WorldWideScience

Sample records for regulatory policies act

  1. Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978. Annual report to Congress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1980-05-01

    Titles I and III of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 (PURPA) establish retail regulatory policies for electric and natural gas utilities, respectively, aimed at achieving three purposes: conservation of energy supplied by electric and gas utilities; efficiency in the use of facilities and resources by these utilities; equitable rates to electricity and natural gas consumers. PURPA also continues the pilot utility implementation program, authorized under Title II of the Energy Conservation and Production ACT (ECPA), to encourage adoption of cost-based rates and efficient energy-management practices. The purpose of this report is twofold: (1) to summarize and analyze the progress that state regulatory authorities and certain nonregulated utilities have made in their consideration of the PURPA standards; and (2) to summarize the Department of Energy (DOE) activities relating to PURPA and ECPA. The report provides a broad overview and assessment of the status of electric and gas regulation nationwide, and thus helps provide the basis for congressional and DOE actions targeted on the utility industry to address pressing national energy problems.

  2. Rules implementing Sections 201 and 210 of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978: a regulatory history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danziger, R.N.; Caples, P.W.; Huning, J.R.

    1980-09-15

    An analysis is made of the rules implementing Sections 201 and 210 of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 (PURPA). The act provides that utilities must purchase power from qualifying producers of electricity at nondiscriminatory rates, and it exempts private generators from virtually all state and Federal utility regulations. Most of the analysis presented is taken from the perspective of photovoltaics (PV) and solar thermal electric point-focusing distributed receivers (pfdr). It is felt, however, that the analysis is applicable both to cogeneration and other emerging technologies. Chapters presented are: The FERC Response to Oral Comments on the Proposed Rules Implementing Sections 201 and 210 of PURPA; Additional Changes Made or Not Made That Were Addressed in Other Than Oral Testimony; View on the Proposed Rules Implementing Sections 201 and 210 of PURPA; Response to Comments on the Proposed 201 and 210 Rules; and Summary Analysis of the Environmental Assessment of the Rules. Pertinent reference material is provided in the Appendices, including the text of the rules. (MCW)

  3. Regulatory policy issues and the Clean Air Act: Issues and papers from the state implementation workshops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, K. [ed.; Burns, R.E.

    1993-07-01

    The National Regulatory Research Institute (NRRI), with funding from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the US Department of Energy (DOE), conducted four regional workshops` on state public utility commission implementation of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA). The workshops had four objectives: (1) to discuss key issues and concerns on CAAA implementation, (2) to encourage a discussion among states on issues of common interests, (3) to attempt to reach consensus, where possible, on key issues, and (4) to provide the workshop participants with information and materials to assist in developing state rules, orders, and procedures. From the federal perspective, a primary goal was to ensure that workshop participants return to their states with a comprehensive background and understanding of how state commission actions may affect implementation of the CAAA and to be able to provide guidance to their jurisdictional utilities. It was hoped that this would reduce some of the uncertainty utilities face and assist in the development of an efficient allowance market. This report is divided into two main sections. In Section II, eleven principal issues are identified and discussed. These issues were chosen because they were either the most frequently discussed or they were related to the questions asked in response to the speakers` presentations. This section does not cover all the issues relevant to state implementation nor all the issues discussed at the workshops; rather, Section II is intended to provide an overview of the,planning, ratemaking, and multistate issues. Part III is a series of workshop papers presented by some of the speakers. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  4. Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978: Natural Gas Rate Design Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The report concludes that, to effectively deal with our national energy problems, gas rate structures should be designed to reflect the costs which the nation avoids if gas is efficiently used and substituted for oil. Current pipeline and distribution company rate structures generally do not meet this test. Although gas is a substitute for oil in many applications, and conserved gas can reduce oil imports, gas rate structures often fail to convey to consumers the fact that, from a national perspective, gas is as valuable as oil. The provisions of the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 (NGPA) take a strong first step in correcting these problems. But, as clearly recognized in both NGPA and PURPA, these provisions need to be supplemented by updating pipeline and distribution company rate designs to address the problems of the 1980's - rather than the problems of the 1950's. In this regard, NGPA mandates incremental pricing, which raises the average price of gas to certain industrial users only. The Department of Energy (DOE) study suggests an alternate approach: pipeline and distribution rate structures that reflect in their tailblocks, for all customer classes, the economic costs of gas usage. Such rates would convey to all users the costs incurred by the nation as a consequence of their decisions to use or conserve gas. Such rate structures should promote the three purposes of PURPA - end-use conservation, efficient use of utility resources, and equitable rates - to a greater extent than do traditional accounting cost rate designs, which reflect decisions made in the distant past.

  5. The rules implementing sections 201 and 210 of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978: A regulatory history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danziger, R. N.

    1980-01-01

    The act provides that utilities must purchase power for qualifying producers of electricity at nondiscriminatory rates. It exempts private generators from virtually all state and federal utility regulation. Pertinent reference material is provided.

  6. Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978: Natural Gas Rate Design Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-05-01

    First, the comments on May 3, 1979 Notice of Inquiry of DOE relating to the Gas Utility Rate Design Study Required by Section 306 of PURPA are presented. Then, comments on the following are included: (1) ICF Gas Utility Model, Gas Utility Model Data Outputs, Scenario Design; (2) Interim Model Development Report with Example Case Illustrations; (3) Interim Report on Simulation of Seven Rate Forms; (4) Methodology for Assessing the Impacts of Alternative Rate Designs on Industrial Energy Use; (5) Simulation of Marginal-Cost-Based Natural Gas Rates; and (6) Preliminary Discussion Draft of the Gas Rate Design Study. Among the most frequent comments expressed were the following: (a) the public should be given the opportunity to review the final report prior to its submission to Congress; (b) results based on a single computer model of only four hypothetical utility situations cannot be used for policy-making purposes for individual companies or the entire gas industry; (c) there has been an unobjective treatment of traditional and economic cost rate structures; the practical difficulties and potential detrimental consequences of economic cost rates are not fully disclosed; and (d) it is erroneous to assume that end users, particularly residential customers, are influenced by price signals in the rate structure, as opposed to the total bill.

  7. National Environmental Policy Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) was the first major environmental law in the United States and established national environmental policies for the...

  8. Energy Policy Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Energy Policy Act (EPA) addresses energy production in the United States, including: (1) energy efficiency; (2) renewable energy; (3) oil and gas; (4) coal; (5)...

  9. Regulatory reform of Finnish environmental policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sairinen, R.

    2000-07-01

    The main question of this study concerns the regulatory reform i.e. formation and design of new policy instruments in the Finnish environmental policy. The research question is divided into two parts: (1) How have the new policy instruments evolved and been designed (2) What are the political, administrative, historical and ideological factors underlying the processes of policy instrument formation and design? Three main approaches for analysis are introduced: the model of policy instrument choice by Linder and Peters, the model of policy explanation by Jaenicke, and the concept of governmentality developed by Foucault. Within the developed theoretical framework, the general societal background of regulatory reform is composed of the various features of 'environmental governmentality'. The research questions are divided into two empirical research tasks. (1) Analysis of the historical development of Finnish environmental governing and policy style provides background information about the national institutional settings and policy cultures in order to understand the role of the new policy instruments in the Finnish environmental policy during last two decades. Here, Finnish environmental policy divides into consensual pollution policies and adversial nature conservation. Four main periods of environmental governmentality in Finland is presented: the early nature conservation initiatives (1800-1939), the neglect of environmental issues (1945-1969), the environmental institutionalisation (1970-1986), and the regulatory reform (1987-). (2) The contextual case studies concerns: the drafting of the EIA Act in 1982-1994; the formation of the carbon tax policy in 1989-1996; and the implementation of voluntary environmental agreements in 1987-99. The study shows that regulatory reform has not been an easy policy process in Finland. There has been no common environmental governmentality behind the on-going regulatory reform. The new policy instruments have been

  10. Environmental regulatory and policy framework in China: an overview

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    China has developed one of the most comprehensive environmental regulatory and policy framework in the world. This paper provides a description of the main institutions for environmental management in China, and overviews the regulatory and policy framework in place.

  11. 77 FR 35471 - National Environmental Policy Act Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-13

    ... Federal Railroad Administration National Environmental Policy Act Implementation AGENCY: Federal Railroad...) or environmental impact statement (EIS) under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). FRA's... National Environmental Policy Act (Nov. 23, 2010), FRA consulted with CEQ prior to publishing this...

  12. Overall Effects of China's Recent Macroeconomic Regulatory Policies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiJianwei,; ZhuShida; DavidKelly

    2004-01-01

    China's economic regulatory policies in the last few years have played an important role in curbing the slide of its consistent growth drive. In terms of overall effects, the macroeconomic regulatory policies of each fiscal year have attained their targets. In some years, however,

  13. The US uranium industry: Regulatory and policy impediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drennen, T.E.; Glicken, J.

    1995-06-01

    The Energy Policy Act of 1992 required the DOE to develop recommendations and implement government programs to assist the domestic uranium industry in increasing export opportunities. In 1993, as part of that effort, the Office of Nuclear Energy identified several key factors that could (or have) significantly impact(ed) export opportunities for domestic uranium. This report addresses one of these factors: regulatory and policy impediments to the flow of uranium products between the US and other countries. It speaks primarily to the uranium market for civil nuclear power. Changes in the world political and economic order have changed US national security requirements, and the US uranium industry has found itself without the protected market it once enjoyed. An unlevel playing field for US uranium producers has resulted from a combination of geology, history, and a general US political philosophy of nonintervention that precludes the type of industrial policy practiced in other uranium-exporting countries. The US has also been hampered in its efforts to support the domestic uranium-producing industry by its own commitment to free and open global markets and by international agreements such as GATT and NAFTA. Several US policies, including the imposition of NRC fees and licensing costs and Harbor Maintenance fees, directly harm the competitiveness of the domestic uranium industry. Finally, requirements under US law, such as those in the 1979 Nuclear Nonproliferation Act, place very strict limits on the use of US-origin uranium, limitations not imposed by other uranium-producing countries. Export promotion and coordination are two areas in which the US can help the domestic uranium industry without violating existing trade agreements or other legal or policy constraints.

  14. Autophagy gets in on the regulatory act

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Steven K. Backues; Daniel J. Klionsky

    2011-01-01

    Autophagy down-regulates the Wnt signal transduction pathway via targeted degradation of a key signaling protein. This may provide an explanation for autophagy's role in tumor suppression.%@@ The eukaryotic cell has at its disposal two primary methods for getting rid of unwanted proteins: the proteasome and autophagy.The proteasome is a large protein complex comprising regulatory and proteolytic subunits whose core function is the degradation of damaged or misfolded proteins.

  15. Development of regulatory policy for SMART-P

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S. H.; Lee, Y. H.; Moo, Philip; Koh, B. J.; Son, M. K.; Han, G. H.; Kim, D. H. [Korea Association for Nuclear Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-06-15

    KAERI promoted the construction of a research reactor, SMART-P, the reduced scale of SMART, with intent to demonstrate the safety and performance of SMART. According to this progress, the development of regulatory process for SMART-P became necessary. The establishment of regulatory policy, based on the current regulatory guidelines as well as technical aspect, became essential matters. Considering the on-going small and medium size reactors in near future, the selection of the appropriate measure in the existing regulatory process to SMART-P is very important. Thus the schematic study for the applicable licensing procedure and regulatory requirements suitable for SMART-P is required.

  16. Development of regulatory policy for SMART-P

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S. H.; Moon, S. H.; Lee, Y. H.; Son, M. K.; Han, K. H.; Kim, D. H. [Korea Association for Nuclear Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-06-15

    KAERI promoted the construction of a research reactor, SMART-P, the reduced scale of SMART, with intent to demonstrate the safety and performance of SMART. According to this progress, the development of regulatory process for SMART-P became necessary. The establishment of regulatory policy, based on the current regulatory guidelines as well as technical aspect, became essential matters. Considering the on-going small and medium size reactors m near future, the selection of the appropriate measure in the existing regulatory process to SMART-P is very important. Thus the schematic study for the applicable licensing procedure and regulatory requirements suitable for SMART-P is required.

  17. Policy, Legal and Regulatory Framework for Records Management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Policy, Legal and Regulatory Framework for Records Management in the ... They are fundamental to the efficient and effective operation of the legal system of any ... The data were collected through interviews, questionnaires and document ...

  18. Challenges in orphan drug development and regulatory policy in China

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Alice; Xie, Zhi

    2017-01-01

    While regulatory policy is well defined for orphan drug development in the United States and Europe, rare disease policy in China is still evolving. Many Chinese patients currently pay out of pocket for international treatments that are not yet approved in China. The lack of a clear definition and therefore regulatory approval process for rare diseases has, until now, de-incentivized pharmaceutical companies to pursue rare disease drug development in China. In turn, many grassroots movements ...

  19. Comparing Clean Water Act Section 316(b Policy Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Kadvany

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a comparative framework for policy proposals involving fish protection and Section 316(b of the Clean Water Act (CWA. Section 316(b addresses the impingement and entrainment of fish by cooling-water intake structures used principally by steam electric power plants. The framework is motivated by examining the role of adverse environmental impacts (AEIs in the context of Section 316(b decision making. AEI is mentioned in Section 316(b, but not defined. While various AEI options have been proposed over the years, none has been formalized through environmental regulations nor universally accepted. Using a multiple values approach from decision analysis, AEIs are characterized as measurement criteria for ecological impacts. Criteria for evaluating AEI options are identified, including modeling and assessment issues, the characterization of ecological value, regulatory implementation, and the treatment of uncertainty. Motivated by the difficulties in defining AEI once and for all, a framework is introduced to compare options for 316(b decision making. Three simplified policy options are considered, each with a different implicit or explicit AEI approach: (1 a technology-driven rule based on a strict reading of the 316(b regulatory text, and for which any impingement and entrainment count as AEI, (2 a complementary, open-ended risk-assessment process for estimating population effects with AEI characterized on a site-specific basis, and (3 an intermediate position based on proxy measures such as specially constructed definitions of littoral zone, sensitive habitat, or water body type. The first two proposals correspond roughly to responses provided, respectively, by the Riverkeeper environmental organization and the Utility Water Act Group to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA’s proposed 316(b new facilities rule of August 2000; the third example is a simplified form of the EPA’s proposed August 2000 new facilities

  20. 75 FR 33838 - National Environmental Policy Act; Scientific Balloon Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION National Environmental Policy Act; Scientific Balloon Program AGENCY: National... Draft Programmatic Environmental Assessment (PEA) and Draft Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) for NASA's Scientific Balloon Program. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act of...

  1. 7 CFR 1940.328 - State Environmental Policy Acts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true State Environmental Policy Acts. 1940.328 Section 1940... (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Environmental Program § 1940.328 State Environmental Policy Acts. (a) Numerous States have enacted environmental policy acts or regulations similar to...

  2. Inspecting Underground Storage Tanks - 2005 Energy Policy Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    these grant guidelines implement the inspection provisions in Sections 9005(c)(1) and 9005(c)(2) of the Solid Waste Disposal Act, enacted by the Underground Storage Tank Compliance Act, part of the Energy Policy Act of 2005.

  3. Public Record About Underground Storage Tanks - 2005 Energy Policy Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    These grant guidelines implement the public record provision in Section 9002(d) of the Solid Waste Disposal Act, enacted by the Underground Storage Tank Compliance Act, part of the Energy Policy Act of 2005.

  4. Financial Responsibility and Installer Certification - 2005 Energy Policy Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant guidelines to implement the financial responsibility and installer certification provision in Section 9003(i) of the Solid Waste Disposal Act, enacted by the Underground Storage Tank Compliance Act, part of the Energy Policy Act of 2005.

  5. Policy and Regulatory Issues for Underground Coal Gasification in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sunil K.

    2017-07-01

    Underground coal gasification (UCG) is in its nascent stage of development. Most of the projects are in the nature of pilot projects. UCG technology requires acceptance in general commercial framework as it matures with the progress of time. Policy and regulatory framework, therefore, is considered here only in the expectation that UCG technology may finally be rolled out sooner than later. India is actively pursuing consultations with major countries which have recorded successes in implementing UCG technology in varying measures. In this background, the discussion on policy and regulatory framework is essentially an effort to capture the broad outline of the understanding of the UCG process in a regulatory construct as compared with other regulatory regimes of similar nature.

  6. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neitzel, Duane A.; Bunn, Amoret L.; Duncan, Joanne P.; Eschbach, Tara O.; Fowler, Richard A.; Fritz, Brad G.; Goodwin, Shannon M.; Harvey, David W.; Hendrickson, Paul L.; Hoitink, Dana J.; Horton, Duane G.; Last, George V.; Poston, Ted M.; Prendergast-Kennedy, Ellen L.; Rohay, Alan C.; Scott, Michael J.; Thorne, Paul D.

    2002-09-01

    This document describes the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site environment. It is updated each year and is intended to provide a consistent description of the Hanford Site environment for the many National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documents being prepared by DOE contractors. No statements of significance or environmental consequences are provided. This year's report is the thirteenth revision of the original document published in 1988 and is (until replaced by the fourteenth revision) the only version that is relevant for use in the preparation of Hanford NEPA, State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA), and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) documents. The two chapters included in this document (Chapters 4 and 6) are numbered to correspond to the chapters where such information is typically presented in environmental impact statements (Weiss) and other Hanford Site NEPA or CERCLA documentation. Chapter 4.0 (Affected Environment) describes Hanford Site climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology, ecology, cultural, archaeological, and historical resources, socioeconomics, occupational safety, and noise. Chapter 6.0 (Statutory and Regulatory Requirements) describes federal and state laws and regulations, DOE directives and permits, and presidential executive orders that are applicable to the NEPA documents prepared for Hanford Site activities.

  7. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neitzel, Duane A.; Antonio, Ernest J.; Eschbach, Tara O.; Fowler, Richard A.; Goodwin, Shannon M.; Harvey, David W.; Hendrickson, Paul L.; Hoitink, Dana J.; Horton, Duane G.; Last, George V.; Poston, Ted M.; Prendergast, Ellen L.; Rohay, Alan C.; Thorne, Paul D.

    2001-09-01

    This document describes the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site environment. It is updated each year and is intended to provide a consistent description of the Hanford Site environment for the many National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documents being prepared by DOE contractors. No statements of significance or environmental consequences are provided. This year's report is the thirteenth revision of the original document published in 1988 and is (until replaced by the fourteenth revision) the only version that is relevant for use in the preparation of Hanford NEPA, State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA), and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) documents. The two chapters included in this document (Chapters 4 and 6) are numbered to correspond to the chapters where such information is typically presented in environmental impact statements (Weiss) and other Hanford Site NEPA or CERCLA documentation. Chapter 4.0 (Affected Environment) describes Hanford Site climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology, ecology, cultural, archaeological, and historical resources, socioeconomics, occupational safety, and noise. Chapter 6.0 (Statutory and Regulatory Requirements) describes federal and state laws and regulations, DOE directives and permits, and presidential executive orders that are applicable to the NEPA documents prepared for Hanford Site activities.

  8. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization, Revision 15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neitzel, Duane A.; Bunn, Amoret L.; Burk, Kenneth W.; Cannon, Sandra D.; Duncan, Joanne P.; Fowler, Richard A.; Fritz, Brad G.; Harvey, David W.; Hendrickson, Paul L.; Horton, Duane G.; Last, George V.; Poston, Ted M.; Prendergast-Kennedy, Ellen L.; Reidel, Steve P.; Scott, Michael J.; Thorne, Paul D.; Woody, Dave M.

    2003-09-01

    This document describes the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site environment. It is updated each year and is intended to provide a consistent description of the Hanford Site environment for the many National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documents being prepared by DOE contractors. No statements of significance or environmental consequences are provided. This year's report is the thirteenth revision of the original document published in 1988 and is (until replaced by the fourteenth revision) the only version that is relevant for use in the preparation of Hanford NEPA, State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA), and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) documents. The two chapters included in this document (Chapters 4 and 6) are numbered to correspond to the chapters where such information is typically presented in environmental impact statements (Weiss) and other Hanford Site NEPA or CERCLA documentation. Chapter 4.0 (Affected Environment) describes Hanford Site climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology, ecology, cultural, archaeological, and historical resources, socioeconomics, occupational safety, and noise. Chapter 6.0 (Statutory and Regulatory Requirements) describes federal and state laws and regulations, DOE directives and permits, and presidential executive orders that are applicable to the NEPA documents prepared for Hanford Site activities.

  9. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neitzel, Duane A.; Bunn, Amoret L.; Cannon, Sandra D.; Duncan, Joanne P.; Fowler, Richard A.; Fritz, Brad G.; Harvey, David W.; Hendrickson, Paul L.; Hoitink, Dana J.; Horton, Duane G.; Last, George V.; Poston, Ted M.; Prendergast-Kennedy, Ellen L.; Reidel, Steve P.; Rohay, Alan C.; Scott, Michael J.; Thorne, Paul D.

    2004-09-22

    This document describes the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site environment. It is updated each year and is intended to provide a consistent description of the Hanford Site environment for the many National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documents being prepared by DOE contractors. No statements of significance or environmental consequences are provided. This year's report is the sixteenth revision of the original document published in 1988 and is (until replaced by the seventeenth revision) the only version that is relevant for use in the preparation of Hanford NEPA, State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA), and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) documents. The two chapters included in this document (Chapters 4 and 6) are numbered to correspond to the chapters where such information is typically presented in environmental impact statements (Weiss) and other Hanford Site NEPA or CERCLA documentation. Chapter 4.0 (Affected Environment) describes Hanford Site climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology, ecology, cultural, archaeological, and historical resources, socioeconomics, occupational safety and health, and noise. Chapter 6.0 (Statutory and Regulatory Requirements) describes federal and state laws and regulations, DOE directives and permits, and presidential executive orders that are applicable to the NEPA documents prepared for Hanford Site activities.

  10. Regulatory Principles and the Financial Services and Markets Act

    OpenAIRE

    Colin Mayer

    2001-01-01

    Regulation in the UK is undergoing fundamental change. Dissatisfaction with self-regulation and the self-regulatory organizations intensified steadily during the 1990's. The failure of regulation to avert the Maxwell pension collapse and the widespread selling of inappropriate pension policies were viewed as serious deficiencies of what many people had already come to regard as inadequate and expensive regulation. The Labour administration came to office with the clear intention of overhaulin...

  11. 76 FR 9981 - National Environmental Policy Act Implementing Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-23

    ... Part 1021 RIN 1990-AA34 National Environmental Policy Act Implementing Procedures AGENCY: Office of the... amendments to its regulations governing compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), made... Rulemaking Comments, Office of NEPA Policy and Compliance (GC-54), U.S. Department of Energy,...

  12. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) characterization. Revision 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neitzel, D.A. [ed.; Bjornstad, B.N.; Fosmire, C.J. [and others

    1997-08-01

    This ninth revision of the Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization presents current environmental data regarding the hanford Site and its immediate environs. This information is intended for use in preparing Chapters 4 and 6 in Hanford Site-related NEPA documents. Chapter 4.0 (Affected Environment) includes information on climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology, ecology, cultural, archaeological and historical resources, socioeconomics, and noise. Chapter 6.0 (Statutory and Regulatory Requirements) provides the preparer with the federal and state regulations, DOE directives and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable to the NEPA documents on the Hanford Site. Not all of the sections have been updated for this revision. The following lists the updated sections: climate and meteorology; ecology (threatened and endangered species section only); culture, archaeological, and historical resources; socioeconomics; all of Chapter 6.

  13. Impacts of Climate Policy on Regional Air Quality, Health, and Air Quality Regulatory Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, T. M.; Selin, N. E.

    2011-12-01

    Both the changing climate, and the policy implemented to address climate change can impact regional air quality. We evaluate the impacts of potential selected climate policies on modeled regional air quality with respect to national pollution standards, human health and the sensitivity of health uncertainty ranges. To assess changes in air quality due to climate policy, we couple output from a regional computable general equilibrium economic model (the US Regional Energy Policy [USREP] model), with a regional air quality model (the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with Extensions [CAMx]). USREP uses economic variables to determine how potential future U.S. climate policy would change emissions of regional pollutants (CO, VOC, NOx, SO2, NH3, black carbon, and organic carbon) from ten emissions-heavy sectors of the economy (electricity, coal, gas, crude oil, refined oil, energy intensive industry, other industry, service, agriculture, and transportation [light duty and heavy duty]). Changes in emissions are then modeled using CAMx to determine the impact on air quality in several cities in the Northeast US. We first calculate the impact of climate policy by using regulatory procedures used to show attainment with National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for ozone and particulate matter. Building on previous work, we compare those results with the calculated results and uncertainties associated with human health impacts due to climate policy. This work addresses a potential disconnect between NAAQS regulatory procedures and the cost/benefit analysis required for and by the Clean Air Act.

  14. 45 CFR 503.2 - General policies-Privacy Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General policies-Privacy Act. 503.2 Section 503.2... THE UNITED STATES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RULES OF PRACTICE PRIVACY ACT AND GOVERNMENT IN THE SUNSHINE REGULATIONS Privacy Act Regulations § 503.2 General policies—Privacy Act. The Commission will protect the...

  15. Policy and Regulatory Challenges in the Tourism Collaborative Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dredge, Dianne

    2017-01-01

    The choice of policy approach and regulatory framework in dealing with the collaborative economy rests on two fundamental factors—that government decisions should be based on good sound knowledge and that this knowledge should be above politics. In the newly emerging and rapidly growing collabora......The choice of policy approach and regulatory framework in dealing with the collaborative economy rests on two fundamental factors—that government decisions should be based on good sound knowledge and that this knowledge should be above politics. In the newly emerging and rapidly growing...... collaborative economy, these conditions are difficult to meet. The dynamic restructuring of power relations, new stakeholders and information asymmetries can obscure what is really going on. Some authors offer valuable meso-level explorations of policy and regulatory issues in different sub......-sectors of the collaborative economy. However, these solutions are often based on assumptions about government sovereignty and power relations that do not necessarily apply in the slippery global world of platform capitalism. This chapter seeks to undertake a critical exploration of the factors and values that permeate...

  16. 76 FR 53057 - National Environmental Policy Act Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part 775 National Environmental Policy Act Procedures AGENCY: Postal Service. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule amends the Postal Service's National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) compliance procedures to...

  17. National Environmental Policy Act compliance guide. Volume II (reference book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-09-01

    This document (Volume II of the National Environmental Policy Act Compliance Guide) contains current copies of regulations and guidance from the Council on Environmental Quality, the Department of Energy, the Department of State, and the Environmental Protection Agency, related to compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA).

  18. 28 CFR 91.67 - State Environmental Policy Acts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State Environmental Policy Acts. 91.67... Environmental Impact Review Procedures for VOI/TIS Grant Program Other State and Federal Law Requirements § 91.67 State Environmental Policy Acts. (a) Coordination. OJP will coordinate with grantees to...

  19. 75 FR 77673 - National Environmental Policy Act: Scientific Balloon Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-13

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION National Environmental Policy Act: Scientific Balloon Program AGENCY: National... the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, as amended (42 U.S.C. 4321, et seq.); the Council on Environmental Quality Regulations for Implementing the Procedural Provisions of NEPA (40...

  20. 78 FR 55251 - Hydropower Regulatory Efficiency Act of 2013; Notice of Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-10

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Hydropower Regulatory Efficiency Act of 2013; Notice of Workshop The Federal... process for the issuance of a license for hydropower development at non-powered dams and closed-loop pumped storage projects in compliance with section 6 of the Hydropower Regulatory Efficiency Act of 2013...

  1. Debatable Issues of Regulatory Policy of Russian Nanoindustry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frolov Daniil Petrovich

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article studies the debatable issues of regulatory policy in the sphere of nanoindustry. The nanotech industry has interindustry character that is caused by interdisciplinarity of a nanoscience therefore it is necessary to recognize objectively impossible exact definition of its branch structure. As a result of terminological uncertainty, the state support and regulation of nanotech industry is a difficult process. The substantial expansionism of the term “nanotechnology” and metaphorism of the concept “nanoindustry” is reasoned. The need of creating more detailed classification (by 1-2 orders of nanotechnologies and allocation of at least three subindustries of nanotech industry is proved. The deficiency of convergent orientation of policy of regulation of the Russian hi-tech industries is revealed. The conceptual discrepancy of nanoindustrial policy of the Russian Federation combining elements of traditional policy of import substitution and new industrial policy is shown. The expediency of transition from universal policy of nanoindustry regulation to the development of a package of the segment-focused strategies of development of different types of nanotechnologies and the nanotechnological activities is proved. The special attention is paid to a safety control problem (combination of obligatory certification and voluntary marking of nanoproduction, strengthening the role of nanotech industry self-regulation and active integration of stakeholders into the system of strategic planning.

  2. The politics of surveillance policy: UK regulatory dynamics after Snowden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Hintz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The revelations by NSA whistleblower Edward Snowden have illustrated the scale and extent of digital surveillance carried out by different security and intelligence agencies. The publications have led to a variety of concerns, public debate, and some diplomatic fallout regarding the legality of the surveillance, the extent of state interference in civic life, and the protection of civil rights in the context of security. Debates about the policy environment of surveillance emerged quickly after the leaks began, but actual policy change is only starting. In the UK, a draft law (Investigatory Powers Bill has been proposed and is currently discussed. In this paper, we will trace the forces and dynamics that have shaped this particular policy response. Addressing surveillance policy as a site of struggle between different social forces and drawing on different fields across communication policy research, we suggest eight dynamics that, often in conflicting ways, have shaped the regulatory framework of surveillance policy in the UK since the Snowden leaks. These include the governmental context; national and international norms; court rulings; civil society advocacy; technical standards; private sector interventions; media coverage; and public opinion. We investigate how state surveillance has been met with criticism by parts of the technology industry and civil society, and that policy change was required as a result of legal challenges, review commissions and normative interventions. However a combination of specific government compositions, the strong role of security agendas and discourses, media justification and a muted reaction by the public have hindered a more fundamental review of surveillance practices so far and have moved policy debate towards the expansion, rather than the restriction, of surveillance in the aftermath of Snowden.

  3. Energy Policy Act of 2005 and Underground Storage Tanks (USTs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Energy Policy Act of 2005 significantly affected federal and state underground storage tank programs, required major changes to the programs, and is aimed at reducing underground storage tank releases to our environment.

  4. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) characterization. Revision 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neitzel, D.A. [ed.; Bjornstad, B.N.; Fosmire, C.J.; Fowler, R.A. [and others

    1996-08-01

    This eighth revision of the Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization presents current environmental data regarding the Hanford Site and its immediate environs. This information is intended for use in preparing Chapters 4 and 6 in Hanford Site-related NEPA documents. Chapter 4 (Affected Environment) includes information on climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology, ecology, historical, archaeological and cultural resources, socioeconomics, and noise. Chapter 6 (Statutory and Regulatory Requirements) provides the preparer with the federal and state regulations, DOE directives and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable to the NEPA documents on the Hanford Site. The following sections were updated in this revision: climate and meteorology; ecology (threatened and endangered species section only); historical; archaeological and cultural resources; and all of chapter 6. No conclusions or recommendations are given in this report. Rather, it is a compilation of information on the Hanford Site environment that can be used directly by Site contractors. This information can also be used by any interested individual seeking baseline data on the hanford Site and its past activities by which to evaluate projected activities and their impacts.

  5. 75 FR 8045 - National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Draft Guidance, Establishing, Applying, and Revising...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... QUALITY National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Draft Guidance, Establishing, Applying, and Revising Categorical Exclusions Under the National Environmental Policy Act AGENCY: Council on Environmental Quality... Exclusions Under the National Environmental Policy Act.'' SUMMARY: On February 18, 2010, the Council...

  6. 77 FR 47862 - National Environmental Policy Act: Implementing Procedures; Addition to Categorical Exclusions...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-10

    ... Office of the Secretary National Environmental Policy Act: Implementing Procedures; Addition to... Final National Environmental Policy Act Implementing Procedures. SUMMARY: This notice announces the addition of a new categorical exclusion under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) to be...

  7. Structural features of the regulatory ACT domain of phenylalanine hydroxylase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Carluccio

    Full Text Available Phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH catalyzes the conversion of L-Phe to L-Tyr. Defects in PAH activity, caused by mutations in the human gene, result in the autosomal recessively inherited disease hyperphenylalaninemia. PAH activity is regulated by multiple factors, including phosphorylation and ligand binding. In particular, PAH displays positive cooperativity for L-Phe, which is proposed to bind the enzyme on an allosteric site in the N-terminal regulatory domain (RD, also classified as an ACT domain. This domain is found in several proteins and is able to bind amino acids. We used molecular dynamics simulations to obtain dynamical and structural insights into the isolated RD of PAH. Here we show that the principal motions involve conformational changes leading from an initial open to a final closed domain structure. The global intrinsic motions of the RD are correlated with exposure to solvent of a hydrophobic surface, which corresponds to the ligand binding-site of the ACT domain. Our results strongly suggest a relationship between the Phe-binding function and the overall dynamic behaviour of the enzyme. This relationship may be affected by structure-disturbing mutations. To elucidate the functional implications of the mutations, we investigated the structural effects on the dynamics of the human RD PAH induced by six missense hyperphenylalaninemia-causing mutations, namely p.G46S, p.F39C, p.F39L, p.I65S, p.I65T and p.I65V. These studies showed that the alterations in RD hydrophobic interactions induced by missense mutations could affect the functionality of the whole enzyme.

  8. Structural features of the regulatory ACT domain of phenylalanine hydroxylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carluccio, Carla; Fraternali, Franca; Salvatore, Francesco; Fornili, Arianna; Zagari, Adriana

    2013-01-01

    Phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) catalyzes the conversion of L-Phe to L-Tyr. Defects in PAH activity, caused by mutations in the human gene, result in the autosomal recessively inherited disease hyperphenylalaninemia. PAH activity is regulated by multiple factors, including phosphorylation and ligand binding. In particular, PAH displays positive cooperativity for L-Phe, which is proposed to bind the enzyme on an allosteric site in the N-terminal regulatory domain (RD), also classified as an ACT domain. This domain is found in several proteins and is able to bind amino acids. We used molecular dynamics simulations to obtain dynamical and structural insights into the isolated RD of PAH. Here we show that the principal motions involve conformational changes leading from an initial open to a final closed domain structure. The global intrinsic motions of the RD are correlated with exposure to solvent of a hydrophobic surface, which corresponds to the ligand binding-site of the ACT domain. Our results strongly suggest a relationship between the Phe-binding function and the overall dynamic behaviour of the enzyme. This relationship may be affected by structure-disturbing mutations. To elucidate the functional implications of the mutations, we investigated the structural effects on the dynamics of the human RD PAH induced by six missense hyperphenylalaninemia-causing mutations, namely p.G46S, p.F39C, p.F39L, p.I65S, p.I65T and p.I65V. These studies showed that the alterations in RD hydrophobic interactions induced by missense mutations could affect the functionality of the whole enzyme.

  9. 78 FR 58535 - Hydropower Regulatory Efficiency Act of 2013; Supplemental Notice of Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Hydropower Regulatory Efficiency Act of 2013; Supplemental Notice of... two-year process for the issuance of a license for hydropower development at non-powered dams and closed-loop pumped storage projects in compliance with section 6 of the Hydropower Regulatory Efficiency...

  10. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, Joanne P.; Burk, Kenneth W.; Chamness, Mickie A.; Fowler, Richard A.; Fritz, Brad G.; Hendrickson, Paul L.; Kennedy, Ellen P.; Last, George V.; Poston, Ted M.; Sackschewsky, Michael R.; Scott, Michael J.; Snyder, Sandra F.; Sweeney, Mark D.; Thorne, Paul D.

    2007-09-27

    This document describes the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Hanford Site environment. It is intended to provide a consistent description of the Hanford Site for the many environmental documents being prepared by DOE contractors concerning the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). No statements regarding significance or environmental consequences are provided. This year’s report is the eighteen revision of the original document published in 1988 and is (until replaced by the nineteenth revision) the only version that is relevant for use in the preparation of Hanford NEPA, State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA), and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) documents. Two chapters are included in this document (Chapters 4 and 6), numbered to correspond to chapters typically presented in environmental impact statements (EISs) and other Hanford Site NEPA or CERCLA documentation. Chapter 4.0 (Affected Environment) describes Hanford Site climate and meteorology; air quality; geology; hydrology; ecology; cultural, archaeological, and historical resources; socioeconomics; noise; and occupational health and safety. Sources for extensive tabular data related to these topics are provided in the chapter. When possible, subjects are divided into a general description of the characteristics of the Hanford Site, followed by site-specific information, where available, for the 100, 200, 300 and other areas. This division allows the reader to go directly to those sections of particular interest. When specific information on each of these separate areas is not complete or available, the general Hanford Site description should be used. Chapter 6.0 (Statutory and Regulatory Requirements) describes federal and state laws and regulations, DOE directives and permits, and presidential executive orders that are applicable to NEPA documents prepared for Hanford Site activities. Information in Chapter 6 can be adapted and supplemented with

  11. Genomic research in Zambia: confronting the ethics, policy and regulatory frontiers in the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanda-Kapata, Pascalina; Kapata, Nathan; Moraes, Albertina Ngomah; Chongwe, Gershom; Munthali, James

    2015-10-29

    Genomic research has the potential to increase knowledge in health sciences, but the process has to ensure the safety, integrity and well-being of research participants. A legal framework for the conduct of health research in Zambia is available. However, the ethical, policy and regulatory framework to operationalise genomic research requires a paradigm shift. This paper outlines the current legal and policy framework as well as the ethics environment, and suggests recommendations for Zambia to fully benefit from the opportunity that genomic research presents. This will entail creating national research interest, improving knowledge levels, and building community trust among researchers, policymakers, donors, regulators and, most importantly, patients and research participants. A real balancing act of the risk and benefits will need to be objectively undertaken.

  12. 77 FR 26314 - National Environmental Policy Act: Implementing Procedures; Addition to Categorical Exclusions...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-03

    ... Office of the Secretary National Environmental Policy Act: Implementing Procedures; Addition to..., (703) 390-6470. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA.... Dated: April 20, 2012. Willie R. Taylor, Director, Office of Environmental Policy and...

  13. 75 FR 13139 - The National Environmental Policy Act Procedures Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-18

    ... COMMISSION The National Environmental Policy Act Procedures Manual AGENCY: The National Indian Gaming... comments on the Draft NEPA Procedures Manual published in the Federal Register on December 4, 2009 (74 FR... March 4, 2010 (75 FR 3756). ] DATES: The comment period for the Draft NEPA Procedures Manual is...

  14. 75 FR 3756 - The National Environmental Policy Act Procedures Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-22

    ... National Indian Gaming Commission The National Environmental Policy Act Procedures Manual AGENCY: National... period for comments on the Draft NEPA Procedures Manual published in the Federal Register on December 4, 2009 (74 FR 63765, 74 FR 63787). DATES: The comment period for the Draft NEPA Procedures Manual...

  15. National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Compliance Guide, Sandia National Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, R.P. [Hansen Environmental Consultants, Englewood, CO (United States)

    1995-08-01

    This report contains a comprehensive National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Compliance Guide for the Sandia National Laboratories. It is based on the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) NEPA regulations in 40 CFR Parts 1500 through 1508; the US Department of Energy (DOE) N-EPA implementing procedures in 10 CFR Part 102 1; DOE Order 5440.1E; the DOE ``Secretarial Policy Statement on the National Environmental Policy Act`` of June 1994- Sandia NEPA compliance procedures-, and other CEQ and DOE guidance. The Guide includes step-by-step procedures for preparation of Environmental Checklists/Action Descriptions Memoranda (ECL/ADMs), Environmental Assessments (EAs), and Environmental Impact Statements (EISs). It also includes sections on ``Dealing With NEPA Documentation Problems`` and ``Special N-EPA Compliance Issues.``

  16. 78 FR 61999 - Hydropower Regulatory Efficiency Act of 2013; Supplemental Notice of Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Hydropower Regulatory Efficiency Act of 2013; Supplemental Notice of Workshop As announced in the Notices issued on September 3, 2013 and September 18, 2013, the Federal Energy...

  17. Moral and policy issues in long-acting contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, G F; Moskowitz, E H

    1997-01-01

    The advent of reversible long-acting contraceptives-IUDs, injectables and implants-has provided women throughout the world with valuable new fertility regulation options. These highly effective methods, together with male and female sterilization, have proven to be enormously popular and are now used by the majority of women and men who are currently contracepting worldwide. Despite their remarkable popularity, long-acting contraceptives have engendered considerable controversy. Political, ethical, and safety questions have emerged, stemming from the ways in which these contraceptives have been developed and used over the course of this century. At the heart of the concern is the issue of reproductive rights and freedom. This paper reviews the history of the development of long-acting contraceptives, including the prospect of new methods that will likely emerge from ongoing research and development. It also examines the history, in the United States and in developing countries, of the use and abuse of long-acting methods, including sterilization, in the context of eugenics and population control policies. It then describes a new paradigm of reproductive health and rights that has emerged from the International Conference on Population Development in Cairo, and which offers an enlightened approach to future policies and programs. In light of the wide variety of ways in which long-acting contraceptives have been provided, the paper examines the rights and responsibilities of governments, family planning providers, and individuals. An ethical framework for the use of long-acting methods is discussed, and public policies for the future are proposed.

  18. Energy policy act transportation study: Interim report on natural gas flows and rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-17

    This report, Energy Policy Act Transportation Study: Interim Report on Natural Gas Flows and Rates, is the second in a series mandated by Title XIII, Section 1340, ``Establishment of Data Base and Study of Transportation Rates,`` of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (P.L. 102--486). The first report Energy Policy Act Transportation Study: Availability of Data and Studies, was submitted to Congress in October 1993; it summarized data and studies that could be used to address the impact of legislative and regulatory actions on natural gas transportation rates and flow patterns. The current report presents an interim analysis of natural gas transportation rates and distribution patterns for the period from 1988 through 1994. A third and final report addressing the transportation rates and flows through 1997 is due to Congress in October 2000. This analysis relies on currently available data; no new data collection effort was undertaken. The need for the collection of additional data on transportation rates will be further addressed after this report, in consultation with the Congress, industry representatives, and in other public forums.

  19. Act locally, trade globally. Emissions trading for climate policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none

    2005-07-01

    Climate policy raises a number of challenges for the energy sector, the most significant being the transition from a high to a low-CO2 energy path in a few decades. Emissions trading has become the instrument of choice to help manage the cost of this transition, whether used at international or at domestic level. Act Locally, Trade Globally, offers an overview of existing trading systems, their mechanisms, and looks into the future of the instrument for limiting greenhouse gas emissions. Are current markets likely to be as efficient as the theory predicts? What is, if any, the role of governments in these markets? Can domestic emissions trading systems be broadened to activities other than large stationary energy uses? Can international emissions trading accommodate potentially diverse types of emissions targets and widely different energy realities across countries? Are there hurdles to linking emissions trading systems based on various design features? Can emissions trading carry the entire burden of climate policy, or will other policy instruments remain necessary? In answering these questions, Act Locally, Trade Globally seeks to provide a complete picture of the future role of emissions trading in climate policy and the energy sector.

  20. 78 FR 62322 - Hydropower Regulatory Efficiency Act of 2013; Notice of Rescheduled Two-Year Licensing Process...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-16

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Hydropower Regulatory Efficiency Act of 2013; Notice of Rescheduled Two-Year... issuance of a license for hydropower development at non-powered dams and closed-loop pumped storage projects in compliance with section 6 of the Hydropower Regulatory Efficiency Act of 2013. The workshop...

  1. 75 FR 12496 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; DOC National Environmental Policy Act...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-16

    ... Office of the Secretary Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; DOC National Environmental Policy Act Environmental Questionnaire and Checklist AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Office of... INFORMATION: I. Abstract The Department of Commerce (DOC) National Environmental Policy Act...

  2. 48 CFR 952.226-71 - Utilization of Energy Policy Act target entities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Policy Act target entities. 952.226-71 Section 952.226-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Clauses 952.226-71 Utilization of Energy Policy Act target entities. As prescribed in 926.7007(b), insert the following clause: Utilization of Energy Policy Act Target Entities (JUN 1996) (a) Definition...

  3. 48 CFR 926.7005 - Preferences under the Energy Policy Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Energy Policy Act. 926.7005 Section 926.7005 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS OTHER SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS Implementation of Section 3021 of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 926.7005 Preferences under the Energy Policy Act. (a) Prime contracts. Solicitations for...

  4. 78 FR 44138 - National Environmental Policy Act; Implementing Procedures; Addition of Categorical Exclusion for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard National Environmental Policy Act; Implementing Procedures; Addition of Categorical... Property Disposal under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). This CATEX amends the United States... Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). Recently, Congress passed two pieces of legislation that directly authorize...

  5. 76 FR 19309 - Solicitation of Letters of Interest To Participate in National Environmental Policy Act Pilot...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-07

    ... Environmental Policy Act Pilot Project AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice... part 340 to participate in a National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Pilot Project. The NEPA Pilot... plant pest risk of the article. In accordance with The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969...

  6. 36 CFR 800.8 - Coordination With the National Environmental Policy Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... National Environmental Policy Act. 800.8 Section 800.8 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ADVISORY COUNCIL... Coordination With the National Environmental Policy Act. (a) General principles—(1) Early coordination. Federal... steps taken to meet the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). Agencies...

  7. 78 FR 39307 - National Environmental Policy Act: Implementing Procedures; Addition to Categorical Exclusions...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    ...; FXFR13360900000-134-FF09F14000] National Environmental Policy Act: Implementing Procedures; Addition to... Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) for the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. The proposed categorical exclusion...-877-8339. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background Under the National Environmental Policy Act (42...

