WorldWideScience

Sample records for regulatory perspectives based

  1. An algorithmic perspective of de novo cis-regulatory motif finding based on ChIP-seq data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bingqiang; Yang, Jinyu; Li, Yang; McDermaid, Adam; Ma, Qin

    2017-03-08

    Transcription factors are proteins that bind to specific DNA sequences and play important roles in controlling the expression levels of their target genes. Hence, prediction of transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) provides a solid foundation for inferring gene regulatory mechanisms and building regulatory networks for a genome. Chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq) technology can generate large-scale experimental data for such protein-DNA interactions, providing an unprecedented opportunity to identify TFBSs (a.k.a. cis-regulatory motifs). The bottleneck, however, is the lack of robust mathematical models, as well as efficient computational methods for TFBS prediction to make effective use of massive ChIP-seq data sets in the public domain. The purpose of this study is to review existing motif-finding methods for ChIP-seq data from an algorithmic perspective and provide new computational insight into this field. The state-of-the-art methods were shown through summarizing eight representative motif-finding algorithms along with corresponding challenges, and introducing some important relative functions according to specific biological demands, including discriminative motif finding and cofactor motifs analysis. Finally, potential directions and plans for ChIP-seq-based motif-finding tools were showcased in support of future algorithm development. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Collective action : a regulatory focus perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaal, Maarten Pieter

    2012-01-01

    In this dissertation I investigate how individuals respond to collective disadvantage from the perspective of regulatory focus theory. Regulatory focus theory distinguishes between two motivational systems: promotion focus, the system in charge of the approach of positive end-states, and prevention

  3. A Process Perspective on Regulation: A Grounded Theory Study into Regulatory Practice in Newly Liberalized Network-Based Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ubacht, J.

    The transition from a former monopolistic towards a more competitive market in
    newly liberalized network-based markets raises regulatory issues. National Regulatory Authorities (NRA) face the challenge to deal with these issues in order to guide the transition process. Although this transition

  4. Therapeutic gene editing: delivery and regulatory perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Gayong; Kim, Dongyoon; Park, Gyu Thae; Jin, Hyerim; Suh, Soo-Kyung; Oh, Yu-Kyoung

    2017-06-01

    Gene-editing technology is an emerging therapeutic modality for manipulating the eukaryotic genome by using target-sequence-specific engineered nucleases. Because of the exceptional advantages that gene-editing technology offers in facilitating the accurate correction of sequences in a genome, gene editing-based therapy is being aggressively developed as a next-generation therapeutic approach to treat a wide range of diseases. However, strategies for precise engineering and delivery of gene-editing nucleases, including zinc finger nucleases, transcription activator-like effector nuclease, and CRISPR/Cas9 (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-associated nuclease Cas9), present major obstacles to the development of gene-editing therapies, as with other gene-targeting therapeutics. Currently, viral and non-viral vectors are being studied for the delivery of these nucleases into cells in the form of DNA, mRNA, or proteins. Clinical trials are already ongoing, and in vivo studies are actively investigating the applicability of CRISPR/Cas9 techniques. However, the concept of correcting the genome poses major concerns from a regulatory perspective, especially in terms of safety. This review addresses current research trends and delivery strategies for gene editing-based therapeutics in non-clinical and clinical settings and considers the associated regulatory issues.

  5. Population pharmacokinetics. A regulatory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, H; Fadiran, E O; Jones, C D; Lesko, L; Huang, S M; Higgins, K; Hu, C; Machado, S; Maldonado, S; Williams, R; Hossain, M; Ette, E I

    1999-07-01

    data analysis, model development and model validation (i.e. predictive performance). Documentation for regulatory purposes should include a complete inventory of key runs in the analyses undertaken (with flow diagrams if possible), accompanied by articulation of objectives, assumptions and hypotheses. Use of diagnostic analyses of goodness of fit as evidence of reliability of results is advised. Finally, the use of stability testing or model validation may be warranted to support label claims. The opinions expressed in this article were revised by incorporating comments from various sources and published by the FDA as 'Guidance for Industry: Population Pharmacokinetics' (see the FDA home page http:/(/)www.fda.gov for further information).

  6. Steering healthcare service delivery: a regulatory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Gyan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore regulation in India's healthcare sector and makes recommendations needed for enhancing the healthcare service. The literature was reviewed to understand healthcare's regulatory context. To understand the current healthcare system, qualitative data were collected from state-level officials, public and private hospital staff. A patient survey was performed to assess service quality (QoS). Regulation plays a central role in driving healthcare QoS. India needs to strengthen market and institutional co-production based approaches for steering its healthcare in which delivery processes are complex and pose different challenges. This study assesses current healthcare regulation in an Indian state and presents a framework for studying and strengthening regulation. Agile regulation should be based on service delivery issues (pull approach) rather than monitoring and sanctions based regulatory environment (push approach). Healthcare pitfalls across the world seem to follow similar follies. India's complexity and experience is useful for emerging and developed economies. The author reviewed around 70 publications and synthesised them in healthcare regulatory contexts. Patient's perception of private providers could be a key input towards steering regulation. Identifying gaps across QoS dimensions would be useful in taking corrective measures.

  7. Professional boundaries violations: case studies from a regulatory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Holly R; Houchen, Betsy J; Ferguson-Ramos, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    This article provides case studies in professional boundaries violations from a state regulatory perspective. All cases discussed are actual cases that occurred in the state of Ohio, based on complaints investigated by the Ohio Board of Nursing. The studies set forth basic factual information related to the boundary violation, relevant law and administrative regulations, and disciplinary outcomes. One can conclude that boundaries violations that result in licensure board disciplinary sanctions typically involve gross or egregious conduct rather than subtle or transitional zone conduct. These cases tend to involve recurring patterns that may be categorized as involving 2 factors: (1) high patient vulnerability and (2) prolonged patient contact. Often, the 2 patterns coalesce. Administrators, directors of nursing, and supervisors in these patient populations and in the settings discussed should be particularly mindful of potential boundary violation behavioral indicators.

  8. Canadian regulatory perspectives on genome engineered crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Stuart J

    2017-01-02

    New breeding techniques in plant agriculture exploded upon the scene about two years ago, in 2014. While these innovative plant breeding techniques, soon to be led by CRISPR/Cas9, initially appear to hold tremendous promise for plant breeding, if not a revolution for the industry, the question of how the products of these technologies will be regulated is rapidly becoming a key aspect of the technology's future potential. Regulation of innovative technologies and products has always lagged that of the science, but in the past decade, regulatory systems in many jurisdictions have become gridlocked as they try to regulate genetically modified (GM) crops. This regulatory incapability to efficiently assess and approve innovative new agricultural products is particularly important for new plant breeding techniques as if these techniques are classified as genetically modified breeding techniques, then their acceptance and future will diminish considerably as they will be rejected by the European Union. Conversely, if the techniques are accepted as conventional plant breeding, then the future is blindingly bright. This article examines the international debate about the regulation of new plant breeding techniques and then assesses how the Canadian regulatory system has approached the regulation of these technologies through two more public product approvals, GM apples and GM potatoes, then discusses other crop variety approval and those in the regulatory pipeline.

  9. Regulatory perspective on incomplete control rod insertions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatterton, M.

    1997-01-01

    The incomplete control rod insertions experienced at South Texas Unit 1 and Wolf Creek are of safety concern to the NRC staff because they represent potential precursors to loss of shutdown margin. Even before it was determined if these events were caused by the control rods or by the fuel there was an apparent correlation of the problem with high burnup fuel. It was determined that there was also a correlation between high burnup and high drag forces as well as with rod drop time histories and lack of rod recoil. The NRC staff initial actions were aimed at getting a perspective on the magnitude of the problem as far as the number of plants and the amount of fuel that could be involved, as well as the safety significance in terms of shutdown margin. As tests have been performed and data has been analyzed the focus has shifted more toward understanding the problem and the ways to eliminate it. At this time the staff`s understanding of the phenomena is that it was a combination of factors including burnup, power history and temperature. The problem appears to be very sensitive to these factors, the interaction of which is not clearly understood. The model developed by Westinghouse provides a possible explanation but there is not sufficient data to establish confidence levels and sensitivity studies involving the key parameters have not been done. While several fixes to the problem have been discussed, no definitive fixes have been proposed. Without complete understanding of the phenomena, or fixes that clearly eliminate the problem the safety concern remains. The safety significance depends on the amount of shutdown margin lost due to incomplete insertion of the control rods. Were the control rods to stick high in the core, the reactor could not be shutdown by the control rods and other means such as emergency boration would be required.

  10. MicroRNA-mediated regulatory circuits: outlook and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cora', Davide; Re, Angela; Caselle, Michele; Bussolino, Federico

    2017-08-01

    MicroRNAs have been found to be necessary for regulating genes implicated in almost all signaling pathways, and consequently their dysfunction influences many diseases, including cancer. Understanding of the complexity of the microRNA-mediated regulatory network has grown in terms of size, connectivity and dynamics with the development of computational and, more recently, experimental high-throughput approaches for microRNA target identification. Newly developed studies on recurrent microRNA-mediated circuits in regulatory networks, also known as network motifs, have substantially contributed to addressing this complexity, and therefore to helping understand the ways by which microRNAs achieve their regulatory role. This review provides a summarizing view of the state-of-the-art, and perspectives of research efforts on microRNA-mediated regulatory motifs. In this review, we discuss the topological properties characterizing different types of circuits, and the regulatory features theoretically enabled by such properties, with a special emphasis on examples of circuits typifying their biological significance in experimentally validated contexts. Finally, we will consider possible future developments, in particular regarding microRNA-mediated circuits involving long non-coding RNAs and epigenetic regulators.

  11. Status of nuclear regulatory research and its future perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J. I.; Kim, W. S.; Kim, M. W. [KINS, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-10-01

    A comprehensive investigation of the regulatory research comprising an examination of the research system, its areas and contents, and the goals and financial resources is undertaken. As a result of this study, the future direction of regulatory research and its implementation strategies are suggested to resolve the current issues emerging from this examination. The major issues identified in the study are; (a) an insufficient investment in nuclear regulatory and safety research, (b) an interfacial discrepancy between similar research areas, and (c) a limitation of utilizing research results. To resolve these issues, several measures are proposed : (1) developing a lead project to establish a comprehensive infrastructure for enhancing research cooperation between nuclear organizations including institutes, industry, and universities, with an aim to improve cooperation between projects and to strengthen overall coordination functions among research projects, (2) introducing a certification system on research outcome to promote the proliferation of both research results themselves and their application with a view to enhancing the research quality, (3) strengthening the cooperative system to promote the international cooperative research, and (4) digitalizing all documents and materials relevant to safety and regulatory research to establish KIMS (knowledge and information based management system). It is expected that the aforementioned measures suggested in this study will enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of both nuclear regulatory and safety research, if they are implemented after deliberating with the government and related nuclear industries in the near future.

  12. Current perspectives on the US FDA regulatory framework for intelligent drug-delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapsford, Kim E; Lauritsen, Kristina; Tyner, Katherine M

    2012-12-01

    The US FDA is the US agency responsible for regulating intelligent drug-delivery systems (IDDS). IDDS can be classified as a device, drug, biologic or combination product. In this perspective, the current regulatory framework for IDDS and future perspectives on how the field is expected to evolve from a regulatory standpoint is discussed.

  13. Cognitive radio : Aligning the regulatory environment with the technology, a business case perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anker, P.D.C.; Lemstra, W.

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes to use the perspective of the business case to deal with the alignment between the introduction of new technology and the regulatory environment. Although this perspective can be used more generally this paper deals with this perspective in the context of the alignment between

  14. Phylogeny based discovery of regulatory elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cohen Barak A

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Algorithms that locate evolutionarily conserved sequences have become powerful tools for finding functional DNA elements, including transcription factor binding sites; however, most methods do not take advantage of an explicit model for the constrained evolution of functional DNA sequences. Results We developed a probabilistic framework that combines an HKY85 model, which assigns probabilities to different base substitutions between species, and weight matrix models of transcription factor binding sites, which describe the probabilities of observing particular nucleotides at specific positions in the binding site. The method incorporates the phylogenies of the species under consideration and takes into account the position specific variation of transcription factor binding sites. Using our framework we assessed the suitability of alignments of genomic sequences from commonly used species as substrates for comparative genomic approaches to regulatory motif finding. We then applied this technique to Saccharomyces cerevisiae and related species by examining all possible six base pair DNA sequences (hexamers and identifying sequences that are conserved in a significant number of promoters. By combining similar conserved hexamers we reconstructed known cis-regulatory motifs and made predictions of previously unidentified motifs. We tested one prediction experimentally, finding it to be a regulatory element involved in the transcriptional response to glucose. Conclusion The experimental validation of a regulatory element prediction missed by other large-scale motif finding studies demonstrates that our approach is a useful addition to the current suite of tools for finding regulatory motifs.

  15. Generic antibiotic industries: Challenges and implied strategies with regulatory perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Venkatesh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ever since the discovery of antibiotics, the quality of human life greatly improved in the 20 th century. The discovery of penicillin transformed the medicine industry and initiated a search for a better antibiotic every time resulting in several synthetic and semi-synthetic antibiotics. Beginning with the 1937 sulfa drug tragedy, the drug regulations had a parallel growth along with the antibiotics and the antibiotic-based generic Pharma industries. This review article is focused on the scenario depicting current global Pharma industries based on generic antibiotics. Several regulatory aspects involved with these industries have been discussed along with the complexity of the market, issues that could affect their growth, their struggle for quality, and their compliance with the tightened regulations. With the skyrocketing commercialization of antibiotics through generics and the leveraging technologic renaissance, generic industries are involved in providing maximum safer benefits for the welfare of the people, highlighting its need today.

  16. The status of eye irritancy testing: a regulatory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, N L

    1992-01-01

    Eye irritation testing is a salient public issue and continues to escalate on the public agenda. Issues relevant to this milieu include legislative proposals to ban animal use for cosmetic testing, adequacy of the current standard (viz., the Draize Eye Irritancy Test), availability of non-animal methodologies, validation paradigm for new testing models, international harmonization of testing standards and methods, and the regulatory role in product testing and enforcement. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) feels that enactment of legislation proposed to ban animal use from testing products for safety would pose serious problems from a public health perspective. FDA encourages the development of alternative test methods and is aware that many such tests are in various stages of evolution. At this time, however, none of these tests has been accepted by the scientific community as total replacement to the Draize test. FDA's basic positions on the use of non-animal alternatives are as follows: 1) The use of animal tests by industry to establish the safety of regulated products is necessary to minimize the risks from such products to humans, 2) The Draize eye irritancy test is currently the most valuable and reliable method for evaluating the hazard or safety of a substance introduced into or around the human eye, and 3) No non-animal tests are presently available to completely replace the Draize. FDA is actively involved with U.S. and international groups to harmonize protocols for product development, evaluate the current status of non-whole animal methodologies, and standardize testing requirements. The Agency has recently participated in several scientific symposia evaluating the status of non-whole animal methods in toxicity testing. Moreover, FDA representatives are currently scheduled to participate in international meetings and workshops planned for the immediate future addressing several issues in product safety determination.

  17. Regulatory Issues Associated with Preharvest Food Safety: United States Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micallef, Shirley A; Buchanan, Robert L

    2017-07-01

    The preharvest and preslaughter steps of food production constitute a first stage at which food can become contaminated with foodborne and toxigenic pathogens. Contamination at this early stage of food production can lead to amplification as food travels through the production and supply chain, accentuating the crucial need to address hazards and establish science-based metrics that are feasible to implement. This article discusses the preharvest food safety regulatory landscape in the United States, with a specific emphasis on fresh produce crops. Best practices, certification, audit schemes and challenges due to market channels, economies of scales, and grower behavior are considered in relation to the Food Safety Modernization Act. An outlook on the needs to facilitate implementation of the new law, develop educational programs for growers and stakeholders, and continue to better align food safety with environmental goals are presented.

  18. Information resources in state regulatory agencies-a California perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiZio, S.M. [California Environmental Protection Agency, Sacramento (United States)

    1990-12-31

    Various state regulatory agencies have expressed a need for networking with information gatherers/researchers to produce a concise compilation of primary information so that the basis for regulatory standards can be scientifically referenced. California has instituted several programs to retrieve primary information, generate primary information through research, and generate unique regulatory standards by integrating the primary literature and the products of research. This paper describes these programs.

  19. Steam Generator tube integrity -- US Nuclear Regulatory Commission perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, E.L.; Sullivan, E.J.

    1997-02-01

    In the US, the current regulatory framework was developed in the 1970s when general wall thinning was the dominant degradation mechanism; and, as a result of changes in the forms of degradation being observed and improvements in inspection and tube repair technology, the regulatory framework needs to be updated. Operating experience indicates that the current U.S. requirements should be more stringent in some areas, while in other areas they are overly conservative. To date, this situation has been dealt with on a plant-specific basis in the US. However, the NRC staff is now developing a proposed steam generator rule as a generic framework for ensuring that the steam generator tubes are capable of performing their intended safety functions. This paper discusses the current U.S. regulatory framework for assuring steam generator (SG) tube integrity, the need to update this regulatory framework, the objectives of the new proposed rule, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulatory guide (RG) that will accompany the rule, how risk considerations affect the development of the new rule, and some outstanding issues relating to the rule that the NRC is still dealing with.

  20. Hurdles in anticancer drug development from a regulatory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, Bertil; Bergh, Jonas

    2012-02-21

    Between January 2001 and January 2012, 48 new medicinal products for cancer treatment were licensed within the EU, and 77 new indications were granted for products already licensed. In some cases, a major improvement to existing therapies was achieved, for example, trastuzumab in breast cancer. In other cases, new fields for effective drug therapy opened up, such as in chronic myeloid leukemia, and renal-cell carcinoma. In most cases, however, the benefit-risk balance was considered to be only borderline favorable. Based on our assessment of advice procedures for marketing authorization, 'need for speed' seems to be the guiding principle in anticancer drug development. Although, for drugs that make a difference, early licensure is of obvious importance to patients, this is less evident in the case of borderline drugs. Without proper incentives and with hurdles inside and outside companies, a change in drug development cannot be expected; drugs improving benefit-risk modestly over available therapies will be brought forward towards licensure. In this Perspectives article, we discuss some hurdles to biomarker-driven drug development and provide some suggestions to overcome them.

  1. Licensing of Generic Medicines: Are There Any Challenges Left? A Pharmaceutical Regulatory Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, John Joseph; Tomasi, Paolo; Pani, Luca; Aislaitner, George; Pirozynski, Michal; Leufkens, Hubert; Melchiorri, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    When an innovative product (innovator) is not covered anymore by intellectual property rights, cheaper equivalent medicinal products (generic products) may be marketed and used in clinical practice. The regulation of generic products is well-established, and is primarily based on standard rules for quality, therapeutic equivalence requirements (the latter in most instances proven through a bioequivalence study), and safety data for the innovator. The extensive experience from bringing generic products to the market over the last decades allows the conclusion that they are well-accepted and provide a useful alternative option for cost-effective pharmacotherapy. While supporting this conclusion, there are a number of issues to be considered during the assessment of a generic product application. Six scenarios are described in total, from an efficacy and a safety perspective, where potential concerns with the current regulatory standards could arise in the approval of generic products. We also propose solutions to these scenarios in order to foster debate on these issues.

  2. The Dutch drug policy from a regulatory perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spapens, A.C.M.; Müller, T.; Van de Bunt, H.G.

    2015-01-01

    Starting in the 1970s, the Netherlands developed a regulatory regime for narcotic drugs by distinguishing between hashish and marihuana (“soft drugs”) and other drugs (“hard drugs”). The authorities decided to cease prosecuting the possession of consumer quantities of the former type and to allow

  3. Regulatory toxicology in the twenty-first century: challenges, perspectives and possible solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tralau, Tewes; Oelgeschläger, Michael; Gürtler, Rainer; Heinemeyer, Gerhard; Herzler, Matthias; Höfer, Thomas; Itter, Heike; Kuhl, Thomas; Lange, Nikola; Lorenz, Nicole; Müller-Graf, Christine; Pabel, Ulrike; Pirow, Ralph; Ritz, Vera; Schafft, Helmut; Schneider, Heiko; Schulz, Thomas; Schumacher, David; Zellmer, Sebastian; Fleur-Böl, Gaby; Greiner, Matthias; Lahrssen-Wiederholt, Monika; Lampen, Alfonso; Luch, Andreas; Schönfelder, Gilbert; Solecki, Roland; Wittkowski, Reiner; Hensel, Andreas

    2015-06-01

    The advent of new testing systems and "omics"-technologies has left regulatory toxicology facing one of the biggest challenges for decades. That is the question whether and how these methods can be used for regulatory purposes. The new methods undoubtedly enable regulators to address important open questions of toxicology such as species-specific toxicity, mixture toxicity, low-dose effects, endocrine effects or nanotoxicology, while promising faster and more efficient toxicity testing with the use of less animals. Consequently, the respective assays, methods and testing strategies are subject of several research programs worldwide. On the other hand, the practical application of such tests for regulatory purposes is a matter of ongoing debate. This document summarizes key aspects of this debate in the light of the European "regulatory status quo", while elucidating new perspectives for regulatory toxicity testing.

  4. Stability Testing of Herbal Drugs: Challenges, Regulatory Compliance and Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Gulshan; Suthar, Nancy; Kaur, Jasmeen; Jain, Astha

    2016-07-01

    Stability testing is an important component of herbal drugs and products (HDPs) development process. Drugs regulatory agencies across the globe have recommended guidelines for the conduct of stability studies on HDPs, which require that stability data should be included in the product registration dossier. From the scientific viewpoint, numerous chemical constituents in an herbal drug are liable to varied chemical reactions under the influence of different conditions during its shelf life. These reactions can lead to altered chemical composition of HDP and consequently altered therapeutic profile. Many reports on stability testing of HDPs have appeared in literature since the last 10 years. A review of these reports reveals that there is wide variability in temperature (-80 to 100 °C), humidity (0-100%) and duration (a few hours-36 months) for stability assessment of HDPs. Of these, only 1% studies are conducted in compliance with the regulatory guidelines for stability testing. The present review is aimed at compiling all stability testing reports, understanding key challenges in stability testing of HDPs and suggesting possible solutions for these. The key challenges are classified as chemical complexity and biochemical composition variability in raw material, selection of marker(s) and influences of enzymes. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Regulatory perspective on characterization and testing of orthopedic bone cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demian, H W; McDermott, K

    1998-09-01

    This paper provides a general regulatory background of acrylic bone cements, chemical composition information on several commercially available bone cements, physical and chemical methods of analyses, mechanical test methods, and risks and failure mechanisms of acrylic bone cements. Suggestions and recommendations presented in Tables 2 and 3 are not mandatory requirements but reflect data and methodologies which the FDA's Orthopedic Devices Branch (ORDB) believes to be acceptable to evaluate most pre-clinical data. FDA may require information in addition to that contained in this paper. In some instances, a sponsor may be able to sufficiently justify the omission of some tests. Although this paper describes certain administrative requirements, it does not take the place of the requirements contained in Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations (21 CFR) Parts 801, 807, 812, and 814 or those found in the statute.

  6. Regulatory Issues Associated with Preharvest Food Safety: European Union Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alban, Lis

    2016-10-01

    Free movement of safe and wholesome food is an essential aspect of any society. This article contains an updated description of the regulatory issues associated with preharvest food safety within the European Union. Salmonella, Campylobacter, Trichinella, antimicrobial resistance, and bovine spongiform encephalopathy are dealt with in detail. Moreover, Cysticercus bovis/Taenia saginata, Toxoplasma, Yersinia, verotoxigenic/shigatoxigenic Escherichia coli, Listeria, and foodborne viruses are briefly covered. The article describes how the focus in the European Union is changing to involve a supply chain view with a focus on cost-effectiveness. The precautionary principle-as well as the use of private standards as an instrument to ensure compliance-is dealt with. In addition, actions in the pipeline are presented and discussed.

  7. Toward a contingent resource-based view of nonmarket capabilities under regulatory uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Schwark, Bastian

    2009-01-01

    The article integrates theoretical perspectives from the resource-based view of the firm, dynamic capabilities and contingency. It explains one particular characteristic of the general business environment of the firm, regulatory uncertainty, and its influence on dynamic capabilities of a corporate political strategy (nonmarket strategy) and value creation. I argue that scanning and predictive capabilities as well as institutional influence capabilities will lead to a reduced perceived uncert...

  8. Foundations for modeling the dynamics of gene regulatory networks: a multilevel-perspective review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Osorio, Ismael; Ramos, Fernando; Mayorga, Pedro; Dantan, Edgar

    2014-02-01

    A promising alternative for unraveling the principles under which the dynamic interactions among genes lead to cellular phenotypes relies on mathematical and computational models at different levels of abstraction, from the molecular level of protein-DNA interactions to the system level of functional relationships among genes. This review article presents, under a bottom-up perspective, a hierarchy of approaches to modeling gene regulatory network dynamics, from microscopic descriptions at the single-molecule level in the spatial context of an individual cell to macroscopic models providing phenomenological descriptions at the population-average level. The reviewed modeling approaches include Molecular Dynamics, Particle-Based Brownian Dynamics, the Master Equation approach, Ordinary Differential Equations, and the Boolean logic abstraction. Each of these frameworks is motivated by a particular biological context and the nature of the insight being pursued. The setting of gene network dynamic models from such frameworks involves assumptions and mathematical artifacts often ignored by the non-specialist. This article aims at providing an entry point for biologists new to the field and computer scientists not acquainted with some recent biophysically-inspired models of gene regulation. The connections promoting intuition between different abstraction levels and the role that approximations play in the modeling process are highlighted throughout the paper.

  9. Architecture-based regulatory compliance argumentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mihaylov, Boyan; Onea, Lucian; Hansen, Klaus Marius

    2016-01-01

    Standards and regulations are difficult to understand and map to software, which makes compliance with them challenging to argue for software products and development process. This is problematic since lack of compliance may lead to issues with security, safety, and even to economic sanctions....... An increasing number of applications (for example in healthcare) are expected to have to live up to regulatory requirements in the future, which will lead to more software development projects having to deal with such requirements. We present an approach that models regulations such that compliance arguments...... the approach on the migration of the telemedicine platform Net4Care to the cloud, where certain regulations (for example privacy) should be concerned. The approach has the potential to support simpler compliance argumentation with the eventual promise of safer and more secure applications....

  10. Differential Regulatory Analysis Based on Coexpression Network in Cancer Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junyi Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With rapid development of high-throughput techniques and accumulation of big transcriptomic data, plenty of computational methods and algorithms such as differential analysis and network analysis have been proposed to explore genome-wide gene expression characteristics. These efforts are aiming to transform underlying genomic information into valuable knowledges in biological and medical research fields. Recently, tremendous integrative research methods are dedicated to interpret the development and progress of neoplastic diseases, whereas differential regulatory analysis (DRA based on gene coexpression network (GCN increasingly plays a robust complement to regular differential expression analysis in revealing regulatory functions of cancer related genes such as evading growth suppressors and resisting cell death. Differential regulatory analysis based on GCN is prospective and shows its essential role in discovering the system properties of carcinogenesis features. Here we briefly review the paradigm of differential regulatory analysis based on GCN. We also focus on the applications of differential regulatory analysis based on GCN in cancer research and point out that DRA is necessary and extraordinary to reveal underlying molecular mechanism in large-scale carcinogenesis studies.

  11. Backtesting for Risk-Based Regulatory Capital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhof, F.L.J.; Melenberg, B.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we present a framework for backtesting all currently popular risk measurement methods (including value-at-risk and expected shortfall) using the functional delta method.Estimation risk can be taken explicitly into account.Based on a simulation study we provide evidence that tests for

  12. Cloud based spectrum manager for future wireless regulatory environment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Masonta, MT

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available served the cognitive radio and dynamic spectrum access industry, their focus has been on networks and technologies. In this paper we propose a cloud based spectrum manager as a tool focussed towards regulatory processes. With the proposed approach...

  13. Global Regulatory Differences for Gene- and Cell-Based Therapies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coppens, Delphi G M; De Bruin, Marie L; Leufkens, Hubert G M

    2017-01-01

    Gene- and cell-based therapies (GCTs) offer potential new treatment options for unmet medical needs. However, the use of conventional regulatory requirements for medicinal products to approve GCTs may impede patient access and therapeutic innovation. Furthermore, requirements differ between juris...

  14. Task-based dermal exposure models for regulatory risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warren, N.D.; Marquart, H.; Christopher, Y.; Laitinen, J.; Hemmen, J.J. van

    2006-01-01

    The regulatory risk assessment of chemicals requires the estimation of occupational dermal exposure. Until recently, the models used were either based on limited data or were specific to a particular class of chemical or application. The EU project RISKOFDERM has gathered a considerable number of

  15. Future time perspective and health behaviors: temporal framing of self-regulatory processes in physical exercise and dietary behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellert, Paul; Ziegelmann, Jochen P; Lippke, Sonia; Schwarzer, Ralf

    2012-04-01

    Limitations in perceived lifetime can undermine long-term goal striving. Planning is supposed to translate intentions into health behaviors and to operate as a compensatory strategy to overcome goal striving deficits associated with a limited time perspective. Two longitudinal studies were conducted examining the compensatory role of planning: an online survey on fruit and vegetable consumption (N = 909; 16-78 years; follow-up at 4 months) and a questionnaire study on physical exercise in older adults (N = 289; 60-95 years, over a half-year period). Intentions, planning, and behavior were measured in a behavior-specific, future time perspective in a generic manner. Planning mediated between intentions and both health behaviors. Time perspective operated as a moderator, indicating that in individuals with a more limited time perspective, a stronger effect of planning on health behaviors emerged. Planning as a self-regulatory strategy may compensate for a limited time perspective.

  16. The impact of regulatory perspectives and practices on professional innovation in nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahlke Wall, Sarah

    2017-07-05

    Since at least the 1970s in Canada, there have been calls for health system reforms based on innovative roles and expanded scopes of practice for nurses. Professional regulatory organizations, through legislation, define the standards and parameters of professional nursing practice. Nursing regulators emphasize public protection over the advancement of nursing; regulatory processes and decisions tend to be conservative and risk-averse. This study explored the impact that regulatory processes have on innovation in nursing roles. Nurses in a range of unique practice situations were interviewed, including nurses in non-traditional roles and/or settings, those with cross-jurisdictional career histories, and those working in interdisciplinary practices and educational settings. For these nurses, nursing practice was viewed through a traditional clinical lens, which did not fit for them. They experienced hassle, delay, and inconsistencies in regulatory practices. They felt mistreated and fearful of the regulator and lamented the ways in which ambitious, creative, capable nurses were stymied in attempting new applications for nursing knowledge. Nursing is constraining its own mandate to contribute to health care through stringent licensing processes. Healthcare reform provides an opportunity for nursing regulators to rethink their processes and provide the latitude for nurse-driven change. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Scientific and Regulatory Perspectives in Herbal and Dietary Supplement Associated Hepatotoxicity in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avigan, Mark I.; Mozersky, Robert P.; Seeff, Leonard B.

    2016-01-01

    In the United States (US), the risk of hepatotoxicity linked to the widespread use of certain herbal products has gained increased attention among regulatory scientists. Based on current US law, all dietary supplements sold domestically, including botanical supplements, are regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as a special category of foods. Under this designation, regulatory scientists do not routinely evaluate the efficacy of these products prior to their marketing, despite the content variability and phytochemical complexity that often characterizes them. Nonetheless, there has been notable progress in the development of advanced scientific methods to qualitatively and quantitatively measure ingredients and screen for contaminants and adulterants in botanical products when hepatotoxicity is recognized. PMID:26950122

  18. Scientific and Regulatory Perspectives in Herbal and Dietary Supplement Associated Hepatotoxicity in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark I. Avigan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the United States (US, the risk of hepatotoxicity linked to the widespread use of certain herbal products has gained increased attention among regulatory scientists. Based on current US law, all dietary supplements sold domestically, including botanical supplements, are regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA as a special category of foods. Under this designation, regulatory scientists do not routinely evaluate the efficacy of these products prior to their marketing, despite the content variability and phytochemical complexity that often characterizes them. Nonetheless, there has been notable progress in the development of advanced scientific methods to qualitatively and quantitatively measure ingredients and screen for contaminants and adulterants in botanical products when hepatotoxicity is recognized.

