WorldWideScience

Sample records for reheating

  1. Magnetic reheating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saga, Shohei; Tashiro, Hiroyuki; Yokoyama, Shuichiro

    2018-02-01

    We provide a new bound on the amplitude of primordial magnetic fields (PMFs) by using a novel mechanism, magnetic reheating. The damping of the magnetohydrodynamics fluid motions in a primordial plasma brings the dissipation of the PMFs. In the early Universe with z ≳ 2 × 106, cosmic microwave background (CMB) photons are quickly thermalized with the dissipated energy and shift to a different Planck distribution with a new temperature. In other words, the PMF dissipation changes the baryon-to-photon number ratio, and we name such a process magnetic reheating. From the current baryon-to-photon number ratio obtained from the big bang nucleosynthesis and CMB observations, we put the strongest constraint on the PMFs on small scales which CMB observations cannot access, B0 ≲ 1.0 μG at the scales 104 generation mechanisms of PMFs in the early Universe.

  2. Reheating after inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kripfganz, Jochen; Karl-Marx-Universitaet, Leipzig; Ilgenfritz, E.M.

    1986-01-01

    A numerical analysis of reheating is performed for a classical scalar field with exponentially flat potential. An operational definition of the reheating time is given involving the gradient contribution to the inflation field energy. For the parameter range studied the product of reheating time and Hubble constant H is found to be of order one, being approximately independent of the value of H. (author)

  3. Reheating after inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kripfganz, J.; Ilgenfritz, E.M.

    1985-07-01

    A numerical analysis of reheating is performed for a classical scalar field with exponentially flat potential. An operational definition of the reheating time is given involving the gradient contribution to the inflation field energy. For the parameter range studied the product of reheating time and Hubble constant H is found to be of order one, being approximately independent of the value of H. (author)

  4. Constraining curvatonic reheating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardwick, Robert J.; Vennin, Vincent; Koyama, Kazuya; Wands, David, E-mail: robert.hardwick@port.ac.uk, E-mail: vincent.vennin@port.ac.uk, E-mail: kazuya.koyama@port.ac.uk, E-mail: david.wands@port.ac.uk [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Dennis Sciama Building, Burnaby Road, Portsmouth, PO1 3FX (United Kingdom)

    2016-08-01

    We derive the first systematic observational constraints on reheating in models of inflation where an additional light scalar field contributes to primordial density perturbations and affects the expansion history during reheating. This encompasses the original curvaton model but also covers a larger class of scenarios. We find that, compared to the single-field case, lower values of the energy density at the end of inflation and of the reheating temperature are preferred when an additional scalar field is introduced. For instance, if inflation is driven by a quartic potential, which is one of the most favoured models when a light scalar field is added, the upper bound T {sub reh} < 5 × 10{sup 4} GeV on the reheating temperature T {sub reh} is derived, and the implications of this value on post-inflationary physics are discussed. The information gained about reheating is also quantified and it is found that it remains modest in plateau inflation (though still larger than in the single-field version of the model) but can become substantial in quartic inflation. The role played by the vev of the additional scalar field at the end of inflation is highlighted, and opens interesting possibilities for exploring stochastic inflation effects that could determine its distribution.

  5. Advanced steel reheat furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moyeda, D.; Sheldon, M.; Koppang, R. [Energy and Environmental Research Corp., Irvine, CA (United States); Lanyi, M.; Li, X.; Eleazer, B. [Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, PA (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Energy and Environmental Research Corp. (EER) under a contract from the Department of Energy is pursuing the development and demonstration of an Advanced Steel Reheating Furnace. This paper reports the results of Phase 1, Research, which has evaluated an advanced furnace concept incorporating two proven and commercialized technologies previously applied to other high temperature combustion applications: EER`s gas reburn technology (GR) for post combustion NOx control; and Air Product`s oxy-fuel enrichment air (OEA) for improved flame heat transfer in the heating zones of the furnace. The combined technologies feature greater production throughput with associated furnace efficiency improvements; lowered NOx emissions; and better control over the furnace atmosphere, whether oxidizing or reducing, leading to better control over surface finish.

  6. Reheating for closed string inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cicoli, Michele [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Mazumdar, Anupam [Lancaster Univ. (United Kingdom). Physics Dept.; Copenhagen Univ. (Denmark). Niels Bohr Institute

    2010-05-15

    We point out some of the outstanding challenges for embedding inflationary cosmology within string theory studying the process of reheating for models where the inflaton is a closed string mode parameterising the size of an internal cycle of the compactification manifold. A realistic model of inflation must explain the tiny perturbations in the cosmic microwave background radiation and also how to excite the ordinary matter degrees of freedom after inflation, required for the success of Big Bang Nucleosynthesis. We study these issues focusing on two promising inflationary models embedded in LARGE volume type IIB flux compactifications. We show that phenomenological requirements and consistency of the effective field theory treatment imply the presence at low energies of a hidden sector together with a visible sector, where the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model fields are residing. A detailed calculation of the inflaton coupling to the fields of the hidden sector, visible sector, and moduli sector, reveals that the inflaton fails to excite primarily the visible sector fields, instead hidden sector fields are excited copiously after the end of inflation. This sets severe constraints on hidden sector model building where the most promising scenario emerges as a pure N=1 SYM theory, forbidding the kinematical decay of the inflaton to the hidden sector. In this case it is possible to reheat the Universe with the visible degrees of freedom even though in some cases we discover a new tension between TeV scale SUSY and reheating on top of the well-known tension between TeV scale SUSY and inflation. (orig.)

  7. Reheating for closed string inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicoli, Michele; Mazumdar, Anupam; Copenhagen Univ.

    2010-05-01

    We point out some of the outstanding challenges for embedding inflationary cosmology within string theory studying the process of reheating for models where the inflaton is a closed string mode parameterising the size of an internal cycle of the compactification manifold. A realistic model of inflation must explain the tiny perturbations in the cosmic microwave background radiation and also how to excite the ordinary matter degrees of freedom after inflation, required for the success of Big Bang Nucleosynthesis. We study these issues focusing on two promising inflationary models embedded in LARGE volume type IIB flux compactifications. We show that phenomenological requirements and consistency of the effective field theory treatment imply the presence at low energies of a hidden sector together with a visible sector, where the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model fields are residing. A detailed calculation of the inflaton coupling to the fields of the hidden sector, visible sector, and moduli sector, reveals that the inflaton fails to excite primarily the visible sector fields, instead hidden sector fields are excited copiously after the end of inflation. This sets severe constraints on hidden sector model building where the most promising scenario emerges as a pure N=1 SYM theory, forbidding the kinematical decay of the inflaton to the hidden sector. In this case it is possible to reheat the Universe with the visible degrees of freedom even though in some cases we discover a new tension between TeV scale SUSY and reheating on top of the well-known tension between TeV scale SUSY and inflation. (orig.)

  8. Moisture separator reheaters for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyoshi, Michizo; Yonemura, Katsutoshi

    1974-01-01

    In the light water reactor plants using BWRS or PWRS, the pressure and temperature of steam at the inlet of turbines are low, and the steam is moist, as compared with the case of thermal power plants. Therefore, moisture separator/reheaters are used between high and low pressure turbines. The steam from a high pressure turbine enters a manifold, and goes zigzag through vertical plate separator elements, its moisture is removed from the steam. Then, after being reheated with the steam bled from the high pressure turbine and directly from a reactor, the steam is fed into a low pressure turbine. The development and test made on the components of a moisture separaotr/reheater and the overall model experiment are described together with the mechanism of moisture separation and reheating. (Mori, K.)

  9. Reheating of the Universe as holographic thermalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawai, Shinsuke, E-mail: shinsuke.kawai@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 16419 (Korea, Republic of); Nakayama, Yu [California Institute of Technology, 452-48, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), Todai Institutes for Advanced Study, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan)

    2016-08-10

    Assuming gauge/gravity correspondence we study reheating of the Universe using its holographic dual. Inflaton decay and thermalisation of the decay products correspond to collapse of a spherical shell and formation of a blackhole in the dual anti-de Sitter (AdS) spacetime. The reheating temperature is computed as the Hawking temperature of the developed blackhole probed by a dynamical boundary, and is determined by the inflaton energy density and the AdS radius, with corrections from the dynamics of the shell collapse. For given initial energy density of the inflaton field the holographic model typically gives lower reheating temperature than the instant reheating scenario, while it is shown to be safely within phenomenological bounds.

  10. Reheating of the Universe as holographic thermalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinsuke Kawai

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Assuming gauge/gravity correspondence we study reheating of the Universe using its holographic dual. Inflaton decay and thermalisation of the decay products correspond to collapse of a spherical shell and formation of a blackhole in the dual anti-de Sitter (AdS spacetime. The reheating temperature is computed as the Hawking temperature of the developed blackhole probed by a dynamical boundary, and is determined by the inflaton energy density and the AdS radius, with corrections from the dynamics of the shell collapse. For given initial energy density of the inflaton field the holographic model typically gives lower reheating temperature than the instant reheating scenario, while it is shown to be safely within phenomenological bounds.

  11. Quintessential inflation at low reheating temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salo, Llibert Areste [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Departament de Matematiques, Barcelona (Spain); Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Fakultaet fuer Physik, Munich (Germany); Haro, Jaume de [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Departament de Matematiques, Terrassa (Spain)

    2017-11-15

    We have tested some simple quintessential inflation models, imposing the requirement that they match with the recent observational data provided by the BICEP and Planck team and leading to a reheating temperature, which is obtained via gravitational particle production after inflation, supporting the nucleosynthesis success. Moreover, for the models coming from supergravity one needs to demand low temperatures in order to avoid problems such as the gravitino overproduction or the gravitational production of moduli fields, which are obtained only when the reheating temperature is due to the production of massless particles with a coupling constant very close to its conformal value. (orig.)

  12. Parametric Amplification of Gravitational Fluctuations during Reheating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finelli, F.; Brandenberger, R.; Finelli, F.

    1999-01-01

    Cosmological perturbations can undergo amplification by parametric resonance during preheating even on scales larger than the Hubble radius, without violating causality. A unified description of gravitational and matter fluctuations is crucial to determine the strength of the instability. To extract specific signatures of the oscillating inflaton field during reheating, it is essential to focus on a variable describing metric fluctuations which is constant in the standard analyses of inflation. For a massive inflaton without self-coupling, we find no additional growth of superhorizon modes during reheating beyond the usual predictions. For a massless self-coupled inflaton, there is a sub-Hubble scale resonance. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  13. Curvaton reheating in a logamediate inflationary model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campo, Sergio del; Herrera, Ramon; Saavedra, Joel; Campuzano, Cuauhtemoc; Rojas, Efrain

    2009-01-01

    In a logamediate inflationary universe model we introduce the curvaton field in order to bring this inflationary model to an end. In this approach we determine the reheating temperature. We also outline some interesting constraints on the parameters that describe our models. Thus, we give the parameter space in this scenario.

  14. Replacement of low pressure reheater and performance evaluation on domestic NPP moisture separator reheater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Y. S.; Jeong, W. T.; Shon, S. Y.; Kim, M. H.

    2003-01-01

    Moisture Separator Reheater is one of the most important equipment for the integrity of low pressure turbine and the total efficiency of the nuclear power plant, It supplies the dry steam to low pressure turbine after separation of moisture and reheating the wet steam out of high pressure turbine. This equipment is always operated under severe conditions, therefore it should be carefully maintained for safe operation and operating confidence. After replacement low pressure reheater of moister separator reheater on domestic nuclear power plant, there was MSR performance degradation and vibration of condensate drain line. So I found out root cause and commented a solution, site people modified the equipment. Finally I concluded the performanc of MSR was good condition, after I inspected the equipment and evaluated the performance of MSR

  15. Reheating experiment in the 35-ton pile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherot, J.; Girard, Y.

    1957-01-01

    When the 35-ton pile was started up it was necessary for us, in order to study certain effects (xenon for example), to know the anti reactivity value of the rods as a function of their dimensions. We have made use of the possibility, in the reheating experiment, of raising the temperature of the graphite-uranium block by simple heating, in order to determine the anti reactivity curves of the rods, and from that the overall temperature coefficient. For the latter we have considered two solutions: first, one in which the average temperature of the pile is defined as our arithmetical mean of the different values given by the 28 thermocouples distributed throughout the pile; a second in which the temperature in likened to a poisoning and is balanced by the square of the flux. The way in which the measurements have been made is indicated, and the different instruments used are described. The method of reheating does not permit the separation of the temperature coefficients of uranium and of graphite. The precision obtained is only moderate, and suffers from the changes of various parameters necessary to other manipulations carried out simultaneously (life time modulators for example), and finally it is a function of the comparatively restricted time allowed. It is evident of course that more careful stabilisation at the different plateaux chosen would have necessitated long periods of reheating. (author) [fr

  16. The Higgs boson can delay reheating after inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freese, Katherine; Sfakianakis, Evangelos I.; Stengel, Patrick; Visinelli, Luca

    2018-05-01

    The Standard Model Higgs boson, which has previously been shown to develop an effective vacuum expectation value during inflation, can give rise to large particle masses during inflation and reheating, leading to temporary blocking of the reheating process and a lower reheat temperature after inflation. We study the effects on the multiple stages of reheating: resonant particle production (preheating) as well as perturbative decays from coherent oscillations of the inflaton field. Specifically, we study both the cases of the inflaton coupling to Standard Model fermions through Yukawa interactions as well as to Abelian gauge fields through a Chern-Simons term. We find that, in the case of perturbative inflaton decay to SM fermions, reheating can be delayed due to Higgs blocking and the reheat temperature can decrease by up to an order of magnitude. In the case of gauge-reheating, Higgs-generated masses of the gauge fields can suppress preheating even for large inflaton-gauge couplings. In extreme cases, preheating can be shut down completely and must be substituted by perturbative decay as the dominant reheating channel. Finally, we discuss the distribution of reheat temperatures in different Hubble patches, arising from the stochastic nature of the Higgs VEV during inflation and its implications for the generation of both adiabatic and isocurvature fluctuations.

  17. Leptogenesis and reheating in complex hybrid inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-Prieto, Carlos; Delepine, David; Urena-Lopez, L. Arturo

    2010-01-01

    We study the transformation into a baryon asymmetry of a charge initially stored in a complex (waterfall) scalar field at the end of a hybrid inflation phase as described by Delepine, Martinez, and Urena-Lopez [Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 161302 (2007)]. The waterfall field is coupled to right-handed neutrinos, and is also responsible for their Majorana masses. The charge is finally transferred to the leptons of the standard model through the decay of the right-handed neutrinos without introducing new CP violating interactions. Other needed processes, like the decay of the inflaton field and the reheating of the Universe, are also discussed in detail.

  18. MSW-resonant fermion mixing during reheating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanai, Tsuneto; Tsujikawa, Shinji

    2003-10-01

    We study the dynamics of reheating in which an inflaton field couples two flavor fermions through Yukawa-couplings. When two fermions have a mixing term with a constant coupling, we show that the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW)-type resonance emerges due to a time-dependent background in addition to the standard fermion creation via parametric resonance. This MSW resonance not only alters the number densities of fermions generated by a preheating process but also can lead to the larger energy transfer from the inflaton to fermions. Our mechanism can provide additional source terms for the creation of superheavy fermions which may be relevant for the leptogenesis scenario.

  19. MSW-resonant fermion mixing during reheating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanai, Tsuneto; Tsujikawa, Shinji

    2003-01-01

    We study the dynamics of reheating in which an inflaton field couples two flavor fermions through Yukawa-couplings. When two fermions have a mixing term with a constant coupling, we show that the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW)-type resonance emerges due to a time-dependent background in addition to the standard fermion creation via parametric resonance. This MSW resonance not only alters the number densities of fermions generated by a preheating process but also can lead to the larger energy transfer from the inflaton to fermions. Our mechanism can provide additional source terms for the creation of superheavy fermions which may be relevant for the leptogenesis scenario

  20. Brown Boveri moves to fourth generation MSRs [moisture separator reheaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeckh, P. von

    1987-01-01

    The fourth, space saving, generation of moisture separator reheaters from Brown Boveri and Cie (BBC) consists of two types of high velocity moisture separators, 'Mops' and 'Scrups', and the small size reheater, 'Road' . The design of the unit is described, together with operational experience. (author)

  1. Low reheating temperatures in monomial and binomial inflationary models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehagen, Thomas; Gelmini, Graciela B.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the allowed range of reheating temperature values in light of the Planck 2015 results and the recent joint analysis of Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) data from the BICEP2/Keck Array and Planck experiments, using monomial and binomial inflationary potentials. While the well studied ϕ 2 inflationary potential is no longer favored by current CMB data, as well as ϕ p with p>2, a ϕ 1 potential and canonical reheating (w re =0) provide a good fit to the CMB measurements. In this last case, we find that the Planck 2015 68% confidence limit upper bound on the spectral index, n s , implies an upper bound on the reheating temperature of T re ≲6×10 10 GeV, and excludes instantaneous reheating. The low reheating temperatures allowed by this model open the possibility that dark matter could be produced during the reheating period instead of when the Universe is radiation dominated, which could lead to very different predictions for the relic density and momentum distribution of WIMPs, sterile neutrinos, and axions. We also study binomial inflationary potentials and show the effects of a small departure from a ϕ 1 potential. We find that as a subdominant ϕ 2 term in the potential increases, first instantaneous reheating becomes allowed, and then the lowest possible reheating temperature of T re =4 MeV is excluded by the Planck 2015 68% confidence limit

  2. Reheating, multifield inflation and the fate of the primordial observables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, Godfrey; Tarrant, Ewan R.M.; Copeland, Edmund J.; Byrnes, Christian T.

    2012-01-01

    We study the effects of perturbative reheating on the evolution of the curvature perturbation ζ, in two-field inflation models. We use numerical methods to explore the sensitivity of f NL , n ζ and r to the reheating process, and present simple qualitative arguments to explain our results. In general, if a large non-Gaussian signal exists at the start of reheating, it will remain non-zero at the end of reheating. Unless all isocurvature modes have completely decayed before the start of reheating, we find that the non-linearity parameter, f NL , can be sensitive to the reheating timescale, and that this dependence is most appreciable for 'runaway' inflationary potentials that only have a minimum in one direction. For potentials with a minimum in both directions, f NL can also be sensitive to reheating if a mild hierarchy exists between the decay rates of each field. Within the class of models studied, we find that the spectral index n ζ , is fairly insensitive to large changes in the field decay rates, indicating that n ζ is a more robust inflationary observable, unlike the non-linearity parameter f NL . Our results imply that the statistics of ζ, especially f NL , can only be reliably used to discriminate between models of two-field inflation if the physics of reheating are properly accounted for

  3. Reheating the D-brane universe via instant preheating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panda, Sudhakar; Sami, M.; Thongkool, I.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate a possibility of reheating in a scenario of D-brane inflation in a warped deformed conifold background which includes perturbative corrections to throat geometry sourced by a chiral operator of dimension 3/2 in the conformal field theory. The effective D-brane potential, in this case, belongs to the class of nonoscillatory models of inflation for which the conventional reheating mechanism does not work. We find that gravitational particle production is inefficient and leads to reheating temperature of the order of 10 8 GeV. We show that instant preheating is quite suitable to the present scenario and can easily reheat the universe to a temperature which is higher by about 3 orders of magnitude than its counterpart associated with gravitational particle production. The reheating temperature is shown to be insensitive to a particular choice of inflationary parameters suitable to observations.

  4. Chilly dark sectors and asymmetric reheating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adshead, Peter; Cui, Yanou; Shelton, Jessie

    2016-01-01

    In a broad class of theories, the relic abundance of dark matter is determined by interactions internal to a thermalized dark sector, with no direct involvement of the Standard Model (SM). We point out that these theories raise an immediate cosmological question: how was the dark sector initially populated in the early universe? Motivated in part by the difficulty of accommodating large amounts of entropy carried in dark radiation with cosmic microwave background measurements of the effective number of relativistic species at recombination, N eff , we aim to establish which admissible cosmological histories can populate a thermal dark sector that never reaches thermal equilibrium with the SM. The minimal cosmological origin for such a dark sector is asymmetric reheating, when the same mechanism that populates the SM in the early universe also populates the dark sector at a lower temperature. Here we demonstrate that the resulting inevitable inflaton-mediated scattering between the dark sector and the SM can wash out a would-be temperature asymmetry, and establish the regions of parameter space where temperature asymmetries can be generated in minimal reheating scenarios. Thus obtaining a temperature asymmetry of a given size either restricts possible inflaton masses and couplings or necessitates a non-minimal cosmology for one or both sectors. As a side benefit, we develop techniques for evaluating collision terms in the relativistic Boltzmann equation when the full dependence on Bose-Einstein or Fermi-Dirac phase space distributions must be retained, and present several new results on relativistic thermal averages in an appendix.

  5. Chilly dark sectors and asymmetric reheating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adshead, Peter [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign,Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Cui, Yanou [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,Waterloo, Ontario N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Maryland Center for Fundamental Physics, University of Maryland,College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Shelton, Jessie [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign,Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

    2016-06-06

    In a broad class of theories, the relic abundance of dark matter is determined by interactions internal to a thermalized dark sector, with no direct involvement of the Standard Model (SM). We point out that these theories raise an immediate cosmological question: how was the dark sector initially populated in the early universe? Motivated in part by the difficulty of accommodating large amounts of entropy carried in dark radiation with cosmic microwave background measurements of the effective number of relativistic species at recombination, N{sub eff}, we aim to establish which admissible cosmological histories can populate a thermal dark sector that never reaches thermal equilibrium with the SM. The minimal cosmological origin for such a dark sector is asymmetric reheating, when the same mechanism that populates the SM in the early universe also populates the dark sector at a lower temperature. Here we demonstrate that the resulting inevitable inflaton-mediated scattering between the dark sector and the SM can wash out a would-be temperature asymmetry, and establish the regions of parameter space where temperature asymmetries can be generated in minimal reheating scenarios. Thus obtaining a temperature asymmetry of a given size either restricts possible inflaton masses and couplings or necessitates a non-minimal cosmology for one or both sectors. As a side benefit, we develop techniques for evaluating collision terms in the relativistic Boltzmann equation when the full dependence on Bose-Einstein or Fermi-Dirac phase space distributions must be retained, and present several new results on relativistic thermal averages in an appendix.

  6. Chilly dark sectors and asymmetric reheating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adshead, Peter; Cui, Yanou; Shelton, Jessie

    2016-06-01

    In a broad class of theories, the relic abundance of dark matter is determined by interactions internal to a thermalized dark sector, with no direct involvement of the Standard Model (SM). We point out that these theories raise an immediate cosmological question: how was the dark sector initially populated in the early universe? Motivated in part by the difficulty of accommodating large amounts of entropy carried in dark radiation with cosmic microwave background measurements of the effective number of relativistic species at recombination, N eff , we aim to establish which admissible cosmological histories can populate a thermal dark sector that never reaches thermal equilibrium with the SM. The minimal cosmological origin for such a dark sector is asymmetric reheating, when the same mechanism that populates the SM in the early universe also populates the dark sector at a lower temperature. Here we demonstrate that the resulting inevitable inflaton-mediated scattering between the dark sector and the SM can wash out a would-be temperature asymmetry, and establish the regions of parameter space where temperature asymmetries can be generated in minimal reheating scenarios. Thus obtaining a temperature asymmetry of a given size either restricts possible inflaton masses and couplings or necessitates a non-minimal cosmology for one or both sectors. As a side benefit, we develop techniques for evaluating collision terms in the relativistic Boltzmann equation when the full dependence on Bose-Einstein or Fermi-Dirac phase space distributions must be retained, and present several new results on relativistic thermal averages in an appendix.

  7. Toward an effective field theory approach to reheating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özsoy, Ogan; Giblin, John T.; Nesbit, Eva; Şengör, Gizem; Watson, Scott

    2017-12-01

    We investigate whether effective field theory (EFT) approaches, which have been useful in examining inflation and dark energy, can also be used to establish a systematic approach to inflationary reheating. We consider two methods. First, we extend Weinberg's background EFT to the end of inflation and reheating. We establish when parametric resonance and decay of the inflaton occurs, but also find intrinsic theoretical limitations, which make it difficult to capture some reheating models. This motivates us to next consider Cheung et al.'s EFT approach, which instead focuses on perturbations and the symmetry breaking induced by the cosmological background. Adapting the latter approach to reheating implies some new and important differences compared to the EFT of inflation. In particular, there are new hierarchical scales, and we must account for inflaton oscillations during reheating, which lead to discrete symmetry breaking. Guided by the fundamental symmetries, we construct the EFT of reheating, and as an example of its usefulness we establish a new class of reheating models and the corresponding predictions for gravity wave observations. In this paper we primarily focus on the first stages of preheating. We conclude by discussing challenges for the approach and future directions. This paper builds on ideas first proposed in the paper [O. Ozsoy, G. Sengor, K. Sinha, and S. Watson, arXiv:1507.06651.].

  8. A review of temperature measurement in the steel reheat furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martocci, A.P.; Mihalow, F.A.

    1985-01-01

    The incentive for conducting research and development on reheat furnaces is substantial; the domestic steel industry spent approximately one billion dollars on fuel in reheat furnaces in 1981. Bethlehem Steel Corp. spent /145 million of that total, and neither figure includes fuel consumed in soaking pits or annealing furnaces. If the authors set a goal to save 10% of these annual fuel costs, that translates into /100 million for the domestic steel industry and /14.5 million for Bethlehem Steel. These large sums of money are significant incentives. The purpose of this paper is to review the historical heating practices and equipment at steel reheat furnaces along with current practices and instrumentation

  9. Effect of reheating on predictions following multiple-field inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotinli, Selim C.; Frazer, Jonathan; Jaffe, Andrew H.; Meyers, Joel; Price, Layne C.; Tarrant, Ewan R. M.

    2018-01-01

    We study the sensitivity of cosmological observables to the reheating phase following inflation driven by many scalar fields. We describe a method which allows semianalytic treatment of the impact of perturbative reheating on cosmological perturbations using the sudden decay approximation. Focusing on N -quadratic inflation, we show how the scalar spectral index and tensor-to-scalar ratio are affected by the rates at which the scalar fields decay into radiation. We find that for certain choices of decay rates, reheating following multiple-field inflation can have a significant impact on the prediction of cosmological observables.

  10. Hemispherical power asymmetry from scale-dependent modulated reheating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, John

    2013-01-01

    We propose a new model for the hemispherical power asymmetry of the CMB based on modulated reheating. Non-Gaussianity from modulated reheating can be small enough to satisfy the bound from Planck if the dominant modulation of the inflaton decay rate is linear in the modulating field σ. σ must then acquire a spatially-modulated power spectrum with a red scale-dependence. This can be achieved if the primordial perturbation of σ is generated via tachyonic growth of a complex scalar field. Modulated reheating due to σ then produces a spatially modulated and scale-dependent sub-dominant contribution to the adiabatic density perturbation. We show that it is possible to account for the observed asymmetry while remaining consistent with bounds from quasar number counts, non-Gaussianity and the CMB temperature quadupole. The model predicts that the adiabatic perturbation spectral index and its running will be modified by the modulated reheating component

  11. Method for operating a steam turbine of the nuclear type with electronic reheat control of a cycle steam reheater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luongo, M.C.

    1975-01-01

    An electronic system is provided for operating a nuclear electric power plant with electronic steam reheating control applied to the nuclear turbine system in response to low pressure turbine temperatures, and the control is adapted to operate in a plurality of different automatic control modes to control reheating steam flow and other steam conditions. Each of the modes of control permit turbine temperature variations within predetermined constraints and according to predetermined functions of time. (Official Gazette)

  12. Device and Container for Reheating and Sterilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastry, Sudhir K.; Heskitt, Brian F.; Jun, Soojin; Marcy, Joseph E.; Mahna, Ritesh

    2012-01-01

    Long-duration space missions require the development of improved foods and novel packages that do not represent a significant disposal issue. In addition, it would also be desirable if rapid heating technologies could be used on Earth as well, to improve food quality during a sterilization process. For this purpose, a package equipped with electrodes was developed that will enable rapid reheating of contents via ohmic heating to serving temperature during space vehicle transit. Further, the package is designed with a resealing feature, which enables the package, once used, to contain and sterilize waste, including human waste for storage prior to jettison during a long-duration mission. Ohmic heating is a technology that has been investigated on and off for over a century. Literature indicates that foods processed by ohmic heating are of superior quality to their conventionally processed counterparts. This is due to the speed and uniformity of ohmic heating, which minimizes exposure of sensitive materials to high temperatures. In principle, the material may be heated rapidly to sterilization conditions, cooled rapidly, and stored. The ohmic heating device herein is incorporated within a package. While this by itself is not novel, a reusable feature also was developed with the intent that waste may be stored and re-sterilized within the packages. These would then serve a useful function after their use in food processing and storage. The enclosure should be designed to minimize mass (and for NASA's purposes, Equivalent System Mass, or ESM), while enabling the sterilization function. It should also be electrically insulating. For this reason, Ultem high-strength, machinable electrical insulator was used.

  13. Experimental thermal behavior of a power plant reheater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, M. Manuela Prieto; Garcia, F. Javier Fernandez; Ramon, Ines Suarez [Departamento de Energia, Universidad de Oviedo, Campus de Viesques, 33204 Gijon, Asturias (Spain); Roces, Hilario Sanchez [Central Termica de Soto de Ribera, Soto de Ribera, Asturias (Spain)

    2006-04-15

    The process conditions of power plant components subjected to high pressures and temperatures are essential to determine their remaining life, availability and efficiency. It is, therefore, expedient to pay special attention to critical components, such as superheater and reheater heat exchangers, headers, and main and reheated steam lines. In this paper, on-line and off-line variables of a power plant reheater that has presented problems of thickness losses and repetitive tube fissures are studied. The fissures are associated with the effect of a thermal-mechanical mechanism. Off-line measurements were taken of the following variables: pressure, temperature, velocity and composition of the gases. On-line instrumentation was completed by the installation of specific thermocouples to ascertain the temperatures in the tubes outlet. Various angles for the fuel inlet of the burners and variations in the number and location of the working burners were also assayed. As a consequence of this analysis, it can be deduced that there are important differences in the outlet temperature of the reheater tubes that decrease for lower powers. Finally, it is pointed that a non-uniform distribution of the steam flow in the reheater might be the cause of the problem. (author)

  14. PFC Performance Improvement of Ultra-supercritical Secondary Reheat Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jun

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultra-supercritical secondary reheat unit has been widely used in the world because of its advantages of large capacity, low consumption and high efficiency etc., but rapid load change ability of the turbines to be weakened which caused by its system organization, cannot meet the requirements of power grid frequency modulation. Based on the analysis of the control characteristics of ultra-supercritical once-through reheat unit, the primary frequency control based on feed-water flow overshoot compensation is proposed. The main steam pressure generated by the feed-water is changed to improve the primary frequency control capability. The relevant control strategy has been applied to the 1000MW secondary reheating unit. The results show that the technology is feasible and has high economical efficiency.

  15. Dark matter from gravitational particle production at reheating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markkanen, Tommi [Department of Physics, King' s College London, Strand, London WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom); Nurmi, Sami, E-mail: tommi.markkanen@kcl.ac.uk, E-mail: sami.t.nurmi@jyu.fi [Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 University of Jyväskylä (Finland)

    2017-02-01

    We show that curvature induced particle production at reheating generates adiabatic dark matter if there are non-minimally coupled spectator scalars weakly coupled to visible matter. The observed dark matter abundance implies an upper bound on spectator masses m and non-minimal coupling values ξ. For example, assuming quadratic inflation, instant reheating and a single spectator scalar with only gravitational couplings, the observed dark matter abundance is obtained for m ∼ 0.1 GeV and ξ ∼ 1. Larger mass and coupling values of the spectator are excluded as they would lead to overproduction of dark matter.

  16. Dark matter from gravitational particle production at reheating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markkanen, Tommi; Nurmi, Sami

    2017-01-01

    We show that curvature induced particle production at reheating generates adiabatic dark matter if there are non-minimally coupled spectator scalars weakly coupled to visible matter. The observed dark matter abundance implies an upper bound on spectator masses m and non-minimal coupling values ξ. For example, assuming quadratic inflation, instant reheating and a single spectator scalar with only gravitational couplings, the observed dark matter abundance is obtained for m ∼ 0.1 GeV and ξ ∼ 1. Larger mass and coupling values of the spectator are excluded as they would lead to overproduction of dark matter.

  17. HTGR power plant hot reheat steam pressure control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braytenbah, A.S.; Jaegtnes, K.O.

    1975-01-01

    A control system for a high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR) power plant is disclosed wherein such plant includes a plurality of steam generators. Dual turbine-generators are connected to the common steam headers, a high pressure element of each turbine receiving steam from the main steam header, and an intermediate-low pressure element of each turbine receiving steam from the hot reheat header. Associated with each high pressure element is a bypass line connected between the main steam header and a cold reheat header, which is commonly connected to the high pressure element exhausts. A control system governs the flow of steam through the first and second bypass lines to provide for a desired minimum steam flow through the steam generator reheater sections at times when the total steam flow through the turbines is less than such minimum, and to regulate the hot reheat header steam pressure to improve control of the auxiliary steam turbines and thereby improve control of the reactor coolant gas flow, particularly following a turbine trip. (U.S.)

  18. On ultraviolet freeze-in dark matter during reheating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shao-Long; Kang, Zhaofeng

    2018-05-01

    The absence of any confirmative signals from extensive DM searching motivates us to go beyond the conventional WIMPs scenario. The feebly interacting massive particles (FIMPs) paradigm provides a good alternative which, despite of its feebly interaction with the thermal particles, still could correctly produce relic abundance without conventional DM signals. The Infrared-FIMP based on the renormalizable operators is usually suffering the very tiny coupling drawback, which can be overcome in the UltraViolet-FIMP scenario based on high dimensional effective operators. However, it is sensitive to the history of the very early Universe. The previous works terminates this sensitivity at the reheating temperature TRH. We, motivated by its UV-sensitivity, investigate the effects from the even earlier Universe, reheating era. We find that in the usual case with TRHgg mDM, the production rate during reheating is very small as long as the effective operators dimension d study the situation when TRH is even lower than mDM and DM can be directly produced during reheating if its mass does not exceed TMAX.

  19. Numerical analysis method for reheater performance of moisture separator reheater for Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oda, Tsuyoshi; Fujisawa, Kyosuke; Akamatsu, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear power generation uses saturated steam of 6 MPa and 275degC level due to the restrictions imposed by the materials used in the nuclear reactor, and its efficiency, approximately 33-35%, is not high compared with fossil fuel power generation. Therefore, thermal engineers working on nuclear power generation have the important responsibility toward society of achieving the highest efficiency under the given restrictions. The use of a moisture separator reheater (MSR) is one of the measures we can take to achieve higher efficiency. Because the bottom of the MSR tube bundle making contact with the cycle steam at its lowest temperature is subcooled and inadequate drainage of the condensate inside the tubes causes cyclic flooding and temperature oscillations in some cases, it is necessary to have a minimum flow rate of excess heating steam slightly beyond the demand of/what is required for the heat transfer, and the consequent subcooling must be kept below a certain level. This report describes the numerical analysis method developed for the design of heat transfer performance and evaluation of the tube bundle integrity of MSRs. (author)

  20. IMPROVEMENT OF SLAB REHEATING PROCESS AT USIMINAS THROUGH MATHEMATICAL SIMULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Adel dos Santos

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Basic characteristics and application examples of the mathematical simulator for reheating process in walking-beam type furnaces, that has been developed and applied to Usiminas plate mill line at Ipatinga, are shown in this paper. This is a bi-dimensional mathematical model solved by the finite volume method, validated by temperature measurements inside the slab during heating and coded as a visual tool. Among these applications, the following can be highlighted: (i determination of suitable furnace zone temperatures and residence times for processing steels by accelerated cooling technology; (ii determination of slab average temperature at discharging as well as at each zone exit, supplying data to be fed to the automation system at the comissioning stage; (iii analyses of slab thermal distribution through the reheating process, enabling operational optimization

  1. Reheating via a generalized nonminimal coupling of curvature to matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertolami, Orfeu; Frazao, Pedro; Paramos, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    In this work, one shows that a generalized nonminimal coupling between geometry and matter is compatible with Starobinsky inflation and leads to a successful process of preheating, a reheating scenario based on the production of massive particles via parametric resonance. The model naturally extends the usual preheating mechanism, which resorts to an ad hoc scalar curvature-dependent mass term for a scalar field χ, and also encompasses a previously studied preheating channel based upon a nonstandard kinetic term.

  2. Gravitational wave background from reheating after hybrid inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Bellido, Juan; Figueroa, Daniel G.; Sastre, Alfonso

    2008-01-01

    The reheating of the Universe after hybrid inflation proceeds through the nucleation and subsequent collision of large concentrations of energy density in the form of bubblelike structures moving at relativistic speeds. This generates a significant fraction of energy in the form of a stochastic background of gravitational waves, whose time evolution is determined by the successive stages of reheating: First, tachyonic preheating makes the amplitude of gravity waves grow exponentially fast. Second, bubble collisions add a new burst of gravitational radiation. Third, turbulent motions finally sets the end of gravitational waves production. From then on, these waves propagate unimpeded to us. We find that the fraction of energy density today in these primordial gravitational waves could be significant for grand unified theory (GUT)-scale models of inflation, although well beyond the frequency range sensitivity of gravitational wave observatories like LIGO, LISA, or BBO. However, low-scale models could still produce a detectable signal at frequencies accessible to BBO or DECIGO. For comparison, we have also computed the analogous gravitational wave background from some chaotic inflation models and obtained results similar to those found by other groups. The discovery of such a background would open a new observational window into the very early universe, where the details of the process of reheating, i.e. the big bang, could be explored. Moreover, it could also serve in the future as a new experimental tool for testing the inflationary paradigm

  3. Development of Next Generation Heating System for Scale Free Steel Reheating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Arvind C. Thekdi

    2011-01-27

    The work carried out under this project includes development and design of components, controls, and economic modeling tools that would enable the steel industry to reduce energy intensity through reduction of scale formation during the steel reheating process. Application of scale free reheating offers savings in energy used for production of steel that is lost as scale, and increase in product yield for the global steel industry. The technology can be applied to a new furnace application as well as retrofit design for conversion of existing steel reheating furnaces. The development work has resulted in the knowledge base that will enable the steel industry and steel forging industry us to reheat steel with 75% to 95% reduction in scale formation and associated energy savings during the reheating process. Scale reduction also results in additional energy savings associated with higher yield from reheat furnaces. Energy used for steel production ranges from 9 MM Btu/ton to 16.6 MM Btu/ton or the industry average of approximately 13 MM Btu/ton. Hence, reduction in scale at reheating stage would represent a substantial energy reduction for the steel industry. Potential energy savings for the US steel industry could be in excess of 25 Trillion Btu/year when the technology is applied to all reheating processes. The development work has resulted in new design of reheating process and the required burners and control systems that would allow use of this technology for steel reheating in steel as well as steel forging industries.

  4. Dynamics of cosmological perturbations and reheating in the anamorphic universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graef, L.L.; Ferreira, Elisa G.M.; Brandenberger, Robert [Physics Department, McGill University, Montreal, QC, H3A 2T8 (Canada); Hipólito-Ricaldi, W.S., E-mail: leilagraef@on.br, E-mail: wiliam.ricaldi@ufes.br, E-mail: elisa.ferreira@mail.mcgill.ca, E-mail: rhb@physics.mcgill.ca [Departamento de Ciências Naturais, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Rodovia BR 101 Norte, km. 60, São Mateus, ES (Brazil)

    2017-04-01

    We discuss scalar-tensor realizations of the Anamorphic cosmological scenario recently proposed by Ijjas and Steinhardt [1]. Through an analysis of the dynamics of cosmological perturbations we obtain constraints on the parameters of the model. We also study gravitational Parker particle production in the contracting Anamorphic phase and we compute the fraction between the energy density of created particles at the end of the phase and the background energy density. We find that, as in the case of inflation, a new mechanism is required to reheat the universe.

  5. Particle creation and reheating in a braneworld inflationary scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilić, Neven; Domazet, Silvije; Djordjevic, Goran S.

    2017-10-01

    We study the cosmological particle creation in the tachyon inflation based on the D-brane dynamics in the Randall-Sundrum (RSII) model extended to include matter in the bulk. The presence of matter modifies the warp factor which results in two effects: a modification of the RSII cosmology and a modification of the tachyon potential. Besides, a string theory D-brane supports among other fields a U(1) gauge field reflecting open strings attached to the brane. We demonstrate how the interaction of the tachyon with the U(1) gauge field drives cosmological creation of massless particles and estimate the resulting reheating at the end of inflation.

  6. Inflation and reheating in induced-gravity models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barr, S.; Segre, G.

    1990-01-01

    The Planck mass is generated dynamically in induced-gravity models, typically being related to the vacuum expectation value of a scalar field φ, ε 1/2 left-angle φ right-angle=M Pl / √8π , where ε is a dimensionless parameter, typically smaller than one. We discuss in this paper the decay of the φ particle, which is mainly into gravitons, and the consequences this has for models in which the φ field is responsible for inflation. We show in particular that too much energy is stored in φ oscillations and adequate reheating does not occur

  7. Reheating of the Universe and evolution of the inflaton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzitelli, F.D.; Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, 1428 Buenos Aires, Argentina,); Paz, J.P.; Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad)

    1989-01-01

    The problem of the reheating of the Universe after inflation is considered. Our approach is based on the use, as ''first principles,'' of the renormalized version of (a) the evolution equation for the mean value of an interacting scalar field and (b) the semiclassical Einstein equations. We compute (for two different toy models) the characteristic time for the damping of the mean-value oscillations. We show that when the oscillations are damped the Universe becomes radiation dominated and inflation ends. The techniques used in this paper are those of quantum field theory in curved spacetime and can be generalized to more realistic models

  8. Moisture separators and reheaters for wet steam turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbins, J.

    1979-01-01

    Moisture separator reheater (M.S.R.) units are now a well established feature of the wet steam cycle as associated with the various types of water cooled reactor. This paper describes the development of M.S.Rs. as supplied by GEC for turbine generators of up to 1200 MW ratings covering the design procedures used and the features required to ensure efficient and reliable operation. In addition to details of the M.S.R. design, the desirable features of the steam supply, venting and drain control systems are also discussed. The recent developments, as provided on current projects, are described. (author)

  9. Reheating temperature and gauge mediation models of supersymmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olechowski, Marek; Pokorski, Stefan; Turzynski, Krzysztof; Wells, James D.

    2009-01-01

    For supersymmetric theories with gravitino dark matter, the maximal reheating temperature consistent with big bang nucleosynthesis bounds arises when the physical gaugino masses are degenerate. We consider the cases of a stau or sneutrino next-to-lightest superpartner, which have relatively less constraint from big bang nucleosynthesis. The resulting parameter space is consistent with leptogenesis requirements, and can be reached in generalized gauge mediation models. Such models illustrate a class of theories that overcome the well-known tension between big bang nucleosynthesis and leptogenesis.

  10. Observational status of Tachyon Natural Inflation and reheating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidi, Narges; Nozari, Kourosh; Grøn, Øyvind

    2018-05-01

    We study observational viability of Natural Inflation with a tachyon field as inflaton. By obtaining the main perturbation parameters in this model, we perform a numerical analysis on the parameter space of the model and in confrontation with 68% and 95% CL regions of Planck2015 data. By adopting a warped background geometry, we find some new constraints on the width of the potential in terms of its height and the warp factor. We show that the Tachyon Natural Inflation in the large width limit recovers the tachyon model with a phi2 potential which is consistent with Planck2015 observational data. Then we focus on the reheating era after inflation by treating the number of e-folds, temperature and the effective equation of state parameter in this era. Since it is likely that the value of the effective equation of state parameter during the reheating era to be in the range 0Inflation model. In particular, we show that a prediction of this model is r<=8/3 δns, where δns is the scalar spectral tilt, δns=1‑ns. In this regard, given that from the Planck2015 data we have δns=0.032 (corresponding to ns=0.968), we get r<= 0.085.

  11. Condensation front modelling in a moisture separator reheater by application of SICLE numerical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grange, J.L.; Caremoli, C.; Eddi, M.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents improvements performed on SICLE numerical model in order to analyse the condensation front that occurs in the moisture separator reheaters (MSR) of nuclear power plants. Modifications of SICLE numerical model architecture and a fine modelling of reheater have allowed to correctly simulate the MSR thermohydraulic behaviour during a severe transient (plant islanding) [fr

  12. Reheating-volume measure for random-walk inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winitzki, Sergei

    2008-01-01

    The recently proposed 'reheating-volume' (RV) measure promises to solve the long-standing problem of extracting probabilistic predictions from cosmological multiverse scenarios involving eternal inflation. I give a detailed description of the new measure and its applications to generic models of eternal inflation of random-walk type. For those models I derive a general formula for RV-regulated probability distributions that is suitable for numerical computations. I show that the results of the RV cutoff in random-walk type models are always gauge invariant and independent of the initial conditions at the beginning of inflation. In a toy model where equal-time cutoffs lead to the 'youngness paradox', the RV cutoff yields unbiased results that are distinct from previously proposed measures.

  13. Gravitational wave signals and cosmological consequences of gravitational reheating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artymowski, Michał; Czerwińska, Olga; Lalak, Zygmunt; Lewicki, Marek

    2018-04-01

    Reheating after inflation can proceed even if the inflaton couples to Standard Model (SM) particles only gravitationally. However, particle production during the transition between de-Sitter expansion and a decelerating Universe is rather inefficient and the necessity to recover the visible Universe leads to a non-standard cosmological evolution initially dominated by remnants of the inflaton field. We remain agnostic to the specific dynamics of the inflaton field and discuss a generic scenario in which its remnants behave as a perfect fluid with a general barotropic parameter w. Using CMB and BBN constraints we derive the allowed range of inflationary scales. We also show that this scenario results in a characteristic primordial Gravitational Wave (GW) spectrum which gives hope for observation in upcoming runs of LIGO as well as in other planned experiments.

  14. On the performance simulation of inter-stage turbine reheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellegrini, Alvise; Nikolaidis, Theoklis; Pachidis, Vassilios; Köhler, Stephan

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • An innovative gas turbine performance simulation methodology is proposed. • It allows to perform DP and OD performance calculations for complex engines layouts. • It is essential for inter-turbine reheat (ITR) engine performance calculation. • A detailed description is provided for fast and flexible implementation. • The methodology is successfully verified against a commercial closed-source software. - Abstract: Several authors have suggested the implementation of reheat in high By-Pass Ratio (BPR) aero engines, to improve engine performance. In contrast to military afterburning, civil aero engines would aim at reducing Specific Fuel Consumption (SFC) by introducing ‘Inter-stage Turbine Reheat’ (ITR). To maximise benefits, the second combustor should be placed at an early stage of the expansion process, e.g. between the first and second High-Pressure Turbine (HPT) stages. The aforementioned cycle design requires the accurate simulation of two or more turbine stages on the same shaft. The Design Point (DP) performance can be easily evaluated by defining a Turbine Work Split (TWS) ratio between the turbine stages. However, the performance simulation of Off-Design (OD) operating points requires the calculation of the TWS parameter for every OD step, by taking into account the thermodynamic behaviour of each turbine stage, represented by their respective maps. No analytical solution of the aforementioned problem is currently available in the public domain. This paper presents an analytical methodology by which ITR can be simulated at DP and OD. Results show excellent agreement with a commercial, closed-source performance code; discrepancies range from 0% to 3.48%, and are ascribed to the different gas models implemented in the codes.

  15. Design and stability limits of the HPLWR re-heater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbell, H.; Class, A.; Starflinger, J.; Schulenberg, T.

    2010-01-01

    The High Performance Light Water Reactor (HPLWR) is a particular design study of a supercritical water cooled reactor. A heat exchanger design has been proposed for the re-heater as a shell-and-tube heat exchanger. Inside the tubes fluid undergoes pseudo-condensing, e.g. it changes its density from steam-like to liquid-like properties (from 80 kg/m 3 to 582 kg/m 3 ) at supercritical pressure, whereas the shell side superheats intermediate pressure steam. For sub-critical pressures an instability has been reported by Goodykoontz and Dorsch (19679. The experiment exhibits unstable steam condensation in case of downward flow inside a tube of 7.4 mm diameter and 2.42 m length in some specific cases. The counter-current condenser was cooled with water flowing in an annulus surrounding the condenser tube. This experiment motivates the current investigation of instabilities for supercritical pseudo-condensation. The study includes static instabilities, i.e. Ledingegg instability and flow maldistribution of the parallel tubes, as well as pressure drop oscillations. At the present stage, no instabilities are predicted for the specific operation conditions of the HPLWR. The commercial system code APROS is used to perform one dimensional transient simulations of the described experiment to understand the physical mechanism. These simulations show that choking flow initiates the pressure oscillations. These periodically change steam temperatures, and consequently the condensation rate. In turn, this modifies the sound speed which is responsible for choking. Condensate reverse flow at choked conditions triggers the pressure waves. APROS simulations and experimental results agree well both in pressure amplitude and frequency. APROS simulations at supercritical pressure conditions did not exhibit any instability as the fluid velocity is clearly sub-sonic in the entire HPLWR re-heater. (authors)

  16. Fireside corrosion of superheaters/reheaters in advanced power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syed, A.U.; Simms, N.J.; Oakey, J.E. [Cranfield Univ. (United Kingdom). Energy Technology Centre

    2010-07-01

    The generation of increasing amounts of electricity while simultaneously reducing environmental emissions (CO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} particles, etc) has become a goal for the power industry worldwide. Co-firing biomass and coal in new advanced pulverised fuel power plants is one route to address this issue, since biomass is regarded as a CO{sub 2} neutral fuel (i.e. CO{sub 2} uptake during its growth equals the CO{sub 2} emissions produced during its combustion) and such new advanced power plants operate at higher efficiencies than current plants as a result of using steam systems with high temperatures and pressures. However, co-firing has the potential to cause significant operational challenges for such power plants as amongst other issues, it will significantly change the chemistry of the deposits on the heat exchanger surfaces and the surrounding gas compositions. As a result these critical components can experience higher corrosion rates, and so shorter lives, causing increased operational costs, unless the most appropriate materials are selected for their construction. This paper reports the results of a series of 1000 hour laboratory corrosion tests that have been carried out in controlled atmosphere furnaces, to assess the effect of biomass/coal co-firing on the fireside corrosion of superheaters/reheaters. The materials used for the tests were one ferritic alloy (T92), two austenitic alloys (347HFG and HR3C) and one nickel based alloy (alloy 625). Temperatures of 600 and 650 C were used to represent the metal temperatures in advanced power plants. During these exposures, traditional mass change data were recorded as the samples were recoated with the simulated deposits. After these exposures, cross-sections through samples were prepared using standard metallographic techniques and then analysed using SEM/EDX. Pre-exposure micrometer and post-exposure image analyser measurements were used so that the metal wastage could be calculated. These data are

  17. Standard test method for determination of "microwave safe for reheating" for ceramicware

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2006-01-01

    1.1 This test method determines the suitability of ceramicware for use in microwave re-heating applications. Microwave ovens are mainly used for reheating and defrosting frozen foods. Severe thermal conditions can occur while reheating foods. Typical reheating of foods requires one to five min. in the microwave at the highest power settings. Longer periods than five minutes are considered cooking. Cooking test methods and standards are not addressed in this test method. Most ceramicware is minimally absorbing of the microwave energy and will not heat up significantly. Unfortunately there are some products that absorb microwave energy to a greater extent and can become very hot in the microwave and pose a serious hazard. Additionally, the nature of microwave heating introduces radiation in a non-uniform manner producing temperature differentials in the food being cooked as well as the ceramic container holding it. The differential may become great enough to thermal shock the ware and create dangerous condition...

  18. Engineered for the energy future. I. Moisture separator-reheaters: extreme reliability an imperative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    A description is given of the design and development activities performed by Foster-Wheeler to insure operational reliability of sixteen moisture separator-reheaters being manufactured for eight twin-unit BWR power plants to be operated by TVA

  19. Effect of Scale on Slab Heat Transfer in a Walking Beam Type Reheating Furnace

    OpenAIRE

    Man Young Kim

    2013-01-01

    In this work, the effects of scale on thermal behavior of the slab in a walking-beam type reheating furnace is studied by considering scale formation and growth in a furnace environment. Also, mathematical heat transfer model to predict the thermal radiation in a complex shaped reheating furnace with slab and skid buttons is developed with combined nongray WSGGM and blocked-off solution procedure. The model can attack the heat flux distribution within the furnace and the temperature distribut...

  20. Reheating-volume measure in the string theory landscape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winitzki, Sergei

    2008-01-01

    I recently proposed the ''reheating-volume'' (RV) prescription as a possible solution to the measure problem in ''multiverse'' cosmology. The goal of this work is to extend the RV measure to scenarios involving bubble nucleation, such as the string theory landscape. In the spirit of the RV prescription, I propose to calculate the distribution of observable quantities in a landscape that is conditioned in probability to nucleate a finite total number of bubbles to the future of an initial bubble. A general formula for the relative number of bubbles of different types can be derived. I show that the RV measure is well defined and independent of the choice of the initial bubble type, as long as that type supports further bubble nucleation. Applying the RV measure to a generic landscape, I find that the abundance of Boltzmann brains is always negligibly small compared with the abundance of ordinary observers in the bubbles of the same type. As an illustration, I present explicit results for a toy landscape containing four vacuum states, and for landscapes with a single high-energy vacuum and a large number of low-energy vacua.

  1. Imprints of quantum gravity on large field inflation and reheating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rompineve Sorbello, Fabrizio

    2017-04-18

    In this thesis we investigate the feasibility and phenomenology of transplanckian field displacements during Inflation as well as the production of very light fields during Reheating. We begin by focusing on realisations of axion inflation in the complex structure moduli sector of Type IIB String Theory (ST) flux compactifications. Firstly, we analyse the problem of backreaction of complex structure moduli on the inflationary trajectory in a concrete model of axion monodromy inflation. Secondly, we propose a realisation of natural inflation where the inflaton arises as a combination of two axions. In both cases we find sufficiently flat inflationary potentials over a limited, but transplanckian field range. However, our realisation of axion monodromy inflation requires a potentially large, though realisable, number of tunings to ensure that the inflationary shift symmetry is only weakly broken. The consequences of the Weak Gravity Conjecture (WGC) for axion monodromy inflation are then explored. We find that the conjecture provides a bound on the inflationary field range, but does not forbid transplanckian displacements. Moreover, we provide a strategy to generalise the WGC to general p-form gauge theories in ST. Finally, we focus on the physics of the early post-inflationary phase. We show that axion monodromy inflation can lead to a phase decomposition, followed by the radiation of potentially detectable gravitational waves. We also propose a strategy to evade the overproduction of Dark Radiation in the Large Volume Scenario of moduli stabilisation, by means of flavour branes wrapping the bulk cycle of the compactification manifold.

  2. Finite Element Modeling of Reheat Stretch Blow Molding of PET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Dwarak; Dupaix, Rebecca B.

    2004-06-01

    Poly (ethylene terephthalate) or PET is a polymer used as a packaging material for consumer products such as beverages, food or other liquids, and in other applications including drawn fibers and stretched films. Key features that make it widely used are its transparency, dimensional stability, gas impermeability, impact resistance, and high stiffness and strength in certain preferential directions. These commercially useful properties arise from the fact that PET crystallizes upon deformation above the glass transition temperature. Additionally, this strain-induced crystallization causes the deformation behavior of PET to be highly sensitive to processing conditions. It is thus crucial for engineers to be able to predict its performance at various process temperatures, strain rates and strain states so as to optimize the manufacturing process. In addressing these issues; a finite element analysis of the reheat blow molding process with PET has been carried out using ABAQUS. The simulation employed a constitutive model for PET developed by Dupaix and Boyce et al.. The model includes the combined effects of molecular orientation and strain-induced crystallization on strain hardening when the material is deformed above the glass transition temperature. The simulated bottles were also compared with actual blow molded bottles to evaluate the validity of the simulation.

  3. Stress corrosion cracking in superheater and reheater austenitic tubing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dooley, R. Barry [Structural Integrity Associates, Inc., Charlotte, NC (United States); Bursik, Albert [PowerPlant Chemistry GmbH, Neulussheim (Germany)

    2011-02-15

    University 101 courses are typically designed to help incoming first-year undergraduate students to adjust to the university, develop a better understanding of the college environment, and acquire essential academic success skills. Why are we offering a special Boiler and HRSG Tube Failures PPChem 101? The answer is simple, yet very conclusive: - There is a lack of knowledge on the identification of tube failure mechanisms and for the implementation of adequate counteractions in many power plants, particularly at industrial power and steam generators. - There is a lack of knowledge to prevent repeat tube failures. The vast majority of BTF/HTF have been, and continue to be, repeat failures. It is hoped that the information about the failure mechanisms of BTF supplied in this course will help to put plant engineers and chemists on the right track. The major goal of this course is the avoidance of repeat BTF. This eights lesson is focused on Stress Corrosion Cracking in Superheater and Reheater Austenitic Tubing. (orig.)