  8. 77 FR 3935 - National Environmental Policy Act Compliance for Proposed Tower Registrations; Effects of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-26

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 1, 17, 22, 24, 25, 27, 80, 87 and 90 National Environmental Policy Act Compliance for... Commission considers categorically excluded from review under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA....'' Forty Most Asked Questions Concerning CEQ's National Environmental Policy Act Regulations, 46 FR...

  9. 45 CFR 12.10 - Compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 and other related Acts...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Act of 1969 and other related Acts (environmental impact). 12.10 Section 12.10 Public Welfare... PROPERTY FOR PUBLIC HEALTH PURPOSES § 12.10 Compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 and other related Acts (environmental impact). (a) The Department will, prior to making a...

  10. Branding technologies in the foreign policy of Ukraine: regulatory and organizational aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereshchuk Maryna Ihorivna

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses regulatory and organizational components of the application of branding technology as a tool of foreign policy of Ukraine. Particular attention is paid to the activities of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Ukraine in this sphere, as well as to the problems impeding the full implementation of the branding policy.

  11. Guidelines for compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act and the California Environmental Quality Act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kielusiak, C.

    1993-02-01

    The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) sets forth national policy for the protection of the environment. The NEPA process is intended to help officials of the federal government make decisions that are based on an understanding of environmental consequences, and take actions that protect, restore, and enhance the environment. The California Environmental Quality Act of 1970 (CEQA) is similar to NEPA. The California legislature established CEQA to inform both state and local governmental decision-makers and the public about potential significant environmental effects of proposed activities, to identify ways to avoid or reduce environmental impacts, and to disclose to the public the reasons why a project is approved if significant environmental effects are involved. Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL), complies with the provisions of both NEPA and CEQA. This document defines the responsibilities and authorities for NEPA/CEQA compliance at LBL.

  12. Guidelines for compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act and the California Environmental Quality Act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kielusiak, C.

    1993-02-01

    The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) sets forth national policy for the protection of the environment. The NEPA process is intended to help officials of the federal government make decisions that are based on an understanding of environmental consequences, and take actions that protect, restore, and enhance the environment. The California Environmental Quality Act of 1970 (CEQA) is similar to NEPA. The California legislature established CEQA to inform both state and local governmental decision-makers and the public about potential significant environmental effects of proposed activities, to identify ways to avoid or reduce environmental impacts, and to disclose to the public the reasons why a project is approved if significant environmental effects are involved. Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL), complies with the provisions of both NEPA and CEQA. This document defines the responsibilities and authorities for NEPA/CEQA compliance at LBL.

  13. Community Shared Solar: Policy and Regulatory Considerations (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-09-01

    This brochure explores the ways in which the shared solar business model interacts with existing policy and regulations, including net metering, tax credits, and securities regulation. It presents some of the barriers that shared solar projects may face, and provides options for creating a supportive policy environment.

  14. Review of Policy, Regulatory, and Organizational Frameworks of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kim

    report in 2010 as part of the global endeavor to characterize and underscore the importance of connecting health .... harnessing hydro, geothermal, and solar energy. None of these produces ... Implementation of the policy needs strategic research plans or policy .... them, heightens our hope for living in a pollution-free.

  15. A method for selecting cis-acting regulatory sequences that respond to small molecule effectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allas Ülar

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several cis-acting regulatory sequences functioning at the level of mRNA or nascent peptide and specifically influencing transcription or translation have been described. These regulatory elements often respond to specific chemicals. Results We have developed a method that allows us to select cis-acting regulatory sequences that respond to diverse chemicals. The method is based on the β-lactamase gene containing a random sequence inserted into the beginning of the ORF. Several rounds of selection are used to isolate sequences that suppress β-lactamase expression in response to the compound under study. We have isolated sequences that respond to erythromycin, troleandomycin, chloramphenicol, meta-toluate and homoserine lactone. By introducing synonymous and non-synonymous mutations we have shown that at least in the case of erythromycin the sequences act at the peptide level. We have also tested the cross-activities of the constructs and found that in most cases the sequences respond most strongly to the compound on which they were isolated. Conclusions Several selected peptides showed ligand-specific changes in amino acid frequencies, but no consensus motif could be identified. This is consistent with previous observations on natural cis-acting peptides, showing that it is often impossible to demonstrate a consensus. Applying the currently developed method on a larger scale, by selecting and comparing an extended set of sequences, might allow the sequence rules underlying the activity of cis-acting regulatory peptides to be identified.

  16. Preliminary assessment of fleets covered by the Energy Policy Act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, P.S.; Davis, S.C.; Wang, M.Q. [and others

    1994-12-31

    To facilitate the goal of decreasing oil imports by 10 percent by the year 2000 and 30 percent by 2010, two sections of the Energy Policy Act encourage and mandate alternative fuel vehicles in the acquisition of fleet vehicles. The first step in estimating the contribution of these mandates toward meeting the aforementioned goal entails identifying affected fleets. This paper presents a preliminary assessment of potential vehicle fleet coverage. Only a limited number of companies in the methanol, ethanol, and hydrogen industries are likely to quality for this mandate. Whereas, many of the oil producers, petroleum refiners, and electricity companies are likely to be regulated.

  17. The Dutch drug policy from a regulatory perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spapens, A.C.M.; Müller, T.; Van de Bunt, H.G.

    2015-01-01

    Starting in the 1970s, the Netherlands developed a regulatory regime for narcotic drugs by distinguishing between hashish and marihuana (“soft drugs”) and other drugs (“hard drugs”). The authorities decided to cease prosecuting the possession of consumer quantities of the former type and to allow

  18. The Dutch drug policy from a regulatory perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spapens, A.C.M.; Müller, T.; Van de Bunt, H.G.

    2015-01-01

    Starting in the 1970s, the Netherlands developed a regulatory regime for narcotic drugs by distinguishing between hashish and marihuana (“soft drugs”) and other drugs (“hard drugs”). The authorities decided to cease prosecuting the possession of consumer quantities of the former type and to allow th

  19. The Dutch drug policy from a regulatory perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spapens, A.C.M.; Müller, T.; Van de Bunt, H.G.

    2015-01-01

    Starting in the 1970s, the Netherlands developed a regulatory regime for narcotic drugs by distinguishing between hashish and marihuana (“soft drugs”) and other drugs (“hard drugs”). The authorities decided to cease prosecuting the possession of consumer quantities of the former type and to allow th

  20. Energy sector in transition - technologies and regulatory policies in flux

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ulrik

    2005-01-01

    Liberalising the energy sector has been followed by a number of new regulatory measures that are argued to maintain a process towards a sustainable energy sector. The article argues based on empirical material from Denmark and other European countries that the EU regulations and especially the si...

  1. 76 FR 10527 - Regulatory Flexibility Act: Section 610 Review of National Organic Program Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-25

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 205 Regulatory Flexibility Act: Section 610 Review of National Organic Program Regulations AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Review and request for... regulations implementing the National Organic Program (NOP) were published December 21, 2000 (65 FR...

  2. Women's policy networks and the Infanticide Act 1922.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grey, Daniel J R

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the reason for the passage of the 1922 Infanticide Act, arguing that it owes much to the influence and work of women's policy networks. Historians have disagreed as to why the Act was passed with relative suddenness in the early 1920s, at a time when infanticide was generally considered a much less pressing social issue than it had been in Victorian England. Moreover, several Bills brought between 1908 and 1913 proposing that the law on this subject be amended so that women who killed their newborns no longer faced the death penalty had all failed. Importantly, the roles of juror and lay magistrate had become open to women in 1920, following the passage of the Sex Disqualification (Removal) Act 1919. The public interest generated by a case of newborn murder tried at the Leicester Assizes in 1921 (particularly amongst women's organizations, including the suffragette group the Women's Freedom League) led several leading women with political connections to push for a change in the law. Without the pressure these women could bring to bear on civil servants and politicians, attempts to bring in new legislation on infanticide would have been postponed well into the twentieth century.

  3. California renewable energy policy and implementation issues: An overview of recent regulatory and legislative action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, R.; Pickle, S.; Goldman, C.

    1996-09-01

    This paper has three primary goals: (1) to provide a brief account of recent events in California renewables policy; (2) to outline the California State Legislature`s ultimate decision on renewable energy policy; and (3) to aid other states in their efforts with renewables policy by summarizing some of the key implementation issues and political conflicts that may occur when crafting some of the potential threats and opportunities that electricity restructuring presents to the development of renewable energy. We then outline the renewables policy debate in California since the California Public Utility Commission`s ``Blue Book``, including both regulatory and legislative developments. We also provide some insight into the minimum renewables purchase requirement (MRPR) versus surcharge-based renewables policy debate in California. Finally, we identify and discuss key renewables policy implementation issues that have driven the dialogue and recent decisions in California`s renewables policy.

  4. 77 FR 61642 - National Environmental Policy Act; Sounding Rockets Program; Poker Flat Research Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-10

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION National Environmental Policy Act; Sounding Rockets Program; Poker Flat Research... Flat Research Range (PFRR), Alaska. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act, as... Implementing the Procedural Provisions of NEPA (40 CFR Parts 1500-1508), and NASA's NEPA policy and...

  5. 78 FR 40196 - National Environmental Policy Act; Sounding Rockets Program; Poker Flat Research Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-03

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION National Environmental Policy Act; Sounding Rockets Program; Poker Flat Research... Flat Research Range (PFRR), Alaska. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act, as... Implementing the Procedural Provisions of NEPA (40 CFR Parts 1500-1508), and NASA's NEPA policy and...

  6. 78 FR 50079 - National Environmental Policy Act: Implementing Procedures; Addition to Categorical Exclusions...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... Office of the Secretary National Environmental Policy Act: Implementing Procedures; Addition to... proposed categorical exclusion under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) for the U.S. Fish and... 12, 2013. Willie R. Taylor, Director, Office of Environmental Policy and Compliance. BILLING...

  7. Techniques for analyzing the impacts of certain electric-utility ratemaking and regulatory-policy concepts. Regulatory laws and policies. [State by state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-08-01

    This report is a legal study prepared to provide a review of the substantive and procedural laws of each regulatory jurisdiction that may affect implementation of the PURPA standards, and to summarize the current state of consideration and implementation of policies and rate designs similar or identical to the PURPA standards by state regulatory agencies and nonregulated utilities. This report is divided into three sections. The first section, the Introduction, summarizes the standards promulgated by PURPA and the results of the legal study. The second section, State Regulatory Law and Procedure, summarizes for each state or other ratemaking jurisdiction: (1) general constitutional and statutory provisions affecting utility rates and conditions of service; (2) specific laws or decisions affecting policy or rate design issues covered by PURPA standards; and (3) statutes and decisions governing administrative procedures, including judicial review. A chart showing actions taken on the policy and rate design issues addressed by PURPA is also included for each jurisdiction, and citations to relevant authorities are presented for each standard. State statutes or decisions that specifically define a state standard similar or identical to a PURPA standard, or that refer to one of the three PURPA objectives, are noted. The third section, Nonregulated Electric Utilities, summarizes information available on nonregulated utilities, i.e., publicly or cooperatively owned utilities which are specifically exempted from state regulation by state law.

  8. A problem solving model for regulatory policy making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, A.; van Engers, T.; Sileno, G.; Wyner, A.; Benn, N.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we discuss how the interests and field theory promoted by public administration as a stakeholder in policy argumentation, directly arise from its problem solving activities, using the framework for public administration problem solving we proposed in [1,2]. We propose that calls for ch

  9. National Environmental Policy Act Hazards Assessment for the TREAT Alternative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd D. Christensen; Annette L. Schafer

    2013-11-01

    This document provides an assessment of hazards as required by the National Environmental Policy Act for the alternative of restarting the reactor at the Transient Reactor Test (TREAT) facility by the Resumption of Transient Testing Program. Potential hazards have been identified and screening level calculations have been conducted to provide estimates of unmitigated dose consequences that could be incurred through this alternative. Consequences considered include those related to use of the TREAT Reactor, experiment assembly handling, and combined events involving both the reactor and experiments. In addition, potential safety structures, systems, and components for processes associated with operating TREAT and onsite handling of nuclear fuels and experiments are listed. If this alternative is selected, a safety basis will be prepared in accordance with 10 CFR 830, “Nuclear Safety Management,” Subpart B, “Safety Basis Requirements.”

  10. National Environmental Policy Act Hazards Assessment for the TREAT Alternative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd D. Christensen; Annette L. Schafer

    2014-02-01

    This document provides an assessment of hazards as required by the National Environmental Policy Act for the alternative of restarting the reactor at the Transient Reactor Test (TREAT) facility by the Resumption of Transient Testing Program. Potential hazards have been identified and screening level calculations have been conducted to provide estimates of unmitigated dose consequences that could be incurred through this alternative. Consequences considered include those related to use of the TREAT Reactor, experiment assembly handling, and combined events involving both the reactor and experiments. In addition, potential safety structures, systems, and components for processes associated with operating TREAT and onsite handling of nuclear fuels and experiments are listed. If this alternative is selected, a safety basis will be prepared in accordance with 10 CFR 830, “Nuclear Safety Management,” Subpart B, “Safety Basis Requirements.”

  11. Natural gas market under the Natural Gas Policy Act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, M.; Ody, N.; O' Neill, R.; Rodekohr, M.; Shambaugh, P.; Thrasher, R.; Trapmann, W.

    1981-06-01

    This first of a series of analyses presents data on the exploration, development, production, and pricing of US natural gas since the passage of the Natural Gas Policy Act in 1978. Designed to give pricing incentives for new-well activity, the NGPA has apparently eliminated many of the pricing differences that existed between interstate and intrastate markets. Estimates of the annual production volumes in trillion CF/yr of gas for the categories defined by the NGPA include new gas 4.5, new onshore wells 4.1, high-cost unconventional gas 0.7, and stripper wells 0.4. Preliminary statistics on the end-use pricing of natural gas suggest that significant changes in the average wellhead prices have not caused correspondingly large increases in the price of delivered gas.

  12. [Regulatory policies and public opinion: the case of smoking].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltó, Esteve; Joan R, Villalbí; Valverde, Araceli; Baranda, Lucía; Plasencia, Antoni

    2006-01-01

    Collecting and disseminating information about the public opinion on a regulatory process gives visibility to the silent social support and facilitates the process, which often confronts resistance from interest groups. This paper presents a survey about a proposed legislation on tobacco in its final stages and its results, and some considerations on the use of this sort of information in change processes. Cross sectional descriptive study. In December 2005 a brief telephone survey was made to a population sample of 18 and more years of age (N=830) in Catalonia (Spain). The questionnaire explored opinions on the proposed regulations under discussion. We present the degree of support and the rating of nine regulatory measures, stratified by the respondents use of tobacco. Daily smokers are 26.3% of the surveyed population. Awareness and general support for tobacco regulation are very high. Aspects with wider support include bans on sales to minors (97.3%), smoking in enclosed public places (92.8%) and workplaces (89%), and publicity (90.8%). The aspect with less social support is banning smoking in bars and cafes (80.2%). The population supports widely tobacco regulation. This reinforces the process and weakens the arguments of those against it. Although smokers are less supportive, most of them accept the regulations, except for limitations in bars and cafes.

  13. The Posse Comitatus Act: An Act in Need of a Regulatory Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-16

    Federal government’s efforts to guarantee rights and protection to blacks, the Ku Klux Klan and other Southern extremist organizations began to...terrorize blacks.23 In an effort to protect blacks, Congress passed the Ku Klux Klan Act in 1871 and President Grant enforced it with federal troops.24

  14. Notification: National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Environmental Impact Statements (EIS) Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    October 29, 2012. The EPA's OIG plans to begin preliminary research on EPA’s reviews of National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) environmental impact statements (EIS) as submitted to EPA under Section 309 of the Clean Air Act.

  15. Advanced Inverter Functions to Support High Levels of Distributed Solar: Policy and Regulatory Considerations (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-11-01

    This paper explains how advanced inverter functions (sometimes called 'smart inverters') contribute to the integration of high levels of solar PV generation onto the electrical grid and covers the contributions of advanced functions to maintaining grid stability. Policy and regulatory considerations associated with the deployment of advanced inverter functions are also introduced.

  16. Distributed Solar Photovoltaics for Electric Vehicle Charging: Regulatory and Policy Considerations (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-09-01

    Increasing demand for electric vehicle (EV) charging provides an opportunity for market expansion of distributed solar technology. A major barrier to the current deployment of solar technology for EV charging is a lack of clear information for policy makers, utilities and potential adopters. This paper introduces the pros and cons of EV charging during the day versus at night, summarizes the benefits and grid implications of combining solar and EV charging technologies, and offers some regulatory and policy options available to policy makers and regulators wanting to incentivize solar EV charging.

  17. Regulatory policies for using oil dispersants in the Barents Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Belkina

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Use of dispersants requires assessment of which environmental values are at stake. In the Barents Sea this issue is of high concern as large oil spills can cause transboundary pollution, affecting the interests of two neighbouring countries. The Joint Contingency Plan in the Barents Sea does not set any specific requirements for use of dispersants and lets Norway and Russia follow their national procedures. The Plan emphasizes that in case of transboundary pollution the decision to use dispersants shall only be undertaken upon common agreement. The paper presents a comparison of the national regulatory approaches of Norway and Russia to using dispersants. The research is based on the analysis of legislative documents and interviews with oil companies, oil spill responders and relevant national authorities. The research reveals that in both countries use of dispersants requires preliminary authorization of the national agencies. In Norway the pre-approval procedure and the algorithm of dispersants involvement in response to a real accident are clearly documented and are regularly tested. This has made the process of approval for using dispersants more efficient. In Russia the lack of practical experience in using dispersants and well-established approval procedures can result in a long and unclear permitting process for each oil spill case. This could seriously hinder the use of dispersants to combat transboundary pollution in the Barents Sea, even if it is considered to be beneficial. We conclude that the development of a harmonized approach for dispersants use in the Barents Sea should be thoroughly assessed.

  18. Globalisation and Governance: Educational Policy Instruments and Regulatory Arrangements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Ka-Ho

    2005-07-01

    For more than a decade, the economic, social, political and cultural effects of globalisation have been central topics of debate. Those who see globalisation as a combination of economic transactions and worldwide telecommunications tend to believe that its impact is profound, inasmuch as it is fundamentally altering the way in which we live and creating hybrid cultural styles. No country is immune from the effects of globalisation, and controversy continues to reign about its positive and negative consequences. The present study identifies and examines numerous challenges posed by globalisation and their implications for educational restructuring, with special attention being given to new forms of governance; the relation between the state, the market and civil society; and governmental policy instruments for education.

  19. Microbiological water methods: quality control measures for Federal Clean Water Act and Safe Drinking Water Act regulatory compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root, Patsy; Hunt, Margo; Fjeld, Karla; Kundrat, Laurie

    2014-01-01

    Quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC) data are required in order to have confidence in the results from analytical tests and the equipment used to produce those results. Some AOAC water methods include specific QA/QC procedures, frequencies, and acceptance criteria, but these are considered to be the minimum controls needed to perform a microbiological method successfully. Some regulatory programs, such as those at Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Part 136.7 for chemistry methods, require additional QA/QC measures beyond those listed in the method, which can also apply to microbiological methods. Essential QA/QC measures include sterility checks, reagent specificity and sensitivity checks, assessment of each analyst's capabilities, analysis of blind check samples, and evaluation of the presence of laboratory contamination and instrument calibration and checks. The details of these procedures, their performance frequency, and expected results are set out in this report as they apply to microbiological methods. The specific regulatory requirements of CFR Title 40 Part 136.7 for the Clean Water Act, the laboratory certification requirements of CFR Title 40 Part 141 for the Safe Drinking Water Act, and the International Organization for Standardization 17025 accreditation requirements under The NELAC Institute are also discussed.

  20. Embracing panarchy, building resilience and integrating adaptive management through a rebirth of the National Environmental Policy Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Melinda Harm; Garmestani, Ahjond S

    2011-05-01

    Environmental law plays a key role in shaping policy for sustainability of social-ecological systems. In particular, the types of legal instruments, institutions, and the response of law to the inherent variability in social-ecological systems are critical. Sustainability likely must occur via the institutions we have in place, combined with alterations in policy and regulation within the context of these institutions. This ecosystem management arrangement can be characterized as a panarchy, with research on sustainability specific to the scale of interest. In this manuscript we examine an opportunity for integrating these concepts through a regulatory rebirth of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). NEPA currently requires federal agencies to take a "hard look" at the environmental consequences of proposed action. The original intent of NEPA, however, was more substantive and its provisions, while currently equilibrium based, may be reconfigured to embrace new understanding of the dynamics of social-ecological systems.

  1. Evidence-Based Policy Making and the Implementation of Regulatory Impact Assessment in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravko Petak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study is dealing with the application of evidence-based policy-making in Croatian public administration and the general role of applied policy analysis in the Croatian system of governance. Methodology: This development is illustrated by the peculiarities of introducing regulatory impact assessment (RIA tools in Croatian public administrative structures. Findings: The author is pointing out various limitations in the usage of policy analysis tools in formulating, implementing and evaluating public policies in Croatia. The crucial role of RIA for enhancing executive capacity of governance structures is particularly stressed in the study. The final part of the article is devoted to the prospects of further development of RIA as an applied policy analysis tool within the Croatian system of governance.

  2. Lessons learned and new challenges for integrated assessment under the National Environmental Policy Act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carnes, S.A.; Reed, R.M.

    1995-12-31

    One of the first government-sponsored demands for integrated assessment to support decision making in the United States is embodied in the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Over the past 25 years, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has supported federal agencies` in evaluating health and environmental impacts as required by NEPA. Many of ORNL`s efforts have focused on complex, programmatic assessments that break new ground and require and integrate expertise from a wide range of technical disciplines. Examples of ORNL projects that illustrate the use of integrated assessment approaches include environmental documentation for: (1) the Department of the Army`s Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program, (2) the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission`s licensing activities related to the Owens River Basin in eastern California and along a 500-mile reach of the upper Ohio River, and (3) the Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s decision regarding restart of the undamaged reactor (Unit 1) at Three Mile Island. Our discussion of these examples illustrates successful integrated assessment approaches and identifies new challenges facing integrated assessment activities.

  3. National Environmental Policy Act source guide for the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansky, M.T.

    1998-09-30

    This Source Guide will assist those working with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 to become more familiar with the environmental assessments (EA) and environmental impact statements (EIS) that apply to specific activities and facilities on the Hanford Site. This document should help answer questions concerning NEPA coverage, history, processes, and the status of many of the buildings and units on and related to the Hanford Site. This document summarizes relevant EAs and EISs by briefly outlining the proposed action of each document and the decision made by the US Department of Energy (DOE) or its predecessor agencies, the US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) and the US Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA). The summary includes the proposed action alternatives and current status of the proposed action. If a decision officially was stated by the DOE, as in a finding of no significant impact (FONSI) or a record of decision (ROD), and the decision was located, a summary is provided. Not all federal decisions, such as FONSIs and RODS, can be found in the Federal Register (FR). For example, although significant large-action FONSIs can be found in the FR, some low-interest FONSIs might have been published elsewhere (i.e., local newspapers).

  4. 77 FR 9964 - Availability of the Reclamation National Environmental Policy Act Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-21

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Availability of the Reclamation National Environmental Policy Act Handbook AGENCY... announcing the availability of its updated National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Handbook. This handbook... of authority. Reclamation is announcing the availability of its NEPA Handbook to assure transparency...

  5. 18 CFR 2.22 - Pricing policy for transmission services provided under the Federal Power Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... transmission services provided under the Federal Power Act. 2.22 Section 2.22 Conservation of Power and Water... for transmission services provided under the Federal Power Act. (a) The Commission has adopted a Policy Statement on its pricing policy for transmission services provided under the Federal Power...

  6. 48 CFR 952.226-73 - Energy Policy Act target group certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Energy Policy Act target... ENERGY CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 952.226-73 Energy Policy Act target group certification. As prescribed in 926.7007(d), insert...

  7. 75 FR 885 - 40th Anniversary of the National Environmental Policy Act, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-07

    ... of the National Environmental Policy Act, 2010 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Forty years ago, the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) was signed into law with overwhelming bipartisan support, ushering in a new era of environmental awareness and citizen participation in...

  8. 48 CFR 926.7004 - Size standard for Energy Policy Act procurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Size standard for Energy... ENERGY SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS OTHER SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS Implementation of Section 3021 of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 926.7004 Size standard for Energy Policy Act procurements. The size standard...

  9. 76 FR 72218 - National Environmental Policy Act; NASA Routine Payloads on Expendable Launch Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-22

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION National Environmental Policy Act; NASA Routine Payloads on Expendable Launch... (FONSI). SUMMARY: Pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), as amended (42 U.S.C. 4321, et seq.), the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) Regulations for Implementing the...

  10. 15 CFR 930.37 - Consistency determinations and National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Consistency determinations and National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) requirements. 930.37 Section 930.37 Commerce and Foreign Trade... National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) requirements. A Federal agency may use its NEPA documents as...

  11. 42 CFR 137.287 - What is the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What is the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA... INDIAN HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Construction Nepa Process § 137.287 What is the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA)? The NEPA is a procedural law...

  12. 75 FR 52046 - Development of U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Safety Culture Policy Statement: Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-24

    ... COMMISSION Development of U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Safety Culture Policy Statement: Public Meeting... public comments submitted in response to the draft policy statement (74 FR 57525, November 6, 2009.... The revised draft policy statement has benefitted from public comments, the results of the...

  13. The European Model Company Act: How to choose an efficient regulatory approach?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cleff, Evelyne Beatrix

    European Company Law regulation is currently undergoing a reform. These reforms raise a number of regulatory questions, such as what the aims of companies legislation should be, and how these aims should best be met by regulation. Many of the reforms and discussions (both on EU and national level......) on the organization of company laws reflect an interesting paradigm shift. Whereas, previously company law was primarily focused on preventing abuse, there is now a trend towards legislation that promote commerce and satisfy the needs of business. This means that the goal of economic efficiency is having...... an increasing influence on the framing of company legislation, such as the choice between mandatory or default rules. This article introduces the project "European Company Law and the choice of Regulatory Method" which is carried out in collaboration with the European Model Company Act Group. The project aims...

  14. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushing, C.E. (ed.)

    1988-09-01

    This document describes the Hanford Site environment (Chapter 4) and contains data in Chapter 5 and 6 which will guide users in the preparation of National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA)-related documents. Many NEPA compliance documents have been prepared and are being prepared by site contractors for the US Department of Energy, and examination of these documents reveals inconsistencies in the amount of detail presented and the method of presentation. Thus, it seemed necessary to prepare a consistent description of the Hanford environment to be used in preparing Chapter 4 of environmental impact statements and other site-related NEPA documentation. The material in Chapter 5 is a guide to the models used, including critical assumptions incorporated in these models, in previous Hanford NEPA documents. The users will have to select those models appropriate for the proposed action. Chapter 6 is essentially a definitive NEPA Chapter 6, which describes the applicable laws, regulations, and DOE and state orders. In this document, a complete description of the environment is presented in Chapter 4 without excessive tabular data. For these data, sources are provided. Most subjects are divided into a general description of the characteristics of the Hanford Site, followed by site-specific information where it is available on the 100, 200, 300, and other Areas. This division will allow a person requiring information to go immediately to those sections of particular interest. However, site-specific information on each of these separate areas is not always complete or available. In this case, the general Hanford Site description should be used. 131 refs., 19 figs., 32 tabs.

  15. Distributed Solar PV for Electricity System Resiliency: Policy and Regulatory Considerations (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-11-01

    Distributed Solar PV systems have the potential of increasing the grid's resiliency to unforeseen events, such as extreme weather events and attacks. This paper presents the role that distributed PV can play in electric grid resiliency, introduces basic system design requirements and options, and discusses the regulatory and policy options for supporting the use of distributed PV for the purpose of increased electricity resiliency.

  16. Review of the toxicity of chemical mixtures: Theory, policy, and regulatory practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, L S; Borgert, C J

    2006-07-01

    An analysis of current mixture theory, policy, and practice was conducted by examining standard reference texts, regulatory guidance documents, and journal articles. Although this literature contains useful theoretical concepts, clear definitions of most terminology, and well developed protocols for study design and statistical analysis, no general theoretical basis for the mechanisms and interactions of mixture toxicity could be discerned. There is also a poor understanding of the relationship between exposure-based and internal received dose metrics. This confounds data interpretation and limits reliable determinations of the nature and extent of additivity. The absence of any generally accepted classification scheme for either modes/mechanisms of toxic action or of mechanisms of toxicity interactions is problematic as it produces a cycle in which research and policy are interdependent and mutually limiting. Current regulatory guidance depends heavily on determination of toxicological similarity concluded from the presence of a few prominent constituents, assumed from a common toxicological effect, or presumed from an alleged similar toxic mode/mechanism. Additivity, or the lack of it, is largely based on extrapolation of existing knowledge for single chemicals in this context. Thus, regulatory risk assessment protocols lack authoritative theoretical underpinnings, creating substantial uncertainty. Development of comprehensive classification schemes for modes/mechanisms of toxic action and mechanisms of interaction is needed to ensure a sound theoretical foundation for mixture-related regulatory activity and provide a firm basis for iterative hypothesis development and experimental testing.

  17. Multiple Cis-Acting Sequences Contribute to Evolved Regulatory Variation for Drosophila Adh Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, X. M.; Brennan, M. D.

    1992-01-01

    Drosophila affinidisjuncta and Drosophila hawaiiensis are closely related species that display distinct tissue-specific expression patterns for their homologous alcohol dehydrogenase genes (Adh genes). In Drosophila melanogaster transformants, both genes are expressed at high levels in the larval and adult fat bodies, but the D. affinidisjuncta gene is expressed 10-50-fold more strongly in the larval and adult midguts and Malpighian tubules. The present study reports the mapping of cis-acting sequences contributing to the regulatory differences between these two genes in transformants. Chimeric genes were constructed and introduced into the germ line of D. melanogaster. Stage- and tissue-specific expression patterns were determined by measuring steady-state RNA levels in larvae and adults. Three portions of the promoter region make distinct contributions to the tissue-specific regulatory differences between the native genes. Sequences immediately upstream of the distal promoter have a strong effect in the adult Malpighian tubules, while sequences between the two promoters are relatively important in the larval Malpighian tubules. A third gene segment, immediately upstream of the proximal promoter, influences levels of the proximal Adh transcript in all tissues and developmental stages examined, and largely accounts for the regulatory difference in the larval and adult midguts. However, these as well as other sequences make smaller contributions to various aspects of the tissue-specific regulatory differences. In addition, some chimeric genes display aberrant RNA levels for the whole organism, suggesting close physical association between sequences involved in tissue-specific regulatory differences and those important for Adh expression in the larval and adult fat bodies. PMID:1644276

  18. 25 CFR 224.70 - Will the Secretary review a proposed TERA under the National Environmental Policy Act?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... National Environmental Policy Act? 224.70 Section 224.70 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF... Secretary review a proposed TERA under the National Environmental Policy Act? Yes, the Secretary will conduct a review under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of the potential impacts on...

  19. 75 FR 8997 - National Environmental Policy Act; Wallops Flight Facility Shoreline Restoration and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION National Environmental Policy Act; Wallops Flight Facility Shoreline Restoration... Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) Shoreline Restoration and Infrastructure Protection Program (SRIPP). SUMMARY... from the Wallops Island shoreline and the infrastructure behind it. Alternative One, NASA's...

  20. 76 FR 39443 - National Environmental Policy Act; Santa Susana Field Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION National Environmental Policy Act; Santa Susana Field Laboratory AGENCY: National... administered portion of the Santa Susana Field Laboratory (SSFL), Ventura County, California. SUMMARY:...

  1. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory National Environmental Policy Act Compliance Program -- FY 2010 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weeks, Regan S.

    2011-04-20

    During fiscal year (FY) 2010, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Environmental Protection and Regulatory Programs Division (before March 1, 2011 known as the Environmental Management Services Department) staff performed a number of activities as part of PNNL’s National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) compliance program. These activities helped to verify U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Pacific Northwest Site Office (PNSO) and Richland Operations Office (RL) compliance with NEPA requirements and streamline the NEPA process for federal activities conducted at PNNL. Self-assessments were performed to address NEPA compliance and cultural and biological resource protection. The NEPA self-assessments focused on implementation within the PNNL Energy and Environment Directorate and routine maintenance activities conducted during the previous calendar year. The cultural and biological resource self-assessments were conducted in accordance with the PNSO Cultural and Biological Resources Management Plan, which specifies annual monitoring of important resources to assess and document the status of the resources and the associated protective mechanisms in place to protect sensitive resources.

  2. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory National Environmental Policy Act Compliance Program -- FY 2010 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weeks, Regan S.

    2011-04-20

    During fiscal year (FY) 2010, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Environmental Protection and Regulatory Programs Division (before March 1, 2011 known as the Environmental Management Services Department) staff performed a number of activities as part of PNNL’s National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) compliance program. These activities helped to verify U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Pacific Northwest Site Office (PNSO) and Richland Operations Office (RL) compliance with NEPA requirements and streamline the NEPA process for federal activities conducted at PNNL. Self-assessments were performed to address NEPA compliance and cultural and biological resource protection. The NEPA self-assessments focused on implementation within the PNNL Energy and Environment Directorate and routine maintenance activities conducted during the previous calendar year. The cultural and biological resource self-assessments were conducted in accordance with the PNSO Cultural and Biological Resources Management Plan, which specifies annual monitoring of important resources to assess and document the status of the resources and the associated protective mechanisms in place to protect sensitive resources.

  3. The USA PATRIOT Act, the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act, and Information Policy Research in Libraries: Issues, Impacts, and Questions for Libraries and Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Paul T.; McClure, Charles R.; Bertot, John Carlo; Snead, John T.

    2004-01-01

    While the USA PATRIOT Act has altered how certain types of federal intelligence investigations affect libraries, the act also greatly alters how researchers can study information policy issues related to libraries. To date, the gravity and scope of the act's implications for researchers of library services, resources, operations, and policies have…

  4. The USA PATRIOT Act, the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act, and Information Policy Research in Libraries: Issues, Impacts, and Questions for Libraries and Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Paul T.; McClure, Charles R.; Bertot, John Carlo; Snead, John T.

    2004-01-01

    While the USA PATRIOT Act has altered how certain types of federal intelligence investigations affect libraries, the act also greatly alters how researchers can study information policy issues related to libraries. To date, the gravity and scope of the act's implications for researchers of library services, resources, operations, and policies have…

  5. Modeling regulatory policies associated with offshore structure removal requirements in the Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, Mark J. [Center for Energy Studies, Louisiana State University, Energy Coast and Environment Building, Baton Rouge, LA (United States)

    2008-07-15

    Federal regulations require that a lease in the Outer Continental Shelf of the Gulf of Mexico be cleared of all structures within one year after production on the lease ceases, but in recent years, the Minerals Management Service has begun to encourage operators to remove idle (non-producing) structures on producing leases that are no longer ''economically viable''. At the end of 2003, there were 2175 producing structures, 898 idle (non-producing) structures, and 440 auxiliary (never-producing) structures on 1356 active leases; and 329 idle structures and 65 auxiliary structures on 273 inactive leases. The purpose of this paper is to model the impact of alternative regulatory policies on the removal trends of structures and the inventory of idle iron, and to provide first-order estimates of the cost of each regulatory option. A description of the modeling framework and implementation results is presented. (author)

  6. 76 FR 52694 - National Environmental Policy Act: Launch of NASA Routine Payloads on Expendable Launch Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-23

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION National Environmental Policy Act: Launch of NASA Routine Payloads on Expendable... availability and request for comments on the draft environmental assessment (``Draft EA'') for launch of NASA routine payloads on expendable launch vehicles. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the National Environmental Policy...

  7. Assessing EU’s Transatlantic Regulatory Powers Using the Choice of Policy Instruments as Measurement of Preference Attainment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löfgren, Karl; Lynggaard, Kennet

    2015-01-01

    To what extent is the European Union exercising global regulatory power? This paper investigates this question through a comparative study of two significant global policy fields: data-protection and banking with a special focus on the preferences and choice of policy instruments. Of particular...

  8. 22 CFR 151.7 - Policy terms consistent with the Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... LIABILITY INSURANCE FOR DIPLOMATIC MISSIONS AND PERSONNEL § 151.7 Policy terms consistent with the Act. (a) The insurance shall be construed in conformity with the Act. In particular, no effect shall be given...) In the absence of fraud or collusion, that the insured has violated a term of the contract, unless...

  9. A Study on the preparation of environmental act system in Korea II - concentrated on the preparation of environmental policy fundamental act, protection of water supply source, and greenbelt area act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Sang Hwan [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    This study is to propose to reform environmental policy fundamental act and land related act into future-oriented direction. First of all, the environmental policy fundamental act presented the direction of reforming water supply, national parks, and greenbelt related acts in environmental preservation perspective. 54 refs., 17 tabs.

  10. Cloning of a regulatory gene from Streptomyces cattleya and study on its cis-acting element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, G; Wang, Y

    2000-08-01

    Primers were designed from the highly conserved protein regions of luxl, one of the two component regulatory genes in prokaryotic, and an about 180 bp DNA from Streptomyces cattleya was amplified by PCR. Using this fragment as a probe, Southern hybridization was accomplished with chromosome DNA of S. cattleya, leading to the cloning of the foreign DNA into pBluescript (SK-). DNA sequencing and frame analysis showed an intact ORF consisting of 1800 bp; the G+C composition was 69.3%. Upstream from the ORF was a 249 bp AT rich region, downstream of the ORF several complicated secondary structures were found. DNA-binding assay by gel retardation demonstrated the presence of a protein that specifically bound to the 249 bp AT rich region. The region also showed anomalous electrophoretic mobility at low temperature, like that of a bent DNA molecule, indicating that the region contains a cis-acting element.

  11. Cloning of a regulatory gene from Streptomyces cattleya and study on its cis-acting element

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Primers were designed from the highly conserved protein regions of luxI, one of the two component regulatory genes in prokaryotic, and an about 180 bp DNA from Streptomyces cattleya was amplified by PCR. Using this fragment as a probe, Southern hybridization was accomplished with chromosome DNA of S. cattleya, leading to the cloning of the foreign DNA into pBluescript (SK-). DNA sequencing and frame analysis showed an intact ORF consisting of 1 800 bp; the G+C composition was 69.3%. Upstream from the ORF was a 249 bp AT rich region, downstream of the ORF several complicated secondary structures were found. DNA-binding assay by gel retardation demonstrated the presence of a protein that specifically bound to the 249 bp AT rich region. The region also showed anomalous electrophoretic mobility at low temperature, like that of a bent DNA molecule, indicating that the region contains a cis-acting element.

  12. Cloning of a regulatory gene from Streptomyces cattleya and study on its cis-acting element

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚广东; 王以光

    2000-01-01

    Primers were designed from the highly conserved protein regions of luxl, one of the two component regulatory genes in prokaryotic, and an about 180 bp DNA from Streptomyces cattleya was amplified by PCR. Using this fragment as a probe, Southern hybridization was accomplished with chromosome DNA of S. cattleya, leading to the cloning of the foreign DNA into pBluescript (SK-). DNA sequencing and frame analysis showed an intact ORF consisting of 1 800 bp; the G+C composition was 69.3%. Upstream from the ORF was a 249 bp AT rich region, downstream of the ORF several complicated secondary structures were found. DNA-binding assay by gel retardation demonstrated the presence of a protein that specifically bound to the 249 bp AT rich region. The region also showed anomalous electrophoretic mobility at low temperature, like that of a bent DNA molecule, indicating that the region contains a c/s-acting element.

  13. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization Report, Revision 17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neitzel, Duane A.; Bunn, Amoret L.; Cannon, Sandra D.; Duncan, Joanne P.; Fowler, Richard A.; Fritz, Brad G.; Harvey, David W.; Hendrickson, Paul L.; Hoitink, Dana J.; Horton, Duane G.; Last, George V.; Poston, Ted M.; Prendergast-Kennedy, Ellen L.; Reidel, Steve P.; Rohay, Alan C.; Sackschewsky, Michael R.; Scott, Michael J.; Thorne, Paul D.

    2005-09-30

    This document describes the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Hanford Site environment. It is updated each year and is intended to provide a consistent description of the Hanford Site environment for the many environmental documents being prepared by DOE contractors concerning the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). No statements about significance or environmental consequences are provided. This year’s report is the seventeenth revision of the original document published in 1988 and is (until replaced by the eighteenth revision) the only version that is relevant for use in the preparation of Hanford NEPA, State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA), and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) documents. The two chapters included in this document (Chapters 4 and 6) are numbered to correspond to the chapters where such information is typically presented in environmental impact statements (EISs) and other Hanford Site NEPA or CERCLA documentation. Chapter 4.0 (Affected Environment) describes Hanford Site climate and meteorology; air quality; geology; hydrology; ecology; cultural, archaeological, and historical resources; socioeconomics; noise; and occupational health and safety. Sources for extensive tabular data related to these topics are provided in the chapter. Most subjects are divided into a general description of the characteristics of the Hanford Site, followed by site-specific information, where available, of the 100, 200, 300, and other areas. This division allows the reader to go directly to those sections of particular interest. When specific information on each of these separate areas is not complete or available, the general Hanford Site description should be used. Chapter 6.0 (Statutory and Regulatory Requirements) describes federal and state laws and regulations, DOE directives and permits, and presidential executive orders that are applicable to the NEPA documents prepared for Hanford Site activities

  14. Substate federalism and fracking policies: does state regulatory authority trump local land use autonomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Charles

    2014-01-01

    State officials responsible for the regulation of hydraulic fracturing (fracking) operations used in the production of oil and gas resources will inevitably confront a key policy issue; that is, to what extent can statewide regulations be developed without reducing land use autonomy typically exercised by local officials? Most state regulators have historically recognized the economic importance of industry jobs and favor the adoption of uniform regulatory requirements even if these rules preempt local policymaking authority. Conversely, many local officials seek to preserve land use autonomy to provide a greater measure of protection for public health and environmental quality goals. This paper examines how public officials in three states-Colorado, Pennsylvania, and Texas-address the question of state control versus local autonomy through their efforts to shape fracking policy decisions. While local officials within Texas have succeeded in developing fracking ordinances with relatively little interference from state regulators, Colorado and Pennsylvania have adopted a tougher policy stance favoring the retention of preemptive oil and gas statutes. Key factors that account for between state differences in fracking policy decisions include the strength of home rule provisions, gubernatorial involvement, and the degree of local experience with industrial economic activities.

  15. Drug policy and global regulatory capitalism: the case of new psychoactive substances (NPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddon, Toby

    2014-09-01

    The recent emergence of vibrant markets in 'new psychoactive substances' or 'legal highs' has posed significant new challenges for drug policy. These partly concern what to do about them but the speed and complexity of change has also raised difficulties for how policy responses should be developed. Existing drug policy systems appear too slow and cumbersome to keep up with the pace of change, remaining locked in large part within 'old' ways of thinking that centre almost exclusively around the deployment (or not) of the criminal law and its related enforcement apparatus. In this paper, it is argued that we need to rethink the problem through the lens of regulation, in order to learn lessons from other sectors where more agile responses to changing markets and business innovation have often proved possible. By examining examples drawn from these other areas, an alternative policy-making framework can be developed, involving a more flexible mix of state regulation, civil society action and private law mechanisms. This new approach is founded on a recognition of the networked and polycentric character of effective market governance in an era of global regulatory capitalism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The Nuclear Waste Policy Act, as amended, with appropriations acts appended. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-01

    This act provides for the development of repositories for the disposal of high-level radioactive wastes, low-level radioactive wastes, and spent nuclear fuels. In addition, it establishes research and development programs, as well as demonstration programs regarding the disposal of these wastes. This Act consists of the Act of Jan. 7, 1983 (Public Law 97-425; 96 Stat. 2201), as amended by Public Law 100-203 and Public Law 102-486.

  17. Review of the regulatory framework on genetically modified food and feed in Albania: a policy perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALBAN JAUPI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in food production and processing technologies have considerably enhanced man's ability to provide larger quantities and a wider variety of products. However, the recent development biotechnologies has also significantly increased controversy and dispute over the use of food and other goods derived from genetically modified crops instead of from conventional crops, and other uses of genetic engineering in food production. The dispute involves consumers, biotechnology companies, governmental regulators, non-governmental organizations, and scientists. The article reviews the regulatory measures and approaches taken by the government of Albania to assess and manage the risks associated with the development, release and use of genetically modified foods in the country. The review and analyzes is made in light of the processes for harmonization of Albanian’s food policies and its legal and regulatory framework with the EU legislation and Acquis Communautaires. It identifies several important legal and regulatory issues and proposes necessary measures and mechanisms to be put in place related to identification and protection of the public interest and increased ability of consumers to be informed about the foods they eat

  18. 77 FR 35323 - National Environmental Policy Act: Categorical Exclusions for Soil and Water Restoration Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-13

    ..., or the rights and obligations of recipients of such programs. Regulatory Flexibility Act This... 12630, ``Governmental Actions and Interference with Constitutionally Protected Property Rights.'' The... inadequate culvert to improve aquatic organism passage or prevent resource or property damage where the road...

  19. P.L. 102-486, "Energy Policy Act" (1992)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-12-13

    Amends the Energy Conservation and Production Act to set a deadline by which each State must certify to the Secretary of Energy whether its energy efficiency standards with respect to residential and commercial building codes meet or exceed those of the Council of American Building Officials (CABO) Model Energy Code, 1992, and of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers, respectively.