  19. Manufacturing, regulatory and commercial challenges of biopharmaceuticals production: a Finnish perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Närhi, Marko; Nordström, Katrina

    2005-04-01

    Biopharmaceuticals product development is a broad and multidisciplinary field. Science and technology are combined with new manufacturing, regulatory and commercial challenges. However, although there is ample literature on the molecular biology and biochemistry of products, the implementation of processes from test tube to commercial scale has not received similar attention. Consequently, the present study aims to highlight, from practical point of view, some of the key issues involved with manufacturing technologies of biopharmaceuticals at a commercial scale. Regulatory requirements and investments are also addressed based on the practical experiences of start-up and small companies. Finland is used as a case-example of such companies as this is a EU-member state with strong technological growth and rapidly increasing number of biotech companies.

  20. Decisions by regulatory agencies: are they evidence-based?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furberg Curt D

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Contradictory statements about the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs from the European Medicines Agency and the United States Food and Drug Administration have raised questions about whether regulatory decisions are evidence-based. For the selective COX-2 inhibitors, there are clear contraindications and warnings in Europe, but only a vaguely worded Black Box warning in the United States. All the non-selective agents are given an almost "clean bill of health" in Europe, while all of them are judged to have a similar risk-benefit ratio as celecoxib in the United States. The regulatory agencies have failed to recognize the clinical trial evidence that the risk of cardiovascular events varies substantially among the non-selective agents, with diclofenac carrying the highest risk of harm.

  1. The Regulatory Roles of MicroRNAs in Bone Remodeling and Perspectives as Biomarkers in Osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengge Sun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs are involved in many cellular and molecular activities and played important roles in many biological and pathological processes, such as tissue formation, cancer development, diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases, and cardiovascular diseases. Recently, it has been reported that microRNAs can modulate the differentiation and activities of osteoblasts and osteoclasts, the key cells that are involved in bone remodeling process. Meanwhile, the results from our and other research groups showed that the expression profiles of microRNAs in the serum and bone tissues are significantly different in postmenopausal women with or without fractures compared to the control. Therefore, it can be postulated that microRNAs might play important roles in bone remodeling and that they are very likely to be involved in the pathological process of postmenopausal osteoporosis. In this review, we will present the updated research on the regulatory roles of microRNAs in osteoblasts and osteoclasts and the expression profiles of microRNAs in osteoporosis and osteoporotic fracture patients. The perspective of serum microRNAs as novel biomarkers in bone loss disorders such as osteoporosis has also been discussed.

  2. Different perspectives on economic base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisa K. Crone; Richard W. Haynes; Nicholas E. Reyna

    1999-01-01

    Two general approaches for measuring the economic base are discussed. Each method is used to define the economic base for each of the counties included in the Interior Columbia Basin Ecosystem Management Project area. A more detailed look at four selected counties results in similar findings from different approaches. Limitations of economic base analysis also are...

  3. Risk of tumorigenicity in mesenchymal stromal cell-based therapies--bridging scientific observations and regulatory viewpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkholt, Lisbeth; Flory, Egbert; Jekerle, Veronika; Lucas-Samuel, Sophie; Ahnert, Peter; Bisset, Louise; Büscher, Dirk; Fibbe, Willem; Foussat, Arnaud; Kwa, Marcel; Lantz, Olivier; Mačiulaitis, Romaldas; Palomäki, Tiina; Schneider, Christian K; Sensebé, Luc; Tachdjian, Gérard; Tarte, Karin; Tosca, Lucie; Salmikangas, Paula

    2013-07-01

    In the past decade, the therapeutic value of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) has been studied in various indications, thereby taking advantage of their immunosuppressive properties. Easy procurement from bone marrow, adipose tissue or other sources and conventional in vitro expansion culture have made their clinical use attractive. Bridging the gap between current scientific knowledge and regulatory prospects on the transformation potential and possible tumorigenicity of MSCs, the Cell Products Working Party and the Committee for Advanced Therapies organized a meeting with leading European experts in the field of MSCs. This meeting elucidated the risk of potential tumorigenicity related to MSC-based therapies from two angles: the scientific perspective and the regulatory point of view. The conclusions of this meeting, including the current regulatory thinking on quality, nonclinical and clinical aspects for MSCs, are presented in this review, leading to a clearer way forward for the development of such products. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Cellular Therapy. All rights reserved.

  4. Trait-Based Perspectives of Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaccaro, Stephen J.

    2007-01-01

    The trait-based perspective of leadership has a long but checkered history. Trait approaches dominated the initial decades of scientific leadership research. Later, they were disdained for their inability to offer clear distinctions between leaders and nonleaders and for their failure to account for situational variance in leadership behavior.…

  5. Regulatory hurdles for genome editing: process- vs. product-based approaches in different regulatory contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprink, Thorben; Eriksson, Dennis; Schiemann, Joachim; Hartung, Frank

    2016-07-01

    Novel plant genome editing techniques call for an updated legislation regulating the use of plants produced by genetic engineering or genome editing, especially in the European Union. Established more than 25 years ago and based on a clear distinction between transgenic and conventionally bred plants, the current EU Directives fail to accommodate the new continuum between genetic engineering and conventional breeding. Despite the fact that the Directive 2001/18/EC contains both process- and product-related terms, it is commonly interpreted as a strictly process-based legislation. In view of several new emerging techniques which are closer to the conventional breeding than common genetic engineering, we argue that it should be actually interpreted more in relation to the resulting product. A legal guidance on how to define plants produced by exploring novel genome editing techniques in relation to the decade-old legislation is urgently needed, as private companies and public researchers are waiting impatiently with products and projects in the pipeline. We here outline the process in the EU to develop a legislation that properly matches the scientific progress. As the process is facing several hurdles, we also compare with existing frameworks in other countries and discuss ideas for an alternative regulatory system.

  6. Biomass Burning Emissions - The Importance of Reducing Uncertainties for Improved Regulatory Decisions; an EPA Perspective (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szykman, J. J.; Kordzi, J.; Pouliot, G.; Pierce, T. E.; Pace, T.; Rao, T.

    2009-12-01

    Biomass burning emissions from wildland and prescribed fires can have far reaching impacts in several of EPA’s regulatory programs under the Clean Air Act, ultimately affecting decisions on actions taken under State Implementation Plans (SIPs), and programs such as Visibility and Regional Haze, Interstate Transport and Conformity. In most instances the EPA’s National Emissions Inventory (NEI), which is developed in conjunction with other federal, state, local, and tribal agencies is a cornerstone used to support air quality decision making. Over the past several years estimated wildland and prescribed fire emissions in the NEI have evolved from a crude, state-based, climatology to fire-specific, daily-resolved estimates primarily through the use of satellite measurements. In addition to research within EPA, external research partners are providing improved knowledge in areas such as chemical composition of smoke, plume rise measurements via satellites, and the development of improved emission algorithms. Accurate inputs to characterize and model the daily and hourly biomass burning emissions across the US are necessary to reduce the uncertainty in characterizing the emissions, transport, and transformation of gases and particles from their source, with the end goal of categorizing biomass burning emissions within the EPA’s regulatory structure. Reducing the uncertainty will lead to improved decision making as this information is used to support the development and implementation of EPA’s air regulatory programs. This is especially true under the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) where averaging times for particulate matter (PM), ozone, and the new proposed NO2 standard are at 24 hours or less, where accurate resolution of fire emissions is critical in understanding receptor impacts. This talk will highlight the impacts of wildland and prescribed fires within EPA’s regulatory program and importance of continued research to reduce the

  7. Inference of Gene Regulatory Network Based on Local Bayesian Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fei; Zhang, Shao-Wu; Guo, Wei-Feng; Wei, Ze-Gang; Chen, Luonan

    2016-08-01

    The inference of gene regulatory networks (GRNs) from expression data can mine the direct regulations among genes and gain deep insights into biological processes at a network level. During past decades, numerous computational approaches have been introduced for inferring the GRNs. However, many of them still suffer from various problems, e.g., Bayesian network (BN) methods cannot handle large-scale networks due to their high computational complexity, while information theory-based methods cannot identify the directions of regulatory interactions and also suffer from false positive/negative problems. To overcome the limitations, in this work we present a novel algorithm, namely local Bayesian network (LBN), to infer GRNs from gene expression data by using the network decomposition strategy and false-positive edge elimination scheme. Specifically, LBN algorithm first uses conditional mutual information (CMI) to construct an initial network or GRN, which is decomposed into a number of local networks or GRNs. Then, BN method is employed to generate a series of local BNs by selecting the k-nearest neighbors of each gene as its candidate regulatory genes, which significantly reduces the exponential search space from all possible GRN structures. Integrating these local BNs forms a tentative network or GRN by performing CMI, which reduces redundant regulations in the GRN and thus alleviates the false positive problem. The final network or GRN can be obtained by iteratively performing CMI and local BN on the tentative network. In the iterative process, the false or redundant regulations are gradually removed. When tested on the benchmark GRN datasets from DREAM challenge as well as the SOS DNA repair network in E.coli, our results suggest that LBN outperforms other state-of-the-art methods (ARACNE, GENIE3 and NARROMI) significantly, with more accurate and robust performance. In particular, the decomposition strategy with local Bayesian networks not only effectively reduce

  8. Regulatory element-based prediction identifies new susceptibility regulatory variants for osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Shi; Guo, Yan; Dong, Shan-Shan; Hao, Ruo-Han; Chen, Xiao-Feng; Chen, Yi-Xiao; Chen, Jia-Bin; Tian, Qing; Deng, Hong-Wen; Yang, Tie-Lin

    2017-08-01

    Despite genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified many susceptibility genes for osteoporosis, it still leaves a large part of missing heritability to be discovered. Integrating regulatory information and GWASs could offer new insights into the biological link between the susceptibility SNPs and osteoporosis. We generated five machine learning classifiers with osteoporosis-associated variants and regulatory features data. We gained the optimal classifier and predicted genome-wide SNPs to discover susceptibility regulatory variants. We further utilized Genetic Factors for Osteoporosis Consortium (GEFOS) and three in-house GWASs samples to validate the associations for predicted positive SNPs. The random forest classifier performed best among all machine learning methods with the F1 score of 0.8871. Using the optimized model, we predicted 37,584 candidate SNPs for osteoporosis. According to the meta-analysis results, a list of regulatory variants was significantly associated with osteoporosis after multiple testing corrections and contributed to the expression of known osteoporosis-associated protein-coding genes. In summary, combining GWASs and regulatory elements through machine learning could provide additional information for understanding the mechanism of osteoporosis. The regulatory variants we predicted will provide novel targets for etiology research and treatment of osteoporosis.

  9. Analytical perspectives on performance-based management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadmann, Sarah; Johansen, Sarah; Lind, Ane

    2013-01-01

    Performance-based management (PBM) has become a dominant form of governance in health care and there is a need for careful assessment of its function and effects. This article contains a cross-disciplinary literature synthesis of current studies of PBM. Literature was retrieved by database search...... perspectives allows appreciation of otherwise implicit assumptions and potential implications of PBM. Reflections on such differences are important to ensure vigilant appropriation of shifting management tools in health quality governance.......Performance-based management (PBM) has become a dominant form of governance in health care and there is a need for careful assessment of its function and effects. This article contains a cross-disciplinary literature synthesis of current studies of PBM. Literature was retrieved by database searches....... In the functionalist perspective, PBM is perceived as a management tool aimed at improving health care services by means of market-based mechanisms. In the interpretive perspective, the adoption of PBM is understood as consequence of institutional and individual agents striving for public legitimacy. In the post...

  10. GIS Based Measurement and Regulatory Zoning of Urban Ecological Vulnerability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaorui Zhang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Urban ecological vulnerability is measured on the basis of ecological sensitivity and resilience based on the concept analysis of vulnerability. GIS-based multicriteria decision analysis (GIS-MCDA methods are used, supported by the spatial analysis tools of GIS, to define different levels of vulnerability for areas of the urban ecology. These areas are further classified into different types of regulatory zones. Taking the city of Hefei in China as the empirical research site, this study uses GIS-MCDA, including the index system, index weights and overlay rules, to measure the degree of its ecological vulnerability on the GIS platform. There are eight indices in the system. Raking and analytical hierarchy process (AHP methods are used to calculate index weights according to the characteristics of the index system. The integrated overlay rule, including selection of the maximum value, and weighted linear combination (WLC are applied as the overlay rules. In this way, five types of vulnerability areas have been classified as follows: very low vulnerability, low vulnerability, medium vulnerability, high vulnerability and very high vulnerability. They can be further grouped into three types of regulatory zone of ecological green line, ecological grey line and ecological red line. The study demonstrates that ecological green line areas are the largest (53.61% of the total study area and can be intensively developed; ecological grey line areas (19.59% of the total area can serve as the ecological buffer zone, and ecological red line areas (26.80% cannot be developed and must be protected. The results indicate that ecological green line areas may provide sufficient room for future urban development in Hefei city. Finally, the respective regulatory countermeasures are put forward. This research provides a scientific basis for decision-making around urban ecological protection, construction and sustainable development. It also provides theoretical method

  11. Event-based cluster synchronization of coupled genetic regulatory networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Dandan; Guan, Zhi-Hong; Li, Tao; Liao, Rui-Quan; Liu, Feng; Lai, Qiang

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, the cluster synchronization of coupled genetic regulatory networks with a directed topology is studied by using the event-based strategy and pinning control. An event-triggered condition with a threshold consisting of the neighbors' discrete states at their own event time instants and a state-independent exponential decay function is proposed. The intra-cluster states information and extra-cluster states information are involved in the threshold in different ways. By using the Lyapunov function approach and the theories of matrices and inequalities, we establish the cluster synchronization criterion. It is shown that both the avoidance of continuous transmission of information and the exclusion of the Zeno behavior are ensured under the presented triggering condition. Explicit conditions on the parameters in the threshold are obtained for synchronization. The stability criterion of a single GRN is also given under the reduced triggering condition. Numerical examples are provided to validate the theoretical results.

  12. Regulatory agencies and regulatory risk

    OpenAIRE

    Knieps, Günter; Weiß, Hans-Jörg

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to show that regulatory risk is due to the discretionary behaviour of regulatory agencies, caused by a too extensive regulatory mandate provided by the legislator. The normative point of reference and a behavioural model of regulatory agencies based on the positive theory of regulation are presented. Regulatory risk with regard to the future behaviour of regulatory agencies is modelled as the consequence of the ex ante uncertainty about the relative influence of inter...

  13. Safety Management in Non-Nuclear Contexts. Examples from Swedish Railway Regulatory and Company Perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salo, Ilkka; Svensson, Ola (Risk Analysis, Social and Decision Research Unit, Dept. of Psychology, Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden))

    2005-06-15

    studied organizations respectively. These three chapters give a detailed account of safety management from a system perspective and applications in the organizations studied, and could be read independently of each other. In the fourth chapter the report concludes with summarizing safety management in SRA and SJ by mapping the results on important concepts from the system theoretical framework, and general themes for safety management applicable across contexts are suggested. The qualitative descriptions of the organizations generated a detailed account on how safety is managed in Swedish railway operations. Examples of safety management in practice are given both from the regulatory point of view and from an organizational position close to the actual operations. The Swedish railway operations are strictly regulated and the safety goals are identifiable along the legislative documentation from the government's goals for safe operations expressed in the railway legislation, through SRA's regulations, to SJ's internal regulations. There is a high degree of coherence between SJ's and SRA's formulations of safety management and safe operations in general. Both organizations have their origin in the former national railway company, which may is partly reflected in the high degree of correspondence between the approaches towards safety. Both organizations make use of a system approach to their operations, which are clearly reflected in the highly structured organizations, with core objectives, operational responsibilities, procedures, and information feedback prerequisites sufficiently mapped on the organizational units. The report gives both detailed accounts and summaries of a number of central themes for safety management derived from the system theoretical framework, and also themes relevant for safety management in general. For example: the organizations definitions of safety management, descriptions of the organizational structures, recent

  14. On the evaluation of the safety aspects of nanomaterial in medical device – a regulatory perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Chan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology is used widely in many aspects of design and manufacturing of medical device. To date, many of these new medical devices, which are referred to as nano medical devices, are being submitted to the health authorities for premarket regulatory review. There are ongoing discussion between the medical device manufacturers and the regulatory authorities regarding the standards and methods for the evaluation process. Taking into consideration of nano-toxicology and biocompatibility, clinical effects of nanotechnology and risk management, there are issues yet to be resolved. In this article, we will discuss nano medical device safety from the regulatory control point of view.

  15. Innovative regulatory approach for synthetic-based muds.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J. A.

    1998-10-22

    The oil and gas industry has historically used water-based muds (WBMs) and oil-based muds (OBMs) in offshore drilling operations. WBMs are less expensive and are widely used. Both the WBMs and the associated drill cuttings maybe discharged from the platform to the sea provided that U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) discharge limitations are met. In some wells, however, difficult drilling conditions may force a switch from a WBM to an OBM. Neither the OBM nor the associated drill cuttings may be discharged. The OBM is hauled to shore, where it is processed for reuse, while the associated cuttings are injected in a disposal well at the platform or hauled to shore to a disposal facility. Both of these options are expensive. Synthetic-based muds (SBMs) are drilling fluids that use synthetic organic chemicals as base fluids. SBMs were developed to replace OBMs in difficult drilling situations. SBMs are more expensive than OBMs; however, they have superior environmental properties that may permit the cuttings to be discharged on-site. Like OBMs, SBMs are hauled ashore for processing and reuse after the well is drilled. The existing national effluent limitations guidelines (ELGs) for the offshore industry do not include requirements for SBM-cuttings since SBMs were not commonly in use at the time the ELGs were adopted. In late 1997, EPA announced that it would modify the offshore ELGs to include requirements for discharges of cuttings drilled with SBMs. For the first time in the history of the ELG program, EPA is following an innovative presumptive rulemaking process that will lead to development of draft regulations in one year rather than the 4- to 6-year period usually needed. With direction from the federal government to stakeholders concerning information needs for the regulatory development the industry has established several working groups to collect new scientific information on SBMs. This paper describes the presumptive rulemaking process and summarizes

  16. Regulatory RNAs in Bacillus subtilis: a Gram-Positive Perspective on Bacterial RNA-Mediated Regulation of Gene Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mars, Ruben A. T.; Nicolas, Pierre; Denham, Emma L.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Bacteria can employ widely diverse RNA molecules to regulate their gene expression. Such molecules include trans-acting small regulatory RNAs, antisense RNAs, and a variety of transcriptional attenuation mechanisms in the 5′ untranslated region. Thus far, most regulatory RNA research has focused on Gram-negative bacteria, such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella. Hence, there is uncertainty about whether the resulting insights can be extrapolated directly to other bacteria, such as the Gram-positive soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis. A recent study identified 1,583 putative regulatory RNAs in B. subtilis, whose expression was assessed across 104 conditions. Here, we review the current understanding of RNA-based regulation in B. subtilis, and we categorize the newly identified putative regulatory RNAs on the basis of their conservation in other bacilli and the stability of their predicted secondary structures. Our present evaluation of the publicly available data indicates that RNA-mediated gene regulation in B. subtilis mostly involves elements at the 5′ ends of mRNA molecules. These can include 5′ secondary structure elements and metabolite-, tRNA-, or protein-binding sites. Importantly, sense-independent segments are identified as the most conserved and structured potential regulatory RNAs in B. subtilis. Altogether, the present survey provides many leads for the identification of new regulatory RNA functions in B. subtilis. PMID:27784798

  17. Acceptance of Mobile Apps for Health Self-management: Regulatory Fit Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Nieroda, Marzena; Keeling, Kathleen; Keeling, Debbie Isobel

    2015-01-01

    This study addresses (non)acceptance by individuals of mobileapplications (apps) for health self-management (e.g., apps for running).Regulatory Focus Theory (RFT) and Regulatory Fit (RF) principles are used tofacilitate understanding of acceptance of such apps within a goal pursuit process.First, RFT was deployed to position different apps as strategies aligned withpromotion/prevention goal orientation (supporting pursuit ofachievement/safety). The Promotion-Prevention (PM-PV) scale was devel...

  18. On the evaluation of the safety aspects of nanomaterials in medical devices – a regulatory perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Eva; Chan, Christopher; Li, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Nanotechnology is widely used in many aspects of the design and manufacture of medical devices. To date, many of these new medical devices, referred to as nano medical devices, have been submitted to health authorities for premarket regulatory review. There are ongoing discussions between medical device manufacturers and regulatory authorities regarding the standards and methods required for the evaluation process. Taking into consideration aspects including nano-toxicology and biocompatibili...

  19. Analysis of regulatory networks constructed based on gene ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gene coexpression patterns can reveal gene collections with functional consistency. This study systematically constructs regulatory networks for pituitary tumours by integrating gene coexpression, transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation. Through network analysis, we elaborate the incidence mechanism of pituitary ...

  20. Analysis of regulatory networks constructed based on gene ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-12-09

    Dec 9, 2013 ... Abstract. Gene coexpression patterns can reveal gene collections with functional consistency. This study systematically constructs regulatory networks for pituitary tumours by integrating gene coexpression, transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation. Through network analysis, we elaborate the ...

  1. Inference of time-delayed gene regulatory networks based on dynamic Bayesian network hybrid learning method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bin; Xu, Jia-Meng; Li, Shan; Chen, Cheng; Chen, Rui-Xin; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Ming-Hui

    2017-10-06

    Gene regulatory networks (GRNs) research reveals complex life phenomena from the perspective of gene interaction, which is an important research field in systems biology. Traditional Bayesian networks have a high computational complexity, and the network structure scoring model has a single feature. Information-based approaches cannot identify the direction of regulation. In order to make up for the shortcomings of the above methods, this paper presents a novel hybrid learning method (DBNCS) based on dynamic Bayesian network (DBN) to construct the multiple time-delayed GRNs for the first time, combining the comprehensive score (CS) with the DBN model. DBNCS algorithm first uses CMI2NI (conditional mutual inclusive information-based network inference) algorithm for network structure profiles learning, namely the construction of search space. Then the redundant regulations are removed by using the recursive optimization algorithm (RO), thereby reduce the false positive rate. Secondly, the network structure profiles are decomposed into a set of cliques without loss, which can significantly reduce the computational complexity. Finally, DBN model is used to identify the direction of gene regulation within the cliques and search for the optimal network structure. The performance of DBNCS algorithm is evaluated by the benchmark GRN datasets from DREAM challenge as well as the SOS DNA repair network in Escherichia coli, and compared with other state-of-the-art methods. The experimental results show the rationality of the algorithm design and the outstanding performance of the GRNs.

  2. Current perspectives on herb-drug interactions in the European regulatory landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhoff, Barbara

    2012-09-01

    Herb-drug interactions have turned out not to be a major issue in the European regulatory landscape. For a minority of herbal preparations, herb-drug interactions are clinically relevant, e.g., between high-dose St.John's wort extracts and a number of chemical substances. The inclusion of adequate information on such interactions into the package leaflet is important for the safe use of the products. Information on potential interactions is also part of the official HMPC monographs. However, only for some herbal preparations described in these monographs, such a potential is known. Thus, in accordance with the relevant European guidance documents, potential interactions should be assessed critically for their clinical relevance, and a balanced assessment is required when regulatory documents are established or regulatory measures are implemented. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Stepping back from the property line: a perspective from regulatory theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dent, Chris

    2013-12-01

    There are multiple populations affected by issues associated with the excision and use of human tissue, each with different interests. There are also multiple subject matters for regulation; multiple regulatory goals that inform the system; and multiple strategies that may contribute to the attainment of those goals. This article outlines a range of regulatory mechanisms and suggests that a property regime is only one method of regulation in this area. Others may need to be considered to take account of the interests of all who may be affected,

  4. Regulatory compliance for point-of-care testing. A perspective from the United States (Circa 2000).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee-Lewandrowski, E; Lewandrowski, K

    2001-06-01

    Regulatory guidelines concerning point-of-care testing have had a major impact on the development and evolution of these technologies. Beginning with mandates under CLIA '88, hospital accreditation organizations have developed guidelines for the management of point-of-care testing to ensure quality testing. Over the past decade, most hospitals have learned to manage these new technologies as part of the laboratory quality assurance program. Issues concerning regulatory compliance continue to influence the development and use of point-of-care technologies providing opportunity for continuous quality improvement and improved patient care.

  5. Trait-based perspectives of leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaccaro, Stephen J

    2007-01-01

    The trait-based perspective of leadership has a long but checkered history. Trait approaches dominated the initial decades of scientific leadership research. Later, they were disdained for their inability to offer clear distinctions between leaders and nonleaders and for their failure to account for situational variance in leadership behavior. Recently, driven by greater conceptual, methodological, and statistical sophistication, such approaches have again risen to prominence. However, their contributions are likely to remain limited unless leadership researchers who adopt this perspective address several fundamental issues. The author argues that combinations of traits and attributes, integrated in conceptually meaningful ways, are more likely to predict leadership than additive or independent contributions of several single traits. Furthermore, a defining core of these dominant leader trait patterns reflects a stable tendency to lead in different ways across disparate organizational domains. Finally, the author summarizes a multistage model that specifies some leader traits as having more distal influences on leadership processes and performance, whereas others have more proximal effects that are integrated with, and influenced by, situational parameters. ((c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved)

  6. Proximal antecedents and correlates of adopted error approach: a self-regulatory perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dyck, C.; van Hooft, E.; de Gilder, D.; Liesveld, L.C.

    2010-01-01

    The current study aims to further investigate earlier established advantages of an error mastery approach over an error aversion approach. The two main purposes of the study relate to (1) self-regulatory traits (i.e., goal orientation and action-state orientation) that may predict which error

  7. Proximal antecedents and correlates of adopted error approach: A self-regulatory perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dyck, C.; van Hooft, E.A.J.; de Gilder, T.C.; Liesveld, L.C.

    2010-01-01

    The current study aims to further investigate earlier established advantages of an error mastery approach over an error aversion approach. The two main purposes of the study relate to (1) self-regulatory traits (i.e., goal orientation and action-state orientation) that may predict which error

  8. Biomass Burning Emissions – The Importance of Reducing Uncertainties for Improved Regulatory Decision; an EPA Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biomass burning emissions from wildland and prescribed fires can have far reaching impacts in several of EPA’s regulatory programs under the Clean Air Act, ultimately affecting decisions on actions taken under State Implementation Plans (SIPs), and programs such as Visibility and...

  9. Patients’ perspective on the role of their complaints in the regulatory process.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, R.; Bomhoff, M.; Robben, P.; Friele, R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Governments in several countries are facing problems concerning the accountability of regulators in health care. Questions have been raised about how patients’ complaints should be valued in the regulatory process. However, it is not known what patients who made

  10. Patients’ perspective on the role of their complaints in the regulatory process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, R.J.R.; Bomhoff, M.; Robben, P.; Friele, R.D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Governments in several countries are facing problems concerning the accountability of regulators in health care. Questions have been raised about how patients' complaints should be valued in the regulatory process. However, it is not known what patients who made complaints expect to

  11. Patients' perspectives on the role of their complaints in the regulatory process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Bouwman (Renée); M.C. Bomhoff (Manja); P.B.M. Robben (Paul); R.D. Friele (Roland)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Governments in several countries are facing problems concerning the accountability of regulators in health care. Questions have been raised about how patients' complaints should be valued in the regulatory process. However, it is not known what patients who made complaints

  12. Biosimilars in psoriasis: Clinical practice and regulatory perspectives in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Cruz, Claudia; de Carvalho, André V E; Dorantes, Gladys L; Londoño Garcia, Angela M; Gonzalez, Cesar; Maskin, Matías; Podoswa, Nancy; Redfern, Jan S; Valenzuela, Fernando; van der Walt, Joelle; Romiti, Ricardo

    2017-01-01

    Latin American countries view biosimilar agents as an effective approach to curtail health-care expenditures while maintaining the safety and efficacy profile of their branded innovator comparators. To understand the complexities of the regulatory landscape and key therapeutic issues for use of biosimilars to treat moderate to severe psoriasis in Latin America, the International Psoriasis Council convened dermatology experts from Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia and Mexico in October 2015 to review the definition, approval, marketing and future of biosimilars in each country and develop a consensus statement. The regulatory framework for marketing approval of biosimilars in Latin America is currently a mosaic of disparate, country-specific, regulatory review processes, rules and standards, with considerable heterogeneity in clarity and specificity. Regulations in Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Mexico have undergone multiple refinements whereas Colombia is finalizing draft guidelines. Verification of the similarity in quality, safety and efficacy of biosimilars to the innovator biologic remains a key challenge for policy makers and regulatory authorities. Other key regulatory challenges include: naming of agents and traceability, pharmacovigilance, extrapolation of indications, and interchangeability and substitution. An urgent need exists for more Latin American countries to establish national psoriasis registries and to integrate their common components into a multinational psoriasis network, thereby enhancing their interpretative power and impact. A Latin American psoriasis network similar to PSONET in Europe would assist health-care providers, pharmaceutical companies, regulators and patients to fully comprehend specific products being prescribed and dispensed and to identify potential regional trends or differences in safety or outcomes. © 2016 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  13. Nanoparticle-based drug delivery systems: a commercial and regulatory outlook as the field matures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragelle, Héloïse; Danhier, Fabienne; Préat, Véronique; Langer, Robert; Anderson, Daniel G

    2017-07-01

    Nanomedicine has emerged as a major field of academic research with direct impact on human health. While a first generation of products has been successfully commercialized and has significantly contributed to enhance patient's life, recent advances in material design and the emergence of new therapeutics are contributing to the development of more sophisticated systems. As the field matures, it is important to comprehend the challenges related to nanoparticle commercial development for a more efficient and predictable path to the clinic. Areas covered: The review provides an overview of nanoparticle-based delivery systems currently on the market and in clinical trials, and discuss the principal challenges for their commercial development, both from a manufacturing and regulatory perspective, to help gain understanding of the translational path for these systems. Expert opinion: Clinical translation of nanoparticle-based delivery systems remains challenging on account of their 3D nanostructure and requires robust nano-manufacturing process along with adequate analytical tools and methodologies. By identifying early enough in the development the product critical attributes and understanding their impact on the therapeutic performance, the developers of nanopharmaceuticals will be better equipped to develop efficient product pipelines. Second-generation products are expected to broaden nanopharmaceutical global market in the upcoming years.

  14. A surgeon's perspective regarding the regulatory, compliance, and legal issues involved with physician-modified devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starnes, Benjamin W

    2013-03-01

    Physician-modified endovascular devices are becoming commonplace in a modern climate where innovation outpaces regulated technological advancement. Off-label use of medical devices occurs on a daily basis throughout many institutions across the United States and when performed by physicians, is both legal and unregulated. The purpose of this invited commentary is to review the regulatory, compliance, and legal issues regarding the practice of medical device modification. Copyright © 2013 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Clinical potential of regulatory T cell therapy in liver diseases: An overview and current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Claire Jeffery

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand for liver transplantation and the decline in donor organs has highlighted the need for alternative novel therapies to prevent chronic active hepatitis, which eventually leads to liver cirrhosis and liver cancer. Liver histology of chronic hepatitis is composed of both effector and regulatory lymphocytes. The human liver contains different subsets of effector lymphocytes, that are kept in check by a subpopulation of T cells known as Regulatory T cells (Treg. The balance of effector and regulatory lymphocytes generally determines the outcome of hepatic inflammation: resolution, fulminant hepatitis or chronic active hepatitis. Thus, maintaining and adjusting this balance is crucial in immunological manipulation of liver diseases. One of the options to restore this balance is to enrich Treg in the liver disease patients.Advances in the knowledge of Treg biology and development of clinical grade isolation reagents, cell sorting equipment and Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP facilities have paved the way to apply Treg cells as a potential therapy to restore peripheral self-tolerance in autoimmune liver diseases, chronic rejection and post-transplantation. Past and on-going studies have applied Treg in type-1 diabetes mellitus, systemic lupus erythematosus, graft versus host diseases (GVHD and solid organ transplantations. There have not been any new therapies for the autoimmune liver diseases for more than three decades; thus the clinical potential for the application of autologous Treg cell therapy to treat autoimmune liver disease is an attractive and novel option. However, it is fundamental to understand the deep immunology, genetic profiles, biology, homing behavior and microenvironment of Treg before applying the cells to the patients.