  4. What can the CMB tell about the microphysics of cosmic reheating?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drewes, Marco

    2016-01-01

    In inflationary cosmology, cosmic reheating after inflation sets the initial conditions for the hot big bang. We investigate how CMB data can be used to study the effective potential and couplings of the inflaton during reheating to constrain the underlying microphysics. If there is a phase of preheating that is driven by a parametric resonance or other instability, then the thermal history and expansion history during the reheating era depend on a large number of microphysical parameters in a complicated way. In this case the connection between CMB observables and microphysical parameters can only established with intense numerical studies. Such studies can help to improve CMB constraints on the effective inflaton potential in specific models, but parameter degeneracies usually make it impossible to extract meaningful best-fit values for individual microphysical parameters. If, on the other hand, reheating is driven by perturbative processes, then it can be possible to constrain the inflaton couplings and the reheating temperature from CMB data. This provides an indirect probe of fundamental microphysical parameters that most likely can never be measured directly in the laboratory, but have an immense impact on the evolution of the cosmos by setting the stage for the hot big bang

  5. Reheating mechanism of the curvaton with nonminimal derivative coupling to gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, Taotao; Feng, Kaixi

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we continue our study of the curvaton model with nonminimal derivative coupling (NDC) to Einstein gravity proposed in our previous work (Feng in Phys Lett B 729:99, 2014; Feng and Qiu in Phys Rev D 90(12):123508, 2014), focusing on the reheating mechanism. We found that according to whether the curvaton has or has not dominated the background after the end of inflation, it will have two different behaviors of evolution, which should be the general property of the curvaton with nonminimal couplings. This will cause two different parts of reheating, which goes on via the parametric resonance process. The reheating temperature is estimated for both cases in which reheating completes before and after curvaton domination, and the constraints are quite loose compared to that of overproduction of gravitinos. Finally we investigated the evolution of curvature perturbation during reheating. We have shown both analytically and numerically that the curvature perturbation will not blow up during the resonance process. (orig.)

  6. Reheating mechanism of the curvaton with nonminimal derivative coupling to gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Taotao [Central China Normal University, Institute of Astrophysics, Wuhan (China); Central China Normal University, Key Laboratory of Quark and Lepton Physics (MOE) and College of Physical Science and Technology, Wuhan (China); Feng, Kaixi [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Beijing (China)

    2017-10-15

    In this paper, we continue our study of the curvaton model with nonminimal derivative coupling (NDC) to Einstein gravity proposed in our previous work (Feng in Phys Lett B 729:99, 2014; Feng and Qiu in Phys Rev D 90(12):123508, 2014), focusing on the reheating mechanism. We found that according to whether the curvaton has or has not dominated the background after the end of inflation, it will have two different behaviors of evolution, which should be the general property of the curvaton with nonminimal couplings. This will cause two different parts of reheating, which goes on via the parametric resonance process. The reheating temperature is estimated for both cases in which reheating completes before and after curvaton domination, and the constraints are quite loose compared to that of overproduction of gravitinos. Finally we investigated the evolution of curvature perturbation during reheating. We have shown both analytically and numerically that the curvature perturbation will not blow up during the resonance process. (orig.)

  7. On finite density effects on cosmic reheating and moduli decay and implications for Dark Matter production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drewes, Marco

    2014-01-01

    We study the damping of an oscillating scalar field in a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker spacetime by perturbative processes, taking into account the back-reaction of the plasma of decay products on the damping rate. The scalar field may be identified with the inflaton, in which case this process resembles the reheating of the universe after inflation. It can also model a modulus that dominates the energy density of the universe at later times. We find that the finite density corrections to the damping rate can have a drastic effect on the thermal history and considerably increase both, the maximal temperature in the early universe and the reheating temperature at the onset of the radiation dominated era. As a result the abundance of some Dark Matter candidates may be considerably larger than previously estimated. We give improved analytic estimates for the maximal and the reheating temperatures and confirm them numerically in a simple model

  8. Exergy analysis of a 1000 MW double reheat ultra-supercritical power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Si, Ningning; Zhao, Zhigang; Su, Sheng; Han, Pengshuai; Sun, Zhijun; Xu, Jun; Cui, Xiaoning; Hu, Song; Wang, Yi; Jiang, Long; Zhou, Yingbiao; Chen, Gang; Xiang, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Set up a simple and effective method to analysis the performance of double reheat USC unit. • Exergy loss distribution of the double reheat USC unit was declared. • The sensitivity variations of the unit’s exergy efficiency has been revealed. • Provide the foundation for the operation optimization of double reheat USC unit. - Abstract: This study evaluates the performance of a 1000 MW double reheat ultra-supercritical power plant. An exergy analysis was performed to direct the energy loss distribution of this system. Based on the exergy balance equation, together with exergy efficiency, exergy loss coefficient, and exergy loss rate, the exergy distribution and efficiency of the unit were determined. Results show that the highest exergy loss in furnace is as high as 85%, which caused by the combustion of fuel and heat exchange of water wall. The VHP and the two LPs suffer the highest exergy losses, namely 1.86%, 2.04% and 2.13% respectively. The regenerative heating system has an exergy loss rate of 2.3%. The condenser suffers a heat loss of 999 MW, but its exergy is as low as 20.49 MW. The sensitivity variations of the unit’s exergy efficiency with load, feedwater temperature, main steam temperature and pressure, the twice reheat steam temperatures, and steam exhaust pressure were also analyzed, indicating that load, feedwater temperature, and steam exhaust pressure influence the exergy efficiency of this unit than other elements. The overall exergy efficiency decreases along with the gradual increase of steam exhaust pressure at any constant outlet boiler temperature, but it increases as the load, feedwater temperature, main steam temperature and pressure, and twice reheat steam temperatures increase at fixed steam exhaust pressure.

  9. Thermal Efficiency of Cogeneration Units with Multi-Stage Reheating for Russian Municipal Heating Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny Lisin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the layout of an optimum process for supplying heat to Russian municipal heating systems operating in a market environment. We analyze and compare the standard cogeneration unit design with two-stage reheating of service water coming from controlled extraction locations and layouts that employ three in-line reheaters with heat the supply controlled by a rotary diaphragm and qualitative/quantitative methods (so-called “uncontrolled extraction”. Cogeneration unit designs are benchmarked in terms of their thermal efficiency expressed as a fuel consumption rate. The specific fuel consumption rate on electricity production is viewed as a key parameter of thermal efficiency.

  10. Reheating signature in the gravitational wave spectrum from self-ordering scalar fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuroyanagi, Sachiko [Asia Pacific Center for Theoretical Physics, Pohang, Gyeongbuk, 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Hiramatsu, Takashi [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto, 606-8502 Japan (Japan); Yokoyama, Jun' ichi, E-mail: skuro@nagoya-u.jp, E-mail: hiramatz@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp, E-mail: yokoyama@resceu.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Research Center for the Early Universe (RESCEU), School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, 113-0033 Japan (Japan)

    2016-02-01

    We investigate the imprint of reheating on the gravitational wave spectrum produced by self-ordering of multi-component scalar fields after a global phase transition. The equation of state of the Universe during reheating, which usually has different behaviour from that of a radiation-dominated Universe, affects the evolution of gravitational waves through the Hubble expansion term in the equations of motion. This gives rise to a different power-law behavior of frequency in the gravitational wave spectrum. The reheating history is therefore imprinted in the shape of the spectrum. We perform 512{sup 3} lattice simulations to investigate how the ordering scalar field reacts to the change of the Hubble expansion and how the reheating effect arises in the spectrum. We also compare the result with inflation-produced gravitational waves, which has a similar spectral shape, and discuss whether it is possible to distinguish the origin between inflation and global phase transition by detecting the shape with future direct detection gravitational wave experiments such as DECIGO.

  11. Theoretical development of a thermal model for the reheater of a power plant boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prieto, M.M. [Oviedo University, Energy Department, Campus de Viesques, 33204 GIJON. Asturias (Spain)]. E-mail: manuelap@uniovi.es; Suarez, I. [Oviedo University, Energy Department, Campus de Viesques, 33204 GIJON. Asturias (Spain); Fernandez, F.J. [Oviedo University, Energy Department, Campus de Viesques, 33204 GIJON. Asturias (Spain); Sanchez, H. [Central Termica de Soto de Ribera, Ribera de Arriba, Asturias (Spain); Mateos, M. [Central Termica de Soto de Ribera, Ribera de Arriba, Asturias (Spain)

    2007-02-15

    A three-dimensional numerical model for simulating flow and heat transfer in the reheater of a boiler is presented. The aim is to describe, as well as possible, the geometry of the reheater and to be able to perform different mass flows of steam along each of the tube serpentines. The model thus makes it possible to calculate the temperature of the tube surfaces along the reheater. The porosity concept is employed, along with empirical correlations for the convective heat transfer coefficient and the radiation heat transfer coefficients. The radiation equations consider most of the radiative effects of the gas: ash content, triatomic gases, type of fuel and temperatures, tube layout and distances and temperatures of other radiative surfaces. The model is proposed with a view to using the measured values of velocities, temperatures and gas composition in the reheater as boundary conditions. The equations are solved using a general purpose computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code in conjunction with specific calculations for the source terms.

  12. Reheating effects in the matter power spectrum and implications for substructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erickcek, Adrienne L.; Sigurdson, Kris

    2011-01-01

    The thermal and expansion history of the Universe before big bang nucleosynthesis is unknown. We investigate the evolution of cosmological perturbations through the transition from an early matter era to radiation domination. We treat reheating as the perturbative decay of an oscillating scalar field into relativistic plasma and cold dark matter. After reheating, we find that subhorizon perturbations in the decay-produced dark matter density are significantly enhanced, while subhorizon radiation perturbations are instead suppressed. If dark matter originates in the radiation bath after reheating, this suppression may be the primary cutoff in the matter power spectrum. Conversely, for dark matter produced nonthermally from scalar decay, enhanced perturbations can drive structure formation during the cosmic dark ages and dramatically increase the abundance of compact substructures. For low reheat temperatures, we find that as much as 50% of all dark matter is in microhalos with M > or approx. 0.1M + at z≅100, compared to a fraction of ∼10 -10 in the standard case. In this scenario, ultradense substructures may constitute a large fraction of dark matter in galaxies today.

  13. Reheating via Gravitational Particle Production in Simple Models of Quintessence or ΛCDM Inflation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaume de Haro

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We have tested some simple Λ CDM (the same test is also valid for quintessence inflation models, imposing that they match with the recent observational data provided by the BICEP and Planck’s team and leading to a reheating temperature, which is obtained via gravitational particle production after inflation, supporting the nucleosynthesis success.

  14. Higgs inflation, reheating and gravitino production in no-scale Supersymmetric GUTs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, John [Theoretical Particle Physics and Cosmology Group,Department of Physics, King’s College London,London WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom); Theoretical Physics Department, CERN,CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); He, Hong-Jian [Institute of Modern Physics and Center for High Energy Physics, Tsinghua University,Beijing 100084 (China); Center for High Energy Physics, Peking University,Beijing 100871 (China); Xianyu, Zhong-Zhi [Center of Mathematical Sciences and Applications andDepartment of Physics, Harvard University,Massachusetts 02138 (United States)

    2016-08-30

    We extend our previous study of supersymmetric Higgs inflation in the context of no-scale supergravity and grand unification, to include models based on the flipped SU(5) and the Pati-Salam group. Like the previous SU(5) GUT model, these yield a class of inflation models whose inflation predictions interpolate between those of the quadratic chaotic inflation and Starobinsky-like inflation, while avoiding tension with proton decay limits. We further analyse the reheating process in these models, and derive the number of e-folds, which is independent of the reheating temperature. We derive the corresponding predictions for the scalar tilt and the tensor-to-scalar ratio in cosmic microwave background perturbations, as well as discussing the gravitino production following inflation.

  15. Higgs Inflation, Reheating and Gravitino Production in No-Scale Supersymmetric GUTs

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, John; Xianyu, Zhong-Zhi

    2016-08-30

    We extend our previous study of supersymmetric Higgs inflation in the context of no-scale supergravity and grand unification, to include models based on the flipped SU(5) and the Pati-Salam group. Like the previous SU(5) GUT model, these yield a class of inflation models whose inflation predictions interpolate between those of the quadratic chaotic inflation and Starobinsky-like inflation, while also avoiding tension with proton decay limits. We further analyse the reheating process in these models, and derive the number of $e$-folds, which is independent of the reheating temperature. We derive the corresponding predictions for the scalar tilt and the tensor-to-scalar ratio in cosmic microwave background perturbations, and also discuss gravitino production following inflation.

  16. Steel billet reheat simulation with growth of oxide layer and investigation on zone temperature sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubey, Satish Kumar; Srinivasan, P.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a three-dimensional heat conduction numerical model and simulation of steel billet reheating in a reheat furnace. The model considers the growth of oxide scale on the billet surfaces. Control-volume approach and implicit scheme of finite difference method are used to discretize the transient heat conduction equation. The model is validated with analytical results subject to limited conditions. Simulations are carried out for predictions of three-dimensional temperature filed in the billet and oxide scale growth on the billet surfaces. The model predictions are in agreement with expected trends. It was found that the effect of oxide scale on billet heating is considerable. In order to investigate the effect of zone temperatures on the responses, a parametric sensitivity subject to six responses of interest are carried out using analysis of mean approach. The simulation approach and parametric study presented will be useful and applicable to the steel industry.

  17. Reheat cracking in 1/2 CrMoV steel. Heat affected zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batte, A.D.; Miller, R.C.; Murphy, M.C.

    1976-01-01

    Low alloy creep resisting steels are inherently susceptible to cracking during stress relief heat treatment (reheat cracking) though few welds give rise to problems in manufacture or service. Mechanical tests on simulated affected zone structures in CrMoV forgings have shown that cracking occurs when the high temperature ductility is inadequate to accommodate the residual welding strain. Differences in susceptibility result from differences in heat affected zone grain size if the purity level is sufficiently high; reheat cracking may then be avoided by ensuring complete grain refinement during welding. The susceptibility of a lower purity forging was insensitive to grain size; heat affected zone refinement is unlikely to eliminate cracking in such steel. (orig.) [de

  18. Calculations of Inflaton Decays and Reheating: with Applications to No-Scale Inflation Models

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, John; Nanopoulos, Dimitri V; Olive, Keith A

    2015-01-01

    We discuss inflaton decays and reheating in no-scale Starobinsky-like models of inflation, calculating the effective equation-of-state parameter, $w$, during the epoch of inflaton decay, the reheating temperature, $T_{\\rm reh}$, and the number of inflationary e-folds, $N_*$, comparing analytical approximations with numerical calculations. We then illustrate these results with applications to models based on no-scale supergravity and motivated by generic string compactifications, including scenarios where the inflaton is identified as an untwisted-sector matter field with direct Yukawa couplings to MSSM fields, and where the inflaton decays via gravitational-strength interactions. Finally, we use our results to discuss the constraints on these models imposed by present measurements of the scalar spectral index $n_s$ and the tensor-to-scalar perturbation ratio $r$, converting them into constraints on $N_*$, the inflaton decay rate and other parameters of specific no-scale inflationary models.

  19. Energy conservation in reheating furnaces by reducing scrap and scale formation; Kuumamuokkauksen energiasaeaestoet romun maeaeraeae ja hilseilyae vaehentaemaellae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kivivuori, S; Savolainen, P; Fredriksson, J; Paavola, J [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Lab. of Materials Processing and Powder Metallurgy

    1997-12-31

    The main objective of the project `Energy Savings in Reheating Furnaces by Reducing Scrap and Scale Formation` is to reduce energy consumption and environmental harms in reheating and rolling of steel. This was done by analysing the different atmospheres in reheating furnaces of the steel companies participating in this project. These atmospheres were then simulated in a laboratory furnace. Scale formation tests with different steel grades were then carried out in these atmospheres. Scale removal tests were done to some steel grades too. The results showed that lower oxygen content - as expected - decreases oxidation despite the even higher carbondioxide content in the atmosphere. Lower oxygen content may cause difficulties in scale removal. This however is highly dependent on the steel grade. Heat treatment tests showed the effect of increased temperature and furnace time on decarburization. Some energy savings was obtained in fuel consumption by optimising the operation parameters and the atmosphere steadier in different reheating furnaces. (orig.)

  20. Energy conservation in reheating furnaces by reducing scrap and scale formation; Kuumamuokkauksen energiasaeaestoet romun maeaeraeae ja hilseilyae vaehentaemaellae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kivivuori, S.; Savolainen, P.; Fredriksson, J.; Paavola, J. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Lab. of Materials Processing and Powder Metallurgy

    1996-12-31

    The main objective of the project `Energy Savings in Reheating Furnaces by Reducing Scrap and Scale Formation` is to reduce energy consumption and environmental harms in reheating and rolling of steel. This was done by analysing the different atmospheres in reheating furnaces of the steel companies participating in this project. These atmospheres were then simulated in a laboratory furnace. Scale formation tests with different steel grades were then carried out in these atmospheres. Scale removal tests were done to some steel grades too. The results showed that lower oxygen content - as expected - decreases oxidation despite the even higher carbondioxide content in the atmosphere. Lower oxygen content may cause difficulties in scale removal. This however is highly dependent on the steel grade. Heat treatment tests showed the effect of increased temperature and furnace time on decarburization. Some energy savings was obtained in fuel consumption by optimising the operation parameters and the atmosphere steadier in different reheating furnaces. (orig.)

  1. Antilisterial properties of marinades during refrigerated storage and microwave oven reheating against post-cooking inoculated chicken breast meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouladkhah, Aliyar; Geornaras, Ifigenia; Nychas, George-John; Sofos, John N

    2013-02-01

    This study evaluated growth of Listeria monocytogenes inoculated on cooked chicken meat with different marinades and survival of the pathogen as affected by microwave oven reheating. During aerobic storage at 7 °C, on days 0, 1, 2, 4, and 7, samples were reheated by microwave oven (1100 W) for 45 or 90 s and analyzed microbiologically. L. monocytogenes counts on nonmarinated (control) samples increased (P 2.4 to 5.0 (90 s) log CFU/g. With similar trends across different marinates, the high levels of L. monocytogenes survivors found after microwave reheating, especially after storage for more than 2 d, indicate that length of storage and reheating time need to be considered for safe consumption of leftover cooked chicken. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  2. 3-D Transient Heat Transfer Analysis of Slab Heating Characteristics in a Reheating Furnace in Hot Strip Mills

    OpenAIRE

    J. Y. Jang; Y. W. Lee; C. N. Lin; C. H. Wang

    2015-01-01

    The reheating furnace is used to reheat the steel slabs before the hot-rolling process. The supported system includes the stationary/moving beams, and the skid buttons which block some thermal radiation transmitted to the bottom of the slabs. Therefore, it is important to analyze the steel slab temperature distribution during the heating period. A three-dimensional mathematical transient heat transfer model for the prediction of temperature distribution within the slab ha...

  3. An investigation of reheat cracking in the weld heat affected zone of type 347 stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phung-On, Isaratat

    2007-12-01

    Reheat cracking has been a persistent problem for welding of many alloys such as the stabilized stainless steels: Types 321 and 347 as well as Cr-Mo-V steels. Similar problem occurs in Ni-base superalloys termed "strain-age cracking". Cracking occurs during the post weld heat treatment. The HAZ is the most susceptible area due to metallurgical reactions in solid state during both heating and cooling thermal cycle. Many investigations have been conducted to understand the RHC mechanism. There is still no comprehensive mechanism to explain its underlying mechanism. In this study, there were two proposed cracking mechanisms. The first is the formation of a PFZ resulting in local weakening and strain localization. The second is the creep-like grain boundary sliding that causes microvoid formation at the grain boundaries and the triple point junctions. Cracking occurs due to the coalescence of the microvoids that form. In this study, stabilized grade stainless steel, Type 347, was selected for investigation of reheat cracking mechanism due to the simplicity of its microstructure and understanding of its metallurgical behavior. The Gleeble(TM) 3800 system was employed due to its capability for precise control of both thermal and mechanical simulation. Cylindrical samples were subjected to thermal cycles for the HAZ simulation followed by PWHT as the reheat cracking test. "Susceptibility C-curves" were plotted as a function of PWHT temperatures and time to failure at applied stress levels of 70% and 80% yield strength. These C-curves show the possible relationship of the reheat cracking susceptibility and carbide precipitation behavior. To identify the mechanism, the sample shape was modified containing two flat surfaces at the center section. These flat surfaces were electro-polished and subjected to the HAZ simulation followed by the placement of the micro-indentation arrays. Then, the reheat cracking test was performed. The cracking mechanism was identified by tracing

  4. Thermodynamic performance evaluation of combustion gas turbine cogeneration system with reheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaliq, A.; Kaushik, S.C.

    2004-01-01

    This communication presents thermodynamic methodology for the performance evaluation of combustion gas turbine cogeneration system with reheat. The energetic and exergetic efficiencies have been defined. The effects of process steam pressure and pinch point temperature used in the design of heat recovery steam generator, and reheat on energetic and exergetic efficiencies have been investigated. From the results obtained in graphs it is observed that the power to heat ratio increases with an increase in pinch point, but the first-law efficiency and second-law efficiency decreases with an increase in pinch point. The power to heat ratio and second-law efficiency increases significantly with increase in process steam pressure, but the first-law efficiency decreases with the same. Results also show that inclusion of reheat, provide significant improvement in electrical power output, process heat production, fuel-utilization (energetic) efficiency and second-law (exergetic) efficiency. This methodology may be quite useful in the selection and comparison of combined energy production systems from thermodynamic performance point of view

  5. Effect of Dynamic Reheating Induced by Weaving on the Microstructure of GTAW Weld Metal of 25% Cr Super Duplex Stainless Steel Weld Metal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Joon Sung

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the additional growth and/or transformation of the austenite phase that occurs in weld metals of super duplex stainless steel upon reheating is known. However, the effects have not been fully investigated, especially with respect to reheating induced by weaving during single-pass welding. In this work, bead-on-pipe gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW was conducted on super duplex stainless steel to understand the effect of weaving on the microstructure of weld metal. Microstructural analysis, electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD, and focused ion beam transmission electron microscopy (FIB-TEM were carried out to investigate the relationship between weaving and microstructural change. The weaving of GTAW produced a dynamic reheated area just before the weld bead during welding. It was revealed that extensive reheated weld existed even after one welding pass, and that the content of the austenite phase in the reheated area was higher than that in the non-reheated area, indicating the existence of a large quantity of intragranular austenite phase. In addition, the Cr2N content in the reheated area was lower than that in the non-reheated area. This reduction of Cr2N was closely related to the reheating resulting from weaving. TEM analysis revealed that Cr2N in the non-reheated area was dispersed following heating and transformed to secondary austenite.

  6. Design of large reheat steam turbines for U.K. and overseas markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, J.M.

    1979-01-01

    Two prototype designs of large reheat steam turbines are described, together with the technical, economic and plant design aspects that have influenced their main features. Relevant service experience is outlined and details are given of the solutions adopted to overcome the relatively few problems that were encountered. The evolution of these designs to form the current range of adaptable, pre-engineered modular designs is presented and the main features of current machines are described. A brief account is given of likely future developments in large steam turbines. (author)

  7. Contamination prevention of superheaters and reheaters during initial startup and operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabrielli, F.; Sylvester, W.R.; Thimot, G.W.

    1976-01-01

    The general precautions that should be taken to minimize the potential for harmful contamination or oxygen corrosion of power plant superheaters and reheaters during the period from field storage through operation are discussed and summarized. Present boiler industry start-up and operating practices intended to minimize the introduction of solids to the superheater are, as proven by experience, adequate to avoid contamination-related problems. No basic changes to general industry practice are necessary. What is needed, however, is a continuing awareness of the potential for contamination-related problems so that in the specific application of these practices all likely sources of contamination will be considered

  8. CMB constraints on the inflaton couplings and reheating temperature in α-attractor inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewes, Marco; Kang, Jin U.; Mun, Ui Ri

    2017-11-01

    We study reheating in α-attractor models of inflation in which the inflaton couples to other scalars or fermions. We show that the parameter space contains viable regions in which the inflaton couplings to radiation can be determined from the properties of CMB temperature fluctuations, in particular the spectral index. This may be the only way to measure these fundamental microphysical parameters, which shaped the universe by setting the initial temperature of the hot big bang and contain important information about the embedding of a given model of inflation into a more fundamental theory of physics. The method can be applied to other models of single field inflation.

  9. Dual turbine power plant and a reheat steam bypass flow control system for use therein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braytenbah, A.S.; Jaegtnes, K.O.

    1977-01-01

    An electric power plant having dual turbine-generators connected to a steam source that includes a high temperature gas cooled nuclear reactor is described. Each turbine comprises a high pressure portion operated by superheat steam and an intermediate-low pressure portion operated by reheat steam; a bypass line is connected across each turbine portion to permit a desired minimum flow of steam from the source at times when the combined flow of steam through the turbine is less than the minimum. Coolant gas is propelled through the reactor by a circulator which is driven by an auxiliary turbine which uses steam exhausted from the high pressure portions and their bypass lines. The pressure of the reheat steam is controlled by a single proportional-plus-integral controller which governs the steam flow through the bypass lines associated with the intermediate-low pressure portions. At times when the controller is not in use its output signal is limited to a value that permits an unbiased response when pressure control is resumed, as in event of a turbine trip. 25 claims, 2 figures

  10. Supersymmetric D-term inflation, reheating, and Affleck-Dine baryogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolda, C.; March-Russell, J.

    1999-01-01

    The phenomenology of supersymmetric models of inflation, where the inflationary vacuum energy is dominated by D terms of a U(1), is investigated. Particular attention is paid to the questions of how to arrange for sufficient e folds of inflation to occur, what kind of thermal history is expected after the end of inflation, and how to implement successful baryogenesis. Such models are argued to require a more restrictive symmetry structure than previously thought. In particular, it is nontrivial that the decays of the fields driving D inflation can reheat the Universe in such a way as to avoid the strong gravitino production constraints. We also show how the initial conditions for Affleck-Dine baryogenesis can arise in these models and that the simplest flat directions along which a baryon number is generated can often be ruled out by the constraints coming from a decoherence of the condensate in a hot environment. At the end, we find that successful reheating and baryogenesis can take place in a large subset of D-inflationary models. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  11. Stein industrie moisture separator reheaters in 900 MW and 1300 MW PWR units behaviour and feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guignard, S.; Gabrel, J.; Marceau, J.; Gauchet, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    Various metallurgical investigations were carried out with a view to making technological modifications to the Stein Industrie designed moisture separator reheaters of the 900 MW CP0/CP1 and 1300 MW P4/P'4 plant series. Dismantling and assessment of four reheater bundles from the CP0/CP1 plants revealed tube leaks at the bends and in the straight part of the bundle due chiefly to erosion-corrosion. In addition, thickness losses due to the same phenomenon were observed on the inner walls of the vessels and internal hardware in contact with wet steam. The assessments and inspections carried out in the field on the MSR bundles of the CP0 and CP1 plants confirmed the presence of erosion-corrosion, virtually stabilized to date, and revealed fouling of bends by sequestration of particles in the circuit with presence of some pitting. Fatigue cracking of the last support plate of certain MSRs of the CP0 series was also revealed. Adoption of finned tubes of 18% chrome ferritic stainless steel (Z 2 CT 18) for spare bundles and new MSRs, protection of vessels by austenitic and/or martensitic stainless steel internal hardware, modification of water conditioning in the steam-water circuit, and implementation of some technological modifications should guarantee the longterm resistance of the MSRs [fr

  12. Thermodynamic and economic analysis of a partially-underground tower-type boiler design for advanced double reheat power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Gang; Xu, Cheng; Yang, Yongping; Fang, Yaxiong; Zhou, Luyao; Yang, Zhiping

    2015-01-01

    An increasing number of tower-type boilers have been selected for advanced double reheat power plants, due to the uniform flue gas profile and the smooth steam temperature increase. The tall height and long steam pipelines lengths will however, result in dramatic increases in the difficulty of construction, as well as increased power plant investment cost. Given these factors, a novel partially-underground tower-type boiler design has been proposed in this study, which has nearly half of the boiler embedded underground, thereby significantly reducing the boiler height and steam pipeline lengths. Thermodynamic and economic analyses were quantitatively conducted on a 1000 MW advanced double reheat steam cycle. Results showed that compared to the reference power plant, the power plant with the proposed tower-type boiler design could reduce the net heat rate by 18.3 kJ/kWh and could reduce the cost of electricity (COE) by $0.60/MWh. The study also investigated the effects of price fluctuations on the cost-effectiveness of the reference power plant, for both the conventional and the proposed tower-type boilers designs, and found that the double reheat power plant with the proposed tower-type boiler design would be even more competitive and price-effective when the coal price and the investment costs increase. The research of this paper may provide a promising tower-type boiler design for advanced double reheat power plants with lower construction complexity and better cost-effectiveness. - Highlights: • A partially-underground tower-type boiler in double reheat power plants is proposed. for double reheat power plants is proposed. • Thermodynamic and economic analyses are quantitatively conducted. • Better energetic efficiency and greater economic benefits are achieved. • The impacts of price fluctuations on the economic feasibility are discussed

  13. Reheat cracking susceptibility of P23 (7CrWVMoNb9-6) steel welds made using matching and mis-matching filler metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nevasmaa, Pekka; Salonen, Jorma; Auerkari, Pertti; Rantala, Juhani; Holmstroem, Stefan [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)

    2010-07-01

    Reheat cracking sensitivity of 7CrWVMoNb9-6 (P23) thick-section multipass welds has been investigated by Gleeble simulation, mechanical testing, fractography and metallography. The results demonstrate that the experimental weld metal made using a high-Nb-W-Ti-B type filler metal was sensitive to reheat cracking, with a reduction of area no more than 2-3% in the BWI reheat cracking (RC) test. Welds made using a high-W -low-Ti type filler metal with Nb content similar to the parent steel, as well as welds make using a Ni-Nb-Ti-free-(W-free) type filler metal with the chemical composition closer to P24 grade material, were more ductile and crack-resistant, though with reduced cross-weld creep strength. Fractography of RC test specimens showed evidence of pronounced localisation of damage at the prior austenite grain boundaries of the thermally reheated, experimental P23 weld metal. The reheat cracking susceptibility of the less ductile weld metal was apparently related both to the chemical composition (higher B, Nb and Ti content) and sub-structural features of the coarse-grained reheated weld metal microstructure. Appropriate single- and multi-cycle thermal Gleeble simulations to produce representative HAY and reheated weld metal microstructures (as function of peak temperature), in conjunction with the BWI RC test were successfully applied to characterise the reheat cracking sensitivity of the candidate weld metals and parent steel HAZ. (orig.)

  14. Effect of inter-critically reheating temperature on microstructure and properties of simulated inter-critically reheated coarse grained heat affected zone in X70 steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Zhixiong; Kuzmikova, Lenka; Li, Huijun; Barbaro, Frank

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of the inter-critical reheating temperature on the microstructure and mechanical properties of a coarse grained heat affected zone (CGHAZ) in an API 5L grade X70 pipeline steel seam weld. A Gleeble 3500 thermo-mechanical simulator was employed to duplicate particular weld thermal cycles in order to accurately assess specific regions of the weld HAZ. Detailed microstructural analysis, including investigation of the martensite–austenite (M–A) constituent, was performed using optical microscope (OM), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and selective etching techniques. It is shown that the fracture toughness of the CGHAZ is significantly reduced following exposure to a subsequent inter-critical thermal cycle. Fracture toughness gradually improves as the inter-critical temperature is increased, but does not return to the value of the original CGHAZ due to the presence of isolated large M–A particles and coarse microstructure. Significance of M–A particles to the HAZ fracture toughness is first related to the location of particles along prior austenite grain boundaries, followed by the size of individual M–A particles

  15. Processes subject to integrated pollution control. Combustion processes: reheat and heat treatment furnaces 50 MW(th) and over

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This document, part of a series offering guidance on pollution control regulations issued by Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Pollution, focuses on combustion processes involved with reheat and heat treatment furnaces of 50 MW (th) and over. Techniques for controlling releases into air, water and to land are detailed as are the various pollution monitoring strategies. (UK)

  16. Optimization of advanced high-temperature Brayton cycles with multiple reheat stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haihua Zhao; Per F Peterson

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: This paper presents an overview and a few point designs for multiple-reheat Brayton cycle power conversion systems using high temperature molten salts (or liquid metals). All designs are derived from the General Atomics GT-MHR power conversion unit (PCU). The GT-MHR PCU is currently the only closed helium cycle system that has undergone detailed engineering design analysis, and that has turbomachinery which is sufficiently large to extrapolate to a >1000 MW(e) multiple reheat gas cycle power conversion system. Analysis shows that, with relatively small engineering modifications, multiple GT-MHR PCU's can be connected together to create a power conversion system in the >1000 MW(e) class. The resulting power conversion system is quite compact, and results in what is likely the minimum gas duct volume possible for a multiple-reheat system. To realize this, compact offset fin plate type liquid-to-gas heat exchangers (power densities from 10 to 120 MW/m 3 ) are needed. Both metal and non-metal heat exchangers are being investigated for high-temperature, gas-cooled reactors for temperatures to 1000 deg. C. Recent high temperature heat exchanger studies for nuclear hydrogen production has suggested that carbon-coated composite materials such as liquid silicon infiltrated chopped fiber carbon-carbon preformed material potentially could be used to fabricate plate fin heat exchangers with reasonable price. Different fluids such as helium, nitrogen and helium mixture, and supercritical CO 2 are compared for these multiple reheat Brayton cycles. Nitrogen and helium mixture cycle need about 40% more total PCU volume than helium cycle while keeping the same net cycle efficiency. Supercritical CO 2 needs very high pressure to optimize. Due to relatively detailed design for components such as heat exchangers, turbomachinery, and duct system, relatively accurate total pressure loss can be obtained, which results in more credible net efficiency

  17. Hypercharged dark matter and direct detection as a probe of reheating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldstein, Brian; Ibe, Masahiro; Yanagida, Tsutomu T

    2014-03-14

    The lack of new physics at the LHC so far weakens the argument for TeV scale thermal dark matter. On the other hand, heavier, nonthermal dark matter is generally difficult to test experimentally. Here we consider the interesting and generic case of hypercharged dark matter, which can allow for heavy dark matter masses without spoiling testability. Planned direct detection experiments will be able to see a signal for masses up to an incredible 1010  GeV, and this can further serve to probe the reheating temperature up to about 109  GeV, as determined by the nonthermal dark matter relic abundance. The Z-mediated nature of the dark matter scattering may be determined in principle by comparing scattering rates on different detector nuclei, which in turn can reveal the dark matter mass. We will discuss the extent to which future experiments may be able to make such a determination.

  18. CFD analysis of temperature imbalance in superheater/reheater region of tangentially coal-fired boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainudin, A. F.; Hasini, H.; Fadhil, S. S. A.

    2017-10-01

    This paper presents a CFD analysis of the flow, velocity and temperature distribution in a 700 MW tangentially coal-fired boiler operating in Malaysia. The main objective of the analysis is to gain insights on the occurrences in the boiler so as to understand the inherent steam temperature imbalance problem. The results show that the root cause of the problem comes from the residual swirl in the horizontal pass. The deflection of the residual swirl due to the sudden reduction and expansion of the flow cross-sectional area causes velocity deviation between the left and right side of the boiler. This consequently results in flue gas temperature imbalance which has often caused tube leaks in the superheater/reheater region. Therefore, eliminating the residual swirl or restraining it from being diverted might help to alleviate the problem.

  19. Power and efficiency in a regenerative gas-turbine cycle with multiple reheating and intercooling stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo Hernández, A.; Roco, J. M. M.; Medina, A.

    1996-06-01

    Using an improved Brayton cycle as a model, a general analysis accounting for the efficiency and net power output of a gas-turbine power plant with multiple reheating and intercooling stages is presented. This analysis provides a general theoretical tool for the selection of the optimal operating conditions of the heat engine in terms of the compressor and turbine isentropic efficiencies and of the heat exchanger efficiency. Explicit results for the efficiency, net power output, optimized pressure ratios, maximum efficiency, maximum power, efficiency at maximum power, and power at maximum efficiency are given. Among others, the familiar results of the Brayton cycle (one compressor and one turbine) and of the corresponding Ericsson cycle (infinite compressors and infinite turbines) are obtained as particular cases.

  20. Flow-induced vibration and fretting-wear damage in a moisture separator reheater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pettigrew, M.J.; Taylor, C.E.; Fisher, N.J.

    1996-01-01

    Tube failures due to excessive flow-induced vibration were experienced in the tube bundles of moisture separator reheaters in a BWR nuclear station. This paper presents the results of a root cause analysis and covers recommendations for continued operation and for replacement tube bundles. The following tasks are discussed: tube failure analysis; flow velocity distribution calculations; flow-induced vibration analysis with particular emphasis on finned-tubes; fretting-wear testing of a tube and tube-support material combination under simulated operating conditions; field measurements of flow-induced vibration; and development of vibration specifications for replacement tube bundles. The effect of transient operating conditions and of other operational changes such as tube fouling were considered in the analysis. This paper outlines a typical field problem and illustrates the application of flow-induced vibration technology for the solution of a practical problem

  1. Reheating and dangerous relics in pre-big-bang string cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buonanno, Alessandra; Lemoine, Martin; Olive, Keith A.

    2000-01-01

    We discuss the mechanism of reheating in pre-big-bang string cosmology and we calculate the amount of moduli and gravitinos produced gravitationally and in scattering processes of the thermal bath. We find that this abundance always exceeds the limits imposed by big-bang nucleosynthesis, and significant entropy production is required. The exact amount of entropy needed depends on the details of the high curvature phase between the dilaton-driven inflationary era and the radiation era. We show that the domination and decay of the zero-mode of a modulus field, which could well be the dilaton, or of axions, suffices to dilute moduli and gravitinos. In this context, baryogenesis can be accommodated in a simple way via the Affleck-Dine mechanism and in some cases the Affleck-Dine condensate could provide both the source of entropy and the baryon asymmetry

  2. Probing the reheating temperature of the universe with a gravitational wave background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, Kazunori; Saito, Shun; Suwa, Yudai; Yokoyama, Jun'ichi

    2008-01-01

    The thermal history of the universe after big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) is well understood both theoretically and observationally, and recent cosmological observations also begin to reveal the inflationary dynamics. However, the epoch between inflation and BBN is scarcely known. In this paper we show that the detection of the stochastic gravitational wave background around 1 Hz provides useful information about thermal history well before BBN. In particular, the reheating temperature of the universe may be determined by future space-based laser interferometer experiments such as DECIGO and/or BBO if it is around 10 6−9 GeV, depending on the tensor-to-scalar ratio r and dilution factor F

  3. Automatic Generation Control Study in Two Area Reheat Thermal Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritam, Anita; Sahu, Sibakanta; Rout, Sushil Dev; Ganthia, Sibani; Prasad Ganthia, Bibhu

    2017-08-01

    Due to industrial pollution our living environment destroyed. An electric grid system has may vital equipment like generator, motor, transformers and loads. There is always be an imbalance between sending end and receiving end system which cause system unstable. So this error and fault causing problem should be solved and corrected as soon as possible else it creates faults and system error and fall of efficiency of the whole power system. The main problem developed from this fault is deviation of frequency cause instability to the power system and may cause permanent damage to the system. Therefore this mechanism studied in this paper make the system stable and balance by regulating frequency at both sending and receiving end power system using automatic generation control using various controllers taking a two area reheat thermal power system into account.

  4. The creep life of superheater and reheater tubes under varying pressure conditions in operational boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizen, D.C.; Plastow, B.

    1975-01-01

    The first of each manufacturer's 500 MW boilers supplied to the CEGB (Central Electricity Generating Board) have been subjected to an extensive programme of tests for performance optimization and safe operation. Around 250 thermocouples on superheater and reheater tubes have in each case been monitored as part of the exercise. The readings are corrected and used to compute creep rupture damage based on internationally agreed stress rupture data and a simple cumulative damage concept. Comparison of the design creep rupture life and the cumulative life consumed has in several applications been invaluable in influencing operating procedures and arranging tube modifications or replacements, so that loss of generation by creep rupture failure is minimized. (author)

  5. Furan formation during storage and reheating of sterilised vegetable purées.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmers, Stijn; Grauwet, Tara; Buvé, Carolien; Van de Vondel, Lore; Kebede, Biniam T; Hendrickx, Marc E; Van Loey, Ann

    2015-01-01

    To this day, research for furan mitigation has mostly targeted the levels of food production and handling of prepared foods by the consumer. However, part of the furan concentrations found in commercially available food products might originate from chemical deterioration reactions during storage. A range of individual vegetable purées was stored at two different temperatures to investigate the effects of storage on the furan concentrations of shelf-stable, vegetable-based foods. After 5 months of storage at 35°C (temperature-abuse conditions), a general increase in furan concentrations was observed. The furan formation during storage could be reduced by storing the vegetable purées at a refrigerated temperature of 4°C, at which the furan concentrations remained approximately constant for at least 5 months. Following storage, the vegetable purées were briefly reheated to 90°C to simulate the effect of the final preparation step before consumption. Contrary to storage, furan concentrations decreased as a result of evaporative losses. Both refrigerated storage and the reheating step prior to consumption showed the potential of mitigation measures for furan formation in vegetable-based foods (e.g. canned vegetables, ready-to-eat soups, sauces or baby foods). Next to furan, the vegetable purées were analysed for 2- and 3-methylfuran. Tomato was very susceptible to the formation of both alkylated derivatives of furan, as opposed to the other vegetables in this study. Methylfuran concentrations rapidly decreased during storage, which was contrary to the results observed for furan.

  6. Reheat cracking in austenitic stainless steels; Fissuration en relaxation des aciers inoxydables austenitiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auzoux, Q.; Allais, L. [CEA Saclay, Dept. des Materiaux pour le Nucleaire, DMN, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Pineau, A.; Gourgues, A.F. [Centre des Materiaux Pierre-Marie Fourt UMR CNRS 7633, 91 - Evry (France)

    2002-07-01

    Intergranular cracking can occur in heat-affected zones (HAZs) of austenitic stainless steel welded joints when reheated in the temperature range from 500 to 700 deg C. At this temperature, residual stresses due to welding relax by creep flow. HAZ may not sustain this small strain if its microstructure has been sufficiently altered during welding. In order to precise which particular microstructure alteration causes such an intergranular embrittlement, type 316L(N) HAZs were examined by transmission electron microscopy. A marked increase in the dislocation density, due to plastic strain during the welding process, was revealed, which caused an increase in Vickers hardness. Type 316L(N) HAZ were then simulated by the following thermal-mechanical process: annealing treatment and work hardening (pre-strain). Creep rupture tests on smooth specimens were also carried out at 600 deg C on both base metal and simulated HAZ. Pre-straining increased creep strength but reduced ductility. Slow strain rate tests on CT specimens confirmed this trend as well as did relaxation tests on CT specimens, which led to intergranular crack propagation in the pre-strained material only. Metallography and fractography showed no qualitative difference between base metal and HAZs in the creep cavitation around intergranular carbides. Although quantitative study of damage development is not achieved yet, experiments suggest that uniaxial creep strain smaller than one percent could lead to cavity nucleation when the material is pre-strained. Pre-strain as well as stress triaxiality reduce therefore creep ductility and enhance the reheat cracking risk. (authors)

  7. Observational signatures of the parametric amplification of gravitational waves during reheating after inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroyanagi, Sachiko; Lin, Chunshan; Sasaki, Misao; Tsujikawa, Shinji

    2018-01-01

    We study the evolution of gravitational waves (GWs) during and after inflation as well as the resulting observational consequences in a Lorentz-violating massive gravity theory with one scalar (inflaton) and two tensor degrees of freedom. We consider two explicit examples of the tensor mass mg that depends either on the inflaton field ϕ or on its time derivative ϕ ˙, both of which lead to parametric excitations of GWs during reheating after inflation. The first example is Starobinsky's R2 inflation model with a ϕ -dependent mg, and the second is a low energy-scale inflation model with a ϕ ˙-dependent mg. We compute the energy density spectrum ΩGW(k ) today of the GW background. In the Starobinsky's model, we show that the GWs can be amplified up to the detectable ranges of both cosmic microwave background and DECi-hertz Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory, but the bound from the big bang nucleosynthesis is quite tight to limit the growth. In low-scale inflation with a fast transition to the reheating stage driven by the potential V (ϕ )=M2ϕ2/2 around ϕ ≈Mpl (where Mpl is the reduced Planck mass), we find that the peak position of ΩGW(k ) induced by the parametric resonance can reach the sensitivity region of advanced LIGO for the Hubble parameter of order 1 GeV at the end of inflation. Thus, our massive gravity scenario offers exciting possibilities for probing the physics of primordial GWs at various different frequencies.

  8. Zone modelling of the thermal performances of a large-scale bloom reheating furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Chee-Keong; Jenkins, Joana; Ward, John; Broughton, Jonathan; Heeley, Andy

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the development and comparison of a two- (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) mathematical models, based on the zone method of radiation analysis, to simulate the thermal performances of a large bloom reheating furnace. The modelling approach adopted in the current paper differs from previous work since it takes into account the net radiation interchanges between the top and bottom firing sections of the furnace and also allows for enthalpy exchange due to the flows of combustion products between these sections. The models were initially validated at two different furnace throughput rates using experimental and plant's model data supplied by Tata Steel. The results to-date demonstrated that the model predictions are in good agreement with measured heating profiles of the blooms encountered in the actual furnace. It was also found no significant differences between the predictions from the 2D and 3D models. Following the validation, the 2D model was then used to assess the impact of the furnace responses to changing throughput rate. It was found that the potential furnace response to changing throughput rate influences the settling time of the furnace to the next steady state operation. Overall the current work demonstrates the feasibility and practicality of zone modelling and its potential for incorporation into a model based furnace control system. - Highlights: ► 2D and 3D zone models of large-scale bloom reheating furnace. ► The models were validated with experimental and plant model data. ► Examine the transient furnace response to changing the furnace throughput rates. ► No significant differences found between the predictions from the 2D and 3D models.

  9. Reheating experiment in the 35-ton pile; Experience de rechauffage sur la pile de 35 tonnes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherot, J; Girard, Y [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1957-07-01

    When the 35-ton pile was started up it was necessary for us, in order to study certain effects (xenon for example), to know the anti reactivity value of the rods as a function of their dimensions. We have made use of the possibility, in the reheating experiment, of raising the temperature of the graphite-uranium block by simple heating, in order to determine the anti reactivity curves of the rods, and from that the overall temperature coefficient. For the latter we have considered two solutions: first, one in which the average temperature of the pile is defined as our arithmetical mean of the different values given by the 28 thermocouples distributed throughout the pile; a second in which the temperature in likened to a poisoning and is balanced by the square of the flux. The way in which the measurements have been made is indicated, and the different instruments used are described. The method of reheating does not permit the separation of the temperature coefficients of uranium and of graphite. The precision obtained is only moderate, and suffers from the changes of various parameters necessary to other manipulations carried out simultaneously (life time modulators for example), and finally it is a function of the comparatively restricted time allowed. It is evident of course that more careful stabilisation at the different plateaux chosen would have necessitated long periods of reheating. (author) [French] Nous avions besoin lors de la montee en puissance de la pile de 35 tonnes, pour l'elude de divers effets (xenon par ex.) de la valeur de l'antireactivite des barres en fonction de leurs cotes. Nous avons profite dans l'experience rechauffage de la possibilite de monter en temperature, non nucleairement, le bloc graphite uranium, pour determiner les courbes d'antireactivite des barres et de la le coefficient global de temperature. Nous avons considere pour ce dernier deux solutions. Une premiere dans laquelle la temperature moyenne de la pile est definie comme

  10. Steam generator concept of a small HTR for reheating and for removal of the residual heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, J; Barnert, H; Hohn, H; Mondry, M [Institut fuer Reaktorenentwicklung, Kernforschungsanlage Juelich GmbH, Juelich (Germany)

    1988-07-01

    The steam generator of a small HTR is arranged above the core in an in line design of the primary loop, thereby helium flows upwards. Water flows downwards in the steam generator to realize cross flow. To achieve stable evaporation conditions during part load operation it is desired to realize upward evaporation in the steam generator. Moreover if the steam generator is also used as a heat sink for removal of residual heat, this desire of upwards evaporation becomes more imperative. It is possible to realize the design of steam generator with upwards evaporation by arranging a hot gas duct in its central region, so that hot helium can flow upwards through it. Therefore helium enters the steam generator from the top and flows downwards and water upwards. In the presented design, a heat exchanger is arranged in the central region of the steam generator instead of a hot gas duct. Hot helium of 750 deg. C flows upwards in this heat exchanger and thereby cools down to the temperature of about 700 deg. C before it enters the bundle of the steam generator at the top. Through an intermediate loop this heat is transferred outside the primary loop, where in an extra heat exchanger live steam is reheated to improve the thermal efficiency of the plant. This intermediate loop works on the basis of forced convection and transfer about 25 MW for reheating. During the shutdown operation of the reactor, this heat exchanger in the central region of the steam generator serves as a heat sink for removal of the residual heat through natural convection in the primary loop. At the same time it is further possible, that intermediate loop also works on the basis of natural convection, because during shutdown operation only a very small amount of heat has to be removed and moreover the outside heat exchanger can be arranged much higher above the central heat exchanger to get favourable conditions for the natural convection. Some of the highlights of the central heat exchanger are: coaxial

  11. Effect of Dynamic Reheating Controlled by the Weaving Width on the Microstructure of GTA Bead-On-Pipe Weld Metal of 25% Cr Super Duplex Stainless Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Joon Sung

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW with three different heat inputs controlled by the weaving width was performed to understand their effects on the microstructural changes during bead-on-pipe welding of super duplex stainless steel. The microstructure of the weld metals was categorized into three different types of zones: non-reheated, reheated type, and reheating-free zone. Even though single-pass welding with different weaving widths was employed, a reheated microstructure was detected, which has been previously observed with multiple pass welding. This phenomenon was called “dynamic reheating”, because it was produced by the weaving operation during welding regardless of the weaving width. The categorized area fraction varied with the weaving width change. Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD results at the edge (the area near the fusion line of the low-heat-input condition indicated a higher austenite volume fraction and a lower Cr2N fraction than that of the medium heat input condition. Thus, it described an inverse relationship, because higher heat input provided a lower austenite fraction. In addition, it was observed clearly that the austenite fraction at the medium heat input condition was dramatically increased by reheating, while the Cr2N fraction was reduced. Regardless of the weaving width, reheating contributed to the increase of the austenite fraction, further reducing the Cr2N quantity. The edge areas in the map showed an inverse relationship in the reheated area fraction between low heat input and medium heat input. For this reason, the austenite fraction on the weld metal was determined not only by the heat input, but also by the amount of reheating.

  12. Two-Layer Linear MPC Approach Aimed at Walking Beam Billets Reheating Furnace Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Maria Zanoli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the problem of the control and optimization of a walking beam billets reheating furnace located in an Italian steel plant is analyzed. An ad hoc Advanced Process Control framework has been developed, based on a two-layer linear Model Predictive Control architecture. This control block optimizes the steady and transient states of the considered process. Two main problems have been addressed. First, in order to manage all process conditions, a tailored module defines the process variables set to be included in the control problem. In particular, a unified approach for the selection on the control inputs to be used for control objectives related to the process outputs is guaranteed. The impact of the proposed method on the controller formulation is also detailed. Second, an innovative mathematical approach for stoichiometric ratios constraints handling has been proposed, together with their introduction in the controller optimization problems. The designed control system has been installed on a real plant, replacing operators’ mental model in the conduction of local PID controllers. After two years from the first startup, a strong energy efficiency improvement has been observed.

  13. Reheating, thermalization and non-thermal gravitino production in MSSM inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrantelli, Andrea [Tallinn University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Tallinn (Estonia)

    2017-10-15

    In the framework of MSSM inflation, matter and gravitino production are here investigated through the decay of the fields which are coupled to the udd inflaton, a gauge-invariant combination of squarks. After the end of inflation, the flat direction oscillates about the minimum of its potential, losing at each oscillation about 56% of its energy into bursts of gauge/gaugino and scalar quanta when crossing the origin. These particles then acquire a large inflaton VEV-induced mass and decay perturbatively into the MSSM quanta and gravitinos, transferring the inflaton energy very efficiently via instant preheating. Regarding thermalization, we show that the MSSM degrees of freedom thermalize very quickly, yet not immediately by virtue of the large vacuum expectation value of the inflaton, which breaks the SU(3){sub C} x U(1){sub Y} symmetry into a residual U(1). The energy transfer to the MSSM quanta is very efficient, since full thermalization is achieved after only O(40) complete oscillations. The udd inflaton thus provides an extremely efficient reheating of the Universe, with a temperature T{sub reh} = O(10{sup 8} GeV), which allows for instance several mechanisms of baryogenesis. We also compute the gravitino number density from the perturbative decay of the flat direction and of the SUSY multiplet. We find that the gravitinos are produced in negligible amount and satisfy cosmological bounds such as the Big Bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) and dark matter (DM) constraints. (orig.)

  14. Significance of reheat cracks to the integrity of pressure vessels for light-water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canonico, D.A.

    1977-01-01

    Reheat cracks usually manifest themselves as macroscopic defects, which are centimeters long and deep, and are detectable by the usual nondestructive examination (NDE) procedures or as microscopic grain boundary decohesions (GBD) that are beyond the limit of detection by commercial NDE procedures. This report has concentrated on the significance of the microscopic cracks that may go undetected. The probability that GBD exist in the heat-affected zones (HAZ) of weldments of pressure vessel steels is high; particularly in SA 508 Class 2 weldments. A sample of the HAZ from the prolongation-weldment from the Heavy Section Steel Technology program Intermediate Test Vessel (ITV) No. 4 was examined by the Staatliche Materialprufungsanstalt (MPA). They reported GBD 5 mm (0.2 in.) long. This prompted an examination of the HAZ from the ITV vessel that had been tested to failure at 24 0 C (75 0 F). During testing, the region of the weld which contained the flaw that initiated the failure was strained up to 0.5%. A metallographic examination of this region of the weldment revealed GBD, but none of the size reported by the MPA. Further, there was no evidence that the GBD had extended as a consequence of the tests. Fracture toughness tests were made of the HAZ of welds from ITV-4. The electron-beam welding procedure, which permits more accurate siting of the crack, was used. Fracture toughness values in excess of 220 MPa root m (200 ksi root in.) were obtained at -18 0 C

  15. Exergy Analysis of a Subcritical Reheat Steam Power Plant with Regression Modeling and Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUHIB ALI RAJPER

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, exergy analysis of a 210 MW SPP (Steam Power Plant is performed. Firstly, the plant is modeled and validated, followed by a parametric study to show the effects of various operating parameters on the performance parameters. The net power output, energy efficiency, and exergy efficiency are taken as the performance parameters, while the condenser pressure, main steam pressure, bled steam pressures, main steam temperature, and reheat steam temperature isnominated as the operating parameters. Moreover, multiple polynomial regression models are developed to correlate each performance parameter with the operating parameters. The performance is then optimizedby using Direct-searchmethod. According to the results, the net power output, energy efficiency, and exergy efficiency are calculated as 186.5 MW, 31.37 and 30.41%, respectively under normal operating conditions as a base case. The condenser is a major contributor towards the energy loss, followed by the boiler, whereas the highest irreversibilities occur in the boiler and turbine. According to the parametric study, variation in the operating parameters greatly influences the performance parameters. The regression models have appeared to be a good estimator of the performance parameters. The optimum net power output, energy efficiency and exergy efficiency are obtained as 227.6 MW, 37.4 and 36.4, respectively, which have been calculated along with optimal values of selected operating parameters.

  16. Thermodynamic Analysis of a Steam Power Plant with Double Reheat and Feed Water Heaters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Rashidi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A steam cycle with double reheat and turbine extraction is presented. Six heaters are used, three of them at high pressure and the other three at low pressure with deaerator. The first and second law analysis for the cycle and optimization of the thermal and exergy efficiencies are investigated. An exergy analysis is performed to guide the thermodynamic improvement for this cycle. The exergy and irreversibility analyses of each component of the cycle are determined. Effects of turbine inlet pressure, boiler exit steam temperature, and condenser pressure on the first and second laws' efficiencies are investigated. Also the best turbine extraction pressure on the first law efficiency is obtained. The results show that the biggest exergy loss occurs in the boiler followed by the turbine. The results also show that the overall thermal efficiency and the second law efficiency decrease as the condenser pressure increases for any fixed outlet boiler temperature, however, they increase as the boiler temperature increases for any condenser pressure. Furthermore, the best values of extraction pressure from high, intermediate, and low pressure turbine which give the maximum first law efficiencies are obtained based on the required heat load corresponding to each exit boiler temperature.