  20. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) characterization. Revision 10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neitzel, D.A. [ed.; Fosmire, C.J.; Fowler, R.A. [and others

    1998-09-01

    This document describes the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site environment and is numbered to correspond to the chapters where such information is presented in Hanford Site NEPA related documents. The document is intended to provide a consistent description of the Hanford Site environment for the many NEPA documents that are being prepared by contractors. The two chapters in this document (Chapters 4 and 6) are numbered this way to correspond to the chapters where such information is presented in environmental impact statements (EISs) and other Site-related NEPA or CERCLA documentation. Chapter 4.0 (Affected Environment) describes the Hanford Site environment, and includes information on climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology, ecology, cultural, archaeological and historical resources, socioeconomics, and noise. Chapter 6.0 (Statutory and Regulatory Requirements) describes applicable federal and state laws and regulations, DOE directives and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable to the NEPA documents on the Hanford Site.

  1. The Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA): Policy Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-04

    Family and Medical Leave Inclusion Act (S. 846, S. 857, and H.R. 1751) would allow an employee to take FMLA leave to care for an adult child, sibling...deepest since the Great Depression of the 1930s. From 2006 to 2011, the number of jobs fell by 4.6 million (from 136.1 million to 131.5 million). The...Industries with below-average percentages of employees who may have been eligible for leave were Wholesale and Retail Trade (53.1%), Professional and

  2. Putting Regulatory Data to Work at the Service of Public Health: Utilizing Data Collected Under the Clean Water Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under the Clean Water Act, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) collects information from states on intended use and impairment of each water body. We explore the feasibility of using these data, collected for regulatory purposes, for public health analyses. Combining E...

  3. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization. Revision 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushing, C.E. [ed.

    1992-12-01

    This fifth revision of the Hanford Site National Environmental Policy (NEPA) Characterization presents current environmental data regarding the Hanford Site and its immediate environs. This information is intended for use in preparing Site-related NEPA documentation. Information is presented on climate and meteorology, geology and hydrology, ecology, history and archaeology, socioeconomics, land use, and noise levels, prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) staff. Models are described that are to be used in simulating realized or potential impacts from nuclear materials at the Hanford Site. Included are models of radionuclide transport in groundwater and atmospheric pathways, and of radiation dose to populations via all known pathways from known initial conditions. Federal and state regulations, DOE orders and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable for the NEPA documents at the Hanford Site, are provided.

  4. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushing, C.E. (ed.)

    1992-12-01

    This fifth revision of the Hanford Site National Environmental Policy (NEPA) Characterization presents current environmental data regarding the Hanford Site and its immediate environs. This information is intended for use in preparing Site-related NEPA documentation. Information is presented on climate and meteorology, geology and hydrology, ecology, history and archaeology, socioeconomics, land use, and noise levels, prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) staff. Models are described that are to be used in simulating realized or potential impacts from nuclear materials at the Hanford Site. Included are models of radionuclide transport in groundwater and atmospheric pathways, and of radiation dose to populations via all known pathways from known initial conditions. Federal and state regulations, DOE orders and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable for the NEPA documents at the Hanford Site, are provided.

  5. A critical analysis of the South African Disaster Management Act and Policy Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Niekerk, Dewald

    2014-10-01

    The promulgation of the South African Disaster Management Act No. 57 of 2002 and the National Disaster Management Policy Framework of 2005 placed South Africa at the international forefront by integrating disaster risk reduction into all spheres of government through a decentralised approach. Yet, good policy and legislation do not necessarily translate into good practice. This paper provides a critical analysis of the Act and Policy Framework. Using qualitative research methods, it analyses the attitudes and perceptions of senior public officials on all levels of government, the private sector and academia. The study finds that one of the weakest aspects of the Act and Framework is the absence of clear guidance to local municipalities. The placement of the disaster risk management function on all tiers of government remains problematic, funding is inadequate and overall knowledge and capacities for disaster risk reduction are insufficient. © 2014 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2014.

  6. National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) compliance at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, T.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Community Involvement and Issues Management Dept.; Hansen, R.P. [Hansen Environmental Consultants, Englewood, CO (United States)

    1998-08-01

    This report on National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) compliance at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) chronicles past and current compliance activities and includes a recommended strategy that can be implemented for continued improvement. This report provides a list of important references. Attachment 1 contains the table of contents for SAND95-1648, National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Compliance Guide Sandia National Laboratories (Hansen, 1995). Attachment 2 contains a list of published environmental assessments (EAs) and environmental impact statements (EISs) prepared by SNL/NM. Attachment 3 contains abstracts of NEPA compliance papers authored by SNL/NM and its contractors.

  7. 28 CFR Appendix A to Part 61 - Bureau of Prisons Procedures Relating to the Implementation of the National Environmental Policy Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the Implementation of the National Environmental Policy Act A Appendix A to Part 61 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES FOR IMPLEMENTING THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY... of the National Environmental Policy Act 1. Authority: (CEQ Regulations) NEPA, the...

  8. Hanford Site National Evnironmental Policy Act (NEPA) characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushing, C.E. (ed.)

    1991-12-01

    This fourth revision of the Hanford Site National Environmental Policy (NEPA) Characterization presents current environmental data regarding the Hanford Site and its immediate environs. This information is intended for use in preparing Site-related NEPA documentation. In Chapter 4.0 are presented summations of up-to-date information about climate and meteorology, geology and hydrology, ecology, history and archaeology, socioeconomics, land use, and noise levels. Chapter 5.0 describes models, including their principal assumptions, that are to be used in simulating realized or potential impacts from nuclear materials at the Hanford Site. Included are models of radionuclides transport in groundwater and atmospheric pathways, and of radiation dose to populations via all known pathways from known initial conditions. Chapter 6.0 provides the preparer with the federal and state regulations, DOE orders and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable for environmental impact statements for the Hanford Site, following the structure Chapter 4.0. NO conclusions or recommendations are given in this report.

  9. Hanford Site National Evnironmental Policy Act (NEPA) characterization. Revision 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushing, C.E. [ed.

    1991-12-01

    This fourth revision of the Hanford Site National Environmental Policy (NEPA) Characterization presents current environmental data regarding the Hanford Site and its immediate environs. This information is intended for use in preparing Site-related NEPA documentation. In Chapter 4.0 are presented summations of up-to-date information about climate and meteorology, geology and hydrology, ecology, history and archaeology, socioeconomics, land use, and noise levels. Chapter 5.0 describes models, including their principal assumptions, that are to be used in simulating realized or potential impacts from nuclear materials at the Hanford Site. Included are models of radionuclides transport in groundwater and atmospheric pathways, and of radiation dose to populations via all known pathways from known initial conditions. Chapter 6.0 provides the preparer with the federal and state regulations, DOE orders and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable for environmental impact statements for the Hanford Site, following the structure Chapter 4.0. NO conclusions or recommendations are given in this report.

  10. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) characterization. Revision 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushing, C.E. [ed.; Baker, D.A.; Chamness, M.A. [and others

    1994-08-01

    This sixth revision of the Hanford Site National Environmental Policy (NEPA) Characterization presents current environmental data regarding the Hanford Site and its immediate environs. This information is intended for use in preparing Site-related NEPA documentation. Chapter 4.0 summarizes up-to-date information on climate and meteorology, geology and hydrology, ecology, history and archaeology, socioeconomics, land use, and noise levels prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) staff. More detailed data are available from reference sources cited or from the authors; Chapter 5.0 has been significantly updated from the fifth revision. It describes models, including their principal underlying assumptions, that are to be used in simulating realized or potential impacts from nuclear materials at the Hanford Site. Included are models of radionuclide transport in groundwater and atmospheric pathways, and of radiation dose to populations via all known pathways from known initial conditions; The updated Chapter 6.0 provides the preparer with the federal and state regulations, DOE orders and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable to the NEPA documents on the Hanford Site, following the structure of Chapter 4.0. No conclusions or recommendations are given in this report. Rather, it is a compilation of information on the Hanford Site environment that can be utilized directly by Site contractors. This information can also be used by any interested individual seeking baseline data on the Hanford Site and its past activities by which to evaluate projected activities and their impacts.

  11. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) characterization. Revision 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushing, C.E. [ed.; Baker, D.A.; Chamness, M.A. [and others

    1995-09-01

    This seventh revision of the Hanford Site National Environmental Policy (NEPA) Characterization presents current environmental data regarding the Hanford Site and its immediate environs. This information is intended for use in preparing Site-related NEPA documentation. Chapter 4.0 summarizes up-to-date information on climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology, environmental monitoring, ecology, history and archaeology, socioeconomics, land use, and noise levels prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) staff. More detailed data are available from reference sources cited or from the authors. Chapter 5.0 was not updated from the sixth revision (1994). It describes models, including their principal underlying assumptions, that are to be used in simulating realized or potential impacts from nuclear materials at the Hanford Site. Included are models of radionuclide transport in groundwater and atmospheric pathways, and of radiation dose to populations via all known pathways from known initial conditions. The updated Chapter 6.0 provides the preparer with the federal and state regulations, DOE Orders and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable to the NEPA documents on the Hanford Site, following the structure of Chapter 4.0. No conclusions or recommendations are given in this report. Rather, it is a compilation of information on the Hanford Site environment that can be used directly by Site contractors. This information can also be used by any interested individual seeking baseline data on the Hanford Site and its past activities by which to evaluate projected activities and their impacts.

  12. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohay, A.C.; Fosmire, C.J.; Neitzel, D.A.; Hoitink, D.J.; Harvey, D.W.; Antonio, E.J.; Wright, M.K.; Thorne, P.D.; Hendrickson, P.L.; Fowler, R.A.; Goodwin, S.M.; Poston, T.M.

    1999-09-28

    This document describes the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site environment. It is updated each year and is intended to provide a consistent description of the Hanford Site environment for the many NEPA documents being prepared by DOE contractors. No conclusions or recommendations are provided. This year's report is the eleventh revision of the original document published in 1988 and is (until replaced by the 12th revision) the only version that is relevant for use in the preparation of Hanford NEPA; SEPA and CERCLA documents. The two chapters included in this document (Chapters 4 and 6) are numbered to correspond to the chapters where such information is presented in environmental impact statements (EISs) and other Site-related NEPA or CERCLA documentation. Chapter 4.0 (Affected Environment) describes Hanford Site climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology, ecology, cultural, archaeological and historical resources, socioeconomic; occupational safety, and noise. Sources for extensive tabular data related to these topics are provided in the chapter. Most subjects are divided into a general description of the characteristics of the Hanford Site, followed by site-specific information, where available, of the 100,200,300, and other Areas. This division allows the reader to go directly to those sections of particular interest. When specific information on each of these separate areas is not complete or available, the general Hanford Site description should be used. Chapter 6.0 (Statutory and Regulatory Requirements) is essentially a definitive NEPA Chapter 6.0, which describes applicable federal and state laws and regulations, DOE directives and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable to the NEPA documents on the Hanford Site. People preparing environmental assessments and EISs should also be cognizant of the document entitled ''Recommendations for the Preparation of Environmental Assessments and Environmental Impact

  13. Packaging policies to reform the water sector: The case of the Central Valley Project Improvement Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischhendler, Itay; Zilberman, David

    2005-07-01

    Existing water policies often deviate from measures suggested by economic and environmental analysis. This is particularly true in the case of drought response policies, where effective policies are rarely adopted. This study focuses on how to enhance the political feasibility of options rather than identifying the optimal water policies. It argues that a legislative policy package may be a mechanism both to unite divergent interest groups into a coalition with common policy agendas and also to fragment or realign existing and traditional alliances. This majority building approach may have a greater chance of obtaining the required political support to advance water reforms. The negotiation over the Central Valley Project Improvement Act in California is used as an example. The case study illustrates how the policy packaging strategy split the traditional power alliance between the agricultural sector and the urban sector in California and between the agricultural sector in California and their allies in other U.S. western states. At the same time, policy packaging has created new regional and sectoral advocacy coalitions in support of water reform. As a result, the Bureau of Reclamation changed its policies in the Central Valley in California relating to the establishment of water markets, water pricing, and wildlife restoration fund and allocating water for the environment.

  14. Official Policies and Teachers' Tendency to Act: Exploring the Discrepancies in Teachers' Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapira-Lishchinsky, Orly; Gilat, Israel Z.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate whether there are discrepancies between teachers' perceptions of the "official policies" and their "tendency to act," based on their ethical decision-making. A qualitative analysis of 60 Israeli teachers' questionnaires consisting of critical ethical incidents revealed multifaceted ethical…

  15. 76 FR 16391 - Call for Innovative National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Pilot Project Proposals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ... QUALITY Call for Innovative National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Pilot Project Proposals AGENCY: Council On Environmental Quality. ACTION: Notice of Availability, Call for Innovative National..., or excessively burdensome. 76 FR 3821, Jan. 21, 2011; 40 CFR 1500-1508. DATES: The Call...

  16. Environmental and social risks: defensive National Environmental Policy Act in the US Forest Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael J. Mortimer; Marc J. Stern; Robert W. Malmsheimer; Dale J. Blahna; Lee K. Cerveny; David N. Seesholtz

    2011-01-01

    The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and its accompanying regulations provide a spectrum of alternative analytical pathways for federal agencies proposing major actions that might significantly impact the human environment. Although guidance from the President's council on Environmental Quality suggests the decision to develop an environmental impact...

  17. Flexible Workplace Policies: Lessons from the Federal Alternative Work Schedules Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liechty, Janet M.; Anderson, Elaine A.

    2007-01-01

    This case study uses a feminist framework to examine the 7-year process by which the Federal Alternative Work Schedules Act (1978-1985) became law and the reasons for reenergized implementation in the 1990s. We analyze the legislative discourse for rationale in support of and opposition to this policy, connect findings to current flexible work…

  18. 77 FR 36177 - National Environmental Policy Act Compliance for Proposed Tower Registrations; Effects of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-18

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 1, 17, 22, 24, 25, 27, 80, 87, and 90 National Environmental Policy Act Compliance... on the environmental effects of a proposed structure that requires registration; determining if the... application while the ASR application is going through the new environmental notice process as required by...

  19. P.L. 94-163, "Energy Policy and Conservation Act" (EPCA) (1975)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-12-13

    Energy Policy and Conservation Act. Bill Summary & Status 94th Congress. Issue orders prohibiting power plants and major fuel burning installations from using natural gas or petroleum products as fuel if they had been capable on June 22, 1974, of burning coal.

  20. The Quality Teacher and Education Act in San Francisco: Lessons Learned. Policy Brief 09-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hough, Heather J.

    2009-01-01

    This policy brief reviews the recent experience of the San Francisco Unified School District (SFUSD) with the development and approval of Proposition A. Proposition A (also known as the Quality Teacher and Education Act, or QTEA) included a parcel tax mainly dedicated to increasing teachers' salaries, along with a variety of measures introducing…

  1. Immunology Mechanism of CD4+ CD25 T Regulatory Cells Acting on Effector T Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENGNing-han; WUHong-fei; WUJun; ZHANGWei; SUIYuan-gen; HEHou-guang; ZHANGChun-lei; ZHENGJun-song

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To detect the inhibiting co-stimulating molecule CTLA4 and cytokines secreted by Treg cells, and explore the immunology mechanism of T regulatory cells acting on effector T cells in co-cultured system(CCS) and separating-cultured system(SCS). Methods: Detecting the percentage of CTLA4 and CD28 expressed on the Treg ceils and effector T ceils, and then adding Treg cells to mixed lymphocyte reaction(MLR) system in CCS and TransWeil Milliceil-PCF SCS, at the same time, adding or not adding anti-IL-10 or anti-TGF.II1 to the reacting systems, examining the inhibitory capacity of Treg ceils exerting on the MLR. Results: Compared with effector T cells, Treg cells expressed higher level CTLA4 and secreted much more IL-10 and TGF-β(P<0.01). The inhibitory capacity of Treg cells co-cultured with effector T ceils is much stronger than that in separating cultured group(P<0.01). Moreover, the inhibiting rate of Treg ceils exerting on effector T ceils through secretin_g IL-10 was more powerful than that through secreting TGF-β1 (P<0.01). Coaclusion: Both ceil-to-ceil contact and cytokines secretion mechanisms are involved in CD4+ CD25+ Treg ceils operating function. However, the former is more important. Intresfingly, we for the first time pointfound that IL-10 plays more powerful roles than TGF-β1 in the cytokines secretion mechanism.

  2. Working with Policy and Regulatory Factors to Implement Universal Design in the Built Environment: The Australian Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Larkin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Built environments that are usable by all provide opportunities for engagement in meaningful occupations. However, enabling them in day to day design processes and practice is problematic for relevant professions. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to gain greater understanding of the policy and regulatory influences that promote or hinder the uptake of universal design in built environments, to inform better future design. Focus groups or telephone interviews were undertaken with 28 key building industry and disability stakeholders in Australia. Four themes were identified: the difficulties of definition; the push or pull of regulations and policy; the role of formal standards; and, shifting the focus of design thinking. The findings highlight the complexity of working within policy and regulatory contexts when implementing universal design. Occupational therapists working with colleagues from other professions must be aware of these influences, and develop the skills to work with them for successful practice.

  3. 75 FR 8046 - National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Draft Guidance, “Consideration of the Effects of Climate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... QUALITY National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Draft Guidance, ``Consideration of the Effects of Climate... Availability, Draft Guidance, ``Consideration of the Effects of Climate Change and Greenhouse Gas Emissions... Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). Enacted in 1970, NEPA is a fundamental tool used to harmonize our economic...

  4. 75 FR 52374 - National Environmental Policy Act; NASA Glenn Research Center Plum Brook Station Wind Farm Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-25

    ... Environmental Policy Act; NASA Glenn Research Center Plum Brook Station Wind Farm Project AGENCY: National... and to conduct scoping for the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). SUMMARY: NASA intends to conduct... Project located near Sandusky, Ohio, pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, as...

  5. 75 FR 8046 - National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Draft Guidance, “NEPA Mitigation and Monitoring.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Draft Guidance, ``NEPA Mitigation and Monitoring... implementation of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). Enacted in 1970, NEPA is a fundamental tool...

  6. 36 CFR 801.6 - Coordination with requirements under the National Environmental Policy Act (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements under the National Environmental Policy Act (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.). 801.6 Section 801.6 Parks... National Environmental Policy Act (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.). The National Historic Preservation Act and the National Environmental Policy Act create separate and distinct responsibilities. The National...

  7. 78 FR 24739 - Draft Policy Papers Released for Public Comment: Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-26

    ... AGENCY Draft Policy Papers Released for Public Comment: Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964... programs and activities. Today, EPA has released two draft policy papers for public comment. The first.... EPA's policy is that all comments received will be included in the public docket without change...

  8. Nuclear regulatory legislation, 104th Congress, Volume 1, No. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This document is the first of two volumes compiling statutes and material pertaining to nuclear regulatory legislation through the 104th Congress, 2nd Session. It is intended for use as a U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) internal resource document. Legislative information reproduced in this document includes portions of the Atomic Energy Act, Energy Reorganization Act, Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act, and Nuclear Waste Policy Act. Other information included in this volume pertains to NRC user fees, NRC authorizations, the Inspector General Act, and the Administrative Procedure Act.

  9. Development and Delivery of Coursework: The Legal/Regulatory/Policy Environment of Cyberforensics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W. Bagby

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a cyber-forensics course that integrates important public policy and legal issues as well as relevant forensic techniques. Cyber-forensics refers to the amalgam of multi-disciplinary activities involved in the identification, gathering, handling, custody, use and security of electronic files and records, involving expertise from the forensic domain, and which produces evidence useful in the proof of facts for both commercial and legal activities. The legal and regulatory environment in which electronic discovery takes place is of critical importance to cyber-forensics experts because the legal process imposes both constraints and opportunities for the effective use of evidence gathered through cyber-forensic techniques. This paper discusses different pedagogies that can be used (including project teams, research and writing assignments, student presentations, case analyses, class activities and participation and examinations, evaluation methods, problem-based learning approaches and critical thinking analysis. A survey and evaluation is provided of the growing body of applicable print and online materials that can be utilized. Target populations for such a course includes students with majors, minors or supporting elective coursework in law, information sciences, information technology, computer science, computer engineering, financial fraud, security and information assurance, forensic aspects of cyber security, privacy, and electronic commerce.

  10. Screening in silico predicted remotely acting NF1 gene regulatory elements for mutations in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamby, Stephen E; Reviriego, Pablo; Cooper, David N; Upadhyaya, Meena; Chuzhanova, Nadia

    2013-08-15

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), a neuroectodermal disorder, is caused by germline mutations in the NF1 gene. NF1 affects approximately 1/3,000 individuals worldwide, with about 50% of cases representing de novo mutations. Although the NF1 gene was identified in 1990, the underlying gene mutations still remain undetected in a small but obdurate minority of NF1 patients. We postulated that in these patients, hitherto undetected pathogenic mutations might occur in regulatory elements far upstream of the NF1 gene. In an attempt to identify such remotely acting regulatory elements, we reasoned that some of them might reside within DNA sequences that (1) have the potential to interact at distance with the NF1 gene and (2) lie within a histone H3K27ac-enriched region, a characteristic of active enhancers. Combining Hi-C data, obtained by means of the chromosome conformation capture technique, with data on the location and level of histone H3K27ac enrichment upstream of the NF1 gene, we predicted in silico the presence of two remotely acting regulatory regions, located, respectively, approximately 600 kb and approximately 42 kb upstream of the NF1 gene. These regions were then sequenced in 47 NF1 patients in whom no mutations had been found in either the NF1 or SPRED1 gene regions. Five patients were found to harbour DNA sequence variants in the distal H3K27ac-enriched region. Although these variants are of uncertain pathological significance and still remain to be functionally characterized, this approach promises to be of general utility for the detection of mutations underlying other inherited disorders that may be caused by mutations in remotely acting regulatory elements.

  11. A saturation screen for cis-acting regulatory DNA in the Hox genes of Ciona intestinalis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keys, David N.; Lee, Byung-in; Di Gregorio, Anna; Harafuji, Naoe; Detter, Chris; Wang, Mei; Kahsai, Orsalem; Ahn, Sylvia; Arellano, Andre; Zhang, Quin; Trong, Stephan; Doyle, Sharon A.; Satoh, Noriyuki; Satou, Yutaka; Saiga, Hidetoshi; Christian, Allen; Rokhsar, Dan; Hawkins, Trevor L.; Levine, Mike; Richardson, Paul

    2005-01-05

    A screen for the systematic identification of cis-regulatory elements within large (>100 kb) genomic domains containing Hox genes was performed by using the basal chordate Ciona intestinalis. Randomly generated DNA fragments from bacterial artificial chromosomes containing two clusters of Hox genes were inserted into a vector upstream of a minimal promoter and lacZ reporter gene. A total of 222 resultant fusion genes were separately electroporated into fertilized eggs, and their regulatory activities were monitored in larvae. In sum, 21 separable cis-regulatory elements were found. These include eight Hox linked domains that drive expression in nested anterior-posterior domains of ectodermally derived tissues. In addition to vertebrate-like CNS regulation, the discovery of cis-regulatory domains that drive epidermal transcription suggests that C. intestinalis has arthropod-like Hox patterning in the epidermis.

  12. Energy Policy Act transportation rate study: Availability of data and studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-13

    Pursuant to Section 1340(c) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT), this report presents the Secretary of Energy`s review of data collected by the Federal Government on rates for rail and pipeline transportation of domestic coal, oil, and gas for the years 1988 through 1997, and proposals to develop an adequate data base for each of the fuels, based on the data availability review. This report also presents the Energy Information Administration`s findings regarding the extent to which any Federal agency is studying the impacts of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA90) and other Federal policies on the transportation rates and distribution patterns of domestic coal, oil, and gas.

  13. Developing Moral Sport Policies Through Act-Utilitarianism Based on Bentham’s Hedonic Calculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROBERT C. SCHNEIDER

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Moral policy can be developed and maintained in sport organizations through an approach that incorporates act-utilitarianism (AU based on Jeremy Bentham’s hedonic calculus (HC. Sport managers’ effective application of AU based on HC takes on the form of a holistic approach to moral policy development and maintenance and requires an under-standing of the parts and process of a strict adherence to AU based on HC. The traits of common sense, habits, and past experience are supported by the utilitarian views held by Bentham and Mill to accurately predict happiness and un-happiness that result from actions (Beauchamp, 1982 and are also necessary to drive a holistic approach of AU based on HC that develops and maintains moral policy in sport organizations.

  14. The diffusion of innovation in nursing regulatory policy: removing a barrier to medication administration training for child care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torre, Carolyn T; Crowley, Angela A

    2011-08-01

    Safe medication administration is an essential component of high-quality child care. Its achievement in New Jersey was impeded by a controversy over whether teaching child care providers medication administration involves registered nurses in the process of nursing delegation. Through the theoretical framework of the Diffusion of Innovation, this paper examines how the interpretation of regulatory policy related to nursing practice in New Jersey was adjusted by the Board of Nursing following a similar interpretation of regulatory policy by the Board of Nursing in Connecticut. This adjustment enabled New Jersey nurses to continue medication administration training for child care providers. National data supporting the need for training child care providers in medication administration is presented, the Diffusion of Innovation paradigm is described; the Connecticut case and the New Jersey dilemma are discussed; the diffusion process between the two states is analyzed and an assessment of the need for further change is made.

  15. Local policies for DSM: the UK's home energy conservation act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, E. [London (United Kingdom); Leach, M. [Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom). TH Huxley School of the Environment, Earth Science and Engineering, Energy-Environment Policy Research Group; Wade, J. [The Association for the Conservation of Energy, London (United Kingdom)

    2000-03-01

    Residential energy use accounts for approximately 28 per cent of total primary energy use in the UK, with consumption in this sector forecast to increase due partly to expanding numbers of households. Finding ways to reduce residential energy consumption must form a key part of the climate change strategies of the UK and all developed countries. In 1995, an innovative piece of legislation was passed in the UK, devolving residential energy efficiency responsibility to local government. Under 'The Home Energy Conservation Act' (HECA), local authorities are obliged to consider the energy efficiency of private as well as public housing stock. Authorities were given a duty to produce a strategy for improving residential energy efficiency in their area by 30 per cent in the next 10-15 years. This paper describes the enormous variation in the quality of local authorities' strategies and discusses reasons for this variation. Based on a nationwide survey of HECA lead officers, it considers the opportunities and constraints facing local authorities, and what has been achieved to-date under the Act. It also examines how HECA fits into the UK's national energy policy and explains the roles of other institutions across the public, private and voluntary sector in facilitating implementation of the Act. Finally, the paper considers how other countries can learn from the UK's HECA experience and can use the Act as a template to apply the principle of subsidiarity to this area of environmental policy. (Author)

  16. Native American Language Education as Policy-in-Practice: An Interpretative Policy Analysis of the Native American Languages Act of 1990/1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warhol, Larisa

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on findings from an interpretive policy analysis of the development and impacts of landmark federal legislation in support of Native American languages: the 1990/1992 Native American Languages Act (NALA). Overturning more than two centuries of federal Indian policy, NALA established the federal role in preserving and protecting…

  17. The use of social science knowledge in implementing the Nuclear Waste Policy Act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradbury, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    This study investigates the use of social science knowledge by the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), a division of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), in implementing the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. The use of social science is examined both generally and in relation to a body of knowledge most relevant to the program, the social science risk literature. The study is restricted to the use by headquarters staff in relation to the largest repository and Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) projects. The literature on knowledge utilization and the Sabatier framework on knowledge use and policy learning provide the theoretical framework for the study. The research adopts a multistrategy approach, collecting data from two sources: (1) program documents, policy guidance, and meeting records; and (2) interviews with OCRWM officials. The constructs knowledge and use are conceptualized in different ways, each of which forms the basis for a different analytic approach. The research findings showed a very limited use of social science, more especially by the first repository program. Two reasons are advanced. First, the agency has viewed social science knowledge through technical lens and has applied an approach suited to technical problems to its structuring of waste management policy problems. Second, the degree of societal conflict over nuclear power and nuclear waste has prevented a constructive dialogue among the parties and thus reduced the possibility of policy learning.

  18. Energy policy by beauty contests: the legitimacy of interactive sustainability policies at regional levels of the regulatory state

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, Maurits; Heldeweg, Michiel A.; Straatman, Elly G.P.; Wempe, Johan F.D.B.

    2014-01-01

    Background To achieve the ambition of the energy transition in the built environment, Dutch local governments try to motivate citizens to participate as communities in policy processes. There is a general expectation that such an interactive approach will foster a more rational policy output and

  19. 41 CFR 102-76.35 - What is the purpose of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, as amended (NEPA)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, as amended (NEPA)? 102-76.35 Section 102-76.35 Public... MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 76-DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION Design and Construction National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 § 102-76.35 What is the purpose of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969,...

  20. Workshop: Improving the Assessment and Valuation of Climate Change Impacts for Policy and Regulatory Analysis: Research on Climate Change Impacts and Associated Economic Damages (part 2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a workshop titled Improving the Assessment and Valuation of Climate Change Impacts for Policy and Regulatory Analysis: Research on Climate Change Impacts and Associated Economic Damages (part 2)

  1. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain site, Nevada research and development area, Nevada: Consultation draft, Nuclear Waste Policy Act: Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain site in Nevada is one of three candidate sites for the first geologic repository for radioactive waste. On May 28, 1986, it was recommended for detailed study in a program of site characterization. This site characterization plan (SCP) has been prepared in accordance with the requirements of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act to summarize the information collected to date about the geologic conditions at the site; to describe the conceptual designs for the repository and the waste package and to present the plans for obtaining the geologic information necessary to demonstrate the suitability of the site for a repository, to design the repository and the waste package, to prepare an environmental impact statement, and to obtain from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) an authorization to construct the repository. Chapter 3 summarizes present knowledge of the regional and site hydrologic systems. The purpose of the information presented is to (1) describe the hydrology based on available literature and preliminary site-exploration activities that have been or are being performed and (2) provide information to be used to develop the hydrologic aspects of the planned site characterization program. Chapter 4 contains geochemical information about the Yucca Mountain site. The chapter references plan for continued collection of geochemical data as a part of the site characterization program. Chapter 4 describes and evaluates data on the existing climate and site meterology, and outlines the suggested procedures to be used in developing and validating methods to predict future climatic variation. 534 refs., 100 figs., 72 tabs.

  2. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain site, Nevada research and development area, Nevada: Consultation draft, Nuclear Waste Policy Act: Volume 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain site in Neavada is one of three candidate sites for the first geologic repository for radioactive waste. On May 28, 1986, it was recommended and approved for detailed study in a program of site characterization. This site characterization plan (SCP) has been prepared in accordance with the requirements of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act to summarize the information collected to date about the geologic conditions at the site;to describe the conceptual designs for the repository and the waste package;and to present the plans for obtaining hte geologic information necessary to demonstrate the suitability of the site for a repository, to design the repository and the waste package, to prepare and environmental impact statement, and to obtain from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) an authorization to construct the repository. This introduction begins with a brief section on the process for siting and developing a repository, followed by a discussion of the pertinent legislation and regulations. A description of site characterization is presented next;it describes the facilities to be constructed for the site characterization program and explains the principal activities to be conducted during the program. Finally, the purpose, content, organizing principles, and organization of this site characterization plan are outlined, and compliance with applicable regulations is discussed.

  3. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain site, Nevada research and development area, Nevada: Consultation draft, Nuclear Waste Policy Act: Volume 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain site in Nevada is one of three candidate sites for the first geologic repository for radioactive waste. On May 28, 1986, it was recommended for detailed study in a program of site characterization. This site characterization plan (SCP) has been prepared in accordance with the requirements of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act to summarize the information collected to date about the geologic conditions at the site;to describe the conceptual designs for the repository and the waste package;and to present the plans for obtaining the geologic information necessary to demonstrate the suitability of the site for repository, to design the repository and the waste package, to prepare an environmental impact statement, and to obtain from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) an authorization to construct the repository. This introduction begins with a brief section on the process for siting and developing a repository, followed by a discussion of the pertinent legislation and regulations. A description of site characterization is presented next;it describes the facilities to be constructed for the site characterization program and explains the principal activities to be conducted during the program. Finally, the purpose, content, organizing principles, and organization of this site characterization plan are outlined, and compliance with applicable regulations is discussed.

  4. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain site, Nevada research and development area, Nevada: Consultation draft, Nuclear Waste Policy Act: Volume 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain site in Nevada is one of three candidate sites for the first geologic repository for radioactive waste. On May 28, 1986, it was recommended and approved by the President for detailed study in a program of site characterization. This site characterization plan (SCP) has been prepared in accordance with the requirements of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act to summarize the information collected to date about the geologic conditions at the site; to describe the conceptual designs for the repository and the waste package; and to present the plans for obtaining the geologic information necessary to demonstate the suitability of the site for a repository, to desin the repository and the waste package, to prepare an environmental impact statement, and to obtain from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) an authorization to construct the repository. This introduction begins with a brief section on the process for siting and developing a repository, followed by a discussion of the pertinent legislation and regulations. A description of site characterization is presented next; it describes the facilities to be constructed for the site characterization program and explains the principal activities to be conducted during the program. Finally, the purpose, content, organizing principles, and organization of this site characterization plan are outlined, and compliance with applicable regulations is discussed.

  5. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain site, Nevada research and development area, Nevada: Consultation draft, Nuclear Waste Policy Act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain site in Nevada is one of three candidate sites for the first geologic repository for radioactive waste. On May 28, 1986, it was recommended by the Secretary of Energy and approved by the President for detailed study in a program of site characterization. This site characterization plan (SCP) has been prepared by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in accordance with the requirements of the Nulcear Waste Policy Act to summarize the information collected to date about the geologic conditions at the site;to describe the conceptual designs for the repository and the waste package;and to present the plans for obtaining the geologic information necessary to demonstrate the suitability of the site for a repository, to design the repository and the waste package, to prepare an environmental impact statement, and to obtain from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) an authorization to construct the repository. This introduction begins with a brief section on the process for siting and developing a repository, followed by a discussion of the pertinent legislation and regulations. A description of site characterization is presented next;it describes the facilities to be constructed for the site characterization program and explains the principal activities to be conducted during the program. Finally, the purpose, content, organizing principles, and organization of the site characterization plan are oulined, and compliance with applicable regulations is discussed.

  6. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain site, Nevada research and development area, Nevada: Consultation draft, Nuclear Waste Policy Act: Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain site in Nevada is one of three candidate sites for the first geologic repository for radioactive waste. On May 28, 1986, it was recommended for detailed study in a program of site characterization. This site characterization plan (SCP) has been prepared in acordance with the requirements of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act to summarize the information collected to date about the geologic conditions at the site;to describe the conceptual designs for the repository and the waste package and to present the plans for obtaining the geologic information necessary to demonstrate the suitability of the site for a repository, to design the repository and the waste package, to prepare an environmental impact statement, and to obtain from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) an authorization to construct the repository. This introduction begins with a brief section on the process for siting and eveloping a repository, followed by a discussion of the pertinent legislation and regulations. A description of site characterization is presented next;it describes the facilities to be constructed for the site characterization program and explains the principal activities to be conducted during the program. Finally, the purpose, content, organizing prinicples, and organization of this site characterization plan are outlined, and compliance with applicable regulations is discussed. 880 refs., 130 figs., 25 tabs.

  7. Distinct regulatory mechanisms act to establish and maintain Pax3 expression in the developing neural tube.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Moore

    Full Text Available Pattern formation in developing tissues is driven by the interaction of extrinsic signals with intrinsic transcriptional networks that together establish spatially and temporally restricted profiles of gene expression. How this process is orchestrated at the molecular level by genomic cis-regulatory modules is one of the central questions in developmental biology. Here we have addressed this by analysing the regulation of Pax3 expression in the context of the developing spinal cord. Pax3 is induced early during neural development in progenitors of the dorsal spinal cord and is maintained as pattern is subsequently elaborated, resulting in the segregation of the tissue into dorsal and ventral subdivisions. We used a combination of comparative genomics and transgenic assays to define and dissect several functional cis-regulatory modules associated with the Pax3 locus. We provide evidence that the coordinated activity of two modules establishes and refines Pax3 expression during neural tube development. Mutational analyses of the initiating element revealed that in addition to Wnt signaling, Nkx family homeodomain repressors restrict Pax3 transcription to the presumptive dorsal neural tube. Subsequently, a second module mediates direct positive autoregulation and feedback to maintain Pax3 expression. Together, these data indicate a mechanism by which transient external signals are converted into a sustained expression domain by the activities of distinct regulatory elements. This transcriptional logic differs from the cross-repression that is responsible for the spatiotemporal patterns of gene expression in the ventral neural tube, suggesting that a variety of circuits are deployed within the neural tube regulatory network to establish and elaborate pattern formation.

  8. School to Work Opportunities Act Policy--An Effort at Backward Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur M. Recesso

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the intent of federal policy and the actual implementation within local school districts. Specifically, the focus is on the Federal School to Work Opportunities Act of 1994 and its implementation in 47 school districts in upstate New York as part of a consortium during the 1995-96 school year. The purpose of the study was to determine 1 the extent to which an agreement to participate in a consortium arrangement designed to facilitate the implementation of a specific Federal or state policy resulted in the active implementation efforts by individual consortium members, and 2 how a high school setting where School to Work activities were perceived by local stakeholders as having great specific and important effects differed from a high school setting where School to Work activities were perceived by local stakeholders as having some or no effect. A bottom-up backward mapping policy analysis model was used for the purposes of this study. Local level data was used to create performance, environment, technology implementation, and School to Work implementation profiles of local high schools. Regression and correlation analyses were used to determine the relationship between stakeholder perceptions and local high school characteristics. Results of the study were reported and interpreted with the aim of furthering research and knowledge of policy analysis and the use of local level data to determine the success of policy implementation. This study found that variation between federal intent and local adaptation is explained by characteristics of the high school and perceptions of stakeholders. School to Work policy implementation, perceived by the high school administrator as a stakeholder, varied significantly by high school student performance, environment in which the high school operates, and level of technology implementation in the high school. Results indicated that the backward mapping policy analysis model is effective in

  9. 77 FR 4927 - Loan Workouts and Nonaccrual Policy, and Regulatory Reporting of Troubled Debt Restructured Loans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    ... require federally insured credit unions (FICUs) to maintain written policies that address the management... guidance entitled ``Uniform Retail Credit Classification and Account Management Policy.'' 65 FR 36903 (June... compliance. The Board seeks to ensure loan workout management is subject to written credit union policies...

  10. The State of Diabetes Prevention Policy in the USA Following the Affordable Care Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konchak, Juleigh Nowinski; Moran, Margaret R; O'Brien, Matthew J; Kandula, Namratha R; Ackermann, Ronald T

    2016-06-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a major public health problem in the USA, affecting over 12 % of American adults and imposing considerable health and economic burden on individuals and society. There is a strong evidence base demonstrating that lifestyle behavioral changes and some medications can prevent or delay the onset of type 2 diabetes in high risk adults, and several policy and healthcare system changes motivated by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) have the potential to accelerate diabetes prevention. In this narrative review, we (1) offer a conceptual framework for organizing how the ACA may influence diabetes prevention efforts at the level of individuals, healthcare providers, and health systems; (2) highlight ACA provisions at each of these levels that could accelerate type 2 diabetes prevention nationwide; and (3) explore possible policy gaps and opportunity areas for future research and action.

  11. 7 CFR Exhibit C to Subpart G of... - Implementation Procedures for the Farmland Protection Policy Act; Executive Order 11988...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...; and Departmental Regulation 9500-3, Land Use Policy C Exhibit C to Subpart G of Part 1940 Agriculture..., Land Use Policy 1. Background. The Subtitle I of the Agriculture and Food Act of 1981, Pub. L. 97-98... practicable, elevate structures above the base flood level rather than filling in the land.” (d)...

  12. Hanford Site implementation of the National Environmental Policy Act: Activities tracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Killinger, M.H.; Selby, K.B.

    1989-06-01

    The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) environmental review process is mandatory for federal agencies. This report provides the DOE Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and the Hanford contractors with a method for tracking, integrating, and coordinating NEPA compliance activities at the Hanford Site. The environmental review process is briefly described and illustrated in a flow chart. The report then explains a method for developing project timecharts that show when documents or decision points were completed or are projected to be completed. The tracking system has been automated and placed on the Hanford Local Area Network (HLAN). Time schedules for many Hanford projects are available for viewing. 4 refs., 6 figs.

  13. Primary care physician attitudes and perceptions of the impact of FDA-proposed REMS policy on prescription of extended-release and long-acting opioids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salinas GD

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Gregory D Salinas, Caroline O Robinson, Maziar AbdolrasulniaCE Outcomes LLC, Birmingham, AL, USAAbstract: With increasing numbers of patients experiencing chronic pain, opioid therapy is becoming more common, leading to increases in concern about issues of abuse, diversion, and misuse. Further, the US Food and Drug Administration recently released a statement notifying sponsors and manufacturers of extended-release and long-acting opioids of the need to develop Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategies (REMS programs in order to ensure that the benefits of this therapy choice outweigh the potential risks. There is little research on physician opinions concerning opioid-prescribing and education policies. To assess attitudes surrounding new opioid policies, a survey was designed and distributed to primary care physicians in October 2011. Data collected from 201 primary care physicians show that most are not familiar with the REMS requirements proposed by the Food and Drug Administration for extended-release and long-acting opioids; there is no consensus among primary care physicians on the impact of prescribing requirements on patient education and care; and increasing requirements for extended-release and long-acting opioid education may decrease opioid prescribing. Physician attitudes toward increased regulatory oversight of opioid therapy prescriptions should be taken into consideration by groups developing these interventions to ensure that they do not cause undue burden on already busy primary care physicians.Keywords: REMS, opioids, attitudes, survey

  14. Intrastate and interstate supply markets under the Natural Gas Policy Act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, M.; O' Neill, R.; Shambaugh, P.; Trapmann, W.

    1981-10-01

    This report examines the interstate and intrastate markets in a historical perspective, particularly as they relate to the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978. Specifically, the intrastate market at the time of NGPA enactment is examined with respect to sales quantities, prices, rollover contracts, and price escalation clauses. Also, a comparison of the pipeline purchasing behavior in the interstate and intrastate markets since NGPA enactment is included. Using the information currently available, this study reaches five general conclusions: (1) There will be a significant difference in the price ceilings for old gas in the interstate and intrastate markets. All old interstate gas is governed by just and reasonable prices under the Natural Gas Act. Old intrastate gas has higher price ceilings and with the indefinite clauses, should experience faster price growth. (2) In 1985 old interstate gas, which remains under controls indefinitely, will remain at low prices.

  15. Spread of anti-malarial drug resistance: Mathematical model with implications for ACT drug policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dondorp Arjen M

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most malaria-endemic countries are implementing a change in anti-malarial drug policy to artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT. The impact of different drug choices and implementation strategies is uncertain. Data from many epidemiological studies in different levels of malaria endemicity and in areas with the highest prevalence of drug resistance like borders of Thailand are certainly valuable. Formulating an appropriate dynamic data-driven model is a powerful predictive tool for exploring the impact of these strategies quantitatively. Methods A comprehensive model was constructed incorporating important epidemiological and biological factors of human, mosquito, parasite and treatment. The iterative process of developing the model, identifying data needed, and parameterization has been taken to strongly link the model to the empirical evidence. The model provides quantitative measures of outcomes, such as malaria prevalence/incidence and treatment failure, and illustrates the spread of resistance in low and high transmission settings. The model was used to evaluate different anti-malarial policy options focusing on ACT deployment. Results The model predicts robustly that in low transmission settings drug resistance spreads faster than in high transmission settings, and treatment failure is the main force driving the spread of drug resistance. In low transmission settings, ACT slows the spread of drug resistance to a partner drug, especially at high coverage rates. This effect decreases exponentially with increasing delay in deploying the ACT and decreasing rates of coverage. In the high transmission settings, however, drug resistance is driven by the proportion of the human population with a residual drug level, which gives resistant parasites some survival advantage. The spread of drug resistance could be slowed down by controlling presumptive drug use and avoiding the use of combination therapies containing drugs with

  16. Spread of anti-malarial drug resistance: mathematical model with implications for ACT drug policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongtavornpinyo, Wirichada; Yeung, Shunmay; Hastings, Ian M; Dondorp, Arjen M; Day, Nicholas P J; White, Nicholas J

    2008-11-02

    Most malaria-endemic countries are implementing a change in anti-malarial drug policy to artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT). The impact of different drug choices and implementation strategies is uncertain. Data from many epidemiological studies in different levels of malaria endemicity and in areas with the highest prevalence of drug resistance like borders of Thailand are certainly valuable. Formulating an appropriate dynamic data-driven model is a powerful predictive tool for exploring the impact of these strategies quantitatively. A comprehensive model was constructed incorporating important epidemiological and biological factors of human, mosquito, parasite and treatment. The iterative process of developing the model, identifying data needed, and parameterization has been taken to strongly link the model to the empirical evidence. The model provides quantitative measures of outcomes, such as malaria prevalence/incidence and treatment failure, and illustrates the spread of resistance in low and high transmission settings. The model was used to evaluate different anti-malarial policy options focusing on ACT deployment. The model predicts robustly that in low transmission settings drug resistance spreads faster than in high transmission settings, and treatment failure is the main force driving the spread of drug resistance. In low transmission settings, ACT slows the spread of drug resistance to a partner drug, especially at high coverage rates. This effect decreases exponentially with increasing delay in deploying the ACT and decreasing rates of coverage. In the high transmission settings, however, drug resistance is driven by the proportion of the human population with a residual drug level, which gives resistant parasites some survival advantage. The spread of drug resistance could be slowed down by controlling presumptive drug use and avoiding the use of combination therapies containing drugs with mismatched half-lives, together with reducing malaria

  17. Groundwater contamination from waste management sites: The interaction between risk-based engineering design and regulatory policy: 1. Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massmann, Joel; Freeze, R. Allan

    1987-02-01

    This paper puts in place a risk-cost-benefit analysis for waste management facilities that explicitly recognizes the adversarial relationship that exists in a regulated market economy between the owner/operator of a waste management facility and the government regulatory agency under whose terms the facility must be licensed. The risk-cost-benefit analysis is set up from the perspective of the owner/operator. It can be used directly by the owner/operator to assess alternative design strategies. It can also be used by the regulatory agency to assess alternative regulatory policy, but only in an indirect manner, by examining the response of an owner/operator to the stimuli of various policies. The objective function is couched in terms of a discounted stream of benefits, costs, and risks over an engineering time horizon. Benefits are in the form of revenues for services provided; costs are those of construction and operation of the facility. Risk is defined as the cost associated with the probability of failure, with failure defined as the occurrence of a groundwater contamination event that violates the licensing requirements established for the facility. Failure requires a breach of the containment structure and contaminant migration through the hydrogeological environment to a compliance surface. The probability of failure can be estimated on the basis of reliability theory for the breach of containment and with a Monte-Carlo finite-element simulation for the advective contaminant transport. In the hydrogeological environment the hydraulic conductivity values are defined stochastically. The probability of failure is reduced by the presence of a monitoring network operated by the owner/operator and located between the source and the regulatory compliance surface. The level of reduction in the probability of failure depends on the probability of detection of the monitoring network, which can be calculated from the stochastic contaminant transport simulations. While

  18. Implementing Internationalization Policy in Higher Education Explained by Regulatory Control in Neoliberal Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Dian-Fu

    2015-01-01

    This research investigated the internationalization policy and involved evaluating the effects of policy-driven reform on universities in the context of neoliberal theory. In this study, 293 professors from various universities were invited to express their opinions on the selected indicators reflected the implementation of internationalization in…

  19. Dress codes and appearance policies: challenges under federal legislation, part 3: Title VII, the Americans with Disabilities Act, and the National Labor Relations Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Michael S; Koen, Clifford M; Darden, Stephen M

    2014-01-01

    As more and more individuals express themselves with tattoos and body piercings and push the envelope on what is deemed appropriate in the workplace, employers have an increased need for creation and enforcement of reasonable dress codes and appearance policies. As with any employment policy or practice, an appearance policy must be implemented and enforced without regard to an individual's race, color, sex, national origin, religion, disability, age, or any other protected status. A policy governing dress and appearance based on the business needs of an employer that is applied fairly and consistently and does not have a disproportionate effect on any protected class will generally be upheld if challenged in court. By examining some of the more common legal challenges to dress codes and how courts have resolved the disputes, health care managers can avoid many potential problems. This article, the third part of a 3-part examination of dress codes and appearance policies, focuses on the issues of race and national origin under the Civil Rights Act, disability under the Americans With Disabilities Act, and employees' rights to engage in concerted activities under the National Labor Relations Act. Pertinent court cases that provide guidance for employers are addressed.