  16. Applying and adapting the Swedish regulatory system for decommissioning to nuclear power reactors - The regulator's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amft, Martin; Leisvik, Mathias; Carroll, Simon

    2017-03-16

    Half of the original 13 Swedish nuclear power reactors will be shut down by 2020. The decommissioning of these reactors is a challenge for all parties involved, including the licensees, the waste management system, the financing system, and the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority (SSM). This paper presents an overview of the Swedish regulations for decommissioning of nuclear facilities. It describes some of the experiences that SSM has gained from the application of these regulations. The focus of the present paper is on administrative aspects of decommissioning, such as SSM's guidelines, the definition of fundamental concepts in the regulatory framework, and a proposed revision of the licensing process according to the Environmental Act. These improvements will help to streamline the administration of the commercial nuclear power plant decommissioning projects that are anticipated to commence in Sweden in the near future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The impact of nonphysician providers on diagnostic and interventional radiology practices: regulatory, billing, and compliance perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, C Matthew; Bowen, Michael A; Gilliland, Charles A; Walls, D Gail; Duszak, Richard

    2015-08-01

    The numbers of nurse practitioners and physician assistants are increasing throughout the entire health care enterprise, and a similar expansion continues within radiology. Some practices have instead embraced radiologist assistants. The increased volume of services rendered by this growing nonphysician provider subset of the health care workforce within and outside of radiology departments warrants closer review. The authors evaluate the recent literature and offer recommendations to radiology practices regarding both regulatory and scope-of-practice issues related to these professionals. Additionally, billing and compliance issues for care provided by nurse practitioners, physician assistants, and radiologist assistants are detailed. An analysis of the integration of these professionals into interventional and diagnostic radiology practices, as well as potential implications for medical education, is provided in the second part of this series. Copyright © 2015 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The regulatory complex for healthcare from the perspective of its operational players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janise Braga Barros Ferreira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This investigation aimed to evaluate aspects of the outcome from implementing the Regulatory Complex (RC for public healthcare system organization in Ribeirão Preto, Brazil. The functional domain of the RC formed the scenario. Interviews were conducted with workers in different categories, within the administrative and operational levels of the RC. The material was analyzed using thematic analysis. The findings showed that the RC caused changes to the organizational accessibility and equity of the healthcare network, for both outpatient and hospital care. The need to create a resolutive and humanized network was highlighted. The RC was shown to be a useful evaluation and management tool. Its implementation changed the subjects' work processes and had little recognition among SUS users (Brazilian Unified Health System.The evaluation showed that, despite the short time since implementation, the RC strategy has the strength to collaborate towards SUS sustainability, although investment, dissemination and improvement are needed.

  19. rSNPBase 3.0: an updated database of SNP-related regulatory elements, element-gene pairs and SNP-based gene regulatory networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Liyuan; Wang, Jing

    2017-11-11

    Here, we present the updated rSNPBase 3.0 database (http://rsnp3.psych.ac.cn), which provides human SNP-related regulatory elements, element-gene pairs and SNP-based regulatory networks. This database is the updated version of the SNP regulatory annotation database rSNPBase and rVarBase. In comparison to the last two versions, there are both structural and data adjustments in rSNPBase 3.0: (i) The most significant new feature is the expansion of analysis scope from SNP-related regulatory elements to include regulatory element-target gene pairs (E-G pairs), therefore it can provide SNP-based gene regulatory networks. (ii) Web function was modified according to data content and a new network search module is provided in the rSNPBase 3.0 in addition to the previous regulatory SNP (rSNP) search module. The two search modules support data query for detailed information (related-elements, element-gene pairs, and other extended annotations) on specific SNPs and SNP-related graphic networks constructed by interacting transcription factors (TFs), miRNAs and genes. (3) The type of regulatory elements was modified and enriched. To our best knowledge, the updated rSNPBase 3.0 is the first data tool supports SNP functional analysis from a regulatory network prospective, it will provide both a comprehensive understanding and concrete guidance for SNP-related regulatory studies. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  20. School-Based Influenza Vaccination: Parents’ Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Candace; Russell, Margaret L.; MacDonald, Judy; Collins, Ramona; Frank, Christine J.; Davis, Amy E.

    2014-01-01

    Background School-age children are important drivers of annual influenza epidemics yet influenza vaccination coverage of this population is low despite universal publicly funded influenza vaccination in Alberta, Canada. Immunizing children at school may potentially increase vaccine uptake. As parents are a key stakeholder group for such a program, it is important to consider their concerns. Purpose We explored parents’ perspectives on the acceptability of adding an annual influenza immunization to the immunization program that is currently delivered in Alberta schools, and obtained suggestions for structuring such a program. Participants Forty-eight parents of children aged 5-18 years participated in 9 focus groups. Participants lived in urban areas of the Alberta Health Services Calgary Zone. Findings Three major themes emerged: Advantages of school-based influenza vaccination (SBIV), Disadvantages of SBIV, and Implications for program design & delivery. Advantages were perceived to occur for different populations: children (e.g. emotional support), families (e.g. convenience), the community (e.g. benefits for school and multicultural communities), the health sector (e.g. reductions in costs due to burden of illness) and to society at large (e.g. indirect conduit of information about health services, building structure for pandemic preparedness, building healthy lifestyles). Disadvantages, however, might also occur for children (e.g. older children less likely to be immunized), families (e.g. communication challenges, perceived loss of parental control over information, choices and decisions) and the education sector (loss of instructional time). Nine second-level themes emerged within the major theme of Implications for program design & delivery: program goals/objectives, consent process, stakeholder consultation, age-appropriate program, education, communication, logistics, immunizing agent, and clinic process. Conclusions Parents perceived advantages and

  1. School-based influenza vaccination: parents' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Candace; Russell, Margaret L; MacDonald, Judy; Collins, Ramona; Frank, Christine J; Davis, Amy E

    2014-01-01

    School-age children are important drivers of annual influenza epidemics yet influenza vaccination coverage of this population is low despite universal publicly funded influenza vaccination in Alberta, Canada. Immunizing children at school may potentially increase vaccine uptake. As parents are a key stakeholder group for such a program, it is important to consider their concerns. We explored parents' perspectives on the acceptability of adding an annual influenza immunization to the immunization program that is currently delivered in Alberta schools, and obtained suggestions for structuring such a program. Forty-eight parents of children aged 5-18 years participated in 9 focus groups. Participants lived in urban areas of the Alberta Health Services Calgary Zone. Three major themes emerged: Advantages of school-based influenza vaccination (SBIV), Disadvantages of SBIV, and Implications for program design & delivery. Advantages were perceived to occur for different populations: children (e.g. emotional support), families (e.g. convenience), the community (e.g. benefits for school and multicultural communities), the health sector (e.g. reductions in costs due to burden of illness) and to society at large (e.g. indirect conduit of information about health services, building structure for pandemic preparedness, building healthy lifestyles). Disadvantages, however, might also occur for children (e.g. older children less likely to be immunized), families (e.g. communication challenges, perceived loss of parental control over information, choices and decisions) and the education sector (loss of instructional time). Nine second-level themes emerged within the major theme of Implications for program design & delivery: program goals/objectives, consent process, stakeholder consultation, age-appropriate program, education, communication, logistics, immunizing agent, and clinic process. Parents perceived advantages and disadvantages to delivering annual seasonal influenza

  2. School-based influenza vaccination: parents' perspectives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candace Lind

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: School-age children are important drivers of annual influenza epidemics yet influenza vaccination coverage of this population is low despite universal publicly funded influenza vaccination in Alberta, Canada. Immunizing children at school may potentially increase vaccine uptake. As parents are a key stakeholder group for such a program, it is important to consider their concerns. PURPOSE: We explored parents' perspectives on the acceptability of adding an annual influenza immunization to the immunization program that is currently delivered in Alberta schools, and obtained suggestions for structuring such a program. PARTICIPANTS: Forty-eight parents of children aged 5-18 years participated in 9 focus groups. Participants lived in urban areas of the Alberta Health Services Calgary Zone. FINDINGS: Three major themes emerged: Advantages of school-based influenza vaccination (SBIV, Disadvantages of SBIV, and Implications for program design & delivery. Advantages were perceived to occur for different populations: children (e.g. emotional support, families (e.g. convenience, the community (e.g. benefits for school and multicultural communities, the health sector (e.g. reductions in costs due to burden of illness and to society at large (e.g. indirect conduit of information about health services, building structure for pandemic preparedness, building healthy lifestyles. Disadvantages, however, might also occur for children (e.g. older children less likely to be immunized, families (e.g. communication challenges, perceived loss of parental control over information, choices and decisions and the education sector (loss of instructional time. Nine second-level themes emerged within the major theme of Implications for program design & delivery: program goals/objectives, consent process, stakeholder consultation, age-appropriate program, education, communication, logistics, immunizing agent, and clinic process. CONCLUSIONS: Parents perceived

  3. An algebra-based method for inferring gene regulatory networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera-Licona, Paola; Jarrah, Abdul; Garcia-Puente, Luis David; McGee, John; Laubenbacher, Reinhard

    2014-03-26

    The inference of gene regulatory networks (GRNs) from experimental observations is at the heart of systems biology. This includes the inference of both the network topology and its dynamics. While there are many algorithms available to infer the network topology from experimental data, less emphasis has been placed on methods that infer network dynamics. Furthermore, since the network inference problem is typically underdetermined, it is essential to have the option of incorporating into the inference process, prior knowledge about the network, along with an effective description of the search space of dynamic models. Finally, it is also important to have an understanding of how a given inference method is affected by experimental and other noise in the data used. This paper contains a novel inference algorithm using the algebraic framework of Boolean polynomial dynamical systems (BPDS), meeting all these requirements. The algorithm takes as input time series data, including those from network perturbations, such as knock-out mutant strains and RNAi experiments. It allows for the incorporation of prior biological knowledge while being robust to significant levels of noise in the data used for inference. It uses an evolutionary algorithm for local optimization with an encoding of the mathematical models as BPDS. The BPDS framework allows an effective representation of the search space for algebraic dynamic models that improves computational performance. The algorithm is validated with both simulated and experimental microarray expression profile data. Robustness to noise is tested using a published mathematical model of the segment polarity gene network in Drosophila melanogaster. Benchmarking of the algorithm is done by comparison with a spectrum of state-of-the-art network inference methods on data from the synthetic IRMA network to demonstrate that our method has good precision and recall for the network reconstruction task, while also predicting several of the

  4. A New Algorithm for Identifying Cis-Regulatory Modules Based on Hidden Markov Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haitao Guo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of cis-regulatory modules (CRMs is the key to understanding mechanisms of transcription regulation. Since CRMs have specific regulatory structures that are the basis for the regulation of gene expression, how to model the regulatory structure of CRMs has a considerable impact on the performance of CRM identification. The paper proposes a CRM discovery algorithm called ComSPS. ComSPS builds a regulatory structure model of CRMs based on HMM by exploring the rules of CRM transcriptional grammar that governs the internal motif site arrangement of CRMs. We test ComSPS on three benchmark datasets and compare it with five existing methods. Experimental results show that ComSPS performs better than them.

  5. A New Algorithm for Identifying Cis-Regulatory Modules Based on Hidden Markov Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The discovery of cis-regulatory modules (CRMs) is the key to understanding mechanisms of transcription regulation. Since CRMs have specific regulatory structures that are the basis for the regulation of gene expression, how to model the regulatory structure of CRMs has a considerable impact on the performance of CRM identification. The paper proposes a CRM discovery algorithm called ComSPS. ComSPS builds a regulatory structure model of CRMs based on HMM by exploring the rules of CRM transcriptional grammar that governs the internal motif site arrangement of CRMs. We test ComSPS on three benchmark datasets and compare it with five existing methods. Experimental results show that ComSPS performs better than them. PMID:28497059

  6. Medical devices regulatory aspects: a special focus on polymeric material based devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, Radhakrishnan; Pliszka, Damian; Luo, He-Kuan; Chin Lim, Keith Hsiu; Ramakrishna, Seeram

    2015-01-01

    Medical devices form a broad range of appliances from a basic nanoparticle coating or surgical gloves to a complicated laser therapy device. These devices are designed to support patients, surgeons and healthcare personnel in meeting patients' healthcare needs. Regulatory authorities of each country regulate the process of approval, manufacturing and sales of these medical devices so as to ensure safety and quality to patients or users. Recent recalls of medical devices has increased importance of safety, awareness and regulation of the devices. Singapore and India have strong presence and national priorities in medical devices development and use. Herein we capture the rationale of each of these national regulatory bodies and compare them with the medical devices regulatory practices of USA and European nations. Apart from the comparison of various regulatory aspects, this review will specifically throw light on the polymer material based medical devices and their safety.

  7. Clinical implementation of genetic testing in medicine: a US regulatory science perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesko, Lawrence J; Schmidt, Stephan

    2014-04-01

    Heterogeneity of treatment effects in unselected patient populations has stimulated various strategic approaches to reduce variability and uncertainty and improve individualization of drug selection and dosing. The rapid growth of DNA sequencing and related technologies has ramped up progress in interpreting germline and somatic mutations and has begun to reshape medicine, especially in oncology. Over the past decade, regulatory agencies realized that they needed to be proactive and not reactive if personalized medicine was to become a reality. The US Food and Drug Administration, in particular, took steps to nurture the field through peer-reviewed publications, co-sponsoring public workshops and issuing guidance for industry. The following two major approaches to personalized medicine were taken: (i) encouragement of de novo co-development of drug-genetic test combinations by industry; and (ii) retrospective assessment of legacy genetic data for the purpose of updating drug labels. The former strategy has been more successful in getting new targeted therapies to the marketplace with successful adoption, while the latter, as evidenced by the low adoption rate of pharmacogenetic testing, has been less successful. This reflection piece makes clear that several important things need to happen to make personalized medicine diffuse in more geographical areas and among more therapeutic specialties. The debate over clinical utility of genetic tests needs to be resolved with consensus on evidentiary standards. Physicians, as gatekeepers of prescription medicines, need to increase their knowledge of genetics and the application of the information to patient care. An infrastructure needs to be developed to make access to genetic tests and decision-support tools available to primary practitioners and specialists outside major medical centres and metropolitan areas. © 2013 The British Pharmacological Society.

  8. Regulatory perspective on the importance of ADME assessment of nanoscale material containing drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolnik, Banu S; Sadrieh, Nakissa

    2009-06-21

    The promise of nanoscale material containing drug products to treat complex diseases is mounting. According to the literature, in addition to the liposomes, micelles, emulsions, there are novel drug delivery systems such as dendrimers and metal colloids at different stages of pre-clinical and clinical development. With the anticipation that more nanoscale material containing drug products will be submitted to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for approval in the future, FDA formed a Nanotechnology Task Force in 2006 to determine the critical regulatory issues regarding nanomaterials. As a result, all centers within the FDA are considering the development of guidance documents to address nanomaterial specific issues. It is well established in the literature that physico-chemical characterization (PCC) studies are crucial for nanomaterial containing drug products. However, this paper addresses the equally important topic of Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism and Excretion (ADME) studies for nanomaterials and provides examples of how physical properties affect biodistribution (i.e. the state of agglomeration, or aggregation, surface characteristics, stability of PEG). This paper also attempts to highlight some of the ADME study design issues related to nanomaterials such as the need for conducting biodistribution studies on each moiety of the multifunctional nanoparticles, dual labeled pharmacokinetic (PK) studies, and comparative PK studies on the free versus encapsulated drugs. In addition, this paper underlines the importance of long-term biodistribution and mass balance studies to understand the nanoparticle accumulation profile which may help to assess the safety and efficacy of the nanomaterial containing drug products. This review also lists some of the pre-clinical guidance documents that may help sponsors get started in developing data for inclusion in an initial investigational new drug application package for nanoscale material containing drug

  9. rVarBase: an updated database for regulatory features of human variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Liyuan; Du, Yang; Qu, Susu; Wang, Jing

    2016-01-04

    We present here the rVarBase database (http://rv.psych.ac.cn), an updated version of the rSNPBase database, to provide reliable and detailed regulatory annotations for known and novel human variants. This update expands the database to include additional types of human variants, such as copy number variations (CNVs) and novel variants, and include additional types of regulatory features. Now rVarBase annotates variants in three dimensions: chromatin states of the surrounding regions, overlapped regulatory elements and variants' potential target genes. Two new types of regulatory elements (lncRNAs and miRNA target sites) have been introduced to provide additional annotation. Detailed information about variants' overlapping transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) (often less than 15 bp) within experimentally supported TF-binding regions (∼ 150 bp) is provided, along with the binding motifs of matched TF families. Additional types of extended variants and variant-associated phenotypes were also added. In addition to the enrichment in data content, an element-centric search module was added, and the web interface was refined. In summary, rVarBase hosts more types of human variants and includes more types of up-to-date regulatory information to facilitate in-depth functional research and to provide practical clues for experimental design. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  10. Regulatory perspectives on model validation in high-level radioactive waste management programs: A joint NRC/SKI white paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wingefors, S.; Andersson, J.; Norrby, S. [Swedish Nuclear Power lnspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden). Office of Nuclear Waste Safety; Eisenberg, N.A.; Lee, M.P.; Federline, M.V. [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards; Sagar, B.; Wittmeyer, G.W. [Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    1999-03-01

    Validation (or confidence building) should be an important aspect of the regulatory uses of mathematical models in the safety assessments of geologic repositories for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and other high-level radioactive wastes (HLW). A substantial body of literature exists indicating the manner in which scientific validation of models is usually pursued. Because models for a geologic repository performance assessment cannot be tested over the spatial scales of interest and long time periods for which the models will make estimates of performance, the usual avenue for model validation- that is, comparison of model estimates with actual data at the space-time scales of interest- is precluded. Further complicating the model validation process in HLW programs are the uncertainties inherent in describing the geologic complexities of potential disposal sites, and their interactions with the engineered system, with a limited set of generally imprecise data, making it difficult to discriminate between model discrepancy and inadequacy of input data. A successful strategy for model validation, therefore, should attempt to recognize these difficulties, address their resolution, and document the resolution in a careful manner. The end result of validation efforts should be a documented enhancement of confidence in the model to an extent that the model's results can aid in regulatory decision-making. The level of validation needed should be determined by the intended uses of these models, rather than by the ideal of validation of a scientific theory. This white Paper presents a model validation strategy that can be implemented in a regulatory environment. It was prepared jointly by staff members of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate-SKI. This document should not be viewed as, and is not intended to be formal guidance or as a staff position on this matter. Rather, based on a review of the literature and previous

  11. The triad of success in personalised medicine: pharmacogenomics, biotechnology and regulatory issues from a Central European perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesko, Bertalan; Zahuczky, Gabor; Nagy, Laszlo

    2012-09-15

    The population of the world has recently passed the 7 billion milestone and as the cost of human genome sequencing is rapidly declining, sequence data of billions of people should be accessible much sooner than anyone would have predicted 10 years ago. This will form the basis of personalised medicine. However it is still not clear, even in principle, whether these data, combined with data of the expression of one's genome in various cells and tissues relevant to different diseases, could be used effectively in clinical medicine and healthcare, or in predicting responses to different therapies. Therefore this is an important issue which needs to be addressed before more resources are wasted on less than informative studies and surveys simply because technologies exist. As a typical example, we have selected and summarise here key studies from the biomedical literature that focus on gene expression profiling of the response to biologic therapies in peripheral blood and biopsy samples in autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, spondylarthropathy, inflammatory bowel diseases and psoriasis. We also present the state of the biotechnology market from a European perspective, discuss how spin-offs leverage the power of genomic technologies and describe how they might contribute to personalised medicine. As ethical, legal and social issues are essential in the area of genomics, we analysed these aspects and present here the European situation with a special focus on Hungary. We propose that the synergy of these three issues: pharmacogenomics, biotechnology and regulatory issues should be considered a triad necessary to succeed in personalised medicine. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Ontology-based validation and identification of regulatory phenotypes

    KAUST Repository

    Kulmanov, Maxat

    2018-01-31

    Motivation: Function annotations of gene products, and phenotype annotations of genotypes, provide valuable information about molecular mechanisms that can be utilized by computational methods to identify functional and phenotypic relatedness, improve our understanding of disease and pathobiology, and lead to discovery of drug targets. Identifying functions and phenotypes commonly requires experiments which are time-consuming and expensive to carry out; creating the annotations additionally requires a curator to make an assertion based on reported evidence. Support to validate the mutual consistency of functional and phenotype annotations as well as a computational method to predict phenotypes from function annotations, would greatly improve the utility of function annotations Results: We developed a novel ontology-based method to validate the mutual consistency of function and phenotype annotations. We apply our method to mouse and human annotations, and identify several inconsistencies that can be resolved to improve overall annotation quality. Our method can also be applied to the rule-based prediction of phenotypes from functions. We show that the predicted phenotypes can be utilized for identification of protein-protein interactions and gene-disease associations. Based on experimental functional annotations, we predict phenotypes for 1,986 genes in mouse and 7,301 genes in human for which no experimental phenotypes have yet been determined.

  13. The relationship between time perspective and self-regulatory processes, abilities and outcomes: a protocol for a meta-analytical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Harriet M; Webb, Thomas L; Martin, Jilly; Sirois, Fuschia M

    2017-07-05

    Both theoretical and empirical evidence suggests that time perspective is likely to influence self-regulatory processes and outcomes. Despite the theoretical and practical significance of such relations, the relationship between time perspective and self-regulatory processes and outcomes across different measures, samples and life domains, including health, has yet to be explored. The proposed review will develop a taxonomy for classifying measures according to the self-regulatory process, ability or outcome that they are likely to reflect. Electronic scientific databases will be searched, along with relevant conference abstract booklets and citation lists. Additionally, a call for unpublished data will be submitted to relevant bodies. To be eligible for inclusion, studies must include a measure of time perspective and a measure of at least one self-regulatory process, ability and/ or outcome. Eligibility will not be restricted by publication date, language, type of sample or setting. The bivariate correlations will be extracted (or calculated) and submitted to a random-effects meta-analysis. The sample-weighted average effect size, heterogeneity, risk of bias and publication bias will be calculated, and the effects of categorical and continuous moderator variables on the effect sizes will be determined. The proposed meta-analysis will synthesise previously conducted research; thus, ethical approval is not required. The findings will be submitted for publication in an international peer-reviewed journal and reported as part of the first author’s PhD thesis. The findings will also be disseminated to the research community and, where appropriate, to other interested parties through presentations at relevant academic and non-academic conferences. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. Continuing Bonds in Bereavement: An Attachment Theory Based Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Nigel P.; Gao, Beryl; Paderna, Lisa

    2005-01-01

    An attachment theory based perspective on the continuing bond to the deceased (CB) is proposed. The value of attachment theory in specifying the normative course of CB expression and in identifying adaptive versus maladaptive variants of CB expression based on their deviation from this normative course is outlined. The role of individual…

  15. Sweat, the driving force behind normal skin: an emerging perspective on functional biology and regulatory mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murota, Hiroyuki; Matsui, Saki; Ono, Emi; Kijima, Akiko; Kikuta, Junichi; Ishii, Masaru; Katayama, Ichiro

    2015-01-01

    The various symptoms associated with excessive or insufficient perspiration can significantly reduce a patient's quality of life. If a versatile and minimally invasive method could be established for returning sweat activity to normalcy, there is no question that it could be used in the treatment of many diseases that are believed to involve perspiration. For this reason, based on an understanding of the sweat-gland control function and sweat activity, it was necessary to conduct a comprehensive search for the factors that control sweating, such as the central and peripheral nerves that control sweat-gland function, the microenvironment surrounding the sweat glands, and lifestyle. We focused on the mechanism by which atopic dermatitis leads to hypohidrosis and confirmed that histamine inhibits acetylcholinergic sweating. Acetylcholine promotes the phosphorylation of glycogen synthesis kinase 3β (GSK3β) in the sweat-gland secretory cells and leads to sensible perspiration. By suppressing the phosphorylation of GSK3β, histamine inhibits the movement of sweat from the sweat-gland secretory cells through the sweat ducts, which could presumably be demonstrated by dynamic observations of the sweat glands using two-photon microscopy. It is expected that the discovery of new factors that control sweat-gland function can contribute to the treatment of diseases associated with dyshidrosis. Copyright © 2014 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A regulatory perspective on whether the system of radiation protection is fit for purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, M A

    2012-01-01

    The system of radiation protection has its origins in the early efforts to protect people from x rays and radium. It was at the Second International Congress of Radiology in Stockholm in 1928 where the first radiation protection recommendations were adopted. The system of protection steadily evolved as new sources of exposure arose and understanding of radiation-related health risks improved. Safeguarding against these risks has required regulators to set enforceable (i.e. measurable) standards. From erythema dose to tolerance dose, critical organ dose to effective dose equivalent, and now effective dose, the units used to set these limits have evolved along with the science underpinning them. Similarly, the definition of the person or group being protected has changed - from Standard Man to Reference Man to Reference Person, with age and gender differences now considered explicitly. As regulators look towards implementing the changes in the 2007 Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), there remain questions about how to translate an optimisation-based system of constraints and reference levels into the more familiar regime of enforceable limits. Nevertheless, as the new ICRP Recommendations are refinements of a system that did the job it was designed to do more than adequately, so too will the new system of radiation protection be fit for purpose. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Perspectives on the automatic design of regulatory systems for synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo, Guillermo; Carrera, Javier; Landrain, Thomas E; Jaramillo, Alfonso

    2012-07-16

    Automatic design is based on computational modeling and optimization methods to provide prototype designs to targeted problems in an unsupervised manner. For biological circuits, we need to produce quantitative predictions of cell behavior for a given genotype as consequence of the different molecular interactions. Automatic design techniques aim at solving the inverse problem of finding the sequences of nucleotides that better fit a targeted behavior. In the post-genomic era, our molecular knowledge and modeling capabilities have allowed to start using such methodologies with success. Herein, we describe how the emergence of this new type of tools could enable novel synthetic biology applications. We highlight the essential elements to develop automatic design procedures for synthetic biology pointing out their advantages and bottlenecks. We discuss in detail the experimental difficulties to overcome in the in vivo implementation of designed networks. The use of automatic design to engineer biological networks is starting to emerge as a new technique to perform synthetic biology, which should not be neglected in the future. Copyright © 2012 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Relations between chronic regulatory focus and future time perspective : Results of a cross-lagged structural equation model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zacher, Hannes; de Lange, Annet H.

    Future time perspective - the way individuals perceive their remaining time in life - importantly influences socio-emotional goals and motivational outcomes. Recently, researchers have called for studies that investigate relationships between personality and future time perspective. Using a

  19. A New Regulatory Policy for FTTx-Based Next-Generation Access Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarovič, Boštjan

    2013-07-01

    This article critically assesses the latest European Commission policies in relation to next-generation access investment that put focus on regulated prices and relaxing of wholesale access obligations. Pointing at the vital socio-legal and economic arguments, it further challenges the assumptions of the current EU regulatory framework and calls for a more contractual utility-based model of regulation instead of the current system that overly relies on market-driven infrastructure-based competition.

  20. The Servitization of Manufacturing: A Resource-Based Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Cheng; Boer, Harry; Johansen, John

    2010-01-01

    The traditional focus of manufacturing strategy is tremendously impacted by the emergence of servitization as a new empirical phenomenon and the resource-based view (RBV) as a (relatively) new theoretical perspective. In order to understand their influence, this paper firstly tracks the evolution....... Based on the case analyses and inspired by open source software (OSS) and open innovation, a new, open and capability (development) based role of manufacturing is suggested....

  1. Evidence Based Nursing. A new perspective for Greek Nursing

    OpenAIRE

    Christina Ouzouni; Konstantinos Nakakis

    2008-01-01

    Despite the fact that nursing research has been developed in Greece, nevertheless the provision of nursing care is not based on current research findings, but rather on the knowledge gained by nurses during their undergraduate education. The transition of medicine in the last decade towards evidence based practice had definitely an impact on the nursing profession.The aim of this article is to briefly present evidence based nursing as a process and perspective to Greek nurses.Method: A litera...

  2. Inferring regulatory networks from expression data using tree-based methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vân Anh Huynh-Thu

    Full Text Available One of the pressing open problems of computational systems biology is the elucidation of the topology of genetic regulatory networks (GRNs using high throughput genomic data, in particular microarray gene expression data. The Dialogue for Reverse Engineering Assessments and Methods (DREAM challenge aims to evaluate the success of GRN inference algorithms on benchmarks of simulated data. In this article, we present GENIE3, a new algorithm for the inference of GRNs that was best performer in the DREAM4 In Silico Multifactorial challenge. GENIE3 decomposes the prediction of a regulatory network between p genes into p different regression problems. In each of the regression problems, the expression pattern of one of the genes (target gene is predicted from the expression patterns of all the other genes (input genes, using tree-based ensemble methods Random Forests or Extra-Trees. The importance of an input gene in the prediction of the target gene expression pattern is taken as an indication of a putative regulatory link. Putative regulatory links are then aggregated over all genes to provide a ranking of interactions from which the whole network is reconstructed. In addition to performing well on the DREAM4 In Silico Multifactorial challenge simulated data, we show that GENIE3 compares favorably with existing algorithms to decipher the genetic regulatory network of Escherichia coli. It doesn't make any assumption about the nature of gene regulation, can deal with combinatorial and non-linear interactions, produces directed GRNs, and is fast and scalable. In conclusion, we propose a new algorithm for GRN inference that performs well on both synthetic and real gene expression data. The algorithm, based on feature selection with tree-based ensemble methods, is simple and generic, making it adaptable to other types of genomic data and interactions.

  3. Thinking ethical and regulatory frameworks in medicine from the perspective of solidarity on both sides of the Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prainsack, Barbara; Buyx, Alena

    2016-12-01

    This article provides a concise overview of the history of scholarship on solidarity in Europe and North America. While recent decades have seen an increase in conceptual and scholarly interest in solidarity in North America and other parts of the Anglo-Saxon world, the concept is much more strongly anchored in Europe. Continental European politics in particular have given rise to two of the most influential traditions of solidarity, namely, socialism and Christian ethics. Solidarity has also guided important public instruments and institutions in Europe (e.g., welfare, healthcare, etc.). Despite the much stronger affinity of continental European societies to solidaristic thinking, we argue that solidarity has much to offer for addressing societal challenges on both sides of the Atlantic and beyond. After proposing a working definition of solidarity that highlights its utility for guiding policy and practice, we give an example of how a solidarity-based perspective can shape instruments for the governance of data use.

  4. Medical student's perspective of problem based learning (PBL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Medical student's perspective of problem based learning (PBL) curriculum at the University of Traskei. ... The use of SWOT analysis to evaluate current and future directions can lead to the successful evolution of any organization. The aim ... It also gives them the opportunity to meet the outcomes of the program in due time.

