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Sample records for reinforced high strength

  1. Shear Reinforcement Requirements for High-Strength Concrete Bridge Girders

    OpenAIRE

    Ramirez, J. A.; Aguilar, Gerardo

    2005-01-01

    A research program was conducted on the shear strength of high-strength concrete members. The objective was to evaluate the shear behavior and strength of concrete bridge members with compressive strengths in the range of 10 000 to 15 000 psi. The goal was to determine if the current minimum amount of shear reinforcement together with maximum spacing limits in the 2004 AASHTO LRFD Specifications, and the upper limit on the nominal shear strength were applicable to concrete compressive strengt...

  2. Production technology of high strength reinforcement rod

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ At present JSC "ZSMK" is the largest producer of building reinforcement steel in Russia. One of the most essential conditions for holding our positions on this products market is the increase of assortment and quality of rolled metal.

  3. Production technology of high strength reinforcement rod

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yurev; A.; B.; Chinokalov; V.; Y.; Efimov; O.; Y.; Zezikov; M.; V.; Myskova; N.; V.

    2005-01-01

    At present JSC "ZSMK" is the largest producer of building reinforcement steel in Russia. One of the most essential conditions for holding our positions on this products market is the increase of assortment and quality of rolled metal.……

  4. Strength Modeling of High-Strength Concrete with Hybrid Fibre Reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ravichandran

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The low tensile strength and limited ductility, the unavoidable deficiency, of concrete can be overcome by the addition of fibres. High strength concrete (HSC of 60 MPa containing hybrid fibres, combination of steel and polyolefin fibres, at different volume fraction of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0% were compared in terms of compressive, splitting tensile strength and flexural properties with HSC containing no fibres. Test results showed that the fibres when used in hybrid form could result in enhanced flexural toughness compared to steel fibre reinforced concrete [HSFRC]. The compressive strength of the fibre-reinforced concrete reached maximum at 1.5% volume fractions and the splitting tensile strength and modulus of rupture improved with increasing volume fraction. Strength models were established to predict the compressive and splitting tensile strength and modulus of rupture of the fibre-reinforced concrete. The models give prediction matching the measurements.

  5. High Strength Discontinuously Reinforced Aluminum For Rocket Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, A. B.; Shah, S. R.; Shadoan, M.

    2003-01-01

    This study presents results on the development of a new aluminum alloy with very high strength and ductility. Five compositions of Al-Mg-Sc-Gd-Zr alloy were selected for this purpose. These alloys were also reinforced with 15 volume percent silicon-carbide and boron-carbide particles to produce Discontinuously Reinforced Aluminum (DRA) materials. Matrix alloys and DRA were processed using a powder metallurgy process. The helium gas atomization produced very fine powder with cellular-dentritic microstructure. The microstructure of matrix alloys showed fine Al3Sc based precipitate which provides significant strengthening in these alloys. DRA showed uniform distribution of reinforcement in aluminum matrix. DRA materials were tested at -320 F, 75 F in air and 7S F in gaseous hydrogen environments and matrix alloys were tested at 75 F in air. DRA showed high strengths in the range of 89-111 ksi (614-697 MPa) depending on alloy compositions and test environments. Matrix alloys had a good combination of strength, 84-89 ksi (579-621 MPa) and ductility, 4.5-6.5%. The properties of these materials can further be improved by proper control of processing parameters.

  6. Passive Control Reinforced Concrete Frame Mechanism with High Strength Reinforcements and Its Potential Benefits Against Earthquakes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Asad Ullah Qazi; YE Lieping; LU Xinzheng

    2006-01-01

    Severe earthquakes continue to cause major catastrophes. Many devices in active, hybrid, and semi-active structural control systems which are used as controllable force devices are costly to build and maintain. The passive control reinforced concrete frame (PCRCF) reinforced with high strength steel only in the columns presented here provides structural systems more resistance to lateral earthquake loadings at comparatively lower cost. The effectiveness is demonstrated by a nonlinear static analysis using fiber model for a single story single bay frame. The study shows that the use of high performance steel in columns prevents formation of plastic hinges at the critical column base sections and failures are always initiated by reinforcement yielding at the beam ends. Furthermore, after experiencing severe lateral drift, the passive control design has small residual displacements compared to ordinary reinforced concrete frames. PCRCF rehabilitation and strengthening can be achieved more easily as compared with ordinary reinforced concrete frame.

  7. Strength of precast concrete shear joints reinforced with high-strength wire ropes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joergensen, Henrik B.; Hoang, Linh Cao; Hagsten, Lars German

    2017-01-01

    This paper concerns the in-plane shear strength of connections between precast concrete wall elements reinforced with looped high-strength wire ropes. The looped wire ropes are pre-installed in so-called ‘wire boxes’ which function as shear keys. Although only a small amount of research...... on the shear strength of such connections can be found in the literature, this type of connection is increasingly being used because wire ropes are much more construction-friendly than traditional U-bars. A rigid plastic upper bound model for the shear strength of wall connections reinforced with looped wire...... ropes that are pre-installed in wire boxes is presented along with test results on the shear strength of connections with double-wire boxes. It is shown that the plastic solution agrees well with both the obtained test results and results from previously conducted tests....

  8. Connections in Precast Buildings using Ultra High-Strength Fibre Reinforced Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Pilegaard

    1995-01-01

    Ultra high-strength concrete adds new dimensions to the design of concrete structures. It is a brittle material but introducing fibres into the matrix changes the material into a highly ductile material. Furthermore, the fibre reinforcement increases the anchorage of traditional reinforcement bars...

  9. INFLUENCE OF HIGH-STRENGTH REINFORCEMENT WITHOUT ADHESION TO CONCRETE ON STRENGTH OF CAST-IN-SITU BEAMLESS FLOORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osipenko Yuri Grigoryevich

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The influence and location of prestressed high-strength reinforcement without adhesion to concrete on the strength of a beamless floor panel is considered. The work is aimed at clarifying the methodology for calculating the strength of cast-in-situ beamless floor with mixed reinforcement, where reinforcement is used in a plastic shell of monostrend type without adhesion to concrete for the most complete use of the strength characteristics of the panel material. The aim of the study is to determine the level of influence and location of prestressed reinforcement without adhesion to concrete on the strength of a panel of cast-in-situ beamless floor, as well as comparison of the results obtained for the stresses of ropes in panels with contour and diagonal arrangement of prestressed reinforcement. The shape of the rope position is represented by a part of the parabola passing through the points of the rope support. On the support, the vertical and horizontal components of the reaction are determined by the longitudinal force in the rope and the exit angle of the guy rope. 9х9m cast-in-situ beamless floor panels in two variants were investigated: with diagonal and contour stressing steel. The values of increment in stresses in the ropes and the resulting values at various prestress and deflection levels, presented in the form of tables and graphs, have been calculated. According to the results of the study, the use of high-strength prestressed ropes without adhesion to concrete, as an additional working reinforcement, reduces deflections of the panels and lowers consumption of common reinforcement. The results indicate a relative decrease in efficiency of using rope strength along with an increase in the initial prestress level. From the point of ensuring load-bearing capacity, the contour positioning of ropes is preferable, due to more complete use of strength of high-tensile reinforcement. To meet the requirements of ultimate limit states, the

  10. Behavior Of A Confined Tension Lap Splice In High-Strength Reinforced Concrete Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Kareem, Ahmed H.; Abousafa, Hala; El-Hadidi, Omaia S.

    2015-09-01

    The results of an experimental program conducted on seventeen simply supported concrete beams to study the effect of transverse reinforcement on the behavior of the lap splice of a steel reinforcement in tension zones in high-strength concrete beams are presented. The parameters included in the experimental program were the concrete compressive strength, the lap splice length, the amount of transverse reinforcement provided within the splice region, and the shape of the transverse reinforcement around the spliced bars. The experimental results showed that the displacement ductility increased and the mode of failure changed from a splitting bond failure to a flexural failure when the amount of the transverse reinforcement in the splice region increased, and the compressive strength increased up to 100 MPa. The presence of the transverse reinforcement around the spliced bars had a pronounced effect on increasing the ultimate load, the ultimate deflection, and the displacement ductility. The prediction of maximum steel stresses for spliced bars using the ACI 318-05 building code was compared with the experimental results. The comparison showed that the effect of the transverse reinforcement around spliced bars has to be considered into the design equations for lap splice length in high-strength concrete beams.

  11. Research on Stress and Strength of High Strength Reinforced Concrete Drilling Shaft Lining in Thick Top Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Zhi-shu; CHANG Hua; RONG Chuan-xin

    2007-01-01

    High strength reinforced concrete drilling shaft linings have been adopted to solve the difficult problem of supporting coal drilling shafts penetrating through thick top soils. Through model experiments the stress and strength of such shaft linings are studied. The test results indicate that the load bearing capacity of the shaft lining is very high and that the main factors affecting the load bearing capacity are the concrete strength, the ratio of lining thickness to inner radius and the reinforcement ratio. Based on the limit equilibrium conditions and the strength theory of concrete under multi-axial compressive stressed state, a formula for calculating the load-bearing capacity of a high strength reinforced concrete shaft lining was obtained. Because the concrete in a shaft lining is in a multi-axial compressive stress state the compressive strength increases to a great extent compared to uni-axial loading. Based on experiment a formula for the gain factor in compressive strength was obtained: it can be used in the structural design of the shaft lining. These results have provided a basis for sound engineering practice when designing this kind of shaft lining structure.

  12. Pore pressure development in hybrid fibre-reinforced high strength concrete at elevated temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    Bangi, Mugume Rodgers; HORIGUCHI, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    The present experimental work investigates the build-up of pore pressure at different depths of High Strength Concrete (HSC) and Hybrid-Fibre-Reinforced High Strength Concrete (HFRHSC) when exposed to different heating rates. First, the effect of the measurement technique on maximum pore pressures measured was evaluated. The pressure measurement technique which utilized a sintered metal and silicon oil was found to be the most effective technique for pore pressure measurement. Pore pressure m...

  13. Technical Developments and Trends of Earthquake Resisting High-Strength Reinforcing Steel Bars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Byoungchul [Seoul National University of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shim, Jae-Hyeok [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Myoung-Gyu; Lee, Joonho [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Jun-Ho [Hyundai Steel, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Bo-Sung [Daehan Steel, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Won, Sung-Bin [Dongkuk Steel, Kyungju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Since reconstruction of old town in Korea requires high-rise and seismic design construction, many attentions have been paid to high strength seismic reinforced steel bar. In the present paper, technical developments and trends are summarized for developing next-generation seismic reinforced steel bar of grade 700 MPa. Steelmaking process requires high energy efficiency and refining ability. Effects of alloying elements are explained, and alloy design based on computational thermodynamics is introduced. On the other hand, it is considered that grain size refinement by the controlled rolling and low temperature transformation structures formed by the accelerated cooling are effective to obtain acceptable mechanical properties with high strength. Finite element simulation analysis is also useful to understand plastic deformation by rolling, internal and external heat transfer, and corresponding phase transformation of austenite phase to various low-temperature transformation structures.

  14. Dynamic analyses of steel-reinforced super high-strength concrete columns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Jinqing; JIANG Rui; HOU Tong; XU Shilang

    2007-01-01

    The dynamic behaviors of steel-reinforced super high-strength concrete columns under seismic loading were studied with a series of experiments. Thirteen specimens, with concrete strengths ranging from 94.9 to 105.4 Mpa and shear-span ratios of 2.75, were manufactured. The axial load ratio and the stirrup reinforcement ratio were the main experimental variables affecting the dynamic behavior of the specimens. The columns under low cyclic lateral loading mainly failed in the flexural-shear mode. Shear force- displacement hysteretic curves and skeleton curves were drawn. The coefficients of the specimens' displacement ductility were calculated. Experimental results indicate that ductility decreases while the axial load ratio increases, but it increases when the stirrup reinforcement ratio increases. The limit values of the axial load ratio and the minimum stirrup reinforcement ratio of the columns were investigated to satisfy definite ductility requirements. These values were suggested as references of engineering applications and of the amendment of the current Chinese design code of steel reinforced concrete composite structures.

  15. Flexural Strength Evaluation of Reinforced Concrete Members with Ultra High Performance Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baek-Il Bae

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Flexural strength evaluation models for steel fiber reinforced ultra high strength concrete were suggested and evaluated with test results. Suggested flexural strength models were composed of compression stress blocks and tension stress blocks. Rectangular stress block, triangular stress block, and real distribution shape of stress were used on compression side. Under tension, rectangular stress block distributed to whole area of tension side and partial area of tension side was used. The last model for tension side is realistic stress distribution. All these models were verified with test result which was carried out in this study. Test was conducted by four-point loading with 2,000 kN actuator for slender beam specimen. Additional verifications were carried out with previous researches on flexural strength of steel fiber reinforced concrete or ultra high strength concrete. Total of 21 test specimens were evaluated. As a result of comparison for flexural strength of section, neutral axis depth at ultimate state, models with triangular compression stress block, and strain-softening type tension stress block can be used as exact solution for ultra high performance concrete. For the conservative and convenient design of section, modified rectangular stress block model can be used with strain softening type tension stress block.

  16. Behavior of steel fiber-reinforced high-strength concrete at medium strain rate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chujie JIAO; Wei SUN; Shi HUAN; Guoping JIANG

    2009-01-01

    Impact compression experiments for the steel fiber-reinforced high-strength concrete (SFRHSC) at medium strain rate were conducted using the split Hopkinson press bar (SHPB) testing method. The volume fractions of steel fibers of SFRHSC were between 0 and 3%. The experimental results showed that, when the strain rate increased from threshold value to 90 s-1, the maximum stress of SFRHSC increased about 30%, the elastic modulus of SFRHSC increased about 50%, and the increase in the peak strain of SFRHSC was 2-3 times of that in the matrix specimen. The strength and toughness of the matrix were improved remarkably because of the superposition effect of the aggregate high-strength matrix and steel fiber high-strength matrix. As a result, under impact loading, cracks developed in the SFRHSC specimen, but the overall shape of the specimen remained virtually unchanged. However, under similar impact loading, the matrix specimens were almost broken into small pieces.

  17. Seismic performance of steel reinforced ultra high-strength concrete composite frame joints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Changwang; Jia Jinqing

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the seismic performance of a composite frame comprised of steel reinforced ultra high-strength concrete (SRUHSC) columns and steel reinforced concrete (SR.C) beams, six interior frame joint specimens were designed and tested under low cyclically lateral load. The effects of the axial load ratio and volumetric stirrup ratio were studied on the characteristics of the frame joint performance including crack pattern, failure mode, ductility, energy dissipation capacity, strength degradation and rigidity degradation. It was found that all joint specimens behaved in a ductile manner with flexural-shear failure in the joint core region while plastic hinges appeared at the beam ends. The ductility and energy absorption capacity of joints increased as the axial load ratio decreased and the volumetric stirrup ratio increased. The displacement ductility coefficient and equivalent damping coefficient of the joints fell between the corresponding coefficients of the steel reinforced concrete (SRC) frame joint and R.C frame joint. The axial load ratio and volumetric stirrup ratio have less influence on the strength degradation and more influence on the stiffness degradation. The stiffness of the joint degrades more significantly for a low volumetric stirrup ratio and high axial load ratio. The characteristics obtained from the SRUHSC composite frame joint specimens with better seismic performance may be a useful reference in future engineering applications.

  18. Seismic performance of steel reinforced ultra high-strength concrete composite frame joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Changwang; Jia, Jinqing

    2010-09-01

    To investigate the seismic performance of a composite frame comprised of steel reinforced ultra high-strength concrete (SRUHSC) columns and steel reinforced concrete (SRC) beams, six interior frame joint specimens were designed and tested under low cyclically lateral load. The effects of the axial load ratio and volumetric stirrup ratio were studied on the characteristics of the frame joint performance including crack pattern, failure mode, ductility, energy dissipation capacity, strength degradation and rigidity degradation. It was found that all joint specimens behaved in a ductile manner with flexural-shear failure in the joint core region while plastic hinges appeared at the beam ends. The ductility and energy absorption capacity of joints increased as the axial load ratio decreased and the volumetric stirrup ratio increased. The displacement ductility coefficient and equivalent damping coefficient of the joints fell between the corresponding coefficients of the steel reinforced concrete (SRC) frame joint and RC frame joint. The axial load ratio and volumetric stirrup ratio have less influence on the strength degradation and more influence on the stiffness degradation. The stiffness of the joint degrades more significantly for a low volumetric stirrup ratio and high axial load ratio. The characteristics obtained from the SRUHSC composite frame joint specimens with better seismic performance may be a useful reference in future engineering applications.

  19. Structural Behavior of Continuous Prestressed Steel Fiber Reinforced High Strength Concrete Beam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The flexural behaviors of continuous fully and partially prestressed steel fiber reinforced high strength concrete beams are studied by experiment and nonlinear finite element analysis. Three levels of partial prestress ratio (PPR) are considered, and three pairs of two-span continuous beams with box sections varying in size are designed. The major parameters involved in the study include the PPR and the fiber location. It is concluded that the prestressed high strength concrete beam exhibits satisfactory ductility; the influences of steel fiber on the crack behaviors for partially prestressed beams are not as obvious as those for fully prestressed ones; steel fibers can improve the structural stiffness after cracking for fully prestressed high strength concrete beams; the moment redistribution from mid-span to intermediate support in the first stage should be mainly considered in practical design.

  20. Temperature Dependence of Sound Velocity in High-Strength Fiber-Reinforced Plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Ryuji; Yoneyama, Keiichi; Ogasawara, Futoshi; Ueno, Masashi; Okuda, Yuichi; Yamanaka, Atsuhiko

    2003-08-01

    Longitudinal sound velocity in unidirectional hybrid composites or high-strength fiber-reinforced plastics (FRPs) was measured along the fiber axis over a wide temperature range (from 77 K to 420 K). We investigated two kinds of high-strength crystalline polymer fibers, polyethylene (Dyneema) and polybenzobisoxazole (Zylon), which are known to have negative thermal expansion coefficients and high thermal conductivities along the fiber axis. Both FRPs had very high sound velocities of about 9000 m/s at low temperatures and their temperature dependences were very strong. Sound velocity monotonically decreased with increasing temperature. The temperature dependence of sound velocity was much stronger in Dyneema-FRP than in Zylon-FRP.

  1. Load carrying capacity of keyed joints reinforced with high strength wire rope loops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henrik B.; Hoang, Linh Cao

    2015-01-01

    Vertical shear connections between precast concrete wall elements are usually made as keyed joints reinforced with overlapping U-bars. The overlapping U-bars form a cylindrical core in which the locking bar is placed and the connection is subsequently grouted with mortar. A more construction...... friendly shear connection can be obtained by replacing the U-bars with high strength looped wire ropes. The wire ropes have the advantage of being flexible (they have virtually no bending stiffness) which makes installation of wall elements much easier. The looped wire ropes are usually pre-installed in so......-called wire boxes which are embedded in the precast wall elements. Once the joint is grouted with mortar, the boxes will function as shear keys and the overlapping wire loops will function as transverse reinforcement that replaces the U-bars. This paper presents a rigid-plastic upper bound model to determine...

  2. Load Carrying Capacity of Keyed Joints Reinforced with High Strength Wire Rope Loops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henrik Brøner; Hoang, Linh Cao

    Vertical shear connections between precast concrete wall elements are usually made as keyed joints reinforced with overlapping U-bars. The overlapping U-bars form a cylindrical core in which the locking bar is placed and the connection is subsequently grouted with mortar. A more construction...... friendly shear connection can be obtained by replacing the U-bars with high strength looped wire ropes. The wire ropes have the advantage of being flexible (they have virtually no bending stiffness) which makes installation of wall elements much easier. The looped wire ropes are usually pre-installed in so......-called wire boxes which are embedded in the precast wall elements. Once the joint is grouted with mortar, the boxes will function as shear keys and the overlapping wire loops will function as transverse reinforcement that replaces the U-bars. This paper presents a rigid-plastic upper bound model to determine...

  3. Load Carrying Capacity of Keyed Joints Reinforced with High Strength Wire Rope Loops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henrik Brøner; Hoang, Linh Cao

    Vertical shear connections between precast concrete wall elements are usually made as keyed joints reinforced with overlapping U-bars. The overlapping U-bars form a cylindrical core in which the locking bar is placed and the connection is subsequently grouted with mortar. A more construction...... friendly shear connection can be obtained by replacing the U-bars with high strength looped wire ropes. The wire ropes have the advantage of being flexible (they have virtually no bending stiffness) which makes installation of wall elements much easier. The looped wire ropes are usually pre-installed in so...... the shear capacity of wire loop connections. Tests have shown that the shear capacity of such joints – due to the relatively high tensile strength of the wire ropes - is more prone to be governed by fracture of the joint mortar in combination with yielding of the locking bar. To model this type of failure...

  4. Tensile Strength Assessment of Injection-Molded High Yield Sugarcane Bagasse-Reinforced Polypropylene

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Sugarcane bagasse was treated to obtain sawdust, in addition to mechanical, thermomechanical, and chemical-thermomechanical pulps. The obtained fibers were used to obtain reinforced polypropylene composites prepared by injection molding. Coupling agent contents ranging from 2 to 10% w/w were added to the composite to obtain the highest tensile strength. All the composites included 30% w/w of reinforcing fibers. The tensile strength of the different sugarcane bagasse fiber composites were test...

  5. Bond strength of a resin cement to high-alumina and zirconia-reinforced ceramics : The effect of surface conditioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Felipe Valandro, Luiz; Ozcan, Mutlu; Bottino, Marco Cicero; Bottino, Marco Antonio; Scotti, Roberto; Della Bona, Alvaro

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of two surface conditioning methods on the microtensile bond strength of a resin cement to three high-strength core ceramics: high alumina-based (In-Ceram Alumina, Procera AllCeram) and zirconia-reinforced alumina-based (in-Ceram Zirconia) ce

  6. Bond strength of a resin cement to high-alumina and zirconia-reinforced ceramics: The effect of surface conditioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valandro, L.F.; Ozcan, M.; Bottino, M.C.; Bottino, M.A.; Scotti, R.; Della Bona, A.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of two surface conditioning methods on the microtensile bond strength of a resin cement to three high-strength core ceramics: high alumina-based (In-Ceram Alumina, Procera AllCeram) and zirconia-reinforced alumina-based (in-Ceram Zirconia) ce

  7. Bond strength of a resin cement to high-alumina and zirconia-reinforced ceramics: The effect of surface conditioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valandro, L.F.; Ozcan, M.; Bottino, M.C.; Bottino, M.A.; Scotti, R.; Della Bona, A.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of two surface conditioning methods on the microtensile bond strength of a resin cement to three high-strength core ceramics: high alumina-based (In-Ceram Alumina, Procera AllCeram) and zirconia-reinforced alumina-based (in-Ceram Zirconia)

  8. Experimental research on fire resistance of circular steel tube column filled with steel-reinforced high-strength concrete

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Circular steel tube filled with steel-reinforced high-strength concrete is a new model of composite column design.The fire resistance of this composite column was investigated experimentally.One circular steel tube column filled with steel-reinforced high-strength concrete and one circular steel tube column filled with high- strength concrete were tested under axial load and fire.The test results show that the axial deformations of both kinds of the composite columns under the same load level...

  9. Conditioned Reinforcement and Response Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahan, Timothy A

    2010-01-01

    Stimuli associated with primary reinforcers appear themselves to acquire the capacity to strengthen behavior. This paper reviews research on the strengthening effects of conditioned reinforcers within the context of contemporary quantitative choice theories and behavioral momentum theory. Based partially on the finding that variations in parameters of conditioned reinforcement appear not to affect response strength as measured by resistance to change, long-standing assertions that conditioned reinforcers do not strengthen behavior in a reinforcement-like fashion are considered. A signposts or means-to-an-end account is explored and appears to provide a plausible alternative interpretation of the effects of stimuli associated with primary reinforcers. Related suggestions that primary reinforcers also might not have their effects via a strengthening process are explored and found to be worthy of serious consideration. PMID:20885815

  10. Graphene reinforced ultra high molecular weight polyethylene with improved tensile strength and creep resistance properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bhattacharyya

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Reduced graphene oxide or graphene was dispersed in ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE using two methods to prepare nanocomposite films. In pre-reduction method, graphite oxide (GO was exfoliated and dispersed in organic solvents and reduced to graphene before polymer was added, while reduction of graphene oxide was carried out after polymer addition for in situ reduction method. Raman spectroscopic study reveals that the second method results in better exfoliation of graphene but it has more amorphous content as evident from selected area electron diffraction (SAED pattern, wide angle X-ray and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. The nanocomposite film produced by prereduction method possesses higher crystallinity (almost the same as that of the pure film as compared to the in situ method. It shows better modulus (increased from 864 to 1236 MPa, better strength (increased from 12.6 to 22.2 MPa, network hardening and creep resistance (creep strain reduced to 9% from 50% when 40% of maximum load was applied for 72 h than the pure film. These findings show that graphene can be used for reinforcement of UHMWPE to improve its tensile and creep resistance properties.

  11. Behavior of hybrid high-strength fiber reinforced concrete slab-column connections under the effect of high tempera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reham H. Ahmed

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Concrete can be modified to perform in a more ductile form by the addition of randomly distributed discrete fibers in the concrete matrix. The combined effect of the addition of two types of fibers (steel fiber and polypropylene fiber with different percentages to concrete matrix, which is called hybrid effect is currently under investigation worldwide. The current research work presents the conducted experimental program to observe the behavior of hybrid high strength reinforced concrete slab-column connections under the effect of high temperature. For this purpose, ten slab-column connections were casted and tested. The experimental program was designed to investigate the effect of different variables such as concrete mixture, column location and temperature fighting system. All specimens were exposed to a temperature of 500 °C for duration of two hours. To observe the effect of each variable, specimens were divided into four groups according to the studied parameters. The test results revealed that using hybrid high strength concrete HFHSC produced more strength in punching failure compared with high strength concrete HSC when exposed to elevated temperature. Fighting by air had higher initial crack load compared with that for without fighting and fighting by water. On the other hand, fighting by water decreased the ultimate load.

  12. Experimental investigation of axially loaded steel fiber reinforced high strength concrete-filled steel tube columns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢亦焱; 李娜; 李杉; 梁鸿骏

    2015-01-01

    An experimental study on the compressive behavior of steel fiber reinforced concrete-filled steel tube columns is presented. Specimens were tested to investigate the effects of the concrete strength, the thickness of steel tube and the steel fiber volume fraction on the ultimate strength and the ductility. The experimental results indicate that the addition of steel fibers in concrete can significantly improve the ductility and the energy dissipation capacity of the concrete-filled steel tube columns and delay the local buckling of the steel tube, but has no obvious effect on the failure mode. It has also been found that the addition of steel fibers is a more effective method than using thicker steel tube in enhancing the ductility, and more advantageous in the case of higher strength concrete. An analytical model to estimate the load capacity is proposed for steel tube columns filled with both plain concrete and steel fiber reinforced concrete. The predicted results are in good agreement with the experimental ones obtained in this work and literatures.

  13. Flexural Strength and Toughness of Austenitic Stainless Steel Reinforced High-Cr White Cast Iron Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallam, H. E. M.; Abd El-Aziz, Kh.; Abd El-Raouf, H.; Elbanna, E. M.

    2013-12-01

    Flexural behavior of high-Cr white cast iron (WCI) reinforced with different shapes, i.e., I- and T-sections, and volume fractions of austenitic stainless steel (310 SS) were examined under three-point bending test. The dimensions of casted beams used for bending test were (50 × 100 × 500 mm3). Carbon and alloying elements diffusion enhanced the metallurgical bond across the interface of casted beams. Carbon diffusion from high-Cr WCI into 310 SS resulted in the formation of Cr-carbides in 310 SS near the interface and Ni diffusion from 310 SS into high-Cr WCI led to the formation of austenite within a network of M7C3 eutectic carbides in high-Cr WCI near the interface. Inserting 310 SS plates into high-Cr WCI beams resulted in a significant improvement in their toughness. All specimens of this metal matrix composite failed in a ductile mode with higher plastic deformation prior to failure. The high-Cr WCI specimen reinforced with I-section of 310 SS revealed higher toughness compared to that with T-section at the same volume fraction. The presence of the upper flange increased the reinforcement efficiency for delaying the crack growth.

  14. High-Strength / High Alkaline Resistant Fe-Phosphate Glass Fibers as Concrete Reinforcement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariano Velez

    2008-03-31

    Calcium-iron-phosphate glasses were developed whose chemical durabilities in alkaline solutions (pH 13) were comparable or superior to those of commercial alkaline-resistant (AR) silica-based glasses. However, the tensile strength of Ca-Fe-phosphate fibers, after being exposed to alkaline environments, including wet Portland cement pastes, is lower than that of current AR silicate fibers. Another series of Ca-Fe-phosphate glasses were developed with excellent chemical durability in strong acidic solutions (H2SO4, HF), indicating potential applications where silica-based fibers degrade very quickly, including E-glass. The new Ca-Fe-phosphate glasses can be melted and processed 300 to 500°C lower than silica-based glasses. This offers the possibility of manufacturing glass fibers with lower energy costs by 40-60% and the potential to reduce manufacturing waste and lower gas emissions. It was found that Ca-Fe-phosphate melts can be continuously pulled into fibers depending on the slope of the viscosity-temperature curve and with viscosity ~100 poise, using multi-hole Pt/Rh bushings.

  15. Experimental Investigation of the Fracture Behaviour of Reinforced Ultra High Strength Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulfkjær, J. P.; Henriksen, M. S.; Aarup, B.

    In the last fifteen years new types of cement based materials have been developed in Denmark at the Aalborg Portland Cement Factory. These types of new materials are characterized by very high strength even when mixed at room temperature and using conventional mixing techniques. In this paper...

  16. Load carrying capacity of shear wall t-connections reinforced with high strength wire ropes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henrik B.; Bryndom, Thor; Larsen, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, U-bar loop connections with keyed joints have been used in vertical shear connections between precast concrete wall elements. However, in the recent years, connections with looped high strength wire ropes instead of U-bar loops have proven to be a much more construction......-friendly solution. The wire ropes have no bending stiffness and therefore allow for an easier vertical installation of the wall elements. During the last 10 – 15 years, a number of shear tests on plane wire rope connections have been carried out. However, to the best knowledge of the authors, tests on wire rope...... connections for assembly of precast elements in different planes, such as T- and L-connections, have not yet been published. This paper presents the results of a large test series recently conducted at the University of Southern Denmark to study the shear behaviour of high strength wire rope T...

  17. Load Carrying Capacity of Shear Wall T-Connections Reinforced with High Strength Wire Ropes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henrik Brøner; Bryndum, Thor; Larsen, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Traditionally, U-bar loop connections with keyed joints have been used in vertical shear connections between precast concrete wall elements. However, in the recent years, connections with looped high strength wire ropes instead of U-bar loops have proven to be a much more construction......-friendly solution. The wire ropes have no bending stiffness and therefore allow for an easier vertical installation of the wall elements. During the last 10 – 15 years, a number of shear tests on plane wire rope connections have been carried out. However, to the best knowledge of the authors, tests on wire rope...... connections for assembly of precast elements in different planes, such as T- and L-connections, have not yet been published. This paper presents the results of a large test series recently conducted at the University of Southern Denmark to study the shear behaviour of high strength wire rope T...

  18. High Strength Wood-based Sandwich Panels Reinforced with Fiberglass and Foam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinghao Li

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical analysis is presented for new high-strength sandwich panels made from wood-based phenolic impregnated laminated paper assembled with an interlocking tri-axial ribbed core. Four different panel configurations were tested, including panels with fiberglass fabric bonded to both outside faces with self-expanding urethane foam used to fill the ribbed core. The mechanical behaviors of the sandwich panels were strength tested via flatwise compression, edgewise compression, and third-point load bending. Panels with fiberglass exhibited significantly increased strength and apparent MOE in edgewise compression and bending, but there were no noticeable effects in flatwise compression. The foam provided improved support that resisted both rib buckling and face buckling for both compression and bending tests. Post-failure observation indicated that core buckling dominated the failures for all configurations used. It is believed that using stiffer foam or optimizing the dimension of the core might further improve the mechanical performance of wood-based sandwich panels.

  19. Extraordinary high strength Ti-Zr-Ta alloys through nanoscaled, dual-cubic spinodal reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesiekierski, Arne; Ping, Dehai; Li, Yuncang; Lin, Jixing; Munir, Khurram S; Yamabe-Mitarai, Yoko; Wen, Cuie

    2017-02-02

    While titanium alloys represent the current state-of-the-art for orthopedic biomaterials, concerns still remain over their modulus. Circumventing this via increased porosity requires high elastic admissible strains, yet also limits traditional thermomechanical strengthening techniques. To this end, a novel β-type Ti-Zr-Ta alloy system, comprised of Ti-45Zr-10Ta, Ti-40Zr-14Ta, Ti-35Zr-18Ta and Ti-30Zr-22Ta, was designed and characterized mechanically and microstructurally. As-cast, this system displayed extremely high yield strengths and elastic admissible strains, up to 1.4GPa and potentially 1.48%, respectively. This strength was attributed to a nanoscaled, cuboidal structure of semi-coherent, dual body-centered cubic (BCC) phases, arising from the thermodynamics of interaction between Ta and Zr; this morphology occurring with dual BCC-phases is heretofore unreported in Ti-based alloys. Further, cell proliferation investigated by MTS assay suggests this was achieved without sacrificing biocompatibility, with no significant difference to either empty-well or commercially-pure Ti controls noted.

  20. Static, Fire and Fatigue Tests of Ultra High-Strength Fibre Reinforced Concrete and Ribbed Bars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Pilegaard; Heshe, Gert

    2001-01-01

    - Densit Joint Cast ®. Also the connections between the columns and the slabs are made of this very strong concrete material. The paper describes some of the static tests carried out as well as some fire tests. Further, 2 chapters deal with some fatigue tests of the reinforcing bars as well as some fatigue...

  1. Flexural strength and ductility of reinforced concrete beams

    OpenAIRE

    Kwan, AKH; Ho, JCM; Pam, HJ

    2002-01-01

    In the design of reinforced concrete beams, especially those made of high-strength concrete and those in earthquake-resistant structures, both the flexural strength and ductility need to be considered. From the numerical results obtained in a previous study on the post-peak behaviour and flexural ductility of reinforced concrete beams, the interrelation between the flexural strength and the flexural ductility that could be simultaneously achieved was evaluated and plotted in the form of chart...

  2. Conditioned Reinforcement and Response Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahan, Timothy A.

    2010-01-01

    Stimuli associated with primary reinforcers appear themselves to acquire the capacity to strengthen behavior. This paper reviews research on the strengthening effects of conditioned reinforcers within the context of contemporary quantitative choice theories and behavioral momentum theory. Based partially on the finding that variations in…

  3. Determination of dominant fibre orientations in fibre-reinforced high-strength concrete elements based on computed tomography scans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, Miguel A.; González, Dorys C.; Mínguez, Jesús

    2014-04-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is a nondestructive technique, based on absorbing X-rays, that permits the visualisation of the internal structure of materials in micron-range resolution. In this paper, the CT scan is used to determine the position and orientation of the fibres in steel fibre-reinforced high-strength concrete elements. The aim of this paper was to present a numerical procedure, automated through a MATLAB routine specially developed by the authors, which enables, fast and reliable, to obtain the orientation of each and every one of the fibres and their centre of gravity. The procedure shown is directly extrapolated to any type of fibre-reinforced material, only if there is a wide difference between density of fibres and density of matrix. The mathematical basis of this procedure is very simple and robust. The result is a fast algorithm and a routine easy to use. In addition, the validation tests show that the error is almost zero. This algorithm can help the industry to implement the technology of CT in the protocols of product quality control.

  4. Impact behaviors of poly-lactic acid based biocomposite reinforced with unidirectional high-strength magnesium alloy wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Li

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A novel poly-lactic acid (PLA based biocomposite reinforced with unidirectional high-strength magnesium alloy (Mg-alloy wires for bone fracture fixation was fabricated by hot-compressing process. The macroscopical and microscopical impact behaviors of the biocomposite were investigated using impact experiments and finite element method (FEM, respectively. The results indicated that the biocomposite had favorable impact properties due to the plastic deformation behavior of Mg-alloy wires during impact process. While the content of Mg-alloy wires reached 20 vol%, the impact strength of the composite could achieve 93.4 kJ/m2, which is approximate 16 times larger than that of pure PLA fabricated by the same process. According to FEM simulation results, the complete destruction life of the composites during impact process increased with increasing volume fraction of Mg-alloy wires, indicating a high impact-bearing ability of the composite for bone fracture fixation. Simultaneously, the energy absorbed by Mg-alloy wires in the composites had a corresponding increase. In addition, it denoted that the impact properties of the composites are sensitive to the initial properties of the matrix material.

  5. Impact behaviors of poly-lactic acid based biocomposite reinforced with unidirectional high-strength magnesium alloy wires

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuan Li; Chao Guo; Xiaokai Liu; Lei Liu; Jing Bai; Feng Xue; Pinghua Lin; Chenglin Chu

    2014-01-01

    A novel poly-lactic acid (PLA) based biocomposite reinforced with unidirectional high-strength magnesium alloy (Mg-alloy) wires for bone fracture fixation was fabricated by hot-compressing process. The macroscopical and microscopical impact behaviors of the biocomposite were investigated using impact experiments and finite element method (FEM), respectively. The results indicated that the biocomposite had favorable impact properties due to the plastic deformation behavior of Mg-alloy wires during impact process. While the content of Mg-alloy wires reached 20 vol%, the impact strength of the composite could achieve 93.4 kJ/m2, which is approximate 16 times larger than that of pure PLA fabricated by the same process. According to FEM simulation results, the complete destruction life of the composites during impact process increased with increasing volume fraction of Mg-alloy wires, indicating a high impact-bearing ability of the composite for bone fracture fixation. Simultaneously, the energy absorbed by Mg-alloy wires in the composites had a corresponding increase. In addition, it denoted that the impact properties of the composites are sensitive to the initial properties of the matrix material.

  6. Dispersion and Reinforcement of Nanotubes in High Temperature Polymers for Ultrahigh Strength and Thermally Conductive Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-10-03

    SWNT [35,36], polypropylene/nano-carbon fiber , polystyrene (PS)/MWNT [34,43] and in-situ polymerization of PI/SWNT [38]) in polymer matrices to...strength and thermal/electric conductivity based on soft macromolecules of controlled glass transition temperature. 1.4.1 The Polybenzoxazoles (PBO...around 270 GPa, greater than that of steel fibers . PBO had been developed by US Air Force researchers as a super heat resistant polymer that surpasses

  7. Strength of Cracked Reinforced Concrete Disks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoang, Cao Linh; Nielsen, Mogens Peter

    1999-01-01

    The paper deals with models, based on the theory of plasticity, to be used in strength assessments of reinforced concrete disks suffering from different kinds of cracking. Based on the assumption that the sliding strength of concrete is reduced in sections where cracks are located, solutions...

  8. Evaluation of size dependent design shear strength of reinforced concrete beams without web reinforcement

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G Appa Rao; S S Injaganeri

    2011-06-01

    Analytical studies on the effect of depth of beam and several parameters on the shear strength of reinforced concrete beams are reported. A large data base available has been segregated and a nonlinear regression analysis (NLRA) has been performed for developing the refined design models for both, the cracking and the ultimate shear strengths of reinforced concrete (RC) beams without web reinforcement. The shear strength of RC beams is size dependent, which needs to be evaluated and incorporated in the appropriate size effect models. The proposed models are functions of compressive strength of concrete, percentage of flexural reinforcement and depth of beam. The structural brittleness of large size beams seems to be severe compared with highly ductile small size beams at a given quantity of flexural reinforcement. The proposed models have been validated with the existing popular models as well as with the design code provisions.

  9. High-Strength and Optically Transparent Fiber-Reinforced Composites Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — For many applications there exists a need for mechanically strong composite materials of high optical quality and transparency equivalent to window glass. One method...

  10. Strength of Cracked Reinforced Concrete Disks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoang, Cao Linh; Nielsen, Mogens Peter

    1999-01-01

    The paper deals with models, based on the theory of plasticity, to be used in strength assessments of reinforced concrete disks suffering from different kinds of cracking. Based on the assumption that the sliding strength of concrete is reduced in sections where cracks are located, solutions...... for the shear strength of disks with initial cracks and disks suffering from isotropic cracking are presented. Furthermore, in the case of isotropicly cracked disks subjected to arbitrary in-plane loading, a general yield condition is derived....

  11. Microstructure and mechanical property of nano-SiCp reinforced high strength Mg bulk composites produced by friction stir processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, K., E-mail: greatsunkai@sina.com [Key Laboratory for Advanced Materials Processing Technology, Ministry of Education (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Shi, Q.Y.; Sun, Y.J.; Chen, G.Q. [Key Laboratory for Advanced Materials Processing Technology, Ministry of Education (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ultimate tensile strength of the bulk composite improved significantly. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanoparticles dispersed uniformly in the composites after friction stir process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Strengthening mechanism of the composites has been studied. - Abstract: Friction stir processing has been applied to fabricate SiC-Mg bulk composites in this study. AZ63 magnesium alloy, a kind of commercial engineering materials, was selected as base metal. SiC nanoparticles with average size of 40 nm were selected as reinforced particles. After being ultrasonic dispersed in ethanol and friction stir processed with base metal, the SiC particles were uniformly dispersed. Friction stir processing without filling any particles was also applied to base metal as a comparison group. Microstructure evolution was observed by optical microscope and scanning electron microscope. Fine and uniform nugget zone were found both in comparison group and composite. The phases of the material were determined by X-ray diffraction. Transmission electron microscopy observation was conducted to study the condition of SiC nanoparticles. SiC particles were found both inside the grain and at the grain boundary. No micro-sized particle agglomeration was observed in the composite. Vicker hardness and tensile test were carried out to study the mechanical properties of the composite. The average Vicker hardness of the base metal, comparison group and composite were 80 Hv, 85 Hv and 109 Hv respectively. The ultimate tensile strength of the composite reached 312 MPa. Compared with 160 MPa of the as-casted Mg alloy, 263 MPa of the comparison group, the effect of nanoparticles on strength increase was significant.

  12. Enhancement of shear strength and ductility for reinforced concrete wide beams due to web reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Said

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The shear behavior of reinforced concrete wide beams was investigated. The experimental program consisted of nine beams of 29 MPa concrete strength tested with a shear span-depth ratio equal to 3.0. One of the tested beams had no web reinforcement as a control specimen. The flexure mode of failure was secured for all of the specimens to allow for shear mode of failure. The key parameters covered in this investigation are the effect of the existence, spacing, amount and yield stress of the vertical stirrups on the shear capacity and ductility of the tested wide beams. The study shows that the contribution of web reinforcement to the shear capacity is significant and directly proportional to the amount and spacing of the shear reinforcement. The increase in the shear capacity ranged from 32% to 132% for the range of the tested beams compared with the control beam. High grade steel was more effective in the contribution of the shear strength of wide beams. Also, test results demonstrate that the shear reinforcement significantly enhances the ductility of the wide beams. In addition, shear resistances at failure recorded in this study are compared to the analytical strengths calculated according to the current Egyptian Code and the available international codes. The current study highlights the need to include the contribution of shear reinforcement in the Egyptian Code requirements for shear capacity of wide beams.

  13. Reusing recycled fibers in high-value fiber-reinforced polymer composites: Improving bending strength by surface cleaning

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Jian; Bao, Limin; Kobayashi, Ryouhei; Kato, Jun; Kemmochi, Kiyoshi

    2012-01-01

    Glass fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP) composites and carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites were recycled using superheated steam. Recycled glass fibers (R-GFs) and recycled carbon fibers (R-CFs) were surface treated for reuse as fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites. Treated R-GFs (TR-GFs) and treated R-CFs (TR-CFs) were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and remanufactured by vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM). Most residual resin impurities were ...

  14. Reusing recycled fibers in high-value fiber-reinforced polymer composites: Improving bending strength by surface cleaning

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Jian; Bao, Limin; Kobayashi, Ryouhei; Kato, Jun; Kemmochi, Kiyoshi

    2012-01-01

    Glass fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP) composites and carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites were recycled using superheated steam. Recycled glass fibers (R-GFs) and recycled carbon fibers (R-CFs) were surface treated for reuse as fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites. Treated R-GFs (TR-GFs) and treated R-CFs (TR-CFs) were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and remanufactured by vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM). Most residual resin impurities were ...

  15. Punching strength of reinforced concrete flat slabs without shear reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. P. Sacramento

    Full Text Available Punching strength is a critical point in the design of flat slabs and due to the lack of a theoretical method capable of explaining this phenomenon, empirical formulations presented by codes of practice are still the most used method to check the bearing capacity of slab-column connections. This paper discusses relevant aspects of the development of flat slabs, the factors that influence the punching resistance of slabs without shear reinforcement and makes comparisons between the experimental results organized in a database with 74 slabs carefully selected with theoretical results using the recommendations of ACI 318, EUROCODE 2 and NBR 6118 and also through the Critical Shear Crack Theory, presented by Muttoni (2008 and incorporated the new fib Model Code (2010.

  16. Cytocompatibility, mechanical and dissolution properties of high strength boron and iron oxide phosphate glass fibre reinforced bioresorbable composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharmin, Nusrat; Hasan, Muhammad S; Parsons, Andrew J; Rudd, Chris D; Ahmed, Ifty

    2016-06-01

    In this study, Polylactic acid (PLA)/phosphate glass fibres (PGF) composites were prepared by compression moulding. Fibres produced from phosphate based glasses P2O5-CaO-MgO-Na2O (P45B0), P2O5-CaO-MgO-Na2O-B2O3 (P45B5), P2O5-CaO-MgO-Na2O-Fe2O3 (P45Fe3) and P2O5-CaO-MgO-Na2O-B2O3-Fe2O3 (P45B5Fe3) were used to reinforce the bioresorbable polymer PLA. Fibre mechanical properties and degradation rate were investigated, along with the mechanical properties, degradation and cytocompatibility of the composites. Retention of the mechanical properties of the composites was evaluated during degradation in PBS at 37°C for four weeks. The fibre volume fraction in the composite varied from 19 to 23%. The flexural strength values (ranging from 131 to 184MPa) and modulus values (ranging from 9.95 to 12.29GPa) obtained for the composites matched those of cortical bone. The highest flexural strength (184MPa) and modulus (12.29GPa) were observed for the P45B5Fe3 composite. After 28 days of immersion in PBS at 37°C, ~35% of the strength profile was maintained for P45B0 and P45B5 composites, while for P45Fe3 and P45B5Fe3 composites ~40% of the initial strength was maintained. However, the overall wet mass change of P45Fe3 and P45B5Fe3 remained significantly lower than that of the P45B0 and P45B5 composites. The pH profile also revealed that the P45B0 and P45B5 composites degraded quicker, correlating well with the degradation profile. From SEM analysis, it could be seen that after 28 days of degradation, the fibres in the fractured surface of P45B5Fe3 composites remain fairly intact as compared to the other formulations. The in vitro cell culture studies using MG63 cell lines revealed both P45Fe3 and P45B5Fe3 composites maintained and showed higher cell viability as compared to the P45B0 and P45B5 composites. This was attributed to the slower degradation rate of the fibres in P45Fe3 and P45B5Fe3 composites as compared with the fibres in P45B0 and P45B5 composites.

  17. Enhanced micro-vibration sensitive high-damping capacity and mechanical strength achieved in Al matrix composites reinforced with garnet-like lithium electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xian-Ping; Zhang, Yi; Xia, Yu; Jiang, Wei-Bing; Liu, Hui; Liu, Wang; Gao, Yun-Xia; Zhang, Tao; Fang, Qian-Feng

    2016-12-01

    A novel micro-vibration sensitive-type high-damping Al matrix composites reinforced with Li7-xLa3Zr2-xNbxO12 (LLZNO, x = 0.25) was designed and prepared using an advanced spark plasma sintering (SPS) technique. The damping capacity and mechanical properties of LLZNO/Al composites (LLZNO content: 0-40 wt.%) were found to be greatly improved by the LLZNO addition. The maximum damping capacity and the ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of LLZNO/Al composite can be respectively up to 0.033 and 101.2 MPa in the case of 20 wt.% LLZNO addition. The enhancement of damping and mechanical properties of the composites was ascribed to the intrinsic high-damping capacity and strengthening effects of hard LLZNO particulate. This investigation provides a new insight to sensitively suppress micro-vibration of payloads in the aerospace environment.

  18. Fiber-reinforced sand strength and dilation characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesham M. Eldesouky

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Randomly distributed fiber reinforcement is used to provide an isotropic increase in the sand shear strength. The previous studies were not consistent regarding the fibers effect on the volumetric change behavior of fiber-reinforced sand. In this paper, direct shear tests are conducted on 108 specimens to investigate the effects of the fibers content, relative density, normal stress and moisture content on the shear strength and volumetric change behaviors of fiber-reinforced sand. The study investigates also the possibility of using dry fiber-reinforced sand as an alternative to heavily compacted unreinforced moist sand. The results indicate that the fibers inclusion increases the shear strength and dilation of sand. Moisture suppresses the fibers effect on the peak and post-peak shear strengths, and dilation. Dry loose fiber-reinforced sand achieves the same shear strength of heavily compacted unreinforced moist sand, yet at more than double the horizontal displacement.

  19. Strength and durability of mixed glass-fibre-reinforced laminates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Ya.; Limonov, V.A.; Mikel`son, M.; Tamuzh, V. [Inst. Mekhaniki Polimerov AN Latvii, Riga (Russian Federation)

    1994-01-01

    For unidirectional fabric-reinforced and mixed fiber glass plastics the results of static and fatigue tests are presented. Elastic and strength properties have been determined using plain and tubular specimens. Combination of unidirectional and glass fabric reinforcing layers is found to increase considerably torsional strength at inconsiderable decrease of tensile and compression strength. Results of layer-by-layer failure analysis agree well with experimental data. 12 refs.

  20. Pilot Experimental Tests on Punching Shear Strength of Flat Plates Reinforced with Stirrups Punching Shear Reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Hassan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Flat plates are favor structure systems usually used in parking garages and high-rise buildings due to its simplicity for construction. However, flat plates have some inherent structural problems, due to high shear stress surrounding the supporting columns which cause a catastrophic brittle type of failure called "Punching Shear Failure". Several solutions are used to avoid punching shear failure, including the use of drop panels or punching shear reinforcement. The latter is being a more sophisticated solution from the structural ductility, the architectural and the economical point of view. This study aims at investigating the effect of stirrups as shear reinforcement in enhancing the punching strength of interior slab-column connections. A total of four full-scale interior slab-column connections were tested up to failure. All slabs had a side length of 1700 mm and 160 mm thickness with 200 mm x 200 mm square column. The test parameters were the presence of shear reinforcement and stirrups concentration around the supporting column. The test results showed that the distribution of stirrups over the critical punching shear zone was an efficient solution to enhance not only the punching shear capacity but also the ductility of the connection. Furthermore, the concentrating of stirrups shear reinforcement in the vicinity of the column for the tested slabs increases the punching shear capacity by 13 % compared to the uniform distribution at same amount of shear reinforcement.

  1. TENSILE STRENGTH STUDY ON REINFORCED BEAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina IANASI

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper is shown a model (together with mathematical modeling for quantification the resistance of a wooden item, with and without composites reinforcement. As reinforcement will be used composite materials from carbon fiber (CFRP.Wooden items are from beach dry wood reinforced with special carbon fibers glued with epoxy resin so the obtained composite has a very good flexure and great stifness.

  2. Tensile Strength of GFRP Reinforcing Bars with Hollow Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Jun You

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fiber reinforced polymer (FRP has been proposed to replace steel as a reinforcing bar (rebar due to its high tensile strength and noncorrosive material properties. One obstacle in using FRP rebars is high price. Generally FRP is more expensive than conventional steel rebar. There are mainly two ways to reduce the cost. For example, one is making the price of each composition cost of FRP rebar (e.g., fibers, resin, etc. lower than steel rebar. Another is making an optimized design for cross section and reducing the material cost. The former approach is not easy because the steel price is very low in comparison with component materials of FRP. For the latter approach, the cost could be cut down by reducing the material cost. Therefore, an idea of making hollow section over the cross section of FRP rebar was proposed in this study by optimizing the cross section design with acceptable tensile performance in comparison with steel rebar. In this study, glass reinforced polymer (GFRP rebars with hollow section and 19 mm of outer diameter were manufactured and tested to evaluate the tensile performance in accordance with the hollowness ratio. From the test results, it was observed that the tensile strength decreased almost linearly with increase of hollowness ratio and the elastic modulus decreased nonlinearly.

  3. Mechanical strength of additive manufactured carbon fiber reinforced polyetheretherketone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumaevskii, A. V.; Tarasov, S. Yu.; Filippov, A. V.; Kolubaev, E. A.; Rubtsov, V. E.; Eliseev, A. A.

    2016-11-01

    Mechanical properties of both pure and chopped carbon fiber reinforced polyetheretherketone samples have been carried out. It was shown that the reinforcement resulted in increasing the elasticity modulus, compression and tensile ultimate strength by a factor of 3.5, 2.9 and 2.8, respectively. The fracture surfaces have been examined using both optical and scanning electron microscopy.

  4. Shear strength of non-shear reinforced concrete elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoang, Cao linh

    1997-01-01

    The paper deals with the plastic shear strength of non shear reinforced T-beams.The influence of an un-reinforced flange on the shear capacity is investigated by considering a failure mechanism involving crack sliding in the web and a kind of membrane action over an effective width of the flange...

  5. Shear strength of non-shear reinforced concrete elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoang, Cao linh

    1997-01-01

    The report deals with the shear strength of statically indeterminate reinforced concrete beams without shear reinforcement. Solutions for a number of beams with different load and support conditions have been derived by means of the crack sliding model developed by Jin- Ping Zhang.This model...

  6. Strength and stability analysis of load-bearing structures of a high-rise building with account for actual positions of reinforced concrete structural members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belostotskiy Aleksandr Mikhaylovich

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The given paper is devoted to strength and stability analysis of load-bearing structures of a high-rise (54-storey building with allowance for actual positions of reinforced concrete structural members (columns and walls. Finite element method (FEM is used for structural analysis. The authors present formulations of problems, governing equations, information about basic three-dimensional finite element models (so-called “design” (ideal model, the first “actual” model (taking into account the deviations of positions of columns from the project and the second “actual” model (taking into account the deviations of positions of walls from the project of the coupled system “high-rise building - foundation” within ANSYS Mechanical software and their verification, numerical approach to structural analysis and corresponding solvers. Finite element models include mainly 4-node structural shell elements (suitable for analyzing foundation slabs, floor slabs and load-bearing walls and three-dimensional 2-node beam elements (suitable for analyzing beams and columns, special spring-damper elements and multipoint constraint elements. Detailed finite element mesh on the bottom foundation slab is agreed with the location of piles. The advanced model of Prof. Yu.K. Zaretsky is used for approximation of soil behavior. Construction sequence and various types of nonlinearities are taken into account. The results of modal analysis, static and dynamic analysis with various load combinations (gravity load, facade load, dead (constant loads, temporary loads, wind load, snow load, crown load etc. are considered, the results of the regulatory assessment of the strength of structures (obtained with the use of corresponding software in accordance with design codes of the Russian Federation are under consideration as well. The corresponding displacements, stresses, natural vibration frequencies can be used for research and development of the correct monitoring

  7. Effect of discrete fibre reinforcement on soil tensile strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Li

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The tensile behaviour of soil plays a significantly important role in various engineering applications. Compacted soils used in geotechnical constructions such as dams and clayey liners in waste containment facilities can suffer from cracking due to tensile failure. In order to increase soil tensile strength, discrete fibre reinforcement technique was proposed. An innovative tensile apparatus was developed to determine the tensile strength characteristics of fibre reinforced soil. The effects of fibre content, dry density and water content on the tensile strength were studied. The results indicate that the developed test apparatus was applicable in determining tensile strength of soils. Fibre inclusion can significantly increase soil tensile strength and soil tensile failure ductility. The tensile strength basically increases with increasing fibre content. As the fibre content increases from 0% to 0.2%, the tensile strength increases by 65.7%. The tensile strength of fibre reinforced soil increases with increasing dry density and decreases with decreasing water content. For instance, the tensile strength at a dry density of 1.7 Mg/m3 is 2.8 times higher than that at 1.4 Mg/m3. It decreases by 30% as the water content increases from 14.5% to 20.5%. Furthermore, it is observed that the tensile strength of fibre reinforced soil is dominated by fibre pull-out resistance, depending on the interfacial mechanical interaction between fibre surface and soil matrix.

  8. Effect of discrete fibre reinforcement on soil tensile strength

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Li; Chaosheng Tang; Deying Wang; Xiangjun Pei; Bin Shi

    2014-01-01

    The tensile behaviour of soil plays a significantly important role in various engineering applications. Compacted soils used in geotechnical constructions such as dams and clayey liners in waste containment facilities can suffer from cracking due to tensile failure. In order to increase soil tensile strength, discrete fibre reinforcement technique was proposed. An innovative tensile apparatus was developed to deter-mine the tensile strength characteristics of fibre reinforced soil. The effects of fibre content, dry density and water content on the tensile strength were studied. The results indicate that the developed test apparatus was applicable in determining tensile strength of soils. Fibre inclusion can significantly in-crease soil tensile strength and soil tensile failure ductility. The tensile strength basically increases with increasing fibre content. As the fibre content increases from 0%to 0.2%, the tensile strength increases by 65.7%. The tensile strength of fibre reinforced soil increases with increasing dry density and decreases with decreasing water content. For instance, the tensile strength at a dry density of 1.7 Mg/m3 is 2.8 times higher than that at 1.4 Mg/m3. It decreases by 30% as the water content increases from 14.5% to 20.5%. Furthermore, it is observed that the tensile strength of fibre reinforced soil is dominated by fibre pull-out resistance, depending on the interfacial mechanical interaction between fibre surface and soil matrix.

  9. Characteristics of Impact Damage and Post-Impact Strength in Glass-Fibre-Reinforced Plastics with Different Reinforcement Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał BARCIKOWSKI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Fiber-reinforced plastics (FRP are nowadays used commonly for constructions subjected to impacts of different energies and velocities; therefore, the problem of impact resistance is crucial. This paper presents the results of high-velocity impact tests and post-impact evaluation of damage in glass-fiber-reinforced plastics, depending on the architecture of reinforcing material (different woven fabrics, mat. Composites reinforced with continuous-filament mat, woven roving, roving fabric and twisted-yarn fabric were prepared and subjected to intermediate- and high-velocity impact. After the ballistic impact, damage extent and residual strength, as well as water leakage through the composites, were evaluated. The damage was also investigated under a microscope. The damage extent was confirmed to be linearly dependent on impact energy. The addition of rubber was found to decrease damage extent and increase post-impact residual strength, as well as decrease water leakage rate.

  10. Improvement of high-strength carbon and aramid reinforcing fibers. Fortschritte bei hochfesten Verstaerkungsfasern aus Kohlenstoff und Aramid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blumenberg, H. (Akzo GmbH, Wuppertal (Germany, F.R.). Unternehmensbereich Fasern und Polymere)

    1989-07-01

    Since the early eighties, carbon and aramid fibres have increasingly been used in composites based on polymers. Combined with thermosetting and thermoplastic matrices, they have considerably extended the range of materials now available to the designer. This paper describes the properties of both fibres, dealing in particular with the significant improvements in the properties of carbon fibres that have been achieved during the last few years. The two fibres are compared with glass fibres, ceramic fibres and high-tenacity polyethylene fibres. The paper is concluded by a summary of the different production processes, a cost comparison and a description of current market trends. (orig.).