  17. 13%Cr internal hardware cracks of 1300 MW moisture separator reheater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauchet, J.P.; Chatelain, M.; Marceau, J.; Guignard, S.; Charbonnel, A.; Vandershaeghe, A.; Roguet, D.

    1994-01-01

    Degradations have been observed on fixing bearing pads of 13% Cr steel plates which protect against erosion-corrosion the inner part of vessels of 1300 MW moisture separator reheaters. These cracks are located between the parent metal sheet and the HAZ of the welds between 13% Cr steel plate and the 18/10 austenitic support washer which assure the fixation on the vessel. They were like an intergranular network and corresponded to a stress intergranular corrosion phenomenon under stream-water. This phenomenon is possible with a very local dechromisation of some 13% Cr grain boundaries which are sometimes enriched with aluminium coming from the parent metal of the steel plate. Two studies have been undertaken: - a mechanical analysis of the behaviour and loading stresses of fixing bearing pads in order to reduce the stress levels which reveal the cracks; - welding tests with different filler metals in order to remove the dechromised and aluminium enriched ares which ar potential corrosion zones. Another solutions for ''in service'' and future devices have been tested and are described. (authors). 9 figs

  18. Optimization of a slab heating pattern for minimum energy consumption in a walking-beam type reheating furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Jiin-Yuh; Huang, Jun-Bo

    2015-01-01

    A two-dimensional mathematical heat transfer model for the prediction of the temperature history of steel slabs was performed in order to obtain the optimal heating pattern of these slabs with minimum energy consumption in a walking-beam type reheating furnace. An algorithm developed with a simplified conjugated-gradient method combined with a shooting method, was used as an optimizer to design the furnace temperature distribution, including the preheating zone, heating zone and soaking zone temperatures. Comparison with the in-situ experimental data indicated that the present heat transfer model works well for the prediction of the thermal behavior of a slab in the reheating furnace. The effect of the furnace temperature distribution on the design requirements, such as energy required for heating a slab, slab temperature uniformity at the furnace exit and slab discharging temperature, were investigated. The parametric study results indicated that energy consumption significantly decreases with reductions in the preheating zone temperature. The optimal design also resulted in lower energy consumption for heating a slab as compared to the original operational conditions in the steel plant. - Highlights: • The heating process of steel slabs in a reheating furnace is numerically simulated. • An algorithm is developed to search for the optimal heating pattern of a slab. • Energy consumption decreases with reductions in the preheating zone temperature

  19. Upgrading the SPP-500-1 moisture separators-steam reheaters used in the Leningrad NPP turbine units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legkostupova, V. V.; Sudakov, A. V.

    2015-03-01

    The specific features of existing designs of moisture separators-steam reheaters (MSRs) and experience gained with using them at nuclear power plants are considered. Main factors causing damage to and failures of MSRs are described: nonuniform distribution of wet steam flow among the separation modules, breakthrough of moisture through the separator (and sometimes also through the steam reheater), which may lead to the occurrence of additional thermal stresses and, hence, to thermal-fatigue damage to or stress corrosion cracking of metal. MSR failure results in a less efficient operation of the turbine unit as a whole and have an adverse effect on the reliability of the low-pressure cylinder's last-stage blades. By the time the design service life of the SPP-500-1 MSRs had been exhausted in power units equipped with RBMK-1000 reactors, the number of damages inflicted to both the separation part and to the pipework and heating surface tubes was so large, that a considerable drop of MSR effectiveness and turbine unit efficiency as a whole occurred. The design of the upgraded separation part used in the SPP-500-1 MSR at the Leningrad NPP is described and its effectiveness is shown, which was confirmed by tests. First, efforts taken to achieve more uniform distribution of moisture content over the perimeter and height of steam space downstream of the separation modules and to bring it to values close to the design ones were met with success. Second, no noticeable effect of the individual specific features of separation modules on the moisture content was revealed. Recommendations on elaborating advanced designs of moisture separators-steam reheaters are given: an MSR arrangement in which the separator is placed under or on the side from the steam reheater; axial admission of wet steam for ensuring its uniform distribution among the separation modules; inlet chambers with an extended preliminary separation system and devices for uniformly distributing steam flows in the

  20. Embrittlement of Intercritically Reheated Coarse Grain Heat-Affected Zone of ASTM4130 Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liying; Han, Tao; Han, Bin

    2018-04-01

    In this investigation, a thermal welding simulation technique was used to investigate the microstructures and mechanical properties of the intercritically reheated coarse grain heat-affected zone (IR CGHAZ) of ASTM4130 steel. The effect of post weld heat treatment (PWHT) on the toughness of IR CGHAZ was also analyzed. The toughness of IR CGHAZ was measured by means of Charpy impact, and it is found that IR CGHAZ has the lowest toughness which is much lower than that of the base metal regardless of whether PWHT is applied or not. The as-welded IR CGHAZ is mainly composed of ferrite, martensite, and many blocky M-A constituents distributing along grain boundaries and subgrain boundaries in a near-connected network. Also, the prior austenite grains are still as coarse as those in the coarse grain heat-affected zone (CGHAZ). The presence of the blocky M-A constituents and the coarsened austenite grains result in the toughness deterioration of the as-welded IR CGHAZ. Most of the blocky M-A constituents are decomposed to granular bainite due to the effect of the PWHT. However, PWHT cannot refine the prior austenite grains. Thus, the low toughness of IR CGHAZ after PWHT can be attributed to two factors, i.e., the coarsened austenite grains, and the presence of the remaining M-A constituents and granular bainite, which are located at grain boundaries and subgrain boundaries in a near-connected network. The absorbed energy of the IR CGHAZ was increased by about 3.75 times, which means that the PWHT can effectively improve the toughness but it cannot be recovered to the level of base metal.

  1. Heating characteristics of billet in a walking hearth type reheating furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emadi, Ali; Saboonchi, Ahmad; Taheri, Mahdi; Hassanpour, Saeid

    2014-01-01

    The heating characteristics of billet in a walking hearth type reheating furnace were studied by developing a mathematical heat transfer model. Radiation calculations were conducted by means of zone method and considering all radiation exchange paths. The weighted-sum-of-gray-gas-model was used for better accuracy of gas radiation prediction. Convective heat flux was calculated by considering suitable value of convective heat transfer coefficient at any location of the furnace. The model was substantiated through its comparison to experimental data. A comparison was drawn to evaluate the effect of constant and variable convective coefficient on convective flux distribution and billet thermal behavior. The effect of furnace wall's emissivity of each zone and whole of the furnace on the billet thermal behavior was investigated. The obtained results revealed that by increasing furnace wall's emissivity for a determined residence time, billet's temperature in primary zones rises but it has no significant effect on its final temperature. However, by increasing wall's emissivity from 0.7 to 0.95, the residence time can be declined by about 5%. Moreover, emissivity increase in non-firing and preheating zones as compared to heating and soaking zones has greater impact on the billet thermal behavior. -- Highlights: • 3D radiation modeling by considering all possible paths of radiation exchange. • Using WSGG model for better prediction of gas radiation. • Using non-constant convection coefficient to consider variation of gas mass flow. • Investigation of effect of convection coefficient on billet temperature behavior. • Investigation of wall emissivity of furnace zones

  2. The influence of heating rate on reheat-cracking in a commercial 2 1/4Cr1Mo steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hippsley, C.A.

    1983-03-01

    The effects of elevated heating rate on stress-relief cracking in a commercial 2 1/4 Cr1Mo steel have been investigated. A SEN bend-specimen stress-relaxation test was used to assess reheat cracking susceptibility and fracture mechanisms for an initial post-weld heating rate of 1000 Kh - 1 . Two factors controlling the influence of heating rate on the final severity of cracking were identified, i.e. the rate of stress-relaxation with respect to temperature, and the time available for crack-growth. The factors were found to counteract each other, but in the case of commercial 2 1/4 Cr1Mo steel, the crack-growth factor outweighed the relaxation factor, resulting in a reduction in the propensity to stress-relief cracking at the elevated heating rate. However, by reference to the results of a separate investigation concerning A508/2 MnMoNiCr steel it was demonstrated that the balance between these two factors may be reversed in other alloy systems, with the consequence that reheat cracking is exacerbated by increasing the initial heating rate. A computer model was addressed to the stress-relaxation test conditions using data from the commercial 2 1/4 Cr1Mo steel. The model predictions exhibited reasonable agreement with experimental test results for both 100 Kh - 1 and 1000 Kh - 1 heating rates. (author)

  3. 3-D Transient Heat Transfer Analysis of Slab Heating Characteristics in a Reheating Furnace in Hot Strip Mills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, J. Y.; Lee, Y. W.; Lin, C. N.; Wang, C. H.

    2016-05-01

    A three-dimensional mathematical transient heat transfer model for the prediction of temperature distribution within the slab has been developed by considering the thermal radiation in the walking-beam-type reheating furnace chamber. The steel slabs are heated up through the non-firing, preheating, 1st-heating, 2nd-heating, and soaking zones in the furnace, respectively, where the furnace wall temperature is function of time. Comparison with the in-situ experimental data from Steel Company in Taiwan shows that the present heat transfer model works well for the prediction of thermal behavior of the slab in the reheating furnace. The effects of different skid button height (H=60mm, 90mm, and 120mm) and different gap distance between two slabs (S=50mm, 75mm, and 100mm) on the slab skid mark formation and temperature profiles are investigated. It is found that the skid mark severity decreases with an increase in the skid button height. The effect of gap distance is important only for the slab edge planes, while it is insignificant for the slab central planes.

  4. Assessment of uniform temperature assumption in zoning on the numerical simulation of a walking beam reheating furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgado, Tiago; Coelho, Pedro J.; Talukdar, Prabal

    2015-01-01

    The numerical simulation of the heating process of steel slabs in a walking beam reheating furnace is reported using two different models. In one model, the turbulent reactive flow in the furnace is simulated together with the heat conduction in the slabs. The calculations are performed using a commercial code and a user-defined function is used to simulate the periodic movement of the slabs by the walking beams in the furnace. Unsteady calculations are performed until a periodic transient solution is achieved. In the second model, the furnace is divided into a small number of zones and the average temperature and chemical composition are prescribed in every zone based on the results of the first model. The unsteady heating process of the slabs is modeled using the same software and accounting for radiative transfer in the furnace and heat conduction in the slabs. The results of the first model are taken as a benchmark for the second one. It is shown that the first model predicts radiative heat fluxes and temperatures of the slabs that are consistent with previous work. The two models yield volume average temperatures of the slabs leaving the furnace that differ by less than 3%, provided that accurate values of the temperature of the gases and walls are used. The second model is computationally more economical, requiring only about 5% of the computational time of the first one. - Highlights: • The heating process of steel slabs in a reheating furnace is numerically simulated. • Unsteady calculations accounting for the periodic movement of the slabs are reported. • We compare two models differing on how the thermochemical composition is obtained. • The models predict mean slab temperatures at the exit that differ by less than 3%. • The computational time of the fastest model is only about 5% of the slowest one

  5. Reheat cracking susceptibility of new generation 2%CrMo(W)V P23 steel multipass welds made using matching and mis-matching filler metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nevasmaa, P.; Salonen, J.; Holmstroem, S. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)

    2007-06-15

    In comparison with conventional creep resisting grade T/P22, the modified 2%Cr steels T/P23 and T/P24 show nearly twice the creep strength at typical service temperatures of about 520-570 deg C. The possibility of welding thin-wall boiler tubes without preheating or PWHT has promoted the use of T23 and T24 in practical boiler service. For thick-wall applications and multipass welds, welding consumables still require further development to improve creep strength and ductility. Susceptibility to reheat cracking and hydrogen cracking increase with the wall-thickness and structural rigidity of the component. Consequently, thick-wall sections generally require the use of PWHT and sometimes preheating as well. This paper is concerned with weldability of P23 pipe steel, with particular emphasis on reheat cracking sensitivity of simulated HAZ microstructures and thick-section multipass welds made using closely matching and mis-matching filler metals. The results demonstrate that the weld metal is far more critical than the parent steel HAZ, both in terms of reheat cracking sensitivity and ductility and toughness. In the as-welded condition, the weld metal exhibited excessive hardness of {approx}380 HV and only diminutive Charpy toughness at room temperature. Adoption of the PWHT (760 deg C/2h) enhanced the weldment toughness; however, it also inevitably raises risk to reheat cracking in the weld metal that showed values of reduction of area (RA) no more than 2-3% in the BWI cracking test. The results imply that thick-section multipass welds made using filler metal with the chemical composition closer to P24 grade material are much less susceptible to reheat cracking than 'matching' P23 grade welds. (orig.)

  6. On effect of some thermodeformation parameters of welding cycle on tendency of pearlitic heat-resisting steels to fracture in reheating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prokhorov, N.N.; Bardokin, E.V.

    1979-01-01

    Studied is the inclination of the 12Kh1MF, 15Kh3M1F and N18K9M5T steels subject to thermodeformation cycle imitating a welding one, to fracture in reheating. A hot-rolled metal then subject to the same thermal treatment was used. The imitation of thermodeformation cycle of the welding permitted to vary maximum heating temperatures, the period during which the metal is kept at temperatures higher than 1100 deg C, and the cooling rate of ajacent zone metal. It is shown that the curve of the dependence of deformation ability and the tendency to fracture at the reheating of adjacent zone metal on the rate of its cooling at welding is U-shaped. Deformation ability has its maximum value at the cooling rate of 30 deg c/s in the range 1300 to 1000 deg C

  7. Microstructural characteristics and gastro-small intestinal digestion in vitro of potato starch: Effects of refrigerated storage and reheating in microwave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colussi, Rosana; Singh, Jaspreet; Kaur, Lovedeep; Zavareze, Elessandra da Rosa; Dias, Alvaro Renato Guerra; Stewart, Robert B; Singh, Harjinder

    2017-07-01

    The objective of our study was to evaluate paste clarity, retrogradation (syneresis %), thermal characteristics and kinetics of glucose release during in vitro gastro-small intestinal digestion of freshly cooked and refrigerated potato starch. Freshly cooked starch pastes had a paste clarity of 71%, which decreased to 35.4% whereas syneresis (%) increased after 7days of refrigerated storage. The X-ray and thermal characteristics of native, retrograded and microwave reheated starch samples differed significantly from each other. For the freshly cooked starch pastes, ∼88% starch hydrolysis was observed at the end (150min) of digestion under simulated gastro-small intestinal conditions that decreased to ∼70% for the 7day stored pastes. The hydrolysis (%) of refrigerated pastes increased to 86% and 92% after one and two cycles of microwave reheating, respectively. These results contribute to the understanding of starch retrogradation in relation to starch digestion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Root cause analysis of oxide scale forming and shedding in high temperature reheater of a 200MW super high pressure boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, Jiang; Hao, Weidong; Hu, Zhihong; Liu, Fuguo

    2015-12-01

    In order to solve the problem of over temperature tube-burst caused by oxide scale shedding and blocking tubes of high temperature reheater of a 200MW super high pressure power plant boiler, this paper expounds the mechanism of scale forming and shedding, and analyzes the probable causes of the tube-burst failure. The results show that the root cause of scale forming is that greater steam extraction flow after reforming of the second extraction leads to less steam flow into reheater, which causes over temperature to some of the heated tubes; and the root cause of scale shedding is that long term operation in AGC-R mode brings about great fluctuations of unit load, steam temperature and pressure, accelerating scale shedding. In conclusion, preventive measures are drawn up considering the operation mode of the unit.

  9. Simultaneously estimation for surface heat fluxes of steel slab in a reheating furnace based on DMC predictive control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yanhao; Wang, Guangjun; Chen, Hong

    2015-01-01

    The predictive control theory is utilized for the research of a simultaneous estimation of heat fluxes through the upper, side and lower surface of a steel slab in a walking beam type rolling steel reheating furnace. An inverse algorithm based on dynamic matrix control (DMC) is established. That is, each surface heat flux of a slab is simultaneously estimated through rolling optimization on the basis of temperature measurements in selected points of its interior by utilizing step response function as predictive model of a slab's temperature. The reliability of the DMC results is enhanced without prior assuming specific functions of heat fluxes over a period of future time. The inverse algorithm proposed a respective regularization to effectively improve the stability of the estimated results by considering obvious strength differences between the upper as well as lower and side surface heat fluxes of the slab. - Highlights: • The predictive control theory is adopted. • An inversion scheme based on DMC is established. • Upper, side and lower surface heat fluxes of slab are estimated based DMC. • A respective regularization is proposed to improve the stability of results

  10. Effect of Primary Recrystallized Microstructure and Nitriding on Secondary Recrystallization in Grain Oriented Silicon Steel by Low Temperature Slab Reheating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Gong-tao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Different primary recrystallized grain sizes were obtained by controlling decarburization process in grain oriented silicon steel produced by low temperature slab reheating technique. The effect of primary grain size on secondary recrystallization and magnetic properties was studied. The appropriate nitrogen content after nitriding was explored in case of very large primary grain size, and the effect of {411}〈148〉 primary recrystallized texture on the abnormal growth behavior was discussed. The results show that an increase in average primary grain size from 10μm to 15μm leads to an increase of secondary recrystallization temperature and a sharper Goss texture with higher magnetic permeability, in the condition of a very large average primary grain size of 28μm, the suitable amount of nitrogen increases to about 6×10-4. The {411}〈148〉 oriented grains in primary recrystallized microstructure can easily grow into larger sizes due to their size advantage, and thus hinder the abnormal growth of secondary grains, moreover, the hindering effect is more pronounced in the abnormal growth of Brass-oriented grains due to their misorientation with low migration rate other than Goss grains.

  11. Effects of Re-heating Tissue Samples to Core Body Temperature on High-Velocity Ballistic Projectile-tissue Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, Caitlin; Henneberg, Maciej; Wachsberger, Christian; Maiden, Nicholas; Kumaratilake, Jaliya

    2017-11-01

    Damage produced by high-speed projectiles on organic tissue will depend on the physical properties of the tissues. Conditioning organic tissue samples to human core body temperature (37°C) prior to conducting ballistic experiments enables their behavior to closely mimic that of living tissues. To minimize autolytic changes after death, the tissues are refrigerated soon after their removal from the body and re-heated to 37°C prior to testing. This research investigates whether heating 50-mm-cube samples of porcine liver, kidney, and heart to 37°C for varying durations (maximum 7 h) can affect the penetration response of a high-speed, steel sphere projectile. Longer conditioning times for heart and liver resulted in a slight loss of velocity/energy of the projectile, but the reverse effect occurred for the kidney. Possible reasons for these trends include autolytic changes causing softening (heart and liver) and dehydration causing an increase in density (kidney). © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  12. Correlation Between Microstructure and Low-Temperature Impact Toughness of Simulated Reheated Zones in the Multi-pass Weld Metal of High-Strength Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yongjoon; Park, Gitae; Jeong, Seonghoon; Lee, Changhee

    2018-01-01

    A large fraction of reheated weld metal is formed during multi-pass welding, which significantly affects the mechanical properties (especially toughness) of welded structures. In this study, the low-temperature toughness of the simulated reheated zone in multi-pass weld metal was evaluated and compared to that of the as-deposited zone using microstructural analyses. Two kinds of high-strength steel welds with different hardenabilities were produced by single-pass, bead-in-groove welding, and both welds were thermally cycled to peak temperatures above Ac3 using a Gleeble simulator. When the weld metals were reheated, their toughness deteriorated in response to the increase in the fraction of detrimental microstructural components, i.e., grain boundary ferrite and coalesced bainite in the weld metals with low and high hardenabilities, respectively. In addition, toughness deterioration occurred in conjunction with an increase in the effective grain size, which was attributed to the decrease in nucleation probability of acicular ferrite; the main cause for this decrease changed depending on the hardenability of the weld metal.

  13. Optimal set values of zone modeling in the simulation of a walking beam type reheating furnace on the steady-state operating regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Zhi; Luo, Xiaochuan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The adjoint equation is introduced to the PDE optimal control problem. • Lipschitz continuity for the gradient of the cost functional is derived. • The simulation time and iterations reduce by a large margin in the simulations. • The model validation and comparison are made to verify the proposed math model. - Abstract: In this paper, this study proposed a new method to solve the PDE optimal control problem by introducing the adjoint problem to the optimization model, which was used to get the reference values for the optimal furnace zone temperatures and the optimal temperature distribution of steel slabs in the reheating furnace on the steady-state operating regime. It was proved that the gradient of the cost functional could be written via the weak solution of this adjoint problem and then Lipschitz continuity of the gradient was derived. Model validation and comparison between the mathematics model and the experiment results indicated that the present heat transfer model worked well for the prediction of thermal behavior about a slab in the reheating furnace. Iterations and simulation time had shown a significant decline in the simulations of 20MnSi slab, and it was shown by numerical simulations for 0.4 m thick slabs that the proposed method was better applied in the medium and heavy plate plant, leading to better performance in terms of productivity, energy efficiency and other features of reheating furnaces.

  14. Effect of pre-strain on creep of three AISI 316 austenitic stainless steels in relation to reheat cracking of weld-affected zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auzoux, Q.; Allais, L.; Caës, C.; Monnet, I.; Gourgues, A. F.; Pineau, A.

    2010-05-01

    Microstructural modifications induced by welding of 316 stainless steels and their effect on creep properties and relaxation crack propagation were examined. Cumulative strain due to multi-pass welding hardens the materials by increasing the dislocation density. Creep tests were conducted on three plates from different grades of 316 steel at 600 °C, with various carbon and nitrogen contents. These plates were tested both in the annealed condition and after warm rolling, which introduced pre-strain. It was found that the creep strain rate and ductility after warm rolling was reduced compared with the annealed condition. Moreover, all steels exhibited intergranular crack propagation during relaxation tests on Compact Tension specimens in the pre-strained state, but not in the annealed state. These results confirmed that the reheat cracking risk increases with both residual stress triaxiality and pre-strain. On the contrary, high solute content and strain-induced carbide precipitation, which are thought to increase reheat cracking risk of stabilised austenitic stainless steels did not appear as key parameters in reheat cracking of 316 stainless steels.

  15. Effect of pre-strain on creep of three AISI 316 austenitic stainless steels in relation to reheat cracking of weld-affected zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auzoux, Q.; Allais, L.; Caes, C.; Monnet, I.; Gourgues, A.F.; Pineau, A.

    2010-01-01

    Microstructural modifications induced by welding of 316 stainless steels and their effect on creep properties and relaxation crack propagation were examined. Cumulative strain due to multi-pass welding hardens the materials by increasing the dislocation density. Creep tests were conducted on three plates from different grades of 316 steel at 600 deg. C, with various carbon and nitrogen contents. These plates were tested both in the annealed condition and after warm rolling, which introduced pre-strain. It was found that the creep strain rate and ductility after warm rolling was reduced compared with the annealed condition. Moreover, all steels exhibited intergranular crack propagation during relaxation tests on Compact Tension specimens in the pre-strained state, but not in the annealed state. These results confirmed that the reheat cracking risk increases with both residual stress triaxiality and pre-strain. On the contrary, high solute content and strain-induced carbide precipitation, which are thought to increase reheat cracking risk of stabilised austenitic stainless steels did not appear as key parameters in reheat cracking of 316 stainless steels.

  16. Mechanical and chemical cleaning of the tubes bundles of the moisture separator reheaters (GSS) of Nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerra, Patrice; Ruiz, Jose T.; Ureta, Roman; Carreres, Cristina; Virginie, Le-Guerroue

    2012-09-01

    The cleaning operation concerns the 'GSS' system (GSS stands for moisture separator reheaters, MSR) which are classified as 'watch quality guarantee', not classified as safety facility and subjected to Pressure Equipment regulations. The follow-up of the operational GSS (steel carbon) of EDF nuclear power plants CP0 group reveals a clog rate due to a relevant magnetite deposits that could result in equipment damage, loss of availability and loss of plant productivity. The pressure drop between inlet and outlet of the heating steam is close to maximum design criterion. The service consisted in designing, developing, qualifying and carrying out a process which removes clog from the inside of GSS U-tubes bundle located in the vapor circuit and which respects the equipment integrity and ensures the process harmlessness. This cleaning has to enable the complete removal of deposits and oxides (magnetite) in order to recover a passage diameter and a surface finish equivalent to the origin, thus avoiding the replacement of the GSS and obtaining a considerable reduction of costs. To do so, LAINSA and SOLARCA designed, developed, qualified and operated on 14 GSS bundles, by carrying out the following operations: - Cartography of the GSS tubes bundles clogging state; - Pre-Mechanical cleaning to un-block the sealed tubes and release the inside tubes passing; - Isolation of the bundle and check of leaks of the system; - Chemical cleaning with the efficiency and harmlessness parameters follow-up: - Acid Phase by means of weak organic acids to eliminate all the deposits; - Passivation phase; - Final Rinsing respecting the customer criteria; - Drying; - Waste management and waste treatment. The implementation of this operation enables the elimination of the whole deposits (magnetite) and oxides located inside the GSS tube bundle and thus to recover a passage diameter inside the tubes, and a pressure drop close to a new system and therefore to enables the

  17. Investigation on the crystallography of the transformation products of reverted austenite in intercritically reheated coarse grained heat affected zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You, Yang; Shang, Chengjia; Chen, Liang; Subramanian, Sundaresa

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Area of reverted austenite is traced out by crystallographic information. ► Bainite and martensite regions were confirmed within it. ► The martensite region is considered as the blocky MA particles. ► Martensite region has high deformation to initiate fracture. ► More uniform transformation of the reverted austenite is good for toughness. -- Abstract: In present study the intercritically reheated coarse grained heat affected zone (ICCGHAZ) showing the worst impact toughness in the heat affected zone of multi-pass welding was simulated by Gleeble-1500, and its microstructure was investigated in detail by means of scanning electron microscope (SEM) and electron backscattering diffraction (EBSD). With the crystallographic information from EBSD scanning the area of a single reverted austenite grain which formed during the thermal cycles of second pass simulation was traced out. Within it two regions with different characteristic both in morphology and crystallography were found out, showing an un-uniform transformation of the reverted austenite. The region I is a bainitic region containing larger bainitic ferrite grains, while the region II is made up of several clusters containing tiny grains. Based on the crystallographic information each cluster was determined as martensite island thereby should be considered as blocky Martensite/Austenite constituent (M/A), which is hard phase and harmful for toughness. Analysis on the level of deformation shows that the region II is much higher deformed than the region I, indicating there is high stress concentration within the region II. The possible influence of the region I and the region II on fracture is discussed under the early proposed M/A’s fracture-initiating mechanisms. It suggests that the main cause of the toughness reduction is the un-uniform transformation of the reverted austenite, and the toughness performance of the ICCGHAZ could be improved if the transformation of the reverted

  18. Dependence of cosmological energy-density irregularities on the shape of the scalar-field potential during inflation and ''reheating''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratra, B.

    1991-01-01

    Estimates for the baryon-dominated epoch form of the large-scale adiabatic energy-density irregularities generated during an early scalar-field-dominated inflation epoch, in simple inflation-modified hot-big-bang models, are compared to the widely used approximate general expression, which is proportional to the large-scale, gauge-invariant part of H 2 left-angle φφ * right-angle/(Φ b ) 2 evaluated at the first Hubble radius crossing (here Φ b and φ are the spatially homogeneous and inhomogeneous parts of the scalar field, H is the Hubble parameter, and an overdot represents a derivative with respect to time). In the de Sitter inflation limit, if the inflation-epoch background scalar-field solution is an ''attractor,'' or if there is sufficient inflation before the scale of interest leaves the Hubble radius, the approximate general expression identically reproduces what we have found. It is also less than an order of magnitude away from our expression in a large fraction of the parameter space of the inflation model we study and is within 2 orders of magnitude of our result in almost all of parameter space. We also show that the more accurate general expression (which the above formula is an approximation of) identically reproduces our results in the simple models studied, provided the inflation-epoch background scalar-field solution is an ''attractor'' or if there is sufficient inflation. The approximate general formula is used to restudy energy-density inhomogeneities in the quartic-potential scalar-field de Sitter inflation model; the difference between the standard result in this model and our result in related models is traced to a difference in the form of the part of the potential used to model ''reheating'' and the end of inflation

  19. Simulation of a combustion process of a billet reheating furnace; Simulacao do processo de combustao de um forno de reaquecimento de tarugos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Eduardo Sergio da Silva; Barros, Jose Eduardo Mautone [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica; Ribeiro, Vicente Aleixo Pinheiro [ArcelorMittal Monlevade, Serra, ES (Brazil); Moura Junior, Jose dos Reis Vieira de [ArcelorMittal Long Carbon Americas (Luxembourg); Belisario, Leandro Pego [Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto (UFOP), MG (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Real data-based energy balances with few simplifications are a powerful tool for furnaces energy performance evaluation, helping technical people to guide efforts in energy consumption issues, and consequently, in a final product cost reduction. This paper presents a methodology to simulate the combustion process in several operational conditions of a walking-hearth reheat furnace for billets in rolling mill facilities. The computational model consists, basically, in a dynamical solution which measured input variables are supplied from the furnaces supervisory and compared to measures by instruments in the system. Finally, it is made a variability analysis of the furnace and heat exchangers efficiencies.. (author)

  20. Gravitino or axino dark matter with reheat temperature as high as 10{sup 16} GeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Co, Raymond T. [Berkeley Center for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics, University of California,366 LeConte Hall MC 7300, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Theoretical Physics Group, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory,1 Cyclotron Rd., Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); D’Eramo, Francesco [Department of Physics, University of California Santa Cruz,1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics,1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Hall, Lawrence J. [Berkeley Center for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics, University of California,366 LeConte Hall MC 7300, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Theoretical Physics Group, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory,1 Cyclotron Rd., Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2017-03-01

    A new scheme for lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP) dark matter is introduced and studied in theories of TeV supersymmetry with a QCD axion, a, and a high reheat temperature after inflation, T{sub R}. A large overproduction of axinos (ã) and gravitinos (G̃) from scattering at T{sub R}, and from freeze-in at the TeV scale, is diluted by the late decay of a saxion condensate that arises from inflation. The two lightest superpartners are ã, with mass of order the TeV scale, and G̃ with mass m{sub 3/2} anywhere between the keV and TeV scales, depending on the mediation scale of supersymmetry breaking. Dark matter contains both warm and cold components: for G̃ LSP the warm component arises from ã→G̃a, while for ã LSP the warm component arises from G̃→ãa. The free-streaming scale for the warm component is predicted to be of order 1 Mpc (and independent of m{sub 3/2} in the case of G̃ LSP). T{sub R} can be as high as 10{sup 16} GeV, for any value of m{sub 3/2}, solving the gravitino problem. The PQ symmetry breaking scale V{sub PQ} depends on T{sub R} and m{sub 3/2} and can be anywhere in the range (10{sup 10}−10{sup 16}) GeV. Detailed predictions are made for the lifetime of the neutralino LOSP decaying to ã+h/Z and G̃+h/Z/γ, which is in the range of (10{sup −1}−10{sup 6})m over much of parameter space. For an axion misalignment angle of order unity, the axion contribution to dark matter is sub-dominant, except when V{sub PQ} approaches 10{sup 16} GeV.

  1. Effect of pre-cooking methods on the chemical and sensory deterioration of ready-to-eat chicken patties during chilled storage and microwave reheating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Valquíria C S; Morcuende, David; Madruga, Marta S; Hernández-López, Silvia H; Silva, Fábio A P; Ventanas, Sonia; Estévez, Mario

    2016-06-01

    The effects of pre-cooking methods, namely, boiling (BL), roasting (RT) and grilling (GR), refrigerated storage (14 days/+4 °C) and microwave reheating on chicken patties were studied. Physical, chemical and sensory parameters were evaluated in order to correlate the chemical deterioration of ready-to-eat chicken patties with the acceptance of the odor. Chemical deterioration was evaluated through the chemical composition, Maillard compounds, Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and volatiles. Sensory deterioration (odor liking) was performed by an acceptance test with hedonic scale. According to the TBARS values and volatile compounds generated in the head space during the examined stages, the pre-cooking method and the storage time had a significant effect on lipid oxidation, whereas reheating in a microwave had a negligible impact. At each succeeding processing stage, panelists gave lower odor scores to all samples and no significant differences were found between treatments at any stage. RT and GR patties showed less intense chemical changes and presented higher acceptation scores by the sensory panel than BL patties. Thus, the choice of pre-cooking method and control of storage conditions plays a key role in the inhibition of oxidative changes in ready-to-eat chicken patties.

  2. Thermodynamic performance simulation and concise formulas for triple-pressure reheat HRSG of gas–steam combined cycle under off-design condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Guoqiang; Zheng, Jiongzhi; Yang, Yongping; Liu, Wenyi

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • An off-design performance simulation of triple-pressure reheat HRSG is executed. • The bottoming cycle characteristics of energy transfer/conversion are analyzed. • Concise formulas for the off-design performance of bottoming cycle are proposed. • The accuracy of the formulas is verified under different load control strategies. • The errors of the formulas are generally within 1% at a load of 100–50%. - Abstract: Concise semi-theoretical, semi-empirical formulas are developed in this study to predict the off-design performance of the bottoming cycle of the gas–steam turbine combined cycle. The formulas merely refer to the key thermodynamic design parameters (full load parameters) of the bottoming cycle and off-design gas turbine exhaust temperature and flow, which are convenient in determining the overall performance of the bottoming cycle. First, a triple-pressure reheat heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) is modeled, and thermodynamic analysis is performed. Second, concise semi-theoretical, semi-empirical performance prediction formulas for the bottoming cycle are proposed through a comprehensive analysis of the heat transfer characteristics of the HRSG and the energy conversion characteristics of the steam turbine under the off-design condition. The concise formulas are found to be effective, i.e., fast, simple, and precise in obtaining the thermodynamic parameters for bottoming cycle efficiency, HRSG heat transfer capacity, HRSG efficiency, steam turbine power output, and steam turbine efficiency under the off-design condition. Accuracy is verified by comparing the concise formulas’ calculation results with the simulation results and practical operation data under different load control strategies. The calculation errors are within 1.5% (mainly less than 1% for both simulation and actual operation data) under combined cycle load (gas turbine load) ranging from 50% to 100%. However, accuracy declines sharply when the turbine

  3. Viability study for application of combined reheater cycle (CRC) to fluidized bed combustion plants; Estudio de Viabilidad para la Aplicacion del Ciclo de Recalentamiento Combinado (CRC) a Plantas de Combustion de Lecho Fuido Atmosferico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    Basically, the project try to analyze the application viability of a first reheating in steam cycles of little power plants, useful mainly for biomass and wastes, in our case with coal blends; and a second reheating of the steam in conventional and fluidized bed combustion plants. Using in both cases the thermic energy of the exhaust gases from one gas turbine. The advantages of the CRC cycle are: (1) Reduction of the moisture in the turbine, increasing the energy efficiency and blade protection. (2) To take advantage of the waste gas energy from the gas turbine in optimum way. (3) Great operation flexibility under good efficiency results. In general, the system can use the synergy between gas, coal and waste energies with the highest global efficiency. (Author)

  4. A heat transfer model for the analysis of transient heating of the slab in a direct-fired walking beam type reheating furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Man Young [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Systems Engineering, Research Center of Industrial Technology, Chonbuk National University, 664-14 Duckjin-Dong, Duckjin-Gu, Jeonju, Chonbuk 561-756 (Korea)

    2007-09-15

    A mathematical heat transfer model for the prediction of heat flux on the slab surface and temperature distribution in the slab has been developed by considering the thermal radiation in the furnace chamber and transient heat conduction governing equations in the slab, respectively. The furnace is modeled as radiating medium with spatially varying temperature and constant absorption coefficient. The steel slabs are moved on the next fixed beam by the walking beam after being heated up through the non-firing, charging, preheating, heating, and soaking zones in the furnace. Radiative heat flux calculated from the radiative heat exchange within the furnace modeled using the FVM by considering the effect of furnace wall, slab, and combustion gases is introduced as the boundary condition of the transient conduction equation of the slab. Heat transfer characteristics and temperature behavior of the slab is investigated by changing such parameters as absorption coefficient and emissivity of the slab. Comparison with the experimental work show that the present heat transfer model works well for the prediction of thermal behavior of the slab in the reheating furnace. (author)

  5. Reduction of heat losses on the skid pipe system of reheating furnaces in the steel industry; Verringerung der Waermeverluste am Tragrohrsystem von Waermeoefen in der Stahlindustrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springer, Michael; Huegel, Frank [FBB Engineering GmbH, Moenchengladbach (Germany)

    2011-06-15

    New technology can improve the energy efficiency of thermo processing equipment, innovative technology can ultimately help to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions from existing facilities and simultaneously ensure that the equipment can also operate more economically. The result of consequent development at FBB ENGINEERING GmbH for insulation of skid pipe systems of reheating furnaces in steel industry (walking beam -, pusher type furnace) are efficient pre-fabricated shells made of ultra-light weight castable FLB-11/150-I1 with thermo technical optimized sandwich design that lead to significant and sustainable reduction of heat losses and are responsible for high energy saving potential. Thermo technical CFD simulations, laboratory tests, field trials and complete installations of skid pipe systems show that compared to dense castable heat loss in the skid pipe cooling systems can be reduced up to 30 % and more with pre-fabricated shells made of ultra-light weight castable FLB-11/150-I1. (orig.)

  6. A role of neutral hydrogen in CHS plasmas with reheat and collapse and comparison with JIPP T-IIU tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, S.; Yamada, H.; Iguchi, H.

    1992-09-01

    Results are described on NBI plasmas of the Compact Helical System (CHS). An increase in the stored energy, which is called plasma 'reheat', is observed with density peaking when gas puffing is turned off in the high density region. A plasma collapse with large increase in radiation loss occurs even in discharges whose Z eff values (typically, less than 2-3) do not show any increase when the gas puffing is continued. Both phenomena are basically explained by the edge electron temperature due to the difference in the amount of edge hydrogen neutrals. After turning off the gas puffing, the central electron density n e0 shows an increase of 80% and the density peaking factor (n e0 /n-bar e ) changes from 1.0 to 2.0, in typical cases, and a high inward velocity of the impurities appears (v = 20 m/s). The accumulation is studied in relation to the poloidal rotation and the edge temperature. These results are compared with results from plasmas with IOC- and H-modes in the JIPPT-IIU tokamak. (author)

  7. Exergy based parametric analysis of a combined reheat regenerative thermal power plant and water–LiBr vapor absorption refrigeration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gogoi, T.K.; Talukdar, K.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Exergy analysis of a combined power–absorption cooling system is provided. • Exergetic efficiency of the power cycle and absorption cooling system are calculated. • Irreversibility in each component and total system irreversibility are calculated. • Effect of operating parameters on exergetic performance and irreversibility is analyzed. • Optimum operating parameters are identified based on energy and exergy based results. - Abstract: In this paper, exergy analysis of a combined reheat regenerative steam turbine (ST) based power cycle and water–LiBr vapor absorption refrigeration system (VARS) is presented. Exergetic efficiency of the power cycle and VARS, energy utilization factor (EUF) of the combined system (CS) and irreversibility in each system component are calculated. The effect of fuel flow rate, boiler pressure, cooling capacity and VARS components’ temperature on performance, component and total system irreversibility is analyzed. The second law based results indicate optimum performance at 150 bar boiler pressure and VARS generator, condenser, evaporator and absorber temperature of 80 °C, 37.5 °C, 15 °C and 35 °C respectively. The present exergy based results conform well to the first law based results obtained in a previous analysis done on the same combined system. Irreversibility distribution among various power cycle components shows the highest irreversibility in the cooling tower. Irreversibility of the exhaust flue gas leaving the boiler and the boiler are the next major contributors. Among the VARS components, exergy destruction in the generator is the highest followed by irreversibility contribution of the absorber, condenser and the evaporator

  8. Early reheating and cosmic strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stebbins, A.J. III.

    1987-01-01

    In the first chapter, possible thermal histories of the universe during the epoch z = 10 - 100 are studied. Expression for the fractional ionization and electron temperature are given in the case of homogeneous heating as a function of the parameters of arbitrary ionizing sources. It is shown that present and future limits on spectral distortions to the microwave background radiation do not provide very restrictive constraints on possible thermal histories of the universe. Heating by cosmic rays and very massive stars is discussed. In the second chapter, accretion of matter onto the wakes left behind by horizon-size pieces of cosmic string is studied. It was found that in a universe containing cold dissipationless matter (CDM), accretion onto wakes produce a network of sheet-like regions with a nonlinear density enhancement. In the third chapter, a formalism is developed for calculating the microwave ansisotropy produced by cosmic string loops in Minkowski space. The final formalism involves doing a one-dimensional integral along the string for each point on the sky. Exact solutions have only been found for a circular loop seen face-on. The equations are integrated for one particular loop configuration at nine points in its evolution

  9. Report of year 2000 version on basic study for promotion of joint implementation. Energy conservation by renovation of reheating furnace at 'SIDEX' S.A. Galati Steel Plant, Romania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The purpose of this project is to perform a feasibility study on energy conservation by renovation of reheating furnace at 'SIDEX' S.A. Galati Steel Plant, and discuss the possibility of the future joint implementation project. This project is intended to contribute to reduction in greenhouse effect gas emission in Romania through energy conservation in industries, and introduction of the Japanese energy saving technologies. Furthermore, this project would be capable of contributing to modernization of the industries to achieve sustainable economic growth in Romania, where the joint implementation will be performed in the future. The fuel consumption per ton in the conventionally used reheating furnaces is actually about three times as much as in the same furnaces in Japan. Speaking of electric power consumption, it is about four times as much. The renovation will result in reduction of fuel consumption to the same level as in steel mills in Japan. This will reduce the import of natural gas by 59 million Nm{sup 3} annually after the project will have been implemented, and reduction is expected in CO2 of about 170,000 tons (on the basis of conversion to petroleum). The second effect is reduction of oxidation scale on surfaces of steel products generated in the furnaces at 3% or more presently to about 1%, which corresponds to steel products of more than 20,000 tons. (NEDO)

  10. Reheat cracking of austenitic stainless steels - pre-strain effect on intergranular damage; Fissuration en relaxation des aciers inoxydables austenitiques - influence de l'ecrouissage sur l'endommagement intergranulaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auzoux, Q

    2004-01-01

    Welding process induces strain in 316 stainless steel affected zones. Their microstructure was reproduce by rolling of three different steels (316L, 316L(N) et 316H). Traction, creep and relaxation tests were performed at 550 deg C and 600 deg C on smooth, notched and pre-cracked specimens. Pre-strain by rolling increases the hardness and the creep resistance because of the high dislocation density but decreases ductility because of the fast development of intergranular damage. This embrittlement leads to crack propagation during relaxation tests on pre-strained steels without distinction in respect to their carbon or nitrogen content. A new intergranular damage model was built using local micro-cracks measurements and finite elements analysis. Pre-strain effect and stress triaxiality ratio effect are reproduced by the modelling so that the reheat cracking risk near welds can now be estimated. (author)

  11. Construction and Operation of the 1000-MW Ultra-Supercritical Double Reheat Unit in Taizhou Ⅱ%泰州二期1000MW超超临界二次再热机组建设与运行

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨勤; 张世山; 杨宏强; 张苏闽

    2017-01-01

    阐述了1000 MW二次再热燃煤发电机组的选型和参数确定原则,通过产学研用、严谨论证,推动重大技术创新方案和示范工程落地,探索了机组建设中的技术风险管控和工程管理要点,介绍了精细化管理、洁净化安装、全过程质量管理、精细化调试的关键要点.工程投产后,持续做好运行优化和运行管理,实现了示范工程全面达到各项性能指标,项目的建设和运行对促进中国高效清洁火力发电装备技术水平的提升,促进燃煤的清洁利用,都将具有良好的示范作用.%This paper describes the type selection and parameter determination principles of the 1 000-MW double reheat coal-fired power generation units.Through studies and rigorous demonstration,as well as the promotion of major technological innovation programs and the implementation of the demonstration project,the paper explores the technical risk control and project management points in the construction of the units.It also introduces the key points in the micromanagement,the clean installation,the process quality management,and the precise debugging.Since the operation,the operation optimization and management of the project have been sustained to satisfy all performance index requirements.The construction and operation of the project are demonstratively helpful for improving the technical levels of China's efficient clean coal power generation equipments and the clean coal utilization.

  12. From (p)reheating to nucleosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jedamzik, Karsten

    2002-01-01

    This paper gives a brief qualitative description of the possible evolution of the early universe between the end of an inflationary epoch and the end of big-bang nucleosynthesis. After a general introduction, establishing the minimum requirements cosmologists impose on this cosmic evolutionary phase, namely, successful baryogenesis, the production of cosmic dark matter and successful light-element nucleosynthesis, a more detailed discussion on some recent developments follows. This latter includes the physics of preheating, the putative production of (alternative) dark matter and the current status of big bang nucleosynthesis

  13. Quantum heating as an alternative of reheating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmedov, Emil T.; Bascone, Francesco

    2018-02-01

    To model a realistic situation for the beginning we consider massive real scalar ϕ4 theory in a (1 +1 )-dimensional asymptotically static Minkowski spacetime with an intermediate stage of expansion. To have an analytic headway we assume that scalars have a big mass. At past and future infinities of the background we have flat Minkowski regions which are joint by the inflationary expansion region. We use the tree-level Keldysh propagator in the theory in question to calculate the expectation value of the stress-energy tensor which is, thus, due to the excitations of the zero-point fluctuations. Then we show that even for large mass, if the de Sitter expansion stage is long enough, the quantum loop corrections to the expectation value of the stress-energy tensor are not negligible in comparison with the tree-level contribution. That is revealed itself via the excitation of the higher-point fluctuations of the exact modes: during the expansion stage a nonzero particle number density for the exact modes is generated. This density is not Planckian and serves as a quench which leads to a thermalization in the out Minkowski stage.

  14. Secondary isocurvature perturbations from acoustic reheating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Atsuhisa; Yamaguchi, Masahide

    2018-06-01

    The superhorizon (iso)curvature perturbations are conserved if the following conditions are satisfied: (i) (each) non adiabatic pressure perturbation is zero, (ii) the gradient terms are ignored, that is, at the leading order of the gradient expansion (iii) (each) total energy momentum tensor is conserved. We consider the case with the violation of the last two requirements and discuss the generation of secondary isocurvature perturbations during the late time universe. Second order gradient terms are not necessarily ignored even if we are interested in the long wavelength modes because of the convolutions which may pick products of short wavelength perturbations up. We then introduce second order conserved quantities on superhorizon scales under the conditions (i) and (iii) even in the presence of the gradient terms by employing the full second order cosmological perturbation theory. We also discuss the violation of the condition (iii), that is, the energy momentum tensor is conserved for the total system but not for each component fluid. As an example, we explicitly evaluate second order heat conduction between baryons and photons due to the weak Compton scattering, which dominates during the period just before recombination. We show that such secondary effects can be recast into the isocurvature perturbations on superhorizon scales if the local type primordial non Gaussianity exists a priori.

  15. DOE states reheat nuclear waste debate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, M.

    1985-01-01

    After decades of struggling with the issue, Congress in late 1982 established a firm plan for burying growing volumes of nuclear reactor wastes. But 2 l/2 years later the waste disposal debate is as hot as ever. Utility companies, environmentalists, federal officials, and state governments are again clashing - this time over the way the program is proceeding. The Nuclear Waste Policy Act calls for the Department of Energy to start accepting wastes in 1998 at the first of two planned repositories. Selection of this first repository site was mandated for early 1987, but program delays at DOE have pushed the decision back to March 1991. Despite this postponement and other schedule slips, the Department still aims to meet Congress's 1998 deadline. But states, Indian tribes, and environmentalists fear the site selection process will be compromised and want the start up date rolled back

  16. Separators/reheaters for nuclear turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guignard, S.

    1986-01-01

    During the past few years, the Nuclear Department of Stein Industrie has implemented a broad development programme for the design of superheating separators for nuclear power plant turbines. These units separate the water in the steam leaving the high-pressure section, and superheat the dry steam before expansion in the medium - and low - pressure sections. Thorough research, confirmed by tests, was conducted in different areas, and especially on problems of water and steam separation, and heat transfers in the tube bundle(s) required to superheat the steam. Special systems were designed to avoid processes detrimental to the operation of the units, such as vibrations, erosion/corrosion etc. Experimental feedback on the superheating separators of 900 MW nuclear power plants helped to substantiate the assumptions made for the thermal and hydraulic calculations, as well as the optimizations carried out on the different functions. These results confirmed the industrial application of the design methods to other superheating separators intended for 1300 MW nuclear power plants and for export [fr

  17. Project for rationalization measures for international energy conservation. Model project concerning efficient consumption of energy for international energy conservation (Model project of waste heat recovery on billet reheating furnace); 1999 nendo kokusai energy shiyo gorika nado taisaku jigyo seika hokokusho. Kokusai energy shohi koritsuka nado model jigyo (kozai kanetsuro hainetsu kaishu model jigyo)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    For the purpose of curtailing energy consumption in the steel industry, a heavy energy consuming industry in Thailand, a model project was carried out for waste heat recovery on a billet reheating furnace, with the fiscal 1999 results compiled. This model project is to install a high efficiency recuperator and the latest combustion control system in the existing furnace in a SISCO (The Siam Iron and Steel Co., Ltd.) plant in Thailand. This year, following the preceding year, the construction manual was prepared, as were the test run manual, performance verification manual, operation and maintenance manual, etc. Supervisors were also dispatched to the site, giving guidance of the installation work, test run and the demonstrative operation, on the basis of these documents. Operation for verifying performance of the equipment was implemented on November 17, 1999, with the intended results obtained. Subsequently, operation maintenance instructors were dispatched, with energy saving effect proved through the collection/analysis of operation data and monitoring, for example. Further, as the dissemination activities, pamphlets and videos were prepared, and seminars were held, among others. (NEDO)

  18. Effect of re-heating on the hot electron temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estabrook, K.; Rosen, M.

    1980-01-01

    Resonant absorption is the direct conversion of the transverse laser light to longitudinal electron plasma waves (epw) at the critical density [10 21 (1.06 μm/lambda 0 ) 2 cm -3 ]. The oscillating longitudinal electric field of the epw heats the electrons by accelerating them down the density gradient to a temperature of approximately 21T/sub e/ 0 25 ([I(W/cm 2 )/10 16 ](lambda 0 /1.06 μm) 2 ) 0 4 . This section extends the previous work by studying the effects of magnetic fields and collisions (albedo) which return the heated electrons for further heating. A magnetic field increases their temperature and collisions do not

  19. Towards universal axion inflation and reheating in string theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph Blumenhagen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The recent BICEP2 measurements of B-modes indicate a large tensor-to-scalar ratio in inflationary cosmology, which points towards trans-Planckian evolution of the inflaton. We propose possible string-theory realizations thereof. Schemes for natural and axion monodromy inflation are presented in the framework of the type IIB large volume scenario. The inflaton in both cases is given by the universal axion and its potential is generated by F-terms. Our models are shown to feature a natural mechanism for inflaton decay into predominantly Standard Model particles.

  20. PSpectRe: a pseudo-spectral code for (P)reheating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easther, Richard; Finkel, Hal; Roth, Nathaniel

    2010-01-01

    PSpectRe is a C++ program that uses Fourier-space pseudo-spectral methods to evolve interacting scalar fields in an expanding universe. PSpectRe is optimized for the analysis of parametric resonance in the post-inflationary universe and provides an alternative to finite differencing codes, such as Defrost and LatticeEasy. PSpectRe has both second- (Velocity-Verlet) and fourth-order (Runge-Kutta) time integrators. Given the same number of spatial points and/or momentum modes, PSpectRe is not significantly slower than finite differencing codes, despite the need for multiple Fourier transforms at each timestep, and exhibits excellent energy conservation. Further, by computing the post-resonance equation of state, we show that in some circumstances PSpectRe obtains reliable results while using substantially fewer points than a finite differencing code. PSpectRe is designed to be easily extended to other problems in early-universe cosmology, including the generation of gravitational waves during phase transitions and pre-inflationary bubble collisions. Specific applications of this code will be described in future work

  1. Amietia angolensis and A. fuscigula (Anura: Pyxicephalidae) in southern Africa: a cold case reheated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channing, Alan; Baptista, Ninda

    2013-01-01

    A study combining DNA sequences of the mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene, advertisement calls and morphology of some southern African river frogs confirms Amietia vandijki (Visser & Channing, 1997) as a good species. The form presently referred to as Amietia angolensis in southern Africa is shown to comprise two species: Amietia angolensis (Bocage, 1866) known from Angola, and Amietia quecketti (Boulenger, 1895) known from South Africa, Zimbabwe and Lesotho. Junior synonyms of A. quecketti include Rana theileri Mocquard, 1906 and Afrana dracomontana Channing, 1978. The form presently known as Amietia fuscigula is shown to consist of two distantly related taxa: Amietia fuscigula (Duméril & Bibron, 1841) from the south-western Cape and an undescribed species that we here name Amietia poyntoni sp. nov. Channing & Baptista, known from the rest of South Africa and Namibia. These five species have large differences in 16S sequences, as well as differences in morphology and advertisement call. Call and molecular data are both diagnostic, while morphology shows some overlap between taxa. An extended study of the genus across Africa is in preparation.

  2. Time and crime: which cold-case investigations should be reheated? / Jonathan A. Hughes, Monique Jonas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hughes, Jonathan A.

    2015-01-01

    Kriminaalmenetluse eesmärkidest ja tõendamisest; ideest (taas)uurida ajaloolisi, avalikkuse jätkuva huvi all olevaid kuritegusid (nt Rappija Jackiga seonduv) praegusaegsete tehnoloogiliste vahenditega

  3. Parametric amplification of metric fluctuations during reheating in two field models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finelli, F.; Brandenberger, R.

    2000-01-01

    We study the parametric amplification of super-Hubble-scale scalar metric fluctuations at the end of inflation in some specific two-field models of inflation, a class of which is motivated by hybrid inflation. We demonstrate that there can indeed be a large growth of fluctuations due to parametric resonance and that this effect is not taken into account by the conventional theory of isocurvature perturbations. Scalar field interactions play a crucial role in this analysis. We discuss the conditions under which there can be nontrivial parametric resonance effects on large scales

  4. High toughness in the intercritically reheated coarse-grained (ICRCG) heat-affected zone (HAZ) of low carbon microalloyed steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Jun, E-mail: hujunral@163.com [The State Key Laboratory of Rolling and Automation, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Du, Lin-Xiu [The State Key Laboratory of Rolling and Automation, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Wang, Jian-Jun [Institute of Materials Research, School of Material and Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Xie, Hui; Gao, Cai-Ru [The State Key Laboratory of Rolling and Automation, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Misra, R.D.K. [Laboratory for Excellence in Advanced Steel Research, Center for Structural and Functional Materials, University of Louisiana at Lafayette, Lafayette, LA 70504-4130 (United States)

    2014-01-10

    Motivated by the small lattice mismatch between ferrite and vanadium nitride (VN), we describe here the welding thermal cycle simulation that provides high toughness in the ICRCG HAZ of low carbon V–N steel. This unique behavior is attributed to the formation of ultra-fine grained ferrite along prior austenite grain boundaries generated by the first pass welding thermal cycle with high misorientation boundaries, where V(C, N) precipitates provide potential nucleation sites for ferrite, leading to extraordinary refinement of martensite/austenite (M/A) constituent. Nitrogen stimulates the precipitation behavior of V(C, N). The nucleation of high density of V(C, N) precipitates consumes carbon-content in the austenite, leading to decrease in the carbon-content in the M/A constituent, with consequent decrease in hardness. The increase in toughness is explained in terms of Griffith's crack propagation theory.

  5. Making theory: I. Producing physics and physicists in postwar America. II. Post-inflation reheating in an expanding universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, David Isaac

    2000-11-01

    This dissertation examines the reinvention of theoretical physics in the United States through pedagogical means after World War II. Physics graduate student enrollments ballooned immediately after the war. The unprecedented enrollments forced questions of procedures and standards for graduate training as never before. At the same time, the crush of numbers spurred an increased bureaucratization and, at least some American physicists feared, a different system of values than what had prevailed during the quieter interwar period. Out of these new bureaucratic and pedagogical developments, theoretical physics became a recognized specialty within American physics, surrounded by new ideas about what theory was for and how students should be trained to do it. Two case studies focus on developments within theoretical physics after the war, using pedagogy as a lens through which to understand the links between practices and practitioners. Within nuclear and particle physics, as Part II discusses, young graduate students and postdoctoral fellows puzzled over how to calculate with, and how to interpret, the simple line-drawings introduced by Richard Feynman in 1948. The number of distinct pictorial forms, calculational roles, and attributed meanings for the simple stick-figures quickly multiplied: rather than commanding a single use or interpretation, the diagrams came to be used for a wide variety of distinct tasks. Some theorists clung to the diagrams even as they declared the original theoretical framework from which the diagrams had sprung to be ``sterile'' and ``dead.'' These young theorists drew the diagrams much the same way as Feynman had, yet read content into them which had no correlate in the older approaches. Part III uses pedagogy to make sense of a similar series of changes within the long-dormant field of gravitational physics. Einstein's gravitational field equations proved to be no more obvious or auto-interpreting than Feynman's diagrams had been. Physicists after the war crafted new theoretical practices with which to approach questions within gravitational theory. During the middle decades of this century, American graduate students in physics learned to treat Einstein's famous theory in ways which would have been totally unrecognizable to Einstein himself-even as these new recruits were being trained to ``do'' gravitational physics.