  5. Design-Based Practice: A New Perspective for Social Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Burton J.

    2011-01-01

    Evidence-based practice (EBP) has emerged as an alternative to traditional social work practice and has ignited a new round in the decades-old debate about the relationship between knowledge and practice in the field. This article identifies several limitations inherent in the EBP perspective and argues that it would be unfortunate if EBP were to…

  6. Enquiry-Based Learning: Perspectives on Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deignan, Tim

    2009-01-01

    Traditional lecture-based teaching methods are being replaced or supplemented by approaches which call for reframing the roles and identities of teachers and learners. Enquiry-Based Learning (EBL) is one such approach. This paper reports on a study investigating the perceptions of staff and students (N=25) involved in an EBL capacity building…

  7. Perspective texture synthesis based on improved energy optimization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Muhammad Arsalan Bashir

    Full Text Available Perspective texture synthesis has great significance in many fields like video editing, scene capturing etc., due to its ability to read and control global feature information. In this paper, we present a novel example-based, specifically energy optimization-based algorithm, to synthesize perspective textures. Energy optimization technique is a pixel-based approach, so it's time-consuming. We improve it from two aspects with the purpose of achieving faster synthesis and high quality. Firstly, we change this pixel-based technique by replacing the pixel computation with a little patch. Secondly, we present a novel technique to accelerate searching nearest neighborhoods in energy optimization. Using k- means clustering technique to build a search tree to accelerate the search. Hence, we make use of principal component analysis (PCA technique to reduce dimensions of input vectors. The high quality results prove that our approach is feasible. Besides, our proposed algorithm needs shorter time relative to other similar methods.

  8. Comparative analysis of module-based versus direct methods for reverse-engineering transcriptional regulatory networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshi Anagha

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A myriad of methods to reverse-engineer transcriptional regulatory networks have been developed in recent years. Direct methods directly reconstruct a network of pairwise regulatory interactions while module-based methods predict a set of regulators for modules of coexpressed genes treated as a single unit. To date, there has been no systematic comparison of the relative strengths and weaknesses of both types of methods. Results We have compared a recently developed module-based algorithm, LeMoNe (Learning Module Networks, to a mutual information based direct algorithm, CLR (Context Likelihood of Relatedness, using benchmark expression data and databases of known transcriptional regulatory interactions for Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A global comparison using recall versus precision curves hides the topologically distinct nature of the inferred networks and is not informative about the specific subtasks for which each method is most suited. Analysis of the degree distributions and a regulator specific comparison show that CLR is 'regulator-centric', making true predictions for a higher number of regulators, while LeMoNe is 'target-centric', recovering a higher number of known targets for fewer regulators, with limited overlap in the predicted interactions between both methods. Detailed biological examples in E. coli and S. cerevisiae are used to illustrate these differences and to prove that each method is able to infer parts of the network where the other fails. Biological validation of the inferred networks cautions against over-interpreting recall and precision values computed using incomplete reference networks. Conclusion Our results indicate that module-based and direct methods retrieve largely distinct parts of the underlying transcriptional regulatory networks. The choice of algorithm should therefore be based on the particular biological problem of interest and not on global metrics which cannot be

  9. A primer on thermodynamic-based models for deciphering transcriptional regulatory logic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresch, Jacqueline M; Richards, Megan; Ay, Ahmet

    2013-09-01

    A rigorous analysis of transcriptional regulation at the DNA level is crucial to the understanding of many biological systems. Mathematical modeling has offered researchers a new approach to understanding this central process. In particular, thermodynamic-based modeling represents the most biophysically informed approach aimed at connecting DNA level regulatory sequences to the expression of specific genes. The goal of this review is to give biologists a thorough description of the steps involved in building, analyzing, and implementing a thermodynamic-based model of transcriptional regulation. The data requirements for this modeling approach are described, the derivation for a specific regulatory region is shown, and the challenges and future directions for the quantitative modeling of gene regulation are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Game-Based Learning: A Different Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royle, Karl

    2008-01-01

    Because the goals of games and the object of school-based learning are fundamentally mismatched, efforts to integrate games into the curriculum have largely fallen flat despite the best intentions of teachers and the gaming industry. Arguing that educational game designers should be investigating ways to get education into games rather than…

  11. Adult Education: A Sartrean-Based Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burstow, Bonnie

    1984-01-01

    In the construction of a philosophic foundation for adult education that is based on Sartre, learning is defined as a leap into nothingness and facilitation as inherently dialogical. Support is given to such adult education concepts as self-directed learning, lifelong learning, and learning projects. (SK)

  12. Evidence based practice: perspectives of Iranian urologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajebrahimi, Sakineh; Sadeghi-Ghyassi, Fatemeh; Olfati, Nahid; Dastgiri, Saeed; Maghbouli, Leili

    2014-01-04

    To determine the attitudes and beliefs of Iranian urologists toward Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) and investigation of the barriers of evidence based practice (EBP). A self- administrated, Likert scale questionnaire designed in Persian and filled up by censuses selected urologist from Iranian Urology Association (IUA). Data were entered to Predictive Analytics Soft Ware version 18.0 and descriptive statistics were obtained for all parts of the questionnaire. A total of 111 out of 500 Iranian urologists who attended in IUA annual meeting, responded to the questionnaires. Mean attitude score of respondents was 30.4 (SD: 5.7, range 16-40). Attitude score showed statistically significant association to previous participation in EBM workshops (P = .01). Of participants 96% believed EBP will improve patient care and 76.2% of them appreciated the impact of use of research utilization and application of evidence based guidelines on clinical decision making and the outcome of surgery. The main barriers to EBP stated as lack of time (64.8%), facilities (53.4%), and training in EBM (29.4%). The urologists have positive attitudes towards EBP. However, regarding lack of time, pre-appraised databases or EBP guidelines can be helpful. Evidence based workshops and familiarity with evidence databases is recommended for Iranian urologists. In addition, health care system and policy makers could play a major role to provide a culture of EBP.

  13. Genotet: An Interactive Web-based Visual Exploration Framework to Support Validation of Gene Regulatory Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bowen; Doraiswamy, Harish; Chen, Xi; Miraldi, Emily; Arrieta-Ortiz, Mario Luis; Hafemeister, Christoph; Madar, Aviv; Bonneau, Richard; Silva, Cláudio T

    2014-12-01

    Elucidation of transcriptional regulatory networks (TRNs) is a fundamental goal in biology, and one of the most important components of TRNs are transcription factors (TFs), proteins that specifically bind to gene promoter and enhancer regions to alter target gene expression patterns. Advances in genomic technologies as well as advances in computational biology have led to multiple large regulatory network models (directed networks) each with a large corpus of supporting data and gene-annotation. There are multiple possible biological motivations for exploring large regulatory network models, including: validating TF-target gene relationships, figuring out co-regulation patterns, and exploring the coordination of cell processes in response to changes in cell state or environment. Here we focus on queries aimed at validating regulatory network models, and on coordinating visualization of primary data and directed weighted gene regulatory networks. The large size of both the network models and the primary data can make such coordinated queries cumbersome with existing tools and, in particular, inhibits the sharing of results between collaborators. In this work, we develop and demonstrate a web-based framework for coordinating visualization and exploration of expression data (RNA-seq, microarray), network models and gene-binding data (ChIP-seq). Using specialized data structures and multiple coordinated views, we design an efficient querying model to support interactive analysis of the data. Finally, we show the effectiveness of our framework through case studies for the mouse immune system (a dataset focused on a subset of key cellular functions) and a model bacteria (a small genome with high data-completeness).

  14. Optimal sample size determinations from an industry perspective based on the expected value of information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willan, Andrew R

    2008-01-01

    Traditional sample size calculations for randomized clinical trials depend on somewhat arbitrarily chosen factors, such as type I and II errors. As an alternative, taking a societal perspective, and using the expected value of information based on Bayesian decision theory, a number of authors have recently shown how to determine the sample size that maximizes the expected net gain, i.e., the difference between the cost of the trial and the value of the information gained from the results. Other authors have proposed Bayesian methods to determine sample sizes from an industry perspective. The purpose of this article is to propose a Bayesian approach to sample size calculations from an industry perspective that attempts to determine the sample size that maximizes expected profit. A model is proposed for expected total profit that includes consideration of per-patient profit, disease incidence, time horizon, trial duration, market share, discount rate, and the relationship between the results and the probability of regulatory approval. The expected value of information provided by trial data is related to the increase in expected profit from increasing the probability of regulatory approval. The methods are applied to an example, including an examination of robustness. The model is extended to consider market share as a function of observed treatment effect. The use of methods based on the expected value of information can provide, from an industry perspective, robust sample size solutions that maximize the difference between the expected cost of the trial and the expected value of information gained from the results. The method is only as good as the model for expected total profit. Although the model probably has all the right elements, it assumes that market share, per-patient profit, and incidence are insensitive to trial results. The method relies on the central limit theorem which assumes that the sample sizes involved ensure that the relevant test statistics

  15. Regulatory Perspectives on Continuous Pharmaceutical Manufacturing: Moving From Theory to Practice: September 26-27, 2016, International Symposium on the Continuous Manufacturing of Pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasr, Moheb M; Krumme, Markus; Matsuda, Yoshihiro; Trout, Bernhardt L; Badman, Clive; Mascia, Salvatore; Cooney, Charles L; Jensen, Keith D; Florence, Alastair; Johnston, Craig; Konstantinov, Konstantin; Lee, Sau L

    2017-11-01

    Continuous manufacturing plays a key role in enabling the modernization of pharmaceutical manufacturing. The fate of this emerging technology will rely, in large part, on the regulatory implementation of this novel technology. This paper, which is based on the 2nd International Symposium on the Continuous Manufacturing of Pharmaceuticals, describes not only the advances that have taken place since the first International Symposium on Continuous Manufacturing of Pharmaceuticals in 2014, but the regulatory landscape that exists today. Key regulatory concepts including quality risk management, batch definition, control strategy, process monitoring and control, real-time release testing, data processing and management, and process validation/verification are outlined. Support from regulatory agencies, particularly in the form of the harmonization of regulatory expectations, will be crucial to the successful implementation of continuous manufacturing. Collaborative efforts, among academia, industry, and regulatory agencies, are the optimal solution for ensuring a solid future for this promising manufacturing technology. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. All rights reserved.

  16. [Regulatory requirements regarding cell-based medicinal products for human and veterinary use - a comparison].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlmann-Gottke, Johanna; Duchow, Karin

    2015-11-01

    At present, there is no separate regulatory framework for cell-based medicinal products (CBMP) for veterinary use at the European or German level. Current European and national regulations exclusively apply to the corresponding medicinal products for human use. An increasing number of requests for the regulatory classification of CBMP for veterinary use, such as allogeneic stem cell preparations and dendritic cell-based autologous tumour vaccines, and a rise in scientific advice for companies developing these products, illustrate the need for adequate legislation. Currently, advice is given and decisions are made on a case-by-case basis regarding the regulatory classification and authorisation requirements.Since some of the CBMP - in particular in the area of stem-cell products - are developed in parallel for human and veterinary use, there is an urgent need to create specific legal definitions, regulations, and guidelines for these complex innovative products in the veterinary sector as well. Otherwise, there is a risk that that the current legal grey area regarding veterinary medicinal products will impede therapeutic innovations in the long run. A harmonised EU-wide approach is desirable. Currently the European legislation on veterinary medicinal products is under revision. In this context, veterinary therapeutics based on allogeneic cells and tissues will be defined and regulated. Certainly, the legal framework does not have to be as comprehensive as for human CBMP; a leaner solution is conceivable, similar to the special provisions for advanced-therapy medicinal products laid down in the German Medicines Act.

  17. Cell therapy medicinal product regulatory framework in Europe and its application for MSC based therapy development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janis eAncans

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMPs, including cell therapy products, form a new class of medicines in the European Union. Since ATMPs are at the forefront of scientific innovation in medicine, specific regulatory framework has been developed for these medicines and implemented from 2009. The Committee for Advanced Therapies (CAT has been established at European Medicines Agency (EMA for centralized classification, certification and evaluation procedures, and other ATMP related tasks. Guidance documents, initiatives and interaction platforms are available to make the new framework more accessible for small and medium-sized enterprises, academia, hospitals and foundations. Good understanding of centralised and national components of the regulatory system is required to plan product development. It is in the best interests of cell therapy developers to utilise provided resources starting with the preclinical stage. Whilst there have not been mesenchymal stem cell (MSC based medicine authorisations in the EU, three MSC products have received marketing approval in other regions since 2011. Information provided on regulatory requirements, procedures and initiatives is aimed to facilitate MSC based medicinal product development and authorisation in the EU.

  18. Dynamic Regulatory Network Reconstruction for Alzheimer’s Disease Based on Matrix Decomposition Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Kong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is the most common form of dementia and leads to irreversible neurodegenerative damage of the brain. Finding the dynamic responses of genes, signaling proteins, transcription factor (TF activities, and regulatory networks of the progressively deteriorative progress of AD would represent a significant advance in discovering the pathogenesis of AD. However, the high throughput technologies of measuring TF activities are not yet available on a genome-wide scale. In this study, based on DNA microarray gene expression data and a priori information of TFs, network component analysis (NCA algorithm is applied to determining the TF activities and regulatory influences on TGs of incipient, moderate, and severe AD. Based on that, the dynamical gene regulatory networks of the deteriorative courses of AD were reconstructed. To select significant genes which are differentially expressed in different courses of AD, independent component analysis (ICA, which is better than the traditional clustering methods and can successfully group one gene in different meaningful biological processes, was used. The molecular biological analysis showed that the changes of TF activities and interactions of signaling proteins in mitosis, cell cycle, immune response, and inflammation play an important role in the deterioration of AD.

  19. Gene regulatory network identification from the yeast cell cycle based on a neuro-fuzzy system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, B H; Lim, J W; Lim, J S

    2016-08-30

    Many studies exist for reconstructing gene regulatory networks (GRNs). In this paper, we propose a method based on an advanced neuro-fuzzy system, for gene regulatory network reconstruction from microarray time-series data. This approach uses a neural network with a weighted fuzzy function to model the relationships between genes. Fuzzy rules, which determine the regulators of genes, are very simplified through this method. Additionally, a regulator selection procedure is proposed, which extracts the exact dynamic relationship between genes, using the information obtained from the weighted fuzzy function. Time-series related features are extracted from the original data to employ the characteristics of temporal data that are useful for accurate GRN reconstruction. The microarray dataset of the yeast cell cycle was used for our study. We measured the mean squared prediction error for the efficiency of the proposed approach and evaluated the accuracy in terms of precision, sensitivity, and F-score. The proposed method outperformed the other existing approaches.

  20. Light Based Cellular Interactions: hypotheses and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederic eLaager

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This work investigates the theoretical possibility of interactions between cells via light. We first take a brief look at the previous research done in the past to have a better understanding of the field and the origins of the concept of cellular interactions. Then we identify the different elements essential for interactions between two parties. We then compare the required elements with the known and studied elements and characteristics which are well defined in biology, chemistry and physics. This way we are able to set up four postulates required for cell interactions: I. A signal is present and subject to secondary modulation by the emitter cells. II. There is a plastic information medium that reacts directly to the metabolic state of the emitter and therefore carries information about the emitter. III. An optical signal can be perceived by cells on a molecular level by a multitude of different receptors. IV. The information can in theory be processed by cells and metabolic changes in reaction to the signals can be observed. We demonstrate that all required elements have been observed. Most of them have important and well-known roles in cells. Therefore we suggest that our hypothetical model is a good explanation for light based cellular interactions.

  1. Multimodal management as requirement for the clinical use of anticachexia drugs - a regulatory and a clinical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, John J; Anker, Stefan D; Rosano, Giuseppe; Serracino-Inglott, Anthony; Strasser, Florian

    2015-12-01

    Multimodal management has been proposed as key to any effective drug intervention in cachexia. This article attempts to reflect on clinical and regulatory considerations of multimodal management treatment as a regulatory requirement in anticachexia drug therapy. To date, no European Union (EU) regulatory guidelines have been published and therefore this review could attempt to present and discuss some central issues to consider when developing an anticachexia drug. The following themes are considered: EU regulatory pathways for drug approval (conditional and exceptional circumstances as well as adaptive licensing); selection criteria for randomized clinical trials allowing the identification and characterization of the population of interest that is an at-risk population with undisputable clinical need; issues related to primary and secondary outcome measures that are adequate to determine the efficacy of the intervention and the approach for the development of clinical biomarkers for cachexia. Conversely, the incorporation of multimodal treatment in anticachexia drug therapy is expected to increase the effectiveness of intervention. This aspect is the aspect that appeals to pharmaceutical companies; however, at the same time, this raises regulatory and clinical issues that need to be kept in mind when designing randomised clinical trials.

  2. Method for rectifying image deviation based on perspective transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Li, Shengrong; Bai, Wei; Cui, Xiaoxiao; Yang, Guoqing; Zhou, Hao; Zhang, Chuanyou

    2017-09-01

    A new method for rectifying image deviation of circular instrument based on perspective transformation is presented in the paper, and the correction of circular instrument image in substation environment is realized. First of all, the digital image processing technology is used to pre-process the site image. Secondly, Canny operator is used for edge detection. According to the edge feature points, the equipment area is detected and the regional parameters can be computed. Then the perspective transformation is used to correct the image, and the positive image of the circular instrument image is obtained. Finally, the corrected tilt image is done by the rotation operation. Experimental results show that the algorithm can realize image rectification, which is simple with fast speed and high precision. The proposed method is helpful for the further recognition.

  3. Towards an action-based perspective on firm competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anoop Madhok

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Existing theoretical frameworks typically revolve around sustainability of competitive advantage and attribute superior firm performance to its position in the industry structure and/or the possession of critical resources. However, the equilibrium-oriented logic implicit in these perspectives is not consonant with today's environment, characterized by more dynamic and complex behavior of markets and firms, which renders competitive advantages obsolete faster than ever. We propose an alternative action-based perspective on firm competitiveness one that revolves around the logic of action and emphasizes an entrepreneurial orientation and firm agility as the basis of firm competitiveness. This logic of action shifts the focus away from just industry position or resource possession and provides more scope for less advantaged firms to compete with the incumbents.

  4. A Personal Perspective on the Initial Federal Health-Based Regulation to Remove Lead from Gasoline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridbord, Kenneth; Hanson, David

    2009-01-01

    Objective This article describes the personal experience and perspective of the authors, who had primary responsibility for drafting the initial health-based regulation limiting lead content of gasoline during the early 1970s while employed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Data source Information used by the U.S. EPA in developing the initial health-based regulation limiting lead content of gasoline in December 1973 and studies documenting the impact of that and subsequent actions. Data extraction Among the lessons learned from this experience is the importance of having input from independent scientists to the regulatory decision-making process. This also demonstrates the critical role of independent peer-reviewed research, such as that supported by the National Institutes of Health, as well as research conducted by scientists from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, in delineating the consequences of lead exposure in the population. Data synthesis Removal of lead from gasoline in the United States has been described as one of the great public health achievements of the 20th century, but it almost did not happen. The experience of the authors in developing this regulation may be helpful to others involved in developing health-based regulatory policy in the future. Conclusion The initial U.S. EPA health-based regulation to remove lead from gasoline is clearly an example where science successfully affected public policy. The leadership of the U.S. EPA at that time deserves much credit for establishing an atmosphere in which this was possible. PMID:19672397

  5. Regulatory requirements for clinical trial and marketing authorisation application for cell-based medicinal products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmikangas, P; Flory, E; Reinhardt, J; Hinz, T; Maciulaitis, R

    2010-01-01

    The new era of regenerative medicine has led to rapid development of new innovative therapies especially for diseases and tissue/organ defects for which traditional therapies and medicinal products have not provided satisfactory outcome. Although the clinical use and developments of cell-based medicinal products (CBMPs) could be witnessed already for a decade, robust scientific and regulatory provisions for these products have only recently been enacted. The new Regulation for Advanced Therapies (EC) 1394/2007 together with the revised Annex I, Part IV of Directive 2001/83/EC provides the new legal framework for CBMPs. The wide variety of cell-based products and the foreseen limitations (small sample sizes, short shelf life) vs. particular risks (microbiological purity, variability, immunogenicity, tumourigenicity) associated with CBMPs have called for a flexible, case-by-case regulatory approach for these products. Consequently, a risk-based approach has been developed to allow definition of the amount of scientific data needed for a Marketing Authorisation Application (MAA) of each CBMP. The article provides further insight into the initial risk evaluation, as well as to the quality, non-clinical, and clinical requirements of CBMPs. Special somatic cell therapies designed for active immunotherapy are also addressed.

  6. Public Concern about the Sale of High-Caffeine Drinks to Children 12 Years or Younger: An Australian Regulatory Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Christina Mary; McStay, Catrina Lisa; Meng, Xingqiong

    2015-01-01

    Dietary exposure to high caffeine is a health risk for children. Governments are considering measures to restrict the sale of formulated caffeinated beverages (FCB) to children. Objectives. To investigate community concern about sales of high-caffeine drinks to children among Western Australian adults and describe Australian and New Zealand regulatory processes regarding FCB. Data from the 2009 and 2012 Department of Health's Nutrition Monitoring Survey Series of 2,832 Western Australians aged 18-64 years was pooled with descriptive and ordinal logistic regression analysis performed. Current regulatory processes for FCB are reported. Most (85%) participants were concerned about the sale of high-caffeine drinks to children; 77.4% were very concerned in 2012 compared to 66.5% in 2009, p children had higher concern (odds ratio (OR) 2.11; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.44-3.10; OR 2.16; 95% CI 1.51-3.09, resp., p children is high and increasing. Being female and living with children were associated with greater concern. These findings support the Australian and New Zealand regulatory controls of FCB, including labelling, promotion, and advertising to children.

  7. Public Concern about the Sale of High-Caffeine Drinks to Children 12 Years or Younger: An Australian Regulatory Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Mary Pollard

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Dietary exposure to high caffeine is a health risk for children. Governments are considering measures to restrict the sale of formulated caffeinated beverages (FCB to children. Objectives. To investigate community concern about sales of high-caffeine drinks to children among Western Australian adults and describe Australian and New Zealand regulatory processes regarding FCB. Methods. Data from the 2009 and 2012 Department of Health’s Nutrition Monitoring Survey Series of 2,832 Western Australians aged 18–64 years was pooled with descriptive and ordinal logistic regression analysis performed. Current regulatory processes for FCB are reported. Results. Most (85% participants were concerned about the sale of high-caffeine drinks to children; 77.4% were very concerned in 2012 compared to 66.5% in 2009, p < .008. Females and those living with children had higher concern (odds ratio (OR 2.11; 95% confidence interval (CI 1.44–3.10; OR 2.16; 95% CI 1.51–3.09, resp., p < .001. Concern increased with each year of age (OR 1.04; 95% CI 1.02, 1.05, p < .001. Conclusions. Community concern regarding sale of high-caffeine energy drinks to children is high and increasing. Being female and living with children were associated with greater concern. These findings support the Australian and New Zealand regulatory controls of FCB, including labelling, promotion, and advertising to children.

  8. Industry Perspective on Contemporary Protein-Binding Methodologies: Considerations for Regulatory Drug-Drug Interaction and Related Guidelines on Highly Bound Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Li; Breen, Christopher; Chambers, Rob; Eckley, Sean T; Fricke, Robert; Ghosh, Avijit; Harradine, Paul; Kalvass, J Cory; Ho, Stacy; Lee, Caroline A; Marathe, Punit; Perkins, Everett J; Qian, Mark; Tse, Susanna; Yan, Zhengyin; Zamek-Gliszczynski, Maciej J

    2017-12-01

    Regulatory agencies have recently issued drug-drug interaction guidelines, which require determination of plasma protein binding (PPB). To err on the conservative side, the agencies recommend that a 0.01 lower limit of fraction unbound (f u ) be used for highly bound compounds (>99%), irrespective of the actual measured values. While this may avoid false negatives, the recommendation would likely result in a high rate of false positive predictions, resulting in unnecessary clinical studies and more stringent inclusion/exclusion criteria, which may add cost and time in delivery of new medicines to patients. In this perspective, we provide a review of current approaches to measure PPB, and important determinants in enabling the accuracy and precision in these measurements. The ability to measure f u is further illustrated by a cross-company data comparison of PPB for warfarin and itraconazole, demonstrating good concordance of the measured f u values. The data indicate that f u values of ≤0.01 may be determined accurately across laboratories when appropriate methods are used. These data, along with numerous other examples presented in the literature, support the use of experimentally measured f u values for drug-drug interaction predictions, rather than using the arbitrary cutoff value of 0.01 as recommended in current regulatory guidelines. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The Political Economy of Regulatory Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch-Hansen, Hubert

    2012-01-01

    This article aims to explain the broader evolution of British merger control. To this end it outlines a novel critical political economy perspective on regulation and regulatory change which differs from established political economy approaches, such as the regulatory capitalism/state perspectives......, in three main ways: it places regulatory ideas at the heart of the analysis, it differentiates between different degrees of regulatory change, and it links regulatory change in delineated issue areas with changing power balances between fractions of capital and labor. The application of this perspective...... regulatory and ideational shift, was premised on the ascendancy of transnational capital....

  10. Refining ensembles of predicted gene regulatory networks based on characteristic interaction sets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Windhager

    Full Text Available Different ensemble voting approaches have been successfully applied for reverse-engineering of gene regulatory networks. They are based on the assumption that a good approximation of true network structure can be derived by considering the frequencies of individual interactions in a large number of predicted networks. Such approximations are typically superior in terms of prediction quality and robustness as compared to considering a single best scoring network only. Nevertheless, ensemble approaches only work well if the predicted gene regulatory networks are sufficiently similar to each other. If the topologies of predicted networks are considerably different, an ensemble of all networks obscures interesting individual characteristics. Instead, networks should be grouped according to local topological similarities and ensemble voting performed for each group separately. We argue that the presence of sets of co-occurring interactions is a suitable indicator for grouping predicted networks. A stepwise bottom-up procedure is proposed, where first mutual dependencies between pairs of interactions are derived from predicted networks. Pairs of co-occurring interactions are subsequently extended to derive characteristic interaction sets that distinguish groups of networks. Finally, ensemble voting is applied separately to the resulting topologically similar groups of networks to create distinct group-ensembles. Ensembles of topologically similar networks constitute distinct hypotheses about the reference network structure. Such group-ensembles are easier to interpret as their characteristic topology becomes clear and dependencies between interactions are known. The availability of distinct hypotheses facilitates the design of further experiments to distinguish between plausible network structures. The proposed procedure is a reasonable refinement step for non-deterministic reverse-engineering applications that produce a large number of candidate

  11. Refining Ensembles of Predicted Gene Regulatory Networks Based on Characteristic Interaction Sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windhager, Lukas; Zierer, Jonas; Küffner, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Different ensemble voting approaches have been successfully applied for reverse-engineering of gene regulatory networks. They are based on the assumption that a good approximation of true network structure can be derived by considering the frequencies of individual interactions in a large number of predicted networks. Such approximations are typically superior in terms of prediction quality and robustness as compared to considering a single best scoring network only. Nevertheless, ensemble approaches only work well if the predicted gene regulatory networks are sufficiently similar to each other. If the topologies of predicted networks are considerably different, an ensemble of all networks obscures interesting individual characteristics. Instead, networks should be grouped according to local topological similarities and ensemble voting performed for each group separately. We argue that the presence of sets of co-occurring interactions is a suitable indicator for grouping predicted networks. A stepwise bottom-up procedure is proposed, where first mutual dependencies between pairs of interactions are derived from predicted networks. Pairs of co-occurring interactions are subsequently extended to derive characteristic interaction sets that distinguish groups of networks. Finally, ensemble voting is applied separately to the resulting topologically similar groups of networks to create distinct group-ensembles. Ensembles of topologically similar networks constitute distinct hypotheses about the reference network structure. Such group-ensembles are easier to interpret as their characteristic topology becomes clear and dependencies between interactions are known. The availability of distinct hypotheses facilitates the design of further experiments to distinguish between plausible network structures. The proposed procedure is a reasonable refinement step for non-deterministic reverse-engineering applications that produce a large number of candidate predictions for a gene

  12. Constructing a Knowledge Base for Gene Regulatory Dynamics by Formal Concept Analysis Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Wollbold, Johannes; Ganter, Bernhard

    2008-01-01

    Our aim is to build a set of rules, such that reasoning over temporal dependencies within gene regulatory networks is possible. The underlying transitions may be obtained by discretizing observed time series, or they are generated based on existing knowledge, e.g. by Boolean networks or their nondeterministic generalization. We use the mathematical discipline of formal concept analysis (FCA), which has been applied successfully in domains as knowledge representation, data mining or software engineering. By the attribute exploration algorithm, an expert or a supporting computer program is enabled to decide about the validity of a minimal set of implications and thus to construct a sound and complete knowledge base. From this all valid implications are derivable that relate to the selected properties of a set of genes. We present results of our method for the initiation of sporulation in Bacillus subtilis. However the formal structures are exhibited in a most general manner. Therefore the approach may be adapte...

  13. Safety Justification of Software Systems. Software Based Safety Systems. Regulatory Inspection Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahll, Gustav (OECD Halden Project, Halden (NO)); Liwaang, Bo (Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden)); Wainwright, Norman (Wainwright Safety Advice (GB))

    2006-07-01

    The introduction of new software based technology in the safety systems in nuclear power plants also makes it necessary to develop new strategies for regulatory review and assessment of these new systems that is more focused on reviewing the processes at the different phases in design phases during the system life cycle. It is a general requirement that the licensee shall perform different kinds of reviews. From a regulatory point of view it is more cost effective to assess that the design activities at the suppliers and the review activities within the development project are performed with good quality. But the change from more technical reviews over to the development process oriented approach also cause problems. When reviewing development and quality aspects there are no 'hard facts' that can be judged against some specified criteria, the issues are more 'soft' and are more to build up structure of arguments and evidences that the requirements are met. The regulatory review strategy must therefore change to follow the development process over the whole life cycle from concept phase until installation and operation. Even if we know what factors that is of interest we need some guidance on how to interpret and judge the information.For that purpose SKl started research activities in this area at the end of the 1990s. In the first phase, in co-operation with Gustav Dahll at the Halden project, a life cycle model was selected. For the different phases a qualitative influence net was constructed of the type that is used in Bayesian Believe Network together with a discussion on different issues involved. In the second phase of the research work, in co-operation with Norman Wainwright, a former NII inspector, information from a selection of the most important sources as guidelines, IAEA and EC reports etc, was mapped into the influence net structure (the total list on used sources are in the report). The result is presented in the form of

  14. An improved Bayesian network method for reconstructing gene regulatory network based on candidate auto selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Linlin; Guo, Maozu; Liu, Xiaoyan; Wang, Chunyu; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Yin

    2017-11-17

    The reconstruction of gene regulatory network (GRN) from gene expression data can discover regulatory relationships among genes and gain deep insights into the complicated regulation mechanism of life. However, it is still a great challenge in systems biology and bioinformatics. During the past years, numerous computational approaches have been developed for this goal, and Bayesian network (BN) methods draw most of attention among these methods because of its inherent probability characteristics. However, Bayesian network methods are time consuming and cannot handle large-scale networks due to their high computational complexity, while the mutual information-based methods are highly effective but directionless and have a high false-positive rate. To solve these problems, we propose a Candidate Auto Selection algorithm (CAS) based on mutual information and breakpoint detection to restrict the search space in order to accelerate the learning process of Bayesian network. First, the proposed CAS algorithm automatically selects the neighbor candidates of each node before searching the best structure of GRN. Then based on CAS algorithm, we propose a globally optimal greedy search method (CAS + G), which focuses on finding the highest rated network structure, and a local learning method (CAS + L), which focuses on faster learning the structure with little loss of quality. Results show that the proposed CAS algorithm can effectively reduce the search space of Bayesian networks through identifying the neighbor candidates of each node. In our experiments, the CAS + G method outperforms the state-of-the-art method on simulation data for inferring GRNs, and the CAS + L method is significantly faster than the state-of-the-art method with little loss of accuracy. Hence, the CAS based methods effectively decrease the computational complexity of Bayesian network and are more suitable for GRN inference.