  11. Carbon fiber/carbon nanotube reinforced hierarchical composites: Effect of CNT distribution on shearing strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, H. W.; Mishnaevsky, Leon; Yi, H. Y.;

    2016-01-01

    The strength and fracture behavior of carbon fiber reinforced polymer composites with carbon nanotube (CNT) secondary reinforcement are investigated experimentally and numerically. Short Beam Shearing tests have been carried out, with SEM observations of the damage evolution in the composites. 3D...... multiscale computational (FE) models of the carbon/polymer composite with varied CNT distributions have been developed and employed to study the effect of the secondary CNT reinforcement, its distribution and content on the strength and fracture behavior of the composites. It is shown that adding secondary...... CNT nanoreinforcement into the matrix and/or the sizing of carbon fiber/reinforced composites ensures strong increase of the composite strength. The effect of secondary CNTs reinforcement is strongest when some small addition of CNTs in the polymer matrix is complemented by the fiber sizing with high...

  12. Assessment of Methods for Development of Confinement Model of Low Strength Reinforced Concrete Columns: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asif Ali

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Reinforced Concrete is composed of concrete and steel, where compressive strength of concrete and tensile strength of steel are utilized to achieve the required member strength. The high tensile property of steel is thus used to confine and increase compressive strength and ductility of RC columns. Confined concrete is defined as concrete that is restrained laterally by any internal or external means i.e. reinforcement consisting of steel stirrups or spirals, Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP, Circular Concrete Filled Steel Tube, RC shell jacketing etc. An appropriate amount of confinement increases the strength, ductility and energy dissipation capacity of RC members. This paper focuses on finding out strength and ductility enhancement of low strength RC columns by reinforcement using existing confinement models. Confinement models are stress-strain curves developed for concrete compression member under uniaxial or dynamic loading, confined with transverse reinforcement. Different models along with their experimental validations are discussed in this paper to get state of the art knowledge of confinement studies possible for low strength concrete. The models recommended from this study are used to evaluate existing structures made with low strength concrete

  13. Influence of Carbon & Glass Fiber Reinforcements on Flexural Strength of Epoxy Matrix Polymer Hybrid Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.D. Jagannatha

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid composite materials are more attracted by the engineers because of their properties like stiffness and high specific strength which leads to the potential application in the area of aerospace, marine and automobile sectors. In the present investigation, the flexural strength and flexural modulus of carbon and glass fibers reinforced epoxy hybrid composites were studied. The vacuum bagging technique was adopted for the fabrication of polymer hybrid composite materials. The hardness, flexural strength and flexural modulus of the hybrid composites were determined as per ASTM standards. The hardness, flexural strength and flexural modulus were improved as the fiber reinforcement contents increased in the epoxy matrix material.

  14. Normal Strength Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete Subjected to Explosive Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Alias Yusof

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation on the behavior of plain reinforced concrete and Normal strength steel fiber reinforced concrete panels (SFRC subjected to explosive loading. The experiment were performed by the Blast Research Unit Faculty of Engineering, University Pertahanan Nasional Malaysia A total of 8 reinforced concrete panels of 600mm x 600mm x 100mm were tested. The steel fiber reinforced concrete panels incorporated three different volume fraction, 0.5%, 1.0%, and 1.5% of hooked end steel fibers. The panels were subjected to explosive loading generated by the detonation of 1kg of explosive charge located at a 0.6m standoff. This investigation indicates that the steel fiber reinforced concrete panel containing of 1.5% volume fraction gave the best performance under explosive loading.

  15. Prediction of residual shear strength of corroded reinforced concrete beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imam, Ashhad; Azad, Abul Kalam

    2016-09-01

    With the aim of providing experimental data on the shear capacity and behavior of corroded reinforced concrete beams that may help in the development of strength prediction models, the test results of 13 corroded and four un-corroded beams are presented. Corrosion damage was induced by accelerated corrosion induction through impressed current. Test results show that loss of shear strength of beams is mostly attributable to two important damage factors namely, the reduction in stirrups area due to corrosion and the corrosion-induced cracking of concrete cover to stirrups. Based on the test data, a method is proposed to predict the residual shear strength of corroded reinforced concrete beams in which residual shear strength is calculated first by using corrosion-reduced steel area alone, and then it is reduced by a proposed reduction factor, which collectively represents all other applicable corrosion damage factors. The method seems to yield results that are in reasonable agreement with the available test data.

  16. Collapse mechanisms and strength prediction of reinforced concrete pile caps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Uffe G.; Hoang, Linh Cao

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an upper bound plasticity approach for strength prediction of reinforced concrete pile caps. A number of collapse mechanisms are identified and analysed. The procedure leads to an estimate of the load-carrying capacity and an identification of the critical collapse mechanism....... It is argued that the upper bound approach may be a useful complement to the widely used lower bound strut-and-tie method. Especially when dealing with strength assessment of existing structures....

  17. Optimizing the Flexural Strength of Beams Reinforced with Fiber Reinforced Polymer Bars Using Back-Propagation Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahman O. Taha

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The reinforced concrete with fiber reinforced polymer (FRP bars (carbon, aramid, basalt and glass is used in places where a high ratio of strength to weight is required and corrosion is not acceptable. Behavior of structural members using (FRP bars is hard to be modeled using traditional methods because of the high non-linearity relationship among factors influencing the strength of structural members. Back-propagation neural network is a very effective method for modeling such complicated relationships. In this paper, back-propagation neural network is used for modeling the flexural behavior of beams reinforced with (FRP bars. 101 samples of beams reinforced with fiber bars were collected from literatures. Five important factors are taken in consideration for predicting the strength of beams. Two models of Multilayer Perceptron (MLP are created, first with single-hidden layer and the second with two-hidden layers. The two-hidden layer model showed better accuracy ratio than the single-hidden layer model. Parametric study has been done for two-hidden layer model only. Equations are derived to be used instead of the model and the importance of input factors is determined. Results showed that the neural network is successful in modeling the behavior of concrete beams reinforced with different types of (FRP bars.

  18. Analysis on factors influencing high-strength stainless steel strands reinforcing RC column%高强不锈钢绞线加固RC柱的影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王嘉琪; 曹忠民

    2011-01-01

    Through experimental research and application of existing high-strength strands net-polymer mortar reinforcing RC column, it analyzes factors influencing high-strength stainless steel strands reinforcing RC column, and outlines the impacts of the reinforcing method on steel reinforced concrete column from three aspects of restrictive performance, seismic performance and bearing capacity, which has provided guidance for engineering design and further research.%通过已有的高强钢绞线网一聚合砂浆加固RC柱的试验研究和应用,对高强钢绞线网一聚合砂浆加固RC柱的影响因素进行了分析,并从柱的约束性能、抗震性能、承载力三个方面综述了该加固方法对钢筋混凝土柱加固效果的影响,可为工程设计和进一步研究提供指导。

  19. The Compressive Strength of Carbon Fibre Reinforced Plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-08-01

    and resin properties . Therefore, throughout this Report the term compressive failure will imply a microbuckling failure mode. A microbuckling failure...Compressive strength of fibre reinforced composite materials. ASTM STP 580, pp 364-377 (1975) 16 D.B.S. Berry Handbook of resin properties . Part A - cast

  20. The effect of concrete strength and reinforcement on toughness of reinforced concrete beams

    OpenAIRE

    Carneiro, Joaquim A. O.; Jalali, Said; Teixeira, Vasco M. P.; Tomás, M.

    2005-01-01

    The objective pursued with this work includes the evaluating of the strength and the total energy absorption capacity (toughness) of reinforced concrete beams using different amounts of steel-bar reinforcement. The experimental campaign deals with the evaluation of the threshold load prior collapse, ultimate load and deformation, as well as the beam total energy absorption capacity, using a three point bending test. The beam half span displacement was measured using a displacement transducer,...

  1. High-temperature discontinuously reinforced aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zedalis, M. S.; Bryant, J. D.; Gilman, P. S.; Das, S. K.

    1991-08-01

    High-temperature discontinuously reinforced aluminum (HTDRA) composites have been developed for elevated-temperature applications by incorporating SiC particulate reinforcement into a rapidly solidified, high-temperature Al-Fe-V-Si (alloy 8009) matrix. HTDRA combines the superior elevated-temperature strength, stability and corrosion resistance of the 8009 matrix with the excellent specific stiffness and abrasion resistance of the discontinuous SiC particulate reinforcement. On a specific stiffness basis, HTDRA is competitive with Ti-6-Al-4V and 17-4 PH stainless steel to temperatures approaching 480°C. Potential aerospace applications being considered for HTDRA include aircraft wing skins, missile bodies, and miscellaneous engine, spacecraft and hypersonic vehicle components.

  2. Strength Evaluation of Steel-Nylon Hybrid Fibre Reinforced Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maniram Kumar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available When fibres like steel, glass, polypropylene, nylon, carbon, aramid, polyester, jute, etc are mixed with concrete known as fibre reinforced concrete. To overcome the deficiencies of concrete; fibres are added to improve the performance of concrete. In this research hybrid reinforced concrete is made by using steel and nylon 6 fibres. The inclusion of both steel and nylon 6 fibres are used in order to combine the benefits of both fibers; structural improvements provided by steel fibers and the resistance to plastic shrinkage improvements provided by nylon fibers. So the aim of this project is to investigate the mechanical properties (compressive strength, flexure strength and split tensile strength of hybrid fiber reinforced concrete under compression, flexure & tension. The total volume of fibre was taken 0.75 % of total volume of concrete. In this experimental work, four different concrete mix proportions were casted with fibres and one mix without fibres. Four different mix combinations of steel- nylon 6 fibres were 100-00%, 75-25%, 50-50% and 25-75%. Superplasticizer was used in all mixes to make concrete more workable. The results shown that compressive, split tensile and flexural strength of hybrid fibre reinforced concrete increase by increasing quantity of steel and nylon 6 fibres. The increase in compressive and tensile strength due to incorporation of steel fibre is greater than that of using nylon fibre. For the nylon 6 fibres, adding more fibres into the concrete has a limited improvement on splitting tensile strength. Inclusion of nylon 6 fibres along with steel fibres results in considerable improvement in flexural strength as compared to solo steel fibre.

  3. Strength Modeling of Reinforced Concrete Beam with Externally Bonded FRP Reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Pannirselvam

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This research study presents the evaluation of the structural behaviour of reinforced concrete beams with externally bonded Fibre Reinforced Polymer (FRP reinforcements. Three different steel ratios with two different Glass Fibre Reinforced Polymer (GFRP types and two different thicknesses in each type of GFRP were used. Totally fifteen rectangular beams of 3 m length were cast. Three rectangular beams were used as reference beam (Control Beams and the remaining were fixed with GFRP laminates on the soffit of the rectangular beam. The variables considered for the study includes longitudinal steel ratio, type of GFRP laminates, thickness of GFRP laminates and composite ratios. Flexural test, using simple beam with third-point loading was adopted to study the performance of FRP plated beams interms flexural strength, deflection, ductility and was compared with the unplated beams. The test results show that the beams strengthened with GFRP laminates exhibit better performance. The flexural strength and ductility increase with increase in thickness of GFRP plate. The increase in first crack loads was up to 88.89% for 3 mm thick WRGFRP plates and 100.00% for 5 mm WRGFRP plated beams and increase in ductility interms of energy and deflection was found to be 56.01 and 64.69% respectively with 5 mm thick GFRP plated beam. Strength models were developed for predicting the flexural strength (ultimate load, service load and ductility of FRP beams. The strength model developed give prediction matching the measurements.

  4. High-Hot-Strength Ceramic Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayir, Ali; Matson, Lawrence E.

    1994-01-01

    Continuous fibers consisting of laminae of alumina and yttrium aluminum garnet offer exceptionally high strength, resistance to creep, and chemical stability at high temperatures. These fibers exceed tensile strength of sapphire fibers. Leading candidates for reinforcement of intermetallic-matrix composites in exhaust nozzles of developmental high-speed civil transport aircraft engines. Other applications are in aerospace, automotive, chemical-process, and power-generation industries.

  5. Influence of different glass fiber reinforcements on denture base polymer strength (Fiber reinforcements of dental polymer)

    OpenAIRE

    Ketij Mehulić,; Asja Čelebić,; Zdravko Schauperl,; Dragutin Komar,; Denis Vojvodić,; Domagoj Žabarović

    2009-01-01

    Aim Assessment of flexural strength values of dental base polymersreinforced with different glass fibers (“dental” and “industrial”origin) after performed artificial ageing procedures.Methods Three hundred specimens (dimensions 18 x 10 x 3 mm)were produced of denture base polymers reinforced with differentglass fibers. The “short beam” testing method was used to determinethe flexural strength of the specimens after polymerization,immersion in water of temperature 37oC for 28 days, and thermoc...

  6. Processing, structure and flexural strength of CNT and carbon fibre reinforced, epoxy-matrix hybrid composite

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Chandra Shekar; M Sai Priya; P K Subramanian; Anil Kumar; B Anjaneya Prasad; N Eswara Prasad

    2014-05-01

    Advanced materials such as continuous fibre-reinforced polymer matrix composites offer significant enhancements in variety of properties, as compared to their bulk, monolithic counterparts. These properties include primarily the tensile stress, flexural stress and fracture parameters. However, till date, there are hardly any scientific studies reported on carbon fibre (Cf) and carbon nanotube (CNT) reinforced hybrid epoxy matrix composites (unidirectional). The present work is an attempt to bring out the flexural strength properties along with a detailed investigation in the synthesis of reinforced hybrid composite. In this present study, the importance of alignment of fibre is comprehensively evaluated and reported. The results obtained are discussed in terms of material characteristics, microstructure and mode of failure under flexural (3-point bend) loading. The study reveals the material exhibiting exceptionally high strength values and declaring itself as a material with high strength to weight ratio when compared to other competing polymer matrix composites (PMCs); as a novel structural material for aeronautical and aerospace applications.

  7. Flexural Strength and Behavior of Polypropylene Fiber Reinforced Concrete Beams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The strength and deformation characteristics of polypropylene fiber reinforced concrete (PFRC) beams were investigated by four-point bending procedures in this paper.Two kinds of polypropylene fibers with different fiber contents (0.2%, 0.5%, 1.0% and 1.5%) by volume were used in the beam, which measured 100×100 mm with a span of 300 mm.It was found that the strength of the reinforced concrete beams was significantly decreased,whereas the flexural toughness was improved,compared to those unreinforced concrete beams.Geometry properties and volume contents of polypropylene fiber were considered to be important factors for improving the flexural toughness.Moreover,the composite mechanism between polypropylene fiber and concrete was analyzed and discussed.

  8. The strength of two reinforced glass ionomer materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazarakis, E; van der Vyver, P J; Janse van Rensburg, S D; de Wet, F A

    1994-08-01

    Preformed stainless steel crowns survive longer than multi-surface amalgams on deciduous molars. With the use of reinforced glass ionomers the bulk of the lost tooth structure can be replaced and the stainless steel crown cemented simultaneously. The purpose of this study was to compare two glass ionomer cements with regard to their shear bond strength (SBS) to the dentine of extracted primary molars and to their diametral tensile strength (DTS). The results showed that Vitremer was significantly (p < 0.01) stronger (DTS:x = 19.21; SBS:x = 7.63) than Ketac-Silver (DTS:x = 8.94; SBS:x = 2.92).

  9. Experimental Study on Seismic Performance of Steel -reinforced Ultra-high-strength Concrete Column%钢骨超高强混凝土柱抗震性能试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑林; 贾金青; 朱伟庆; 叶浩

    2014-01-01

    为研究钢骨超高强混凝土柱的抗震性能,对6根钢骨超高强混凝土柱(λ=2.6)在低周反复荷载下进行试验,并且分析了试件的破坏过程和破坏方式,以及轴压比、配箍率及型钢形式对延性的影响。试验结果表明:钢骨超高强混凝土柱主要破坏形态为弯曲破坏和弯剪破坏,发生弯曲破坏的试件荷载-位移滞回曲线饱满,下降段较为平缓,表现出良好的抗震性能,发生弯剪破坏的试件荷载-位移滞回曲线狭窄,下降迅速,抗震性能较差;配箍率高、轴压比小、配置 H 型钢试件抗震性能好。%To study the seismic performance of steel-reinforced ultra-high-strength concrete columns ,the test research of 6 steel-reinforced ultra-high-strength concrete columns (λ = 2 .6) subjected to low-cyclic repetitional loads was carried out .Then ,the specimens’ failure process and modes as well as the effects of the axial compression ratio ,reinforcement ratio and section steel shape on the ductility of the steel-reinforced ultra-high-strength concrete columns were discussed . The experimental results show that the main failure patterns of the specimens are bending failure and shear failure .The hysteretic curves of bending failure specimens are plump with relatively slow descending branches ,showing excellent seis-mic behavior .However ,the hysteretic curves of shear failure specimens are slim with relatively quick descending branch -es ,showing bad seismic behavior .The specimens with the high reinforcement ratio ,high axial compression ratio and H-shaped section steel show excellent seismic behavior .

  10. Strength and deformability of concrete beams reinforced by non-metallic fiber and composite rebar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudyakov, K. L.; Plevkov, V. S.; Nevskii, A. V.

    2015-01-01

    Production of durable and high-strength concrete structures with unique properties has always been crucial. Therefore special attention has been paid to non-metallic composite and fiber reinforcement. This article describes the experimental research of strength and deformability of concrete beams with dispersed and core fiber-based reinforcement. As composite reinforcement fiberglass reinforced plastic rods with diameters 6 mm and 10 mm are used. Carbon and basalt fibers are used as dispersed reinforcement. The developed experimental program includes designing and production of flexural structures with different parameters of dispersed fiber and composite rebar reinforcement. The preliminary testing of mechanical properties of these materials has shown their effectiveness. Structures underwent bending testing on a special bench by applying flexural static load up to complete destruction. During the tests vertical displacements were recorded, as well as value of actual load, slippage of rebars in concrete, crack formation. As a result of research were obtained structural failure and crack formation graphs, value of fracture load and maximum displacements of the beams at midspan. Analysis of experimental data showed the effectiveness of using dispersed reinforcement of concrete and the need for prestressing of fiberglass composite rebar.

  11. High strength alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maziasz, Phillip James; Shingledecker, John Paul; Santella, Michael Leonard; Schneibel, Joachim Hugo; Sikka, Vinod Kumar; Vinegar, Harold J.; John, Randy Carl; Kim, Dong Sub

    2012-06-05

    High strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one composition of a metal alloy includes chromium, nickel, copper, manganese, silicon, niobium, tungsten and iron. System, methods, and heaters that include the high strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one heater system may include a canister at least partially made from material containing at least one of the metal alloys. At least one system for heating a subterranean formation may include a tublar that is at least partially made from a material containing at least one of the metal alloys.

  12. High strength alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maziasz, Phillip James [Oak Ridge, TN; Shingledecker, John Paul [Knoxville, TN; Santella, Michael Leonard [Knoxville, TN; Schneibel, Joachim Hugo [Knoxville, TN; Sikka, Vinod Kumar [Oak Ridge, TN; Vinegar, Harold J [Bellaire, TX; John, Randy Carl [Houston, TX; Kim, Dong Sub [Sugar Land, TX

    2010-08-31

    High strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one composition of a metal alloy includes chromium, nickel, copper, manganese, silicon, niobium, tungsten and iron. System, methods, and heaters that include the high strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one heater system may include a canister at least partially made from material containing at least one of the metal alloys. At least one system for heating a subterranean formation may include a tubular that is at least partially made from a material containing at least one of the metal alloys.

  13. 单调荷载作用下高强混凝土梁受弯性能尺寸效应研究%Size effect on flexural behavior of reinforced high-strength concrete beams subjected to monotonic loading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    车轶; 郑新丰; 王金金; 宋玉普

    2012-01-01

    Reinforced high-strength concrete beams subjected to bending were tested to investigate the effect of depth on flexural behavior of beams.The geometry of specimens varied in cross sections with the depth-width ratios of the cross sections,the shear span ratios and longitudinal reinforcement ratios of specimens being constant.C70 concrete was used to cast the specimens and HRB 400 steel bars were used for the longitudinal reinforcement.The influence of beam depth on the nominal cracking moment,nominal yield moment,nominal ultimate flexural moment,ductility,and plastic rotation capacity of high-strength concrete beams was investigated.It is shown that there is no apparent size effect on nominal cracking moment,nominal yield moment and nominal ultimate moment of reinforced high-strength concrete beams.But the displacement ductility ratio and plastic rotation capacity show significant size effect.The displacement ductility factor and the rotational capacity of high-strength concrete beam decrease with the increasing of cross section.%进行了不同截面尺寸高强混凝土梁的弯曲试验,研究了梁高对其受弯性能的影响。试件采用C70高强混凝土,纵向受力钢筋采用HRB400级钢筋。试件截面尺寸不同,截面长宽比、剪跨比和配筋率等参数保持一致。分析了不同截面尺寸对高强混凝土梁的名义开裂弯矩、名义屈服弯矩、名义极限弯矩、延性以及塑性转动能力的影响。研究结果表明,高强混凝土梁的名义开裂弯矩、名义屈服弯矩和名义极限弯矩无明显尺寸效应,而试件的位移延性系数和塑性铰区的塑性转动能力则表现出明显的尺寸效应,随截面尺寸的增大梁的位移延性系数和塑性铰区塑性转动能力有所降低。

  14. Tensile strength of woven yarn kenaf fiber reinforced polyester composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.E. Ismail

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the tensile strength of woven kenaf fiber reinforced polyester composites. The as-received yarn kenaf fiber is weaved and then aligned into specific fiber orientations before it is hardened with polyester resin. The composite plates are shaped according to the standard geometry and uni-axially loaded in order to investigate the tensile responses. Two important parameters are studied such as fiber orientations and number of layers. According to the results, it is shown that fiber orientations greatly affected the ultimate tensile strength but it is not for modulus of elasticity for both types of layers. It is estimated that the reductions of both ultimate tensile strength and Young’s modulus are in the range of 27.7-30.9% and 2.4-3.7% respectively, if the inclined fibers are used with respect to the principal axis.

  15. APPLICATION OF HIGH-STRENGTH STEEL STRANDED CABLE POLYMER-MODIFIED MORTAR IN FACTORY BUILDING REINFORCEMENT%高强钢绞线网-聚合物砂浆在厂房加固中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管平; 吴纪宁; 黄毅华

    2011-01-01

    某食品加工厂因工艺调整,需对一座四层框架厂房进行加固补强.经比较,决定采用高强钢绞线-聚合物砂浆加固方案,该做法有不破坏原结构、耐高温、耐腐蚀、无毒环保、耐老化、施工简便等特点,且后期维修成本低,对周围干扰小.加固后经使用,证明效果良好.%Due to the technical adjustment of a food processing factory, a four-storey factory building of frame structure needs to be reinforced. After comparison, it is determined to adopt high-strength steel stranded cable Polymer-modified mortar reinforcing scheme. This scheme has many characteristics, such as not damage the original structure, resistant against high temperature and corrosion, innoxions, environmental protection, aging resistance, convenient construction, low maintenance cost at the later phase and small interference to surrounding area. After the reinforcement, it is proved that favorable effects have been realized.

  16. Strength Behaviour Of Biomass Fiber-Reinforced Concrete Slab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chai Teck Jung

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the compressive strength and flexural strength of biomass fibre-reinforced concrete slab. The main objective of this study is to examine the effect of biomass aggregate and fibre glass on the concrete slab strength. The biomass aggregate is used to replace the natural aggregates. A total of 36 slab samples (250 mm x 600 mm x 50mm thick and 36 numbers of 150 mm cube samples containing 0%, 30%, 60% and 100% biomass aggregate were prepared.  The E-class fibre and Supracoat SP800 were added to increase the strength and to achieve the required workability. All the samples were cured in water with room temperature of around 27oC and tested at the age of 7, 14 and 28 days respectively. The result showed that cube specimens containing 30% biomass aggregate concrete achieved minimum strength of 15 MPa at 28 days. The flexural strength for slab specimens containing 30% biomass aggregate, Supracoat SP 800 and fibre glass gained higher strength compared with control specimens. The 100% biomass aggregate slab achieved 88% of the control specimen strength. The workability was between 150 mm to 170mm slump. The density of the specimens was reduced 20% for cube and 28% for slab compared with control specimens. It can be concluded that the biomass aggregate has good potential as partial aggregate replacement in slab construction when combined with the use of glass fibre and superplasticizer. However, more research needs to be carried out to self-compacting biomass aggregate concrete for sustainable construction

  17. Tensile Strength of Natural Fiber Reinforced Polyester Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Al Emran; Awang, Muhd. Khairudin; Sa'at, Mohd Hisham

    2007-05-01

    Nowadays, increasing awareness of replacing synthetic fiber such as glass fiber has emerged due to environmental problems and pollutions. Automotive manufacturers also seek new material especially biodegradable material to be non-load bearing application parts. This present work discussed on the effect of silane treatment on coir fiber reinforced composites. From the results of tensile tests, fibers treated with silane have attained maximum material stiffness. However, to achieve maximum ultimate tensile strength and strain at failure performances, untreated fibers work very well through fiber bridging and internal friction between fiber and polymeric matrix. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations have coincided with these results.

  18. HRB500级高强钢筋偏心受压截面对称配筋设计研究%Study of cross-section symmetrical reinforcement design reinforced with HRB500 high-strength steel bars under eccentric compression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾亮; 华建民; 兰定筠; 袁渊

    2013-01-01

    通过对新GB 50010-2010《混凝土结构设计规范》中增加的HRB500级高强钢筋用于偏心受压构件时的截面对称配筋进行研究,得到HRB500级高强钢筋偏心受压构件大小偏心受压的判别条件,以及对应的截面配筋计算方法;同时,对HRB500级高强钢筋对应的Nu-Mu相关曲线进行讨论.本文研究结论为高强钢筋偏心受压构件对称配筋截面设计提供了具体判别条件和计算方法.%Through the study of eccentric compression cross-section symmetrical reinforcement design reinforced with HRB500 highstrength steel bars,which adds into the new Code for the Design of Concrete Structures GB50010-2010 recently,it gets the criterion for large and small eccentricity of eccentric compression member,and the corresponding cross-section reinforcement calculation method.Furthermore,it discusses the Nu-Mu interaction curve of HRB500 high-strength steel bars.The conclusion will provide specific criterion and calculation method for eccentric compression cross-section symmetrical reinforcement design reinforced with high-strength steel bars.

  19. Weibull Probability Model for Fracture Strength of Aluminium (1101)-Alumina Particle Reinforced Metal Matrix Composite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.Suresh Babu; V.Jayabalan

    2009-01-01

    In recent times, conventional materials are replaced by metal matrix composites (MMCs) due to their high specific strength and modulus.Strength reliability, one of the key factors restricting wider use of composite materials in various applications, is commonly characterized by Weibull strength distribution function.In the present work, statistical analysis of the strength data of 15% volume alumina particle (mean size 15 μm)reinforced in aluminum alloy (1101 grade alloy) fabricated by stir casting method was carried out using Weibull probability model.Twelve tension tests were performed according to ASTM B577 standards and the test data, the corresponding Weibull distribution was obtained.Finally the reliability of the composite behavior in terms of its fracture strength was presented to ensure the reliability of composites for suitable applications.An important implication of the present study is that the Weibull distribution describes the experimentally measured strength data more appropriately.

  20. THE RESEARCH ON DIAGONAL CRACKING OF REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAMS WITH HIGH STRENGTH REBARS BASED ON MODEL TEST%基于模型试验的高强度钢筋混凝土梁斜向开裂研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李朋; 郑鸿飞; 张宪堂; 张伟; 王命平

    2015-01-01

    通过对配置高强度钢筋的混凝土梁在集中荷载作用下的受剪试验,从构件挠度、斜裂缝宽度及箍筋应变的角度分析其斜向开裂特征规律,研究混凝土强度、剪跨比、配箍率、截面尺寸及截面形状对构件斜向开裂荷载的影响规律,并对斜向开裂荷载的理论计算方法进行探讨。研究结果表明:混凝土强度、剪跨比、截面尺寸是配置高强钢筋混凝土梁斜向开裂荷载的主要影响因素,并由此提出斜向开裂荷载的建议计算公式,为工程应用中斜向开裂荷载计算以及高强钢筋的快速推广使用提供参考依据。%An experiment on shear of reinforced concrete beams with high strength rebars was carried out .According to observing the deflection , diagonal crack width and strain of stirrups , the diagonal cracking rules were analyzed . The effects of concrete strength , shear span ratio , ratio of stirrup , section size and section shape on diagonal cracking loads were studied and the calculation method of the diagonal cracking loads was discussed .The results showed that concrete strength , shear span ratio and section size were the major factors for the diagonal cracking loads of reinforced concrete beams with high strength rebars .Meanwhile , the calculation formula of the diagonal cracking loads was suggested , which provided a basis for calculation of the diagonal cracking loads and promoting the use of HRBF 500 high strength rebars in practical engineering .

  1. Effect of Geotextile Reinforcement on Shear Strength of Sandy Soil: Laboratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denine, Sidali; Della, Noureddine; Dlawar, Muhammed Rawaz; Sadok, Feia; Canou, Jean; Dupla, Jean-Claude

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents results of a series of undrained monotonic compression tests on loose sand reinforced with geotextile mainly to study the effect of confining stress on the mechanical behaviour of geotextile reinforced sand. The triaxial tests were performed on reconstituted specimens of dry natural sand prepared at loose relative density (Dr = 30%) with and without geotextile layers and consolidated to three levels of confining pressures 50, 100 and 200 kPa, where different numbers and different arrangements of reinforcement layers were placed at different heights of the specimens (0, 1 and 2 layers). The behaviour of test specimens was presented and discussed. Test results showed that geotextile inclusion improves the mechanical behaviour of sand, a significant increase in the shear strength and cohesion value is obtained by adding up layers of reinforcement. Also, the results indicate that the strength ratio is more pronounced for samples which were subjected to low value of confining pressure. The obtained results reveal that high value of confining pressure can restrict the sand shear dilatancy and the more effect of reinforcement efficiently.

  2. 高强度聚氨酯硬质泡沫制备技术的发展现状与展望%Research Progress of High-strength Rigid Polyurethane Foam and its Reinforced Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周成飞

    2014-01-01

    The important factors affected on the strength of rigid polyurethane foams were discussed. The reinforced technologies of rigid polyurethane foam were introduced. The research progress of rigid polyurethane foam in the hybrid reinforced and nano-reinforced methods were summarized.%讨论了影响聚氨酯硬质泡沫塑料强度的重要因素,并介绍了聚氨酯硬质泡沫塑料的增强技术,重点综述了混杂增强和纳米增强的研究进展。

  3. Bond Strength of Composite CFRP Reinforcing Bars in Timber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Corradi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of near-surface mounted (NSM fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP bars is an interesting method for increasing the shear and flexural strength of existing timber members. This article examines the behaviour of carbon FRP (CFRP bars in timber under direct pull-out conditions. The objective of this experimental program is to investigate the bond strength between composite bars and timber: bars were epoxied into small notches made into chestnut and fir wood members using a commercially-available epoxy system. Bonded lengths varied from 150 to 300 mm. Failure modes, stress and strain distributions and the bond strength of CFRP bars have been evaluated and discussed. The pull-out capacity in NSM CFRP bars at the onset of debonding increased with bonded length up to a length of 250 mm. While CFRP bar’s pull-out was achieved only for specimens with bonded lengths of 150 and 200 mm, bar tensile failure was mainly recorded for bonded lengths of 250 and 300 mm.

  4. Strength properties and fracture behavior of ZrC particle-reinforced tungsten composite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉金; 宋桂明; 孟庆昌; 周玉

    2001-01-01

    The flexural strength of 30 % (volume fraction) ZrC particle-reinforced tungsten composite (ZrCp/W) at 20~1 200℃ were measured using three-point bending, and the fracture behaviors of the samples at 20 ℃ and 1000 ℃ were studied with a scanning electron microscope. As temperature increases, the strength of the composite increases firstly and the highest strength value, 829 MPa, is measured at 1 000 ℃, and then the strength decreases when temperature is over 1000 ℃. The fracture of the composite at 20 ℃, which is controlled by the crack initiating process, is brittle, and the corresponding stress-deflection curve is linear. There is a metastable growth and coalescence of the initial cracks during the fracture process of the samples at 1 000 ℃, and the stress-deflection curve displays a nonlinear characteristic. The good elevated strength of the composite is partly attributed to the W grain interior strength and ZrCp/W interface strength. The reinforcement at high temperature is mainly attributed to the load transfer of ZrCp/W interface and dislocation strengthening.

  5. Nonlinear seismic response analysis of a high-strength concrete frame structure reinforced with high-strength bars%高强钢筋高强混凝土框架结构非线性地震反应分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阎石; 陈鑫; 季保建

    2011-01-01

    研究配有高强钢筋的高强混凝土框架结构的抗震性能.采用OpenSees开放式软件对配有高强钢筋的高强混凝土框架结构进行了地震作用下的非线性有限元分析,并将计算结果与同等参数条件下的结构拟动力试验进行了对比.得到不同峰值加速度情况下的结构层间反应时程曲线,层间位移滞回曲线,以及破坏模式等,数值计算结果与试验吻合程度较好.研究结果表明利用基于OpenSees的有限元分析方法,能够有效地分析配有高强钢筋的高强混凝土框架结构的地震响应,可以辅助研究该结构的抗震性能.%The nonlinear seismic response analysis of a two-story high-strength concrete frame structure is completed by using OpenSees software, which installed high-strength transverse and partly longitudinal reinforcement. The placement of the high-strength bars is to increase the ductility of the frame by effectively confining the core concrete to a three dimensional compression state. The results of the FEM simulation are compared with those of pseudo-dynamic model test with the same parameters, so the relative time history responses for the stories, hysteretic loops and failure modes of the frame under different peak acceleration are obtained, results between numerical computation and test are matched well. The FEM based on OpenSees software can effectively analyze the seismic responses of the high-strength concrete frame structure reinforced with high-strength bars and can additionally study the seismic performance of the kind of structures.

  6. Improvement in reinforcing bond strength in reinforced concrete with self-repairing chemical adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dry, Carolyn M.

    1997-05-01

    Self-healing concretes have embedded adhesives which are released from hollow fibers inside the concrete when and where cracking of the matrix and the fibers occurs. It was found that the adhesive improves the strength of the cracked portions of the concrete and increases its ability to deflect under load. Structural materials subjected to dynamic events such as earthquakes and impacts can have improved response by the noise of adhesive type which can impart improved damping, lateral stiffness, or deflection. Testing also assessed the improvement of the bond strength in structures. In laboratory tests the internal adhesive repair system improved the bond between the reinforcing steel and the concrete to prevent pullout failure or debonding at the interface.

  7. 高强钢筋混凝土梁短期裂缝计算方法评析%Calculational method for short-term crack of reinforced concrete beams with high-strength steel bars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵勇; 王晓锋; 程志军; 周建民

    2011-01-01

    收集和整理近年来国内完成的114根配置400MPa或500MPa级热轧带肋钢筋混凝土梁受弯试验短期裂缝结果,对GB 50010-2002的裂缝计算公式进行评估分析.分析结果表明:规范的短期裂缝计算方法仍可适用于配置高强带肋钢筋的混凝土受弯试件,但平均裂缝间距、平均裂缝宽度和最大裂缝宽度试验值与按规范公式计算的结果相比总体上偏低,二者之比的均值分别为0.930、0.711和0.739,因此建议对部分参数进行修正.利用试验数据进行参数回归分析,得到裂缝间距和裂缝宽度计算模式的修正公式,修正后的计算值和试验值符合较好,但对配置多层钢筋的情况有待进一步研究.%The paper evaluates the formulae for the crack spacing and crack width specified in the code for design of concrete (GB 50010-2002) using experimental data of 114 concrete beams reinforced with 400MPa or 500MPa longitudinal hot ribbed steel bars and tested under short-term bending loads in recent years in China.The analysis shows that the original method in GB 50010-2002 is adaptable to flexural members with high-strength reinforcement, but the test values of average crack spacing, average crack width and maximum crack width are in general less than those calculated according to GB 50010-2002 with the average ratios of 0.930, 0.711 and 0.739 respectively.So it is necessary to revise some parameters of the formulae.Based on the test results, the revised formulae of the crack spacing and crack width are suggested through regression analysis for beams with high-strength steel bars.The predicting values from the revised formulae agree well with the test results, but the applicability of the formulae to the cases of multi-row reinforcement beams needs further study.

  8. Tailoring of fiber-reinforced cementitious composites (FRCC) for flexural strength and reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obla, Karthikeyan Hariya

    Bending is the most common form of loading for many construction elements. The bending strength or Modulus of Rupture (MOR) and flexural ductility are therefore critical properties particularly for those elements which are not reinforced by rebars. Such elements include highway barriers, certain wall panels, thin sheet elements and small diameter pipes. The tensile and bending strengths of concrete are very low. In addition, as a brittle material, concrete also demonstrates a large variability in bending strength. A large variability in MOR leads to inefficient use of the material since the design strength has to be close to the lower bound of the material's strength distribution. The potential of fiber in improving MOR is well recognized in fiber reinforced concrete. The use of fiber to enhance material reliability is much less studied. This thesis addresses both aspects employing a combination of theoretical and experimental treatments. Research findings are reported as Part I and Part II of this thesis. Carbon fibers are increasingly attractive for reinforcing cementitious composites. They can be manufactured to yield a wide range in modulus and strength. Carbon fibers are non-corrosive, and fire and alkali. In addition, the price of pitch based carbon fibers are dropping rapidly to make them economically viable for the building and construction industries. In Part I of the thesis, a study on the optimization of the bending strength of carbon FRCC using a fracture based flexural model that links the fiber, interface, and matrix micro-parameters to composite bending strength is presented. Carbon fiber, interface and matrix parameters were tailored to yield optimal properties such as high MOR and ductility. Four point bend tests were conducted on CFRCCs to confirm the findings. Some problems specially affecting carbon FRCCs such as fiber breakage during mixing were also studied and its effects on composite uniaxial tensile properties analyzed by developing new

  9. Flexural strength enhancement of confined reinforced concrete columns

    OpenAIRE

    Pam, HJ; Ho, JCM

    2001-01-01

    As part of a continuing research study, this paper proposes a new design aid to calculate the actual moment capacity of confined reinforced concrete columns. Up to now the moment capacity of a reinforced concrete column is calculated based on the code's guidelines for an unconfined section. As most reinforced concrete columns contain transverse or confining reinforcement, which will enhance the column moment capacity, the actual moment capacity will be much higher than the unconfined moment c...

  10. Improving Impact Strength Recovery of Fractured and Healed Rice Husks Fibre Reinforced Polypropylene Composites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odhong, O.V.E

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Rice husks fibre reinforced polypropylene composite (rhfrpc is a natural plant fibre reinforced polymer composite having advantages of high strength, light weight and affordability. They are commonly used for light load structural and non structural applications. They are mainly used as particle boards, for fencing post, roofing tiles, for interiors of car and aircrafts among other usages. This material once cracked by impact forces cannot be repaired using traditional repair methods for engineering materials such as metals or other composites that can be repaired by welding or by patch repair methods respectively, thus a method of repair of rice husks fibre reinforced polypropylene composites by refilling the damaged volume by injection of various healing agents has been investigated. The composite coupons were produced by injection moulding, cooled sufficiently and prepared for charpy impact tests. Test results for pristine coupons were a maximum of 48 J/mm2 . The destroyed coupons were then subjected to healing in a fabricated healing fixture. Healing agents such as epoxy resin, ethyl cyanoacrylate, and tannin gum have been investigated for their use as possible healing agents to fill the damaged volume and perform healing action at the fractured surfaces. The impact test results were recorded and compared with those of unhealed pristine coupons. The recovered strengths were a maximum of 60 J/mm2 translating into a 125% impact strength recovery, and this is good enough for the healed composites to be recommended for reuse in their second lives of their respective original functions.

  11. Shear Strength of Reinforced Concrete Beams Under Sea Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阎西康; 王铁成; 张玉敏

    2004-01-01

    The marine structures such as harbour,pier and inshore concrete terrace are exposed in adverse circumstances in a long period of time . Owing to the attack of external corrosive medium, their safety, durability and reliability decline. Especially the reinforced concrete(RC) structures in the wave splash area are more likely to be subjected to destruction and the loss is vast. Now the safety ,durability and reliability of structure have become increasingly an important subject to be studied. By way of the soaking and drying cycle test on the different mix proportions oblique section of 10 pieces of RC beams suffered artificial sea water(ASW) corrosion under 0,35,70,105,140 times of dry-wet cycles ,the compared results of exerting pressure test of these beams under simply supporting were investigated. The law about the changes of the mechanical performance for RC beams with different mix proportions under different time periods for suffering corrosion of dry-wet cycles is as follows: the resistivity to ASW corrosion of the concrete specimens with various water cement ratio( various initial strength) is different; the characters of oblique section failure for RC beams attacked by sea water are about the same as those for ordinary RC beam; along with the extension of the time for sea water attack, the bearing capacity for oblique section of RC beams varies wave upon wave. The specimens attacked by sea water for about 35 times of corrosion cycle achieve minimum bearing capacity.

  12. REVERSAL CYCLIC LOADING TEST OF REINFORCED CONCRETE COLUMN WITH HIGH DENSITY LONGITUDINAL REINFORCEMENT CONFINED BY SPIRAL REINFORCEMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohba, Mitsuaki; Sato, Akiko; Ishibashi, Tadayoshi

    In case of that column diameter is restricted by the narrow construction space, Concrete filled steel tube column is used. Authors developed new arrangement of bars that the range of longitudinal reinforcement ratio is from 14.8% to 24.7% and the longitudinal reinforcements are reinforced by spiral reinforcement. For the confirmation of the damage form and the deformation performance of the column with new bar arrangement at the earthquake, static reversal cyclic loading test was carried out. The parameters are longitudinal reinforcement ratio, shear span ratio and strength ratio. As the result, the damage form showed different trends due to longitudinal reinforcement ratio, shear span ratio and flexural strength and shear strength ratio. And specimens with the new bar arrangement had a good ductility with rotation angle of the column more than 1/10 and no rapid decline of strength. And, it is possible to evaluate ultimate bending capacity by considering the damage situation at maximum load.

  13. EFFECT OF CORROSION ON BOND BEHAVIOR AND BENDING STRENGTH OF REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    There is growing concern for corrosion damage in reinforced concrete structures with several decades' service. Pullout tests and beam tests were carried out to study the effect of reinforcement corrosion on the bond behavior and bending strength of reinforced concrete beams. The bond strength of plain bars and concrete initially increases with increasing corrosion, then declines. The turning point depends on the cracking of the concrete cover. The bond strength of deformed bars and concrete increases with corrosion up to a certain amount, but with progressive increase in corrosion, the bond strength decreases, and the cracking of the concrete cover seems to have no effect on the bond strength. On the basis of test data, the bond strength coefficient recommended here, which, together with the bond strength of uncorroded steel bars and concrete, can be used to easily calculate the bond strength of corroded steel bars and concrete. The bond strength coefficient proposed in this paper can be used to study the bond stress-slip relationship of corroded steel bars and concrete. The bending strength of corroded reinforced concrete beams declines with increasing reinforcement corrosion. Decreased bending strength of corroded RC beam is due to reduction in steel bar cross section, reduction of yield strength of steel bar, and reduction of bond capacity between steel bar and concrete.

  14. Compressive behaviour at High Temperatures of Fibre Reinforced Concretes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. O. Santos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the research that is being carried out at the Universities of Coimbra and Rio de Janeiro, on fibre reinforced concretes at high temperatures. Several high strength concrete compositions reinforced with fibres (polypropylene, steel and glass fibres were developed. The results of compressive tests at high temperatures (300 °C, 500 °C and 600 °C and after heating and cooling down of the concrete are presented in the paper. In both research studies, the results indicated that polypropylene fibers prevent concrete spalling. 

  15. Feasibility of Using High-Performance Steel Fibre Reinforced Concrete for Simplifying Reinforcement Details of Critical Members

    OpenAIRE

    Seok-Joon Jang; Dae-Hyun Kang; Kyung-Lim Ahn; Wan-Shin Park; Sun-Woong Kim; Hyun-Do Yun

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the effects of hooked-end steel fibre contents on the mechanical properties of high-performance concrete (HPC) and investigates the feasibility of utilizing steel fibres to simplify the complicated reinforcement detailing of critical HPC members under high shear stress. Mechanical properties of HPCs with specified compressive strength of 60 and 100 MPa include the flow, air content, compressive strength, and flexural strength. The effectiveness of 1.50% steel fibre conten...

  16. Effects of Reinforcement Geometry on Strength and Stiffness in Adhesively Bonded Steel-Timber Flexural Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dave Smedley

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A finite element model is developed to analyse, as a function of volume fraction, the effects of reinforcement geometry and arrangement within a timber beam. The model is directly validated against experimental equivalents and found to never be mismatched by more than 8% in respect to yield strength predictions. Yield strength increases linearly as a function of increasing reinforcement volume fraction, while the flexural modulus follows more closely a power law regression fit. Reinforcement geometry and location of reinforcement are found to impact both the flexural properties of timber-steel composite beams and the changes due to an increase in volume fraction.

  17. Areca Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Composites: Effect of Chemical Treatments on Impact Strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Dhanalakshmi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this research work, impact strength of untreated, alkali treated, potassium permanganate treated, benzoyl chloride treated and acrylic acid treated areca fiber reinforced epoxy composites were studied under 40%, 50%, 60% and 70% fiber loadings. Impact strength increased with increase in fiber loading up to 60% and then showed a decline for all untreated and chemically treated areca fiber reinforced epoxy composites. The acrylic acid treated areca fiber reinforced epoxy composites with 60% fiber loading showed highest impact strength of 28.28 J/mm2 amongst all untreated and chemically treated areca/epoxy composites with same 60% fiber loading.

  18. Analysis of the strength and stiffness of timber beams reinforced with carbon fiber and glass fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Fiorelli

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available An experimental analysis of pinewood beams (Pinus caribea var hondurensis reinforced with glass and/or carbon fibers is discussed. The theoretical model employed to calculate the beam's bending strength takes into account the timber's ultimate limit states of tensile strength and failure by compression, considering a model of fragile elastic tension and plastic elastic compression. The validity of the theoretical model is confirmed by a comparison of the theoretical and experimental results, while the efficiency of the fiber reinforcement is corroborated by the increased strength and stiffness of the reinforced timber beams.

  19. FATIGUE STRENGTH OF HIGH-STRENGTH STEEL,

    Science.gov (United States)

    coldhardened by deforming to 83%. It was found that it has low static notch sensitivity (lower than that of heat-treated steels), that static strength ...is raised appreciably by increased cold plastic deformation, and that its fatigue strength is raised substantially by mechanical polishing. (Author)

  20. Strength and Toughness of Steel Fibre Reinforced Reactive Powder Concrete Under Blast Loading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KUZNETSOV Valerian A; REBENTROST Mark; WASCHL John

    2006-01-01

    The blast resistance of structures used in buildings needs to be investigated due to the increased threat of a terrorist attack.The damage done by Composition B or Powergel to steel fibre reinforced reactive powder concrete (SFRPC) panels and ordinary reinforced concrete (RC) panels of equivalent static flexural strength is compared.A 0.5 kg charge was detonated at a distance of 0.1 m from the 1.3 m × 1.0 m × 0.1 m (thick) panels,which were simply supported and spaning 1.3 m.Dynamic displacement measurements,high-speed video recording and visual examination of the panels for spall and breach were undertaken.The SFRPC panels withstood the bare charge blast better than the reinforced ordinary concrete panels.Neither type of panel was breached using a 0.5 kg charge.The RC panel exhibited more spalling when Composition B was used.Under successive Composition B loading conditions,the RC panel was breached.In comparison the SFRPC panel was not breached.Exposure to fragmenting charge loading conditions confirmed these performance differences between the SFRPC panel and the reinforced ordinary concrete panel.

  1. Stress-Strain Relationship of High-Strength Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete in Compression%钢纤维高强混凝土单轴压缩下应力应变关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严少华; 钱七虎; 孙伟; 尹放林

    2001-01-01

    在实际工程中推广应用钢纤维高强混凝土,要了解其基本力学性能.采用MTS815.03型液压伺服刚性压力试验机,对钢纤维含量为0~6%、抗压强度在65~120MPa范围的4种钢纤维高强混凝土,进行单轴压缩荷载作用下的应力应变全过程试验.结合试验给出全曲线的方程,并分析钢纤维对抗压强度、弹性模量、韧度、泊松比等的影响.试验表明,当钢纤维长度大于或接近于最大集料尺寸时,钢纤维高强混凝土具有较高的抗压强度和韧度,是一种优良的新型建筑材料.%It is necessary to research the basic mechanical performance inorder to use high-strength steel fiber reinforced concrete (HSFC) in practical engineering. Tests are conducted to characterize the stress-strain relationship of HSFC in compression by MTS815.03 rock testing machine. The concrete strength investigated ranges from 65 to 120 MPa and the volume fraction of steel fiber ranges from 0 to 6%. Based on the test data, an analytical model is proposed to generate the complete stress-strain curve for HSFC. The elastic modulus and toughness and Poisson’s ration of HSFC are also calculated in this paper. It is also proved by tests that HSFC is a good building material with high strength and high toughness when steel fibers are longer than the size of aggregate in concrete.

  2. Making High-Tensile-Strength Amalgam Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grugel, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Structural components made of amalgams can be made to have tensile strengths much greater than previously known to be possible. Amalgams, perhaps best known for their use in dental fillings, have several useful attributes, including room-temperature fabrication, corrosion resistance, dimensional stability, and high compressive strength. However, the range of applications of amalgams has been limited by their very small tensile strengths. Now, it has been discovered that the tensile strength of an amalgam depends critically on the sizes and shapes of the particles from which it is made and, consequently, the tensile strength can be greatly increased through suitable choice of the particles. Heretofore, the powder particles used to make amalgams have been, variously, in the form of micron-sized spheroids or flakes. The tensile reinforcement contributed by the spheroids and flakes is minimal because fracture paths simply go around these particles. However, if spheroids or flakes are replaced by strands having greater lengths, then tensile reinforcement can be increased significantly. The feasibility of this concept was shown in an experiment in which electrical copper wires, serving as demonstration substitutes for copper powder particles, were triturated with gallium by use of a mortar and pestle and the resulting amalgam was compressed into a mold. The tensile strength of the amalgam specimen was then measured and found to be greater than 10(exp 4) psi (greater than about 69 MPa). Much remains to be done to optimize the properties of amalgams for various applications through suitable choice of starting constituents and modification of the trituration and molding processes. The choice of wire size and composition are expected to be especially important. Perusal of phase diagrams of metal mixtures could give insight that would enable choices of solid and liquid metal constituents. Finally, whereas heretofore, only binary alloys have been considered for amalgams

  3. Feasibility of Using High-Performance Steel Fibre Reinforced Concrete for Simplifying Reinforcement Details of Critical Members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok-Joon Jang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the effects of hooked-end steel fibre contents on the mechanical properties of high-performance concrete (HPC and investigates the feasibility of utilizing steel fibres to simplify the complicated reinforcement detailing of critical HPC members under high shear stress. Mechanical properties of HPCs with specified compressive strength of 60 and 100 MPa include the flow, air content, compressive strength, and flexural strength. The effectiveness of 1.50% steel fibre content on the shear behaviour of diagonally reinforced concrete coupling beam without additional transverse reinforcement was investigated to alleviate complex reinforcing details for the full section confinement of diagonal bar groups. The test results revealed the incorporation of steel fibres significantly affected the mechanical properties of the HPCs. For diagonally reinforced coupling beam (SFRCCB without additional transverse reinforcement, the addition of 1.5% steel fibre content into 60 MPa HPC coupling beam provides similar cracking and structural behaviours compared to those of diagonally reinforced coupling beam (CCB with full section confinement details. However, the ductility of SFRCCB was less than that of CCB. It is recommended that both stirrups and steel fibre should be used for fully confining the diagonal bar groups of coupling beams to achieve the ductile behaviour.

  4. Bond strength durability of a resin composite on a reinforced ceramic using various repair systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozcan, Mutlu; Valandro, Luiz Felipe; Amaral, Regina; Leite, Fabiola; Bottino, Marco Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. This study compared the durability of repair bond strength of a resin composite to a reinforced ceramic after three repair systems. Methods. Alumina-reinforced feldspathic ceramic blocks (Vitadur-alpha(R)) (N=30) were randomly divided into three groups according to the repair method: PR-

  5. Evaluation of Tensile Strength of Unresin Continuous Carbon Fiber Cables as Tensile Reinforcement for Concrete Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Ohta, Toshiaki; Djamaluddin, rudy; Seo, SungTag; Sajima, Takao; Harada, Koji

    2002-01-01

    As a tensile reinforcement of a concrete structure member, tensile strength of Unresin Continuous Carbon Fiber (UCCF) cables should be stated clearly. It has been reported that, through direct tensile test, tensile capacity of UCCF cables ranged from 30%

  6. The ultimate strength of doubler plate reinforced Y-joints under compression loading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENQ Qi; TAN Jia-hua

    2005-01-01

    It is common practice in the offshore industry to solve the punching shear problem due to compression by using doubler plate. The finite-element method is a useful tool for studying this problem. The aim of this paper is to study the static strength of doubler plate reinforced Y-joints subjected to compression loading. The finite-element method is adopted in numerical parametric studies. The individual influences of the geometric parameters βand τd (doubler plate to chord wall thickness ratio) and ld/d1(dubler plate length to brace diameter ratio) on the ultimate strength are made clear. The results show the size of plate may have important effects on the strength of reinforced joints. It is found that the ultimate strength of Y-joints reinforced with appropriately proportioned doubler plates can be greatly improved nearly up tothree times to un-reinforced Y-joints.

  7. Bond Strength Degradation of Corrosive Reinforced Lightweight Concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yueshun; LU Yiyan; LI Houxiang; ZENG Sanhai

    2007-01-01

    The influence of reinforced bar corrosion on the bond degradation in lightweight concrete was studied. Accelerated constant current corrosion tests were performed on lightweight reinforced concrete samples, and the influential factors, such as protective layer thickness, reinforced bar diameter and corrosive level were investigated. The constant current step method was used to measure the electric resistance of the concrete protective cover, which was used to characterize the corrosion level of the rebar. Experimental results indicated that the corrosive resistance increased with increasing the cover dimension and decreasing the reinforced bar diameter, and the rate of decrease in the specimen impedance after cracking depended on the cover dimension. A new medium was offered for the further research on the performance degradation of corrosion lightweight concrete.

  8. Strength Evaluation of Steel-Nylon Hybrid Fibre Reinforced Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Maniram Kumar; Er. Ankush Khadwal

    2014-01-01

    When fibres like steel, glass, polypropylene, nylon, carbon, aramid, polyester, jute, etc are mixed with concrete known as fibre reinforced concrete. To overcome the deficiencies of concrete; fibres are added to improve the performance of concrete. In this research hybrid reinforced concrete is made by using steel and nylon 6 fibres. The inclusion of both steel and nylon 6 fibres are used in order to combine the benefits of both fibers; structural improvements provided by stee...

  9. Micromechanical modeling of strength and damage of fiber reinforced composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishnaevsky, L. Jr.; Broendsted, P.

    2007-03-15

    The report for the first year of the EU UpWind project includes three parts: overview of concepts and methods of modelling of mechanical behavior, deformation and damage of unidirectional fiber reinforced composites, development of computational tools for the automatic generation of 3D micromechanical models of fiber reinforced composites, and micromechanical modelling of damage in FRC, and phenomenological analysis of the effect of frequency of cyclic loading on the lifetime and damage evolution in materials. (au)

  10. TENSILE STRENGTH CHARACTERISTICS OF POLYPROPYLENE COMPOSITES REINFORCED WITH STONE GROUNDWOOD FIBERS FROM SOFTWOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan P. López,

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The behavior of stone groundwood / polypropylene injection-molded composites was evaluated with and without coupling agent. Stone groundwood (SGW is a fibrous material commonly prepared in a high yield process and mainly used for papermaking applications. In this work, the use of SGW fibers was explored as a reinforcing element of polypropylene (PP composites. The surface charge density of the composite components was evaluated, as well as the fiber’s length and diameter inside the composite material. Two mixing extrusion processes were evaluated, and the use of a kinetic mixer, instead of an internal mixer, resulted in longer mean fiber lengths of the reinforcing fibers. On the other hand, the accessibility of surface hydroxyl groups of stone groundwood fibers was improved by treating the fibers with 5% of sodium hydroxide, resulting in a noticeable increase of the tensile strength of the composites, for a similar percentage of coupling agent. A new parameter called Fiber Tensile Strength Factor is defined and used as a baseline for the comparison of the properties of the different composite materials. Finally the competitiveness of stone groundwood / polypropylene / polypropylene-co-maleic anhydride system, which compared favorably to sized glass-fiber / polypropylene GF/PP and glass-fiber / polypropylene / polypropylene-co-maleic anhydride composite formulations, was quantified by means of the fiber tensile strength factor.

  11. Predicting the shear–flexural strength of slender reinforced concrete T and I shaped beams

    OpenAIRE

    Cladera Bohigas, Antoni; Marí Bernat, Antonio Ricardo; Ribas González, Carlos Rodrigo; Bairán García, Jesús Miguel; Oller Ibars, Eva

    2015-01-01

    A mechanical model previously developed by the authors for the prediction of the shear flexural strength of slender reinforced concrete beams with rectangular cross-section with or without stirrups has been extended to beams with T and I cross-sections. The effects of the section shape on each shear transfer action have been identified and incorporated into the corresponding equations. General expressions for strength verification and transverse reinforcement design have been derived. The con...

  12. Evaluation of statistical strength of bamboo fiber and mechanical properties of fiber reinforced green composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹勇; 吴义强

    2008-01-01

    Green composites made from bamboo fibers and biodegradable resins were fabricated with press molding.On the basis of the Weibull distribution and the weakest-link theory,the statistical strength and distribution of bamboo fiber were analyzed,and the tensile strength of green composites was also investigated.The result confirms that the tensile statistical strength of fiber fits well with two-parameter Weibull distribution.In addition,the tensile strength of bamboo fiber reinforced composites is about 330 MPa with the fiber volume fraction of 70%.This value is close to or higher than that of other natural fiber reinforced green composites.

  13. Experimental research on seismic behavior of steel reinforced high strength concrete frame columns%型钢高强混凝土框架柱抗震性能试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑山锁; 张亮; 李磊; 胡义; 胡长明

    2012-01-01

    基于16个型钢高强混凝土(SRHSC)框架柱试件的低周反复加载试验,对其抗震性能进行了研究。试件设计参数为剪跨比、轴压比、混凝土强度、含钢率和配箍率。对不同设计参数试件的受力特点、破坏形态、滞回性能、骨架曲线、耗能能力、位移延性等主要抗震性能指标进行了分析,得到了试件耗能指标、位移延性与诸设计参数之间的关系曲线。试验结果表明:试件荷载-位移滞回曲线饱满,下降段较为平缓,其他各项抗震性能指标较为优异,总体上表现出良好的抗震性能;混凝土强度等级超过C100的SRHSC框架柱的承载力优势明显,但由于高强混凝土的脆性导致其耗能能力及延性较普通型钢混凝土框架柱稍差;试件剪跨比、含钢率以及配箍率的提高能够增强其抗震性能,而混凝土强度、轴压比的提高将降低其抗震性能。%The seismic behavior of steel reinforced high strength concrete (SRHSC) frame columns was investigated by the experiments of 16 frame column specimens subjected to a constant axial load and cyclic lateral loads. The design parameters of specimens included shear span ratio, axial compression ratio, concrete strength, steel ratio and stirrup ratio. The study focused on main seismic performance indexes of specimens which had different design parameters, such as mechanical characteristics, failure mode, hysteretic behavior, energy dissipation and ductility. The influences of design parameters on energy dissipating capacity and ductility were analyzed. The results show that the hysteretic curves of specimens are plump with relatively slow descending branches. Some other seismic performance indexes are good, indicating excellent seismic behavior. The bearing capacity of SRHSC frame columns is excellent, but the ductility and energy dissipation ability are inferior to those of ordinary steel reinforced concrete structures. With the increase of

  14. Reinforcement of chronic patellar tendon repair with high strength polyester sutures%高强度聚酯纤维缝线减张治疗陈旧性髌腱断裂

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈东阳; 蒋青; 徐志宏

    2009-01-01

    Objective To summarize the clinical features of chronic ruptured patellar tendon, and introduce the augmentation technique of repair of chronic ruptured patellar tendon with high strength polyester sutures and postoperative rehabilitation.Methods Six cases of chronic patellar tendon rupture were treated and reinforced with high strength polyester sutures from 2002 to 2007.Patellar tendon ruptures was primary end Ho -end repaired, and reinforced with 4 polyester sutures that were passed through in-traosseous tunnels within the patella and tibial tubercle.The surgery reestablished knee extensor continuity and restored the length of patellar tendon.Augmentation techniques were reliable, and allowed patients to walk and bend the knee, regain adequate quadriceps strength early.Postoperative rehabilitation: on the 1st day after surgery, walking upright and passive flexion of 90° was allowed, and brace protection was unnecessary; 3 weeks later, straight leg raise; 6 weeks later, brisk walking; 12 weeks later, squatting and climbing stairs; 6 months later, sports was allowed, including the jump and kick.Results All patients were followed up from 1 to 5 years.No patient sustained a re-rupture.All patients satisfied with their result.The Lysholm score were 100.Kach knee had restored full range of motion 6 months later, and regained adequate quadriceps strength.Conclusion Augmentation techniques with high strength polyester sutures is reliable and demonstrate good intermediate to long-term results.It can avoid re-operation for removal of the cerclage wire, allow patients to walk and bend the knee, regain adequate quadriceps strength early.%目的 探讨陈旧性髌腱断裂的临床特点,介绍采用高强度聚酯纤维缝线减张治疗陈旧性髌腱断裂的手术方法 和术后康复方法 .方法 2002年1月至2007年2月,收治陈旧性髌腱断裂6例,手术切断超长的瘢痕愈合髌腱组织.恢复长度后重新吻合,并在胫骨结节

  15. Diagonal Cracking and Shear Strength of Reinforced Concrete Beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jin-Ping

    1997-01-01

    found by the usual plastic theory, a physical explanation is given for this phenomenon and a way to estimate the shear capacity of reinforced concrete beams, based on the theory of plasticity, is described. The theoretical calculations are shown to be in fairly good agreement with test results from......The shear failure of non-shear-reinforced concrete beams with normal shear span ratios is observed to be governed in general by the formation of a critical diagonal crack. Under the hypothesis that the cracking of concrete introduces potential yield lines which may be more dangerous than the ones...