  6. High toughness in the intercritically reheated coarse-grained (ICRCG) heat-affected zone (HAZ) of low carbon microalloyed steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Jun; Du, Lin-Xiu; Wang, Jian-Jun; Xie, Hui; Gao, Cai-Ru; Misra, R.D.K.

    2014-01-01

    Motivated by the small lattice mismatch between ferrite and vanadium nitride (VN), we describe here the welding thermal cycle simulation that provides high toughness in the ICRCG HAZ of low carbon V–N steel. This unique behavior is attributed to the formation of ultra-fine grained ferrite along prior austenite grain boundaries generated by the first pass welding thermal cycle with high misorientation boundaries, where V(C, N) precipitates provide potential nucleation sites for ferrite, leading to extraordinary refinement of martensite/austenite (M/A) constituent. Nitrogen stimulates the precipitation behavior of V(C, N). The nucleation of high density of V(C, N) precipitates consumes carbon-content in the austenite, leading to decrease in the carbon-content in the M/A constituent, with consequent decrease in hardness. The increase in toughness is explained in terms of Griffith's crack propagation theory

  7. Research on structural integration of thermodynamic system for double reheat coal-fired unit with CO2 capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lanjing; Shao, Wenjing; Wang, Zhiyue; Fu, Wenfeng; Zhao, Wensheng

    2018-02-01

    Taking the MEA chemical absorption carbon capture system with 85% of the carbon capture rate of a 660MW ultra-super critical unit as an example,this paper puts forward a new type of turbine which dedicated to supply steam to carbon capture system. The comparison of the thermal systems of the power plant under different steam supply schemes by using the EBSILON indicated optimal extraction scheme for Steam Extraction System in Carbon Capture System. The results show that the cycle heat efficiency of the unit introduced carbon capture turbine system is higher than that of the usual scheme without it. With the introduction of the carbon capture turbine, the scheme which extracted steam from high pressure cylinder’ s steam input point shows the highest cycle thermal efficiency. Its indexes are superior to other scheme, and more suitable for existing coal-fired power plant integrated post combustion carbon dioxide capture system.

  8. Reheating breakfast: Age and multitasking on a computer-based and a non-computer-based task

    OpenAIRE

    Feinkohl, I.; Cress, U.; Kimmerle, J.

    2016-01-01

    Computer-based assessments are popular means to measure individual differences, including age differences, in cognitive ability, but are rarely tested for the extent to which they correspond to more realistic behavior. In the present study, we explored the extent to which performance on an existing computer-based task of multitasking ('cooking breakfast') may be generalizable by comparing it with a newly developed version of the same task that required interaction with physical objects. Twent...

  9. Effect of Reheating Temperature and Cooling Treatment on the Microstructure, Texture, and Impact Transition Behavior of Heat-Treated Naval Grade HSLA Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sk, Md. Basiruddin; Ghosh, A.; Rarhi, N.; Balamuralikrishnan, R.; Chakrabarti, D.

    2017-07-01

    In order to achieve the desired mechanical properties [YS > 390 MPa, total elongation >16 pct and Charpy impact toughness of 78 J at 213 K (-60 °C)] for naval application, samples from a low-carbon microalloyed steel have been subjected to different austenitization (1223 K to 1523 K) (950 °C to 1250 °C) and cooling treatments (furnace, air, or water cooling). The as-rolled steel and the sample air cooled from 1223 K (950 °C) could only achieve the required tensile properties, while the sample furnace cooled from 1223 K (950 °C) showed the best Charpy impact properties. Water quenching from 1223 K (950 °C) certainly contributed to the strength but affected the impact toughness. Overall, predominantly ferrite matrix with fine effective grain size and intense gamma-fiber texture was found to be beneficial for impact toughness as well as impact transition behavior. Small size and fraction of precipitates (like TiN, Nb, and V carbonitrides) eliminated the possibility of particle-controlled crack propagation and grain size-controlled crack propagation led to cleavage fracture. A simplified analytical approach has been used to explain the difference in impact transition behavior of the investigated samples.

  10. Method and apparatus for thermal power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangus, J.D.

    1979-01-01

    A method is described for power generation from a recirculating superheat-reheat circuit with multiple expansion stages which alleviates complex control systems and minimizes thermal cycling of system components, particularly the reheater. The invention includes preheating cold reheat fluid from the first expansion stage prior to its entering the reheater with fluid from the evaporator or drum component

  11. 30% of abatement of coldness needs + free re-heating at the skating rink of Chalons-en-Champagne; 30% de reduction des besoins de froid + rechauffage gratuit a la patinoire de Chalon-en-Champagne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2005-12-01

    The skating rink of Chalons-en-Champagne (France) is equipped with a air treatment system based on the use of a sensible energy transfer battery which reduces by 30% the coldness needs for dehumidification. This process uses part of the heat released by the condensers to generate ice. The result is a 30% reduction of the installed power and a 40% reduction of energy consumptions with respect to standard air treatment solutions. (J.S.)

  12. Method and apparatus for thermal power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    A thermal power plant reheat cycle system is described in which the discharge from a first expansion stage is reheated prior to expansion in a subsequent expansion stage. The primary coolant has a high sheet transfer rate and can accommodate temperature changes in the reheat vapor. (U.K.)

  13. Effectiveness of oxygen barrier oven bags in low temperature cooking on reduction of warmed-over flavor in beef roasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepper-Blilie, A N; Berg, E P; Buchanan, D S; Keller, W L; Maddock-Carlin, K R; Berg, P T

    2014-03-01

    A 3×3×2 factorial was utilized to determine if roast size (small, medium, large), cooking method (open-pan, oven bag, vacuum bag), and heating process (fresh, reheated) prevented warmed-over flavor (WOF) in beef clod roasts. Fresh vacuum bag and reheated open-pan roasts had higher cardboardy flavor scores compared with fresh open-pan roast scores. Reheated roasts in oven and vacuum bags did not differ from fresh roasts for cardboardy flavor. Brothy and fat intensity were increased in reheated roasts in oven and vacuum bags compared with fresh roasts in oven and vacuum bags. Differences in TBARS were found in the interaction of heating process and roast size with the fresh and reheated large, and reheated medium roasts having the lowest values. Based on TBARS data, to prevent WOF in reheated beef roasts, a larger size roast in a cooking bag is the most effective method. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Structure–property relationship in a 960 MPa grade ultrahigh strength low carbon niobium–vanadium microalloyed steel: The significance of high frequency induction tempering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Z.J.; Fang, Y.P.; Han, G.; Guo, H.; Misra, R.D.K.; Shang, C.J.

    2014-01-01

    The present study describes the microstructure and precipitation behavior in an ultra-high strength low carbon niobium–vanadium microalloyed steel that was processed by quenching and high frequency induction tempering. Ultrahigh yield strength of ∼1000 MPa with high elongation of ∼15% and high low temperature toughness of 55 J (half thickness) at −40 °C was obtained after quenching from austenitization at 900 °C for 30 min, and tempering at 600 °C for 15 min by induction reheating with a reheating rate of ∼50 °C/s. While the yield strength increase on tempering was similar for both induction reheating and conventional reheating (electrical resistance reheating), there was ∼100% increase in low temperature toughness in induction reheated steel compared to the conventional reheating process. The underlying reason for the increase in toughness was attributed to the transformation of cementite film observed in conventional reheating and tempering to nanoscale cementite in induction reheating and tempering. The precipitation of nanoscale carbides is believed to significantly contribute to ultra-high strength, good ductility, and high toughness in the high frequency induction reheating and tempering process

  15. Effects of S and Mn on the hot workability of STS 316L and 309S steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Soo Chan; Kim, Young Hwan; Lee, Yun Yong

    1998-01-01

    Effects of sulfur and manganese on the hot workability of STS 316L and 309S steels have been investigated. From the results of hot workability test, the hot ductility was decreased with increasing sulfur content and reheating temperature. This is considered to be caused by sulfur segregations and sulfide precipitates at grain boundaries. Sulfur would be dissolved under the reheating conditions and reprecipitated with decreasing temperatures during hot rolling. The content of reprecipitated sulfur is decreased with increasing manganese content and decreasing reheating temperature. Therefore, the hot ductility is increased with increasing manganese content. It was also found that the hot ductility is increased with decreasing reheating temperature

  16. Gas turbine with heating during the expansion in the stator blades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-Maksoud, Rafea Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A new cycle is herein introduced with a concept of heating during the expansion. • Turbine overheating is avoided by reducing significantly the cycle temperature. • Comparison is done with a reheat cycle having a higher maximum cycle temperature. • The cycle performance is higher than the reheat cycle. • Regeneration is used to boost the present cycle efficiency. - Abstract: Reheat is used in the gas turbine to achieve higher power output. However, the reheat process is constrained by the heat quantity given to it and the choice of reheat point. Consequently, this paper introduces a new gas turbine cycle to overcome the reheat drawbacks and having superior features. In this cycle, the reheat process is replaced by processes of heating the expanded gases while passing through different turbine stator blades. Small amount of combusted gases is utilized to flow inside such blades for heating and mixing with the expanded gases. Nevertheless, this is performed with precautions of turbine overheating by reducing significantly the maximum temperature of the present cycle. The simulated results demonstrate that the cycle performance is increased by raising the quantity of heating during the expansion. Additionally, this cycle achieves greater efficient output than the traditional reheat Brayton cycle operating with higher maximum cycle temperature. To boost the present cycle efficiency, regeneration is used making the possibility of such cycle to be competitive to the combined cycle

  17. Effect of Pre-cooking and Addition of Phosphate on the Quality of Catfish Fillets Cooked in Pouch in Boiling Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooking or reheating food in a vacuum sealed bag has been a common method of preparing vegetables, meat and poultry products. There are very few examples of vacuum sealed bags designed for cooking or reheating catfish fillets. The objective of the present study was to examine the properties of raw f...

  18. Effect of Pre-cooking and Addition of Phosphate on the Quality of Microwave Cooked Catfish Fillets

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the US market place there are many examples of precooked poultry products designed to be reheated in a microwave oven and to a lesser extent fish products such as tilapia. However, there are few US catfish products designed to be microwave cooked or reheated in the market place. The first objecti...

  19. Older Adults and Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cook meat and poultry to higher temperatures. Ham, cook before eating* 145 °F Ham, fully cooked, to reheat 140 °F Poultry, whole, parts or ground 165 °F Fish 145 °F Egg dishes, casseroles 160 °F Leftovers, to reheat 165 ° ...

  20. Martensite formation in Fe-C alloys at cryogenic temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villa, Matteo; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2017-01-01

    at a rate of 0.0083 K s− 1; (iv) as for (iii) but (re-)heating at 0.167 K s− 1 interrupted by an isothermal step. Data was coupled with hardness measurements and demonstrates that the re-heating conditions from 77 K significantly influence the fraction of austenite retained at the end of the thermal cycle....

  1. More flipped SU(5) x U(1) baryosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, J.; Hagelin, J.S.; Nanopoulos, D.V.; Olive, K.A.

    1988-06-30

    We supplement a previous discussion of baryosynthesis in flipped SU(5)xU(1) GUTs by including (1) the large incoherent field energy density which is likely when SU(5) is broken, and (2) the possibility of additional Higgs triplet fields suggested by four-dimensional string model-building. We consider strong (weak) reheating scenarios in which the Universe is (is not) SU(5) symmetric after inflation. We find an adequate baryon asymmetry subsequent to strong reheating, whatever the number of Higgs triplets (although beware of possible difficulties with quasi-stable relic particles), whereas weak reheating requires at least two Higgs triplets.

  2. Comment on "An experimental study of symmetry lowering of analcime"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nespolo, Massimo

    2018-02-01

    In a recent article (Phys Chem Minerals. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00269-017-0922-1, 2018), analcime hydrothermally synthesized from a gel and then reheated was reported to have undergone a loss of symmetry to Ibca. We show that the reheated samples, reported as different, are identical to each other and actually tetragonal. The fact that the tetragonal axis was oriented along the a or b vector in the two reheated samples instead of the c vector as in the conventional setting seems to have been the cause of the misinterpretation of the diffraction pattern.

  3. Comment on "An experimental study of symmetry lowering of analcime"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nespolo, Massimo

    2018-04-01

    In a recent article (Phys Chem Minerals. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00269-017-0922-1, 2018), analcime hydrothermally synthesized from a gel and then reheated was reported to have undergone a loss of symmetry to Ibca. We show that the reheated samples, reported as different, are identical to each other and actually tetragonal. The fact that the tetragonal axis was oriented along the a or b vector in the two reheated samples instead of the c vector as in the conventional setting seems to have been the cause of the misinterpretation of the diffraction pattern.

  4. Superconducting glass-ceramics in BiSrCaCu2Al0.5Ox---Comparison between rod and powder compacted specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, K.; Abe, Y.

    1991-01-01

    Superconducting properties are studied for glass-ceramics which were prepared by reheating glass rods and the glass powder compacts in the BiSrCaCu 2 Al 0.5 O x system, respectively. The glass-ceramic rod specimens obtained by reheating rod glass at 800--830 degree C for 50 h have a T c (R=0) of 85 K, while the disk specimens obtained by reheating the powered glass compacts in the same way do not exhibit superconductivity above 77 K. This difference in superconductivity between the specimens is discussed in terms of crystallization process and the amount of oxygen absorption of the specimens during heating

  5. Connecting ring and process to fix heaters in a pressure vessel by means of these rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailleul, G.; Caloine, P.; Coville, P.

    1984-01-01

    The invention can applies to the installation of heaters for nuclear reactor pressurizer or to the installation of any kind of reheaters by means of electric resistances when these reheaters have to work under important pressures. The connecting ring is made of a single metallic piece, two coaxial tubes joined each other by a skirt nearly radial; the skirt joins an end of the outer cylindrical tube and an intermediate zone of the inner cylindrical tube. The invention concerns also a heater provided with such a connecting ring, substituted for a part of its metallic envelope, and a process of fastening of these heaters on a pressure vessel. The description given in the frame of a pressurizer applies to the case of a gas reheater or to a reheater for liquid under pressure such as liquid sodium in a tank [fr

  6. Barbecue Basics: Tips to Prevent Foodborne Illness

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... use a plate that previously held raw meat, poultry, or seafood for anything else unless the plate ... food thermometer to check that your meat and poultry reach a safe internal temperature. When re-heating ...

  7. Hubble induced mass after inflation in spectator field models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, Tomohiro [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94306 (United States); Harigaya, Keisuke, E-mail: tomofuji@stanford.edu, E-mail: keisukeh@icrr.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Spectator field models such as the curvaton scenario and the modulated reheating are attractive scenarios for the generation of the cosmic curvature perturbation, as the constraints on inflation models are relaxed. In this paper, we discuss the effect of Hubble induced masses on the dynamics of spectator fields after inflation. We pay particular attention to the Hubble induced mass by the kinetic energy of an oscillating inflaton, which is generically unsuppressed but often overlooked. In the curvaton scenario, the Hubble induced mass relaxes the constraint on the property of the inflaton and the curvaton, such as the reheating temperature and the inflation scale. We comment on the implication of our discussion for baryogenesis in the curvaton scenario. In the modulated reheating, the predictions of models e.g. the non-gaussianity can be considerably altered. Furthermore, we propose a new model of the modulated reheating utilizing the Hubble induced mass which realizes a wide range of the local non-gaussianity parameter.

  8. E coli enteritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... coli; Food poisoning - E. coli; E. coli diarrhea; Hamburger disease ... coleslaw or potato salad) that have been out of the refrigerator too ... reheated Fish or oysters Raw fruits or vegetables that have ...

  9. Steam turbines for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trassl, W.

    1988-01-01

    Approximately 75% of the electrical energy produced in the world is generated in power plants with steam turbines (fossil and nuclear). Although gas turbines are increasingly applied in combined cycle power plants, not much will change in this matter in the future. As far as the steam parameters and the maximum unit output are concerned, a certain consolidation was noted during the past decades. The standard of development and mathematical penetration of the various steam turbine components is very high today and is applied in the entire field: For saturated steam turbines in nuclear power plants and for steam turbines without reheat, with reheat and with double reheat in fossil-fired power plants and for steam turbines with and without reheat in combined cycle power plants. (orig.) [de

  10. Load frequency control of three area interconnected hydro-thermal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    hydrothermal reheat power system by the use of Artificial Intelligent and PI Controller. ... form of Kinetic Energy stored in generator prime mover set, which results the ... A control strategy is needed that not only maintains constancy of frequency ...

  11. Healthy Breakfast: Quick, Flexible Options to Grab at Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with whole-wheat bread, eggs whites or an egg substitute, cinnamon and vanilla Try these tips for fitting in breakfast on a tight schedule: Cook ahead. Make breakfast the night before. Just reheat ...

  12. Nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schabert, H.P.

    1976-01-01

    A nuclear power plant is described which includes a steam generator supplied via an input inlet with feedwater heated by reactor coolant to generate steam, the steam being conducted to a steam engine having a high pressure stage to which the steam is supplied, and which exhausts the steam through a reheater to a low pressure stage. The reheater is a heat exchanger requiring a supply of hot fluid. To avoid the extra load that would be placed on the steam generator by using a portion of its steam output as such heating fluid, a portion of the water in the steam generator is removed and passed through the reheater, this water having received at least adequate heating in the steam generator to make the reheater effective, but not at the time of its removal being in a boiling condition

  13. Prospects for direct detection of inflationary gravitational waves by next generation interferometric detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroyanagi, Sachiko; Chiba, Takeshi; Sugiyama, Naoshi

    2011-01-01

    We study the potential impact of detecting the inflationary gravitational wave background by the future space-based gravitational wave detectors, such as DECIGO and BBO. The signal-to-noise ratio of each experiment is calculated for chaotic/natural/hybrid inflation models by using the precise predictions of the gravitational wave spectrum based on numerical calculations. We investigate the dependence of each inflation model on the reheating temperature which influences the amplitude and shape of the spectrum, and find that the gravitational waves could be detected for chaotic/natural inflation models with high reheating temperature. From the detection of the gravitational waves, a lower bound on the reheating temperature could be obtained. The implications of this lower bound on the reheating temperature for particle physics are also discussed.

  14. Listeria Infections (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ingest the bacteria by eating foods such as deli meats and cold cuts, soft-ripened cheese, undercooked ... queso fresco). Reheat precooked, prepackaged foods — such as deli meats or hot dogs — to steaming hot temperatures, ...

  15. Ground Beef and Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 4 days. If frozen, it should keep its quality for about 4 months. When reheating fully cooked patties or casseroles containing ground beef, be sure the internal temperature reaches 165 °F (73.9 °C). Why ...

  16. Thermal history of the universe after inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, Scott, E-mail: gswatson@syr.edu [Department of Physics, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY 13244 (United States)

    2016-06-21

    When did the universe thermalize? In this talk I review the status of this issue and its importance in establishing the expected properties of dark matter, the growth of large-scale structure, and the viability of inflation models when confronted with CMB observations. I also present a novel approach to tackling the theoretical challenges surrounding inflationary (p)reheating, which seeks to extend past work on the Effective Field Theory of Inflation to the time of reheating.

  17. Failures of chain systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    James, A

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available ?C and intermittent exposure at 400--450 ?C. Unlike structural steels, which become softer and more ductile when reheated in service, manga- nese steels become brittle when reheated sufficiently to induce carbide... to form a roughly oval shaped crack until the link section could no longer withstand the applied loading experienced during normal dragline operations, and this resulted in final fast brittle failure. The general...

  18. Device for starting a steam generator by heating sodium in a reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Hisao.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To enhance cooperation between ventilation and steam conditions of turbine and ventilation condition relative to a superheater at the time of starting a plant using a fast breeder, and to enhance safety with respect to failure of heat transmission tubes at the time of start. Structure: In a device in which steam generated in an evaporator is fed to a high pressure turbine through a super-heater and an outlet steam of high pressure turbine is reheated by means of a re-heater and fed into a turbine on the side of low pressure to drive the turbine for power generation, opening and closing valves are mounted on outlet and inlet pipes, respectively, of the heat transmission pipe in the super heater, said outlet and inlet pipes being connected by a bypass pipe. Upstream side of the opening and closing valve on the inlet pipe and the downstream side of the opening and closing valve on the outlet pipe and connected by a bypass pipe in the re-heater and said bypass pipe in the re-heater is provided with a steam heat exchanger to be heated by steam in the outlet of the superheater, and a steam line in an auxiliary boiler is connected to the side of re-heater from the opening and closing valve on the heat transmission pipe in the re-heater. (Hanada, M.)

  19. MSR redesign and reconstruction at Indiana Michigan Power Company's Donald C. Cook Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarden, A.L.; Tam, C.W.; Benes, J.D.; Arnold, W.E.

    1993-01-01

    When Indiana Michigan Power Company's (I and M) 1089- MWe, PWR, Donald C. Cook Nuclear Plant, Unit 1, (Cook 1) in Bridgeman, Michigan went into commercial operation in late 1975, its turbine generator included two Moisture Separator Reheater (MSR) vessels. Each of these original MSRs contained, in addition to the moisture separation section, a single stage 2-pass reheater consisting of 5/8 inch O.D., finned CuNi tubes with main heating steam as an energy source. The enormous size of the tube bank, with a vertical orientation of its tubes' U-bends, led the designer to choose two separate headers for the inlet side and outlet side of the tube bank. Over the years, these 2-pass reheaters had deteriorated mechanically such that maintenance costs had increased considerably. Also, the MSR performance in terms of MWe gain, had fallen off as a result of a gradual reduction of both superheat and moisture separation efficiency. In 1990, these MSRs were totally reconstructed with inherently different 4-pass reheaters and upgraded moisture separation systems. The performance and other direct parameters of these newly retrofitted and improved MSRs have exceeded original design specifications, and their operational stability has improved markedly. This MSR reconstruction at Cook 1 is the first of its kind to include a 4-pass reheater in association with a nuclear turbine generator of this design. This paper highlights the problems and solutions associated respectively with the original reheaters in the Cook 1 MSRs and their recent redesign, reconstruction, and performance

  20. A Histological Analysis of Visceral Organs to Evaluate the Effect of Duration of Heating From Refrigeration to Core Body Temperature for Ballistics Investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, Caitlin; Kumaratilake, Jaliya

    2017-12-01

    Animal organs have been used in ballistics research to investigate the effects on human organs. Such organs are refrigerated until the investigation to minimize autolytic degradation and at times have been reheated to the human core body temperature to simulate the in situ environment. The aim of this investigation was to study the microstructural changes that may occur in fresh chilled visceral organs of the thorax and abdomen (ie, heart, lung, liver, and kidney) during the period of reheating to 37°C. Fifty-millimeter cubes of porcine heart, lung, liver, and kidney were taken rapidly after slaughter, chilled overnight, and the next morning were reheated to core body temperature (37°C). Histological changes occurring in the tissues during the reheating phase were investigated. The findings indicated that no cytoplasmic or nuclear changes occurred in any of the tissues during the period of reheating. Therefore, reheating of animal organs to the human core body temperature is not necessary, if the organs are refrigerated.

  1. Influence of Post-Weld Heat Treatment on the Microstructure, Microhardness, and Toughness of a Weld Metal for Hot Bend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-Lin Han

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a weld metal in K65 pipeline steel pipe has been processed through self-designed post-weld heat treatments including reheating and tempering associated with hot bending. The microstructures and the corresponding toughness and microhardness of the weld metal subjected to the post-weld heat treatments have been investigated. Results show that with the increase in reheating temperature, austenite grain size increases and the main microstructures transition from fine polygonal ferrite (PF to granular bainitic ferrite (GB. The density of the high angle boundary decreases at higher reheating temperature, leading to a loss of impact toughness. Lots of martensite/austenite (M/A constituents are observed after reheating, and to a large extent transform into cementite after further tempering. At high reheating temperatures, the increased hardenability promotes the formation of large quantities of M/A constituents. After tempering, the cementite particles become denser and coarser, which considerably deteriorates the impact toughness. Additionally, microhardness has a good linear relation with the mean equivalent diameter of ferrite grain with a low boundary tolerance angle (2°−8°, which shows that the hardness is controlled by low misorientation grain boundaries for the weld metal.

  2. Warm inflation with an oscillatory inflaton in the non-minimal kinetic coupling model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodarzi, Parviz; Sadjadi, H.M.

    2017-01-01

    In the cold inflation scenario, the slow roll inflation and reheating via coherent rapid oscillation, are usually considered as two distinct eras. When the slow roll ends, a rapid oscillation phase begins and the inflaton decays to relativistic particles reheating the Universe. In another model dubbed warm inflation, the rapid oscillation phase is suppressed, and we are left with only a slow roll period during which the reheating occurs. Instead, in this paper, we propose a new picture for inflation in which the slow roll era is suppressed and only the rapid oscillation phase exists. Radiation generation during this era is taken into account, so we have warm inflation with an oscillatory inflaton. To provide enough e-folds, we employ the non-minimal derivative coupling model. We study the cosmological perturbations and compute the temperature at the end of warm oscillatory inflation. (orig.)

  3. Warm inflation with an oscillatory inflaton in the non-minimal kinetic coupling model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodarzi, Parviz [University of Ayatollah Ozma Borujerdi, Department of Science, Boroujerd (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sadjadi, H.M. [University of Tehran, Department of Physics, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-07-15

    In the cold inflation scenario, the slow roll inflation and reheating via coherent rapid oscillation, are usually considered as two distinct eras. When the slow roll ends, a rapid oscillation phase begins and the inflaton decays to relativistic particles reheating the Universe. In another model dubbed warm inflation, the rapid oscillation phase is suppressed, and we are left with only a slow roll period during which the reheating occurs. Instead, in this paper, we propose a new picture for inflation in which the slow roll era is suppressed and only the rapid oscillation phase exists. Radiation generation during this era is taken into account, so we have warm inflation with an oscillatory inflaton. To provide enough e-folds, we employ the non-minimal derivative coupling model. We study the cosmological perturbations and compute the temperature at the end of warm oscillatory inflation. (orig.)

  4. Low-Flow Liquid Desiccant Air Conditioning: General Guidance and Site Considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozubal, E.; Herrmann, L.; Deru, M.; Clark, J.

    2014-09-01

    Dehumidification or latent cooling in buildings is an area of growing interest that has been identified as needing more research and improved technologies for higher performance. Heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems typically expend excessive energy by using overcool-and-reheat strategies to dehumidify buildings. These systems first overcool ventilation air to remove moisture and then reheat the air to meet comfort requirements. Another common strategy incorporates solid desiccant rotors that remove moisture from the air more efficiently; however, these systems increase fan energy consumption because of the high airside pressure drop of solid desiccant rotors and can add heat of absorption to the ventilation air. Alternatively, liquid desiccant air-conditioning (LDAC) technology provides an innovative dehumidification solution that: (1) eliminates the need for overcooling and reheating from traditional cooling systems; and (2) avoids the increased fan energy and air heating from solid desiccant rotor systems.

  5. Furan in food including homemade and ready-to-eat food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fromberg, Arvid; Granby, Kit; Mariotti Celis, M.

    Furan is formed in canned, jarred or browned food items. As furan is carcinogenic in animal experiments, attention has been drawn to the presence in commercial and home-cooked foods. The formation of furan in home cooked foods were studied as well as the stability of furan during cooking, saving...... and reheating of meals. In addition the occurrence of furan in some commercially dried and browned food products were determined. Several recipes of European homemade food were prepared but in most cases fortunately furan was not found. I few exceptions were e.g. apple pie (133 ng/g furan in the rasp) and tea...... buns with raisins (83 ng/g furan in the raisins). The influence on heating and reheating of ready to eat foods like different soups, baked beans and vegetable meals known to contain furan, showed that heating roughly reduced the furan level to half the initial level and reheating reduced the level...

  6. Design of PFBR steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chetal, S.C.; Bhoje, S.B.; Mitra, T.K.; Paranjpe, S.R.; Vaidyanathan, G.

    1990-01-01

    Vertical straight tube with an expansion bend in sodium path is the design selected for the steam generators of 500 MWe Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR). There are 4 secondary loops with each loop consisting of 3 modules. With sodium reheat incorporated each module comprises of one evaporator, superheater and reheater. Material of construction is 2.25Cr-1Mo for evaporator and 9Cr-1Mo for superheater and reheater. The tube to tubesheet weld is internal bore butt weld with tubesheet having raised spigot. Aim is to have reliable design with higher plant availability. Design considerations leading to the choice of design features selected are discussed in the paper and a ''reference'' design has been described. (author). 2 figs, 1 tab

  7. Transitionless Enhanced Confinement and the Role of Radial Electric Field Shear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coppi, B.; Ernst, D.R.; Bell, M.G.; Bell, R.E.; Budny, R.V.

    1999-01-01

    Evidence for the role of radial electric field shear in enhanced confinement regimes attained without sharp bifurcations or transitions is presented. Temperature scans at constant density, created in the reheat phase following deuterium pellet injection into supershot plasmas in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor [J.D. Strachan, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 58 (1987) 1004] are simulated using a first-principles transport model. The slow reheat of the ion temperature profile, during which the temperature nearly doubles, is not explained by relatively comprehensive models of transport due to Ion Temperature Gradient Driven Turbulence (ITGDT), which depends primarily on the (unchanging) electron density gradient. An extended model, including the suppression of toroidal ITGDT by self-consistent radial electric field shear, does reproduce the reheat phase

  8. The phase transition to slow-roll eternal inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creminelli, P.; Dubovsky, S.; Nicolis, A.; Senatore, L.; Zaldarriaga, M.

    2008-01-01

    For slow-roll inflation we study the phase transition to the eternal regime. Starting from a finite inflationary volume, we consider the volume of the universe at reheating as order parameter. We show that there exists a critical value for the classical inflation speed, φ-dot 2 /H 4 = 3/(2 π 2 ), where the probability distribution for the reheating volume undergoes a sharp transition. In particular, for sub-critical inflation speeds all distribution moments become infinite. We show that at the same transition point the system develops a non-vanishing probability of having a strictly infinite reheating volume, while retaining a finite probability for finite values. Our analysis represents the exact quantum treatment of the system at lowest order in the slow-roll parameters and H 2 /M Pl 2 . (author)

  9. Quintessential inflation on the brane and the relic gravity wave background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sami, M.; Sahni, V.

    2004-01-01

    Quintessential inflation describes a scenario in which both inflation and dark energy (quintessence) are described by the same scalar field. In conventional braneworld models of quintessential inflation gravitational particle-production is used to reheat the universe. This reheating mechanism is very inefficient and results in an excessive production of gravity waves which violate nucleosynthesis constraints and invalidate the model. We describe a new method of realizing quintessential inflation on the brane in which inflation is followed by 'instant preheating' (Felder, Kofman and Linde 1999). The larger reheating temperature in this model results in a smaller amplitude of relic gravity waves which is consistent with nucleosynthesis bounds. The relic gravity wave background has a 'blue' spectrum at high frequencies and is a generic byproduct of successful quintessential inflation on the brane

  10. Cold dark matter in brane cosmology scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahab, Eiman Abou El; Khalil, Shaaban

    2006-01-01

    We analyze the dark matter problem in the context of brane cosmology. We investigate the impact of the non-conventional brane cosmology on the relic abundance of non-relativistic stable particles in high and low reheating temperature scenarios. We show that in case of high reheating temperature, the brane cosmology may enhance the dark matter relic density by many order of magnitudes and a stringent lower bound on the five dimensional scale is obtained. We also consider low reheating temperature scenarios with chemical equilibrium and non-equilibrium. We emphasize that in non-equilibrium case, the resulting relic density is very small. While with equilibrium, it is increased by a factor of O(10 2 ) with respect to the standard thermal production. Therefore, dark matter particles with large cross section, which is favored by detection expirements, can be consistent with the recent relic density observational limits

  11. Baryon number generation in a flipped SU(5) x U(1) model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, B.; Hagelin, J.; Nanopoulos, D.V.; Olive, K.A.

    1988-01-01

    We consider the possibilities for generating a baryon asymmetry in the early universe in a flipped SU(5) x U(1) model inspired by the superstring. Depending on the temperature of the radiation background after inflation we can distinguish between two scenarios for baryogenesis: (1) After reheating the original SU(5) x U(1) symmetry is restored, or there was no inflation at all; (2) reheating after inflation is rather weak and SU(5) x U(1) is broken. In either case the asymmetry is generated by the out-of-equilibrium decays of a massive SU(3) x SU(2) x U(1) singlet field φ m . In the flipped SU(5) x U(1) model, gauge symmetry breaking is triggered by strong coupling phenomena, and is in general accompanied by the production of entropy. We examine constraints on the reheating temperature and the strong coupling scale in each of the scenarios. (orig.)

  12. A study on different thermodynamic cycle schemes coupled with a high temperature gas-cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu, Xinhe; Yang, Xiaoyong; Wang, Jie

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The features of three different power generation schemes, including closed Brayton cycle, non-reheating combined cycle and reheating combined cycle, coupled with high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) were investigated and compared. • The effects and mechanism of reactor core outlet temperature, compression ratio and other key parameters over cycle characteristics were analyzed by the thermodynamic models.. • It is found that reheated combined cycle has the highest efficiency. Reactor outlet temperature and main steam parameters are key factors to improve the cycle’s performance. - Abstract: With gradual increase in reactor outlet temperature, the efficient power conversion technology has become one of developing trends of (very) high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs). In this paper, different cycle power generation schemes for HTGRs were systematically studied. Physical and mathematical models were established for these three cycle schemes: closed Brayton cycle, simple combined cycle, and reheated combined cycle. The effects and mechanism of key parameters such as reactor core outlet temperature, reactor core inlet temperature and compression ratio on the features of these cycles were analyzed. Then, optimization results were given with engineering restrictive conditions, including pinch point temperature differences. Results revealed that within the temperature range of HTGRs (700–900 °C), the reheated combined cycle had the highest efficiency, while the simple combined cycle had the lowest efficiency (900 °C). The efficiencies of the closed Brayton cycle, simple combined cycle and reheated combined cycle are 49.5%, 46.6% and 50.1%, respectively. These results provide insights on the different schemes of these cycles, and reveal the effects of key parameters on performance of these cycles. It could be helpful to understand and develop a combined cycle coupled with a high temperature reactor in the future.

  13. Solar thermal repowering systems integration. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubberly, L. J.; Gormely, J. E.; McKenzie, A. W.

    1979-08-01

    This report is a solar repowering integration analysis which defines the balance-of-plant characteristics and costs associated with the solar thermal repowering of existing gas/oil-fired electric generating plants. Solar repowering interface requirements for water/steam and salt or sodium-cooled central receivers are defined for unit sizes ranging from 50 MWe non-reheat to 350 MWe reheat. Finally balance-of-plant cost estimates are presented for each of six combinations of plant type, receiver type and percent solar repowering.

  14. Advanced cycle efficiency: Generating 40% more power from the nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duffey, Romney B.; Leung, Laurence

    2010-09-15

    The introduction of supercritical water (SCW) nuclear power plants (NPPs) would improve the overall plant efficiency significantly compared to currently deployed systems. This improvement is attributed to the increase in plant operating conditions. In addition, the implementation of the reheat-channel option into the CANDU SCW NPPs would further enhance the efficiency. Overall, the combination of higher operating conditions and reheat-channel option would lead to overall plant efficiency of about 50% for the CANDU SCW NPPs, compared to 33--35% for currently deployed systems. This represents a whopping 40% improvement in efficiency.

  15. Robust Design of Terminal ILC with H∞ Mixed Sensitivity Approach for a Thermoforming Oven

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Gauthier

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a robust design approach for terminal iterative learning control (TILC. This robust design uses the H∞ mixed-sensitivity technique. An industrial application is described where TILC is used to control the reheat phase of plastic sheets in a thermoforming oven. The TILC adjusts the heater temperature setpoints such that, at the end of the reheat cycle, the surface temperature map of the plastic sheet will converge to the desired one. Simulation results are included to show the effectiveness of the control law.

  16. Influence of Fixed Temperature of Chilled Water Outlet Setting toward Performance of Chiller Absorbtion with Two Level Heating Cycle Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gusti Agung Bagus Wirajati

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the performance of re-heat two stage cycle. This paper presents the working principle and theexperimental results of the reheat two stage adsorption cycle. The performance of the cycle was evaluated under differentheat source temperature and mass recovery time. Coefficient of performance (COP and cooling capacity have beencalculated to analyze the influences of experimental conditions. The experimental results shown in both COP and coolingcapacity increased along with heat source temperature increased, and mass recovery time is very effective to improve theperformance without increasing heat source temperature.

  17. Resonant primordial gravitational waves amplification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunshan Lin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a mechanism to evade the Lyth bound in models of inflation. We minimally extend the conventional single-field inflation model in general relativity (GR to a theory with non-vanishing graviton mass in the very early universe. The modification primarily affects the tensor perturbation, while the scalar and vector perturbations are the same as the ones in GR with a single scalar field at least at the level of linear perturbation theory. During the reheating stage, the graviton mass oscillates coherently and leads to resonant amplification of the primordial tensor perturbation. After reheating the graviton mass vanishes and we recover GR.

  18. In-situ reconstruction of the MSRs at the Beaver Valley Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deahna, S.T.; Yarden, A.L.; Tam, C.W.

    1992-01-01

    Moisture Separator Reheaters (MSRs) have been problem components at Beaver Valley Unit 1 since the initial plant start-up in 1976. Their performance had been ineffective and reheater tube reliability was becoming a limiting factor in MSR operation. Many of the problems encountered were common to the nuclear industry. In 1991, Duquesne Light performed a major overhaul of the Beaver Valley Unit 1 MSRs in an attempt to restore them to an acceptable level of performance. This paper summarizes the operating history, engineering redesign, field reconstruction, and subsequent performance of these MSRs

  19. Patented installations for the production of methane and natural manures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milquet, F

    1951-12-01

    Current processes are reviewed and a new technique is described which maintains economically a constant temperature of 40/sup 0/C in the tanks by complete isolation in winter as in summer and periodic reheating of the mass. The tanks were buried underground and had double metal walls with low density cellular concrete between them. The covers were of thick cork, permanently fixed, and coated with an impermeable substance. Reheating was necessary only once during the fermentation, whereas with tanks above ground it had to be carried out more often and more vigorously. Straw was the raw material and the products were highly profitable quantities of methane and artificial manure.

  20. Integrating Solar Heating into an Air Handling Unit to Minimize Energy Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Scott A

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to test a method of integrating solar heating with a small commercial air handling unit (AHU). In order to accomplish this a heat exchanger was placed in the reheat position of the AHU and piped to the solar heating system. This heat exchanger is used to supplement or replace the existing electric reheat. This method was chosen for its ability to utilize solar energy on a more year round basis when compared to a traditional heating system. It allows solar h...

  1. Effects of Cu and Ni additions on the heat affected zone (HAZ) microstructure and mechanical properties of a C-Mn niobium microalloyed steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ale, Ricardo Miranda; Rebello, Joao Marques A.; Charlier, Jacques

    1996-01-01

    The influence of small additions of Cu and Ni on the heat affected zone microstructure and mechanical properties, particularly toughness, of C-Mn microalloyed steel has been evaluated. Cu and Ni additions improved the toughness of both coarse grained region and coarse grained region reheated intercritically due to the formation of lower bainite and avoiding Nb precipitation hardening, respectively. With Cu and Ni additions the embrittlement of the coarse grained region reheated intercritically, due to MA constituent, is counterbalanced by the formation of fine ferrite recrystallized grains near the prior austenite grain boundaries and the stabilisation of austenite between ferrite laths. (author)

  2. Meat and Fish Entree Item Production Guides Prepared for Walter Reed Army Medical Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-04-01

    diced Salt 0.41 Vinegar, cider 0.32 Sugar, granulated 0.27 Paprika 0.13 Garlic, dehydrated 0.05 granular Pepper, black, ground 0!01 ARROZ CON...table pans. ARROZ CON POI.l.O Ingredients Percent Pounds Grans Procedure TarALs 100.00 2$708 NarES: 1. Reheating: Reheat in a convection oven at...yield from raw weigpt-~to cooked edible (boned) meat. Edible weight of chicken equals 12 lb {5443 g). 68 ARROZ CON POLLO Meat 1. Bacon - NSN

  3. New welding and finishing procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The proceedings contain texts of the 31 contributions presented at the conference. One of them, dealing with the reheat crackability in the heat affected zone of steels for WWER-440 and WWER-1000 reactor vessels, has been inputted in INIS. The behavior of the steels was determined by the simulation technique. (M.D.). 4 figs., 5 tabs., 5 refs

  4. In situ observations during chemical vapor deposition of hexagonal boron nitride on polycrystalline copper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kidambi, Piran R.; Blume, Raoul; Kling, Jens

    2014-01-01

    processing, and that this negatively affects the stability of h-BN on the catalyst. For extended air exposure Cu oxidation is observed, and upon re-heating in vacuum an oxygen-mediated disintegration of the h-BN film via volatile boron oxides occurs. Importantly, this disintegration is catalyst mediated, i...

  5. Microstructure Evolution and Selective Corrosion Resistance in Underwater Multi-pass 2101 Duplex Stainless Steel Welding Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yu; Shi, Yonghua; Shen, Xiaoqin; Wang, Zhongmin

    2018-05-01

    A recently developed promising material, 2101 lean duplex stainless steel, represents an alternative to 304 austenite stainless steel. In this work, multi-pass 2101 weld joints were fabricated using the flux-cored arc welding method in a hyperbaric chamber. The pressure varied from 0 to 0.75 MPa. The evolution of the welding process and microstructure was investigated. γ 2 formation in the reheated zones of the WM and HAZ was not uniform. The closer the reheated zone is to the subsequent heat source, the greater the γ 2 formation in the reheated zone. Sufficient primary austenite transformation inhibited Cr2N precipitation and the subsequent intragranular γ 2 formation in the reheated weld passes of the 0.45 MPa weld metal. The localized corrosion resistance of each zone of the 0.45 MPa DSS joint was measured using non-destructive double-loop electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation tests. The localized corrosion was induced by γ 2 and Cr2N. The root region of the 0.45 MPa weld metal underwent two subsequent welding thermal cycles, which induced increased γ 2 formation and lower resistance to corrosion because of the decreased pitting resistance value of γ 2. The correlation between microstructure evolution and the distribution of selective corrosion was determined.

  6. Behavior of a cycle-integrated system. Heat recovery in RTL plants; Verhalten von Kreislauf-Verbund-Systemen. Waermerueckgewinnung in RLT-Anlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauser, Hanns Christoph [HCR Consulting, Ingenieurbuero fuer Kaelte- und Klimatechnik, Bietigheim-Bissingen (Germany)

    2010-09-15

    The contribution under consideration reports on the behaviour of a cycle-integrated system and derives criteria for the attaining high degrees of temperature changes. Since cycle-integrated system also realizes a reheating and a re-cooling apart from a heat recovery, also the behaviour of such a system is presented according to feeding coldness and warmth into the cycle.

  7. Gauge coupling unification and nonequilibrium thermal dark matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mambrini, Yann; Olive, Keith A; Quevillon, Jérémie; Zaldívar, Bryan

    2013-06-14

    We study a new mechanism for the production of dark matter in the Universe which does not rely on thermal equilibrium. Dark matter is populated from the thermal bath subsequent to inflationary reheating via a massive mediator whose mass is above the reheating scale T(RH). To this end, we consider models with an extra U(1) gauge symmetry broken at some intermediate scale (M(int) ≃ 10(10)-10(12) GeV). We show that not only does the model allow for gauge coupling unification (at a higher scale associated with grand unification) but it can provide a dark matter candidate which is a standard model singlet but charged under the extra U(1). The intermediate scale gauge boson(s) which are predicted in several E6/SO(10) constructions can be a natural mediator between dark matter and the thermal bath. We show that the dark matter abundance, while never having achieved thermal equilibrium, is fixed shortly after the reheating epoch by the relation T(RH)(3)/M(int)(4). As a consequence, we show that the unification of gauge couplings which determines M(int) also fixes the reheating temperature, which can be as high as T(RH) ≃ 10(11) GeV.

  8. performance evaluation of evolutionary designed conventional AGC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this context, the tuning of a multi-area automatic generation control (AGC) system after deregulation and furthermore, the effect of reheat turbines dynamics in the power system performance, are not yet ... The performances of the tuned two–area AGC system are obtained using appropriate Matlab/Simulink models. Finally ...

  9. Study of MA Effect on Yield Strength and Ductility of X80 Linepipe Steels Weld

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huda, Nazmul; Lazor, Robert; Gerlich, Adrian P.

    2017-09-01

    Multipass GMAW (Gas Metal Arc Welding) welding was used to join X80 linepipe materials using two weld metals of slightly different compositions. Welding wires with diameters of 0.984 and 0.909 mm were used while applying the same heat input in each pass. The slight difference in the wire diameters resulted in different HAZ microstructures. The microstructures in the doubly reheated HAZ of both welds were found to contain bainite-ferrite. However, etching also revealed a difference in martensite-austenite (MA) fraction in these reheated zones. The MA exhibited twice the hardness of ferrite when measured by nanoindentation. Tensile testing from the reheated zone of both welds revealed a difference in yield strength, tensile strength and elongation of the transverse weld specimens. In the reheated zone of weld A, (produced with a 0.984 mm wire) a higher fraction of MA was observed, which resulted in higher strength but lower elongation compared to weld B. The ductility of weld A was found severely impaired (to nearly half of weld B) due to formation of closely spaced voids around the MA, along with debonding of MA from the matrix, which occurs just above the yield stress.

  10. Pervaporation assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, Nicholas P [Redwood City, CA; Huang, Yu [Palo Alto, CA; Aldajani, Tiem [San Jose, CA; Fulton, Donald A [Fairfield, CA

    2012-02-28

    The invention is a pervaporation process and pervaporation equipment, using a series of membrane modules, and including inter-module reheating of the feed solution under treatment. The inter-module heating is achieved within the tube or vessel in which the modules are housed, thereby avoiding the need to repeatedly extract the feed solution from the membrane module train.

  11. Pervaporation process and assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, Nicholas P.; Huang, Yu; Aldajani, Tiem; Fulton, Donald A.

    2010-07-20

    The invention is a pervaporation process and pervaporation equipment, using a series of membrane modules, and including inter-module reheating of the feed solution under treatment. The inter-module heating is achieved within the tube or vessel in which the modules are housed, thereby avoiding the need to repeatedly extract the feed solution from the membrane module train.

  12. The Darfur Swell, Africa: Gravity constraints on its isostatic compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crough, S. Thomas

    The free-air gravity anomaly observed over the Darfur Swell is explainable by local isostatic balance with a root approximately 50 km deep on average. This root depth is similar to that inferred beneath other African domes and beneath oceanic midplate swells, suggesting that the Darfur Swell is a hotspot uplift created by lithospheric reheating.

  13. On the dark radiation problem in the axiverse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorbunov, Dmitry; Tokareva, Anna, E-mail: gorby@ms2.inr.ac.ru, E-mail: tokareva@ms2.inr.ac.ru [Institute for Nuclear Research of Russian Academy of Sciences, 117312 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2017-06-01

    String scenarios generically predict that we live in a so called axiverse: the Universe with about a hundred of light axion species which are decoupled from the Standard Model particles. However, the axions can couple to the inflaton which leads to their production after inflation. Then, these axions remain in the expanding Universe contributing to the dark radiation component, which is severely bounded from present cosmological data. We place a general constraint on the axion production rate and apply it to several variants of reasonable inflaton-to-axion couplings. The limit merely constrains the number of ultralight axions and the relative strength of inflaton-to-axion coupling. It is valid in both large and small field inflationary models irrespectively of the axion energy scales and masses. Thus, the limit is complementary to those associated with the Universe overclosure and axion isocurvature fluctuations. In particular, a hundred of axions is forbidden if inflaton universally couples to all the fields at reheating. In the case of gravitational sector being responsible for the reheating of the Universe (which is a natural option in all inflationary models with modified gravity), the axion production can be efficient. We find that in the Starobinsky R {sup 2}-inflation even a single axion (e.g. the standard QCD-axion) is in tension with the Planck data, making the model inconsistent with the axiverse. The general conclusion is that an inflation with inefficient reheating mechanism and low reheating temperature may be in tension with the presence of light scalars.

  14. Development of microstructure of steel for thermal power generation: Razvoj mikrostrukture jekel za termično generacijo energije:

    OpenAIRE

    Bevilaqua, T.; Fujda, M.; Kuskulic, T.; Kvackaj, Tibor; Pokorny, I.; Weiss, M.

    2007-01-01

    The evolution of microstructure during the reheating and cooling of steel for thermal power generation was investigated. On the basis of the microstructure produced during cooling a CCT diagram is proposed Raziskan je bil razvoj mikrostrukture pri segrevanju in ohlajanju jekel za toplotno generacijo energije. Na podlagi mikrostrukture, ki je nastala pri ohlajanju, je bil predložen CCT-diagram.

  15. A comment on technical naturalness and the cosmological constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itzhaki, Nissan

    2006-01-01

    We propose a model of dynamical relaxation of the cosmological constant. Technical naturalness of the model and the present value of the vacuum energy density imply an upper bound on the supersymmetry breaking scale and the reheating temperature at the TeV scale

  16. Listeriosis and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cutting boards and knives after contact with uncooked foods. Consume ready-to-eat foods as soon as possible. Keep your refrigerator at ... making process. Reheat to steaming any leftover and ready-to-eat food, such as hot dogs, cold cuts and deli ...

  17. 46 CFR 61.05-10 - Boilers in service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Boilers in service. 61.05-10 Section 61.05-10 Shipping... INSPECTIONS Tests and Inspections of Boilers § 61.05-10 Boilers in service. (a) Each boiler, including superheater, reheater, economizer, auxiliary boiler, low-pressure heating boiler, and unfired steam boiler...

  18. Small and micro enterprises – aspects of knowledge, attitudes and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    food poisoning (77.5%), period of keeping prepared food safe (50.9%), correct way of cooling food (63.1%) or reheating food (84.9%), reason for ... food handling practices, facility and equipment design, processing, control measures, ..... Jewellery should not be worn in the kitchen because…. Q9. When is it necessary to ...

  19. The reconstruction of tachyon inflationary potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fei, Qin; Gong, Yungui; Lin, Jiong; Yi, Zhu, E-mail: feiqin@hust.edu.cn, E-mail: yggong@mail.hust.edu.cn, E-mail: 707751841@qq.com, E-mail: yizhu92@hust.edu.cn [School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1037 LuoYu Rd, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China)

    2017-08-01

    We derive a lower bound on the field excursion for the tachyon inflation, which is determined by the amplitude of the scalar perturbation and the number of e -folds before the end of inflation. Using the relation between the observables like n {sub s} and r with the slow-roll parameters, we reconstruct three classes of tachyon potentials. The model parameters are determined from the observations before the potentials are reconstructed, and the observations prefer the concave potential. We also discuss the constraints from the reheating phase preceding the radiation domination for the three classes of models by assuming the equation of state parameter w {sub re} during reheating is a constant. Depending on the model parameters and the value of w {sub re} , the constraints on N {sub re} and T {sub re} are different. As n {sub s} increases, the allowed reheating epoch becomes longer for w {sub re} =−1/3, 0 and 1/6 while the allowed reheating epoch becomes shorter for w {sub re} =2/3.

  20. Fiscal 1999 report on result on the model project for systematization of high-efficiency combustion of by-product gas in ironworks. Part 2/2; 1999 nendo seitetsusho fukusei gas kokoritsu nensho system ka model jigyo. 2/2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-09-01

    For the purpose of reducing energy consumption of the steel industry, a large energy consuming industry in China, a model project was carried out for systematization of high-efficiency combustion of by-product gasses in ironworks, with the fiscal 1999 results compiled in the form of detailed design/documents, and the like. This project is intended for demonstration and dissemination of technologies for improving energy consumption efficiency, by controlling mixed gas calorie and oxygen content, in the reheating furnaces that consume as fuels various combustible gasses produced in iron and steel making processes. Arranged in the detailed design documentation were numerous drawings including a list of mixed gas equipment, design drawing of mixed gas orifice, specification of mixed gas control valves, list of reheating furnace equipment and devices for No.1 small plant, specification of control valves of reheating furnace for No.1 plant, list of reheating equipment and devices for slab plant, specification of calorimeter, specification of oxygen concentration meter, No.1 mixed gas wiring system diagram, and No.3 mixed gas piping/assembling manual. Also prepared were a manual for pre-shipment inspection and report on inspection findings, as well as notes on transportation, program for receiving Chinese engineers, schedule for dispatching engineers, etc. (NEDO)

  1. Direct Digital Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-02-01

    Deck - Cold Deck Reset Reheat Coil Reset Steam Boiler Optimization [lot Water Outside Air Reset Chiller Optimization Chiller Water Temperature Reset...with programming techniques for each type of installed DDC in order to effect changes in operating setpoints and application programs. *Communication...can be changed without recailbration of instrumentation devices. Changes to the application software, operating setpoints and parameters require the

  2. Aging, rejuvenation and memory phenomena in spin glasses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Spin glass; relaxation; aging; rejuvenation; memory. PACS Nos 75.10. .... the application of finite excitations, the long time needed to cool the sample down ..... wait at T − ∆T during t2 = 9000 s and finally re-heated to T for another short time t3 ...

  3. Continuous wok-frying of vegetables:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Jens

    2007-01-01

    of loosely bound water from the vegetables allows the products to be frozen and re-heated without drip loss, and it is also an advantage when using them as ingredients in composite foods, such as pâtés. Examples developed by a professional chef indicate that he saved up to half of the cooking time compared...

  4. Load frequency control of three area interconnected hydro-thermal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper present analysis on dynamic performance of Load Frequency Control (LFC) of three area interconnected hydrothermal reheat power system by the use of Artificial Intelligent and PI Controller. In the proposed scheme, control methodology developed using conventional PI controller, Artificial Neural Network ...

  5. Small field axion inflation with sub-Planckian decay constant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadota, Kenji [Center for Theoretical Physics of the Universe, Institute for Basic Science,Daejeon 305-811 (Korea, Republic of); Kobayashi, Tatsuo [Department of Physics, Hokkaido University,Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan); Oikawa, Akane [Department of Physics, Waseda University,Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Omoto, Naoya [Department of Physics, Hokkaido University,Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan); Otsuka, Hajime [Department of Physics, Waseda University,Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Tatsuishi, Takuya H. [Department of Physics, Hokkaido University,Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan)

    2016-10-10

    We study an axion inflation model recently proposed within the framework of type IIB superstring theory, where we pay a particular attention to a sub-Planckian axion decay constant. Our axion potential can lead to the small field inflation with a small tensor-to-scalar ratio, and a typical reheating temperature can be as low as GeV.

  6. Viability of Listeria monocytogenes surface inoculated onto slices of pork scrapple during storage at 4 Degrees, 10 Degrees, and 21 Degrees C

    Science.gov (United States)

    We evaluated the fate of Listeria monocytogenes on scrapple, a regionally-popular, ready-to-eat (RTE) savory mush of pork trimmings, cornmeal, and flour. We also conducted an informal survey to address consumer practices for storing and reheating scrapple. Regarding the survey, of some 125 consumers...

  7. Austenite Formation from Martensite in a 13Cr6Ni2Mo Supermartensitic Stainless Steel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bojack, A.; Zhao, L.; Morris, P.F.; Sietsma, J.

    2016-01-01

    The influence of austenitization treatment of a 13Cr6Ni2Mo supermartensitic stainless steel (X2CrNiMoV13-5-2) on austenite formation during reheating and on the fraction of austenite retained after tempering treatment is measured and analyzed. The results show the formation of austenite in two

  8. Fractional order PID controller for load frequency control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sondhi, Swati; Hote, Yogesh V.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The manuscript shows the design of FOPID controller for the load frequency control. • Performance of FOPID is given for non-reheated, reheated and hydro turbine. • Performance of FOPID is compared to IMC-PID and reduced order IMC-PID design scheme. • Performance of FOPID is better than the existing techniques. - Abstract: Load frequency control (LFC) plays a very important role in providing quality power both in the case of isolated as well as interconnected power systems. In order to maintain good quality power supply, the LFC should possess robustness toward the parametric uncertainty of the system and good disturbance rejection capability. The fractional order controller has the properties such as, eliminating steady state error, robustness toward plant gain variations and also good disturbance rejection. This makes the fractional order PID (FOPID) controller quite suitable for the LFC. Therefore, in this paper a FOPID is designed for single area LFC for all three types of turbines i.e., non-reheated, reheated and hydro turbines. It is observed that the FOPID controller shows better robustness toward ±50% parametric uncertainty and disturbance rejection capability than the existing techniques. Finally, the optimization of controller parameters and robustness evaluation of the control technique is done on the basis of the integral error criterion

  9. Hilltop Supernatural Inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, C.

    In this talk, I will explain how to reduce the spectral index to be n_s = 0.96 for supernatural inflation. I will also show the constraint to the reheating temperature from Big Bang Nucleosynthesis of both thermal and non-thermal gravitino production.