  15. Regulatory Expectations for Safety Culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Su Jin; Oh, Jang Jin; Choi, Young Sung [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The oversight of licensee's safety culture becomes an important issue that attracts great public and political concerns recently in Korea. Beginning from the intended violation of rules, a series of corruptions, documents forgery and disclosure of wrong-doings made the public think that the whole mindset of nuclear workers has been inadequate. Thus, they are demanding that safety culture shall be improved and that regulatory body shall play more roles and responsibilities for the improvements and oversight for them. This paper introduces, as an effort of regulatory side, recent changes in the role of regulators in safety culture, regulatory expectations on the desired status of licensee's safety culture, the pilot inspection program for safety culture and research activity for the development of oversight system. After the Fukushima accident in Japan 2011, many critics has searched for cultural factors that caused the unacceptable negligence pervaded in Japan nuclear society and the renewed emphasis has been placed on rebuilding safety culture by operators, regulators, and relevant institutions globally. Significant progress has been made in how to approach safety culture and led to a new perspective different from the existing normative assessment method both in operators and regulatory side. Regulatory expectations and oversight of them are based on such a new holistic concept for human, organizational and cultural elements to maintain and strengthen the integrity of defense in depth and consequently nuclear safety.

  16. Regulatory framework and development perspectives of the mechanism of public participation in the management of Russia’s forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay Mikhaylovich Shmatkov

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article dwells on the current state of the regulatory framework of the Russian Federation and the mechanism of public participation in forest management. The examples of addressing the problems of public participation in forest management in individual regions are disclosed. The article deals with the issues concerning the provision of in-interests of the local population through the voluntary forest certification system under the FSC scheme. Recommendations on improving the mechanism of public participation in solving the forest management issues are suggested

  17. Cyberpsychology: a human-interaction perspective based on cognitive modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emond, Bruno; West, Robert L

    2003-10-01

    This paper argues for the relevance of cognitive modeling and cognitive architectures to cyberpsychology. From a human-computer interaction point of view, cognitive modeling can have benefits both for theory and model building, and for the design and evaluation of sociotechnical systems usability. Cognitive modeling research applied to human-computer interaction has two complimentary objectives: (1) to develop theories and computational models of human interactive behavior with information and collaborative technologies, and (2) to use the computational models as building blocks for the design, implementation, and evaluation of interactive technologies. From the perspective of building theories and models, cognitive modeling offers the possibility to anchor cyberpsychology theories and models into cognitive architectures. From the perspective of the design and evaluation of socio-technical systems, cognitive models can provide the basis for simulated users, which can play an important role in usability testing. As an example of application of cognitive modeling to technology design, the paper presents a simulation of interactive behavior with five different adaptive menu algorithms: random, fixed, stacked, frequency based, and activation based. Results of the simulation indicate that fixed menu positions seem to offer the best support for classification like tasks such as filing e-mails. This research is part of the Human-Computer Interaction, and the Broadband Visual Communication research programs at the National Research Council of Canada, in collaboration with the Carleton Cognitive Modeling Lab at Carleton University.

  18. Disorders of Acid-Base Balance: New Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifter, Julian L; Chang, Hsin-Yun

    2017-01-01

    Disorders of acid-base involve the complex interplay of many organ systems including brain, lungs, kidney, and liver. Compensations for acid-base disturbances within the brain are more complete, while limitations of compensations are more apparent for most systemic disorders. However, some of the limitations on compensations are necessary to survival, in that preservation of oxygenation, energy balance, cognition, electrolyte, and fluid balance are connected mechanistically. This review aims to give new and comprehensive perspective on understanding acid-base balance and identifying associated disorders. All metabolic acid-base disorders can be approached in the context of the relative losses or gains of electrolytes or a change in the anion gap in body fluids. Acid-base and electrolyte balance are connected not only at the cellular level but also in daily clinical practice. Urine chemistry is essential to understanding electrolyte excretion and renal compensations. Many constructs are helpful to understand acid-base, but these models are not mutually exclusive. Electroneutrality and the close interconnection between electrolyte and acid-base balance are important concepts to apply in acid-base diagnoses. All models have complexity and shortcuts that can help in practice. There is no reason to dismiss any of the present constructs, and there is benefit in a combined approach.

  19. Embracing First-Person Perspectives in Soma-Based Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Höök

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A set of prominent designers embarked on a research journey to explore aesthetics in movement-based design. Here we unpack one of the design sensitivities unique to our practice: a strong first person perspective—where the movements, somatics and aesthetic sensibilities of the designer, design researcher and user are at the forefront. We present an annotated portfolio of design exemplars and a brief introduction to some of the design methods and theory we use, together substantiating and explaining the first-person perspective. At the same time, we show how this felt dimension, despite its subjective nature, is what provides rigor and structure to our design research. Our aim is to assist researchers in soma-based design and designers wanting to consider the multiple facets when designing for the aesthetics of movement. The applications span a large field of designs, including slow introspective, contemplative interactions, arts, dance, health applications, games, work applications and many others.

  20. Bringing plant-based veterinary vaccines to market: Managing regulatory and commercial hurdles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Jacqueline; Doshi, Ketan; Dussault, Marike; Hall, J Christopher; Holbrook, Larry; Jones, Ginny; Kaldis, Angelo; Klima, Cassidy L; Macdonald, Phil; McAllister, Tim; McLean, Michael D; Potter, Andrew; Richman, Alex; Shearer, Heather; Yarosh, Oksana; Yoo, Han Sang; Topp, Edward; Menassa, Rima

    2015-12-01

    The production of recombinant vaccines in plants may help to reduce the burden of veterinary diseases, which cause major economic losses and in some cases can affect human health. While there is abundant research in this area, a knowledge gap exists between the ability to create and evaluate plant-based products in the laboratory, and the ability to take these products on a path to commercialization. The current report, arising from a workshop sponsored by an Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Co-operative Research Programme, addresses this gap by providing guidance in planning for the commercialization of plant-made vaccines for animal use. It includes relevant information on developing business plans, assessing market opportunities, manufacturing scale-up, financing, protecting and using intellectual property, and regulatory approval with a focus on Canadian regulations. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. School Librarianship and Evidence Based Practice: Progress, Perspectives, and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross J. Todd

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective – This paper provides an overview of progress and developments surrounding evidence based practice in school librarianship, and seeks to provide a picture of current thinking about evidence based practice as it relates to the field. It addresses current issues and challenges facing the adoption of evidence based practice in school librarianship.Methods – The paper is based on a narrative review of a small but growing body of literature on evidence based practice in school librarianship, set within a broader perspective of evidence based education. In addition, it presents the outcomes of a collaborative process of input from 200 school libraries leaders collected at a School Library summit in 2007 specifically to address the emerging arena of evidence based practice in this field.Results – A holistic model of evidence based practice for school libraries is presented, centering on three integrated dimensions of evidence: evidence for practice, evidence in practice, and evidence of practice.Conclusion – The paper identifies key challenges ahead if evidence based school librarianship is to develop further. These include: building research credibility within the broader educational environment; the need for ongoing review and evaluation of the diverse body of research in education, librarianship and allied fields to make quality evidence available in ways that can enable practicing school librarians to build a culture of evidence based practice; development of tools, strategies, and exemplars to use to facilitate evidence based decision-making; and, ensuring that the many and diverse advances in education and librarianship become part of the practice of school librarianship.

  2. Why different regulatory decisions when the scientific information base is similar?--Human risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, R; Tasheva, M; Jaeger, B

    1993-06-01

    The main objective of this analysis has been to characterize the role of science, in a broad sense, in relation to social, economical, political, and other factors in explaining why regulatory decisions vary in different countries, although they are based on more or less identical scientific data. Eleven countries from different geographical areas and with varying cultural background have provided information in response to an extensive questionnaire aimed at identifying procedures for registration, restricting, or banning registration for certain selected pesticides. Although many of these responses lacked sufficient detail in certain aspects, together with other documentary sources they nonetheless provided insight with respect to some of the main concerns among and between nations regarding decisions in pesticide management. Among the main conclusions presented in this analysis, the following deserves particular emphasis: The underlying reasons for introducing restrictions on pesticide use on the national level will have to be more explicitly stated and openly declared by regulatory bodies of all nations. Although more pronounced in some countries, there is a strong influence of nonscientific considerations in pesticide management, that is not always based on rational considerations. In the field of hazard and risk assessment differences in scientific opinion have primarily, but not exclusively been identified regarding the evaluation of carcinogenic effects in experimental animals. In this area debated issues are the interpretation of the significance for man of certain types of tumors, methods for dose-response extrapolation, genotoxic versus nongenotoxic carcinogens, the use of MTD in long-term studies, mechanistic approaches to interpret cancer induction, and others. Another area identified to cause divergence is exposure assessment. Evaluation of pesticides on the national level for the purpose of regulation involves a tremendous duplication of efforts that

  3. EARLY EVALUATION OF NEW HEALTH TECHNOLOGIES: THE CASE FOR PREMARKET STUDIES THAT HARMONIZE REGULATORY AND COVERAGE PERSPECTIVES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Leslie

    2015-01-01

    With an increasing awareness that active engagement between policy decision makers, HTA agencies, regulators and payers with industry in the premarket space is needed, a disruptive comprehensive approach is described which moves the evidentiary process exclusively into this space. Single harmonized studies pre-market to address regulatory and coverage needs and expectations are more likely to be efficient and less costly and position evidence to drive rather than test innovation. An example of such a process through the MaRS EXCITE program in Ontario, Canada, now undergoing proof of concept, is briefly discussed. Other examples of dialogue between decision makers and industry pre-market are provided though these are less robust than a comprehensive evidentiary approach.

  4. Is there a need for a universal benefit-risk assessment framework for medicines? Regulatory and industry perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, James; McAuslane, Neil; Walker, Stuart; Salek, Sam

    2013-09-01

    To explore the current status and need for a universal benefit-risk framework for medicines in regulatory agencies and pharmaceutical companies. A questionnaire was developed and sent to 14 mature regulatory agencies and 24 major companies. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics, for a minority of questions preceded by manual grouping of the responses. Overall response rate was 82%, and study participants included key decision makers from agencies and companies. None used a fully quantitative system, most companies preferring a qualitative method. The major reasons for this group not using semi-quantitative or quantitative systems were lack of a universal and scientifically validated framework. The main advantages of a benefit-risk framework were that it provided a systematic standardised approach to decision-making and that it acted as a tool to enhance quality of communication. It was also reported that a framework should be of value to both agencies and companies throughout the life cycle of a product. They believed that it is possible to develop an overarching benefit-risk framework that should involve relevant stakeholders in the development, validation and application of a universal framework. The entire cohort indicated common barriers to implementing a framework were resource limitations, a lack of knowledge and a scientifically validated and acceptable framework. Stakeholders prefer a semi-quantitative, overarching framework that incorporates a toolbox of different methodologies. A coordinating committee of relevant stakeholders should be formed to guide its development and implementation. Through engaging the stakeholders, these outcomes confirm sentiments and need for developing a universal benefit-risk assessment framework. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Boolean regulatory network reconstruction using literature based knowledge with a genetic algorithm optimization method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorier, Julien; Crespo, Isaac; Niknejad, Anne; Liechti, Robin; Ebeling, Martin; Xenarios, Ioannis

    2016-10-06

    Prior knowledge networks (PKNs) provide a framework for the development of computational biological models, including Boolean models of regulatory networks which are the focus of this work. PKNs are created by a painstaking process of literature curation, and generally describe all relevant regulatory interactions identified using a variety of experimental conditions and systems, such as specific cell types or tissues. Certain of these regulatory interactions may not occur in all biological contexts of interest, and their presence may dramatically change the dynamical behaviour of the resulting computational model, hindering the elucidation of the underlying mechanisms and reducing the usefulness of model predictions. Methods are therefore required to generate optimized contextual network models from generic PKNs. We developed a new approach to generate and optimize Boolean networks, based on a given PKN. Using a genetic algorithm, a model network is built as a sub-network of the PKN and trained against experimental data to reproduce the experimentally observed behaviour in terms of attractors and the transitions that occur between them under specific perturbations. The resulting model network is therefore contextualized to the experimental conditions and constitutes a dynamical Boolean model closer to the observed biological process used to train the model than the original PKN. Such a model can then be interrogated to simulate response under perturbation, to detect stable states and their properties, to get insights into the underlying mechanisms and to generate new testable hypotheses. Generic PKNs attempt to synthesize knowledge of all interactions occurring in a biological process of interest, irrespective of the specific biological context. This limits their usefulness as a basis for the development of context-specific, predictive dynamical Boolean models. The optimization method presented in this article produces specific, contextualized models from generic

  6. Augmenting microarray data with literature-based knowledge to enhance gene regulatory network inference.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guocai Chen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Gene regulatory networks are a crucial aspect of systems biology in describing molecular mechanisms of the cell. Various computational models rely on random gene selection to infer such networks from microarray data. While incorporation of prior knowledge into data analysis has been deemed important, in practice, it has generally been limited to referencing genes in probe sets and using curated knowledge bases. We investigate the impact of augmenting microarray data with semantic relations automatically extracted from the literature, with the view that relations encoding gene/protein interactions eliminate the need for random selection of components in non-exhaustive approaches, producing a more accurate model of cellular behavior. A genetic algorithm is then used to optimize the strength of interactions using microarray data and an artificial neural network fitness function. The result is a directed and weighted network providing the individual contribution of each gene to its target. For testing, we used invasive ductile carcinoma of the breast to query the literature and a microarray set containing gene expression changes in these cells over several time points. Our model demonstrates significantly better fitness than the state-of-the-art model, which relies on an initial random selection of genes. Comparison to the component pathways of the KEGG Pathways in Cancer map reveals that the resulting networks contain both known and novel relationships. The p53 pathway results were manually validated in the literature. 60% of non-KEGG relationships were supported (74% for highly weighted interactions. The method was then applied to yeast data and our model again outperformed the comparison model. Our results demonstrate the advantage of combining gene interactions extracted from the literature in the form of semantic relations with microarray analysis in generating contribution-weighted gene regulatory networks. This methodology can make a

  7. A Kalman-filter based approach to identification of time-varying gene regulatory networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Xiong

    Full Text Available MOTIVATION: Conventional identification methods for gene regulatory networks (GRNs have overwhelmingly adopted static topology models, which remains unchanged over time to represent the underlying molecular interactions of a biological system. However, GRNs are dynamic in response to physiological and environmental changes. Although there is a rich literature in modeling static or temporally invariant networks, how to systematically recover these temporally changing networks remains a major and significant pressing challenge. The purpose of this study is to suggest a two-step strategy that recovers time-varying GRNs. RESULTS: It is suggested in this paper to utilize a switching auto-regressive model to describe the dynamics of time-varying GRNs, and a two-step strategy is proposed to recover the structure of time-varying GRNs. In the first step, the change points are detected by a Kalman-filter based method. The observed time series are divided into several segments using these detection results; and each time series segment belonging to two successive demarcating change points is associated with an individual static regulatory network. In the second step, conditional network structure identification methods are used to reconstruct the topology for each time interval. This two-step strategy efficiently decouples the change point detection problem and the topology inference problem. Simulation results show that the proposed strategy can detect the change points precisely and recover each individual topology structure effectively. Moreover, computation results with the developmental data of Drosophila Melanogaster show that the proposed change point detection procedure is also able to work effectively in real world applications and the change point estimation accuracy exceeds other existing approaches, which means the suggested strategy may also be helpful in solving actual GRN reconstruction problem.

  8. Perspectives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    regards scientific funding4. He never had a big institute in the modern sense and did not dispose of large funds or large numbers of people5. Conflict between Bernal and. Perspectives ... The problems of being a “polytropic scientist” have increased enormously. ... as ever for managing populations. People with power are.

  9. Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarone, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    The topic of this "Perspectives" column is "Requiring a Proficiency Level as a Requirement for U.S. K-12 Teacher Licensure." In 1998, the American Council of Teachers of Foreign Languages (ACTFL) began to work with the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE), which accredits teacher education programs…

  10. Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kussmann, Martin; Morine, Melissa J; Hager, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    We review here the status of human type 2 diabetes studies from a genetic, epidemiological, and clinical (intervention) perspective. Most studies limit analyses to one or a few omic technologies providing data of components of physiological processes. Since all chronic diseases are multifactorial...

  11. Perspective

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tamara Shefer

    maintaining safe school environments. This perspective paper outlines the NSSF's approach to preventing school violence. Keywords: national school safety framework, violence prevention, South African schools, school safety. INTRODUCTION. Schools should be safe places for teaching and learning, free of violence and ...

  12. Biosimilar monoclonal antibodies: A Canadian regulatory perspective on the assessment of clinically relevant differences and indication extrapolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Bradley J; Klein, Agnes V; Wang, Jian

    2015-03-01

    Monoclonal antibodies have become mainstays of treatment for many diseases. After more than a decade on the Canadian market, a number of authorized monoclonal antibody products are facing patent expiry. Given their success, most notably in the areas of oncology and autoimmune disease, pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies are eager to produce their own biosimilar versions and have begun manufacturing and testing for a variety of monoclonal antibody products. In October of 2013, the first biosimilar monoclonal antibody products were approved by the European Medicines Agency (Remsima™ and Inflectra™). These products were authorized by Health Canada shortly after; however, while the EMA allowed for extrapolation to all of the indications held by the reference product, Health Canada limited extrapolation to a subset of the indications held by the reference product, Remicade®. The purpose of this review is to discuss the Canadian regulatory framework for the authorization of biosimilar mAbs with specific discussion around the clinical requirements for establishing (bio)-similarity and to present the principles that are used in the clinical assessment of New Drug Submissions for intended biosimilar monoclonal antibodies. Health Canada's current views regarding indication extrapolation, product interchangeability, and post-market surveillance are discussed as well. © 2014, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  13. RegTransBase - A Database Of Regulatory Sequences and Interactionsin a Wide Range of Prokaryotic Genomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazakov, Alexei E.; Cipriano, Michael J.; Novichkov, Pavel S.; Minovitsky, Simon; Vinogradov, Dmitry V.; Arkin, Adam; Mironov, AndreyA.; Gelfand, Mikhail S.; Dubchak, Inna

    2006-07-01

    RegTransBase, a manually curated database of regulatoryinteractions in prokaryotes, captures the knowledge in publishedscientific literature using a controlled vocabulary. Although a number ofdatabases describing interactions between regulatory proteins and theirbinding sites are currently being maintained, they focus mostly on themodel organisms Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis, or are entirelycomputationally derived. RegTransBase describes a large number ofregulatory interactions reported in many organisms and contains varioustypes of experimental data, in particular: the activation or repressionof transcription by an identified direct regulator; determining thetranscriptional regulatory function of a protein (or RNA) directlybinding to DNA (RNA); mapping or prediction of binding site for aregulatory protein; characterization of regulatory mutations. Currently,the RegTransBase content is derived from about 3000 relevant articlesdescribing over 7000 experiments in relation to 128 microbes. It containsdata on the regulation of about 7500 genes and evidence for 6500interactions with 650 regulators. RegTransBase also contains manuallycreated position weight matrices (PWM) that can be used to identifycandidate regulatory sites in over 60 species. RegTransBase is availableat http://regtransbase.lbl.gov.

  14. The French regulatory experience and views on nickel-base alloy PWSCC prevention and treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turluer, G.; Cattiaux, G.; Monnot, B. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, IRSN, 92 - Fontenay aux Roses (France); Emond, D.; Reuchet, J.; Chartier, Ph. [Direction Generale de la Surete Nucleaire et de la Radioprotection, 75 - Paris (France)

    2003-10-01

    This paper presents the experience feedback and views of the French Regulatory Authority (ASN) and of the technical support institute (IRSN) on PWSCC prevention since the initiation in 1989 of the 'Inconel Zones Review' requested by ASN to Electricite de France (EDF), the national operator of a fleet of 58 PWRs. This proactive requirement, launched before the discovery, in September 1991, of the only CRDM nozzle leak in France, on Bugey unit 3, was then triggered by the recurrence of many alloy 600 rapid degradations and leaks, world wide, and also in France in the late 1980's, particularly on steam generator tubes and on some pressurizer penetrations. Thus, the ASN requested that EDF, perform a comprehensive (generic) proactive assessment on all the nickel-base alloy components and parts of the main primary circuits, which of course included vessel head penetrations and bottom vessel head penetrations, and some other zones as a first priority. This proactive 'review' did, a minima, include the following tasks and actions: - Update and complete, by an extensive R and D program, the understanding and characterization of the Ni base alloys prone to PWSCC, - Analyze the various materials, metallurgical features, mechanical stresses, and physicochemical conditions of the parts exposed to primary water, in order to predict the occurrence of PWSCC initiation and propagation, - Provide a prioritization of the zones to be inspected, - Implement by improved NDE techniques a practical inspection program on the 58 PWRs, - Prepare and implement any needed mitigation actions as a result of the components conditions assessment. The present paper relates the main features of the French regulatory experience over more than 13 years and recalls the main principles of the assessment, which were applied by ASN. These principles, which are formalized in the current regulation rules revised in 1999, are briefly listed hereunder: - It is based on avoiding and

  15. Regenerative technologies to bed side: Evolving the regulatory framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Sakai

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available There are high expectations for the clinical application of regenerative medicine technologies to treat musculoskeletal disorders. However, there are still big hurdles in bringing cell-based products to the market, mainly due to strict regulatory frameworks to approve these. Recently, the Japanese Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency adopted new regulations under legislature. The translational potential of this article is to inform on the regulations to bring experimental phase regenerative concepts to market approval in the United States and Europe, and highlight the opportunities granted by Japanese regulatory framework. Furthermore, we discuss the perspectives on the quickly evolving regulatory environment.

  16. MCP-based detector some results and perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Patarakin, O O; Strepetov, A N; Turbin, E V; Sinitsin, V I; Kartamushev, A A

    1997-01-01

    The timing resolution of photomultiplier tubes (PMT) based on shevron-type microchannel plates (MCP) has been studied inmagnetic fields. The same timingresolution with and without a longitudinal magnetic field up to 2.0 kGwas obtained as = 85 ± 2 ps. It is shown that an increase of timing resolution in this magnetic field does not exceed25 ps (upper limit). The timing resolution of = 31 ± 2 pswas obtained for narrow (10resolution) amplitude spectrumfrom Corone discharge. The counting rate of MCP-based detector was studied in function of the direction of the magnetic field.The spatial and timing resolution for the MCP-based PMT were obtained using laser pulses as well. With laser pulses of 0.3 ns a timing resolution of ≅ 450 ps was obtained. Taking into account the amplitude correction narrows to 140 ps. Using 100 fs-laser with the standard constant fractiondiscriminator gives a timing resolution from 20 to 40 ps depending on the read-out MCP region.The perspectives of using...

  17. Money laundering regulatory risk evaluation using Bitmap Index-based Decision Tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Jayasree

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes to evaluate the adaptability risk in money laundering using Bitmap Index-based Decision Tree (BIDT technique. Initially, the Bitmap Index-based Decision Tree learning is used to induce the knowledge tree which helps to determine a company’s money laundering risk and improve scalability. A bitmap index in BIDT is used to effectively access large banking databases. In a BIDT bitmap index, account in a table is numbered in sequence with each key value, account number and a bitmap (array of bytes used instead of a list of row ids. Subsequently, BIDT algorithm uses the “select” query performance to apply count and bit-wise logical operations on AND. Query result coincides exactly to build a decision tree and more precisely to evaluate the adaptability risk in the money laundering operation. For the root node, the main account of the decision tree, the population frequencies are obtained by simply counting the total number of “1” in the bitmaps constructed on the attribute to predict money laundering and evaluate the risk factor rate. The experiment is conducted on factors such as regulatory risk rate, false positive rate, and risk identification time.

  18. Bacterial regulon modeling and prediction based on systematic cis regulatory motif analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bingqiang; Zhou, Chuan; Li, Guojun; Zhang, Hanyuan; Zeng, Erliang; Liu, Qi; Ma, Qin

    2016-03-01

    Regulons are the basic units of the response system in a bacterial cell, and each consists of a set of transcriptionally co-regulated operons. Regulon elucidation is the basis for studying the bacterial global transcriptional regulation network. In this study, we designed a novel co-regulation score between a pair of operons based on accurate operon identification and cis regulatory motif analyses, which can capture their co-regulation relationship much better than other scores. Taking full advantage of this discovery, we developed a new computational framework and built a novel graph model for regulon prediction. This model integrates the motif comparison and clustering and makes the regulon prediction problem substantially more solvable and accurate. To evaluate our prediction, a regulon coverage score was designed based on the documented regulons and their overlap with our prediction; and a modified Fisher Exact test was implemented to measure how well our predictions match the co-expressed modules derived from E. coli microarray gene-expression datasets collected under 466 conditions. The results indicate that our program consistently performed better than others in terms of the prediction accuracy. This suggests that our algorithms substantially improve the state-of-the-art, leading to a computational capability to reliably predict regulons for any bacteria.

  19. Effects of implicit theories of ability and stereotype-inconsistent information on handgrip strength in older adults: A regulatory fit perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emile, Mélanie; Chalabaev, Aina; Colson, Serge S; Vaulerin, Jerome; Falzon, Charlene; D'Arripe-Longueville, Fabienne

    2017-03-01

    This study examined whether stereotype-inconsistent information interacts with implicit theories of ability to affect handgrip strength in older adults. Eighty-two retired older adults (13 men and 69 women) from 61 to 89 years old (M age = 75.8 years; SD = 6.9) performed maximum voluntary contractions (MVC) during a handgrip task in a design manipulating implicit theories of ability and stereotype-inconsistent information related to physical decline with aging. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups: incremental condition, entity condition, or control group. The results showed that in the incremental condition the stereotype-inconsistent information improved the peak MVC, the average MVC, the peak rate of force development (RFD), and RFD in the initial 50 ms of the MVC. This study therefore demonstrated that individuals with an incremental mindset who are exposed to stereotype-inconsistent information can boost their physical performance. These findings are discussed from the perspective of regulatory fit (i.e., when task framing is congruent with the individual's goal). © 2016 The Authors. Psychophysiology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  20. Promoting Prosocial Behavior and Self-Regulatory Skills in Preschool Children through a Mindfulness-Based Kindness Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flook, Lisa; Goldberg, Simon B.; Pinger, Laura; Davidson, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    Self-regulatory abilities are robust predictors of important outcomes across the life span, yet they are rarely taught explicitly in school. Using a randomized controlled design, the present study investigated the effects of a 12-week mindfulness-based Kindness Curriculum (KC) delivered in a public school setting on executive function,…

  1. 77 FR 52977 - Regulatory Capital Rules: Advanced Approaches Risk-Based Capital Rule; Market Risk Capital Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-30

    ... rule and the market risk rule to savings and loan holding companies, and the Board, FDIC, and OCC propose applying the market risk capital rule to savings and loan holding companies and to state and... Regulatory Capital Rules: Advanced Approaches Risk-Based Capital Rule; Market Risk Capital Rule; Proposed...

  2. Uncertainty and innovation: Understanding the role of cell-based manufacturing facilities in shaping regulatory and commercialization environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isasi, Rosario; Rahimzadeh, Vasiliki; Charlebois, Kathleen

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study is to elucidate stakeholder perceptions of, and institutional practices related to cell-based therapies and products (CTP) regulation and commercialization in Canada. The development of reproducible, safe and effective CTPs is predicated on regulatory and commercialization environments that enable innovation. Manufacturing processes constitute a critical step for CTP development in this regard. The road from CTP manufacturing to translation in the clinic, however, has yet to be paved. This study aims to fill an empirical gap in the literature by exploring how CTP manufacturing facilities navigate Canadian regulatory and commercialization environments, which together drive the translation of novel CTPs from bench to bedside. Using the multi-level model of practice-driven institutional change proposed by Smets et al., we demonstrate how CTP manufacturing practices are governed by established standards, yet meaningfully shape higher-order regulatory and commercial norms in CTP research and development. We identify four key themes that undergird such processes of innovation: 1) managing regulatory uncertainty, which stems from an inability to classify CTPs within existing regulatory categories for approval and commercialization purposes; 2) building a 'business case' whereby a CTP's market potential is determined in large part by proving its safety and effectiveness; 3) standardizing manufacturing procedures that mobilize CTPs from a research and development phase to a commercialization one; and 4) networking between researchers and regulators to develop responsible commercialization processes that reflect the uniqueness of CTPs as distinct from other biologics and medical devices.

  3. Sieve-based relation extraction of gene regulatory networks from biological literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žitnik, Slavko; Žitnik, Marinka; Zupan, Blaž; Bajec, Marko

    2015-01-01

    Relation extraction is an essential procedure in literature mining. It focuses on extracting semantic relations between parts of text, called mentions. Biomedical literature includes an enormous amount of textual descriptions of biological entities, their interactions and results of related experiments. To extract them in an explicit, computer readable format, these relations were at first extracted manually from databases. Manual curation was later replaced with automatic or semi-automatic tools with natural language processing capabilities. The current challenge is the development of information extraction procedures that can directly infer more complex relational structures, such as gene regulatory networks. We develop a computational approach for extraction of gene regulatory networks from textual data. Our method is designed as a sieve-based system and uses linear-chain conditional random fields and rules for relation extraction. With this method we successfully extracted the sporulation gene regulation network in the bacterium Bacillus subtilis for the information extraction challenge at the BioNLP 2013 conference. To enable extraction of distant relations using first-order models, we transform the data into skip-mention sequences. We infer multiple models, each of which is able to extract different relationship types. Following the shared task, we conducted additional analysis using different system settings that resulted in reducing the reconstruction error of bacterial sporulation network from 0.73 to 0.68, measured as the slot error rate between the predicted and the reference network. We observe that all relation extraction sieves contribute to the predictive performance of the proposed approach. Also, features constructed by considering mention words and their prefixes and suffixes are the most important features for higher accuracy of extraction. Analysis of distances between different mention types in the text shows that our choice of transforming

  4. Current advances and future perspectives in extrusion-based bioprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozbolat, Ibrahim T; Hospodiuk, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Extrusion-based bioprinting (EBB) is a rapidly growing technology that has made substantial progress during the last decade. It has great versatility in printing various biologics, including cells, tissues, tissue constructs, organ modules and microfluidic devices, in applications from basic research and pharmaceutics to clinics. Despite the great benefits and flexibility in printing a wide range of bioinks, including tissue spheroids, tissue strands, cell pellets, decellularized matrix components, micro-carriers and cell-laden hydrogels, the technology currently faces several limitations and challenges. These include impediments to organ fabrication, the limited resolution of printed features, the need for advanced bioprinting solutions to transition the technology bench to bedside, the necessity of new bioink development for rapid, safe and sustainable delivery of cells in a biomimetically organized microenvironment, and regulatory concerns to transform the technology into a product. This paper, presenting a first-time comprehensive review of EBB, discusses the current advancements in EBB technology and highlights future directions to transform the technology to generate viable end products for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A sequence-based method to predict the impact of regulatory variants using random forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiao; Gan, Mingxin; Jiang, Rui

    2017-03-14

    Most disease-associated variants identified by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) exist in noncoding regions. In spite of the common agreement that such variants may disrupt biological functions of their hosting regulatory elements, it remains a great challenge to characterize the risk of a genetic variant within the implicated genome sequence. Therefore, it is essential to develop an effective computational model that is not only capable of predicting the potential risk of a genetic variant but also valid in interpreting how the function of the genome is affected with the occurrence of the variant. We developed a method named kmerForest that used a random forest classifier with k-mer counts to predict accessible chromatin regions purely based on DNA sequences. We demonstrated that our method outperforms existing methods in distinguishing known accessible chromatin regions from random genomic sequences. Furthermore, the performance of our method can further be improved with the incorporation of sequence conservation features. Based on this model, we assessed importance of the k-mer features by a series of permutation experiments, and we characterized the risk of a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) on the function of the genome using the difference between the importance of the k-mer features affected by the occurrence of the SNP. We conducted a series of experiments and showed that our model can well discriminate between pathogenic and normal SNPs. Particularly, our model correctly prioritized SNPs that are proved to be enriched for the binding sites of FOXA1 in breast cancer cell lines from previous studies. We presented a novel method to interpret functional genetic variants purely base on DNA sequences. The proposed k-mer based score offers an effective means of measuring the impact of SNPs on the function of the genome, and thus shedding light on the identification of genetic risk factors underlying complex traits and diseases.