  16. The Reinforcement Effect of Nano-Zirconia on the Transverse Strength of Repaired Acrylic Denture Base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Gad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of incorporation of glass fiber, zirconia, and nano-zirconia on the transverse strength of repaired denture base. Materials and Methods. Eighty specimens of heat polymerized acrylic resin were prepared and randomly divided into eight groups (n=10: one intact group (control and seven repaired groups. One group was repaired with autopolymerized resin while the other six groups were repaired using autopolymerized resin reinforced with 2 wt% or 5 wt% glass fiber, zirconia, or nano-zirconia particles. A three-point bending test was used to measure the transverse strength. The results were analyzed using SPSS and repeated measure ANOVA and post hoc least significance (LSD test (P≤0.05. Results. Among repaired groups it was found that autopolymerized resin reinforced with 2 or 5 wt% nano-zirconia showed the highest transverse strength (P≤0.05. Repairs with autopolymerized acrylic resin reinforced with 5 wt% zirconia showed the lowest transverse strength value. There was no significant difference between the groups repaired with repair resin without reinforcement, 2 wt% zirconia, and glass fiber reinforced resin. Conclusion. Reinforcing of repair material with nano-zirconia may significantly improve the transverse strength of some fractured denture base polymers.

  17. The Reinforcement Effect of Nano-Zirconia on the Transverse Strength of Repaired Acrylic Denture Base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gad, Mohammed; ArRejaie, Aws S; Abdel-Halim, Mohamed Saber; Rahoma, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of incorporation of glass fiber, zirconia, and nano-zirconia on the transverse strength of repaired denture base. Materials and Methods. Eighty specimens of heat polymerized acrylic resin were prepared and randomly divided into eight groups (n = 10): one intact group (control) and seven repaired groups. One group was repaired with autopolymerized resin while the other six groups were repaired using autopolymerized resin reinforced with 2 wt% or 5 wt% glass fiber, zirconia, or nano-zirconia particles. A three-point bending test was used to measure the transverse strength. The results were analyzed using SPSS and repeated measure ANOVA and post hoc least significance (LSD) test (P ≤ 0.05). Results. Among repaired groups it was found that autopolymerized resin reinforced with 2 or 5 wt% nano-zirconia showed the highest transverse strength (P ≤ 0.05). Repairs with autopolymerized acrylic resin reinforced with 5 wt% zirconia showed the lowest transverse strength value. There was no significant difference between the groups repaired with repair resin without reinforcement, 2 wt% zirconia, and glass fiber reinforced resin. Conclusion. Reinforcing of repair material with nano-zirconia may significantly improve the transverse strength of some fractured denture base polymers.

  18. Investigation of stress–strain models for confined high strength concrete

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Metin Husem; Selim Pul

    2007-06-01

    The effects of confinement reinforcement on the behaviour of high strength concrete columns are investigated for which prismatic experimental specimens were prepared. In the experiment specimens, four longitude reinforcement and confinement reinforcement were used. For each experiment, stress–strain relationship of concrete was obtained and compared with models proposed earlier. The results show that confinement reinforcement improved the ductility of high strength concrete. The ascending branch of stress–strain curves depended on the ratio of confinement reinforcement was similar to the modified Kent–Park model and the descending branch similar to the Nagashima model.

  19. Shear strength of non-shear reinforced concrete elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoang, Cao linh

    1997-01-01

    model developed by Jin-Ping Zhang. The model takes into account the resistance against formation of cracks due to prestressing as well as the variation of the prestressing force in the transfer zone.Due to the fact that the anchorage of the reinforcement takes place by bond, a rotation failure, which...

  20. Impact strength of denture polymethyl methacrylate reinforced with continuous glass fibers or metal wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallittu, P K; Vojtkova, H; Lassila, V P

    1995-12-01

    The impact strength of heat-cured acrylic resin test specimens that had been reinforced in various ways was compared in this study. Ten rectangular test specimens were fabricated for each test group. The strengtheners included 1.0-mm-diameter steel wire and continuous E-glass fibers. Both notched and unnotched test specimens were tested in a Charpy-type impact test. In a further analysis the concentration of glass fibers in the test specimens was determined and plotted against the impact strength of the test specimens. The results showed that, compared with the unreinforced specimens, both types of reinforcement increased the impact strength of the test specimens considerably (p < 0.001). There was no clear difference between the mean impact strength value of the test specimens reinforced with metal wire and that of the specimens reinforced with glass fiber. The correlation coefficient between the fiber concentration of the test specimens and their impact strength was 0.818 (p < 0.005). Specimens with fiber concentrations greater than 25 wt% yielded to the higher impact strength more readily than those with metal wire reinforcement did.

  1. Shear strength of non-shear reinforced concrete elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoang, Cao linh

    1997-01-01

    The paper deals with the shear strength of prestressed hollow-core slabs determined by the theory of plasticity. Two failure mechanisms are considered in order to derive the solutions.In the case of sliding failure in a diagonal crack, the shear strength is determined by means of the crack sliding...

  2. Strength and conductivity of unidirectional copper composites reinforced by continuous SiC fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmig, S.; Allen, I.; You, J. H.

    2013-09-01

    A SiC long fiber-reinforced copper composite offers a beneficial combination of high strength and high thermal conductivity at elevated temperatures. Both properties make the composite a promising material for the heat sink of high-heat-flux components. In this work, we developed a novel Cu/SiCf composite using the Sigma fiber. Based on HIP technique, a metallurgical process was established for fabricating high quality specimens using a TiC interface coating. Extensive tensile tests were conducted on the unidirectionally reinforced composite at 20 °C and 300 °C for a wide range of fiber volume fraction (Vf). In this paper, a large amount of test data is presented. The transversal thermal conductivity varies from 260 to 130 W/mK at 500 °C as Vf is increased from 13% to 37%. The tensile strength reached up to 1246 MPa at 20 °C for Vf = 37.6%, where the fracture strain was limited to 0.8%. The data of both elastic modulus and ultimate strength exhibited a good agreement with the rule-of-mixture predictions indicating a high quality of the materials. The strength of the composite with the Sigma fibers turned out to be superior to those of the SCS6 fibers at 300 °C, although the SCS6 fiber actually has a higher strength than the Sigma fiber. The fractographic pictures of tension test and fiber push-out test manifested a sufficient interfacial bonding. Unidirectional copper composite reinforced by long SiC fibers was fabricated using the Sigma SM1140+ fiber for a wide range of fiber volume fraction from 14% to 40%. Extensive tensile tests were carried out at RT and 300 °C. The data of ultimate strength as well as elastic modulus exhibited a good agreement with the rule-of-mixture predictions indicating a high quality of the materials. In terms of the tensile strength, the Cu/Sigma composite turned out to be superior to the previous Cu/SCS6 composite at 300 °C, while comparable at RT, although the SCS6 fiber has a higher strength than the Sigma fiber. Such a

  3. Assessment of concrete damage and strength degradation caused by reinforcement corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepal, Jaya; Chen, Hua-Peng

    2015-07-01

    Structural performance deterioration of reinforced concrete structures has been extensively investigated, but very limited studies have been carried out to investigate the effect of reinforcement corrosion on time-dependent reliability with consideration of the influence of mechanical characteristics of the bond interface due to corrosion. This paper deals with how corrosion in reinforcement creates different types of defects in concrete structure and how they are responsible for the structural capacity deterioration of corrosion affected reinforced concrete structures during their service life. Cracking in cover concrete due to reinforcement corrosion is investigated by using rebar-concrete model and realistic concrete properties. The flexural strength deterioration is analytically predicted on the basis of bond strength evolution due to reinforcement corrosion, which is examined by the experimental data available. The time-dependent reliability analysis is undertaken to calculate the life time structural reliability of corrosion damaged concrete structures by stochastic deterioration modelling of reinforced concrete. The results from the numerical example show that the proposed approach is capable of evaluating the damage caused by reinforcement corrosion and also predicting the structural reliability of concrete structures during their lifecycle.

  4. Bending strength and fracture surface topography of natural fiber-reinforced shell for investment casting process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Lu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the properties of silica sol shell for investment casting process, various contents of cattail fibers were added into the slurry to prepare a fiber-reinforced shell in the present study. The bending strength of fiber-reinforced shell was investigated and the fracture surfaces of shell specimens were observed using SEM. It is found that the bending strength increases with the increase of fiber content, and the bending strength of a green shell with 1.0 wt.% fiber addition increases by 44% compared to the fiber-free shell. The failure of specimens of the fiber-reinforced green shell results from fiber rupture and debonding between the interface of fibers and adhesive under the bending load. The micro-crack propagation in the matrix is inhibited by the micro-holes for ablation of fibers in specimens of the fiber-reinforced shell during the stage of being fired. As a result, the bending strength of specimens of the fired shell had no significant drop. Particularly, the bending strength of specimens of the fired shell reinforced with 0.6wt.% fiber reached the maximum value of 4.6 MPa.

  5. A Study of Strength Transfer from tow to Textile Composite Using Different Reinforcement Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristian, Irina; Nauman, Saad; Boussu, Francois; Koncar, Vladan

    2012-06-01

    The paper proposes an experimental and analytical approach of designing composites with the predetermined ultimate strength, reinforced with warp interlock fabrics. In order to better understand the phenomena of transfer of tensile properties from a tow to the composite, intermediate phases of composite manufacturing have also been taken into account and tensile properties of tows taken from the loom and the woven reinforcements have also been tested. Process of transfer of mechanical properties of raw materials to the final product (composite) depends on various structural factors. Here the influence of weave structure, which ultimately influences crimp has been studied. A strength transfer coefficient has been proposed which helps in estimating the influence of architectural parameters on 3D woven composites. 3 woven interlock reinforcements were woven to form composites. The coefficients of strength transfer were calculated for these three variants. The structural parameters were kept the same for these three reinforcements except for the weave structure. In was found that the phenomenon of strength transfer from tow to composite is negatively influenced by the crimp. In general the strength transfer coefficients have higher values for dry reinforcements and afterwards due to resin impregnation the values drop.

  6. Aligned Carbon Nanotube Reinforcement of Aerospace Carbon Fiber Composites: Substructural Strength Evaluation for Aerostructure Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Guzman de Villoria, Roberto; Ydrefors, L.; Hallander, P.; Ishiguro, Kyoko; Nordin, P.; Wardle, Brian L.

    2012-01-01

    Vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) are placed between all plies in an aerospace carbon fiber reinforced plastic laminate (unidirectional plies, [(0/90/±45)2]s) to reinforce the interlaminar region in the z-direction. Significant improvement in Mode I and II interlaminar toughness have been observed previously. In this work, several substructural in-plane strength tests relevant to aerostructures were undertaken: bolt/tension-bearing, open hole compression, and L-shape laminate be...

  7. strength and ductility of forged 1200 aluminum alloy reinforced with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Results show that forged composites with 106μm had a tensile strength .... W. Ag. Sn. Co. % Composition 0.243 0.004 0.005 0.08 0.01. Element. Ni. Cr. Mo. % Composition .... parameters on the porosity content in Al(Mg)-Al2O3 cast particulate ...

  8. A calculation method of cracking moment for the high strength concrete beams under pure torsion

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Metin Husem; Ertekin Oztekin; Selim Pul

    2011-02-01

    In this study, a method is given to calculate cracking moments of high strength reinforced concrete beams under the effect of pure torsion. To determine the method, both elastic and plastic theories were used. In this method, dimensions of beam cross-section were considered besides stirrup and longitudinal reinforcements. Two plain high strength concrete (without reinforcement) and eight high strength reinforced concrete beams which have two different cross-sections (150 × 250 mm and 150 × 300 mm) were produced to examine the validity of the proposed method. The predictions of the proposed approach for the calculation of the cracking moment of beams under pure torsion were compared with the experimental and the analytical results of previous studies. From these comparisons it is concluded that the predictions of the proposed equations for the cracking moment of plain and reinforced high strength concrete beams under pure torsion are closer to the experimental data compared to the analytical results of previous theories.

  9. A Unified Model for the Prediction of Yield Strength in Particulate-Reinforced Metal Matrix Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A. Mirza

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Lightweighting in the transportation industry is today recognized as one of the most important strategies to improve fuel efficiency and reduce anthropogenic climate-changing, environment-damaging, and human death-causing emissions. However, the structural applications of lightweight alloys are often limited by some inherent deficiencies such as low stiffness, high wear rate and inferior strength. These properties could be effectively enhanced by the addition of stronger and stiffer reinforcements, especially nano-sized particles, into metal matrix to form composites. In most cases three common strengthening mechanisms (load-bearing effect, mismatch of coefficients of thermal expansion, and Orowan strengthening have been considered to predict the yield strength of metal matrix nanocomposites (MMNCs. This study was aimed at developing a unified model by taking into account the matrix grain size and porosity (which is unavoidable in the materials processing such as casting and powder metallurgy in the prediction of the yield strength of MMNCs. The Zener pinning effect of grain boundaries by the nano-sized particles has also been integrated. The model was validated using the experimental data of magnesium- and titanium-based nanocomposites containing different types of nano-sized particles (namely, Al2O3, Y2O3, and carbon nanotubes. The predicted results were observed to be in good agreement with the experimental data reported in the literature.

  10. Experimental determination of optimum dielectric strength of Turmeric fiber reinforced polyester composites using flexural properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Murali Mohan Rao

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation puts forward new natural fiber turmeric to be used in the preparation of turmeric fiber reinforced polyester (FRP composites. The dielectric strength of the composites shown decrease in trend with increase in volume fraction of fiber with appreciable reduction in their weight. There was clear fall in the density of the composites with increase in fiber volume fraction. The optimum value of dielectric strength was determined with flexural strength, flexural modulus and specific flexural strength, specific flexural modulus against percentage volume fraction of fiber from the graphs.

  11. A STUDY OF RESIDUAL STRENGTH OF SISAL TEXTILE REINFORCED VINYL ESTER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yan

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the residual strength of sisal textile reinforced vinyl ester resin is studied using specimens with a central hole. Two kinds of chemicals, silane and permanganate, are used to treat sisal fibre surfaces. The effects of fibre surface treatments on the residual strength of sisal fibre reinforced composites with different central hole sizes are analysed. Optical microscopy (OM) surveys provide sound evidence for the relationship between residual strength properties and fracture morphologies of sisal textile reinforced vinyl ester.Several theoretical models used to predict the residual strength of laminated composites are briefly reviewed. Point stress criterion (PSC) and average stress criterion (ASC) models are used to analyze the mechanical properties of sisal textile reinforced polymers with a central hole in this research. Material constant, characteristic length (do or lc), is obtained and used to analyze the mechanical behavior of the composites. The residual strength of the composites predicted by PSC and ASC models is in good agreement with the experimental results..

  12. Homogenization in strength and durability analysis of reinforced tooth filling

    OpenAIRE

    Mikhailov, SE; Orlik, J

    2002-01-01

    An asymptotic homogenization procedure is employed to obtain effective elastic properties of the composite tooth filling, a homogenized macro– stress field and a first approximation to the micro-stress field, from properties of the components and applied macro–loads. Using the approximate micro–stress field, a non–local initial strength and fatigue durability macro–conditions for the composite filling material is expressed in terms of the homogenized macro–stresses. An illustrative example wi...

  13. Influence of Characteristics on Bending Strength of Layered Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Shao-bin; SONG Ming-hai; HUANG Jun

    2005-01-01

    The influence of two main characteristics of steel fiber, the aspect ratio (Df) and volume fraction (pf), on the bending strength of Layered Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete (LSFRC) is investigated by using orthogonal test. Via the variance analysis on the experimental results and trend analysis on the two characteristics, Df is found significantly related to the bending strength of LSFRC. The influence ratio is 63.3%. The bending strength of LSFRC increases if Df increases, makes better when Df reaches 100. ρf has ordinary influence on the bending strength of LSFRC. The influence ratio is 29.2%. Other characteristics, such as the shape of steel fiber and the mix proportion, have less influence. The best ρf contributing to the bending strength of LSFRC is 1.5 %. If pf is greater than 1.5 %, it has negative influence on the bending strength of LSFRC. So, pf makes a limited contribution to the bending strength of LSFRC.

  14. Bearing Capacity of High Density Polyethylene (HDPE Reinforced Sand Using Plate Load Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Er. Aly K

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The work presented here is a study to examine the improvement in bearing capacity of coastal sand of Trivandrum, Kerala, India using high density polyethylene (HDPE /woven fabric as reinforcement in discrete layers. The bearing capacity was evaluated using plate load test. The effect of reinforcement configurations like sheet reinforcement (sanded with adhesive, with adhesive and sheet alone and strip reinforcement (single and grid pattern are investigated. The test parameters chosen for the present study are, depth of topmost layer of reinforcement layer below footing, compacted density and number of layers of reinforcement etc. From the tests, it has been observed that sheet reinforcement is more effective than sheet sanded with adhesive and strip reinforcements. It is found that the synthetic adhesive gives no binding action at the interface of the reinforcement and soil. But it is to be noted that the sheet with adhesive dried has a marked influence on the bearing capacity especially at lower densities. The strip reinforcements in single pattern is considered to be a favorable choice for minimum reinforcement. The strip reinforcement in single or grid pattern gives sufficient improvement in strength.

  15. Flexural Strength of Functionally Graded Nanotube Reinforced Sandwich Spherical Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahapatra, Trupti R.; Mehar, Kulmani; Panda, Subrata K.; Dewangan, S.; Dash, Sushmita

    2017-02-01

    The flexural behaviour of the functionally graded sandwich spherical panel under uniform thermal environment has been investigated in the present work. The face sheets of the sandwich structure are made by the functionally graded carbon nanotube reinforced material and the core face is made by the isotropic and homogeneous material. The material properties of both the fiber and matrix are assumed to be temperature dependent. The sandwich panel model is developed in the framework of the first order shear deformation theory and the governing equation of motion is derived using the variational principle. For the discretization purpose a suitable shell element has been employed from the ANSYS library and the responses are computed using a parametric design language (APDL) coding. The performance and accuracy of the developed model has been established through the convergence and validation by comparing the obtained results with previously published results. Finally, the influence of different geometrical parameters and material properties on the flexural behaviour of the sandwich spherical panel in thermal environment has been investigated through various numerical illustrations and discussed in details.

  16. Strength and toughness of structural fibres for composite material reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herráez, M; Fernández, A; Lopes, C S; González, C

    2016-07-13

    The characterization of the strength and fracture toughness of three common structural fibres, E-glass, AS4 carbon and Kevlar KM2, is presented in this work. The notched specimens were prepared by means of selective carving of individual fibres by means of the focused ion beam. A straight-fronted edge notch was introduced in a plane perpendicular to the fibre axis, with the relative notch depth being a0/D≈0.1 and the notch radius at the tip approximately 50 nm. The selection of the appropriate beam current during milling operations was performed to avoid to as much as possible any microstructural changes owing to ion impingement. Both notched and un-notched fibres were submitted to uniaxial tensile tests up to failure. The strength of the un-notched fibres was characterized in terms of the Weibull statistics, whereas the residual strength of the notched fibres was used to determine their apparent toughness. To this end, the stress intensity factor of a fronted edge crack was computed by means of the finite-element method for different crack lengths. The experimental results agreed with those reported in the literature for polyacrylonitrile-based carbon fibres obtained by using similar techniques. After mechanical testing, the fracture surface of the fibres was analysed to ascertain the failure mechanisms. It was found that AS4 carbon and E-glass fibres presented the lower toughness with fracture surfaces perpendicular to the fibre axis, emanating from the notch tip. The fractured region of Kevlar KM2 fibres extended along the fibre and showed large permanent deformation, which explains their higher degree of toughness when compared with carbon and glass fibres. This article is part of the themed issue 'Multiscale modelling of the structural integrity of composite materials'.

  17. Reinforcement of Aluminum Oxide Filler on the Flexural Strength of Different Types of Denture Base Resins: An In vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhole, Rohit I; Srivatsa, G; Shetty, Rohit; Huddar, Dayanand; Sankeshwari, Banashree; Chopade, Swapnil

    2017-04-01

    Acrylic resins have been used extensively for the fabrication of denture bases because of their aesthetic qualities, ease of manipulation and repairability. Flexural fatigue of the denture base has been shown to be a factor in the clinical failure of polymethyl methacrylate resin dentures. Also, the fracture can result from impact, fatigue or degradation of the base material. Hence, there is a need to increase the strength of denture base resins. To evaluate the effect of reinforcing alumina oxide filler on the flexural strength of different acrylic resins. A total of 180 acrylic specimens were fabricated, which were divided into three groups self cure acrylic resin (SC), conventional heat cure resin (HC) and high strength heat cure resin (HI). Each group was divided into four subgroups i.e., control group and the specimens of the remaining three groups were reinforced with aluminum oxide (Al2O3) powder by 5%, 10% and 15% by weight. Specimens were stored in distilled water for one week; flexural strength was tested by universal testing machine. Results were analysed by one-way analysis of variance and post-hoc Tukey paired group comparison tests. Flexural strength of SC increased by 9%, 13% and 19%, Flexural strength of HC increased by 8%, 15% and 19% and that of HI increased by 21%, 26% and 29% compared to control group by adding 5%,10% and 15% of alumina filler (p-value lead to more clinical success.

  18. Stiffness and Strength of Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composite Bridge Deck Systems

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    This research investigates two principal characteristics that are of primary importance in Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) bridge deck applications: STIFFNESS and STRENGTH. The research was undertaken by investigating the stiffness and strength characteristics of the multi-cellular FRP bridge deck systems consisting of pultruded FRP shapes. A systematic analysis procedure was developed for the stiffness analysis of multi-cellular FRP deck systems. This procedure uses the Method of Elasti...

  19. Experimental study of deformations of reinforced cushion by high-strength woven geotextile in closing levee%圈围工程中高强有纺土工布加筋垫层变形试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹国福; 徐兵; 王茂胜; 姚顺雨; 刘丽; 刘益锋

    2014-01-01

    应用大刚度、长标距、大量程的 SDW-100型位移传感器,采用500 kN/m 高强有纺土工布进行室内试验和现场试验,研究高强土工布加筋垫层的变形情况。室内拉伸试验成果表明,位移传感器在每级加荷情形下的变形量与试验机上显示变形量具有较好的一致性,说明该类型传感器用于现场加筋高强土工布的变形测试是适用的,并因此得到高强有纺土工布的变形模量为8314.4 kN/m。现场试验表明,(1)大堤底部的土工布位移曲线基本表现为盆形,中轴线下的土工布位移量最大;(2)大堤下部土工布的位移量大小与外棱体的位移方向明显相关;(3)现场试验中高强土工布的最大实测变形率为11.9%,按室内试验得到的变形模量计算出该计算高强有纺土工布的应力值为837.40 kN/m,表明按照现场实际加荷速率设计的高强有纺土工布强度值偏小;(4)施工间歇期高强土工布的应力会出现重分布现象,具体表现为大堤轴线下变形量明显减小,现场实测成果与 Plaxis 有限元计算成果规律性吻合情况较好,试验成果符合一般规律;(5)土工布的变形率与围堤上部现场施工加荷的速率关系很大,现场施工时设计单位应当提出一个加荷速率控制值;(6)当高强有纺土工布的强度一定时,土工布的伸长率相对较大有利于快速加荷施工。%By using the data acquired from laboratory and field monitoring program, this study assessed the displacements of high-strength geotextile used as basal reinforcement of a closing levee. The displacements of the geotextile were monitored by high stiffness, large gauge length and measuring range SDW-100 displacement transducers with 500 kN/m high-strength woven geotextile .The transducers were first calibrated in a multi-function test machine. The tensile test of the geotextile yielded a tensile stiffness of 8314.4 kN/m. The field

  20. Analytical Modeling for Mechanical Strength Prediction with Raman Spectroscopy and Fractured Surface Morphology of Novel Coconut Shell Powder Reinforced: Epoxy Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Savita; Singh, Alok; Sharma, Sudhir Kumar

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, an analytical modeling and prediction of tensile and flexural strength of three dimensional micro-scaled novel coconut shell powder (CSP) reinforced epoxy polymer composites have been reported. The novel CSP has a specific mixing ratio of different coconut shell particle size. A comparison is made between obtained experimental strength and modified Guth model. The result shows a strong evidence for non-validation of modified Guth model for strength prediction. Consequently, a constitutive modeled equation named Singh model has been developed to predict the tensile and flexural strength of this novel CSP reinforced epoxy composite. Moreover, high resolution Raman spectrum shows that 40 % CSP reinforced epoxy composite has high dielectric constant to become an alternative material for capacitance whereas fractured surface morphology revealed that a strong bonding between novel CSP and epoxy polymer for the application as light weight composite materials in engineering.

  1. Topology optimization of reinforced concrete structures considering control of shrinkage and strength failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Yangjun; Wang, Michael Yu; Zhou, Mingdong

    2015-01-01

    with the adjoint-variable sensitivity information, the enhanced aggregation method is utilized to efficiently reduce the computational effort arisen from large-scale strength constraints. Numerical results reveal that the proposed approach can produce a reasonable solution with the least steel reinforcements...

  2. Repair bond strength of a resin composite to alumina-reinforced feldspathic ceramic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goia, Tamiye Simone; Pereira Leite, Fabiola Pessoa; Valandro, Luiz Felipe; Oezcan, Mutlu; Bottino, Marco Antonio

    2006-01-01

    This study compared the microtensile bond strength of a repair resin to an alumina-reinforced feldspathic ceramic (Vitadur-alpha, Vita) after 3 surface conditioning methods: Group 1, etching with 9.6% hydrofluoric acid for 1 minute plus rinsing and drying, followed by application of silane for 5 min

  3. Mechanical strength of ceramic scaffolds reinforced with biopolymers is comparable to that of human bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, S S; Ding, M; Vinther Juhl, M

    2011-01-01

    Eight groups of calcium-phosphate scaffolds for bone implantation were prepared of which seven were reinforced with biopolymers, poly lactic acid (PLA) or hyaluronic acid in different concentrations in order to increase the mechanical strength, without significantly impairing the microarchitectur...

  4. Hardening in Two-Phase Materials. I. Strength Contributions in Fibre-Reinforced Copper-Tungsten

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lilholt, Hans

    1977-01-01

    Cyclic tests (Bauschinger tests) were conducted at 77 K and at room temperature on the fibre-reinforced material of single crystal Cu with long W-fibres of diameter 20 mum and volume fractions up to 4%. These tests enabled two important contributions to the total strength of the unrelaxed materia...

  5. Study on determining of reinforced concrete false roof strength and design of reinforcement based on reliability theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan Wenlu; Li Xibing; Hu Guohong

    2012-01-01

    Study on efficient mining of the steep incline and fractured ore-bodies in Yongshaba mine of Guizhou Kailin Group shows that ore-body is fractured and difficult to support the roadways in-vein. After research of the actual conditions about the ore-bodies, we have made the initial decision to adopt reconstruction of roof downward sublevel cut-andfill mining. The men work safely under the false roof supporting the top plate. However, the difficult problem is how to determine the strength of the false roof. In this case, the method based on reliability theory has been put forward. Combined with elastic mechanics and field practice, when practical value of reliable probability is 90 % , the value of the false roof strength has been calculated, and the study shows that stope span greatly influences the false roof strength. With the strength of artificial roof, the reasonable reinforcement design ensures the false roof which can supply the demand of strength under large span and load.

  6. 冲击荷载作用下高强钢筋混凝土梁性能试验%Experimental Study on the Behavior of High Strength Reinforced Concrete Beams Under Impact Load

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    窦国钦; 杜修力; 李亮

    2014-01-01

    To explore the shear-resistant behavior of RC beams under impact load,six simply-supported high strength RC beam with various shear reinforcement ratios,were tested under free-falling drop-weights,impacting the speci-mens at mid-span,and the effects of impact mass and impact energy on the shear resistant behavior of RC beams were investigated. The crack initiation,propagation and the failure patterns of the specimens were recorded using a high-speed video camera. The characteristics of time history of impact force,support pressure and mid-span dis-placement were described in details. The results obtained are as follows:Experimental studies reveal that shear mechanisms play an important role in the overall impact behavior of RC structures. Severe diagonal shear cracks occur even with statically flexural-critical RC beams tested under impact loads applied at the mid-span. Increase of concrete strength has less effect on the degree of overall failure,but it can reduce the specimen local failure near the impact loading point;This article summarizes the result of independent impact load experiment on the RC beam. It draws out the index that significantly influences between the maximum mid-span displacement and the static ultimate bending strength. It contributes to the impact resistance design method for simply-supported RC beam performance verification;During the initial stage before the external force reached the supports,the impact forces acting on the RC beam were mainly resisted by the inertia force of the specimens. The stiffness of a structure and the span length of a beam are important factors in resisting impact forces.%为深入探讨冲击荷载作用下高强钢筋混凝土(RC)配筋梁的抗冲击性能,利用落锤试验机对6根简支RC梁进行了试验研究,分析了不同冲击锤质量和冲击能量下高强钢筋混凝土梁的抗冲击行为。采用高速摄像机记录了各试件在冲击过程中裂缝发生的过程,记录并分析了

  7. Comparison of impact strength of acrylic resin reinforced with kevlar and polyethylene fibres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamath, G; Bhargava, K

    2002-01-01

    The present study was done to evaluate the impact strengths of heat-activated acrylic resins reinforced with Kevlar fibres, polyethylene fibres and unreinforced heat activated acrylic resin. Each of three groups had 25 specimens. Brass rods of uniform length of 40 mm and diameter of 8 mm were used to prepare the moulds. A combination of long fibres (40 mm length) and short fibres (6 mm length) were used. The total amount of fibres incorporated was limited to 2% by weight of the resin matrix. Short and long fibres of equal weight were incorporated. The short fibres were mixed with polymer and monomer and packed into the mould, while, the long axis of the specimen, perpendicular to the applied force. The specimens were then processed. Impact strength testing was done on Hounsfield's impact testing machine. Kevlar fibre reinforced heat activated acrylic resin specimens recorded higher mean impact strength of 0.8464 Joules, while polyethylene fibres reinforced heat activated acrylic resin recorded mean impact strength of 0.7596 joules. The unreinforced heat activated acrylic resin recorded mean impact strength of 0.3440 Joules.

  8. High strength, tough alloy steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Gareth; Rao, Bangaru V. N.

    1979-01-01

    A high strength, tough alloy steel is formed by heating the steel to a temperature in the austenite range (1000.degree.-1100.degree. C.) to form a homogeneous austenite phase and then cooling the steel to form a microstructure of uniformly dispersed dislocated martensite separated by continuous thin boundary films of stabilized retained austenite. The steel includes 0.2-0.35 weight % carbon, at least 1% and preferably 3-4.5% chromium, and at least one other substitutional alloying element, preferably manganese or nickel. The austenite film is stable to subsequent heat treatment as by tempering (below 300.degree. C.) and reforms to a stable film after austenite grain refinement.

  9. Evaluation of tensile strength of hybrid fiber (jute/gongura) reinforced hybrid polymer matrix composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatachalam, G.; Gautham Shankar, A.; Vijay, Kumar V.; Chandan, Byral R.; Prabaharan, G. P.; Raghav, Dasarath

    2015-07-01

    The polymer matrix composites attract many industrial applications due to its light weight, less cost and easy for manufacturing. In this paper, an attempt is made to prepare and study of the tensile strength of hybrid (two natural) fibers reinforced hybrid (Natural + Synthetic) polymer matrix composites. The samples were prepared with hybrid reinforcement consists of two different fibers such as jute and Gongura and hybrid polymer consists of polyester and cashew nut shell resins. The hybrid composites tensile strength is evaluated to study the influence of various fiber parameters on mechanical strength. The parameters considered here are the duration of fiber treatment, the concentration of alkali in fiber treatment and nature of fiber content in the composites.

  10. Monotonic and Cyclic Bond Behavior of Deformed CFRP Bars in High Strength Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Composite reinforcing bars (rebars) that are used in concrete members with high performance (strength and durability) properties could have beneficial effects on the behavior of these members. This is especially vital when a building is constructed in an aggressive environment, for instance a corrosive environment. Although tension capacity/weight (or volume) ratios in composite rebars (carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP), glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP), etc.) are very high when com...

  11. High-temperature mechanical properties of aluminium alloys reinforced with boron carbide particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onoro, J. [Dept. Ingenieria y Ciencia de los Materiales, ETSI Industriales, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, c/Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: javier.onoro@upm.es; Salvador, M.D. [Dept. Ingenieria Mecanica y de Materiales, ETSI Industriales, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46071 Valencia (Spain); Cambronero, L.E.G. [Dept. Ingenieria de Materiales, ETSI Minas, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, c/Rios Rosas 21, 28003 Madrid (Spain)

    2009-01-15

    The mechanical properties of particulate-reinforced metal-matrix composites based on aluminium alloys (6061 and 7015) at high temperatures were studied. Boron carbide particles were used as reinforcement. All composites were produced by hot extrusion. The tensile properties and fracture analysis of these materials were investigated at room temperature and at high temperature to determine their ultimate strength and strain to failure. The fracture surface was analysed by scanning electron microscopy.

  12. Bond strength investigations and structural applicability of composite fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) rebars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachlakev, Damian Ivanov

    The composite FRP rebars research at Oregon State University was initiated in 1993 principally to develop a non-metallic hollow reinforcement. It was recognized that the tensile properties of such reinforcement are unquestionably superior to steel, but its performance in concrete could be problematic. The bond between FRP rebars and concrete was identified as a critical area of concern. The purpose of this study is (i) to analyze a variety of FRP and steel reinforcing units; (ii) to advance the knowledge of bond mechanism, failure modes, and parameters influencing the bond strength; (iii) to compare composite rebars to conventional steel and to assess their applicability as reinforcing members. Commercially available FRP rebars were investigated. Particular emphasis was given to a hollow glass FRP rod designed at Oregon State University. Several parameters were investigated, including: failure mode, concrete compressive strength, rebar diameter and circumference/cross section ratio, embedment length, concrete cover, and microstructure of the composite rebars. It was recognized that the ASTM C234-90 pull-out standard is test of concrete strength. Therefore, a modified pull-out test was developed for evaluating the bond strength behavior. A newly developed European bond test procedure was compared with locally modified version of the pull-out method. The new procedure was used for the first time in the United States. The study demonstrated a phenomenon, not reported in the published research at this time, defined as a size effect. The size effects result in lower bond strength with increasing area of the interface between FRP bars and concrete. The next phase of the research was dedicated to the hollow glass FRP rebar. The goal was to compare its bond properties to conventional steel and solid FRP bars. The study led to two new phenomena not described in the literature previously. Results showed that the concrete compressive strength does not significantly affect the

  13. STRENGTH OF NANOMODIFIED HIGH-STRENGTH LIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NOZEMTСEV Alexandr Sergeevich

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of research aimed at development of nanomodified high-strength lightweight concrete for construction. The developed concretes are of low average density and high ultimate compressive strength. It is shown that to produce this type of concrete one need to use hollow glass and aluminosilicate microspheres. To increase the durability of adhesion between cement stone and fine filler the authors offer to use complex nanodimensinal modifier based on iron hydroxide sol and silica sol as a surface nanomodifier for hollow microspheres. It is hypothesized that the proposed modifier has complex effect on the activity of the cement hydration and, at the same time increases bond strength between filler and cement-mineral matrix. The compositions for energy-efficient nanomodified high-strength lightweight concrete which density is 1300…1500 kg/m³ and compressive strength is 40…65 MPa have been developed. The approaches to the design of high-strength lightweight concrete with density of less than 2000 kg/m³ are formulated. It is noted that the proposed concretes possess dense homogeneous structure and moderate mobility. Thus, they allow processing by vibration during production. The economic and practical implications for realization of high-strength lightweight concrete in industrial production have been justified.

  14. Effect of Sea Water and Natural Ageing on Residual Strength of Epoxy Laminates, Reinforced with Glass and Carbon Woven Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Komorek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of the effect of sea water, natural ageing, and cross-impact loading on flexural strength and residual flexural strength of epoxy laminates with glass woven fabrics and hybrid reinforcement with glass and carbon woven fabrics. The tests were conducted on samples with different fibre reinforcement both before and after low energy cross-impact loading. Carbon fabrics decreased residual strength of the composites.

  15. Strength and behavior in shear of reinforced concrete deep beams under dynamic loading conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adhikary, Satadru Das [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 639798 (Singapore); Li, Bing, E-mail: cbli@ntu.edu.sg [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 639798 (Singapore); Fujikake, Kazunori [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, National Defense Academy, Yokosuka 239 8686 (Japan)

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: ► Effects of wider range of loading rates on dynamic shear behavior of RC deep beams. ► Experimental investigation of RC deep beam with and without shear reinforcements. ► Verification of experimental results with truss model and FE simulation results. ► Empirical equations are proposed to predict the dynamic increase factor of maximum resistance. -- Abstract: Research on reinforced concrete (RC) deep beams has seen considerable headway over the past three decades; however, information on the dynamic shear strength and behavior of RC deep beams under varying rates of loads remains limited. This paper describes the experimental results of 24 RC deep beams with and without shear reinforcements under varying rates of concentrated loading. Results obtained serve as useful data on shear resistance, failure patterns and strain rates corresponding to varying loading rates. An analytical truss model approach proves its efficacy in predicting the dynamic shear resistance under varying loading rates. Furthermore, three-dimensional nonlinear finite element (FE) model is described and the simulation results are verified with the experimental results. A parametric study is then conducted to investigate the influence of longitudinal reinforcement ratio, transverse reinforcement ratio and shear span to effective depth ratio on shear behavior. Subsequently, two empirical equations were proposed by integrating the various parameters to assess the dynamic increase factor (DIF) of maximum resistance under varying rates of concentrated loading.

  16. Interfacial Shear Strength Measurements of SiC Fiber-Reinforced Titanium Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanhua LI; Nanlin SHI; Dezhi ZHANG; Rui YANG

    2005-01-01

    A continuous loading push-out test technique was used to measure the interfacial shear strength of SiC fiber reinforced Ti matrix composites. The interracial shear strength of samples as-fabricated and after heat exposed at 700 and 800℃ for 50 h was successfully determined. It has been found that the interfacial shear strength of the specimen exposed at 700℃ was higher than that of as-prepared and exposed samples at 800℃. The shear strength of the as-prepared samples was about 112.45 MPa, and increased to about 153.77 MPa after heat-treating at 700℃ for 50 h, but decreased to 133.11 MPa after treating at 800℃ for 50 h. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to investigate the interfacial morphology of the samples. The brittle phase was the main products of interface for samples exposed at 800℃, and the interface was easily peeled off.

  17. Hybrid filler composition optimization for tensile strength of jute fibre-reinforced polymer composite

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ANURAG GUPTA; HARI SINGH; R SWALIA

    2016-09-01

    In present research work, pultrusion process is used to develop jute fibre-reinforced polyester (GFRP) composite and experiments have been performed on an indigenously developed pultrusion experimental setup. The developed composite consists of natural jute fibre as reinforcement and unsaturated polyester resin as matrix with hybrid filler containing bagasse fibre, carbon black and calcium carbonate (CaCO$_3$). The effect of weight content of bagasse fibre, carbon black and calcium carbonate on tensile strength of pultruded GFRP composite is evaluated and the optimum hybrid filler composition for maximizing the tensile strength is determined. Different compositions of hybrid filler are prepared by mixing three fillers using Taguchi L$_9$ orthogonal array. Fifteen percent of hybrid filler of different composition by weight was mixed in the unsaturated polyester resin matrix. Taguchi L$_9$ orthogonal array (OA) has been used to plan the experiments and ANOVA is used for analysing tensile strength. A regression model has also been proposed to evaluate the tensile strength of the composite within 7% error by varying the abovefillers weight. A confirmation experiment was performed which gives 73.14 MPa tensile strength of pultruded jute fibre polymer composite at the optimum composition of hybrid filler.

  18. Experimental Study on Elastic-Plastic Behavior of SRC Columns with High Strength Steel

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    The demand to use high strength and high performance material because of large span and high rise of building in recent years. As to use of high-strength steel in composite steel and reinforced concrete structures, it remains to be clarified whether the ductile behavior can be ensured, especially when the high-strength steel is used in combination with High-strength concrete. This paper describes the test results on the elasto-plastic behavior of SRC column using high strength steel, and disc...

  19. Energy absorption at high strain rate of glass fiber reinforced mortars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenu Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the dynamic behaviour of cement mortars reinforced with glass fibers was studied. The influence of the addition of glass fibers on energy absorption and tensile strength at high strain-rate was investigated. Static tests in compression, in tension and in bending were first performed. Dynamic tests by means of a Modified Hopkinson Bar were then carried out in order to investigate how glass fibers affected energy absorption and tensile strength at high strain-rate of the fiber reinforced mortar. The Dynamic Increase Factor (DIF was finally evaluated.

  20. The influence of self-compacting steel fibre reinforced concrete infill on the flexure strength and ductility of masonry walls

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Luiz António Pereira de; Bernardo, Luís Filipe Almeida

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental study on the influence of longitudinal reinforcement ratio and steel fibre volume in self-compacting concrete infill on the strength and ductility of reinforced masonry walls subjected to flexure. Flexure tests were performed as four-point bending tests on twelve walls. The analysis of the concrete infill contribution to the walls capacity is made considering recent recommendations for steel fibre reinforced concrete design. A ductility...

  1. 反复荷载作用下高强混凝土梁受弯性能尺寸效应试验研究%Experimental study on size effect of flexural behavior of reinforced high-strength concrete beams subjected to cyclic loading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    车轶; 王金金; 郑新丰; 宋玉普

    2013-01-01

    Six reinforced high-strength concrete beam-type specimens of different sizes with stubs columns in the middle were fabricated,and tested under low-cycle reversed loading to investigate the effect of depths on flexural behavior of reinforced high-strength concrete beams.The parameters of specimens varied in depths and ratios of longitudinal reinforcement on the top of cross sections,while the depth-width ratios of cross sections,shear span-todepth ratios and ratios of longitudinal reinforcement on the bottom of cross sections and stirrups were constant.C70 concrete was used to cast the specimens and HRB 400 steel bars were used as longitudinal reinforcement.The influence of beam depths on nominal cracking moment,nominal yield moment,nominal ultimate moment,displacement ductility,plastic rotation capacity,stiffness degradation and energy dissipation capacity of high-strength concrete beams were investigated.It is shown that there is no apparent size effect observed on nominal cracking moment,nominal yield moment and nominal ultimate moment of reinforced high-strength concrete beams,and that all specimens subjected to cyclic loading clearly show similar stiffness degradation which is independent of beam depths,while the displacement ductility factors,rotational capacity as well as work index of specimens decrease with increasing of depths,showing significant size effect.%设计了6根不同几何尺寸的中部带有短柱的高强混凝土梁式试件,进行受弯性能低周反复荷载试验,研究试件截面高度对反复荷载作用下高强混凝土梁受弯性能的影响.试件截面高度和上部纵向钢筋配筋率不同,截面长宽比、剪跨比、底部纵向钢筋配筋率和配箍率等参数相同.采用C70高强混凝土,纵向受力钢筋采用HRB400级钢筋.分析了截面高度对高强混凝土梁名义开裂弯矩、名义屈服弯矩、名义极限弯矩、位移延性、塑性转动能力、刚度退化以及耗能能力的影响.研究

  2. Mechanical strength of ceramic scaffolds reinforced with biopolymers is comparable to that of human bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, S S; Ding, M; Juhl, M Vinther; Theilgaard, N; Overgaard, S

    2011-05-01

    Eight groups of calcium-phosphate scaffolds for bone implantation were prepared of which seven were reinforced with biopolymers, poly lactic acid (PLA) or hyaluronic acid in different concentrations in order to increase the mechanical strength, without significantly impairing the microarchitecture. Controls were un-reinforced calcium-phosphate scaffolds. Microarchitectural properties were quantified using micro-CT scanning. Mechanical properties were evaluated by destructive compression testing. Results showed that adding 10 or 15% PLA to the scaffold significantly increased the mechanical strength. The increase in mechanical strength was seen as a result of increased scaffold thickness and changes to plate-like structure. However, the porosity was significantly lowered as a consequence of adding 15% PLA, whereas adding 10% PLA had no significant effect on porosity. Hyaluronic acid had no significant effect on mechanical strength. The novel composite scaffold is comparable to that of human bone which may be suitable for transplantation in specific weight-bearing situations, such as long bone repair.

  3. Metallic Reinforcement of Direct Squeeze Die Casting Aluminum Alloys for Improved Strength and Fracture Resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Schwam: J.F. Wallace: Y. Zhu: J.W. Ki

    2004-10-01

    obtained with unreinforced 356 aluminum casting. Good strength can be obtained with a sound die casting without any defects produced by squeeze casting. The use of higher pressure to produce the squeeze casting has been shown to increase the strength of a hemispherical dome casting. This dome shape casting has been produced both with and without reinforcement and tested to determine its pressure resistance under internal pressure of water. Only a slight improvement in strength could be determined because of water leaks at the seal between hemispherical dome and its flat supporting side. However, when the ability of the casting was tested under the compressive force of a plunger, the strengthening effect of wire mesh or sheet was evident. Higher loads to failure were obtained because of the reinforcement of the stainless steel wire and punched sheet. Rather than a sudden failure occurring, the reinforcement of the stainless steel wire or the punched hard stainless steel sheet held the material together and prevented any loss of the fractured casting to the surroundings. Unalloyed steel did not have the required strength or mechanical properties to increase the properties of the casting.

  4. Effect of Fiber Waviness on Tensile Strength of a Flax-Sliver-Reinforced Composite Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taweesak Piyatuchsananon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a composite material made from natural fibers and biodegradable resin, “green composite,” is attracting attention as an alternative composite material for the replacement of glass fiber-reinforced plastics. Plant-based natural fibers such as kenaf and flax have already been used as composite reinforcement materials because they are more environmentally friendly and costless fibers than artificial fibers. A problem of using natural fibers is the fiber waviness, which affects the tensile properties. Fiber waviness is fluctuation in the fiber orientation that is inherent in the sliver morphology of plant-based natural fibers. This study was conducted to clarify the relation between quantified parameters of fiber waviness and a composite’s tensile strength. First, the fiber orientation angles on a flax-sliver-reinforced composite were measured. Then the angle distribution was quantified through spatial autocorrelation analysis methods: Local Moran’s I and Local Geary’s c. Finally, the relation between the resultant tensile strength and quantified parameters was discussed.

  5. Experimental Study on Unconfined Compressive Strength of Basalt Fiber Reinforced Clay Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Gao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the mechanism and effect of basalt fiber reinforced clay soil, a series of unconfined compressive strength tests conducted on clay soil reinforced with basalt fiber have been performed under the condition of optimum water content and maximum dry density. Both the content and length of basalt fiber are considered in this paper. When the effect of content is studied, the 12 mm long fibers are dispersed into clay soil at different contents of 0.05%, 0.1%, 0.15%, 0.20%, 0.25%, 0.30%, and 0.35%. When the effect of length is researched, different lengths of basalt fibers with 4 mm, 8 mm, 12 mm, and 15 mm are put into soil at the same content of 0.05%. Experimental results show that basalt fiber can effectively improve the UCS of clay soil. And the best content and length are 0.25% and 12 mm, respectively. The results also show that the basalt fiber reinforced clay soil has the “poststrong” characteristic. About the reinforcement mechanism, the fiber and soil column-net model is proposed in this paper. Based on this model and SEM images, the effect of fiber content and length is related to the change of fiber-soil column and formation of effective fiber-soil net.

  6. Strength Assessment of Broken Rock Postgrouting Reinforcement Based on Initial Broken Rock Quality and Grouting Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongfa Xu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To estimate postgrouting rock mass strength growth is important for engineering design. In this paper, using self-developed indoor pressure-grouting devices, 19 groups of test cubic blocks were made of the different water cement ratio grouting into the broken rock of three kinds of particle sizes. The shear strength parameters of each group under different conditions were tested. Then this paper presents a quantitative calculation method for predicting the strength growth of grouted broken rock. Relational equations were developed to investigate the relationship between the growth rates of uniaxial compressive strength (UCS, absolute value of uniaxial tensile strength (AUTS, internal friction angle, and cohesion for post- to pregrouting broken rock based on Mohr-Coulomb strength criterion. From previous test data, the empirical equation between the growth rate of UCS and the ratio of the initial rock mass UCS to the grout concretion UCS has been determined. The equations of the growth rates of the internal friction coefficient and UCS for grouting broken rock with rock mass rating (RMR and its increment have been established. The calculated results are consistent with the experimental results. These observations are important for engineered design of grouting reinforcement for broken rock mass.

  7. Effect of tension lap splice on the behavior of high strength concrete (HSC beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed El-Azab

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years, many research efforts have been carried out on the bond strength between normal strength concrete (NSC and reinforcing bars spliced in tension zones in beams. Many codes gave a minimum splice length for tension and compression reinforcement as a factor of the bar diameter depending on many parameters such as concrete strength, steel yield stress, shape of bar end, shape of bar surface and also bar location. Also, codes gave another restriction about the percentage of total reinforcement to be spliced at the same time. Comparatively limited attention has been directed toward the bond between high strength concrete (HSC and reinforcing bars spliced in tension zones in beams. HSC has high modulus of elasticity, high density and long-term durability. This research presents an experimental study on the bond between high strength concrete (HSC and reinforcing bars spliced in tension zones in beams. It reports the influence of several parameters on bond in splices. The parameters covered are casting position, splice length as a factor of bar diameter, bar diameter and reinforcement ratio. The research involved tests on sixteen simply-supported beams of 1800 mm span, 200 mm width and 400 mm thickness made of HSC. In each beam, the total tensile steel bars were spliced in the constant moment zone. Crack pattern, crack propagation, cracking load, failure load and mi span deflection were recorded and analyzed to study the mentioned parameters effect.

  8. Tensile strength and its scatter of unidirectional carbon fiber reinforced composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamada, H.; Oya, N.; Yamashita, K.; Maekawa, Z.I. [Kyoto Inst. of Technology (Japan)

    1995-12-31

    0 (along the fiber direction) and 90 degree (transverse to the fiber direction) tension tests of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics (CFRP) using a great number of specimens were conducted. Tensile properties and their scatter were evaluated by means of the data base. Materials used in this study were seven kinds of carbon fibers and three kinds of epoxy resins. Reinforcing fiber and matrix resin properties strongly affected on 0 and 90 degree properties of CFRP respectively. In 0 degree tension tests, fracture mode of specimen vaned in each material, and a relationship between the scatter of strength and the fracture mode existed. From the results of 9 degree tension tests, some differences of interfacial properties between each laminate were` also detected. According to some considerations on fracture mechanism in 0 degree tension test, it was deduced that the fracture mode depended on the balance of fiber, matrix and interface properties.

  9. Pre-stressed anchoring beam technique applicable in the reinforcement of high-steep slopes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhifa YANG; Luqing ZHANG; Jiewang ZHU

    2006-01-01

    During the construction of some large-scale rock engineering, high-steep slopes and insufficient slope stability induced by unloading fissures are often encountered. For the reinforcement of these slopes, some techniques (including conventional pre-stressed anchoring cable and unconventional anchoring hole) are usually utilized, however, having several obvious defects. Thus, it is very difficult for a designer to design an efficient reinforcement scheme for the high-steep slopes. For this reason, the authors develop the pre-stressed anchoring beam technique, in which tensile capacity of pre-stressed structures are fully utilized. It is analyzed that the new technique is characterized by multi-functions, including engineering investigation, efficient reinforcement, drainage, monitoring and urgent strength supplement, and hoped to be extensively applicable in the reinforcement of high-steep slopes.

  10. THE IMPACT OF REINFORCED CONDITIONS ON THE STRENGTH OF PALM REINFORCED SOIL%加筋条件对棕榈加筋土强度的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    璩继立; 赵冬雪; 李贝贝

    2015-01-01

    To improve the characteristics of the low Shanghai clay strength and easy destroy, the dispersed palm was mixed into Shanghai clay with different mass reinforcement ratio and aspect ratio to do unconfined compressive strength test and Brazilian splitting test, then the impact of reinforced conditions on the compressive strength and tensile strength was explored.The results showed that compared with plain soil, palm reinforced soil could increase the compressive strength and tensile strength of Shanghai clay. The most appropriate reinforcement ratio of compressive strength and tensile strength in test was 1.00%.The best palm length was 4 mm, the optimum aspect ratio was 1∶3.Compared with plain soil, the improved degree of tensile strength by reinforcement was higher than that of the compressive strength.Meanwhile it was analyzed the mechanism of raising the strength of palm reinforced soil.%为改良上海黏土强度低,易发生破坏的特性,将分散的棕榈片以不同质量加筋率、长宽比等加入上海黏土中进行抗压强度试验和巴西劈裂试验,来探究加筋条件对棕榈加筋土抗压强度和抗拉强度的影响。试验结果表明:与素土相比,棕榈加筋土可提高上海黏土的抗压强度和抗拉强度。抗压强度和抗拉强度最适宜的加筋率为1.00%,最佳棕榈长度为4 mm,最优长宽比为1∶3。相对于素土,加筋对抗拉强度的提高幅度高于抗压强度。同时对棕榈加筋土强度提高的机理进行分析。

  11. Development of high performance fiber reinforced cement composites (HPFRCC for application as a transition layer of reinforced beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. J. Ferrari

    Full Text Available This study presents the development and behavior analysis of high performance fiber reinforced cement composites (HPFRCC. The describedmaterials were specifically developed for application as a transition layer: a repair layer that constitutes the stressed chord of reinforcedconcrete beams strengthened in flexure with carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRP. Nineteen different composites were produced by thehybridization process, varying the conventional short steel fiber and steel microfiber (manufactured exclusively for this research contentsto modify the microstructure of the material, thus enhancing the stress transfer process from the cement matrix to the fibers. To analyze theresponse to flexural loading, the composites underwent three point bending tests in notched prism specimens. The response of the materialwas obtained considering strength and tenacity parameters (flexural and fracture. There was evidence of high performance by the composites with a pseudo-hardening behavior.

  12. Durable high strength cement concrete topping for asphalt roads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyrozhemskyi, Valerii; Krayushkina, Kateryna; Bidnenko, Nataliia

    2017-09-01

    Work on improving riding qualities of pavements by means of placing a thin cement layer with high roughness and strength properties on the existing asphalt pavement were conducted in Ukraine for the first time. Such pavement is called HPCM (High Performance Cementitious Material). This is a high-strength thin cement-layer pavement of 8-9 mm thickness reinforced with metal or polymer fiber of less than 5 mm length. Increased grip properties are caused by placement of stone material of 3-5 mm fraction on the concrete surface. As a result of the research, the preparation and placement technology of high-strength cement thin-layer pavement reinforced with fiber was developed to improve friction properties of existing asphalt pavements which ensures their roughness and durability. It must be emphasized that HPCM is a fundamentally new type of thin-layer pavement in which a rigid layer of 10 mm thickness is placed on a non-rigid base thereby improving riding qualities of asphalt pavement at any season of a year.

  13. Experimental investigation of bond strength under high loading rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michal, Mathias; Keuser, Manfred; Solomos, George; Peroni, Marco; Larcher, Martin; Esteban, Beatriz

    2015-09-01

    The structural behaviour of reinforced concrete is governed significantly by the transmission of forces between steel and concrete. The bond is of special importance for the overlapping joint and anchoring of the reinforcement, where rigid bond is required. It also plays an important role in the rotational capacity of plastic hinges, where a ductile bond behaviour is preferable. Similar to the mechanical properties of concrete and steel also the characteristics of their interaction changes with the velocity of the applied loading. For smooth steel bars with its main bond mechanisms of adhesion and friction, nearly no influence of loading rate is reported in literature. In contrast, a high rate dependence can be found for the nowadays mainly used deformed bars. For mechanical interlock, where ribs of the reinforcing steel are bracing concrete material surrounding the bar, one reason can be assumed to be in direct connection with the increase of concrete compressive strength. For splitting failure of bond, characterized by the concrete tensile strength, an even higher dynamic increase is observed. For the design of Structures exposed to blast or impact loading the knowledge of a rate dependent bond stress-slip relationship is required to consider safety and economical aspects at the same time. The bond behaviour of reinforced concrete has been investigated with different experimental methods at the University of the Bundeswehr Munich (UniBw) and the Joint Research Centre (JRC) in Ispra. Both static and dynamic tests have been carried out, where innovative experimental apparatuses have been used. The bond stress-slip relationship and maximum pull-out-forces for varying diameter of the bar, concrete compressive strength and loading rates have been obtained. It is expected that these experimental results will contribute to a better understanding of the rate dependent bond behaviour and will serve for calibration of numerical models.

  14. Experimental investigation of bond strength under high loading rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Mathias

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The structural behaviour of reinforced concrete is governed significantly by the transmission of forces between steel and concrete. The bond is of special importance for the overlapping joint and anchoring of the reinforcement, where rigid bond is required. It also plays an important role in the rotational capacity of plastic hinges, where a ductile bond behaviour is preferable. Similar to the mechanical properties of concrete and steel also the characteristics of their interaction changes with the velocity of the applied loading. For smooth steel bars with its main bond mechanisms of adhesion and friction, nearly no influence of loading rate is reported in literature. In contrast, a high rate dependence can be found for the nowadays mainly used deformed bars. For mechanical interlock, where ribs of the reinforcing steel are bracing concrete material surrounding the bar, one reason can be assumed to be in direct connection with the increase of concrete compressive strength. For splitting failure of bond, characterized by the concrete tensile strength, an even higher dynamic increase is observed. For the design of Structures exposed to blast or impact loading the knowledge of a rate dependent bond stress-slip relationship is required to consider safety and economical aspects at the same time. The bond behaviour of reinforced concrete has been investigated with different experimental methods at the University of the Bundeswehr Munich (UniBw and the Joint Research Centre (JRC in Ispra. Both static and dynamic tests have been carried out, where innovative experimental apparatuses have been used. The bond stress-slip relationship and maximum pull-out-forces for varying diameter of the bar, concrete compressive strength and loading rates have been obtained. It is expected that these experimental results will contribute to a better understanding of the rate dependent bond behaviour and will serve for calibration of numerical models.

