essential for transepithelial transport, nutrient uptake and membrane potential. In addition, Na,K-ATPase also functions as a receptor, a signal transducer and a cell adhesion molecule. With such diverse roles, it is understandable that the Na,K-ATPase subunits, the catalytic alpha-subunit, the beta-subunit and the FXYD proteins, are controlled extensively during development and to accommodate physiological needs. The spatial and temporal expression of Na,K-ATPase is partially regulated at the transcriptional level. Numerous transcription factors, hormones, growth factors, lipids and extracellular stimuli modulate the transcription of the Na,K-ATPase subunits. Moreover, epigenetic mechanisms also contribute to the regulation of Na,K-ATPase expression. With the ever growing knowledge about diseases associated with the malfunction of Na,K-ATPase, this review aims at summarizing the best-characterized transcription regulators that modulate Na,K-ATPase subunit levels. As abnormal expression of Na,K-ATPase subunits have been observed in many carcinoma, we will also discuss transcription factors that are associated with epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, a crucial step in the progression of many tumors to malignant disease.

  9. Mercury's Na Exosphere from MESSENGER Data

    Killen, Rosemary M.; Burger, M. H.; Cassidy, T. A.; Sarantos, M.; Vervack, R. J.; McClintock, W. El; Merkel, A. W.; Sprague, A. L.; Solomon, S. C.


    MESSENGER entered orbit about Mercury on March 18, 2011. Since then, the Ultraviolet and Visible Spectrometer (UWS) channel of MESSENGER's Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer (MASCS) has been observing Mercury's exosphere nearly continuously. Daily measurements of Na brightness were fitted with non-uniform exospheric models. With Monte Carlo sampling we traced the trajectories of a representative number of test particles, generally one million per run per source process, until photoionization, escape from the gravitational well, or permanent sticking at the surface removed the atom from the simulation. Atoms were assumed to partially thermally accommodate on each encounter with the surface with accommodation coefficient 0.25. Runs for different assumed source processes are run separately, scaled and co-added. Once these model results were saved onto a 3D grid, we ran lines of sight from the MESSENGER spacecraft :0 infinity using the SPICE kernels and we computed brightness integrals. Note that only particles that contribute to the measurement can be constrained with our method. Atoms and molecules produced on the nightside must escape the shadow in order to scatter light if the excitation process is resonant-light scattering, as assumed here. The aggregate distribution of Na atoms fits a 1200 K gas, with a PSD distribution, along with a hotter component. Our models constrain the hot component, assumed to be impact vaporization, to be emitted with a 2500 K Maxwellian. Most orbits show a dawnside enhancement in the hot component broadly spread over the leading hemisphere. However, on some dates there is no dawn/dusk asymmetry. The portion of the hot/cold source appears to be highly variable.

  10. Mercury's Na Exosphere from MESSENGER Data

    Killen, Rosemary M.; Burger, M. H.; Cassidy, T. A.; Sarantos, M.; Vervack, R. J.; McClintock, W. El; Merkel, A. W.; Sprague, A. L.; Solomon, S. C.


    MESSENGER entered orbit about Mercury on March 18, 2011. Since then, the Ultraviolet and Visible Spectrometer (UWS) channel of MESSENGER's Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer (MASCS) has been observing Mercury's exosphere nearly continuously. Daily measurements of Na brightness were fitted with non-uniform exospheric models. With Monte Carlo sampling we traced the trajectories of a representative number of test particles, generally one million per run per source process, until photoionization, escape from the gravitational well, or permanent sticking at the surface removed the atom from the simulation. Atoms were assumed to partially thermally accommodate on each encounter with the surface with accommodation coefficient 0.25. Runs for different assumed source processes are run separately, scaled and co-added. Once these model results were saved onto a 3D grid, we ran lines of sight from the MESSENGER spacecraft :0 infinity using the SPICE kernels and we computed brightness integrals. Note that only particles that contribute to the measurement can be constrained with our method. Atoms and molecules produced on the nightside must escape the shadow in order to scatter light if the excitation process is resonant-light scattering, as assumed here. The aggregate distribution of Na atoms fits a 1200 K gas, with a PSD distribution, along with a hotter component. Our models constrain the hot component, assumed to be impact vaporization, to be emitted with a 2500 K Maxwellian. Most orbits show a dawnside enhancement in the hot component broadly spread over the leading hemisphere. However, on some dates there is no dawn/dusk asymmetry. The portion of the hot/cold source appears to be highly variable.


    Claudio Alberto Gellis de Mattos Dias


    Full Text Available Em peixes, como nos mamíferos, partes do sistema nervoso estão envolvidas em mecanismos para regulação dos sistemas corporais em sintonia com o meio. O fotoperíodo é traduzido em informações fisiológicas a partir da secreção de melatonina.Parece não haver barreiras morfofisiológicas para esta indolamina, isto é, a melatonina perfunde-se rapidamente em cada célula do organismo e em alguns casos interage com receptores e membrana situados na superfície celular, e parece estar ligada à ingestão de alimentos, crescimento e atividade locomotora de peixes. São moléculas importantes metabolizando espécies reativas de oxigênio a produtos inativos e, portanto, reduzindo o dano oxidativo.Este trabalho tem por objetivo fazer um breve levantamento em artigos recentes sobre luminosidade, melatonina e o estresse oxidativo em peixes, e correlaciona-los com piscicultura. Concluímos que a luminosidade parece estar ligada a produção de melatonina, e esta molécula antioxidante, que favorece a redução do estresse oxidativo, parecem melhorar o desempenho na produção de peixes em criadouros. Palavras-chave: Melatonina, estresse oxidativo, piscicultura. DOI:

  12. Scintillation Efficiency Measurement of Na Recoils in NaI(Tl) Below the DAMA/LIBRA Energy Threshold

    Xu, Jingke [Princeton U.; Shields, Emily [Princeton U.; Calaprice, Frank [Princeton U.; Westerdale, Shawn [Princeton U.; Froborg, Francis [Princeton U.; Suerfu, Burkhant [Princeton U.; Alexander, Thomas [Fermilab; Aprahamian, Ani [Notre Dame U.; Back, Henning O. [Princeton U.; Casarella, Clark [Notre Dame U.; Fang, Xiao [Notre Dame U.; Gupta, Yogesh K. [Notre Dame U.; Ianni, Aldo [Gran Sasso; Lamere, Edward [Notre Dame U.; Lippincott, W. Hugh [Fermilab; Liu, Qian [Notre Dame U.; Lyons, Stephanie [Notre Dame U.; Siegl, Kevin [Notre Dame U.; Smith, Mallory [Notre Dame U.; Tan, Wanpeng [Notre Dame U.; Kolk, Bryant Vande [Notre Dame U.


    The dark matter interpretation of the DAMA modulation signal depends on the NaI(Tl) scintillation efficiency of nuclear recoils. Previous measurements for Na recoils have large discrepancies, especially in the DAMA/LIBRA modulation energy region. We report a quenching effect measurement of Na recoils in NaI(Tl) from 3 to 52 keVnr, covering the whole DAMA/LIBRA energy region for dark matter-Na scattering interpretations. By using a low-energy, pulsed neutron beam, a double time-of-flight technique, and pulse-shape discrimination methods, we obtained the most accurate measurement of this kind for NaI(Tl) to date. The results differ significantly from the DAMA reported values at low energies but fall between the other previous measurements. We present the implications of the new quenching results for the dark matter interpretation of the DAMA modulation signal.