  6. Implementation of Evidence-Based Practice From a Learning Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Per; Neher, Margit; Ellström, Per-Erik; Gardner, Benjamin

    2017-06-01

    For many nurses and other health care practitioners, implementing evidence-based practice (EBP) presents two interlinked challenges: acquisition of EBP skills and adoption of evidence-based interventions and abandonment of ingrained non-evidence-based practices. The purpose of this study to describe two modes of learning and use these as lenses for analyzing the challenges of implementing EBP in health care. The article is theoretical, drawing on learning and habit theory. Adaptive learning involves a gradual shift from slower, deliberate behaviors to faster, smoother, and more efficient behaviors. Developmental learning is conceptualized as a process in the "opposite" direction, whereby more or less automatically enacted behaviors become deliberate and conscious. Achieving a more EBP depends on both adaptive and developmental learning, which involves both forming EBP-conducive habits and breaking clinical practice habits that do not contribute to realizing the goals of EBP. From a learning perspective, EBP will be best supported by means of adaptive learning that yields a habitual practice of EBP such that it becomes natural and instinctive to instigate EBP in appropriate contexts by means of seeking out, critiquing, and integrating research into everyday clinical practice as well as learning new interventions best supported by empirical evidence. However, the context must also support developmental learning that facilitates disruption of existing habits to ascertain that the execution of the EBP process or the use of evidence-based interventions in routine practice is carefully and consciously considered to arrive at the most appropriate response. © 2017 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  7. Genome-scale strain designs based on regulatory minimal cut sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahadevan, Radhakrishnan; von Kamp, Axel; Klamt, Steffen

    2015-09-01

    Stoichiometric and constraint-based methods of computational strain design have become an important tool for rational metabolic engineering. One of those relies on the concept of constrained minimal cut sets (cMCSs). However, as most other techniques, cMCSs may consider only reaction (or gene) knockouts to achieve a desired phenotype. We generalize the cMCSs approach to constrained regulatory MCSs (cRegMCSs), where up/downregulation of reaction rates can be combined along with reaction deletions. We show that flux up/downregulations can virtually be treated as cuts allowing their direct integration into the algorithmic framework of cMCSs. Because of vastly enlarged search spaces in genome-scale networks, we developed strategies to (optionally) preselect suitable candidates for flux regulation and novel algorithmic techniques to further enhance efficiency and speed of cMCSs calculation. We illustrate the cRegMCSs approach by a simple example network and apply it then by identifying strain designs for ethanol production in a genome-scale metabolic model of Escherichia coli. The results clearly show that cRegMCSs combining reaction deletions and flux regulations provide a much larger number of suitable strain designs, many of which are significantly smaller relative to cMCSs involving only knockouts. Furthermore, with cRegMCSs, one may also enable the fine tuning of desired behaviours in a narrower range. The new cRegMCSs approach may thus accelerate the implementation of model-based strain designs for the bio-based production of fuels and chemicals. MATLAB code and the examples can be downloaded at http://www.mpi-magdeburg.mpg.de/projects/cna/etcdownloads.html. krishna.mahadevan@utoronto.ca or klamt@mpi-magdeburg.mpg.de Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Recurrent neural network-based modeling of gene regulatory network using elephant swarm water search algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Sudip; Saha, Goutam; Pal, Rajat Kumar

    2017-08-01

    Correct inference of genetic regulations inside a cell from the biological database like time series microarray data is one of the greatest challenges in post genomic era for biologists and researchers. Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) is one of the most popular and simple approach to model the dynamics as well as to infer correct dependencies among genes. Inspired by the behavior of social elephants, we propose a new metaheuristic namely Elephant Swarm Water Search Algorithm (ESWSA) to infer Gene Regulatory Network (GRN). This algorithm is mainly based on the water search strategy of intelligent and social elephants during drought, utilizing the different types of communication techniques. Initially, the algorithm is tested against benchmark small and medium scale artificial genetic networks without and with presence of different noise levels and the efficiency was observed in term of parametric error, minimum fitness value, execution time, accuracy of prediction of true regulation, etc. Next, the proposed algorithm is tested against the real time gene expression data of Escherichia Coli SOS Network and results were also compared with others state of the art optimization methods. The experimental results suggest that ESWSA is very efficient for GRN inference problem and performs better than other methods in many ways.

  9. Ultradeep Human Phosphoproteome Reveals a Distinct Regulatory Nature of Tyr and Ser/Thr-Based Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirti Sharma

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Regulatory protein phosphorylation controls normal and pathophysiological signaling in eukaryotic cells. Despite great advances in mass-spectrometry-based proteomics, the extent, localization, and site-specific stoichiometry of this posttranslational modification (PTM are unknown. Here, we develop a stringent experimental and computational workflow, capable of mapping more than 50,000 distinct phosphorylated peptides in a single human cancer cell line. We detected more than three-quarters of cellular proteins as phosphoproteins and determined very high stoichiometries in mitosis or growth factor signaling by label-free quantitation. The proportion of phospho-Tyr drastically decreases as coverage of the phosphoproteome increases, whereas Ser/Thr sites saturate only for technical reasons. Tyrosine phosphorylation is maintained at especially low stoichiometric levels in the absence of specific signaling events. Unexpectedly, it is enriched on higher-abundance proteins, and this correlates with the substrate KM values of tyrosine kinases. Our data suggest that P-Tyr should be considered a functionally separate PTM of eukaryotic proteomes.

  10. Improving the extraction of complex regulatory events from scientific text by using ontology-based inference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Jung-jae

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The extraction of complex events from biomedical text is a challenging task and requires in-depth semantic analysis. Previous approaches associate lexical and syntactic resources with ontologies for the semantic analysis, but fall short in testing the benefits from the use of domain knowledge. Results We developed a system that deduces implicit events from explicitly expressed events by using inference rules that encode domain knowledge. We evaluated the system with the inference module on three tasks: First, when tested against a corpus with manually annotated events, the inference module of our system contributes 53.2% of correct extractions, but does not cause any incorrect results. Second, the system overall reproduces 33.1% of the transcription regulatory events contained in RegulonDB (up to 85.0% precision and the inference module is required for 93.8% of the reproduced events. Third, we applied the system with minimum adaptations to the identification of cell activity regulation events, confirming that the inference improves the performance of the system also on this task. Conclusions Our research shows that the inference based on domain knowledge plays a significant role in extracting complex events from text. This approach has great potential in recognizing the complex concepts of such biomedical ontologies as Gene Ontology in the literature.

  11. Use of H19 Gene Regulatory Sequences in DNA-Based Therapy for Pancreatic Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Scaiewicz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is the eighth most common cause of death from cancer in the world, for which palliative treatments are not effective and frequently accompanied by severe side effects. We propose a DNA-based therapy for pancreatic cancer using a nonviral vector, expressing the diphtheria toxin A chain under the control of the H19 gene regulatory sequences. The H19 gene is an oncofetal RNA expressed during embryo development and in several types of cancer. We tested the expression of H19 gene in patients, and found that 65% of human pancreatic tumors analyzed showed moderated to strong expression of the gene. In vitro experiments showed that the vector was effective in reducing Luciferase protein activity on pancreatic carcinoma cell lines. In vivo experiment results revealed tumor growth arrest in different animal models for pancreatic cancer. Differences in tumor size between control and treated groups reached a 75% in the heterotopic model (P=.037 and 50% in the orthotopic model (P=.007. In addition, no visible metastases were found in the treated group of the orthotopic model. These results indicate that the treatment with the vector DTA-H19 might be a viable new therapeutic option for patients with unresectable pancreatic cancer.

  12. Ranking system for national regulatory jurisdictions based on pesticide standard values in major exposures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zijian Li

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available To control the risk of human exposure to pesticides, about 50 nations have promulgated pesticide soil regulatory guidance values (RGVs, and 104 nations have provided pesticide drinking water maximum concentration levels (MCLs. In addition, 90 nations have regulated pesticide agricultural commodity maximum residue limits (MRLs. Pesticide standard values (PSVs for one single pesticide varied in a range of six, seven, or even eight orders of magnitude. Some PSVs are too large to prevent the impact of pesticides on human health. Many nations have not provided PSVs for some commonly used pesticides until now. This research has introduced several completeness values and numerical values methods to evaluate the national jurisdiction’s performance on PSVs on a nation base. The national jurisdiction ranking system developed by these methods will be beneficial to the environmental regulation makers in the management of PSVs. Results also indicate that European countries perform better in the regulation of pesticide soil RGVs, drinking water MCLs, and agricultural commodity MRLs.

  13. Ecological accounting based on extended exergy: a sustainability perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Jing; Chen, Bin; Sciubba, Enrico

    2014-08-19

    The excessive energy consumption, environmental pollution, and ecological destruction problems have gradually become huge obstacles for the development of societal-economic-natural complex ecosystems. Regarding the national ecological-economic system, how to make explicit the resource accounting, diagnose the resource conversion, and measure the disturbance of environmental emissions to the systems are the fundamental basis of sustainable development and coordinated management. This paper presents an extended exergy (EE) accounting including the material exergy and exergy equivalent of externalities consideration in a systematic process from production to consumption, and China in 2010 is chosen as a case study to foster an in-depth understanding of the conflict between high-speed development and the available resources. The whole society is decomposed into seven sectors (i.e., Agriculture, Extraction, Conversion, Industry, Transportation, Tertiary, and Domestic sectors) according to their distinct characteristics. An adaptive EE accounting database, which incorporates traditional energy, renewable energy, mineral element, and other natural resources as well as resource-based secondary products, is constructed on the basis of the internal flows in the system. In addition, the environmental emission accounting has been adjusted to calculate the externalities-equivalent exergy. The results show that the EE value for the year 2010 in China was 1.80 × 10(14) MJ, which is greatly increased. Furthermore, an EE-based sustainability indices system has been established to provide an epitomized exploration for evaluating the performance of flows and storages with the system from a sustainability perspective. The value of the EE-based sustainability indicator was calculated to be 0.23, much lower than the critical value of 1, implying that China is still developing in the stages of high energy consumption and a low sustainability level.

  14. A developmental perspective on the neural bases of human empathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tousignant, Béatrice; Eugène, Fanny; Jackson, Philip L

    2017-08-01

    While empathy has been widely studied in philosophical and psychological literatures, recent advances in social neuroscience have shed light on the neural correlates of this complex interpersonal phenomenon. In this review, we provide an overview of brain imaging studies that have investigated the neural substrates of human empathy. Based on existing models of the functional architecture of empathy, we review evidence of the neural underpinnings of each main component, as well as their development from infancy. Although early precursors of affective sharing and self-other distinction appear to be present from birth, recent findings also suggest that even higher-order components of empathy such as perspective-taking and emotion regulation demonstrate signs of development during infancy. This merging of developmental and social neuroscience literature thus supports the view that ontogenic development of empathy is rooted in early infancy, well before the emergence of verbal abilities. With age, the refinement of top-down mechanisms may foster more appropriate empathic responses, thus promoting greater altruistic motivation and prosocial behaviors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Graphene-based technologies for energy applications, challenges and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesnel, Etienne; Roux, Frédéric; Emieux, Fabrice; Faucherand, Pascal; Kymakis, Emmanuel; Volonakis, George; Giustino, Feliciano; Martín-García, Beatriz; Moreels, Iwan; Alkan Gürsel, Selmiye; Bayrakçeken Yurtcan, Ayşe; Di Noto, Vito; Talyzin, Alexandr; Baburin, Igor; Tranca, Diana; Seifert, Gotthard; Crema, Luigi; Speranza, Giorgio; Tozzini, Valentina; Bondavalli, Paolo; Pognon, Grégory; Botas, Cristina; Carriazo, Daniel; Singh, Gurpreet; Rojo, Teófilo; Kim, Gunwoo; Yu, Wanjing; Grey, Clare P.; Pellegrini, Vittorio

    2015-09-01

    Here we report on technology developments implemented into the Graphene Flagship European project for the integration of graphene and graphene-related materials (GRMs) into energy application devices. Many of the technologies investigated so far aim at producing composite materials associating graphene or GRMs with either metal or semiconducting nanocrystals or other carbon nanostructures (e.g., CNT, graphite). These composites can be used favourably as hydrogen storage materials or solar cell absorbers. They can also provide better performing electrodes for fuel cells, batteries, or supercapacitors. For photovoltaic (PV) electrodes, where thin layers and interface engineering are required, surface technologies are preferred. We are using conventional vacuum processes to integrate graphene as well as radically new approaches based on laser irradiation strategies. For each application, the potential of implemented technologies is then presented on the basis of selected experimental and modelling results. It is shown in particular how some of these technologies can maximize the benefit taken from GRM integration. The technical challenges still to be addressed are highlighted and perspectives derived from the running works emphasized.

  16. Groundwater contamination from waste management sites: The interaction between risk-based engineering design and regulatory policy: 1. Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massmann, Joel; Freeze, R. Allan

    1987-02-01

    This paper puts in place a risk-cost-benefit analysis for waste management facilities that explicitly recognizes the adversarial relationship that exists in a regulated market economy between the owner/operator of a waste management facility and the government regulatory agency under whose terms the facility must be licensed. The risk-cost-benefit analysis is set up from the perspective of the owner/operator. It can be used directly by the owner/operator to assess alternative design strategies. It can also be used by the regulatory agency to assess alternative regulatory policy, but only in an indirect manner, by examining the response of an owner/operator to the stimuli of various policies. The objective function is couched in terms of a discounted stream of benefits, costs, and risks over an engineering time horizon. Benefits are in the form of revenues for services provided; costs are those of construction and operation of the facility. Risk is defined as the cost associated with the probability of failure, with failure defined as the occurrence of a groundwater contamination event that violates the licensing requirements established for the facility. Failure requires a breach of the containment structure and contaminant migration through the hydrogeological environment to a compliance surface. The probability of failure can be estimated on the basis of reliability theory for the breach of containment and with a Monte-Carlo finite-element simulation for the advective contaminant transport. In the hydrogeological environment the hydraulic conductivity values are defined stochastically. The probability of failure is reduced by the presence of a monitoring network operated by the owner/operator and located between the source and the regulatory compliance surface. The level of reduction in the probability of failure depends on the probability of detection of the monitoring network, which can be calculated from the stochastic contaminant transport simulations. While

  17. Identifying key genes in glaucoma based on a benchmarked dataset and the gene regulatory network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Wang, Qiao-Ling; Zhang, Meng-Hui

    2017-10-01

    The current study aimed to identify key genes in glaucoma based on a benchmarked dataset and gene regulatory network (GRN). Local and global noise was added to the gene expression dataset to produce a benchmarked dataset. Differentially-expressed genes (DEGs) between patients with glaucoma and normal controls were identified utilizing the Linear Models for Microarray Data (Limma) package based on benchmarked dataset. A total of 5 GRN inference methods, including Zscore, GeneNet, context likelihood of relatedness (CLR) algorithm, Partial Correlation coefficient with Information Theory (PCIT) and GEne Network Inference with Ensemble of Trees (Genie3) were evaluated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) and precision and recall (PR) curves. The interference method with the best performance was selected to construct the GRN. Subsequently, topological centrality (degree, closeness and betweenness) was conducted to identify key genes in the GRN of glaucoma. Finally, the key genes were validated by performing reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). A total of 176 DEGs were detected from the benchmarked dataset. The ROC and PR curves of the 5 methods were analyzed and it was determined that Genie3 had a clear advantage over the other methods; thus, Genie3 was used to construct the GRN. Following topological centrality analysis, 14 key genes for glaucoma were identified, including IL6, EPHA2 and GSTT1 and 5 of these 14 key genes were validated by RT-qPCR. Therefore, the current study identified 14 key genes in glaucoma, which may be potential biomarkers to use in the diagnosis of glaucoma and aid in identifying the molecular mechanism of this disease.

  18. Children's perspectives on cyberbullying: Insights based on participatory research

    OpenAIRE

    Baas, N; de Jong, Menno D. T.; Drossaert, Constance H.C.

    2013-01-01

    Cyberbullying is an emerging problem among youngsters. Although the current body of knowledge about cyberbullying is expanding rapidly, it lacks a more in-depth research approach honoring adolescents' perspectives on the problem. Moreover, very few studies have focused on cyberbullying among elementary school children. The purpose of this study therefore, was to explore children's perspectives on the problem of cyberbullying. A participatory research design was used in which 28 children (aged...

  19. Noncoding Variants Functional Prioritization Methods Based on Predicted Regulatory Factor Binding Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Haoyue; Zhang, Xiangde

    2017-08-01

    With the advent of the post genomic era, the research for the genetic mechanism of the diseases has found to be increasingly depended on the studies of the genes, the gene-networks and gene-protein interaction networks. To explore gene expression and regulation, the researchers have carried out many studies on transcription factors and their binding sites (TFBSs). Based on the large amount of transcription factor binding sites predicting values in the deep learning models, further computation and analysis have been done to reveal the relationship between the gene mutation and the occurrence of the disease. It has been demonstrated that based on the deep learning methods, the performances of the prediction for the functions of the noncoding variants are outperforming than those of the conventional methods. The research on the prediction for functions of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) is expected to uncover the mechanism of the gene mutation affection on traits and diseases of human beings. We reviewed the conventional TFBSs identification methods from different perspectives. As for the deep learning methods to predict the TFBSs, we discussed the related problems, such as the raw data preprocessing, the structure design of the deep convolution neural network (CNN) and the model performance measure et al. And then we summarized the techniques that usually used in finding out the functional noncoding variants from de novo sequence. Along with the rapid development of the high-throughout assays, more and more sample data and chromatin features would be conducive to improve the prediction accuracy of the deep convolution neural network for TFBSs identification. Meanwhile, getting more insights into the deep CNN framework itself has been proved useful for both the promotion on model performance and the development for more suitable design to sample data. Based on the feature values predicted by the deep CNN model, the prioritization model for functional noncoding

  20. The Issue Animal in the Perspective of the Federal Supreme Court and the "Regulatory Aspects Of Legal Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mery Chalfun

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims to analyze the legal nature of nonhuman animals in the doctrine of Animal Law, legal order and position of the Federal Supreme Court based on judgments that deal with conflict between cultural manifestation and cruelty to animals. Brazilian legislation calls for a multiplicity of positions on the legal nature of animals, which may influence positively or negatively the treatment accorded to them. It can be seen that in the STF the predominance of two understandings: anthropocentric, equivalent to good, while of another biocentric, moral consideration as to the animals and possibility of change of the legal nature.

  1. Identification of direct regulatory targets of the transcription factor Sox10 based on function and conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Sanghyuk

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sox10, a member of the Sry-related HMG-Box gene family, is a critical transcription factor for several important cell lineages, most notably the neural crest stem cells and the derivative peripheral glial cells and melanocytes. Thus far, only a handful of direct target genes are known for this transcription factor limiting our understanding of the biological network it governs. Results We describe identification of multiple direct regulatory target genes of Sox10 through a procedure based on function and conservation. By combining RNA interference technique and DNA microarray technology, we have identified a set of genes that show significant down-regulation upon introduction of Sox10 specific siRNA into Schwannoma cells. Subsequent comparative genomics analyses led to potential binding sites for Sox10 protein conserved across several mammalian species within the genomic region proximal to these genes. Multiple sites belonging to 4 different genes (proteolipid protein, Sox10, extracellular superoxide dismutase, and pleiotrophin were shown to directly interact with Sox10 by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. We further confirmed the direct regulation through the identified cis-element for one of the genes, extracellular superoxide dismutase, using electrophoretic mobility shift assay and reporter assay. Conclusion In sum, the process of combining differential expression profiling and comparative genomics successfully led to further defining the role of Sox10, a critical transcription factor for the development of peripheral glia. Our strategy utilizing relatively accessible techniques and tools should be applicable to studying the function of other transcription factors.

  2. Deep sequencing-based identification of small regulatory RNAs in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Xu

    Full Text Available Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 is a genetically tractable model organism for photosynthesis research. The genome of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 consists of a circular chromosome and seven plasmids. The importance of small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs as mediators of a number of cellular processes in bacteria has begun to be recognized. However, little is known regarding sRNAs in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. To provide a comprehensive overview of sRNAs in this model organism, the sRNAs of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 were analyzed using deep sequencing, and 7,951,189 reads were obtained. High quality mapping reads (6,127,890 were mapped onto the genome and assembled into 16,192 transcribed regions (clusters based on read overlap. A total number of 5211 putative sRNAs were revealed from the genome and the 4 megaplasmids, and 27 of these molecules, including four from plasmids, were confirmed by RT-PCR. In addition, possible target genes regulated by all of the putative sRNAs identified in this study were predicted by IntaRNA and analyzed for functional categorization and biological pathways, which provided evidence that sRNAs are indeed involved in many different metabolic pathways, including basic metabolic pathways, such as glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, the citrate cycle, fatty acid metabolism and adaptations to environmentally stress-induced changes. The information from this study provides a valuable reservoir for understanding the sRNA-mediated regulation of the complex physiology and metabolic processes of cyanobacteria.

  3. Comparison of Current Regulatory Status for Gene-Based Vaccines in the U.S., Europe and Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshikazu Nakayama

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Gene-based vaccines as typified by plasmid DNA vaccines and recombinant viral-vectored vaccines are expected as promising solutions against infectious diseases for which no effective prophylactic vaccines exist such as HIV, dengue virus, Ebola virus and malaria, and for which more improved vaccines are needed such as tuberculosis and influenza virus. Although many preclinical and clinical trials have been conducted to date, no DNA vaccines or recombinant viral-vectored vaccines expressing heterologous antigens for human use have yet been licensed in the U.S., Europe or Japan. In this research, we describe the current regulatory context for gene-based prophylactic vaccines against infectious disease in the U.S., Europe, and Japan. We identify the important considerations, in particular, on the preclinical assessments that would allow these vaccines to proceed to clinical trials, and the differences on the regulatory pathway for the marketing authorization in each region.

  4. Comparison of Current Regulatory Status for Gene-Based Vaccines in the U.S., Europe and Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Yoshikazu; Aruga, Atsushi

    2015-01-01

    Gene-based vaccines as typified by plasmid DNA vaccines and recombinant viral-vectored vaccines are expected as promising solutions against infectious diseases for which no effective prophylactic vaccines exist such as HIV, dengue virus, Ebola virus and malaria, and for which more improved vaccines are needed such as tuberculosis and influenza virus. Although many preclinical and clinical trials have been conducted to date, no DNA vaccines or recombinant viral-vectored vaccines expressing heterologous antigens for human use have yet been licensed in the U.S., Europe or Japan. In this research, we describe the current regulatory context for gene-based prophylactic vaccines against infectious disease in the U.S., Europe, and Japan. We identify the important considerations, in particular, on the preclinical assessments that would allow these vaccines to proceed to clinical trials, and the differences on the regulatory pathway for the marketing authorization in each region. PMID:26344953

  5. Character Education Based on Religious Values: an Islamic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Sukardi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Character education in Indonesia has become a necessity that can not be negotiable. Various cases of crime and moral deviations become evident that the character of most citizens already at alarming stage. Therefore, since the beginning, national education is not only aimed at generating human intelligent and skilled, but also of noble character. This is realized through the introduction of 18 characters excel in school (religious, honest, disciplined, tolerance, and so on. In the Islamic perspective character education paired with akhlak (Islamic ethics education. Among the important characteristics are: it sourced from the Quran Hadith; Prophet Muhammad as a role model; priority-based methods of mental-spiritual (soul management, habituation, exemplary, and healthy environment; are simultaneous in which three education centers, namely schools, families, and communities should play a role in synergy. The government and the mass media also play a role in supporting the education of character.   Pendidikan karakter di Indonesia telah menjadi kebutuhan yang tidak dapat ditawar. Berbagai kasus kejahatan moral dan penyimpangan menjadi jelas bahwa karakter sebagian besar warga sudah pada tahap mengkhawatirkan. Oleh karena itu, sejak awal, pendidikan nasional tidak hanya bertujuan menghasilkan manusia cerdas dan terampil, tetapi juga karakter yang mulia. Hal ini diwujudkan melalui pengenalan 18 karakter berprestasi di sekolah (agama, jujur, disiplin, tolerann, dan sebagainya. Dalam pendidikan karakter perspektif Islam dipasangkan dengan pendidikan akhlak (etika Islam. Di antara karakteristik penting adalah: itu bersumber dari al-Quran Hadis; Nabi Muhammad sebagai panutan; metode berbasis prioritas mental-spiritual (manajemen jiwa, pembiasaan, keteladanan, dan lingkungan yang sehat; yang simultan di mana tiga pusat pendidikan, yaitu sekolah, keluarga, dan masyarakat harus berperan dalam sinergi. Pemerintah dan media massa juga berperan dalam mendukung

  6. EFFECTIVE BLENDED LEARNING PRACTICES: Evidence-based Perspectives in ICT-facilitated Education

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reviewed by Yasin OZARSLAN

    2009-01-01

    EFFECTIVE BLENDED LEARNING PRACTICES:Evidence-based Perspectives in ICT-facilitated EducationEdited by Elizabeth Stacey and Philippa Gerbic, Information ScienceReference; 1 edition (March 30, 2009), ISBN-10: 1605662968, 358...

  7. A patient safety curriculum for medical residents based on the perspectives of residents and supervisors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansma, J.D.; Wagner, C.; Bijnen, A.B.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To develop a patient safety course for medical residents based on the views of medical residents and their supervisors. Methods: In 2007, questionnaires were distributed to investigate residents' and supervisors' perspectives on the current patient safety performance and educational

  8. [Cancer: Is it really so different? Particularities of oncologic drugs from the perspective of the pharmaceutical regulatory agency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enzmann, Harald; Broich, Karl

    2013-01-01

    For innovative oncological medicines the centralised procedure at the European Medicines Agency is mandatory for a marketing authorisation application for the European Union. As with other medical drugs, the marketing authorisation decision is based on the assessment of its efficacy, safety and pharmaceutical quality but does not consider price or reimbursement. More sophisticated diagnostic methods drive an increasing stratification of cancer into a multitude of different diseases. Regardless of their different pathogenesis and therapeutic options the most relevant clinical endpoints remain cure, overall survival and progression free survival. These endpoints include both efficacy and safety, as patient survival reflects the sum of the beneficial anti-tumour effects (increasing survival) AND the adverse effects (decreasing survival). The benefit of an anticancer medicine should be evident from both overall survival and progression free survival (e.g. used as primary and secondary endpoints). Mature data on overall survival may not be needed for marketing authorisation if a clear increase in progression free survival convincingly predicts a beneficial effect on overall survival. In these exceptional cases treatment of patients with an obviously beneficial medicine must not be delayed - possibly for years - until the exact size of the benefit has been established. The continued stratification of the disease cancer results in a lower prevalence for each of the newly distinguished disease entities and an ever increasing number of orphan designations for medicines for rare diseases. Incentives for the development of orphan medicines include market exclusivity for up to ten years. In specific circumstances, however, the orphan legislation may restrict the authorisation and marketing of competing generic products even beyond these ten years. Conditional approval and approval under exceptional circumstances may accelerate patients' access to a new medicine. Both postulate

  9. Second Language Acquisition: a processing-based perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kootstra, G.J.; Dijkstra, A.F.J.; Starren, M.B.P.

    2015-01-01

    This contribution provides an overview of second language acquisition research from a psycholinguistic perspective. The overview is mainly focused on cross-language interactions during word and sentence production and comprehension at different points in the second-language acquisition process. The

  10. Children's perspectives on cyberbullying: Insights based on participatory research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baas, N.; de Jong, Menno D.T.; Drossaert, Constance H.C.

    2013-01-01

    Cyberbullying is an emerging problem among youngsters. Although the current body of knowledge about cyberbullying is expanding rapidly, it lacks a more in-depth research approach honoring adolescents' perspectives on the problem. Moreover, very few studies have focused on cyberbullying among

  11. Inference of hierarchical regulatory network of estrogen-dependent breast cancer through ChIP-based data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Fei; Hsu, Hang-Kai; Hsu, Pei-Yin; Wu, Jiejun; Ma, Yilin; Parvin, Jeffrey; Huang, Tim H-M; Jin, Victor X

    2010-12-17

    Global profiling of in vivo protein-DNA interactions using ChIP-based technologies has evolved rapidly in recent years. Although many genome-wide studies have identified thousands of ERα binding sites and have revealed the associated transcription factor (TF) partners, such as AP1, FOXA1 and CEBP, little is known about ERα associated hierarchical transcriptional regulatory networks. In this study, we applied computational approaches to analyze three public available ChIP-based datasets: ChIP-seq, ChIP-PET and ChIP-chip, and to investigate the hierarchical regulatory network for ERα and ERα partner TFs regulation in estrogen-dependent breast cancer MCF7 cells. 16 common TFs and two common new TF partners (RORA and PITX2) were found among ChIP-seq, ChIP-chip and ChIP-PET datasets. The regulatory networks were constructed by scanning the ChIP-peak region with TF specific position weight matrix (PWM). A permutation test was performed to test the reliability of each connection of the network. We then used DREM software to perform gene ontology function analysis on the common genes. We found that FOS, PITX2, RORA and FOXA1 were involved in the up-regulated genes.We also conducted the ERα and Pol-II ChIP-seq experiments in tamoxifen resistance MCF7 cells (denoted as MCF7-T in this study) and compared the difference between MCF7 and MCF7-T cells. The result showed very little overlap between these two cells in terms of targeted genes (21.2% of common genes) and targeted TFs (25% of common TFs). The significant dissimilarity may indicate totally different transcriptional regulatory mechanisms between these two cancer cells. Our study uncovers new estrogen-mediated regulatory networks by mining three ChIP-based data in MCF7 cells and ChIP-seq data in MCF7-T cells. We compared the different ChIP-based technologies as well as different breast cancer cells. Our computational analytical approach may guide biologists to further study the underlying mechanisms in breast

  12. Inference of hierarchical regulatory network of estrogen-dependent breast cancer through ChIP-based data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Jeffrey

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Global profiling of in vivo protein-DNA interactions using ChIP-based technologies has evolved rapidly in recent years. Although many genome-wide studies have identified thousands of ERα binding sites and have revealed the associated transcription factor (TF partners, such as AP1, FOXA1 and CEBP, little is known about ERα associated hierarchical transcriptional regulatory networks. Results In this study, we applied computational approaches to analyze three public available ChIP-based datasets: ChIP-seq, ChIP-PET and ChIP-chip, and to investigate the hierarchical regulatory network for ERα and ERα partner TFs regulation in estrogen-dependent breast cancer MCF7 cells. 16 common TFs and two common new TF partners (RORA and PITX2 were found among ChIP-seq, ChIP-chip and ChIP-PET datasets. The regulatory networks were constructed by scanning the ChIP-peak region with TF specific position weight matrix (PWM. A permutation test was performed to test the reliability of each connection of the network. We then used DREM software to perform gene ontology function analysis on the common genes. We found that FOS, PITX2, RORA and FOXA1 were involved in the up-regulated genes. We also conducted the ERα and Pol-II ChIP-seq experiments in tamoxifen resistance MCF7 cells (denoted as MCF7-T in this study and compared the difference between MCF7 and MCF7-T cells. The result showed very little overlap between these two cells in terms of targeted genes (21.2% of common genes and targeted TFs (25% of common TFs. The significant dissimilarity may indicate totally different transcriptional regulatory mechanisms between these two cancer cells. Conclusions Our study uncovers new estrogen-mediated regulatory networks by mining three ChIP-based data in MCF7 cells and ChIP-seq data in MCF7-T cells. We compared the different ChIP-based technologies as well as different breast cancer cells. Our computational analytical approach may guide biologists to

  13. CONVIRT: a web-based tool for transcriptional regulatory site identification using a conserved virtual chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Taewoo; Lee, Sejoon; Hur, Cheol Goo; Lee, Doheon

    2009-12-31

    Techniques for analyzing protein-DNA interactions on a genome-wide scale have recently established regulatory roles for distal enhancers. However, the large sizes of higher eukaryotic genomes have made identification of these elements difficult. Information regarding sequence conservation, exon annotation and repetitive regions can be used to reduce the size of the search region. However, previously developed resources are inadequate for consolidating such information. CONVIRT is a web resource for the identification of transcription factor binding sites and also features comparative genomics. Genomic information on ortholog-independent conserved regions, exons, repeats and sequences is integrated into the virtual chromosome, and statistically over-represented single or combinations of transcription factor binding sites are sought. CONVIRT provides regulatory network analysis for several organisms with long promoter regions and permits inter-species genome alignments. CONVIRT is freely available at http://biosoft.kaist. ac.kr/convirt.