  15. Strength of anisotropic wood and synthetic materials. [plywood, laminated wood plastics, glass fiber reinforced plastics, polymeric film, and natural wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashkenazi, Y. K.

    1981-01-01

    The possibility of using general formulas for determining the strength of different anisotropic materials is considered, and theoretical formulas are applied and confirmed by results of tests on various nonmetallic materials. Data are cited on the strength of wood, plywood, laminated wood plastics, fiber glass-reinforced plastics and directed polymer films.

  16. Repair bond strength of a resin composite to alumina-reinforced feldspathic ceramic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goia, Tamiye Simone; Leite, Fabíola Pessôa; Valandro, Luiz Felipe; Ozcan, Mutlu; Bottino, Marco Antonio

    2006-01-01

    This study compared the microtensile bond strength of a repair resin to an alumina-reinforced feldspathic ceramic (Vitadur-alpha, Vita) after 3 surface conditioning methods: Group 1, etching with 9.6% hydrofluoric acid for 1 minute plus rinsing and drying, followed by application of silane for 5 minutes; group 2, airborne particle abrasion with 110-mm aluminum oxide using a chairside air-abrasion device followed by silane application for 5 minutes; group 3, chairside tribochemical silica coating with 30-microm SiOx followed by silane application for 5 minutes (N = 30). Group 1 presented the highest mean bond strength (19.7 +/- 3.8 MPa), which was significantly higher than those of groups 2 (10 +/- 2.6 MPa) and 3 (10.4 +/- 4 MPa) (P < .01). Scanning electron microscope analysis of the failure modes demonstrated predominantly mixed types of failures, with adhesive and/or cohesive failures in all experimental groups.

  17. Theoretical study on effect of confinement on flexural ductility of normal and high-strength concrete beams

    OpenAIRE

    Kwan, AKH; Au, FTK; Chau, SL

    2004-01-01

    Compared with normal concrete, high-strength concrete has higher strength but is generally more brittle. Its use in a reinforced concrete structure, if not properly controlled, could lead to an unsustainable reduction in ductility. However, confinement could be provided to improve the ductility of the structure. In this study, the effects of concrete strength and confinement on the flexural ductility of reinforced concrete beams have been evaluated by means of complete moment-curvature analys...

  18. es on Strength Characteristics of Pond Ash Replaced Fibre Reinforced Pavement Quality Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand G Patil

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Energy consumption and generation is increasing day by day due to rapid industrialization & urbanization. A major portion of the energy is generated by Thermal Power Plants. Pond ash (PA and other by-products from these plants are disposed in large quantities. Pond ash utilization helps to reduce the consumption of natural resources. Hence there is scope for using Pond ash as Fine Aggregate (FA. Use of alternative material in concrete such as industrial by-products like Coal Ash (Fly Ash and Pond Ash is eco-friendly. This study reports the results of experimental studies carried out on the use of Pond ash as Fine Aggregate (FA in concrete with and without fibre reinforcement. The properties of Pond Ash were compared to the standard sand. The pond ash added by weight is 10%,20%,30%,40%,50% and 60% respectively as replacement of FA in concrete and 2% low tensile steel fibre was used for reinforcement. Experiments carried out indicate that Pond ash as partial replacement of sand has beneficial effect on the mechanical properties. The strength properties are determined for various percentages (10-60% of replacement of Fine Aggregate with Pond ash with and without fibre reinforcement. The test results indicate that the optimum PA replacement is 20% for both the cases.

  19. Effect of reinforcement type and porosity on strength of metal matrix composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, S. G.; Lal, Achchhe; Menghani, J. V.

    2016-05-01

    In the present work, experimental investigation and the numerical analysis are carried out for strength analysis of A356 alloy matrix composites reinforced with alumina, fly ash and hybrid particle composites. The combined strengthening effect of load bearing, Hall-Petch, Orowan, coefficient of thermal expansion mismatch and elastic modulus mismatch is studied for predicting accurate uniaxial stress-strain behavior of A356 based alloy matrix composite. The unit cell micromechanical approach and nine noded isoparametric finite element analysis (FEA) is used to investigate the yield failure load by considering material defect of porosity as fabrication errors in particulate composite. The Ramberg-Osgood approach is considered for the linear and nonlinear relationship between stress and strain of A356 based metal matrix composites containing different amounts of fly ash and alumina reinforcing particles. A numerical analysis of material porosity on the stress strain behavior of the composite is performed. The literature and experimental results exhibit the validity of this model and confirm the importance of the fly ash as the cheapest and low density reinforcement obtained as a waste by product in thermal power plants.

  20. The test study of the shear strength of the interface between the steel and fiber reinforced plastic in composite guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, X.; Guo, J. [Jiaozuo Institute of Technology, Jiaozuo (China)

    2001-02-01

    A new kind of composite guide has been put forward in the light of existing situation that the shaft furniture is corroded seriously. The guide is composed of a steel core which is protected from corrosion by a layer of glass fibre reinforced plastic. The sheer strength of the interface between the steel and the glass fibre reinforced plastic was tested. The test results indicates that the shear strength of the interface withstands the working conditions of the mining shaft, therefore, the performance of the composite materials will not be restricted due to poor shear strength of the interface. 4 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Comparison of tensile strength of different carbon fabric reinforced epoxy composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Maria Faulstich de Paiva

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Carbon fabric/epoxy composites are materials used in aeronautical industry to manufacture several components as flaps, aileron, landing-gear doors and others. To evaluate these materials become important to know their mechanical properties, for example, the tensile strength. Tensile tests are usually performed in aeronautical industry to determinate tensile property data for material specifications, quality assurance and structural analysis. For this work, it was manufactured four different laminate families (F155/PW, F155/HS, F584/PW and F584/HS using pre-impregnated materials (prepregs based on F155TM and F584TM epoxy resins reinforced with carbon fiber fabric styles Plain Weave (PW and Eight Harness Satin (8HS. The matrix F155TM code is an epoxy resin type DGEBA (diglycidil ether of bisphenol A that contains a curing agent and the F584TM code is a modified epoxy resin type. The laminates were obtained by handing lay-up process following an appropriate curing cycle in autoclave. The samples were evaluated by tensile tests according to the ASTM D3039. The F584/PW laminates presented the highest values of tensile strength. However, the highest modulus results were determined for the 8HS composite laminates. The correlation of these results emphasizes the importance of the adequate combination of the polymeric matrix and the reinforcement arrangement in the structural composite manufacture. The microscopic analyses of the tested specimens show valid failure modes for composites used in aeronautical industry.

  2. Long-term behaviour of a 13 m high reinforced steep soil slope. Paper presented at Euro Geo 1 Maastrict

    OpenAIRE

    Vaslestad, Jan; Fjeldheim, Nils; Braaten, Anne; Johansen, Tor Helge

    1996-01-01

    In the summer of 1993 a 13 m high reinforced soil slope was built in the City of Lillehammer as part of the new road system constructed in conncection with the 1994 winter olympic games. The reinforced soil slope with an inclination of 60 degrees and a vegetated front was selected as an alternative to a reinforced concrete wall. This proved to be a very cost effective solution. The reinforcement used was a woven polyester geotextile with a characteristic short time tensile strength of 150 kN/...

  3. MECHANICAL STRENGTH OF HIGHLY POROUS CERAMICS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDENBORN, IC; SANTEN, A; HOEKSTRA, HD; DEHOSSON, JTM; Born, I.C. van den

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the mechanical strength of highly porous ceramics in terms of the Weibull and Duxbury-Leath distributions. More than 1000 side-crushing strength tests on silica-catalyst carriers of various particle sizes have been performed in series. Within a series, preparation conditions we

  4. The Tensile Behavior of High-Strength Carbon Fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langston, Tye

    2016-08-01

    Carbon fibers exhibit exceptional properties such as high stiffness and specific strength, making them excellent reinforcements for composite materials. However, it is difficult to directly measure their tensile properties and estimates are often obtained by tensioning fiber bundles or composites. While these macro scale tests are informative for composite design, their results differ from that of direct testing of individual fibers. Furthermore, carbon filament strength also depends on other variables, including the test length, actual fiber diameter, and material flaw distribution. Single fiber tensile testing was performed on high-strength carbon fibers to determine the load and strain at failure. Scanning electron microscopy was also conducted to evaluate the fiber surface morphology and precisely measure each fiber's diameter. Fiber strength was found to depend on the test gage length and in an effort to better understand the overall expected performance of these fibers at various lengths, statistical weak link scaling was performed. In addition, the true Young's modulus was also determined by taking the system compliance into account. It was found that all properties (tensile strength, strain to failure, and Young's modulus) matched very well with the manufacturers' reported values at 20 mm gage lengths, but deviated significantly at other lengths.

  5. Effect of silane activation on shear bond strength of fiber-reinforced composite post to resin cement

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hyun-Dong; Lee, Joo-Hee; Ahn, Kang-Min; Kim, Hee-Sun; Cha, Hyun-Suk

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE Among the surface treatment methods suggested to enhance the adhesion of resin cement to fiber-reinforced composite posts, conflicting results have been obtained with silanization. In this study, the effects of silanization, heat activation after silanization, on the bond strength between fiber-reinforced composite post and resin cement were determined. MATERIALS AND METHODS Six groups (n=7) were established to evaluate two types of fiber post (FRC Postec Plus, D.T. Light Post) and th...

  6. Influence of Compression and Shear on the Strength of Composite Laminates with Z-Pinned Reinforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, T. Kevin; Krueger, Ronald

    2005-01-01

    The influence of compression and shear loads on the strength of composite laminates with z-pins is evaluated parametrically using a 2D Finite Element Code (FLASH). Meshes were generated for three unique combinations of z-pin diameter and density. A laminated plate theory analysis was performed on several layups to determine the bi-axial stresses in the zero degree plies. These stresses, in turn, were used to determine the magnitude of the relative load steps prescribed in the FLASH analyses. Results indicated that increasing pin density was more detrimental to in-plane compression strength than increasing pin diameter. FLASH results for lamina with z-pins were consistent with the closed form results, and FLASH results without z-pins, if the initial fiber waviness due to z-pin insertion was added to the fiber waviness in the material to yield a total misalignment. Addition of 10% shear to the compression loading significantly reduced the lamina strength compared to pure compression loading. Addition of 50% shear to the compression indicated shear yielding rather than kink band formation as the likely failure mode. Two different stiffener reinforced skin configurations with z-pins, one quasi-isotropic and one orthotropic, were also analyzed. Six unique loading cases ranging from pure compression to compression plus 50% shear were analyzed assuming material fiber waviness misalignment angles of 0, 1, and 2 degrees. Compression strength decreased with increased shear loading for both configurations, with the quasi-isotropic configuration yielding lower strengths than the orthotropic configuration.

  7. HRB500 high-strength reinforced and reactive power concrete bond-slip constitutive relations research%HRB500高强钢筋与活性粉末混凝土黏结滑移本构关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓宗才; 程舒锴

    2015-01-01

    为了研究高强钢筋与活性粉末混凝土(简称RPC)的黏结性能,以钢筋直径与锚固长度为变量通过中心拉拔试验分别测定了HRB500型高强钢筋与三种不同配合比的活性粉末混凝土的黏结应力和滑移值。通过理论分析与数据拟合,探讨了影响黏结性能的主要因素,在试验与计算分析的基础上建立了黏结-滑移本构关系。拟合出的黏结-滑移本构曲线基本反映出试验曲线的变化规律,并通过比较初步分析了三种不同纤维掺量制作的RPC试块与高强钢筋黏结滑移曲线的变化规律,可为活性粉末混凝土结构有限元分析提供参考。%In order to study high-strength reinforced and reactive powder concrete( referred to as RPC)bond-slip performance,it measured different reinforced anchorage length and diameter of HRB500 high strength reinforced and reactive powder concrete of three different type in the pull-out test with the bond stress and slip values. Through theoretical analysis and data fitting,we get the factors that determines bond stress and calculated their formulas,so that we could research bond-slip constitutive relations. It fit the bond-slip constitutive curve that reflects the variation of the basic test curve,and a preliminary analysis by comparing the variation of three differ-ent RPC test block with different fiber volume ratio. This provides a foundation for finite element analysis in reactive powder concrete structures.

  8. Comparative Analysis Of The Tensile Strength Of Bamboo And Reinforcement Steel Bars As Structural Member In Building Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogunbiyi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study aims at testing and comparing the tensile strength of bamboo and steel reinforcement bars as structural material for building construction. Tensile strength tests were carried out on various sizes steel and bamboo categories of reinforcement bars such as 10mm 12mm 16mm 20mm and 25mm of both high-yield and mild-yield steel reinforcement bars were both tested along with same sizes of bamboo with 10mm cross-sectional thickness. Results are presented in tables and graphs and show that the tensile strength of high-yield steel bars outstrips that of mild-yield and bamboo respectively. The study finds that the breaking force FB for 10mm HY 24.42KN tensile strength 457.13Nmm2 yield stress 379.02 Nmm2 and breaking elongation 39.67mm respectively. For 12mm HY breaking force FB 52.14 KN tensile strength 689.12 Nmm2 yield stress 551.30Nmm2 and breaking elongation 36.58mm. 16mm HY results in breaking force FB 126.67KN tensile strength 771.61Nmm2 yield stress 494.10Nmm2 and breaking elongation 70.87mm. The same factors for 20mm yields breaking force FB 163.97KN tensile strength 713.40Nmm2 yield stress 614.74Nmm2 and breaking elongation 61.57mm. While the 25mm HY produces breaking force FB 306.17KN tensile strength 792.90Nmm2 yield stress 678.46Nmm2 and breaking elongation 52.36mm respectively. Mild Steel MY 10mm yields breaking force FB 14.76KN tensile strength 290.49Nmm2 yield stress 233.17Nmm2 and breaking elongation 78.86mm. 12mm MY results in breaking force 40.35KN tensile strength 508.08Nmm2 yield stress 376.17Nmm2 and breaking elongation 84.10mm. 16mm MY yields breaking force FB 79.72KN tensile strength 508.71Nmm2 yield stress 349.10Nmm2 and breaking elongation 111.39mm respectively. For 20mm mild steel breaking force FB 83.04KN tensile strength 372.98Nmm2 yield stress 284.64Nmm2 and breaking elongation 47.40mm. While the 25mm MY steel bar results show breaking force FB 163.04KN tensile strength 701.74Nmm2 yield stress 599.77Nmm2 and

  9. Strength of MWCNT-Reinforced 70Sn-30Bi Solder Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billah, Md Muktadir; Chen, Quanfang

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the effect of Cu-coated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) on the tensile strength of 70Sn-30Bi solder alloy has been investigated. Copper was first deposited onto metal-activated MWCNTs by an electroless process and confirmed with a scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive spectroscopy. Sn-Bi alloy solder was reinforced with Cu-coated MWCNTs with additions of 0.5 wt.%, 1 wt.%, 2 wt.%, and 3 wt.%, respectively. 70Sn-30Bi solder was produced by melting pure tin and bismuth in an inert gas atmosphere. Cu-coated MWCNTs were then added into the metal matrix by cold rolling, followed by hot pressing to disperse the carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in the matrix. Tensile tests were conducted on an mechanical testing and simulation (MTS) tester. The tensile strength was found to be proportional to the addition of Cu/MWCNTs, and about 47.6% increase in tensile strength over the pure alloy has been obtained for an addition of 3 wt.% Cu/MWCNTs. The Cu coating may enhance CNT dispersion to prevent tangling.

  10. Fracture Strength and Bending of Fiber-Reinforced Composites and Metal Frameworks in Fixed Partial Dentures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sadeghi

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This in vitro study evaluated the fracture strength and bending amount of twotypes of fiber reinforced composite (FRC and cast metal frameworks used for fabrication of inlay fixed partial dentures (IFPDs.Materials and Methods: Seventy-two extracted first maxillary premolars and molars (36 each were embedded in acrylic resin to represent a missing of second maxillary premolar. FRC IFPDs were fabricated using Stick and Fiber-Braid fiber bundles and IFPDs using cast metal alloy (12 for each group. The specimens were stored for 2 weeks at 37°C(SD=1 in distilled water, thermocycled (5-55°C, x 2500 and statically loaded to fracture. The initial bending prior to fracture was evaluated. The data were analyzed using paired t-test and ANOVA test.Results: The fracture strength was significantly higher in the FRC groups (P<0.05; also, the fracture strength was significantly higher in Stick group than Fiber-Braid group (P<0.05. The amount of bending was significantly greater in the FRC groups (P<0.05. The amount of difference in bending between the two groups of FRC was not statistically significant.Conclusion: Within the limits of this in vitrostudy, the results suggest that the FRC IFPDs can be used as a conservative, esthetic alternative to the IFPDs with cast metal frameworks. The results of this study should be confirmed by long-term clinical investigations.

  11. Cadmium Alternatives for High-Strength Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-22

    191 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (include area code) 301 -342-8101 iii Table of Contents Note that original JTP section numbers are preceded by...specified. The focus of this JTP is on high-strength structural alloy steels used for various applications. Alloy AISI 4130 was used for adhesion and...NaCl) solution under constant amplitude loading to determine fatigue life using hourglass specimens prepared from high strength AISI 4340 steel. The

  12. Hydrogen degradation of high strength weldable steels

    OpenAIRE

    J. Ćwiek

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Purpose of this paper is presentation of hydrogen degradation issue of high strength steels andespecially their welded joints. Establishing of applicable mechanisms of hydrogen-enhanced cracking was theaim of performed research.Design/methodology/approach: High strength quenched and tempered steels grade S690Q were used. Weldedjoints were prepared with typical technology used in shipyards. Susceptibility to hydrogen degradation in seawater under cathodic polarization was evaluated wi...

  13. Behavior of high strength concrete columns under eccentric loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hany A. Kottb

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, high strength concrete (HSC has been widely accepted by designers and contractors to be used in concrete structures, especially in high compressive stress elements. The research aims to study the behavior of high strength concrete columns under eccentric compression using experimental and analytical programs. The research is divided into two main parts; the first part is an experimental investigation for ten square columns tested at the Cairo University Concrete Research Laboratory. The main studied parameters were eccentricity of the applied load, column slenderness ratio; and ratios of longitudinal and transverse reinforcement. The second part is analytical analysis using nonlinear finite element program ANSYS11 on nineteen columns (ten tested square columns and nine rectangular section columns to study the effect of the previous parameters on the column ultimate load, mid-height displacement, and column cracking patterns. The analyzed columns revealed a good agreement with the experimental results with an average difference of 16% and 17% for column ultimate load and mid-height displacement respectively. Results showed an excellent agreement for cracking patterns. Predictions of columns capacities using the interaction diagrams based on ACI 318-08 stress block parameters indicated a safe design procedure of HSC columns under eccentric compression, with ACI 318-08 being more conservative for moderate reinforced HSC columns.

  14. A study on the effect of halloysite nanoparticle addition on the strength of glass fiber reinforced plastic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yun-Hae; Park, Soo-Jeong; Lee, Jin-Woo; Moon, Kyung-Man

    2015-03-01

    Halloysite nanotube, which has been used in the polymer, has been spotlighted as a useful functional materials in the improvement of mechanical properties. In the current study, we established the optimal nanoparticle dispersion and analyzed the mechanical characteristics and the behavior of composites reinforced by HNTs have been synthesized by dispersing HNTs to the unsaturated polyester resin (UPR) and their mechanical characteristics, especially the tensile strength, interlaminar shear strength have been analyzed. Additionally, the reinforcement effect and its variation according to the amount of HNTs was also studied.

  15. Strength Analysis of the Carbon-Fiber Reinforced Polymer Impeller Based on Fluid Solid Coupling Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinbao Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon-fiber reinforced polymer material impeller is designed for the centrifugal pump to deliver corrosive, toxic, and abrasive media in the chemical and pharmaceutical industries. The pressure-velocity coupling fields in the pump are obtained from the CFD simulation. The stress distribution of the impeller couple caused by the flow water pressure and rotation centrifugal force of the blade is analyzed using one-way fluid-solid coupling method. Results show that the strength of the impeller can meet the requirement of the centrifugal pumps, and the largest stress occurred around the blades root on a pressure side of blade surface. Due to the existence of stress concentration at the blades root, the fatigue limit of the impeller would be reduced greatly. In the further structure optimal design, the blade root should be strengthened.

  16. Strength and Deformation of Axially Loaded Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Sheet Confined Concrete Columns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李静; 钱稼茹; 蒋剑彪

    2004-01-01

    Experimental results of 29 axially loaded fiber-reinforced polymer sheet (FS) confined concrete columns and two reference plain concrete columns are introduced. Twenty four column specimens were confined with carbon fiber sheet (CFS) and five column specimens were hybrid confined with both CFS and glass fiber sheet (GFS). The influence of aspect ratio, FS material, initial axial force ratio, and FS confinement degree on the strength and deformation of columns were studied. Based on the experimental results, the equations of complete stress-strain curve of CFS confined concrete are proposed. These equations are suitable for the nonlinear analysis of square and rectangular section columns. Suggestions of applying FS to confine concrete columns are presented.

  17. Engineering properties of high strength lightweight concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    The strength to weight ratio of high strength lightweight concrete is not its only advantage. The artificial lightweight aggregate combines physically and, to a lesser extent, chemically with the surrounding cement matrix to produce an impermeable and durable concrete. The engineering properties of the concrete are sensitive to the proportions and nature of its constituents, and to its production methods. Supplementary cementing materials and chemical admixtures are used to develop the increased strength and durability. Thermal movements, shrinkage and creep are within workable limits. Fatigue resistance is probably at least as good as that achieved by equivalent strength normal density concretes but there is limited data on this topic. Deleterious effects of admixtures supplied in high dosages have not been identified but neither have they been investigated. The relationship between the tensile strength of the material and its uniaxial compressive strength is not robust. The shear capacity of structural elements is not adequately covered by most existing design codes. In common with all concretes, the stability of high strength lightweight concrete is reduced when water retained within it freezes or vaporises. A satisfactory freeze thaw behaviour can be readily achieved but, under fire conditions, the impermeability of the cement matrix limits the venting of water vapour at the concrete surface. Explosive failures can result. (Author)

  18. Interfacial shear strength of bioactive-coated carbon fiber reinforced polyetheretherketone after in vivo implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahara, Ichiro; Takao, Masaki; Goto, Tomoyo; Ohtsuki, Chikara; Hibino, Shigeru; Sugano, Nobuhiko

    2012-10-01

    Despite the excellent osseointegration of carbon-fiber-reinforced polyetheretherketone (CFR/PEEK) with a surface hydroxyapatite (HA) coating, the bone-implant interfacial shear strength of HA-coated CFR/PEEK after osseointegration is unclear. We examined the interfacial shear strength of HA-coated CFR/PEEK implants after in vivo implantation in a rabbit femur-implant pull-out test model. HA coating was performed by a newly developed method. Uncoated CFR/PEEK, HA-coated blasted titanium alloy, and uncoated blasted titanium alloy were used as control implants. The implants were inserted into drilled femoral cortex, and pull-out tests were conducted after 6 and 12 weeks of implantation to determine maximum interfacial shear strength. The HA-coated CFR/PEEK (15.7  ± 4.5 MPa) and HA-coated titanium alloy (14.1  ±  6.0 MPa) exhibited significantly larger interfacial shear strengths than the uncoated CFR/PEEK (7.7 ± 1.8 MPa) and the uncoated titanium alloy (7.8  ±  2.1 MPa) at 6 weeks. At 12 weeks, only the uncoated CFR/PEEK (8.3  ±  3.0 MPa) exhibited a significantly smaller interfacial shear strength, as compared to the HA-coated CFR/PEEK (17.4  ±  3.6 MPa), HA-coated titanium alloy (14.2  ±  4.8 MPa), and uncoated titanium alloy (15.0  ±  2.6 MPa). Surface analysis of the removed implants revealed detachment of the HA layer in both the HA-coated CFR/PEEK and titanium alloy implants. The proposed novel HA coating method of CFR/PEEK significantly increased interfacial shear strength between bone and CFR/PEEK. The achieved interfacial shear strength of the HA-coated CFR/PEEK implant is of the same level as that of grit-blasted titanium alloy with HA.

  19. Stiffness and strength of fiber reinforced polymer composite bridge deck systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Aixi

    This research investigates two principal characteristics that are of primary importance in Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) bridge deck applications: STIFFNESS and STRENGTH. The research was undertaken by investigating the stiffness and strength characteristics of the multi-cellular FRP bridge deck systems consisting of pultruded FRP shapes. A systematic analysis procedure was developed for the stiffness analysis of multi-cellular FRP deck systems. This procedure uses the Method of Elastic Equivalence to model the cellular deck as an equivalent orthotropic plate. The procedure provides a practical method to predict the equivalent orthotropic plate properties of cellular FRP decks. Analytical solutions for the bending analysis of single span decks were developed using classical laminated plate theory. The analysis procedures can be extended to analyze continuous FRP decks. It can also be further developed using higher order plate theories. Several failure modes of the cellular FRP deck systems were recorded and analyzed through laboratory and field tests and Finite Element Analysis (FEA). Two schemes of loading patches were used in the laboratory test: a steel patch made according to the ASSHTO's bridge testing specifications; and a tire patch made from a real truck tire reinforced with silicon rubber. The tire patch was specially designed to simulate service loading conditions by modifying real contact loading from a tire. Our research shows that the effects of the stiffness and contact conditions of loading patches are significant in the stiffness and strength testing of FRP decks. Due to the localization of load, a simulated tire patch yields larger deflection than the steel patch under the same loading level. The tire patch produces significantly different failure compared to the steel patch: a local bending mode with less damage for the tire patch; and a local punching-shear mode for the steel patch. A deck failure function method is proposed for predicting the

  20. Resistance to Corrosion of Reinforcement of High Volume Fly Ash Concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, S. O.; Bae, S. H.; Lee, H. J. [Andong National University, Andong (Korea, Republic of); Lee, K. M. [Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Jung, S. H. [Korea Confirmity Laboratories, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    Due to the increasing of interest about the eco-friendly concrete, it is increased to use concretes containing by-products of industry such as fly ash(FA), ground granulated blast furnace slag(GGBFS), silica fume(SF), and etc. Especially, these are well known for improving the resistances to reinforcement corrosion in concrete and decreasing chloride ion penetration. The purpose of this experimental research is to evaluate the resistance against corrosion of reinforcement of high volume fly ash(HVFA) concrete which is replaced with high volume fly ash for cement volume. For this purpose, the concrete test specimens were made for various strength level and replacement ratio of FA, and then the compressive strength and diffusion coefficient for chloride ion of them were measured for 28, 91, and 182 days, respectively. Also, corrosion monitoring by half cell potential method was carried out for the made lollypop concrete test specimens to detect the time of corrosion initiation for reinforcement in concrete. As a result, it was observed from the test results that the compressive strength of HVFA concrete was decreased with increasing replacement ratio of FA but long-term resistances against reinforcement corrosion and chloride ion penetration of that were increased.

  1. High Performance Fiber Reinforced Cement Composites 6 HPFRCC 6

    CERN Document Server

    Reinhardt, Hans; Naaman, A

    2012-01-01

    High Performance Fiber Reinforced Cement Composites (HPFRCC) represent a class of cement composites whose stress-strain response in tension undergoes strain hardening behaviour accompanied by multiple cracking, leading to a high strain prior to failure. The primary objective of this International Workshop was to provide a compendium of up-to-date information on the most recent developments and research advances in the field of High Performance Fiber Reinforced Cement Composites. Approximately 65 contributions from leading world experts are assembled in these proceedings and provide an authoritative perspective on the subject. Special topics include fresh and hardening state properties; self-compacting mixtures; mechanical behavior under compressive, tensile, and shear loading; structural applications; impact, earthquake and fire resistance; durability issues; ultra-high performance fiber reinforced concrete; and textile reinforced concrete. Target readers: graduate students, researchers, fiber producers, desi...

  2. High toughness-high strength iron alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, J. R.; Witzke, W. R. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    An iron alloy is provided which exhibits strength and toughness characteristics at cryogenic temperatures. The alloy consists essentially of about 10 to 16 percent by weight nickel, about 0.1 to 1.0 percent by weight aluminum, and 0 to about 3 percent by weight copper, with the balance being essentially iron. The iron alloy is produced by a process which includes cold rolling at room temperature and subsequent heat treatment.

  3. High-Strength, Superelastic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, Malcolm; Noebe, Ronald; Dellacorte, Christopher; Bigelow, Glen; Thomas, Fransua

    2013-01-01

    can be used in the heat treatment process, less energy will be consumed, and there will be less dimensional distortion and quench cracking. This results in fewer scrap parts, less material waste from large amounts of material removal, and fewer machining steps to rework parts that are out of specification. This material has a combination of properties that have been previously unobtainable. The material has a Young s modulus of approximately 95 GPa (about half that of conventional steels), moderate density (10 to 15% lower than conventional steels), excellent corrosion resistance, and high hardness (58 to 62 HRC). These properties make this material uniquely suited for advanced bearings.

  4. Development of High Specific Strength Envelope Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Keiji; Sano, Masa-Aki; Kakuta, Yoshiaki

    Progress in materials technology has produced a much more durable synthetic fabric envelope for the non-rigid airship. Flexible materials are required to form airship envelopes, ballonets, load curtains, gas bags and covering rigid structures. Polybenzoxazole fiber (Zylon) and polyalirate fiber (Vectran) show high specific tensile strength, so that we developed membrane using these high specific tensile strength fibers as a load carrier. The main material developed is a Zylon or Vectran load carrier sealed internally with a polyurethane bonded inner gas retention film (EVOH). The external surface provides weather protecting with, for instance, a titanium oxide integrated polyurethane or Tedlar film. The mechanical test results show that tensile strength 1,000 N/cm is attained with weight less than 230g/m2. In addition to the mechanical properties, temperature dependence of the joint strength and solar absorptivity and emissivity of the surface are measured. 

  5. The behavior of high-strength unidirectional composites under tension with superposed hydrostatic pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zinoviev, P.A.; Tsvetkov, S.V.; Kulish, G.G.; Berg, van den R.W.; Schepdael, van L.J.M.M.

    2001-01-01

    Three types of high-strength unidirectional composite materials were studied under longitudinal tension with superposed high hydrostatic pressure. Reinforcing fibers were T1000G carbon, S2 glass and Zylon PBO fibers; the Ciba 5052 epoxy resin was used as matrix. The composites were tested under exte

  6. Effects of neutron irradiation on the strength of continuous fiber reinforced SiC/SiC composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youngblood, G.E.; Henager, C.H. Jr.; Jones, R.H. [Pacific National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Flexural strength data as a function of irradiation temperature and dose for a SiC{sub f}/SiC composite made with Nicalon-CG fiber suggest three major degradation mechanisms. Based on an analysis of tensile strength and microstructural data for irradiated Nicalon-CG and Hi-Nicalon fibers, it is anticipated that these degradation mechanisms will be alleviated in Hi-Nicalon reinforced composites.

  7. Shear Strength of Unreinforced Masonry Wall Retrofitted with Fiber Reinforced Polymer and Hybrid Sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Cheul Choi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Unreinforced masonry (URM structures represent a significant portion of existing historical structures around the world. Recent earthquakes have shown the need for seismic retrofitting for URM structures. Various types of strengthening methods have been used for URM structures. In particular, a strengthening technique using externally bonded (EB fiber reinforced polymer (FRP composites has attracted engineers since EB FRP materials effectively enhance the shear strength of URM walls with negligible change to cross-sectional area and weight of the walls. Research has been extensively conducted to determine characteristics of URM walls strengthened with EB FRP materials. However, it is still difficult to determine an appropriate retrofitting level due to the complexity of mechanical behavior of strengthened URM walls. In this study, in-plane behavior under lateral loading was, therefore, investigated on a full-scale nonstrengthened URM wall and URM walls retrofitted with two different FRP materials: carbon (CFRP and hybrid (HFRP sheets. The test results indicated that both FRP composites were effective in increasing shear strength in comparison with the control specimen. However, better performance was obtained with HFRP compared to CFRP. In addition, an equation for estimating effective strain was proposed, and the theoretical results were in good agreement with the experimental ones.

  8. High-Performance Steel Bars and Fibers as Concrete Reinforcement for Seismic-Resistant Frames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres Lepage

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental data are presented for six concrete specimens subjected to displacement reversals. Two specimens were reinforced longitudinally with steel bars Grade 410 (60 ksi, two with Grade 670 (97 ksi, and two with Grade 830 (120 ksi. Other experimental variables included axial load (0 or 0.2 fc′  Ag and volume fraction of hooked steel fibers (0 or 1.5%. All transverse reinforcement was Grade 410, and the nominal concrete compressive strength was 41 MPa (6 ksi. The loading protocol consisted of repeated cycles of increasing lateral displacement reversals (up to 5% drift followed by a monotonic lateral push to failure. The test data indicate that replacing conventional Grade-410 longitudinal reinforcement with reduced amounts of Grade-670 or Grade-830 steel bars did not cause a decrease in usable deformation capacity nor a decrease in flexural strength. The evidence presented shows that the use of advanced high-strength steel as longitudinal reinforcement in frame members is a viable option for earthquake-resistant construction.

  9. 强化对硅基陶瓷型芯高温强度的影响%Effect of Reinforcement on High-temperature Flexural Strength of Silica-based Ceramic Cores

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵宪涛; 成来飞; 张立同; 多贵英

    2012-01-01

    分别采用硅酸乙酯水解液和氯化钇溶液对硅基(SiO2-Al2O3)型芯试样进行强化处理.结果表明,经硅酸乙醇水解液强化后的试样在1550℃能迅速析出大量方石英,抑制了材料在高温下的粘性流动,型芯高温强度较未强化型芯提高了接近50%;经氯化钇溶液强化后的试样,在1550℃前材料的软化熔融严重,没有强度.%The silica-based ceramic cores were strengthened by ethyl silicate hydrolysates and yttrium chloride solution. The results show that, the ceramic core samples strengthened by the hydrolysates of ethyl silicate can quickly generate much cristobalite at 1550 ℃, which can prohibite the viscous flow of the ceramic cores. The fiexural strength is improved by nearly 50%. The ceramic core samples strengthened by the yttrium chloride solution are greatly softened, and almost has no bonding strength before 1500 ℃.

  10. STRENGTH AND DUCTILITY OF CONCRETE CYLINDERS REINFORCED WITH PREFABRICATED STEEL CAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHITHRA R

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of an experimental and analytical study on behaviour of concrete cylinders confined with prefabricated cage. Totally 75 cylinders of 150mm diameter and 300mm in high confined by prefabricated cage are tested under uniaxial compression loads to obtain the stress strain curves of the cylinders. Test variables include thickness of cage, centre to centre spacing of ties and compressive strength of concrete. Equations to predict the ultimate compressive strength and strain at peak load were developed. A comparison between the experimental results and those of analytical results indicate that the proposed model provides satisfactory predictions of ultimate compressive strength. The study shows that the Mander et al’s model underestimate the strength of concrete confined by prefabricated cage.

  11. Microtensile bond strength of a resin cement to glass infiltrated zirconia-reinforced ceramic: The effect of surface conditioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amaral, R.; Ozcan, M.; Bottino, M.A.; Valandro, L.F.

    2006-01-01

    Objectives. This study evaluated the effect of three surface conditioning methods on the microtensile bond strength of resin cement to a glass-infiltrated zirconia-reinforced alumina-based core ceramic. Methods. Thirty blocks (5 x 5 x 4 mm) of In-Ceram Zirconia ceramics (In-Ceram Zirconia-INC-ZR, VI

  12. Microtensile bond strength of a resin cement to glass infiltrated zirconia-reinforced ceramic : The effect of surface conditioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amaral, R; Ozcan, M; Bottino, MA; Valandro, LF

    2006-01-01

    Objectives. This study evaluated the effect of three surface conditioning methods on the microtensile bond strength of resin cement to a glass-infiltrated zirconia-reinforced alumina-based core ceramic. Methods. Thirty blocks (5 x 5 x 4 mm) of In-Ceram Zirconia ceramics (In-Ceram Zirconia-INC-ZR, VI

  13. Fracture strength and bending of all-ceramic and fiber-reinforced composites in inlay-retained fixed partial dentures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan Saridag

    2012-06-01

    Conclusions: Zirconia-based ceramic inlay-retained fixed partial dentures demonstrated the highest fracture strength. The fiber-reinforced composite inlay-retained fixed partial dentures demonstrated higher bending values than did the all-ceramic inlay-retained fixed partial dentures.

  14. Microtensile bond strength of a resin cement to glass infiltrated zirconia-reinforced ceramic : The effect of surface conditioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amaral, R; Ozcan, M; Bottino, MA; Valandro, LF

    Objectives. This study evaluated the effect of three surface conditioning methods on the microtensile bond strength of resin cement to a glass-infiltrated zirconia-reinforced alumina-based core ceramic. Methods. Thirty blocks (5 x 5 x 4 mm) of In-Ceram Zirconia ceramics (In-Ceram Zirconia-INC-ZR,

  15. Microtensile bond strength of a resin cement to glass infiltrated zirconia-reinforced ceramic: The effect of surface conditioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amaral, R.; Ozcan, M.; Bottino, M.A.; Valandro, L.F.

    2006-01-01

    Objectives. This study evaluated the effect of three surface conditioning methods on the microtensile bond strength of resin cement to a glass-infiltrated zirconia-reinforced alumina-based core ceramic. Methods. Thirty blocks (5 x 5 x 4 mm) of In-Ceram Zirconia ceramics (In-Ceram Zirconia-INC-ZR,

  16. Influence of reprocessing on fibre length distribution, tensile strength and impact strength of injection moulded cellulose fibre-reinforced polylactide (PLA composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Graupner

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study focuses on the reprocessing behaviour of recycled injection moulded polylactide (PLA composites. The composites are reinforced with regenerated cellulose fibres (lyocell of variable fineness and a fibre mass content of 30%. They were reprocessed up to three times. The influence of reprocessing on the fibre length distribution and the resulting composite mechanical properties (tensile and impact strength was analysed. While the first reprocessing cycle does not affect the mechanical characteristics of the neat PLA matrix, the strength of the composites decreases significantly due to a decreasing fibre aspect ratio. It was shown that fibres having a larger cross-sectional area display a lower aspect ratio than finer fibres, after reprocessing. This phenomenon leads to a larger decrease in tensile strength of composites reinforced with coarser fibres when compared to composites reinforced with finer fibres. A comparison of virgin composites and threefold reprocessed composites with a similar fibre length distribution resulted in a significantly higher tensile strength compared to the virgin sample. This result leads to the conclusion that not only the fibre length is drastically reduced by reprocessing but also that the fibres and the matrix were damaged.

  17. Development of high strength high toughness third generation advanced high strength steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martis, Codrick John

    Third generation advanced high strength steels (AHSS's) are emerging as very important engineering materials for structural applications. These steels have high specific strength and thus will contribute significantly to weight reduction in automotive and other structural component. In this investigation two such low carbon low alloy steels (LCLA) with high silicon content (1.6-2wt %) has been developed. These two steel alloys were subjected to single step and two step austempering in the temperature range of 260-399°C to obtain desired microstructures and mechanical properties. Austempering heat treatment was carried out for 2 hours in a molten salt bath. The microstructures were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and optical metallography. Quantitative analysis was carried out by image analysis technique. The effect of austempering temperature on the mechanical properties of these two alloys was examined. The influence of microstructures on the mechanical properties of alloys was also studied. Austempering heat treatment resulted in fine carbide free bainitic ferrite and high carbon austenite microstructure in the samples austempered above Ms temperature, whereas tempered martensite and austenite microstructure was obtained in samples austempered below Ms temperature. Yield strength, tensile strength and fracture toughness were found to increase as the austempering temperature decreases, whereas ductility increases as the austempering temperature increases. Tensile strength in the range of 1276MPa -1658 MPa and the fracture toughness in the range of 80-141MPa√m were obtained in these two steels. Volume fractions of different phases present and their lath sizes are related to the mechanical properties. Austempered samples consisting of mixed microstructure of bainitic ferrite and tempered martensite phases resulted in the exceptional combination of strength and toughness.

  18. Mechanical properties of short carbon/glass fiber reinforced high mechanical performance epoxy resins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张竞; 黄培

    2009-01-01

    To research the relationship between epoxy and fiber inherent property and mechanical properties of composite,we prepared a series of composites using three kinds of high mechanical performance epoxy resins as matrices and reinforced by the same volume fraction(5%)of short carbon and glass fiber.Their mechanical properties were investigated from the perspective of chemical structure and volume shrinkage ratio of epoxy.We analyzed their tensile strength and modulus based on the mixing rule and Halpin-Tsai eq...

  19. Mechanical properties of high-strength concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtarzadeh, Alireza

    This report summarizes an experimental program conducted to investigate production techniques and mechanical properties of high strength concrete in general and to provide recommendations for using these concretes in manufacturing precast/prestressed bridge girders. Test variables included total amount and composition of cementitious material (portland cement, fly ash, and silica fume), type and brand of cement, type of silica fume (dry densified and slurry), type and brand of high-range water-reducing admixture, type of aggregate, aggregate gradation, maximum aggregate size, and curing. Tests were conducted to determine the effects of these variables on changes in compressive strength and modulus of elasticity over time, splitting tensile strength, modulus of rupture, creep, shrinkage, and absorption potential (as an indirect indicator of permeability). Also investigated were the effects of test parameters such as mold size, mold material, and end condition. Over 6,300 specimens were cast from approximately 140 mixes over a period of 3 years.

  20. Influence of the Initial Fiber Orientation on the Weld Strength in Welding of Glass Fiber Reinforced Thermoplastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Fiebig

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The welding factors are significantly lower in welding of fiber reinforced thermoplastics than in welding of unreinforced thermoplastics due to the fiber orientation in the weld. This paper presents results from investigations on the influence of the initial fiber orientation on the weld strength in hot plate and vibration welding for glass fiber reinforced polypropylene and polyamide 6. Injection molded specimens are compared to specimens with main initial fiber orientation being longitudinal and transverse to the joining direction. The results of CT analysis of the fiber orientation in the weld show the opportunity to achieve a higher weld strength by using specimens with fibers being initially oriented longitudinally to the joining direction. The influence of the initial fiber orientation in the parts to be welded on the weld strength in hot plate welding is more distinct than in vibration welding.

  1. Strength and Durability of Fly Ash-Based Fiber-Reinforced Geopolymer Concrete in a Simulated Marine Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez Rivera, Francisco Javier

    This research is aimed at investigating the corrosion durability of polyolefin fiberreinforced fly ash-based geopolymer structural concrete (hereafter referred to as GPC, in contradistinction to unreinforced geopolymer concrete referred to as simply geopolymer concrete), where cement is completely replaced by fly ash, that is activated by alkalis, sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate. The durability in a marine environment is tested through an electrochemical method for accelerated corrosion. The GPC achieved compressive strengths in excess of 6,000 psi. Fiber reinforced beams contained polyolefin fibers in the amounts of 0.1%, 0.3%, and 0.5% by volume. After being subjected to corrosion damage, the GPC beams were analyzed through a method of crack scoring, steel mass loss, and residual flexural strength testing. Fiber reinforced GPC beams showed greater resistance to corrosion damage with higher residual flexural strength. This makes GPC an attractive material for use in submerged marine structures.

  2. High tensile strength fly ash based geopolymer composite using copper coated micro steel fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ranjbar, Navid; Mehrali, Mehdi; Mehrali, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    As a ceramic-like material, geopolymers show a high quasi-brittle behavior and relatively low fracture energy. To overcome this, the addition of fibers to a brittle matrix is a well-known method to improve the flexural strength. Moreover, the success of the reinforcements is dependent on the fibe...

  3. THE STRENGTH OF REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAM ELEMENTS UNDER CYCLIC ALTERNATING LOADING AND LOW CYCLE LOAD OF CONSTANT SIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semina Yuliya Anatol'evna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The behavior of reinforced concrete elements under some types of cyclic loads is described in the paper. The main aim of the investigations is research of the stress-strain state and strength of the inclined sections of reinforced concrete beam elements in conditions of systemic impact of constructive factors and the factor of external influence. To spotlight the problem of cyclic loadings three series of tests were conducted by the author. Firstly, the analysis of the tests showed that especially cyclic alternating loading reduces the bearing capacity of reinforced concrete beams and their crack resistance by 20 % due to the fatigue of concrete and reinforcement. Thus the change of load sign creates serious changes of stress-strain state of reinforced concrete beam elements. Low cycle loads of constant sign effect the behavior of the constructions not so adversely. Secondly, based on the experimental data mathematical models of elements’ strength were obtained. These models allow evaluating the impact of each factor on the output parameter not only separately, but also in interaction with each other. Furthermore, the material spotlighted by the author describes stress-strain state of the investigated elements, cracking mechanism, changes of deflection values, the influence of mode cyclic loading during the tests. Since the data on the subject are useful and important to building practice, the ultimate aim of the tests will be working out for improvement of nonlinear calculation models of span reinforced concrete constructions taking into account the impact of these loads, and also there will be the development of engineering calculation techniques of their strength, crack resistance and deformability.

  4. Springback analysis of ultra high strength steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenma, Kenji; Kina, Futoshi; Suzuki, Wataru

    2013-12-01

    It is an inevitable trend in the automotive industry to apply more and more high strength steels and even ultra-high strength steels. Even though these materials are more difficult to process the development time of forming tools must be reduced. In order to keep the development time under control, simulation tools are used to verify the forming process in advance. At Aoi Machine Industry a project has been executed to accurately simulate springback of ultra-high strength steels in order to reduce the tool tryout time. In the first phase of the project the simulation settings were optimized based on B-Pillar model A made of Dual Phase 980. In the second phase, it was verified with B-Pillar model B whether these simulation settings were usable as general setting. Results showed that with the right settings it is very well possible to accurately simulate springback of ultra-high strength steels. In the third phase the project the stamping of a B-Pillar of Dual Phase 1180 was studied.

  5. Design of Reforma 509 with High Strength Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stuart; Whitby, William; Easton, Marc

    Reforma 509 is a high-rise building located in the heart of the Central Business District of Mexico City. The building is comprised of office, hotel, residential and parking and forms part of a cluster of tall buildings in the area. If completed today, Reforma 509 would be the tallest building in Mexico, at 238m. All of the building's gravity and lateral (wind and seismic) loads are carried by an architecturally expressed perimeter frame that is formed from highly efficient Steel Reinforced Concrete (SRC) columns coupled together by steel tube perimeter bracing. This paper investigates the implications of substituting a grade 50 (fy=345 MPa) carbon steel with a higher strength micro-alloyed grade 70 (fy=480 MPa) steel in the design of Reforma 509.

  6. Strength Regularity and Failure Criterion of High-Strength High-Performance Concrete under Multiaxial Compression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Zhen-jun; SONG Yu-pu

    2008-01-01

    Multiaxial compression tests were performed on 100 mm × 100 mm × 100 nun high-strength high-performance concrete (HSHPC) cubes and normal strength concrete (NSC) cubes. The failure modes of specimens were presented, the static compressive strengths in principal directions were measured, the influence of the stress ratios was analyzed. The experimental results show that the ultimate strengths for HSHPC and NSC under multiaxial compression are greater than the uniaxial compressive strengths at all stress ratios, and the multiaxial strength is dependent on the brittleness and stiffness of concrete, the stress state and the stress ratios. In addition, the Kupfer-Gerstle and Ottosen's failure criteria for plain HSHPC and NSC under multiaxial compressive loading were modified.

  7. Fracture resistance, two point bending strength and morphological characteristics of pulpless teeth restored with fiber-reinforced composite posts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Tibúrcio Nunes Pires

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fiber-reinforced composite posts (FRC posts have been used for tooth reinforcement after endodontic treatment. The mechanical characteristics of FRC posts can influence the clinical prognostic. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the flexural strength and fracture resistance of commercially available FRC posts Material and methods: Fourteen human single-rooted premolars with completely formed apices were selected and received endodontic treatment. The specimens were divided into two groups related to the post system: i Group A – cylindrical-conical fiber-reinforced post (White post DC, FGM, and ii group B – conical fiber-reinforced post (EXACTO, Angelus. The fracture resistance was evaluated and two point bending tests were carried out. The glass fiber characteristics and the tag penetration of the luting material into the radicular dentin structure were evaluated through scanning electronic microscopy in an illustrative way. One-way ANOVA and Tukey’s HSD test (α = 0.05 were applied. Results: The values obtained for fracture resistance and two point bending test were, respectively, 399.29 N and 109.5 N for group A, and 386.25 N and 119.5 N for group B. No significant differences in strength values among the groups were found. Conclusion: There were no significant statistical differences between the two post groups regarding to fracture strength and two point bending strength. It can be concluded that the posts selected for this study performed satisfactorily in terms of mechanical properties so that they can be used for tooth reinforcement after endodontic treatment.

  8. Flexural strengths of conventional and nanofilled fiber-reinforced composites: a three-point bending test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sfondrini, Maria Francesca; Massironi, Sarah; Pieraccini, Giulia; Scribante, Andrea; Vallittu, Pekka K; Lassila, Lippo V; Gandini, Paola

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the introduction of nanofillers on the mechanical properties of fiber-reinforced composites (FRCs) for stabilization and conservative treatment of multiple traumatized anterior teeth. In particular, the aim of the research was to point out the force levels of two sizes (diameters 0.6 and 0.9 mm) of both conventional and nanofilled FRCs. Eighty FRCs samples were divided into eight groups, each consisting of 10 specimens. Conventional (groups 1, 2, 3, and 4) and nanofilled (groups 5, 6, 7, and 8) FRC samples were evaluated. Each FRC was tested in two diameters (0.6 and 0.9 mm) and under two deflections (1 and 2 mm). Each sample was polymerized with the same halogen curing unit and then evaluated with a 3-point bending test on a universal testing machine after 48 h of dry storage. Nanofilled FRCs showed significantly higher load values than conventional FRCs. Moreover, 0.9-mm-diameter FRCs showed significantly higher load value than 0.6-mm-diameter FRCs. Specimens tested at 2-mm deflection showed significantly higher load values than those tested at 1-mm deflection. Nanofilled FRCs showed significantly higher load values than conventional FRCs. Higher flexural strength values were recorded with 1-mm deflection for both FRC tested. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Long-Term Isothermal Aging Effects on Carbon Fabric-Reinforced PMR-15 Composites: Compression Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Kenneth J.; Roberts, Gary D.; Kamvouris, John E.

    1996-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of long-term isothermal thermo-oxidative aging on the compressive properties of T-650-35 fabric reinforced PMR-15 composites. The temperatures that were studied were 204, 260, 288, 316, and 343 C. Specimens of different geometries were evaluated. Cut edge-to-surface ratios of 0.03 to 0.89 were fabricated and aged. Aging times extended to a period in excess of 15,000 hours for the lower temperature runs. The unaged and aged specimens were tested in compression in accordance with ASTM D-695. Both thin and thick (plasma) specimens were tested. Three specimens were tested at each time/temperature/geometry condition. The failure modes appeared to be initiated by fiber kinking with longitudinal, interlaminar splitting. In general, it appears that the thermo-oxidative degradation of the compression strength of the composite material may occur by both thermal (time-dependent) and oxidative (weight-loss) mechanisms. Both mechanisms appear to be specimen-thickness dependent.

  10. Experimental Study of Stress Ratio to Fatigue Life of Steel Fiber Reinforced High-Strength Concrete Beams%应力比对钢纤维高强混凝土梁疲劳寿命影响的试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李书群; 姬宏奎; 杨松

    2016-01-01

    通过对钢纤维钢筋高强混凝土梁不同应力比的弯曲疲劳荷载试验,研究了试件的疲劳寿命及疲劳强度。根据不同应力比作用下梁试件的疲劳寿命 N ,得出本次试件梁的 S - N 曲线,裂缝开展规律。应用 Miner 理论和科尔顿-多兰(Corten -Dolan)公式进行疲劳损伤计算、疲劳寿命分析及预测,最后采用断裂力学理论分析裂缝开展规律以预测疲劳寿命,并提出裂缝开展宽度计算公式。%Through the fatigue tests of steel fiber reinforced high strength concrete beams ,the impacts to the fatigue strength and fatigue life caused by the stress ratio was analized .Based on the fatigue life N under different stress ratios , this paper acquired the S -N curve of the beams .Miner theory and Colton - Dolan formula were used for fatigue damage calculation ,fatigue life analysis and prediction .Additionally the crack expanding law was carried out by the theory of fracture mechanics in order to predict the fatigue life and propose the crack width calculation formula .

  11. High-strength mineralized collagen artificial bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Zhi-Ye; Tao, Chun-Sheng; Cui, Helen; Wang, Chang-Ming; Cui, Fu-Zhai

    2014-03-01

    Mineralized collagen (MC) is a biomimetic material that mimics natural bone matrix in terms of both chemical composition and microstructure. The biomimetic MC possesses good biocompatibility and osteogenic activity, and is capable of guiding bone regeneration as being used for bone defect repair. However, mechanical strength of existing MC artificial bone is too low to provide effective support at human load-bearing sites, so it can only be used for the repair at non-load-bearing sites, such as bone defect filling, bone graft augmentation, and so on. In the present study, a high strength MC artificial bone material was developed by using collagen as the template for the biomimetic mineralization of the calcium phosphate, and then followed by a cold compression molding process with a certain pressure. The appearance and density of the dense MC were similar to those of natural cortical bone, and the phase composition was in conformity with that of animal's cortical bone demonstrated by XRD. Mechanical properties were tested and results showed that the compressive strength was comparable to human cortical bone, while the compressive modulus was as low as human cancellous bone. Such high strength was able to provide effective mechanical support for bone defect repair at human load-bearing sites, and the low compressive modulus can help avoid stress shielding in the application of bone regeneration. Both in vitro cell experiments and in vivo implantation assay demonstrated good biocompatibility of the material, and in vivo stability evaluation indicated that this high-strength MC artificial bone could provide long-term effective mechanical support at human load-bearing sites.

  12. Modelling of tension stiffening for normal and high strength concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Morten Bo; Nielsen, Mogens Peter

    1998-01-01

    Accurate calculations of the stiffness of concrete members are rare. Only in the uncracked state and the fully cracked state, where the reinforcement is near yielding, the stiffness calculations are relatively easy. The difficulties are due to the fact that concrete between cracks may give...... a substantial contribution to the stiffness, a phenomenon which is generally referred to as tension stiffening. The present paper describes a new theory of tension stiffening. It is based on a simple physical model for pure tension, which works with three different stages of crack generation. In a simplified...... form the model is extended to apply to biaxial stress fields as well. To determine the biaxial stress field, the theorem of minimum complementary elastic energy is used. The theory has been compared with tests on rods, disks, and beams of both normal and high strength concrete, and very good results...

  13. Bond Strength between Hybrid Fiber-Reinforced Lightweight Aggregate Concrete Substrate and Self-Compacting Concrete as Topping Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slamet Widodo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural performance evaluation of composite concrete slabs that were constructed using partially precast concreting system which utilized Hybrid Fiber-Reinforced Lightweight Aggregate Concrete (HyFRLWAC as stay in-place formwork and self-compacting concrete (SCC as topping layer was conducted in this research. This paper focused on determining the appropriate strength limit criteria of interface between two different concrete layers. The tensile strength was tested using pull-off test, while concrete cohesion was investigated based on modified bisurface shear test, and dual L-shaped shear test was used to determine the effect of normal force on the shear strength of concrete interface. Sample variants were designed based on the substrate surface conditions, compressive strength of the topping layer, and magnitude of perpendicular normal force acting on interface area. The substrate surfaces were prepared in as-placed and grooved conditions for tensile test, cohesion, and shear strength test. Test results indicate that tensile strength, cohesion, and shear strength of the concrete interface are affected by surface condition of the substrate, compressive strength of the topping layer, and the normal force acting perpendicularly on the concrete interface area. Proposed formulation for bond strength prediction between HyFRLWAC as substrate and SCC as topping layer is also presented in this paper.

  14. The Bendability of Ultra High strength Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazra, S. K.; Efthymiadis, P.; Alamoudi, A.; Kumar, R. L. V.; Shollock, B.; Dashwood, R.

    2016-08-01

    Automotive manufacturers have been reducing the weight of their vehicles to meet increasingly stringent environmental legislation that reflects public demand. A strategy is to use higher strength materials for parts with reduced cross-sections. However, such materials are less formable than traditional grades. The frequent result is increased processing and piece costs. 3D roll forming is a novel and flexible process: it is estimated that a quarter of the structure of a vehicle can be made with a single set of tooling. Unlike stamping, this process requires material with low work hardening rates. In this paper, we present results of ultra high strength steels that have low elongation in a tension but display high formability in bending through the suppression of the necking response.

  15. Improvement of Interfacial Shear Strength of Mendong Fiber (Fimbristylis globulosa Reinforced Epoxy Composite Using the AC Electric Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heru Suryanto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the AC electric field treatment on the interfacial shear strength of mendong fiber-reinforced epoxy composites were investigated. For this purpose, the epoxy (DGEBA with a cycloaliphatic amine curing agent was treated by the AC electric field during the curing process. The heat generated during the epoxy polymerization process was monitored. Structure of the epoxy was studied by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, and Scanning Electron Microscope, respectively. The interfacial shear strength (IFSS was also measured using a single fiber pull-out test. XRD analyzes indicated that the treatment of AC electric fields was able to form a crystalline phase of epoxy. IFSS of the mendong fiber-reinforced epoxy composites was optimum increased by 38% in the AC electric fields treatment of 750 V/cm.

  16. 基于有效耗能的钢骨超高强混凝土框架节点剩余承载力评估%Calculation and Evaluation of Steel Reinforced High Strength Concrete Frame Node Residual Bearing Capacity After Seismic Action

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常智慧; 闫长旺; 贾金青; 包联进; 王存贵; 刘波

    2016-01-01

    In order to determine the residual bearing capacity of steel reinforced super high strength concrete frame joints after earthquake, this paper established the calculation formula of the residual bearing capacity on the basis of analyzing the seismic damage model by low cycle repeated load test of 12 joint test specimens and discussing the influence of test parameters on the residual bearing capacity. Results show that the calculated results are close to the experimental results. The test parameters have little effect on the decline rate of the load bearing capacity, moreover, the residual bearing capacity increases with the increase of axial compression ratio;specimens with high hoop ratio have higher residual bearing capacity;cross type steel bearing capacity is greater than the remaining test specimens of H-shaped steel; The proposed calculation formula can better reflect the force mechanism of the node, and it can provide theoretical basis for the seismic design and the post earthquake reinforcement of this kind of joints.%为了确定地震作用下钢骨超高强混凝土框架节点的剩余承载力,通过12个节点试件的低周反复荷载试验,在分析地震损伤模型的基础上,建立了剩余承载力计算表达式,并讨论了试验参数对剩余承载力的影响。结果表明:计算结果与试验结果较为接近,试验参数对承载力的下降速率影响不大,剩余承载力随轴压比的增大而增大,配箍率大的试件剩余承载力较高,十字型钢骨试件的剩余承载力大于工字型钢骨试件;所提出的计算公式能较好反映节点的受力机理,可为该类节点的抗震设计和地震后的加固提供理论依据。

  17. Shear Bond Strength between Fiber-Reinforced Composite and Veneering Resin Composites with Various Adhesive Resin Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlJehani, Yousef A; Baskaradoss, Jagan K; Geevarghese, Amrita; AlShehry, Marey A; Vallittu, Pekka K

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the shear bond strength of different laboratory resin composites bonded to a fiber-reinforced composite substrate with some intermediate adhesive resins. Mounted test specimens of a bidirectional continuous fiber-reinforced substrate (StickNet) were randomly assigned to three equal groups. Three types of commercially available veneering resin composites - BelleGlass®, Sinfony®, and GC Gradia® were bonded to these specimens using four different adhesive resins. Half the specimens per group were stored for 24 hours; the remaining were stored for 30 days. There were 10 specimens in the test group (n). The shear bond strengths were calculated and expressed in MPa. Data were analyzed statistically, and variations in bond strength within each group were additionally evaluated by calculating the Weibull modulus. Shear bond values of those composites are influenced by the different bonding resins and different indirect composites. There was a significant difference in the shear bond strengths using different types of adhesive resins (p = 0.02) and using different veneering composites (p composite resin exhibited the lowest shear bond strength values when used with the same adhesive resins. The adhesive mode of failure was higher than cohesive with all laboratory composite resins bonded to the StickNet substructure at both storage times. Water storage had a tendency to lower the bond strengths of all laboratory composites, although the statistical differences were not significant. Within the limitations of this study, it was found that bonding of the veneering composite to bidirectional continuous fiber-reinforced substrate is influenced by the brand of the adhesive resin and veneering composite. © 2015 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  18. Deformation reinforcement theory and its application to high arch dams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In this paper,the deformation reinforcement theory(DRT) proposed by the authors is elaborated with a new definition of instability that an elasto-plastic structure is not stable if it cannot satisfy simultaneously equilibrium condition,kinematical admissibility and constitutive equations under the prescribed loading.Starting from the definition,a proof is established to the principle of minimum plastic complementary energy for failured structures.It is revealed that the principle of mini-mum plastic complementary energy results in relaxed constitutive equations,especially,yield conditions.It is demonstrated with case studies that many key issues in arch dam design,e.g.,global stability,dam-toe reinforcement,dam-toe cracking,dam-abut-ment reinforcement,can be well solved within the framework of the deformation reinforcement theory.The structural global stability can be described by the curve of the plastic complementary energy vs overloading factor.The unbalanced-forces obtained by elasto-plastic FEM can be used as the basis of analysis of global stability,dam-heel cracking,dam-toe anchorage and reinforcement of faults of high arch dams and their foundations.