  10. Effect of separation and drainage of condensate on dehumidification in a refrigerated dryer; Reito joshitsuki ni okeru gyoshukusui bunri/haishutsu noryoku no joshitsu seino ni oyobosu eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, H.; Ichinose, T. [SMC Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Tanzawa, Y.; Hashizume, T. [Waseda Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Science and Engineering Research Lab.

    1995-11-15

    The representative refrigerated dryer as the compressed air dryers is one in which air was cooled at rather low temperature by working medium of refrigerators, and the dew point was decreased with increase of pressure, and air with low relative humility called as the dried air was obtained again by heating. In this paper, for clarifying effect of separation and drainage of condensate on dehumidification in a refrigerated dryer in relation to shape of a main cooler and a precool-reheater and air temperature of each part, calculation and experimental investigation were conducted. In a refrigerated dryer, condensate happened in the precool part of a precool-reheater and a main cooler, and this would give rise to reduce of separation and drainage of condensate and increase of thermal loads of each heat exchange, and would made dehumidification low. For a fact that decrease of separation and drainage of condensate in a main cooler would bring out heat conduction with phase change in the reheating part of a precool-reheater, it has a profitable side, but it is not desirable for ability of dryers. 6 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Peculiarities of plasma homeostasis in the patients with rectal cancer according to laser correlation spectroscopy findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byilenko, O.A.; Bazhora, Yu.Yi.; Sokolov, V.M.; Andronov, D.Yu.

    1997-01-01

    Laser correlation spectroscopy was used to investigate plasma homeostasis in 82 patients with rectal cancer. The spectra of the blood plasma from 21 donors of the transfusion station were used as the control. The blood plasma homeostasis changes reheated with laser correlation spectrometry in the patients with rectal cancer allow to use them for diagnosis of this pathology

  12. Effect of Pre-cooking and Addition of Phosphate on the Quality of Catfish Fillets Baked in Convention Oven

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frozen fish fillets designed to be baked or reheated in the home oven have been one of the major ways fish are consumed in the US. Examples includes frozen salmon, tilapia, pollock, and cod with different types of pre-treatment such as precooked, marinated, or breaded and par-fried products. However...

  13. Food poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... foods that are not stored at the proper temperature or are not reheated to the right temperature Raw fish or oysters Raw fruits or vegetables ... proper amount of fluids. Getting enough fluids and learning what to eat will help keep you comfortable. ...

  14. Adiabatic CMB perturbations in pre-big bang string cosmology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enqvist, Kari; Sloth, Martin Snoager

    2001-01-01

    We consider the pre-big bang scenario with a massive axion field which starts to dominate energy density when oscillating in an instanton-induced potential and subsequently reheats the universe as it decays into photons, thus creating adiabatic CMB perturbations. We find that the fluctuations...

  15. Rapid Tempering of Martensitic Stainless Steel AISI420: Microstructure, Mechanical and Corrosion Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi-Khazaei, Bijan; Mollaahmadi, Akbar

    2017-04-01

    In this research, the effect of rapid tempering on the microstructure, mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of AISI 420 martensitic stainless steel has been investigated. At first, all test specimens were austenitized at 1050 °C for 1 h and tempered at 200 °C for 1 h. Then, the samples were rapidly reheated by a salt bath furnace in a temperature range from 300 to 1050 °C for 2 min and cooled in air. The tensile tests, impact, hardness and electrochemical corrosion were carried out on the reheated samples. Scanning electron microscopy was used to study the microstructure and fracture surface. To investigate carbides, transmission electron microscopy and also scanning electron microscopy were used. X-ray diffraction was used for determination of the retained austenite. The results showed that the minimum properties such as the tensile strength, impact energy, hardness and corrosion resistance were obtained at reheating temperature of 700 °C. Semi-continuous carbides in the grain boundaries were seen in this temperature. Secondary hardening phenomenon was occurred at reheating temperature of 500 °C.

  16. Decentralized controller gain scheduling using PSO for power ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For this reason, in this study the P and I control parameters are tuned based on Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm for a better Load-Frequency Control in a Two-Area Two-Unit Thermal Reheat Power System (TATURIPS) with step load perturbation. To exemplify the optimum parameter search PSO is used as it is ...

  17. 20+ years of Inflation

    CERN Document Server

    García-Bellido, J

    2003-01-01

    In this talk I will review the present status of inflationary cosmology and its emergence as the basic paradigm behind the Standard Cosmological Model, with parameters determined today at better than 10% level from CMB and LSS observations. I will also discuss the recent theoretical developments on the process of reheating after inflation and model building based on string theory and D-branes.

  18. field characteristics and other properties of a fireclay

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    is due to the low plasticity of the fireclay which manifests too, in low air-drying and firing shrinkages. At elevated ... conventional brick- making clays, fireclays are usually mined at ..... chimney linings, pottery kilns, blast furnaces, and reheating ...

  19. Microstructure and Properties of a New Cr - Mn Steel without Boron Additions for Use in Hot Stamping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, H.; Zhu, G.; Li, Q.; Chen, Q.

    2015-09-01

    Anew hot-stamping steel that is alloyed with chromium and manganese and does not contain boron additions has been developed. The effect of reheating temperature and cooling rates on the mechanical properties and structure of the steel is determined. Atreatment regime that increases the ductility of the steel without a noticeable decrease in its strength is proposed.

  20. Relaxation of Anisotropic Glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deubener, Joachim; Martin, Birgit; Wondraczek, Lothar

    2004-01-01

    . When the load was removed at room temperature a permanent optical anisotropy (birefringence) was observed only perpendicular to cylinder axis and the pressure direction indicating complete elimination of thermal stresses. Relaxation of structural anisotropy was studied from reheating experiments using...... the energy release, thermo-mechanical and optical relaxation behaviour are drawn....

  1. A system to control low pressure turbine temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    An improved system to control low pressure turbine cycle steam and metal temperatures by governing the heat transfer operation in a moisture separator-reheater is described. The use of the present invention in a pressurized water reactor or a boiling water reactor steam turbine system is demonstrated. (UK)

  2. One-scale supersymmetric inflationary models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertolami, O.; Ross, G.G.

    1986-01-01

    The reheating phase is studied in a class of supergravity inflationary models involving a two-component hidden sector in which the scale of supersymmetry breaking and the scale generating inflation are related. It is shown that these models have an ''entropy crisis'' in which there is a large entropy release after nucleosynthesis leading to unacceptable low nuclear abundances. (orig.)

  3. Sadhana | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Sadhana. T Srinivas. Articles written in Sadhana. Volume 35 Issue 5 October 2010 pp 597-608. Thermodynamic modelling and optimization of a dual pressure reheat combined power cycle · T Srinivas · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF. Heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) plays a key role on ...

  4. Performance analysis of different ORC configurations for thermal energy and LNG cold energy hybrid power generation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhixin; Wang, Feng; Wang, Shujia; Xu, Fuquan; Lin, Kui

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a thermal energy and Liquefied natural gas (LNG) cold energy hybrid power generation system. Performances of four different Organic Rankine cycle (ORC) configurations (the basic, the regenerative, the reheat and the regenerative-reheat ORCs) are studied based on the first and the second law of thermodynamics. Dry organic fluid R245fa is selected as the typical working fluid. Parameter analysis is also conducted in this paper. The results show that regeneration could not increase the thermal efficiency of the thermal and cold energy hybrid power generation system. ORC with the reheat process could produce more specific net power output but it may also reduce the system thermal efficiency. The basic and the regenerative ORCs produce higher thermal efficiency while the regenerative-reheat ORC performs best in the exergy efficiency. A preheater is necessary for the thermal and cold energy hybrid power generation system. And due to the presence of the preheater, there will be a step change of the system performance as the turbine inlet pressure rises.

  5. An improved model to evaluate thermodynamic solar plants with cylindrical parabolic collectors and air turbine engines in open Joule–Brayton cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferraro, Vittorio; Imineo, Francesco; Marinelli, Valerio

    2013-01-01

    An improved model to analyze the performance of solar plants operating with cylindrical parabolic collectors and atmospheric air as heat transfer fluid in an open Joule–Brayton cycle is presented. In the new model, the effect of the incident angle modifier is included, to take into account the variation of the optical efficiency with the incidence angle of the irradiance, and the effect of the reheating of the fluid also has been studied. The analysis was made for two operating modes of the plants: with variable air flow rate and constant inlet temperature to the turbine and with constant flow rate and variable inlet temperature to the turbine, with and without reheating of the fluid in the solar field. When reheating is used, the efficiency of the plant is increased. The obtained results show a good performance of this type of solar plant, in spite of its simplicity; it is able to compete well with other more complex plants operating with different heat transfer fluids. - Highlights: ► An improved model to calculate an innovative CPS solar plant is presented. ► The plant works with air in an open Joule–Brayton cycle. ► The reheating of the air increases the thermodynamic efficiency. ► The plant is very simple and competes well with other more complex solar plants

  6. Power plant and system for accelerating a cross compound turbine in such plant, especially one having an HTGR steam supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaegtnes, K.O.; Braytenbah, A.S.

    1977-01-01

    An electric power plant having a cross compound steam turbine and a steam source that includes a high temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactor is described. The steam turbine includes high and intermediate-pressure portions which drive a first generating means, and a low-pressure portion which drives a second generating means. The steam source supplies superheat steam to the high-pressure turbine portion, and an associated bypass permits the superheat steam to flow from the source to the exhaust of the high-pressure portion. The intermediate and low-pressure portions use reheat steam; an associated bypass permits reheat steam to flow from the source to the low-pressure exhaust. An auxiliary turbine driven by steam exhausted from the high-pressure portion and its bypass drives a gas blower to propel the coolant gas through the reactor. While the bypass flow of reheat steam is varied to maintain an elevated pressure of reheat steam upon its discharge from the source, both the first and second generating means and their associated turbines are accelerated initially by admitting steam to the intermediate and low-pressure portions. The electrical speed of the second generating means is equalized with that of the first generating means, whereupon the generating means are connected and acceleration proceeds under control of the flow through the high-pressure portion. 29 claims, 2 figures

  7. Sadhana | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) plays a key role on performance of combined cycle (CC). In this work, attention was focused on a dual pressure reheat (DPRH) HRSG to maximize the heat recovery and hence performance of CC. Deaerator, an essential open feed water heater in steam bottoming cycle was located ...

  8. Erosion–corrosion behaviour of Ni-based superalloy Superni-75

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The super-heater and re-heater tubes of the boilers used in thermal power plants are ... mechanism, resulting in the tube wall thinning and premature failure. The nickel-based superalloys can be used as boiler tube materials to increase the ...

  9. Steam power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, J.W.E.

    1981-01-01

    This invention relates to power plant forced flow boilers operating with water letdown. The letdown water is arranged to deliver heat to partly expanded steam passing through a steam reheater connected between two stages of the prime mover. (U.K.)

  10. Optimal emission enhancement in orthogonal double-pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanginés, R.; Contreras, V.; Sobral, H.; Robledo-Martinez, A.

    2015-01-01

    Orthogonal double-pulse (DP) laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was performed using reheating and pre-ablative configurations. The ablation pulse power density was varied by two orders of magnitude and the DP experiments were carried out for a wide range of interpulse delays. For both DP-LIBS schemes, the signal enhancement was evaluated with respect to the corresponding single-pulse (SP) LIBS as a function of the interpulse delay. The reheating scheme shows a sharp maximum signal enhancement of up to 200-fold for low ablative power densities (0.4 GW cm −2 ); however, for power densities larger than 10 GW cm −2 this configuration did not improve the SP outcome. On the other hand, a more uniform signal enhancement of about 4–6 was obtained for the pre-ablative scheme nearly independently of the used ablative power density. In terms of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) the pre-ablative scheme shows a monotonic increment with the ablative power density. Whereas the reheating configuration reaches a maximum at 2.2 GW cm −2 , its enhancement effect collapses markedly for fluencies above 10 GW cm −2 . - Highlights: • Comparison of reheating and pre-ablative double-pulse LIBS was done using a wide range of ablation power densities. • Experimental parameters that could achieve optimal signal-to-noise ratio were investigated. • A reheating scheme is better for low-ablation power densities. • A pre-ablative configuration is better for high-ablation power densities

  11. Toughness of submerged arc weld metals of controlled rolled NB bearing steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, T.; Shiga, A.; Kamada, A.; Tsuboi, J.

    1982-01-01

    The toughness and the hardness of reheated weld metals depend on the maximum reheating temperature. When the maximum reheating temperature is 500 to 700 0 C, the hardness of single pass weld metal increases and the toughness decreases because of fine Nb- and V-carbonitride precipitation. When the maximum reheating temperature is over 800 0 C, the hardness and the toughness remain almost unchanged. The stress relieving treatment of single pass weld metal at 600 0 C for 1 up to about 100 hours causes the increase in hardness and then decreases the hardness gradually. It needs over 500 hours to obtain the same hardness value as that of as-welded metal. The addition of Ti to weld metal is very effective to improve the toughness, however excess Ti increases the hardness of stress relieved weld metal by precipitating as fine Ti-carbonitride. Therefore Ti addition should be restricted within the lowest limit required to improve as-welded metal toughness. The optimum Ti content is about 0.020% in the case of weld metal of which oxygen content is 350 ppM or so. In multipass welding, the hardness of weld metal affected by subsequent weld heat cycle varies from pass to pass, because Nb and V content change with the passes as the result of the change in dilution from base metal. The most hardened zone is observed in the reheated first pass weld metal, in which Nb and V content are the highest. Good weld metal toughness would be obtained by lowering dilution from base metal and taking advantage of grain refinement by subsequent passes

  12. Some aspects of metallurgical assessment of boiler tubes-Basic principles and case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhuri, Satyabrata

    2006-01-01

    Microstructural changes in boiler tubes during prolong operation at high temperature and pressure decrease load bearing capacity limiting their useful lives. When the load bearing capacity falls below a critical level depending on operating parameters and tube geometry, failure occurs. In order to avoid such failures mainly from the view point of economy and safety, this paper describes some basic principles behind remaining life assessment of service exposed components and also a few case studies related to failure of a reheater tube of 1.25Cr-0.5Mo steel, a carbon steel tube and final superheater tubes of 2.25Cr-1Mo steel and remaining creep life assessment of service exposed but unfailed platen superheater and reheater tubes of 2.25Cr-1Mo steel. Sticking of fly ash particles causing reduction in effective tube wall thickness is responsible for failure of reheater tubes. Decarburised metal containing intergranular cracks at the inner surface of the carbon steel tube exhibiting a brittle window fracture is an indicative of hydrogen embrittlement responsible for this failure. In contrast, final superheater tube showed that the failure took place due to short-term overheating. The influence of prolong service revealed that unfailed reheater tubes exhibit higher tensile properties than that of platen superheater tubes. In contrast both the tubes at 50 MPa meet the minimum creep rupture properties when compared with NRIM data. The remaining creep life of platen superheater tube as estimated at 50 MPa and 570 deg. C (1058 o F) is more than 10 years and that of reheater tube at 50 MPa and 580 deg. C (1076 o F) is 9 years

  13. Thermodynamic analysis of SCW NPP cycles with thermo-chemical co-generation of hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naidin, N.; Mokry, S.; Monichan, R.; Chophla, K.; Pioro, I.; Naterer, G.; Gabriel, K.

    2009-01-01

    Research activities are currently conducted worldwide to develop Generation IV nuclear reactor concepts with the objective of improving thermal efficiency and increasing economic competitiveness of Generation IV Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) compared to modern thermal power plants. The Super-Critical Water-cooled Reactor (SCWR) concept is one of the six Generation IV options chosen for further investigation and development in several countries including Canada and Russia. Water-cooled reactors operating at subcritical pressures (10 - 16 MPa) have provided a significant amount of electricity production for the past 50 years. However, the thermal efficiency of the current NPPs is not very high (30 - 35%). As such, more competitive designs, with higher thermal efficiencies, which will be close to that of modern thermal power plants (45 - 50%), need to be developed and implemented. Super-Critical Water (SCW) NPPs will have much higher operating parameters compared to current NPPs (i.e., steam pressures of about 25 MPa and steam outlet temperatures up to 625 o C). Furthermore, SCWRs operating at higher temperatures can facilitate an economical co-generation of hydrogen through thermochemical cycles (particularly, the copper-chlorine cycle) or direct high-temperature electrolysis. The two SCW NPP cycles proposed by this paper are based on direct, regenerative, no-reheat and single-reheat configurations. As such, the main parameters and performance in terms of thermal efficiency of the SCW NPP concepts mentioned above are being analyzed. The cycles are generally comprised of: an SCWR, a SC turbine, one deaerator, ten feedwater heaters, and pumps. The SC turbine of the no-reheat cycle consists of one High-Pressure (HP) cylinder and two Low-Pressure (LP) cylinders. Alternatively, the SC turbine for the single-reheat cycle is comprised of one High-Pressure (HP) cylinder, one Intermediate-Pressure (IP) cylinder and two Low-Pressure (LP) cylinders. Since the single-reheat option

  14. Baryogenesis, dark matter and the maximal temperature of the early universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchmueller, Wilfried

    2012-12-15

    Mechanisms for the generation of the matter-antimatter asymmetry and dark matter strongly depend on the reheating temperature T{sub R}, the maximal temperature reached in the early universe. Forthcoming results from the LHC, low energy experiments, astrophysical observations and the Planck satellite will significantly constrain baryogenesis and the nature of dark matter, and thereby provide valuable information about the very early hot universe. At present, a wide range of reheating temperatures is still consistent with observations. We illustrate possible origins of matter and dark matter with four examples: moduli decay, electroweak baryogenesis, leptogenesis in the {nu}MSM and thermal leptogenesis. Finally, we discuss the connection between baryogenesis, dark matter and inflation in the context of supersymmetric spontaneous B-L breaking.

  15. Fireside corrosion testing of candidate superheater tube alloys, coatings, and claddings -- Phase 2 field testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blough, J.L. [Foster Wheeler Development Corp., Livingston, NJ (United States)

    1996-08-01

    In Phase 1 of this project, a variety of developmental and commercial tubing alloys and claddings was exposed to laboratory fireside corrosion testing simulating a superheater or reheater in a coal-fired boiler. Phase 2 (in situ testing) has exposed samples of 347, RA85H, HR3C, 253MA, Fe{sub 3}Al + 5Cr, 310 modified, NF 709, 690 clad, and 671 clad for over 10,000 hours to the actual operating conditions of a 250-MW coal-fired boiler. The samples were installed on air-cooled, retractable corrosion probes, installed in the reheater cavity, controlled to the operating metal temperatures of an existing and advanced-cycle, coal-fired boiler. Samples of each alloy are being exposed for 4,000, 12,000, and 16,000 hours of operation. The present results are for the metallurgical examination of the corrosion probe samples after approximately 4,400 hours of exposure.

  16. Process configuration of Liquid-nitrogen Energy Storage System (LESS) for maximum turnaround efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Rohan; Ghosh, Parthasarathi; Chowdhury, Kanchan

    2017-12-01

    Diverse power generation sector requires energy storage due to penetration of variable renewable energy sources and use of CO2 capture plants with fossil fuel based power plants. Cryogenic energy storage being large-scale, decoupled system with capability of producing large power in the range of MWs is one of the options. The drawback of these systems is low turnaround efficiencies due to liquefaction processes being highly energy intensive. In this paper, the scopes of improving the turnaround efficiency of such a plant based on liquid Nitrogen were identified and some of them were addressed. A method using multiple stages of reheat and expansion was proposed for improved turnaround efficiency from 22% to 47% using four such stages in the cycle. The novelty here is the application of reheating in a cryogenic system and utilization of waste heat for that purpose. Based on the study, process conditions for a laboratory-scale setup were determined and presented here.

  17. Post-Inflationary Gravitino Production Revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, John; Nanopoulos, Dimitri V.; Olive, Keith A.; Peloso, Marco

    2016-01-01

    We revisit gravitino production following inflation. As a first step, we review the standard calculation of gravitino production in the thermal plasma formed at the end of post-inflationary reheating when the inflaton has completely decayed. Next we consider gravitino production prior to the completion of reheating, assuming that the inflaton decay products thermalize instantaneously while they are still dilute. We then argue that instantaneous thermalization is in general a good approximation, and also show that the contribution of non-thermal gravitino production via the collisions of inflaton decay products prior to thermalization is relatively small. Our final estimate of the gravitino-to-entropy ratio is approximated well by a standard calculation of gravitino production in the post-inflationary thermal plasma assuming total instantaneous decay and thermalization at a time $t \\simeq 1.2/\\Gamma_\\phi$. Finally, in light of our calculations, we consider potential implications of upper limits on the gravitin...

  18. Steam turbine installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bainbridge, A.

    1976-01-01

    The object of the arrangement described is to enable raising steam for driving steam turbines in a way suited to operating with liquid metals, such as Na, as heat transfer medium. A preheated water feed, in heat transfer relationship with the liquid metals, is passed through evaporator and superheater stages, and the superheated steam is supplied to the highest pressure stage of the steam turbine arrangement. Steam extracted intermediate the evaporator and superheater stages is employed to provide reheat for the lower pressure stage of the steam turbine. Only a major portion of the preheated water feed may be evaporated and this portion separated and supplied to the superheater stage. The feature of 'steam to steam' reheat avoids a second liquid metal heat transfer and hence represents a simplification. It also reduces the hazard associated with possible steam-liquid metal contact. (U.K.)

  19. Oxidation of ultra low carbon and silicon bearing steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez, Lucia [CTM - Technologic Centre, Materials Technology Area, Manresa, Barcelona (Spain)], E-mail: lucia.suarez@ctm.com.es; Rodriguez-Calvillo, Pablo [CTM - Technologic Centre, Materials Technology Area, Manresa, Barcelona (Spain)], E-mail: pablo.rodriguez@ctm.com.es; Houbaert, Yvan [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Ghent (Belgium)], E-mail: Yvan.Houbaert@UGent.be; Colas, Rafael [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon (Mexico)], E-mail: rcolas@mail.uanl.mx

    2010-06-15

    Oxidation tests were carried out in samples from an ultra low carbon and two silicon bearing steels to determine the distribution and morphology of the oxide species present. The ultra low carbon steel was oxidized for short periods of time within a chamber designed to obtain thin oxide layers by controlling the atmosphere, and for longer times in an electric furnace; the silicon steels were reheated only in the electric furnace. The chamber was constructed to study the behaviour encountered during the short period of time between descaling and rolling in modern continuous mills. It was found that the oxide layers formed on the samples reheated in the electric furnace were made of different oxide species. The specimens treated in the chamber had layers made almost exclusively of wustite. Selected oxide samples were studied by scanning electron microscopy to obtain electron backscattered diffraction patterns, which were used to identify the oxide species in the layer.

  20. The influence of the space between the billets on the productivity of a continuous walking-beam furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaklic, A. [Institute of Metals and Technology, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Kolenko, T. [University of Ljubljana (Slovenia). Faculty of Natural Science and Technology; Zupancic, B. [University of Ljubljana (Slovenia). Faculty of Electrical Engineering

    2005-04-01

    This paper presents a study of the influence of the space between billets on the productivity of a continuous walking-beam furnace. The study was performed using a simulation model of a billet-reheating process for three different billet dimensions. The simulation model considered the exact geometry of the furnace enclosure, including the geometry of the billets inside the furnace. A view-factor matrix of the furnace enclosure was determined using the Monte Carlo method. The heat exchange between the furnace gas, the furnace wall and the billet's surface was calculated using a three-temperature model. The temperature of the furnace floor was determined using a heat-balance equation, and the heat conduction in the billets was calculated using the 3D finite-difference method. The model was validated using measurements from trailing thermocouples positioned in the test billet during the reheating process in the furnace. (author)

  1. A simulation of heat transfer during billet transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaklic, A.; Glogovac, B. [Institute of Metals and Technology, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Kolenko, T. [University of Ljubljana (Slovenia). Faculty of Natural Science and Technology; Zupancic, B. [University of Ljubljana (Slovenia). Faculty of Electrical Engineering; Zak, B. T. [Terming d.o.o., Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2002-07-01

    This paper presents a simulation model for billet cooling during the billet's transport from the reheating furnace to the rolling mill. During the transport, the billet is exposed to radiation, convection and conduction. Due to the rectangular shape of the billet, the three-dimensional finite-difference model could be applied to calculate the heat conduction inside the billet. The billets are reheated in a gas-fired walking-beam furnace and are exposed to scaling. The model takes into account the effect of the thin oxide scale. We proved that the scale significantly affects the temperature distribution in the billet and should not be neglected. The model was verified by using a thermal camera. (author)

  2. A weldability study of the structural steel of the Angra II reactor containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos Pinto, M. dos.

    1980-01-01

    A weldability study of the german steel WSTE-51 based on mechanical, metallographic, hardness as well as special tests such as the CTS, the Tekken, for cold cracking, and the Vinckier test for reheat cracking is presented. The welding process used was the manual metal arc with low hydrogen eletrodes. In order to broaden the scope of this study the properties of weldments fabricated by submerged arc welding with high and low heat input were analized by means of mechanical and metallographic tests. The results showed that the joints had good quality and emphasize the necessity of special care in order to avoid cold cracking as well as the use of a temperbead in order to avoid reheat cracking. The submerged arc welding study concludes that higher impact resistance in the HAZ is obtained with low heat imput. (Author) [pt

  3. Successful leptogenesis in SO(10 unification with a left–right symmetric seesaw mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmaa Abada

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available We study thermal leptogenesis in a broad class of supersymmetric SO(10 models with a left–right symmetric seesaw mechanism, taking into account flavour effects and the contribution of the next-to-lightest right-handed neutrino supermultiplet. Assuming MD=Mu and a normal hierarchy of light neutrino masses, we show that four out of the eight right-handed neutrino mass spectra reconstructed from low-energy neutrino data can lead to successful leptogenesis with a reheating temperature in the (109–1010 GeV range. In the remaining four solutions, leptogenesis is dominated by N2 decays, as in the type I seesaw case. We find that some of these spectra can generate the observed baryon asymmetry for reheating temperatures above 1010 GeV, in contrast to the type I case. Together with flavour effects, an accurate description of charged fermion masses turns out to be a crucial ingredient in the analysis.

  4. Detection of relic gravitational waves in thermal case by using Adv.LIGO data of GW150914

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghayour, Basem [University of Hyderabad, School of Physics, Hyderabad (India); Khodagholizadeh, Jafar [Farhangian University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-08-15

    The thermal spectrum of relic gravitational waves enhances the usual spectrum. Our analysis shows that there exist some chances for detection of the thermal spectrum in addition to the usual spectrum by comparison with sensitivity of Adv.LIGO of GW150914 and detector based on the maser light. The behavior of the inflation and reheating stages are often known as power law expansion like S(η) ∝ η{sup 1+β}, S(η) ∝ η{sup 1+β{sub s}}, respectively, with constraints 1 + β < 0, 1 + β{sub s} > 0. The β and β{sub s} have an unique effect on the shape of the spectrum. We find some values of the β and β{sub s} by considering the mentioned comparison. As obtained, the results give us more information as regards the evolution of inflation and reheating stages. (orig.)

  5. Volume-weighted measure for eternal inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winitzki, Sergei

    2008-01-01

    I propose a new volume-weighted probability measure for cosmological 'multiverse' scenarios involving eternal inflation. The 'reheating-volume (RV) cutoff' calculates the distribution of observable quantities on a portion of the reheating hypersurface that is conditioned to be finite. The RV measure is gauge-invariant, does not suffer from the 'youngness paradox', and is independent of initial conditions at the beginning of inflation. In slow-roll inflationary models with a scalar inflaton, the RV-regulated probability distributions can be obtained by solving nonlinear diffusion equations. I discuss possible applications of the new measure to 'landscape' scenarios with bubble nucleation. As an illustration, I compute the predictions of the RV measure in a simple toy landscape.

  6. Primordial two-component maximally symmetric inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enqvist, K.; Nanopoulos, D. V.; Quirós, M.; Kounnas, C.

    1985-12-01

    We propose a two-component inflation model, based on maximally symmetric supergravity, where the scales of reheating and the inflation potential at the origin are decoupled. This is possible because of the second-order phase transition from SU(5) to SU(3)×SU(2)×U(1) that takes place when φ≅φcinflation at the global minimum, and leads to a reheating temperature TR≅(1015-1016) GeV. This makes it possible to generate baryon asymmetry in the conventional way without any conflict with experimental data on proton lifetime. The mass of the gravitinos is m3/2≅1012 GeV, thus avoiding the gravitino problem. Monopoles are diluted by residual inflation in the broken phase below the cosmological bounds if φcUSA.

  7. Preheating in an asymptotically safe quantum field theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Ole; Moghaddam, Hossein Bazrafshan; Brandenberger, Robert

    2016-01-01

    . High Energy Phys. 01 (2016) 081]. These theories allow for an inflationary phase in the very early universe. Inflation ends with a period of reheating. Since the models contain many scalar fields which are intrinsically coupled to the inflaton there is the possibility of parametric resonance...... fluctuations induced by the parametrically amplified entropy modes do not exceed the upper observational bounds puts a lower bound on the number of fields which the model followed in [D. F. Litim and F. Sannino, Asymptotic safety guaranteed, J. High Energy Phys. 12 (2014) 178; D. F. Litim, M. Mojaza, and F......We consider reheating in a class of asymptotically safe quantum field theories recently studied in [D. F. Litim and F. Sannino, Asymptotic safety guaranteed, J. High Energy Phys. 12 (2014) 178; D. F. Litim, M. Mojaza, and F. Sannino, Vacuum stability of asymptotically safe gauge-Yukawa theories, J...

  8. STYLE, Steam Cycle Heat Balance for Turbine Blade Design in Marine Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Love, J.B.; Dines, W.R.

    1970-01-01

    1 - Nature of physical problem solved: The programme carries out iterative steam cycle heat balance calculations for a wide variety of steam cycles including single reheat, live steam reheat and multistage moisture separation. Facilities are also available for including the steam-consuming auxiliaries associated with a marine installation. Though no attempt is made to carry out a detailed turbine blading design the programme is capable of automatically varying the blading efficiency from stage to stage according to local steam volume flow rate, dryness fraction and shaft speed. 2 - Method of solution: 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Steam pressures to lie within range 0.2 to 5,000 lb/square inch abs steam temperatures to lie within range 50 to 1600 degrees F. Not more than 40 points per turbine expansion line; Not more than 10 expansion lines; Not more than 15 feed heaters. UNIVAC 1108 version received from FIAT Energia Nucleare, Torino, Italy

  9. Foaming Glass Using High Pressure Sintering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Martin Bonderup; Petersen, Rasmus Rosenlund; König, Jakob

    Foam glass is a high added value product which contributes to waste recycling and energy efficiency through heat insulation. The foaming can be initiated by a chemical or physical process. Chemical foaming with aid of a foaming agent is the dominant industrial process. Physical foaming has two...... to expand. After heat-treatment foam glass can be obtained with porosities of 80–90 %. In this study we conduct physical foaming of cathode ray tube (CRT) panel glass by sintering under high pressure (5-25 MPa) using helium, nitrogen, or argon at 640 °C (~108 Pa s). Reheating a sample in a heating...... variations. One way is by saturation of glass melts with gas. The other involves sintering of powdered glass under a high gas pressure resulting in glass pellets with high pressure bubbles entrapped. Reheating the glass pellets above the glass transition temperature under ambient pressure allows the bubbles...

  10. Critical review of use of high pressure saturated steam turbine economizers in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbanek, J.

    1981-01-01

    In the high-pressure part of the turbine drops of moisture condensate, which causes erosion and has negative impact on the service-life of the turbine and on its thermodynamic efficiency. Various designs have been put forward to eliminate moisture. A good combination is moisture separation combined with the offtake of steam for the regeneration of feed water or for the steam re-heater. As concerns the high-pressure component of the turbine it is best to offtake steam for the feed water heater and for heating the steam between the high- and low-pressure components of the turbine. The connections of the heater and re-heater in diagrams of various manufacturers are evaluated and compared. It appears to be uneconomical to use the heater in cases where feed water would be heated to temperature considerably below its optimal value. (M.D.)

  11. Steam turbine generators for Sizewell 'B' nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hesketh, J.A.; Muscroft, J.

    1990-01-01

    The thermodynamic cycle of the modern 3000 r/min steam turbine as applied at Sizewell 'B' is presented. Review is made of the factors affecting thermal efficiency including the special nature of the wet steam cycle and the use of moisture separation and steam reheating. Consideration is given to the optimization of the machine and cycle parameters, including particular attention to reheating and to the provision of feedheating, in order to achieve a high overall level of performance. A modular design approach has made available a family of machines suitable for the output range 600-1300 MW. The constructional features of the 630 MW Sizewell 'B' turbine generators from this range are described in detail. The importance of service experience with wet steam turbines and its influence on the design of modern turbines for pressurized water reactor (PWR) applications is discussed. (author)

  12. More on cosmological constraints on spontaneous R-symmetry breaking models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamada, Yuta; Kobayashi, Tatsuo [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Kamada, Kohei [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (Switzerland). Inst. de Theorie des Phenomenes Physiques; Ookouchi, Yutaka [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Arts and Science

    2013-10-15

    We study the spontaneous R-symmetry breaking model and investigate the cosmological constraints on this model due to the pseudo Nambu-Goldstone boson, R-axion. We consider the R-axion which has relatively heavy mass in order to complement our previous work. In this regime, model parameters, R-axions mass and R-symmetry breaking scale, are constrained by Big Bang Nucleosynthesis and overproduction of the gravitino produced from R-axion decay and thermal plasma. We find that the allowed parameter space is very small for high reheating temperature. For low reheating temperature, the U(1){sub R} breaking scale f{sub a} is constrained as f{sub a}<10{sup 12-14} GeV regardless of the value of R-axion mass.

  13. More on cosmological constraints on spontaneous R-symmetry breaking models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, Yuta; Kobayashi, Tatsuo; Kamada, Kohei; Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne; Ookouchi, Yutaka

    2013-10-01

    We study the spontaneous R-symmetry breaking model and investigate the cosmological constraints on this model due to the pseudo Nambu-Goldstone boson, R-axion. We consider the R-axion which has relatively heavy mass in order to complement our previous work. In this regime, model parameters, R-axions mass and R-symmetry breaking scale, are constrained by Big Bang Nucleosynthesis and overproduction of the gravitino produced from R-axion decay and thermal plasma. We find that the allowed parameter space is very small for high reheating temperature. For low reheating temperature, the U(1) R breaking scale f a is constrained as f a 12-14 GeV regardless of the value of R-axion mass.

  14. Baryogenesis, dark matter and the maximal temperature of the early universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchmueller, Wilfried

    2012-12-01

    Mechanisms for the generation of the matter-antimatter asymmetry and dark matter strongly depend on the reheating temperature T R , the maximal temperature reached in the early universe. Forthcoming results from the LHC, low energy experiments, astrophysical observations and the Planck satellite will significantly constrain baryogenesis and the nature of dark matter, and thereby provide valuable information about the very early hot universe. At present, a wide range of reheating temperatures is still consistent with observations. We illustrate possible origins of matter and dark matter with four examples: moduli decay, electroweak baryogenesis, leptogenesis in the νMSM and thermal leptogenesis. Finally, we discuss the connection between baryogenesis, dark matter and inflation in the context of supersymmetric spontaneous B-L breaking.

  15. Thermally activated formation of martensite in Fe-C alloys and Fe-17%Cr-C stainless steels during heating from boiling nitrogen temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villa, Matteo; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2016-01-01

    The thermally activated austenite-to-martensite transformation was investigated by magnetometry in three Fe-C alloys and in two 17%Cr stainless steels. After quenching to room temperature, samples were immersed in boiling nitrogen and martensite formation was followed during subsequent (re......)heating to room temperature. Different tests were performed applying heating rates from 0.5 K/min to 10 K/min. An additional test consisted in fast (re)heating the samples by immersion in water. Thermally activated martensite formation was demonstrated for all investigated materials by a heating rate......-dependent transformation curve. Moreover, magnetometry showed that the heating rate had an influence on the fraction of martensite formed during sub-zero Celsius treatment. The activation energy for thermally activated martensite formation was quantified in the range 11‒21 kJ/mol by a Kissinger-like method....

  16. Thermal performance of Brayton power cycles. A study based on high-temperature gas-cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herranz, Luis E.; Linares, Jose I.; Moratilla, Beatriz Y.

    2005-01-01

    Power cycles optimization has become an essential ingredient to achieve sustainability and improve economic competitiveness of forthcoming Generation IV designs. This paper investigates performance of several configurations of direct helium Brayton cycles. An optimum layout is proposed based on multiple intercooled compression stages and in-between turbines reheating: C(IC) 2 HTRTX. Under the hypotheses and approximations made, a 59% is estimated and it increases even further (67%) when the foreseen technological development is considered. A sensitive analysis identified key components and variables for cycle performance. Particular attention is paid to the effect of the extracted gas mass fraction for reheating. It is shown that the C(IC) 2 HTRTX cycle provides a feasible and simple way to operate the power plant the load-follow mode with a very little loss of efficiency. (author)

  17. Starobinsky-like inflation, supercosmology and neutrino masses in no-scale flipped SU(5)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, John [Theoretical Particle Physics and Cosmology Group, Department of Physics, King' s College London, WC2R 2LS London (United Kingdom); Garcia, Marcos A.G. [Physics and Astronomy Department, Rice University, 6100 Main Street, Houston, TX 77005 (United States); Nagata, Natsumi [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Nanopoulos, Dimitri V. [George P. and Cynthia W. Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, 77843 Texas (United States); Olive, Keith A., E-mail: john.ellis@cern.ch, E-mail: marcos.garcia@rice.edu, E-mail: natsumi@hep-th.phys.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp, E-mail: dimitri@physics.tamu.edu, E-mail: olive@physics.umn.edu [William I. Fine Theoretical Physics Institute, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, 116 Church Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

    2017-07-01

    We embed a flipped SU(5) × U(1) GUT model in a no-scale supergravity framework, and discuss its predictions for cosmic microwave background observables, which are similar to those of the Starobinsky model of inflation. Measurements of the tilt in the spectrum of scalar perturbations in the cosmic microwave background, n {sub s} , constrain significantly the model parameters. We also discuss the model's predictions for neutrino masses, and pay particular attention to the behaviours of scalar fields during and after inflation, reheating and the GUT phase transition. We argue in favor of strong reheating in order to avoid excessive entropy production which could dilute the generated baryon asymmetry.

  18. Vitrification and Devitrification of Rigid Amorphous Fraction of PET during Quasi-isothermal Cooling and Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebe, Peggy; Chen, Huipeng

    2009-03-01

    Poly(ethylene terephthalate), PET, was studied by quasi-isothermal (QI) Temperature Modulated Differential Scanning Calorimetry (TMDSC). For the first time, both the temperature dependent crystalline fraction and rigid amorphous fraction (RAF) were quantitatively analyzed during QI cooling and reheating. Specific reversing heat capacity measurements show that most RAF vitrifies step by step during QI cooling after completion of crystallization. Upon subsequent QI reheating, the RAF devitrifies also step by step and only a small RAF of 0.04 remains at 470K, while melting starts above 473K. To obtain the exact temperature of the start of melting, heat capacity measurements were made using subsequent standard DSC heating, after QI cooling. By combining this method with the QI results, the temperature dependent phase fractions were obtained during standard DSC heating. We conclude that RAF completely devitrifies before the temperature reaches the crystal melting endotherm under the conditions used in this work.

  19. Stochastic background of gravitational waves from hybrid preheating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Bellido, Juan; Figueroa, Daniel G

    2007-02-09

    The process of reheating the Universe after hybrid inflation is extremely violent. It proceeds through the nucleation and subsequent collision of large concentrations of energy density in bubblelike structures, which generate a significant fraction of energy in the form of gravitational waves. We study the power spectrum of the stochastic background of gravitational waves produced at reheating after hybrid inflation. We find that the amplitude could be significant for high-scale models, although the typical frequencies are well beyond what could be reached by planned gravitational wave observatories. On the other hand, low-scale models could still produce a detectable stochastic background at frequencies accessible to those detectors. The discovery of such a background would open a new window into the very early Universe.

  20. Characterisation of creep cavitation damage in a stainless steel pressure vessel using small angle neutron scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Bouchard, P J; Treimer, W

    2002-01-01

    Grain-boundary cavitation is the dominant failure mode associated with initiation of reheat cracking, which has been widely observed in austenitic stainless steel pressure vessels operating at temperatures within the creep range (>450 C). Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) experiments at the LLB PAXE instrument (Saclay) and the V12 double-crystal diffractometer of the HMI-BENSC facility (Berlin) are used to characterise cavitation damage (in the size range R=10-2000 nm) in a variety of creep specimens extracted from ex-service plant. Factors that affect the evolution of cavities and the cavity-size distribution are discussed. The results demonstrate that SANS techniques have the potential to quantify the development of creep damage in type-316H stainless steel, and thereby link microstructural damage with ductility-exhaustion models of reheat cracking. (orig.)

  1. No-scale SUGRA SO(10) inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, Ila

    2017-01-01

    We show that a renormalizable theory based on gauge group SO(10) and Higgs system 10⊕210⊕126⊕126 with no scale supergravity can lead to a Starobinsky kind of potential for inflation. Successful inflation is possible in cases where the potential during inflation corresponds to SU(3)_C×SU(2)_L×SU(2)_R×U(1)_B_−_L, SU(5)×U(1) and flipped SU(5) × U(1) symmetries with suitable choice of superpotential parameters. The reheating in such a scenario can occur via non-perturbative decay of inflaton, i.e. through ‘preheating’. After the end of reheating, when Universe cools down, the finite-temperature potential can have a minimum which corresponds to MSSM. (author)

  2. Detection of relic gravitational waves in thermal case by using Adv.LIGO data of GW150914

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghayour, Basem; Khodagholizadeh, Jafar

    2017-01-01

    The thermal spectrum of relic gravitational waves enhances the usual spectrum. Our analysis shows that there exist some chances for detection of the thermal spectrum in addition to the usual spectrum by comparison with sensitivity of Adv.LIGO of GW150914 and detector based on the maser light. The behavior of the inflation and reheating stages are often known as power law expansion like S(η) ∝ η"1"+"β, S(η) ∝ η"1"+"β"_s, respectively, with constraints 1 + β 0. The β and β_s have an unique effect on the shape of the spectrum. We find some values of the β and β_s by considering the mentioned comparison. As obtained, the results give us more information as regards the evolution of inflation and reheating stages. (orig.)

  3. Microstructural Characterization and Mechanical Properties Analysis of Weld Metals with Two Ni Contents During Post-Weld Heat Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Da-yong; Han, Xiu-lin; Tian, Hong-tao; Liao, Bo; Xiao, Fu-ren

    2015-05-01

    This study designed post-weld heat treatments, including reheating and tempering, associated with hot bending to investigate the microstructures, toughness, and hardness of two weld metals with different Ni contents (transformation temperature and increased the proportion of acicular ferrite (AF). Furthermore, a high Ni content promoted the martensite/austenite (M/A) constituent formation after reheating. The promotion of the M/A formation increased the number of cementite particles, and accelerated cementite coarsening during tempering. The large-angle grain boundary density from the AF improved the toughness despite the negative effect of cementite. The strengthening contributions were calculated, and the grain refinement was the greatest. The high Ni content decreased the effective grain size with a 2 deg tolerance angle, thus enhancing the grain refinement contribution.

  4. Single field inflation in supergravity with a U(1) gauge symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heurtier, L. [Centre de Physique Théorique, École Polytechnique, CNRS, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Khalil, S.; Moursy, A., E-mail: lucien.heurtier@polytechnique.edu, E-mail: skhalil@zewailcity.edu.eg, E-mail: amoursy@zewailcity.edu.eg [Center for Fundamental Physics, Zewail City of Science and Technology, 6 October City, Cairo (Egypt)

    2015-10-01

    A single field inflation based on a supergravity model with a shift symmetry and U(1) extension of the MSSM is analyzed. We show that one of the real components of the two U(1) charged scalar fields plays the role of inflaton with an effective scalar potential similar to the ''new chaotic inflation'' scenario. Both non-anomalous and anomalous (with Fayet-Iliopoulos term) U(1) are studied. We show that the non-anomalous U(1) scenario is consistent with data of the cosmic microwave background and recent astrophysical measurements. A possible kinetic mixing between U(1) and U(1){sub B−L} is considered in order to allow for natural decay channels of the inflaton, leading to a reheating epoch. Upper limits on the reheating temperature thus turn out to favour an intermediate (∼ O(10{sup 13}) GeV) scale B−L symmetry breaking.

  5. Single field inflation in supergravity with a U(1) gauge symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heurtier, L. [Centre de Physique Théorique, École Polytechnique, CNRS,91128 Palaiseau (France); Khalil, S. [Center for Fundamental Physics, Zewail City of Science and Technology,6 October City, Cairo (Egypt); Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University,Cairo, 11566 (Egypt); Moursy, A. [Center for Fundamental Physics, Zewail City of Science and Technology,6 October City, Cairo (Egypt)

    2015-10-19

    A single field inflation based on a supergravity model with a shift symmetry and U(1) extension of the MSSM is analyzed. We show that one of the real components of the two U(1) charged scalar fields plays the role of inflaton with an effective scalar potential similar to the “new chaotic inflation” scenario. Both non-anomalous and anomalous (with Fayet-Iliopoulos term) U(1) are studied. We show that the non-anomalous U(1) scenario is consistent with data of the cosmic microwave background and recent astrophysical measurements. A possible kinetic mixing between U(1) and U(1){sub B−L} is considered in order to allow for natural decay channels of the inflaton, leading to a reheating epoch. Upper limits on the reheating temperature thus turn out to favour an intermediate (∼O(10{sup 13}) GeV) scale B−L symmetry breaking.

  6. Erosion-corrosion problems encountered during the operation of conventional plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garaud, J.

    1984-01-01

    Are reported three experiments carried out in order to fight erosion-corrosion by a pH analysis on the heat exchangers of the plant Saint-Laurent-des-Eaux A, on the low pressure reheaters of conventional flame plants and on the reheater-separator vessels of pressurized water reactors (PWR). The utilization of certain amines, other than ammonia (morpholine and cyclohexylamine) may lead only to some limited improvements due to the thermal decomposition of the reagents and due to the subsequent effects they may have on the chemical characteristics of the water and on the condensate treatments. The solutions related to the chemistry modifications of the water in order to fight erosion-corrosion phenomena are in fact a palliative to conceptional errors which can be useful whenever it is impossible to do otherwise [fr

  7. The cosmological Higgstory of the vacuum instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinosa, José R. [IFAE, Universitat Autónoma de Barcelona,08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); ICREA, Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats,Barcelona (Spain); Giudice, Gian F. [CERN, Theory Division,CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Morgante, Enrico; Riotto, Antonio [Département de Physique Théorique and Centre for Astroparticle Physics (CAP),Université de Genève, 24 quai Ernest-Ansermet, CH-1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Senatore, Leonardo [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physicsand Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology,Physics Department and SLAC, Stanford, CA 94025 (United States); Strumia, Alessandro [Dipartimento di Fisica dell’Università di Pisa and INFN, Polo Fibonacci,Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, Pisa (Italy); National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics,Ravala 10, Tallinn (Estonia); Tetradis, Nikolaos [Department of Physics, University of Athens,Zographou 157 84 (Greece)

    2015-09-24

    The Standard Model Higgs potential becomes unstable at large field values. After clarifying the issue of gauge dependence of the effective potential, we study the cosmological evolution of the Higgs field in presence of this instability throughout inflation, reheating and the present epoch. We conclude that anti-de Sitter patches in which the Higgs field lies at its true vacuum are lethal for our universe. From this result, we derive upper bounds on the Hubble constant during inflation, which depend on the reheating temperature and on the Higgs coupling to the scalar curvature or to the inflaton. Finally we study how a speculative link between Higgs meta-stability and consistence of quantum gravity leads to a sharp prediction for the Higgs and top masses, which is consistent with measured values.

  8. Quantitative consideration for the tempering effect during multi-pass thermal cycle in HAZ of low-alloy steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Lina; Nakabayashi, Yuma; Saida, Kazuyoshi; Mochizuki, Masahito; Nishimoto, Kazutoshi; Kameyama, Masashi; Hirano, Shinro; Chigusa, Naoki

    2011-01-01

    A new Thermal Cycle Tempering Parameter (TCTP) to deal with the tempering effect during multi-pass thermal cycles has been proposed by extending Larson-Miller parameter (LMP). Experimental result revealed that the hardness in synthetic HAZ of the low alloy steel subjected to multi tempering thermal cycles has a good linear relationship with TCTP. By using this relationship, the hardness of the low-alloy steel reheated with tempering thermal cycles can be predicted when the original hardness is known. (author)

  9. 46 CFR 61.05-20 - Boiler safety valves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Boiler safety valves. 61.05-20 Section 61.05-20 Shipping... INSPECTIONS Tests and Inspections of Boilers § 61.05-20 Boiler safety valves. Each safety valve for a drum, superheater, or reheater of a boiler shall be tested at the interval specified by table 61.05-10. [CGD 95-028...

  10. [Hygiene in airline catering. I. Microbiologic study of meals distributed on aircrafts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellani, P; Frugoni, G

    1983-08-25

    A preliminary microbiological survey, conducted in the Italian national airlines Catering Department is reported. Precooked,, frozen meals reheated on medium and long distance flights were examined. The results indicate that hygiene standards are satisfactorily maintained. The presence of staphylococcus aureus in some samples highlights the importance of preventive and prophylactic measures in healthy carriers. In view of the growing concern about Salmonella poisoning in airline passengers the absence of this bacterium is extremely satisfying.

  11. Polarization of the microwave background in open universes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolman, B.W.

    1985-01-01

    The polarization and anisotropy of the microwave background radiation in open universes with an expansion anisotropy, arising from either cosmological anisotropy or density inhomogeneities on large scales, are computed by a direct, or Monte Carlo, simulation of the problem. The simulation includes accurate numerical data for the ionization of matter during both the decoupling and the reheated eras. Besides the well-known result that the radiation anisotropy is distorted and focused by the spatial curvature into a single very small, intense spot, it is found that the scattering of this spot during the reheated epoch generates features in the polarization of the radiation which cover fully one-half of the sky. The radiation is polarized in a wide band encircling the spot, with the direction of polarization opposite that of the rest of the sky and at a level only slightly below present observed upper limits, given an expansion anisotropy also near its upper limit. This region of strong polarization is surrounded by an unpolarized band near the equator (where the spot is at a pole), while the rest of the sky is also polarized at a level near the upper limits. The amount of polarization is very sensitive to the amount of scattering, and thus to the reheating epoch; further, features in the polarization remain visible even for very long reheated epochs, whereas the intensity anisotropy is quickly damped out. The widths of the unusually polarized region and the spot are sensitive to the cosmological matter density. The extension of these results to the case of a spectrum of large-scale inhomogeneities is briefly discussed. The polarization of the microwaves thus provides an important and observationally accessible test of these cosmological models

  12. Development of Alternative Technology to PWHT in Site Welding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ho Jin; Lee, B. S.; Jang, J. S.; Kim, K. H.; Park, S. D.; Yoon, J. H.; Kim, M. C.; Kim, K. B.; Sung, K. W

    2007-04-15

    ASME Section IX added requirements for qualification when using temper bead welding in the 2004 edition. The temper bead welding techniques which can satisfy the requirements of the Code are needed to use them in the site repair welding. The optimized welding parameters can be obtained when controlling the process to supercritically-reheat and to subcritically-reheat the coarse grain region sequently. The microstructures of SCFGCG obtained from the Gleegle simulated specimens and those of post weld heat treated coarse grain region are compared. The obtained both microstructures showed almost similar patterns. mid bead deposition technique Suggested in this study has a technical concept that the mid beads are deposited between the deposited initial beads repeatedly in a bead layer, which gives a lot of reheating effects on brittle microstructure in HAZ. This newly suggested technique is considered to have more effective tempering effect than the conventional temper bead technique which has concept to deposit one type of beads in a bead layer. The suggested modeling in this study can simulate well the SMAW process. Hence this modeling was used in analyzing the more complicated welding process of multi-layer welding. The modeling was used to analyze the tempering effect on the microstructures of HAZ by considering the patterns of overlapping of the reheating regions under the consequently deposited beads. When considering the crack path in the ever-matched weld metal condition, the interface may have a resistance against the crack propagation. A182 filler and A625 filler were used to make the weld specimens which have different weld metal conditions. The crack directed toward the under-matched weld metal may propagate across the fusion line easier than that of the even-matched weld metal condition.

  13. Chromium Enrichment on P11 Ferritic Steel by Pack Cementation

    OpenAIRE

    Fauzi F. A.; Kurniawan T.; Salwani M. S.; Bin Y. S.; Harun W. S. W.

    2016-01-01

    The future thermal power plant is expected to operate at higher temperature to improve its efficiency and to reduce greenhouse gas emission. This target requires better corrosion properties of ferritic steels, which commonly used as materials for superheater and reheater of boiler tubes. In this work, chromium enrichment on the surface of ferritic steel is studied. The deposited chromium is expected to become a reservoir for the formation of chromia protective layer. Chromium was deposited on...

  14. Lattice defect inheritance during γ-α-γ transformation in steel having no ''reverse'' (martensite) transition during austenization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernshtejn, M.L.; Zajmovskij, V.A.; Kozlova, A.G.; Kolupaeva, T.L.

    1979-01-01

    An investigation was carried out, using an electron microscope technique, of the substructure of austenite in the 120Kh3G steel. It was shown that the austenite substructure, resulting from high-temperature mechanical working, is inherited on deep cooling by the low-temperature phase (martensite), and in subsequent heating is again inherited by austenite. If the disintegration of the hot-deformed austenite takes place in the pearlite phase, reheating gives rise to an austenite free from the substructure

  15. LATTICEEASY A Program for Lattice Simulations of Scalar Fields in an Expanding Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Felder, G; Tkachev, Igor; Felder, Gary

    2008-01-01

    We describe a C++ program that we have written and made available for calculating the evolution of interacting scalar fields in an expanding universe. The program is particularly useful for the study of reheating and thermalization after inflation. The program and its full documentation are available on the Web at http://physics.stanford.edu/gfelder/latticeeasy. In this paper we provide a brief overview of what the program does and what it is useful for.

  16. Development of a dynamic model of a BWR nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonboel, E.

    1975-12-01

    A description is given of a one-dimensional steady-state model of a high-pressure steam turbine, a low-pressure steam turbine, a moisture separator, a reheater, a condenser, feedwater heaters and feedwater pump for a nuclear power plant. The model is contained in the program ''TURBPLANT''. The dynamic part of this model is presented in part II of this report. (author)

  17. Simulation of main steam and feedwater system of full scope simulator for Qinshan 300 MW Nuclear Power Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Xiaoyu

    1996-01-01

    The simulation of main steam and feedwater system is the most important and maximal part in secondary circuit model, including all of main steam and feedwater's thermal-hydraulic properties, except heat-exchange of secondary side of steam generator. It simulates main steam header, steam power in each stage of turbine, moisture separator-reheater, deaerator, condenser, high pressure and low pressure heater, auxiliary feedwater and main steam bypass in full scope

  18. Starobinsky-like inflation and neutrino masses in a no-scale SO(10) model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, John [Theoretical Particle Physics and Cosmology Group,Department of Physics, King’s College London, WC2R 2LS London (United Kingdom); Theoretical Physics Department, CERN,CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Garcia, Marcos A.G. [Physics and Astronomy Department, Rice University,6100 Main Street, Houston, TX 77005 (United States); Nagata, Natsumi [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo,Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Nanopoulos, Dimitri V. [George P. and Cynthia W. Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy,Texas A& M University, College Station, 77843 Texas (United States); Olive, Keith A. [William I. Fine Theoretical Physics Institute, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota,116 Church Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

    2016-11-08

    Using a no-scale supergravity framework, we construct an SO(10) model that makes predictions for cosmic microwave background observables similar to those of the Starobinsky model of inflation, and incorporates a double-seesaw model for neutrino masses consistent with oscillation experiments and late-time cosmology. We pay particular attention to the behaviour of the scalar fields during inflation and the subsequent reheating.

  19. Development of Alternative Technology to PWHT in Site Welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ho Jin; Lee, B. S.; Jang, J. S.; Kim, K. H.; Park, S. D.; Yoon, J. H.; Kim, M. C.; Kim, K. B.; Sung, K. W.