  14. Construction of pancreatic cancer double-factor regulatory network based on chip data on the transcriptional level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Li-Li; Zhang, Tong; Liu, Bing-Rong; Liu, Tie-Fu; Tao, Na; Zhuang, Li-Wei

    2014-05-01

    Transcription factor (TF) and microRNA (miRNA) have been discovered playing crucial roles in cancer development. However, the effect of TFs and miRNAs in pancreatic cancer pathogenesis remains vague. We attempted to reveal the possible mechanism of pancreatic cancer based on transcription level. Using GSE16515 datasets downloaded from gene expression omnibus database, we first identified the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in pancreatic cancer by the limma package in R. Then the DEGs were mapped into DAVID to conduct the kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis. TFs and miRNAs that DEGs significantly enriched were identified by Fisher's test, and then the pancreatic cancer double-factor regulatory network was constructed. In our study, total 1117 DEGs were identified and they significantly enriched in 4 KEGG pathways. A double-factor regulatory network was established, including 29 DEGs, 24 TFs, 25 miRNAs. In the network, LAMC2, BRIP1 and miR155 were identified which may be involved in pancreatic cancer development. In conclusion, the double-factor regulatory network was found to play an important role in pancreatic cancer progression and our results shed new light on the molecular mechanism of pancreatic cancer.

  15. Perspectives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    kinetics, and on the other of electrophysiology in cell membranes, seldom seem closely related. Nor do they ..... Some of these other conjectures stem from observation in computational models that the vortex filament, if .... which (since about 1964) therapy should be based on stochastic models of parametric heterogeneity.

  16. Perspectives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    such as cognition-based empathy; and both neurobiological and epistemological aspects of scientific theories of consciousness and the mind. ... nature and human cognition right from the start; an ideal of dramatic, romantic science, the ..... others that are connected to one's own emotional centres in a manner similar to ...

  17. Teaching "Cross-Cultural Communication" through Content Based Instruction: Curriculum Design and Learning Outcome from EFL Learners' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Chia-Ti Heather

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to investigate EFL learners' perspectives for the effectiveness of content-based instruction in a cross-cultural communication course. The main objectives of this study are three-folds: (1) to examine students' perspectives regarding the effectiveness of content learning; (2) to examine students' perspectives regarding the…

  18. Knowledge-Based Economy in Argentina, Costa Rica and Mexico: A Comparative Analysis from the Bio-Economy Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Barbara MUNGARAY-MOCTEZUMA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to determine the necessary institutional characteristics of technology and human capital in Argentina, Costa Rica and Mexico in order to evolve towards a knowledge-based economy, addressing the importance of institutions for their development. In particular, the knowledge-based economy is analyzed from the perspective of bioeconomics. Based on the Knowledge Economy Index (KEI which considers 148 indicators, in the following categories: a economic performance and institutional regime; b education and human resources, c innovation, and d information and communication technologies, we selected 13 indicators. We aim to identify the strengths and opportunities for these countries in order to meet the challenges that arise from the paradoxes of technological progress and globalization. In this sense, bioeconomy is approached as part of the economy. This analysis shows, among other things, that Argentina has greater potential to compete in an economy sustained in the creation and dissemination of knowledge, while Costa Rica has an institutional and regulatory environment that is more conducive to the development of business activities, and Mexico faces significant challenges regarding its institutional structure, economic performance and human resources.

  19. Identifying significant genetic regulatory networks in the prostate cancer from microarray data based on transcription factor analysis and conditional independency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeh Cheng-Yu

    2009-12-01

    . Conclusions We provide a computational framework to reconstruct the genetic regulatory network from the microarray data using biological knowledge and constraint-based inferences. Our method is helpful in verifying possible interaction relations in gene regulatory networks and filtering out incorrect relations inferred by imperfect methods. We predicted not only individual gene related to cancer but also discovered significant gene regulation networks. Our method is also validated in several enriched published papers and databases and the significant gene regulatory networks perform critical biological functions and processes including cell adhesion molecules, androgen and estrogen metabolism, smooth muscle contraction, and GO-annotated processes. Those significant gene regulations and the critical concept of tumor progression are useful to understand cancer biology and disease treatment.

  20. Regulatory Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Helen W.; Whitson, Peggy A.; Putcha, Lakshmi; Baker, Ellen; Smith, Scott M.; Stewart, Karen; Gretebeck, Randall; Nimmagudda, R. R.; Schoeller, Dale A.; Davis-Street, Janis

    1999-01-01

    As noted elsewhere in this report, a central goal of the Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project (EDOMP) was to ensure that cardiovascular and muscle function were adequate to perform an emergency egress after 16 days of spaceflight. The goals of the Regulatory Physiology component of the EDOMP were to identify and subsequently ameliorate those biochemical and nutritional factors that deplete physiological reserves or increase risk for disease, and to facilitate the development of effective muscle, exercise, and cardiovascular countermeasures. The component investigations designed to meet these goals focused on biochemical and physiological aspects of nutrition and metabolism, the risk of renal (kidney) stone formation, gastrointestinal function, and sleep in space. Investigations involved both ground-based protocols to validate proposed methods and flight studies to test those methods. Two hardware tests were also completed.

  1. Children's perspectives on cyberbullying: insights based on participatory research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baas, Niels; de Jong, Menno D T; Drossaert, Constance H C

    2013-04-01

    Cyberbullying is an emerging problem among youngsters. Although the current body of knowledge about cyberbullying is expanding rapidly, it lacks a more in-depth research approach honoring adolescents' perspectives on the problem. Moreover, very few studies have focused on cyberbullying among elementary school children. The purpose of this study therefore, was to explore children's perspectives on the problem of cyberbullying. A participatory research design was used in which 28 children (aged 11-12 from four elementary schools) actively participated for 6 weeks in weekly scheduled group sessions. In these sessions, different aspects of cyberbullying were discussed using various enabling techniques. Between sessions, the children were given preparation assignments. The research revealed several ambiguities that should be addressed in interventions against cyberbullying. First, it appears difficult for all parties involved to distinguish cyberbullying from innocent pranks. Frequency and intention are key variables, but these are ambiguous in the context of cyberbullying. Second, cyberbullies may have very different motives, not all of which have to do with their relationship with the victim. Third, the expectations children have of the way their parents or teachers will react to incidents of cyberbullying are an obstacle for seeking help. Children are particularly afraid of overreaction and the subsequent loss of their Internet privileges. These results confirm earlier insights from research on cyberbullying, and examine the ambiguities in more detail. In addition, the research demonstrates the usefulness of participatory research to investigate cyberbullying among younger children and demonstrates that the research led to mutual learning.

  2. Students Perspective of Using Content-Based Approach in ESP Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ju Yin; Chen, Wen Ching

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to understand the perspectives of using content-based approach on college students in International Trade Business English (ITBE) Class. Content-based Approach (CBA) viewed as language learning with contents for academic subject matter. It provides a cognitive and motivational basis of language learning. CBA approach…

  3. Approach to acid-base disorders – a clinical chemistry perspective

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Approach to acid-base disorders – a clinical chemistry perspective. Acid-base disorders are frequently encountered in clinical practice and have a significant impact on patient morbidity and mortality. Nicholette M Oosthuizen, MB ChB, FC Path (SA) Chem. Acting Head, Department of Chemical Pathology, University of ...

  4. Discovery of time-delayed gene regulatory networks based on temporal gene expression profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Zheng

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is one of the ultimate goals for modern biological research to fully elucidate the intricate interplays and the regulations of the molecular determinants that propel and characterize the progression of versatile life phenomena, to name a few, cell cycling, developmental biology, aging, and the progressive and recurrent pathogenesis of complex diseases. The vast amount of large-scale and genome-wide time-resolved data is becoming increasing available, which provides the golden opportunity to unravel the challenging reverse-engineering problem of time-delayed gene regulatory networks. Results In particular, this methodological paper aims to reconstruct regulatory networks from temporal gene expression data by using delayed correlations between genes, i.e., pairwise overlaps of expression levels shifted in time relative each other. We have thus developed a novel model-free computational toolbox termed TdGRN (Time-delayed Gene Regulatory Network to address the underlying regulations of genes that can span any unit(s of time intervals. This bioinformatics toolbox has provided a unified approach to uncovering time trends of gene regulations through decision analysis of the newly designed time-delayed gene expression matrix. We have applied the proposed method to yeast cell cycling and human HeLa cell cycling and have discovered most of the underlying time-delayed regulations that are supported by multiple lines of experimental evidence and that are remarkably consistent with the current knowledge on phase characteristics for the cell cyclings. Conclusion We established a usable and powerful model-free approach to dissecting high-order dynamic trends of gene-gene interactions. We have carefully validated the proposed algorithm by applying it to two publicly available cell cycling datasets. In addition to uncovering the time trends of gene regulations for cell cycling, this unified approach can also be used to study the complex

  5. A reliability and mass perspective of SP-100 Stirling cycle lunar-base powerplant designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloomfield, H.S.

    1991-06-01

    The purpose was to obtain reliability and mass perspectives on selection of space power system conceptual designs based on SP-100 reactor and Stirling cycle power-generation subsystems. The approach taken was to: (1) develop a criterion for an acceptable overall reliability risk as a function of the expected range of emerging technology subsystem unit reliabilities; (2) conduct reliability and mass analyses for a diverse matrix of 800-kWe lunar-base design configurations employing single and multiple powerplants with both full and partial subsystem redundancy combinations; and (3) derive reliability and mass perspectives on selection of conceptual design configurations that meet an acceptable reliability criterion with the minimum system mass increase relative to reference powerplant design. The developed perspectives provided valuable insight into the considerations required to identify and characterize high-reliability and low-mass lunar-base powerplant conceptual design.

  6. Perspectives of drug-based neuroprotection targeting mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procaccio, V; Bris, C; Chao de la Barca, J M; Oca, F; Chevrollier, A; Amati-Bonneau, P; Bonneau, D; Reynier, P

    2014-05-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction has been reported in most neurodegenerative diseases. These anomalies include bioenergetic defect, respiratory chain-induced oxidative stress, defects of mitochondrial dynamics, increase sensitivity to apoptosis, and accumulation of damaged mitochondria with instable mitochondrial DNA. Significant progress has been made in our understanding of the pathophysiology of inherited mitochondrial disorders but most have no effective therapies. The development of new metabolic treatments will be useful not only for rare mitochondrial disorders but also for the wide spectrum of common age-related neurodegenerative diseases shown to be associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. A better understanding of the mitochondrial regulating pathways raised several promising perspectives of neuroprotection. This review focuses on the pharmacological approaches to modulate mitochondrial biogenesis, the removal of damaged mitochondria through mitophagy, scavenging free radicals and also dietary measures such as ketogenic diet. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Problem-based learning research in anesthesia teaching: current status and future perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilkoti, G; Mohta, M; Wadhwa, R; Saxena, A K

    2014-01-01

    The teaching curriculum in anesthesia involves traditional teaching methods like topic-based didactic lectures, seminars, and journal clubs; intraoperative apprenticeship; and problem-based learning (PBL) and simulation. The advantages of incorporating PBL in anesthesia teaching include development of skills like clinical reasoning, critical thinking, and self-directed learning; in addition it also helps in developing a broader perspective of case scenarios. The present paper discusses the characteristics, key elements, and goals of PBL; various PBL methods available; lacunae in the existing knowledge of PBL research; its current status and future perspectives in anesthesia teaching.

  8. Problem-Based Learning Research in Anesthesia Teaching: Current Status and Future Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilkoti, G.; Mohta, M.; Wadhwa, R.; Saxena, A. K.

    2014-01-01

    The teaching curriculum in anesthesia involves traditional teaching methods like topic-based didactic lectures, seminars, and journal clubs; intraoperative apprenticeship; and problem-based learning (PBL) and simulation. The advantages of incorporating PBL in anesthesia teaching include development of skills like clinical reasoning, critical thinking, and self-directed learning; in addition it also helps in developing a broader perspective of case scenarios. The present paper discusses the characteristics, key elements, and goals of PBL; various PBL methods available; lacunae in the existing knowledge of PBL research; its current status and future perspectives in anesthesia teaching. PMID:24982673

  9. Community-based Ecotourism in Tenganan Dauh Tukad: An Indigenous Conservation Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Ketut Sardiana

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Community-based ecotourism involves conservation, business, and community development. It is a subset of nature-based tourism that are owned and managed by the community and used to improve the well-being of its community members. Research conducted in Indigenous Tenganan Dauh Tukad Village, Bali. This paper examines the linkage of community participation in ecotourism with the conservation practices and perspectives. This study revealed that there is a positive linkage between community participation to their practices and perspective of conservation. This includes conservation of biodiversity environment and cultural heritage of the local community.

  10. Implementation of School-Based Management: A Multi-Perspective Analysis of the Case of Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yin Cheong; Chan, Man Tak

    2000-07-01

    The implementation of school-based management reform is a complicated process involving changes not only in structures and political relations but also in social interactions and cultural elements at both school and system levels. The lack of multi-perspectives in the analysis of school reforms sets a tight limitation on the understanding and implementation of school-based management. This paper aims to apply the structural perspective, the human resource perspective, the political perspective, and the cultural perspective to review and analyse the case of Hong Kong in implementing school-based management. It is hoped that the analysis of the Hong Kong case can provide an useful illustration of the application of multi-perspectives to support development of school-based management and draw useful implications for school reforms in both local and international contexts.

  11. Nanotechnology-Based Photodynamic Therapy: Concepts, Advances, and Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Tarun; Jain, Nitin K; Rath, Goutam; Goyal, Amit Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a photoactive process that uses the combination of photosensitizers (PSs) and specific wavelengths of light for the treatment of solid tumors and other diseases. PDT received increased attention after regulatory approval of several photosensitizing drugs and light applicators worldwide. With the advent of newer PSs, the role of PDT in the treatment of cancer and other diseases has been revolutionized. In addition, various targeting strategies developed for site-specific delivery of PSs will be helpful for avoiding phototoxicity to normal tissues. Receptor-mediated targeted PDT approaches using nanocarriers offer the opportunity of enhancing photodynamic efficiency by directly targeting diseased cells and tissues. At present, clinical application of PDT is well established in medicine and surgery. Successfully used in dermatology, urology, gastroenterology, and neurosurgery, PDT has also seen much progress in basic sciences and clinical photodynamics in recent years. Currently, the use of PDT is just beginning, and more research must be performed to prove its therapeutic efficacy. However, nontoxic compounds involved in PDT provide a certain hope that it will evolve to be an effective mechanism for combating chronic diseases.

  12. Using a Design Science Perspective to Understand a Complex Design-Based Research Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Lars

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to demonstrate how a design science perspective can be used to describe and understand a set of related design-based research processes. We describe and analyze a case study in a manner that is inspired by design science. The case study involves the design of modeling...... tools and the redesign of an information service in a library. We use a set of guidelines from a design science perspective to organize the description and analysis of the case study. By doing this we demonstrate the usefulness of design science as an analytical tool for understanding related design......-based research processes. And we argue that a design science perspective may be useful for both researchers and practitioners....

  13. Perspectives of biotechnologies based on dormancy phenomenon for space researches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseev, V.; Sychev, V.; Layus, D.; Levinsky, M.; Novikova, N.; Zakhodnova, T.

    Long term space missions will require a renewable source of food and an efficient method to recycle oxygen Plants especially aquatic micro algae provide an obvious solution to these problems However long duration plant growth and reproduction in space that is necessary for transportation of a control ecological life support system CELSS from Earth to other planets are problematic The introduction of heterotrophs in space CELSS is a more formidable problem as the absence of gravity creates additional difficulties for their life Dormancy phenomenon protected a great many animals and plants in harsh environmental conditions within a special resting phases of life cycle lasting from months up to hundred years This phenomenon can be quite perspective as a tool to overcome difficulties with CELSS transportation in space missions Cryptobiotic stages of microbes fungi unicellular algae and protists can survive in open space conditions that is important for interplanetary quarantine and biological security inside spacecraft Searching for life outside the Earth at such planet like Mars with extremely variable environment should be oriented on dormancy as crucial phases of a life cycle in such organisms Five major research programs aimed on study dormancy phenomenon for exobiology purposes and creation of new biotechnologies are discussed List of species candidate components of CELSS with dormancy in their life cycle used in space experiments at the Russian segment of International Space Station now includes 26 species from bacteria to fish The

  14. Ethical and regulatory challenges in psychophysiology and neuroscience-based technology for determining behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamoo, Adil E

    2010-01-01

    In the past three decades, there has been an explosion in research to understand the mechanisms of brain function. Recent advances in psychophysiology and neuroscience, while still limited, have sparked great interest in developing technologies that could peer into the brain and be used to identify or indicate certain behaviors. The polygraph (lie detector) represents an old technology used for discerning clues to the human brain; functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) represents one of the newest efforts. The use of these technologies in intelligence and counterintelligence in the field without validation represents a major concern about its usefulness. Both research on this new technology and subsequent use on public raise ethical challenges. This article will address the overall ethical issues associated with these new technologies. The report identifies the ethical and cultural challenges in conducting research on these new tools, explores the possibility of using current U.S. regulatory requirements regarding drugs and devices as a model for regulating these new technologies, and suggests approaches for the future.

  15. Utility of registries for post-marketing evaluation of medicines. A survey of Swedish health care quality registries from a regulatory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feltelius, Nils; Gedeborg, Rolf; Holm, Lennart; Zethelius, Björn

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to describe content and procedures in some selected Swedish health care quality registries (QRs) of relevance to regulatory decision-making. A workshop was organized with participation of seven Swedish QRs which subsequently answered a questionnaire regarding registry content on drug treatments and outcomes. Patient populations, coverage, data handling and quality control, as well as legal and ethical aspects are presented. Scientific publications from the QRs are used as a complementary measure of quality and scientific relevance. The registries under study collect clinical data of high relevance to regulatory and health technology agencies. Five out of seven registries provide information on the drug of interest. When applying external quality criteria, we found a high degree of fulfillment, although information on medication was not sufficient to answer all questions of regulatory interest. A notable strength is the option for linkage to the Prescribed Drug Registry and to information on education and socioeconomic status. Data on drugs used during hospitalization were also collected to some extent. Outcome measures collected resemble those used in relevant clinical trials. All registries collected patient-reported outcome measures. The number of publications from the registries was substantial, with studies of appropriate design, including randomized registry trials. Quality registries may provide a valuable source of post-marketing data on drug effectiveness, safety, and cost-effectiveness. Closer collaboration between registries and regulators to improve quality and usefulness of registry data could benefit both regulatory utility and value for health care providers.

  16. MotifCombinator: a web-based tool to search for combinations of cis-regulatory motifs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsunoda Tatsuhiko

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A combination of multiple types of transcription factors and cis-regulatory elements is often required for gene expression in eukaryotes, and the combinatorial regulation confers specific gene expression to tissues or environments. To reveal the combinatorial regulation, computational methods are developed that efficiently infer combinations of cis-regulatory motifs that are important for gene expression as measured by DNA microarrays. One promising type of computational method is to utilize regression analysis between expression levels and scores of motifs in input sequences. This type takes full advantage of information on expression levels because it does not require that the expression level of each gene be dichotomized according to whether or not it reaches a certain threshold level. However, there is no web-based tool that employs regression methods to systematically search for motif combinations and that practically handles combinations of more than two or three motifs. Results We here introduced MotifCombinator, an online tool with a user-friendly interface, to systematically search for combinations composed of any number of motifs based on regression methods. The tool utilizes well-known regression methods (the multivariate linear regression, the multivariate adaptive regression spline or MARS, and the multivariate logistic regression method for this purpose, and uses the genetic algorithm to search for combinations composed of any desired number of motifs. The visualization systems in this tool help users to intuitively grasp the process of the combination search, and the backup system allows users to easily stop and restart calculations that are expected to require large computational time. This tool also provides preparatory steps needed for systematic combination search – i.e., selecting single motifs to constitute combinations and cutting out redundant similar motifs based on clustering analysis. Conclusion

  17. A Simulation-Based Approach for Teaching the Systems Perspective of Strategic Performance Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capelo, Carlos; Lopes, Ana; Mata, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Kaplan and Norton introduced the balanced scorecard (BSC), which is based on a systems perspective of the business strategy and performance measurement. Many organisations around the world use the BSC to define, implement and manage strategy. Nevertheless, there are studies that identify problems and limitations associated with the implementation…

  18. School-Based Health Promotion Intervention: Parent and School Staff Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patino-Fernandez, Anna M.; Hernandez, Jennifer; Villa, Manuela; Delamater, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of childhood obesity is high, particularly among minority youth. The objective of this article was to evaluate parent and school staff perspectives of childhood health and weight qualitatively to guide the development of a school-based obesity prevention program for minority youth. Methods: Hispanic parents (N?=?9) of…

  19. Peeling the Onion of Auditory Processing Disorder: A Language/Curricular-Based Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallach, Geraldine P.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This article addresses auditory processing disorder (APD) from a language-based perspective. The author asks speech-language pathologists to evaluate the functionality (or not) of APD as a diagnostic category for children and adolescents with language-learning and academic difficulties. Suggestions are offered from a…

  20. Action Plan on Base Erosion and Profit Shifting: An Indian Perspective.

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, R. Kavita; Sengupta, D.P.

    2014-01-01

    The discussion in this paper highlights some evidence to support the notion that there is base erosion in India. On the specific action points listed in the OECD's Action Plan, a perspective from India's stand point has been presented along with a brief discussion on the steps needed to prepare for complying with likely proposed measures.

  1. A thermodynamic perspective on food webs: Quantifying entropy production within detrital-based ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meysman, F.J.R.; Bruers, S.

    2007-01-01

    Because ecosystems fit so nicely the framework of a “dissipative system”, a better integration of thermodynamic and ecological perspectives could benefit the quantitative analysis of ecosystems. One obstacle is that traditional food web models are solely based upon the principles of mass and energy

  2. Developing My Perspectives on Scaffolding and Problem-Based Learning: A Retrospective View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belland, Brian R.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, I describe the iterative development of my perspectives on scaffolding and problem-based learning through interactions with other scholars and research. Such influences include doctoral experiences, funded projects, and exposures to research from a variety of traditions.

  3. Perspectives on reactor safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haskin, F.E. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering; Camp, A.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-03-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) maintains a technical training center at Chattanooga, Tennessee to provide appropriate training to both new and experienced NRC employees. This document describes a one-week course in reactor, safety concepts. The course consists of five modules: (1) historical perspective; (2) accident sequences; (3) accident progression in the reactor vessel; (4) containment characteristics and design bases; and (5) source terms and offsite consequences. The course text is accompanied by slides and videos during the actual presentation of the course.

  4. [Modern skull base surgery from the perspective of neurosurgeons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spetzger, U

    2011-04-01

    At present, modern skull base surgery is a highly sophisticated interdisciplinary collaboration of various diagnostic and therapeutic disciplines. The overall goal is the treatment of complex tumorous, traumatic, vascular and inflammatory processes or developmental disorders of the skull base with preservation of function. The paper presents modern concepts, procedures and minimally invasive strategies in skull base surgery and also critically discusses the current trend to endoscopic and robot-assisted surgical techniques.

  5. Quality of alcohol-based hand disinfectants and their regulatory status. Development and marketing authorisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stengele, Michael

    2008-10-01

    A 2005 survey showed that there are at least four legal product classifications for hand disinfectants in the European Union: medicinal products, biocidal products, cosmetics and medical devices. An internationally harmonized classification does not exist. The regulatory status of those products is defined at national level. In order to assure compliance with the regulations these four classifications provide different levels of official surveillance varying from product-specific marketing authorisations and production site audits to the obligation to just work in accordance with certain general guidelines. Biocidal product regulations cover eco-toxicological and toxicological aspects, but do not very much address to the customers' quality and efficacy expectations. In contrast, the medicinal product legislation is the most ambitious one claiming quality, safety, efficacy, and an independent benefit risk-assessment by an authority. In respect of ambition, the two remaining product categories--cosmetics and medical devices--rank between the both classifications mentioned above. For medical devices, it is the responsibility of the manufacturer to make sure the products meet defined essential requirements regarding quality, safety and performance and to have an appropriate quality assurance system implemented under third party control. For cosmetics there are some legal restrictions, but within these it is the sole responsibility of the manufacturer to ensure that the products are safe and fulfil their claims. This paper describes one way out of this increasingly complex situation, the definition of a single quality standard meeting the users' expectations as well as all legal requirements regardless of the specific sales country. This international quality standard for products would take priority over any individual national standard, to the benefit of users.

  6. Phos-tag-based analysis of myosin regulatory light chain phosphorylation in human uterine myocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector N Aguilar

    Full Text Available The 'phosphate-binding tag' (phos-tag reagent enables separation of phospho-proteins during SDS-PAGE by impeding migration proportional to their phosphorylation stoichiometry. Western blotting can then be used to detect and quantify the bands corresponding to the phospho-states of a target protein. We present a method for quantification of data regarding phospho-states derived from phos-tag SDS-PAGE. The method incorporates corrections for lane-to-lane loading variability and for the effects of drug vehicles thus enabling the comparison of multiple treatments by using the untreated cellular set-point as a reference. This method is exemplified by quantifying the phosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chain (RLC in cultured human uterine myocytes.We have evaluated and validated the concept that, when using an antibody (Ab against the total-protein, the sum of all phosphorylation states in a single lane represents a 'closed system' since all possible phospho-states and phosphoisotypes are detected. Using this approach, we demonstrate that oxytocin (OT and calpeptin (Calp induce RLC kinase (MLCK- and rho-kinase (ROK-dependent enhancements in phosphorylation of RLC at T18 and S19. Treatment of myocytes with a phorbol ester (PMA induced phosphorylation of S1-RLC, which caused a mobility shift in the phos-tag matrices distinct from phosphorylation at S19.We have presented a method for analysis of phospho-state data that facilitates quantitative comparison to a reference control without the use of a traditional 'loading' or 'reference' standard. This analysis is useful for assessing effects of putative agonists and antagonists where all phospho-states are represented in control and experimental samples. We also demonstrated that phosphorylation of RLC at S1 is inducible in intact uterine myocytes, though the signal in the resting samples was not sufficiently abundant to allow quantification by the approach used here.

  7. Evidence-Based Treatment and Stuttering--Historical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prins, David; Ingham, Roger J.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To illustrate the way in which both fluency shaping (FS) and stuttering management (SM) treatments for developmental stuttering in adults are evidence based. Method: A brief review of the history and development of FS and SM is provided. It illustrates that both can be justified as evidence-based treatments, each treatment seeking…

  8. Simulation-based transthoracic echocardiography: "An anesthesiologist′s perspective"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohan Magoon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the growing requirement of echocardiography in the perioperative management, the anesthesiologists need to be well trained in transthoracic echocardiography (TTE. Lack of formal, structured teaching program precludes the same. The present article reviews the expanding domain of TTE, simulation-based TTE training, the advancements, current limitations, and the importance of simulation-based training for the anesthesiologists.

  9. Laser-Based Lighting: Experimental Analysis and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Trivellin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an extensive analysis of the operating principles, theoretical background, advantages and limitations of laser-based lighting systems. In the first part of the paper we discuss the main advantages and issues of laser-based lighting, and present a comparison with conventional LED-lighting technology. In the second part of the paper, we present original experimental data on the stability and reliability of phosphor layers for laser lighting, based on high light-intensity and high-temperature degradation tests. In the third part of the paper (for the first time we present a detailed comparison between three different solutions for laser lighting, based on (i transmissive phosphor layers; (ii a reflective/angled phosphor layer; and (iii a parabolic reflector, by discussing the advantages and drawbacks of each approach. The results presented within this paper can be used as a guideline for the development of advanced lighting systems based on laser diodes.

  10. The Integrated Model of Sustainability Perspective in Spermatophyta Learning Based on Local Wisdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartadiyati, E.; Rizqiyah, K.; Wiyanto; Rusilowati, A.; Prasetia, A. P. B.

    2017-09-01

    In present condition, culture is diminished, the change of social order toward the generation that has no policy and pro-sustainability; As well as the advancement of science and technology are often treated unwisely so as to excite local wisdom. It is therefore necessary to explore intra-curricular local wisdom in schools. This study aims to produce an integration model of sustainability perspectives based on local wisdom on spermatophyta material that is feasible and effective. This research uses define, design and develop stages to an integration model of sustainability perspectives based on local wisdom on spermatophyta material. The resulting product is an integration model of socio-cultural, economic and environmental sustainability perspective and formulated with preventive, preserve and build action on spermatophyta material consisting of identification and classification, metagenesis and the role of spermatophyta for human life. The integration model of sustainability perspective in learning spermatophyta based on local wisdom is considered proven to be effective in raising sustainability’s awareness of high school students.

  11. Workplace-based assessment; learner and assessor perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Balakrishnan Kichu R; Parvathy, Mulavana S; Wilson, Amanda; Smith, Justine; Murphy, Brooke

    2015-01-01

    To examine the acceptability and educational impact of the workplace-based assessment program for international medical graduates on candidates and assessors. A grounded theory-based qualitative analysis of the experiences of 17 candidates and eleven assessors using focus groups, interviews, and surveys. Both candidates and assessors identified positive opportunities for improved performance of international medical graduates. Their integration into the workforce was facilitated by improved communication and peer acceptance, from ongoing multifaceted feedback and time to practice skills. This study showed a high level of acceptability of the Newcastle workplace-based assessment program among candidates and assessors.

  12. Knowledge-Based Systems (KBS) development standards: A maintenance perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brill, John

    1990-01-01

    Information on knowledge-based systems (KBS) is given in viewgraph form. Information is given on KBS standardization needs, the knowledge engineering process, program management, software and hardware issues, and chronic problem areas.

  13. Evidence-Based Care of Acute Wounds: A Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ubbink, Dirk T.; Brölmann, Fleur E.; Go, Peter M. N. Y. H.; Vermeulen, Hester

    2015-01-01

    Significance: Large variation and many controversies exist regarding the treatment of, and care for, acute wounds, especially regarding wound cleansing, pain relief, dressing choice, patient instructions, and organizational aspects. Recent Advances: A multidisciplinary team developed evidence-based

  14. NRC regulatory initiatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, T.C. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission (United States)

    1989-11-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is addressing several low-level waste disposal issues that will be important to waste generators and to States and Compacts developing new disposal capacity. These issues include Greater-Than-Class C (GTCC) waste, mixed waste, below regulatory concern (BRC) waste, and the low-level waste data base. This paper discusses these issues and their current status.