  19. Improvement of Interfacial Shear Strength of Mendong Fiber (Fimbristylis globulosa) Reinforced Epoxy Composite Using the AC Electric Fields

    OpenAIRE

    Heru Suryanto; Eko Marsyahyo; Yudy Surya Irawan; Rudy Soenoko; Aminudin

    2015-01-01

    The effects of the AC electric field treatment on the interfacial shear strength of mendong fiber-reinforced epoxy composites were investigated. For this purpose, the epoxy (DGEBA) with a cycloaliphatic amine curing agent was treated by the AC electric field during the curing process. The heat generated during the epoxy polymerization process was monitored. Structure of the epoxy was studied by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and Scanning Electron Microscope...

  20. Effects of oxygen plasma treatment on interfacial shear strength and post-peak residual strength of a PLGA fiber-reinforced brushite cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maenz, Stefan; Hennig, Max; Mühlstädt, Mike; Kunisch, Elke; Bungartz, Matthias; Brinkmann, Olaf; Bossert, Jörg; Kinne, Raimund W; Jandt, Klaus D

    2016-04-01

    Biodegradable calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) are promising materials for minimally invasive treatment of bone defects. However, CPCs have low mechanical strength and fracture toughness. One approach to overcome these limitations is the modification of the CPC with reinforcing fibers. The matrix-fiber interfacial shear strength (ISS) is pivotal for the biomechanical properties of fiber-reinforced CPCs. The aim of the current study was to control the ISS between a brushite-forming CPC and degradable PLGA fibers by oxygen plasma treatment and to analyze the impact of the ISS alterations on its bulk mechanical properties. The ISS between CPC matrix and PLGA fibers, tested in a single-fiber pull-out test, increased up to 2.3-fold to max. 3.22±0.92MPa after fiber oxygen plasma treatment (100-300W, 1-10min), likely due to altered surface chemistry and morphology of the fibers. This ISS increase led to more efficient crack bridging and a subsequent increase of the post-peak residual strength at biomechanically relevant, moderate strains (up to 1%). At the same time, the work of fracture significantly decreased, possibly due to an increased proportion of fractured fibers unable to further absorb energy by frictional sliding. Flexural strength and flexural modulus were not affected by the oxygen plasma treatment. This study shows for the first time that the matrix-fiber ISS and some of the resulting mechanical properties of fiber-reinforced CPCs can be improved by chemical modifications such as oxygen plasma treatment, generating the possibility of avoiding catastrophic failures at the implant site and thus enhancing the applicability of biodegradable CPCs for the treatment of (load-bearing) bone defects.

  1. [Effect of amount of silane coupling agent on flexural strength of dental composite resins reinforced with aluminium borate whisker].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ming-yi; Zhang, Xiu-yin

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the effect of amount of silane coupling agent on flexural strength of dental composite resins reinforced with aluminium borate whisker (ABW). ABW was surface-treated with 0%, 1%, 2%, 3% and 4% silan coupling agent (γ-MPS), and mixed with resin matrix to synthesize 5 groups of composite resins. After heat-cured at 120 degrees centigrade for 1 h, specimens were tested in three-point flexure to measure strength according to ISO-4049. One specimen was selected randomly from each group and observed under scanning electron microscope (SEM). The data was analyzed with SAS 9.2 software package. The flexural strength (117.93±11.9 Mpa) of the group treated with 2% silane coupling agent was the highest, and significantly different from that of the other 4 groups (α=0.01). The amount of silane coupling agent has impact on the flexural strength of dental composite resins reinforced with whiskers; The flexual strength will be reduced whenever the amount is higher or lower than the threshold. Supported by Research Fund of Science and Technology Committee of Shanghai Municipality (08DZ2271100).

  2. Shear strength and failure form of lime-soil reinforced with wheat straw%麦秸秆加筋石灰土的抗剪强度及剪切破坏形式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李敏; 柴寿喜; 杜红普; 魏丽; 石茜

    2011-01-01

    选取整体均匀布筋、上部均匀布筋和下部均匀布筋3种布筋位置,借助三轴压缩实验,研究布筋位置对麦秸秆加筋石灰土抗剪强度的影响及3种布筋位置加筋土的破坏形式.结果表明,布筋位置主要影响土的黏聚力,对内摩擦角的影响较小,适宜的麦秸秆布筋方式可有效提高土的黏聚力;石灰土呈脆性破坏,3种布筋位置的麦秸秆加筋石灰土的破坏均在未加筋区域产生,加筋部位土的变形较小;石灰土和麦秸秆加筋石灰土的破坏面倾角均符合Mohr-Coulomb破坏准则和SMP(spatial mobilization plane)破坏准则.借助麦秸秆的高抗拉性能、空间交织作用和筋土摩擦作用,可有效约束土的变形,提高土的强度.%The reinforcement effect and strength of reinforced soil depending on a suitable reinforced position and triaxial shear test for reinforced lime-soil with wheat straw in three positions was carried out in this paper. First,reinforced position mainly affects the cohesion of reinforced soil, but has little influence on the internal friction angle; reasonable reinforced position plays an important role in improving strength of reinforced soil. Second, limesoil displays failure in brittle manner; failure of reinforced lime-soil is located in un-reinforced region; the deformation in reinforced region decreases. Third, shear angle of lime-soil and reinforced lime-soil with wheat straw conform to the Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion and SMP (spatial mobilization plane) failure criterion. By the function of high tensile strength, space interweaving and load-sharing of wheat straw, the strength and anti-deformation of reinforced soil is improved.

  3. Numerical Determination of Shear Strength of Steel Reinforced Concrete Column Strengthened by CFRP Sheets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王铁成; 余流; 王立军

    2003-01-01

    The earthquake-resistant property of reinforced concrete members depends on the interaction between reinforcing bars and surrounding concrete through bond to a large degree. In this paper a general system aimed at dealing with the failure analysis of reinforced concrete columns strengthened with carbon-fiber-reinforced plastic (CFRP) sheets including bond-slip of the anchored reinforcing bars at the foot of the columns is presented. It is based on the yield design theory with a mixed modeling of the structure, according to which the concrete material is treated as a classical two-dimensional continuum, whereas the longitudinal reinforcing bars are regarded as one-dimensional rods including bond-slip at the foot of the columns. In shear reinforced zones both the shear CFRP sheets and transverse reinforcing bars are incorporated in the analysis through a homogenization procedure and they are only in tension. The approach is then implemented numerically by means of the finite-element formulation. The numerical procedure produces accurate estimates for the loading-carrying capacity of the shear members taken as an illustrative application by correlation with the experimental results, so the proposed approach is valid.

  4. Hydrogen trapping in high-strength steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pound, B.G. [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States). Materials Research Center

    1998-10-09

    Hydrogen trapping in three high-strength steels -- AerMet 100 and AISI 4340 and H11 -- was studied using a potentiostatic pulse technique. Irreversible trapping constants (k) and hydrogen entry fluxes were determined for these alloys in 1 mol/1 acetic acid/1 mol/1 sodium acetate. The order of the k values for the three steels and two 18Ni maraging steels previously studies inversely parallels their threshold stress intensities for stress corrosion cracking (K{sub 1SCC}). Irreversible trapping in AerMet 100 varies with aging temperature and appears to depend on the type of carbide (Fe{sub 3}C or M{sub 2}C) present. For 4340 steel, k can be correlated with K{sub 1SCC} over a range of yield strengths. The change in k is consistent with a change in the principal type of irreversible trap from matrix boundaries to incoherent Fe{sub 3}C. The principal irreversible traps in H11 at high yield strengths are thought to be similar to those in 4340 steel.

  5. High-strength iron aluminide alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKamey, C.G.; Maziasz, P.J.

    1996-06-01

    Past studies have shown that binary Fe{sub 3}Al possesses low creep-rupture strength compared to many other alloys, with creep-rupture lives of less than 5 h being reported for tests conducted at 593{degrees}C and 207 MPa. The combination of poor creep resistance and low room-temperature tensile ductility due to a susceptibility to environmentally-induced dynamic hydrogen embrittlement has limited use of these alloys for structural applications despite their excellent corrosion properties. With regard to the ductility problem, alloy development efforts have produced significant improvements, with ductilities of 10-20% and tensile yield strengths as high as 500 MPa being reported. Likewise, initial improvements in creep resistance have been realized through small additions of Mo, Nb, and Zr.

  6. HIGH STRENGTH CONTROL RODS FOR NEUTRONIC REACTORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustman, B.; Losco, E.F.; Cohen, I.

    1961-07-11

    Nuclear reactor control rods comprised of highly compressed and sintered finely divided metal alloy panticles and fine metal oxide panticles substantially uniformly distributed theretbrough are described. The metal alloy consists essentially of silver, indium, cadmium, tin, and aluminum, the amount of each being present in centain percentages by weight. The oxide particles are metal oxides of the metal alloy composition, the amount of oxygen being present in certain percentages by weight and all the oxygen present being substantially in the form of metal oxide. This control rod is characterized by its high strength and resistance to creep at elevated temperatures.

  7. Monotonic and Cyclic Bond Behavior of Deformed CFRP Bars in High Strength Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Tibet Akbas

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Composite reinforcing bars (rebars that are used in concrete members with high performance (strength and durability properties could have beneficial effects on the behavior of these members. This is especially vital when a building is constructed in an aggressive environment, for instance a corrosive environment. Although tension capacity/weight (or volume ratios in composite rebars (carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP, glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP, etc. are very high when compared to steel rebars, major weaknesses in concrete members reinforced with these composite rebars may be the potential consequences of relatively poor bonding capacity. This may even be more crucial when the member is subjected to cyclic loading. Although monotonic bond tests are available in the literature, only limited experimental studies exist on bond characteristics under cyclic loading conditions. In order to fill this gap and propose preliminary design recommendations, 10 specimens of 10-mm-diameter ribbed CFRP rebars embedded in specially designed high strength concrete (f’c = 70 MPa blocks were subjected to monotonic and cyclic pullout tests. The experimental results showed that cyclically loaded CFRP rebars had less bond strength than those companion specimens loaded monotonically.

  8. High reinforcing efficacy of nicotine in non-human primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Le Foll

    Full Text Available Although tobacco appears highly addictive in humans, there has been persistent controversy about the ability of its psychoactive ingredient nicotine to induce self-administration behavior in laboratory animals, bringing into question nicotine's role in reinforcing tobacco smoking. Because of ethical difficulties in inducing nicotine dependence in naïve human subjects, we explored reinforcing effects of nicotine in experimentally-naive non-human primates given access to nicotine for periods of time up to two years. Five squirrel monkeys with no experimental history were allowed to intravenously self-administer nicotine by pressing one of two levers. The number of presses on the active lever needed to obtain each injection was fixed (fixed-ratio schedule or increased progressively with successive injections during the session (progressive-ratio schedule, allowing evaluation of both reinforcing and motivational effects of nicotine under conditions of increasing response cost. Over time, a progressive shift toward high rates of responding on the active lever, but not the inactive lever, developed. The monkeys' behavior was clearly directed toward nicotine self-administration, rather than presentation of environmental stimuli associated with nicotine injection. Both schedules of reinforcement revealed a high motivation to self-administer nicotine, with monkeys continuing to press the lever when up to 600 lever-presses were needed for each injection of nicotine. Thus, nicotine, by itself, in the absence of behavioral or drug-exposure history, is a robust and highly effective reinforcer of drug-taking behavior in a non-human primate model predictive of human behavior. This supports the use of nicotinic ligands for the treatment of smokers, and this novel preclinical model offers opportunities to test future medications for the treatment of nicotine dependence.

  9. High-strength iron aluminide alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKamey, C.G.; Marrero-Santos, Y.; Maziasz, P.J.

    1995-06-01

    Past studies have shown that binary Fe{sub 3}Al possesses low creep-rupture strength compared to many other alloys, with creep-rupture lives of less than 5 h being reported for tests conducted at 593{degrees}C and 207 MPa. The combination of poor creep resistance and low room-temperature tensile density due to a susceptibility to environmentally-induced dynamic hydrogen embrittlement has limited use of these alloys for structural applications, despite their excellent corrosion properties. Improvements in room temperature tensile ductility have been realized mainly through alloying effects, changes in thermomechanical processing to control microstructure, and by control of the specimen`s surface condition. Ductilities of 10-20% and tensile yield strengths as high as 500 MPa have been reported. In terms of creep-rupture strength, small additions of Mo, Nb, and Zr have produced significant improvements, but at the expense of weldability and room-temperature tensile ductility. Recently an alloy containing these additions, designated FA-180, was shown to exhibit a creep-rupture life of over 2000 h after a heat treatment of 1 h at 1150{degrees}C. This study presents the results of creep-rupture tests at various test temperatures and stresses and discusses the results as part of our effort to understand the strengthening mechanisms involved with heat treatment at 1150{degrees}C.

  10. Niobium Carbide-Reinforced Al Matrix Composites Produced by High-Energy Ball Milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travessa, Dilermando Nagle; Silva, Marina Judice; Cardoso, Kátia Regina

    2017-06-01

    Aluminum and its alloys are key materials for the transportation industry as they contribute to the development of lightweight structures. The dispersion of hard ceramic particles in the Al soft matrix can lead to a substantial strengthening effect, resulting in composite materials exhibiting interesting mechanical properties and inspiring their technological use in sectors like the automotive and aerospace industries. Powder metallurgy techniques are attractive to design metal matrix composites, achieving a homogeneous distribution of the reinforcement into the metal matrix. In this work, pure aluminum has been reinforced with particles of niobium carbide (NbC), an extremely hard and stable refractory ceramic. Its use as a reinforcing phase in metal matrix composites has not been deeply explored. Composite powders produced after different milling times, with 10 and 20 vol pct of NbC were produced by high-energy ball milling and characterized by scanning electron microscopy and by X-ray diffraction to establish a relationship between the milling time and size, morphology, and distribution of the particles in the composite powder. Subsequently, an Al/10 pct NbC composite powder was hot extruded into cylindrical bars. The strength of the obtained composite bars is comparable to the commercial high-strength, aeronautical-grade aluminum alloys.

  11. Cellular fiber–reinforced concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Isachenko S.; Kodzoev M.

    2016-01-01

    Methods disperse reinforcement of concrete matrix using polypropylene, glass, basalt and metal fibers allows to make the construction of complex configuration, solve the problem of frost products. Dispersed reinforcement reduces the overall weight of the structures. The fiber replaces the secondary reinforcement, reducing the volume of use of structural steel reinforcement. Cellular Fiber concretes are characterized by high-performance properties, especially increased bending strength and...

  12. Hypervelocity Impact Experiments on Epoxy/Ultra-High Molecular Weight Polyethylene Composite Panels Reinforced with Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatiwada, Suman; Laughman, Jay W.; Armada, Carlos A.; Christiansen, Eric L.; Barrera, Enrique V.

    2012-01-01

    Advanced composites with multi-functional capabilities are of great interest to the designers of aerospace structures. Polymer matrix composites (PMCs) reinforced with high strength fibers provide a lightweight and high strength alternative to metals and metal alloys conventionally used in aerospace architectures. Novel reinforcements such as nanofillers offer potential to improve the mechanical properties and add multi-functionality such as radiation resistance and sensing capabilities to the PMCs. This paper reports the hypervelocity impact (HVI) test results on ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) fiber composites reinforced with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) and boron nitride nanotubes (BNNT). Woven UHMWPE fabrics, in addition to providing excellent impact properties and high strength, also offer radiation resistance due to inherent high hydrogen content. SWCNT have exceptional mechanical and electrical properties. BNNT (figure 1) have high neutron cross section and good mechanical properties that add multi-functionality to this system. In this project, epoxy based UHMWPE composites containing SWCNT and BNNT are assessed for their use as bumper shields and as intermediate plates in a Whipple Shield for HVI resistance. Three composite systems are prepared to compare against one another: (I) Epoxy/UHMWPE, (II) Epoxy/UHMWPE/SWCNT and (III) Epoxy/UHMWPE/SWCNT/BNNT. Each composite is a 10.0 by 10.0 by 0.11 cm3 panel, consisting of 4 layers of fabrics arranged in cross-ply orientation. Both SWCNT and BNNT are 0.5 weight % of the fabric preform. Hypervelocity impact tests are performed using a two-stage light gas gun at Rice University

  13. Effect of Specimen Size on the Tensile Strength Behavior of the Plastic Waste Fiber Reinforced Soil – Lime – Rice Husk Ash Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muntohar A.S.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Improvement of tensile strength in fiber reinforced soil is an important research topic. A study has been undertaken to investigate the strength of stabilized clay-soil reinforced with randomly distributed discrete plastic waste fibers by carrying out split tensile strength test. In this study, the clay soil was stabilized with lime and rice husk ash mixtures. The main purpose of this research is to investigate the effect of specimen size to the tensile strength behavior. Testing procedure was formulated using extended ASTM C496 standard. The laboratory investigation results showed that split-tensile strength of reinforced specimens increased with increase in size. The limitations of the dataset indicate that specimen size of 70 mm in diameter is the threshold to produce reasonable representative strengths.

  14. Computer aided seismic and fire retrofitting analysis of existing high rise reinforced concrete buildings

    CERN Document Server

    Hussain, Raja Rizwan; Hasan, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    This book details the analysis and design of high rise buildings for gravity and seismic analysis. It provides the knowledge structural engineers need to retrofit existing structures in order to meet safety requirements and better prevent potential damage from such disasters as earthquakes and fires. Coverage includes actual case studies of existing buildings, reviews of current knowledge for damages and their mitigation, protective design technologies, and analytical and computational techniques. This monograph also provides an experimental investigation on the properties of fiber reinforced concrete that consists of natural fibres like coconut coir and also steel fibres that are used for comparison in both Normal Strength Concrete (NSC) and High Strength Concrete (HSC). In addition, the authors examine the use of various repair techniques for damaged high rise buildings. The book will help upcoming structural design engineers learn the computer aided analysis and design of real existing high rise buildings ...

  15. Advanced high strength steels for automotive industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galán, J.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The car industry is facing pressure because of the growing demand for more fuel-efficient passenger cars. In order to limit energy consumption and air pollution the weight of the carbody has to be reduced. At the same time, high levels of safety have to be guaranteed. In this situation, the choice of material becomes a key decision in car design. As a response to the requirements of the automotive sector, high strength steels and advanced high strength steels have been developed by the steel industry. These modern steel grades offer an excellent balance of low cost, light weight and mechanical properties.

    La industria del automóvil se enfrenta a una creciente demanda de vehículos de pasajeros más eficientes. Con el fin de disminuir el consumo de energía y la contaminación ambiental, el peso del vehículo tiene que ser reducido, al mismo tiempo que se garantizan altos niveles de seguridad. Ante esta situación, la elección de material se convierte en una decisión crucial en el diseño del vehículo. Como respuesta a las necesidades del sector automovilístico, nuevos aceros avanzados y de alta resistencia, han sido desarrollados por la industria siderúrgica. Dichos tipos de acero ofrecen un excelente equilibrio de precio, peso y propiedades mecánicas.

  16. Influence of Basalt FRP Mesh Reinforcement on High-Performance Concrete Thin Plates at High Temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulin, Thomas; Lauridsen, Dan H.; Hodicky, Kamil;

    2015-01-01

    A basalt fiber–reinforced polymer (BFRP) mesh was introduced as reinforcement in high-performance concrete (HPC) thin plates (20–30 mm) for implementation in precast sandwich panels. An experimental program studied the BFRP mesh influence on HPC exposed to high temperature. A set of standard furn...

  17. Strength Design of Reinforced Concrete Hydraulic Structures; Report 3, T-Wall Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Concrete Reinforcing Steel Institute. 1978. CRSI Handbook, 3rd ed. Federation Internationale de la Precontrainte (FIP). 1974. "Recommen- dations for... concrete cover to the stirrups and main steel of a bridge floor beam that has been completely spalled off due to severe steel corrosion. 12. In this...Corrosion damage to a bridge floor beam C6 Tensile crack exposure tests by WES 13. Two series of reinforced concrete beams were made and exposed to

  18. Corrosion Effects on the Strength Properties of Steel Fibre Reinforced Concrete Containing Slag and Corrosion Inhibitor

    OpenAIRE

    Sivakumar Anandan; Sounthararajan Vallarasu Manoharan; Thirumurugan Sengottian

    2014-01-01

    Corrosion in steel can be detrimental in any steel rebar reinforced concrete as well as in the case of steel fibre reinforced concrete. The process of corrosion occurring in steel fibre incorporated concrete subjected to corrosive environment was systematically evaluated in this study. Concrete specimens were prepared with steel fibre inclusions at 1.5% Vf (volume fraction) of concrete and were added in slag based concrete (containing manufactured sand) and replaced with cement at 20%, 40%, ...

  19. Investigation of nano-talc as a filling material and a reinforcing agent in high density polyethylene (HDPE)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Nanchun; MA Lei; ZHANG Tao

    2006-01-01

    An experiment of producing high density polyethylene (HDPE) nano-composite filled with 4wt.% talc was presented. Acting as filler and a reinforcing agent in the HDPE, talc powder, sized at around 5 μm, was surface-treated with aluminum diethylene glycol dinitrate coupling agent before adding to the HDPE. Analyses of the reinforced HDPE nano-composite show significant improvement in its mechanical properties including, tensile strength (>26 MPa), break elongation (<1.1%), flexural strength (>22 MPa), and friction coefficients<0.11. The results demonstrate that, after surface-treated, talc can be used as a promising filling material and a reinforcing agent in making HDPE nano-composite.

  20. EVALUATION AND APPLICATION OF THE INVASIVE WEED MIKANIA MICRANTHA AS AN ALTERNATIVE REINFORCEMENT IN RECYCLED HIGH DENSITY POLYETHYLENE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Long Chen,

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study Mikania micrantha particle (MP and fiber (MF were added to recycled high density polyethylene (rHDPE for producing natural fiber (or particle reinforced plastic composites (NFRPC by the flat-platen pressing process. The results showed that the flexural strength and stiffness of NFRPC were significantly improved through incorporating M. micrantha particle and fiber. Higher aspect ratio of reinforcement displayed stronger mechanical properties. The vertical density profile in composites significantly influenced the mechanical properties of NFRPC. A conventional V-shaped profile and a uniform vertical density profile (homo-profile were observed in MP and MF based NFRPC, respectively. Additionally, with increasing lignocellulose content, a more uniform vertical density profile and higher wood screw holding strength were observed. These results indicate M. micrantha particle and fiber are excellent reinforcements for NFRPC applications.

  1. Vibration strength of squeeze cast aluminium components with and without fibre reinforcement. Pt. 1. Schwingfestigkeit von fluessiggepressten Aluminiumbauteilen mit und ohne Faserverstaerkung. T. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heuler, P. (Industrieanlagen-Betriebsgesellschaft mbH (IABG), Ottobrunn (Germany))

    1992-05-01

    The essentials of squeeze casting and spects of light metal reinforcement with ceramic fibres are described. A vehicle chassis component and disks cast separately for material sampling are used to discuss strength properties of squeeze cast components with and without fibre reinforcement. It was shown that for technological reasons it is not possible to assume that strength properties of a material sample apply to the component as well. (orig.).

  2. Finite element analysis of Polymer reinforced CRC columns under close-in detonation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgaard, Benjamin

    2007-01-01

    Polymer reinforced Compact Reinforced Composite, PCRC, is a Fiber reinforced Densified Small Particle system, FDSP, combined with a high strength longitudinal flexural rebar arrangement laced together with polymer lacing to avoid shock initiated disintegration of the structural element under blast...

  3. Mechanical Characterization of High-Performance Steel-Fiber Reinforced Cement Composites with Self-Healing Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Joo Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The crack self-healing behavior of high-performance steel-fiber reinforced cement composites (HPSFRCs was investigated. High-strength deformed steel fibers were employed in a high strength mortar with very fine silica sand to decreasing the crack width by generating higher interfacial bond strength. The width of micro-cracks, strongly affected by the type of fiber and sand, clearly produced the effects on the self-healing behavior. The use of fine silica sand in HPSFRCs with high strength deformed steel fibers successfully led to rapid healing owing to very fine cracks with width less than 20 µm. The use of very fine silica sand instead of normal sand produced 17%–19% higher tensile strength and 51%–58% smaller width of micro-cracks.

  4. Corner strength enhancement of high strength cold-formed steel at normal room and elevated temperatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ju CHEN; Wei-liang JIN

    2008-01-01

    In this study,the suitability of current design methods for the 0.2% proof yield strength of the comer regions for high strength cold-formed steel at norrnal room temperature was investigated.The current standard predictions are generally accurate for outer comer specimen but conservative for inner comer specimen.Based on the experimental results,an analytical model to predict the comer strength of high strength cold-formed steel at normal room temperature was also proposed.The comparison indicated that the proposed model predicted well the comer strength of high strength cold-formed steel not only at normal room temperature but also at elevated temperatures.It is shown that the predictions obtained from the proposed model agree well with the test results.Generally the comer strength enhancement of high strength cold-formed steel decreases when the temperature increases.

  5. Time-Dependent Stress Rupture Strength Degradation of Hi-Nicalon Fiber-Reinforced Silicon Carbide Composites at Intermediate Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Roy M.

    2016-01-01

    The stress rupture strength of silicon carbide fiber-reinforced silicon carbide composites with a boron nitride fiber coating decreases with time within the intermediate temperature range of 700 to 950 degree Celsius. Various theories have been proposed to explain the cause of the time-dependent stress rupture strength. The objective of this paper is to investigate the relative significance of the various theories for the time-dependent strength of silicon carbide fiber-reinforced silicon carbide composites. This is achieved through the development of a numerically based progressive failure analysis routine and through the application of the routine to simulate the composite stress rupture tests. The progressive failure routine is a time-marching routine with an iterative loop between a probability of fiber survival equation and a force equilibrium equation within each time step. Failure of the composite is assumed to initiate near a matrix crack and the progression of fiber failures occurs by global load sharing. The probability of survival equation is derived from consideration of the strength of ceramic fibers with randomly occurring and slow growing flaws as well as the mechanical interaction between the fibers and matrix near a matrix crack. The force equilibrium equation follows from the global load sharing presumption. The results of progressive failure analyses of the composite tests suggest that the relationship between time and stress-rupture strength is attributed almost entirely to the slow flaw growth within the fibers. Although other mechanisms may be present, they appear to have only a minor influence on the observed time-dependent behavior.

  6. Influence of different catilever extensions and glass or polyamaramid reinforcement fibers on fracture strength of implant-supported temporary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Colán Guzmán

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In long-term oral rehabilitation treatments, resistance of provisional crowns is a very important factor, especially in cases of an extensive edentulous distal space. The aim of this laboratorial study was to evaluate an acrylic resin cantilever-type prosthesis regarding the flexural strength of its in-balance portion as a function of its extension variation and reinforcement by two types of fibers (glass and polyaramid, considering that literature is not conclusive on this subject. Each specimen was composed by 3 total crowns at its mesial portion, each one attached to an implant component (abutment, while the distal portion (cantilever had two crowns. Each specimen was constructed by injecting acrylic resin into a two-part silicone matrix placed on a metallic base. In each specimen, the crowns were fabricated with either acrylic resin (control group or acrylic resin reinforced by glass (Fibrante, Angelus or polyaramide (Kevlar 49, Du Pont fibers. Compression load was applied on the cantilever, in a point located 7, 14 or 21 mm from the distal surface of the nearest crown with abutment, to simulate different extensions. The specimen was fixed on the metallic base and the force was applied until fracture in a universal test machine. Each one of the 9 sub-groups was composed by 10 specimens. Flexural strength means (in kgf for the distances of 7, 14 and 21 mm were, respectively, 28.07, 8.27 and 6.39 for control group, 31.89, 9.18 and 5.16 for Kevlar 49 and 30.90, 9.31 and 6.86 for Fibrante. Data analysis ANOVA showed statistically significant difference (p<0.05 only regarding cantilever extension. Tukey's test detected significantly higher flexural strength for the 7 mm-distance, followed by 14 and 21 mm. Fracture was complete only on specimens of non-reinforced groups.

  7. Use of high energy ball milling to study the role of graphene nanoplatelets and carbon nanotubes reinforced magnesium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashad, Muhammad, E-mail: rashadphy87@gmail.com [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); National Engineering Research Center for Magnesium Alloys, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Pan, Fusheng, E-mail: fspan@cqu.edu.cn [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); National Engineering Research Center for Magnesium Alloys, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Chongqing Academy of Science and Technology, Chongqing, Chongqing 401123 (China); Zhang, Jianyue [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); National Engineering Research Center for Magnesium Alloys, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Asif, Muhammad [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2015-10-15

    Graphene nanoplatelets (few layer graphene) and carbon nanotubes were used as reinforcement fillers to enhance the mechanical properties of AZ31 magnesium alloy through high energy ball milling, sintering, and hot extrusion techniques. Experimental results revealed that tensile fracture strain of AZ31 magnesium alloy was enhanced by +49.6% with 0.3 wt.% graphene nanoplatelets compared to −8.3% regression for 0.3 wt.% carbon nanotubes. The tensile strength of AZ31 magnesium alloy was decreased (−11.2%) with graphene nanoplatelets addition, while increased (+7.7%) with carbon nanotubes addition. Unlike tensile test, compression tests showed different trend. The compression strength of carbon nanotubes-AZ31 composite was +51.2% greater than AZ31 magnesium alloy as compared to +0.6% increase for graphene nanoplatelets. The compressive fracture strain of carbon nanotubes-AZ31 composite was decreased (−14.1%) while no significant change in fracture strain of graphene nanoplatelets-AZ31 composite was observed. The X-ray diffraction results revealed that addition of reinforcement particles weaken the basal textures which affect the composite's yield asymmetry. Microstructure evaluation revealed the absence of intermetallic phase formation between reinforcements and matrix. The carbon reinforcements in AZ31 magnesium alloy dissolve and isolate β phases throughout the matrix. The increased fracture strain and mechanical strength of graphene nanoplatelets and carbon nanotubes-AZ31 composites are attributed to large specific surface area of graphene nanoplatelets and stiffer nature of carbon nanotubes respectively. - Highlights: • Powder metallurgy method was used to fabricate magnesium composites. • The AZ31-carbon materials composite were blended using ball milling. • The reinforcement particles weaken the basal texture which affects yield asymmetry of composites. • AZ31-graphene nanoplatelets composite exhibited impressive increase in tensile elongation

  8. High strength air-dried aerogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronado, Paul R.; Satcher, Jr., Joe H.

    2012-11-06

    A method for the preparation of high strength air-dried organic aerogels. The method involves the sol-gel polymerization of organic gel precursors, such as resorcinol with formaldehyde (RF) in aqueous solvents with R/C ratios greater than about 1000 and R/F ratios less than about 1:2.1. Using a procedure analogous to the preparation of resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) aerogels, this approach generates wet gels that can be air dried at ambient temperatures and pressures. The method significantly reduces the time and/or energy required to produce a dried aerogel compared to conventional methods using either supercritical solvent extraction. The air dried gel exhibits typically less than 5% shrinkage.

  9. Effect of Reinforcement Using Stainless Steel Mesh, Glass Fibers, and Polyethylene on the Impact Strength of Heat Cure Denture Base Resin - An In Vitro Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, H B Mallikarjuna; Shaik, Sharaz; Sachdeva, Harleen; Khare, Sumit; Haralur, Satheesh B; Roopa, K T

    2015-01-01

    Background: The impact strength of denture base resin is of great concern and many approaches have been made to strengthen acrylic resin dentures. The objective of this study was to compare the impact strength of the denture base resin with and without reinforcement and to evaluate the impact strength of denture base resin when reinforced with stainless steel mesh, glass fiber, and polyethylene fibers in the woven form. Materials and Methods: The specimens (maxillary denture bases) were fabricated using a standard polyvinylsiloxane mold with conventional heat cured polymethyl methacrylate resin. The specimens were divided into four groups (n = 10). Group I specimens or control group were not reinforced. Group II specimens were reinforced with stainless steel mesh and Group III and Group IV specimens were reinforced with three percent by weight of glass fibers and polyethylene fibers in weave form respectively. All the specimens were immersed in water for 1-week before testing. The impact strength was measured with falling weight impact testing machine. One-way analysis of variance and Tukey’s post-hoc test were used for statistical analysis. Results: Highest impact strength values were exhibited by the specimens reinforced with polyethylene fibers followed by glass fibers, stainless steel mesh, and control group. Conclusions: Reinforcement of maxillary complete dentures showed a significant increase in impact strength when compared to unreinforced dentures. Polyethylene fibers exhibit better impact strength followed by glass fibers and stainless steel mesh. By using pre-impregnated glass and polyethylene fibers in woven form (prepregs) the impact strength of the denture bases can be increased effectively. PMID:26124604

  10. Fatigue strength of welded connections made of very high strength cast and rolled steels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijpers, R.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Although Very High Strength Steels (VHSS) with nominal strengths up to 1100 MPa have been available on the market for many years, the use of these steels in the civil engineering industry is still uncommon. The main objective of the research is the determination of the fatigue strength of welded con

  11. Experimental Study on Flexural Behavior of Post-Tensioning Bonded Partially Prestressed Ultra-High Strength Concrete Beams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinqing Jia; Gang Meng

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the results of four partially prestressed ultra⁃high strength concrete beams in flexure. The test results are used to evaluate the effects of prestressing tendon depth and area on flexure behavior of specimen beams. The test results indicate that:the cracking load, yielding load, peak load and stiffness post⁃cracking of specimen beams are enhanced by reducing prestressing tendon depth or increasing prestressing tendon area, and the flexural ductility is improved by increasing prestressing tendon depth or reducing prestressing tendon area. The effect of complex reinforcement index considering the strength of the equivalence principle and the reinforcement position on loading levels under serviceability limit state, flexural strength and displacement ductility factor are studied. The influence coefficient of prestressing tendon kp is introduced in the complex reinforcement index. As the complex reinforcement index increases, the loading levels under serviceability limit state and flexural strength increases linearly, and the displacement ductility factor decreases linearly. The test results also verify the conventional beam flexural theory based on the plane cross⁃section assumption for predicting ultimate flexural strength of partially prestressed ultra⁃high strength concrete beams is valid. After the introduction of the coefficient kp , the calculation method of cracks in code for design of concrete structure in china are appropriated for the specimen beams.

  12. HANDLING ANISOTROPY AND STRENGTH OF FIBER-REINFORCED PLASTIC VIA LOCAL INHIBITION OF THE CURING PROCESS

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The authors study the possibility of increasing the polymer composite material strength, of reducing anisotropy of cross-breaking strength. The effect is achieved due to local inhibition of prepreg package. During the prepreg curing process by the vacuum-autoclave method, the inlay gelling action occurs later than in three-layer prepreg packets though they are located between them. The processes of increasing cross-breaking strength and of reducing the anisotropy are associated with the possi...

  13. Novel hybrid columns made of ultra-high performance concrete and fiber reinforced polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohrevand, Pedram

    The application of advanced materials in infrastructure has grown rapidly in recent years mainly because of their potential to ease the construction, extend the service life, and improve the performance of structures. Ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC) is one such material considered as a novel alternative to conventional concrete. The material microstructure in UHPC is optimized to significantly improve its material properties including compressive and tensile strength, modulus of elasticity, durability, and damage tolerance. Fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composite is another novel construction material with excellent properties such as high strength-to-weight and stiffness-to-weight ratios and good corrosion resistance. Considering the exceptional properties of UHPC and FRP, many advantages can result from the combined application of these two advanced materials, which is the subject of this research. The confinement behavior of UHPC was studied for the first time in this research. The stress-strain behavior of a series of UHPC-filled fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) tubes with different fiber types and thicknesses were tested under uniaxial compression. The FRP confinement was shown to significantly enhance both the ultimate strength and strain of UHPC. It was also shown that existing confinement models are incapable of predicting the behavior of FRP-confined UHPC. Therefore, new stress-strain models for FRP-confined UHPC were developed through an analytical study. In the other part of this research, a novel steel-free UHPC-filled FRP tube (UHPCFFT) column system was developed and its cyclic behavior was studied. The proposed steel-free UHPCFFT column showed much higher strength and stiffness, with a reasonable ductility, as compared to its conventional reinforced concrete (RC) counterpart. Using the results of the first phase of column tests, a second series of UHPCFFT columns were made and studied under pseudo-static loading to study the effect of column

  14. Kekuatan transversa resin akrilik hybrid setelah penambahan glass fiber dengan metode berbeda (The transverse strength of the hybrid acrylic resin after glass fiber reinforcement with different method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intan Nirwana

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Different types of fibers have been added to acrylic resin materials to improve their mechanical properties. The purpose of this study was to know the transverse strength of the hybrid acrylic resins after glass fiber reinforcement with difference method. This study used rectangular specimens of 65 mm in length, 10 mm in width and 2.5 mm in thickness. There were 3 groups consisting of 6 specimens each, hybrid acrylic resin without glass fiber (control, glass fibers dipped in methyl methacrylate monomer for 15 minutes before being reinforced into hybrid acrylic resin (first method, glass fibers reinforced into a mixture of polymer powder and monomer liquid after the hybrid acrylic resin was mixed directly (second method. All of the specimens were cured for 20 minutes at 100° C. Transverse strength was measured using Autograph. The statistical analyses using one way ANOVA and LSD test showed that there were significant differences in transverse strength (p < 0.05 among the groups. The means of transverse strength were 94,94; 118,27; and 116,34 MPa. It meant that glass fibers reinforcement into hybrid acrylic resin enhanced their transverse strength compared with control. Glass fiber reinforcement into hybrid acrylic resin with differenciate method didn’t enhance their transverse strength.

  15. Further evaluation of the high-probability instructional sequence with and without programmed reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder, David A; Majdalany, Lina; Sturkie, Latasha; Smeltz, Lindsay

    2015-09-01

    In 2 experiments, we examined the effects of programmed reinforcement for compliance with high-probability (high-p) instructions on compliance with low-probability (low-p) instructions. In Experiment 1, we compared the high-p sequence with and without programmed reinforcement (i.e., edible items) for compliance with high-p instructions. Results showed that the high-p sequence increased compliance with low-p instructions only when compliance with high-p instructions was followed by reinforcement. In Experiment 2, we examined the role of reinforcer quality by delivering a lower quality reinforcer (praise) for compliance with high-p instructions. Results of Experiment 2 showed that the high-p sequence with lower quality reinforcement did not improve compliance with low-p instructions; the addition of a higher quality reinforcer (i.e., edible items) contingent on compliance with high-p instructions did increase compliance with low-p instructions.

  16. Evaluation of the endodontic treatment influence on the bond strength of fiber posts reinforced by a restorative composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Ferreira

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective: Fiber posts are widely used to increase the mechanical strength of the restorations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bond strength of fiber posts reinforced by a restorative composite to radicular dentin on its cervical, middle and apical thirds, regarding to post preparation prior or posterior to the endodontic treatment. Materials and methods: Thirty bovine incisors were used, which had their debris removed, washed in tap water, and stored frozen. The samples were divided into two groups (n = 15 – according to the treatment applied previously to the installation of the posts: Group 1 – root canal obturation followed by root canal preparation for fiber posts bonding; and Group 2 – fiber posts preparation followed by root canal obturation. The posts were cemented and the roots were cut on their cervical (C, medium (M and apical (A thirds – for push out test application. Bond strength was calculated in MPa and data were statistically analyzed by Anova and Tukey test (p < 0.05. Results: The mean values were (MPa ± SD: G1C – 4.0 ± 6.0; G1M – 3.5 ± 2.9; G1A – 7.2 ± 6.3; G2C – 12.7 ± 8.1; G2M – 11.6 ± 10.2; G2A – 6.5 ± 8.1. The cervical and middle thirds of group 2 had the highest mean values, showing significant statistically difference compared to group 1. For apical third, no significant statistically differences were found among groups. When the cervical, middle and apical thirds were analysed separately, no significant statistically differences were found. Conclusion: The post preparation prior to root canal obturation increased the bond strength of fiber posts reinforced by a restorative composite.

  17. Mechanical properties and in vivo performance of load-bearing fiber-reinforced composite intramedullary nails with improved torsional strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, N; Strandberg, N; Zhao, D S; Mattila, R; Paracchini, L; Vallittu, P K; Aro, H T

    2014-12-01

    Fiber-reinforced composites (FRC) could be feasible materials for fracture fixation devices if the mechanical properties of the composites are congruent with the local structural properties of bone. In a recently developed FRC implant, bisphenol A dimethacrylate (BisGMA) and triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) resin was reinforced with unidirectional E-glass fibers. The addition of a braided glass fiber sleeving to the unidirectional fibers increased the torsional strength (99.5MPa) of the FRC implants at the expense of the flexural strength (602.0MPa). The flexural modulus was 15.3GPa. Two types of FRC intramedullary nails were prepared; first type was FRC as such, second type was FRC with a surface layer of bioactive glass (BG) granules. Experimental oblong subtrochanteric defect was created in 14 rabbits. The defect, which reduced the torsional strength of the bones by 66%, was fixed with an FRC intramedullary nail of either type. The contralateral intact femur served as the control. This model simulated surgical stabilization of bone metastasis. After 12 weeks of follow-up, the femurs were harvested and analyzed by torsional testing, micro-CT and hard tissue histology. Healed undisplaced peri-implant fractures were noticed in half of the animals irrespective of the type of FRC implant. Torsional testing showed no significant differences between the implantation groups. The torsional strength of the bones stabilized by either type of FRC implant was 83% of that of the contralateral femurs. In histological analysis, no implant debris and no adverse tissue reactions were observed. While the mechanical properties of the modified FRCs were suboptimal, the FRC intramedullary nails supported the femurs without structural failure, even in the cases of peri-implant fractures.

  18. Evaluation of size effect on shear strength of reinforced concrete deep beams using refined strut-and-tie model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G Appa Rao; R Sundaresan

    2012-02-01

    This paper reports on development of size-dependent shear strength expression for reinforced concrete deep beams using refined strut-and-tie model. The generic form of the size effect law has been retained considering the merits of Siao’s model and modified Bazant’s size effect law using the large experimental data base reported in the literature. The proposed equation for predicting the shear strength of deep beams incorporates the compressive strength of concrete, ratios of the longitudinal and the web reinforcement, shear span-to-depth ratio and the effective depth.

  19. Methods for producing reinforced carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhifen; Wen, Jian Guo; Lao, Jing Y.; Li, Wenzhi

    2008-10-28

    Methods for producing reinforced carbon nanotubes having a plurality of microparticulate carbide or oxide materials formed substantially on the surface of such reinforced carbon nanotubes composite materials are disclosed. In particular, the present invention provides reinforced carbon nanotubes (CNTs) having a plurality of boron carbide nanolumps formed substantially on a surface of the reinforced CNTs that provide a reinforcing effect on CNTs, enabling their use as effective reinforcing fillers for matrix materials to give high-strength composites. The present invention also provides methods for producing such carbide reinforced CNTs.

  20. Shear Bond Strength of Resin Buttons to Lithium Disilicate and Leucite Reinforced Feldspathic Restorations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    restorative materials and found that self- adhesive resins could provide clinically acceptable bond strengths to enamel, restorative resin composite and...Comparative tensile strengths of brackets bonded to porcelain with orthodontic adhesive and porcelain repair systems . Am J Orthod Dentofac Orthop (94): 421...sample of each group was photographed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). 1) Group A: silane coupling agent, light cured composite , and

  1. Strength analysis of laser welded lap joint for ultra high strength steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Young Cheol; Kim, Cheol Hee; Cho, Young Tae; Jung, Yoon Gyo

    2013-12-01

    Several industries including the automotive industry have recently applied the process of welding high strength steel. High strength steel is steel that is harder than normal high strength steel, making it much stronger and stiffer. HSS can be formed in pieces that can be up to 10 to 15 percent thinner than normal steel without sacrificing strength, which enables weight reduction and improved fuel economy. Furthermore, HSS can be formed into complex shapes that can be welded into structural areas. This study is based on previous experiments and is aimed at establishing the stress distribution for laser welded high strength steel. Research on the stress distribution for laser welded high strength steel is conducted by using Solid Works, a program that analyzes the stress of a virtual model. In conclusion, we found that the stress distribution is changed depending on the shape of welded lap joint. In addition, the Influence of the stress distribution on welded high strength steel can be used to standard for high energy welding of high strength steel, and we can also predict the region in welded high strength steel that may cracked.

  2. Use of steel fibres recovered from waste tyres as reinforcement in concrete: pull-out behaviour, compressive and flexural strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiello, M A; Leuzzi, F; Centonze, G; Maffezzoli, A

    2009-06-01

    The increasing amount of waste tyres worldwide makes the disposition of tyres a relevant problem to be solved. In the last years over three million tons of waste tyres were generated in the EU states [ETRA, 2006. Tyre Technology International - Trends in Tyre Recycling. http://www.etra-eu.org]; most of them were disposed into landfills. Since the European Union Landfill Directive (EU Landfill, 1999) aims to significantly reduce the landfill disposal of waste tyres, the development of new markets for the tyres becomes fundamental. Recently some research has been devoted to the use of granulated rubber and steel fibres recovered from waste tyres in concrete. In particular, the concrete obtained by adding recycled steel fibres evidenced a satisfactory improvement of the fragile matrix, mostly in terms of toughness and post-cracking behaviour. As a consequence RSFRC (recycled steel fibres reinforced concrete) appears a promising candidate for both structural and non-structural applications. Within this context a research project was undertaken at the University of Salento (Italy) aiming to investigate the mechanical behaviour of concrete reinforced with RSF (recycled steel fibres) recovered from waste tyres by a mechanical process. In the present paper results obtained by the experimental work performed up to now are reported. In order to evaluate the concrete-fibres bond characteristics and to determine the critical fibre length, pull-out tests were initially carried out. Furthermore compressive strength of concrete was evaluated for different volume ratios of added RSF and flexural tests were performed to analyze the post-cracking behaviour of RSFRC. For comparison purposes, samples reinforced with industrial steel fibres (ISF) were also considered. Satisfactory results were obtained regarding the bond between recycled steel fibres and concrete; on the other hand compressive strength of concrete seems unaffected by the presence of fibres despite their irregular

  3. Strength and Deformability of Fiber Reinforced Cement Paste on the Basis of Basalt Fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yury Barabanshchikov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The research object of the paper is cement paste with the particulate reinforcement of basalt fiber. Regardless of fibers’ length at the same fiber cement mix workability and cement consumption equality compressive solidity of the specimens is reduced with increasing fiber content. This is due to the necessity to increase the water-cement ratio to obtain a given workability. The flexural stability of the specimens with increasing fiber content increments in the same conditions. There is an optimum value of the fibers’ dosage. That is why stability has a maximum when crooking. The basaltic fiber particulate reinforcement usage can abruptly increase the cement paste level limiting extensibility, which is extremely important in terms of crack resistance.

  4. Aluminum/steel wire composite plates exhibit high tensile strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-01-01

    Composite plate of fine steel wires imbedded in an aluminum alloy matrix results in a lightweight material with high tensile strength. Plates have been prepared having the strength of titanium with only 85 percent of its density.

  5. Strength and deformability of compressed concrete elements with various types of non-metallic fiber and rods reinforcement under static loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevskii, A. V.; Baldin, I. V.; Kudyakov, K. L.

    2015-01-01

    Adoption of modern building materials based on non-metallic fibers and their application in concrete structures represent one of the important issues in construction industry. This paper presents results of investigation of several types of raw materials selected: basalt fiber, carbon fiber and composite fiber rods based on glass and carbon. Preliminary testing has shown the possibility of raw materials to be effectively used in compressed concrete elements. Experimental program to define strength and deformability of compressed concrete elements with non-metallic fiber reinforcement and rod composite reinforcement included design, manufacture and testing of several types of concrete samples with different types of fiber and longitudinal rod reinforcement. The samples were tested under compressive static load. The results demonstrated that fiber reinforcement of concrete allows increasing carrying capacity of compressed concrete elements and reducing their deformability. Using composite longitudinal reinforcement instead of steel longitudinal reinforcement in compressed concrete elements insignificantly influences bearing capacity. Combined use of composite rod reinforcement and fiber reinforcement in compressed concrete elements enables to achieve maximum strength and minimum deformability.

  6. Flexural Strength of Normal Beam by Replacing Tension Reinforcement as Waste Tyre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Hankare , A. N. Patil, A. R. Deshmukh

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The disposal of waste tyres has facing major problems in India. The growing problem of waste tyre disposal in the India can be alleviated if new recycling routes can be found for the surplus tyres. It is estimated that 1.2 billions of waste tyre rubber produced globally in a year. It is estimated that 11% of postconsumer tyres are exported and 27% are sent to landfill, stockpiled or dumped illegally and only 4% is used for civil engineering projects. Hence efforts have been taken to identify the potential application of waste tyres in civil engineering projects. In this essence, our present study aims to study the use of waste tyre rubber as tension reinforcement in beam. 6 numbers of beams were cast 3 of them are 10mm x15mm flat size scrap tyre rubber as reinforcement instead of steel in tension zone and other with conventional steel. The experiments were carried out to determine flexural behavior of waste tyre reinforced concrete beam on 28 days. The result of use of waste tyre rubber as compared to normal beam are analyzed and compared.

  7. The effect of silanated and impregnated fiber on the tensile strength of E-glass fiber reinforced composite retainer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niswati Fathmah Rosyida

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fiber reinforced composite (FRC is can be used in dentistry as an orthodontic retainer. FRC  still has a limitations because of to  a weak bonding between fibers and matrix. Purpose: This research was aimed to evaluate the effect of silane as coupling agent and fiber impregnation on the tensile strength of E-glass FRC. Methods: The samples of this research were classified into two groups each of which consisted of three subgroups, namely the impregnated fiber group (original, 1x addition of silane, 2x addition of silane and the non-impregnated fiber group (original, 1x addition of silane, 2x addition of silane. The tensile strength was measured by a universal testing machine. The averages of the tensile strength in all groups then were compared by using Kruskal Wallis and Mann Whitney post hoc tests. Results: The averages of the tensile strength (MPa in the impregnated fiber group can be known as follow; original impregnated fiber (26.60±0.51, 1x addition of silane (43.38±4.42, and 2x addition of silane (36.22±7.23. The averages of tensile strength (MPa in the non-impregnated fiber group can also be known as follow; original non-impregnated fiber (29.38±1.08, 1x addition of silane (29.38±1.08, 2x addition of silane (12.48±2.37. Kruskal Wallis test showed that there was a significant difference between the impregnated fiber group and the non-impregnated fiber group (p<0.05. Based on the results of post hoc test, it is also known that the addition of silane in the impregnated fiber group had a significant effect on the increasing of the tensile strength of E-glass FRC (p<0.05, while the addition of silane in the non-impregnated fiber group had a significant effect on the decreasing of the tensile strength of E-glass FRC. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the addition of silane in the non-silanated fiber group can increase the tensile strength of E-glass FRC, but the addition of silane in the silanated fiber group can

  8. HANDLING ANISOTROPY AND STRENGTH OF FIBER-REINFORCED PLASTIC VIA LOCAL INHIBITION OF THE CURING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Alexander E. Protsenko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors study the possibility of increasing the polymer composite material strength, of reducing anisotropy of cross-breaking strength. The effect is achieved due to local inhibition of prepreg package. During the prepreg curing process by the vacuum-autoclave method, the inlay gelling action occurs later than in three-layer prepreg packets though they are located between them. The processes of increasing cross-breaking strength and of reducing the anisotropy are associated with the possibility of free shrinkage of three-layer prepreg packets.

  9. High Strength, Weldable Precipitation Aged Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Alexander D.

    1987-03-01

    The family of plate steels represented by ASTM Specification A7101 is finding increasing applications. These low carbon, Cu-Ni-Cr-Mo-Cb, copper precipitation hardened steels have been identified by a number of designations over the years. During early development in the late 1960's and first commercial production in 1970, the steels were known as IN-787 (trademark of International Nickel Company).2 ASTM specifications were subsequently developed for structural (A710) and pressure vessel (A736) applications over ten years ago. More recent interest and application of this family of steels by the U.S. Navy has lead to development of a military specification MIL-S-24645 (SH),3 also initially known as "HSLA-80." Significant tonnage is being produced for the U.S. Navy as a replacement for HY80 (MIL-S-16216) in cruiser deck, bulkhead and hull applications.4 In these applications, the enhanced weldability and requirement of no preheat at this high strength and toughness level has been the main motivation for its use. Over the past 15 years, A710 type steels have also been used in a variety of applications, including off-shore platforms, pressure vessels, arctic linepipe valves and off-highway mining truck frames.

  10. Design of Ultra High Performance Fiber Reinforced Concrete Shells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Michael S.; Lambertsen, Søren Heide; Damkilde, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Fiber Reinforced Concrete shell. The major challenge in the design phase has been securing sufficient stiffness of the structure while keeping the weight at a minimum. The weight/stiffness issue has been investigated by means of the finite element method, to optimize the structure regarding overall......The paper treats the redesign of the float structure of the Wavestar wave energy converter. Previously it was designed as a glass fiber structure, but due to cost reduction requirements a redesign has been initiated. The new float structure will be designed as a double curved Ultra High Performance...

  11. The effect of nanoclay filler loading on the flexural strength of fiber-reinforced composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vajihesadat Mortazavi

    2012-01-01

    Results: For groups with the same concentration of nanoparticles, PMMA-grafted filler-loaded group showed significantly higher flexural strength, except for 0.2% wt. For groups that contain PMMA-grafted nanoclay fillers, the 2% wt had the highest flexural strength value with significant difference to other subgroups. 1% wt and 2% wt showed significantly higher values compared to control (P 0.05. Flexural modulus of 2%, 5% wt PMMA-grafted and 0.5%, 1%, 2%, 5% wt unmodified nanoclay particles-loaded subgroups decreased significantly compared to control group (P < 0.05. Conclusions: PMMA-grafted nanoclay filler loading may enhance the flexural strength of FRCs. Addition of unmodified nanoparticles cannot significantly improve the flexural strength of FRCs. Addition of both unmodified and PMMA-grafted nanoclay particles in some concentrations decreased the flexural modulus.

  12. Measurement of interfacial shear strength in single wall carbon nanotubes reinforced composite using Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Debdulal; Bhattacharyya, Sanjib; Rachamim, A.; Plati, A.; Saboungi, Marie-Louise

    2010-02-01

    A novel method of measuring interfacial shear strength using Raman peak shift is reported. Carbon nanotubes (CNT) functionalized with biomolecules have been used to form a composite with polyvinyl alcohol. Type I collagen has proven to improve the load transfer from the matrix to the tubes leading to improvement of interfacial shear strength. Collagen interacts with single wall CNTs and probably wraps around it. When a composite structure is formed with the collagen, load transfer takes place through the collagen molecule. The interfacial strength of the nanotubes-matrix interface was found to be larger than 160 MPa, which is significantly higher than that observed before. A similar shear strength is estimated using a simple analytical calculation.

  13. Strength and deformability of waste tyre rubber-filled reinforced concrete columns

    OpenAIRE

    Son, K.S.; Hajirasouliha, I.; Pilakoutas, K.

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the efficiency of waste tyre rubber-filled concrete to improve the deformability and energy absorption capacity of RC columns by considering different concrete compressive strength, size of waste tyre rubber particles and rubber content. Twelve column specimens were tested using concrete of compressive strength 24 and 28 MPa mixed with 0.6 and 1 mm tyre rubber particles. For each concrete batch, 27 control specimens were prepared to examine the concrete properti...

  14. High pressure, high strain rate material strength studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remington, B. A.; Arsenlis, A.; Barton, N.; Belof, J.; Cavallo, R.; Maddox, B.; Park, H.-S.; Prisbrey, S.; Rudd, R.; Comley, A.; Meyers, M.; Wark, J.

    2011-10-01

    Constitutive models for material strength are currently being tested at high pressures by comparing 2D simulations with experiments measuring the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability evolution in solid-state samples of vanadium (V), tantalum (Ta), and iron (Fe). The multiscale strength models being tested combine molecular dynamics, dislocation dynamics, and continuum simulations. Our analysis for the V experiments suggests that the material deformation at these conditions falls into the phonon drag regime, whereas for Ta, the deformation resides mainly in the thermal activation regime. Recent Fe-RT experiments suggest perturbation growth about the alpha-epsilon (bcc-hcp) phase transition threshold has been observed. Using the LLNL multiscale models, we decompose the strength as a function of strain rate into its dominant components of thermal activation, phonon drag, and work hardening. We have also developed a dynamic diffraction diagnostic technique to measure strength directly from shock compressed single crystal samples. Finally, recovery experiments allow a comparison of residual dislocation density with predictions from the multiscale model. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. DoE by LLNL Security, LLC under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  15. Flexural behavior of reinforced concrete beams: Comparative analysis between high-performance concrete and ordinary concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamrat Mostefa

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental study on the flexural strength of reinforced concrete beams made with high performance concrete (HPC and ordinary concrete (OC. We are carried an experimental campaign aimed comes in three points: 1- the study of the law of behavior of the two materials (OC and HPC, 2- the influence of the compressive strength of concrete and the rate of longitudinal reinforcement on the loaddeflection behavior and ductility index, 3- comparative analysis (ACI318, Eurocode 2 and BS8110 against the crack opening. Test results showed that the capacity of the beams in HPC is higher (6% to 20 % than the beams in OC. The use of HPC is more efficient than the OC to delay the first cracking. The average value of the ductility index for the beams in HPC is 1.30 times those beams in OC. The formula for calculating the crack opening derived of the Eurocode 2 gives the best prediction the crack width of beams (for both types of concrete.

  16. Dynamic Mechanical Behaviour of Ultra-high Performance Fiber Reinforced Concretes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAI Jianzhong; SUN Wei

    2008-01-01

    Ultra-high performance fiber reinforced concretes (UHPFRC) were prepared by replacing 60% of cement with ultra-fine industrial waste powder.The dynamic mechanical behaviour of UHPFRC with different fiber volume fraction was researched on repeated compressive impact in four kinds of impact modes through split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB).The experimental results show that the peak stress and elastic modulus decrease and the strain rate and peak strain increase gradually with the increasing of impact times.The initial material damage increases and the peak stress of the specimen decreases from the second impact with the increasing of the initial incident wave.Standard strength on repeated impact is defined to compare the ability of resistance against repeated impact among different materials.The rate of reduction of standard strength is decreased by fiber reinforcement under repeated impact.The material damage is reduced and the ability of repeated impact resistance of UHPFRC is improved with the increasing of fiber volume fraction.