  20. Multiple Regulatory Elements in the Arabidopsis NIA1 Promoter Act Synergistically to Form a Nitrate Enhancer1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rongchen; Guan, Peizhu; Chen, Mingsheng; Xing, Xiujuan; Zhang, Yali; Crawford, Nigel M.

    2010-01-01

    To accommodate fluctuating nutrient levels in the soil, plants modulate their metabolism and root development via signaling mechanisms that rapidly reprogram the plant transcriptome. In the case of nitrate, over 1,000 genes are induced or repressed within minutes of nitrate exposure. To identify cis-regulatory elements that mediate these responses, an enhancer screen was performed in transgenic Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants. A 1.8-kb promoter fragment from the nitrate reductase gene NIA1 was identified that acts as a nitrate enhancer when fused to a 35S minimal promoter. Enhancer activity was localized to a 180-bp fragment, and this activity could be enhanced by the addition of a 131-bp fragment from the nitrite reductase promoter. A promoter construct containing the 180- and 131-bp fragments was also induced by nitrite and repressed by ammonium, indicating that it was responsive to multiple nitrogen signals. To identify specific regulatory elements within the 180-bp NIA1 fragment, a transient expression system using agroinfiltration of Nicotiana benthamiana was developed. Deletion analysis identified three elements corresponding to predicted binding motifs for homeodomain/E-box, Myb, and Alfin1 transcription factors. A fully active promoter showing nitrate and nitrite enhancer activity equivalent to that of the wild-type 180-bp fragment could be built from these three elements if the spacing between the homeodomain/E-box and Myb-Alfin1 sites was equivalent to that of the native promoter. These findings were validated in transgenic Arabidopsis plants and identify a cis-regulatory module containing three elements that comprise a nitrate enhancer in the NIA1 promoter. PMID:20668061

  1. A trans-acting Variant within the Transcription Factor RIM101 Interacts with Genetic Background to Determine its Regulatory Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Timothy; Richmond, Phillip A; Dowell, Robin D

    2016-01-01

    Most genetic variants associated with disease occur within regulatory regions of the genome, underscoring the importance of defining the mechanisms underlying differences in regulation of gene expression between individuals. We discovered a pair of co-regulated, divergently oriented transcripts, AQY2 and ncFRE6, that are expressed in one strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, ∑1278b, but not in another, S288c. By combining classical genetics techniques with high-throughput sequencing, we identified a trans-acting single nucleotide polymorphism within the transcription factor RIM101 that causes the background-dependent expression of both transcripts. Subsequent RNA-seq experiments revealed that RIM101 regulates many more targets in S288c than in ∑1278b and that deletion of RIM101 in both backgrounds abrogates the majority of differential expression between the strains. Strikingly, only three transcripts undergo a significant change in expression after swapping RIM101 alleles between backgrounds, implying that the differences in the RIM101 allele lead to a remarkably focused transcriptional response. However, hundreds of RIM101-dependent targets undergo a subtle but consistent shift in expression in the S288c RIM101-swapped strain, but not its ∑1278b counterpart. We conclude that ∑1278b may harbor a variant(s) that buffers against widespread transcriptional dysregulation upon introduction of a non-native RIM101 allele, emphasizing the importance of accounting for genetic background when assessing the impact of a regulatory variant.

  2. Regulatory and Financial Reform of Federal Research Policy: Recommendations to the NRC Committee on Research Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association of American Universities, 2011

    2011-01-01

    At the request of the National Research Council (NRC) Committee on Research Universities, the Council on Governmental Relations (COGR), the Association of American Universities (AAU), and the Association of Public and Land-grant Universities (APLU) have assembled a set of ten recommendations for regulatory reform that would improve research…

  3. Constructing the "Media Competent" Child: Media Literacy and Regulatory Policy in the UK

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    David Buckingham

    2005-01-01

    ...: they are seen as inherently vulnerable, incomplete and dependent. This article considers how recent research on children and media relates to public policy, and specifically to current debates about media regulation in the UK...

  4. SOME UNDERSTANDING ON REGULATORY DETAILED PLAN FROM PERSPECTIVE OF POLICY%政策视角下对控制性详细规划的几点认识

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓东

    2011-01-01

    Based on the study of the Urban and Rural Planning Act and the Regulation on Making and Examining Regulatory Detailed Plan, this paper presents some opinions on the status, functions, regulating intention and requirements of the regulatory detailed plan from the angle of policy making theories as well as practical work.%结合自身对《城乡规划法》、《城市、镇控制性详细规划编制审批办法》的学习,重点从政策研究和制定的一般理论与工作要求出发,就控制性详细规划的地位作用、调控意图和要求等,提出个人的一些体会和认识.

  5. 18 CFR 284.3 - Jurisdiction under the Natural Gas Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Natural Gas Act. 284.3 Section 284.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OTHER REGULATIONS UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT OF 1978 AND RELATED AUTHORITIES CERTAIN SALES AND TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL GAS UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT OF 1978...

  6. Interpretive policy analysis: Marshallese COFA migrants and the Affordable Care Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElfish, Pearl Anna; Purvis, Rachel S; Maskarinec, Gregory G; Bing, Williamina Ioanna; Jacob, Christopher J; Ritok-Lakien, Mandy; Rubon-Chutaro, Jellesen; Lang, Sharlynn; Mamis, Sammie; Riklon, Sheldon

    2016-06-11

    Since the enactment of the Affordable Care Act (ACA), the rate of uninsured in the United States has declined significantly. However, not all legal residents have benefited equally. As part of a community-based participatory research (CBPR) partnership with the Marshallese community, an interpretative policy analysis research project was conducted to document Marshallese Compact of Free Association (COFA) migrants' understanding and experiences regarding the ACA and related health policies. This article is structured to allow the voice of Marshallese COFA migrants to explain their understanding and interpretation of the ACA and related polices on their health in their own words. Qualitative data was collected from 48 participants in five focus groups conducted at the local community center and three individual interviews for those unable to attend the focus groups. Marshallese community co-investigators participated throughout the research and writing process to ensure that cultural context and nuances in meaning were accurately captured and presented. Community co-investigators assisted with the development of the semi-structured interview guide, facilitated focus groups, and participated in qualitative data analysis. Content analysis revealed six consistent themes across all focus groups and individual interviews that include: understanding, experiences, effect on health, relational/historical lenses, economic contribution, and pleas. Working with Marshallese community co-investigators, we selected quotations that most represented the participants' collective experiences. The Marshallese view the ACA and their lack of coverage as part of the broader relationship between the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) and the United States. The Marshallese state that they have honored the COFA relationship, and they believe the United States is failing to meet its obligations of care and support outlined in the COFA. While the ACA and Medicaid Expansion have reduced

  7. Nuclear regulatory legislation, 102d Congress. Volume 2, No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    This document is a compilation of nuclear regulatory legislation and other relevant material through the 102d Congress, 2d Session. This compilation has been prepared for use as a resource document, which the NRC intends to update at the end of every Congress. The contents of NUREG-0980 include The Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended; Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, as amended, Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978; Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act; Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982; and NRC Authorization and Appropriations Acts. Other materials included are statutes and treaties on export licensing, nuclear non-proliferation, and environmental protection.

  8. Nuclear regulatory legislation: 102d Congress. Volume 1, No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    This document is a compilation of nuclear regulatory legislation and other relevant material through the 102d Congress, 2d Session. This compilation has been prepared for use as a resource document, which the NRC intends to update at the end of every Congress. The contents of NUREG-0980 include: The Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended; Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, as amended, Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978; Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act; Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982; and NRC Authorization and Appropriations Acts. Other materials included are statutes and treaties on export licensing, nuclear non-proliferation, and environmental protection.

  9. Nuclear Regulatory legislation: 103d Congress. Volume 1, No. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This document is a compilation of nuclear regulatory legislation and other relevant material through the 103d Congress, 2d Session. This compilation has been prepared for use as a resource document, which the NRC intends to update at the end of every Congress. The contents of NUREG-0980 include the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended; Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, as amended, Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978; Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act; Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982; and NRC Authorization and Appropriations Acts. Other materials included are statutes and treaties on export licensing, nuclear non-proliferation, and environmental protection.

  10. Nuclear Regulatory legislation: 103d Congress. Volume 2, No. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This document is a compilation of nuclear regulatory legislation and other relevant material through the 103d Congress, 2d Session. This compilation has been prepared for use as a resource document, which the NRC intends to update at the end of every Congress. The contents of NUREG-0980 include the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended; Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, as amended, Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978; Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act; Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982; and NRC Authorization and Appropriations Acts. Other materials included are statutes and treaties on export licensing, nuclear non-proliferation, and environmental protection.

  11. Tobacco packaging and labeling policies under the U.S. Tobacco Control Act: research needs and priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, David

    2012-01-01

    The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (the "Act"), enacted in June 2009, gave the U.S. Food and Drug Administration authority to regulate tobacco products. The current paper reviews the provisions for packaging and labeling, including the existing evidence and research priorities. Narrative review using electronic literature search of published and unpublished sources in 3 primary areas: health warnings, constituent labeling, and prohibitions on the promotional elements of packaging. The Act requires 9 pictorial health warnings covering half of cigarette packages and 4 text warnings covering 30% of smokeless tobacco packages. The Act also prohibits potentially misleading information on packaging, including the terms "light" and "mild," and provides a mandate to require disclosure of chemical constituents on packages. Many of the specific regulatory provisions are based on the extent to which they promote "greater public understanding of the risks of tobacco." As a result, research on consumer perceptions has the potential to shape the design and renewal of health warnings and to determine what, if any, information on product constituents should appear on packages. Research on consumer perceptions of existing and novel tobacco products will also be critical to help identify potentially misleading information that should be restricted under the Act. Packaging and labeling regulations required under the Act will bring the United States in line with international standards. There is an immediate need for research to evaluate these measures to guide future regulatory action.

  12. Public policy and regulatory implications for the implementation of Opportunistic Cloud Computing Services for Enterprises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, Eric; Olesen, Henning; Henten, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Opportunistic Cloud Computing Services (OCCS) is a social network approach to the provisioning and management of cloud computing services for enterprises. This paper discusses how public policy and regulations will impact on OCCS implementation. We rely on documented publicly available government...

  13. In-State Tuition Policies under the Veterans Access, Choice and Accountability Act. ECS Education Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, Mary; Sponsler, Brian A.

    2015-01-01

    Ensuring access and affordability to a postsecondary education for veterans and their dependents has long been a focus of federal and state education policy. Developing policy to support educational attainment among these individuals has required state policymakers to address residency requirements for veterans to determine eligibility for…

  14. Science, Society, and America's Nuclear Waste: The Nuclear Waste Policy Act, Unit 3. Teacher Guide. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC. Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management, Washington, DC.

    This guide is Unit 3 of the four-part series, Science, Society, and America's Nuclear Waste, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. The goal of this unit is to identify the key elements of the United States' nuclear waste dilemma and introduce the Nuclear Waste Policy Act and the role of the…

  15. 75 FR 64776 - Initiation of Section 302 Investigation and Request for Public Comment: China-Acts, Policies and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-20

    ... benefits under the GATT 1994, under the Agreement on Subsidies and Countervailing Measures (``SCM Agreement... Agreement (``SCM Agreement''), and under China's Protocol of Accession to the WTO. ] These acts, policies... SCM Agreement, and under China's Protocol of Accession to the WTO. C. Delay of Request...

  16. 3 CFR 8469 - Proclamation 8469 of December 31, 2009. 40th Anniversary of the National Environmental Policy Act...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... in a new era of environmental awareness and citizen participation in government. NEPA elevated the... Anniversary of the National Environmental Policy Act, 2010 8469 Proclamation 8469 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8469 of December 31, 2009 Proc. 8469 40th Anniversary of the National Environmental...

  17. 48 CFR 952.226-70 - Subcontracting goals under section 3021(a) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Energy Policy Act target groups. Individual goals shall be expressed in terms of a percentage of the... target groups, as used in this provision means: (1) An institution of higher education that meets the... Hawaiians, or any combination thereof; (2) Institutions of higher learning determined by the Secretary of...

  18. 75 FR 22829 - National Environmental Policy Act; Final Environmental Impact Statement on U.S. Coast Guard...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-30

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard National Environmental Policy Act; Final Environmental Impact Statement on U.S. Coast... Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) to implement enhanced environmental protection measures, as necessary, for... potential environmental impacts of specific Coast Guard vessel and aircraft operations on MPS and MPAs...

  19. 77 FR 74266 - Review of National Environmental Policy Act Categorical Exclusion Survey Posted on DOT/FHWA Web Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Federal Transit Administration Review of National Environmental Policy Act... Project Delivery and Environmental Review (HEPE), (202) 366-2655, or Jomar Maldonado, Office of the...

  20. Missing the mark: Five-year report card on the energy efficiency provisions of the Energy Policy Act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The book reviews the implementation of energy efficiency provisions in the Energy Policy Act of 1992. It gives ``grades`` for each major section as well as the key ``actors`` including the Department of Energy, Congress, and the private sector, and includes lessons learned and recommendations for future legislation.

  1. Acting discursively: the development of UK organic food and farming policy networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    TOMLINSON, Isobel Jane

    2010-01-01

    This paper documents the early evolution of UK organic food and farming policy networks and locates this empirical focus in a theoretical context concerned with understanding the contemporary policy-making process. While policy networks have emerged as a widely acknowledged empirical manifestation of governance, debate continues as to the concept's explanatory utility and usefulness in situations of network and policy transformation since, historically, policy networks have been applied to "static" circumstances. Recognizing this criticism, and in drawing on an interpretivist perspective, this paper sees policy networks as enacted by individual actors whose beliefs and actions construct the nature of the network. It seeks to make links between the characteristics of the policy network and the policy outcomes through the identification of discursively constructed "storylines" that form a tool for consensus building in networks. This study analyses the functioning of the organic policy networks through the discursive actions of policy-network actors.

  2. Guidelines for Hanford Site implementation of the National Environmental Policy Act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, S.E.

    1989-03-01

    The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) environmental review process is mandatory for federal agencies. Understanding and complying with NEPA is extremely important to successfully planning and implementing programs at the Hanford Site. This report is intended to help planners and decision makers understand NEPA by describing the NEPA process as it is outlined in NEPA, in regulations, and in guidance information. The requirements and guidance documents that set forth the NEPA process are discussed. Some of the major NEPA concepts and issues are also addressed. This report is intended to be used as a general road map through the maze of NEPA requirements and guidance to ensure that Hanford Site activities are conducted in compliance with NEPA. Enhanced knowledge of the NEPA process is expected to increase the ability of the Hanford Site to work with regulators, interested parties and the public to ensure that the potential environmental impacts of DOE activities are fully considered at the Hanford Site. In addition, an enhanced understanding of NEPA will help project and program managers to integrate NEPA compliance requirements with program planning. 43 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Addressing environmental justice under the National Environment Policy Act at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, T.M.; Bleakly, D.R.

    1997-04-01

    Under Executive Order 12898, Federal Actions to Address Environmental Justice in Minority Populations and Low-Income Populations, the Department of Energy (DOE) and Sandia National Laboratories New Mexico (SNL) are required to identify and address, as appropriate, disproportionately high, adverse human health or environmental effects of their activities on minority and low-income populations. The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) also requires that environmental justice issues be identified and addressed. This presents a challenge for SNL because it is located in a culturally diverse area. Successfully addressing potential impacts is contingent upon accurately identifying them through objective analysis of demographic information. However, an effective public participation process, which is necessarily subjective, is also needed to understand the subtle nuances of diverse populations that can contribute to a potential impact, yet are not always accounted for in a strict demographic profile. Typically, there is little or no coordination between these two disparate processes. This report proposes a five-step method for reconciling these processes and uses a hypothetical case study to illustrate the method. A demographic analysis and community profile of the population within 50 miles of SNL were developed to support the environmental justice analysis process and enhance SNL`s NEPA and public involvement programs. This report focuses on developing a methodology for identifying potentially impacted populations. Environmental justice issues related to worker exposures associated with SNL activities will be addressed in a separate report.

  4. The conservation genetics juggling act: integrating genetics and ecology, science and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haig, Susan M; Miller, Mark P; Bellinger, Renee; Draheim, Hope M; Mercer, Dacey M; Mullins, Thomas D

    2016-01-01

    The field of conservation genetics, when properly implemented, is a constant juggling act integrating molecular genetics, ecology, and demography with applied aspects concerning managing declining species or implementing conservation laws and policies. This young field has grown substantially since the 1980s following the development of polymerase chain reaction and now into the genomics era. Our laboratory has 'grown up' with the field, having worked on these issues for over three decades. Our multidisciplinary approach entails understanding the behavior and ecology of species as well as the underlying processes that contribute to genetic viability. Taking this holistic approach provides a comprehensive understanding of factors that influence species persistence and evolutionary potential while considering annual challenges that occur throughout their life cycle. As a federal laboratory, we are often addressing the needs of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service in their efforts to list, de-list, or recover species. Nevertheless, there remains an overall communication gap between research geneticists and biologists who are charged with implementing their results. Therefore, we outline the need for a National Center for Small Population Biology to ameliorate this problem and provide organizations charged with making status decisions firmer ground from which to make their critical decisions.

  5. The conservation genetics juggling act: Integrating genetics and ecology, science and policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haig, Susan M.; Miller, Mark P.; Bellinger, Renee; Draheim, Hope M.; Mercer, Dacey; Mullins, Tom

    2016-01-01

    The field of conservation genetics, when properly implemented, is a constant juggling act integrating molecular genetics, ecology, and demography with applied aspects concerning managing declining species or implementing conservation laws and policies. This young field has grown substantially since the 1980’s following development of the polymerase chain reaction and now into the genomics era. Our lab has “grown up” with the field, having worked on these issues for over three decades. Our multi-disciplinary approach entails understanding the behavior and ecology of species as well as the underlying processes that contribute to genetic viability. Taking this holistic approach provides a comprehensive understanding of factors that influence species persistence and evolutionary potential while considering annual challenges that occur throughout their life cycle. As a federal lab, we are often addressing the needs of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service in their efforts to list, de-list or recover species. Nevertheless, there remains an overall communication gap between research geneticists and biologists who are charged with implementing their results. Therefore, we outline the need for a National Center for Small Population Biology to ameliorate this problem and provide organizations charged with making status decisions firmer ground from which to make their critical decisions. 

  6. National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Source Guide for the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JANSKY, M.T.

    2000-09-01

    This Source Guide will assist those working with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 to become more familiar with the environmental assessments (EA) and environmental impact statements (EIS) that apply to specific activities and facilities on the Hanford Site. This document should help answer questions concerning NEPA coverage, history, processes, and the status of many of the buildings and units on and related to the Hanford Site. This document summarizes relevant EAs and EISs by briefly outlining the proposed action of each document and the decision made by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) or its predecessor agencies, the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) and the U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA). The summary includes the proposed action alternatives and current status of the proposed action. If a decision officially was stated by the DOE, as in a finding of no significant impact (FONSI) or a record of decision (ROD), and the decision was located, a summary is provided. Not all federal decisions, such as FONSIs and RODs, can be found in the Federal Register (FR). For example, although significant large-action FONSIs can be found in the FR, some low-interest FONSIs might have been published elsewhere (i.e., local newspapers).

  7. The current status of the debate on socio-economic regulatory assessments: positions and policies in Canada, the USA, the EU and developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falck-Zepeda, J.; Wesseler, J.H.H.; Smyth, S.

    2013-01-01

    Article 26.1 of the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety has the option of considering socio-economic issues in biosafety regulatory approval processes related to genetically engineered organisms. National laws and regulations in some countries have already defined positions and may have enacted policies

  8. [On improvement of the mechanism for establishing and changing indicators of quality and food safety in the regulatory and legal acts of the Eurasian Economical Union].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnautov, O V

    2016-01-01

    In accordance with the Treaty on the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU) to ensure the sanitary and epidemiological welfare of the population within the Union, a coordinated policy in agreed policy in the sphere of application of sanitary measures is carried out. Sanitary measures are the obligatory requirements and procedures, including requirements for the final product, processing methods, production, transportation, storage and disposal, sampling procedures, methods of research (tests), risk assessment, the state registration, requirements for packaging directly aimed at ensuring the safety of products (goods) in order to protect human welfare, and they should be applied on the basis having a scientific explanation, and only to the extent that is necessary to protect human welfare. Sanitary measures applied within the Union should be based on international and regional standards, guidelines and (or) the recommendations, except when they based on appropriate scientific studies and explanations. In this case sanitary measures which could provide a higher level of sanitary protection are introduced. At present, the mechanism of the development, justification and approval of common sanitary and epidemiological requirements (ESR) and procedures of the Eurasian Economic Commission (the Commission) is not installed. The absence of a clear mechanism for the development, approval and implementation of the ESR to the products (goods) on the basis having a scientific explanation on the one hand could lead to the creation of unjustified barriers to foreign and mutual trade, on the other--to weaken the level of safety for human life and health of products (goods) placed on markets of the Union. In order to bring the regulatory legal acts of the Customs Union in accordance with the Treaty on the Eurasian Economic Union the Commission in cooperation with the competent authorities of the Member States in the field of sanitary and epidemiological welfare developed the project of

  9. Student Conduct Administrator Knowledge of the Statistical Reporting Obligations of the Jeanne Clery Disclosure of Campus Security Policy and Campus Crime Statistics Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBowes, Michael Matthew

    2014-01-01

    The "Jeanne Clery Disclosure of Campus Security Policy and Campus Crime Statistics Act" (the "Clery Act") is a consumer right-to-know law originally passed by Congress in 1900. The law requires colleges and universities receiving federal student aid to publish annually their security-related policies and crime statistics. The…

  10. Hydrogeologic uncertainties and policy implications: The Water Consumer Protection Act of Tucson, Arizona, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, L. G.; Matlock, W. G.; Jacobs, K. L.

    The 1995 Water Consumer Protection Act of Tucson, Arizona, USA (hereafter known as the Act) was passed following complaints from Tucson Water customers receiving treated Central Arizona Project (CAP) water. Consequences of the Act demonstrate the uncertainties and difficulties that arise when the public is asked to vote on a highly technical issue. The recharge requirements of the Act neglect hydrogeological uncertainties because of confusion between "infiltration" and "recharge." Thus, the Act implies that infiltration in stream channels along the Central Wellfield will promote recharge in the Central Wellfield. In fact, permeability differences between channel alluvium and underlying basin-fill deposits may lead to subjacent outflow. Additionally, even if recharge of Colorado River water occurs in the Central Wellfield, groundwater will become gradually salinized. The Act's restrictions on the use of CAP water affect the four regulatory mechanisms in Arizona's 1980 Groundwater Code as they relate to the Tucson Active Management Area: (a) supply augmentation; (b) requirements for groundwater withdrawals and permitting; (c) Management Plan requirements, particularly mandatory conservation and water-quality issues; and (d) the requirement that all new subdivisions use renewable water supplies in lieu of groundwater. Political fallout includes disruption of normal governmental activities because of the demands in implementing the Act. Résumé La loi de 1995 sur la protection des consommateurs d'eau de Tucson (Arizona, États-Unis) a été promulguée à la suite des réclamations des consommateurs d'eau de Tucson alimentés en eau traitée à partir à la station centrale d'Arizona (CAP). Les conséquences de cette loi montrent les incertitudes et les difficultés qui apparaissent lorsque le public est appeléà voter sur un problème très technique. Les exigences de la loi en matière de recharge négligent les incertitudes hydrogéologiques du fait de la

  11. Regulatory policy and the location of bio-pharmaceutical foreign direct investment in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Pamina; Macgarvie, Megan

    2011-09-01

    This paper examines the relationship between cross-country differences in drug price regulation and the location of biopharmaceutical Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in Europe. Simple theory predicts that price regulation in one country might affect total investment, but not the location of that investment, if sales are global. Nevertheless, some manufacturers threaten that the introduction of price regulation in a country will motivate them to move their investments to other countries. Are such threats cheap talk, or is there evidence that firms avoid price-controlling countries when making FDI location choices? We use data on 527 investments initiated in 27 European countries between 2002 and 2009 and find that investors are less likely to choose countries with price controls, after controlling for other determinants of investment. We also observe a relative decline in investment in countries that increased the stringency of regulatory regimes during our sample period. The effect is restricted to non-manufacturing investments and is most robust for those related to administrative functions.

  12. Public health surveillance data: legal, policy, ethical, regulatory, and practical issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Amy B; Sweeney, Marie Haring

    2012-07-27

    In the United States, data systems are created by the ongoing, systematic collection of health, demographic, and other information through federally funded national surveys, vital statistics, public and private administrative and claims data, regulatory data, and medical records data. Certain data systems are designed to support public health surveillance and have used well-defined protocols and standard analytic methods for assessing specific health outcomes, exposures, or other endpoints. However, other data systems have been designed for a different purpose but can be used by public health programs for surveillance. Several public health surveillance programs rely substantially on others' data systems. An example of data used for surveillance purposes but collected for another reason is vital statistics data. CDC's National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) purchases, aggregates, and disseminates vital statistics (birth and death rates) that are collected at the state level. These data are used to understand disease burden, monitor trends, and guide public health action. Administrative data also can be used for surveillance purposes (e.g., Medicare and Social Security Disability data that have been linked to survey data to monitor changes in health and health-care use over time).

  13. Administrative agency implementation of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969: a conceptual framework for explaining differential response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wichelman, A.F.

    1976-04-01

    The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) directs Federal agencies to interpret and administer ''to the fullest possible extent'' their policies and regulations in accordance with its policy statement, making environmental protection part of the mandate of each Federal agency. NEPA also instructs the agencies to use systematic, interdisciplinary methodologies in environmental impact studies, and to improve the techniques through which they take into account environmental values in their planning and decision-making activities. The results of exploratory research that was designed to identify factors relevant to understanding how and why administrative agency response has varied are presented. A multi-phased conceptual framework was developed that identifies four general phases of implementation activity observed during the first 4/sup 1///sub 2/ years of the Act's operation and isolates the principal intervening variables associated with movement by an agency from one phase to another. The phases tend to occur as a progression, beginning with an ''Interpretive Phase'' and followed by a ''Formal Compliance Phase'' in which implementation activity focuses on putting the procedural and structural adaptations required to comply formally with the Act into effect. A third or ''Integrated Planning Phase'' follows. The final, or ''Programmatic Planning Phase'' integrates the formulation of proposed agency legislation, programs, policies, and regulations. (MCW)

  14. Constructing the "Media Competent" Child: Media Literacy and Regulatory Policy in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Buckingham

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the past fifteen years, sociologists have mounted an influential challenge to traditional psychological accounts of childhood. The new sociology of childhood has presented a powerful critique of the developmentalist view of children as merely ‹adults in the making›. Such a view, it is argued, judges children only in terms of what they will become in the future, once they have been adequately socialised: they are seen as inherently vulnerable, incomplete and dependent. This article considers how recent research on children and media relates to public policy, and specifically to current debates about media regulation in the UK. Debates about the media are obviously an important arena for contemporary concerns about childhood.

  15. Modeling Water Utility Investments and Improving Regulatory Policies using Economic Optimisation in England and Wales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, S.; Harou, J. J.

    2012-12-01

    Water utilities in England and Wales are regulated natural monopolies called 'water companies'. Water companies must obtain periodic regulatory approval for all investments (new supply infrastructure or demand management measures). Both water companies and their regulators use results from least economic cost capacity expansion optimisation models to develop or assess water supply investment plans. This presentation first describes the formulation of a flexible supply-demand planning capacity expansion model for water system planning. The model uses a mixed integer linear programming (MILP) formulation to choose the least-cost schedule of future supply schemes (reservoirs, desalination plants, etc.) and demand management (DM) measures (leakage reduction, water efficiency and metering options) and bulk transfers. Decisions include what schemes to implement, when to do so, how to size schemes and how much to use each scheme during each year of an n-year long planning horizon (typically 30 years). In addition to capital and operating (fixed and variable) costs, the estimated social and environmental costs of schemes are considered. Each proposed scheme is costed discretely at one or more capacities following regulatory guidelines. The model uses a node-link network structure: water demand nodes are connected to supply and demand management (DM) options (represented as nodes) or to other demand nodes (transfers). Yields from existing and proposed are estimated separately using detailed water resource system simulation models evaluated over the historical period. The model simultaneously considers multiple demand scenarios to ensure demands are met at required reliability levels; use levels of each scheme are evaluated for each demand scenario and weighted by scenario likelihood so that operating costs are accurately evaluated. Multiple interdependency relationships between schemes (pre-requisites, mutual exclusivity, start dates, etc.) can be accounted for by

  16. Government Performance and Results Act: Performance plan FY 1999, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuches, J.L.

    1998-02-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (NRC) strategic plan [NUREG-1614, Vol. 1, September 1997] establishes a strategic framework that will guide future decision-making and will help the NRC continue to meet its responsibility for protecting public health and safety, promoting the common defense and security, and protecting the environment. This performance plan complements the agency`s strategic plan by setting annual goals with measurable target levels of performance for FY 1999, as required by the Government Performance and Results Act. No significant contribution was made to the preparation of the performance plan by any non-Federal entity. However, a contractor was used to help facilitate discussions and resolution of issues. Within six months after the close of FY 1999, the NRC will submit to the President and the Congress a report on program performance for FY 1999. This performance report will review the success of the agency in achieving the performance goals established for FY 1999. Where those goals have been achieved, the underlying assumptions and strategies will be examined to ensure that continued applicability is warranted in the future. If any of the FY 1999 performance goals are not met, the agency will conduct a thorough analysis of why it did not meet the goal and the actions necessary to meet-the goal in the future. One result of this analysis will be the documentation of plans and schedules for achieving the established performance goal. If the analysis should indicate that the performance goal is impractical or infeasible, the performance report will document why that is the case and what action is recommended.

  17. Implementation of the Juvenile Justice and Welfare Act of 2006 (RA 9344: Inputs to Policy Amendments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DR. FREDDY E. BILOG

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to assess the status of implementation of RA 9433 or Juvenile Justice and Welfare Act of 2006 with respect to the various sectors namely: police; city social welfare and development and family court.. It also determine the problems encountered by the three groups of respondents and test the difference among the responses of the three groups: to determine the implication of implementation of RA 9344 to the community as perceived by three groups of respondents and based on the findings to propose inputs to policy amendments. It was found out that majority of the juvenile offenders in Batangas City are 15-17 years old, single, males, finished elementary education with crime of theft committed in 2012 and under the custody of their parents or legal guardians. Objectives, compliance, evaluation and monitoring as status of RA 9344 were implemented as a new approach in criminal justice system with juvenile offenders. Each sector experiences problems in implementing RA 9344 especially when it comes to insufficient knowledge of the child, and the parents regarding the child’s severity of crime and constitutional rights. The study found a significant relationship between the status of implementation of RA 9344 and the problems encountered. Further, there are differences between the responses of the three groups of respondents. Exemption of youth offenders in criminal responsibility has an impact on the community since the youth may repeat the crime or they could commit crime that is more severe than the previous crime committed. Additionally, compliance, evaluation and monitoring were found to be significantly related to the impact of exemption of youth offenders in criminal responsibility. Based on the findings, the study identified inputs for possible amendments of policies that govern RA 9344 towards a more efficient and effective implementation. These intervention programs such as child management training and rehabilitative program

  18. Locations of Racism in Education: A Speech Act Analysis of a Policy Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arneback, Emma; Quennerstedt, Ann

    2016-01-01

    This article explores how racism is located in an educational policy chain and identifies how its interpretation changes throughout the chain. A basic assumption is that the policy formation process can be seen as a chain in which international, national and local policies are "links"--separate entities yet joined. With Sweden as the…

  19. 48 CFR 2024.202 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Policy. 2024.202 Section 2024.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS PROTECTION OF PRIVACY AND FREEDOM OF INFORMATION Freedom of Information Act 2024.202 Policy. The...

  20. 77 FR 44562 - Public Meeting: Potential Regulatory Implications of the Reduction of Lead in Drinking Water Act...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-30

    ... Lead in Drinking Water Act of 2011 AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice... discuss and solicit input from States, manufacturers, drinking water systems, other interested groups and consumers on the implementation of the Reduction of Lead in Drinking Water Act of 2011 (``the Act'')....

  1. Dress codes and appearance policies: challenges under federal legislation, part 2: title VII of the civil rights act and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Michael S; Koen, Clifford M; Darden, Stephen M

    2014-01-01

    As more and more individuals express themselves with tattoos and body piercings and push the envelope on what is deemed appropriate in the workplace, employers have an increased need for creation and enforcement of reasonable dress codes and appearance policies. As with any employment policy or practice, an appearance policy must be implemented and enforced without regard to an individual's race, color, gender, national origin, religion, disability, age, or other protected status. A policy governing dress and appearance based on the business needs of an employer that is applied fairly and consistently and does not have a disproportionate effect on any protected class will generally be upheld if challenged in court. By examining some of the more common legal challenges to dress codes and how courts have resolved the disputes, health care managers can avoid many potential problems. This article, the second part of a 3-part examination of dress codes and appearance policies, focuses on the issue of gender under the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Pertinent court cases that provide guidance for employers are addressed.

  2. Nuclear regulatory legislation, 104th Congress. Volume 2, No. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This document is the second of two volumes compiling statutes and material pertaining to nuclear regulatory legislation through the 104th Congress, 2nd Session. It is intended for use as a U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) internal resource document. Legislative information reproduced in this document includes portions of the Paperwork Reduction Act, various acts pertaining to low-level radioactive waste, the Clean Air Act, the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, the National Environmental Policy Act, the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act, the West Valley Demonstration Project Act, Nuclear Non-Proliferation and Export Licensing Statutes, and selected treaties, agreements, and executive orders. Other information provided pertains to Commissioner tenure, NRC appropriations, the Chief Financial Officers Act, information technology management reform, and Federal civil penalties.

  3. 提升我国银行监管效率的策略选择%Policy Choices of Improving Chinese Banking Regulatory Efficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁建臣; 庞小凤; 李相南

    2014-01-01

    Banking supervision is the center of financial supervision theory and policy research.Facing serious real challenges such as dislocation of banking regulatory body design , distortions of supervision object , absence of regulatory basis and regulatory inefficiencies , this article proposes policy recommendations of strengthening and in-novating Chinese banking supervision , in order to compensate for the vacuum to enhance regulatory efficiency of bank supervision in China , which has some theoretical value and practical significance.%银行监管是金融监管理论与政策研究的中枢。面对我国银行监管主体设计错位、监管客体扭曲、监管依据缺失和监管效率低下等严峻现实挑战,提出了强化和创新我国银行监管若干政策建议,对弥补我国银行监管真空进而提升监管效率,具有一定的理论价值和现实意义。

  4. Evolutionary processes acting on candidate cis-regulatory regions in humans inferred from patterns of polymorphism and divergence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dara G Torgerson

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of polymorphism and divergence in the non-coding portion of the human genome yields crucial information about factors driving the evolution of gene regulation. Candidate cis-regulatory regions spanning more than 15,000 genes in 15 African Americans and 20 European Americans were re-sequenced and aligned to the chimpanzee genome in order to identify potentially functional polymorphism and to characterize and quantify departures from neutral evolution. Distortions of the site frequency spectra suggest a general pattern of selective constraint on conserved non-coding sites in the flanking regions of genes (CNCs. Moreover, there is an excess of fixed differences that cannot be explained by a Gamma model of deleterious fitness effects, suggesting the presence of positive selection on CNCs. Extensions of the McDonald-Kreitman test identified candidate cis-regulatory regions with high probabilities of positive and negative selection near many known human genes, the biological characteristics of which exhibit genome-wide trends that differ from patterns observed in protein-coding regions. Notably, there is a higher probability of positive selection in candidate cis-regulatory regions near genes expressed in the fetal brain, suggesting that a larger portion of adaptive regulatory changes has occurred in genes expressed during brain development. Overall we find that natural selection has played an important role in the evolution of candidate cis-regulatory regions throughout hominid evolution.

  5. The Schizosaccharomyces pombe inv1+ regulatory region is unusually large and contains redundant cis-acting elements that function in a SAGA- and Swi/Snf-dependent fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Sejin; Spatt, Dan; Winston, Fred

    2012-08-01

    The Schizosaccharomyces pombe inv1(+) gene encodes invertase, the enzyme required for hydrolysis of sucrose and raffinose. Transcription of inv1(+) is regulated by glucose levels, with transcription tightly repressed in high glucose and strongly induced in low glucose. To understand this regulation, we have analyzed the inv1(+) cis-regulatory region and the requirement for the trans-acting coactivators SAGA and Swi/Snf. Surprisingly, deletion of the entire 1-kilobase intergenic region between the inv1(+) TATA element and the upstream open reading frame SPCC191.10 does not significantly alter regulation of inv1(+) transcription. However, a longer deletion that extends through SPCC191.10 abolishes inv1(+) induction in low glucose. Additional analysis demonstrates that there are multiple, redundant regulatory regions spread over 1.5 kb 5' of inv1(+), including within SPCC191.10, that can confer glucose-mediated transcriptional regulation to inv1(+). Furthermore, SPCC191.10 can regulate inv1(+) transcription in an orientation-independent fashion and from a distance as great as 3 kb. With respect to trans-acting factors, both SAGA and Swi/Snf are recruited to SPCC191.10 and to other locations in the large inv1(+) regulatory region in a glucose-dependent fashion, and both are required for inv1(+) derepression. Taken together, these results demonstrate that inv1(+) regulation in S. pombe occurs via the use of multiple regulatory elements and that activation can occur over a great distance, even from elements within other open reading frames.

  6. Regulatory Anatomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoeyer, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    This article proposes the term “safety logics” to understand attempts within the European Union (EU) to harmonize member state legislation to ensure a safe and stable supply of human biological material for transplants and transfusions. With safety logics, I refer to assemblages of discourses, le...... they arise. In short, I expose the regulatory anatomy of the policy landscape....

  7. Energy transport corridors: the potential role of Federal lands in states identified by the Energy Policy Act of 2005, section 368(b).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krummel, J.; Hlohowskyj, I.; Kuiper, J.; Kolpa, R.; Moore, R.; May, J.; VanKuiken, J.C.; Kavicky, J.A.; McLamore, M.R.; Shamsuddin, S. (Decision and Information Sciences); ( EVS)

    2011-09-01

    On August 8, 2005, the President signed the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct) into law. In Subtitle F of EPAct, Congress set forth various provisions that would change the way certain federal agencies (Agencies) coordinate to authorize the use of land for a variety of energy-related purposes. As part of Subtitle F of EPAct, Section 368 addresses the issue of energy transportation corridors on federal land for oil, gas, and hydrogen pipelines, as well as electricity transmission and distribution facilities. Because of the critical importance of improving the nation's electrical transmission grid, Congress recognized that electricity transmission issues should receive added attention when the Agencies address corridor location and analysis issues. In Section 368, Congress specifically directed the Agencies to consider the need for upgraded and new facilities to deliver electricity: In carrying out [Section 368], the Secretaries shall take into account the need for upgraded and new electricity transmission and distribution facilities to (1) improve reliability; (2) relieve congestion; and (3) enhance capability of the national grid to deliver electricity. Section 368 does not require the Agencies to consider or approve specific projects, applications for rights-of-way (ROWs), or other permits within designated energy corridors. Importantly, Section 368 does not direct, license, or otherwise permit any on-the-ground activity of any sort. If an applicant is interested in obtaining an authorization to develop a project within any corridor designated under Section 368, the applicant would have to apply for a ROW authorization and applicable permits. The Agencies would consider each application by applying appropriate project-specific reviews under requirements of laws and related regulations, including, but not limited to, the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), the Clean Water Act, the Clean Air Act, Section 7 of the Endangered Species Act (ESA), and Section

  8. Integrating NEPA (National Environmental Policy Act) and CERCLA (Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act) requirements during remedial responses at DOE facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, M.B.; Smith, E.D.; Sharples, F.E.; Eddlemon, G.K.

    1990-07-01

    US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.4, issued October 6, 1989, calls for integrating the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) with those of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) for DOE remedial actions under CERCLA. CERCLA requires that decisions on site remediation be made through a formal process called a Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS). According to the DOE order, integration is to be accomplished by conducting the NEPA and CERCLA environmental planning and review procedures concurrently. The primary instrument for integrating the processes is to be the RI/FS process, which will be supplemented as needed to meet the procedural and documentational requirements of NEPA. The final product of the integrated process will be a single, integrated set of documents; namely, an RI report and an FS-EIS that satisfy the requirements of both NEPA and CERCLA. The contents of the report include (1) an overview and comparison of the requirements of the two processes; (2) descriptions of the major tasks included in the integrated RI/FS-EIS process; (3) recommended contents for integrated RI/FS-EIS documents; and (4)a discussion of some potential problems in integrating NEPA and CERCLA that fall outisde the scope of the RI/FS-EIS process, with suggestions for resolving some of these problems. 15 refs.

  9. Techniques of analyzing the impacts of certain electric-utility ratemaking and regulatory-policy concepts. Bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-08-01

    This bibliography provides documentation for use by state public utility commissions and major nonregulated utilities in evaluating the applicability of a wide range of electric utility rate design and regulatory concepts in light of certain regulatory objectives. Part I, Utility Regulatory Objectives, contains 2084 citations on conservation of energy and capital; efficient use of facilities and resources; and equitable rates to electricity consumers. Part II, Rate Design Concepts, contains 1238 citations on time-of-day rates; seasonally-varying rates; cost-of-service rates; interruptible rates (including the accompanying use of load management techniques); declining block rates; and lifeline rates. Part III, Regulatory Concepts, contains 1282 references on restrictions on master metering; procedures for review of automatic adjustment clauses; prohibitions of rate or regulatory discrimination against solar, wind, or other small energy systems; treatment of advertising expenses; and procedures to protect ratepayers from abrupt termination of service.

  10. ERO Caught in the Act (Again): Limiting Inclusion to Suit Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMaster, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    In 2010 the Education Review Office (ERO) was tasked with reporting on the progress of New Zealand schools in the inclusion of students with high needs. This paper will explore how ERO limited the concept of inclusion to suit Government policy and limit discussion of inclusion to the parameters set by the resource allocation scheme known as…

  11. Education Policy as an Act of White Supremacy: Whiteness, Critical Race Theory and Education Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillborn, David

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents an empirical analysis of education policy in England that is informed by recent developments in US critical theory. In particular, I draw on 'whiteness studies' and the application of critical race theory (CRT). These perspectives offer a new and radical way of conceptualizing the role of racism in education. Although the US…

  12. Application of Implementation Science Methodology to Immediate Postpartum Long-Acting Reversible Contraception Policy Roll-Out Across States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Kristin M; Kroelinger, Charlan D; DeSisto, Carla L; Pliska, Ellen; Akbarali, Sanaa; Mackie, Christine N; Goodman, David A

    2016-11-01

    Purpose Providing long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) in the immediate postpartum period is an evidence-based strategy for expanding women's access to highly effective contraception and for reducing unintended and rapid repeat pregnancy. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate the application of implementation science methodology to study the complexities of rolling-out policies that promote immediate postpartum LARC use across states. Description The Immediate Postpartum LARC Learning Community, sponsored by the Association of State and Territorial Health Officials (ASTHO), is made up of multi-disciplinary, multi-agency teams from 13 early-adopting states with Medicaid reimbursement policies promoting immediate postpartum LARC. Partners include federal agencies and maternal and child health organizations. The Learning Community discussed barriers, opportunities, strategies, and promising practices at an in-person meeting. Implementation science theory and methods, including the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR), and a recent compilation of implementation strategies, provide useful tools for studying the complexities of implementing immediate postpartum LARC policies in birthing facilities across early adopting states. Assessment To demonstrate the utility of this framework for guiding the expansion of immediate postpartum LARC policies, illustrative examples of barriers and strategies discussed during the in-person ASTHO Learning Community meeting are organized by the five CFIR domains-intervention characteristics, outer setting, inner setting, characteristics of the individuals involved, and process. Conclusion States considering adopting policies can learn from ASTHO's Immediate Postpartum LARC Learning Community. Applying implementation science principles may lead to more effective statewide scale-up of immediate postpartum LARC and other evidence-based strategies to improve women and children's health.