    2007-04-01

    ASME Section IX added requirements for qualification when using temper bead welding in the 2004 edition. The temper bead welding techniques which can satisfy the requirements of the Code are needed to use them in the site repair welding. The optimized welding parameters can be obtained when controlling the process to supercritically-reheat and to subcritically-reheat the coarse grain region sequently. The microstructures of SCFGCG obtained from the Gleegle simulated specimens and those of post weld heat treated coarse grain region are compared. The obtained both microstructures showed almost similar patterns. mid bead deposition technique Suggested in this study has a technical concept that the mid beads are deposited between the deposited initial beads repeatedly in a bead layer, which gives a lot of reheating effects on brittle microstructure in HAZ. This newly suggested technique is considered to have more effective tempering effect than the conventional temper bead technique which has concept to deposit one type of beads in a bead layer. The suggested modeling in this study can simulate well the SMAW process. Hence this modeling was used in analyzing the more complicated welding process of multi-layer welding. The modeling was used to analyze the tempering effect on the microstructures of HAZ by considering the patterns of overlapping of the reheating regions under the consequently deposited beads. When considering the crack path in the ever-matched weld metal condition, the interface may have a resistance against the crack propagation. A182 filler and A625 filler were used to make the weld specimens which have different weld metal conditions. The crack directed toward the under-matched weld metal may propagate across the fusion line easier than that of the even-matched weld metal condition

  20. Hilltop supernatural inflation and gravitino problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohri, Kazunori; Lin, Chia-Min

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the parameter space of hilltop supernatural inflation model and show the regime within which there is no gravitino problem even if we consider both thermal and nonthermal production mechanisms. We make plots for the allowed reheating temperature as a function of gravitino mass by constraints from big-bang nucleosynthesis. We also plot the constraint when gravitino is assumed to be stable and plays the role of dark matter

  1. Hilltop supernatural inflation and gravitino problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohri, Kazunori; Lin, Chia-Min

    2010-11-01

    In this paper, we explore the parameter space of hilltop supernatural inflation model and show the regime within which there is no gravitino problem even if we consider both thermal and nonthermal production mechanisms. We make plots for the allowed reheating temperature as a function of gravitino mass by constraints from big-bang nucleosynthesis. We also plot the constraint when gravitino is assumed to be stable and plays the role of dark matter.

  2. Thermodynamic evaluation of the Kalina split-cycle concepts for waste heat recovery applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Knudsen, Thomas; Larsen, Ulrik; Haglind, Fredrik

    2014-01-01

    The Kalina split-cycle is a thermodynamic process for converting thermal energy into electrical power. It uses an ammonia–water mixture as a working fluid (like a conventional Kalina cycle) and has a varying ammonia concentration during the pre-heating and evaporation steps. This second feature results in an improved match between the heat source and working fluid temperature profiles, decreasing the entropy generation in the heat recovery system. The present work compares the thermodynamic performance of this power cycle with the conventional Kalina process, and investigates the impact of varying boundary conditions by conducting an exergy analysis. The design parameters of each configuration were determined by performing a multi-variable optimisation. The results indicate that the Kalina split-cycle with reheat presents an exergetic efficiency by 2.8% points higher than a reference Kalina cycle with reheat, and by 4.3% points without reheat. The cycle efficiency varies by 14% points for a variation of the exhaust gas temperature of 100 °C, and by 1% point for a cold water temperature variation of 30 °C. This analysis also pinpoints the large irreversibilities in the low-pressure turbine and condenser, and indicates a reduction of the exergy destruction by about 23% in the heat recovery system compared to the baseline cycle. - Highlights: • The thermodynamic performance of the Kalina split-cycle is assessed. • The Kalina split-cycle is compared to the Kalina cycle, with and without reheat. • An exergy analysis is performed to evaluate its thermodynamic performance. • The impact of varying boundary conditions is investigated. • The Kalina split-cycle displays high exergetic efficiency for low- and medium-temperature applications

  3. Wet steam turbines for nuclear generating stations -design and operating experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usher, J.

    1977-01-01

    Lecture to the Institution of Nuclear Engineers, 11 Jan. 1977. The object of this lecture was to give an account of some design features of large wet steam turbines and to show by describing some recent operational experience how their design concepts were fulfilled. Headings are as follows: effects of wet steam cycle on turbine layout and operation (H.P. turbine, L.P. turbine); turbine control and operation; water separators; and steam reheaters. (U.K.)

  4. Parametric resonance in an expanding universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zlatev, I.; Huey, G.; Steinhardt, P.J.

    1998-01-01

    Parametric resonance has been discussed as a mechanism for copious particle production following inflation. Here we present a simple and intuitive calculational method for estimating the efficiency of parametric amplification as a function of parameters. This is important for determining whether resonant amplification plays an important role in the reheating process. We find that significant amplification occurs only for a limited range of couplings and interactions. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  5. Starobinsky-Like Inflation and Neutrino Masses in a No-Scale SO(10) Model

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, John

    2016-11-08

    Using a no-scale supergravity framework, we construct an SO(10) model that makes predictions for cosmic microwave background observables similar to those of the Starobinsky model of inflation, and incorporates a double-seesaw model for neutrino masses consistent with oscillation experiments and late-time cosmology. We pay particular attention to the behaviour of the scalar fields during inflation and the subsequent reheating.

  6. Reconstruction of the MSRs in-situ at Beaver Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarden, A.; Tam, C.W.; Deahna, S.T.; McFeaters, C.V.

    1992-01-01

    The Moisture Separator Reheaters (MSRs) have been problem components at Beaver Valley 1 pressurized water reactor since the plant started up 16 years ago, many of the problems encountered being widespread in the nuclear industry. In 1991, Duquesne Light rebuilt the Beaver Valley 1 MSRs and in 1992 did the same at unit 2. The reconstruction projects have proved cost effective with short payback times and significant improvements in station performance. (Author)

  7. Simulation model of nuclear power plant turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutta, Anu; Thangamani, I.; Chakraborty, G.; Ghosh, A.K.

    2006-04-01

    A computer code TURDYN has been developed for prediction of HP and LP turbine torque under thermodynamic transient conditions. The model is based on the conservation laws of mass and energy. All the important components of turbine systems e.g. high pressure turbine, low pressure turbine, feed heaters, reheater, moisture separator have been considered. The details of the mathematical formulation of the model and open loop responses for specific disturbances are presented. (author)

  8. Electron beam treatment removes both sulphur and nitrogen oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, K.; Miller, G.A.

    1985-01-01

    The Ebara Corporation in Japan has developed an electron beam flue gas treatment (e-beam fgt) process. The process offers the following features: simultaneous removal of SO 2 and NOsub(x); a dry process which involves no slurry recycling, no sludge disposal, and no gas reheating; turndown and load following capabilities with a minimum of process control; SO 2 and NOsub(x) are converted into saleable fertiliser. The demonstration plant is described. (author)

  9. Sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides gas treating process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forbes, J. T.

    1985-01-01

    A process is disclosed for treating particle-containing gas streams by removing particles and gaseous atmospheric pollutants. Parallel passage contactors are utilized to remove the gaseous pollutants. The minimum required gas flow rate for effective operation of these contactors is maintained by recycling a variable amount of low temperature gas which has been passed through a particle removal zone. The recycled gas is reheated by heat exchange against a portion of the treated gas

  10. International Symposium on Special Topics in Chemical Propulsion (8th): Advancements in Energetic Materials and Chemical Propulsion Held in Cape Town, South Africa on 2-6 November 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-06

    Mark Morgan4 USA Dr. Tam Nguyen9,7,6,1,2 Australia Prof. Takashi Niioka6,8 Japan Prof. Boris V. Novozhilov6,8 Russia Dr. Elaine S. Oran8 USA Dr...predicted to continue for the foreseeable future. The lessons learned from other international peacekeeping forces in foreign countries, has a direct...reprocessing or blending again to meet the specific requirements. Another advantage is that after mixing, the excess product can be reheated and used

  11. Material fatigue in high pressure piping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunne, W.C. [Pro Novum, Research and Technological Services, Ltd, Katowice, (Poland)

    1998-12-31

    The present paper describes a type of damage to four-way cross pieces on live steam and reheated steam pipelines. The results of metallographic examination and strength tests are presented. The occurring mechanisms of material degradation, i.e. low-cycle fatigue and hydrogen corrosion are discussed. The both mechanisms result in the corrosion fatigue of the material causing the failure of cross pieces. A new design of cross piece was proposed. (orig.) 5 refs.

  12. Clean power: for the nuclear future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelken, H.H.; Barratt, R.O.; Mackenzie, S.J.; Essebaggers, J.; Gardner, W.A.; Walker, K.L.

    1972-01-01

    The activities of the Foster Wheeler Corporation in designing and supplying steam generators and other primary circuit components are reviewed. Descriptions are presented of design verification procedures, helium-heated steam generators for the HTGR, the LMFBR demonstration plant steam generator system, moisture separator/steam reheater units for water cooled reactors, and the layout of the Panama City, Florida facility for manufacture of HTGR components. (U.S.)

  13. Could unstable relic particles distort the microwave background radiation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dar, A.; Loeb, A.; Nussinov, S.

    1989-01-01

    Three general classes of possible scenarios for the recently reported distortion of the microwave background radiation (MBR) via decaying relic weakly interacting particles are analyzed. The analysis shows that such particles could not reheat the universe and cause the spectral distortion of the MBR. Gravitational processes such as the early formation of massive black holes may still be plausible energy sources for producing the reported spectral distortion of the MBR at an early cosmological epoch. 24 references

  14. Collision of domain walls in asymptotically anti-de Sitter spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takamizu, Yu-ichi; Maeda, Kei-ichi

    2006-01-01

    We study collision of two domain walls in five-dimensional asymptotically anti-de Sitter spacetime. This may provide the reheating mechanism of an ekpyrotic (or cyclic) brane universe, in which two Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield branes collide and evolve into a hot big bang universe. We evaluate a change of scalar field making the domain wall and can investigate the effect of a negative cosmological term in the bulk to the collision process and the evolution of our universe

  15. Thermodynamic evaluation of the Kalina split-cycle concepts for waste heat recovery applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Knudsen, Thomas; Larsen, Ulrik

    2014-01-01

    of varying boundary conditions by conducting an exergy analysis. The design parameters of each configuration were determined by performing a multi-variable optimisation. The results indicate that the Kalina split-cycle with reheat presents an exergetic efficiency by 2.8% points higher than a reference Kalina...... and condenser, and indicates a reduction of the exergy destruction by about 23% in the heat recovery system compared to the baseline cycle....

  16. Design of a high-temperature first wall/blanket for a d-d compact Reversed-Field-Pinch reactor (CRFPR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dabiri, A.E.; Glancy, J.E.

    1983-05-01

    A high-temperature first wall/blanket which would take full advantage of the absence of tritium breeding in a d-d reactor was designed. This design which produces steam at p = 7 MPa and T = 538 0 C at the blanket exit eliminates the requirement for a separate steam generator. A steam cycle with steam-to-steam reheat yielding about 37.5 percent efficiency is compatible with this design

  17. Steam plant for pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    This book discusses the research and development organisations and users to highlight those aspects of the steam turbine and associated plant which are particularly related to the PWR system. The contents include: Characteristics of the steam system (including feed train, dump system and safety aspects); overall design aspects of high and half speed turbines; design aspects of the steam generator and seismic considerations; moisture separators and reheaters; feed pumps and their drives; water treatment; safety related valves; operational experience; availability and performance

  18. A bulk viscosity driven inflationary model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waga, I.; Falcao, R.C.; Chanda, R.

    1985-01-01

    Bulk viscosity associated with the production of heavy particles during the GUT phase transition can lead to exponential or 'generalized' inflation. The condition of inflation proposed is independent of the details of the phase transition and remains unaltered in presence of a cosmological constant. Such mechanism avoids the extreme supercooling and reheating needed in the usual inflationary models. The standard baryongenesis mechanism can be maintained. (Author) [pt

  19. Microstructural changes after control rolling and interrupted accelerated cooling simulations in pipeline steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Mourino, Nuria; Petrov, Roumen [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Ghent University, Technologiepark Zwijnaarde 903, B-9052 Ghent (Belgium); Bae, Jin-Ho; Kim, Kisoo [Sheet Products and Process Research Group, POSCO, Jeonnam, 545-090 (Korea, Republic of); Kestens, Leo A.I. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Ghent University, Technologiepark Zwijnaarde 903, B-9052 Ghent (Belgium); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD, Delft (Netherlands)

    2011-04-15

    The {gamma}-{alpha} transformation and final microstructure in pipeline steel was studied by carrying out a number of physical simulations of industrial hot rolling schedules. Particularly, the effect of the reheating temperature, deformation and cooling parameters on the transformation temperatures and final grain size were considered with a goal to obtain an appropriate thermo-mechanical processing route which will generate appropriate microstructures for pipeline applications. The CCT diagram of the steel was derived experimentally by means of dilatometric tests. Hot torsion experiments were applied in a multi-deformation cycle at various temperatures in the austenite region to simulate industrial rolling schedules. By variation of the reheating temperature, equivalent strain, and accelerated cooling, different types of microstructures were obtained. It was found that the deformation increases the transformation temperatures whereas the higher cooling rates after deformation decrease them. Post-deformation microstructure consists of fine bainitic-ferrite grains with dispersed carbides and small amount of dispersed martensite/austenite islands which can be controlled by varying the reheating temperature, deformation and post-deformation cooling. The detailed microstructure characteristics obtained from the present work could be used to optimize the mechanical properties, strength and toughness of pipeline steel grades by an appropriate control of the thermo-mechanical processing. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. Dual turbine power plant and method of operating such plant, especially one having an HTGR steam supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braytenbah, A.S.; Jaegtnes, K.O.

    1977-01-01

    A power plant including dual steam turbine-generators connected to pass superheat and reheat steam from a steam generator which derives heat from the coolant gas of a high temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactor is described. Associated with each turbine is a bypass line to conduct superheat steam in parallel with a high pressure turbine portion, and a bypass line to conduct superheat steam in parallel with a lower pressure turbine portion. Auxiliary steam turbines pass a portion of the steam flow to the reheater of the steam generator and drive gas blowers which circulate the coolant gas through the reactor and the steam source. Apparatus and method are disclosed for loading or unloading a turbine-generator while the other produces a steady power output. During such loading or unloading, the steam flows through the turbine portions are coordinated with the steam flows through the bypass lines for protection of the steam generator, and the pressure of reheated steam is regulated for improved performance of the gas blowers. 33 claims, 5 figures

  1. Preheating in new inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desroche, Mariel; Felder, Gary N.; Kratochvil, Jan M.; Linde, Andrei

    2005-01-01

    During the last ten years a detailed investigation of preheating was performed for chaotic inflation and for hybrid inflation. However, nonperturbative effects during reheating in the new inflation scenario remained practically unexplored. We investigate preheating in new inflation, using a combination of analytical and numerical methods. We find that the decay of the homogeneous component of the inflaton field and the resulting process of spontaneous symmetry breaking in the simplest models of new inflation usually occurs almost instantly: for the new inflation on the GUT scale it takes only about 5 oscillations of the field distribution. The decay of the homogeneous inflaton field is so efficient because of a combined effect of tachyonic preheating and parametric resonance. At that stage, the homogeneous oscillating inflaton field decays into a collection of waves of the inflaton field, with a typical wavelength of the order of the inverse inflaton mass. This stage usually is followed by a long stage of decay of the inflaton field into other particles, which can be described by the perturbative approach to reheating after inflation. The resulting reheating temperature typically is rather low

  2. Phenomenological aspects of no-scale inflation models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, John [Theoretical Particle Physics and Cosmology Group, Department of Physics,King’s College London,WC2R 2LS London (United Kingdom); Theory Division, CERN,CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Garcia, Marcos A.G. [William I. Fine Theoretical Physics Institute, School of Physics and Astronomy,University of Minnesota,116 Church Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Nanopoulos, Dimitri V. [George P. and Cynthia W. Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics andAstronomy, Texas A& M University,College Station, 77843 Texas (United States); Astroparticle Physics Group, Houston Advanced Research Center (HARC), Mitchell Campus, Woodlands, 77381 Texas (United States); Academy of Athens, Division of Natural Sciences, 28 Panepistimiou Avenue, 10679 Athens (Greece); Olive, Keith A. [William I. Fine Theoretical Physics Institute, School of Physics and Astronomy,University of Minnesota,116 Church Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

    2015-10-01

    We discuss phenomenological aspects of inflationary models wiith a no-scale supergravity Kähler potential motivated by compactified string models, in which the inflaton may be identified either as a Kähler modulus or an untwisted matter field, focusing on models that make predictions for the scalar spectral index n{sub s} and the tensor-to-scalar ratio r that are similar to the Starobinsky model. We discuss possible patterns of soft supersymmetry breaking, exhibiting examples of the pure no-scale type m{sub 0}=B{sub 0}=A{sub 0}=0, of the CMSSM type with universal A{sub 0} and m{sub 0}≠0 at a high scale, and of the mSUGRA type with A{sub 0}=B{sub 0}+m{sub 0} boundary conditions at the high input scale. These may be combined with a non-trivial gauge kinetic function that generates gaugino masses m{sub 1/2}≠0, or one may have a pure gravity mediation scenario where trilinear terms and gaugino masses are generated through anomalies. We also discuss inflaton decays and reheating, showing possible decay channels for the inflaton when it is either an untwisted matter field or a Kähler modulus. Reheating is very efficient if a matter field inflaton is directly coupled to MSSM fields, and both candidates lead to sufficient reheating in the presence of a non-trivial gauge kinetic function.

  3. Cosmological consequences of nearly conformal dynamics at the TeV scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konstandin, Thomas; Servant, Géraldine

    2011-01-01

    Nearly conformal dynamics at the TeV scale as motivated by the hierarchy problem can be characterized by a stage of significant supercooling at the electroweak epoch. This has important cosmological consequences. In particular, a common assumption about the history of the universe is that the reheating temperature is high, at least high enough to assume that TeV-mass particles were once in thermal equilibrium. However, as we discuss in this paper, this assumption is not well justified in some models of strong dynamics at the TeV scale. We then need to reexamine how to achieve baryogenesis in these theories as well as reconsider how the dark matter abundance is inherited. We argue that baryonic and dark matter abundances can be explained naturally in these setups where reheating takes place by bubble collisions at the end of the strongly first-order phase transition characterizing conformal symmetry breaking, even if the reheating temperature is below the electroweak scale ∼ 100 GeV. In particular, non-thermal production of heavy WIMPs during bubble collisions becomes a well-motivated possibility. We also discuss inflation as well as gravity wave smoking gun signatures of this class of models

  4. Cosmological consequences of supersymmetric flat directions

    CERN Document Server

    Riva, Francesco; Sarkar, Subir; Giudice, Gian

    In this work we analyze various implications of the presence of large field vacum expectation values (VEVs) along supersymmetric flat direct ions during the early universe. First, we discuss supersymmetric leptogenesis and the grav itino bound. Supersym- metric thermal leptogenesis with a hierarchical right-han ded neutrino mass spectrum normally requires the mass of the lightest right-handed neu trino to be heavier than about 10 9 GeV. This is in conflict with the upper bound on the reheating t empera- ture which is found by imposing that the gravitinos generate d during the reheating stage after inflation do not jeopardize successful nucleosy nthesis. We show that a solution to this tension is actually already incorporated i n the framework, because of the presence of flat directions in the supersymmetric scalar potential. Massive right- handed neutrinos are efficiently produced non-thermally and the observed baryon asymmetry can be explained even for a reheating temperature respecting the grav- itino bound...

  5. Development of shelf stable pork sausages using hurdle technology and their quality at ambient temperature (37±1°C) storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, R; Anjaneyulu, A S R; Kondaiah, N

    2008-05-01

    Shelf stable pork sausages were developed using hurdle technology and their quality was evaluated during ambient temperature (37±1°C) storage. Hurdles incorporated were low pH, low water activity, vacuum packaging and post package reheating. Dipping in potassium sorbate solution prior to vacuum packaging was also studied. Reheating increased the pH of the sausages by 0.17units as against 0.11units in controls. Incorporation of hurdles significantly decreased emulsion stability, cooking yield, moisture and fat percent, yellowness and hardness, while increasing the protein percent and redness. Hurdle treatment reduced quality deterioration during storage as indicated by pH, TBARS and tyrosine values. About 1 log reduction in total plate count was observed with the different hurdles as were reductions in the coliform, anaerobic, lactobacilli and Staphylococcus aureus counts. pH, a(w) and reheating hurdles inhibited yeast and mold growth up to day 3, while additional dipping in 1% potassium sorbate solution inhibited their growth throughout the 9 days storage. Despite low initial sensory appeal, the hurdle treated sausages had an overall acceptability in the range 'very good' to 'good' up to day 6.

  6. Gas fired advanced turbine system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecren, R. T.; White, D. J.

    The basic concept thus derived from the Ericsson cycle is an intercooled, recuperated, and reheated gas turbine. Theoretical performance analyses, however, showed that reheat at high turbine rotor inlet temperatures (TRIT) did not provide significant efficiency gains and that the 50 percent efficiency goal could be met without reheat. Based upon these findings, the engine concept adopted as a starting point for the gas-fired advanced turbine system is an intercooled, recuperated (ICR) gas turbine. It was found that, at inlet temperatures greater than 2450 F, the thermal efficiency could be maintained above 50%, provided that the turbine cooling flows could be reduced to 7% of the main air flow or lower. This dual and conflicting requirement of increased temperatures and reduced cooling will probably force the abandonment of traditional air cooled turbine parts. Thus, the use of either ceramic materials or non-air cooling fluids has to be considered for the turbine nozzle guide vanes and turbine blades. The use of ceramic components for the proposed engine system is generally preferred because of the potential growth to higher temperatures that is available with such materials.

  7. A test of the 40Ar/39Ar age spectrum technique on some terrestrial materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanphere, M.A.; Brent, Dalrymple G.

    1971-01-01

    40Ar/39Ar age spectra were determined for 10 terrestrial rock and mineral samples whose geologic history is known from independent evidence. The spectra for six mineral and whole rock samples, including biotite, feldspar, hornblende, muscovite, and granodiorite, that have experienced post-crystallization heating did not reveal the age of crystallization in any obvious way. Minima in the spectra, however, give reasonable maximum ages for reheating and high-temperature maxima can be interpreted as minimum crystallization ages. High-temperature ages of microcline and albite that have not been reheated are approximately 10% younger than the known crystallization age. Apparently there are no domains in these feldspars that have retained radiogenic 40Ar quantitatively. Spectra from two diabase samples that contain significant quantities of excess argon might mistakenly be interpreted as spectra from reheated samples and do not give the age of emplacement. The 40Ar/39Ar age spectrum technique may be a potentially valuable tool for the study of geologic areas with complex histories, but the interpretation of age spectra from terrestrial samples seems to be more difficult than suggested by some previous studies. ?? 1971.

  8. Performance analysis of a potassium-steam two stage vapour cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitachi, Kohshi; Saito, Takeshi

    1983-01-01

    It is an important subject to raise the thermal efficiency in thermal power plants. In present thermal power plants which use steam cycle, the plant thermal efficiency has already reached 41 to 42 %, steam temperature being 839 K, and steam pressure being 24.2 MPa. That is, the thermal efficiency in a steam cycle is facing a limit. In this study, analysis was made on the performance of metal vapour/steam two-stage Rankine cycle obtained by combining a metal vapour cycle with a present steam cycle. Three different combinations using high temperature potassium regenerative cycle and low temperature steam regenerative cycle, potassium regenerative cycle and steam reheat and regenerative cycle, and potassium bleed cycle and steam reheat and regenerative cycle were systematically analyzed for the overall thermal efficiency, the output ratio and the flow rate ratio, when the inlet temperature of a potassium turbine, the temperature of a potassium condenser, and others were varied. Though the overall thermal efficiency was improved by lowering the condensing temperature of potassium vapour, it is limited by the construction because the specific volume of potassium in low pressure section increases greatly. In the combinatipn of potassium vapour regenerative cycle with steam regenerative cycle, the overall thermal efficiency can be 58.5 %, and also 60.2 % if steam reheat and regenerative cycle is employed. If a cycle to heat steam with the bled vapor out of a potassium vapour cycle is adopted, the overall thermal efficiency of 63.3 % is expected. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  9. Prospects for determination of thermal history after inflation with future gravitational wave detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroyanagi, Sachiko; Nakayama, Kazunori; Saito, Shun

    2011-01-01

    Thermal history of the Universe between inflation and big-bang nucleosynthesis has not yet been revealed observationally. It will be probed by the detection of primordial gravitational waves generated during inflation, which contain information on the reheating temperature as well as the equation of state of the Universe after inflation. Based on the Fisher information formalism, we examine how accurately the tensor-to-scalar ratio and reheating temperature after inflation can be simultaneously determined with space-based gravitational wave detectors such as the DECI-hertz Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory and the Big-Bang Observer. We show that the reheating temperature is best determined if it is around 10 7 GeV for tensor-to-scalar ratio of around 0.1, and explore the detectable parameter space. We also find that equation of state of the early Universe can be also determined accurately enough to distinguish different equation-of-state parameters if the inflationary gravitational waves are successfully detected. Thus, future gravitational wave detectors provide a unique and promising opportunity to reveal the thermal history of the Universe around 10 7 GeV.

  10. GW170817: a neutron star merger in a mass-transferring triple system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Philip; Murray, Norman

    2018-02-01

    The light curve of GW170817 is surprisingly blue and bright. Assuming that the event is a binary neutron star merger, we argue that blueness and brightness of the light curve is the result of ejecta that contains an substantial amount of thermal energy. To achieve this, the ejecta must be reheated at a substantial distance (1-2000 solar radii) from the merger to avoid losing the energy to adiabatic cooling. We show that this reheating can occur if the merger occurs in a hierarchical triple system where the outer star has evolved and filled its Roche lobe. The outer star feeds mass to the inner binary, forming a circumbinary disc, driving the inner binary to merge. Because the outer star fills its Roche lobe, a substantial fraction of the dynamical ejecta collides with the evolved star, reheating the ejecta in the process. We suggest that the process of mass transfer in hierarchical triples tends to form coplanar triple systems such as PSR J0337+1715, and may provide electromagnetic counterparts to binary black hole mergers.

  11. Fiscal 1999 report on result of the model project for systematization of high-efficiency combustion of by-product gas in ironworks. Part 1/2; 1999 nendo seitetsusho fukusei gas koritsu nensho system ka model jigyo. 1/2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-09-01

    For the purpose of curtailing energy consumption of the steel industry, a large energy consuming industry in China, a model project was carried out for high-efficiency combustion system for by-product gasses in ironworks, with the fiscal 1999 results reported. This project is such that, in the reheating furnaces consuming as fuels various combustible gasses produced in iron and steel making processes, systems to permit control of mixed-gas calorie and oxygen content in a reheating furnace are incorporated, with demonstration and dissemination performed for technologies on improving energy consumption efficiency. This year, site survey was conducted to obtain information needed for the basic design for the model project. The heat balance of the objective reheating furnaces revealed that the fuel consumption could be reduced by 6 to 35% by implementing the model project. Investigations were made also on the obstructive impurities contained in the by-product gasses and on the gas purification equipment, etc., which elucidated that the impurity content was about the same as that of the major ironworks in Korea and Taiwan and that there would be no problem if proper inspection and maintenance were carried out. As for the equipment and devices, the majority with software was manufactured and transported to Chingdao, China. Further, Chinese engineers were invited to Japan for technical training. (NEDO)

  12. Proposal of a combined heat and power plant hybridized with regeneration organic Rankine cycle: Energy-Exergy evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anvari, Simin; Jafarmadar, Samad; Khalilarya, Shahram

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A new thermodynamic cogeneration system is proposed. • Energy and exergy analysis of the considered cycle were performed. • An enhancement of 2.6% in exergy efficiency compared to that of baseline cycle. - Abstract: Among Rankine cycles (simple, reheat and regeneration), regeneration organic Rankine cycle demonstrates higher efficiencies compared to other cases. Consequently, in the present work a regeneration organic Rankine cycle has been utilized to recuperate gas turbine’s heat using heat recovery steam generator. At first, this cogeneration system was subjected to energy and exergy analysis and the obtained results were compared with that of investigated cogeneration found in literature (a cogeneration system in which a reheat organic Rankine cycle for heat recuperation of gas turbine cycle was used with the aid of heat recovery steam generator). Results indicated that the first and second thermodynamic efficiencies in present cycle utilizing regeneration cycle instead of reheat cycle has increased 2.62% and 2.6%, respectively. In addition, the effect of thermodynamic parameters such as combustion chamber’s inlet temperature, gas turbine inlet temperature, evaporator and condenser temperature on the energetic and exergetic efficiencies of gas turbine-heat recovery steam generator cycle and gas turbine-heat recovery steam generator cycle with regeneration organic Rankine cycle was surveyed. Besides, parametric analysis shows that as gas turbine and combustion chamber inlet temperatures increase, energetic and exergetic efficiencies tend to increase. Moreover, once condenser and evaporator temperature raise, a slight decrement in energetic and exergetic efficiency is expected.

  13. On the design of residential condensing gas boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naeslund, M.

    1997-02-01

    Two main topics are dealt with in this thesis. Firstly, the performance of condensing boilers with finned tube heat exchangers and premix burners is evaluated. Secondly, ways of avoiding condensate formation in the flue system are evaluated. In the first investigation, a transient heat transfer approach is used to predict performance of different boiler configurations connected to different heating systems. The smallest efficiency difference between heat loads and heating systems is obtained when the heat exchanger gives a small temperature difference between flue gases and return water, the heat transfer coefficient is low and the thermostat hysteresis is large. Taking into account heat exchanger size, the best boiler is one with higher heat transfer per unit area which only causes a small efficiency loss. The total heating cost at part load, including gas and electricity, has a maximum at the lowest simulated heat load. The heat supplied by the circulation heat pump is responsible for this. The second investigation evaluates methods of drying the flue gases. Reheating the flue gases in different ways and water removal in an adsorbent bed are evaluated. Reheating is tested in two specially designed boilers. The necessary reheating is calculated to approximately 100-150 deg C if an uninsulated masonry chimney is used. The tested boilers show that it is possible to design a proper boiler. The losses, stand-by and convective/radiative, must be kept at a minimum in order to obtain a high efficiency. 86 refs, 70 figs, 16 tabs

  14. Power plant and system for accelerating a cross compound turbine in such plant, especially one having an HTGR steam supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaegtnes, K.O.; Braytenbah, A.S.

    1979-01-01

    In accordance with the present invention, a power plant includes a steam source to generate superheat and reheat steam which flows through a turbine-generator and an associated bypass system. A high-pressure and an intermediate-pressure turbine portion drive a first electrical generating means, and a low-pressure turbine portion drives a second electrical generating means. A first flow of superheat steam flows through the high-pressure portion, while a second flow of reheat steam flows through the intermediate and low-pressure portions in succession. Provision is made for bypassing steam around the turbine portions; in particular, one bypass means permits a flow of superheat steam from the steam source to the exhaust of the high-pressure portion, and another bypass means allows reheated steam to pass from the source to the exhaust of the low-pressure portion. The first and second steam flows are governed independently. While one of such flows is varied for purposes of controlling the rotational speed of the first generating means according to a desired speed, the other flow is varied to regulate a power plant variable at its desired level. (author)

  15. Optimum gas turbine cycle for combined cycle power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyzakis, A.L.; Koroneos, C.; Xydis, G.

    2008-01-01

    The gas turbine based power plant is characterized by its relatively low capital cost compared with the steam power plant. It has environmental advantages and short construction lead time. However, conventional industrial engines have lower efficiencies, especially at part load. One of the technologies adopted nowadays for efficiency improvement is the 'combined cycle'. The combined cycle technology is now well established and offers superior efficiency to any of the competing gas turbine based systems that are likely to be available in the medium term for large scale power generation applications. This paper has as objective the optimization of a combined cycle power plant describing and comparing four different gas turbine cycles: simple cycle, intercooled cycle, reheated cycle and intercooled and reheated cycle. The proposed combined cycle plant would produce 300 MW of power (200 MW from the gas turbine and 100 MW from the steam turbine). The results showed that the reheated gas turbine is the most desirable overall, mainly because of its high turbine exhaust gas temperature and resulting high thermal efficiency of the bottoming steam cycle. The optimal gas turbine (GT) cycle will lead to a more efficient combined cycle power plant (CCPP), and this will result in great savings. The initial approach adopted is to investigate independently the four theoretically possible configurations of the gas plant. On the basis of combining these with a single pressure Rankine cycle, the optimum gas scheme is found. Once the gas turbine is selected, the next step is to investigate the impact of the steam cycle design and parameters on the overall performance of the plant, in order to choose the combined cycle offering the best fit with the objectives of the work as depicted above. Each alterative cycle was studied, aiming to find the best option from the standpoint of overall efficiency, installation and operational costs, maintainability and reliability for a combined power

  16. Oman Drilling Project GT3 site survey: dynamics at the roof of an oceanic magma chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, L.; Nicollet, C.; Debret, B.; Lombard, M.; Berthod, C.; Ildefonse, B.; Koepke, J.

    2017-12-01

    Oman Drilling Project (OmanDP) aims at bringing new constraints on oceanic crust accretion and evolution by drilling Holes in the whole ophiolite section (mantle and crust). Among those, operations at GT3 in the Sumail massif drilled 400 m to sample the dike - gabbro transition that corresponds to the top (gabbros) and roof (dikes) of the axial magma chamber, an interface where hydrothermal and magmatic system interacts. Previous studies based on oceanic crust formed at present day fast-spreading ridges and preserved in ophiolites have highlighted that this interface is a dynamic horizon where the axial melt lens that top the main magma chamber can intrude, reheat, and partially assimilate previously hydrothermally altered roof rocks. Here we present the preliminary results obtained in GT3 area that have allowed the community to choose the drilling site. We provide a geological and structural map of the area, together with new petrographic and chemical constraints on the dynamics of the dike - gabbro transition. Our new results allow us to quantify the dynamic processes, and to propose that 1/ the intrusive contact of the varitextured gabbro within the dikes highlights the intrusion of the melt lens top in the dike rooting zone, 2/ both dikes and previously crystallized gabbros are reheated, and recrystallized by underlying melt lens dynamics (up to 1050°C, largely above the hydrous solidus temperature of altered dikes and gabbros), 3/ the reheating range can be > 200°C, 4/ the melt lens depth variations for a given ridge position is > 200m, 5/ the reheating stage and associated recrystallization within the dikes occurred under hydrous conditions, 6/ the reheating stage is recorded at the root zone of the sheeted dike complex by one of the highest stable conductive thermal gradient ever recorded on Earth ( 3°C/m), 7/ local chemical variations in recrystallized dikes and gabbros are highlighted and used to quantify crystallization and anatectic processes, and the

  17. LMFBR steam generators in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.; Hayden, O.

    2002-01-01

    Experience has been gained in the UK on the operation of LMFBR Steam Generator Units (SGU) over a period of 20 years from the Dounreay Fast Reactor (DFR) and the Prototype Fast Reactor (PFR). The DFR steam generator featured a double barrier and therefore did not represent a commercial design. PFR, however, faced the challenge of a single wall design and it is experience from this which is most valuable. The PFR reactor went critical in March 1974 and the plant operating history since then has been dominated by experience with leaks in the tube to tube plate welds of the high performance U-tubes SGU's. Operation at high power using the full complement of three secondary sodium circuits was delayed until July 1976 by the occurrence of leaks in the tube to tube plate welds of the superheater and reheater units which are fabricated in stainless steel. Repairs were carried out to the two superheaters and they were returned to service. The reheater tube bundle was removed from circuit after sodium was found to have entered the steam side. When the sodium had been removed and inspection carried out it was decided not to recover the unit. Since 1976 the remaining five stainless steel units have operated satisfactorily. This year a replacement reheater unit has been installed. This is of a new design in 9-Cr-Mo ferritic steel using a sleeve through which the steam tube passes to eliminate the tube to tube plate weld. Despite a few early leaks in evaporator tube to tube plate welds up to 1979, these failures did not initially present a major problem. However, in 1980 the rate of evaporator weld failures increased and despite the successful application of a shot peening process to eliminate stress corrosion failures from the water side of the weld, failures traced to the sodium side continued. A sleeving process was developed for application to complete evaporator units on a production basis with the objective of bypassing the welds at each end of the 500 tubes. The decision

  18. Development of Computational Capabilities to Predict the Corrosion Wastage of Boiler Tubes in Advanced Combustion Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kung, Steven; Rapp, Robert

    2014-08-31

    A comprehensive corrosion research project consisting of pilot-scale combustion testing and long-term laboratory corrosion study has been successfully performed. A pilot-scale combustion facility available at Brigham Young University was selected and modified to enable burning of pulverized coals under the operating conditions typical for advanced coal-fired utility boilers. Eight United States (U.S.) coals were selected for this investigation, with the test conditions for all coals set to have the same heat input to the combustor. In addition, the air/fuel stoichiometric ratio was controlled so that staged combustion was established, with the stoichiometric ratio maintained at 0.85 in the burner zone and 1.15 in the burnout zone. The burner zone represented the lower furnace of utility boilers, while the burnout zone mimicked the upper furnace areas adjacent to the superheaters and reheaters. From this staged combustion, approximately 3% excess oxygen was attained in the combustion gas at the furnace outlet. During each of the pilot-scale combustion tests, extensive online measurements of the flue gas compositions were performed. In addition, deposit samples were collected at the same location for chemical analyses. Such extensive gas and deposit analyses enabled detailed characterization of the actual combustion environments existing at the lower furnace walls under reducing conditions and those adjacent to the superheaters and reheaters under oxidizing conditions in advanced U.S. coal-fired utility boilers. The gas and deposit compositions were then carefully simulated in a series of 1000-hour laboratory corrosion tests, in which the corrosion performances of different commercial candidate alloys and weld overlays were evaluated at various temperatures for advanced boiler systems. Results of this laboratory study led to significant improvement in understanding of the corrosion mechanisms operating on the furnace walls as well as superheaters and reheaters in

  19. Method of effecting fast turbine valving for improvement of power system stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    As a improved way of effecting fast valving of turbines of power system steam-electric generating units for the purpose of improving the stability of power transmission over transmission circuits to which their generators make connection, when stability is threatened by line faults and certain other stability endangering events, the heretofore employed and/or advocated practice of automatically closing intercept valves at fastest available closing speed in response to a fast valving signal, and thereafter automatically fully reopening them in a matter of seconds, is modified by providing to reopen the valves only partially to and thereafter retain them at a preset partially open position. For best results the process of what can be termed sustained partial reopening is so effected as to result in its completion within a fraction of a second following the peak of the first forward swing of the generator rotor. Control valves may be either held open, or automatically fully or partly closed and thereafter fully opened in a preprogrammed manner, or automatically moved to and thereafter held in a partly closed position, by means of a preprogrammed process of repositioning in which the valves may optionally be first fully or partly closed and thereafter partly reopened. Avoidance of discharge of steam through high pressure safety valves can be had with use of suitably controlled power operated valves that discharge steam to the condenser or to atmosphere. Where there is an intermediate pressure turbine that is supplied with superheated steam, use of sustained partial control valve closure, if employed, is supplemented by provision for reduction of rate of heat release within the steam generator in order to protect the reheater from overheating. As a way to restrict increase of reheat pressure of fossil fuel installations, and to minimize increase in the msr (Moisture separator-reheater) pressure of nuclear units, provision is optionally made of normally closed by-pass v

  20. An optimized power conversion system concept of the integral, inherently-safe light water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Memmott, Matthew J.; Wilding, Paul R.; Petrovic, Bojan

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Three power conversion systems (PCS) for the I"2S-LWR are presented. • An optimization analyses was performed to evaluate these PCS alternatives. • The ideal PCS consists of 5 turbines, and obtains an overall efficiency of 35.7%. - Abstract: The integral, inherently safe light water reactor (I"2S-LWR) has been developed to significantly enhance passive safety capabilities while maintaining cost competitiveness relative to the current light water reactor (LWR) fleet. The compact heat exchangers of the I"2S-LWR preclude boiling of the secondary fluid, which decreases the probability of heat exchanger failure, but this requires the addition of a flash drum, which negatively affects the overall plant thermodynamic efficiency. A state of the art Rankine cycle is proposed for the I"2S-LWR to increase the thermodynamic efficiency by utilizing a flash drum with optimized operational parameters. In presenting this option for power conversion in the I"2S-LWR power plant, the key metric used in rating the performance is the overall net thermodynamic efficiency of the cycle. In evaluating the flash-Rankine cycle, three basic industrial concepts are evaluated, one without an intermediate pressure turbine, one with an intermediate turbine and one reheat stream, and one with an intermediate turbine and two reheat streams. For each configuration, a single-path multi-variable optimization is undertaken to maximize the thermal efficiency. The third configuration with an intermediate turbine and 2 reheat streams is the most effective concept, with an optimized efficiency of 35.7%.

  1. Phenomenological aspects of no-scale inflation models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, John [Theoretical Particle Physics and Cosmology Group, Department of Physics, King' s College London, WC2R 2LS London (United Kingdom); Garcia, Marcos A.G.; Olive, Keith A. [William I. Fine Theoretical Physics Institute, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, 116 Church Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Nanopoulos, Dimitri V., E-mail: john.ellis@cern.ch, E-mail: garciagarcia@physics.umn.edu, E-mail: dimitri@physics.tamu.edu, E-mail: olive@physics.umn.edu [George P. and Cynthia W. Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, 77843 Texas (United States)

    2015-10-01

    We discuss phenomenological aspects of inflationary models wiith a no-scale supergravity Kähler potential motivated by compactified string models, in which the inflaton may be identified either as a Kähler modulus or an untwisted matter field, focusing on models that make predictions for the scalar spectral index n{sub s} and the tensor-to-scalar ratio r that are similar to the Starobinsky model. We discuss possible patterns of soft supersymmetry breaking, exhibiting examples of the pure no-scale type m{sub 0} = B{sub 0} = A{sub 0} = 0, of the CMSSM type with universal A{sub 0} and m{sub 0} ≠ 0 at a high scale, and of the mSUGRA type with A{sub 0} = B{sub 0} + m{sub 0} boundary conditions at the high input scale. These may be combined with a non-trivial gauge kinetic function that generates gaugino masses m{sub 1/2} ≠ 0, or one may have a pure gravity mediation scenario where trilinear terms and gaugino masses are generated through anomalies. We also discuss inflaton decays and reheating, showing possible decay channels for the inflaton when it is either an untwisted matter field or a Kähler modulus. Reheating is very efficient if a matter field inflaton is directly coupled to MSSM fields, and both candidates lead to sufficient reheating in the presence of a non-trivial gauge kinetic function.

  2. Numerical simulation of a hybrid CSP/Biomass 5 MWel power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, João; Oliveira, Armando

    2017-06-01

    The fundamental benefit of using renewable energy systems is undeniable since they rely on a source that will not run out. Nevertheless, they strongly depend on meteorological conditions (solar, wind, etc.), leading to uncertainty of instantaneous energy supply and consequently to grid connection issues. An interesting concept is renewable hybridisation. This consists in the strategic combination of different renewable sources in the power generation portfolio by taking advantage of each technology. Hybridisation of concentrating solar power with biomass denotes a powerful way of assuring system stability and reliability. The main advantage is dispatchability through the whole extent of the operating range. Regarding concentrating solar power heat transfer fluid, direct steam generation is one of the most interesting concepts. Nevertheless, it presents itself technical challenges that are mostly related to the two-phase fluid flow in horizontal pipes, as well as the design of an energy storage system. Also, the use of reheat within the turbine is usually indirectly addressed, hindering system efficiency. These challenges can be addressed through hybridisation with biomass. In this paper, a hybrid renewable electricity generation system is presented. The system relies on a combination of solar and biomass sources to drive a 5 MWel steam turbine. System performance is analysed through numerical simulation using Ebsilon professional software. The use of direct reheat in the turbine is addressed. Results show that hybridisation results in an enhancement of system dispatchability and generation stability. Furthermore, hybridisation enhanced the annual solar field and power block efficiencies, and thus the system annual efficiency (from 7.6% to 20%). The use of direct reheat eliminates steam wetness in the last turbine stage and also improves system efficiency.

  3. Application of Safety Instrumented System (SIS) approach in older nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasimi, Elnara; Gabbar, Hossam A., E-mail: hossam.gabbar@uoit.ca

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • Study Safety Instrumented System (SIS) design for older nuclear power plant. • Apply SIS on Reheater Drains (RD) system. • Apply IEC 61508/61511 to design safety system. • Evaluate risk reduction based on proposed SIS design. - Abstract: In order to remain economically effective and financially profitable, the modern industries have to take their safety culture to a higher level and consider production losses in addition to simple accident prevention techniques. Ideally, compliance with safety requirements start during early design stages, but in some older facilities provisions for Safety Instrumented Systems (SIS) may not have been originally included. In this paper, a case study of a Reheater Drains (RD) system is used to illustrate such an example. Frequent failures of tank level controller lead to transients where the operation of shutting down RD pumps requires operators to manually isolate the quenching water and to close the main steam admission valves. Water in this system is at saturation temperature for the reheater steam side pressure, and any manual operation of the system is highly undesirable due to hazards of working with wet steam at approximately 758 kPa(g) pressure, preheated to 237 °C. Additionally, losses of inventory are highly undesirable as well and challenge other systems in the plant. In this paper, it is suggested that RD system can benefit from installation of an independent SIS system in order to address current challenges. This idea is being explored using IEC 61508 framework for “Functional safety of electrical/electronic/programmable electronic safety-related systems” to provide assurance that the SIS will offer the necessary risk reduction required to achieve required safety for the equipment.

  4. Design and analysis of helium Brayton power cycles for HiPER reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sánchez, Consuelo, E-mail: csanchez@ind.uned.es [Dpto. Ingeniería Energética UNED, Madrid (Spain); Juárez, Rafael; Sanz, Javier [Dpto. Ingeniería Energética UNED, Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Fusión Nuclear/UPM, Madrid (Spain); Perlado, Manuel [Instituto de Fusión Nuclear/UPM, Madrid (Spain)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► A helium Brayton cycle has been designed integrating the two energy sources of HiPER. ► The Brayton cycle has intercooling stages and a recovery process. ► The low temperature of HiPER heat sources results in low cycle efficiency (35.2%). ► Two inter-cooling stages and a reheating process increases efficiency to over 37%. ► Helium Brayton cycles are to be considered as candidates for HiPER power cycles. -- Abstract: Helium Brayton cycles have been studied as power cycles for both fission and fusion reactors obtaining high thermal efficiency. This paper studies several technological schemes of helium Brayton cycles applied for the HiPER reactor proposal. Since HiPER integrates technologies available at short term, its working conditions results in a very low maximum temperature of the energy sources, something that limits the thermal performance of the cycle. The aim of this work is to analyze the potential of the helium Brayton cycles as power cycles for HiPER. Several helium Brayton cycle configurations have been investigated with the purpose of raising the cycle thermal efficiency under the working conditions of HiPER. The effects of inter-cooling and reheating have specifically been studied. Sensitivity analyses of the key cycle parameters and component performances on the maximum thermal efficiency have also been carried out. The addition of several inter-cooling stages in a helium Brayton cycle has allowed obtaining a maximum thermal efficiency of over 36%, and the inclusion of a reheating process may also yield an added increase of nearly 1 percentage point to reach 37%. These results confirm that helium Brayton cycles are to be considered among the power cycle candidates for HiPER.

  5. Design and analysis of helium Brayton power cycles for HiPER reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sánchez, Consuelo; Juárez, Rafael; Sanz, Javier; Perlado, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A helium Brayton cycle has been designed integrating the two energy sources of HiPER. ► The Brayton cycle has intercooling stages and a recovery process. ► The low temperature of HiPER heat sources results in low cycle efficiency (35.2%). ► Two inter-cooling stages and a reheating process increases efficiency to over 37%. ► Helium Brayton cycles are to be considered as candidates for HiPER power cycles. -- Abstract: Helium Brayton cycles have been studied as power cycles for both fission and fusion reactors obtaining high thermal efficiency. This paper studies several technological schemes of helium Brayton cycles applied for the HiPER reactor proposal. Since HiPER integrates technologies available at short term, its working conditions results in a very low maximum temperature of the energy sources, something that limits the thermal performance of the cycle. The aim of this work is to analyze the potential of the helium Brayton cycles as power cycles for HiPER. Several helium Brayton cycle configurations have been investigated with the purpose of raising the cycle thermal efficiency under the working conditions of HiPER. The effects of inter-cooling and reheating have specifically been studied. Sensitivity analyses of the key cycle parameters and component performances on the maximum thermal efficiency have also been carried out. The addition of several inter-cooling stages in a helium Brayton cycle has allowed obtaining a maximum thermal efficiency of over 36%, and the inclusion of a reheating process may also yield an added increase of nearly 1 percentage point to reach 37%. These results confirm that helium Brayton cycles are to be considered among the power cycle candidates for HiPER

  6. Constraining Non-thermal and Thermal properties of Dark Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhupal eDev

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We describe the evolution of Dark Matter (DM abundance from the very onset of its creation from inflaton decay under the assumption of an instantaneous reheating. Based on the initial conditions such as the inflaton mass and its decay branching ratio to the DM species, the reheating temperature, and the mass and interaction rate of the DM with the thermal bath, the DM particles can either thermalize (fully/partially with the primordial bath or remain non-thermal throughout their evolution history. In the thermal case, the final abundance is set by the standard freeze-out mechanism for large annihilation rates, irrespective of the initial conditions. For smaller annihilation rates, it can be set by the freeze-in mechanism which also does not depend on the initial abundance, provided it is small to begin with. For even smaller interaction rates, the DM decouples while being non-thermal, and the relic abundance will be essentially set by the initial conditions. We put model-independent constraints on the DM mass and annihilation rate from over-abundance by exactly solving the relevant Boltzmann equations, and identify the thermal freeze-out, freeze-in and non-thermal regions of the allowed parameter space. We highlight a generic fact that inflaton decay to DM inevitably leads to an overclosure of the Universe for a large range of DM parameter space, and thus poses a stringent constraint that must be taken into account while constructing models of DM. For the thermal DM region, we also show the complementary constraints from indirect DM search experiments, Big Bang Nucleosynthesis, Cosmic Microwave Background, Planck measurements, and theoretical limits due to the unitarity of S-matrix. For the non-thermal DM scenario, we show the allowed parameter space in terms of the inflaton and DM masses for a given reheating temperature, and compute the comoving free-streaming length to identify the hot, warm and cold DM regimes.

  7. Constraining brane inflationary magnetic field from cosmoparticle physics after Planck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choudhury, Sayantan

    2015-01-01

    In this article, I have studied the cosmological and particle physics constraints on a generic class of large field (|Δϕ|>M_p) and small field (|Δϕ|< M_p) models of brane inflationary magnetic field from: (1) tensor-to-scalar ratio (r), (2) reheating, (3) leptogenesis and (4) baryogenesis in case of Randall-Sundrum single braneworld gravity (RSII) framework. I also establish a direct connection between the magnetic field at the present epoch (B_0) and primordial gravity waves (r), which give a precise estimate of non-vanishing CP asymmetry (ϵ_C_P) in leptogenesis and baryon asymmetry (η_B) in baryogenesis scenario respectively. Further assuming the conformal invariance to be restored after inflation in the framework of RSII, I have explicitly shown that the requirement of the sub-dominant feature of large scale coherent magnetic field after inflation gives two fold non-trivial characteristic constraints- on equation of state parameter (w) and the corresponding energy scale during reheating (ρ_r_h"1"/"4) epoch. Hence giving the proposal for avoiding the contribution of back-reaction from the magnetic field I have established a bound on the generic reheating characteristic parameter (R_r_h) and its rescaled version (R_s_c), to achieve large scale magnetic field within the prescribed setup and further apply the CMB constraints as obtained from recently observed Planck 2015 data and Planck+BICEP2+Keck Array joint constraints. Using all these derived results I have shown that it is possible to put further stringent constraints on various classes of large and small field inflationary models to break the degeneracy between various cosmological parameters within the framework of RSII. Finally, I have studied the consequences from two specific models of brane inflation- monomial and hilltop, after applying the constraints obtained from inflation and primordial magnetic field.

  8. Urbanized South Asians' susceptibility to coronary heart disease: The high-heat food preparation hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakde, Smitha; Bhopal, Raj S; Bhardwaj, Swati; Misra, Anoop

    2017-01-01

    Known risk factors do not fully explain the comparatively high susceptibility to coronary heart disease (CHD) in South Asians (Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi, and Sri Lankan populations in South Asia and overseas). The search for explanatory hypotheses and cofactors that raise susceptibility of South Asians to CHD continues. The aim of this study was to propose "the high-heat food preparation hypothesis," where neo-formed contaminants (NFCs) such as trans-fatty acids (TFAs) and advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) are the cofactors. We reviewed the actions of AGEs and TFAs, the burden of these products in tissues and blood in South Asians, the relationship between these products and CHD, the effects of preparing food and reheating oils at high temperatures on NFCs, and the foods and mode of preparation in South Asian and Chinese cuisines. Animal and human studies show NFCs increase the risk for CHD. Evidence on the consumption and body burden of these products across ethnic groups is not available, and comparable data on the NFC content of the cuisine of South Asians and potential comparison populations (e.g., the Chinese with lower CHD rates) are limited. South Asians' cuisine is dominated by frying and roasting techniques that use high temperatures. South Asian foods have high TFA content primarily through the use of partially hydrogenated fats, reheated oils, and high-heat cooking. Reheating oils greatly increases the TFA content. In comparison, Chinese cuisine involves mostly braising, steaming, and boiling rather than frying. We hypothesize that South Asians' susceptibility to CHD is partly attributable to high-heat treated foods producing high NFCs. Research to accrue direct evidence is proposed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of vitamin E and fish oil inclusion in broiler diets on meat fatty acid composition and on the flavour of a composite sample of breast meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rymer, Caroline; Givens, D Ian

    2010-08-15

    Enriching poultry meat with long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA) can increase low population intakes of LC n-3 PUFA, but fishy taints can spoil reheated meat. This experiment determined the effect of different amounts of LC n-3 PUFA and vitamin E in the broiler diet on the fatty acid composition and sensory characteristics of the breast meat. Ross 308 broilers (120) were randomly allocated to one of five treatments from 21 to 42 days of age. Diets contained (g kg(-1)) 0, 9 or 18 LC n-3 PUFA (0LC, 9LC, 18LC), and 100, 150 or 200 mg LD-alpha-tocopherol acetate kg(-1) (E). The five diets were 0LC100E, 9LC100E, 18LC100E, 18LC150E, 18LC200E, with four pens per diet, except 18LC100E (eight pens). Breast meat was analysed for fatty acids (uncooked) and sensory analysis by R-index (reheated). LC n-3 PUFA content (mg kg(-1) meat) was 514 (0LC100E) and 2236 (9LC and 18LC). Compared with 0LC100E, meat from 18LC100E and 18LC150E tasted significantly different, while 23% of panellists detected fishy taints in 9LC100E and 18LC200E. Chicken meat can be enriched with nutritionally meaningful amounts of LC n-3 PUFA, but > 100 mg dl-alpha-tocopherol acetate kg(-1) broiler diet is needed to protect reheated meat from oxidative deterioration. Copyright (c) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Exergetic and economic evaluation of the effect of HRSG configurations on the performance of combined cycle power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajik Mansouri, Mohammad; Ahmadi, Pouria; Ganjeh Kaviri, Abdolsaeid; Jaafar, Mohammad Nazri Mohd

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ►To conduct the comprehensive exergy and economic analysis for advanced combined cycle power plant. ►To study three different HRSG configurations, dual and triple pressure HRSG, based on thermodynamic relations. ►To have a better performance assessment of the system studied using exergy and economic criteria. - Abstract: In the present research study, the effect of HRSG pressure levels on exergy efficiency of combined cycle power plants is investigated. Hence, three types of gas turbine combined cycles, with the same gas turbine as a topping cycle are evaluated. A double pressure, and two triple pressure HRSGs (with and without reheat) are modeled. The results show how an increase in the number of pressure levels of the HRSG affect the exergy losses due to heat transfer in the HRSG and the exhaust of flue gas to the stack. Moreover, the results show that an increase in the number of pressure levels affects the exergy destruction rate in HRSG, and as a result, it causes a tangible increase in exergy efficiency of the whole cycle. The results from thermodynamic analysis show that the losses due to heat transfer in the HRSG and the exhaust of flue gas to the stack in a triple pressure reheat combined cycle are less than the other cases. From the economic analysis, it is found that increasing the number of pressure levels of steam generation leads to an increase for the total and specific investment cost of the plant for about 6% and 4% respectively. The net present value (NPV) of the plant increases for about 7% for triple pressure reheat compared to with the double pressure CCPP. Therefore, the results of economic analysis show that it is economically justifiable to increase the number of pressure levels of steam generation in HRSG.