  17. On monolithic stability and reinforcement analysis of high arch dams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Monolithic stability safety and reinforcement based on monolithic stability are very important for arch dam design.In this paper,the issue is addressed based on deformation reinforcement theory.In this approach,plastic complementary energy norm can be taken as safety Index for monolithic stability.According to deformation reinforcement theory,the areas where unbalanced force exists require reinforcement,and the required reinforcement forces are just the unbalanced forces with opposite direction.Results show that areas with unbalanced force mainly concentrate in dam-toes,dam-heels and faults.

  18. On the Strength of Silicon Carbide Particulate Reinforced Aluminium Alloy Matrix Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mingjiu ZHAO; Yue LIU; Liqing CHEN; Jing BI

    2004-01-01

    In the present study, the modified continuum model, quench strengthening and dislocation pile-up model was respectively used to estimate the yield strength of SiCp/Al composites. The experimental results showed that the modified shear lag model or quench strengthening model would underestimate the yield strength of SiCp/Al composites. However, the modified Hall-Petch correlation on the basis of the dislocation pile-up model, expressed as σcy = 244 + 371λ-1/2, fitted very well with the experimental data, which indicated that the strength increase of SiCp/Al composites might be due to the direct blocking of dislocation motion by the particulate-matrix interface.Namely, the dislocation pile-up is the most possible strengthening mechanism for SiCp/Al composites.

  19. Gaseous hydrogen embrittlement of high strength steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangloff, R. P.; Wei, R. P.

    1977-01-01

    The effects of temperature, hydrogen pressure, stress intensity, and yield strength on the kinetics of gaseous hydrogen assisted crack propagation in 18Ni maraging steels were investigated experimentally. It was found that crack growth rate as a function of stress intensity was characterized by an apparent threshold for crack growth, a stage where the growth rate increased sharply, and a stage where the growth rate was unchanged over a significant range of stress intensity. Cracking proceeded on load application with little or no detectable incubation period. Gaseous hydrogen embrittlement susceptibility increased with increasing yield strength.

  20. Study of the strength and erosive behavior of CaCO3/glass fiber reinforced polyester composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the strength and erosive characteristics of CaCO3 filled unsaturated polyester/glass fiber (UPR/GFR composite are evaluated. Samples of UPR with 40, 50 and 60 wt% content of CaCO3 and different CaCO3 particle sizes of 1, 2, 3, 5 and 10 micron were prepared and tested under tensile loading, indentation and erosion conditions. The tensile strength, hardness and erosion wear rate of unsaturated polyester/glass fiber (UPR composite/CaCO3 composite were obtained and evaluated. The results showed that the higher is the percentage of CaCO3 in the composite and the smaller is the CaCO3 particle size, the higher is the strength and the erosive resistance of the glass fiber reinforced/unsaturated polyester composite (UPR-GFR. Furthermore, the highest erosion wear rate is at 90° impingement angle. Finally the results show that the erosive wear of CaCO3 content UPR/GFR composite in a brittle manner.

  1. Evaluation of Interface Shear Strength Properties of Geogrid Reinforced Foamed Recycled Glass Using a Large-Scale Direct Shear Testing Apparatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arul Arulrajah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The interface shear strength properties of geogrid reinforced recycled foamed glass (FG were determined using a large-scale direct shear test (DST apparatus. Triaxial geogrid was used as a geogrid reinforcement. The geogrid increases the confinement of FG particles during shear; consequently the geogrid reinforced FG exhibits smaller vertical displacement and dilatancy ratio than FG at the same normal stress. The failure envelope of geogrid reinforced FG, at peak and critical states, coincides and yields a unique linear line possibly attributed to the crushing of FG particles and the rearrangement of crushed FG after peak shear state. The interface shear strength coefficient α is approximately constant at 0.9. This value can be used as the interface parameter for designing a reinforced embankment and mechanically stabilized earth (MSE wall when FG is used as a lightweight backfill and triaxial geogrid is used as an extensible earth reinforcement. This research will enable FG, recently assessed as suitable for lightweight backfills, to be used together with geogrids in a sustainable manner as a lightweight MSE wall. The geogrid carries tensile forces, while FG reduces bearing stresses imposed on the in situ soil. The use of geogrid reinforced FG is thus significant from engineering, economical, and environmental perspectives.

  2. Fabrication and mechanical properties of AlCoNiCrFe high-entropy alloy particle reinforced Cu matrix composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jian, E-mail: chenjian@xatu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Xi' an Technological University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710021 (China); Niu, Pengyun; Wei, Ting [School of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Xi' an Technological University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710021 (China); Hao, Liang [College of Architecture and Civil Engineering, Xi' an University of Science and Technology, Xi' an 710054 (China); Liu, Yunzi [School of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Xi' an Technological University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710021 (China); Wang, Xianhui, E-mail: xhwang693@xaut.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Xi' an University of Technology, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710048 (China); Peng, Yuli [School of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Xi' an Technological University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710021 (China)

    2015-11-15

    The AlCoNiCrFe high-entropy alloy was prepared by mechanical alloying and the AlCoNiCrFe high-entropy alloy reinforced Cu matrix composites were subsequently fabricated by powder metallurgy. The phase constituents and morphology of the alloying powders were characterized by X-ray diffractometer and scanning electron microscope, the microstructures of the Cu base composites were characterized by scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope, and the compression tests were made as well. The results show that the AlCoNiCrFe high-entropy alloy can form after milling for 24 h. During sintering process, no grain growth occurs and no intermetallic phases present in the AlCoNiCrFe high-entropy alloy in the Cu base composite. Compression tests show that the AlCoNiCrFe high-entropy alloy has a better strengthening effect than metallic glasses and the yield strength of the Cu matrix composite reinforced with the AlCoNiCrFe high-entropy alloy is close to the value predicted by the Voigt model based on the equal strain assumption. - Graphical abstract: AlCoNiCrFe HEA has a better strengthening effect than metallic glasses for particulate reinforced metal matrix composites. The yield strength of the Cu base composite reinforced with the AlCoNiCrFe HEA is close to the upper bound calculated by Voigt model. - Highlights: • AlCoNiCrFe high-entropy alloy was prepared by mechanical alloying. • A novel Cu base composite reinforced with AlCoNiCrFe was fabricated. • No grain growth and no intermetallic phase present in AlCoNiCrFe during sintering. • AlCoNiCrFe has a better strengthening effect than metallic glassy in composites.

  3. Development of a high strength high toughness ausferritic steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Putatunda, Susil K., E-mail: sputa@eng.wayne.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering and Material Science, Wayne State University, 5050 Anthony Wayne Dr., Detroit, MI 48202 (United States); Singar, Arjun V. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Material Science, Wayne State University, 5050 Anthony Wayne Dr., Detroit, MI 48202 (United States); Tackett, Ronald; Lawes, Gavin [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States)

    2009-07-15

    A new ausferritic steel with high strength and exceptionally high fracture toughness has been developed. This steel has been synthesized integrating concepts from Austempered Ductile Cast Iron (ADI) technology. The influence of the austempering temperature on the microstructure and mechanical properties of this steel at room temperature and ambient atmosphere has been examined. The effect of microstructure on the plane strain fracture toughness and on the magnetic, electrical, and thermal properties was also investigated. Compact tension and cylindrical tensile specimens prepared from the low alloy medium carbon steel with high silicon content were initially austenitized at 927 deg. C for 2 h and then subsequently austempered at several temperatures between 260 deg. C (500 F) and 400 deg. C (750 F) to produce different microstructures. The microstructures were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and optical metallography. A combination of exceptionally high yield strength (1336 MPa) and a high fracture of toughness of 116 MPa{radical}m (a value comparable to maraging steel) was obtained in this steel after austempering at 316 deg. C (600 F) for 2 h. Potential applications of this steel include the inexpensive fabrication of armored plates and components requiring high reliability and durability.

  4. Field Testing of High Current Electrokinetic Nanoparticle Treatment for Corrosion Mitigation in Reinforced Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardenas, Henry; Alexander, Joshua; Kupwade-Patil, Kunal; Calle, Luz marina

    2010-01-01

    Electrokinetic Nanoparticle (EN) treatment was used as a rapid repair measure to mitigate chloride induced corrosion of reinforced concrete in the field. EN treatment uses an electric field to transport positively charged nanoparticles to the reinforcement through the concrete capillary pores. Cylindrical reinforced concrete specimens were batched with 4.5 wt % salt content (based on cement mass). Three distinct electrokinetic treatments were conducted using high current density (up to 5 A/m2) to form a chloride penetration barrier that was established in 5 days, as opposed to the traditional 6-8 weeks, generally required for electrochemical chloride extraction (ECE). These treatments included basic EN treatment, EN with additional calcium treatment, and basic ECE treatment. Field exposures were conducted at the NASA Beachside Corrosion Test Site, Kennedy Space Center, Florida, USA. The specimens were subjected to sea water immersion at the test site as a posttreatment exposure. Following a 30-day post-treatment exposure period, the specimens were subjected to indirect tensile testing to evaluate treatment impact. The EN treated specimens exhibited 60% and 30% increases in tensile strength as compared to the untreated controls and ECE treated specimens respectively. The surfaces of the reinforcement bars of the control specimens were 67% covered by corrosion products. In contrast, the EN treated specimens exhibited corrosion coverage of only 4%. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed a dense concrete microstructure adjacent to the bars of the treated specimens as compared to the control and ECE specimens. Energy dispersive spectroscopic (EDS) analysis of the polished EN treated specimens showed a reduction in chloride content by a factor of 20 adjacent to the bars. This study demonstrated that EN treatment was successful in forming a chloride penetration barrier rapidly. This work also showed that the chloride barrier was effective when samples were exposed to

  5. Very-high-strength (60-GPa) carbon nanotube fiber design based on molecular dynamics simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornwell, Charles F.; Welch, Charles R.

    2011-05-01

    The mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes such as low density, high stiffness, and exceptional strength make them ideal candidates for reinforcement material in a wide range of high-performance composites. Molecular dynamics simulations are used to predict the tensile response of fibers composed of aligned carbon nanotubes with intermolecular bonds of interstitial carbon atoms. The effects of bond density and carbon nanotube length distribution on fiber strength and stiffness are investigated. The interstitial carbon bonds significantly increase load transfer between the carbon nanotubes over that obtained with van der Waals forces. The simulation results indicate that fibers with tensile strengths to 60 GPa could be produced by employing interstitial cross-link atoms. The elastic modulus of the fibers is also increased by the bonds.

  6. Development of K-Basin High-Strength Homogeneous Sludge Simulants and Correlations Between Unconfined Compressive Strength and Shear Strength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onishi, Yasuo; Baer, Ellen BK; Chun, Jaehun; Yokuda, Satoru T.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Sande, Susan; Buchmiller, William C.

    2011-02-20

    K-Basin sludge will be stored in the Sludge Transport and Storage Containers (STSCs) at an interim storage location on Central Plateau before being treated and packaged for disposal. During the storage period, sludge in the STSCs may consolidate/agglomerate, potentially resulting in high-shear-strength material. The Sludge Treatment Project (STP) plans to use water jets to retrieve K-Basin sludge after the interim storage. STP has identified shear strength to be a key parameter that should be bounded to verify the operability and performance of sludge retrieval systems. Determining the range of sludge shear strength is important to gain high confidence that a water-jet retrieval system can mobilize stored K-Basin sludge from the STSCs. The shear strength measurements will provide a basis for bounding sludge properties for mobilization and erosion. Thus, it is also important to develop potential simulants to investigate these phenomena. Long-term sludge storage tests conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) show that high-uranium-content K-Basin sludge can self-cement and form a strong sludge with a bulk shear strength of up to 65 kPa. Some of this sludge has 'paste' and 'chunks' with shear strengths of approximately 3-5 kPa and 380-770 kPa, respectively. High-uranium-content sludge samples subjected to hydrothermal testing (e.g., 185 C, 10 hours) have been observed to form agglomerates with a shear strength up to 170 kPa. These high values were estimated by measured unconfined compressive strength (UCS) obtained with a pocket penetrometer. Due to its ease of use, it is anticipated that a pocket penetrometer will be used to acquire additional shear strength data from archived K-Basin sludge samples stored at the PNNL Radiochemical Processing Laboratory (RPL) hot cells. It is uncertain whether the pocket penetrometer provides accurate shear strength measurements of the material. To assess the bounding material strength and

  7. Material characterization of several resin systems for high temperature carbon fiber reinforced composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Sung Ho; Oh, Jin Oh; Choi, Dong Hyun; Lee, Sang Woo

    2012-04-01

    Material characterization of several resin systems for high temperature carbon fiber reinforced composites was performed through a series of the tensile test, the dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) test, and the strand test. The modified tensile specimens and the DMA specimens were used to evaluate the tensile and thermal analysis properties of resin systems. The strand specimens were used to evaluate the tensile properties and load transfer efficiencies of the specimens. Four types of resin systems were considered. One was a conventional resin system currently used for filament wound structures and other three were high temperature resin systems. According to the tensile and DMA test results, the tensile modulus decreases slightly and the tensile strength decreases rapidly until the temperature reaches glass transition temperature. The tensile modulus and tensile strength are almost negligible above glass transition temperature. The tensile modulus obtained from the tensile test is consistent with that from the DMA test at different temperatures. From the strand test results, considering, the load transfer efficiency is found to be around 87 to 90 % of the tensile strength of T800H-12K carbon fibers for all resin systems except the specimen with the Type 2. Finally we found that the Type 4 is the best candidate for high temperature resin system applicable to filament wound structures in the view of the glass transition temperature as well as the tensile properties.

  8. Sound velocity of high-strength polymer with negative thermal expansion coefficient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nomura, R.; Ueno, M.; Okuda, Y.; Burmistrov, S.; Yamanaka, A

    2003-05-01

    Sound velocities of fiber reinforced plastics (FRPs) were measured along the fiber axis at temperatures between 360 and 77 K. We used two kinds of the high-strength crystalline polymer fibers, polyethylene (Dyneema) and polybenzobisoxazole (Zylon), which have negative thermal expansion coefficients. They also have high thermal conductivities and high resistances for flash over voltage, and are expected as new materials for coil bobbins or spacers at cryogenic temperatures. They have very large sound velocities of about 9000 (m/s) at 77 K, which are 4.5 times larger than that of the ordinary polyethylene fiber.

  9. Optimization on Impact Strength of Woven Kenaf Reinforced Polyester Composites using Taguchi Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, S. N. A.; Ismail, A. E.; Zainulabidin, M. H.

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on the effect of weaving patterns and orientations on the energy absorption of woven kenaf reinforced polyester composites. Kenaf fiber in the form of yarn is weaved to produce different weaving patterns such as plain, twill and basket. Three woven mats are stacked together and mixed with polyester resin before it is compressed to squeeze out any excessive resin. There is nine different orientations are used during stacking processes by following Taguchi orthogonal arrays method. The hardened composites are cured for 24 hours before it is shaped according to specific dimensions for impact tests. The composites are perforated with 1m/s blunted projectile. According to the experimental findings, weaving pattern and orientation have distinct potential effects on value of energy absorption. The optimization using Taguchi method reveals preferable orientation of each weaving pattern composites. Based on the fracture observation, the fragmentations after optimization indicating lower distance surface fracture perforated obtained.

  10. 信息动态%Size Effect on Strength of Ultra-high Strength Concrete RPC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Reactive Powder Concrete (RPC)is a new kind of ultra-high strength cement based composite with excellent mechanics performance and durability. In order to make RPC used in structural engineering effectively,size effect on strength of the ultra high strength concrete RPC specimen is experimental studied and the mechanism is analyzed in this paper. Test results show that if the 4 cm cube compressive strength is the control strength,conversion coefficients of 10 em cube compressive strength at 150 MPa and 200 MPa grade are 0.81 and 0.76 respectively; conversion coefficients of 10 cm× 10 cm× 30 cm prism compressive strength at 150 MPa and 200 MPa grade are 0.71 and 0. 63 respectively; the size effect conversion coefficient tends to decrease with the increase of control strength, the larger the specimen size, the lower the compressive strength. RPC is a typical brittle material. It extends instability quickly after cracking;damage concentrated in the local area,and therefore appears higher size effect.

  11. PREPARATION OF HIGH-TEMPERATURE VULCANIZED SILICONE RUBBER OF EXCELLENT MECHANICAL AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES USING HYDROPHOBIC NANO SILICA SOL AS REINFORCEMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian Wang; Qin Zhang; Yu-hong Huang; Qiang Fu; Xian-jian Duan; Yue-ling Wang

    2008-01-01

    Hydrophobic nano silica sol (HNSS) was incorporated into polyvinylmethylsiloxane to prepare reinforced high-temperature vulcanized (HTV) silicone rubber. HTV silicone rubber filled with 40 phr HNSS showed excellent mechanical and optical properties: the tensile strength reached 11.7 MPa and the optical transmittance was higher than 90%. Possible reasons for reinforcement and transparency were discussed on the basis of the bound rubber percentage, total crosslink density, and SEM analysis. Our work suggests that HNSS is effective for reinforcement of HTV silicone rubber to endow excellent mechanical and optical properties.

  12. Mechanical behavior of high strength ceramic fibers at high temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tressler, R. E.; Pysher, D. J.

    1991-01-01

    The mechanical behavior of commercially available and developmental ceramic fibers, both oxide and nonoxide, has been experimentally studied at expected use temperatures. In addition, these properties have been compared to results from the literature. Tensile strengths were measured for three SiC-based and three oxide ceramic fibers for temperatures from 25 C to 1400 C. The SiC-based fibers were stronger but less stiff than the oxide fibers at room temperature and retained more of both strength and stiffness to high temperatures. Extensive creep and creep-rupture experiments have been performed on those fibers from this group which had the best strengths above 1200 C in both single filament tests and tests of fiber bundles. The creep rates for the oxides are on the order of two orders of magnitude faster than the polymer derived nonoxide fibers. The most creep resistant filaments available are single crystal c-axis sapphire filaments. Large diameter CVD fabricated SiC fibers are the most creep and rupture resistant nonoxide polycrystalline fibers tested to date.

  13. Push-out bond strength between composite core buildup and fiber-reinforced posts after different surface treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Hakan; Barutcigil, Cagatay; Yılmaz, Cenk Burak; Ceyhanlı, Kadir Tolga; Topcuoglu, Hüseyin Sinan

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different surface treatments on the pushout bond strength of fiber-reinforced posts to composite resin cores. Twenty-five translucent glass fiber posts were divided into five groups according to surface treatment methods as follows: an untreated control group, a group coated with silicated alumina particles (Co-Jet system, 3M ESPE, St. Paul, MN), and three groups undergoing surface preparation with erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Er:YAG) laser under three different power settings (150, 300, and 450 mJ at 10 Hz for 60 sec at 100 μs duration). After surface treatment, fiber posts were built up to a dual cure composite resin core. All of the specimens were set and sectioned perpendicularly along the long axis of the post using a saw. Two discs (thickness of 2 mm) were obtained from each post-core sample; finally, each group consisted of 10 samples. For artificial aging, the specimens were stored in water (37°C) for 24 h and subjected to thermal cycling (5000 cycles, 5-55°C, and 30 sec dwell time). Pushout tests were performed using a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. The pushout pressure values were measured in MPa and analyzed using one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's honestly significant difference (HSD) post-hoc test (pstrength values ranged between 14,949 and 23,879 MPa. The lowest values were observed in the groups treated with the Er:YAG laser at 150 mJ. Irradiation by the Er:YAG laser at 450 mJ affected the bond strength significantly (pstrength increased relatively (19,184 MPa). Er:YAG laser irradiation enhanced the bond strength of fiber-reinforced posts to composite resin cores depending upon the power applied; Co-Jet sandblasting also increased the bond strength.

  14. High-strength concrete for Peacekeeper facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saucier, K. L.

    1984-03-01

    An investigation is described which was conducted to determine the processes and techniques required to produce portland-cement concrete with a compressive strength of 15,000 psi or greater using conventional concreting methods and equipment, and to develop physical property data on the mixtures. It was permitted that special materials and admixtures be used, but a requirement was set that the aggregates and cements be selected from those available in the Cheyenne, Wyoming, area. Results indicated that it is feasible to achieve the 15,000-psi compressive strengths but that workability may decrease over a 2-hour period, and this latter development should be studied under job conditions. It is recommended that: (1) all materials and procedures to be used on a specific project be tested in the laboratory for basic property information, and (2) selected mixtures be tested in the field under expected environmental conditions prior to actual job use.

  15. Root canal filling: fracture strength of fiber-reinforced composite-restored roots and finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippe, Marília Pivetta; Santini, Manuela Favarin; Bier, Carlos Alexandre Souza; Borges, Alexandre Luiz Souto; Valandro, Luiz Felipe

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the effect of root canal filling techniques on root fracture resistance and to analyze, by finite element analysis (FEA), the expansion of the endodontic sealer in two different root canal techniques. Thirty single-rooted human teeth were instrumented with rotary files to a standardized working length of 14 mm. The specimens were embedded in acrylic resin using plastic cylinders as molds, and allocated into 3 groups (n=10): G(lateral) - lateral condensation; G(single-cone) - single cone; G(tagger) - Tagger's hybrid technique. The root canals were prepared to a length of 11 mm with the #3 preparation bur of a tapered glass fiber-reinforced composite post system. All roots received glass fiber posts, which were adhesively cemented and a composite resin core was built. All groups were subjected to a fracture strength test (1 mm/min, 45°). Data were analyzed statistically by one-way ANOVA with a significance level of 5%. FEA was performed using two models: one simulated lateral condensation and Tagger's hybrid technique, and the other one simulated the single-cone technique. The second model was designed with an amount of gutta-percha two times smaller and a sealer layer two times thicker than the first model. The results were analyzed using von Mises stress criteria. One-way ANOVA indicated that the root canal filling technique affected the fracture strength (p=0.004). The G(lateral) and G(tagger) produced similar fracture strength values, while G(single-cone) showed the lowest values. The FEA showed that the single-cone model generated higher stress in the root canal walls. Sealer thickness seems to influence the fracture strength of restored endodontically treated teeth.

  16. Compressive strength of fiber reinforced composite materials. [composed of boron and epoxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J. G., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Results of an experimental and analytical investigation of the compressive strength of unidirectional boron-epoxy composite material are presented. Observation of fiber coordinates in a boron-epoxy composite indicates that the fibers contain initial curvature. Combined axial compression and torsion tests were conducted on boron-epoxy tubes, and it was shown that the shear modulus is a function of axial compressive stress. An analytical model which includes initial curvature in the fibers and permits an estimate of the effect of curvature on compressive strength is proposed. Two modes of failure which may result from the application of axial compressive stress are analyzed, delamination and shear instability. Based on tests and analysis, failure of boron-epoxy under axial compressive load is due to shear instability.

  17. A Study of Failure Strength for Fiber-Reinforced Composite Laminates with Consideration of Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjie Ye

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Composite laminates can exhibit the nonlinear properties due to the fiber/matrix interface debonding and matrix plastic deformation. In this paper, by incorporating the interface stress-displacement relations between fibers and matrix, as well as the viscoplastic constitutive model for describing plastic behaviors of matrix materials, a micromechanical model is used to investigate the failure strength of the composites with imperfect interface bonding. Meanwhile, the classic laminate theory, which provides the relation between micro- and macroscale responses for composite laminates, is employed. Theory results show good consistency with the experimental data under unidirectional tensile conditions at both 23°C and 650°C. On this basis, the interface debonding influences on the failure strength of the [0/90]s and [0/±45/90]s composite laminates are studied. The numerical results show that all of the unidirectional (UD laminates with imperfect interface bonding provide a sharp decrease in failure strength in the σxx-σyy plane at 23°C. However, the decreasing is restricted in some specific region. In addition, for [0/90]s and [0/±45/90]s composite laminates, the debonding interface influences on the failure envelope can be ignored when the working temperature is increased to 650°C.

  18. Properties of drawn W wire used as high performance fibre in tungsten fibre-reinforced tungsten composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riesch, J.; Almanstötter, J.; Coenen, J. W.; Fuhr, M.; Gietl, H.; Han, Y.; Höschen, T.; Linsmeier, Ch; Travitzky, N.; Zhao, P.; Neu, R.

    2016-07-01

    High strength and creep resistance also at high temperature, combined with a high thermal conductivity and high melting point make tungsten (W) an ideal material for highly loaded areas in future fusion reactors. However, as a typical bcc metal tungsten features an intrinsic brittleness up to very high temperature and is prone to operational embrittlement. Tungsten fibre-reinforced tungsten composite (Wf/W) utilizes extrinsic toughening mechanisms similar to ceramic fibre-reinforced ceramics and therefore overcomes the brittleness problem. The properties of the composite are to a large extend determined by the properties of the drawn tungsten wire used as reinforcement fibres. W wire exhibits a superior strength and shows ductile behaviour with exceptional local plasticity. Beside the typical mechanisms observed for ceramic composites the ductile deformation of the fibres is therefore an additional very effective toughening mechanism. Tension tests were used to investigate this phenomenon in more detail. Results show that there is a region of enhanced localized plastic deformation. The specific energy consumption in this region was estimated and used to suggest optimisation options for Wf/W composites.

  19. Low-Cost Nanocellulose-Reinforced High-Temperature Polymer Composites for Additive Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozcan, Soydan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Tekinalp, Halil L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Love, Lonnie J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kunc, Vlastimil [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Nelson, Kim [American Process Inc., Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2016-07-13

    ORNL worked with American Process Inc. to demonstrate the potential use of bio-based BioPlus® lignin-coated cellulose nanofibrils (L-CNF) as a reinforcing agent in the development of polymer feedstock suitable for additive manufacturing. L-CNF-reinforced polylactic acid (PLA) testing coupons were prepared and up to 69% increase in tensile strength and 133% increase in elastic modulus were demonstrated.

  20. Determination of increase in shear strength of soil reinforced with plant roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudan Acharya, Madhu; Alvarez Suarez, Sandra Patricia; Rauchecker, Markus

    2013-04-01

    The stability of a slope depends on the strength of the soil material comprising of the slope, the triggering factors and slope geometry. Vegetation growing on the slope can have mechanical, biological and hydrological roles which influence the strength characteristics of the material on the slope. The mechanical contributions arise from the physical interactions of either the foliage or the root system of the plant with the slope (Gray & Sotir, 1996). The plant roots increase the soil suction reducing pore water pressures, which significantly increases the cohesion (c) and also the friction angle (φ) to some extent. In an experimental investigation carried out in a highway embankment in Germany, an increase of effective cohesion from 1.1 kN/m² to 6.3 kN/m² and friction angle from 33.1° to 34.7° were observed. (Katzenbach & Werner, 2005). Considering the complex nature of influences of plants on slope stability, more field oriented experimental research works on different vegetative systems are required to quantify the role of different plants in slope stability. In the above context, in order to observe the increase in the shear strength of soil by different types of plant roots, an experiment has been carried out at the University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences (BOKU). This experiment consist of 10 wooden boxes of size 50x50x60 cm and 5 boxes of size 50x50x40 cm filled with normal soil suitable for growth of plants. The ten number of bigger size boxes are planted with acer campestre plants. In the other five boxes of smaller size, a mixed seed of 21 different grass species has been sowed. All the boxes are kept in an experimental field and regular take care is being done. The grass will be cut each year and the biomass will be measured. The undisturbed soil samples from each of these boxes in first and second year will be taken to the large frame (50x50cm) direct shear test equipment and tested for direct shear. A comparison of shear strength of soil

  1. Friction Stir Spot Welding of Advanced High Strength Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hovanski, Yuri; Grant, Glenn J.; Santella, M. L.

    2009-11-13

    Friction stir spot welding techniques were developed to successfully join several advanced high strength steels. Two distinct tool materials were evaluated to determine the effect of tool materials on the process parameters and joint properties. Welds were characterized primarily via lap shear, microhardness, and optical microscopy. Friction stir spot welds were compared to the resistance spot welds in similar strength alloys by using the AWS standard for resistance spot welding high strength steels. As further comparison, a primitive cost comparison between the two joining processes was developed, which included an evaluation of the future cost prospects of friction stir spot welding in advanced high strength steels.

  2. 以强度增长率评价麦秸秆加筋盐渍土的加筋效果%Examination of reinforcement effect on basis of strength increment of reinforced saline soil with wheat straw and lime

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李敏; 柴寿喜; 王晓燕; 魏丽

    2011-01-01

    Inferior strength, which is caused by salt expansion, dissolution and water absarption of inshore saline soil, will be prevented with the help of reinforcement with wheat straw and lime.First.some samples are prepared.which including saline soil,reinforced saline soil with wheat straw, lime-saline soil.and reinforced saline soil with lime and wheat straw as the way of reinforcement in whole, upper and lower position respectively.Then.unconfined compressive strength tests of 50 mm 152 mm (heavy compaaion specimen) and 102 mm (lightly compaction specimen), as well as triaxial shear test of 61.8 mm in diameter are carried out.Finally.strength increment ratio of deviator stress, and cohesion increment are defined to evaluate the reinforcement effect.The results show that: 1, Reinforcement raise the strength and the anti-deformation of soil.2.Reinforced action increase largely the cohesion of soil and the reinforcement in lower position can contribute a more effective role.3.Strength of reinforced soil is contributed mostly by wheat straw and lime; the strength in water depends on chemical reaction of lime.4.Lateral deformation of reinforced soil is restricted by means of wheat straw within a lower confining pressure, and that is supported jointly by reinforcement and confining pressure within a higher confining pressure.Reinforcement with wheat straw is one of the suitable means for improving strength and anti-deformation of inshore saline soil.%采用麦秸秆与石灰共同加筋固化滨海盐渍土,可解决由于盐胀、溶陷和吸湿软化引起的土体强度下降问题.首先,制备盐渍土、石灰土、麦秸秆加筋盐渍土和麦秸秆加筋石灰土试样(整体均匀加筋、上部均匀加筋和下部均匀加筋);进而,进行φ50 mm试样、φ152 mm重型击实试样和φ102 mm轻型击实试样的无侧限抗压强度试验,以及φ61.8 mm试样三轴压缩试验;最后,分析抗压强度增长率、主应力差比值和黏聚力增长率的变

  3. Impact Strength of Different Weaving Patterns of Woven Kenaf Reinforced Polyester Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, S. N. A.; Ismail, A. E.; Zainulabidin, M. H.

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on the effect of weaving patterns and orientations on the energy absorption of woven kenaf reinforced polyester composites. Kenaf fiber in the form of yarn is weaved to produce different weaving patterns such as plain, twill and basket. Three woven mats are stacked together and mixed with polyester resin before it is compressed to squeeze out any excessive resin. There is 9 different orientations are used during stacking processes. The hardened composites are cured for 24 hours before it is shaped according to specific dimensions for imp act tests. The composites are perforated with 1m/s blunted projectile. According to the experimental findings, both weaving patterns and orientations have distinct potential effects on the force-displacement diagrams. However, fiber orientations have insignificant effect for plain woven especially in the first stage of deformations. Energy absorption performances for each composite condition are calculated and then plotted against fiber orientations for different weaving patterns. It is found there is no strong relationship between energy absorption and fiber orientations. However for each case of composites, higher energy absorption is found for the composites orientated using [+40°/-15°/+40°/+75°]. Based on the fracture observation, both plain and basket-type woven composites reveal large fragmentations occurred indicating lower energy absorption performances. While for twill condition, no obvious fragmentation is observed where the impact damage around the perforated hole is uniformly distributed leading to higher capability of energy absorptions.

  4. Flexural Strength of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer Repaired Cracked Rectangular Hollow Section Steel Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The flexural behavior of rectangular hollow section (RHS steel beams with initial crack strengthened externally with carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP plates was studied. Eight specimens were tested under three-point loading to failure. The experimental program included three beams as control specimens and five beams strengthened with CFRP plates with or without prestressing. The load deflection curves were graphed and failure patterns were observed. The yield loads and ultimate loads with or without repairing were compared together with the strain distributions of the CFRP plate. It was concluded that yield loads of cracked beams could be enhanced with repairing. Meanwhile, the ultimate loads were increased to some extent. The effect of repair became significant with the increase of the initial crack depth. The failure patterns of the repaired specimens were similar to those of the control ones. Mechanical clamping at the CFRP plate ends was necessary to avoid premature peeling between the CFRP plate and the steel beam. The stress levels in CFRP plates were relatively low during the tests. The use of prestressing could improve the utilization efficiency of CFRP plates. It could be concluded that the patching repair could be used to restore the load bearing capacity of the deficient steel beams.

  5. Relationship between tensile strength and porosity for high porosity metals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘培生; 付超; 李铁藩; 师昌绪

    1999-01-01

    An analysis model has been established according to the structure feature of high porosity metals, and the mathematical relationship between the tensile strength and porosity for this material has been derived from the model. Moreover, the corresponding theoretical formula has been proved good to reflect the variation law of tensile strength with porosity for high porosity metals by the example experiment on nickel foam.

  6. Fatigue-induced damage of high-strength steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetulov, D. I.; Myl'nikov, V. V.

    2014-03-01

    The issues on the estimation of the surface damage of the products produced from high-strength alloys are considered. Mathematical relationships for a numerical calculation of the surface damage are given. The peculiarities of the evaluation of the surface damage are investigated, as applied to high-strength alloys.

  7. High efficient preparation of carbon nanotube-grafted carbon fibers with the improved tensile strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Wenxin; Wang, Yanxiang; Wang, Chengguo; Chen, Jiqiang; Wang, Qifen; Yuan, Yan; Niu, Fangxu

    2016-02-01

    An innovative technique has been developed to obtain the uniform catalyst coating on continuously moving carbon fibers. Carbon nanotube (CNT)-grafted carbon fibers with significantly improved tensile strength have been succeeded to produce by using chemical vapor deposition (CVD) when compared to the tensile strength of untreated carbon fibers. The critical requirements for preparation of CNT-grafted carbon fibers with high tensile strength have been found, mainly including (i) the obtainment of uniform coating of catalyst particles with small particle size, (ii) the low catalyst-induced and mechano-chemical degradation of carbon fibers, and (iii) the high catalyst activity which could facilitate the healing and strengthening of carbon fibers during the growth of CNTs. The optimum growth temperature was found to be about 500 °C, and the optimum catalyst is Ni due to its highest activity, there is a pronounced increase of 10% in tensile strength of carbon fibers after CNT growth at 500 °C by using Ni catalyst. Based on the observation from HRTEM images, a healing and crosslink model of neighboring carbon crystals by CNTs has been formulated to reveal the main reason that causes an increase in tensile strength of carbon fibers after the growth of CNTs. Such results have provided the theoretical and experimental foundation for the large-scale preparation of CNT-grafted carbon fibers with the improved tensile strength, significantly promoting the development of CNT-grafted carbon fiber reinforced polymer composites.

  8. High-Temperature Performance and Multiscale Damage Mechanisms of Hollow Cellulose Fiber-Reinforced Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping Guo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Spalling resistance properties and their damage mechanisms under high temperatures are studied in hollow cellulose fiber-reinforced concrete (CFRC used in tunnel structures. Measurements of mass loss, relative dynamic elastic modulus, compressive strength, and splitting tensile strength of CFRC held under high temperatures (300, 600, 800, and 1050°C for periods of 2.5, 4, and 5.5 h were carried out. The damage mechanism was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy, mercury intrusion porosimetry, thermal analysis, and X-ray diffraction phase analysis. The results demonstrate that cellulose fiber can reduce the performance loss of concrete at high temperatures; the effect of holding time on the performance is more noticeable below 600°C. After exposure to high temperatures, the performance of ordinary concrete deteriorates faster and spalls at 700–800°C; in contrast, cellulose fiber melts at a higher temperature, leaving a series of channels in the matrix that facilitate the release of the steam pressure inside the CFRC. Hollow cellulose fibers can thereby slow the damage caused by internal stress and improve the spalling resistance of concrete under high temperatures.

  9. A study of void effects on the interlaminar shear strength of unidirectional graphite fiber reinforced composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Kenneth J.; Frimpong, Stephen

    1990-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of voids on the interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) of a polyimide matrix composite system. The graphite/PRM-15 composite was chosen for study because of the extensive amount of experience that has been amassed in the processing of this material. Composite densities and fiber contents of more than thirty different laminates were measured along with ILSS. Void contents were calculated and the void geometry and distribution were noted using microscopic techniques such as those used in metallography. It was found that there was a good empirical correlation between ILSS and composite density. The most acceptable relationship between the ILSS and density was found to be a power equation which closely resembles theoretically derived expressions. An increase in scatter in the strength data was observed as the void content increased. In laminates with low void content, the void appears to be more segregated in one area of the laminate. It was found that void free composites could be processed in matched metal die molds at pressures greater than 1.4 and less than 6.9 MPa.

  10. A Comparative Evaluation of Effect of Different Chemical Solvents on the Shear Bond Strength of Glass Fiber reinforced Post to Core Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ashish; Samadi, Firoza; Jaiswal, Jn; Saha, Sonali

    2014-01-01

    To compare the effect of different chemical solvents on glass fiber reinforced posts and to study the effect of these solvents on the shear bond strength of glass fiber reinforced post to core material. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of three chemical solvents, i.e. silane coupling agent, 6% H2O2 and 37% phosphoric acid on the shear bond strength of glass fiber post to a composite resin restorative material. The changes in post surface characteristics after different treatments were also observed, using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and shear bond strength was analyzed using universal testing machine (UTM). Surface treatment with hydrogen peroxide had greatest impact on the post surface followed by 37% phosphoric acid and silane. On evaluation of the shear bond strength, 6% H2O2 exhibited the maximum shear bond strength followed in descending order by 37% phosphoric acid and silane respectively. The surface treatment of glass fiber post enhances the adhesion between the post and composite resin which is used as core material. Failure of a fiber post and composite resin core often occurs at the junction between the two materials. This failure process requires better characterization. How to cite this article: Sharma A, Samadi F, Jaiswal JN, Saha S. A Comparative Evaluation of Effect of Different Chemical Solvents on the Shear Bond Strength of Glass Fiber Reinforced Post to Core Material. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(3):192-196.

  11. High elastic modulus nanopowder reinforced resin composites for dental applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yijun

    2007-12-01

    Dental restorations account for more than $3 billion dollars a year on the market. Among them, all-ceramic dental crowns draw more and more attention and their popularity has risen because of their superior aesthetics and biocompatibility. However, their relatively high failure rate and labor-intensive fabrication procedure still limit their application. In this thesis, a new family of high elastic modulus nanopowder reinforced resin composites and their mechanical properties are studied. Materials with higher elastic modulus, such as alumina and diamond, are used to replace the routine filler material, silica, in dental resin composites to achieve the desired properties. This class of composites is developed to serve (1) as a high stiffness support to all-ceramic crowns and (2) as a means of joining independently fabricated crown core and veneer layers. Most of the work focuses on nano-sized Al2O3 (average particle size 47 nm) reinforcement in a polymeric matrix with 50:50 Bisphenol A glycidyl methacrylate (Bis-GMA): triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) monomers. Surfactants, silanizing agents and primers are examined to obtain higher filler levels and enhance the bonding between filler and matrix. Silane agents work best. The elastic modulus of a 57.5 vol% alumina/resin composite is 31.5 GPa compared to current commercial resin composites with elastic modulus alumina, diamond/resin composites are studied. An elastic modulus of about 45 GPa is obtained for a 57 vol% diamond/resin composite. Our results indicate that with a generally monodispersed nano-sized high modulus filler, relatively high elastic modulus resin-based composite cements are possible. Time-dependent behavior of our resin composites is also investigated. This is valuable for understanding the behavior of our material and possible fatigue testing in the future. Our results indicate that with effective coupling agents and higher filler loading, viscous flow can be greatly decreased due to the

  12. Corrosion Resistance of High Strength Concrete Containing Palm Oil Fuel Ash as Partial Cement Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Mat Yahaya

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This experimental work investigates the influence of POFA as partial cement replacement towards corrosion resistance of high strength concrete. Plain high strength concrete (P0 with 100% ordinary Portland cement (control specimen and POFA high strength concrete containing POFA as partial cement replacement material were used. At the first stage, mix with 20% POFA (P20 has been identified as the best performing mix after cubes (150×150×150 mm containing various content of POFA as partial cement replacement were prepared, continuously water cured and subjected to compressive strength test at 28 days. At the second stage of study, control specimen (P0 and high strength concrete mix containing 20% POFA (P20 were prepared in form of cylinders with reinforcement bar buried in the middle for corrosion resistance test. Specimens were subjected to half cell potential technique following the procedures outlined in ASTM C876 (1994. Incorporation of POFA as partial cement replacement has contributed to densification of microstructure making the concrete denser thus exhibit higher resistance towards corrosion as compared to plain concrete.

  13. Effect of fabric structure and polymer matrix on flexural strength, interlaminar shear stress, and energy dissipation of glass fiber-reinforced polymer composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    We report the effect of glass fiber structure and the epoxy polymer system on the flexural strength, interlaminar shear stress (ILSS), and energy absorption properties of glass fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP) composites. Four different GFRP composites were fabricated from two glass fiber textiles of...

  14. Effects of high, low, and thinning rates of alternative reinforcement on response elimination and resurgence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Mary M; Shahan, Timothy A

    2013-07-01

    A common treatment for operant problem behavior is alternative reinforcement. When alternative reinforcement is removed or reduced, however, resurgence of the target behavior can occur. Shahan and Sweeney (2011) developed a quantitative model of resurgence based on behavioral momentum theory that suggests higher rates of alternative reinforcement result in faster response elimination and greater resurgence when removed, whereas lower rates of alternative reinforcement result in slower response elimination but are followed by less resurgence. Thus, the present study was designed to examine whether faster target response elimination and less resurgence could be achieved by beginning with a high rate of alternative reinforcement and gradually thinning it such that a low rate is ultimately removed during a simulated treatment lapse. Results showed that high rates of alternative reinforcement were more effective than low or thinning rates at target response suppression but resulted in resurgence when discontinued. Low and thinning rates, on the other hand, were less effective at response suppression but target responding did not increase when alternative reinforcement was discontinued. The quantitative model cannot currently account for the finding that lower-rate alternative reinforcement may not effectively disrupt behavior relative to an extinction only control. Relative advantages of high, low, thinning, or no alternative reinforcement are discussed with respect to suppression of target response rate during treatment, resurgence when alternative reinforcement is removed, and alternative response persistence, while taking into account differences between this animal model and modern applied behavior analytic treatments.

  15. Optimization of compressive strength in admixture-reinforced cement-based grouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahin Zaimoglu, A.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The Taguchi method was used in this study to optimize the unconfined (7-, 14- and 28-day compressive strength of cement-based grouts with bentonite, fly ash and silica fume admixtures. The experiments were designed using an L16 orthogonal array in which the three factors considered were bentonite (0%, 0.5%, 1.0% and 3%, fly ash (10%, 20%, 30% and 40% and silica fume (0%, 5%, 10% and 20% content. The experimental results, which were analyzed by ANOVA and the Taguchi method, showed that fly ash and silica fume content play a significant role in unconfined compressive strength. The optimum conditions were found to be: 0% bentonite, 10% fly ash, 20% silica fume and 28 days of curing time. The maximum unconfined compressive strength reached under the above optimum conditions was 17.1 MPa.En el presente trabajo se ha intentado optimizar, mediante el método de Taguchi, las resistencias a compresión (a las edades de 7, 14 y 28 días de lechadas de cemento reforzadas con bentonita, cenizas volantes y humo de sílice. Se diseñaron los experimentos de acuerdo con un arreglo ortogonal tipo L16 en el que se contemplaban tres factores: la bentonita (0, 0,5, 1 y 3%, las cenizas volantes (10, 20, 30 y 40% y el humo de sílice (0, 5, 10 y 20% (porcentajes en peso del sólido. Los datos obtenidos se analizaron con mediante ANOVA y el método de Taguchi. De acuerdo con los resultados experimentales, el contenido tanto de cenizas volantes como de humo de sílice desempeña un papel significativo en la resistencia a compresión. Por otra parte, las condiciones óptimas que se han identificado son: 0% bentonita, 10% cenizas volantes, 20% humo de sílice y 28 días de tiempo de curado. La resistencia a compresión máxima conseguida en las anteriores condiciones era de 17,1 MPa.

  16. Characteristics and applications of high-performance fiber reinforced asphalt concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Philip

    Steel fiber reinforced asphalt concrete (SFRAC) is suggested in this research as a multifunctional high performance material that can potentially lead to a breakthrough in developing a sustainable transportation system. The innovative use of steel fibers in asphalt concrete is expected to improve mechanical performance and electrical conductivity of asphalt concrete that is used for paving 94% of U. S. roadways. In an effort to understand the fiber reinforcing mechanisms in SFRAC, the interaction between a single straight steel fiber and the surrounding asphalt matrix is investigated through single fiber pull-out tests and detailed numerical simulations. It is shown that pull-out failure modes can be classified into three types: matrix, interface, and mixed failure modes and that there is a critical shear stress, independent of temperature and loading rate, beyond which interfacial debonding will occur. The reinforcing effects of SFRAC with various fiber sizes and shapes are investigated through indirect tension tests at low temperature. Compared to unreinforced specimens, fiber reinforced specimens exhibit up to 62.5% increase in indirect tensile strength and 895% improvements in toughness. The documented improvements are the highest attributed to fiber reinforcement in asphalt concrete to date. The use of steel fibers and other conductive additives provides an opportunity to make asphalt pavement electrically conductive, which opens up the possibility for multifunctional applications. Various asphalt mixtures and mastics are tested and the results indicate that the electrical resistivity of asphaltic materials can be manipulated over a wide range by replacing a part of traditional fillers with a specific type of graphite powder. Another important achievement of this study is development and validation of a three dimensional nonlinear viscoelastic constitutive model that is capable of simulating both linear and nonlinear viscoelasticity of asphaltic materials. The

  17. Mechanical Properties of Wood Flour Reinforced High Density Polyethylene Composites with Basalt Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guojun LU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Basalt fibers (BFs were surface-treated with a vinyl triethoxy silane coupling agent to improve the mechanical properties of wood fiber-reinforced high density polyethylene (HDPE composites. Basalt fibers were characterized with SEM and FT-IR. The effects of the basalt fiber content and apparent morphology on the mechanical properties of the hybrid composites were investigated in this paper. The results show that the BF coated with the vinyl triethoxy silane coupling agent resulted in an improvement in mechanical properties due to the increased interfacial compatibility between the BF and HDPE. The flexural strength and impact properties significantly increased with 4 wt.% modified basalt fibers. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.20.4.6441

  18. Modeling Strength Degradation of Fiber-Reinforced Ceramic-Matrix Composites Subjected to Cyclic Loading at Elevated Temperatures in Oxidative Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longbiao, Li

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, the strength degradation of non-oxide and oxide/oxide fiber-reinforced ceramic-matrix composites (CMCs) subjected to cyclic loading at elevated temperatures in oxidative environments has been investigated. Considering damage mechanisms of matrix cracking, interface debonding, interface wear, interface oxidation and fibers fracture, the composite residual strength model has been established by combining the micro stress field of the damaged composites, the damage models, and the fracture criterion. The relationships between the composite residual strength, fatigue peak stress, interface debonding, fibers failure and cycle number have been established. The effects of peak stress level, initial and steady-state interface shear stress, fiber Weibull modulus and fiber strength, and testing temperature on the degradation of composite strength and fibers failure have been investigated. The evolution of residual strength versus cycle number curves of non-oxide and oxide/oxide CMCs under cyclic loading at elevated temperatures in oxidative environments have been predicted.

  19. THEORETICAL ASPECTS, EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATIONS AND EFFICIENCY IN USAGE OF HIGH-STRENGTH CONCRETE FOR BRIDGE STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. D. Liakhevich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In Belarus concrete with strength up to 60 MPA is used for construction. At the same time high strength concrete with compressive strength above 60 MPA is widely used in all industrially developed countries. High- strength concrete is included in regulatory documents of the European Union and that fact has laid a solid foundation for its application. High strength concrete is produced using highly dispersed silica additives, such as micro-silica and plasticizers (super-plasticizers with a water/cement (w/c ratio not greater than 0.4.Theoretical aspects of high-strength concrete for bridge structures have been studied in the paper. The paper shows a positive impact of highly dispersed additives on structure and physico-mechanical properties of cement compositions, namely: reduction of total porosity of a cement stone in concrete while increasing volumetric concentration and dispersion of a filler; binding of calcium hydroxide with the help of amorphised micro-silica; increased activity of mineral additives during their thin shredding; acceleration of the initial stage of chemical hardening of cement compositions with highly dispersed particle additives that serve as centers of crystallization; “binder-additive” cluster formation due to high surface energy of highly dispersed additive particles; hardening of surface area between a cement stone and aggregates in concrete; high-strength concretes are gaining strength much faster than conventional concretes.Technology of preparation and composition of high-strength concrete using highly dispersed mineral additives and super-plasticizer has been developed in the paper. This concrete will ensure a higher density, wa- ter-and gas tightness, increased resistance to aggressive environment, reduced consumption of concrete and reinforcement, reduced transport and installation weight, increased initial strength, early easing of shutters and preliminary compression, increased length of bridge spans

  20. The effect of joint surface contours and glass fiber reinforcement on the transverse strength of repaired acrylic resin: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayana Anasane

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Denture fracture is an unresolved problem in complete denture prosthodontics. However, the repaired denture often experiences a refracture at the repaired site due to poor transverse strength. Hence, this study was conducted to evaluate the effect of joint surface contours and glass fiber reinforcement on the transverse strength of repaired acrylic resins. Materials and Methods: A total of 135 specimens of heat polymerized polymethyl methacrylate resin of dimensions 64 × 10 × 2.5 mm were fabricated. Fifteen intact specimens served as the control and 120 test specimens were divided into four groups (30 specimens each, depending upon the joint surface contour (butt, bevel, rabbet and round, with two subgroups based on type of the repair. Half of the specimens were repaired with plain repair resin and the other half with glass fibers reinforced repair resin. Transverse strength of the specimens was determined using three-point bending test. The results were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey post-hoc test (α= 0.05. Results: Transverse strength values for all repaired groups were significantly lower than those for the control group ( P < 0.001 (88.77 MPa, with exception of round surface design repaired with glass fiber reinforced repair resin (89.92 MPa which was significantly superior to the other joint surface contours ( P < 0.001. Glass fiber reinforced resin significantly improved the repaired denture base resins as compared to the plain repair resin ( P < 0.001. Conclusion: Specimens repaired with glass fiber reinforced resin and round surface design exhibited highest transverse strength; hence, it can be advocated for repair of denture base resins.

  1. Highly Deformable Energy-Dissipating Reinforced Concrete Elements in Seismic Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Momoh Emmanuel Owoichoechi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Incorporating scrap tyre rubber particles as partial replacement for aggregates has been found to produce concrete with improved ductility, deformability and damping which are desired characteristics of a viable material for enhancing structural response to earthquake vibrations. An analytical study using Drain-2dX was carried out to investigate the response of 4-storey, 3-bay reinforced concrete frames on innovative rubberised concrete deformable foundation models to simulated earthquake scaled to 5 different peak ground accelerations. Stress-strain properties of 3-layers aramid fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP-confinement for concrete incorporating waste rubber from scrap vehicle tyres were used to model the elements of this foundation models. With a partial decoupling of the superstructure from the direct earthquake force, the models showed up to 70% reduction in base shear, an improved overall q-factor of 7.1, and an estimated frame acceleration of 0.11g for an earthquake peak ground acceleration of 0.44g. This implies that a non-seismically designed reinforced concrete frame on the proposed rubberised concrete deformable foundation system would provide a simple, affordable and equally efficient alternative to the conventional and usually expensive earthquake resistant concrete frames. A supplementary Arrest System (SAS was proposed to anchor the frame from the resulting soft storey at the rubberised concrete foundation. A further research is recommended for the design of concrete hinges with rubberised concrete as used in the model with the most impressive response.

  2. Foundation Design for a High Bay Warehouse with a Steel Fibre Reinforced Concrete Slab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasper, T.; Sørensen, Carsten Steen; Nielsen, J. B.

    2008-01-01

    concrete slabs, while a 69 x 77 m and 40 cm thick steel fibre reinforced concrete (SFRC) slab forms the inner part of the foundation. Steel fibre reinforcement has been chosen mainly due to approximately 15 % lower construction costs than a comparable solution with conventional rebar reinforcement......The high bay warehouse at the Carlsberg brewery in Fredericia, Denmark, is 40 m high and is founded with a 83 x 116 m foundation slab on clay till and sand layers. Due to the wind loads on the tall building, the edges of the foundation require 80 cm and 60 cm thick conventionally reinforced...

  3. Field Testing of High Current Electrokinetic Nanoparticle Treatment for Corrosion Mitigation in Reinforced Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Luz Marina; Alexander, Joshua B.; Cardenas, Henry E.; Kupwade-Patil, Kunal

    2008-01-01

    This work examines field performance of nanoscale pozzolan treatments delivered el ctrokinetically to suppress chloride induced corrosion of concrete reinforcement. The particles are 20 nm silica spheres coated with 2 nm alumina particles that carry a net positive charge. Earlier work demonstrated that the alumina particles were stripped from the silica carriers and formed a dense phase with an interparticle spacing that is small enough to inhibit the transport of solvated chlorides. A D.C. field was used to inject the particles into the pores of concrete specimens, directly toward the mild steel bars that were embedded within each 3 inch diameter by 6 inch length concrete specimen. The voltage was held constant at 25 v per inch of concrete cover for a period of 7 days. These voltages permitted current densities as high as 3 A/sq m. During the final 3 days, a 1 molar solution of calcium nitrate tetrahydrate was used to provide a source of calcium to facilitate stronger and more densified phase formation within the pores. In a departure from prior work the particle treatments were started concurrent with chloride extraction in order to determine if particle delivery would inhibit chloride transport. Following treatment the specimens were immersed in seawater for 4 weeks. After this posttreatment exposure, the specimens were tested for tensile strength and the steel reinforcement was examined for evidence of corrosion. Scanning electron microscopy was conducted to assess impact on microstructure.

  4. Friction Stir Spot Welding of Advanced High Strength Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santella, M. L.; Hovanski, Yuri; Grant, Glenn J.; Carpenter, Joseph A.; Warren, C. D.; Smith, Mark T.

    2008-12-28

    Experiments are continuing to evaluate the feasibility of friction stir spot welding advanced high-strength steels including, DP780, martensitic hot-stamp boron steel, and TRIP steels. Spot weld lap-shear strengths can exceed those required by industry standards such as AWS D8.1.

  5. A nano lamella NbTi–NiTi composite with high strength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Jiang; Jiang, Daqiang; Hao, Shijie; Yu, Cun; Zhang, Junsong; Ren, Yang; Lu, Deping; Xie, Shifang; Cui, Lishan

    2015-05-01

    A hypereutectic Nb60Ti24Ni16 (at%) alloy was prepared by vacuum induction melting, and a nano lamellae NbTi-NiTi composite was obtained by hot-forging and wire-drawing of the ingot Microscopic analysis showed that NbTi and NiTi nano lamellae distributed alternatively in the composite, and aligned along the wire axial direction, with a high volume fraction (similar to 70%) of NbTi nano lamellae. In situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that stress induced martensitic transformation occurred upon loading, which would effectively weaken the stress concentration at the interface and avoid the introduction of defects into the nano reinforced phase. Then the embedded NbTi nano lamellae exhibited a high elastic strain up to 2.72%, 1.5 times as high as that of the Nb nanowires embedded in a conventional plastic matrix, and the corresponding stress carried by NbTi was evaluated as 2.53 GPa. The high volume fraction of NbTi nano lamellae improved the translation of high strength from the nano reinforced phase into bulk properties of the composite, with a platform stress of similar to 1.7 GPa and a fracture strength of similar to 1.9 GPa. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. A nano lamella NbTi–NiTi composite with high strength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Jiang [Jiangxi Key Laboratory of Advanced Copper and Tungsten Materials, Jiangxi Academy of Sciences, Nanchang 330029 (China); Institute of Applied Physics of Jiangxi Academy of Sciences, Nanchang 330029 (China); State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing and Department of Materials Science and engineering, China University of Petroleum, Beijing 102249 (China); Jiang, Daqiang [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing and Department of Materials Science and engineering, China University of Petroleum, Beijing 102249 (China); School of Mechanical and Chemical Engineering, The University of Western Australia, WA 6009 (Australia); Hao, Shijie; Yu, Cun; Zhang, Junsong [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing and Department of Materials Science and engineering, China University of Petroleum, Beijing 102249 (China); Ren, Yang [X-ray Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Lu, Deping; Xie, Shifang [Jiangxi Key Laboratory of Advanced Copper and Tungsten Materials, Jiangxi Academy of Sciences, Nanchang 330029 (China); Institute of Applied Physics of Jiangxi Academy of Sciences, Nanchang 330029 (China); Cui, Lishan, E-mail: lishancui63@126.com [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing and Department of Materials Science and engineering, China University of Petroleum, Beijing 102249 (China)

    2015-05-01

    A hypereutectic Nb{sub 60}Ti{sub 24}Ni{sub 16} (at%) alloy was prepared by vacuum induction melting, and a nano lamellae NbTi–NiTi composite was obtained by hot-forging and wire-drawing of the ingot. Microscopic analysis showed that NbTi and NiTi nano lamellae distributed alternatively in the composite, and aligned along the wire axial direction, with a high volume fraction (~70%) of NbTi nano lamellae. In situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that stress induced martensitic transformation occurred upon loading, which would effectively weaken the stress concentration at the interface and avoid the introduction of defects into the nano reinforced phase. Then the embedded NbTi nano lamellae exhibited a high elastic strain up to 2.72%, 1.5 times as high as that of the Nb nanowires embedded in a conventional plastic matrix, and the corresponding stress carried by NbTi was evaluated as 2.53 GPa. The high volume fraction of NbTi nano lamellae improved the translation of high strength from the nano reinforced phase into bulk properties of the composite, with a platform stress of ~1.7 GPa and a fracture strength of ~1.9 GPa.

  7. High strain rate compression testing of glass fibre reinforced polypropylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cloete T.J.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper details an investigation of the high strain rate compression testing of GFPP with the Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB in the through-thickness and in-plane directions. GFPP posed challenges to SHPB testing as it fails at relatively high stresses, while having relatively low moduli and hence mechanical impedance. The modifications to specimen geometry and incident pulse shaping in order to gather valid test results, where specimen equilibrium was achieved for SHPB tests on GFPP are presented. In addition to conventional SHPB tests to failure, SHPB experiments were designed to achieve specimen equilibration at small strains, which permitted the capture of high strain rate elastic modulus data. The strain rate dependency of GFPP’s failure strengths in the in-plane and through-thickness direction is modelled using a logarithmic law.

  8. Investigation of the plastic fracture of high strength steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, T. B.; Low, J. R., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    This investigation deals in detail with the three recognized stages of plastic fracture in high strength steels, namely, void initiation, void growth, and void coalescence. The particular steels under investigation include plates from both commercial purity and high purity heats of AISI 4340 and 18 Ni, 200 grade maraging steels. A scanning electron microscope equipped with an X-ray energy dispersive analyzer, together with observations made using light microscopy, revealed methods of improving the resistance of high strength steels to plastic fracture.

  9. Confined High Strength Concrete Columns: An Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagannathan Saravanan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: An experimental study on GFRP confined high strength concrete columns has been carried out with a view to evaluate its performances under uni-axial compression in terms of load and deformation capacity. Approach: High strength concrete columns strengthened with different configuration and stiffness of GFRP wraps were tested under axial compression until failure. Their response evaluated at different load levels. Results: The test results clearly indicated GFRP wrapped high strength concrete columns exhibit enhances performance. Conclusion: The study concluded that the three GFRP materials attempted UDC GFRP provided the maximum benefit with respect to load and deformation.

  10. Mechanical behavior and properties of fiber reinforced ceramic matrix composites for high temperature use

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chongdu Cho; Qiang Pan; Sangkyo Lee

    2007-01-01

    Ceramics can keep their mechanical characteristics up to 2 000℃ or higher.In this paper,A model to predict ultimate strength of continuous fiber-reinforced brittle matrix composites is developed.A statistical theory for the strength of a uni-axially fiber-reinforced brittle matrix composite is presented.Also a semi-empirical frictional heating method for estimating in-situ interfacial shear in fiber-reinforced ceramic matrix composites was improved.Local uneven fiber packing variation as well as uneven micro-damage during fatigue can be expected to have effects on the composites:generation of frictional heating,thermal gradients,and residual stresses around local fiber breaks.This study examined those engineering interests by the finite element method.