  13. Growth mechanism of NaClO3 and NaBrO3 crystals from aqueous solutions

    V Surender; N Arundhathi; K Kishan Rao


    A study of growth rates of NaClO3 and NaBrO3 has been carried out using a small growth cell by in situ observation. Normal growth rates of {100} faces of NaClO3 and {111} faces of NaBrO3 along $\\langle 110 \\rangle$ direction are measured under relatively high supersaturation ranging from 3–8%. In the initial stages of growth, {100}, {110} and {111} faces develop in NaClO3 and gradually all the faces are replaced by the {100} faces only. In the case of NaBrO3, mostly {111} faces develop with occasional occurrence of small {100} faces at the intersection of {111} faces. The growth mechanisms are investigated from growth rate vs supersaturation plots and from the observations of surface features. In the present supersaturation range, the growth mechanism appears to be due to two-dimensional growth mechanism.

  14. Na/K Pump and Beyond: Na/K-ATPase as a Modulator of Apoptosis and Autophagy

    Cassiano Felippe Gonçalves-de-Albuquerque


    Full Text Available Lung cancer is a leading cause of global cancer deaths. Na/K-ATPase has been studied as a target for cancer treatment. Cardiotonic steroids (CS trigger intracellular signalling upon binding to Na/K-ATPase. Normal lung and tumour cells frequently express different pump isoforms. Thus, Na/K-ATPase is a powerful target for lung cancer treatment. Drugs targeting Na/K-ATPase may induce apoptosis and autophagy in transformed cells. We argue that Na/K-ATPase has a role as a potential target in chemotherapy in lung cancer treatment. We discuss the effects of Na/K-ATPase ligands and molecular pathways inducing deleterious effects on lung cancer cells, especially those leading to apoptosis and autophagy.

  15. Na/K Pump and Beyond: Na/K-ATPase as a Modulator of Apoptosis and Autophagy.

    Felippe Gonçalves-de-Albuquerque, Cassiano; Ribeiro Silva, Adriana; Ignácio da Silva, Camila; Caire Castro-Faria-Neto, Hugo; Burth, Patrícia


    Lung cancer is a leading cause of global cancer deaths. Na/K-ATPase has been studied as a target for cancer treatment. Cardiotonic steroids (CS) trigger intracellular signalling upon binding to Na/K-ATPase. Normal lung and tumour cells frequently express different pump isoforms. Thus, Na/K-ATPase is a powerful target for lung cancer treatment. Drugs targeting Na/K-ATPase may induce apoptosis and autophagy in transformed cells. We argue that Na/K-ATPase has a role as a potential target in chemotherapy in lung cancer treatment. We discuss the effects of Na/K-ATPase ligands and molecular pathways inducing deleterious effects on lung cancer cells, especially those leading to apoptosis and autophagy.

  16. Didaktična računalniška igra na temo osnov matematične logike

    Zupančič, Katja


    V magistrskem delu Didaktična računalniška igra na temo osnov matematične logike smo predstavili nekaj osnovnih opredelitev pojma igra ter teorijo računalniških iger in izobraževalnih računalniških iger. Pregledali smo učne načrte (splošni učni načrt za matematiko, učni načrt za izbirna predmeta logika in matematična delavnica) in učbenike za osnovno šolo, kjer se pojavljajo teme osnov matematične logike, ter glavne učne cilje tekmovanja iz logike, ki ga organizira Zveza za tehnično kulturo S...

  17. Orbital-free molecular dynamics simulations of melting in $Na_{8}$ and $Na_{20} melting in steps

    Aguado, A; Alonso, J A; Stott, M J; Aguado, Andres; Lopez, Jose M.; Alonso, Julio A.; Stott, Malcolm J.


    The melting-like transitions of Na8 and Na20 are investigated by extensive ab initio constant energy molecular dynamics simulations, using a variant of the Car-Parrinello method which employs an explicit electronic kinetic energy functional of the density, thus avoiding the use of one-particle orbitals. Several melting indicators are evaluated in order to determine the nature of the different transitions, and comparison with other theoretical calculations is made. Both Na8 and Na20 melt over a wide range of temperature. For Na8, a first transition is observed at approx. 110 K, between a rigid phase and a phase involving isomerization between the different permutational isomers of the ground state structure. The ``liquid'' phase is completely established at approx. 220 K. For Na20, three successive transitions are observed: the first phase transition, at approx. 110 K, is associated with isomerization transitions between those permutational isomers of the ground state structure which are obtained by interchang...

  18. Decomposition reactions for NaAl H4 , Na3 Al H6 , and NaH: First-principles study

    Ke, Xuezhi; Tanaka, Isao


    The electronic properties and lattice dynamics of the sodium alanate phases have been studied by the density functional calculations. The phases include NaAlH4 (space group, I41/a ), Na3AlH6 (space group, P21/n ), and NaH (space group, Fm-3m ). The electronic properties are discussed on the basis of the electronic band structures, the atomic charges, the bond overlap population analysis, and the Born effective charges. The phonon dispersion relations and phonon density of states (DOS) of the phases are calculated by a direct force-constant method. Within the quasiharmonic approximation, the calculated thermodynamic functions including the heat capacity, the vibrational enthalpy, and the vibrational entropy are in good agreement with experimental values. Three decomposition reactions are studied based on the thermodynamic functions. The reactions are (1) NaAlH4→(1)/(3)Na3AlH6+(2)/(3)Al+H2 , (2) (1)/(3)Na3AlH6→NaH+(1)/(3)Al+(1)/(2)H2 , and (3) NaH→Na+(1)/(2)H2 . The reactions (1), (2), and (3) are predicted to take place at 285, 390, and 726K , respectively, which are in good agreement with the experiment (353, 423, and 698K , respectively). The individual contributions to the reactions including the enthalpy and entropy are investigated. We found that the enthalpy for the reaction is almost constant, and the net entropy contribution ( TΔS ) to the reaction is approximately equal to the entropy contribution of the H2 gas molecule (produced in that reaction).

  19. An Inactivation Stabilizer of the Na+ Channel Acts as an Opportunistic Pore Blocker Modulated by External Na+

    Yang, Ya-Chin; Kuo, Chung-Chin


    The Na+ channel is the primary target of anticonvulsants carbamazepine, phenytoin, and lamotrigine. These drugs modify Na+ channel gating as they have much higher binding affinity to the inactivated state than to the resting state of the channel. It has been proposed that these drugs bind to the Na+ channel pore with a common diphenyl structural motif. Diclofenac is a widely prescribed anti-inflammatory agent that has a similar diphenyl motif in its structure. In this study, we found that dic...

  20. Determinants of Substrate and Cation Transport in the Human Na+/Dicarboxylate Cotransporter NaDC3*

    Schlessinger, A; Sun, NN; Colas, C; Pajor, AM


    Metabolic intermediates, such as succinate and citrate, regulate important processes ranging from energy metabolism to fatty acid synthesis. Cytosolic concentrations of these metabolites are controlled, in part, by members of the SLC13 gene family. The molecular mechanism underlying Na+-coupled di- and tricarboxylate transport by this family is understood poorly. The human Na+/dicarboxylate cotransporter NaDC3 (SLC13A3) is found in various tissues, including the kidney, liver, and brain. In a...