  11. Supersymmetry and cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Jonathan L.

    2005-01-01

    Cosmology now provides unambiguous, quantitative evidence for new particle physics. I discuss the implications of cosmology for supersymmetry and vice versa. Topics include: motivations for supersymmetry; supersymmetry breaking; dark energy; freeze out and WIMPs; neutralino dark matter; cosmologically preferred regions of minimal supergravity; direct and indirect detection of neutralinos; the DAMA and HEAT signals; inflation and reheating; gravitino dark matter; Big Bang nucleosynthesis; and the cosmic microwave background. I conclude with speculations about the prospects for a microscopic description of the dark universe, stressing the necessity of diverse experiments on both sides of the particle physics/cosmology interface

  12. Low temperature annealing and cathodoluminescence studies of type 1 chondrule compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehart, John M.; Lofgren, Gary E.

    1991-01-01

    Preliminary results indicate that the yellow luminescing mesostases in type I chondrules can be altered by the effects of the low level thermal metamorphism. Although heat alone was insufficient to alter the CL, reheating for geologically relevant periods could have the same results as we obtained in a second series of experiments with water present. It is known that both water and solutions of sodium metasilicate greatly accelerate the devitrification of glasses. The results of the experiments that will be repeated should further clarify how the CL changes with increased thermal alteration.

  13. Evolution of the microstructure in electrochemically deposited copper films at room temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantleon, Karen; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2007-01-01

    The room temperature evolution of the microstructure in copper electrodeposits (self-annealing) was investigated by means of X-ray diffraction analysis and simultaneous measurement of the electrical resistivity as a function of time with an unprecedented time resolution. Independent of the copper...... the crystallographic texture changes by a multiple twinning mechanism. The kinetics of self-annealing is strongly affected by the thickness of the deposit. Storage of the copper films at sub-zero temperatures effectively hinders self-annealing and does not affect the kinetics of self-annealing upon reheating to room...... temperature....

  14. Application of roof radiant burners in large pusher-type furnaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Varga

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the application of roof flat-flame burners in the pusher-type steel slab reheating furnaces, after furnace reconstruction and replacement of conventional torch burners, with the objective to increase the efficiency of radiative heat transfer from the refractory roof to the charge. Based on observations and on measurements of the construction and process parameters under operating conditions, the advantages and disadvantages of indirectly oriented radiant heat transfer are analysed in relation to the heat transfer in classically fired furnaces.

  15. Strategies of Coping with Deactivation of NH3-SCR Catalysts Due to Biomass Firing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schill, Leonhard; Fehrmann, Rasmus

    2018-01-01

    silicates, often in the form of coal fly ash, is an industrially proven method of removing K aerosols from flue gases. Tail-end placement of the SCR unit was also reported to result in acceptable catalyst stability; however, flue-gas reheating after the flue gas desulfurization is, at present, unavoidable...... number of acid sites. This can be achieved by, e.g., using zeolites as support, replacing WO3 with heteropoly acids, and by preparing highly loaded, high surface area, very active V2O5/TiO2 catalyst using a special sol-gel method....

  16. Prototype fast reactor steam generator unit pressure vessel repairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniels, B.D.; Green, D.; Henderson, J.D.C.

    1993-01-01

    The prototype fast reactor at Dounreay has experienced a number of unscheduled shutdowns due to leaking reheater and superheater shell welds. There was a need to determine the cracking mechanism and to design a general repair technique simultaneously. Detailed investigations revealed that the crack locations correlated with the positions of rectification welds made at the time of vessel manufacture. A creep crack growth mechanism was identified; this requires through wall residual stress for through cracks to develop. A repair technique has been devised and successfully applied to the sites of a number of leaks. (author)

  17. String theory and the dark glueball problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halverson, James; Nelson, Brent D. [Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Ruehle, Fabian [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-09-15

    We study cosmological constraints on dark pure Yang-Mills sectors. Dark glueballs are overproduced for large regions of ultraviolet parameter space. The problem may be alleviated in two ways: via a large preferential reheating into the visible sector, motivating certain inflation or modulus decay models, or via decays into axions or moduli, which are strongly constrained by nucleosynthesis and ΔN{sub eff} bounds. String models frequently have multiple hidden Yang-Mills sectors, which are subject to even stronger constraints due to the existence of multiple dark glueballs.

  18. Development of a PF fired high efficiency power plant (AD700)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blum, R.; Kjaer, S.; Bugge, J. [DONG Energy Generation, Fredericia (Denmark)

    2007-05-15

    European efforts to start substantial improvements of the performance of well established supercritical coal-fired power technology named the AD700 project began in 1998. Major targets were development of austenitic materials and nickel-based superalloys for the hottest sections of boilers, steam lines and turbines. Other targets were development of boiler and turbine designs for the more advanced conditions and finally economic viability of the AD700 technology has been investigated. The project has been very successful and 40 partners from the European power industry have worked together in several projects co-funded by the European Commission for nearly years. Procurement of mature and commercially optimised AD700 plant could take place around 2015. The investigated nickel-based materials have shown very high creep strengths but they have also shown to be very hard to manufacture, and more efforts to define new machining lines are being started. Ongoing tests indicate that the developed austenitic material will fulfil its creep strength target and is now ready for commercialisation. Development works on boiler and turbine designs for the advanced steam conditions have also been successfully completed but they also clearly indicate that further development work on improved ferritic steel for furnace walls is important. Conventional development of the steam cycles is based on new improved materials, which open for higher steam temperatures and efficiencies whereas other thermodynamic tools are only slowly being accepted. However, in the present paper a proposal for steam cycle improvements not based on higher steam temperatures is presented. The improved cycle is named the Master Cycle (MC) and it is based on a revision of the double reheat steam cycle where the bleeds of the IP turbines have been moved to a feed pump turbine bleeding on the first cold reheat line. Elsam has established protection of a patent for the MC in a number of countries. At constant main

  19. Energy storage by compressed air. [using windpowered pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szego, G. C.

    1973-01-01

    The feasibility of windpower energy storage by compressed air is considered. The system is comprised of a compressor, a motor, and a pump turbine to store air in caverns or aquifiers. It is proposed that storage of several days worth of compressed air up to 650 pounds per square inch can be used to push the aquifier up closer to the container dome and thus initiate piston action by simply compressing air more and more. More energy can be put into it by pressure increase or pushing back the water in the aquifier. This storage system concept has reheat flexibility and lowest cost effectiveness.

  20. Laser-cooling effects in few-ion clouds of Yb[sup +

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, C.S. (National Physical Lab., Teddington (United Kingdom)); Gill, P. (National Physical Lab., Teddington (United Kingdom)); Klein, H.A. (National Physical Lab., Teddington (United Kingdom)); Levick, A.P. (National Physical Lab., Teddington (United Kingdom)); Rowley, W.R.C. (National Physical Lab., Teddington (United Kingdom))

    1994-08-01

    We report some laser-cooling effects in a few [sup 172]Yb[sup +] ions held in a Paul trap. Pronounced cloud-to-crystal phase transitions have been observed as discontinuities in the Yb[sup +] fluorescence spectrum of the 369 nm cooling transition. The first reported two-dimensional images of Yb[sup +] clouds with evidence of crystal structure have been recorded using a photon-counting position-sensitive detector. An ion temperature of 100 mK has been estimated from the size of a single ion image. Stepwise cooling of a re-heated, few-ion Yb[sup +] cloud was also observed. (orig.)

  1. Laser-cooling effects in few-ion clouds of Yb+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, C.S.; Gill, P.; Klein, H.A.; Levick, A.P.; Rowley, W.R.C.

    1994-01-01

    We report some laser-cooling effects in a few 172 Yb + ions held in a Paul trap. Pronounced cloud-to-crystal phase transitions have been observed as discontinuities in the Yb + fluorescence spectrum of the 369 nm cooling transition. The first reported two-dimensional images of Yb + clouds with evidence of crystal structure have been recorded using a photon-counting position-sensitive detector. An ion temperature of 100 mK has been estimated from the size of a single ion image. Stepwise cooling of a re-heated, few-ion Yb + cloud was also observed. (orig.)

  2. Fluoroplastic materials for pressure tubes in flue gas heat exchangers under corrosive conditions of flue gas desulfurisation plants; Fluorkunststoffe fuer Druckrohre in Rauchgaswaermetauschern unter korrosiven Bedingungen fuer die Rauchgasentschwefelung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gottschalk-Gaudig, Gabriele [Dyneon GmbH, Burgkirchen (Germany); Broda, Siegfried [Heatec Co., Ltd., Chonburi (Thailand); Adamczyk, Frank; Kreilos, Klaus [Babcock Borsig Service GmbH, Oberhausen (Germany). Bereich Waermenutzung

    2010-07-01

    Since the 1980s, power plants have been required to have flue gas desulphurising plants. For the cooling of flue gases to below the acid dew point and subsequent reheating, corrosion-resistant gas-gas heat exchanger systems had already been developed at this time by what is now Babcock Borsig Service GmbH (BBS). The best results were achieved using 100 % plastic piping as a vital component. In addition to the development of the plastic heat exchangers and the differences in design relative to alternative models, the various types of fluoroplastics will be discussed, and in particular the difference between PFA and PTFE. (orig.)

  3. Understanding Core-Collapse Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hix, W. R.; Lentz, E. J.; Baird, M.; Messer, O. E. B.; Mezzacappa, A.; Lee, C.-T.; Bruenn, S. W.; Blondin, J. M.; Marronetti, P.

    2010-03-01

    Our understanding of core-collapse supernovae continues to improve as better microphysics is included in increasingly realistic neutrino-radiationhydrodynamic simulations. Recent multi-dimensional models with spectral neutrino transport, which slowly develop successful explosions for a range of progenitors between 12 and 25 solar mass, have motivated changes in our understanding of the neutrino reheating mechanism. In a similar fashion, improvements in nuclear physics, most notably explorations of weak interactions on nuclei and the nuclear equation of state, continue to refine our understanding of how supernovae explode. Recent progresses on both the macroscopic and microscopic effects that affect core-collapse supernovae are discussed.

  4. Stress relief cracking by relaxation in austenitic stainless steels welded junctions; Fissuration differee par relaxation des jonctions soudes en aciers inoxydables austenitiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allais, L.; Auzoux, Q.; Chabaud-Reytier, M

    2003-07-01

    During service at high temperature (450 to 650 C), austenitic stainless steels are well known to present a risk of cracking near the welded junctions for times under the service life. This intergranular cracking in affected zones has been identified on titanium stabilized steels and is known as relief cracking by relaxation or reheat cracking. In order to control this cracking of welded junctions on titanium stabilized stainless steel AISI 321, a simulation of the affected zone has been realized. The results have been extended to non stabilized steels. (A.L.B.)

  5. Hysteresis Phenomena in Sulfur Dioxide Oxidation over Supported Vanadium Catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masters, Stephen G.; Eriksen, Kim Michael; Fehrmann, Rasmus

    1997-01-01

    Catalyst deactivation and hysteresis behavior in industrial SO2-oxidation catalysts have been studied in the temperature region 350-480 C by combined in situ EPR spectroscopy and catalytic activity measurements. The feed gas composition simulated sulfuric acid synthesis gas and wet/dry de......NOx'ed flue gas. The vanadium (IV) compound K4(VO)3(SO4)5 precipitated during all the investigated conditions hence causing catalyst deactivation. Hysteresis behavior of both the catalytic activity and the V(IV) content was observed during reheating....

  6. Theories of inflation and conformal transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalara, S.; Kaloper, N.; Olive, K.A.

    1990-01-01

    We show that several different theories of inflation including R 2 , Brans-Dicke, and induced-gravity inflation are all related to generalized or power-law inflation by means of conformal transformations. These theories all involve non-standard gravity, and the use of conformal transformations allows one to obtain standard inflationary predictions such as the expansion time-scale, reheating and density perturbations in each case very simply. We also discuss the possibilities of this method to be applied to string theory. (orig.)

  7. Cosmic strings and inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vishniac, E.T.

    1987-01-01

    We examine the compatibility of inflation with the cosmic string theory for galaxy formation. There is a general conflict between having sufficient string tension to effect galaxy formation, and reheating after inflation to a high enough temperature that strings may form in a thermal phase transition. To escape this conflict, we propose a class of models where the inflation is coupled to the string-producing field. The strings are formed late in inflation as the inflaton rolls towards its zero-temperature value. A large subset of these models have a novel large-scale distribution of galaxies that is fractal, displays biasing without dynamics or feedback mechanisms, and contains voids. (orig.)

  8. Relic gravitational waves and extended inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, M.S.; Wilczek, F.

    1990-01-01

    In extended inflation, a new version of inflation where the transition from an inflationary to a radiation-dominated Universe is accomplished by bubble nucleation, bubble collisions supply a potent---and potentially detectable---source of gravitational waves. The energy density in relic gravitons from bubble collisions is expected to be about 10 -5 of closure density. Their characteristic wavelength depends upon the reheating temperature T RH: λ∼(10 4 cm)[(10 14 GeV)/T RH ]. If black holes are produced by bubble collisions, they will evaporate producing shorter-wavelength gravitons

  9. Using CFD to investigate heater fouling in a utility boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pang, L.; Sun, B.; Salcudean, M.

    2004-01-01

    A simulation investigation into the combustion and heat transfer process in a utility boiler is presented. The work is based on the commercial software Fluent 6.1.18. Flow, chemistry, energy, conservation and radiation models are used to simulate the process inside the furnace. Radiation and convection models are considered in the horizontal heater. The temperature and velocity fields are calculated to unveil the process inside and outside the furnace. The result shows that the fouling in reheater is formed because of the temperature and velocity field in the flue gas passage. A limited test is done to validate the simulation. (author)

  10. Unified Origin for Baryonic Visible Matter and Antibaryonic Dark Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davoudiasl, Hooman; Morrissey, David E.; Tulin, Sean; Sigurdson, Kris

    2010-01-01

    We present a novel mechanism for generating both the baryon and dark matter densities of the Universe. A new Dirac fermion X carrying a conserved baryon number charge couples to the standard model quarks as well as a GeV-scale hidden sector. CP-violating decays of X, produced nonthermally in low-temperature reheating, sequester antibaryon number in the hidden sector, thereby leaving a baryon excess in the visible sector. The antibaryonic hidden states are stable dark matter. A spectacular signature of this mechanism is the baryon-destroying inelastic scattering of dark matter that can annihilate baryons at appreciable rates relevant for nucleon decay searches.

  11. Unified origin for baryonic visible matter and antibaryonic dark matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoudiasl, Hooman; Morrissey, David E; Sigurdson, Kris; Tulin, Sean

    2010-11-19

    We present a novel mechanism for generating both the baryon and dark matter densities of the Universe. A new Dirac fermion X carrying a conserved baryon number charge couples to the standard model quarks as well as a GeV-scale hidden sector. CP-violating decays of X, produced nonthermally in low-temperature reheating, sequester antibaryon number in the hidden sector, thereby leaving a baryon excess in the visible sector. The antibaryonic hidden states are stable dark matter. A spectacular signature of this mechanism is the baryon-destroying inelastic scattering of dark matter that can annihilate baryons at appreciable rates relevant for nucleon decay searches.

  12. Solid-state characterization of paracetamol metastable polymorphs formed in binary mixtures with hydroxypropylmethylcellulose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, Alessandra; Savioli, Alessandra; Bini, Marcella; Capsoni, Doretta; Massarotti, Vincenzo; Bettini, Ruggero; Gazzaniga, Andrea; Sangalli, Maria Edvige; Giordano, Ferdinando

    2003-01-01

    Two metastable polymorphs of paracetamol (forms II and III) were prepared by appropriate thermal methods from binary mixtures containing 10% (w/w) of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose. By controlling the reheating step, it was possible to address the recrystallization of the drug either into form II or III. Moreover, it was observed that form III transforms either into form II or I depending on the preparation method. The physical characterization of the polymorphs was performed by means of micro-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (MFTIR) and powder X-ray diffractometry (PXRD), both temperature controlled

  13. Chemical zoning and homogenization of Pasamonte-type pyroxene and their bearing on thermal metamorphism of a howardite parent body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, M.; Duke, M. B.; Mckay, D. S.

    1985-01-01

    The Mg-Fe zoning of pyroxenes in Pasamonte and Juvinas eucrites is examined in order to gain a better understanding of the metamorphism in the surface layer of a eucrite/howardite parent body. Three distinct types of Ca-Mg-Fe zoning of Pasamonte pyroxenes are identified. The wide compositional range of the zoned pyroxenes suggests that Pasamonte is less metamorphosed than previously believed. It is also found that a Pasamonte-type pyroxene may yield a Juvinas-type pyroxene by thermal metamorphism. Calculations imply that the homogenization of Juvinas pyroxenes may have occurred during later reheating events rather than during initial cooling.

  14. Atomic-scale observation of hydrogen-induced crack growth by atom-probe FIM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuk, Y.; Pickering, H.W.; Sakurai, T.

    1980-01-01

    Formation and propagation of a microcrack due to hydrogen in a Fe-0.29 wt.% Ti alloy was observed at the atomic scale by field ion microscopy. A microcrack (-20 nm in length) formed and became noticeably large when the tip was heated at 950 0 C in the presence of about 1 torr of Hg. Propagation was reported several times by reheating, until a portion of the tip ruptured and became detached from the tip. Compositional analysis, performed in situ using a high performance atom-probe, identified atomic hydrogen in quantity and some hydrogen molecules and FEH in the crack, but not elsewhere on the surface

  15. Preliminary design study of removable integral steam generator units of the multiple helically wound tube type for a 1250 MW(th) H.T.G.C. reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilli, P.V.; Fritz, K.; Lippitsch, J.; Sandri, A.H.; Weiss, B.

    1965-11-01

    The possibilities of designing a multiple steam generator for a 1250 MW(th) High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor, consisting of 18 units which are able to pass through 5 ft diam. holes in the integral prestressed concrete pressure vessel are investigated. A lay-out and design with bundles of multi-start helical tubes is evolved, particular attention being paid to the questions of tube blanking and removal of the unit, and of selection of materials for superheater and reheater tubes. Thermal and stress calculations have been carried out, using the Waagner-Biro Computer Code ADURHELIX. (author)

  16. Comparative evaluation of the locally manufactured low-alumina fireclay refractories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammad, D.; Ahmed, W.; Khan, M.I.

    2007-01-01

    Properties of domestically produced low-alumina refractories commonly known as medium duty fireclay refractories were studied and a comparative evaluation was performed. Refractory properties such as density, porosity, cold strength, reheat change and deformation at high-temperature were determined. Significant differences were discovered between these products sold as medium duty fireclay refractories. One brand marketed as medium duty refractory was found to be too inferior to be designated as medium duty firebrick. Absence of any standards and lack of awareness on the part of users of the various test methods appear to be the cause of this situation. (author)

  17. Resonance-enhanced laser-induced plasma spectroscopy for sensitive elemental analysis: Elucidation of enhancement mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lui, S.L.; Cheung, N.H.

    2002-01-01

    When performing laser-induced plasma spectroscopy for elemental analysis, the analyte signal-to-noise ratio increased from four to over fifty if the plume was reheated by a dye laser pulse tuned to resonant absorption. Time-resolved studies showed that the enhancement was not due to resonance photoionization. Rather, efficient and controlled rekindling of a larger plume volume was the key mechanism. The signal-to-noise ratio further increased to over a hundred if the atmosphere was replaced by a low-pressure heavy inert gas. The ambient gas helped confine and thermally insulate the expanding vapor

  18. R-parity violating right-handed neutrino in gravitino dark matter scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, Motoi

    2009-06-01

    A decay of the gravitino dark matter is an attractive candidate to explain the current excesses of the PAMELA/ATIC cosmic-ray data. However, R-parity violations are required to be very tiny in low-energy scale. We suggest a R-parity violation in the right-handed neutrino sector. The violation is suppressed by a see-saw mechanism. Although a reheating temperature is constrained from above, the thermal leptogenesis is found to work successfully with a help of the R-parity violating right-handed neutrino. (orig.)

  19. Load Frequency Control of AC Microgrid Interconnected Thermal Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Deepak Kumar; Barisal, Ajit Kumar

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, a microgrid (MG) power generation system is interconnected with a single area reheat thermal power system for load frequency control study. A new meta-heuristic optimization algorithm i.e. Moth-Flame Optimization (MFO) algorithm is applied to evaluate optimal gains of the fuzzy based proportional, integral and derivative (PID) controllers. The system dynamic performance is studied by comparing the results with MFO optimized classical PI/PID controllers. Also the system performance is investigated with fuzzy PID controller optimized by recently developed grey wolf optimizer (GWO) algorithm, which has proven its superiority over other previously developed algorithm in many interconnected power systems.

  20. Bottom ash handling: why the outlook is dry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-03-15

    The author believes that dry systems are the way forward for bottom ash handling at coal fired power plants. The first two commercial installations of Clyde Bergemann's DRYCON system, in China, are due to enter operation shortly. The DRY ash CONveyor (DRYCON) employs fresh air flow to cool the ash, returning reheat energy to the boiler. It also addresses some problems encountered with previous dry technologies whilst increasing ash capacity and enhancing ash cooking. The advantages of the DRYCON over the wet submerged scraper conveyor are listed. 7 figs.

  1. Hot rolling of thick uranium molybdenum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMint, Amy L.; Gooch, Jack G.

    2015-11-17

    Disclosed herein are processes for hot rolling billets of uranium that have been alloyed with about ten weight percent molybdenum to produce cold-rollable sheets that are about one hundred mils thick. In certain embodiments, the billets have a thickness of about 7/8 inch or greater. Disclosed processes typically involve a rolling schedule that includes a light rolling pass and at least one medium rolling pass. Processes may also include reheating the rolling stock and using one or more heavy rolling passes, and may include an annealing step.

  2. Suppressing gravitino thermal production with a temperature-dependent messenger coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badziak, Marcin; Dalianis, Ioannis; Lalak, Zygmunt

    2016-01-01

    We show that the constraints on GMSB theories from the gravitino cosmology can be significantly relaxed if the messenger-spurion coupling is temperature dependent. We demonstrate this novel mechanism in a scenario in which this coupling depends on the VEV of an extra singlet field S that interacts with the thermalized plasma which can result in a significantly suppressed gravitino production rate. In such a scenario the relic gravitino abundance is determined by the thermal dynamics of the S field and it is easy to fit the observed dark matter abundance evading the stringent constraints on the reheating temperature, thus making gravitino dark matter consistent with thermal leptogenesis.

  3. Willingness to pay for wholesome canteen takeaway

    OpenAIRE

    Nordström, Jonas

    2011-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to estimate the willingness to pay (WTP) for a new intervention at the workplace: wholesome canteen takeaways (CTA), i.e. a low fat meal with a large amount of vegetables prepared at the workplace canteen that only requires re-heating. The contingent valuation method was used to elicit the WTP. Two surveys were carried out in Denmark; one large-scale Internet based survey and one survey at a workplace that introduced CTA. The results from the large-scal...

  4. Leptogenesis in a neutrino mass model coupled with inflaton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daijiro Suematsu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We propose a scenario for the generation of baryon number asymmetry based on the inflaton decay in a radiative neutrino mass model extended with singlet scalars. In this scenario, lepton number asymmetry is produced through the decay of non-thermal right-handed neutrinos caused from the inflaton decay. Since the amount of non-thermal right-handed neutrinos could be much larger than the thermal ones, the scenario could work without any resonance effect for rather low reheating temperature. Sufficient baryon number asymmetry can be generated for much lighter right-handed neutrinos compared with the Davidson–Ibarra bound.

  5. A comparison of the retention of vitamins B1, B2 and B6, and cooking yield in pork loin with conventional and enhanced meal-service systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Anne Dahl; Kall, M.; Hansen, K.

    2002-01-01

    processing included warm-holding, conventional cook-chill, modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) and sous vide. Compared to retention in the freshly cooked samples, vitamin B-2 retention remained unaffected, irrespective of the meal-service system used and storage period. As regards vitamin B-1 and vitamin B-6......, retentions declined significantly, by 14% and 21% respectively during 3 h of warm-holding, and by 11% and 19% respectively after 1 day of storage and subsequent reheating (cook-chill, MAP and sous vide). Vitamin B-1 retention declined by an extra 4% during storage for 14 days (sous vide) (not significant...

  6. Cosmology with bulk viscosity and the gravitino problem. Consequences of imperfect fluids on gravitino production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buoninfante, L.; Lambiase, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica ' ' E.R. Caianiello' ' Universita di Salerno, Fisciano (Italy); INFN-Gruppo Collegato di Salerno, Fisciano (Italy)

    2017-05-15

    The gravitino problem is revisited in the framework of cosmological models in which the primordial cosmic matter is described by a relativistic imperfect fluid. Dissipative effects (or bulk viscosity effects) arise owing to the different cooling rates of the fluid components. We show that the effects of the bulk viscosity allow one to avoid the late abundance of gravitinos. In particular, for particular values of the parameters characterizing the cosmological model, the gravitino abundance turns out to be weakly depending on the reheating temperature. (orig.)

  7. Inflation via logarithmic entropy-corrected holographic dark energy model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darabi, F.; Felegary, F. [Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University, Department of Physics, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Setare, M.R. [University of Kurdistan, Department of Science, Bijar (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    We study the inflation in terms of the logarithmic entropy-corrected holographic dark energy (LECHDE) model with future event horizon, particle horizon, and Hubble horizon cut-offs, and we compare the results with those obtained in the study of inflation by the holographic dark energy HDE model. In comparison, the spectrum of primordial scalar power spectrum in the LECHDE model becomes redder than the spectrum in the HDE model. Moreover, the consistency with the observational data in the LECHDE model of inflation constrains the reheating temperature and Hubble parameter by one parameter of holographic dark energy and two new parameters of logarithmic corrections. (orig.)

  8. Design and field operation of 1175 MW steam turbine for Ohi Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirota, Yoshio; Nakagami, Yasuo; Fujii, Hisashi; Shibanai, Hirooki.

    1980-01-01

    Two 1175 MW steam turbine and generator units have been successfully in commercial operation since March 1979 and December 1979 respectively at Ohi Nuclear Power Station of the Kansai Electric Power Company. Those units, the largest in their respective outputs in Japan, have also such remarkable design features as two-stage reheat, nozzle governing turbine, water cooled generator stator and turbine-driven feedwater pumps. This paper covers design features and some topics of various pre-operational tests of the above-mentioned units. (author)

  9. Design and field operation of 1175 MW steam turbine for Ohi Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirota, Y.; Nakagami, Y.; Fujii, H.; Shibanai, H.

    1980-01-01

    Two 1,175 MW steam turbine and generator units have been successfully in commercial operation since March 1979 and December 1979 respectively at Ohi Nuclear Power Station of the Kansai Electric Power Company. Those units, the largest in their respective outputs in Japan, have also such remarkable design features as two-stage reheat, nozzle governing turbine, water cooled generator stator and turbine-driven feedwater pumps. This paper covers design features and some topics of various pre-operational tests of the above-mentioned units. (author)

  10. Space-based gravitational-wave detectors can determine the thermal history of the early Universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, Kazunori; Saito, Shun; Suwa, Yudai; Yokoyama, Jun'ichi

    2008-01-01

    It is shown that space-based gravitational-wave detectors such as DECIGO and/or the Big Bang Observer will provide us with invaluable information on the cosmic thermal history after inflation, and they will be able to determine the reheat temperature T R provided that it lies in the range preferred by the cosmological gravitino problem, T R ∼10 5-9 GeV. Therefore it is strongly desired that they will be put into practice as soon as possible

  11. Inflation in string theory: A graceful exit to the real world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicoli, Michele; Mazumdar, Anupam

    2011-01-01

    The most important criteria for a successful inflation are: explaining the observed temperature anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background radiation, and exiting inflation in a vacuum where it can excite the standard model quarks and leptons required for the success of big bang nucleosynthesis. In this paper, we provide the first ever closed-string model of inflation where the inflaton couplings to hidden sector, moduli sector, and visible sector fields can be computed, showing that inflation can lead to reheating the standard model degrees of freedom before the electro-weak scale.

  12. Optimized Application of MSR and Steam Turbine Retrofits in Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crossland, Robert; McCoach, John [ALSTOM Power, Willans Works, Newbold Road, Rugby, Warwickshire CV21 2NH (United Kingdom); Gagelin, Jean-Philippe [ALSTOM Power Heat Exchange, 19-21 avenue Morane-Saulnier, BP 65, 78143 Velizy Cedex (France)

    2004-07-01

    The benefit to a nuclear power plant from a steam turbine retrofit has often been clearly demonstrated in recent years but, for light water nuclear plants, the Moisture Separator Reheaters (MSRs) are also of prime importance. This paper describes how refurbishment of these crucial components can only provide full potential performance benefit when made in conjunction with a steam turbine retrofit (although in practice these activities are frequently separated). Examples are given to show how combined application is best handled within a single organization to ensure optimized integration into the thermal cycle. (authors)

  13. Matter and dark matter from false vacuum decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchmueller, W.; Schmitz, K.; Vertongen, G.

    2010-08-15

    We study tachyonic preheating associated with the spontaneous breaking of B-L, the difference of baryon and lepton number. Reheating occurs through the decays of heavy Majorana neutrinos which are produced during preheating and in decays of the Higgs particles of B-L breaking. Baryogenesis is an interplay of nonthermal and thermal leptogenesis, accompanied by thermally produced gravitino dark matter. The proposed mechanism simultaneously explains the generation of matter and dark matter, thereby relating the absolute neutrino mass scale to the gravitino mass. (orig.)

  14. The B-L phase transition. Implications for cosmology and neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitz, Kai

    2012-07-01

    We investigate the possibility that the hot thermal phase of the early universe is ignited in consequence of the B-L phase transition, which represents the cosmological realization of the spontaneous breaking of the Abelian gauge symmetry associated with B-L, the difference between baryon number B and lepton number L. Prior to the B-L phase transition, the universe experiences a stage of hybrid inflation. Towards the end of inflation, the false vacuum of unbroken B-L symmetry decays, which entails tachyonic preheating as well as the production of cosmic strings. Observational constraints on this scenario require the B-L phase transition to take place at the scale of grand unification. The dynamics of the B-L breaking Higgs field and the B-L gauge degrees of freedom, in combination with thermal processes, generate an abundance of heavy (s)neutrinos. These (s)neutrinos decay into radiation, thereby reheating the universe, generating the baryon asymmetry of the universe and setting the stage for the thermal production of gravitinos. The B-L phase transition along with the (s)neutrino-driven reheating process hence represents an intriguing and testable mechanism to generate the initial conditions of the hot early universe. We study the B-L phase transition in the full supersymmetric Abelian Higgs model, for which we derive and discuss the Lagrangian in arbitrary and unitary gauge. As for the subsequent reheating process, we formulate the complete set of Boltzmann equations, the solutions of which enable us to give a detailed and time-resolved description of the evolution of all particle abundances during reheating. Assuming the gravitino to be the lightest superparticle (LSP), the requirement of consistency between hybrid inflation, leptogenesis and gravitino dark matter implies relations between neutrino parameters and superparticle masses, in particular a lower bound on the gravitino mass of 10GeV. As an alternative to gravitino dark matter, we consider the case of

  15. Matter and dark matter from false vacuum decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchmueller, W.; Schmitz, K.; Vertongen, G.

    2010-08-01

    We study tachyonic preheating associated with the spontaneous breaking of B-L, the difference of baryon and lepton number. Reheating occurs through the decays of heavy Majorana neutrinos which are produced during preheating and in decays of the Higgs particles of B-L breaking. Baryogenesis is an interplay of nonthermal and thermal leptogenesis, accompanied by thermally produced gravitino dark matter. The proposed mechanism simultaneously explains the generation of matter and dark matter, thereby relating the absolute neutrino mass scale to the gravitino mass. (orig.)

  16. The B-L phase transition. Implications for cosmology and neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, Kai

    2012-07-15

    We investigate the possibility that the hot thermal phase of the early universe is ignited in consequence of the B-L phase transition, which represents the cosmological realization of the spontaneous breaking of the Abelian gauge symmetry associated with B-L, the difference between baryon number B and lepton number L. Prior to the B-L phase transition, the universe experiences a stage of hybrid inflation. Towards the end of inflation, the false vacuum of unbroken B-L symmetry decays, which entails tachyonic preheating as well as the production of cosmic strings. Observational constraints on this scenario require the B-L phase transition to take place at the scale of grand unification. The dynamics of the B-L breaking Higgs field and the B-L gauge degrees of freedom, in combination with thermal processes, generate an abundance of heavy (s)neutrinos. These (s)neutrinos decay into radiation, thereby reheating the universe, generating the baryon asymmetry of the universe and setting the stage for the thermal production of gravitinos. The B-L phase transition along with the (s)neutrino-driven reheating process hence represents an intriguing and testable mechanism to generate the initial conditions of the hot early universe. We study the B-L phase transition in the full supersymmetric Abelian Higgs model, for which we derive and discuss the Lagrangian in arbitrary and unitary gauge. As for the subsequent reheating process, we formulate the complete set of Boltzmann equations, the solutions of which enable us to give a detailed and time-resolved description of the evolution of all particle abundances during reheating. Assuming the gravitino to be the lightest superparticle (LSP), the requirement of consistency between hybrid inflation, leptogenesis and gravitino dark matter implies relations between neutrino parameters and superparticle masses, in particular a lower bound on the gravitino mass of 10GeV. As an alternative to gravitino dark matter, we consider the case of

  17. Cosmological constraints on spontaneous R-symmetry breaking models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamada, Yuta; Kobayashi, Tatsuo [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Kamada, Kohei [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Ookouchi, Yutaka [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Kyoto Univ. (Japan). The Hakubi Center for Advanced Research and Dept. of Physics

    2012-11-15

    We study general constraints on spontaneous R-symmetry breaking models coming from the cosmological effects of the pseudo Nambu-Goldstone bosons, R-axions. They are substantially produced in the early Universe and may cause several cosmological problems. We focus on relatively long-lived R-axions and find that in a wide range of parameter space, models are severely constrained. In particular, R-axions with mass less than 1 MeV are generally ruled out for relatively high reheating temperature, T{sub R}>10 GeV.

  18. Sneutrino warm inflation in the minimal supersymmetric model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastero-Gil, Mar; Berera, Arjun

    2005-01-01

    The model of RH neutrino fields coupled to the MSSM is shown to yield a large parameter regime of warm inflation. In the strong dissipative regime, it is shown that inflation, driven by a single sneutrino field, occurs with all field amplitudes below the Planck scale. Analysis is also made of leptogenesis, neutrino mass generation and gravitino constraints. A new warm inflation scenario is purposed in which one scalar field drives a period of warm inflation and a second field drives a subsequent phase of reheating. Such a model is able to reduce the final temperature after inflation, thus helping to mitigate gravitino constraints

  19. Solid-state characterization of paracetamol metastable polymorphs formed in binary mixtures with hydroxypropylmethylcellulose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossi, Alessandra; Savioli, Alessandra; Bini, Marcella; Capsoni, Doretta; Massarotti, Vincenzo; Bettini, Ruggero; Gazzaniga, Andrea; Sangalli, Maria Edvige; Giordano, Ferdinando

    2003-11-28

    Two metastable polymorphs of paracetamol (forms II and III) were prepared by appropriate thermal methods from binary mixtures containing 10% (w/w) of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose. By controlling the reheating step, it was possible to address the recrystallization of the drug either into form II or III. Moreover, it was observed that form III transforms either into form II or I depending on the preparation method. The physical characterization of the polymorphs was performed by means of micro-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (MFTIR) and powder X-ray diffractometry (PXRD), both temperature controlled.

  20. Dark radiation from the axino solution of the gravitino problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasenkamp, Jasper

    2012-01-01

    Current observations of the cosmic microwave background could confirm an increase in the radiation energy density after primordial nucleosynthesis but before photon decoupling. We show that, if the gravitino problem is solved by a light axino, dark (decoupled) radiation emerges naturally in this period leading to a new upper bound on the reheating temperature T R ≤10 11 GeV. In turn, successful thermal leptogenesis might predict such an increase. The Large Hadron Collider could endorse this opportunity. At the same time, axion and axino can naturally form the observed dark matter.

  1. A review of the United Kingdom fast reactor programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bramman, J.I.; Hickey, H.B.; Adam, E.R.; Allan, C.G.; Gregory, C.V.

    1991-01-01

    At the PFR the gross electrical generation for the calendar year 1990 was 23,937 MWd with a load factor of 26.2%. These figures are only about half of the corresponding figures for 1989, mainly as a consequence of an outage extending from 24 April to 23 November, when a leak in the Reheater 1 vessel was being repaired. The plant was unavailable for operation on 264 days. However, prior to the April shut-down, the station had operated with high load factors (up to 85.0%). One reprocessing campaign was undertaken during the year under review. (author). 1 tab

  2. Glass formation and properties in the system calcia-gallia-germania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, P. W.; Ray, C. S.; Day, D. E.

    1985-01-01

    The critical cooling rate for glass formation, R sub c was measured for four compositions in the system calcia-gallia-germania. The activation energy, E, and frequency factor, nu, for the crystallization process were determined by reheating the glasses at varied constant heating rates and measuring the temperature of crystallization. Both E and nu increased, with increasing germania content of the glass, whereas R sub c decreased. The density, refractive index, and Abbe number were also measured; all decreased with increasing GeO2 content. These results are compared with those for calcia-gallia-silica glasses of comparable compositions.

  3. Evaluation of Variable Refrigerant Flow Systems Performance on Oak Ridge National Laboratory s Flexible Research Platform: Part 2 Heating Season Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Im, Piljae [ORNL; Malhotra, Mini [ORNL; Munk, Jeffrey D [ORNL

    2016-08-01

    The performance of two HVAC systems was evaluated using ORNL’s FRP, which is a two-story, 3,200 ft2 (297.3 m2) multi-zone unoccupied building that represents a typical low-rise, small office building common in the US existing building stock. The FRP is equipped with a conventional 12.5 ton (44 kW) RTU-VAV reheat system as the baseline system. For this study, a 12 ton (42 kW) VRF with a dedicated outdoor air system (DOAS) was installed to be compared with the baseline RTU system.

  4. Chaotic inflation and baryogenesis by right-handed sneutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murayama, H.; Suzuki, H.; Yanagida, T.; Yokoyama, J.i.

    1993-01-01

    We present a model of chaotic inflation driven by the superpartner of the right-handed neutrino (N R ). This model gives the correct magnitude of the density perturbation observed by the Cosmic Background Explorer satellite with a right-handed neutrino mass congruent 10 13 GeV, which is also preferred by the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein solution to the solar neutrino problem. The reheating process is the dacay of the coherently oscillating N R . This decay process also generates lepton asymmetry via CP violation, which will be converted to baryon asymmetry thanks to the electroweak anomaly. This model can incorporate the τ-neutrino mass congruent 10 eV

  5. Optimized Application of MSR and Steam Turbine Retrofits in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crossland, Robert; McCoach, John; Gagelin, Jean-Philippe

    2004-01-01

    The benefit to a nuclear power plant from a steam turbine retrofit has often been clearly demonstrated in recent years but, for light water nuclear plants, the Moisture Separator Reheaters (MSRs) are also of prime importance. This paper describes how refurbishment of these crucial components can only provide full potential performance benefit when made in conjunction with a steam turbine retrofit (although in practice these activities are frequently separated). Examples are given to show how combined application is best handled within a single organization to ensure optimized integration into the thermal cycle. (authors)

  6. The mechanical design and validation of the helical tube boilers for Hartlepool and Heysham AGR stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, V.R.

    1983-01-01

    The 32 helically coiled once-through boiler units at Hartlepool and Heysham represent a major advance in the technologies of boiler design, manufacture and site construction. They are particularly complex in that they incorporate integral reheaters; they employ three different tubing materials and five different structural materials, each with operating temperature limitations; and they must fit compactly into pods in the reactor pressure vessel walls. A general description of the boilers is followed by a review of external factors which influenced the mechanical design and validation programme over 15 years. Against this background selected components are discussed in detail in terms of particular loading conditions and stress analysis. (author)

  7. LMFBR steam generator development: duplex bayonet tube steam generator. Volume II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeFur, D.D.

    1975-04-01

    This report represents the culmination of work performed in fulfillment of ERDA Contract AT(11-1)-2426, Task Agreement 2, in which alternate steam generator designs were developed and studied. The basic bayonet tube generator design previously developed by C-E under AEC Contract AT(11-1)-3031 was expanded by incorporating duplex heat transfer tubes to enhance the unit's overall safety and reliability. The effort consisted of providing and evaluating conceptual designs of the evaporator, superheater and reheater components for a large plant LMFBR steam generator (950 MWt per heat transport loop)

  8. IceCube potential for detecting Q-ball dark matter in gauge mediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasuya, Shinta; Kawasaki, Masahiro; Yanagida, Tsutomu T.

    2015-01-01

    We study Q-ball dark matter in gauge-mediated supersymmetry breaking, and seek the possibility of detection in the IceCube experiment. We find that the Q balls would be the dark matter in the parameter region different from that for gravitino dark matter. In particular, the Q ball is a good dark matter candidate for low reheating temperature, which may be suitable for the Affleck–Dine baryogenesis and/or nonthermal leptogenesis. Dark matter Q balls are detectable by IceCube-like experiments in the future, which is a peculiar feature compared to the case of gravitino dark matter

  9. Process for humidifying a gaseous fuel stream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sederquist, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    A fuel gas stream for a fuel cell is humidified by a recirculating hot liquid water stream using the heat of condensation from the humidified stream as the heat to vaporize the liquid water. Humidification is accomplished by directly contacting the liquid water with the dry gas stream in a saturator to evaporate a small portion of water. The recirculating liquid water is reheated by direct contact with the humidified gas stream in a condenser, wherein water is condensed into the liquid stream. Between the steps of humidifying and condensing water from the gas stream it passes through the fuel cell and additional water, in the form of steam, is added thereto

  10. Gas turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farahan, E.; Eudaly, J.P.

    1978-10-01

    This evaluation provides performance and cost data for commercially available simple- and regenerative-cycle gas turbines. Intercooled, reheat, and compound cycles are discussed from theoretical basis only, because actual units are not currently available, except on a special-order basis. Performance characteristics investigated include unit efficiency at full-load and off-design conditions, and at rated capacity. Costs are tabulated for both simple- and regenerative-cycle gas turbines. The output capacity of the gas turbines investigated ranges from 80 to 134,000 hp for simple units and from 12,000 to 50,000 hp for regenerative units.

  11. String theory and the dark glueball problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halverson, James; Nelson, Brent D.

    2016-09-01

    We study cosmological constraints on dark pure Yang-Mills sectors. Dark glueballs are overproduced for large regions of ultraviolet parameter space. The problem may be alleviated in two ways: via a large preferential reheating into the visible sector, motivating certain inflation or modulus decay models, or via decays into axions or moduli, which are strongly constrained by nucleosynthesis and ΔN_e_f_f bounds. String models frequently have multiple hidden Yang-Mills sectors, which are subject to even stronger constraints due to the existence of multiple dark glueballs.

  12. Advanced gas turbine cycles a brief review of power generation thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Horlock, JH

    2003-01-01

    Primarily this book describes the thermodynamics of gas turbine cycles. The search for high gas turbine efficiency has produced many variations on the simple ""open circuit"" plant, involving the use of heat exchangers, reheating and intercooling, water and steam injection, cogeneration and combined cycle plants. These are described fully in the text. A review of recent proposals for a number of novel gas turbine cycles is also included. In the past few years work has been directed towards developing gas turbines which produce less carbon dioxide, or plants from which the CO2 can be d

  13. Process for fabrication of dry flue gas gypsum. Verfahren zur Herstellung von trockenem Rauchgasgips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirsching, F.; Hueller, R.; Limmer, B.

    1984-06-20

    According to the invention gypsum from flue gas wet desulfurization is dried without loss of crystallization water by a 1-4% sidestream of the flue gas in a suspended bed dryer and is subsequently separated in a cyclone. The sidestream is removed after the electrostatic precipitator, where the gas temperature is 100-130 degrees, and returned to the main gas stream prior to desulfurization, thus preventing the dehydration of the gypsum and eliminating the energy costs of reheating the gas stream to prevent acid condensation.

  14. Distillation, destructive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, W; Brash, P

    1866-05-04

    In the distillation of oil from coal, shale, etc., hydrocarbon vapors which are condensed only with difficulty, and are of small value, are reheated and sent back into the retorts. A jet of steam, or a forcing or exhausting apparatus, may be used for this purpose, and the vapors are passed under false bottoms with which the retorts are preferably provided. In the rectification of the oils, a producer known as still bottoms results which, when redistilled, gives rise to vapors condensable only with difficulty. These vapors may be passed back into the still, or may be mixed and heated, in a separate vessel, with the vapors coming from the still.

  15. ABB wet flue gas desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niijhawan, P.

    1994-12-31

    The wet limestone process for flue gas desulfurization (FGD) is outlined. The following topics are discussed: wet flue gas desulfurization, wet FGD characteristics, wet scrubbers, ABB wet FGD experience, wet FGD forced oxidation, advanced limestone FGD systems, key design elements, open spray tower design, spray tower vs. packed tower, important performance parameters, SO{sub 2} removal efficiency, influence by L/G, limestone utilization, wet FGD commercial database, particulate removal efficiencies, materials of construction, nozzle layout, spray nozzles, recycle pumps, mist elimination, horizontal flow demister, mist eliminator washing, reagent preparation system, spray tower FGDS power consumption, flue gas reheat options, byproduct conditioning system, and wet limestone system.

  16. Healthcare Energy End-Use Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheppy, M.; Pless, S.; Kung, F.

    2014-08-01

    NREL partnered with two hospitals (MGH and SUNY UMU) to collect data on the energy used for multiple thermal and electrical end-use categories, including preheat, heating, and reheat; humidification; service water heating; cooling; fans; pumps; lighting; and select plug and process loads. Additional data from medical office buildings were provided for an analysis focused on plug loads. Facility managers, energy managers, and engineers in the healthcare sector will be able to use these results to more effectively prioritize and refine the scope of investments in new metering and energy audits.

  17. Inflaton decay through supergravity effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, M.; Takahashi, F.; Kawasaki, M.; Yanagida, T.T.; Tokyo Univ.

    2006-07-01

    We point out that supergravity effects enable the inflaton to decay into all matter fields, including the visible and the supersymmetry breaking sectors, once the inflaton acquires a non-vanishing vacuum expectation value. The new decay processes have great impacts on cosmology; the reheating temperature is bounded below; the gravitinos are produced by the inflaton decay in a broad class of the dynamical supersymmetry breaking models. We derive the bounds on the inflaton mass and the vacuum expectation value, which severely constrain high-scale inflations such as the hybrid and chaotic inflation models. (orig.)

  18. Thermal leptogenesis in a supersymmetric neutrinophilic Higgs model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haba, Naoyuki; Seto, Osamu

    2011-01-01

    We investigate thermal leptogenesis in a supersymmetric neutrinophilic Higgs model by taking phenomenological constraints into account, where, in addition to the minimal supersymmetric standard model, we introduce an extra Higgs field with a tiny vacuum expectation value which generates neutrino masses. Thanks to this tiny vacuum expectation value of the neutrinophilic Higgs, our model allows us to reduce the mass of the lightest right-handed (s)neutrino to be O(10 5 ) GeV, keeping sufficiently large CP asymmetry in its decay. Therefore, the reheating temperature after inflation is not necessarily high; hence this scenario is free from the gravitino problem.

  19. Moduli/inflaton mixing with supersymmetry breaking field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endo, M.; Takahashi, F. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)]|[Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Inst. for Cosmic Ray Research; Hamaguchi, K. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)]|[Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics

    2006-05-15

    A heavy scalar field such as moduli or an inflaton generally mixes with a field responsible for the supersymmetry breaking. We study the scalar decay into the standard model particles and their superpartners, gravitinos, and the supersymmetry breaking sector, particularly paying attention to decay modes that proceed via the mixing between the scalar and the supersymmetry breaking field. The impacts of the new decay processes on cosmological scenarios are also discussed; the modulus field generically produces too much gravitinos, and most of the inflation models tend to result in too high reheating temperature and/or gravitino overproduction. (Orig.)

  20. Solidification of Hypereutectic Thin Wall Ductile Cast Iron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl Martin; Tiedje, Niels Skat

    2006-01-01

    solidification. The first stage, which was relatively short, had none or very little recalescence. Further under cooling, followed by reheating during recalescence, was necessary to initiate the second part of the eutectic solidification. Both the secondary under cooling and recalescence was larger in the 3 mm...... a higher Si content in the ferrite around the larger nodules compared to the ferrite around the rest of the nodules. This indicates that solidification took place along the following path: The solidification starts with nucleation and growth of primary graphite nodules. This probably starts during...

  1. Dynamic exergoeconomic analysis of a heat pump system used for ancillary services in an integrated energy system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meesenburg, Wiebke; Ommen, Torben; Elmegaard, Brian

    2018-01-01

    the cost of heat and flexibility products based on the difference in exergy destruction was proposed. The method was applied to a case of a groundwater-source heat pump system supplying a district heating island system. It was found that providing demand flexibility causes higher exergy destruction, mainly...... due to heat losses during storage and the need to reheat the fluid using an electric heater. The major part of the additional exergy destruction was not related to heat pump regulation. When providing flexibility the overall cost of the system increased and according to the proposed allocation, demand...

  2. The Sous Vide Revolution: Coming Full Circle and Beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Hoeche, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    For the purpose of this research, academic material and online sources were utilised to clarify the meaning of the key term sous vide. The Sous Vide Advisory Committee (1991) says ‘Sous Vide (also known as Cuisine en Papillote) is an interrupted catering system in which raw or par-cooked food is sealed into a vacuumised laminated plastic pouch or container, heat treated by controlled cooking, rapidly cooled and then reheated for service after a period of chilled storage’. According to Herb...

  3. R-parity violating right-handed neutrino in gravitino dark matter scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endo, Motoi [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland). Theory Div., PH Dept.; Shindou, Tetsuo [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    A decay of the gravitino dark matter is an attractive candidate to explain the current excesses of the PAMELA/ATIC cosmic-ray data. However, R-parity violations are required to be very tiny in low-energy scale. We suggest a R-parity violation in the right-handed neutrino sector. The violation is suppressed by a see-saw mechanism. Although a reheating temperature is constrained from above, the thermal leptogenesis is found to work successfully with a help of the R-parity violating right-handed neutrino. (orig.)

  4. Thermodynamic analysis of a supercritical water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, M.

    2007-01-01

    A thermodynamic model has been developed for a hypothetical design of a Supercritical Water Reactor, with emphasis on Canadian design criteria. The model solves for cycle efficiency, mass flows and physical conditions throughout the plant based on input parameters of operating pressures and efficiencies of components. The model includes eight feedwater heaters, three feedwater pumps, a deaerator, a condenser, the core, three turbines and two reheaters. To perform the calculations, Microsoft Excel was used in conjunction with FLUIDCAL-IAPWS95 and VBA code. The calculations show that a thermal efficiency of 47.5% can be achieved with a core outlet temperature of 625 o C. (author)

  5. Industrial thermoforming simulation of automotive fuel tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiesche, Stefan aus der

    2004-01-01

    An industrial thermoforming simulation with regard to automotive plastic fuel tanks is presented including all relevant process stages. The radiative and conductive heat transfer during the reheat stage, the deformation and stress behaviour during the forming stage, and the final cooling stage are simulated. The modelling of the thermal and rheological behaviour of the involved material is investigated in greater detail. By means of experimental data it is found that modelling of the phase transition during the process is highly important for predicting correct wall thickness distributions

  6. Cycle improvement for nuclear steam power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvestri, G.J. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    A pressure-increasig ejector element is disposed in an extraction line intermediate to a high pressure turbine element and a feedwater heater. The ejector utilizes high pressure fluid from a reheater drain as the motive fluid to increase the pressure at which the extraction steam is introduced into the feedwater heater. The increase in pressure of the extraction steam entering the feedwater heater due to the steam passage through the ejector increases the heat exchange capability of the extraction steam thus increasing the overall steam power plant efficiency

  7. Feebly Interacting Dark Matter Particle as the Inflaton

    OpenAIRE

    Tenkanen, Tommi

    2016-01-01

    We present a scenario where a $Z_2$-symmetric scalar field $\\phi$ first drives cosmic inflation, then reheats the Universe but remains out-of-equilibrium itself, and finally comprises the observed dark matter abundance, produced by particle decays \\`{a} la freeze-in mechanism. We work model-independently without specifying the interactions of the scalar field besides its self-interaction coupling, $\\lambda\\phi^4$, non-minimal coupling to gravity, $\\xi\\phi^2R$, and coupling to another scalar f...

  8. Effects of dissipation and fluctuation in preheating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vartuli, Rodrigo; Ramos, Rudnei de O.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we study the effects of dissipation and fluctuation in preheating after inflation. The effective equation of motion for a scalar field χ interacting with lighter fields is derived using the field theoretical method of closed time path due to Schwinger, winch is suitable to study nonequilibrium and time dependent process. In this derivation the emergent equation is intrinsically dissipative and stochastic in nature. The resulting dynamics is then studied both analytically and numerically. The results obtained are then discussed for then relevance for the reheating epoch right after an inflationary phase(preheating) for the case of the evolution of the scalar field χ and its decay into fermion. (author)

  9. Inflation via logarithmic entropy-corrected holographic dark energy model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darabi, F.; Felegary, F.; Setare, M.R.

    2016-01-01

    We study the inflation in terms of the logarithmic entropy-corrected holographic dark energy (LECHDE) model with future event horizon, particle horizon, and Hubble horizon cut-offs, and we compare the results with those obtained in the study of inflation by the holographic dark energy HDE model. In comparison, the spectrum of primordial scalar power spectrum in the LECHDE model becomes redder than the spectrum in the HDE model. Moreover, the consistency with the observational data in the LECHDE model of inflation constrains the reheating temperature and Hubble parameter by one parameter of holographic dark energy and two new parameters of logarithmic corrections. (orig.)

  10. Fire-Side Corrosion: A Case Study of Failed Tubes of a Fossil Fuel Boiler

    OpenAIRE

    Asnavandi, Majid; Kahram, Mohaddeseh; Rezaei, Milad; Rezakhani, Davar

    2017-01-01

    The failures of superheater and reheater boiler tubes operating in a power plant utilizing natural gas or mazut as a fuel have been analysed and the fire-side corrosion has been suggested as the main reason for the failure in boiler tubes. The tubes have been provided by a fossil fuel power plant in Iran and optical and electron microscopy investigations have been performed on the tubes as well as the corrosion products on their surfaces. The results showed that the thickness of the failed tu...

  11. Feasibility study on energy conservation and environmental improvement at Pakistan Steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Feasibility study on energy conservation and environmental improvement was carried out with the aim of considering the realization of the CDM (clean development mechanism) project for reduction of global warming gas emissions and contributing to the environmental improvement and economic growth in Pakistan. In the study, projects on the following were studied: coke oven coal moisture control (CMC), sinter cooler waste heat recovery, blast furnace hot stove waste heat recovery, blast furnace pulverized coal injection (PCI), blast furnace top pressure recovery turbine (TRT), hot strip mill reheating furnace regenerative type burner, coke oven environmental improvement, and blast furnace cast house dust collection. As a result of the study, the implementation of the following three projects was regarded as promising in terms of energy conservation and economical effects: blast furnace pulverized coal injection, blast furnace top pressure recovery turbine and hot strip mill reheating furnace regenerative type burner. Further, the reduction in poisonous gas by the coke oven environmental improvement project was made a top priority. In Pakistan, the price of energy is kept low, and therefore, effects of energy conservation projects are not very much expected. However, the PCI project has an effect of substitution of low-priced domestic coal for imported coal. (NEDO)

  12. Fireside corrosion testing of candidate superheater tube alloys, coatings, and claddings -- Phase 2 field testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blough, J.L.; Seitz, W.W.; Girshik, A. [Foster Wheeler Development Corp., Livingston, NJ (United States)

    1998-06-01

    In Phase 1 of this project, laboratory experiments were performed on a variety of developmental and commercial tubing alloys and claddings by exposing them to fireside corrosion tests which simulated a superheater or reheater in a coal-fired boiler. Phase 2 (in situ testing) has exposed samples of 347, RA85H, HR3C, RA253MA, Fe{sub 3}Al + 5Cr, Ta-modified 310, NF 709, 690 clad, 671 clad, and 800HT for up to approximately 16,000 hours to the actual operating conditions of a 250-MW, coal-fired boiler. The samples were installed on air-cooled, retractable corrosion probes, installed in the reheater cavity, and controlled to the operating metal temperatures of an existing and advanced-cycle, coal-fired boiler. Samples of each alloy were exposed for 4,483, 11,348, and 15,883 hours of operation. The present results are for the metallurgical examination of the corrosion probe samples after the full 15,883 hours of exposure. A previous topical report has been issued for the 4,483 hours of exposure.