  11. Nanotechnology (NT): CNT Reinforced COPV Flight Test Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — •Develop ultralightweight, high strength composites from carbon nanotube reinforcementsTargeting specific strength 1.5 to 2X that of conventional aerospace...

  12. Autogenous Shrinkage of High Strength Lightweight Aggregate Concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Qingjun; TIAN Yaogang; WANG Fazhou; ZHANG Feng; HU Shuguang

    2005-01-01

    The characteristic of autogenous shrinkage ( AS ) and its effect on high strength lightweight aggregate concrete (HSLAC) were studied. The experimental results show that the main shrinkage of high strength concrete is AS and the amount of cement can affect the AS of HSLAC remarkably. At the early stage the AS of HSLAC is lower than that of high strength normal concrete, but it has a large growth at the later stage. The AS of high strength normal concrete becomes stable at 90d age, but HSLAC still has a high AS growth. It is found that adjusting the volume rate of lightweight aggregate, mixing with a proper dosage of fly ash and raising the water saturation degree of lightweight aggregate can markedly reduce the AS rate of HSLAC.

  13. Viscoelastic behavior and durability of steel wire - reinforced polyethylene pipes under a high internal pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivanov, S.; Anoshkin, A.N.; Zuyko, V.Yu

    2011-01-01

    The strength tests of steel-wire-reinforced polyethylene pipe specimens showed that, under a constant internal pressure exceeding 80% of their short-term ultimate pressure, the fracture of the specimens occurred in less than 24 hours. At pressures slightly lower than this level, some specimens did n

  14. Survey of Processing Methods for High Strength High Conductivity Wires for High Field Magnet Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, K.; Embury, J.D.

    1998-10-01

    This paper will deal with the basic concepts of attaining combination of high strength and high conductivity in pure materials, in-situ composites and macrocomposites. It will survey current attainments, and outline where some future developments may lie in developing wire products that are close to the theoretical strength of future magnet applications.

  15. Formability Characterization of a New Generation High Strength Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sriram Sadagopan; Dennis Urban; Chris Wong; Mai Huang; Benda Yan

    2003-05-16

    Advanced high strength steels (AHSS) are being progressively explored by the automotive industry all around the world for cost-effective solutions to accomplish vehicle lightweighting, improve fuel economy, and consequently reduce greenhouse emissions. Because of their inherent high strength, attractive crash energy management properties, and good formability, the effective use of AHSS such as Duel Phase and TRIP (Transformation Induced Plasticity) steels, will significantly contribute to vehicle lightweighting and fuel economy. To further the application of these steels in automotive body and structural parts, a good knowledge and experience base must be developed regarding the press formability of these materials. This project provides data on relevant intrinsic mechanical behavior, splitting limits, and springback behavior of several lots of mild steel, conventional high strength steel (HSS), advanced high strength steel (AHSS) and ultra-high strength steel (UHSS), supplied by the member companies of the Automotive Applications Committee (AAC) of the American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI). Two lots of TRIP600, which were supplied by ThyssenKrupp Stahl, were also included in the study. Since sheet metal forming encompasses a very diverse range of forming processes and deformation modes, a number of simulative tests were used to characterize the forming behavior of these steel grades. In general, it was found that formability, as determined by the different tests, decreased with increased tensile strength. Consistant with previous findings, the formability of TRIP600 was found to be exceptionally good for its tensile strength.

  16. Review on permeability of high-strength concrete subjected to high temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dongfu; Han, Xiao; Liu, Yuchen

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, the research results of permeability of high-strength concrete subjected to high temperature were comprehensively reviewed, the research status of permeability of high-strength concrete at elevated temperature were discussed, and existing problems were analyzed, finally, main research directions of permeability of high-strength concrete subjected to high temperature were forecasted.

  17. Fatigue strength of truss girders made of very high strength steel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijpers, R.J.M.; Kolstein, M.H.

    2010-01-01

    An effective application of Very High Strength Steel (VHSS) in civil engineering structures is expected in stiff, truss like structures, typically made of Circular Hollow Sections (CHS). Use of castings in combination with CHS could be promising for the design of highly fatigue resistant joints. Cas

  18. Impact strength and flexural properties enhancement of methacrylate silane treated oil palm mesocarp fiber reinforced biodegradable hybrid composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eng, Chern Chiet; Ibrahim, Nor Azowa; Zainuddin, Norhazlin; Ariffin, Hidayah; Yunus, Wan Md Zin Wan

    2014-01-01

    Natural fiber as reinforcement filler in polymer composites is an attractive approach due to being fully biodegradable and cheap. However, incompatibility between hydrophilic natural fiber and hydrophobic polymer matrix restricts the application. The current studies focus on the effects of incorporation of silane treated OPMF into polylactic acid (PLA)/polycaprolactone (PCL)/nanoclay/OPMF hybrid composites. The composites were prepared by melt blending technique and characterize the composites with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). FTIR spectra indicated that peak shifting occurs when silane treated OPMF was incorporated into hybrid composites. Based on mechanical properties results, incorporation of silane treated OPMF enhances the mechanical properties of unmodified OPMF hybrid composites with the enhancement of flexural and impact strength being 17.60% and 48.43%, respectively, at 10% fiber loading. TGA thermogram shows that incorporation of silane treated OPMF did not show increment in thermal properties of hybrid composites. SEM micrographs revealed that silane treated OPMF hybrid composites show good fiber/matrix adhesion as fiber is still embedded in the matrix and no cavity is present on the surface. Water absorption test shows that addition of less hydrophilic silane treated OPMF successfully reduces the water uptake of hybrid composites.

  19. Impact Strength and Flexural Properties Enhancement of Methacrylate Silane Treated Oil Palm Mesocarp Fiber Reinforced Biodegradable Hybrid Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chern Chiet Eng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural fiber as reinforcement filler in polymer composites is an attractive approach due to being fully biodegradable and cheap. However, incompatibility between hydrophilic natural fiber and hydrophobic polymer matrix restricts the application. The current studies focus on the effects of incorporation of silane treated OPMF into polylactic acid (PLA/polycaprolactone (PCL/nanoclay/OPMF hybrid composites. The composites were prepared by melt blending technique and characterize the composites with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. FTIR spectra indicated that peak shifting occurs when silane treated OPMF was incorporated into hybrid composites. Based on mechanical properties results, incorporation of silane treated OPMF enhances the mechanical properties of unmodified OPMF hybrid composites with the enhancement of flexural and impact strength being 17.60% and 48.43%, respectively, at 10% fiber loading. TGA thermogram shows that incorporation of silane treated OPMF did not show increment in thermal properties of hybrid composites. SEM micrographs revealed that silane treated OPMF hybrid composites show good fiber/matrix adhesion as fiber is still embedded in the matrix and no cavity is present on the surface. Water absorption test shows that addition of less hydrophilic silane treated OPMF successfully reduces the water uptake of hybrid composites.

  20. HiPer-tex{sup TM} WindStrand{sup TM}: A new generation of high performance reinforcement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, L.; Adolphs, G. [Owens Corning S and T, Battice (Belgium); Bech, J.I.; Broendsted, P. [Risoe National Lab., Material Research Dept., Roskilde (Denmark)

    2006-07-01

    Owens Corning has recently introduced the HiPer-texTM family of high performance reinforcements of which WindStrandTM is engineered to specific customer process requirements of resin infusion and prepregs for Wind Turbine blades manufacture. The new HiPer-tex technology platform enables up to 35% higher strength, 17% higher modulus, better impact, corrosion and high temperature resistance and significantly better fatigue properties versus traditional E Glass laminates. These attributes have been measured with various laminates types and are presented in this paper. These better performances are needed in markets such as Wind Energy, pressure vessels, armour, aerospace and light weight structural component. (au)

  1. High-strength braze joints between copper and steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, R. F.

    1967-01-01

    High-strength braze joints between copper and steel are produced by plating the faying surface of the copper with a layer of gold. This reduces porosity in the braze area and strengthens the resultant joint.

  2. Retention of ductility in high-strength steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, E. R.; Zackay, V. F.

    1969-01-01

    To produce high strength alloy steel with retention of ductility, include tempering, cooling and subsequent tempering. Five parameters for optimum results are pretempering temperature, amount of strain, strain rate, temperature during strain, and retempering temperature.

  3. Behaviour of high strength steel moment joints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Girão Coelho, A.M.; Bijlaard, F.S.K.

    2010-01-01

    The design of joints to European standard EN 1993 within the semi-continuous/partially restrained philosophy is restricted to steel grades up to S460. With the recent development of high performance steels, the need for these restrictions should be revisited. The semicontinuous joint modelling can b

  4. Flexural strengthening of reinforced concrete beams with carbon fibers reinforced polymer (CFRP sheet bonded to a transition layer of high performance cement-based composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. J. Ferrari

    Full Text Available Resistance to corrosion, high tensile strength, low weight, easiness and rapidity of application, are characteristics that have contributed to the spread of the strengthening technique characterized by bonding of carbon fibers reinforced polymer (CFRP. This research aimed to develop an innovate strengthening method for RC beams, based on a high performance cement-based composite of steel fibers (macro + microfibers to be applied as a transition layer. The purpose of this transition layer is better control the cracking of concrete and detain or even avoid premature debonding of strengthening. A preliminary study in short beams molded with steel fibers and strengthened with CFRP sheet, was carried out where was verified that the conception of the transition layer is valid. Tests were developed to get a cement-based composite with adequate characteristics to constitute the layer transition. Results showed the possibility to develop a high performance material with a pseudo strain-hardening behavior, high strength and fracture toughness. The application of the strengthening on the transition layer surface had significantly to improve the performance levels of the strengthened beam. It summary, it was proven the efficiency of the new strengthening technique, and much information can be used as criteria of projects for repaired and strengthened structures.

  5. High-frequency gamblers show increased resistance to extinction following partial reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsley, Rachel R; Osborne, Matthew; Norman, Christine; Wells, Timothy

    2012-04-15

    Behaviours that have been rewarded intermittently persist for longer during periods of non-reward than behaviours that have been rewarded continuously. This classic phenomenon is known as the partial reinforcement extinction effect. For decades it has been generally understood that this phenomenon is fundamental to the persistence of gambling in the absence of winning. One obvious, yet untested hypothesis arising from this is that persistent (here, high-frequency) gamblers might be more sensitive to partial reinforcement contingencies. Therefore, our aim was to test the hypothesis that compared to low-frequency gamblers, high-frequency gamblers would show greater resistance to extinction following partial reinforcement in a computer based experiment. Participants were 19 high-frequency gamblers and 21 low-frequency gamblers, all healthy non-smokers aged between 18 and 52. Following partial or continuous reinforcement, persistence of responding in extinction was measured as the number of times a target response was made. After partial reinforcement, high-frequency gamblers made the target response a greater number of times in extinction (compared to low-frequency gamblers). Moreover, the partial reinforcement extinction effect was larger in high-frequency gamblers than in low-frequency gamblers. It remains to be seen whether increased sensitivity to partial reinforcement is a cause or effect of persistent gambling. Nevertheless, the present study represents an important first step in investigating the role of simple partial reinforcement contingencies in determining resistance to extinction in gamblers, the importance of which, whilst hitherto recognised, has never been demonstrated experimentally.

  6. Microcapsules with Protein Fibril Reinforced Shells: Effect of Fibril Properties on Mechanical Strength of the Shell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Humblet-Hua, K.N.P.; Linden, van der E.; Sagis, L.M.C.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we produced microcapsules using layer-by-layer adsorption of food-grade polyelectrolytes on an emulsion droplet template. We compared the mechanical stability of microcapsules to shells consisting of alternating layers of ovalbumin–high methoxyl pectin (Ova–HMP) complexes and semi-fle

  7. Effect of water storage on the flexural strength of heat-cured denture base resin reinforced with stick (s glass fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankit Galav

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Flexural strength (FS of denture base resins (DBRs had been improved by reinforcing it with different glass fibers. However, a limited data are available on the effect of glass fiber reinforcement with conventional heat-cured resin after prolonged water storage. Aims and Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the reinforcing effect of novel S-glass and nylon fibers on the FS of acrylic DBRs. It also aimed to evaluate the effect of glass fiber reinforcement on the FS of acrylic DBRs after a prolonged storage in water. Materials and Methods: One hundred and sixty identical specimens were fabricated in specially designed molds according to the manufacturer's instructions. The three experimental groups were prepared consisting of conventional (unreinforced acrylic resin, novel S-glass fiber-reinforced and nylon fiber-reinforced acrylic resin. The specimens were fabricated in a standardized fashion for each experimental group. Each group was further subdivided into two groups on the basis of storage conditions (dry and wet. FS was tested using a three-point universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 5 mm/min. Glass fiber-reinforced group was further tested after prolonged storage in distilled water. Entered data were statistically analyzed with one-way ANOVA and least significant difference post hoc test. Results: In this study, statistically significant differences were noted in the FS of all the groups. S-glass fiber-reinforced group had highest FS compared to the other two groups (P < 0.001. Nylon fiber-reinforced group had lowest FS. All the groups stored in distilled water revealed a decrease in strength compared to those stored in dry atmosphere. Among wet specimens, those stored for 3 weeks had a significantly higher FS than those stored at one and 2 weeks (P < 0.01. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this investigation, the FS of heat-cured acrylic DBR was improved after reinforcement with glass fibers. It can be

  8. Localized bending fatigue behavior of high-strength steel monostrands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler, Jan; Fischer, Gregor; Georgakis, Christos T.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the localized bending fatigue behavior of pretensioned high strength steel monostrands is investigated. Furthermore, a new methodology using an optical photogrammetry system, which can quantify surface deformations on the strand is presented. The system allows measurement of the st......In this paper, the localized bending fatigue behavior of pretensioned high strength steel monostrands is investigated. Furthermore, a new methodology using an optical photogrammetry system, which can quantify surface deformations on the strand is presented. The system allows measurement...

  9. Glass Fibre Reinforced Polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nikolaou, N.; Karagianni, L.; Sarakiniatti, M.V.

    2014-01-01

    This "designers' manual" is made during the TIDO-course AR0533 Innovation & Sustainability. Fibre reinforced polymers (FRPs) have been used in many applications over the years, from new construction to retrofitting. They are lightweight, no-corrosive, exhibit high specific strength and specific

  10. Glass Fibre Reinforced Polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nikolaou, N.; Karagianni, L.; Sarakiniatti, M.V.

    2014-01-01

    This "designers' manual" is made during the TIDO-course AR0533 Innovation & Sustainability. Fibre reinforced polymers (FRPs) have been used in many applications over the years, from new construction to retrofitting. They are lightweight, no-corrosive, exhibit high specific strength and specific sti

  11. 补强圈与筒体间隙对开孔补强结构强度的影响%Influence of the Gap between Reinforcement Pad and Shell on the Structural Strength of Opening Reinforcement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李岩; 杨世明

    2016-01-01

    在评定压力容器开孔补强结构强度时,经典薄壳理论未考虑补强圈与筒体间隙,而间隙却在实际结构中存在。设筒体承受不同的内压值、接管上承受不同的轴向力,应用有限元软件的接触算法对压力容器开孔补强结构进行了静强度与疲劳强度评定,考察了不同间隙值对强度的影响,同时也计算了未考虑接触时的结果作为对比。结果分析表明:在接管有正向轴向力存在的情况下有必要考虑接触,而补强圈与筒体之间间隙大小在评定开孔补强结构静强度与由内压或者轴向变载引起的疲劳强度时的影响可以忽略。%When evaluating the strength of the opening reinforcement structure of pressure vessels, the classical thin shell the-ory doesn't take into account the interstice between the reinforcement structure rings and cylinder, but in fact, the interstice exists in the structure.The opening reinforcement structure of pressure vessels with different pressure values on the cylinder and different axial force values on nozzle are computed by the contact algorithm of ANSYS in order to evaluate the static strength and fatigue strength.Besides, the influence of different interstices on strength is examined, and the comparison be-tween the results of with the contact and without the contact is made.The results show that the gap between the reinforcement structure rings and cylinder should be considered in the case of the nozzle with positive axial force, while the influence of the interstice size can be ignored when evaluating the opening reinforcement structure of pressure vessels static strength and the fa-tigue strength of only internal pressure or the extra axial force on nozzle.

  12. The Comparison of Shear Bond Strength Between Fibre Reinforced Composite Posts with Three Different Composite Core Materials - An In vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anche, Sampath; Kakarla, Pranitha; Kadiyala, Krishna Kishore; Sreedevi, B; Chiramana, Sandeep; Dev J, Ravi Rakesh; Manne, Sanjay Dutt; G, Deepthi

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the shear bond strength between fiber reinforced composite post with three different composite core materials. The materials used for the study were: 30 maxillary central incisors, pre fabricated fiber reinforced composite post (postec plus posts), Multi-core heavy body, Ti-core, Fluoro-core, Etchant gel, Silane coupling agent, Dentin bonding agent, Standardized gutta percha points, Rely-X dual cure composite resin. A total of 30 human maxillary central incisor were selected for this study. They were divided into three groups of 10 specimens each namely A, B and C. The results obtained were analyzed by using one way analysis (ANOVA) and Tukey Honestly Significant Difference and they showed highest mean shear bond strength for group C when compared with group A and group B. There is no significant difference in the shear bond strength values between group A and group B. The teeth restored with multicore HB showed highest shear bond strength. The teeth restored with Fluoro core showed lowest shear bond strength. No statistically significant difference exists between the shear bond strength values between Ti-core and Fluoro-core.

  13. The Comparison of Shear Bond Strength Between Fibre Reinforced Composite Posts with Three Different Composite Core Materials – An In vitro Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anche, Sampath; Kakarla, Pranitha; Kadiyala, Krishna Kishore; Sreedevi, B.; Chiramana, Sandeep; Dev J., Ravi Rakesh; Manne, Sanjay Dutt; G., Deepthi

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study is to compare the shear bond strength between fiber reinforced composite post with three different composite core materials. Materials and Methods: The materials used for the study were: 30 maxillary central incisors, pre fabricated fiber reinforced composite post (postec plus posts), Multi-core heavy body, Ti-core, Fluoro-core, Etchant gel, Silane coupling agent, Dentin bonding agent, Standardized gutta percha points, Rely-X dual cure composite resin. A total of 30 human maxillary central incisor were selected for this study. They were divided into three groups of 10 specimens each namely A, B and C. Results: The results obtained were analyzed by using one way analysis (ANOVA) and Tukey Honestly Significant Difference and they showed highest mean shear bond strength for group C when compared with group A and group B. There is no significant difference in the shear bond strength values between group A and group B. Conclusion: The teeth restored with multicore HB showed highest shear bond strength. The teeth restored with Fluoro core showed lowest shear bond strength. No statistically significant difference exists between the shear bond strength values between Ti-core and Fluoro-core. PMID:24596784

  14. Dynamic behaviors of various volume rate steel-fiber reinforced reactive powder concrete after high temperature burnt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Baojun; Wang, Liwen; Yang, Zhenqi; Chi, Runqiang

    2009-06-01

    Dynamic strain-stress curves of reactive powder concrete under high strain rate (10/s-100/s) were determined by improved split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) system. A plumbum pulse shaper was used to ensure the symmetrical stress in the specimens before fracture and avoid the fluctuation of test data due to input shaky stress pulse. A time modified method was induced for data processing in order to get accurate SHPB results. The results of experiment showed after high temperature burnt, different volume rate (0.0%, 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%) steel-fiber reinforced reactive power concrete had the same changing tendency of residual mechanics behaviors, e.g. after 400 centigrade burnt, the residual compression strength was about 70% of material strength without burnt under 100/s. After 800 centigrade burnt, the compression strength is about 30% under 100/s while the deformation ability increased. At meanwhile, steel fiber had improved the mechanism of reinforcing effect and toughening effect of concrete material after burnt. With increasing of steel fiber volume rate, dynamic residual behavior of samples was improved. Microcosmic characteristics and energy absorption were induced for explaining the experiment results.

  15. Effect of Expansive Admixtures on the Shrinkage and Mechanical Properties of High-Performance Fiber-Reinforced Cement Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won-Chang Choi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available High-performance fiber-reinforced cement composites (HPFRCCs are characterized by strain-hardening and multiple cracking during the inelastic deformation process, but they also develop high shrinkage strain. This study investigates the effects of replacing Portland cement with calcium sulfoaluminate-based expansive admixtures (CSA EXAs to compensate for the shrinkage and associated mechanical behavior of HPFRCCs. Two types of CSA EXA (CSA-K and CSA-J, each with a different chemical composition, are used in this study. Various replacement ratios (0%, 8%, 10%, 12%, and 14% by weight of cement of CSA EXA are considered for the design of HPFRCC mixtures reinforced with 1.5% polyethylene (PE fibers by volume. Mechanical properties, such as shrinkage compensation, compressive strength, flexural strength, and direct tensile strength, of the HPFRCC mixtures are examined. Also, crack width and development are investigated to determine the effects of the EXAs on the performance of the HPFRCC mixtures, and a performance index is used to quantify the performance of mixture. The results indicate that replacements of 10% CSA-K (Type 1 and 8% CSA-J (Type 2 considerably enhance the mechanical properties and reduce shrinkage of HPFRCCs.

  16. EFFECT OF ACCELERATED WEATHERING ON TENSILE PROPERTIES OF KENAF REINFORCED HIGH-DENSITY POLYETHYLENE COMPOSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umar A.H.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Umar A.H1, Zainudin E.S1,2 and Sapuan S.M.1,21Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing EngineeringFaculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra MalaysiaSelangor, Malaysia.2Biocomposite LaboratoryInstitute of Tropical Forestry and Forest Product (INTROPUniversiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia.Email: umarhanan@yahoo.com ABSTRACTIn this study, a high-density polyethylene composite reinforced with kenaf (Hibiscus Cannabinus L. bast fibres (K-HDPE was fabricated and tested for durability with regard to weather elements. The material consists of 40% (by weight fibres and 60% matrix. Other additives, such as ultraviolet (UV stabiliser and maleic anhydride grafted polyethylene (MaPE as a coupling agent were added to the composite material. The biocomposite was subjected to 1000 hours (h of accelerated weathering tests, which consisted of heat, moisture and UV light, intended to imitate the outdoor environment. The tensile properties of the K-HDPE composite were recorded after 0, 200, 400, 600, 800 and 1000 h of exposure to the accelerated weathering. Compared with neat high-density polyethylene (HDPE, the K-HDPE composite has 22.7% lower tensile strength when produced but displays a less rapid rate of strength deterioration under weathering (After 1000 h of exposure the tensile strength of K-HDPE drops 29.4%, whereas, for neat HDPE, it falls rapidly by 36%. Due to better stiffness, the Young’s modulus of the K-HDPE composite is much higher than that of neat HDPE. The fibres on the surface of the K-HDPE composite gradually start to whiten after 200 h of exposure and become completely white after 600 h of exposure. For neat HDPE, micro-cracking on the surface can be observed after 200 h of exposure and the stress-strain curve obtained from the tensile test indicates its increase in brittleness proportional to the amount of weathering time.

  17. Fracture strength and nanoleakage of weakened roots reconstructed using relined glass fiber-reinforced dowels combined with a novel prefabricated core system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Rania A; Mandour, Mona H; Abd El-Ghany, Ossama Saleh

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate fracture strength and nanoleakage of endodontically treated weakened teeth after being restored with relined glass fiber-reinforced dowels and two types of cores. Sixty sound human decoronated and endodontically treated teeth were embedded in epoxy resin blocks, then divided into three groups (n = 20) according to the method of root reconstruction. Group 1 (control): nonweakened roots were restored with glass fiber-reinforced dowels (UNIC); group 2: weakened roots restored with glass fiber-reinforced dowels relined with composite resin; group 3: weakened roots restored with glass fiber-reinforced dowels and a thick layer of luting cement. Dowels were cemented using Corposit, a dual-cured adhesive resin cement, then each group was assigned into two subgroups (n = 10) according to the type of core used; subgroup a: custom-made core using the same luting cement, subgroup b: prefabricated glass fiber-reinforced core (UNIC). Half the specimens of each subgroup were individually mounted at 45° angles and statically compressed until fracture at a 0.5 mm/min crosshead speed with a 5 kN load cell. The type of failure was assessed using a magnification lens. The other half of the specimens were removed from the block, placed in silver nitrate solution for 24 hours followed by photo developer for 8 hours, then examined using environmental scanning electron microscope/energy dispersive analytical X-ray for nanoleakage evaluation. Data were statistically analyzed. The nonweakened group recorded the highest fracture strength values. The composite relined group showed significantly higher fracture strength values than the cement group. The prefabricated core yielded higher fracture strength values than the custom-made core. All groups showed a degree of nanoleakage, with higher scores recorded for the composite group. The fracture resistance of wide root canals can be improved by using glass fiber-reinforced dowels relined with composite

  18. Effect of Chopped Basalt Fibers on the Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of High Performance Fiber Reinforced Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tehmina Ayub

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the mechanical properties and the microstructure of the high performance fiber reinforced concrete (HPFRC containing up to 3% volume fraction of chopped Basalt fibers. Three types of the concrete were prepared, out of which, the first type was prepared by utilizing 100% cement content. The other two types of the concrete were prepared by replacing 10% cement content with silica fume and the locally produced metakaolin. Using each concrete type, four mixes were prepared in which Basalt fibers were added in the range of 0–3%; that is, total twelve mixes of the HPFRC concrete were prepared. From each of the twelve concrete mixes, total twelve specimens were cast to determine the mechanical properties of the HPFRC including compressive strength (cube and cylinder, splitting tensile strength, and the flexural strength. In this way, a total of 108 specimens were cast and tested in this study. Test results showed that the addition of the Basalt fibers significantly increased the tensile splitting strength and the flexural strength of the HPFRC, while there was slight improvement in the compressive strength with the addition of Basalt fibers. The microstructure of HPFRC was examined to determine the interfacial transition zone (ITZ between the aggregates and the paste by using field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM, which showed the improvement of the ITZ due to the addition of the Basalt fibers.

  19. TRIAXIAL COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF ULTRA HIGH PERFORMANCE CONCRETE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radoslav Sovják

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to describe the strength of Ultra High Performance Concrete (UHPC under triaxial compression. The main goal is to find a trend in the triaxial compressive strength development under various values of confinement pressure. The importance of triaxial tests lies in the spatial loading of the sample, which simulates the real loading of the material in the structure better than conventional uniaxial strength tests. In addition, the authors describe a formulation process for UHPC that has been developed without using heat treatment, pressure or a special mixer. Only ordinary materials available commercially in the Czech Republic were utilized throughout the material design process.

  20. Spontaneous Radiation Emission from Short, High Field Strength Insertion Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geoffrey Krafft

    2005-09-15

    Since the earliest papers on undulaters were published, it has been known how to calculate the spontaneous emission spectrum from ''short'' undulaters when the magnetic field strength parameter is small compared to unity, or in ''single'' frequency sinusoidal undulaters where the magnetic field strength parameter is comparable to or larger than unity, but where the magnetic field amplitude is constant throughout the undulater. Fewer general results have been obtained in the case where the insertion device is both short, i.e., the magnetic field strength parameter changes appreciably throughout the insertion device, and the magnetic field strength is high enough that ponderomotive effects, radiation retardation, and harmonic generation are important physical phenomena. In this paper a general method is presented for calculating the radiation spectrum for short, high-field insertion devices. It is used to calculate the emission from some insertion device designs of recent interest.

  1. Microchip electrophoresis at elevated temperatures and high separation field strengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Indranil; Marczak, Steven P; Jacobson, Stephen C

    2014-02-01

    We report free-solution microchip electrophoresis performed at elevated temperatures and high separation field strengths. We used microfluidic devices with 11 cm long separation channels to conduct separations at temperatures between 22 (ambient) and 45°C and field strengths from 100 to 1000 V/cm. To evaluate separation performance, N-glycans were used as a model system and labeled with 8-aminopyrene-1,3,6-trisulfonic acid to impart charge for electrophoresis and render them fluorescent. Typically, increased diffusivity at higher temperatures leads to increased axial dispersion and poor separation performance; however, we demonstrate that sufficiently high separation field strengths offset the impact of increased diffusivity in order to maintain separation efficiency. Efficiencies for these free-solution separations are the same at temperatures of 25, 35, and 45°C with separation field strengths ≥ 500 V/cm.

  2. Spontaneous radiation emission from short, high field strength magnetic devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Krafft

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the earliest papers on undulators were published, it has been known how to calculate the spontaneous emission spectrum from short undulators when the magnetic field strength parameter is small compared to unity, or in “single” frequency sinusoidal undulators where the magnetic field strength parameter is comparable to or larger than unity, but where the magnetic field amplitude is constant throughout the undulator. Fewer general results have been obtained in the case where the magnetic device is both short, i.e., the magnetic field strength parameter changes appreciably throughout the device, and the magnetic field strength is high enough that ponderomotive effects, radiation retardation, and harmonic generation are important physical phenomena. In this paper a general method is presented for calculating the radiation spectrum for short, high-field magnetic devices. It is used to calculate the emission from some designs of recent interest.

  3. Effect of Curing Temperature Histories on the Compressive Strength Development of High-Strength Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keun-Hyeok Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the relative strength-maturity relationship of high-strength concrete (HSC specifically developed for nuclear facility structures while considering the economic efficiency and durability of the concrete. Two types of mixture proportions with water-to-binder ratios of 0.4 and 0.28 were tested under different temperature histories including (1 isothermal curing conditions of 5°C, 20°C, and 40°C and (2 terraced temperature histories of 20°C for an initial age of individual 1, 3, or 7 days and a constant temperature of 5°C for the subsequent ages. On the basis of the test results, the traditional maturity function of an equivalent age was modified to consider the offset maturity and the insignificance of subsequent curing temperature after an age of 3 days on later strength of concrete. To determine the key parameters in the maturity function, the setting behavior, apparent activation energy, and rate constant of the prepared mixtures were also measured. This study reveals that the compressive strength development of HSC cured at the reference temperature for an early age of 3 days is insignificantly affected by the subsequent curing temperature histories. The proposed maturity approach with the modified equivalent age accurately predicts the strength development of HSC.

  4. Preparation and Property Study of Graphene Oxide Reinforced Epoxy Resin Insulation Nanocomposites with High Heat Conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Xinran; Liu, Yongchang; Wu, Zhixiong; Liu, Huiming; Zhang, Zhong; Huang, Rongjin; Huang, Chuanjun; Liu, Zheng; Li, Laifeng

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, graphene oxide reinforced epoxy resin nanocomposites were successfully prepared. Compared with unmodified epoxy resin, the heat conductivity of the graphene oxide reinforced epoxy resin nanocomposites had been improved while keeping the insulation performance. The tensile strength was investigated at both room temperature (300 K) and liquid nitrogen temperature (77 K). And the fracture surfaces were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results showed that the materials had excellent mechanical properties, which could be advantages for the applications as insulating layer in low temperature superconducting magnets.

  5. Advanced High Strength Steel in Auto Industry: an Overview

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The world’s most common alloy, steel, is the material of choice when it comes to making products as diverse as oil rigs to cars and planes to skyscrapers, simply because of its functionality, adaptability, machine-ability and strength. Newly developed grades of Advanced High Strength Steel (AHSS) significantly outperform competing materials for current and future automotive applications. This is a direct result of steel’s performance flexibility, as well as of its many benefits in...

  6. Assessment of Tensile Bond Strength of Fiber-Reinforced Composite Resin to Enamel Using Two Types of Resin Cements and Three Surface Treatment Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Ghaffari

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Resin-bonded bridgework with a metal framework is one of the most conservative ways to replace a tooth with intact abutments. Visibility of metal substructure and debonding are the complications of these bridgeworks. Today, with the introduction of fiber-reinforced composite resins, it is possible to overcome these complications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bond strength of fiber-reinforced composite resin materials (FRC to enamel. Methods: Seventy-two labial cross-sections were prepared from intact extracted teeth. Seventy-two rectangular samples of cured Vectris were prepared and their thickness was increased by adding Targis. The samples were divided into 3 groups for three different surface treatments: sandblasting, etching with 9% hydrofluoric acid, and roughening with a round tapered diamond bur. Each group was then divided into two subgroups for bonding to etched enamel by Enforce and Variolink II resin cements. Instron universal testing machine was used to apply a tensile force. The fracture force was recorded and the mode of failure was identified under a reflective microscope. Results: There were no significant differences in bond strength between the three surface treatment groups (P=0.53. The mean bond strength of Variolink II cement was greater than that of Enforce (P=0.04. There was no relationship between the failure modes (cohesive and adhesive and the two cement types. There was some association between surface treatment and failure mode. There were adhesive failures in sandblasted and diamond-roughened groups and the cohesive failure was dominant in the etched group. Conclusion: It is recommended that restorations made of fiber-reinforced composite resin be cemented with VariolinkII and surface-treated by hydrofluoric acid. Keywords: Tensile bond strength; surface treatment methods; fiber-reinforced composite resin

  7. Effects of hydrogen peroxide pretreatment and heat activation of silane on the shear bond strength of fiber-reinforced composite posts to resin cement

    OpenAIRE

    Pyun, Jung-Hoon; Shin, Tae-Bong; Lee, Joo-Hee; Ahn, Kang-Min; Kim, Tae-Hyung; Cha, Hyun-Suk

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE To evaluate the effects of hydrogen peroxide pretreatment and heat activation of silane on the shear bond strength of fiber-reinforced composite posts to resin cement. MATERIALS AND METHODS The specimens were prepared to evaluate the bond strength of epoxy resin-based fiber posts (D.T. Light-Post) to dual-curing resin cement (RelyX U200). The specimens were divided into four groups (n=18) according to different surface treatments: group 1, no treatment; group 2, silanization; group 3,...

  8. Compressive mechanical of high strength concrete (HSC) after different high temperature history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dongfu; Liu, Yuchen; Gao, Haijing; Han, Xiao

    2017-08-01

    The compression strength test of high strength concrete under different high-temperature conditions was carried out by universal testing machine. The friction surface of the pressure bearing surface of the specimen was composed of three layers of plastic film and glycerol. The high temperature working conditions were the combination of different heating temperature and different constant temperature time. The characteristics of failure modes and the developments of cracks were observed; the residual compressive strength and stress-strain curves were measured; the effect of different temperature and heating time on the strength and deformation of high strength concrete under uniaxial compression were analyzed; the failure criterion formula of the high strength concrete after high temperature under uniaxial compression was established. The formula of the residual compressive strength of high strength concrete under the influence of heating temperature and constant temperature time was put forward. The relationship between the residual elastic modulus and the peak strain and residual compressive strength of high strength concrete and different high temperature conditions is established. The quantitative relationship that the residual compressive strength decreases the residual elastic modulus decreases and the peak strain increases with the increase of heating temperature and the constant temperature time was given, which provides a reference for the detection and evaluation of high strength concrete structures after fire.

  9. Fatigue Life of High-Strength Steel Offshore Tubular Joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rasmus Ingomar; Agerskov, Henning; Lopez Martinez, Luis

    1996-01-01

    In the present investigation, the fatigue life of tubular joints in offshore steel structures is studied. Two test series on full-scale tubular joints have been carried through. One series was on joints in conventional offshore structural steel, and the other series was on joints in high-strength...... steel with a yield stress of 820-830 MPa and with high weldability and toughness properties. The test specimens of both series had the same geometry. The present report concentrates on the results obtained in the investigation on the high-strength steel tubular joints.The test specimens were fabricated...... amplitude fatigue test results showed shorter fatigue lives in variable amplitude loading than should be expected from the linear fatigue damage accumulation formula. Furthermore, the fatigue tests on high-strength steel tubular joints showed slightly longer fatigue lives than those obtained...

  10. Development of a New Kind of High Strength Spring Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dexiang XU; Zhongda YIN; Defu LIU

    2004-01-01

    A new kind of high strength, high toughness and high plasticity spring steel has been developed. The strength, the reduction of area and the elongation of the steel are all higher than those of the steel 60Si2CrVA. The decarburization resistance and the sag resistance are also higher than those of the steel 60Si2CrVA. It has good hardenability, and is suitable for making springs with big cross section. The bogie springs made of this kind of steel have passed 2×106 cycles without broken under the conditions of maximum stress of 906 MPa and the minimum stress of 388 MPa.

  11. Fiber-reinforced ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belcheva, D. [Technological University `Prof. A. Zlatarov`, Bourgas (Bulgaria); Lubchev, L.; Jelezkov, G.; Georgiev, W.

    1995-03-01

    The possibilities for preparation of reinforced composite materials were studied. Test specimens based on different types of alumina matrices, plasticized with formaldehyde oligomer and polyvinyl alcohol, and reinforced with carbon and mullite fibers were prepared and investigated. The results confirmed that reinforced composite materials with valuable properties such as high thermal shock resistance, chemical resistance and mechanical strength can be produced. The density of technical alumina materials is lower, compared with that of pure alumina. The density can also be influenced by the type and quantity of the plasticizers used. By increasing the fiber content, the density of the material decreases. The shrinkage is influcenced by the type and the quantity of the reinforcing material. (orig.)

  12. Conditioned inhibition and reinforcement rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Justin A; Kwok, Dorothy W S; Andrew, Benjamin J

    2014-07-01

    We investigated conditioned inhibition in a magazine approach paradigm. Rats were trained on a feature negative discrimination between an auditory conditioned stimulus (CS) reinforced at one rate versus a compound of that CS and a visual stimulus (L) reinforced at a lower rate. This training established L as a conditioned inhibitor. We then tested the inhibitory strength of L by presenting it in compound with other auditory CSs. L reduced responding when tested with a CS that had been reinforced at a high rate, but had less or even no inhibitory effect when tested with a CS that had been reinforced at a low rate. The inhibitory strength of L was greater if it signaled a decrease in reinforcement from an already low rate than if it signaled an equivalent decrease in reinforcement from a high rate. We conclude that the strength of inhibition is not a linear function of the change in reinforcement that it signals. We discuss the implications of this finding for models of learning (e.g., Rescorla & Wagner, 1972) that identify inhibition with a difference (subtraction) rule.

  13. Development of third generation advanced high strength steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Meghan Colleen

    Lightweight duplex steels with combinations of either bainite, acicular ferrite, and austenite or martensite and austenite were investigated as third generation advanced high strength steels targeted for automotive applications. Large additions of manganese (> 13 wt%) and carbon (Strength and ductility were increased while density was decreased with aluminum additions between 2.4 and 5.5 wt% to the steel. This research addressed the dependence of alloying on microstructures and mechanical behavior for high manganese and aluminum duplex steels that were cast and subsequently hot rolled. Duplex steels with different volume fractions of primary delta-ferrite were used to study the crystallography of austenite fanned during the peritectic reaction. Solute profiles across the peritectic interface showed aluminum segregated near the interface which promoted bainitic ferrite formation. Thermal treatments were used to manipulate the concentration and type of oxides and the ferrite plate density was found to correlate with inclusions of low misfit in steels with austenite grain size of 16.5 microm. A steel with bainite and acicular ferrite produced an ultimate tensile strength of 970 MPa and elongation of 40%. The mechanical prope1iies depended on the strengths and size of the microstructural constituents. Work hardening behavior was examined in a steel exhibiting multiple martensitic transformation induced plasticity (gamma-austenite→epsilon-smartensite→alpha-martensite). A strain hardening exponent as high as 1.4 was observed with ultimate tensile strength and elongation as high as 1,165 MPa and 34%.

  14. Optimal welding technology of high strength steel S690QL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dusan Arsic

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper is presented the detailed procedure for defining the optimal technology for welding the structures made of the high strength steel S690QL. That steel belongs into a group of steels with exceptional mechanical properties. The most prominent properties are the high tensile strength and impact toughness, at room and at elevated temperatures, as well. However, this steel has a negative characteristic - proneness to appearance of cold cracks.  That impedes welding and makes as an imperative to study different aspects of this steel's properties as well as those of eventual filler metal. Selection and defining of the optimal welding technology of this high strength steel is done for the purpose of preserving the favorable mechanical properties once the welded joint is realized; properties of the welded metal and the melting zone, as well as in the heat affected zone, which is the most critical zone of the welded joint.

  15. Modeling and experimental analysis of magnetostriction in high strength steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Della Torre E.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies on the magnetostriction in high strength steels have ignored the internal anisotropies due to previous material handling. Cold-rolling an iron alloy will stretch and distort the magnetic domains in the direction of rolling. These altered domain shapes impact the magnetic characteristics of the alloy; adding an additional preferred direction of magnetization to the easy or hard axes within the crystalline structure. This paper presents data taken on rods of a high strength steel that have been machined parallel to the rolling direction; as well as simulated results using a Preisach-type magnetostriction model. The model, whose formulation is based on the DOK magnetization-based model, aims specifically to simulate the Villari reversal phenomenon observed in the magnetostriction measurements of high strength steels and some Terfenol-D alloys.

  16. MODIFICATION THE CEMENTIOUS MATERIAL OF ULTRA-HIGH-STRENGTH SLEEPER CONCRETE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents investigation results on the natural ultra-fine mineral flour of crystalline silica fume (CSF) and porous quartz sand stone (PQSS) which can modify cement mortar strength under hydrothermal synthesis reaction (HSR) in the autoclave-cured condition. The replacement of cement by CSF and PQSS can significantly increase the flexural and compressive strength,which reach 22MPa and 150MPa respectively ,and decrease the porosity of the cement mortar. The ratio of fine aggregation, standard sand to cementious material has significant influence on the mortar strength. The mechanisms involved in cement and natural mineral flour and the HSR are presented. CaO/SiO2 ratio ranges from 3.20 to 1.11, the main hydrate phase is C2SH and there is not Tobermorite through X-Ray diffraction qualitative analysis. The new and ultra-high strength cementious material as basic material of sleeper concrete can be used in prestressed reinforcement sleeper concrete.

  17. Viscoelastic properties of short aramid fibres-reinforced rubbers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sadatshirazi, S.; Talma, Auke; Noordermeer, Jacobus W.M.

    2013-01-01

    Among short fiber-reinforced composites, those with rubber matrices have gained great importance due to the advantages they have in processing and low cost, coupled with high strength. These composites combine the elastic behavior of rubbers with strength and stiffness of fibers. Reinforcement with

  18. Viscoelastic properties of short aramid fibres-reinforced rubbers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shirazi, S.; Talma, A.G.; Noordermeer, J.W.M.

    2013-01-01

    Among short fiber-reinforced composites, those with rubber matrices have gained great importance due to the advantages they have in processing and low cost, coupled with high strength. These composites combine the elastic behavior of rubbers with strength and stiffness of fibers. Reinforcement with

  19. An Assessment of the Compressive Strength of Glass Reinforced Plastic Waste Filled Concrete for Potential Applications in Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asokan Pappu

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Efforts were made to recycle Glass reinforced plastic (GRP waste powder in concrete products and assess its compressive strength to comply with British Standards for use in construction applications. More than 90 GRP waste-filled concrete specimens were

  20. Optimum high temperature strength of two-dimensional nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monclús, M. A.; Molina-Aldareguía, J. M., E-mail: jon.molina@imdea.org [IMDEA Materials Institute, C/Eric Kandel 2, 28906 Getafe, Madrid (Spain); Zheng, S. J.; Mayeur, J. R.; Beyerlein, I. J.; Mara, N. A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Polcar, T. [Czech Technical University in Prague, Technická 2, Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Llorca, J. [IMDEA Materials Institute, C/Eric Kandel 2, 28906 Getafe, Madrid (Spain); Department of Materials Science, Polytechnic University of Madrid, E. T. S. de Ingenieros de Caminos, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2013-11-01

    High-temperature nanoindentation was used to reveal nano-layer size effects on the hardness of two-dimensional metallic nanocomposites. We report the existence of a critical layer thickness at which strength achieves optimal thermal stability. Transmission electron microscopy and theoretical bicrystal calculations show that this optimum arises due to a transition from thermally activated glide within the layers to dislocation transmission across the layers. We demonstrate experimentally that the atomic-scale properties of the interfaces profoundly affect this critical transition. The strong implications are that interfaces can be tuned to achieve an optimum in high temperature strength in layered nanocomposite structures.

  1. Optimum high temperature strength of two-dimensional nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Monclús

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available High-temperature nanoindentation was used to reveal nano-layer size effects on the hardness of two-dimensional metallic nanocomposites. We report the existence of a critical layer thickness at which strength achieves optimal thermal stability. Transmission electron microscopy and theoretical bicrystal calculations show that this optimum arises due to a transition from thermally activated glide within the layers to dislocation transmission across the layers. We demonstrate experimentally that the atomic-scale properties of the interfaces profoundly affect this critical transition. The strong implications are that interfaces can be tuned to achieve an optimum in high temperature strength in layered nanocomposite structures.

  2. Initiation and growth of microcracks in high strength steel butt welds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Edward

    1993-05-01

    Early tests such as the explosion bulge test created a preference for overmatched welds (welds which are stronger than the base metal) which eventually became codified for many structural applications. While an overmatched system offers advantages such as the shedding of strain to the base plate, it requires the use of expensive fabrication procedures to avoid cracking. Undermatched welding of some high strength steels may offer reductions in welding costs with little sacrifice in weld performance or low cycle fatigue integrity. An experimental study was carried out to observe microcrack initiation and growth of overmatched and undermatched butt welded high strength steel samples using globally elastic low cycle fatigue testing. First, 1 inch thick HY-80 and HY-100 base plates were multipass, spray gas metal arc welded (GMAW) with overmatching and undermatching filler metal using a semiautomatic welding machine. Second, 1/4 inch thick MIL-A-46100 high hardness armor plates (HHA) were manually, two pass spray GMAW welded with two grades of undermatching consumables. Weld reinforcements were removed from all HY specimens and six HHA specimens. All specimens had a crack initiator slit machined in the test section. The specimens were fatigue tested by transverse tensile loading with a 12 to 13 Hz tension-tension profile. The loading range was from 10% to 85% of the tensile strength of the HY steel base plate and HHA weld metal respectively. Crack initiation and propagation was observed in situ using a confocal scanning laser microscope.

  3. Conventional Weapons Effects on Reinforced Soil Walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-03-01

    of the reinforced soil wall. 14. SUBJECT TERMS 15. NUMBER OF PAGES Reinforced soil, conventional weapons, protective structures, 388 geosynthetics ...high tensile strength materials such as steel strips or geosynthetics . A single face of a reinforced soil berm can be constructed to approximately...yards of geosynthetics representing $3.1 billion have been used in a wide range of civil engineering applications (Koerner, 1990). Between 1991 and 1992

  4. Comparative analysis of strength and crack resistance of normal sections of bent elements of T-sections, made of rubber concrete, kauton reinforcement and concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potapov Yuriy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the urgent tasks of development of the construction associated with the development of new building designs, the use of which provides increased strength, crack resistance, reducing the flow of construction materials, reducing the labor intensity, energy consumption and cost. Ensuring effective functioning of structures during their operation in the harsh environments associated not only with the task of developing materials of higher strength and corrosion resistance, but also composites of increased strength and crack resistance, as structural materials crack resistance is largely determined by the ability of the structure to prevent the formation and growth of cracks. For structures operating in conditions of chemical action, the question of crack resistance is paramount, as the disclosure of cracks in aggressive environment, penetrating deep into the section and causing corrosion of the reinforcement will significantly impair the ability of the load bearing capacity of the element as a whole. The results of experiments of polymer concrete beams of the cross T-profile and comparison of the results with those obtained in an experiment similar to concrete and kauton reinforced elements are given. The observations of the stress-strain state of polymer concrete of flexural members, strength and crack resistance of these elements are presented.

  5. Fracture strength of composite fixed partial denture using bovine teeth as a substitute for human teeth with or without fiber-reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Carlos José; Barbosa, Liliane Minglini; Santana, Fernanda Ribeiro; Soares, Priscilla Barbosa Ferreira; Mota, Adérito Soares da; Silva, Gisele Rodrigues da

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluate the use of bovine teeth as a substitute for human teeth on fracture strength tests of composite fixed partial dentures (Cpd), with and without fiberglass reinforcement (Fg). Eighty teeth were selected, being 40 bovine incisors, 20 human premolars and 20 molars. Bovine incisors were ground to get a platform, simulating an occlusal surface of human molar. Teeth in pairs were embedded in polystyrene resin, simulating the periodontal ligament and divided in 4 groups: B-Cpd-Fg: bovine teeth restored with Cpd with Fg; B-Cpd-NFg: bovine teeth restored with Cpd without Fg; H-Cpd-Fg: human teeth restored Cpd with Fg; and H-Cpd-NFg: human teeth restored with Cpd without Fg. The Cpd were adhesively fixed and submitted to an axial compression load at the pontic center with a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min until fracture. Failure modes were assessed and classified. Data were subjected to two-way ANOVA and Tukey's HSD test (α=0.05). The tooth type had no influence on fracture strength and fracture mode. The inclusion of fiberglass increased significantly the fracture strength. The failure modes were more reparable in groups with fiber-reinforcement. Bovine teeth can be used as a substitute for human teeth in these types of fracture strength tests.

  6. High strength beta titanium alloys: New design approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okulov, I.V., E-mail: okulovilya@yandex.ru [IFW Dresden, Helmholtzstr. 20, D-01069 Dresden (Germany); TU Dresden, Institut für Werkstoffwissenschaft, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Wendrock, H. [IFW Dresden, Helmholtzstr. 20, D-01069 Dresden (Germany); Volegov, A.S. [IFW Dresden, Helmholtzstr. 20, D-01069 Dresden (Germany); Institute of Natural Sciences, Ural Federal University, 620000 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Attar, H. [IFW Dresden, Helmholtzstr. 20, D-01069 Dresden (Germany); School of Engineering, Edith Cowan University, 270 Joondalup Drive, Joondalup, Perth, WA 6027 (Australia); Kühn, U. [IFW Dresden, Helmholtzstr. 20, D-01069 Dresden (Germany); Skrotzki, W. [TU Dresden, Institut für Strukturphysik, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Eckert, J. [IFW Dresden, Helmholtzstr. 20, D-01069 Dresden (Germany); TU Dresden, Institut für Werkstoffwissenschaft, D-01062 Dresden (Germany)

    2015-03-25

    A novel approach for development of high strength and ductile beta titanium alloys was proposed and successfully applied. The microstructure of the designed alloys is fully composed of a bcc β-Ti phase exhibiting dendritic morphology. The new Ti{sub 68.8}Nb{sub 13.6}Cr{sub 5.1}Co{sub 6}Al{sub 6.5} (at%) alloy (BETA{sup tough} alloy) exhibits a maximum tensile strength of 1290±50 MPa along with 21±3% of fracture strain. The specific energy absorption value upon mechanical deformation of the BETA{sup tough} alloy exceeds that of Ti-based metallic glass composites and commercial high strength Ti-based alloys. The deformation behavior of the new alloys was correlated with their microstructure by means of in-situ studies of the microstructure evolution upon tensile loading in a scanning electron microscope.

  7. Recent Progress in High Strength Low Carbon Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zrník J.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Advanced High Strength (AHS steels, among them especially Dual Phase (DP steels, Transformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP steels, Complex Phase (CP steels, Partially Martensite (PM steels, feature promising results in the field. Their extraordinary mechanical properties can be tailored and adjusted by alloying and processing. The introduction of steels with a microstructure consisting at least of two different components has led to the enlargement of the strength level without a deterioration of ductility. Furthermore, the development of ultra fine-grained AHS steels and their service performance are reviewed and new techniques are introduced. Various projects have been devoted to develop new materials for flat and long steel products for structural applications. The main stream line is High Strength, in order to match the weight lightening requirements that concern the whole class of load bearing structures and/or steel components and one of the most investigated topics is grain refinement.

  8. Dynamic Stress-Strain Behaviour of Steel Fiber Reinforced High-Performance Concrete with Fly Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Chien Yet

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The addition of steel fibers into concrete mix can significantly improve the engineering properties of concrete. The mechanical behaviors of steel fiber reinforced high-performance concrete with fly ash (SFRHPFAC are studied in this paper through both static compression test and dynamic impact test. Cylindrical and cube specimens with three volume fractions of end-hooked steel fibers with volume fraction of 0.5%, 1.0%, and 1.5% (39.25, 78.50, and 117.75 kg/m3 and aspect ratio of 64 are used. These specimens are then tested for static compression and for dynamic impact by split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB at strain rate of 30–60 s−1. The results reveal that the failure mode of concrete considerably changes from brittle to ductile with the addition of steel fibers. The plain concrete may fail under low-strain-rate single impact whereas the fibrous concrete can resist impact at high strain rate loading. It is shown that strain rate has great influence on concrete strength. Besides, toughness energy is proportional to the fiber content in both static and dynamic compressions.

  9. Fatigue life of high strength steel for cold forming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ulewicz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of fatigue tests carried out on STRENX-type high-strength cold forming steel. For high-cycle fatigue tests carried out using low cycle loading frequencies of around 30 Hz, a ROTOFLEX machine was used. For ultra high-cycle tests, a KAUP-ZU testing machine was employed, which enables fatigue tests to be performed with symetric specimen loading (R = -1 and at a frequency of f ≈ 20 kHz. The relationships σa = f(N were determined experimentally in the high and ultra high-cycle region for STRENX high-strength steel. To determine the fatigue crack initiation mechanism, the fractographic analysis of fatigue fractures was made.

  10. Average density and porosity of high-strength lightweight concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Inozemtcev

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The analysis results of high-strength lightweight concrete (HSLWC structure are presented in this paper. The X-ray tomography, optical microscopy and other methods are used for researching of average density and porosity. It has been revealed that mixtures of HSLWC with density 1300…1500 kg/m3 have a homogeneous structure. The developed concrete has a uniform distribution of the hollow filler and a uniform layer of cement-mineral matrix. The highly saturated gas phase which is divided by denser large particles of quartz sand and products of cement hydration in the contact area allow forming a composite material with low average density, big porosity (up to 40% and high strength (compressive strength is more than 40 MPa. Special modifiers increase adhesion, compacts structure in the contact area, decrease water absorption of high-strength lightweight concrete (up to 1 % and ensure its high water resistance (water resistance coefficient is more than 0.95.

  11. Fibre-reinforced plastic composites - Determination of the in-plane shear stress/shear strain response, including the in-plane shear modulus and strength, by the plus or minus 45 degree tension test method

    CERN Document Server

    International Organization for Standardization. Geneva

    1997-01-01

    Fibre-reinforced plastic composites - Determination of the in-plane shear stress/shear strain response, including the in-plane shear modulus and strength, by the plus or minus 45 degree tension test method

  12. HIGH TEMPERATURE MATERIALS AND STRENGTH STUDY IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In the past half century China has developed and formed her own system of high temperature materials for power, automobile and aero-engine industries in the temperature range from 550 ℃ to 1 100 ℃. These high temperature materials include heat-resisting steels, iron-base, nickel-iron-base and nickel-base superalloys. Some achievements in high temperature strength study, new technologies and new alloy development are also discussed.

  13. Strength Development of High-Strength Ductile Concrete Incorporating Metakaolin and PVA Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuruddin, Muhammad Fadhil; Shafiq, Nasir

    2014-01-01

    The mechanical properties of high-strength ductile concrete (HSDC) have been investigated using Metakaolin (MK) as the cement replacing material and PVA fibers. Total twenty-seven (27) mixes of concrete have been examined with varying content of MK and PVA fibers. It has been found that the coarser type PVA fibers provide strengths competitive to control or higher than control. Concrete with coarser type PVA fibers has also refined microstructure, but the microstructure has been undergone with the increase in aspect ratio of fibers. The microstructure of concrete with MK has also more refined and packing of material is much better with MK. PVA fibers not only give higher stiffness but also showed the deflection hardening response. Toughness Index of HSDC reflects the improvement in flexural toughness over the plain concrete and the maximum toughness indices have been observed with 10% MK and 2% volume fraction of PVA fibers. PMID:24707202

  14. Strength Development of High-Strength Ductile Concrete Incorporating Metakaolin and PVA Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Fadhil Nuruddin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical properties of high-strength ductile concrete (HSDC have been investigated using Metakaolin (MK as the cement replacing material and PVA fibers. Total twenty-seven (27 mixes of concrete have been examined with varying content of MK and PVA fibers. It has been found that the coarser type PVA fibers provide strengths competitive to control or higher than control. Concrete with coarser type PVA fibers has also refined microstructure, but the microstructure has been undergone with the increase in aspect ratio of fibers. The microstructure of concrete with MK has also more refined and packing of material is much better with MK. PVA fibers not only give higher stiffness but also showed the deflection hardening response. Toughness Index of HSDC reflects the improvement in flexural toughness over the plain concrete and the maximum toughness indices have been observed with 10% MK and 2% volume fraction of PVA fibers.

  15. Strength development of high-strength ductile concrete incorporating Metakaolin and PVA fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuruddin, Muhammad Fadhil; Khan, Sadaqat Ullah; Shafiq, Nasir; Ayub, Tehmina

    2014-01-01

    The mechanical properties of high-strength ductile concrete (HSDC) have been investigated using Metakaolin (MK) as the cement replacing material and PVA fibers. Total twenty-seven (27) mixes of concrete have been examined with varying content of MK and PVA fibers. It has been found that the coarser type PVA fibers provide strengths competitive to control or higher than control. Concrete with coarser type PVA fibers has also refined microstructure, but the microstructure has been undergone with the increase in aspect ratio of fibers. The microstructure of concrete with MK has also more refined and packing of material is much better with MK. PVA fibers not only give higher stiffness but also showed the deflection hardening response. Toughness Index of HSDC reflects the improvement in flexural toughness over the plain concrete and the maximum toughness indices have been observed with 10% MK and 2% volume fraction of PVA fibers.

  16. Fatigue experiments on connections made of very high strength steels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijpers, R.; Kolstein, H.; Bijlaard, F.

    2013-01-01

    An effective application of Very High Strength Steels (VHSS) can be expected in truss-like structures, typically made of hollow sections. Improved design of VHSS truss structures could incorporate the application of cast joints, since an appropriate design of cast joints limits the stress concentrat

  17. High-strength porous carbon and its multifunctional applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtowicz, Marek A; Rubenstein, Eric P; Serio, Michael A; Cosgrove, Joseph E

    2013-12-31

    High-strength porous carbon and a method of its manufacture are described for multifunctional applications, such as ballistic protection, structural components, ultracapacitor electrodes, gas storage, and radiation shielding. The carbon is produced from a polymer precursor via carbonization, and optionally by surface activation and post-treatment.

  18. Resistance spot welding and weldbonding of advanced high strength steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, G.; Gaul, H.; Rethmeier, M. [BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Berlin (Germany). Div. V.5 ' ' Safety of Joined Components' ' ; Thommes, H.; Hahn, O. [Paderborn Univ. (Germany). Fakultaet fuer Maschinenbau

    2010-11-15

    The resistance spot welding procedure is one of the most important joining techniques in lightweight car body shell mass production. Especially for newly developed high strength multiphase steels, also called advanced high strength steels (AHSS), and ultra high strength steels (UHSS), this joining technique has more advantages than other thermal and mechanical joining procedures for thin steel sheets. Additionally, the technique of adhesive bonding and its combination with the technique of resistance spot welding called weldbonding becomes more and more important. One of the targets of the contribution is to show the influence of joined advanced high strength steels on the process reliability for both the resistance spot welding process and the weldbonding process. Based on welding current ranges and on results of electrode wear tests, statements concerning the resistance spot weldability of some special AHSS will be given. The mechanical behaviour of spot welded and weldbonded joints for different AHSS will be studied. Furthermore, some statements regarding the fracture behaviour, the hardness and the fatigue behaviour of both spot welded and weldbonded joints for different AHSS will be given. Finally, some results on the mechanical properties of spot welded and weldbounded joints under corrosive attacks with be discussed. (orig.)

  19. Mobility and trapping of hydrogen in high-strength steel

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    6 pages; International audience; Electrochemical permeation and thermo-desorption tests are performed to evaluate hydrogen mobility in high strength steel. Experimental parameters are used in a Krom like phenomenological diffusion model. This model is developed to simulate hydrogen diffusion and trapping in processing zones of specimens subjected to fatigue loadings.