  1. Impacto da perda de peso nas adipocitocinas, na proteína C-reativa e na sensibilidade à insulina em mulheres hipertensas com obesidade central


    OBJETIVO: Avaliar o impacto do tratamento da obesidade nas adipocitocinas, na proteína C-reativa (PCR) e na sensibilidade à insulina em pacientes hipertensas com obesidade central. MÉTODOS: O estudo foi realizado a partir do banco de dados e de amostras estocadas de soro de pacientes submetidas previamente a um estudo para tratamento de obesidade. Foram selecionadas 30 mulheres hipertensas, com idade entre 18 e 65 anos, índice de massa corpórea (IMC) > 27 kg/m², com distribuição central ...

  2. Duas fontes de proteína na dieta de cordeiros confinados

    Gallo, Sarita Bonagurio; MERLIN,Fernanda de Almeida; MACEDO,Cássio Moreira de; Reis, Viviane Aparecida Amin


    Objetivou-se comparar dietas para cordeiros em confinamento com dois níveis de proteína e duas fontes proteicas. Foram confinados 30 cordeiros machos, não-castrados, meio sangue Dorper com Santa Inês, com idade aproximada de 2,5 meses e peso vivo inicial médio de 23kg, divididos aleatoriamente em três tratamentos: dieta controle (15% PB), dieta com alta concentração de proteína verdadeira (farelo de soja, com 19% PB) e dieta com alta concentração de nitrogênio não protéico (uréia, 19% PB). O ...

  3. Yoga como caminho de elevação na espiritualidade e na saúde

    Lima, Vânia Cristina Lucena


    O presente estudo retrata uma pesquisa realizada em João Pessoa PB - durante o período de novembro de 2009 a outubro de 2010, sob a metodologia qualitativa da História Oral de Vida. Os objetivos foram analisar o significado do Yoga como um caminho para o desenvolvimento da espiritualidade e da saúde; delinear seu percurso histórico desde a Índia até a sua chegada na Paraíba; analisar os benefícios dessa prática na saúde física e mental das colaboradoras Ada Tavares Zenaide, Mércia Rios Ribe...

  4. Sliding wear behaviour of steel carburized using Na2CO3-NaCl

    Liew Willey Y. H.


    Full Text Available Experiments have been carried out to investigate the effect of carburization process on the sliding wear resistance of mild steel. The carburization process was conducted in carbonate salts mixtures of Na2CO3-NaCl. Carburization followed by water quenching resulted in the formation of martensite with a hardness of 900 HV in the subsurface, up to the depth of 400 μm. This hardness value was substantially higher than the non-carburized steel which had a hardness of 520 HV. In the initial stage of sliding in air, abrasive wear and cluster of fine cavities due to adhesion were formed. This was followed by the formation of large-scale fracture at the cavities. The high hardness of the carburized steel reduced the severity of adhesive wear and thus the tendency of the worn surface to fracture.


    Zagoranski, Tamara


    Vedno več podjetij se odloča za prodajo prek spleta, saj omogoča novejši pristop do potrošnikov, kar posledično vpliva na večjo produktivnost in razpoznavnost podjetij oziroma oglaševalcev. Učinkovito orodje za znatno povečanje uspešnosti podjetij je zagotovo socialno omrežje Facebook. Uporabi portala so se pridružili tudi tržniki, saj jim tak način oglaševanja omogoča lažjo vzpostavitev novih stikov s potencialnimi partnerji, sodelovanje s potrošniki in jim zagotavlja odskočno desko v mednar...

  6. Impact of childhood stress on psychopathology Impacto de estresse na infância na psicopatologia

    Elisa Brietzke


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Advances in our knowledge of mental disorder (MD genetics have contributed to a better understanding of their pathophysiology. Nonetheless, several questions and doubts persist. Recent studies have focused on environmental influences in the development of MDs, and the advent of neuroscientific methodologies has provided new perspectives. Early life events, such as childhood stress, may affect neurodevelopment through mechanisms such as gene-environment interactions and epigenetic regulation, thus leading to diseases in adulthood. The aim of this paper is to review the evidence regarding the role of the environment, particularly childhood stress, in the pathophysiology of MD. METHODOLOGY: We reviewed articles that evaluated environmental influences, with a particular focus on childhood trauma, brain morphology, cognitive functions, and the development of psychopathology and MD. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: MRI studies have shown that exposure to trauma at an early age can result in several neurostructural changes, such as the reduction of the hippocampus and corpus callosum. Cognitive performance and functioning are also altered in this population. Finally, childhood stress is related to an increased risk of developing MD such as depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia and substance abuse. We conclude that there is robust evidence of the role of the environment, specifically adverse childhood experiences, in various aspects of MD.OBJETIVO: Avanços no conhecimento da genética dos transtornos mentais (TM contribuíram para um melhor entendimento de suas bases fisiopatológicas. No entanto, dúvidas e questões ainda persistem. Estudos recentes têm se concentrado nas influências do ambiente no desenvolvimento de TM, e o advento de metodologias neurocientíficas oferece novas perspectivas. Eventos precoces de vida, como estresse na infância, podem ser capazes de alterar o neurodesenvolvimento através de mecanismos como intera

  7. Towards environmentally friendly Na-ion batteries: Moisture and water stability of Na2Ti3O7

    Zarrabeitia, M.; Castillo-Martínez, E.; López Del Amo, J. M.; Eguía-Barrio, A.; Muñoz-Márquez, M. A.; Rojo, T.; Casas-Cabanas, M.


    We report here on the moisture and water stability of the promising Na-ion anode material Na2Ti3O7. Spontaneous Na+/H+ exchange is detected by PXRD after air exposure, forming solid solution compounds of the form Na2-xHxTi3O7 (0 techniques. Both mixed compositions crystallize in C2/m space group like H2Ti3O7, and therefore Na+/H+ exchange is found to involve a structural transition from AA stacking of [TiO6] layers to AB stacking sequence. The electrochemical behaviour of the mixed compositions vs. Na+/Na is studied as well as that of an electrode of pure Na2Ti3O7 prepared in water media. The water-processed electrode is shown to exhibit a superior cycling stability and therefore the results obtained highlight the potential of Na2Ti3O7 as a green, low cost anode material for NIBs.

  8. Microhardness studies on as-grown faces of NaClO3 and NaBrO3 crystals

    K Kishan Rao; V Surender; B Saritha Rani


    Single crystals of NaClO3 and NaBrO3 are grown from their aqueous solutions at a constant temperature of 35°C by slow evaporation by using good quality seed crystals. Systematic microhardness studies are made on as-grown faces of these crystals at various loads. Typical cracks are observed at the corners of the impressions in NaClO3 whereas in addition to the cracks at the corners microcracks also appeared in NaBrO3 crystals around the impressions. The impressions formed in NaBrO3 are not very clear as in NaClO3, a possible mechanism for it is discussed. The work hardening index number () for both these crystals is around 1.6 suggesting that these are moderately harder samples. The hardness studies point out that NaBrO3 is harder than NaClO3 ( ≈ 100 kg/mm2), this could be due to strong inter ionic forces acting between Na–Br in NaBrO3 crystals. Using Gilman’s empirical relation, hardness values are calculated from the values of elastic constants (44) and are found to be close to the experimental results.