  13. Low temperature molten salt synthesis of Y2Sn2O7 anode material for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nithyadharseni, P.; Reddy, M.V.; Ozoemena, Kenneth I.; Balakrishna, R. Geetha; Chowdari, B.V.R.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • For the first time Y 2 Sn 2 O 7 compound was prepared at very low temperature by molten salt method. • We studied the effect of reheating on electrochemical properties. • All the compounds showed particle size of below 500 nm. • The all compounds showed a stable and good capacity retention during cycling. - Abstract: For the first time, yttrium tin oxide (Y 2 Sn 2 O 7 ) compound is prepared at low temperature (400 °C) with cubic pyrochlore structure via molten salt method using KOH as a flux for their electrochemical applications. The final product is reheated at three different temperatures of 600, 800 and 1000 °C for 6 h in air, are physically and chemically characterized by various techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and electrochemical studies of galvanostatic cycling (GC), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Galvanostatic cycling of Y 2 Sn 2 O 7 compounds are carried out with three different current densities of 60, 100 and 250 mA g −1 and the potential range of 0.005–1.0 V vs. Li. The EIS is carried out to study the electrode kinetics during discharge and charge at various voltages and corresponding variation of resistance and capacitance values are discussed.

  14. Production of A356 aluminum alloy wheels by thixo-forging combined with a low superheat casting process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Shuncheng

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The A356 aluminum alloy wheels were produced by thixo-forging combined with a low superheat casting process. The as-cast microstructure, microstructure evolution during reheating and the mechanical properties of thixo-forged wheels made from the A356 aluminum alloy were studied. The results show that the A356 aluminum alloy round billet with fine, uniform and non-dendritic grains can be obtained when the melt is cast at 635 篊. When the round billet is reheated at 600 篊 for 60 min, the non-dendritic grains are changed into spherical ones and the round billet can be easily thixo-forged into wheels. The tensile strength, yield strength and elongation of the thixo-forged wheels with T6 heat treatment are 327.6 MPa, 228.3 MPa and 7.8%, respectively, which are higher than those of a cast wheel. It is suggested that the thixo-forging combined with the low superheat casting process is an effective technique to produce aluminum alloy wheels with high mechanical properties.

  15. Mirage in the sky: Nonthermal dark matter, gravitino problem, and cosmic ray anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutta, Bhaskar; Sinha, Kuver; Leblond, Louis

    2009-01-01

    Recent anomalies in cosmic rays could be due to dark matter annihilation in our galaxy. In order to get the required large cross section to explain the data while still obtaining the right relic density, we rely on a nonstandard thermal history between dark matter freeze out and big-bang nucleosynthesis. We show that through a reheating phase from the decay of a heavy moduli or even the gravitino, we can produce the right relic density of dark matter if its self-annihilation cross section is large enough. In addition to fitting the recent data, this scenario solves the cosmological moduli and gravitino problems. We illustrate this mechanism with a specific example in the context of U(1) B-L extended minimal supersymmetric standard model where supersymmetry is broken via mirage mediation. These string motivated models naturally contain heavy moduli decaying to the gravitino, whose subsequent decay to the LSP can reheat the Universe at a low temperature. The right-handed sneutrino and the B-L gaugino can both be viable dark matter candidates with a large cross section. They are leptophilic because of B-L charges. We also show that it is possible to distinguish the nonthermal from the thermal scenario (using Sommerfeld enhancement) in direct detection experiments for certain regions of parameter space.

  16. Reactivity of chars prepared from the pyrolysis of a Victorian lignite under a wide range of conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, H.; Mody, D.; Li, C.; Hayashi, J.; Chiba, T. [Monash University, Vic. (Australia). CRC for Clean Power from Lignite, Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2000-07-01

    A Loy Yang lignite sample was pyrolysed under a wide range of experimental conditions using a wire-mesh reactor, a fluidised-bed reactor, a drop-tube reformer and a thermogravimetric analyser (TGA). The reactivity of these char samples in CO{sub 2} and air was measured in the TGA as well as in the fluidised-bed reactor. A sample prepared by the physical impregnation of NaCl into the lignite was also used in order to investigate the effect of NaCl in the lignite on the reactivity of the resulting char. Our experimental results indicate that, due to the volatilisation of a substantial fraction of Na in the lignite substrate during pyrolysis, the true catalytic activity of the Na in the lignite substrate should be evaluated by measuring the sodium content in the char after pyrolysis. The char reactivity measured in situ in the fluidised-bed reactor was compared with that of the same char measured separately in the TGA after re-heating the char sample to the same temperature as that in the fluidised-bed. It was found that the re-heating of the char in the TGA reduced the char reactivity.

  17. Characterization of the weld HAZ properties of nuclear reactor pressure vessel materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Joo Hag; Shin, H. S.; Moon, J. G. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-12-01

    This work contains an investigation on the microstructure and toughness in the weld heat-affected zone (HAZ) of a quenched and tempered SA 508 Cl. 3 reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steel. In order to evaluate systematically the notch toughness and microstructural alterations, a unit HAZ concept was applied to the multipass weld HAZ of RPV steel. Seven typical positions were selected to evaluate the spatial distribution of notch toughness and microstructure in the unit HAZ. As a result of notch toughness evaluation, three coarse-grained regions and two fine-grained regions of SA 508 Cl. 3 RPV steel HAZ showed relatively good toughness. On the contrary, an intercritically reheated and a subcritically reheated region showed lower toughness than the base metal. The region which first and second peak temperatures are 700 deg C showed the lowest toughness among the low toughness region because of carbide coarsening. Therefore, it was proposed that the notch position in the surveillance HAZ specimen should be placed to the boundary between the HAZ and the base metal. The method, which evaluates the fracture toughness in the transition region of ferritic steel, was effectively applicable to the various HAZ regions of RPV steel. The fracture toughness test results were nearly same as the notch toughness test results. The volume fraction of tempered martensite phase was revealed as the most dominant factor that determines fracture toughness. 59 refs., 29 figs., 10 tabs. (Author)

  18. Higgs mass implications on the stability of the electroweak vacuum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elias-Miro, Joan [IFAE and Dep. de Fisica, Univ. Aut. de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Espinosa, Jose R. [IFAE and Dep. de Fisica, Univ. Aut. de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); ICREA, Institucio Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avancats, Barcelona (Spain); Giudice, Gian F. [CERN, Theory Division, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Isidori, Gino, E-mail: gino.isidori@lnf.infn.it [CERN, Theory Division, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Via E. Fermi 40, Frascati (Italy); Riotto, Antonio [CERN, Theory Division, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); INFN, Sezione di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padua (Italy); Strumia, Alessandro [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Pisa and INFN (Italy); National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics, Ravala 10, Tallinn (Estonia)

    2012-03-19

    We update instability and metastability bounds of the Standard Model electroweak vacuum in view of the recent ATLAS and CMS Higgs results. For a Higgs mass in the range 124-126 GeV, and for the current central values of the top mass and strong coupling constant, the Higgs potential develops an instability around 10{sup 11} GeV, with a lifetime much longer than the age of the Universe. However, taking into account theoretical and experimental errors, stability up to the Planck scale cannot be excluded. Stability at finite temperature implies an upper bound on the reheat temperature after inflation, which depends critically on the precise values of the Higgs and top masses. A Higgs mass in the range 124-126 GeV is compatible with very high values of the reheating temperature, without conflict with mechanisms of baryogenesis such as leptogenesis. We derive an upper bound on the mass of heavy right-handed neutrinos by requiring that their Yukawa couplings do not destabilize the Higgs potential.

  19. Long wavelength limit of evolution of cosmological perturbations in the universe where scalar fields and fluids coexist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamazaki, Takashi

    2008-01-01

    We present the LWL formula which represents the long wavelength limit of the solutions of evolution equations of cosmological perturbations in terms of the exactly homogeneous solutions in the most general case where multiple scalar fields and multiple perfect fluids coexist. We find the conserved quantity which has origin in the adiabatic decaying mode, and by regarding this quantity as the source term we determine the correction term which corrects the discrepancy between the exactly homogeneous perturbations and the k→0 limit of the evolutions of cosmological perturbations. This LWL formula is useful for investigating the evolutions of cosmological perturbations in the early stage of our universe such as reheating after inflation and the curvaton decay in the curvaton scenario. When we extract the long wavelength limits of evolutions of cosmological perturbations from the exactly homogeneous perturbations by the LWL formula, it is more convenient to describe the corresponding exactly homogeneous system with not the cosmological time but the scale factor as the evolution parameter. By applying the LWL formula to the reheating model and the curvaton model with multiple scalar fields and multiple radiation fluids, we obtain the S formula representing the final amplitude of the Bardeen parameter in terms of the initial adiabatic and isocurvature perturbations

  20. Optimal design of passive containment cooling system for innovative PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Huiun; Lee, Sang Won; Kim, Hangon [Central Research Institute, Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power, Ltd., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-08-15

    Using the Generation of Thermal-Hydraulic Information for Containments (GOTHIC) code, thermal-hydraulic phenomena that occur inside the containment have been investigated, along with the preliminary design of the passive containment cooling system (PCCS) of an innovative pressurized water reactor (PWR). A GOTHIC containment model was constructed with reference to the design data of the Advanced Power Reactor 1400, and report related PCCS. The effects of the design parameters were evaluated for passive containment cooling tank (PCCT) geometry, PCCS heat exchanger (PCCX) location, and surface area. The analyzed results, obtained using the single PCCT, showed that repressurization and reheating phenomena had occurred. To resolve these problems, a coupled PCCT concept was suggested and was found to continually decrease the containment pressure and temperature without repressurization and reheating. If the installation level of the PCCX is higher than that of the PCCT, it may affect the PCCS performance. Additionally, it was confirmed that various means of increasing the external surface area of the PCCX, such as fins, could help improve the energy removal performance of the PCCS. To improve the PCCS design and investigate its performance, further studies are needed.

  1. Fibre Inflation: Observable Gravity Waves from IIB String Compactifications

    CERN Document Server

    Cicoli, M; Quevedo, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    We introduce a simple string model of inflation, in which the inflaton field can take trans-Planckian values while driving a period of slow-roll inflation. This leads naturally to a realisation of large field inflation, inasmuch as the inflationary epoch is well described by the single-field scalar potential V = V_0 (3 - 4 exp{-phi/\\sqrt{3}}). Remarkably, for a broad class of vacua all adjustable parameters enter only through the overall coefficient V_0, and in particular do not enter into the slow-roll parameters. Predictions for observables are therefore completely determined by the number of e-foldings (and so are correlated with the post-inflationary reheat temperature, T_r). If the reheat temperature is T_r = 1, 100, 10^{10} or 10^{15} GeV, then N_e = 23, 28, 46 and 58 e-foldings of inflation are required after horizon exit, corresponding to a scalar spectral index n_s = 0.924, 0.937, 0.961 and 0.968, while the ratio of tensor to scalar perturbations becomes r = 0.0264, 0.0189, 0.00797 and 0.00528, withi...

  2. Solute partitioning and interfacial segregation in TiAl-based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, D.J.; Miller, M.K.

    1999-01-01

    Atom probe microscopy has been used to investigate elemental partitioning and segregation behavior in a TiAl-based alloy with a variety of alloying additions including Cr, Nb, W and B. These results indicate that in a stress-relieved state (2h at 900 C) and a reheated state (2h at 900 C, 2,184h at 800 C and 2h at 1,210 C) chromium, and to a lesser extent tungsten, is partitioned to the α 2 phase. However, in an annealed state (2h at 900 C and 720 h at 800 C), these elements are partitioned to the γ phase. Segregation of chromium and tungsten to lamellar interfaces is observed in the stress-relieved material, but significant segregation was not observed in material subjected to the other heat treatments. A W- and B-enriched precipitate was observed in the reheated material and provides a possible explanation for the low tungsten concentrations measured in the matrix phases

  3. Optimal design of passive containment cooling system for innovative PWR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiun Ha

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Using the Generation of Thermal-Hydraulic Information for Containments (GOTHIC code, thermal-hydraulic phenomena that occur inside the containment have been investigated, along with the preliminary design of the passive containment cooling system (PCCS of an innovative pressurized water reactor (PWR. A GOTHIC containment model was constructed with reference to the design data of the Advanced Power Reactor 1400, and report related PCCS. The effects of the design parameters were evaluated for passive containment cooling tank (PCCT geometry, PCCS heat exchanger (PCCX location, and surface area. The analyzed results, obtained using the single PCCT, showed that repressurization and reheating phenomena had occurred. To resolve these problems, a coupled PCCT concept was suggested and was found to continually decrease the containment pressure and temperature without repressurization and reheating. If the installation level of the PCCX is higher than that of the PCCT, it may affect the PCCS performance. Additionally, it was confirmed that various means of increasing the external surface area of the PCCX, such as fins, could help improve the energy removal performance of the PCCS. To improve the PCCS design and investigate its performance, further studies are needed.

  4. Reanalysis and semantic persistence in native and non-native garden-path recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Gunnar; Felser, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    We report the results from an eye-movement monitoring study investigating how native and non-native speakers of English process temporarily ambiguous sentences such as While the gentleman was eating the burgers were still being reheated in the microwave, in which an initially plausible direct-object analysis is first ruled out by a syntactic disambiguation (were) and also later on by semantic information (being reheated). Both participant groups showed garden-path effects at the syntactic disambiguation, with native speakers showing significantly stronger effects of ambiguity than non-native speakers in later eye-movement measures but equally strong effects in first-pass reading times. Ambiguity effects at the semantic disambiguation and in participants' end-of-trial responses revealed that for both participant groups, the incorrect direct-object analysis was frequently maintained beyond the syntactic disambiguation. The non-native group showed weaker reanalysis effects at the syntactic disambiguation and was more likely to misinterpret the experimental sentences than the native group. Our results suggest that native language (L1) and non-native language (L2) parsing are similar with regard to sensitivity to syntactic and semantic error signals, but different with regard to processes of reanalysis.

  5. Thermal modification of hematite-ilmenite intergrowths in the Ecstall pluton, British Columbia, Canada

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brownlee, S.J.; Feinberg, J.M.; Harrison, R.J.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we examine the effects of reheating on finely exsolved hematite-ilmenite intergrowths from the similar to 91 Ma Ecstall pluton using reflected light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). As a result of the emplacement of the you......In this study, we examine the effects of reheating on finely exsolved hematite-ilmenite intergrowths from the similar to 91 Ma Ecstall pluton using reflected light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). As a result of the emplacement...... of the younger adjacent similar to 52 Ma Quottoon pluton, samples closer to a thermal boundary have experienced greater degrees of thermal alteration. Five main microstructural features characterize hematite-ilmenite intergrowths from the Ecstall: (I) exsolution lamellae of hematite and ilmenite; (II) oxidation....... Higher temperatures also enhanced oxidation in ilmenite. The formation of magnetite altered the bulk magnetic properties of these samples, increasing NRM intensity. This study underscores the need to consider a pluton's post-emplacement thermal history before making tectonic interpretations based...

  6. Light higgsino dark matter from non-thermal cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aparicio, Luis [ICTP,Strada Costiera 11, Trieste 34014 (Italy); Cicoli, Michele [ICTP,Strada Costiera 11, Trieste 34014 (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Bologna,via Irnerio 46, 40126 Bologna (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Bologna,via Irnerio 46, 40126 Bologna (Italy); Dutta, Bhaskar [Department of Physics and Astronomy,Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy,TAMU, College Station, TX 77843-4242 (United States); Muia, Francesco [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Bologna,via Irnerio 46, 40126 Bologna (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Bologna,via Irnerio 46, 40126 Bologna (Italy); Quevedo, Fernando [ICTP,Strada Costiera 11, Trieste 34014 (Italy); DAMTP, Centre for Mathematical Sciences,Wilberforce Road, Cambridge, CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)

    2016-11-08

    We study the scenario of higgsino dark matter in the context of a non-standard cosmology with a period of matter domination prior to Big Bang nucleosynthesis. Matter domination changes the dark matter relic abundance if it ends via reheating to a temperature below the higgsino thermal freeze-out temperature. We perform a model independent analysis of the higgsino dark matter production in such scenario. We show that light higgsino-type dark matter is possible for reheating temperatures close to 1 GeV. We study the impact of dark matter indirect detection and collider physics in this context. We show that Fermi-LAT data rule out non-thermal higgsinos with masses below 300 GeV. Future indirect dark matter searches from Fermi-LAT and CTA will be able to cover essentially the full parameter space. Contrary to the thermal case, collider signals from a 100 TeV collider could fully test the non-thermal higgsino scenario. In the second part of the paper we discuss the motivation of such non-thermal cosmology from the perspective of string theory with late-time decaying moduli for both KKLT and LVS moduli stabilisation mechanisms. We finally describe the impact of embedding higgsino dark matter in these scenarios.

  7. A robust control strategy for mitigating renewable energy fluctuations in a real hybrid power system combined with SMES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdy, G.; Shabib, G.; Elbaset, Adel A.; Qudaih, Yaser; Mitani, Yasunori

    2018-05-01

    Utilizing Renewable Energy Sources (RESs) is attracting great attention as a solution to future energy shortages. However, the irregular nature of RESs and random load deviations cause a large frequency and voltage fluctuations. Therefore, in order to benefit from a maximum capacity of the RESs, a robust mitigation strategy of power fluctuations from RESs must be applied. Hence, this paper proposes a design of Load Frequency Control (LFC) coordinated with Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) technology (i.e., an auxiliary LFC), using an optimal PID controller-based Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) in the Egyptian Power System (EPS) considering high penetration of Photovoltaics (PV) power generation. Thus, from the perspective of LFC, the robust control strategy is proposed to maintain the nominal system frequency and mitigating the power fluctuations from RESs against all disturbances sources for the EPS with the multi-source environment. The EPS is decomposed into three dynamics subsystems, which are non-reheat, reheat and hydro power plants taking into consideration the system nonlinearity. The results by nonlinear simulation Matlab/Simulink for the EPS combined with SMES system considering PV solar power approves that, the proposed control strategy achieves a robust stability by reducing transient time, minimizing the frequency deviations, maintaining the system frequency, preventing conventional generators from exceeding their power ratings during load disturbances, and mitigating the power fluctuations from the RESs.

  8. Study of the combined plant for the generator diesel engine; Hatsudenki diesel engine no combined plant no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Y [Kumamoto Institute of Technology, Kumamoto (Japan); Hanada, S; Watase, M; Nakajima, T

    1997-10-01

    It is intended to recover more effectively thermal energy currently discharged from marine vessels into air. This paper describes a diesel engine combined power generation system in which medium-order waste heat energy from a diesel engine for power generation in a marine vessel is recovered and utilized to operate a Rankine cycle system (using the waste gas as the high temperature source and sea water as the low temperature source), thus the thermal energy is recovered as a motive force. Two kinds of fluorocarbons and steam were discussed as a working fluid. Due to fluorocarbons making the whole system ultra-high in pressure, and from a viewpoint of high-temperature thermal stability, the temperature was remained at levels from 100 to 200 degC, and a single-stage expansion cycle was used. With the use of steam, a two-stage reheating cycle was employed, by which the temperature is raised fully up to 300 degC and effective head of fluid was taken largely. Ceramic paint was used as a means to prevent sulfur oxide corrosion when the system is used down to the dew point, and its effectiveness was verified. Motive force recovered by combining the steam two-stage reheating cycle and the ceramic painted heat collector was calculated, whereas electric power output of about 45 kW was obtained from a main generator with 450 PS. The derived thermal efficiency was about 26%. 2 refs., 24 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Strings, texture, and inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodges, H.M.; Primack, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    We examine mechanisms, several of which are proposed here, to generate structure formation, or to just add large-scale features, through either gauged or global cosmic strings or global texture, within the framework of inflation. We first explore the possibility that strings or texture form if there is no coupling between the topological theory and the inflaton or spacetime curvature, via (1) quantum creation, and (2) a sufficiently high reheat temperature. In addition, we examine the prospects for the inflaton field itself to generate strings or texture. Then, models with the string/texture field coupled to the curvature, and an equivalent model with coupling to the inflaton field, are considered in detail. The requirement that inflationary density fluctuations are not so large as to conflict with observations leads to a number of constraints on model parameters. We find that strings of relevance for structure formation can form in the absence of coupling to the inflaton or curvature through the process of quantum creation, but only if the strings are strongly type I, or if they are global strings. If formed after reheating, naturalness suggests that gauged cosmic strings correspond to a type-I superconductor. Similarly, gauged strings formed during inflation via conformal coupling ξ=1/6 to the spacetime curvature (in a model suggested by Yokoyama in order to evade the millisecond pulsar constraint on cosmic strings) are expected to be strongly type I

  10. Ratchet baryogenesis and an analogy with the forced pendulum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamba, Kazuharu; Barrie, Neil D.; Sugamoto, Akio; Takeuchi, Tatsu; Yamashita, Kimiko

    2018-06-01

    A new scenario of baryogenesis via the ratchet mechanism is proposed based on an analogy with the forced pendulum. The oscillation of the inflaton field during the reheating epoch after inflation plays the role of the driving force, while the phase 𝜃 of a scalar baryon field (a complex scalar field with baryon number) plays the role of the angle of the pendulum. When the inflaton is coupled to the scalar baryon, the behavior of the phase 𝜃 can be analogous to that of the angle of the forced pendulum. If the oscillation of the driving force is adjusted to the pendulum’s motion, a directed rotation of the pendulum is obtained with a nonvanishing value of 𝜃˙, which models successful baryogenesis since 𝜃˙ is proportional to the baryon number density. Similar ratchet models which lead to directed motion have been used in the study of molecular motors in biology. There, the driving force is supplied by chemical reactions, while in our scenario this role is played by the inflaton during the reheating epoch.

  11. Energy performance and consumption for biogas heat pump air conditioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Zhenjun [Architectural Engineering College, Qingdao Agricultural University, 266109 (China); Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266101 (China); Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072 (China); Wu, Huaizhi; Wu, Meiling [Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266101 (China); Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072 (China)

    2010-12-15

    Biogas engine-driven heat pump air conditioner is a new-style system which includes biogas engine-driven heat pump, primary heat exchanger, second heat exchanger, sprayed room and fans, pumps, etc. In summertime, the air can be reheated by the waste heat water from the biogas engine in the system, while the air can be reheated and humidified by the waste heat water in winter. Reducing or displacing electrical heating requirements can achieve the great opportunity for significant energy savings. This paper, therefore, aims to improve the energy performance of the AC system by using the waste heat from the biogas engine. The mathematic model was used to research the BHPAC. Explicitly, we investigated the influence of various factors including the outdoor air temperature and humidity in summer and winter. Results show that the biogas engine-driven heat pump air conditioner can save more energy than the electrical power heat pump. In summer, the minimum for percentage of primary energy saving for BHPAC is over 25%. With the outdoor air dry-bulb temperature and the relative humidity rises, the saving energy percentage rises. In winter, the minimum for percentage of primary energy saving for BHPAC is 37%. The more the outdoor air relative humidity of the outdoor air decreases, the more the BHPAC saves energy. It is proved that the system which is a highly actively fully utilizing energy technology has good partial load characteristic and good effects of energy saving. (author)

  12. A consistent model for leptogenesis, dark matter and the IceCube signal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiorentin, M. Re [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton,SO17 1BJ Southampton (United Kingdom); Niro, V. [Departamento de Física Teórica, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid,Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Física Teórica UAM/CSIC,Calle Nicolás Cabrera 13-15, Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Fornengo, N. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Torino,via P. Giuria, 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Torino,via P. Giuria, 1, 10125 Torino (Italy)

    2016-11-04

    We discuss a left-right symmetric extension of the Standard Model in which the three additional right-handed neutrinos play a central role in explaining the baryon asymmetry of the Universe, the dark matter abundance and the ultra energetic signal detected by the IceCube experiment. The energy spectrum and neutrino flux measured by IceCube are ascribed to the decays of the lightest right-handed neutrino N{sub 1}, thus fixing its mass and lifetime, while the production of N{sub 1} in the primordial thermal bath occurs via a freeze-in mechanism driven by the additional SU(2){sub R} interactions. The constraints imposed by IceCube and the dark matter abundance allow nonetheless the heavier right-handed neutrinos to realize a standard type-I seesaw leptogenesis, with the B−L asymmetry dominantly produced by the next-to-lightest neutrino N{sub 2}. Further consequences and predictions of the model are that: the N{sub 1} production implies a specific power-law relation between the reheating temperature of the Universe and the vacuum expectation value of the SU(2){sub R} triplet; leptogenesis imposes a lower bound on the reheating temperature of the Universe at 7×10{sup 9} GeV. Additionally, the model requires a vanishing absolute neutrino mass scale m{sub 1}≃0.

  13. Physicochemical Characteristics and Lipid Oxidation of Chicken Inner Fillets Subjected to Different Thermal Processing Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NN Arguelo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different types of thermal processing on the physiochemical characteristics and lipid oxidation of chicken inner fillets. The study was divided into three assays. In the first assay, 50 chicken inner fillets were divided into five treatments, totaling 10 samples per treatment. Treatments consisted in cooking in water bath, electric oven, microwave oven, deep frying, or grilling. The analyzed variables were: cooking weight loss (CWL and lipid oxidation determined by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS. In the second assay, 50 chicken inner fillets were divided into five treatments, totaling 10 samples per treatment. Each treatment consisted of the same cooking methods applied in the first assay, and storage for 48 hours under refrigeration and reheating in a microwave oven. The variable analyzed in the second assay was lipid oxidation (TBARS. In the third assay, 30 samples of chicken inner fillets were subjected to one, four and eight freeze-thaw cycles, after which meat pH, myofibrillar fragmentation index (MFI, water retention capacity (WRC, and lipid oxidation (TBARS were determined. Chicken inner fillets submitted to deep frying and cooked in a microwave oven presented greater lipid oxidation than the other cooking methods, and deep frying resulted in the highest cooking weight loss. Reheating chicken inner fillets in a microwave oven caused the highest meat lipid oxidation. Increasing the number of freeze-thaw cycles increases the pH, MFI, WRC and TBARS values of chicken inner fillets.

  14. Additive manufacturing of a high niobium-containing titanium aluminide alloy by selective electron beam melting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, H.P.; Yang, G.Y.; Jia, W.P.; He, W.W.; Lu, S.L.; Qian, M.

    2015-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) offers a radical net-shape manufacturing approach for titanium aluminide alloys but significant challenges still remain. A study has been made of the AM of a high niobium-containing titanium aluminide alloy (Ti–45Al–7Nb–0.3W, in at% throughout the paper) using selective electron beam melting (SEBM). The formation of various types of microstructural defects, including banded structures caused by the vaporization of aluminum, was investigated with respect to different processing parameters. To avoid both micro- and macro-cracks, the use of higher preheating temperatures and an intermediate reheating process (to reheat each solidified layer during SEBM) was assessed in detail. These measures enabled effective release of the thermal stress that developed during SEBM and therefore the avoidance of cracks. In addition, the processing conditions for the production of a fine full lamellar microstructure were identified. As a result, the Ti–45Al–7Nb–0.3W alloy fabricated showed outstanding properties (compression strength: 2750 MPa; strain-to-fracture: 37%). SEBM can be used to fabricate high performance titanium aluminide alloys with appropriate processing parameters and pathways

  15. Steam turbines for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stastny, M.

    1983-01-01

    A three-cylinder 220 MW saturated steam turbine was developed for WWER reactors by the Skoda concern. Twenty four of these turbines are currently in operation, in production or have been ordered. A 1000 MW four-cylinder turbine is being developed. The disign of the turbines has had to overcome difficulties connected with the unfavourable effects of wet steam at extreme power values. Great attention had to be devoted to the aerodynamics of control valves and to the prevention of flow separation areas. The problem of corrosion-erosion in guide wheels and the high pressure section was resolved by the use of ferritic stainless steels. For the low pressure section it was necessary to separate the moisture and to reheat the steam in the separator-reheater. Difficulties caused by the generation of wet steam in the low pressure section by spontaneous condensation were removed. Also limited was the erosion caused by droplets resulting from the disintegration of water films on the trailing edges. (A.K.)

  16. Quality of hurdle treated pork sausages during refrigerated (4 ± 1°C) storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, R; Anjaneyulu, A S R; Kondaiah, N

    2010-06-01

    Pork sausages developed using hurdle technology was evaluated during refrigerated storage (4 ± 1°C). Hurdles incorporated were low pH, low water activity, vacuum packaging and post package reheating. Dipping in potassium sorbate solution prior to vacuum packaging was also tried. Hurdle treatment significantly (p sausages during storage, as indicated by TBARS and tyrosine values. Incorporation of hurdles decreased the growth of different spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. Combination of pH, water activity, vacuum packaging and reheating inhibited the growth of yeast and molds up to 12 days, while additional dipping of sausages in 1% potassium sorbate solution prior to packaging inhibited their growth even on 30(th) day of storage. Incorporation of hurdles resulted in initial reduction in all the sensory attributes, but they helped to maintain these attributes for significantly longer period compared to control. Hurdle treated sausages exhibited no spoilage signs even on day 30, while the control sausages were found acceptable only up to 18 days.

  17. FY1998 research report on the energy saving research for Magnitogorsk steelworks in Russia; 1998 nendo Roshia Magnitogorsk seitetsusho shoenen chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    In order to find out promising projects for the joint research, basic research was made on energy saving for Magnitogorsk steelworks in Russia. It was confirmed that introduction of a large waste heat recovery system and energy saving equipment could be met effectively by reduction of natural gas consumption by the 3 in-house power plants installed in the steelworks, and there is no problem for promotion of the project from the viewpoint of energy structure. Feasibility study was made on energy saving measures every process. The study results for the following are presented: (1) Coking process: CDQ, CMC, ACC, (2) Sintering process: reduction of ignition fuel by remodeling the ignition furnace, (3) Blast furnace process: TRT equipment, (4) BOF process: exhaust gas recovery system, (5) Hot rolling process: reduction of heating unit consumption by remodeling the reheating furnace and power saving measures for the reheating furnace blower and exhauster, and (6) Energy process: renewal of the oxygen plant. Annual CO{sub 2} emission reduction by complete implementation of these measures is estimated to be nearly 750,000t. (NEDO)

  18. Optimal design of passive containment cooling system for innovative PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Huiun; Lee, Sang Won; Kim, Hangon

    2017-01-01

    Using the Generation of Thermal-Hydraulic Information for Containments (GOTHIC) code, thermal-hydraulic phenomena that occur inside the containment have been investigated, along with the preliminary design of the passive containment cooling system (PCCS) of an innovative pressurized water reactor (PWR). A GOTHIC containment model was constructed with reference to the design data of the Advanced Power Reactor 1400, and report related PCCS. The effects of the design parameters were evaluated for passive containment cooling tank (PCCT) geometry, PCCS heat exchanger (PCCX) location, and surface area. The analyzed results, obtained using the single PCCT, showed that repressurization and reheating phenomena had occurred. To resolve these problems, a coupled PCCT concept was suggested and was found to continually decrease the containment pressure and temperature without repressurization and reheating. If the installation level of the PCCX is higher than that of the PCCT, it may affect the PCCS performance. Additionally, it was confirmed that various means of increasing the external surface area of the PCCX, such as fins, could help improve the energy removal performance of the PCCS. To improve the PCCS design and investigate its performance, further studies are needed

  19. ANALYSIS OF EXERGY PARAMETERS OF BIOGAS POWER PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denysova A.E.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The techniques of an exergy analysis concerning various circuits of biogas units, which allows replacing traditional energy resources and improving environmental conditions, has been presented. The heat schemes of biogas units were proposed, and analysis of their effectiveness was made. The comparison of different cycle parameters of various biogas units (i.e. a combustion turbine unit, a combined cycle gas turbine unit with gas discharges into the boiler and a combined cycle gas turbine with a high-temperature vapor generator and a reheating stage was made, and the comparison of their exergy characteristics was carried out. The results of exergy analysis had demonstrated that the cycle of biogas CCGT (combined cycle gas turbine with a reheating stage and using a high-pressure steam generator is the most effective, that can be explained by the fact that the thermal energy proportions of combustion products, accounting for the steam cycle and the gas cycle are approximately equal, comparing to conventional combined cycle gas turbine units.

  20. Additive manufacturing of a high niobium-containing titanium aluminide alloy by selective electron beam melting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, H.P., E-mail: thpfys@126.com [State Key Laboratory of Porous Metal Materials, Northwest Institute for Nonferrous Metal Research, Xi' an 710016 (China); Yang, G.Y.; Jia, W.P.; He, W.W.; Lu, S.L. [State Key Laboratory of Porous Metal Materials, Northwest Institute for Nonferrous Metal Research, Xi' an 710016 (China); Qian, M., E-mail: ma.qian@rmit.edu.au [State Key Laboratory of Porous Metal Materials, Northwest Institute for Nonferrous Metal Research, Xi' an 710016 (China); RMIT University, School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Centre for Additive Manufacturing, Melbourne, VIC 3001 (Australia)

    2015-06-11

    Additive manufacturing (AM) offers a radical net-shape manufacturing approach for titanium aluminide alloys but significant challenges still remain. A study has been made of the AM of a high niobium-containing titanium aluminide alloy (Ti–45Al–7Nb–0.3W, in at% throughout the paper) using selective electron beam melting (SEBM). The formation of various types of microstructural defects, including banded structures caused by the vaporization of aluminum, was investigated with respect to different processing parameters. To avoid both micro- and macro-cracks, the use of higher preheating temperatures and an intermediate reheating process (to reheat each solidified layer during SEBM) was assessed in detail. These measures enabled effective release of the thermal stress that developed during SEBM and therefore the avoidance of cracks. In addition, the processing conditions for the production of a fine full lamellar microstructure were identified. As a result, the Ti–45Al–7Nb–0.3W alloy fabricated showed outstanding properties (compression strength: 2750 MPa; strain-to-fracture: 37%). SEBM can be used to fabricate high performance titanium aluminide alloys with appropriate processing parameters and pathways.

  1. Decoupling dehumidification and cooling for energy saving and desirable space air conditions in hot and humid Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, W.L.; Chen Hua; Leung, Y.C.; Zhang, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The combined use of dedicated ventilation and dry cooling (DCDV) system was investigated. ► Investigations were based actual equipment performance data and realistic building and system characteristics. ► DCDV system could save 54% of the annual energy use for air-conditioning. ► DCDV system could better achieve the desired space air conditions. ► DCDV system could decouple dehumidification and cooling. - Abstract: The combined use of dedicated outdoor air ventilation (DV) and dry cooling (DC) air-conditioning system to decouple sensible and latent cooling for desirable space air conditions, better indoor air quality, and energy efficiency is proposed for hot and humid climates like Hong Kong. In this study, the performance and energy saving potential of DCDV system in comparison to conventional systems (constant air volume (CAV) system with and without reheat) for air conditioning of a typical office building in Hong Kong are evaluated. Through hour-by-hour simulations, using actual equipment performance data and realistic building and system characteristics, the cooling load profile, resultant indoor air conditions, condensation at the DC coil, and energy consumptions are calculated and analyzed. The results indicate that with the use of DCDV system, the desirable indoor conditions could be achieved and the annual energy use could be reduced by 54% over CAV system with reheat. The condensate-free characteristic at the DC coil to reduce risk of catching disease could also be realized.

  2. Gravitino in the early Universe. A model of extra-dimension and a model of dark matter; Gravitino dans l'Univers primordial: un modele d'extra-dimension et de matiere noire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gherson, D

    2007-10-15

    This work can be related to the Horava-Witten M-theory in which the Universe could appear 5 dimensional at a stage of its evolution but also to theories of Baryogenesis through Lepto-genesis which imply high reheating temperatures after Inflation. The studied cosmological model is within the framework of a 5 dimensional supergravity with the extra-dimension compactified on an orbifold circle, where the matter and gauge field are located on one of the two branes localised at the orbifold fixed points and where the supergravity fields can propagate in the whole spatial dimensions. In the model, the Dark matter is made of neutralino which is supposed to be the lightest supersymmetric particle. We have shown that there are curves of constraints between the size of the extra-dimension and the reheating temperature of the Universe after Inflation. The constraints come from the measurements of the amount of Dark matter in the Universe and from the model of the Big Bang Nucleosynthesis of light elements. (author)

  3. Evolution of design of steam generator for sodium cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chetal, S.C.; Vaidyanathan

    1997-01-01

    The first sodium cooled reactor was the experimental breeder reactor (EBR-I) in usa which was commissioned in 1951 and was incidentally the first nuclear reactor to generate electrical energy. This was followed by fast breeder reactors in USSR, UK, france, USA, japan, germany and India. The use of sodium as a coolant is due to its low moderation which helps in breeding fissile fuel from fertile materials and also its high heat transfer coefficient at comparatively low velocities. The good heat transfer properties introduce thermal stresses when there are rapid changes in the sodium temperatures. Also sodium has a chemical affinity with air and water. The steam generators for sodium cooled reactors have to allow for these novel conditions and in addition, unlike other components. Choices have to be made whether it is a recirculation type as in most fossil plants or an once through unit, the power rating, shape of the tube (straight, helical, U-tube), materials (Ferritic or austenitic), with free level of sodium or not, sodium on tube side or shell side and so on. With higher pressures and steam temperatures reheating steam after partial expansion in the turbine becomes essential as in conventional turbines. For this purpose the choice of reheating fluid viz sodium or live main steam has to be made. This paper traces the evolution of steam generator designs in the different sodium cooled reactors (chronologically) and the operation experience. 16 figs., 1 tab

  4. Effects of Three Different Additives and Two Different Bulk Densities on Maize Silage Characteristics, Temperature Profiles, CO2 and O2–Dynamics in Small Scale Silos during Aerobic Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin Helena Jungbluth

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Silage quality and aerobic stability are sometimes insufficient. If management requirements are not met, or to improve silage quality, additives are often used. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of different factors on silage during aerobic conditions. Whole-crop forage maize was harvested and 24 buckets (65 L were filled and assigned to one of four treatment groups: (1 control (no treatment; (2 chemical additive (sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate, sodium acetate; (3 a mixed biological inoculant containing Lactobacillus buchneri, L. plantarum, and Pediococcus acidilacti; and (4 a mixed biological inoculant containing L. buchneri, L. plantarum, and L. rhamnosus. An untreated variation was also ensiled. Two different densities were adjusted during ensiling. After opening, the temperature was measured for seven days and O2 and CO2 concentrations were analysed. The findings show that the chemical additive very effectively prevented silage from reheating and deteriorating. Aerobic reheating of silage was also successfully inhibited through biological additives and high density.

  5. Fireside corrosion testing of candidate superheater tube alloys, coatings, and claddings -- Phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blough, J.L.; Seitz, W.W. [Foster Wheeler Development Corp., Livingston, NJ (United States)

    1997-12-01

    In Phase 1 a variety of developmental and commercial tubing alloys and claddings were exposed to laboratory fireside corrosion testing simulating a superheater or reheater in a coal-fired boiler. Phase 2 (in situ testing) has exposed samples of 347 RA-85H, HR3C, 253MA, Fe{sub 3}Al + 5Cr, 310 Ta modified, NF 709, 690 clad, and 671 clad for approximately 4,000, 12,000, and 16,000 hours to the actual operating conditions of a 250-MW coal-fired boiler. The samples were assembled on an air-cooled, retractable corrosion probe, the probe was installed in the reheater activity of the boiler and controlled to the operating metal temperatures of an existing and advanced-cycle coal-fired boiler. The results will be presented for the preliminary metallurgical examination of the corrosion probe samples after 16,000 hours of exposure. Continued metallurgical and interpretive analysis is still on going.

  6. Incineration method for volume reduction and disposal of transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borham, B.M.

    1985-01-01

    The Process Experimental Pilot Plant (PREPP) at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is designed to process 7 TPD of transuranic (TRU) waste producing 8.5 TPD of cemented waste and 4100 ACFM of combustion gases with a volume reduction of up to 17:1. The waste and its container are shredded then fed to a rotary kiln heated to 1700 0 F, then cooled and classified by a trommel screen. The fine portion is mixed with a cement grout which is placed with the coarse portion in steel drums for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The kiln off-gas is reheated to 2000 0 F to destroy any remaining hydrocarbons and toxic volatiles. The gases are cooled and passed in a venturi scrubber to remove particulates and corrosive gases. The venturi off-gas is passed through a mist eliminator and is reheated to 50 0 F above the dew point prior to passing through a High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filter. The scrub solution is concentrated to 25% solids by an inertial filter. The sludge containing the combustion chemical contaminants is encapsulated with the residue of the incinerated waste

  7. Output power analyses for the thermodynamic cycles of thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Chen; Cheng Xue-Tao; Liang Xin-Gang

    2014-01-01

    Thermal power plant is one of the important thermodynamic devices, which is very common in all kinds of power generation systems. In this paper, we use a new concept, entransy loss, as well as exergy destruction, to analyze the single reheating Rankine cycle unit and the single stage steam extraction regenerative Rankine cycle unit in power plants. This is the first time that the concept of entransy loss is applied to the analysis of the power plant Rankine cycles with reheating and steam extraction regeneration. In order to obtain the maximum output power, the operating conditions under variant vapor mass flow rates are optimized numerically, as well as the combustion temperatures and the off-design flow rates of the flue gas. The relationship between the output power and the exergy destruction rate and that between the output power and the entransy loss rate are discussed. It is found that both the minimum exergy destruction rate and the maximum entransy loss rate lead to the maximum output power when the combustion temperature and heat capacity flow rate of the flue gas are prescribed. Unlike the minimum exergy destruction rate, the maximum entransy loss rate is related to the maximum output power when the highest temperature and heat capacity flow rate of the flue gas are not prescribed. (general)

  8. Higgs mass implications on the stability of the electroweak vacuum

    CERN Document Server

    Elias-Miro, Joan; Giudice, Gian F; Isidori, Gino; Riotto, Antonio; Strumia, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    We update instability and metastability bounds of the Standard Model electroweak vacuum in view of the recent ATLAS and CMS Higgs results. For a Higgs mass in the range 124--126 GeV, and for the current central values of the top mass and strong coupling constant, the Higgs potential develops an instability around $10^{11}$ GeV, with a lifetime much longer than the age of the Universe. However, taking into account theoretical and experimental errors, stability up to the Planck scale cannot be excluded. Stability at finite temperature implies an upper bound on the reheat temperature after inflation, which depends critically on the precise values of the Higgs and top masses. A Higgs mass in the range 124--126 GeV is compatible with very high values of the reheating temperature, without conflict with mechanisms of baryogenesis such as leptogenesis. We derive an upper bound on the mass of heavy right-handed neutrinos by requiring that their Yukawa couplings do not destabilize the Higgs potential.

  9. Research on weld cracking of TP321H stainless steel pipeline under elevated temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Jian-hua; Fan, Zhi-cao; Zong, Ning-sheng

    2016-01-01

    The failure of pipeline which adopted material type TP321H austenitic stainless steel and occurred cracking after servicing at elevated temperature for less than two years had been investigated. The cracks were appeared repeatedly although they had been repaired for several times. The pipeline stress analysis was conducted to determine stress levels of cracking positions by finite element analysis software ABAQUS. The mechanical properties of base metals and welds including tensile and charpy impact tests were carried out. The test results showed that ductility of welds cut from the serviced pipeline was very poor. The microstructure investigations suggested that it was intergranular crack located in the HAZ near fusion line. It could be determined that it was reheat cracking based on some other works such as metallographic inspection, SEM, X-ray diffraction, etc. Welds analysis results showed that the welding of pipeline had not been in accord with right qualification of welding procedure leading to poor welding quality. The cracking reasons and preventive measures were discussed. Several suggestions were proposed to help extend service lifetime of the stainless steel pipeline under elevated temperature condition. - Highlights: • The pipeline is calculated by finite element analysis software ABAQUS. • Various tests are made, such as mechanical property, SEM, EDS, X-ray diffraction. • It is reheat cracking or stress relief cracking for the pipeline failure. • The stress levels of pipeline should be as low as possible. • The lifetime of pipeline would be shorten obviously due to poor weld quality.

  10. Spontaneous B-L breaking as the origin of the hot early universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchmueller, W.; Domcke, V.; Schmitz, K.

    2012-03-15

    The decay of a false vacuum of unbroken B-L symmetry is an intriguing and testable mechanism to generate the initial conditions of the hot early universe. If B-L is broken at the grand unification scale, the false vacuum phase yields hybrid inflation, ending in tachyonic preheating. The dynamics of the B - L breaking Higgs field and thermal processes produce an abundance of heavy neutrinos whose decays generate entropy, baryon asymmetry and gravitino dark matter. We study the phase transition for the full supersymmetric Abelian Higgs model. For the subsequent reheating process we give a detailed time-resolved description of all particle abundances. The competition of cosmic expansion and entropy production leads to an intermediate period of constant 'reheating' temperature, during which baryon asymmetry and dark matter are produced. Consistency of hybrid inflation, leptogenesis and gravitino dark matter implies relations between neutrino parameters and superparticle masses, in particular a lower bound on the gravitino mass of 10 GeV.

  11. Computational analysis of supercritical CO2 Brayton cycle power conversion system for fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halimi, Burhanuddin; Suh, Kune Y.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Computational analysis of S-CO 2 Brayton cycle power conversion system. ► Validation of numerical model with literature data. ► Recompression S-CO 2 Brayton cycle thermal efficiency of 42.44%. ► Reheating concept to enhance the cycle thermal efficiency. ► Higher efficiency achieved by the proposed concept. - Abstract: The Optimized Supercritical Cycle Analysis (OSCA) code is being developed to analyze the design of a supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO 2 ) driven Brayton cycle for a fusion reactor as part of the Modular Optimal Balance Integral System (MOBIS). This system is based on a recompression Brayton cycle. S-CO 2 is adopted as the working fluid for MOBIS because of its easy availability, high density and low chemical reactivity. The reheating concept is introduced to enhance the cycle thermal efficiency. The helium-cooled lithium lead model AB of DEMO fusion reactor is used as reference in this paper.

  12. Induction heating in in-line strip production process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, P.; Santinelli, M.

    1995-05-01

    ISP (In-line Strip Production), a continuous process for steel strip production, has recently been set in an italian innovative plant, where ecological impact and power requirements are lighter than usual. This report describes the studies performed by ENEA (Italian Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment), while a prototype reheating facility was arranged by Acciaieria ISP in Cremona (Italy). The authors, after a study of the prototype electromagnetic field, calculate the heating rate, with the thermal network method. Then they detect, with a 1-D-FEM, the heat diffusion through the strip cross section. Afterward, since the heat distribution depends on the eddy current density one, which is given by the magnetic field distribution, the authors, with a 3-D-FEM, carry out a coupled, electromagnetic and thermal, analysis in time domain. The strip temperature map is established by the balance between skin depth heating and surface cooling: a thermal analysis, performed with a moving 2-D-FEM, take into account the effects of the different heating and cooling situations, originated by the strip moving at a speed of 6m/min through four consecutive reheating facilities. The temperatures of a strip sample heated by the prototype have been monitored, acquired by a computer and related with the simulation results. The little difference between experiment and simulation assessed the qualitative and quantitative validity of this analysis, that has come out to be a tool, useful to evaluate the effects of possible improvements to the ISP process

  13. A prospective study of power cycles based on the expected sodium fast reactor parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herranz, L. E.; Linares, J. I.; Moratilla, B. Y.; Perez, G. D.

    2010-01-01

    One of the main issues that has not been solved yet in the frame of Sodium Fast Reactors (SFR) is to choose the most appropriate power conversion system. This paper explores the performance of different power cycles, from traditional to innovative layouts trying to find the optimized solution. Based on the expected reactor parameters (i.e., inlet and outlet coolant temperatures, 395 deg.C and 545 deg.C, respectively), a subcritical Rankine similar to those of fossil power plant cycles has been proposed as a reference layout. Then, alternative layouts based on innovative Rankine and Brayton cycles have been investigated. Two Rankine supercritical layouts have been modeled and analyzed: one of them, adopted from the Supercritical Water Reactor of GIV (one reheater, nine pre-heaters and one moisture separator) and the other similar to some fossil plants (two reheaters, nine pre-heaters with no moisture separator). Simple Brayton cycle configurations based on Helium has been also studied. Several layouts have been modeled to study the effects of: inter-cooling between compression stages, absence of an intermediate loop and coupling of an organic Rankine cycle (ORC). (authors)

  14. Dark matter sterile neutrinos in stellar collapse: Alteration of energy/lepton number transport, and a mechanism for supernova explosion enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidaka, Jun; Fuller, George M.

    2006-12-01

    We investigate matter-enhanced Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) active-sterile neutrino conversion in the νe⇌νs channel in the collapse of the iron core of a presupernova star. For values of sterile neutrino rest mass ms and vacuum mixing angle θ (specifically, 0.5keV5×10-12) which include those required for viable sterile neutrino dark matter, our one-zone in-fall phase collapse calculations show a significant reduction in core lepton fraction. This would result in a smaller homologous core and therefore a smaller initial shock energy, disfavoring successful shock reheating and the prospects for an explosion. However, these calculations also suggest that the MSW resonance energy can exhibit a minimum located between the center and surface of the core. In turn, this suggests a post-core-bounce mechanism to enhance neutrino transport and neutrino luminosities at the core surface and thereby augment shock reheating: (1) scattering-induced or coherent MSW νe→νs conversion occurs deep in the core, at the first MSW resonance, where νe energies are large (˜150MeV); (2) the high energy νs stream outward at near light speed; (3) they deposit their energy when they encounter the second MSW resonance νs→νe just below the proto-neutron star surface.

  15. Gravitino in the early Universe. A model of extra-dimension and a model of dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gherson, D.

    2007-10-01

    This work can be related to the Horava-Witten M-theory in which the Universe could appear 5 dimensional at a stage of its evolution but also to theories of Baryogenesis through Lepto-genesis which imply high reheating temperatures after Inflation. The studied cosmological model is within the framework of a 5 dimensional supergravity with the extra-dimension compactified on an orbifold circle, where the matter and gauge field are located on one of the two branes localised at the orbifold fixed points and where the supergravity fields can propagate in the whole spatial dimensions. In the model, the Dark matter is made of neutralino which is supposed to be the lightest supersymmetric particle. We have shown that there are curves of constraints between the size of the extra-dimension and the reheating temperature of the Universe after Inflation. The constraints come from the measurements of the amount of Dark matter in the Universe and from the model of the Big Bang Nucleosynthesis of light elements. (author)

  16. Simulation and parametric optimisation of thermal power plant cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ravindra Kumar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper is to analyse parametric studies and optimum steam extraction pressures of three different (subcritical, supercritical and ultra-supercritical coal fired power plant cycles at a particular main steam temperature of 600 °C by keeping the reheat temperature at 537 °C and condenser pressure at 0.09 bar as constant. In order to maximize the heat rate gain possible with supercritical and ultra-supercritical steam conditions, eight stages of feed water heater arrangement with single reheater is considered. The system is optimized in such a way that the percentage exergetic losses are reduced for the increase of the exergetic efficiency and higher fuel utilization. The plant cycles are simulated and optimized by using Cycle Tempo 5.0 simulation software tool. From the simulation study, it is observed that the thermal efficiency of the three different power plant cycles obtained as 41.40, 42.48 and 43.03%, respectively. The specific coal consumption for three different power plant cycles are 0.56, 0.55 and 0.54 Tonnes/MWh. The improvement in feed water temperatures at the inlet of steam generator of respective cycles are 291, 305 and 316 °C.

  17. [gamma]-Wollastonite Precipitated Glass-Ceramic Synthesized from Waste Granite. Mikageishi kara sakusei shita [gamma]-uorasutonaito sekishutsu kesshoka garasu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Minoru.; Suzuki, Shigeru. (The Tokyo Metropolitan Industrial Tecnology Research Institute, Tokyo (Japan))

    1999-07-01

    Manufacturing process of glass-ceramic produced from waste granite was investigated for use as a construction material. Waste stone crushing is usually difficult so waste stone is heated to 700 degree C in an electric furnace, then cooled rapidly ith water. Successively, the stone is crushed into particles smaller than 297 [mu]m. Crushing and classification is repeated until over 90% of the waste stone product is reduced into fine particles. Batches were prepared y mixing a mass ratioof 100 fine particles waste stone, 50-60 limestone (CaCO[sub 3]), 5-15 soda-ash (Na[sub 2]CO[sub 3]), 3-8 anhydrous sodium sulfate (Na[sub 2]SO[sub 4]), 0.7-1.5 graphite (C) and 0-4 zine oxide (ZnO). Black glass was produced by melting the batch at 1450 degree C in an electric furnace, and allowed to flow on a steel plate. To from a nucleation, this glass was reheated at 850 degree C for 1 h and reheated at 1050 degree C for 2 h to from a glass-ceramic. Results of scanning electron microscope observation and powder X-ray diffraction of the obtained glass-ceramic showed [gamma]-wollastonite (CaO[center dot]SiO[sub 2]) to be main crystal structure; this is composed of about 2-3 [mu]m prismateic crystals that are homogeneously entangled. (author)

  18. {gamma}-Wollastonite Precipitated Glass-Ceramic Synthesized from Waste Granite; Mikageishi kara sakusei shita {gamma}-uorasutonaito sekishutsu kesshoka garasu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Minoru.; Suzuki, Shigeru. [The Tokyo Metropolitan Industrial Tecnology Research Institute, Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-07-01

    Manufacturing process of glass-ceramic produced from waste granite was investigated for use as a construction material. Waste stone crushing is usually difficult so waste stone is heated to 700 degree C in an electric furnace, then cooled rapidly ith water. Successively, the stone is crushed into particles smaller than 297 {mu}m. Crushing and classification is repeated until over 90% of the waste stone product is reduced into fine particles. Batches were prepared y mixing a mass ratioof 100 fine particles waste stone, 50-60 limestone (CaCO{sub 3}), 5-15 soda-ash (Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}), 3-8 anhydrous sodium sulfate (Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}), 0.7-1.5 graphite (C) and 0-4 zine oxide (ZnO). Black glass was produced by melting the batch at 1450 degree C in an electric furnace, and allowed to flow on a steel plate. To from a nucleation, this glass was reheated at 850 degree C for 1 h and reheated at 1050 degree C for 2 h to from a glass-ceramic. Results of scanning electron microscope observation and powder X-ray diffraction of the obtained glass-ceramic showed {gamma}-wollastonite (CaO{center_dot}SiO{sub 2}) to be main crystal structure; this is composed of about 2-3 {mu}m prismateic crystals that are homogeneously entangled. (author)

  19. A novel cryogenic treatment for reduction of residual stresses in 2024 aluminum alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araghchi, M., E-mail: M.Araghchi@ma.iut.ac.ir [Department of Materials Engineering, Malek Ashtar University of Technology, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mansouri, H.; Vafaei, R. [Department of Materials Engineering, Malek Ashtar University of Technology, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Guo, Yina [Bernal Institute, University of Limerick, Limerick (Ireland)

    2017-03-24

    Residual stresses induced during quenching of aluminum alloys cause distortion and have a negative effect on their properties. The purpose of this study is to reduce the residual stresses and improve mechanical properties by using a novel cryogenic treatment. Water quenched samples were cooled down by immersion in liquid nitrogen at −196 °C, following by rapid heating in hot oil at 180 °C and finally they were artificially aged. Residual stresses was measured by the hole drilling strain gauge method. The mechanical properties and microstructure of a heat treated samples were investigated by means of hardness measurements, tensile tests and transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that this treatment can relieve up to 71% of the residual stresses compared to 29% related to the traditional cryogenic treatment that used boiling water as the reheating medium. In addition, there is a considerable increase of about 75 MPa in the ultimate tensile strength in comparison to the T6 heat-treated alloy. TEM observations revealed that the S′ precipitates were fine and uniformly distributed in the microstructure due to deformation during reheating in hot oil.

  20. Post-inflationary gravitino production revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, John [Theoretical Particle Physics and Cosmology Group, Department of Physics, King' s College London, London WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom); Garcia, Marcos A.G.; Olive, Keith A. [William I. Fine Theoretical Physics Institute, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, 116 Church Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Nanopoulos, Dimitri V. [George P. and Cynthia W. Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Peloso, Marco, E-mail: john.ellis@cern.ch, E-mail: garciagarcia@physics.umn.edu, E-mail: dimitri@physics.tamu.edu, E-mail: olive@physics.umn.edu, E-mail: peloso@physics.umn.edu [School of Physics and Astronomy and Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, 116 Church Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

    2016-03-01

    We revisit gravitino production following inflation. As a first step, we review the standard calculation of gravitino production in the thermal plasma formed at the end of post-inflationary reheating when the inflaton has completely decayed. Next we consider gravitino production prior to the completion of reheating, assuming that the inflaton decay products thermalize instantaneously while they are still dilute. We then argue that instantaneous thermalization is in general a good approximation, and also show that the contribution of non-thermal gravitino production via the collisions of inflaton decay products prior to thermalization is relatively small. Our final estimate of the gravitino-to-entropy ratio is approximated well by a standard calculation of gravitino production in the post-inflationary thermal plasma assuming total instantaneous decay and thermalization at a time t ≅ 1.2/Γ{sub φ}. Finally, in light of our calculations, we consider potential implications of upper limits on the gravitino abundance for models of inflation, with particular attention to scenarios for inflaton decays in supersymmetric Starobinsky-like models.