  13. National Energy Act statutes and solar energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard, J.

    1980-02-01

    The National Energy Act of 1978 contains many provisions that will significantly affect solar technology commercialization and solar energy users. Four of the five statutes that comprise the National Energy Act deserve close attention. The National Energy Conservation Policy Act will promote residential solar installations. The Energy Tax Act will accelerate both residential and commercial solar system applications. The Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act promotes efficient use of utility resources as well as decentralized power production. And, the Power Plan and Industrial Fuel Use Act places severe restrictions on future burning of petroleum and natural gas, which should lead some operators to build or convert to solar energy systems. Each of the preceding acts are considered in separate sections of this report. Federal regulations issued pursuant to the various provisions are also identified and discussed, and some of the problems with the provisions and regulations are noted.

  14. Health literacy and the Affordable Care Act: a policy analysis for children with special health care needs in the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keim-Malpass J

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Jessica Keim-Malpass,1 Lisa C Letzkus,1,2 Christine Kennedy1 1University of Virginia School of Nursing, 2University of Virginia Children’s Hospital, Charlottesville, VA, USA Abstract: Children with special health care needs (CSHCN represent populations with chronic health conditions that are often high utilizers of health care. Limited health literacy has emerged as a key indicator of adverse health outcomes, and CSHCN from limited health literacy families are particularly vulnerable. The purpose of this policy analysis is to outline key provisions in the Affordable Care Act (ACA that incorporate health literacy approaches for implementation and have implications for CSHCN in the USA. Several key provisions are incorporated in the ACA that involve health literacy and have implications for CSHCN. These include: expansion of public insurance coverage and simplifying the enrollment process, provisions assuring equity in health care and communication among all populations, improving access to patient-centered medical homes that can offer care coordination, ensuring enhanced medication safety by changing liquid medication labeling requirements, and provisions to train health care providers on literacy issues. More research is needed to determine how provisions pertaining to health literacy in the ACA are implemented in various states. Keywords: children, special health care needs, health literacy, Affordable Care Act, health policy  

  15. Positive- and negative-acting regulatory elements contribute to the tissue-specific expression of INNER NO OUTER, a YABBY-type transcription factor gene in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Marissa K

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The INNER NO OUTER (INO gene, which encodes a YABBY-type transcription factor, specifies and promotes the growth of the outer integument of the ovule in Arabidopsis. INO expression is limited to the abaxial cell layer of the developing outer integument of the ovule and is regulated by multiple regions of the INO promoter, including POS9, a positive element that when present in quadruplicate can produce low-level expression in the normal INO pattern. Results Significant redundancy in activity between different regions of the INO promoter is demonstrated. For specific regulatory elements, multimerization or the addition of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S general enhancer was able to activate expression of reporter gene constructs that were otherwise incapable of expression on their own. A new promoter element, POS6, is defined and is shown to include sufficient positive regulatory information to reproduce the endogenous pattern of expression in ovules, but other promoter regions are necessary to fully suppress expression outside of ovules. The full-length INO promoter, but not any of the INO promoter deletions tested, is able to act as an enhancer-blocking insulator to prevent the ectopic activation of expression by the 35S enhancer. Sequence conservation between the promoter regions of Arabidopsis thaliana, Brassica oleracea and Brassica rapa aligns closely with the functional definition of the POS6 and POS9 regions, and with a defined INO minimal promoter. The B. oleracea INO promoter is sufficient to promote a similar pattern and level of reporter gene expression in Arabidopsis to that observed for the Arabidopsis promoter. Conclusions At least two independent regions of the INO promoter contain sufficient regulatory information to direct the specific pattern but not the level of INO gene expression. These regulatory regions act in a partially redundant manner to promote the expression in a specific pattern in the ovule and

  16. Interleukin 10 acts on regulatory T cells to maintain expression of the transcription factor Foxp3 and suppressive function in mice with colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murai, Masako; Turovskaya, Olga; Kim, Gisen; Madan, Rajat; Karp, Christopher L; Cheroutre, Hilde; Kronenberg, Mitchell

    2009-11-01

    Regulatory T cells (T(reg) cells) that express the transcription factor Foxp3 suppress the activity of other cells. Here we show that interleukin 10 (IL-10) produced by CD11b(+) myeloid cells in recombination-activating gene 1-deficient (Rag1(-/-)) recipient mice was needed to prevent the colitis induced by transferred CD4(+)CD45RB(hi) T cells. In Il10(-/-)Rag1(-/-) mice, T(reg) cells failed to maintain Foxp3 expression and regulatory activity. The loss of Foxp3 expression occurred only in recipients with colitis, which indicates that the requirement for IL-10 is manifested in the presence of inflammation. IL-10 receptor-deficient (Il10rb(-/-)) T(reg) cells also failed to maintain Foxp3 expression, which suggested that host IL-10 acted directly on the T(reg) cells. Our data indicate that IL-10 released from myeloid cells acts in a paracrine manner on T(reg) cells to maintain Foxp3 expression.

  17. The DtxR protein acting as dual transcriptional regulator directs a global regulatory network involved in iron metabolism of Corynebacterium glutamicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüser Andrea T

    2006-02-01

    expression of genes involved in iron metabolism and exerts a dual regulatory function as repressor of genes participating in iron uptake and utilization and as activator of genes responsible for iron storage and DNA protection. The data suggest that the DtxR protein acts as global regulator by controlling the expression of other regulatory proteins that might take care of an iron-dependent regulation of a broader transcriptional network of C. glutamicum genes.

  18. FY2012 National Defense Authorization Act: Selected Military Personnel Policy Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-05

    services, post-separation medical and dental coverage, career counseling, financial planning, employment and re-employment rights , and veterans...available at http://thinkprogress.org/ lgbt /2011/05/11/177408/navy-marriage-rescind/. FY2012 National Defense Authorization Act: Selected Military...raised that the possibility or actuality of military deployments may encourage courts to deny custodial rights of a service member to a former spouse

  19. The Bayh-Dole Act: Selected Issues in Patent Policy and the Commercialization of Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-03

    Perhaps most illustrative of the influence of the Bayh-Dole Act on small business is the biotechnology industry . According to Dr. Bernadine Healy...sector.65 The biotechnology industry primarily is composed of small firms that are developing technologies and techniques derived from R&D funded by NIH...important as an economic force in our economy.... ”68 In a report by Battelle for the Biotechnology Industry Organization (BIO), analysts found that

  20. State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA) Checklist for the 105-DR Large Sodium Fire Facility Closure Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-01

    The Hanford Site, located northwest of the city of Richland, Washington, houses reactors, chemical-separation systems, and related facilities used for the production of special nuclear materials, as well as for activities associated with nuclear energy development. The 105-DR Large Sodium Fire Facility (LSFF), which was in operation from about 1972 to 1986, was a research laboratory that occupied the former ventilation supply room on the southwest side of the 105-DR Reactor facility. The LSFF was established to provide means of investigating fire and safety aspects associated with large sodium or other metal alkali fires in the liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) facilities. The 105-DR Reactor facility was designed and built in the 1950's and is located in the 100-D Area of the Hanford Site. The building housed the DR defense reactor, which was shut down in 1964. The LSFF is subject to the regulatory requirements for the storage and treatment of dangerous wastes. Clean closure is the proposed method of closure for the LSFF. Closure will be conducted pursuant to the requirements of the Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-610 (Ecology 1989). This closure plan presents a description of the facility, the history of wastes managed, and the procedures that will be followed to close the LSFF as an Alkali Metal Treatment Facility. No future use of the LSFF is expected.

  1. The National Environmental Policy Act and the role of the President's Council on Environmental Quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, R. (President' s Council on Environmental Quality, Washington, DC (United States))

    1993-01-01

    Throughout the 19th and 20th centuries, the federal government has played a major role in acquiring, using, and disposing of land, including encouraging prospecting and mining and reserving special lands for public purposes; in funding infrastructure projects; and in approving private projects. While expanding economic growth opportunities for Americans, many of the decisions made by federal agencies have had long-term detrimental effects on the natural, cultural, and social environment. What the drafters of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) had in mind was nothing less than restructuring federal agency decision making to account for these unintended consequences. For too long, agency leadership had focused on the economic and technical feasibility of a program or project but had ignored the environmental consequences of their actions. NEPA added the necessary third dimension.

  2. The Down Syndrome Information Act: Balancing the Advances of Prenatal Testing Through Public Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Mark W

    2016-04-01

    Since the dawn of prenatal testing in the 1970s, concerns have been raised over its administration to respect a mother's autonomy as well as the expressive critique against those with the tested-for condition. Advances in prenatal testing have made it such that more mothers than ever are given a test result of Down syndrome, yet are not provided the rest of the information recommended by professional guidelines. In response, first federal legislation and then, increasingly, state legislation is requiring that this information be provided to expectant mothers. Though receiving broad bipartisan support in passage, some of the statutes have received criticism. These public policy measures will be surveyed and evaluated as to their relative merits and limitations.

  3. Energy Policy Act transportation rate study: Interim report on coal transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The primary purpose of this report is to examine changes in domestic coal distribution and railroad coal transportation rates since enactment of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA90). From 1988 through 1993, the demand for low-sulfur coal increased, as a the 1995 deadline for compliance with Phase 1 of CAAA90 approached. The shift toward low-sulfur coal came sooner than had been generally expected because many electric utilities switched early from high-sulfur coal to ``compliance`` (very low-sulfur) coal. They did so to accumulate emissions allowances that could be used to meet the stricter Phase 2 requirements. Thus, the demand for compliance coal increased the most. The report describes coal distribution and sulfur content, railroad coal transportation and transportation rates, and electric utility contract coal transportation trends from 1979 to 1993 including national trends, regional comparisons, distribution patterns and regional profiles. 14 figs., 76 tabs.

  4. A Point Source of a Different Color: Identifying a Gap in United States Regulatory Policy for “Green” CSO Treatment Using Constructed Wetlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeno F. Levy

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Up to 850 billion gallons of untreated combined sewer overflow (CSO is discharged into waters of the United States each year. Recent changes in CSO management policy support green infrastructure (GI technologies as “front of the pipe” approaches to discharge mitigation by detention/reduction of urban stormwater runoff. Constructed wetlands for CSO treatment have been considered among suites of GI solutions. However, these wetlands differ fundamentally from other GI technologies in that they are “end of the pipe” treatment systems that discharge from a point source, and are therefore regulated in the U.S. under the National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES. We use a comparative regulatory analysis to examine the U.S. policy framework for CSO treatment wetlands. We find in all cases that permitting authorities have used best professional judgment to determine effluent limits and compliance monitoring requirements, referencing technology and water quality-based standards originally developed for traditional “grey” treatment systems. A qualitative comparison with Europe shows less stringent regulatory requirements, perhaps due to institutionalized design parameters. We recommend that permitting authorities develop technical guidance documents for evaluation of “green” CSO treatment systems that account for their unique operational concerns and benefits with respect to sustainable development.

  5. State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA) environmental checklist forms for 304 Concretion Facility Closure Plan. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    The 300 Area of the Hanford Site contains reactor fuel manufacturing facilities and several research and development laboratories. Recyclable scrap uranium with zircaloy-2 and copper silicon alloy, uranium-titanium alloy, beryllium/zircaloy-2 alloy, and zircaloy-2 chips and fines were secured in concrete billets (7.5-gallon containers) in the 304 Facility, located in the 300 Area. The beryllium/zircaloy-2 alloy and zircaloy-2 chips and fines are designated as mixed waste with the characteristic of ignitability. The concretion process reduced the ignitability of the fines and chips for safe storage and shipment. This process has been discontinued and the 304 Facility is now undergoing closure as defined in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) of 1976 and the Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Dangerous Waste Regulations, WAC 173-303-040. This closure plan presents a description of the 304 Facility, the history of materials and waste managed, and the procedures that will be followed to close the 304 Facility. The 304 Facility is located within the 300-FF-3 (source) and 300-FF-5 (groundwater) operable units, as designated in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) (Ecology et al. 1992). Contamination in the operable units 300-FF-3 and 300-FF-5 is scheduled to be addressed through the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980 remedial action process. Therefore, all soil remedial action at the 304 Facility will be conducted as part of the CERCLA remedial action of operable units 300-FF-3 and 300-FF-5.

  6. A Nascent Peptide Signal Responsive to Endogenous Levels of Polyamines Acts to Stimulate Regulatory Frameshifting on Antizyme mRNA*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yordanova, Martina M.; Wu, Cheng; Andreev, Dmitry E.; Sachs, Matthew S.; Atkins, John F.

    2015-01-01

    The protein antizyme is a negative regulator of cellular polyamine concentrations from yeast to mammals. Synthesis of functional antizyme requires programmed +1 ribosomal frameshifting at the 3′ end of the first of two partially overlapping ORFs. The frameshift is the sensor and effector in an autoregulatory circuit. Except for Saccharomyces cerevisiae antizyme mRNA, the frameshift site alone only supports low levels of frameshifting. The high levels usually observed depend on the presence of cis-acting stimulatory elements located 5′ and 3′ of the frameshift site. Antizyme genes from different evolutionary branches have evolved different stimulatory elements. Prior and new multiple alignments of fungal antizyme mRNA sequences from the Agaricomycetes class of Basidiomycota show a distinct pattern of conservation 5′ of the frameshift site consistent with a function at the amino acid level. As shown here when tested in Schizosaccharomyces pombe and mammalian HEK293T cells, the 5′ part of this conserved sequence acts at the nascent peptide level to stimulate the frameshifting, without involving stalling detectable by toe-printing. However, the peptide is only part of the signal. The 3′ part of the stimulator functions largely independently and acts at least mostly at the nucleotide level. When polyamine levels were varied, the stimulatory effect was seen to be especially responsive in the endogenous polyamine concentration range, and this effect may be more general. A conserved RNA secondary structure 3′ of the frameshift site has weaker stimulatory and polyamine sensitizing effects on frameshifting. PMID:25998126

  7. A Nascent Peptide Signal Responsive to Endogenous Levels of Polyamines Acts to Stimulate Regulatory Frameshifting on Antizyme mRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yordanova, Martina M; Wu, Cheng; Andreev, Dmitry E; Sachs, Matthew S; Atkins, John F

    2015-07-17

    The protein antizyme is a negative regulator of cellular polyamine concentrations from yeast to mammals. Synthesis of functional antizyme requires programmed +1 ribosomal frameshifting at the 3' end of the first of two partially overlapping ORFs. The frameshift is the sensor and effector in an autoregulatory circuit. Except for Saccharomyces cerevisiae antizyme mRNA, the frameshift site alone only supports low levels of frameshifting. The high levels usually observed depend on the presence of cis-acting stimulatory elements located 5' and 3' of the frameshift site. Antizyme genes from different evolutionary branches have evolved different stimulatory elements. Prior and new multiple alignments of fungal antizyme mRNA sequences from the Agaricomycetes class of Basidiomycota show a distinct pattern of conservation 5' of the frameshift site consistent with a function at the amino acid level. As shown here when tested in Schizosaccharomyces pombe and mammalian HEK293T cells, the 5' part of this conserved sequence acts at the nascent peptide level to stimulate the frameshifting, without involving stalling detectable by toe-printing. However, the peptide is only part of the signal. The 3' part of the stimulator functions largely independently and acts at least mostly at the nucleotide level. When polyamine levels were varied, the stimulatory effect was seen to be especially responsive in the endogenous polyamine concentration range, and this effect may be more general. A conserved RNA secondary structure 3' of the frameshift site has weaker stimulatory and polyamine sensitizing effects on frameshifting. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. The Veterans Choice Act: A Qualitative Examination of Rapid Policy Implementation in the Department of Veterans Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattocks, Kristin M; Mengeling, Michelle; Sadler, Anne; Baldor, Rebecca; Bastian, Lori

    2017-07-01

    Congress enacted the Veterans Access, Choice, and Accountability Act of 2014 [Veterans Choice Act (VCA)] to improve access to timely, high-quality health care for Veterans. Although Congress mandated that VCA must begin within 90 days of passage of the legislation, no guidelines were provided in the legislation to ensure that Veterans had access to an adequate number of community providers across different specialties of care or distinct geographic areas, including rural areas of the country. To examine VCA policy implementation across a sampling of Veterans Health Administration (VHA) Medical Centers. We conducted a qualitative study of 43 VHA staff and providers by conducting in-person interviews at 5 VA medical centers in the West, South, and Midwest United States. Interview questions focused on perceptions and experiences with VCA and challenges related to implementation for VHA staff and providers. We identified 3 major themes to guide description of choice implementation: (1) VCA implemented too rapidly with inadequate preparation; (2) community provider networks insufficiently developed; and (3) communication and scheduling problems with subcontractors may lead to further delays in care. Our evaluation suggests that VCA was implemented far too rapidly, with little consideration given to the adequacy of community provider networks available to provide care to Veterans. Given the challenges we have highlighted in VCA implementation, it is imperative that the VHA continue to develop care coordination systems that will allow the Veterans to receive seamless care in the community.

  9. Comparative study between transcriptionally- and translationally-acting adenine riboswitches reveals key differences in riboswitch regulatory mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-François Lemay

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Many bacterial mRNAs are regulated at the transcriptional or translational level by ligand-binding elements called riboswitches. Although they both bind adenine, the adenine riboswitches of Bacillus subtilis and Vibrio vulnificus differ by controlling transcription and translation, respectively. Here, we demonstrate that, beyond the obvious difference in transcriptional and translational modulation, both adenine riboswitches exhibit different ligand binding properties and appear to operate under different regulation regimes (kinetic versus thermodynamic. While the B. subtilis pbuE riboswitch fully depends on co-transcriptional binding of adenine to function, the V. vulnificus add riboswitch can bind to adenine after transcription is completed and still perform translation regulation. Further investigation demonstrates that the rate of transcription is critical for the B. subtilis pbuE riboswitch to perform efficiently, which is in agreement with a co-transcriptional regulation. Our results suggest that the nature of gene regulation control, that is transcription or translation, may have a high importance in riboswitch regulatory mechanisms.

  10. Policy Overview and Options for Maximizing the Role of Policy in Geothermal Electricity Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doris, E.; Kreycik, C.; Young, K.

    2009-09-01

    Geothermal electricity production capacity has grown over time because of multiple factors, including its renewable, baseload, and domestic attributes; volatile and high prices for competing technologies; and policy intervention. Overarching federal policies, namely the Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA), provided certainty to project investors in the 1980s, leading to a boom in geothermal development. In addition to market expansion through PURPA, research and development policies provided an investment of public dollars toward developing technologies and reducing costs over time to increase the market competitiveness of geothermal electricity. Together, these efforts are cited as the primary policy drivers for the currently installed capacity. Informing policy decisions depends on the combined impacts of policies at the federal and state level on geothermal development. Identifying high-impact suites of policies for different contexts, and the government levels best equipped to implement them, would provide a wealth of information to both policy makers and project developers.

  11. Cadmium treatment suppresses DNA polymerase δ catalytic subunit gene expression by acting on the p53 and Sp1 regulatory axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniali, Giulia; Marcuzzi, Federica; Casarano, Elena; Tell, Gianluca

    2015-11-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a carcinogenic and neurotoxic environmental pollutant. Among the proposed mechanisms for Cd toxic effects, its ability to promote oxidative stress and to inhibit, in vitro, the activities of some Base Excision DNA Repair (BER) enzymes, such as hOGG1, XRCC1 and APE1, have been already established. However, the molecular mechanisms at the basis of these processes are largely unknown especially at sub-lethal doses of Cd and no information is available on the effect of Cd on the expression levels of BER enzymes. Here, we show that non-toxic treatment of neuronal cell lines, with pro-mitogenic doses of Cd, promotes a significant time- and dose-dependent down-regulation of DNA polymerase δ (POLD1) expression through a transcriptional mechanism with a modest effect on Polβ, XRCC1 and APE1. We further elucidated that the observed transcriptional repression on Polδ is acted by through competition by activated p53 on Sp1 at POLD1 promoter and by a squelching effect. We further proved the positive effect of Sp1 not only on POLD1 expression but also on Polβ, XRCC1 and APE1 expression, suggesting that Sp1 has pleiotropic effects on the whole BER pathway. Our results indicated that Cd-mediated impairment of BER pathway, besides acting on the enzymatic functions of some key proteins, is also exerted at the gene expression level of Polδ by acting on the p53-Sp1 regulatory axis. These data may explain not only the Cd-induced neurotoxic effects but also the potential carcinogenicity of this heavy metal.

  12. Standard Compliance: Guidelines to Help State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleets Meet Their Energy Policy Act Requirements, 10 CFR Part 490 (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-03-01

    This guidebook addresses the primary requirements of the Alternative Fuel Transportation Program to help state and alternative fuel provider fleets comply with the Energy Policy Act via the Standard Compliance option. It also addresses the topics that covered fleets ask about most frequently.

  13. 28 CFR 0.64-5 - Policy with regard to bringing charges under the Economic Espionage Act of 1996, Pub. L. 104-294...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Policy with regard to bringing charges under the Economic Espionage Act of 1996, Pub. L. 104-294, effective October 11, 1996. 0.64-5 Section 0.64-5 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE...

  14. Putting English Language Learners on the Educational Map: The No Child Left Behind Act Implemented. Education in Focus: Urban Institute Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Cohen, Clemencia Cosentino; Clewell, Beatriz Chu

    2007-01-01

    To expand knowledge about young immigrant populations and to document how the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) affects the education of English language learner (ELL) and limited English proficient (LEP) students, the Urban Institute was funded by the Foundation for Child Development to undertake a series of reports. This policy brief draws on this…

  15. Standard Compliance: Guidelines to Help State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleets Meet Their Energy Policy Act Requirements, 10 CFR Part 490 (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-04-01

    This guidebook addresses the primary requirements of the Alternative Fuel Transportation Program to help state and alternative fuel provider fleets comply with the Energy Policy Act via the Standard Compliance option. It also addresses the topics that covered fleets ask about most frequently.

  16. Evaluation of Policy and Research Interventions in Science and Technology: Consequence Assessment of Regulatory and Technology Transfer Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Mary Beatrice

    2011-01-01

    This research contributes to efforts in assessment studies related to science and technology interventions. The work presented in this thesis focuses on understanding the effects of policies that influence science and technology interventions, and determining the impact of science and technology interventions themselves. Chapter 1 explores how…

  17. Public hearings as a tool to improve participation in regulatory policies: case study of the National Agency of Electric Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Moreira de Castro

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The participation of citizens in public policies is an opportunity not only to educate them, but also to increase their empowerment. However, the best way for deploying participatory policies, defining their scope and approach, still remains an open and continuous debate. Using as a case study the Brazilian National Agency of Electric Energy (Aneel, with its public hearings about tariff review, this paper aims at analyzing the democratic aspects of these hearings and challenges the hypothesis of many scholars about the social participation bias in this kind of procedure. This study points out a majority participation of experts, contrasting with the political content of discussions. And, this way, it contributes to a critical analysis of the public hearings as a participatory tool, indicating their strengths and their aspects which deserve a special attention.

  18. Energy transport corridors: the potential role of Federal lands in states identified by the Energy Policy Act of 2005, section 368(b).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krummel, J.; Hlohowskyj, I.; Kuiper, J.; Kolpa, R.; Moore, R.; May, J.; VanKuiken, J.C.; Kavicky, J.A.; McLamore, M.R.; Shamsuddin, S. (Decision and Information Sciences); ( EVS)

    2011-09-01

    On August 8, 2005, the President signed the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct) into law. In Subtitle F of EPAct, Congress set forth various provisions that would change the way certain federal agencies (Agencies) coordinate to authorize the use of land for a variety of energy-related purposes. As part of Subtitle F of EPAct, Section 368 addresses the issue of energy transportation corridors on federal land for oil, gas, and hydrogen pipelines, as well as electricity transmission and distribution facilities. Because of the critical importance of improving the nation's electrical transmission grid, Congress recognized that electricity transmission issues should receive added attention when the Agencies address corridor location and analysis issues. In Section 368, Congress specifically directed the Agencies to consider the need for upgraded and new facilities to deliver electricity: In carrying out [Section 368], the Secretaries shall take into account the need for upgraded and new electricity transmission and distribution facilities to (1) improve reliability; (2) relieve congestion; and (3) enhance capability of the national grid to deliver electricity. Section 368 does not require the Agencies to consider or approve specific projects, applications for rights-of-way (ROWs), or other permits within designated energy corridors. Importantly, Section 368 does not direct, license, or otherwise permit any on-the-ground activity of any sort. If an applicant is interested in obtaining an authorization to develop a project within any corridor designated under Section 368, the applicant would have to apply for a ROW authorization and applicable permits. The Agencies would consider each application by applying appropriate project-specific reviews under requirements of laws and related regulations, including, but not limited to, the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), the Clean Water Act, the Clean Air Act, Section 7 of the Endangered Species Act (ESA), and Section

  19. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain site, Nevada research and development area, Nevada: Consultation draft, Nuclear Waste Policy Act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-01-01

    Chapter six describes the basis for facility design, the completed facility conceptual design, the completed analytical work relating to the resolution of design issues, and future design-related work. The basis for design and the conceptual design information presented in this chapter meet the requirements of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, for a conceptual repository design that takes into account site-specific requirements. This information is presented to permit a critical evaluation of planned site characterization activities. Chapter seven describes waste package components, emplacement environment, design, and status of research and development that support the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigation (NNWSI) Project. The site characterization plan (SCP) discussion of waste package components is contained entirely within this chapter. The discussion of emplacement environment in this chapter is limited to considerations of the environment that influence, or which may influence, if perturbed, the waste packages and their performance (particularly hydrogeology, geochemistry, and borehole stability). The basis for conceptual waste package design as well as a description of the design is included in this chapter. The complete design will be reported in the advanced conceptual design (ACD) report and is not duplicated in the SCP. 367 refs., 173 figs., 68 tabs.

  20. Impacts Analyses Supporting the National Environmental Policy Act Environmental Assessment for the Resumption of Transient Testing Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annette L. Schafer; Lloyd C. Brown; David C. Carathers; Boyd D. Christensen; James J. Dahl; Mark L. Miller; Cathy Ottinger Farnum; Steven Peterson; A. Jeffrey Sondrup; Peter V. Subaiya; Daniel M. Wachs; Ruth F. Weiner

    2013-11-01

    Environmental and health impacts are presented for activities associated with transient testing of nuclear fuel and material using two candidate test reactors. Transient testing involves irradiation of nuclear fuel or materials for short time-periods under high neutron flux rates. The transient testing process includes transportation of nuclear fuel or materials inside a robust shipping cask to a hot cell, removal from the shipping cask, pre-irradiation examination of the nuclear materials, assembly of an experiment assembly, transportation of the experiment assembly to the test reactor, irradiation in the test reactor, transport back to the hot cell, and post-irradiation examination of the nuclear fuel or material. The potential for environmental or health consequences during the transportation, examination, and irradiation actions are assessed for normal operations, off-normal (accident) scenarios, and transportation. Impacts to the environment (air, soil, and groundwater), are assessed during each phase of the transient testing process. This report documents the evaluation of potential consequences to the general public. This document supports the Environmental Assessment (EA) required by the U.S. National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) (42 USC Subsection 4321 et seq.).

  1. Made in China: Policy Analysis and Prescriptions to Improve China’s Consumer Product Safety Regulatory Regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    of fruits and vegetables, 130 tons of meat , 82 tons of seafood, 21 tons of cheese and 19 tons of eggs…There [was] great pressure on [the Beijing...26 Barboza, "China Acts to Cleanse Reputation." – “Chinese regulators have rejected imports of American meat , Indonesian seafood and other...dangerous raw materials had been used in the production of flour , candy, pickles, biscuits, black fungus, melon seeds, bean curd, and seafood. As a

  2. Scientific and Regulatory Policy Committee (SRPC) Review: Interpretation and Use of Cell Proliferation Data in Cancer Risk Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Charles E; Hukkanen, Renee R; Sura, Radhakrishna; Jacobson-Kram, David; Nolte, Thomas; Odin, Marielle; Cohen, Samuel M

    2015-08-01

    Increased cell proliferation is a central key event in the mode of action for many non-genotoxic carcinogens, and quantitative cell proliferation data play an important role in the cancer risk assessment of many pharmaceutical and environmental compounds. Currently, there is limited unified information on assay standards, reference values, targeted applications, study design issues, and quality control considerations for proliferation data. Here, we review issues in measuring cell proliferation indices, considerations for targeted studies, and applications within current risk assessment frameworks. As the regulatory environment moves toward more prospective evaluations based on quantitative pathway-based models, standardization of proliferation assays will become an increasingly important part of cancer risk assessment. To help address this development, we also discuss the potential role for proliferation data as a component of alternative carcinogenicity testing models. This information should improve consistency of cell proliferation methods and increase efficiency of targeted testing strategies.

  3. The Food and Drug Administration Office of Women's Health: Impact of Science on Regulatory Policy: An Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elahi, Merina; Eshera, Noha; Bambata, Nkosazana; Barr, Helen; Lyn-Cook, Beverly; Beitz, Julie; Rios, Maria; Taylor, Deborah R; Lightfoote, Marilyn; Hanafi, Nada; DeJager, Lowri; Wiesenfeld, Paddy; Scott, Pamela E; Fadiran, Emmanuel O; Henderson, Marsha B

    2016-03-01

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration Office of Women's Health (FDA OWH) has supported women's health research for ∼20 years, funding more than 300 studies on women's health issues, including research on diseases/conditions that disproportionately affect women in addition to the evaluation of sex differences in the performance of and response to medical products. These important women's health issues are studied from a regulatory perspective, with a focus on improving and optimizing medical product development and the evaluation of product safety and efficacy in women. These findings have influenced industry direction, labeling, product discontinuation, safety notices, and clinical practice. In addition, OWH-funded research has addressed gaps in the knowledge about diseases and medical conditions that impact women across the life span such as cardiovascular disease, pregnancy, menopause, osteoporosis, and the safe use of numerous medical products.

  4. 77 FR 65564 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-29

    ... outside the agency, and how individual record subjects can exercise their rights under the Privacy Act (e... practical for the purposes of administering IHS programs, policies, regulations, rules, executive orders... imminent violation of the law whether civil, criminal, or regulatory in nature and whether arising...

  5. Identifying Distal cis-acting Gene-Regulatory Sequences by Expressing BACs Functionalized with loxP-Tn10 Transposons in Zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Pradeep K; Shakes, Leighcraft A; Wolf, Hope M; Mujalled, Mohammad A; Zhou, Constance; Hatcher, Charles; Norford, Derek C

    2013-06-21

    Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes (BACs) are large pieces of DNA from the chromosomes of organisms propagated faithfully in bacteria as large extra-chromosomal plasmids. Expression of genes contained in BACs can be monitored after functionalizing the BAC DNA with reporter genes and other sequences that allow stable maintenance and propagation of the DNA in the new host organism. The DNA in BACs can be altered within its bacterial host in several ways. Here we discuss one such approach, using Tn10 mini-transposons, to introduce exogenous sequences into BACs for a variety of purposes. The largely random insertions of Tn10 transposons carrying lox sites have been used to position mammalian cell-selectable antibiotic resistance genes, enhancer-traps and inverted repeat ends of the vertebrate transposon Tol2 precisely at the ends of the genomic DNA insert in BACs. These modified BACs are suitable for expression in zebrafish or mouse, and have been used to functionally identify important long-range gene regulatory sequences in both species. Enhancer-trapping using BACs should prove uniquely useful in analyzing multiple discontinuous DNA domains that act in concert to regulate expression of a gene, and is not limited by genome accessibility issues of traditional enhancer-trapping methods.

  6. Opportunities for Energy Development in Water Conduits: A Report Prepared in Response to Section 7 of the Hydropower Regulatory Efficiency Act of 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sale, Michael J. [BCS, Incorporated, Laurel, MD (United States); Bishop, Norman A. [Knight Piesold, Chicago, IL (United States); Reiser, Sonya L. [Knight Piesold, Chicago, IL (United States); Johnson, Kurt [Telluride Energy LLC, Grand Junction, CO (United States); Bailey, Andrea C. [BCS, Incorporated, Laurel, MD (United States); Frank, Anthony [BCS, Incorporated, Laurel, MD (United States); Smith, Brennan T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Division

    2014-09-01

    In Section 7 of the Hydropower Regulatory Efficiency Act (HREA) of 2013 (P.L. 113-23), Congress directed the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to prepare an analysis of conduit hydropower opportunities available in the United States and to present case studies that describe the potential energy generation from these types of hydropower projects. Those analyses have been included in a new DOE report to Congress, and this ORNL/TM provides additional technical details supporting that report. Conduit hydropower offers important new ways to enhance renewable energy portfolios in the United States, as well as to increase the energy efficiency of water delivery systems. Conduit hydropower projects are constructed on existing water-conveyance structures, such as irrigation canals or pressurized pipelines that deliver water to municipalities, industry, or agricultural water users. Although water conveyance infrastructures are usually designed for non-power purposes, new renewable energy can often be harvested from them without affecting their original purpose and without the need to construct new dams or diversions. Conduit hydropower differs from more conventional hydropower development in that it is generally not located on natural rivers or waterways and therefore does not involve the types of environmental impacts that are associated with hydropower. The addition of hydropower to existing water conduits can provide valuable new revenue sources from clean, renewable energy. The new energy can be used within the existing water distribution systems to offset other energy demands, or it can be sold into regional transmission systems.

  7. The Impacts of Policies To Meet The UK Climate Change Act Target on Air Quality - An Explicit Modelling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, M.; Beevers, S.; Lott, M. C.; Kitwiroon, N.

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents a preliminary analysis of different pathways to meet the UK Climate Change Act target for 2050, of an 80% reduction in carbon dioxide equivalent emissions on a base year of 1990. The pathways can result in low levels of air pollution emissions through the use of renewables and nuclear power. But large increases in biomass burning and the continued use of diesel cars they can result in larger air quality impacts. The work evaluated the air quality impacts in several pathways using an energy system optimisation model (UK TIMES) and a chemical transport model (CMAQ). The work described in this paper goes beyond the `damage cost' approach where only emissions in each are assessed. In this work we used scenarios produced by the UK TIMES model which we converted into air pollution emissions. Emissions of ammonia from agriculture are not attributed to the energy system and are thus not captured by energy system models, yet are crucial in forming PM2.5, acknowledged to be currently the most important pollutant associated with premature deaths. Our model includes these emissions and other non-energy sources of hydrocarbons which lead to the formation of ozone, another significant cause of air pollution health impacts. A key policy issue is how much biogenic hydrocarbons contribute to ozone formation compared with man-made emissions. We modelled pollution concentrations at a resolution of 7 km across the UK and at 2km in urban areas. These results allow us to estimate changes in premature mortality and morbidity associated with the changes in air pollution and subsequently the economic cost of the impacts on public health. The work shows that in the `clean' scenario, urban exposures to particles (PM2.5) and NO2 could decrease by very large amounts, but ozone exposures are likely to increase without further significant reductions world-wide. Large increases in biomass use however could lead to increases in urban levels of carcinogens and primary PM.

  8. Geothermal Development and the Use of Categorical Exclusions Under the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, A.; Young, K. R.

    2014-09-01

    The federal environmental review process under the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) can be complex and time consuming. Currently, a geothermal developer may have to complete the NEPA process multiple times during the development of a geothermal project. One mechanism to reduce the timeframe of the federal environmental review process for activities that do not have a significant environmental impact is the use of Categorical Exclusions (CXs), which can exempt projects from having to complete an Environmental Assessment or Environmental Impact Statement. This study focuses primarily on the CX process and its applicability to geothermal exploration. In this paper, we: Provide generalized background information on CXs, including previous NEPA reports addressing CXs, the process for developing CXs, and the role of extraordinary circumstances; Examine the history of the Bureau of Land Management's (BLM) geothermal CXs; Compare current CXs for oil, gas, and geothermal energy; Describe bills proposing new statutory CXs; Examine the possibility of standardizing geothermal CXs across federal agencies; and Present analysis from the Geothermal NEPA Database and other sources on the potential for new geothermal exploration CXs. As part of this study, we reviewed Environmental Assessments (EAs) conducted in response to 20 geothermal exploration drilling permit applications (Geothermal Drilling Permits or Notices of Intents) since the year 2001, the majority of which are from the last 5 years. All 20 EAs reviewed for this study resulted in a Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI). While many of these FONS's involved proponent proposed or federal agency required mitigation, this still suggests it may be appropriate to create or expand an exploration drilling CX for geothermal, which would have a significant impact on reducing geothermal exploration timelines and up-front costs. Ultimately, federal agencies tasked with permitting and completing

  9. Some issues regarding regulatory policy, political participation, and social implications of geothermal resource development in the Imperial Valley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, P.S.; Steinberger, M.F.

    1976-02-01

    The early stages of geothermal resource development in the Imperial Valley have been characterized by an emphasis on the technological expertise of private developers and government officials. Government officials have created a complex array of Federal, state and county regulations to monitor the development. Local control is under the jurisdiction of the Imperial County government. The County has as its responsibility the protection of the general welfare of its residents, including any potentially adverse social, economic, or environmental impacts caused by geothermal resource development. Private developers and government officials are interested in the resources as a source of water desalination and electric power generation. An assessment of the interests and concerns of the public was made early in the development stage. In view of all these interests, it is essential in a democratic society that the various interests be identified so government can be representative of, and responsive to, those interests. Therefore, the four issues discussed in the paper are: (1) regulatory problems faced by local government officials in determining the course of development; (2) the social and political context in which the development is taking place; (3) the potential of geothermal development as perceived by community leaders and local government officials; and (4) the desirability of expanding citizen participation in geothermal decision-makingduring a period in which, as public opinion polls indicated, many citizens feel separated from government actions which may significantly affect their lives. Recommendations for regulations of geothermal resources and recommendations for improving public input into geothermal regulation are summarized in depth. (MCW)

  10. The new policy of the trust of the marketing regulatory issues explored%新政策下的信托营销监管问题探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘光波; 龚焕

    2012-01-01

    In the trust company by "products leading" to "customer orientated" tinancial institutions under the guidance of the transformation of idea, banking regulatory commission issued new circular asking trust company construct with customers as the core, professional asset allocation and wealth management as the main service content of the trust of the marketing model. The new marketing mode caused the vibration of the industry, is expected to solve the banking regulatory commission of trust companies and third party company supervision not enough problems. However, the new policy in the marketing personnel qualifications, marketing center of the restrictions, the different marketing center and supervision of three aspects remain loophole; need to further perfect the supervision regulations.%在信托公司由"产品主导型"向"客户导向型"理财机构转变的思路指导下,银监会颁布新通知,要求信托公司构建以客户为核心,以专业化资产配置和财富管理为主要服务内容的信托营销模式。新的营销模式引起了行业的震动,有望解决银监会对信托公司以及第三方公司监管力度不够的难题。然而,新政策在营销人员从业资格、营销中心的限制、异地营销中心监管等三个方面依然存在漏洞,需要进一步完善监管法规。

  11. Welfare, Liberty, and Security for All? U.S. Sex Education Policy and the 1996 Title V Section 510 of the Social Security Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Justin E; Hawkins, Robert L

    2016-07-01

    When adolescents delay (meaning they wait until after middle school) engaging in sexual intercourse, they use condoms at higher rates and have fewer sexual partners than those who have sex earlier, thus resulting in a lower risk for unintended pregnancies and sexually transmitted infections. The 1996 Section 510 of Title V of the Social Security Act (often referred to as A-H) is a policy that promotes abstinence-only-until-marriage education (AOE) within public schools. Using Stone's (2012) policy analysis framework, this article explores how A-H limits welfare, liberty, and security among adolescents due to the poor empirical outcomes of AOE policy. We recommend incorporating theory-informed comprehensive sex education in addition to theory-informed abstinence education that utilizes Fishbein and Ajzen's (2010) reasoned action model within schools in order to begin to address adolescent welfare, liberty, and security.

  12. A New Level A Type IVIVC for the Rational Design of Clinical Trials Toward Regulatory Approval of Generic Polymeric Long-Acting Injectables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somayaji, Mahadevabharath R; Das, Debarun; Przekwas, Andrzej

    2016-10-01

    Chronic neuropsychiatric disorders and diabetes mellitus affect millions of patients and require long-term supervision and expensive medical care. Although repeated drug administration can help manage these diseases, relapses and re-hospitalization owing to patient non-adherence and reduced therapeutic efficacy remain challenging. In response, long-acting injectables, which provide sustained drug release over longer periods at concentrations close to therapeutic ranges, have been proposed. Recent advancements include polymeric long-acting injectables (pLAIs), in which the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) is encapsulated within U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved biocompatible polymers, such as poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid), or PLGA. Despite significant progress and development in the global pLAI market, FDA guidance for the approval of complex drug products, such as generic pLAIs, is not clearly defined. Although in vitro to in vivo correlation (IVIVC) can facilitate the identification of critical quality attributes (CQAs), drug formulations, and in vitro test platforms for evaluating drug performance in vivo, the application of IVIVC in order to shortlist time- and resource-intensive clinical trials for generic pLAIs has not been reported. Here, we propose a new Level A Type IVIVC that directly correlates the in vitro outcomes, such as drug dissolution, of candidate generic formulations with the clinical characteristics, such as drug absorption, of a reference listed drug (RLD), to help identify the specific generic pLAI formulations with clinical absorptions that are likely to be similar to that of the RLD, thereby reducing the number of clinical trials required for evaluation of clinical bioequivalence (BE). Therefore, the scope of the proposed method is intended only for the rational design of clinical trials, i.e., to shortlist the specific pLAI generic formulations for clinical BE evaluation, and not necessarily to analyze drug performances

  13. HNF-4α regulates expression of human ornithin carbamoyltransferase through interaction with two positive cis-acting regulatory elements located in the proximal promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukšan, O; Dvořáková, L; Jirsa, M

    2014-01-01

    OTC encodes ornithine carbamoyltransferase, mitochondrial matrix enzyme involved in the synthesis of urea. The tissue-specific expression of OTC in the liver and intestine is dependent on the interaction of OTC promoter with an upstream enhancer. HNF-4 and C/EBPβ are crucial for this interaction in the rat and mouse. In the present study we focused on characterization of elements involved in the regulation of OTC transcription in human. Using a set of 5'-deleted promoter mutants in a reporter assay we identified two positive cis-acting regulatory elements located at c.-105 and c.-136 within the human OTC promoter. Both are essential for the transcriptional activity of the promoter itself and for the interaction with the enhancer. Protein binding at the corresponding sites was confirmed by DNase I footprinting. Electromobility shift assay with a specific competitor and anti-HNF-4α antibody identified the DNA-protein binding sites as HNF-4α recognition motifs. A third HNF-4α binding site has been found at the position c.-187. All three HNF-4α binding sites are located within 35 bp upstream of the transcription start sites at positions c.-95, c.-119 (major) and c.-169 (minor). A series of C/EBPβ recognition motifs was identified within the enhancer. Involvement of C/EBPβ and HNF-4α in the promoter-enhancer interaction is further supported by a massive DNAprotein interaction observed in the footprinting and EMSA assays. Since the OTC promoter lacks general core promoter elements such as TATA-box or initiators in standard positions, HNF-4α most likely plays an essential role in the initiation of OTC transcription in human.

  14. Using Eye-tracking to Examine How Embedding Risk Corrective Statements Improves Cigarette Risk Beliefs: Implications for Tobacco Regulatory Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochbuehler, Kirsten; Tang, Kathy Z.; Souprountchouk, Valentina; Campetti, Dana; Cappella, Joseph N.; Kozlowski, Lynn T.; Strasser, Andrew A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Tobacco companies have deliberately used explicit and implicit misleading information in marketing campaigns. The aim of the current study was to experimentally investigate whether the editing of explicit and implicit content of a print advertisement improves smokers’ risk beliefs and smokers’ knowledge of explicit and implicit information. Methods Using a 2(explicit/implicit) x 2(accurate/misleading) between-subject design, 203 smokers were randomly assigned to one of four advertisement conditions. The manipulation of graphic content was examined as an implicit factor to convey product harm. The inclusion of a text corrective in the body of the ad was defined as the manipulated explicit factor. Participants’ eye movements and risk beliefs/recall were measured during and after ad exposure, respectively. Results Results indicate that exposure to a text corrective decreases false beliefs about the product (p graphic content did not alter the harmfulness of the product. Independent of condition, smokers who focused longer on the warning label made fewer false inferences about the product (p = .01) and were more likely to correctly recall the warning information (p < .01). Nonetheless, most smokers largely ignored the text warning. Conclusions Embedding a corrective statement in the body of the ad is an effective strategy to convey health information to consumers, which can be mandated under the Tobacco Control Act (2009). Eye-tracking results objectively demonstrate that text-only warnings are not viewed by smokers, thus minimizing their effectiveness for conveying risk information. PMID:27160034

  15. Teacher evaluation as a policy target for improved student learning: A fifty-state review of statute and regulatory action since NCLB.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen M. Hazi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the analysis of state statutes and department of education regulations in fifty states for changes in teacher evaluation in use since the passage of No Child Left Behind Act of 2001. We asked what the policy activity for teacher evaluation is in state statutes and department of education regulations, how these changes in statutes and regulations might affect the practice of teacher evaluation, and what were the implications for instructional supervision from these policy actions. Teacher evaluation statutes and department of education regulations provided the data for this study, using archival records from each state's legislature and education departments that were placed into a comparison matrix based on criteria developed from the National Governors Association (NGA goals for school reform (Goldrick, 2002. Data were analyzed deductively in terms of these criteria for underlying theories of action (Malen, 2005, trends, and likely effects on teacher evaluation and implications for supervision. The majority of states adopted many of the NGA strategies, asserted oversight and involvement in local teacher evaluation practices, decreased the frequency of veteran teacher evaluation, and increased the types of data used in evaluation. Whether or not the changes in teacher evaluation will improve student learning in the long run remains to be seen.