  9. NMR and IR studies of hydroxyl groups in CaNa and MgNa forms of zeolites A

    Pruski, M.; Ernst, H.; Pfeifer, H.; Staudte, B.


    By measurement of MAS proton magnetic resonance and near-infrared spectra, the existence of bridging hydroxyl groups in MgNaA and CaNaA zeolites is excluded. The MAS proton magnetic resonance lines observed at 2.5-3 ppm for CaNaA and at 3.5 ppm for MgNaA (apart from the small contributions of "terminal" OH groups) and the corresponding bands at 4576 and 4525 cm -1 in the near-infrared spectra are attributed to hydroxyl groups attached to the exchangeable cations.

  10. Central role of the Na(+)-translocating NADH:quinone oxidoreductase (Na(+)-NQR) in sodium bioenergetics of Vibrio cholerae.

    Steuber, Julia; Halang, Petra; Vorburger, Thomas; Steffen, Wojtek; Vohl, Georg; Fritz, Günter


    Vibrio cholerae is a Gram-negative bacterium that lives in brackish or sea water environments. Strains of V. cholerae carrying the pathogenicity islands infect the human gut and cause the fatal disease cholera. Vibrio cholerae maintains a Na(+) gradient at its cytoplasmic membrane that drives substrate uptake, motility, and efflux of antibiotics. Here, we summarize the major Na(+)-dependent transport processes and describe the central role of the Na(+)-translocating NADH:quinone oxidoreductase (Na(+)-NQR), a primary Na(+) pump, in maintaining a Na(+)-motive force. The Na(+)-NQR is a membrane protein complex with a mass of about 220 kDa that couples the exergonic oxidation of NADH to the transport of Na(+) across the cytoplasmic membrane. We describe the molecular architecture of this respiratory complex and summarize the findings how electron transport might be coupled to Na(+)-translocation. Moreover, recent advances in the determination of the three-dimensional structure of this complex are reported.

  11. 43. Calmodulin regulating calcium sensitivity of Na channels

    R. Vegiraju


    Full Text Available By extrapolating information from existing research and observing previous assumptions regarding the structure of the Na Channel, this experiment was conducted under the hypothesis that the Na Channel is in part regulated by the calmodulin protein, as a result proving calcium sensitivity of the Na Channel. Furthermore, we assume that there is a one to one stoichiometry between the Na Channel and the Calmodulin. There has been extensive research into the functionality and structure of sodium ion channels (Na channels, as several diseases are associated with the lack of regulation of sodium ions, that is caused by the disfunction of these Na channels. However, one highly controversial matter in the field is the importance of the protein calmodulin (CaM and calcium in Na channel function. Calmodulin is a protein that is well known for its role as a calcium binding messenger protein, and that association is believed to play an indirect role in regulating the Na channel through the Na channel’s supposed calcium sensitivity. While there are proponents for both sides, there has been relatively little research that provides strong evidence for either case. In this experiment, the effect of calmodulin on NaV 1.5 is tested by preparing a set of cardiac cells (of the human specie with the NaV 1.5 C-Termini and CaM protein, which were then to be placed in solutions with varying concentrations of calcium. We took special care to test multiple concentrations of calcium, as previous studies have tested very low concentrations, with Manu Ben-Johny’s team from the John Hopkins laboratory in particular testing up to a meager 50 micromolar, despite producing a well-respected paper (By comparison, the average Na channel can naturally sustain a concentration of almost 1-2 millimolar and on some occasions, reaching even higher concentrations. After using light scattering and observing the signals given off by the calcium interacting with these Nav1.5/Ca

  12. North America and South America (NA-SA) neuropathy project.

    Pasnoor, Mamatha; Nascimento, Osvaldo J M; Trivedi, Jaya; Wolfe, Gil I; Nations, Sharon; Herbelin, Laura; de Freitas, M G; Quintanilha, Giseli; Khan, Saud; Dimachkie, Mazen; Barohn, Richard


    Peripheral neuropathy is a common neurological disorder. There may be important differences and similarities in the diagnosis of peripheral neuropathy between North America (NA) and South America (SA). Neuromuscular databases were searched for neuropathy diagnosis at two North American sites, University of Kansas Medical Center and University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, and one South American site, Federal Fluminense University in Brazil. All patients were included into one of the six major categories: immune-mediated, diabetic, hereditary, infectious/inflammatory, systemic/metabolic/toxic (not diabetic) and cryptogenic. A comparison of the number of patients in each category was made between North America and South America databases. Total number of cases in North America was 1090 and in South America was 1034 [immune-mediated: NA 215 (19.7%), SA 191 (18%); diabetic: NA 148 (13.5%), SA 236 (23%); hereditary: NA 292 (26.7%), SA 103 (10%); infectious/inflammatory: NA 53 (4.8%), SA 141 (14%); systemic/metabolic/toxic: NA 71 (6.5%), SA 124 (12%); cryptogenic: NA 311 (28.5%), SA 239 (23%)]. Some specific neuropathy comparisons were hereditary neuropathies [Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) cases] in NA 246/292 (84.2%) and SA 60/103 (58%); familial amyloid neuropathy in SA 31/103 (30%) and none in NA. Among infectious neuropathies, cases of human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) neuropathy in SA were 36/141(25%), Chagas disease in SA were 13/141(9%) and none for either in NA; cases of neuropathy due to leprosy in NA were 26/53 (49%) and in SA were 39/141(28%). South American tertiary care centers are more likely to see patients with infectious, diabetic and hereditary disorders such as familial amyloid neuropathies. North American tertiary centers are more likely to see patients with CMT. Immune neuropathies and cryptogenic neuropathies were seen equally in North America and South America.

  13. O Platonismo de Russell na metafísica e na matemática

    Guido Imaguire


    Full Text Available Neste artigo, analiso o surgimento e a superação do Platonismo em B. Russell, tanto na sua filosofia da matemática como na sua metafísica. Começo por explicitar os argumentos que levaram Russell a aderir ao chamado "Platonismo Proposicional" - posição que será tecnicamente relevante na definição de números. Na seção seguinte, discutirei até que ponto a teoria das descrições definidas determina, necessariamente, uma adesão ao nominalismo, e as dificuldades que surgem para o logicismo conseqüentes do abandono do platonismo. Finalmente, mostrarei como a posição madura de Russell caracteriza-se mais como um reducionismo do que propriamente como um nominalismo, e como este é fundado no princípio do mínimo vocabulário.In this paper, I analyze the emergence and the overcoming of Platonism both in Russell's philosophy of mathematics and his metaphysics. I begin by examining the arguments which led Russell to endorse a position that I term "Propositional Platonism" - this position proves to be relevant for Russell's definition of numbers. In the following section, I address the question of the extent to which Russell's theory of descriptions implies the acceptance of nominalism. Moreover, I examine the difficulties which arise for logicism, if it no longer goes hand in hand with platonism. Finally, I argue argue that Russell's mature position is to be characterized as a form of reductionism rather than as a variant of nominalism