  20. Development of high strength line pipe for Arctic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, L.E.; Klein, R.; Bai, D. [Evraz Inc., Regina, SK (Canada). Frontier Pipe Research Unit

    2009-07-15

    The pipelines that will carry large volumes of natural gas from the Mackenzie Delta and the Alaska North Slope to Alberta will have to meet stringent new requirements on material performance. High strength steels with thick pipe walls will be needed to accommodate the high operating pressure that will be needed to transmit gas over long distances. In addition, low operating temperatures and strain-based designs will be needed to meet Arctic operating conditions in areas of continuous or discontinuous permafrost. The Mackenzie Gas Project (MGP) has specified 762 mm OD x 16.2 mm WT Grade 550 (APIx80). Although the pipe has a high degree of ductility, material performance is of concern in terms of girth welds and associated heat affected zones. Studies have shown that the weld strength must overmatch the longitudinal strength of the pipe by at least 5 per cent in order to deflect any failure from a crack on the weld fusion line. The weld itself and the HAZ must also demonstrate a high degree of toughness. While proponents of the Alaska gas pipeline wish to use Grade 690 (APIx100) line pipe, full stress capacity tests have yet to be completed for Grade 690 material in the preferred gauge of 19 to 25 mm. Therefore, this paper examined 3 key issues pertaining to the performance of high strength line pipe in strain-based designs. These included girth weld HAZ toughness; work hardening characteristics; and achievement of very high strength levels. It was concluded that much more effort is needed to fully optimize these steels and to translate preliminary laboratory solutions to workable processing technologies. 15 refs., 2 tabs., 8 figs.

  1. High strength hot rolled and aged microalloyed 5%Ni steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K. Lis

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Purpose of this paper was to give information about low temperature strength and impact CharpyVtoughness of low carbon microalloyed 5%Ni bainitic steel after thermomechanical rolling (TMR orthermomechanical controlled processing (TMCP and ageing at different temperatures: 580°C/2 h, 640°C/1hand 680°C/1h.Design/methodology/approach: The tensile strength tests were performed at -196, -60 and 20°C and Charpy Vsamples were broken at -100, -80, -60, -40, -20 and 20°C temperatures. The tensile strength TS, yield strengthYS, elongation A5 and reduction of area RA were established from tensile experiments. After TMCP 16 mm steelplate had YS = 730MPa, TS = 950 MPa, A5 = 22,5% and RA = 61% and impact energy > 50 J at -196°C.Findings: The best combination of mechanical properties; yield strength and Charpy V toughness was achieved forsteel after TMR and ageing 580°C/ 2h; YS = 800MPa, TS = 900 MPa, A5 = 22.5%, at -1000C KVmin.= 110 J.Research limitations/implications: The precise methodology for retained austenite identification and itsamount content determination in the investigated microstructures is still metallographic problem which needsto be resolved.Practical implications: The best combination of yield strength and Charpy V toughness was achieved for steelafter TMR and ageing 580°C/ 2h. At liquid nitrogen temperature ultrahigh strength properties were: YS = 1140MPa, TS = 1280 MPa, A5 = 26%, RA = 55% and KV 122 J at -100°C.Originality/value: The detailed microstructure examination of the steel with optical and mainly scanningtransmission electron microscopy was needed to explain its good properties at very low temperature. TRIP effectwas observed due to the presence of highly alloyed retained austenite in the microstructure. That type of steelmay be used for contemporary military and structural applications working at low temperatures.

  2. Composite reinforced metallic cylinder for? high-speed rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Sahadev, , Dr.

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to design and development of the composite reinforced thin metallic cylinder to increase the peripheral speed significantly and thereby? improve the separation performance in a centrifugal gas separation processes through? proper optimization of the internal parameters. According to Dirac equation (Cohen? (1951)), the maximum separative work for a centrifugal gas separation process increase? with 4th power of the peripheral speed. Therefore, it has been intended to reinforce the? metallic cylinder with composites (carbon fibers: T-700 and T- 1000 grade with suitable? epoxy resin) to increase the stiffness and hoop stress so that the peripheral speed can? be increased significantly, and thereby enhance the separative output. Here, we have developed the mathematical model to investigate the elastic stresses of? a laminated cylinder subjected to mechanical, thermal and thermo-mechanical loading? A detailed analysis is carried out to underline the basic hypothesis of each formulation? Further, we evaluate the steady state creep response of the rotating cylinder and analyze? the stresses and strain rates in the cylinder.

  3. Friction Stir Spot Welding of Advanced High Strength Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hovanski, Yuri; Santella, M. L.; Grant, Glenn J.

    2009-12-28

    Friction stir spot welding was used to join two advanced high-strength steels using polycrystalline cubic boron nitride tooling. Numerous tool designs were employed to study the influence of tool geometry on weld joints produced in both DP780 and a hot-stamp boron steel. Tool designs included conventional, concave shouldered pin tools with several pin configurations; a number of shoulderless designs; and a convex, scrolled shoulder tool. Weld quality was assessed based on lap shear strength, microstructure, microhardness, and bonded area. Mechanical properties were functionally related to bonded area and joint microstructure, demonstrating the necessity to characterize processing windows based on tool geometry.

  4. REVIEW AND PROSPECT OF HIGH STRENGTH LOW ALLOY TRIP STEEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L. Li; P. Wollants; Y.L. He; B.C. De Cooman; X.C. Wei; Z.Y. Xu

    2003-01-01

    Research status of high strength low alloy TRIP (transformation induced plasticity)steels for automobile structural parts is briefly described. Composition and microstructure factors especially the morphology, size and volume fraction of retained austenite,which largely influence the strength and ductility of the steel, are reviewed and discussed one after another. Modelling of the inter-critical annealing and martempering processes as well as the designing of the TRIP steel aided by commercial software are introduced. Some special aspects of the dynamic mechanical properties of TRIP steel are firstly reported.

  5. High Strength Silicon Carbide Foams and Their Deformation Behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) foams with a continuously connected open-cell structure were prepared and characterized for their mechanical performance. The apparent densities of SiC foams were controlled between about 0.4 and 1.3 g/cm3, with corresponding compressive strengths ranging from about 13 to 60 MPa and flexural strengths from about 8 to 30 MPa. Compressive testing of the SiC foams yielded stress-strain curves with only one linear-elastic region, which is different from those reported on ceramic foams in literature. This can possibly be attributed to the existence of filaments with fine, dense and high strength microstructures. The SiC and the filaments respond homogeneously to applied loading.

  6. APPROXIMATE MEANS FOR EVALUATING TENSILE STRENGTH OF HIGH POROSITY MATERIALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Based on the simplified structure model of high porosity materials, the formulas for approximately evaluating the tensile strength of these materials have been derived from the corresponding deductions taken by means of the relative theories about geometry and mechanics. The results show that, the tensile strength of these materials not only associates with the material sort and production method, but do further have a direct value relationship with the porosity, θ. This value relationship can be specifically expressed by the power of the item (1-θ), and it makes the tensile strength variation display a complicated nonlinear law with the porosity. In addition, the application of those formulas has been investigated with the corresponding experiment on a nickel foam.

  7. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH OF EFFICIENCY OF DISPERSE REINFORCEMENT OF STRETCHED ZONE OF FLEXURAL CONCRETE ELEMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    V. S. Izotov, R. Kh. Mukhametrakhimov, L. S. Sаbitov

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement. The method of disperse reinforcement of flexural concrete elements by fiber introduction in concrete stretched zone is described.Results and conclusions. The method provides more efficient use and economy of disperse rein-forcement, materials consumption reduction at the maintenance of specified flexural strength, high impact elasticity, and fracture strength. The comparative assessment of disperse reinforcement efficiency for two types of metal fibers is given at reinforce...

  8. Ultra-high Burst Strength of CVD Graphene Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Luda; Boutilier, Michael; Kidambi, Piran; Karnik, Rohit; Microfluidics; Nanofluidics Research Lab Team

    2015-11-01

    Porous graphene membranes have significant potential in gas separation, water desalination and nanofiltration. Understanding the mechanical strength of porous graphene is crucial because membrane separations can involve high pressures. We studied the burst strength of CVD graphene membrane placed on porous support at applied pressures up to 100 bar by monitoring the gas flow rate across the membrane as a function of pressure. Increase of gas flow rate with pressure allowed for extraction of the burst fraction of graphene as it failed under increasing pressure. We also studied the effect of sub-nanometer pores on the ability of graphene to withstand pressure. The results showed that porous graphene membranes can withstand pressures comparable to or even higher than the >50 bar pressures encountered in water desalination, with non-porous CVD graphene exhibiting even higher mechanical strength. Our study shows that porous polycrystalline CVD graphene has ultra-high burst strength under applied pressure, suggesting the possibility for its use in high-pressure membrane separations. Principal Investigator

  9. Review of Japanese recommendations on design and construction of different classes of fiber reinforced concrete and application examples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uchida, Yuichi; Fischer, Gregor; Hishiki, Yoshihiro

    2008-01-01

    Reinforced Cement Composites (HPFRCC) with strain hardening and multiple cracking behavior, and Ultra High-strength Fiber Reinforced concrete (UFC) with increased tensile strength. The recommendations on the design, production, and application of these classes of fiber reinforced concrete have been...

  10. High surface area carbon black (BP-2000) as a reinforcing agent for poly[(₋)-lactide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado, Paula A.; Brutman, Jacob P.; Masica, Kristina; Molde, Joseph; Wood, Brandon; Hillmyer, Marc A. (UMM)

    2016-10-26

    We report that the brittle nature and low-heat distortion resistance of a promising biorenewable thermoplastics, poly((₋)-lactide) (PLA), motivate the investigation of strengthening additives that can address these deficiencies. Here in our work, a high surface area carbon black (BP-2000) as well as biobased carbon blacks (hydrochars) were examined as reinforcement agents for PLA. When 1–5 wt % BP-2000 was added to PLA, the crystallization of PLA was accelerated, resulting in higher crystallinity, tensile strength, and heat resistance. A thermal creep experiment revealed that the composites exhibited no significant deformation after 30 min with 2 N of uniaxial tensile force at 80°C (above the Tg), whereas neat PLA (with similar thermal history) elongated to 79% after 5 min under the same conditions. PLA–hydrochar composites demonstrated similar brittle behavior to neat PLA. Finally, despite the promising nucleating ability of hydrochars, they displayed low interfacial adhesion with PLA because of their low surface area, resulting in poor energy transfer on stretching

  11. Soil Reinforcement Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Patil

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In many activities concerned with the use of soil, the physical properties like Stiffness, Compressibility and Strength are some of the few important parameters to be considered. Of the many methods involved in improvement of soil properties, soil reinforcement is method concerned with increase of strength properties of soil. In soil reinforcement, the reinforcements or resisting element are of different materials and of various forms depending upon the intended use. The reinforcement can be provided permanently or temporarily to increase strength of adjacent structures. The present topic of discussion involves different materials, forms and applications of soil reinforcement

  12. Design of High Compressive Strength Concrete Mix without Additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akasha, N, M

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the crashed Basalt and uncrushed granite is used in concrete mixes as coarse aggregate. The selected materials, with high specification using special production techniques, the properties ,the mix design procedure and mix proportion of the high strength concrete (HSC were discussed. Different proportions of Ordinary Portland cement (410,430 and 450 kg/m3 with different crashed Basalt and uncrushed Granite coarse aggregate amount (1120 and 1050 kg/m3 and fine aggregate with fine modulus of 3.65 were used. Eight concrete mixes were prepared: two as control mix for crashed Basalt and uncrushed Granite, three with crashed Basalt and three with uncrushed Granite coarse aggregate with mix amount(410:680:1120,430:610:1050 and 450:550:1050 kg/m3,(cement: fine aggregate: coarse aggregaterespectively. The study showed that the use of granite coarse aggregate in concrete mixes has a clear effect in mix proportion. The compressive strength of concrete was measured at ages of 7, 28 and 56 days and it was found that the granite (Mix3 of (450:550:1050 kg/m3 with w/c of 0.46 give the highest of strength in 28 and 56 days among the abovementioned mixes its 56 and 64 N/mm2 respectively. The paper shows that good results of compressive strength and workability of concrete were obtained when using granite coarse aggregate.

  13. Hydrogen Embrittlement of Automotive Advanced High-Strength Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovicu, Gianfranco; Bottazzi, Mauro; D'Aiuto, Fabio; De Sanctis, Massimo; Dimatteo, Antonella; Santus, Ciro; Valentini, Renzo

    2012-11-01

    Advanced high-strength steels (AHSS) have a better combination between strength and ductility than conventional HSS, and higher crash resistances are obtained in concomitance with weight reduction of car structural components. These steels have been developed in the last few decades, and their use is rapidly increasing. Notwithstanding, some of their important features have to be still understood and studied in order to completely characterize their service behavior. In particular, the high mechanical resistance of AHSS makes hydrogen-related problems a great concern for this steel grade. This article investigates the hydrogen embrittlement (HE) of four AHSS steels. The behavior of one transformation induced plasticity (TRIP), two martensitic with different strength levels, and one hot-stamping steels has been studied using slow strain rate tensile (SSRT) tests on electrochemically hydrogenated notched samples. The embrittlement susceptibility of these AHSS steels has been correlated mainly to their strength level and to their microstructural features. Finally, the hydrogen critical concentrations for HE, established by SSRT tests, have been compared to hydrogen contents absorbed during the painting process of a body in white (BIW) structure, experimentally determined during a real cycle in an industrial plant.

  14. Mechanical Properties of Heat Affected Zone of High Strength Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sefcikova, K.; Brtnik, T.; Dolejs, J.; Keltamaki, K.; Topilla, R.

    2015-11-01

    High Strength Steels became more popular as a construction material during last decade because of their increased availability and affordability. On the other hand, even though general use of Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS) is expanding, the wide utilization is limited because of insufficient information about their behaviour in structures. The most widely used technique for joining steels is fusion welding. The welding process has an influence not only on the welded connection but on the area near this connection, the so-called heat affected zone, as well. For that reason it is very important to be able to determine the properties in the heat affected zone (HAZ). This area of investigation is being continuously developed in dependence on significant progress in material production, especially regarding new types of steels available. There are currently several types of AHSS on the world market. Two most widely used processes for AHSS production are Thermo-Mechanically Controlled Processing (TMCP) and Quenching in connection with Tempering. In the presented study, TMCP and QC steels grade S960 were investigated. The study is focused on the changes of strength, ductility, hardness and impact strength in heat affected zone based on the used amount of heat input.

  15. NEW HIGH STRENGTH AND FASTER DRILLING TSP DIAMOND CUTTERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Radtke

    2006-01-31

    The manufacture of thermally stable diamond (TSP) cutters for drill bits used in petroleum drilling requires the brazing of two dissimilar materials--TSP diamond and tungsten carbide. The ENDURUS{trademark} thermally stable diamond cutter developed by Technology International, Inc. exhibits (1) high attachment (shear) strength, exceeding 345 MPa (50,000 psi), (2) TSP diamond impact strength increased by 36%, (3) prevents TSP fracture when drilling hard rock, and (4) maintains a sharp edge when drilling hard and abrasive rock. A novel microwave brazing (MWB) method for joining dissimilar materials has been developed. A conventional braze filler metal is combined with microwave heating which minimizes thermal residual stress between materials with dissimilar coefficients of thermal expansion. The process results in preferential heating of the lower thermal expansion diamond material, thus providing the ability to match the thermal expansion of the dissimilar material pair. Methods for brazing with both conventional and exothermic braze filler metals have been developed. Finite element modeling (FEM) assisted in the fabrication of TSP cutters controllable thermal residual stress and high shear attachment strength. Further, a unique cutter design for absorbing shock, the densification of otherwise porous TSP diamond for increased mechanical strength, and diamond ion implantation for increased diamond fracture resistance resulted in successful drill bit tests.

  16. An Evaluation of the High-Probability Instruction Sequence with and without Programmed Reinforcement for Compliance with High-Probability Instructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuluaga, Carlos A.; Normand, Matthew P.

    2008-01-01

    We assessed the effects of reinforcement and no reinforcement for compliance to high-probability (high-p) instructions on compliance to low-probability (low-p) instructions using a reversal design. For both participants, compliance with the low-p instruction increased only when compliance with high-p instructions was followed by reinforcement.…

  17. Behavior and Performance of GFRP Reinforced Concrete Columns with Various Types of Stirrups

    OpenAIRE

    Woraphot Prachasaree; Sitthichai Piriyakootorn; Athawit Sangsrijun; Suchart Limkatanyu

    2015-01-01

    Fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composites are gaining acceptance in concrete structural applications due to their high ratio of strength/stiffness to self-weight and corrosion resistance. This study focused on the structural behavior and the performance of concrete columns internally reinforced with glass fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP) rebars. Twelve series of concrete columns with varied longitudinal reinforcement, cross section, concrete cover, and type of lateral reinforcement were tested...

  18. Oxidation resistant high creep strength austenitic stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Michael P.; Pint, Bruce A.; Liu, Chain-Tsuan; Maziasz, Philip J.; Yamamoto, Yukinori; Lu, Zhao P.

    2010-06-29

    An austenitic stainless steel displaying high temperature oxidation and creep resistance has a composition that includes in weight percent 15 to 21 Ni, 10 to 15 Cr, 2 to 3.5 Al, 0.1 to 1 Nb, and 0.05 to 0.15 C, and that is free of or has very low levels of N, Ti and V. The alloy forms an external continuous alumina protective scale to provide a high oxidation resistance at temperatures of 700 to 800.degree. C. and forms NbC nanocarbides and a stable essentially single phase fcc austenitic matrix microstructure to give high strength and high creep resistance at these temperatures.

  19. The influence of the scale effect and high temperatures on the strength and strains of high performance concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korsun Vladimyr Ivanovych

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The most effective way to reduce the structure mass, labor input and expenses for its construction is to use modern high-performance concrete of the classes С50/60… С90/105, which possess high physical and mathematic characteristics. One of the constraints for their implementation in mass construction in Ukraine is that in design standards there are no experimental data on the physical and mathematic properties of concrete of the classes more than С50/60. Also there are no exact statements on calculating reinforced concrete structures made of high-performance concretes.The authors present the results of experimental research of the scale effect and short-term and long-term heating up to +200 ° C influence on temperature and shrinkage strain, on strength and strain characteristics under compression and tensioning of high-strength modified concrete of class C70/85. The application of high performance concretes is challenging in the process of constructing buildings aimed at operating in high technological temperatures: smoke pipes, coolers, basins, nuclear power plants' protective shells, etc. Reducing cross-sections can lead to reducing temperature drops and thermal stresses in the structures.

  20. Effect of cyclic high loading rates on the fatigue strength of aluminum-based composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon Arteaga, Hermes Eskander

    The study of fatigue under high loading rates is of great interest in the complete characterization of a new series of composites with Al-Cu-Mg matrix reinforced with AlB2 dispersoids. Homogeneous and functionally graded composites were prepared via gravity and centrifugal casting, respectively. Through centrifugal casting a gradual variation of the volume fraction of reinforcing particles along the cross section was obtained. In specific fabrication conditions, even complete segregation of the reinforcement particles was achieved. Charpy impact tests as well as hardness tests were conducted to assess the composite strength as a function of the weight percent of boron. The tensile properties of gravity cast samples were obtained. Then for both casting conditions, simple edge-notched bend SE(B) specimens were tested under fatigue conditions (three-point bending). The results from impact and hardness tests allowed identifying an interaction between the Mg dissolved in the matrix and the diborides. This interaction, which has never been reported before, was responsible for the strength reduction observed. It was assumed that a substitutional diffusion of Al by Mg atoms in the hp3 structure of diboride was causing the strength reduction, and three approaches were developed to estimate the amount of Mg depleted from the matrix by the diborides during the composite processing. Gravity cast samples were more sensitive to monotonic damage due to fatigue loads where compared with functionally-graded composites. Contrary to the centrifugal cast samples, gravity samples were also affected by the loading rate. The Mg-AlB2 interaction was also responsible for the reduction in the fatigue resistance as the weight percent of boron increased in both types of composites; regression models were obtained to predict the crack growth curve slope change as function of the boron level. The particle distribution showed to affect the crack growth behavior of the FGMs, decreasing the

  1. Comparison of shear bond strength of resin reinforced chemical cure glass ionomer, conventional chemical cure glass ionomer and chemical cure composite resin in direct bonding systems: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Kolasani Srinivasa; Reddy, T Praveen Kumar; Yugandhar, Garlapati; Kumar, B Sunil; Reddy, S N Chandrasekhar; Babu, Devatha Ashok

    2013-01-01

    The acid pretreatment and use of composite resins as the bonding medium has disadvantages like scratching and loss of surface enamel, decalcification, etc. To overcome disadvantages of composite resins, glass ionomers and its modifications are being used for bonding. The study was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of resin reinforced glass ionomer as a direct bonding system with conventional glass ionomer cement and composite resin. The study showed that shear bond strength of composite resin has the higher value than both resin reinforced glass ionomer and conventional glass ionomer cement in both 1 and 24 hours duration and it increased from 1 to 24 hours in all groups. The shear bond strength of resin reinforced glass ionomer cement was higher than the conventional glass ionomer cement in both 1 and 24 hours duration. Conditioning with polyacrylic acid improved the bond strength of resin reinforced glass ionomer cement significantly but not statistically significant in the case of conventional glass ionomer cement.

  2. Matrix free fiber reinforced polymeric composites via high-temperature high-pressure sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tao

    2004-11-01

    A novel manufacturing process called high-temperature high-pressure sintering was studied and explored. Solid fiber reinforced composites are produced by consolidating and compacting layers of polymeric fabrics near their melting temperature under high pressure. There is no need to use an additional matrix as a bonding material. Partial melting and recrystallization of the fibers effectively fuse the material together. The product is called a "matrix free" fiber reinforced composite and essentially a one-polymer composite in which the fiber and the matrix have the same chemical composition. Since the matrix is eliminated in the process, it is possible to achieve a high fiber volume fraction and light weight composite. Interfacial adhesion between fibers and matrix is very good due to the molecular continuity throughout the system and the material is thermally shapeable. Plain woven Spectra RTM cloth made of SpectraRTM fiber was used to comprehensively study the process. The intrinsic properties of the material demonstrate that matrix free SpectraRTM fiber reinforced composites have the potential to make ballistic shields such as body armor and helmets. The properties and structure of the original fiber and the cloth were carefully examined. Optimization of the processing conditions started with the probing of sintering temperatures by Differential Scanning Calorimetry. Coupled with the information from structural, morphological and mechanical investigations on the samples sintered at different processing conditions, the optimal processing windows were determined to ensure that the outstanding original properties of the fibers translate into high ballistic performance of the composites. Matrix free SpectraRTM composites exhibit excellent ballistic resistance in the V50 tests conducted by the US Army. In the research, process-structure-property relationship is established and correlations between various properties and structures are understood. Thorough knowledge is

  3. Degradation of permeability resistance of high strength concrete after combustion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min LI; Hongtao KAO; Chunxiang QIAN

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the remaining durability of con-crete materials after combustion, the permeability of high strength concrete (HSC) after combustion was studied. The transport behavior of chloride ion, water and air in concrete after combustion and the effect of temperature, strength grade, and aggregation on the permeability of HSC after combustion are investigated by chloride ion permeability coefficient (Dc), water permeability coef-ficient (Dw) and air permeability coefficient (Da). The experiment results show that all three permeability coeffi-cients commendably reflect changes of permeability. The permeability coefficient increases with the evaluation tem-perature. After the same temperature, the permeability coefficient of HSC is lower than that of normal strength concrete (NSC). However, the degree of degradation of permeability coefficient of HSC is greater than that of NSC. The permeability resistance of HSC containing limestone is better than that of HSC containing basalt. Combining changes of compressive strength and per-meability, the remaining durability of concrete materials after combustion is appropriately evaluated.

  4. Creep and Shrinkage of High Strength Concretes: an Experimental Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berenice Martins Toralles carbonari

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The creep and shrinkage behaviour of high strength silica fume concretes is significantly different from that of conventional concretes. In order to represent the proper time-dependent response of the material in structural analysis and design, these aspects should be adequately quantified. This paper discusses an experimental setup that is able to determine the creep and shrinkage of concrete from the time of placing. It also compares different gages that can be used for measuring the strains. The method is applied to five different concretes in the laboratory under controlled environmental conditions. The phenomena that are quantified can be classified as basic shrinkage, drying shrinkage, basic creep and drying creep. The relative importance of these mechanisms in high strength concrete will also be presented.

  5. Grain refinement of high strength steels to improve cryogenic toughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rush, H. F.

    1985-01-01

    Grain-refining techniques using multistep heat treatments to reduce the grain size of five commercial high-strength steels were investigated. The goal of this investigation was to improve the low-temperature toughness as measured by Charpy V-notch impact test without a significant loss in tensile strength. The grain size of four of five alloys investigated was successfully reduced up to 1/10 of original size or smaller with increases in Charpy impact energy of 50 to 180 percent at -320 F. Tensile properties were reduced from 0 to 25 percent for the various alloys tested. An unexpected but highly beneficial side effect from grain refining was improved machinability.

  6. Seismic Performance of High Strength Steel Building Frames

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Tese de doutoramento em Engenharia Civil, no ramo de Construção Metálica e Mista, apresentada ao Departamento de Engenharia Civil da Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia da Universidade de Coimbra In steel building frames under seismic action, the members designed to remain elastic during an earthquake are responsible for the robustness of the structure and prevention of collapse, being characterised by high strength demands. On the other hand, seismic resistant building frames designed as ...

  7. Copper coated carbon fiber reinforced plastics for high and ultra high vacuum applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burri, F.; Fertl, M.; Feusi, P.; Henneck, R.; Kirch, K.; Lauss, B.; Rüttimann, P.; Schmidt-Wellenburg, P.; Schnabel, A.; Voigt, J.; Zenner, J.; Zsigmond, G.

    2014-03-01

    We have used copper-coated carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CuCFRP) for the construction of high and ultra-high vacuum recipients. The vacuum performance is found to be comparable to typical stainless steel used for this purpose. In test recipients we have reached pressures of 2E-8 mbar and measured a desorption rate of 1E-11 mbar*liter/s/cm^2; no degradation over time (2 years) has been found. Suitability for baking has been found to depend on the CFRP production process, presumably on the temperature of the autoclave curing. Together with other unique properties of CuCFRP such as low weight and being nearly non-magnetic, this makes it an ideal material for many high-end vacuum applications.

  8. Copper coated carbon fiber reinforced plastics for high and ultra high vacuum applications

    CERN Document Server

    Burri, F; Feusi, P; Henneck, R; Kirch, K; Lauss, B; Ruettimann, P; Schmidt-Wellenburg, P; Schnabel, A; Voigt, J; Zenner, J; Zsigmond, G

    2013-01-01

    We have used copper-coated carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CuCFRP) for the construction of high and ultra-high vacuum recipients. The vacuum performance is found to be comparable to typical stainless steel used for this purpose. In test recipients we have reached pressures of 2E-8 mbar and measured a desorption rate of 1E-11 mbar*liter/s/cm^2; no degradation over time (2 years) has been found. Suitability for baking has been found to depend on the CFRP production process, presumably on the temperature of the autoclave curing. Together with other unique properties of CuCFRP such as low weight and being nearly non-magnetic, this makes it an ideal material for many high-end vacuum applications.

  9. Engineered Cooling Process for High Strength Ductile Iron Castings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekakh, Simon N.; Mikhailov, Anthony; Kramer, Joseph

    Professor Stefanescu contributed fundamentally to the science of solidification and microstructural evolutions in ductile irons. In this article, the possibility of development of high strength ductile iron by applying an engineered cooling process after casting early shake out from the sand mold was explored. The structures in industrial ductile iron were experimentally simulated using a computer controlled heating/cooling device. CFD modeling was used for process simulation and an experimental bench scale system was developed. The process concept was experimentally verified by producing cast plates with 25 mm wall thickness. The tensile strength was increased from 550 MPa to 1000 MPa in as-cast condition without the need for alloying and heat treatment. The possible practical applications were discussed.

  10. Freezing and Thawing Durability of Very High Strength Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer Hamoush

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The newly developed Very High Strength Concrete (VHSC, having compressive strengths of 29 ksi and flexural strengths of 6 ksi, represents a breakthrough in concrete technology. Study to further enhance the properties of this new concrete is continuing. Approach: The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of exposing Very High Strength Concrete (VHSC specimens to rapid freeze/thaw cycles. Twenty one specimens were tested according to the Standards of the American Society for Testing and Materials ASTM C215, ASTM C666 and ASTM C78. Results: One hundred freeze/thaw cycles were performed on the VHSC specimens. Change in specimen’s dimensions and material’s properties were recorded at zero, forty, seventy and one hundred cycles. Dimensions and properties considered were: dimension of cross section, length, weight, Dynamic Moduli, Poisson’s Ratio, durability factor and Modulus of Rupture. Conclusion/Recommendations: The test results indicated that VHSC is good freeze-thaw resistance (durability factor > 85% and can avoid freeze/thaw damage. Freeze- thaw cycling did not significantly affect VHSC specimens’ cross sectional dimensions, length, or Poisson’s Ratio. However, there was a decrease in the specimens’ weight with the increase in number of freeze/thaw cycles, but the decrease was very slim indicating little or no deterioration has occur. Moreover, the fine voids exist in VHSC greatly lower the freezing point of any trapped water, making the material less susceptible to Freeze- Thaw damage.

  11. Preliminary Strength Measurements of High Temperature Ash Filter Deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, B.S.; Johnson, E.K.; Mallela, R.; Barberio, J.F. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

    1996-12-31

    The objective of this study is to develop and evaluate preliminary strength measurement techniques for high temperature candle filter ash deposits. The efficient performance of a high temperature gas filtering system is essential for many of the new thermal cycles being proposed for power plants of the future. These new cycles hold the promise of higher thermal efficiency and lower emissions of pollutants. Many of these cycles involve the combustion or gasification of coal to produce high temperature gases to eventually be used in gas turbines. These high temperature gases must be relatively free of particulates. Today, the candle filter appears to be the leading candidate for high temperature particulate removal. The performance of a candle filter depends on the ash deposits shattering into relatively large particles during the pulse cleaning (back flushing) of the filters. These relatively large particles fall into the ash hopper and are removed from the system. Therefore, these 1247 particles must be sufficiently large so that they will not be re-entrained by the gas flow. The shattering process is dictated by the strength characteristics of the ash deposits. Consequently, the objective of this research is to develop measurements for the desired strength characteristics of the ash deposits. Experimental procedures were developed to measure Young`s modulus of the ash deposit at room temperature and the failure tensile strain of ash deposits from room temperature to elevated temperatures. Preliminary data has been obtained for both soft and hard ash deposits. The qualifier ``preliminary`` is used to indicate that these measurements are a first for this material, and consequently, the measurement techniques are not perfected. In addition, the ash deposits tested are not necessarily uniform and further tests are needed in order to obtain meaningful average data.

  12. Impact strength and abrasion resistance of high strength concrete with rice husk ash and rubber tires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Barbosa

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the application of High Strength Concrete (HSC technology for concrete production with the incorporation of Rice Husk Ash (RHA residues by replacing a bulk of the material caking and rubber tires with partial aggregate volume, assessing their influence on the mechanical properties and durability. For concrete with RHA and rubber, it was possible to reduce the brittleness by increasing the energy absorbing capacity. With respect to abrasion, the RHA and rubber concretes showed lower mass loss than the concrete without residues, indicating that this material is attractive to be used in paving. It is thus hoped that these residues may represent a technological and ecological alternative for the production of concrete in construction works.

  13. Design aspects of high strength steel welded structures improved by high frequency mechanical impact (HFMI) treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Yildirim, Halid Can

    2013-01-01

    This doctoral study is concerned with the fatigue strength of welded steel structures which are improved by high frequency mechanical impact (HFMI) treatment. A comprehensive evaluation of 417 HFMI test data obtained from the literature and 24 HFMI fatigue data tested as a part of this work are studied. According to the statistical analyses an S-N slope of five (5) is proposed. A yield strength correction procedure which relates the material yield strength (fy) to fatigue is presented and ver...

  14. Scratch-resistant, highly conductive, and high-strength carbon nanotube-based composite yarns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kai; Sun, Yinghui; Lin, Xiaoyang; Zhou, Ruifeng; Wang, Jiaping; Fan, Shoushan; Jiang, Kaili

    2010-10-26

    High-strength and conductive carbon nanotube (CNT) yarns are very attractive in many potential applications. However, there is a difficulty when simultaneously enhancing the strength and conductivity of CNT yarns. Adding some polymers into CNT yarns to enhance their strength will decrease their conductivity, while treating them in acid or coating them with metal nanoparticles to enhance their conductivity will reduce their strength. To overcome this difficulty, here we report a method to make high-strength and highly conductive CNT-based composite yarns by using a continuous superaligned CNT (SACNT) yarn as a conductive framework and then inserting polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) into the intertube spaces of the framework through PVA/dimethyl sulphoxide solution to enhance the strength of yarns. The as-produced CNT/PVA composite yarns possess very high tensile strengths up to 2.0 GPa and Young's moduli more than 120 GPa, much higher than those of the CNT/PVA yarns reported. The electric conductivity of as-produced composite yarns is as high as 9.2 × 10(4) S/m, comparable to HNO(3)-treated or Au nanoparticle-coated CNT yarns. These composite yarns are flexible, lightweight, scratch-resistant, very stable in the lab environment, and resistant to extremely humid ambient and as a result can be woven into high-strength and heatable fabrics, showing potential applications in flexible heaters, bullet-proof vests, radiation protection suits, and spacesuits.

  15. Impact Strength and Flexural Properties Enhancement of Methacrylate Silane Treated Oil Palm Mesocarp Fiber Reinforced Biodegradable Hybrid Composites

    OpenAIRE

    Chern Chiet Eng; Nor Azowa Ibrahim; Norhazlin Zainuddin; Hidayah Ariffin; Wan Md Zin Wan Yunus

    2014-01-01

    Natural fiber as reinforcement filler in polymer composites is an attractive approach due to being fully biodegradable and cheap. However, incompatibility between hydrophilic natural fiber and hydrophobic polymer matrix restricts the application. The current studies focus on the effects of incorporation of silane treated OPMF into polylactic acid (PLA)/polycaprolactone (PCL)/nanoclay/OPMF hybrid composites. The composites were prepared by melt blending technique and characterize the composite...

  16. An artificial neural network approach for prediction of long-term strength properties of steel fiber reinforced concrete containing fly ash

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Okan KARAHAN; Harun TANYILDIZI; Cengiz D. ATIS

    2008-01-01

    In this study,an artificial neural network(ANN)model for studying the strength properties of steel fiber reinforced concrete(SFRC)containing fly ash was devised.The mixtures were prepared with 0 wt%,15 wt%,and 30 wt% of fly ash,at 0 vol.%,0.5 vol.%,1.0 vol.% and 1.5 vol.% of fiber,respectively.After being cured under the standard conditions for 7,28,90 and 365 d,the specimens of each mixture were tested to determine the corresponding compressive and flexural strengths.The pa-rameters such as the amounts of cement,fly ash replacement,sand,gravel,steel fiber,and the age of samples were selected as input variables,while the compressive and flexural strengths of the concrete were chosen as the output variables.The back propagation learning algorithm with three different variants,namely the Levenberg-Marquardt(LM),scaled conjugate gradient(SCG)and Fletcher-Powell conjugate gradient(CGF)algorithms were used in the network so that the best approach can be found.The results obtained from the model and the experiments were compared,and it was found that the suitable algorithm is the LM algorithm.Furthermore,the analysis of variance(ANOVA)method was used to determine how importantly the experimental parameters affect the strength of these mixtures.

  17. Effect of different thickness h-BN coatings on interface shear strength of quartz fiber reinforced Si-O-C-N composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Shubin [Key Laboratory of Aerospace Materials and Performance (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Zheng, Yu, E-mail: shubinwang@buaa.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Aerospace Materials and Performance (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); International Centre for Bamboo and Rattan, Beijing 100102 (China)

    2014-02-15

    Hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) coatings with different thickness were prepared on quartz fibers to improve mechanical properties of quartz fiber reinforced Si-O-C-N composite. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), push-out test and single edge notched beam (SENB) in three point bending test were employed to study morphology, interface shear strength and fracture toughness of the composite. The results showed that h-BN coatings changed the crack growth direction and weaken the interface shear strength efficiently. When the h-BN coating was 308.2 nm, the interface shear strength was about 5.2 MPa, which was about one-quarter of that of the sample without h-BN coatings. After the heating process for obtaining composite, the h-BN nanometer-sized grains would grow up to micron-sized hexagonal grains. Different thickness h-BN coatings had different structure. When the coatings were relatively thin, the hexagonal grains were single layer structure, and when the coatings were thicker, the hexagonal grains were multiple layer structure. This multiple layer interface phase would consume more power of cracks, thus interface shear strength of the composite decreased steadily with the increasing of h-BN coatings thickness. When the coating thickness was 238.8 nm, K{sub IC} reaches the peak value 3.8 MPa m{sup 1/2}, which was more than two times of that of composites without h-BN coatings.

  18. Improvement of Strength Characteristics of Aerospace Fiber Reinforced Composite Materials using Atmospheric Pressure Plasma-Graft Polymerization Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoi, Tatsuji; Kuroki, Tomoyuki; Tahara, Mitsuru; Okubo, Masaaki

    The atmospheric pressure nonthermal plasma-graft polymerization treatment is applied for the surface modification of the organic fibers in order to enhance the strength of the aerospace structural composite material consisting of the laminated textiles. The influence of the treatment on the composite materials' strength properties is examined. As a result, the plasma-graft polymerization surface treatment is effective for the compression and bend of the composite materials. Because the interfacial bonding between each fiber and matrix resin is strengthened by the treatment, the strengths of the composite materials are increased.

  19. Production of high melt strength polypropylene by gamma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugão, A. B.; Artel, B. W. H.; Yoshiga, A.; Lima, L. F. C. P.; Parra, D. F.; Bueno, J. R.; Liberman, S.; Farrah, M.; Terçariol, W. R.; Otaguro, H.

    2007-11-01

    High melt strength polypropylene (HMS-PP) has been recently developed and introduced in the market by the major international producers of polypropylene. Therefore, BRASKEM, the leading Brazilian PP producer, together with EMBRARAD, the leading Brazilian gamma irradiator, and the IPEN (Institute of Nuclear Energy and Research) worked to develop a national technology for the production of HMS-PP. One of the effective approaches to improve melt strength and extensibility is to add chain branches onto polypropylene backbone using gamma radiation. Branching and grafting result from the radical combinations during irradiation process. Crosslinking and main chain scission in the polymer structure are also obtained during this process. In this work, gamma irradiation technique was used to induce chemical changes in commercial polypropylene with two different monomers, Tri-allyl-isocyanurate (TAIC) and Tri-methylolpropane-trimethacrylate (TMPTMA), with concentration ranging from 1.5 to 5.0 mmol/100 g of polypropylene. These samples were irradiated with a 60Co source at dose of 20 kGy. It used two different methods of HMS-PP processing. The crosslinking of modified polymers was studied by measuring gel content melt flow rate and rheological properties like melt strength and drawability. It was observed that the reaction method and the monomer type have influenced the properties. However, the concentration variation of monomer has no effect.

  20. Effects of different acids and etching times on the bond strength of glass fiber-reinforced composite root canal posts to composite core material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güler, Ahmet Umut; Kurt, Murat; Duran, Ibrahim; Uludamar, Altay; Inan, Ozgur

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the effects of different acids and etching times on the bond strength of glass fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) posts to composite core material. Twenty-six FRC posts (FRC Postec Plus) were randomly divided into 13 groups (each n = 2). One group received no surface treatment (control). The posts in the other groups were acid etched with 35% phosphoric acid and 5% and 9.6% hydrofluoric acid gel for four different etching times (30, 60, 120, and 180 seconds). A cylindric polytetrafluoroethylene mold was placed around the treated posts and filled with dual-cure composite core material (MultiCore Flow). All samples were light cured for 60 seconds. After 24 hours of water storage, the specimens were sectioned perpendicularly to the bonded interface under water cooling to obtain 2-mm post-and-core specimens. Eight specimens were made from each group. Push-out tests were performed at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min using a universal testing machine. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA followed by the Tukey honestly significant difference test (alpha = .05). The lowest bond strength was observed in the control group (12.51 megapascal [MPa]). No statistical significant difference was observed among group H5-120 (20.31 MPa), group H9-120 (20.55 MPa), or group P-180 (20.57 MPa) (P > .05). These groups demonstrated the highest bond strength values (P strength when compared with the control group. Acid-etching with 5% hydrofluoric acid and 9.6% hydrofluoric acid for 2 minutes and with 35% phosphoric acid for 3 minutes (groups H5-120, H9-120, and P-180, respectively) demonstrated the highest bond strength values between the FRC post and composite core material. Although the bond strength was increased by prolonged acid etching, the microstructure of the FRC posts might have been damaged.

  1. A Tensile Strength of Bermuda Grass and Vetiver Grass in Terms of Root Reinforcement Ability Toward Soil Slope Stabilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorasyikin, M. N.; Zainab, M.

    2016-07-01

    An examination on root characteristics and root properties has been implemented in this study. Two types of bioengineering were chose which are Vetiver grass and Bermuda grass as these grasses were widely applied for slope stabilization. The root samples were taken to the laboratory to investigate its classification, characteristics and strength. The root of both grasses was found grow with fibrous root matrix system. In terms of root anchorage, the root matrix system of Vetiver grass was exhibits more strengthen than the Bermuda grass. However, observation on root image from Scanning Electron Microscope test reveals that the root of Vetiver grass becomes non-porous as the moisture content reduced. Meanwhile, the root tensile strength of Bermuda grass was obtained acquired low value with higher percentage of moisture content, root morphology and bonding strength. The results indicated that the root tensile strength is mainly influence by percentage of moisture content and root morphology.

  2. Overheating temperature of 7B04 high strength aluminum alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Feng-hua; LI Nian-kui; TIAN Ni; SUN Qiang; LIU Xian-dong; ZHAO Gang

    2008-01-01

    The microstructure and overheating characteristics of the direct chill semicontinuous casting ingot of 7B04 high strength aluminum alloy, and those after industrial homogenization treatment and multi-stage homogenization treatments, were studied by differential scanning calorimetry(DSC), optical microscopy(OM) and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy(SEM-EDX). The results show that the microstructure of direct chill semicontinuous casting ingot of the 7B04 alloy contains a large number of constituents in the form of dendritic networks that consist of nonequilibrium eutectic and Fe-containing phases. The nonequilibrium eutectic contains Al, Zn, Mg and Cu, and the Fe-containing phases include two kinds of phases, one containing Al, Fe, Mn and Cu, and the other having Al, Fe, Mn, Cr, Si and Cu. The melting point of the nonequilibrium eutectic is 478 ℃ for the casting ingot of the 7B04 alloy which is usually considered as its overheating temperature. During industrial homogenization treatment processing at 470 ℃, the nonequilibrium eutectic dissolves into the matrix of this alloy partly, and the remainder transforms into Al2CuMg phase that cannot be dissolved into the matrix at that temperature completely. The melting point of the Al2CuMg phase which can dissolve into the matrix completely by slow heating is about 490 ℃. The overheating temperature of this high strength aluminum alloy can rise to 500-520 ℃. By means of special multi-stage homogenization, the temperature of the homogenization treatment of the ingot of the 7B04 high strength aluminum alloy can reach 500 ℃ without overheating.

  3. Behaviour of fibre-reinforced high-performance concrete in exterior beam-column joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthupriya, P.; Boobalan, S. C.; Vishnuram, B. G.

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents the effect of reinforced high performance concrete (HPC) in exterior beam-column joint with and without fibre under monotonic loading. In this experimental investigation, cross-diagonal bars have been provided at the joint for reducing the congestion of reinforcement in joints, and also M75 grade of concrete with optimum mix proportion of 10 % silica fume and 0.3 % glass fibre was used. Four exterior beam-column joint sub-assemblages were tested. The specimens were divided into two types based on the reinforcement detailing. Type A comprises two joint sub-assemblages with joint detailing as per construction code of practice in India (IS 456-2000), and Type B comprises two joint sub-assemblages with joint detailing as per ductile detailing code of practice in India (IS 13920-1993). In each group there was one specimen of control mix and the remaining one specimen of fibre-reinforced mix. All the test specimens were designed to satisfy the strong column-weak beam concept. The performances of specimens were compared with the control mix and the fibre-reinforced mix. The results show that exterior beam-column joint specimens with silica fume and glass fibre in the HPC mix showed better performance.

  4. Method for providing a low density high strength polyurethane foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whinnery, Jr., Leroy L.; Goods, Steven H.; Skala, Dawn M.; Henderson, Craig C.; Keifer, Patrick N.

    2013-06-18

    Disclosed is a method for making a polyurethane closed-cell foam material exhibiting a bulk density below 4 lbs/ft.sup.3 and high strength. The present embodiment uses the reaction product of a modified MDI and a sucrose/glycerine based polyether polyol resin wherein a small measured quantity of the polyol resin is "pre-reacted" with a larger quantity of the isocyanate in a defined ratio such that when the necessary remaining quantity of the polyol resin is added to the "pre-reacted" resin together with a tertiary amine catalyst and water as a blowing agent, the polymerization proceeds slowly enough to provide a stable foam body.

  5. Performances of the High Strength Low Heat Pump Concrete (HLPC)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The effects of mineral admixtures on fluidity,mechanical and hydrational exothermic behavior were studied.The results show that,double-adding ways,i e,fly ash and slag were added at the same time,not only improves the fluidity of fresh concrete with low W/B and compensates the lower early compressive strength of harden concrete caused by high adding amount of fly ash, but also greatly reduces the highest temperature rise, exothermic rate and total heat liberation of 3 day of binder pastes in HLPC, and postponed the arrival time of the highest temperature rise. HLPC was prepared and applied to project practice successfully.

  6. Multi-physics corrosion modeling for sustainability assessment of steel reinforced high performance fiber reinforced cementitious composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lepech, M.; Michel, Alexander; Geiker, Mette

    2016-01-01

    Using a newly developed multi-physics transport, corrosion, and cracking model, which models these phenomena as a coupled physiochemical processes, the role of HPFRCC crack control and formation in regulating steel reinforcement corrosion is investigated. This model describes transport of water...... tension-softening cementitious composites. Finally, these results are extended to provide greater insight into the assessment and design of more sustainable steel reinforced HPFRCC structures....

  7. High temperature flow behaviour of SiC reinforced lithium aluminosilicate composites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Santanu Das; V S R Murthy; G S Murty

    2001-04-01

    The compressive flow behaviour of lithium aluminosilicate (LAS) glass, with and without SiC particulate reinforcements, was studied. The LAS glass crystallized to spodumene during high-temperature testing. The flow behaviour of LAS glass changed from Newtonian to non-Newtonian due to the presence of crystalline phase. Further, with the addition of 40 vol.% SiC additions, the strain rate sensitivity of flow stress decreased. While the activation energy for flow in LAS was 300 kJ/mole, it increased to 995 kJ/mole with the addition of 40 vol.% SiC reinforcements.

  8. Zylon-reinforced high magnetic field coils for the K.U. Leuven pulsed field laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosseel, K.; Herlach, F.; Boon, W.; Bruynseraede, Y.

    2001-01-01

    PBO Zylon ® fibers have been used for the internal reinforcement of pulsed magnets. Due to the very high packing density (80%) of these fibers, vacuum impregnation of Zylon reinforced coils is difficult. Impregnation test were performed using pressure-vacuum impregnation and wet winding. A prototype series of coils for 60-70 T with 1-2 ms pulse duration was designed and wound, using wet winding for both the internal Zylon and external carbon fiber reinforcement. Special precautions were taken to avoid insulation breakdown at the transitions between conductor layers. Furthermore, axial movement of the conductor wires was restrained by strong axial compression of the coil with a steel shell casing. These modifications were incorporated into an 80 T coil made of Zylon and soft Cu. The design, construction and performance of this coil are discussed.

  9. Oxidation of carbon fiber surfaces for use as reinforcement in high-temperature cementitious material systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugama, Toshifumi

    1990-01-01

    The interfacial bond characteristics between carbon fiber and a cement matrix, in high temperature fiber-reinforced cementitious composite systems, can be improved by the oxidative treatment of the fiber surfaces. Compositions and the process for producing the compositions are disclosed.

  10. High-Strength and High-Plasticity TWIP Steel for Modern Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhenli MI; Di TANG; Ling YAN; Jin GUO

    2005-01-01

    In this paper new high-strength and high-plasticity twinning induced plasticity (TWIP) steel for modern automobile body was investigated. Some basic experimental results were given. The results indicate the TWlP steel has excellent properties. It exhibits high ultimate tensile strength (600~1100 MPa) and extremely large elongation of 60% to 90%. In the future it would be capable of satisfying the requirements of new generation of vehicle.

  11. High Pressure Strength Study on NaCl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Z.; Shieh, S. R.; High Pressure Mineral Physics Group

    2010-12-01

    Yield strength is regarded as one important property related to rheological characteristics of minerals in the Earth’s interior. The strength study of NaCl, a popular pressure medium in static high pressure experiments, has been carried out under non-hydrostatic conditions in a diamond anvil cell up to 43 GPa at room temperature using radial energy dispersive X-ray diffraction technique. Phase transformation from B1 (rock salt structure) to B2 (CsCl structure) starts at 29.4 GPa, and is complete at 32.1 GPa. Bulk modulus obtained by third order Birch-Manurgham equation of state is 25.5 GPa with pressure derivative 4.6 for B1 phase, and 30.78 GPa with pressure derivative 4.32 GPa for B2 phase, which are in a good agreement with previous studies. The differential stress of NaCl B1 phase shows very gentle increase with pressure, which indicates that NaCl is a very good pressure-transmitting medium at pressure below 30 GPa. However, the differential stress increases more abruptly for B2 phase and this may imply that NaCl can no longer be regarded as a “soft” pressure medium at very high pressures. For B1 phase, (111) is the strongest plane and (200) is the weakest plane, while (200) becomes the strongest plane in B2 phase. Pure NaCl is weaker than mixture MgO and NaCl, which indicates that soft material become stronger when mixed with hard material. The yield strength of B2 obtained through energy dispersive X-ray diffraction technique increase linearly, while the value derived by pressure gradient method shows jagged trend.

  12. Experimental analysis of reinforced concrete beams strengthened in bending with carbon fiber reinforced polymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. VIEIRA

    Full Text Available The use of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP has been widely used for the reinforcement of concrete structures due to its practicality and versatility in application, low weight, high tensile strength and corrosion resistance. Some construction companies use CFRP in flexural strengthening of reinforced concrete beams, but without anchor systems. Therefore, the aim of this study is analyze, through an experimental program, the structural behavior of reinforced concrete beams flexural strengthened by CFRP without anchor fibers, varying steel reinforcement and the amount of carbon fibers reinforcement layers. Thus, two groups of reinforced concrete beams were produced with the same geometric feature but with different steel reinforcement. Each group had five beams: one that is not reinforced with CFRP (reference and other reinforced with two, three, four and five layers of carbon fibers. Beams were designed using a computational routine developed in MAPLE software and subsequently tested in 4-point points flexural test up to collapse. Experimental tests have confirmed the effectiveness of the reinforcement, ratifying that beams collapse at higher loads and lower deformation as the amount of fibers in the reinforcing layers increased. However, the increase in the number of layers did not provide a significant increase in the performance of strengthened beams, indicating that it was not possible to take full advantage of strengthening applied due to the occurrence of premature failure mode in the strengthened beams for pullout of the cover that could have been avoided through the use of a suitable anchoring system for CFRP.

  13. Calculation of reinforced-concrete frame strength under a simultaneous static cross section load and a column lateral impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belov, Nikolay; Yugov, Nikolay; Kopanitsa, Dmitry; Kopanitsa, Georgy; Yugov, Alexey; Kaparulin, Sergey; Plyaskin, Andrey; Kalichkina, Anna; Ustinov, Artyom

    2016-01-01

    When designing buildings with reinforced concrete that are planned to resist dynamic loads it is necessary to calculate this structural behavior under operational static and emergency impact and blast loads. Calculations of the structures under shock-wave loads can be performed by solving dynamic equations that do not consider static loads. Due to this fact the calculation of reinforced concrete frame under a simultaneous static and dynamic load in full 3d settings becomes a very non trivial and resource consuming problem. This problem can be split into two tasks. The first one is a shock-wave problem that can be solved using software package RANET-3, which allows solving the problem using finite elements method adapted for dynamic task. This method calculates strain-stress state of the material and its dynamic destruction, which is considered as growth and consolidation of micro defects under loading. On the second step the results of the first step are taken as input parameters for quasi static calculation of simultaneous static and dynamic load using finite elements method in AMP Civil Engineering-11.

  14. Calculation of reinforced-concrete frame strength under a simultaneous static cross section load and a column lateral impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belov, Nikolay, E-mail: n.n.belov@mail.ru; Kopanitsa, Dmitry, E-mail: kopanitsa@mail.ru; Yugov, Alexey, E-mail: yugalex@mail.ru; Kaparulin, Sergey, E-mail: kaparulin@mail.ru; Plyaskin, Andrey, E-mail: plyaskinandrei@mail.ru; Kalichkina, Anna, E-mail: aniotka@mail.ru; Ustinov, Artyom, E-mail: artemustinov@bk.ru [Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building, 2, Solyanaya Sq. Tomsk, 634003 (Russian Federation); Yugov, Nikolay, E-mail: n.t.yugov@mail.ru [Tomsk State University for Radio Electronics and Control Systems, 40, Lenin Av. Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Kopanitsa, Georgy, E-mail: kopanitsa@mail.ru [National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30, Lenin Av. Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-15

    When designing buildings with reinforced concrete that are planned to resist dynamic loads it is necessary to calculate this structural behavior under operational static and emergency impact and blast loads. Calculations of the structures under shock-wave loads can be performed by solving dynamic equations that do not consider static loads. Due to this fact the calculation of reinforced concrete frame under a simultaneous static and dynamic load in full 3d settings becomes a very non trivial and resource consuming problem. This problem can be split into two tasks. The first one is a shock-wave problem that can be solved using software package RANET-3, which allows solving the problem using finite elements method adapted for dynamic task. This method calculates strain-stress state of the material and its dynamic destruction, which is considered as growth and consolidation of micro defects under loading. On the second step the results of the first step are taken as input parameters for quasi static calculation of simultaneous static and dynamic load using finite elements method in AMP Civil Engineering-11.

  15. A Simple Model to Estimate the Yield Strength of Silicon Carbide Particulate Reinforced Aluminium Alloy Matrix Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In the present study, a modified Hall-Petch correlation on the basis of dislocation pile-up model was used to estimate the yield strength of SiCp/Al composites. The experimental results show that the modified Hall-Petch correlation expressed as σcy=244+371λ-1/2 fits very well with the experimental data, which indicated that the strength increase of SiCp/Al composites might be due to the direct blocking of dislocation motion by the particulate-matrix interface,namely, the dislocation pile-up is the most possible strengthening mechanism for SiCp/Al composites.

  16. Prediction of Tensile Strength of Short Fiber Reinforced Elastomer Composites%短纤维增强弹性体复合材料的强度预测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王金山; 顾伯勤; 周剑锋; 黄星路

    2011-01-01

    探讨了纤维的取向、长度和含量对短纤维增强弹性体复合材料强度的影响,在Fukuda预测模型的基础上,考虑了末端纤维的脱粘、纤维临界长度和高纤维体积含量等因素,建立了三维随机分布短纤维弹性体复合材料强度预测模型,并对预测结果与现有理论计算得到的结果进行了分析比较.%The effects of the orientation, the length and the volume fraction of fibers on the strength of composites were discussed. Based on the strength prediction model proposed by Fukuda, a model for predicting the strength of composites reinforced with randomly oriented short fibers in three dimensions was presented. The debonding of ending fibers, the critical length and the volume content of fibers were taken into consideration. The prediction results were compared with those obtained based on the exiting theory.

  17. Strength study of carbon dioxide under high pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaci, L.; Shieh, S. R.; Kiefer, B.

    2011-12-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is one of the greenhouse gases that can be readily found in the Earth's atmosphere and possibly inside the Earth. The strength and elasticity study of carbon dioxide (CO2) under high pressures is important to understand the rheological behavior of CO2 that may be relevant to the CO2 storage issue within the Earth and also the evolution of other planets. Quantitative measurements of the strength of CO2 were achieved in a diamond anvil cell using x-ray diffraction in a radial geometry. CO2 sample was cryogenically loaded into a beryllium gasket and a thin foil of gold about 20 x 20 um2 was placed at the center of the gasket hole to serve as a pressure standard. The x-ray diffraction data were collected at beamline X17C of National Synchrotron Light Source, Brookhaven National Laboratory. We have determined the strength using three different methods. We analyze the peak broadening measurements in the axial direction, peak shifts in radial direction associated with lattice strains theory and also we measured pressure gradient of the CO2 under stress using ruby florescence method. Our results show that the ratios of differential stress to shear modulus are ranging from 0.006(5) to 0.04(18), exhibiting a positive slope within the applied pressure to 12 GPa. The differential stress was calculated as 0.029(3)-0.224(28) GPa, with the inputs of shear module from theoretical calculations. Our differential stress values are close to those of argon data at low pressures. In addition, our results show no pressure gradient of CO2 below 20 GPa. This fact suggests that up to 20GPa the differential stress supported by CO2 is mainly arising from elastic deformation. This is also supported by the linear positive trend of differential strain demonstrating the elastic regime up to 12 GPa.

  18. Guidelines for Stretch Flanging Advanced High Strength Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriram, S.; Chintamani, J.

    2005-08-01

    Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS) are currently being considered for use in closure and structural panels in the automotive industry because of their high potential for affordable weight reduction and improved performance. AHSS such as dual phase steels are currently being used in some vehicle platforms. From a manufacturing perspective, stretch flanging during stamping is an important deformation mode requiring careful consideration of geometry and the die process. This paper presents some geometric and process guidelines for stretch flanging AHSS. Hole expansion experiments were conducted to determine the failure limit for a sheared edge condition. Effects of punching clearance, prestrain and prior strain path on hole expansion were explored in these experiments. In addition, dynamic explicit FE calculations using LS-DYNA were also conducted for a typical stretch flange by varying some key geometric parameters. The experimental and FEA results were then analyzed to yield process and geometric guidelines to enable successful stretch flanging of AHSS.

  19. Properties of High-Volume Fly Ash Concrete Reinforced with Natural Fibres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafat SIDDIQUE

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Properties of high-volume fly ash concrete incorporating san fibres are presented in this paper. For this investigation, initially, three concrete mixtures were made with 35%, 45%, and 55% of Class F fly as partial replacement of cement. After this, three percentages (0.25, 0.50, and 0.75% of san fibres (25 mm length were added in each of the fly ash concrete mixtures. San is a natural bast fibre, and is also known as Sunn Hemp (Botanical name: Crotalaria Juncea. It is grown in Indian Sub-Continent, Brazil, Eastern and Southern Africa, and also in some parts of U.S.A. Tests were performed for compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, flexural strength, and impact strength at the ages of 28, 91 and 365 days. Tests were also performed for fresh concrete properties. 28 days test results indicated that san fibres reduced the compressive strength of high-volume fly ash concrete by 2 to 13%, increased splitting tensile strength by 6 to 26%, flexural strength by 5 to 14%, and enhanced impact strength tremendously (by 100 to 300% depending upon the fly ash content and fibre percentage. Later age (91 and 365 days results showed continuous increase in strength properties of high-volume fly ash concrete. This was probably be possible due to the pozzolanic action of fly ash, leading to more densification of the concrete matrix, and development of more effective bond between fibres and fly ash concrete matrix.

  20. Thermal Stir Welding of High Strength and High Temperature Alloys for Aerospace Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Keystone and MSU team propose to demonstrate the feasibility of solid-state joining high strength and temperature alloys utilizing the Thermal Stir Welding...