  16. PROFILE: Environmental Impact Assessment Under the National Environmental Policy Act and the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensminger; McCold; Webb

    1999-07-01

    / Antarctica has been set aside by the international community for protection as a natural reserve and a place for scientific research. Through the Antarctic Treaty of 1961, the signing nations agreed to cooperate in protecting the antarctic environment, in conducting scientific studies, and in abstaining from the exercise of territorial claims. The 1991 signing of the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty (Protocol) by representatives of the 26 nations comprising the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Parties (Parties) significantly strengthened environmental protection measures for the continent. The Protocol required ratification by each of the governments individually prior to official implementation. The US government ratified the Protocol by passage of the Antarctic Science, Tourism, and Conservation Act of 1997. Japan completed the process by ratifying the Protocol on December 15, 1997. US government actions undertaken in Antarctica are subject to the requirements of both the Protocol and the US National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). There are differences in the scope and intent of the Protocol and NEPA; however, both require environmental impact assessment (EIA) as part of the planning process for proposed actions that have the potential for environmental impacts. In this paper we describe the two instruments and highlight key similarities and differences with particular attention to EIA. Through this comparison of the EIA requirements of NEPA and the Protocol, we show how the requirements of each can be used in concert to provide enhanced environmental protection for the antarctic environment. NEPA applies only to actions of the US government; therefore, because NEPA includes certain desirable attributes that have been refined and clarified through numerous court cases, and because the Protocol is just entering implementation internationally, some recommendations are made for strengthening the procedural requirements of the Protocol

  17. Clinical evaluation of cardiovascular devices: principles, problems, and proposals for European regulatory reform. Report of a policy conference of the European Society of Cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Alan G; Daubert, Jean-Claude; Van de Werf, Frans; Estes, N A Mark; Smith, Sidney C; Krucoff, Mitchell W; Vardas, Panos E; Komajda, Michel

    2011-07-01

    The European Commission announced in 2008 that a fundamental revision of the medical device directives is being considered in order to clarify and strengthen the current legal framework. The system for testing and approving devices in Europe was established >20 years ago as a 'New Approach' to a previously little-regulated industry. It is recognized by many that the regulatory system has not kept pace with technological advances and changing patterns of medical practice. New legislation will be drafted during 2011, but medical experts have been little involved in this important process. This context makes it an opportune time for a professional association to advise from both clinical and academic perspectives about changes which should be made to improve the safety and efficacy of devices used in clinical practice and to develop more appropriate systems for their clinical evaluation and post-marketing surveillance. This report summarizes how medical devices are regulated and it reviews some serious clinical problems that have occurred with cardiovascular devices. Finally, it presents the main recommendations from a Policy Conference on the Clinical Evaluation of Cardiovascular Devices that was held at the European Heart House in January 2011.

  18. Regulatory guidance document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-05-01

    The Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) Program Management System Manual requires preparation of the OCRWM Regulatory Guidance Document (RGD) that addresses licensing, environmental compliance, and safety and health compliance. The document provides: regulatory compliance policy; guidance to OCRWM organizational elements to ensure a consistent approach when complying with regulatory requirements; strategies to achieve policy objectives; organizational responsibilities for regulatory compliance; guidance with regard to Program compliance oversight; and guidance on the contents of a project-level Regulatory Compliance Plan. The scope of the RGD includes site suitability evaluation, licensing, environmental compliance, and safety and health compliance, in accordance with the direction provided by Section 4.6.3 of the PMS Manual. Site suitability evaluation and regulatory compliance during site characterization are significant activities, particularly with regard to the YW MSA. OCRWM`s evaluation of whether the Yucca Mountain site is suitable for repository development must precede its submittal of a license application to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Accordingly, site suitability evaluation is discussed in Chapter 4, and the general statements of policy regarding site suitability evaluation are discussed in Section 2.1. Although much of the data and analyses may initially be similar, the licensing process is discussed separately in Chapter 5. Environmental compliance is discussed in Chapter 6. Safety and Health compliance is discussed in Chapter 7.

  19. Measuring and Modeling the U.S. Regulatory Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bommarito, Michael J., II; Katz, Daniel Martin

    2017-07-01

    Over the last 23 years, the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission has required over 34,000 companies to file over 165,000 annual reports. These reports, the so-called "Form 10-Ks," contain a characterization of a company's financial performance and its risks, including the regulatory environment in which a company operates. In this paper, we analyze over 4.5 million references to U.S. Federal Acts and Agencies contained within these reports to measure the regulatory ecosystem, in which companies are organisms inhabiting a regulatory environment. While individuals across the political, economic, and academic world frequently refer to trends in this regulatory ecosystem, far less attention has been paid to supporting such claims with large-scale, longitudinal data. In this paper, in addition to positing a model of regulatory ecosystems, we document an increase in the regulatory energy per filing, i.e., a warming "temperature." We also find that the diversity of the regulatory ecosystem has been increasing over the past two decades. These findings support the claim that regulatory activity and complexity are increasing, and this framework contributes an important step towards improving academic and policy discussions around legal complexity and regulation.

  20. Measuring and Modeling the U.S. Regulatory Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bommarito, Michael J., II; Katz, Daniel Martin

    2017-09-01

    Over the last 23 years, the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission has required over 34,000 companies to file over 165,000 annual reports. These reports, the so-called "Form 10-Ks," contain a characterization of a company's financial performance and its risks, including the regulatory environment in which a company operates. In this paper, we analyze over 4.5 million references to U.S. Federal Acts and Agencies contained within these reports to measure the regulatory ecosystem, in which companies are organisms inhabiting a regulatory environment. While individuals across the political, economic, and academic world frequently refer to trends in this regulatory ecosystem, far less attention has been paid to supporting such claims with large-scale, longitudinal data. In this paper, in addition to positing a model of regulatory ecosystems, we document an increase in the regulatory energy per filing, i.e., a warming "temperature." We also find that the diversity of the regulatory ecosystem has been increasing over the past two decades. These findings support the claim that regulatory activity and complexity are increasing, and this framework contributes an important step towards improving academic and policy discussions around legal complexity and regulation.

  1. Radioactive lightning rods: radiologic evaluation and regulatory policy related to its use in Cuba; Pararrayos radiactivos: evaluacion radiologica de su empleo y politica regulatoria com relacion a su utilizacion en Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Forteza, Yamil; Quevedo Garcia, Jose R.; Diaz Guerra, Pedro I.; Cruz Dumenico, Gonzalez; Fuente Puch, Andres de la [Centro Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear, La Habana (Cuba)

    2001-07-01

    The radioactive lightning rod employment for the protection of facilities against atmospheric discharges reached its maximum splendor in the eighties. It was in fact at the end of this decade when the technical considerations related to the justification of this practice finally conclude that the production of such teams was abolished. For the regulatory authorities, however, it continues having validity the question related to the control of lightning rod still in use as well as the question related to the establishment of a coherent with the international practice national policy. The paper shows the results of the last 10 years of control of the radioactive lightning rod use in Cuba and the radiological evaluation carried out on the base of this experience. Lastly, it exposes the regulatory policy referred to the employment of the radioactive lightning rod in the country. (author)

  2. Site characterization progress report: Yucca Mountain, Nevada, April 1, 1990--September 30, 1990, Number 3; Nuclear Waste Policy Act (Section 113)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-03-01

    In accordance with the requirements of Section 113(b)(3) of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA), as amended, the US Department of Energy has prepared this report on the progress of site characterization activities at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for the period April 1 through September 30, 1990. This report is the third of a series of reports that are issued at intervals of approximately six months during site characterization. The report covers a number of new initiatives to improve the effectiveness of the site characterization program and covers continued efforts related to preparatory activities, study plans, and performance assessment. 85 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Response of School Districts to the New York State Concussion Awareness and Management Act: Review of Policies and Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajankova, Maria; Oswald, Jennifer M.; Terranova, Lauren M.; Kaplen, Michael V.; Ambrose, Anne F.; Spielman, Lisa A.; Gordon, Wayne A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: By 2014, all states implemented concussion laws that schools must translate into daily practice; yet, limited knowledge exists regarding implementation of these laws. We examined the extent to which concussion management policies and procedure (P&P) documents of New York State school districts comply with the State's Concussion…

  4. 78 FR 43974 - Energy and Water Use Labeling for Consumer Products Under the Energy Policy and Conservation Act...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 305 Energy and Water Use Labeling for Consumer Products Under the Energy Policy and... standards and to aid shoppers who compare products during this period, AHAM proposed two measures. First,...

  5. Dress codes and appearance policies: challenges under federal legislation, part 1: title VII of the civil rights act and religion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Michael S; Koen, Clifford M; Moore, Thomas W

    2013-01-01

    As more and more individuals choose to express themselves and their religious beliefs with headwear, jewelry, dress, tattoos, and body piercings and push the envelope on what is deemed appropriate in the workplace, employers have an increased need for creation and enforcement of reasonable dress codes and appearance policies. As with any employment policy or practice, an appearance policy must be implemented and enforced without regard to an individual's race, color, sex, national origin, religion, disability, age, or any other protected status. A policy governing dress and appearance based on the business needs of an employer that is applied fairly and consistently and does not have a disproportionate effect on any protected class will generally be upheld if challenged in court. By examining some of the more common legal challenges to dress codes and how courts have resolved the disputes, health care managers can avoid many potential problems. This article addresses the issue of religious discrimination focusing on dress and appearance and some of the court cases that provide guidance for employers.

  6. Regulatory agencies and regulatory risk

    OpenAIRE

    Knieps, Günter; Weiß, Hans-Jörg

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to show that regulatory risk is due to the discretionary behaviour of regulatory agencies, caused by a too extensive regulatory mandate provided by the legislator. The normative point of reference and a behavioural model of regulatory agencies based on the positive theory of regulation are presented. Regulatory risk with regard to the future behaviour of regulatory agencies is modelled as the consequence of the ex ante uncertainty about the relative influence of inter...

  7. 我国三网融合管制政策演进路径探析%Evolution Path of Regulatory Policy of Tri-networks Convergence in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严奇春; 和金生

    2012-01-01

    Tri-networks convergence, affected greatly by the effective government regulation, is an important step in achieving the strategy of the next -generation information technology industry. At the same time, some testing activities about tri -networks convergence have begun in our country. It is worthy study to explore some theoretical and practical experience and constitute corresponding regulatory policy about tri-networks convergence, in line with our current conditions, for the sake of promoting and facilitating triple play effectively. Therefore, this paper makes some recommendations about the regulatory policies with an evolution path of three-stage, from regulatory by industry, regulatory by functions to integration regulatory, combining some industries fusion theories, the successfully foreign experience in the regulation of the of tri-networks convergence and our conditions.%三网融合是实现新一代信息技术产业战略的重要一步,而政府的有效管制对其发展影响甚大,所以针对我国目前已经开始试点的三网融合,如何从理论上和实践上探索经验,制定符合我国国情的管制政策,有效地推进和促进三网融合,就值得研究.为此,本文结合相关产业融合理论,并借鉴国外三网融合成功的管制经验,结合我国实际,提出分业监管、分段监管和融合监管三阶段演进的管制政策建议.

  8. Access to Artemisinin-Combination Therapy (ACT) and other Anti-Malarials: National Policy and Markets in Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amuasi, John H.; Diap, Graciela; Nguah, Samuel Blay; Karikari, Patrick; Boakye, Isaac; Jambai, Amara; Lahai, Wani Kumba; Louie, Karly S.; Kiechel, Jean-Rene

    2012-01-01

    Malaria remains the leading burden of disease in post-conflict Sierra Leone. To overcome the challenge of anti-malarial drug resistance and improve effective treatment, Sierra Leone adopted artemisinin-combination therapy artesunate-amodiaquine (AS+AQ) as first-line treatment for uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria. Other national policy anti-malarials include artemether-lumefantrine (AL) as an alternative to AS+AQ, quinine and artemether for treatment of complicated malaria; and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) for intermittent preventive treatment (IPTp). This study was conducted to evaluate access to national policy recommended anti-malarials. A cross-sectional survey of 127 medicine outlets (public, private and NGO) was conducted in urban and rural areas. The availability on the day of the survey, median prices, and affordability policy and available non-policy anti-malarials were calculated. Anti-malarials were stocked in 79% of all outlets surveyed. AS+AQ was widely available in public medicine outlets; AL was only available in the private and NGO sectors. Quinine was available in nearly two-thirds of public and NGO outlets and over one-third of private outlets. SP was widely available in all outlets. Non-policy anti-malarials were predominantly available in the private outlets. AS+AQ in the public sector was widely offered for free. Among the anti-malarials sold at a cost, the same median price of a course of AS+AQ (US$1.56), quinine tablets (US$0.63), were found in both the public and private sectors. Quinine injection had a median cost of US$0.31 in the public sector and US$0.47 in the private sector, while SP had a median cost of US$0.31 in the public sector compared to US$ 0.63 in the private sector. Non-policy anti-malarials were more affordable than first-line AS+AQ in all sectors. A course of AS+AQ was affordable at nearly two days’ worth of wages in both the public and private sectors. PMID:23133522

  9. The Immigration and Asylum Act Support for Children and Families: Setting a "Fairer, Faster and Firmer" Agenda? Policy Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chunilal, Naomi

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the intent, goals, successes and failures of England's Immigration and Asylum Act and its provisions for the support of children and families. Urges accelerating decision making process for asylum claims, and argues against placing refugees into a financially disadvantaged situation upon arrival, and against negative government policies…

  10. The Real Education for Healthy Youth Act: Honest, Age Appropriate Sexual Health Education for Responsible Decision Making. Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillip, Jendayi

    2012-01-01

    The Real Education for Healthy Youth Act (S. 1782/H.R. 3324), introduced in November 2011 by Senator Frank Lautenberg (D-NJ) and Representative Barbara Lee (D-CA), would ensure that federal funding is allocated to comprehensive sexual health education programs that provide young people with the skills and information they need to make informed,…

  11. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 228 - Requirements of the Hours of Service Act: Statement of Agency Policy and Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Act which do not afford such persons an opportunity for rest, free from interruptions caused by noise... interruptions caused by noise under the control of the railroad” if noise levels attributable to noise sources... practical purposes, be subject to state or local housing, sanitation, health, electrical, or fire codes...

  12. State ICC Overview: Policies, Programs, and Practices of State Interagency Coordinating Councils under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shackelford, Jo, Ed.

    This document presents general information about State Interagency Coordinating Councils (SICCs) which participate in the Early Intervention Program for Infants and Toddlers with Disabilities (formerly Part H Program, now Part C) under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). The information was gathered from questionnaires returned…

  13. Public Law 96-479--National Materials and Minerals Policy, R & D Act of 1980 and Consideration of H.R. 4281 - Critical Materials Act of 1981. Hearings Before the Subcommittee on Transportation, Aviation and Materials and the Subcommittee on Science, Research and Technology of the Committee on Science and Technology U. S. House of Representatives, Ninety-Seventh Congress, Second Session. [No. 117

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Science and Technology.

    Presented in this document are transcripts of hearings on the subject of national materials policy. The hearings focused on implementation of P.L. 96-479, the National Materials and Minerals Policy, Research and Development Act of 1980 (including the recent Presidential program plan and report made to Congress) and on H.R. 4281, the Critical…

  14. Regulatory Streamlining and Improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark A. Carl

    2006-07-11

    The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) engaged in numerous projects outlined under the scope of work discussed in the United States Department of Energy (DOE) grant number DE-FC26-04NT15456 awarded to the IOGCC. Numerous projects were completed that were extremely valuable to state oil and gas agencies as a result of work performed utilizing resources provided by the grant. There are numerous areas in which state agencies still need assistance. This additional assistance will need to be addressed under future scopes of work submitted annually to DOE's Project Officer for this grant. This report discusses the progress of the projects outlined under the grant scope of work for the 2005-2006 areas of interest, which are as follows: Area of Interest No. 1--Regulatory Streamlining and Improvement: This area of interest continues to support IOGCC's regulatory streamlining efforts that include the identification and elimination of unnecessary duplications of efforts between and among state and federal programs dealing with exploration and production on public lands. Area of Interest No. 2--Technology: This area of interest seeks to improve efficiency in states through the identification of technologies that can reduce costs. Area of Interest No. 3--Training and Education: This area of interest is vital to upgrading the skills of regulators and industry alike. Within the National Energy Policy, there are many appropriate training and education opportunities. Education was strongly endorsed by the President's National Energy Policy Development group. Acting through the governors offices, states are very effective conduits for the dissemination of energy education information. While the IOGCC favors the development of a comprehensive, long-term energy education plan, states are also supportive of immediate action on important concerns, such as energy prices, availability and conservation. Area of Interest No. 4--Resource Assessment and

  15. 78 FR 25331 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-30

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Withdrawal.... On January 7, 2013, Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. (``FINRA'') filed with the... Regulatory Policy, Wells Fargo Advisors, LLC, dated Feb. 15, 2013; Letter from Tamara K. Salmon,...

  16. Policy Decisions With Regard To The Applicability Of The Clean Air Act Requirements To The Strategic Petroleum Reserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  17. Reconsidering Styles of Regulatory Enforcement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    May, Peter J.; Winter, Søren

    2000-01-01

    This study addresses enforcement styles of regulatory inspectors, based on an examination of the municipal enforcement of agro-environmental policies in Denmark. Our findings make three contributions to the regulatory literature. One contribution is to add empirical support for theorizing about i...

  18. Reconsidering Styles of Regulatory Enforcement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    J. May, Peter; Winter, Søren

    2007-01-01

    This study addresses enforcement styles of regulatory inspectors based on an examination of the municipal enforcement of agro-environmental policies in Denmark. Our findings make three contributions to the regulatory literature. One contribution is to add empirical support for theorizing about in...

  19. Government Policies for Corporate Social Responsibility in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Jette Steen; Moon, Jeremy; Slager, Rieneke

    This paper analyses policies of twenty two EU member governments designed to encourage corporate social responsibility (CSR) over the first decade of the century. Our paper categorizes policies for CSR into different types depending on their expected degree of regulatory strength. Secondly, whilst...... it identifies a wide range of issues to which government CSR policies are directed, it notes a tendency for these to have expanded from social affairs and employment issues, through environmental issues, to economic and trade and development issues. Thirdly, governments act as agents in their respective...

  20. Consultation draft: Site characterization plan overview, Deaf Smith County Site, Texas: Nuclear Waste Policy Act (Section 113)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is preparing a site characterization plan for the candidate site in Deaf Smith County, Texas. The DOE has provided, for information and review, a consultation draft of the plan to the State of Texas and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The site characterization plan is a lengthy document that describes in considerable detail the program that will be conducted to characterize the geologic, hydrologic, and other conditions relevant to the suitability of the site for a repository. The overview presented here consists of brief summaries of important topics covered in the consultation draft of the site characterization plan; it is not a substitute for the site characterization plan. The arrangement of the overview is similar to that of the plan itself, with brief descriptions of the repository system - the site, the repository, and the waste package - preceding the discussion of the characterization program to be carried out at the Deaf Smith County site. It is intended primarily for the management staff of organizations involved in the DOE's repository program or other persons who might wish to understand the general scope of the site-characterization program, the activities to be conducted, and the facilities to be constructed rather than the technical details of site characterization. 15 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Underlying Motives, Moral Agendas and Unlikely Partnerships: The Formulation of the U.S. Trafficking in Victims Protection Act Through the Data and Voices of Key Policy Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Footen Bromfield

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In response to the overwhelming amount of attention to human trafficking, the debates surrounding its definition, and its focus on the sex industry, the purpose of this study was to understand the motivations behind the formation of the Trafficking in Victims Protection Act (TVPA. Using the Advocacy Coalition Framework (ACF as a model, data was collected and analyzed in order to examine the coalition identities of key players and their positions. Through the presentation of in-depth interview data with key policy players involved in the making of the TVPA, this article illustrates how and why the TVPA was formulated, the implications of its development, and the necessity for critical analysis of its effects. The use of alternative frameworks of labor and migration for understanding trafficking is proposed. Further consideration is given to legislative changes to eliminate anti-prostitution ideology and to support anti-oppressive approaches to addressing forced or deceptive working conditions.

  2. The interconnectedness between landowner knowledge, value, belief, attitude, and willingness to act: policy implications for carbon sequestration on private rangelands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Seth L; Ma, Zhao

    2014-02-15

    Rangelands can be managed to increase soil carbon and help mitigate emissions of carbon dioxide. This study assessed Utah rangeland owner's environmental values, beliefs about climate change, and awareness of and attitudes towards carbon sequestration, as well as their perceptions of potential policy strategies for promoting carbon sequestration on private rangelands. Data were collected from semi-structured interviews and a statewide survey of Utah rangeland owners, and were analyzed using descriptive and bivariate statistics. Over two-thirds of respondents reported some level of awareness of carbon sequestration and a generally positive attitude towards it, contrasting to their lack of interest in participating in a relevant program in the future. Having a positive attitude was statistically significantly associated with having more "biocentric" environmental values, believing the climate had been changing over the past 30 years, and having a stronger belief of human activities influencing the climate. Respondents valued the potential ecological benefits of carbon sequestration more than the potential financial or climate change benefits. Additionally, respondents indicated a preference for educational approaches over financial incentives. They also preferred to work with a private agricultural entity over a non-profit or government entity on improving land management practices to sequester carbon. These results suggest potential challenges for developing technically sound and socially acceptable policies and programs for promoting carbon sequestration on private rangelands. Potential strategies for overcoming these challenges include emphasizing the ecological benefits associated with sequestering carbon to appeal to landowners with ecologically oriented management objectives, enhancing the cooperation between private agricultural organizations and government agencies, and funneling resources for promoting carbon sequestration into existing land management and

  3. Federal energy conservation programs pursuant to section 381 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (Public Law 94-163). Annual report to Congress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-02-21

    This report provides an overview of the activities and achievements of the executive branch of the Federal Government in implementing the energy conservation requirements and provisions of section 381 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA) of 1975 (Public Law 94-163). The report describes Federal actions to develop procurement policies that promote energy conservation and efficiency, develop a Federal 10-Year Buildings Energy Conservation Plan, develop responsible public education and information programs, encourage energy conservation and energy efficiency, and promote vanpooling and carpooling arrangements. About half of the Nation's energy is used in our homes and automobiles. Another 48 percent is used by State and local governments, business and insutry, in providing needed goods and services. The Federal Government is the Nation's largest energy user, accouting for 2.2 percent of the total national energy used in 1977. This energy is used by nearly 6 million people in more than 400 thousand buildings and in the operation of more than 600 thousand vehicles. While energy conservation and energy efficiency measures alone cannot solve our immediate problems, they are an essential part of our transition to an era of scarce and expensive energy supplies.

  4. 10 CFR 140.91 - Appendix A-Form of nuclear energy liability policy for facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appendix A-Form of nuclear energy liability policy for facilities. 140.91 Section 140.91 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL PROTECTION... other matter not within the Commission's statutory jurisdiction under the Atomic Energy Act....

  5. National Environmental Policy Act of 1969: a critical evaluation of its legislative scheme, decision-making, and implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, Y.C.

    1984-01-01

    The themes include: 1) NEPA and its development, 2) the structure and functions of the NEPA mechanism, 3) the theoretical approach to the reasons why NEPA has not been effectively implemented, 4) the role of the major actors influencing NEPA's implementation, with focus on that of the courts, and 5) a comprehensive evaluation of the NEPA mechanism and implementation with an outlook for the future. A crucial characteristic of the NEPA mechanism is its dependence upon procedural instruments for the achievement of substantive policy goals. Also, NEPA contains no explicit sanctions. NEPA has given no authority to the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) to approve or disapprove environmental impact statements. Moreover, NEPA is over-ambitious. Thus, the implementation of NEPA represents a combined operation of three factors: 1) over-ambitious goals, 2) the NEPA mechanism with all its defects, and 3) a recalcitrant bureaucracy as a target group. The initial outcome of the combined operation of these factors was necessarily ineffective in NEPA's implementation.

  6. Act local, think global: how the Malawi experience of scaling up antiretroviral treatment has informed global policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harries, Anthony D; Ford, Nathan; Jahn, Andreas; Schouten, Erik J; Libamba, Edwin; Chimbwandira, Frank; Maher, Dermot

    2016-01-01

    The scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Malawi was based on a public health approach adapted to its resource-poor setting, with principles and practices borrowed from the successful tuberculosis control framework. From 2004 to 2015, the number of new patients started on ART increased from about 3000 to over 820,000. Despite being a small country, Malawi has made a significant contribution to the 15 million people globally on ART and has also contributed policy and service delivery innovations that have supported international guidelines and scale up in other countries. The first set of global guidelines for scaling up ART released by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2002 focused on providing clinical guidance. In Malawi, the ART guidelines adopted from the outset a more operational and programmatic approach with recommendations on health systems and services that were needed to deliver HIV treatment to affected populations. Seven years after the start of national scale-up, Malawi launched a new strategy offering all HIV-infected pregnant women lifelong ART regardless of the CD4-cell count, named Option B+. This strategy was subsequently incorporated into a WHO programmatic guide in 2012 and WHO ART guidelines in 2013, and has since then been adopted by the majority of countries worldwide. In conclusion, the Malawi experience of ART scale-up has become a blueprint for a public health response to HIV and has informed international efforts to end the AIDS epidemic by 2030.

  7. 国外生物类似药监管政策发展分析及对我国的启示%Analysis of the Regulatory Policies Progress of Biosimilars in Foreign Countries and Its Enlightenment to China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    酒励; 何霞; 李伟

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:To explore the development status of regulatory policies of biosimilars in foreign countries,and to provide reference for perfecting biosimilars regulatory policies in China. METHODS:Comparative analysis was conducted,con-cerning biosimilar regulations and directories which had been issued by WHO,EMA and FDA,in aspects of biosimilars definition, the choice of reference drug,quality studies,non-clinical studies,clinical studies. RESULTS & CONCLUSIONS:Three common points found in foreign regulatory policies were that:firstly,discrepancies were allowed between biosimilars and reference drugs;secondly,the comparison was itemized between biosimilars and reference drugs on safety and effectiveness,in order to guarantee the reliability of quality research;thirdly,clinical and non-clinical studies were reduced with a premise that similarity is confirmed. Given China's current situation,several parts of policies should be improved,including stressing pertinence of reference drug selec-tion,refining preclinical and clinical study directories and establishing supporting system after listing.%目的:了解国外生物类似药监管政策发展现状,为我国生物类似药监管政策的完善提供参考.方法:对世界卫生组织(WHO)、欧盟药管局(EMA)、美国FDA发布的生物类似药相关政策或指南中关于生物类似药定义、参比药品选择、质量研究、非临床研究、临床研究等方面的内容进行比较分析.结果与结论:国外生物类似药监管政策具有3点共性,一是允许生物类似药与参比药品存在一定的差异性;二是逐项对比生物类似药与参比药品的安全性与有效性,确保质量研究的可靠;三是在证实质量的高度相似性前提下减少非临床及临床试验.对比我国这方面的发展现状,应该从提高参比药品选择的针对性、细化临床前与临床研究指南及建立上市后配套制度等方面进行完善.

  8. INSTITUTE OF REGULATORY IMPACT ASSESSMENT DEVELOPMENT OF EURASION UNION ENACTMENTS IN THE FIELD OF PUBLIC PROCUREMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Agapova

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Transformation of normative regulation of the public procurement system in the conditions of formation of the Eurasian Union is a very important tool in formation of common markets of goods and services. However, its impact on the development of entrepreneurial activity is ambiguous, which requires the development of regulatory impact assessment instruments of projects normative acts in the field of development of competition policy and procurement system of Eurasian Economy Union.

  9. A risk-based regulatory framework for health IT: recommendations of the FDASIA working group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slight, Sarah P; Bates, David W

    2014-10-01

    The Secretary of Health and Human Services (HHS) acting through the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and in collaboration with the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) and Office of the National Coordinator for Health IT (ONC) was tasked with delivering a report on an appropriate, risk-based regulatory framework for health information technology (IT). An expert stakeholder group was established under the auspices of the Health IT Policy Committee to help provide input into the development of this framework, including how healthcare IT systems could be stratified in terms of risk and recommendations about how the regulatory requirements currently in place should be adapted. In this paper, we summarize the public deliberations and final public report of the expert stakeholder group, and conclude with key suggestions intended to address the charge to recommend the features of a risk-based regulatory framework that promote innovation, protect patient safety, and avoid regulatory duplication.

  10. P53 but not cyclin E acts in a negative regulatory loop to control HER-2 expression in MCF-7 breast carcinoma cell line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Montazeri

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Cyclin E, HER-2 and p53, are considered as major prognostic markers in breast cancer. As they are related in patho-clinical level, we aimed to check if they have any direct interaction on expression of each other. To study the effect of cyclin E on HER-2 expression, cell lines stably overexpressing cyclin E or its low molecular weight (LMW isoforms were generated. To understand the results of p53 silencing either alone or in combination with cyclin E overexpression, we created three different p53 stably knocked down cell lines. Protein expression was analyzed by western blot, HER-2 expression in the established cell lines were determined using SYBR green real time PCR and data analyzed by REST software. Results indicate that HER-2 expression is only downregulated following p53 silencing and none of cyclin E isoforms can alter its expression. The presence of cyclin E isoforms in p53 silenced clones also does not altered HER-2 expression. Given the fact that p53 degradation is increased by HER-2 overexpression, these data can draw a regulatory loop in which a non-mutated functional p53 and HER-2 can bidirectionally regulate the expression of these two genes. This study improves our understandings of these pathways and these proteins can be introduced either as a marker or as a target in cancer treatment.

  11. Bayesian policy reuse

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rosman, Benjamin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available to the label of any given instance, it can choose to act through a process of policy reuse from a library in contrast to policy learning. In policy reuse, the agent has prior experience from the class of tasks in the form of a library of policies that were...

  12. SUHARTO’S POPULATION POLICY IN CONTEMPORARY INDONESIA : FAMILY PLANNING PROGRAM, MARRIAGE ACT OR COMPULSORY EDUCATION HAS THE GREATEST IMPACT TO FERTILITY DECLINE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Anantalia Widyastari

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Fertility in Indonesia has been falling significantly, from an average total fertility rate of 5.6 children per women in 1970s to 4.1 in 1980, and 2.6 in 2010. This paper attempts to explore which and how Suharto’s population policies have played role in Indonesia’s fertility decline. Whilst the adoption of modern contraceptive was perceived as the major determinant of fertility decline in Indonesia, changes in Indonesia’s political order and socio-economic development also contribute a considerable effect to Indonesians’ familial norms. The implementation of 9-year compulsory education had placed a strong foundation for the future Indonesian human capital and enabled women to obtain higher opportunities for schooling. Beside facilitates the diffusion of ideas among young people and opened up their perspective toward reproductive rights and self actualization, education also increases women’s opportunities to participate in laborforce. With the increasing roles outside the domestic sector, delaying age of marriage and limiting family size becomes a choice for women in contemporary Indonesia. The marriage act, however, was perceived as an accelerator rather than a predictor in increasing age of first marriage. Regardless the existence of the Marriage Law 1974, age of first marriage is likely to increase with increasing of education, although maybe in a slower rate.

  13. Quantifying the Impact of Vehicle and Motor Fuel Provisions from the Energy Policy Act on the Sustainability and Resilience of U.S. Cities: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steward, Darlene; Sears, Ted

    2017-02-01

    The Energy Policy Act (EPAct) of 1992, with later amendments, was enacted with the goal of reducing U.S. petroleum consumption by building a core market for alternative fuels and vehicles. The U.S. Department of Energy manages three federal programs related to EPAct; the Sustainable Federal Fleets Program, the State and Alternative Fuel Provider Program, and Clean Cities. Federal agencies and State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleets are required to submit annual reports that document their compliance with the legislation. Clean Cities is a voluntary program aimed at building partnerships and providing technical expertise to encourage cities to reduce petroleum use in transportation. This study reviews the evolution of these three programs in relation to alternative fuel and vehicle markets and private sector adoption of alternative fueled vehicles to assess the impact of the programs on reduction in petroleum use and greenhouse gas emissions both within the regulated fleets and through development of alternative fuel and vehicle markets. The increased availability of alternative fuels and use of alternative fuels in regulated fleets is expected to improve cities' ability to respond to and quickly recover from both local disasters and short- and long-term regional or national fuel supply interruptions. Our analysis examines the benefits as well as potential drawbacks of alternative fuel use for the resiliency of U.S. cities.

  14. 78 FR 5838 - NRC Enforcement Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    ... COMMISSION NRC Enforcement Policy AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Policy revision; issuance... to its Enforcement Policy (Enforcement Policy or Policy) to incorporate changes directed by the... February 27, 2013, and will be considered by the NRC before the next Enforcement Policy revision....

  15. Regulatory policies in education: the organization of schooling in cycles in the State of Goiânia, Brazil (1998-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Augusta Peixoto Mundim

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The present article analyzes the organization of schooling in cycles in the State of Goiânia, Brazil, in the light of the regulation of education policies that took place in the country from the 1990’s onwards. Our theoretical-bibliographical research took advantage of former analysis of the social regulation performed in the fi elds ofEconomy and Political Sociology, using as reference the theoretical-methodological framework developed by Marx and perfected by Gramsci. It is presumed that, in the current scenario, that are new forms of social regulation that, in its developments, have echoed in the regulation of educational policies and that, in a sense, have informed principles for new forms of organization of the school.

  16. A point source of a different color: identifying a gap in United States regulatory policy for "green" cso treatment using constructed wetlands

    OpenAIRE

    Zeno F. Levy; Smardon, Richard C.; James S. Bays; Daniel Meyer

    2014-01-01

    Up to 850 billion gallons of untreated combined sewer overflow (CSO) is discharged into waters of the United States each year. Recent changes in CSO management policy support green infrastructure (GI) technologies as “front of the pipe” approaches to discharge mitigation by detention/reduction of urban stormwater runoff. Constructed wetlands for CSO treatment have been considered among suites of GI solutions. However, these wetlands differ fundamentally from other GI technologies ...

  17. Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Act 1998. Act No 133

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    A set of legislation consisting of three Acts in the field of radiation protection and nuclear safety was passed by both Houses of Parliament on 10 December 1998 and was proclaimed on 5 February 1999. Act No. 133 - Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Act, which is a framework Law, established the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA) as the regulatory body for radiation protection and nuclear safety, in place of the Nuclear Safety Bureau. The Chief Executive Officer of ARPANSA, who is appointed by the Governor-General for a term of up to 5 years, is obliged to submit annual and quarterly reports to the Minister on the operations of the Chief Executive Officer, ARPANSA, the Council, the Radiation Health Committee and the Nuclear Safety Committee. The Council is a consultative body which examines issues relating to radiation protection and nuclear safety and advises the Chief Executive Officer on these issues as well as on the adoption of recommendations, policies and codes. The Radiation Health Committee and the Nuclear Safety Committee are to be established as advisory committees to the Chief Executive Officer or the Council. Both committees should draft national policies, codes and standards in their respective fields and review their effectiveness periodically. The second in this series of legislation, Act No. 134, Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety (License Charges) Act requires holders of both facility and source licenses to pay an annual charge, to be prescribed by the regulations. The third, Act No. 135 , Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety (Consequential Amendments) Act repeals those provisions of the 1987 Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation Act which concern the Nuclear Safety Bureau, and the 1978 Environment Protection Act as a whole

  18. Osteopathic medical students' understanding of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act: a first step toward a policy-informed curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beverly, Elizabeth Ann; Skinner, Daniel; Bianco, Joseph A; Ice, Gillian H

    2015-03-01

    Current osteopathic medical students will play an important role in implementing, modifying, and advocating for or against the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) of 2010. Accordingly, medical educators will need to address curricular gaps specific to the ACA and medical practice. Research that gauges osteopathic medical students' level of understanding of the ACA is needed to inform an evidence-based curriculum. To assess first- and second-year osteopathic medical students' beliefs about the ACA. In this descriptive cross-sectional survey-based study, first- and second-year students were recruited because their responses would be indicative of what, if any, information about the ACA was being covered in the preclinical curriculum. A 30-item survey was distributed in November 2013, after the health insurance exchanges launched on October 1, 2013. A total of 239 first- and second-year osteopathic medical students completed the survey. One hundred ten students (46%) disagreed and 103 (43.1%) agreed that the ACA would provide health insurance coverage for all US citizens. The ACA was predicted to lead to lower wages and fewer jobs (73 students [30.5%]), as well as small business bankruptcy because of employees' health insurance costs (96 [40.2%]). Regarding Medicare recipients, 113 students (47.3%) did not know whether these individuals would be required to buy insurance through the health insurance exchanges. The majority of students knew that the ACA would require US citizens to pay a penalty if they did not have health insurance (198 [82.8%]) and understood that not everyone would be required to purchase health insurance through health insurance exchanges (137 [57.3%]). Although students took note of certain clinical benefits for patients offered by the ACA, they remained concerned about the ACA's impact on their professional prospects, particularly in the area of primary care. These findings build on the existing literature that emphasize the need for

  19. 18 CFR 367.2540 - Account 254, Other regulatory liabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... GAS ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Deferred Credits § 367.2540 Account 254, Other regulatory... regulatory liabilities. 367.2540 Section 367.2540 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF...

  20. 75 FR 27606 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-17

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing and... (``Act'') \\1\\ and Rule 19b-4 thereunder,\\2\\ notice is hereby given that on April 27, 2010, the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. (``FINRA'') (f/k/a National Association of Securities Dealers,...

  1. Essays on Environmental Economics and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, W. Reed

    A central feature of modern government is its role in designing welfare improving policies to address and correct market failures stemming from externalities and public goods. The rationale for most modern environmental regulations stems from the failure of markets to efficiently allocate goods and services. Yet, as with any policy, distributional effects are important there exist clear winners and losers. Despite the clear theoretical justification for environmental and energy policy, empirical work credibly identifying both the source and consequences of these externalities as well as the distributional effects of existing policies remains in its infancy. My dissertation focuses on the development of empirical methods to investigate the role of environmental and energy policy in addressing market failures as well as exploring the distributional implications of these policies. These questions are important not only as a justification for government intervention into markets but also for understanding how distributional consequences may shape the design and implementation of these policies. My dissertation investigates these questions in the context of programs and policies that are important in their own right. Chapters 1 and 2 of my dissertation explore the economic costs and distributional implications associated with the largest environmental regulatory program in the United States, the Clean Air Act. Chapters 3 and 4 examine the social costs of air pollution in the context of transportation externalities, showing how effective transportation policy has additional co-benefits in the form of environmental policy. My dissertation remains unified in both its subject matter and methodological approach -- using unique sources of data and sound research designs to understand important issues in environmental policy.

  2. Roadmapping as a Tool for Renewing Regulatory Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch, Kristian; Norus, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore technological roadmaps to identify key issuesconcerning the development and utilization of stem cells. From a review of the politicaldecision making processes in three countries, Denmark, the Netherlands, and Germanywe suggest that technological roadmapping...... in this emerging and discontinuedtechnology can provide critical policy information. This type of policy intelligence canbe used to rethink the regulatory practices away from today's framework basedregulation of the emerging technologies towards a regulatory policy based on how todevelop regulatory practices based...

  3. 'Manage and mitigate punitive regulatory measures, enhance the corporate image, influence public policy': industry efforts to shape understanding of tobacco-attributable deforestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kelley; Carrillo Botero, Natalia; Novotny, Thomas

    2016-09-20

    Deforestation due to tobacco farming began to raise concerns in the mid 1970s. Over the next 40 years, tobacco growing increased significantly and shifted markedly to low- and middle-income countries. The percentage of deforestation caused by tobacco farming reached 4 % globally by the early 2000s, although substantially higher in countries such as China (18 %), Zimbabwe (20 %), Malawi (26 %) and Bangladesh (>30 %). Transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) have argued that tobacco-attributable deforestation is not a serious problem, and that the industry has addressed the issue through corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives. After reviewing the existing scholarly literature on tobacco and deforestation, we analysed industry sources of public information to understand how the industry framed deforestation, its key causes, and policy responses. To analyse industry strategies between the 1970s and early 2000s to shape understanding of deforestation caused by tobacco farming and curing, the Truth Tobacco Documents Library was systematically searched. The above sources were compiled and triangulated, thematically and chronologically, to derive a narrative of how the industry has framed the problem of, and solutions to, tobacco-attributable deforestation. The industry sought to undermine responses to tobacco-attributable deforestation by emphasising the economic benefits of production in LMICs, blaming alternative causes, and claiming successful forestation efforts. To support these tactics, the industry lobbied at the national and international levels, commissioned research, and colluded through front groups. There was a lack of effective action to address tobacco-attributable deforestation, and indeed an escalation of the problem, during this period. The findings suggest the need for independent data on the varied environmental impacts of the tobacco industry, awareness of how the industry seeks to work with environmental researchers and groups to

  4. Evaluation of Groundwater Impacts to Support the National Environmental Policy Act Environmental Assessment for the INL Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annette Schafer, Arthur S. Rood, A. Jeffrey Sondrup

    2011-12-23

    Groundwater impacts have been analyzed for the proposed remote-handled low-level waste disposal facility. The analysis was prepared to support the National Environmental Policy Act environmental assessment for the top two ranked sites for the proposed disposal facility. A four-phase screening and analysis approach was documented and applied. Phase I screening was site independent and applied a radionuclide half-life cut-off of 1 year. Phase II screening applied the National Council on Radiation Protection analysis approach and was site independent. Phase III screening used a simplified transport model and site-specific geologic and hydrologic parameters. Phase III neglected the infiltration-reducing engineered cover, the sorption influence of the vault system, dispersion in the vadose zone, vertical dispersion in the aquifer, and the release of radionuclides from specific waste forms. These conservatisms were relaxed in the Phase IV analysis which used a different model with more realistic parameters and assumptions. Phase I screening eliminated 143 of the 246 radionuclides in the inventory from further consideration because each had a half-life less than 1 year. An additional 13 were removed because there was no ingestion dose coefficient available. Of the 90 radionuclides carried forward from Phase I, 57 radionuclides had simulated Phase II screening doses exceeding 0.4 mrem/year. Phase III and IV screening compared the maximum predicted radionuclide concentration in the aquifer to maximum contaminant levels. Of the 57 radionuclides carried forward from Phase II, six radionuclides were identified in Phase III as having simulated future aquifer concentrations exceeding maximum contaminant limits. An additional seven radionuclides had simulated Phase III groundwater concentrations exceeding 1/100th of their respective maximum contaminant levels and were also retained for Phase IV analysis. The Phase IV analysis predicted that none of the thirteen remaining

  5. YUCCA MOUNTAIN PROJECT RECOMMENDATION BY THE SECRETARY OF ENERGY REGARDING THE SUITABILITY OF THE YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE FOR A REPOSITORY UNDER THE NUCLEAR WASTE POLICY ACT OF 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NA

    2002-03-26

    For more than half a century, since nuclear science helped us win World War II and ring in the Atomic Age, scientists have known that !he Nation would need a secure, permanent facility in which to dispose of radioactive wastes. Twenty years ago, when Congress adopted the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA or ''the Act''), it recognized the overwhelming consensus in the scientific community that the best option for such a facility would be a deep underground repository. Fifteen years ago, Congress directed the Secretary of Energy to investigate and recommend to the President whether such a repository could be located safely at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Since then, our country has spent billions of dollars and millions of hours of research endeavoring to answer this question. I have carefully reviewed the product of this study. In my judgment, it constitutes sound science and shows that a safe repository can be sited there. I also believe that compelling national interests counsel in favor of proceeding with this project. Accordingly, consistent with my responsibilities under the NWPA, today I am recommending that Yucca Mountain be developed as the site for an underground repository for spent fuel and other radioactive wastes. The first consideration in my decision was whether the Yucca Mountain site will safeguard the health and safety of the people, in Nevada and across the country, and will be effective in containing at minimum risk the material it is designed to hold. Substantial evidence shows that it will. Yucca Mountain is far and away the most thoroughly researched site of its kind in the world. It is a geologically stable site, in a closed groundwater basin, isolated on thousands of acres of Federal land, and farther from any metropolitan area than the great majority of less secure, temporary nuclear waste storage sites that exist in the country today. This point bears emphasis. We are not confronting a hypothetical problem. We have a

  6. Regulatory Risk under Optimal Incentive Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Strausz, Roland

    2009-01-01

    The paper provides a tractable, analytical framework to study regulatory risk under optimal incentive regulation. Regulatory risk is captured by uncertainty about the policy variables in the regulator’s objective function: weights attached to profits and costs of public funds. Results are as follows: 1) The regulator’s reaction to regulatory risk depends on the curvature of the aggregate demand function. 2) It yields a positive information rent effect exactly when demand is convex. 3) Firms b...