  14. Jornalismos culturais na rede: uma experiência de pesquisa compartilhada na web

    Geane Alzamora


    Full Text Available O projeto Jornalismos Culturais na Rede ( investiga, desde 2002, paradigmas de circulação de informação cultural na rede, a partir de trabalhos acadêmicos e produtos editoriais disponí­veis na Internet. Os principais objetivos da pesquisa referem-se a: i discutir modos possí­veis de se produzir conhecimento pela Internet, tendo por fundamento a idéia de pesquisa colaborativa; ii criar categorias para referenciar informações culturais hipermidiáticas; iii identificar como se conformam os paradigmas de circulação de informação cultural na Internet: iv avaliar, junto com a comunidade virtual que delineia o projeto, as bases conceituais de um possí­vel webjornalismo cultural. Palavras-chave cultura, webjornalismo, informação, comunidade virtual Abstract Cultural Webjournalism ( is a project that, since 2002, has been investigating models of cultural information, by departing from academics works and editorial products available in the Internet. The main objectives in this research are: i to discuss how is it possible to produce knowledge through the Internet, founded in the idea of "research in collaboration"; ii to create categories to refer to hypermediatic cultural information; iii to identify how models of cultural information are constituted in the Internet; iv to evaluate, with the virtual community that marks this project, the conceptual bases of a possible cultural webjournalism. Key words culture, webjournalism, information, virtual community

  15. Paisagismo e modernidade na europa na década de 1920

    Euler Sandeville Júnior


    Full Text Available Experiências formais realizadas a partir do final da Primeira Guerra deram novo impulso à reformulação das concepções então correntes para os jardins. Notamos algumas tendências contrastantes que coexistiam nessa época: uma, então dominante, representada por um ambiente profissional respondendo a uma demanda particular e do Estado, de caráter conservador e nacionalista, outras, de renovação, representadas por paisagistas e por arquitetos de alguma forma vinculados às vanguardas. O objetivo deste trabalho é destacar duas tendências modernizantes atuando na produção paisagística na Europa dos anos de 1920. Uma delas, desenvolvida por paisagistas e arquitetos, mostra forte influência do cubismo e do expressionismo, convergindo para o art déco, dotada de forte conotação decorativa. Gabriel Guevrekian e Robert Mallet-Stevens, são alguns dos representantes dessa tendência. Outra tendência modernizante deve-se à atuação de representantes do nascente movimento moderno em arquitetura, tanto em sua abordagem dos jardins como também nos conceitos que empregaram na criação de espaços externos. Entre a ampla gama de experiências nesse sentido, vêem-se as posturas bem diversas apresentadas por arquitetos como Le Corbusier e Erik Gunnar Asplund.

  16. Synthesis and Structure of 1D Na6 Cluster Chain with Short Na-Na Distance: Organic like Aromaticity in Inorganic Metal Cluster

    Khatua, S; Chattaraj, P K; Roy, D R; Bhattacharjee*, Manish; Chattaraj*, Pratim K.; Khatua, Snehadrinarayan; Roy, Debesh R.


    A unique 1D chain of sodium cluster containing (Na6) rings stabilized by a molybdenum containing metalloligand has been synthesized and characterized. DFT calculations show striking resemblance in their aromatic behaviour with the corresponding hydrocarbon analogues

  17. Risbjerg: SF vandt valgkampen, NA og R tabte

    Thomsen, Søren Risbjerg


    ANALYSE: Endnu engang flyttede en valgkamp for alvor stemmer. SF gik undervejs 27 pct. frem, mens NA gik 34 pct. tilbage og R 26 pct. Udgivelsesdato: 25. november......ANALYSE: Endnu engang flyttede en valgkamp for alvor stemmer. SF gik undervejs 27 pct. frem, mens NA gik 34 pct. tilbage og R 26 pct. Udgivelsesdato: 25. november...

  18. A ideologia na obra de Antonio Carlos Pacheco e Silva

    Francisco B. Assumpção Jr.

    Full Text Available O autor apresenta, através da obra de Antonio Carlos Pacheco e Silva, a questão ideológica na psiquiatria. Discute também sua importância naquele momento histórico brasileiro, bem como sua influência na psiquiatria brasileira até os dias de hoje.

  19. Infrared properties of doped and irradiated NaCl crystals

    Izvekov, V.P.; Pungor, E. (Budapesti Mueszaki Egyetem (Hungary). Altalanos es Analitikai Tanszek); Gyoergyi, T.; Pungor, E. (Orszagos Frederic Joliot-Curie Sugarbiologiai es Sugaregeszseguegyi Kutato Intezet, Budapest (Hungary))


    Infrared spectra of X-ray irradiated NaCl crystals doped with Ca/sup 2 +/ and Sr/sup 2 +/ ions are presented. The localized modes of the hydrogen impurities in doped NaCl crystals and their changes induced by radiation have been studied.

  20. The early stages in the oxidation of Na

    Shek, M.L. (25 Old Saddle Road, Ridge, New York 11961 (USA)); Hrbek, J. (Chemistry Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (USA)); Sham, T.K. (Department of Chemistry, University of Western Ontario, Ontario, NA6 5B7, Canada (CA)); Xu, G. (Chemistry Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (USA))


    We report soft x-ray photoemission results on the early stages of the oxidation of Na at {similar to}80 K. The first stage (up to {approx gt}0.5 L exposure) is characterized by a narrow O 2{ital p} level and a Na 2{ital p} surface core level shifted by {minus}0.55 eV with respect to the bulk core level. The Na 2{ital p} surface plasmon loss intensity shifts toward smaller energies, consistent with a decrease in surface conduction electron density. The second stage (starting from {similar to}1 L) is characterized by the emergence of di-oxygen'' valence levels and a Na 2{ital p} component shifted by {similar to}0.8 eV with respect to the bulk binding energy. The oxidation is strongly nonuniform, as suggested by the small oxygen doses needed for the onset of the second oxidation stage, and the continued presence of the bulk plasmon loss from metallic Na. The two new Na 2{ital p} binding energies are tentatively attributed to different final-state screening of metallic Na adjacent to dispersed oxygen atoms in the first stage, and of the Na atoms with mostly oxygen nearest neighbors in the second stage. Observations regarding large negative core level shifts upon large oxygen exposures are also summarized.

  1. Transmission channels through Na and Al atom wire

    Kobayashi, N.; Brandbyge, Mads; Tsukada, M.


    First-principles calculations of the transmission channels of single-atom-width Na and Al atom wires bridged between metallic jellium electrodes are presented. For the Na wire, a single channel contributes to the conduction with an almost full quantization value, 2e(2)/h. The conductance...