  7. Regulatory and ethical issues on the utilization of FFPE tissues in research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    With, Catherine M; Evers, David L; Mason, Jeffrey T

    2011-01-01

    Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) archival tissues and their associated diagnostic records represent an invaluable source of information on diseases where the patient outcomes are already known. Older archives contain many unique FFPE tissue specimens that would be impossible to replicate today due to changes in medical practice and technology. Unfortunately, there is no single regulatory or bioethical standard that covers research with FFPE tissue specimens. This makes it difficult for researchers to prepare protocols involving FFPE tissues and equally difficult for Institutional Review Boards to evaluate them. In this review, focused on US regulatory policy, the application of the Common Rule and the Privacy Rule of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act to research involving FFPE tissue specimens will be discussed. It will be shown that the difficulty in applying regulatory and ethical standards to FFPE tissues results not from the tissues themselves, but from the personally identifiable health information associated with the tissue specimens.

  8. 77 FR 58975 - Pennsylvania Regulatory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-25

    ... the Pennsylvania statutory scheme via Pennsylvania's Solid Waste Management Act (``SWMA''), the Clean... Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement 30 CFR Part 938 Pennsylvania Regulatory Program AGENCY: Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement (OSM), Interior. ] ACTION: Proposed rule...

  9. System Establishment and Regulatory Policy Study of the New Tourism Industry Based on the Endogenous Ecology%基于生态内生化的旅游新业态的体系构建与规制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭旸; 沈涵

    2011-01-01

    在旅游新型业态体系构建和政策规制的发展过程中,会产生某种生态内生化的趋势,它是伴随着旅游传统产业经营模式和增长方式的转变,以及旅游产业生命周期的可持续循环而实现的,因此从本质上说旅游新业态的发展是一种基于生态内生化的业态创新.%In the system establishment and regulatory policy development of new tourism industry, there is a trend of endogenous ecology, which is attributed to the transition of the traditional management mode and growth pattern as well as the sustainable circulation of tourism industry. Hence, the development of the new tourism industry is essentially a kind of innovation based on the endogenous ecology.

  10. National Energy Policy Plan; A Report to Congress Required by Title VIII of the Department of Energy Organization Act (Public Law 95-91)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    This plan report is divided into the following chapters: the course ahead, currently predominant fuels (oil, gas), America's energy triad, sources of diversity and long-term supply, sources of uncertainty, summary of current projections, and public comments on the nation's policy toward energy. (DLC)

  11. "Developmental capture" of the state: explaining Thailand's universal coverage policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Joseph

    2015-02-01

    The notion of "regulatory capture" is typically used to describe the takeover of state agencies by outside interest groups that seek to weaken regulation and advance the agendas of interest groups through control over state policy levers. This concept can be contrasted with that of "developmental capture" of state agencies by networks of reformist bureaucrats within the state who seek to promote inclusive state social and developmental policies of benefit to the broader populace. Building on work that has pointed to instances in which state bureaucrats act autonomously from societal and political pressures, this article argues that existing explanations are insufficient for explaining Thailand's universal health care policy. It points to the critical role played by a network of bureaucrats within the state who strategically mobilized resources in the bureaucracy, political parties, civil society, and international organizations to institutionalize universal health care in the face of broader professional dissent, political uncertainty, and international pressure. Copyright © 2015 by Duke University Press.

  12. Regulatory ozone modeling: Status, directions, and research needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georgopoulos, P.G. [Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute, Piscataway, NJ (United States)

    1995-03-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990 have established selected comprehensive, three-dimensional, Photochemical Air Quality Simulation Models (PAQSMs) as the required regulatory tools for analyzing the urban and regional problem of high ambient ozone levels across the United States. These models are currently applied to study and establish strategies for meeting the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for ozone in nonattainment areas; State Implementation Plans (SIPs) resulting from these efforts must be submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) in November 1994. The following presentation provides an overview and discussion of the regulatory ozone modeling process and its implications. First, the PAQSM-based ozone attainment demonstration process is summarized in the framework of the 1994 SIPs. Then, following a brief overview of the representation of physical and chemical processes in PAOSMs, the essential attributes of standard modeling systems currently in regulatory use are presented in a nonmathematical, self-contained format, intended to provide a basic understanding of both model capabilities and limitations. The types of air quality, emission, and meteorological data needed for applying and evaluating PAOSMs are discussed, as well as the sources, availability, and limitations of existing databases. The issue of evaluating a model`s performance in order to accept it as a tool for policy making is discussed, and various methodologies for implementing this objective are summarized. 43 refs., 9 figs.

  13. Determining the Role of Language and Culture in First Nations Schools: A Comparison of the First Nations Education Act with the Policy of the Assembly of First Nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morcom, Lindsay A.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I explore the incongruence between the federal government's proposed First Nations Education Act and the approach of the Assembly of First Nations (AFN) regarding language and culture education. I also examine research concerning potential outcomes of their approaches to determine what would be most beneficial to learners.…

  14. More Family Physicians or More Primary Care? An Analysis of the Family Practice Act (S. 3418). Health Manpower Policy Discussion Paper Series No. D.1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, George E., Jr.

    The crisis in primary care has long been discussed and the dismal litany of statistics is now familiar. The G.P. is vanishing from the medical scene. Over one-third of the active general practitioners are now over 60. In 1970 the U.S. Congress responded to the declining availability of primary health care by passing the Family Practice Act. The…

  15. Urban legislative response to regulatory energy policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burt, B.J.; Neiman, M.

    1985-08-01

    Local government, when considering greater involvement in energy, must confront the trade-off between economic and political costs. The authors examine public attitudes about conservation to find the basis for public support as well as the differences of opinion between general citizens and elites and the ideological cleavages. The study illuminates the types of political inducements/enforcements urban populations are likely to support. This provides a guide to the institutional mix necessary if the US is to change its energy mix. There are also other factors not included in this study which could affect the receptivity of the public and city decision makers to energy conservation proposals. 21 references, 2 tables.

  16. The Children's Internet Protection Act and E-Rate Policies in Louisiana: A Comparison of Policy Interpretations in Region III and Their Impact on Learning Opportunities of Secondary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautreaux, Madge L.

    2013-01-01

    In 2000, President Bill Clinton enacted the "Children's Internet Protection Act" (CIPA) which requires all K-12 schools and publicly funded libraries to use Internet filters to protect children from pornography and other obscene or potentially harmful online content as a stipulation for receiving E-Rate funding. The varying…

  17. 78 FR 37267 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-20

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing of... 1934 (``Act'') \\1\\ and Rule 19b-4 thereunder,\\2\\ notice is hereby given that on June 3, 2013, Financial... the mandatory inclusion of a non- public arbitrator in a three-arbitrator case raised a...

  18. Regulatory Changes in Depository Institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Brian Sejoon

    2016-01-01

    In this dissertation we investigate the effect of monetary policy and regulatory changes on asset pricing and investor behavior. In the first chapter, using unique data on over-the-counter bank stock prices and balance sheet information from 1940 to 1968, we find that the largest commercial bank stocks, ranked by market value or gross deposits, have significant lower risk-adjusted annual returns than do small sized bank stocks even after controlling for standard risk factors including size. ...

  19. Brazil's new national policy on solid waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jabbour, A.B.L.d.S.; Jabbour, C.J.C.; Sarkis, J.

    2014-01-01

    Brazil, one of the world's largest developing countries, has recently introduced a new solid waste management regulatory policy. This new regulatory policy will have implications for a wide variety of stakeholders and sets the stage for opportunities and lessons to be learned. These issues...

  20. 48 CFR 2001.301 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Policy. 2001.301 Section 2001.301 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION GENERAL NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Agency Acquisition Regulations 2001.301 Policy....

  1. 48 CFR 2001.402 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Policy. 2001.402 Section 2001.402 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION GENERAL NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR and the NRCAR 2001.402 Policy....

  2. Internet Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehr, William H.; Pupillo, Lorenzo Maria

    The Internet is now widely regarded as essential infrastructure for our global economy and society. It is in our homes and businesses. We use it to communicate and socialize, for research, and as a platform for E-commerce. In the late 1990s, much was predicted about what the Internet has become at present; but now, we have actual experience living with the Internet as a critical component of our everyday lives. Although the Internet has already had profound effects, there is much we have yet to realize. The present volume represents a third installment in a collaborative effort to highlight the all-encompassing, multidisciplinary implications of the Internet for public policy. The first installment was conceived in 1998, when we initiated plans to organize an international conference among academic, industry, and government officials to discuss the growing policy agenda posed by the Internet. The conference was hosted by the European Commission in Brussels in 1999 and brought together a diverse mix of perspectives on what the pressing policy issues would be confronting the Internet. All of the concerns identified remain with us today, including how to address the Digital Divide, how to modify intellectual property laws to accommodate the new realities of the Internet, what to do about Internet governance and name-space management, and how to evolve broadcast and telecommunications regulatory frameworks for a converged world.

  3. Regulatory mark; Marco regulatorio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-10-15

    This chapter is based on a work performed in distinct phases. The first phase consisted in of the analysis regulatory legislation existent in Brazil for the sugar-alcohol sector since the beginning of the X X century. This analysis allowed the identification of non existent points and legal devices related to the studied aspects, and that were considered as problematic for the sector expansion. In the second phase, related treaties and international agreements was studied and possible obstacles for the brazilian bio ethanol exportation for the international market. Initiatives were examined at European Union, United States of America, Caribbean and countries of the sub-Saharan Africa. In this phase, policies were identified related to the incentives and adoption of use of bio fuels added to the gasoline in countries or group of countries considered as key for the consolidation of bio ethanol as a world commodity.

  4. A implantação da lei de acesso à informação pública e a gestão da informação arquivística governamental │ Access to Public Information Act: implementation and the management of government archival information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Maria Jardim

    2013-11-01

    that the role of archival institutions and services is, in almost all cases analyzed, peripheral or non-existent within the regulatory processes of LAI. Keywords Access to Public Information Act, Access to Government Information, Archival Policies, Records Managements, Archival Administration, Social Use of Information

  5. Critical Care Implications of the Affordable Care Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogra, Anjali P; Dorman, Todd

    2016-03-01

    To provide an overview of key elements of the Affordable Care Act. To evaluate ways in which the Affordable Care Act will likely impact the practice of critical care medicine. To describe strategies that may help health systems and providers effectively adapt to changes brought about by the Affordable Care Act. Data sources for this concise review include search results from the PubMed and Embase databases, as well as sources relevant to public policy such as the text of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and reports of the Congressional Budget Office. As all of the Affordable Care Act's provisions will not be fully implemented until 2019, we also drew upon cost, population, and utilization projections, as well as the experience of existing state-based healthcare reforms. The Affordable Care Act represents the furthest reaching regulatory changes in the U.S. healthcare system since the 1965 Medicare and Medicaid provisions of the Social Security Act. The Affordable Care Act aims to expand health insurance coverage to millions of Americans and place an emphasis on quality and cost-effectiveness of care. From models which link pay and performance to those which center on episodic care, the Affordable Care Act outlines sweeping changes to health systems, reimbursement structures, and the delivery of critical care. Staffing models that include daily rounding by an intensivist, palliative care integration, and expansion of the role of telemedicine in areas where intensivists are inaccessible are potential strategies that may improve quality and profitability of ICU care in the post-Affordable Care Act era.

  6. National Energy Policy Plan; A Report to the Congress Required by Title VIII of the Department of Energy Organization Act (Public Law 95-91)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-10-01

    Since the third National Energy Plan in 1981 total energy efficiency has increased, domestic energy resources are being developed more effectively, oil prices have declined, US dependence on foreign energy sources has diminished, and the nation's vulnerability to energy supply disruptions has been reduced markedly. The policy goal is an adequate supply of energy at reasonable costs. Strategies include minimizing federal control and involvement in energy markets while maintaining public health and safety and environmental quality and promoting a balanced and mixed energy resource system. Federal programs and actions in energy are reviewed.

  7. Regulating and litigating in the public interest: regulating food marketing to young people worldwide: trends and policy drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, Corinna

    2007-11-01

    The pressure to regulate the marketing of high-energy, nutrient-poor foods to young people has been mounting in light of concern about rising worldwide levels of overweight and obesity. In 2004, the World Health Organization called on governments, industry, and civil society to act to reduce unhealthy marketing messages. Since then, important changes have taken place in the global regulatory environment regarding the marketing of food to young people. Industry has developed self-regulatory approaches, civil society has campaigned for statutory restrictions, and governments have dealt with a range of regulatory proposals. Still, there have been few new regulations that restrict food marketing to young people. Despite calls for evidence-based policy, new regulatory developments appear to have been driven less by evidence than by ethics.

  8. Clinical research: regulatory issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wermeling, D P

    1999-02-01

    The regulatory issues faced by institutions performing clinical research are described. Many institutions do not have on staff an expert who understands the regulatory issues involved in managing investigational new drug research and who knows the institution's obligations under the federal rules. Because pharmacists understand the FDA regulations that apply to the management of drugs in clinical research, institutions are asking pharmacists to expand their role and manage clinical research offices. Many authorities govern various aspects of investigational drug research. FDA has published regulations for good clinical practice (GCP), and the International Conference on Harmonisation is developing an international standard for the proper management of clinical trials. The guidelines published by the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations aim to protect patients who are in the institution to receive health care and also participate in clinical trials. The Social Security Administration Acts specifically state that only items and services that are reasonable and necessary for the diagnosis and treatment of injury or disease can be billed to the government; research-related billings are excluded from coverage. Proper management of drug research is crucial to the success of a research program that is integrated with patient care.

  9. ENRICH Forum: Ethical aNd Regulatory Issues in Cancer ResearcH

    Science.gov (United States)

    ENRICH Forum: Ethical aNd Regulatory Issues in Cancer ResearcH, designed to stimulate dialogue on ethical and regulatory issues in cancer research and promote awareness of developing policies and best practices.

  10. 18 CFR 367.1823 - Account 182.3, Other regulatory assets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... GAS ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Deferred Debits § 367.1823 Account 182.3, Other regulatory... regulatory assets. 367.1823 Section 367.1823 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF...

  11. Forest policy reform in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Bauch; E. Sills; L.C. Rodriguez Estraviz; K. McGinley; F. Cubbage

    2009-01-01

    Rapid deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon, caused by economic, social, and policy factors, has focused global and national attention on protecting this valuable forest resource. In response, Brazil reformed its federal forest laws in 2006, creating new regulatory, development, and incentive policy instruments and institutions. Federal forestry responsibilities are...

  12. 77 FR 61008 - Request for Comments Under the Paperwork Reduction Act, Section 3506

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-05

    ... Carr, Acting Director, Office of Clinical Research and Bioethics Policy, Office of Science Policy, NIH... 28, 2012. Sarah Carr, Acting Director, Office of Clinical Research and Bioethics Policy, Office...

  13. Regulatory affairs for biomaterials and medical devices

    CERN Document Server

    Amato, Stephen F; Amato, B

    2015-01-01

    All biomaterials and medical devices are subject to a long list of regulatory practises and policies which must be adhered to in order to receive clearance. This book provides readers with information on the systems in place in the USA and the rest of the world. Chapters focus on a series of procedures and policies including topics such as commercialization, clinical development, general good practise manufacturing and post market surveillance.Addresses global regulations and regulatory issues surrounding biomaterials and medical devicesEspecially useful for smaller co

  14. Regulatory barriers for activating flexibility in the Nordic-Baltic electricity market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergaentzlé, Claire; Skytte, Klaus; Soysal, Emilie Rosenlund

    2017-01-01

    The rapid growth of variable renewable energy (VRE) and the expected decrease of conventional generation capacities will generate more flexibility needs in power systems and require flexibility resources to be activated. Flexibility potentials do exist, whether they refer to installed generation......, load adjustment or to a greater coupling to other energy sectors. In this paper, we identify the framework conditions that influence the provision of VRE-friendly flexibility in the Nordic and Baltic electricity sector, i.e., the market and regulatory settings that act as drivers or barriers...... to flexibility. We find that the most restrictive barriers against flexibility are emitted by public authorities as part of broader policy strategies. Overall, we find that current regulatory and market framework conditions do not hinder flexibility. However, despite that, flexibility remains limited due...

  15. Privacy Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about the Privacy Act of 1974, the Electronic Government Act of 2002, the Federal Information Security Management Act, and other information about the Environmental Protection Agency maintains its records.

  16. Regulatory analysis technical evaluation handbook. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this Handbook is to provide guidance to the regulatory analyst to promote preparation of quality regulatory analysis documents and to implement the policies of the Regulatory Analysis Guidelines of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NUREG/BR-0058 Rev. 2). This Handbook expands upon policy concepts included in the NRC Guidelines and translates the six steps in preparing regulatory analyses into implementable methodologies for the analyst. It provides standardized methods of preparation and presentation of regulatory analyses, with the inclusion of input that will satisfy all backfit requirements and requirements of NRC`s Committee to Review Generic Requirements. Information on the objectives of the safety goal evaluation process and potential data sources for preparing a safety goal evaluation is also included. Consistent application of the methods provided here will result in more directly comparable analyses, thus aiding decision-makers in evaluating and comparing various regulatory actions. The handbook is being issued in loose-leaf format to facilitate revisions. NRC intends to periodically revise the handbook as new and improved guidance, data, and methods become available.

  17. A unified architecture of transcriptional regulatory elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Robin; Sandelin, Albin Gustav; Danko, Charles G.

    2015-01-01

    Gene expression is precisely controlled in time and space through the integration of signals that act at gene promoters and gene-distal enhancers. Classically, promoters and enhancers are considered separate classes of regulatory elements, often distinguished by histone modifications. However...... and enhancers are considered a single class of functional element, with a unified architecture for transcription initiation. The context of interacting regulatory elements and the surrounding sequences determine local transcriptional output as well as the enhancer and promoter activities of individual elements....

  18. Addressing the Issue of Microplastics in the Wake of the Microbead-Free Waters Act-A New Standard Can Facilitate Improved Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDevitt, Jason P; Criddle, Craig S; Morse, Molly; Hale, Robert C; Bott, Charles B; Rochman, Chelsea M

    2017-06-20

    The United States Microbead-Free Waters Act was signed into law in December 2015. It is a bipartisan agreement that will eliminate one preventable source of microplastic pollution in the United States. Still, the bill is criticized for being too limited in scope, and also for discouraging the development of biodegradable alternatives that ultimately are needed to solve the bigger issue of plastics in the environment. Due to a lack of an acknowledged, appropriate standard for environmentally safe microplastics, the bill banned all plastic microbeads in selected cosmetic products. Here, we review the history of the legislation and how it relates to the issue of microplastic pollution in general, and we suggest a framework for a standard (which we call "Ecocyclable") that includes relative requirements related to toxicity, bioaccumulation, and degradation/assimilation into the natural carbon cycle. We suggest that such a standard will facilitate future regulation and legislation to reduce pollution while also encouraging innovation of sustainable technologies.

  19. 76 FR 63957 - Consumer Product Policy Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-14

    ... COMMISSION Consumer Product Policy Statement AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Proposed revision... general public (consumer products). While the NRC is not making any significant changes to the policy... intended for use by the general public (consumer products). Under this policy, the AEC and then the...

  20. 48 CFR 2042.570-1 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Policy. 2042.570-1 Section... CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION Differing Professional Views (DPV) 2042.570-1 Policy. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) policy is to support the contractor's expression of professional health and...

  1. The Affordable Care Act and Health Insurance Exchanges: Advocacy Efforts for Children's Oral Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orynich, C Ashley; Casamassimo, Paul S; Seale, N Sue; Litch, C Scott; Reggiardo, Paul

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate legislative differences in defining the Affordable Care Act's (ACA) pediatric dental benefit and the role of pediatric advocates across states with different health insurance Exchanges. Data were collected through public record investigation and confidential health policy expert interviews conducted at the state and federal level. Oral health policy change by the pediatric dental profession requires advocating for the mandatory purchase of coverage through the Exchange, tax subsidy contribution toward pediatric dental benefits, and consistent regulatory insurance standards for financial solvency, network adequacy and provider reimbursement. The pediatric dental profession is uniquely positioned to lead change in oral health policy amidst health care reform through strengthening state-level formalized networks with organized dentistry and commercial insurance carriers.

  2. Orphan drugs: the regulatory environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Pedro

    2013-02-01

    The definition of a rare disease is not universal and depends on the legislation and policies adopted by each region or country. The main objective of this article is to describe and discuss the legal framework and the regulatory environment of orphan drugs worldwide. Some reflections and discussions on the need for specific orphan drug legislation or policies are described at length. Furthermore, some aspects of the history of each region in respect of the orphan drug legislation evolution are outlined. This article describes and compares the orphan drug legislation or policies of the following countries or regions: United Sates of America (US), European Union (EU), Japan, Australia, Singapore, Taiwan and Canada. The incentives described in the orphan drug legislations or policies, the criteria for designation of orphan status and the authorisation process of an orphan drug are also described and compared. The legislations and policies are to some extent similar but not the same. It is important to understand the main differences among all available legislative systems to improve the international collaboration in the field of orphan drugs and rare diseases.

  3. Reconsidering Styles of Regulatory Enforcement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    May, Peter J.; Winter, Søren

    2000-01-01

    This study addresses enforcement styles of regulatory inspectors, based on an examination of the municipal enforcement of agro-environmental policies in Denmark. Our findings make three contributions to the regulatory literature. One contribution is to add empirical support for theorizing about...... inspectors’ enforcement styles as consisting of multiple components, rather than a single continuum. We show that inspectors’ enforcement styles comprise the degree of formalism and the degree of coercion that they exercise when carrying out inspections. A second contribution is in showing the relationship...... of different types of enforcement styles to the two underlying dimensions of the concept. A third contribution is an examination of the ways in which inspectors’ enforcement styles relate to their enforcement actions. The consistency of our findings with those of other studies suggests that the dimensions...

  4. 75 FR 25303 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Regulatory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... Policies and Practices The ACRS Subcommittee on Regulatory Policies and Practices will hold a meeting on... the NRC Web site at http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/doc-collections/acrs . Information regarding topics...

  5. 76 FR 52715 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Regulatory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-23

    ... Policies and Practices; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Regulatory Policies and Practices will... available on the NRC Web site at http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/doc-collections/acrs . Information regarding...

  6. Legal principles of regulatory administration and nuclear safety regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyeong Hui; Cheong, Sang Kee [Hannam Univ., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-12-15

    This research presents a critical analysis and evaluation of principles of administrative laws in order to provide framework of structural reform on the nuclear safety regulation system. The focus of this analysis and evaluation is centered around the area of origin of regulatory administrative laws; authorities of regulation; procedures of regulatory actions; regulatory enforcement; and administrative relief system. In chapter 2 the concept of regulatory administration is analysed. Chapter 3 identifies the origin of regulatory administration and the principles of administration laws. It also examines legal nature of the nuclear safety standard. In relation to regulatory authorities. Chapter 4 identifies role and responsibility of administration authorities and institutions. It also examines fundamental principles of delegation of power. Then the chapter discusses the nuclear safety regulation authorities and their roles and responsibilities. Chapter 5 classifies and examines regulatory administration actions. Chapter 6 evaluates enforcement measure for effectiveness of regulation. Finally, chapter 7 discusses the administrative relief system for reviewing unreasonable regulatory acts.

  7. New regulatory framework for wastewater quality control in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saade Hazin, L

    2000-01-01

    This paper analyses the new regulatory framework for wastewater quality control developed in Mexico. It provides a description of the Mexican government strategies for water pollution control. The discussion focuses on the policy instruments used, their evolution and the main difficulties encountered in their implementation. The new regulatory framework is discussed highlighting some of the economic implications of the reforms. The paper concludes that proper institutional development and monitoring are essential factors for the success of any policy instrument for wastewater quality control.

  8. Pre-commercial procurement : regulatory effectiveness?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apostol, Anca Ramona

    2014-01-01

    Is public procurement of research and development (‘R&D’) services the key to European Union (‘EU’)’s sustainable welfare? Is it being regulated in accordance with economic prescripts for effectiveness? Is the regulatory and policy setting clear and comprehensive in order to stimulate a widespread u

  9. 76 FR 12768 - Sunshine Act Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-08

    ... . Week of March 28, 2011--Tentative Tuesday, March 29, 2011 9 a.m. Briefing on Small Modular Reactors... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Act Notice AGENCY HOLDING THE MEETINGS: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. DATES: Weeks...

  10. The foreign experience of regulatory reform implementation and application of «regulatory guillotine»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Litvinova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The foreign experience of regulatory reform implementation is considered. Particular attention is paid to the experience gained and the results of the use of “regulatory guillotine” as one of the kinds of regulatory reforms. The authors analyze the main preconditions and results of regulatory reforms and their impact on improved governance, creation of favorable conditions for business development, creating a positive investment climate. A certain degree of regulatory reform has become the standard for developed markets and for developing countries and are trying to take their place on stage one of the most developed countries. Study abroad experience in regulatory reforms in different countries of the world leads to the conclusion that the foundation for regulatory reform is a special system development and adoption of a special kind of legal acts - regulations. Unlike most legal acts, regulations, at the stage of the project should be accompanied by assessment or regulatory impact analysis, which provides comprehensive information about the possible positive or negative effects of the introduction of state regulation. Such adjustment shall be taken only when the overall benefits of regulation dominate the total cost of its implementation. The authors provide recommendations on the use of foreign experience in Ukraine

  11. Review of International Policies for Vehicle Fuel Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This paper reviews past and current voluntary and regulatory fuel efficiency programs and then assesses the effectiveness of these policies from the viewpoints of enforcement, standard design, standard stringency and standard related policies.

  12. 77 FR 64487 - Renewable Energy Policy Business Roundtable in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-22

    ... International Trade Administration Renewable Energy Policy Business Roundtable in Japan AGENCY: International... Commerce's International Trade Administration (ITA) is coordinating a Renewable Energy Policy Business... regulatory landscape for renewable energy developing in Japan at this time. Following the Roundtable,...

  13. ACTS 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Co-curator of ACTS 2014 together with Rasmus Holmboe, Judith Schwarzbart and Sanne Kofoed. ACTS is the Museum of Contemporary Art’s international bi-annual festival. ACTS was established in 2011 and, while the primary focus is on sound and performance art, it also looks toward socially oriented art...... various possibilities and public spaces as a stage. ACTS takes place in and around the museum and diverse locations in Roskilde city. ACTS is partly curated by the museum staff and partly by guest curators. ACTS 2014 is supported by Nordea-fonden and is a part of the project The Museum goes downtown....

  14. Europeanisation of Regional Development Policies? Linking the Multi-Level Governance Approach with Theories of Policy Learning and Policy Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Conzelmann

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the effects of non-regulatory EC policies on policy development at member state level. Taking EC regional policy and a recent reform of German regional policy as examples, it is suggested that the EC context may matter for policy development (1 through changing preferences of actors involved in regional policy-making, (2 through the mobilisation of new actors and the emergence of new actor coalitions in domestic policy domains, and (3 through serving as a source of inspiration for policy-makers looking for alternative policy ideas. In developing such thoughts, the article seeks to understand the influence of supranational factors as an integral part of domestic policy-making (rather than an external constraint. On a more abstract level, the aim is to link contributions from the field of policy analysis with the literature on multi-level governance.

  15. Proposals of a regulatory mark for public policies of renewable energy incentives in Brazil; Propostas de um marco regulatorio para politicas publicas de incentivo a energias renovaveis no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furtado, Marcelo; Soliano, Oswaldo; Baitelo, Ricardo

    2008-07-01

    This article presents some proposals of a regulatory mark for public politics of incentive to renewable energies, and also some fundamental requirements for the effective structure of renewable energy market, from adaptation to the Brazilian reality of the mechanisms which are been successfully applied in other countries taking into consideration the main deficiencies of the PROINFA (Program of Incentive to Electric Power Alternative Sources)

  16. A Disequilibrium Analysis of Evolution of Financial Regulatory System in China and its Policy Meaning%我国金融监管制度演进的非均衡分析及其政策含义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仲伟周; 任炳群; 张金城

    2012-01-01

    我国金融监管制度在变迁过程中,存在金融创新与市场约束等市场监管制度供给不足和市场准入、业务运营及市场退出等行政监管制度供给过剩的问题。我国金融监管制度是控制性金融监管制度,而需求主导型变迁尚未形成,政府主导型强制性制度变迁模式易引致金融监管制度供需的非均衡。要实现金融监管制度供给、需求的均衡,仅从供给和需求的单方面改进无法实现,这就必须寻求第三条道路:既要有供给的适当超前性,也要满足市场监管的需求,走供给拉动和需求推动的金融监管演进路径。%In the process of changes of financial regulatory system in China, there exist prob- lems of supply shortage of financial innovation and market constraints and supply surplus of such administrative regulatory system problems as market access, business operations and market with- drawal. In China, financial regulatory system is controlled financial regulatory system, and de- mand-oriented transformation has not been formed. Mandatory government-oriented model of insti- tutional change can easily cause supply and demand non-equilibrium of financial regulatory system. To achieve a supply and demand balance of financial regulatory system, it can not be achieved sim- ply by the improvement of supply and demand. We must find a third way, which not only has an appropriate and advanced supply, but also can meet the needs of market supervision, taking the path of financial regulatory evolution that promoting the supply and demand.

  17. Cis-regulatory mutations in human disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Douglas J

    2009-07-01

    Cis-acting regulatory sequences are required for the proper temporal and spatial control of gene expression. Variation in gene expression is highly heritable and a significant determinant of human disease susceptibility. The diversity of human genetic diseases attributed, in whole or in part, to mutations in non-coding regulatory sequences is on the rise. Improvements in genome-wide methods of associating genetic variation with human disease and predicting DNA with cis-regulatory potential are two of the major reasons for these recent advances. This review will highlight select examples from the literature that have successfully integrated genetic and genomic approaches to uncover the molecular basis by which cis-regulatory mutations alter gene expression and contribute to human disease. The fine mapping of disease-causing variants has led to the discovery of novel cis-acting regulatory elements that, in some instances, are located as far away as 1.5 Mb from the target gene. In other cases, the prior knowledge of the regulatory landscape surrounding the gene of interest aided in the selection of enhancers for mutation screening. The success of these studies should provide a framework for following up on the large number of genome-wide association studies that have identified common variants in non-coding regions of the genome that associate with increased risk of human diseases including, diabetes, autism, Crohn's, colorectal cancer, and asthma, to name a few.

  18. Public policy and pharmaceutical innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, H G

    1982-09-01

    Historically, new drug introductions have played a central role in medical progress and the availability of cost-effective therapies. Nevertheless, public policy toward pharmaceuticals has been characterized in recent times by increasingly stringent regulatory controls, shorter effective patent terms, and increased encouragement of generic product usage. This has had an adverse effect on the incentives and capabilities of firms to undertake new drug research and development activity. The industry has experienced sharply rising research and development costs, declining annual new drug introductions, and fewer independent sources of drug development. This paper considers the effects of government regulatory policies on the pharmaceutical innovation process from several related perspectives. It also examines the merits of current public policy proposals designed to stimulate drug innovation including patent restoration and various regulatory reform measures.

  19. 75 FR 79843 - Fall 2010 Regulatory Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-20

    ... see our FY 2011 Regulatory Plan. 1. Taking Action on Climate Change: In 2009 EPA finalized an... Supplemental Determinations for Renewable Fuels Produced Under the Final RFS2 Program 2060-AQ36 From Palm Oil... RENEWABLE FUELS PRODUCED UNDER THE FINAL RFS2 PROGRAM FROM PALM OIL Legal Authority: Clean Air Act sec...

  20. 76 FR 37996 - West Virginia Regulatory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ... significant economic impact on a substantial number of small entities under the Regulatory Flexibility Act (5... making the determination as to whether this rule would have a significant economic impact, the Department... Virginia is amending its Code of State Regulations (CSR) to provide for the establishment of a minimum...

  1. 78 FR 6062 - North Dakota Regulatory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-29

    ...) of the Act permits a State to assume primacy for the regulation of surface coal mining and... Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement 30 CFR Part 934 North Dakota Regulatory Program AGENCY: Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement, Interior. ACTION: Proposed rule; public...

  2. 76 FR 36040 - Wyoming Regulatory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-21

    ...(a) of the Act permits a State to assume primacy for the regulation of surface coal mining and... Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement 30 CFR Part 950 Wyoming Regulatory Program AGENCY: Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement, Interior. ACTION: Proposed rule; public comment...

  3. 77 FR 73965 - Montana Regulatory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-12

    ... Section 503(a) of the Act permits a State to assume primacy for the regulation of surface coal mining and... Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement 30 CFR Part 926 Montana Regulatory Program AGENCY: Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement, Interior. ACTION: Proposed rule; withdrawal...

  4. 75 FR 81122 - Texas Regulatory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ...) of the Act permits a State to assume primacy for the regulation of surface coal mining and... governments with regard to the regulation of surface coal mining and reclamation operations. One of the... Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement 30 CFR Part 943 Texas Regulatory Program AGENCY...

  5. 77 FR 73966 - Utah Regulatory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-12

    ... regulation of surface coal mining and reclamation operations in accordance with the requirements of this Act... Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement 30 CFR Part 944 Utah Regulatory Program AGENCY: Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement, Interior. ACTION: Proposed rule; reopening and...

  6. 75 FR 81120 - North Dakota Regulatory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ... regulation of surface coal mining and reclamation operations in accordance with the requirements of this Act... regard to the regulation of surface coal mining and reclamation operations. One of the purposes of SMCRA... Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement 30 CFR Part 934 North Dakota Regulatory Program...

  7. 77 FR 26413 - Promoting International Regulatory Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-04

    ...) ``International regulatory cooperation'' refers to a bilateral, regional, or multilateral process, other than... pursuant to section 411 of the Trade Agreements Act of 1979 (19 U.S.C. 2451) and section 141 of the Trade... authorization process for the negotiation and conclusion of international agreements pursuant to 1 U.S.C. 112b(c...

  8. 32 CFR 292.4 - Specific policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM DEFENSE INTELLIGENCE AGENCY (DIA) FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT § 292.4 Specific policy... characteristics, made or received by the DIA in connection with the transaction of public business and in the DIA...

  9. 77 FR 27065 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-08

    ... average of 14 years earlier than nonsmokers. Moreover, cigarette smoking costs more than $193 billion; $97... Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (Tobacco Control Act) in 2009, the FDA is legally mandated to... potential adverse consequences of FDA's regulatory actions, as the regulatory framework is being...

  10. Regulatory Evolution and Theoretical Arguments in Evolutionary Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannidis, Stavros

    2013-01-01

    The "cis"-regulatory hypothesis is one of the most important claims of evolutionary developmental biology. In this paper I examine the theoretical argument for "cis"-regulatory evolution and its role within evolutionary theorizing. I show that, although the argument has some weaknesses, it acts as a useful example for the importance of current…

  11. Multivariate Hawkes process models of the occurrence of regulatory elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, L; Sandelin, A; Winther, Ole

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A central question in molecular biology is how transcriptional regulatory elements (TREs) act in combination. Recent high-throughput data provide us with the location of multiple regulatory regions for multiple regulators, and thus with the possibility of analyzing the multivariate di...

  12. Regulating regulatory T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, N T; Chao, N

    2007-01-01

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are a specialized subpopulation of T cells that act to suppress activation of other immune cells and thereby maintain immune system homeostasis, self-tolerance as well as control excessive response to foreign antigens. The mere concept of Tregs was the subject of significant controversy among immunologists for many years owing to the paucity of reliable markers for defining these cells and the ambiguity of the nature and molecular basis of suppressive phenomena. However, recent advances in the molecular characterization of this cell population have firmly established their existence and their vital role in the vertebrate immune system. Of interest, accumulating evidence from both humans and experimental animal models has implicated the involvement of Tregs in the development of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). The demonstration that Tregs could separate GVHD from graft-versus-tumor (GVT) activity suggests that their immunosuppressive potential could be manipulated to reduce GVHD without detrimental consequence on GVT effect. Although a variety of T lymphocytes with suppressive capabilities have been reported, the two best-characterized subsets are the naturally arising, intrathymic-generated Tregs (natural Tregs) and the peripherally generated, inducible Tregs (inducible Tregs). This review summarizes our current knowledge of the generation, function and regulation of these two populations of Tregs during an immune response. Their role in the development of GVHD and their therapeutic potential for the prevention and treatment of GVHD will also be described.

  13. Information security policy development for compliance

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Barry L

    2013-01-01

    Although compliance standards can be helpful guides to writing comprehensive security policies, many of the standards state the same requirements in slightly different ways. Information Security Policy Development for Compliance: ISO/IEC 27001, NIST SP 800-53, HIPAA Standard, PCI DSS V2.0, and AUP V5.0 provides a simplified way to write policies that meet the major regulatory requirements, without having to manually look up each and every control. Explaining how to write policy statements that address multiple compliance standards and regulatory requirements, the book will he

  14. [Collective action and veto players in public policy: the sanitation policy in Brazil (1998-2002)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Ana Cristina Augusto; Costa, Nilson do Rosário

    2011-08-01

    In 1999, the federal government has committed itself to the IMF with the privatization of the sanitation and other public services, seeking resources to address the fiscal crisis. He proposed the bill 4147/01 as the regulatory framework that would provide the necessary security for investors interested in acquiring the state-owned sanitation enterprises. Against this initiative, a coalition of industry interests mobilized in order to veto the adoption of privatization: the National Front for Environmental Sanitation (FNSA). This paper identifies the actors, the agenda and the interests involved in this political coalition. It shows that the coalition acted decisively as an instance of veto, limiting the effects of the agreement with the IMF on the public policy of sanitation in Brazil this time.

  15. 76 FR 38243 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; BATS Y-Exchange, Inc.; NASDAQ OMX BX, Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ... Exchange, Inc.; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; International Securities Exchange LLC; The... Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. (``FINRA''), International Securities Exchange LLC (``ISE''), The... to fashion policy responses that will help prevent a recurrence.\\10\\ \\8\\ The events of May 6...

  16. Regulatory uncertainty and opportunity seeking: The case of clean development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Kolk; G. Mulder

    2011-01-01

    Regulatory uncertainty has been inherent to climate change in the absence of a successor to the Kyoto Protocol and with ongoing policy discussions on how to proceed. To facilitate steps to help address the issue, many companies have called for more certainty and a stable policy framework. What has r

  17. 48 CFR 24.203 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... agency officials having Freedom of Information Act responsibility. If additional assistance is needed... PROTECTION OF PRIVACY AND FREEDOM OF INFORMATION Freedom of Information Act 24.203 Policy. (a) The Act... Freedom of Information Act guide and other resources are available at the Department of Justice website...

  18. Practitioner fraud and abuse: a public policy status report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulli, C G

    1987-01-01

    In summary, a public policy to get rid of practitioner fraud and abuse has been established. It resulted initially from the changing attitude of the electorate on spending for social as well as health service programs. It is reflected by the congressional enactment of new laws against practitioner fraud and abuse, i.e., the Medicare-Medicaid Anti-Fraud and Abuse Amendments of 1977 and the Civil Money Penalties Law of 1981. It has been implemented through the prosecution of numerous practitioners involved in fraudulent activities and abuses using the new laws as well as many others, including the False Claims Act of 1963 and the fraud penalties codes recognized under the Federal Old Age, Survivors and Disability Insurance Act. The ultimate success of this public policy, however, will certainly depend, at least in part, on our ability to obtain an objective and realistic analysis of the degree of fraud and abuse in these programs, as well as to define the characteristics of "Medical Mills" and to determine to what extent they still exist. Finally, if this public policy is to mature, it must follow a path that assures that we do not disrupt or hamper the delivery of health care services to our poor and elderly populations through the needless introduction of regulatory requirements or legal excesses.

  19. Regulatory Reform in Mexico's Gas Industry Regulatory Reform in Mexico's Gas Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Rosellón

    1995-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the economic considerations behind the regulatory policies that are being considered after the recent reforms to the gas legal framework in Mexico. These reforms let Pemex maintain its over production but allow private investment in transportarion and distribution. The main challenge for gas regulation is Mexico is to develop a competitive structure when i the initial condition is an upstream monopoly and ii there is a dominant competitor in transportation. The paper discusses the solutions that are being designed during the elaboration of the gas regulatory framework. The main purpose is to describe how economic policy is responding to a fast evolving phenomena and to suggest topics for future research. This paper addresses the economic considerations behind the regulatory policies that are being considered after the recent reforms to the gas legal framework in Mexico. These reforms let Pemex maintain its over production but allow private investment in transportarion and distribution. The main challenge for gas regulation is Mexico is to develop a competitive structure when i the initial condition is an upstream monopoly and ii there is a dominant competitor in transportation. The paper discusses the solutions that are being designed during the elaboration of the gas regulatory framework. The main purpose is to describe how economic policy is responding to a fast evolving phenomena and to suggest topics for future research.

  20. Policy analysis without data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hale, D.R.; Spancake, L.R. (Energy Information Adminstration, Washington, DC (United States))

    1993-01-01

    This article describes the Energy Information Administration's work to assess the potential of experimental economics for policy analysis. The article reviews the experimental approach and describes an application to provisions of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. 10 refs.

  1. Partnerships for technology introduction -- Putting the technologies of tomorrow into the marketplace of today. Report to Congress on Sections 127 and 128 of the Energy Policy Act of 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    This report to Congress was prepared on behalf of the Secretary of the US Department of Energy (DOE) in response to Sections 127 and 128 of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct), Pub. L. 102-486. In preparing the report to the Congress, DOE has assessed the national and regional energy savings potential of products already on the market and those that will be available to consumers by the late 1990s. The Department has also examined the present cost-effectiveness of these emerging appliances as mature technologies. To help in its assessment, DOE organized eight workshops at which representatives from manufacturing and building industries, utilities, retailers and wholesalers, public interest groups and Federal and state government agencies could express their views. The information derived from these workshops was key to the formulation of the report`s general and specific recommendations. DOE has concluded that the Federal Government can effectively stimulate the market for emerging technologies by forming partnerships with the appliance industry and other interested parties promoting the use of highly efficient appliances. Based on the interaction with industry at the eight workshops and through direct contact, DOE has concluded that Federal action and technical assistance is not only desired by industry, but crucial to the expansion of these markets. Section 128 of EPAct requires an assessment of the energy savings and environmental benefits of replacing older, less efficient appliances with more efficient products than currently required by Federal law. Since early replacement of appliances is but one possible market-stimulating action, DOE has elected to include its discussion as part of the overall report to the Congress.

  2. 48 CFR 1.301 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... organizational level (e.g., designations and delegations of authority, assignments of responsibilities, work-flow....) as implemented in 5 CFR part 1320 (see 1.105) and the Regulatory Flexibility Act (5 U.S.C. 601, et seq.). Normally, when a law requires publication of a proposed regulation, the Regulatory Flexibility...

  3. Nuclear Regulatory Commission activities to prepare for reviewing license applications and issuing licenses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uleck, R.B.; DeFino, C.V. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1991-12-31

    The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 (LLRWPAA) assigned States the responsibility to provide for disposal of commercial low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) by 1993. The LLRWPAA also required the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to establish procedures and develop the technical review capability to process license applications for new LLRW disposal facilities. Under the LLRWPAA, NRC is required, to the extent practicable, to complete its review of an LLRW disposal facility license application within 15 months of its submittal by a State. This provision of the LLRWPAA helps ensure that NRC, in addition to protecting public health and safety and the environment, facilitates States` achievement of LLRWPAA milestones for new facility development. A timely NRC review is needed for States to accomplish their objective of having new disposal facilities in operation on the dates prescribed in the LLRWPAA. To help assure NRC and States` compliance with the provisions of the LLRWPAA, NRC has developed a licensing review strategy that includes: (1) the further development of regulatory guidance, (2) enhancement of licensing review capability, and (3) prelicensing regulatory consultation with potential applicants.

  4. Impact of regulatory science on global public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Meghal; Miller, Margaret Ann

    2012-07-01

    Regulatory science plays a vital role in protecting and promoting global public health by providing the scientific basis for ensuring that food and medical products are safe, properly labeled, and effective. Regulatory science research was first developed for the determination of product safety in the early part of the 20th Century, and continues to support innovation of the processes needed for regulatory policy decisions. Historically, public health laws and regulations were enacted following public health tragedies, and often the research tools and techniques required to execute these laws lagged behind the public health needs. Throughout history, similar public health problems relating to food and pharmaceutical products have occurred in countries around the world, and have usually led to the development of equivalent solutions. For example, most countries require a demonstration of pharmaceutical safety and efficacy prior to marketing these products using approaches that are similar to those initiated in the United States. The globalization of food and medical products has created a shift in regulatory compliance such that gaps in food and medical product safety can generate international problems. Improvements in regulatory research can advance the regulatory paradigm toward a more preventative, proactive framework. These improvements will advance at a greater pace with international collaboration by providing additional resources and new perspectives for approaching and anticipating public health problems. The following is a review of how past public health disasters have shaped the current regulatory landscape, and where innovation can facilitate the shift from reactive policies to proactive policies.

  5. Fight Against Underground Policies Intensifies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUZHUOQIONG

    2004-01-01

    On May 27, the China Insurance Regulatory Commission (CIRC)called in the chief representatives of foreign life insurers with branches in Hong Kong and Macao for a meeting andasked the companies to get more disciplined and help the government to combat underground policies.