  2. Effect NaOH Concentration on Bagasse Ash Based Geopolymerization



    Full Text Available Geopolymer is a natural adhesive material which can be developed as a substitute for cement. The natural ingredients which want to use should contain silica and alumina. This paper uses bagasse ash as a basic material of mortar geopolymer. As an adhesive, the bagasse ash should be mixed with water and another activator alkali such as sodium hydroxide (NaOH and sodium silicate (Na2SiO3. The NaOHs molarity variation are 8, 10, 12, 14 and 16 M with Na2SiO3/NaOH = 1,0 sand/bagasse ash = 2,75 and activator/bagasse ash = 0,42. This research use 50 × 50 × 50 mm cube sized specimen and conduct a compressive strength test with 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days. The fresh mortar test result showed that the use of NaOHs molarity variation influences the slump value and time setting. The bigger NaOH molarity variation that been used, the smaller slump value. But, the time setting is increased. While the result for density and compressive strength shown that the bigger NaOH molarity variation, the bigger density and the compressive strength. Maximum compressive strength resulted from the mixture of mortar geopolymer with 16 M concentration.

  3. Naïve Bayes classification in R

    Zhang, Zhongheng


    Naïve Bayes classification is a kind of simple probabilistic classification methods based on Bayes’ theorem with the assumption of independence between features. The model is trained on training dataset to make predictions by predict() function. This article introduces two functions naiveBayes() and train() for the performance of Naïve Bayes classification.

  4. Opredeluvawe selen vo pomosni lekoviti sredstva so primena na AAS

    Rumenka Petkovska


    Full Text Available Opredeluvanjeto selen vo pomosni lekoviti sredstva bese izvrseno so atomska apsorpciona spektrometrija so primena na grafitna pecka i hidriden sistem.Podgotovkata na primerocite bese napravena so mikrobranovo razoruvanje. Za grafitna tehnika e koristena smesa od modifikatori sto sodrzi rastvori na Pd(NO32 so masena koncentracija 1,5 g/l i Mg(NO32 so masena koncentracija 1g/l vo rastvor na HNO3 so koncentracija 2,3 mol/l. Za hidridniot sistem koristen e rastvor na NaBH4 so masen udel 1,5% vo rastvor od NaOH so masen udel 0,5%. Metodot be{e validiran preku opredeluvawe: linearnost (vo koncentraciono podracje od 15 do 75 µg/l za grafitna tehnika i 5 do 25 µg/l za hidriden sistem, tocnost, preciznost, limit na detekcija (4 µg/l za grafitna tehnika i 1 µg/l za hidriden sistem i kvantifikacija (13 µg/l za grafitna tehnika i 3 µg/l za hidriden sistem. Metodot bese primenet za opredeluvanje selen vo tri preparati vo koi selenot e vo kombinacija so: cink, bakar i vitaminite A, S i E. Dobienite rezultati pokazuvaat deka predlozenite metodi za opredeluvanje selen vo farmacevtski preparati se osetlivi, precizni, tocni i reproducibilni

  5. Experience with CsI(Na) crystals for calorimetry

    Aulchenko, V.M. [Rossijskaya Akademiya Nauk, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation). Inst. Yadernoj Fiziki; Baibusinov, B.O. [Rossijskaya Akademiya Nauk, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation). Inst. Yadernoj Fiziki; Baldin, E.M. [Rossijskaya Akademiya Nauk, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation). Inst. Yadernoj Fiziki; Bondar, A.E. [Rossijskaya Akademiya Nauk, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation). Inst. Yadernoj Fiziki; Gaidarev, P.B. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States); Kuzmin, A.S. [Rossijskaya Akademiya Nauk, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation). Inst. Yadernoj Fiziki; Leontiev, L.A. [Rossijskaya Akademiya Nauk, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation). Inst. Yadernoj Fiziki; Oreshkin, S.B. [Rossijskaya Akademiya Nauk, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation). Inst. Yadernoj Fiziki; Ovechkin, R.P. [Rossijskaya Akademiya Nauk, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation). Inst. Yadernoj Fiziki; Shwartz, B.A. [Rossijskaya Akademiya Nauk, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation). Inst. Yadernoj Fiziki


    The performance of cesium iodide doped with sodium is studied. The design and parameters of a CsI(Na) endcap calorimeter for the KEDR detector are presented. Also reported are the results of the study of a calorimeter element consisting of a CsI(Na) crystal coupled to a vacuum phototriode. (orig.).

  6. The pea gene NA encodes ent-kaurenoic acid oxidase.

    Davidson, Sandra E; Elliott, Robert C; Helliwell, Chris A; Poole, Andrew T; Reid, James B


    The gibberellin (GA)-deficient dwarf na mutant in pea (Pisum sativum) has severely reduced internode elongation, reduced root growth, and decreased leaflet size. However, the seeds develop normally. Two genes, PsKAO1 and PsKAO2, encoding cytochrome P450 monooxygenases of the subfamily CYP88A were isolated. Both PsKAO1 and PsKAO2 had ent-kaurenoic acid oxidase (KAO) activity, catalyzing the three steps of the GA biosynthetic pathway from ent-kaurenoic acid to GA(12) when expressed in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). In addition to the intermediates ent-7alpha-hydroxykaurenoic acid and GA(12)-aldehyde, some additional products of the pea KAO activity were detected, including ent-6alpha,7alpha-dihydroxykaurenoic acid and 7beta-hydroxykaurenolide. The NA gene encodes PsKAO1, because in two independent mutant alleles, na-1 and na-2, PsKAO1 had altered sequences and the five-base deletion in PsKAO1 associated with the na-1 allele cosegregated with the dwarf na phenotype. PsKAO1 was expressed in the stem, apical bud, leaf, pod, and root, organs in which GA levels have previously been shown to be reduced in na plants. PsKAO2 was expressed only in seeds and this may explain the normal seed development and normal GA biosynthesis in seeds of na plants.

  7. Cloning of neuraminidase (NA) gene and identification of its antiviral ...



    Jun 12, 2012 ... African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 11(47), pp. 10675-10681, 12 ... vector pGEX-NA was constructed to make NA polyclone antibody. Eukaryotic ... increasing the immune protection function (Cong and Liu,. 2008). In all, NA ...

  8. Transepithelial Na+ transport and the intracellular fluids: a computer study.

    Civan, M M; Bookman, R J


    Computer simulations of tight epithelia under three experimental conditions have been carried out, using the rheogenic nonlinear model of Lew, Ferreira and Moura (Proc. Roy. Soc. London. B 206:53-83, 1979) based largely on the formulation of Koefoed-Johnsen and Ussing (Acta Physiol. Scand. 42: 298-308. 1958). First, analysis of the transition between the short-circuited and open-circuited states has indicated that (i) apical Cl- permeability is a critical parameter requiring experimental definition in order to analyze cell volume regulation, and (ii) contrary to certain experimental reports, intracellular Na+ concentration (ccNa) is expected to be a strong function of transepithelial clamping voltage. Second, analysis of the effects of lowering serosal K+ concentration (csK) indicates that the basic model cannot simulate several well-documented observations; these defects can be overcome, at least qualitatively, by modifying the model to take account of the negative feedback interaction likely to exist between the apical Na+ permeability and ccNa. Third, analysis of the strongly supports the concept that osmotically induced permeability changes in the apical intercellular junctions play a physiological role in conserving the body's stores of NaCl. The analyses also demonstrate that the importance of Na+ entry across the basolateral membrane is strongly dependent upon transepithelial potential, cmNa and csK; under certain conditions, net Na+ entry could be appreciably greater across the basolateral than across the apical membrane.

  9. Unidirectional Flux Balance of Monovalent Ions in Cells with Na/Na and Li/Na Exchange: Experimental and Computational Studies on Lymphoid U937 Cells.

    Igor A Vereninov

    Full Text Available Monovalent ion traffic across the cell membrane occurs via various pathways. Evaluation of individual fluxes in whole cell is hampered by their strong interdependence. This difficulty can be overcome by computational analysis of the whole cell flux balance. However, the previous computational studies disregarded ion movement of the self-exchange type. We have taken this exchange into account. The developed software allows determination of unidirectional fluxes of all monovalent ions via the major pathways both under the balanced state and during transient processes. We show how the problem of finding the rate coefficients can be solved by measurement of monovalent ion concentrations and some of the fluxes. Interdependence of fluxes due to the mandatory conditions of electroneutrality and osmotic balance and due to specific effects can be discriminated, enabling one to identify specific changes in ion transfer machinery under varied conditions. To test the effectiveness of the developed approach we made use of the fact that Li/Na exchange is known to be an analogue of the coupled Na/Na exchange. Thus, we compared the predicted and experimental data obtained on U937 cells under varied Li+ concentrations and following inhibition of the sodium pump with ouabain. We found that the coupled Na/Na exchange in U937 cells comprises a significant portion of the entire Na+ turnover. The data showed that the loading of the sodium pump by Li/Na exchange involved in the secondary active Li+ transport at 1-10 mM external Li+ is small. This result may be extrapolated to similar Li+ and Na+ flux relationships in erythrocytes and other cells in patients treated with Li+ in therapeutic doses. The developed computational approach is applicable for studying various cells and can be useful in education for demonstrating the effects of individual transporters and channels on ion gradients, cell water content and membrane potential.

  10. Unidirectional Flux Balance of Monovalent Ions in Cells with Na/Na and Li/Na Exchange: Experimental and Computational Studies on Lymphoid U937 Cells.

    Vereninov, Igor A; Yurinskaya, Valentina E; Model, Michael A; Vereninov, Alexey A


    Monovalent ion traffic across the cell membrane occurs via various pathways. Evaluation of individual fluxes in whole cell is hampered by their strong interdependence. This difficulty can be overcome by computational analysis of the whole cell flux balance. However, the previous computational studies disregarded ion movement of the self-exchange type. We have taken this exchange into account. The developed software allows determination of unidirectional fluxes of all monovalent ions via the major pathways both under the balanced state and during transient processes. We show how the problem of finding the rate coefficients can be solved by measurement of monovalent ion concentrations and some of the fluxes. Interdependence of fluxes due to the mandatory conditions of electroneutrality and osmotic balance and due to specific effects can be discriminated, enabling one to identify specific changes in ion transfer machinery under varied conditions. To test the effectiveness of the developed approach we made use of the fact that Li/Na exchange is known to be an analogue of the coupled Na/Na exchange. Thus, we compared the predicted and experimental data obtained on U937 cells under varied Li+ concentrations and following inhibition of the sodium pump with ouabain. We found that the coupled Na/Na exchange in U937 cells comprises a significant portion of the entire Na+ turnover. The data showed that the loading of the sodium pump by Li/Na exchange involved in the secondary active Li+ transport at 1-10 mM external Li+ is small. This result may be extrapolated to similar Li+ and Na+ flux relationships in erythrocytes and other cells in patients treated with Li+ in therapeutic doses. The developed computational approach is applicable for studying various cells and can be useful in education for demonstrating the effects of individual transporters and channels on ion gradients, cell water content and membrane potential.

  11. Sepsis does not alter red blood cell glucose metabolism or Na+ concentration: A 2H-, 23Na-NMR study

    Hotchkiss, R.S.; Song, S.K.; Ling, C.S.; Ackerman, J.J.; Karl, I.E. (Washington Univ. School of Medicine, St. Louis (USA))


    The effects of sepsis on intracellular Na+ concentration ((Na+)i) and glucose metabolism were examined in rat red blood cells (RBCs) by using 23Na- and 2H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Sepsis was induced in 15 halothane-anesthetized female Sprague-Dawley rats by using the cecal ligation and perforation technique; 14 control rats underwent cecal manipulation without ligation. The animals were fasted for 36 h, but allowed free access to water. At 36 h postsurgery, RBCs were examined by 23Na-NMR by using dysprosium tripolyphosphate as a chemical shift reagent. Human RBCs from 17 critically ill nonseptic patients and from 7 patients who were diagnosed as septic were also examined for (Na+)i. Five rat RBC specimens had (Na+)i determined by both 23Na-NMR and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). For glucose metabolism studies, RBCs from septic and control rats were suspended in modified Krebs-Henseleit buffer containing (6,6-2H2)glucose and examined by 2H-NMR. No significant differences in (Na+)i or glucose utilization were found in RBCs from control or septic rats. There were no differences in (Na+)i in the two groups of patients. The (Na+)i determined by NMR spectroscopy agreed closely with measurements using ICP-AES and establish that 100% of the (Na+)i of the RBC is visible by NMR. Glucose measurements determined by 2H-NMR correlated closely (correlation coefficient = 0.93) with enzymatic analysis. These studies showed no evidence that sepsis disturbed RBC membrane function or metabolism.


    Adhikari, Pralhad


    SAŽETAK: U radnom okruženju pogreške su neizbježne. Nesreće nastaju zbog ljudskih pogrešaka i grešaka u sustavu, a za posljedicu imaju neželjene štete i ozljede. Nesreće na radu uzrokuju goleme gubitke u životima i imovini. Razne teorije na različite načine objašnjavaju uzroke nesreća. Neke pripisuju nesreće ljudskim čimbenicima dok druge smatraju da se uzroci nesreća mogu naći u greškama sustava ili načinu upravljanja. Neki su ljudi skloniji pogreškama od drugih, izloženih istim čimbenicima ...

  13. The New Readout System of the NA62 LKr Calorimeter

    Ceccucci, A; Farthouat, P; Lamanna, G; Rouet, J; Ryjov, V; Venditti, S


    The NA62 experiment [1] at CERN SPS (Super Proton Synchrotron) accelerator aims at studying Kaon decays with high precision. The high resolution Liquid Krypton (LKr) calorimeter, built for the NA48 [2] experiment, is a crucial part of the photon-veto system; to cope with the demanding NA62 re- quirements,itsback-endelectron icshadtobecompletelyrenewed. The new readout system is based on the Calorimeter REAdout Module (CREAM) [3], a 6U VME board whose design and pro- duction was sub-contracted to CAEN [4], with CERN NA62 group continuously supervising the de velopment and production phase. The first version of the board was delivered by the manufacturer in March 2013 and, as of June 2014, the full board production is ongoing. In addition to describing the CREAM board, all aspects of the new LKr readout system, including its integration within the NA62 TDAQ scheme, will be treated.

  14. Recent results from the NA62 experiment at CERN

    Aliberti, Riccardo


    NA62 is a fixed target experiment located at the CERN SPS which aims to perform flavour physics studies in the charged kaon sector with an unprecedented precision. Due to the abundance of kaon decays with a po in the final state, NA62 is also a perfect environment to measure the neutral pion characteristics. NA62 collected a large sample of charged kaon decays with a highly efficient trigger for decays into electrons in 2007. We report about the measurement of the po electromagnetic transition form factor slope parameter in the time-like region. Between 2008 and 2014 the NA62 apparatus underwent an intense upgrade phase to improve the physics sensitivity of the experiment to precisely measure the Br (K+ !p+n ¯ n). NA62 took data in pilot runs in 2014 and 2015 reaching the final designed beam intensity. The quality of data acquired in view of the final measurement is presented.