  6. Ground-water protection, low-level waste, and below regulatory concern: What`s the connection?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruhlke, J.M.; Galpin, F.L. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Radiation Programs

    1991-12-31

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has a responsibility to protect ground water and drinking water under a wide variety of statutes. Each statute establishes different but specific requirements for EPA and applies to diverse environmental contaminants. Radionuclides are but one of the many contaminants subject to this regulatory matrix. Low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and below regulatory concern (BRC) are but two of many activities falling into this regulatory structure. The nation`s ground water serves as a major source of drinking water, supports sensitive ecosystems, and supplies the needs of agriculture and industry. Ground water can prove enormously expensive to clean up. EPA policy for protecting ground water has evolved considerably over the last ten years. The overall goal is to prevent adverse effects to human health, both now and in the future, and to protect the integrity of the nation`s ground-water resources. The Agency uses the Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs) under the Safe Drinking Water Act as reference points for protection in both prevention and remediation activities. What`s the connection? Both low-level waste management and disposal activities and the implementation of below regulatory concern related to low-level waste disposal have the potential for contaminating ground water. EPA is proposing to use the MCLs as reference points for low-level waste disposal and BRC disposal in order to define limits to the environmental contamination of ground water that is, or may be, used for drinking water.

  7. 75 FR 68533 - Funding and Fiscal Affairs, Loan Policies and Operations, and Funding Operations; Capital...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-08

    ... 12 CFR Part 615 RIN 3052-AC25 Funding and Fiscal Affairs, Loan Policies and Operations, and Funding..., Office of Regulatory Policy, Farm Credit Administration, 1501 Farm Credit Drive, McLean, VA 22102-5090... Internet spam. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Laurie Rea, Associate Director, Office of Regulatory Policy...

  8. 48 CFR 919.201 - General policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... disadvantaged, and women-owned small business programs. The Executive Director, Federal Energy Regulatory... agencies on matters primarily affecting small, small disadvantaged, and women-owned small businesses. The... BUSINESS PROGRAMS Policies 919.201 General policy. (c) The Director, Office of Small and...

  9. 48 CFR 439.101 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACTING ACQUISITION OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY General 439.101 Policy. (a) In addition to policy and regulatory guidance contained in the FAR and AGAR: (1) The USDA Information Technology Capital Planning and Investment Control Guide (CPIC) establishes requirements for the acquisition of information technology....

  10. 48 CFR 2033.204 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Policy. 2033.204 Section 2033.204 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PROTESTS, DISPUTES, AND APPEALS Disputes and Appeals 2033.204 Policy. Final decisions of the...

  11. Waterpipe tobacco smoking impact on public health: implications for policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinasek, Mary P; Gibson-Young, Linda M; Davis, Janiece N; McDermott, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    Given the increasing evidence of its negative health effects, including contributions to both infectious and chronic diseases, waterpipe tobacco smoking raises public health concerns beyond even those presented by traditional smoking. Identification of Clean Indoor Air Acts (CIAAs) from each of the 50 United States and District of Columbia were retrieved and examined for inclusion of regulatory measures where waterpipe tobacco smoking is concerned. Several instances of exemption to current CIAAs policies were identified. The cumulative policy lens is presented in this study. States vary in their inclusion of explicit wording regarding CIAAs to the point where waterpipe tobacco smoking, unlike traditional smoking products, is excluded from some legislation, thereby limiting authorities' ability to carry out enforcement. Consistent, comprehensive, and unambiguous legislative language is necessary to prevent establishments where waterpipe tobacco smoking occurs from skirting legislation and other forms of regulatory control. Stricter laws are needed due to the increasing negative health impact on both the smoker and the bystander. Actions at both the federal and state levels may be needed to control health risks, particularly among youth and young adult populations.

  12. Regulatory Promotion of Emergent CCS Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, Lincoln; Uchitel, Kirsten; Johnson, David

    2014-01-01

    Despite the growing inevitability of climate change and the attendant need for mitigation strategies, carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) has yet to gain much traction in the United States. Recent regulatory proposals by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), limited in scope to new-build power plants, represent the only significant policy initiative intended to mandate diffusion of CCS technology. Phase I of this Project assessed barriers to CCS deployment as prioritized by the CCS community. That research concluded that there were four primary barriers: (1) cost, (2) lack of a carbon price, (3) liability, and (4) lack of a comprehensive regulatory regime. Phase II of this Project, as presented in this Report, assesses potential regulatory models for CCS and examines where those models address the hurdles to diffusing CCS technology identified in Phase I. It concludes (1) that a CCS-specific but flexible standard, such as a technology performance standard or a very particular type of market-based regulation, likely will promote CCS diffusion, and (2) that these policies cannot work alone, but rather, should be combined with other measures, such as liability limits and a comprehensive CCS regulatory regime.

  13. Balancing Acts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Past Issues Special Section: Focus on Communication Balancing Acts Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents For ... scientific research on hearing, balance, smell, taste, voice, speech, and language—common elements in how we perceive ...

  14. Finding Common Ground: A Critical Review of Land Use and Resource Management Policies in Ontario, Canada and their Intersection with First Nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fraser McLeod

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an in-depth analysis of selective land use and resource management policies in the Province of Ontario, Canada. It examines their relative capacity to recognize the rights of First Nations and Aboriginal peoples and their treaty rights, as well as their embodiment of past Crown–First Nations relationships. An analytical framework was developed to evaluate the manifest and latent content of 337 provincial texts, including 32 provincial acts, 269 regulatory documents, 16 policy statements, and 5 provincial plans. This comprehensive document analysis classified and assessed how current provincial policies address First Nation issues and identified common trends and areas of improvement. The authors conclude that there is an immediate need for guidance on how provincial authorities can improve policy to make relationship-building a priority to enhance and sustain relationships between First Nations and other jurisdictions.

  15. The European Union, Financial Crises and the Regulation of Hedge Funds: A Policy Cul-de-Sac or Policy Window?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David John Lutton

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A series of financial crises involving hedge funds has created a general perception that action needs to be taken. A number of key member states and political actors favour tighter regulation. Traditional bureaucratic theory suggests that the European Commission would seek to maximise this ‘policy window’, and yet there remains no single unified European Union (EU regulatory framework specifically targeting hedge funds. The nature of the regulatory regime, which has generally demanded a ‘light touch’ approach, means there are strict limits the EU’s ability to act. From an EU perspective, hedge fund regulation appears to be a policy cul-de-sac. However, the relationship between hedge funds and financial crisis is complex and less straightforward than is often portrayed. Hedge fund regulation cannot, however, be considered in isolation but should be viewed in the context of a wider programme to integrate European financial services markets. Viewed from this perspective, EU regulation is in fact changing the landscape of the hedge fund industry through a process of negative integration.

  16. 40 CFR 1500.2 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., regulations, and public laws of the United States in accordance with the policies set forth in the Act and in... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Policy. 1500.2 Section 1500.2 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY PURPOSE, POLICY, AND MANDATE § 1500.2...

  17. 37 CFR 204.3 - General policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROCEDURES PRIVACY ACT: POLICIES AND PROCEDURES § 204.3 General policy. The Copyright Office serves primarily as an office of public record. Section 705 of title 17, United States Code, requires the Copyright... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General policy. 204.3...

  18. 44 CFR 10.4 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Policy. 10.4 Section 10.4... GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS General § 10.4 Policy. (a) FEMA shall act with care to assure that... mitigation and flood insurance, it does so in a manner consistent with national environmental policies. Care...

  19. 48 CFR 1807.7200 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Policy. 1807.7200 Section... COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING ACQUISITION PLANNING Acquisition Forecasting 1807.7200 Policy. (a) As required by the Business Opportunity Development Reform Act of 1988, it is NASA policy to— (1) Prepare...

  20. 36 CFR 331.2 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Policy. 331.2 Section 331.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE... INDIANA § 331.2 Policy. (a) It is the policy of the Secretary of the Army, acting through the Chief...

  1. 48 CFR 2425.402 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Policy. 2425.402 Section 2425.402 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS TRADE AGREEMENTS ACT 2425.402 Policy. (a)(1) It is the Department's policy to...

  2. 36 CFR 910.1 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Policy. 910.1 Section 910.1... AREA General § 910.1 Policy. (a) The Pennsylvania Avenue Development Corporation Act of 1972, Pub. L... objectives for development, is supplemented by various adopted policies and programs of the Corporation....

  3. 36 CFR 327.1 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Policy. 327.1 Section 327.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY RULES AND REGULATIONS... Policy. (a) It is the policy of the Secretary of the Army, acting through the Chief of Engineers,...

  4. 44 CFR 206.341 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Policy. 206.341 Section 206... SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE FEDERAL DISASTER ASSISTANCE Coastal Barrier Resources Act § 206.341 Policy. It shall be the policy of FEMA to achieve the goals of CBRA in carrying out disaster relief on units of...

  5. General statement of policy and procedures for NRC enforcement actions: Enforcement policy. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    This document includes the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (NRC`s or Commission`s) revised General Statement of Policy and Procedure for Enforcement Actions (Enforcement Policy) as it was published in the Federal Register on May 13, 1998 (63 ER 26630). The Enforcement Policy is a general statement of policy explaining the NRC`s policies and procedures in initiating enforcement actions, and of the presiding officers and the Commission in reviewing these actions. This policy statement is applicable to enforcement matters involving the radiological health and safety of the public, including employees` health and safety, the common defense and security, and the environment.

  6. EU Commission suggests to talk about policies to ensure the continuity of energy supply in the future. Germany's mineral oil industry favours the competitive market and is against regulatory restrictions to competition; Bruessel regt Diskussion ueber Energieversorgungssicherheit an. Mineraloelindustrie setzt auf Wettbewerb statt Regulierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2001-04-01

    With its Greenbook entitled 'Towards a European strategy for ensured continuity of energy supply' the European Commission recently initiated discussions within the EU about the necessity to focus European energy policy on new lines in order to be prepared to handle foreseeable developments and challenges such as: a growing dependence on energy imports, induced by a growing demand for energy and simultaneous depletion of energy resources in Europe; greenhouse gas emissions and the climate issue. The European Commission propagates the need for EU-wide regulatory action and enlarged competences of the EC for energy policy decisions. The German mineral oil industry accepts the analysis of the EC but comes to entirely different conclusions, which are presented in the article. (orig./CB) [German] Mit ihrem Gruenbuch 'Hin zu einer europaeischen Strategie fuer Energieversorgungssicherheit' hat die Europaeische Kommission eine energiepolitische Diskussion ueber die Notwendigkeit neuer Akzente in der europaeischen Energiepolitik eingeleitet. Die Kommission rechnet auf Grund eines wachsenden Energiebedarfs und gleichzeitig abnehmender Energieressourcen in Europa in den kommenden Jahrzehnten mit einer zunehmenden Importabhaengigkeit. Gleichzeitig steht die Kommission vor der klimapolitischen Herausforderung, die energiebedingten Emissionen von Klimagasen spuerbar zu reduzieren. Diese Anforderungen an die kuenftige Energieversorgung lassen sich nach Einschaetzung der Kommission nur auf der Grundlage erweiterter Kompetenzen fuer eine europaeische Energiepolitik bewaeltigen. Die deutsche Mineraloelindustrie teilt zwar die analytische Einschaetzung der Euorpaeischen Union (EU), die Konsequenzen jedoch nicht. Nachfolgend werden einige Kernaussagen des Mineraloelwirtschaftsverbandes e.V. (MWV), Hamburg, zum Gruenbuch wiedergegeben. (orig./CB)

  7. 78 FR 21978 - Sunshine Act Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-12

    ... request. MATTERS TO BE CONSIDERED: Open 1. Approval of agenda. 2. Discussion of fundraising objectives. 3. Discussion of fundraising policies. 4. Public comment. 5. Consider and act on other business. Closed...

  8. Citizen science and natural resource governance: program design for vernal pool policy innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bridie McGreavy

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Effective natural resource policy depends on knowing what is needed to sustain a resource and building the capacity to identify, develop, and implement flexible policies. This retrospective case study applies resilience concepts to a 16-year citizen science program and vernal pool regulatory development process in Maine, USA. We describe how citizen science improved adaptive capacities for innovative and effective policies to regulate vernal pools. We identified two core program elements that allowed people to act within narrow windows of opportunity for policy transformation, including (1 the simultaneous generation of useful, credible scientific knowledge and construction of networks among diverse institutions, and (2 the formation of diverse leadership that promoted individual and collective abilities to identify problems and propose policy solutions. If citizen science program leaders want to promote social-ecological systems resilience and natural resource policies as outcomes, we recommend they create a system for internal project evaluation, publish scientific studies using citizen science data, pursue resources for program sustainability, and plan for leadership diversity and informal networks to foster adaptive governance.

  9. Optimal Bank Regulation and Monetary Policy

    OpenAIRE

    John J. Seater

    2000-01-01

    A unified model of monetary policy and bank regulation is presented. In accordance with modern banking theory, banks not only intermediate loans and deposits but also provide a financial service affecting aggregate output. Optimal parameter settings for monetary and regulatory policy are derived. New results are that monetary policy affects the expected level as well as the variance of output, bank regulation should change continually in response to the state of the economy, and bank regulati...

  10. THE INDIAN PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY; EVOLUTION OF REGULATORY SYSTEM AND PRESENT SCENARIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarda Rohit R.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Indian pharmaceutical industry evolved in true sense only after independence. Government provided the impetus to growth with the establishment of few public sector units. Healthcare facilities in India are still below standard as compared to most developed nations. Indian government is stringent on price control of Pharmaceuticals and this becomes a major hurdle for global players to enter in India but Indian patent act and new drug policy has bought a new dimension to Indian Pharmaceutical Industry. Some of the Indo-global industries like Cipla, Ranbaxy and Dr .Reddy’s are showing rapid and consistent growth with their impact worldwide. India is also turning out to be a prime destination for clinical trials. Industry today is governed by wide range of regulations and different regulatory bodies. Current article focuses on all these aspects along with regulations for new drugs, medical devices, imports etc.

  11. [Public policy analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subirats, J

    2001-01-01

    This article presents to public health professionals concepts and perspectives from political science relevant for creating a healthier public policy. Currently, there is no uniform vision of what constitutes public interest and the decisions of public administrations tend to be based on compromise. In public debate, what is paramount is the capacity to persuade. From the perspective of public policy analysis, the crucial issue is definition: the final decision depends on the definition of the problem that has emerged triumphant in the public debate among competing actors with different definitions of the problem. From a policy analysis perspective, the problems entering the agenda of public administration does not necessarily correspond to their severity, as competing actors try to impose their point of view. Because of its historical evolution, the Spanish political system has specific traits. The relatively weak democratic tradition tends to make the decision process less visibles, with strong technocratic elements and weaker social articulation. Both the juridical tradition and liberal rhetoric portray lobbying as contrary to public interest, when in fact it is constantly performed by powerful vested interest groups, through both personal contacts and economic connections. Regulatory policies, with concentrated costs and diffuse benefits, seem to be moving from Spain to the European Union. To promote healthier public policies, the development of civil society initiatives and the building of coalitions will play an increasingly greater role in the future.

  12. Security practices and regulatory compliance in the healthcare industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Juhee; Johnson, M Eric

    2013-01-01

    Securing protected health information is a critical responsibility of every healthcare organization. We explore information security practices and identify practice patterns that are associated with improved regulatory compliance. We employed Ward's cluster analysis using minimum variance based on the adoption of security practices. Variance between organizations was measured using dichotomous data indicating the presence or absence of each security practice. Using t tests, we identified the relationships between the clusters of security practices and their regulatory compliance. We utilized the results from the Kroll/Healthcare Information and Management Systems Society telephone-based survey of 250 US healthcare organizations including adoption status of security practices, breach incidents, and perceived compliance levels on Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act, Red Flags rules, Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, and state laws governing patient information security. Our analysis identified three clusters (which we call leaders, followers, and laggers) based on the variance of security practice patterns. The clusters have significant differences among non-technical practices rather than technical practices, and the highest level of compliance was associated with hospitals that employed a balanced approach between technical and non-technical practices (or between one-off and cultural practices). Hospitals in the highest level of compliance were significantly managing third parties' breaches and training. Audit practices were important to those who scored in the middle of the pack on compliance. Our results provide security practice benchmarks for healthcare administrators and can help policy makers in developing strategic and practical guidelines for practice adoption.

  13. Government Policies for Corporate Social Responsibility in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Jette Steen; Moon, Jeremy; Slager, Rieneke

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyses policies of 22 European Union member governments, designed to encourage corporate social responsibility (CSR) between 2000 and 2011. It categorises these policies by their regulatory strength and identifies the range of issues to which CSR policies are directed. The paper argu...

  14. Government Policies for Corporate Social Responsibility in Europe:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Jette Steen; Moon, Jeremy; Slager, Rieneke

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyses policies of 22 European Union member governments, designed to encourage corporate social responsibility (CSR) between 2000 and 2011. It categorises these policies by their regulatory strength and identifies the range of issues to which CSR policies are directed. The paper argu...

  15. 2012 Global Summit on Regulatory Science (GSRS-2012)--modernizing toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Margaret A; Tong, Weida; Fan, Xiaohui; Slikker, William

    2013-01-01

    Regulatory science encompasses the tools, models, techniques, and studies needed to assess and evaluate product safety, efficacy, quality, and performance. Several recent publications have emphasized the role of regulatory science in improving global health, supporting economic development and fostering innovation. As for other scientific disciplines, research in regulatory science is the critical element underpinning the development and advancement of regulatory science as a modern scientific discipline. As a regulatory agency in the 21st century, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has an international component that underpins its domestic mission; foods, drugs, and devices are developed and imported to the United States from across the world. The Global Summit on Regulatory Science, an international conference for discussing innovative technologies, approaches, and partnerships that enhance the translation of basic science into regulatory applications, is providing leadership for the advancement of regulatory sciences within the global context. Held annually, this international conference provides a platform where regulators, policy makers, and bench scientists from various countries can exchange views on how to develop, apply, and implement innovative methodologies into regulatory assessments in their respective countries, as well as developing a harmonized strategy to improve global public health through global collaboration.

  16. Regulatory T cell memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblum, Michael D.; Way, Sing Sing; Abbas, Abul K.

    2016-01-01

    Memory for antigen is a defining feature of adaptive immunity. Antigen-specific lymphocyte populations show an increase in number and function after antigen encounter and more rapidly re-expand upon subsequent antigen exposure. Studies of immune memory have primarily focused on effector B cells and T cells with microbial specificity, using prime challenge models of infection. However, recent work has also identified persistently expanded populations of antigen-specific regulatory T cells that protect against aberrant immune responses. In this Review, we consider the parallels between memory effector T cells and memory regulatory T cells, along with the functional implications of regulatory memory in autoimmunity, antimicrobial host defence and maternal fetal tolerance. In addition, we discuss emerging evidence for regulatory T cell memory in humans and key unanswered questions in this rapidly evolving field. PMID:26688349

  17. Policy Problematization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, P. Taylor

    2014-01-01

    This article places Michel Foucault's concept of "problematization" in relation to educational policy research. My goal is to examine a key assumption of policy related to "solving problems" through such technologies. I discuss the potential problematization has to alter conceptions of policy research; and, through this…

  18. Policy Problematization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, P. Taylor

    2014-01-01

    This article places Michel Foucault's concept of "problematization" in relation to educational policy research. My goal is to examine a key assumption of policy related to "solving problems" through such technologies. I discuss the potential problematization has to alter conceptions of policy research; and, through this…

  19. 78 FR 46661 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; New York Stock Exchange LLC; NYSE MKT LLC; Order Instituting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    ... and manipulative acts and practices, to promote just and equitable principles of trade, to remove... by a self-regulatory organization. See Securities Act Amendments of 1975, Senate Comm. on Banking.... O'Neill, Deputy Secretary. BILLING CODE P ...

  20. 4th IEA International CCS Regulatory Network Meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    On 9 and 10 May 2012, the IEA International CCS Regulatory Network (Network), launched in Paris in May 2008 to provide a neutral forum for CCS regulators, policy makers and stakeholders to share updates and views on CCS regulatory developments, held its fourth meeting at the International Energy Agency (IEA) offices in Paris, France. The aim of the meeting was to: provide an update on government efforts to develop and implement carbon capture and storage (CCS) legal and regulatory frameworks; and consider ways in which governments are dealing with some of the more difficult or complex aspects of CCS regulation. This report summarises the proceedings of the meeting.

  1. Bitcoin: a regulatory nightmare to a libertarian dream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Primavera De Filippi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an overview of national policies and current discussions on the regulation of bitcoin in Europe and beyond. After presenting the potential threat that cryptocurrencies pose to governmental and financial institutions worldwide, it discusses the regulatory challenges and the difficulty for national regulators to come up with a sound regulatory framework, which the author believes explains the current (lack of regulatory responses in this field. The article concludes that regulation is needed, but that in order not to excessively stifle innovation in this nascent ecosystem, some of these challenges might better be addressed through self-regulation.

  2. Codes and standards and other guidance cited in regulatory documents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickolaus, J.R.; Bohlander, K.L.

    1996-08-01

    As part of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Standard Review Plan Update and Development Program (SRP-UDP), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory developed a listing of industry consensus codes and standards and other government and industry guidance referred to in regulatory documents. The SRP-UDP has been completed and the SRP-Maintenance Program (SRP-MP) is now maintaining this listing. Besides updating previous information, Revision 3 adds approximately 80 citations. This listing identifies the version of the code or standard cited in the regulatory document, the regulatory document, and the current version of the code or standard. It also provides a summary characterization of the nature of the citation. This listing was developed from electronic searches of the Code of Federal Regulations and the NRC`s Bulletins, Information Notices, Circulars, Enforcement Manual, Generic Letters, Inspection Manual, Policy Statements, Regulatory Guides, Standard Technical Specifications and the Standard Review Plan (NUREG-0800).

  3. Multivariate Hawkes process models of the occurrence of regulatory elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, L; Sandelin, A; Winther, Ole;

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A central question in molecular biology is how transcriptional regulatory elements (TREs) act in combination. Recent high-throughput data provide us with the location of multiple regulatory regions for multiple regulators, and thus with the possibility of analyzing the multivariate di...... occurrences of multiple TREs along the genome that is capable of providing new insights into dependencies among elements involved in transcriptional regulation. The method is available as an R package from http://www.math.ku.dk/~richard/ppstat/.......BACKGROUND: A central question in molecular biology is how transcriptional regulatory elements (TREs) act in combination. Recent high-throughput data provide us with the location of multiple regulatory regions for multiple regulators, and thus with the possibility of analyzing the multivariate...

  4. NRC regulatory initiatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, T.C. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission (United States)

    1989-11-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is addressing several low-level waste disposal issues that will be important to waste generators and to States and Compacts developing new disposal capacity. These issues include Greater-Than-Class C (GTCC) waste, mixed waste, below regulatory concern (BRC) waste, and the low-level waste data base. This paper discusses these issues and their current status.

  5. Proposed standby gasoline rationing plan. Economic and regulatory analysis draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-06-01

    This economic and regulatory analysis meets the requirements of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act, which calls for an evaluation of the potential economic impacts of the gasoline rationing contingency plan. In addition, this analysis is intended to satisfy the requirements of the President's Executive Order No. 12044 of March 23, 1978, regarding government regulations, and provides an inflationary impact statement for the proposed rationing plan. To perform the analysis of rationing program impacts on the total national economy, three separate projections were required. First, a projection is made of the ''normal'' U.S. economy for a future period--the last quarter of 1980 through the third quarter of 1981 in this analysis. Second, a projection is made of the impacts which a petroleum supply interruption would have on the U.S. economy during this future period, assuming that DOE's standby allocation and price control regulations were implemented for crude oil and products. Third, and most significant, an estimate is made of the incremental impacts of the gasoline rationing program on this already-perturbed future U.S. economy.

  6. Acting green elicits a literal warm glow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taufik, Danny; Bolderdijk, Jan Willem; Steg, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Environmental policies are often based on the assumption that people only act environmentally friendly if some extrinsic reward is implicated, usually money(1,2). We argue that people might also be motivated by intrinsic rewards: doing the right thing (such as acting environmentally friendly) elicit

  7. Acting green elicits a literal warm glow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taufik, Danny; Bolderdijk, Jan Willem; Steg, Linda

    Environmental policies are often based on the assumption that people only act environmentally friendly if some extrinsic reward is implicated, usually money(1,2). We argue that people might also be motivated by intrinsic rewards: doing the right thing (such as acting environmentally friendly)

  8. 77 FR 32660 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request, National Interest...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ...), USCIS, Office of Policy and Strategy, Laura Dawkins, Acting Chief, Regulatory Coordination Division, 20.... Laura Dawkins, Acting Chief, Regulatory Coordination Division, Office of Policy and Strategy,...

  9. NRC policy on future reactor designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1985-07-01

    On April 13, 1983, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission issued for public comment a ''Proposed Commission Policy Statement on Severe Accidents and Related Views on Nuclear Reactor Regulation'' (48 FR 16014). This report presents and discusses the Commission's final version of that policy statement now entitled, ''Policy Statement on Severe Reactor Accidents Regarding Future Designs and Existing Plants.'' It provides an overview of comments received from the public and the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards and the staff response to these. In addition to the Policy Statement, the report discusses how the policies of this statement relate to other NRC programs including the Severe Accident Research Program; the implementation of safety measures resulting from lessons learned in the accident at Three Mile Island; safety goal development; the resolution of Unresolved Safety Issues and other Generic Safety Issues; and possible revisions of rules or regulatory requirements resulting from the Severe Accident Source Term Program. Also discussed are the main features of a generic decision strategy for resolving Regulatory Questions and Technical Issues relating to severe accidents; the development and regulatory use of new safety information; the treatment of uncertainty in severe accident decision making; and the development and implementation of a Systems Reliability Program for both existing and future plants to ensure that the realized level of safety is commensurate with the safety analyses used in regulatory decisions.

  10. NRC policy on future reactor designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1985-07-01

    On April 13, 1983, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission issued for public comment a ''Proposed Commission Policy Statement on Severe Accidents and Related Views on Nuclear Reactor Regulation'' (48 FR 16014). This report presents and discusses the Commission's final version of that policy statement now entitled, ''Policy Statement on Severe Reactor Accidents Regarding Future Designs and Existing Plants.'' It provides an overview of comments received from the public and the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards and the staff response to these. In addition to the Policy Statement, the report discusses how the policies of this statement relate to other NRC programs including the Severe Accident Research Program; the implementation of safety measures resulting from lessons learned in the accident at Three Mile Island; safety goal development; the resolution of Unresolved Safety Issues and other Generic Safety Issues; and possible revisions of rules or regulatory requirements resulting from the Severe Accident Source Term Program. Also discussed are the main features of a generic decision strategy for resolving Regulatory Questions and Technical Issues relating to severe accidents; the development and regulatory use of new safety information; the treatment of uncertainty in severe accident decision making; and the development and implementation of a Systems Reliability Program for both existing and future plants to ensure that the realized level of safety is commensurate with the safety analyses used in regulatory decisions.

  11. World bank's role in the electric power sector: Policies for effective institutional, regulatory, and financial reform. World Bank policy paper. Funcion del banco mundial en el sector de la electricidad: politicas para efectuar una reforma institucional, regulatoria y financiera eficaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    The paper outlines the World Bank's new policies for the energy sector. It recommends several new policies to improve the performance of the electric power sector in developing countries. Bank loans for electric power will go first to countries clearly committed to improving the performance of their power sectors. The Bank will also discourage subsidies on energy prices and will encourage private investment in utilities. And it will provide financing to help the least developed countries import power where local generation is not practical.

  12. Old-growth Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Ostergren

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Most federal legislation and policies (e.g., the Wilderness Act, Endangered Species Act, National Forest Management Act fail to speak directly to the need for old-growth protection, recruitment, and restoration on federal lands. Various policy and attitudinal barriers must be changed to move beyond the current situation. For example, in order to achieve the goal of healthy old growth in frequent-fire forests, the public must be educated regarding the evolutionary nature of these ecosystems and persuaded that collaborative action rather than preservation and litigation is the best course for the future of these forests. Land managers and policy makers must be encouraged to look beyond the single-species management paradigm toward managing natural processes, such as fire, so that ecosystems fall within the natural range of variability. They must also see that, given their recent evidence of catastrophic fires, management must take place outside the wildland–urban interface in order to protect old-growth forest attributes and human infrastructure. This means that, in some wilderness areas, management may be required. Land managers, researchers, and policy makers will also have to agree on a definition of old growth in frequent-fire landscapes; simply adopting a definition from the mesic Pacific Northwest will not work. Moreover, the culture within the federal agencies needs revamping to allow for more innovation, especially in terms of tree thinning and wildland fire use. Funding for comprehensive restoration treatments needs to be increased, and monitoring of the Healthy Forest Initiative and Healthy Forest Restoration Act must be undertaken.

  13. 76 FR 56762 - Privacy Act of 1974; Notice of Updated Systems of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    ...The General Services Administration (GSA) reviewed its Privacy Act systems to ensure that they are relevant, necessary, accurate, up- to-date, covered by the appropriate legal or regulatory authority. This notice is an updated Privacy Act system of record...

  14. The Act East Policy and the Strategic Change of India’s Role on the South China Sea Issue%“东向行动政策”与南海问题中印度角色的战略导向性转变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛红亮

    2015-01-01

    “东向行动政策”彰显了莫迪政府对印度在马六甲海峡以东地区政策的重新规划,是印度寻求适应亚太地区与全球形势和遵循其国内发展与对外政策逻辑的结果。“东向行动政策”固然是在多种主客观因素的推动下出台,但根本上则是印度期望以更快的步伐实现其地区经济、政治与战略目标的政策工具。“东向行动政策”由“东向政策”强化而来,但其地缘政治内涵并未改变,南海依旧是印度实施该政策的首要地区。鉴于南海在该政策实施过程中的重要地缘战略、地缘经济与海上安全价值,印度未来势必进一步强化其在南海事务中的战略导向性角色,在经济、政治与战略层面表于言、施于行。%s:The Act East Policy , which is the result of India ’s adjustment to the new Asia-Pacific and glob-al situation and the logic of its domestic development and foreign policy , indicates that the Modi government ’s new plan for India ’s role to the east of the Malacca Strait .Although it was introduced under the pressure of a series of subjective and objective factors , it is essentially a policy tool to achieve India ’s economic , political and strategic objectives at a faster pace .The Act East Policy is the reinforcement of the Look East Policy.However, India’s polic stays the same in geopolitical content , and the South China Sea remains the priority of the Act East Policy as before .Due to the important geostrategic , geoeconomic , and maritime security values of the South China Sea , India would further strengthen its strategic orientation on the South China Sea issue in the future .Thus, India will substantiate its role in the South China Sea with economic , political and strategic statements and measures .

  15. THINK half-way and beyond. Think Tank advising the European Commission on mid- and long-term energy policy. Mid-term Booklet June 2010 - January 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-02-15

    The THINK project provides knowledge support to policy making by the European Commission in the context of the Strategic Energy Technology Plan. The project is organized around a multidisciplinary group of 23 experts from 14 countries covering five dimensions of energy policy: science and technology, market and network economics, regulation, law, and policy implementation. Each semester, the permanent research team based in Florence works on two reports, going through the quality process of the THINK Tank. This includes an Expert Hearing to test the robustness of the work, a discussion meeting with the Scientific Council of the THINK Tank, and a Public Consultation to test the public acceptance of different policy options by involving the broader community. After one and a half years, THINK has produced a collection of six reports addressing a number of key questions about today's EU energy policy. Most of the questions are forward-looking, trying in one way or another to analyse how Europe can achieve its ambitious energy and climate policy targets. In this respect, financial and regulatory questions are predominant in most of the reports. However, as is commonly the case in EU policy, the reports usually also address - at least implicitly - the institutional question of who should act: the EU, Member States, regulators, companies or, in the case of Smart Cities, local authorities. Altogether, the six reports constitute an interesting and up-to-date reader of some of the most pressing issues of EU energy policy.

  16. Language Policy and Bilingual Education in Arizona and Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Eric J.; Johnson, David Cassels

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we compare the bilingual/language education policies of Arizona and Washington to show that state-level language policy plays a critical role in shaping the appropriation of federal language policy [No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB), Title III] and how different state-level language policies impact the district level of policy…

  17. Waterpipe tobacco smoking impact on public health: implications for policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinasek MP

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Mary P Martinasek,1 Linda M Gibson-Young,2 Janiece N Davis,3 Robert J McDermott41Public Health Department of Health Sciences and Human Performance, University of Tampa, Kennedy Boulevard, Tampa, FL, 2College of Nursing and Health Sciences, Texas A&M University: Corpus Christi, Corpus Christi, TX, 3Department of Health – Palm Beach County, West Palm beach, FL, 4Department of Population Health Sciences, School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, USABackground: Given the increasing evidence of its negative health effects, including contributions to both infectious and chronic diseases, waterpipe tobacco smoking raises public health concerns beyond even those presented by traditional smoking. Methods: Identification of Clean Indoor Air Acts (CIAAs from each of the 50 United States and District of Columbia were retrieved and examined for inclusion of regulatory measures where waterpipe tobacco smoking is concerned. Several instances of exemption to current CIAAs policies were identified. The cumulative policy lens is presented in this study. Results: States vary in their inclusion of explicit wording regarding CIAAs to the point where waterpipe tobacco smoking, unlike traditional smoking products, is excluded from some legislation, thereby limiting authorities’ ability to carry out enforcement. Conclusion: Consistent, comprehensive, and unambiguous legislative language is necessary to prevent establishments where waterpipe tobacco smoking occurs from skirting legislation and other forms of regulatory control. Stricter laws are needed due to the increasing negative health impact on both the smoker and the bystander. Actions at both the federal and state levels may be needed to control health risks, particularly among youth and young adult populations.Keywords: health policy, waterpipe tobacco, hookah smoking, tobacco regulation

  18. 78 FR 42945 - Health Information Technology Policy Committee Vacancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE Health Information Technology Policy Committee Vacancy AGENCY: Government Accountability Office... Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) established the Health Information Technology Policy Committee (Health...

  19. 78 FR 7784 - Health Information Technology Policy Committee Nomination Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE Health Information Technology Policy Committee Nomination Letters AGENCY: Government... Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) established the Health Information Technology Policy...

  20. 77 FR 27774 - Health Information Technology Policy Committee Vacancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE Health Information Technology Policy Committee Vacancy AGENCY: Government Accountability Office... Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) established the Health Information Technology Policy Committee (Health...

  1. 78 FR 15407 - Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-11

    ... Internal Revenue Service Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service, Treasury. ACTION... requirements of the Privacy Act of 1974, as amended, 5 U.S.C. 552a, the Department of the Treasury, Internal... violation of security policy. The records will include items such as suspected and actual policy...

  2. The waste isolation pilot plant regulatory compliance program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mewhinney, J.A. [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Carlsbad, NM (United States); Kehrman, R.F. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Carlsbad, NM (United States)

    1996-06-01

    The passage of the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act of 1992 (LWA) marked a turning point for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) program. It established a Congressional mandate to open the WIPP in as short a time as possible, thereby initiating the process of addressing this nation`s transuranic (TRU) waste problem. The DOE responded to the LWA by shifting the priority at the WIPP from scientific investigations to regulatory compliance and the completion of prerequisites for the initiation of operations. Regulatory compliance activities have taken four main focuses: (1) preparing regulatory submittals; (2) aggressive schedules; (3) regulator interface; and (4) public interactions

  3. 78 FR 27113 - Generic Drug User Fee Amendments of 2012; Regulatory Science Initiatives Public Hearing; Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-09

    ... FY 2013 Regulatory Science Plan consisted of the following research topics: 1. Bioequivalence of local acting, orally inhaled drug products 2. Bioequivalence of local acting topical dermatological drug products 3. Bioequivalence of local acting gastrointestinal drug products 4. Quality by design of...

  4. Understanding the Tobacco Control Act: efforts by the US Food and Drug Administration to make tobacco-related morbidity and mortality part of the USA's past, not its future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husten, Corinne G; Deyton, Lawrence R

    2013-05-04

    The USA has a rich history of public health efforts to reduce morbidity and mortality from tobacco use. Comprehensive tobacco-prevention programmes, when robustly implemented, reduce the prevalence of youth and adult smoking, decrease cigarette consumption, accelerate declines in tobacco-related deaths, and diminish health-care costs from tobacco-related diseases. Effective public health interventions include raising the price of tobacco products, smoke-free policies, counter-marketing campaigns, advertising restrictions, augmenting access to treatment for tobacco use through insurance coverage and telephone help lines, and comprehensive approaches to prevent children and adolescents from accessing tobacco products. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has six major areas of regulatory authority: regulation of tobacco products; regulation of the advertising, marketing, and promotion of tobacco products; regulation of the distribution and sales of tobacco products; enforcement of the provisions of the Tobacco Control Act and tobacco regulations; regulatory science to support FDA authorities and activities; and public education about the harms of tobacco products and to support FDA regulatory actions. With passing of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (Tobacco Control Act) in June, 2009, important new regulatory approaches were added to the tobacco prevention and control arsenal.

  5. Are new industry policies precautionary?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galland, Daniel; McDaniels, Timothy L

    2008-01-01

    . The paper finally argues that, although in practice, policy makers generally tend to make incremental choices that are reactive to diverse issues, new industries could adopt more precautionary policies based on processes of public negotiation, analytical decision making and regional planning based......This paper argues that regulatory processes and outcomes in the context of a new industry could respond to mechanisms and factors that shape governmental agendas, illustrating how policy can behave reactively rather than in a precautionary manner. In the case of salmon aquaculture, an emerging...... industry characterized by risks, uncertainties, exponential growth, economic significance and environmental controversy, the outcomes of such reactive policies are generally reflected in siting criteria that yield implicit environmental and socio-economic disadvantages and trade-offs. This paper proposes...

  6. [Mexican migration policies after IRCA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba, F

    1999-01-01

    The evolution since 1964 of Mexican government policy regarding migrant workers in the US is discussed. For a decade after the "bracero" program was terminated by the US, the Mexican government attempted to encourage creation of another legal framework for migration, regarded as inevitable whether legal or clandestine. Around 1974-75, a more distant attitude, termed the "policy of no policy," acquired considerable support in Mexican government and academic circles. The no-policy strategy allowed Mexico to achieve certain objectives regarding migration without prompting US intervention in its internal affairs, as for example by a linkage of US migration policy to specific Mexican government actions. The 1986 passage of the US Immigration Reform and Control Act effectively ended the no-policy strategy that had allowed the Mexican government to count on the continued emigration of Mexican workers without compromising its position of promoting respect for migrant rights. The unilateral change in the status quo by the US led to substitution of the "policy of dialogue," a clear signal of the Mexican government's search for a new migration agreement. The policy of dialogue has entailed greater discussion of the two traditional Mexican objectives regarding migration. Some progress has apparently been made concerning migrant rights, but the second and less explicit objective, that of preventing abrupt changes in US immigration policy and in migratory flows, is harder to judge. The atmosphere of freer public debate in Mexico is politicizing migratory policy.

  7. Regulatory standards and other guidelines for goundwater monitoring programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, J.F.; Schmidt, A.J.; Selby, K.B.

    1989-07-01

    This report has been prepared to provide information on regulatory programs relevant to a groundwater monitoring program. The information provides a framework within which planners and decisions makers can systematically consider the maze of specific requirements and guidance as they develop a groundwater strategy for the Hanford Site. Although this report discusses legislation and regulations as they pertain to groundwater monitoring activities, it is not intended as a legal opinion. Rather, it is provided as a guide to the relationships among the various regulatory programs related to groundwater. Federal and state environmental pollution control statutes and regulations that have been reviewed in this document include the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA); Washington's Hazardous Waste Management Act; Washington's Solid Waste Management Act; the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Liability, and Compensation Act (CERCLA); the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA); the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA); and the Clean Water Act (CWA). The implications and details of these regulations as they may apply to Hanford are discussed. The information contained within this report can be used to develop the Hanford Site's groundwater quality protection programs, assess regulatory compliance, and characterize the Hanford Site for potential remediation and corrective actions. 5 refs., 14 tabs.

  8. Technical efficiency under alternative environmental regulatory regimes : The case of Dutch horticulture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vlist, Arno J.; Withagen, Cees; Folmer, Henk

    2007-01-01

    We consider the performance of small and medium sized enterprises in Dutch horticulture under different environmental policy regimes across time. We address the question whether technical performance differs under these alternative regulatory regimes to test Porter's hypothesis that stricter environ

  9. 78 FR 27235 - Technical Guidance for Assessing Environmental Justice in Regulatory Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-09

    ..., Office of Policy, National Center for Environmental Economics, Mail code 1809T, Environmental Protection... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Technical Guidance for Assessing Environmental Justice in Regulatory Analysis...

  10. Technical efficiency under alternative environmental regulatory regimes: The case of Dutch horticulture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlist, van der A.J.; Withagen, C.; Folmer, H.

    2007-01-01

    We consider the performance of small and medium sized enterprises in Dutch horticulture under different environmental policy regimes across time. We address the question whether technical performance differs under these alternative regulatory regimes to test Porter's hypothesis that stricter environ

  11. Employer Self-Insurance Decisions and the Implications of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act as Modified by the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010 (ACA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eibner, Christine; Girosi, Federico; Miller, Amalia; Cordova, Amado; McGlynn, Elizabeth A; Pace, Nicholas M; Price, Carter C; Vardavas, Raffaele; Gresenz, Carole Roan

    2011-01-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act as amended by the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010 (ACA) changes the regulatory environment within which health insurance policies on the small-group market are bought and sold. New regulations include rate bands that limit premium price variation, risk-adjustment policies that will transfer funds from low-actuarial-risk to high-actuarial-risk plans, and requirements that plans include "essential health benefits." While the new regulations will be applied to all non-grandfathered fully insured policies purchased by businesses with 100 or fewer workers, self-insured plans are exempt from these regulations. As a result, some firms may have a stronger incentive to offer self-insured plans after the ACA takes full effect. In this article we identify factors that influence employers' decisions to self-insure and estimate how the ACA will influence self-insurance rates. We also consider the implications of higher self-insurance rates for adverse selection in the non-self-insured small-group market and whether enrollees in self-insured plans receive different benefits than enrollees in fully-insured plans. Results are based on data analysis, literature review, findings from discussions with stakeholders, and microsimulation analysis using the COMPARE model. Overall, we find little evidence that self-insured plans differ systematically from fully insured plans in terms of benefit generosity, price, or claims denial rates. Stakeholders expressed significant concern about adverse selection in the health insurance exchanges due to regulatory exemptions for self-insured plans. However, our microsimulation analysis predicts a sizable increase in self-insurance only if comprehensive stop-loss policies become widely available after the ACA takes full effect and the expected cost of self-insuring with stop-loss is comparable to the cost of being fully insured in a market without rating regulations.

  12. 76 FR 79177 - Policy Statement Concerning Adjustments to the Insurance Premiums and Policy Statement on the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    ... impact of governmental farm policy and the effect of the globalization of agriculture on opportunities... regulations that were inconsistent with the FCE Act and clarify the effect of the premium provisions of the Act as amended by the FCE Act. See 74 FR 28156 (June 15, 2009); 74 FR 17371 (April 15, 2009).\\1\\...

  13. NRC Enforcement Policy Review, July 1995-July 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lieberman, J.; Pedersen, R.M.

    1998-04-01

    On June 30, 1995, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) issued a complete revision of its General Statement of Policy and Procedure for Enforcement Action (Enforcement Policy) (60 FR 34381). In approving the 1995 revision to the Enforcement Policy, the Commission directed the staff to perform a review of its implementation of the Policy after approximately 2 years of experience and to consider public comments. This report represents the results of that review.

  14. Rationales for regulatory activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perhac, R.M. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1997-02-01

    The author provides an outline which touches on the types of concerns about risk evaluation which are addressed in the process of establishing regulatory guides. Broadly he says regulatory activity serves three broad constituents: (1) Paternalism (private risk); (2) Promotion of social welfare (public risks); (3) Protection of individual rights (public risks). He then discusses some of the major issues encountered in reaching a decision on what is an acceptable level of risk within each of these areas, and how one establishes such a level.

  15. 75 FR 65674 - Sunshine Act Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-26

    ... on international activities. 3. Review of active cases. 4. Report on recent activities of the Joint... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Act Meetings TIME AND DATE: Wednesday, November 3, 2010, at 11 a.m. PLACE: Commission hearing...

  16. 78 FR 64555 - Sunshine Act Meeting Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Act Meeting Notice DATES: Weeks of October 28, November 4, 11, 18, 25, December 2, 2013. PLACE: Commissioners' Conference Room, 11555 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland. STATUS: Public...

  17. 78 FR 77736 - Sunshine Act Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Act Meetings DATE: Weeks of December 23, 30, 2013, January 6, 13, 20, 27, 2014. PLACE: Commissioners' Conference Room, 11555 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland. STATUS: Public and Closed. Week...

  18. 78 FR 74188 - Sunshine Act Meetings Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Act Meetings Notice DATE: Weeks of December 9, 16, 23, 30, 2013, January 6, 13, 2014. PLACE: Commissioners' Conference Room, 11555 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland. STATUS: Public...

  19. 44 CFR 1.9 - Regulatory impact analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL RULEMAKING; POLICY AND PROCEDURES General § 1.9 Regulatory impact analyses. (a... monetary terms, and the identification of those likely to receive the benefits; (2) A description of the potential costs of the rule, including any adverse effects that cannot be quantified in monetary terms, and...

  20. Assessing the relevance of ecotoxicological studies for regulatory decision making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rudén, Christina; Adams, Julie; Ågerstrand, Marlene; Brock, Theo C.M.; Poulsen, Veronique; Schlekat, Christian E.; Wheeler, James R.; Henry, Tala R.

    2016-01-01

    Regulatory policies in many parts of the world recognize either the utility of or the mandate that all available studies be considered in environmental or ecological hazard and risk assessment (ERA) of chemicals, including studies from the peer-reviewed literature. Consequently, a vast array of d