  15. Consumo de cafeína e prematuridade

    de Souza, Rita Adriana Gomes; Sichieri,Rosely


    A cafeína (1, 3, 7-trimetilxantina) é uma metilxantina que facilmente atravessa a barreira placentária, com quantidades substanciais passando para o líquido amniótico, sangue do cordão umbilical, plasma e urina dos neonatos. As maiores fontes de cafeína são café, chá, chocolate e refrigerantes do tipo cola. Além disso, cerca de mil drogas prescritas e 2 mil drogas não prescritas contêm cafeína, e 25 dessas drogas podem ser usadas na gravidez. Embora estudos em animais indiquem que a cafeína l...

  16. Status of the KIMS-NaI experiment

    Kim, Kyungwon


    KIMS-NaI is a direct detection experiment searching for Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMP) via their scattering off of nuclei in a NaI(Tl) crystal. The KIMS-NaI collaboration has carried out tests of six crystals in the Yangyang underground laboratory in order to develope low-background NaI(Tl) crystals. Studies of internal backgrounds crystals have been performed with the goal of reducing backgrounds levels to 1 dru at 2 keV. Pulse shape discrimination (PSD) capabilities were also investigated for distinguishing between WIMP nuclear recoil signals and electron recoil backgrounds. The PSD analysis was applied to underground data with one low background NaI(Tl) detector and the evaluation of WIMP mass limit is ongoing.

  17. Difference in Photosynthetic Response of Ryegrass Seedling to NaCI and NaHCO3 Stress%黑麦草幼苗对NaCl和NaHCO3胁迫的光合响应差异

    刘建新; 王鑫; 贾海燕; 李东波


    为了探讨牧草光合功能对盐、碱胁迫的响应差异,采用营养液砂培方法,分别研究了不同浓度(0、50、100、150、200mmol·L^-1)NaCl和NaHCOs胁迫对黑麦草幼苗生长、叶片光合色素含量、气体交换和叶绿素荧光参数、叶绿体Hill反应活力和ATPase活性的影响。结果表明:①随着处理浓度的增加,黑麦草幼苗全株干重、叶片叶绿素和类胡萝h素含量、净光合速率(Pa)、气孔导度(Ga)和蒸腾速率(Tr)明显下降。当NaCl浓度小于100mmol·L^-1时,胞间CO2浓度(Ci)显著降低,气孔限制值(Ls)明显增加,随着NaCl浓度进一步增大,G显著增加,Ls显著减小;NaHCOs胁迫下Ci随着处理浓度增大而显著增加,Ls则显著减小。但NaHCO3胁迫下各指标下降或增加的幅度大于NaCl胁迫。②随着NaCl和NaHCOs胁迫强度的增大,黑麦草幼苗荧光参数PSII最大光化学效率(Fv/Fm)、实际光化学效率(ФPSⅡ)、光化学淬灭(qp)及叶绿体Hill反应和ATPase活性明显下降,非光化学淬灭(NPQ)显著提高,叶片吸收的光能中用于光化学反应的比例(P)显著减小,天线热耗散的比例(D)显著增大。在相同浓度下,NaHCOs胁迫的各荧光参数及Hill反应和ATPase活性的变幅大于NaCl胁迫,说明NaHCO。胁迫对幼苗的伤害程度大于NaCI胁迫。由此表明,黑麦草对碱的耐性低于盐,这可能与碱的高pH值更多引起光合色素含量下降和光合机构受到严重伤害有关。%To explore the differences of photosynthetic responses of forage to saline stress and alkaline stress, ryegrass seedlings were exposed to Hoagland's nutrient solution at five NaC1 or NaHCO3 levels (0, 50, 100, 150, 200 mmol. L^-1), and the effects of NaCl and NaHCO3 stress on plant growth, photosynthetic pigment content, gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, and the activities of Hill reaction and

  18. Sexualidade, Espiritualidade e Conjugalidades na Wicca Brasileira

    Daniela Cordovil

    Full Text Available Resumo Este artigo propõe uma análise do papel da sexualidade nas práticas da Wicca, religião neopagã surgida na Inglaterra entre 1940 e 1950. Atualmente, a Wicca é um movimento mundial multifacetado, que segue inúmeras vertentes. Esta pesquisa investiga concepções e práticas ligadas à sexualidade presentes entre grupos que praticam a Wicca publicamente em diversas capitais do Brasil. Esses grupos estão organizados em tradições (grupos religiosos com viés iniciático que comandam associações civis com fins de resguardar direitos e promover eventos públicos para divulgação e troca de conhecimento entre praticantes da religião. Os resultados do estudo mostram que a Wicca postula uma relação intrínseca entre sexualidade, espiritualidade e liberdade, sendo suas práticas herdeiras de movimentos intelectuais diversos, como o esoterismo, a contracultura e a filosofia oriental.

  19. Absorto na ação

    Michael Fried


    Full Text Available O filme Zidane, um retrato do século XXI, de Douglas Gordon e Philippe Parreno (2006 pertence à tradição de absorção que desempenhou um papel crucial na evolução da arte moderna. O autor explora a tensão entre absorção e teatralidade - central tanto para a pintura francesa do século XVIII como para a fotografia dos séculos XX e XXI - e tira conseqüências estéticas e filosóficas do filme que retrata, ao longo de todos os noventa minutos de uma partida de futebol, o meio-campista francês Zinedine Zidane.Zidane, a 21st Century Portrait, a film by Douglas Gordon and Philippe Perreno, belongs to the absorptive tradition that has played a central role in the evolution of modern art. The author explores the tension between absorption and theatricality - crucial to 18th century French art as well as to 20th and 21th century photography - and draws aesthetic and philosophical consequences of this film that depicts, throughout all the 90 minutes of a soccer match, the French midfielder Zinedine Zidane.

  20. Lugares dos mortos na cristandade ocidental

    Cláudia Rodrigues


    Full Text Available Resumo. Este artigo busca refletir sobre a forte associação entre morte e cristandade no Ocidente, buscando identificar os lugares dos mortos nos diferentes sistemas de cristandade. Propõe-se aqui a viabilidade de se pensar numa certa vinculação entre determinadas atitudes e representações diante da morte e do morrer e o sistema de cristandade vigente em determinados contextos históricos, entre fins da Antiguidade tardia e o século XX, mais especificamente em países nos quais a Igreja romana exerceu hegemonia sobre a sociedade. Procura argumentar que, enquanto predominou a modalidade “constantiniana”, os mortos faziam parte do cotidiano e a morte e foram instrumentos do projeto cristianizador. Quando este modelo de Cristandade recuou, diante da emergência da chamada “Cristandade pós-constantiniana” – na qual a Igreja não mais era braço do aparelho estatal –, os mortos tinham sido afastados da cidade dos vivos e a morte, ou melhor, o medo da morte não mais representava instrumento de pressão sobre a consciência do cidadão