  15. Regulatory unbundling in telecommunications

    OpenAIRE

    Knieps, Günter

    2011-01-01

    Due to its dynamic nature, and the increasing importance of competitive sub-parts, the telecommunications sector provides particularly interesting insights for studying regulatory unbundling. Based on the theory of monopolistic bottle-necks the fallacies of overregulation by undue unbundling obligations are indicated. Neither the promotion of infrastructure competition by mandatory un-bundling of competitive subparts of telecommunications infrastructure, nor regulatory induced network fragmen...

  16. Palliative home-based technology from a practitioner's perspective: benefits and disadvantages

    OpenAIRE

    Johnston BM

    2014-01-01

    Bridget M Johnston Sue Ryder Care Centre for the Study of Supportive, Palliative, and End of Life Care, School of Health Sciences, University of Nottingham, Queen's Medical Centre, Nottingham, UK Abstract: This critical review paper explores the concept of palliative home-based technology from a practitioner's perspective. The aim of the critical review was to scope information available from published and unpublished research on the current state of palliative home-based tec...

  17. Perspective: beyond storytelling in medicine: an encounter-based curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Vinay

    2010-05-01

    Heralding the 200th anniversary of Darwin's birth, Randolph Nesse affirms, in the December 2008 issue of The Lancet, his vision that the basic science curricula of medical school include evolutionary biology. Nesse suggests that evolutionary biology would unite the basic science principles of the preclinical years and serve as an explanatory tool in the doctor-patient encounter.This article visits this same question, but from a different vantage. Here, the author argues that the primacy of the basic sciences in medical education sanctions medical practice based on reasoning from scientific principles. Such an approach is outdated and dangerous in the era of top-down, evidence-based medicine (EBM). The author offers a new approach to the preclinical years: encounter-based medical education, which elevates the doctor-patient encounter as the prime subject of study in medical education. The author describes the historical roots of the shift to EBM and highlights the inadequacy of problem-based learning to resolve its challenges. The article details the advantages of an encounter-based approach to medical education.

  18. Pillararene-based fluorescent chemosensors: recent advances and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jin-Fa; Lin, Qi; Zhang, You-Ming; Yao, Hong; Wei, Tai-Bao

    2017-12-14

    In 2008, a new class of pillar-shaped supramolecular macrocyclic hosts was reported, known as "pillararenes". Their particular electron-rich cavity and the ease of their functionalization offer possibilities for the design and synthesis of novel fluorescent chemosensors. Subsequently, pillararene-based fluorescent sensors and probes have been rapidly developed. This feature article covers the most recent contributions from the pillararene-based fluorescent sensor field in terms of anion/cation sensing, small molecule recognition, biomolecule detection, fluorescent supramolecular aggregates, and biomedical imaging. Meanwhile, we hope that this feature article will inspire more effort to be devoted to this emerging field.

  19. The 'new paradigm' of outcomes-based education in perspective

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to their advantage, which gave rise to revised initia- tives. Outcomes-based ... workers on developing taxonomies for educational objectives became ... Bloom's. (1956) work, particularly in the cognitive domain, re- mains invaluable for OBE assessment. After Bloom came Mager whose work was first pub- lished in 1962.

  20. Competency-Based Education Programs: A Library Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Colleen

    2015-01-01

    Competency-based education (CBE) is an emerging model for higher education designed to reduce certain barriers to educational attainment. This essay describes CBE and the challenges and opportunities for academic librarians desiring to serve students and faculty in Library and Information Management Master of Library Science (MLS) programs. Every…

  1. [Problem based learning from the perspective of tutors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro Hernández, Nancy; Illesca P, Mónica; Cabezas G, Mirtha

    2009-02-01

    Problem based learning is a student centered learning technique that develops deductive, constructive and reasoning capacities among the students. Teachers must adapt to this paradigm of constructing rather than transmitting knowledge. To interpret the importance of tutors in problem based learning during a module of Health research and management given to medical, nursing, physical therapy, midwifery, technology and nutrition students. Eight teachers that participated in a module using problem based learning accepted to participate in an in depth interview. The qualitative analysis of the textual information recorded, was performed using the ATLAS software. We identified 662 meaning units, grouped in 29 descriptive categories, with eight emerging meta categories. The sequential and cross-generated qualitative analysis generated four domains: competence among students, competence of teachers, student-centered learning and evaluation process. Multiprofessional problem based learning contributes to the development of generic competences among future health professionals, such as multidisciplinary work, critical capacity and social skills. Teachers must shelter the students in the context of their problems and social situation.

  2. Medical student's perspective of problem based learning (PBL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Faculty of Health Sciences at the University of Transkei has completed the first 5 years of its problem-based community oriented teaching curriculum. The use of SWOT analysis to evaluate current and future directions can lead to the successful evolution of any organization. The aim of this study was to obtain a students' ...

  3. Enquiry-Based Learning and Formative Assessment Environments: Student Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambell, Kay

    2010-01-01

    This paper outlines case study research into first-year students' experiences of enquiry-based learning (EBL) on a year-long introductory theory module. Students were supported to carry out a series of authentic small-scale enquiries involving: (1) working in research teams; (2) gathering, disseminating and analysing data from the field; (3)…

  4. Theory-Based Lexicographical Methods in a Functional Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Sven

    2014-01-01

    This contribution provides an overview of some of the methods used in relation to the function theory. It starts with a definition of the concept of method and the relation existing between theory and method. It establishes an initial distinction between artisanal and theory-based methods...

  5. ICT-Based, Cross-Cultural Communication: A Methodological Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Niels; Bruselius-Jensen, Maria; Danielsen, Dina; Nyamai, Rachael; Otiende, James; Aagaard-Hansen, Jens

    2014-01-01

    The article discusses how cross-cultural communication based on information and communication technologies (ICT) may be used in participatory health promotion as well as in education in general. The analysis draws on experiences from a health education research project with grade 6 (approx. 12 years) pupils in Nairobi (Kenya) and Copenhagen…

  6. Evolution of IT Architecture: based on Taxonomy perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suh, Hanjun; van Hillegersberg, Jos

    2013-01-01

    This research aims to explore how latest IT architecture is evolving in real world. We reviewed historical IT structure and classified five IT architecture typology based on various dimensions of IT architectures such as processing decentralization, network connectivity, data and program

  7. Complementary Theoretical Perspectives on Task-Based Classroom Realities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Daniel O.; Burch, Alfred Rue

    2017-01-01

    Tasks are viewed as a principled foundation for classroom teaching, social interaction, and language development. This special issue sheds new light on how task-based classroom practices are supported by a diverse range of principles. This introduction describes current trends in classroom practice and pedagogic research in relation to task-based…

  8. Practice-based research in Music: International perspectives, South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article examines practice-based research and its application in doctoral studies in music. The research reported on here is of particular importance in the context of tertiary studies in music in South African academe. While several South African universities currently offer a DMus degree where practice and research are ...

  9. A transferable heterogeneous two-hybrid system in Escherichia coli based on polyhydroxyalkanoates synthesis regulatory protein PhaR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Chong-Bo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA synthesis regulatory protein PhaR contains a DNA binding domain (DBD and a PHA granule binding domain (GBD, it anchors to the promoter region of PHA granule-associated protein (PhaP to repress phaP expression. However, PhaR will bind to PHB granules and be released from phaP promoter region when PHA granules are formed in vivo, initiating expression of phaP gene. Based on this regulatory mechanism, a bacterial two-hybrid system was developed: PhaR was separated into two parts: DBD was used to fuse with the bait, GBD with the prey, and phaP was replaced by a reporter gene lacZ. However, GBD protein expressed in vivo formed inclusion bodies. Thus, PhaP with strong binding ability to PHB granules was employed to replace GBD. Results Three model interaction partners bFos, bJun and bATF2 were used to study the feasibility of this bacterial two-hybrid system compared with the controls lacking one or more essential elements of this system. Results showed that bFos, bJun and bATF2 bound tightly in pairs to allow strong expression of β-galactosidase in different expression levels. In contrast, very weak β-galactosidase activity was detected in all control groups. Conclusion β-Galactosidase activity level precisely correlated with the interaction force of tested protein pairs, and very weak β-galactosidase expression was detected throughout the control groups, which demonstrated the feasibility of this system for studying protein interactions.

  10. Pathway-based analysis of genome-wide siRNA screens reveals the regulatory landscape of APP processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Miguel Camargo

    Full Text Available The progressive aggregation of Amyloid-β (Aβ in the brain is a major trait of Alzheimer's Disease (AD. Aβ is produced as a result of proteolytic processing of the β-amyloid precursor protein (APP. Processing of APP is mediated by multiple enzymes, resulting in the production of distinct peptide products: the non-amyloidogenic peptide sAPPα and the amyloidogenic peptides sAPPβ, Aβ40, and Aβ42. Using a pathway-based approach, we analyzed a large-scale siRNA screen that measured the production of different APP proteolytic products. Our analysis identified many of the biological processes/pathways that are known to regulate APP processing and have been implicated in AD pathogenesis, as well as revealing novel regulatory mechanisms. Furthermore, we also demonstrate that some of these processes differentially regulate APP processing, with some mechanisms favouring production of certain peptide species over others. For example, synaptic transmission having a bias towards regulating Aβ40 production over Aβ42 as well as processes involved in insulin and pancreatic biology having a bias for sAPPβ production over sAPPα. In addition, some of the pathways identified as regulators of APP processing contain genes (CLU, BIN1, CR1, PICALM, TREM2, SORL1, MEF2C, DSG2, EPH1A recently implicated with AD through genome wide association studies (GWAS and associated meta-analysis. In addition, we provide supporting evidence and a deeper mechanistic understanding of the role of diabetes in AD. The identification of these processes/pathways, their differential impact on APP processing, and their relationships to each other, provide a comprehensive systems biology view of the "regulatory landscape" of APP.

  11. Enriching regulatory networks by bootstrap learning using optimised GO-based gene similarity and gene links mined from PubMed abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Ronald C.; Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; McDermott, Jason E.; Baddeley, Robert L.; Riensche, Roderick M.; Jensen, Russell S.; Verhagen, Marc; Pustejovsky, James

    2011-02-18

    Transcriptional regulatory networks are being determined using “reverse engineering” methods that infer connections based on correlations in gene state. Corroboration of such networks through independent means such as evidence from the biomedical literature is desirable. Here, we explore a novel approach, a bootstrapping version of our previous Cross-Ontological Analytic method (XOA) that can be used for semi-automated annotation and verification of inferred regulatory connections, as well as for discovery of additional functional relationships between the genes. First, we use our annotation and network expansion method on a biological network learned entirely from the literature. We show how new relevant links between genes can be iteratively derived using a gene similarity measure based on the Gene Ontology that is optimized on the input network at each iteration. Second, we apply our method to annotation, verification, and expansion of a set of regulatory connections found by the Context Likelihood of Relatedness algorithm.

  12. Environmental strategy and performance in small firms: a resource-based perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragón-Correa, J Alberto; Hurtado-Torres, Nuria; Sharma, Sanjay; García-Morales, Víctor J

    2008-01-01

    In spite of the widespread recognition of the important roles that small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) play in most economies, limited research has focused on their impacts on the natural environment and the strategies such enterprises adopt to reduce these impacts. It is usually assumed that SMEs lack the resources to implement proactive environmental strategies that go beyond minimum regulatory compliance. In this study of 108 SMEs in the automotive repair sector in Southern Spain, we found that SMEs undertake a range of environmental strategies from reactive regulatory compliance to proactive pollution prevention and environmental leadership. These strategies are associated with three organizational capabilities: shared vision, stakeholder management, and strategic proactivity, hypothesized based on the unique strategic characteristics of SMEs--shorter lines of communication and closer interaction within the SMEs, the presence of a founder's vision, flexibility in managing external relationships, and an entrepreneurial orientation. We also found that firms with the most proactive practices exhibited a significantly positive financial performance.

  13. Future Perspectives for Arts-Based Methods in Higher Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chemi, Tatiana; Du, Xiangyun

    2018-01-01

    practices around the world while, on the other, addressing the challenges that these practices meet. Disruptive strategies must be given opportunities for reflection and reflexive spaces, opportunities for learning and teaching the artistic languages. The chapters show that long-term, systematic......This chapter presents the concluding remarks for the collected contribution. Having traced multiple theoretical, empirical and practical implications for the arts-based methods in higher education and organisations, the different chapters have, on the one hand, shed an original light on specific...... conversations between scholars and educators are needed, and that artists have a central role in the future developments of this field. Whether professional or amateur artists is no matter, but the craft and creativity of art practices in the flesh must lead any future direction of arts-based methods....

  14. Knowledge based decision making: perspective on natural gas production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ydstie, B. Erik; Stuland, Kjetil M.

    2009-07-01

    Conclusions (drawn by the author): Decarbonization of energy sources - From coal to renewable. Natural Gas Abundantly available - Norway is no. 3 exporter. Natural gas important as - Hydrogen source for chemicals; - Electricity; - End consumer usage (heating etc). Large potential for application of model based decision making; - Where and when to install platforms and drill wells - How to operate platforms and pipeline systems; - How to operate and optimize chemical production; - Optimization of electricity generation systems. (author)

  15. Enquiry-based learning and formative assessment environments: student perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Sambell, Kay

    2010-01-01

    This paper outlines case study research into first-year students’ experiences of enquiry based learning (EBL) on a year-long introductory theory module. Students were supported to carry out a series of authentic small-scale enquiries involving: • working in research teams; • gathering, disseminating and analysing data from the field; • sharing their interim findings as ‘work-in-progress’ reports; and • becoming involved in peer communities via a student conference. Semi-structured interviews ...

  16. ACTIVITY BASED COST FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE

    OpenAIRE

    Cristiana BOGDANOIU

    2009-01-01

    Activity-Based Costing (ABC) is a methodology that measures the cost and performance of activities, resources, and cost objects such as products and services to provide more accurate cost information for managerial decision making. ABC represents an alternative paradigm to traditional cost accounting system and it often provides more accurate cost information for decision making such as product pricing, product mix, and make-orbuy decisions. ABC models the causal relationships between product...

  17. Evidence-based practice: a trainee clinical psychologist perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Chapman, Lynn

    2010-01-01

    Evidence-based practice (EBP) is now the dominant model in health care; its aim is to increase the use of research evidence to inform clinical decision making. Clinical practice guidelines are the predominant method by which research is distilled into practice recommendations. Clinical psychology has its own model which promotes the integration of research evidence with clinical expertise, the scientist practitioner model (SPM). Recent developments within the United Kingdom health service, su...

  18. Nanotechnology Based Treatments for Neurological Disorders from Genetics Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholas S. Kurek; Sathees B. Chandra

    2013-01-01

    Nanotechology involves the application, analysis and manipulation of nanomaterials. These materials have unique and medically useful properties due to their nanoscale parameters. Nanotechnology based treatments and diagnostics might eventually bring great relief to people suffering from neurological disorders including autism spectrum disorders, Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disorders. A large variety of nonmaterials such as viruses, carbon nanotubes, gold and silica nanoparti...

  19. Intent to breastfeed: a population-based perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chertok, Ilana R Azulay; Luo, Juhua; Culp, Stacey; Mullett, Martha

    2011-06-01

    Prenatal maternal intent to breastfeed can indicate postnatal breastfeeding practices and may serve to indicate potential barriers to breastfeeding. Breastfeeding rates in West Virginia, a primarily rural state, are among the lowest in the United States, and minimal research has been published to date on population-based prenatal intent to breastfeed among rural women. Secondary data analysis of population-based data was conducted using two state-linked datasets. State data included all live singleton births from at least 20 weeks of gestation in West Virginia from 2004 to 2006, for a total of 52,899 births. Results from the logistic regression model for the population-based study indicate that variables predicting intent to breastfeed among pregnant women in West Virginia include insurance status, maternal education, maternal age, parity, marital status, timing of prenatal care initiation, and prenatal smoking status. Prenatal identification of characteristics associated with lack of intent to breastfeed can serve to inform healthcare providers of women who are at risk for not breastfeeding for directed breastfeeding promotion and intervention, complementing education of healthy lifestyle choices such as breastfeeding promotion with smoking cessation.

  20. Workplace-based assessment; learner and assessor perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nair BR

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Balakrishnan (Kichu R Nair,1,2 Mulavana S Parvathy,2 Amanda Wilson,3 Justine Smith,1 Brooke Murphy1 1Centre for Medical Professional Development, Hunter New England Local Health District, Newcastle, NSW, Australia; 2School of Medicine and Public Health, 3School of Nursing and Midwifery, Faculty of Health, University of Newcastle, NSW, Australia Objective: To examine the acceptability and educational impact of the workplace-based assessment program for international medical graduates on candidates and assessors. Method: A grounded theory-based qualitative analysis of the experiences of 17 candidates and eleven assessors using focus groups, interviews, and surveys. Results: Both candidates and assessors identified positive opportunities for improved performance of international medical graduates. Their integration into the workforce was facilitated by improved communication and peer acceptance, from ongoing multifaceted feedback and time to practice skills. Conclusion: This study showed a high level of acceptability of the Newcastle workplace-based assessment program among candidates and assessors. Keywords: performance, competency, formative, feedback, international medical graduates, Australian Medical Council

  1. Palliative home-based technology from a practitioner's perspective: benefits and disadvantages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnston BM

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Bridget M Johnston Sue Ryder Care Centre for the Study of Supportive, Palliative, and End of Life Care, School of Health Sciences, University of Nottingham, Queen's Medical Centre, Nottingham, UK Abstract: This critical review paper explores the concept of palliative home-based technology from a practitioner's perspective. The aim of the critical review was to scope information available from published and unpublished research on the current state of palliative home-based technology, practitioner-focused perspectives, patient-focused perspectives, quality of life, and the implications for clinical practice. Published and unpublished studies were included. An example of one UK patient-centered home-based technology is explored as an exemplar. The evidence suggests that despite the challenges, there are numerous examples of good practice in relation to palliative home-based technology. Improvements in technology mean that telehealth has much to offer people being cared for at home with palliative needs. However, some of the evaluative evidence is limited, and further rigor is needed when evaluating future technology-based solutions innovations. Keywords: technology, telehealth, telemedicine, information technology, palliative care, hospice, terminal illness

  2. 3 UTR-located ALU Elements: Donors of Potetial miRNA Target Sites and Mediators of Network miRNA-based Regulatory Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Minkov

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent research data reveal complex, network-based interactions between mobile elements and regulatory systems of eukaryotic cells. In this article, we focus on regulatory interactions between Alu elements and micro RNAs (miRNAs. Our results show that the majority of the Alu sequences inserted in 3’UTRs of analyzed human genes carry strong potential target sites for at least 53 different miRNAs. Thus, 3’UTR-locared Alu elements may play the role of mobile regulatory modules that supply binding sites for miRNA regulation. Their abundance and ability to distribute a set of certain miRNA target sites may have important role in establishment, extension, network-like organization, and, as we suppose – in the regulation and environment-dependent activation/inactivation of some elements of the miRNA regulatory system, as well as for a larger scale RNA-based regulatory interactions. The Alu-miRNA connection may be crucial especially for the primate/human evolution.

  3. Evolution of chemical-specific adjustment factors (CSAF) based on recent international experience; increasing utility and facilitating regulatory acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Virunya S; Meek, M E Bette; Valcke, Mathieu; English, Caroline; Boobis, Alan; Brown, Richard

    2017-10-01

    The application of chemical-specific toxicokinetic or toxicodynamic data to address interspecies differences and human variability in the quantification of hazard has potential to reduce uncertainty and better characterize variability compared with the use of traditional default or categorically-based uncertainty factors. The present review summarizes the state-of-the-science since the introduction of the World Health Organization/International Programme on Chemical Safety (WHO/IPCS) guidance on chemical-specific adjustment factors (CSAF) in 2005 and the availability of recent applicable guidance including the WHO/IPCS guidance on physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling in 2010 as well as the U.S. EPA guidance on data-derived extrapolation factors in 2014. A summary of lessons learned from an analysis of more than 100 case studies from global regulators or published literature illustrates the utility and evolution of CSAF in regulatory decisions. Challenges in CSAF development related to the adequacy of, or confidence in, the supporting data, including verification or validation of PBPK models. The analysis also identified issues related to adequacy of CSAF documentation, such as inconsistent terminology and often limited and/or inconsistent reporting, of both supporting data and/or risk assessment context. Based on this analysis, recommendations for standardized terminology, documentation and relevant interdisciplinary research and engagement are included to facilitate the continuing evolution of CSAF development and guidance.

  4. Finding Groups Using Model-based Cluster Analysis: Heterogeneous Emotional Self-regulatory Processes and Heavy Alcohol Use Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mun, Eun-Young; von Eye, Alexander; Bates, Marsha E.; Vaschillo, Evgeny G.

    2010-01-01

    Model-based cluster analysis is a new clustering procedure to investigate population heterogeneity utilizing finite mixture multivariate normal densities. It is an inferentially based, statistically principled procedure that allows comparison of non-nested models using the Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) to compare multiple models and identify the optimum number of clusters. The current study clustered 36 young men and women based on their baseline heart rate (HR) and HR variability (HRV), chronic alcohol use, and reasons for drinking. Two cluster groups were identified and labeled High Alcohol Risk and Normative groups. Compared to the Normative group, individuals in the High Alcohol Risk group had higher levels of alcohol use and more strongly endorsed disinhibition and suppression reasons for use. The High Alcohol Risk group showed significant HRV changes in response to positive and negative emotional and appetitive picture cues, compared to neutral cues. In contrast, the Normative group showed a significant HRV change only to negative cues. Findings suggest that the individuals with autonomic self-regulatory difficulties may be more susceptible to heavy alcohol use and use alcohol for emotional regulation. PMID:18331138

  5. Benefits and challenges of international clinical education from a US-based physiotherapist faculty perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechak, Celia; Black, Jill D

    2013-12-01

    The influence of internationalization on physiotherapist education in at least North American-based programmes has become more apparent. Faculty and students have been involved in various international activities. One category of activities includes international clinical education (ICE), where students earn clinical education credit for their learning activities at international sites. Although this educational strategy appears to be increasingly used in at least the United States and Canada, the related literature is limited in scope. The purpose of this portion of the present study was to investigate the benefits and challenges of ICE for US-based students, US-based physiotherapy programmes and international partners from the perspective of US-based faculty sending students for clinical education internationally. Content analysis was used for this qualitative study. Fifteen US-based faculty members who had experience in sending physiotherapist students for ICE were recruited. The primary researcher conducted semi-structured phone interviews, averaging approximately 60 minutes in length. The primary and secondary researchers completed data analysis using NVivo 8 software (QSR International Inc., Cambridge, MA). Benefits of ICE to the students included exposure to alternate health systems, broadening of student perspectives and clinical competence. Challenges consisted of funding and possible language barrier. Increased visibility, expanded global perspective and faculty collaborations were benefits to the programme. Ensuring a quality learning experience was the greatest programme challenge. Benefits to the international site included education and faculty collaborations/exchanges; challenges were language, student clinical preparation and unfamiliarity with the student evaluation tool. Because the sample was limited to 15 US-based faculty members, the results may not be relevant to all programmes inside or outside of the United States. Additionally, the study

  6. Synthetic feedback control using an RNAi-based gene-regulatory device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Ryan J; Winkler, Sally M; Smolke, Christina D

    2015-01-01

    Homeostasis within mammalian cells is achieved through complex molecular networks that can respond to changes within the cell or the environment and regulate the expression of the appropriate genes in response. The development of biological components that can respond to changes in the cellular environment and interface with endogenous molecules would enable more sophisticated genetic circuits and greatly advance our cellular engineering capabilities. Here we describe a platform that combines a ligand-responsive ribozyme switch and synthetic miRNA regulators to create an OFF genetic control device based on RNA interference (RNAi). We developed a mathematical model to highlight important design parameters in programming the quantitative performance of RNAi-based OFF control devices. By modifying the ribozyme switch integrated into the system, we demonstrated RNAi-based OFF control devices that respond to small molecule and protein ligands, including the oncogenic protein E2F1. We utilized the OFF control device platform to build a negative feedback control system that acts as a proportional controller and maintains target intracellular protein levels in response to increases in transcription rate. Our work describes a novel genetic device that increases the level of silencing from a miRNA in the presence of a ligand of interest, effectively creating an RNAi-based OFF control device. The OFF switch platform has the flexibility to be used to respond to both small molecule and protein ligands. Finally, the RNAi-based OFF switch can be used to implement a negative feedback control system, which maintains target protein levels around a set point level. The described RNAi-based OFF control device presents a powerful tool that will enable researchers to engineer homeostasis in mammalian cells.

  7. Money laundering regulatory risk evaluation using Bitmap Index-based Decision Tree

    OpenAIRE

    Jayasree, Vikas; R.V. Siva Balan

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes to evaluate the adaptability risk in money laundering using Bitmap Index-based Decision Tree (BIDT) technique. Initially, the Bitmap Index-based Decision Tree learning is used to induce the knowledge tree which helps to determine a company’s money laundering risk and improve scalability. A bitmap index in BIDT is used to effectively access large banking databases. In a BIDT bitmap index, account in a table is numbered in sequence with each key value, account number and a b...

  8. Molecular spectroscopy and dynamics: a polyad-based perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Michel; Perry, David S

    2013-07-07

    The efficiency and insight of global, polyad-based modeling in overtone spectroscopy and dynamics is demonstrated. Both vibration and vibration-rotation polyads are considered. The spectroscopic implications of polyad Hamiltonians derive from their ability to account for the detailed line positions and intensities of spectral features and their unique predictive power. The dynamical implications of polyad Hamiltonians include classical bifurcations that lead to the birth of new vibrational modes and intramolecular vibrational-rotational energy redistribution over multiple timescales. The literature is reviewed, with emphasis on acetylene results.

  9. A Danish Perspective on Problem Based Learning in Space Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhanderi, Dan D. V.; Bisgaard, Morten; Alminde, Lars

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the goals of the Student Satellite Program at Aalborg University (AAU), and the means for implementing it, namely a concept called Problem Based Learning, which is the cornerstone in the education at AAU. AAU has within the last decade chosen to focus strongly on education in...... attractive for the industry in general, and not only for the space industry....... in space technology, not because the country lacks aerospace engineers, but because space projects require the students to think about systems rather than individual modules, while providing problems that are technically challenging for the students to solve. This combination makes the graduates very...

  10. CELL-SELEX: Novel Perspectives of Aptamer-Based Therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans P. Wendel

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Aptamers, single stranded DNA or RNA molecules, generated by a method called SELEX (systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment have been widely used in various biomedical applications. The newly developed Cell-SELEX (cell based-SELEX targeting whole living cells has raised great expectations for cancer biology, -therapy and regenerative medicine. Combining nanobiotechnology with aptamers, this technology opens the way to more sophisticated applications in molecular diagnosis. This paper gives a review of recent developments in SELEX technologies and new applications of aptamers.

  11. PERSPECTIVE: Toward the development of a cortically based visual neuroprosthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normann, Richard A.; Greger, Bradley A.; House, Paul; Romero, Samuel F.; Pelayo, Francisco; Fernandez, Eduardo

    2009-06-01

    Motivated by the success of cochlear implants for deaf patients, we are now facing the goal of creating a visual neuroprosthesis designed to interface with the occipital cortex as a means through which a limited but useful sense of vision could be restored in profoundly blind patients. We review the most important challenges regarding this neuroprosthetic approach and emphasize the need for basic human psychophysical research on the best way of presenting complex stimulating patterns through multiple microelectrodes. Continued research will hopefully lead to the development of and design specifications for the first generation of a cortically based visual prosthesis system.

  12. A watershed-based environmental and regulatory data analysis system for the forest products industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Beebe

    2012-01-01

    A watershed-based data analysis system was created as a tool for forest product companies to better understand potential implications from environmental regulations. Also known as the Receiving Water Database (RWDB), this data system was designed with the purpose of assisting companies that own pulp and paper mills, wood product facilities, and commercial timberlands...

  13. Problem based learning in midwifery--the students' perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, Catherine J; McCourt, Christine; Beake, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    Problem based learning (PBL) has been adopted in many settings for the education of health professionals. It has generally been evaluated well by students although much of the literature comes from medical education. The aim of this study was to ascertain the views of student midwives at the beginning and at the end of their programme and three months after graduation about the use of a PBL based programme in midwifery. Eight focus groups were conducted with students whilst undertaking a PBL programme from both a shortened and three year programme across two sites. A questionnaire was sent 3 months after graduation to midwives who had completed the programme. Key themes which emerged from this study were that although students gained skills in information retrieval and critique some did not always feel well prepared for practice. The focus on individual presentations in the tutorial tended to be interpreted as performance rather than discussion in a spirit of enquiry. Students reported being particularly anxious at the beginning of their programme about their learning. They felt that their experience was dependent upon the participation and motivation of the group members.

  14. Nanotechnology Based Treatments for Neurological Disorders from Genetics Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas S. Kurek

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechology involves the application, analysis and manipulation of nanomaterials. These materials have unique and medically useful properties due to their nanoscale parameters. Nanotechnology based treatments and diagnostics might eventually bring great relief to people suffering from neurological disorders including autism spectrum disorders, Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disorders. A large variety of nonmaterials such as viruses, carbon nanotubes, gold and silica nanoparticles, nanoshells, quantum dots, genetic material and proteins as well as hordes of other forms of nanotechnology have been researched in order to determine their potential in enhancing disease treatments and diagnostics. Nanotechnology has shown countless applications and might eventually be used in every biotech/health industry. Nevertheless, many nanomaterials may pose some safety risks and whether their benefits overweigh the risk is still being debated. Once the proper ethical and safety protocols are established and enough research is completed, nanotechnology is expected to benefit the mankind enormously. In this article, we will discuss and analyze many ways in which, nanotechnology based treatments and diagnostics will be used to help people with neurological disorders through the methods that we currently have at our disposal. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(1.000: 12-32

  15. Body temperature regulation: Sasang typology-based perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duong Duc Pham

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Global warming induces a dramatic elevation of heat-related morbidity and mortality worldwide. Individual variation of heat stress vulnerability depends on various factors such as age, gender, living area and conditions, health status, and individual innate characteristics. Sasang typology is a unique form of Korean traditional medicine, which is based on the hypothesis that constitution-specific traits of an individual determine the particular distinctive tendency in various aspects, including responses to the external environment. Recent scientific evidence shows that Sasang types differ in body composition, metabolic profile, susceptibility to certain disease patterns, and perspiration. This review aims to interpret these findings under the context of heat balance consisting of heat production (Hprod, heat loss (Hloss, and heat load (Hload. Based on the published data, at a given body mass, the TaeEum type tended to have a lower Hprod at rest and at the exhaustion state, which may indicate the lower metabolic efficiency of this type. Meanwhile, the surface-to-mass ratio and heat capacity of the TaeEum type appear to be lower, implying a lower heat dissipation capacity and heat storage tolerance. Thus, because of these characteristics, the TaeEum type seems to be more vulnerable to heat stress than the other constitutions. Differences in temperature regulation across constitutional types should be taken into account in daily physical activity, health management, and medical research.

  16. Improving data retrieval quality: Evidence based medicine perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamalov, M; Dobrynin, V; Balykina, J; Kolbin, A; Verbitskaya, E; Kasimova, M

    2015-01-01

    The actively developing approach in modern medicine is the approach focused on principles of evidence-based medicine. The assessment of quality and reliability of studies is needed. However, in some cases studies corresponding to the first level of evidence may contain errors in randomized control trials (RCTs). Solution of the problem is the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system. Studies both in the fields of medicine and information retrieval are conducted for developing search engines for the MEDLINE database [1]; combined techniques for summarization and information retrieval targeted to solving problems of finding the best medication based on the levels of evidence are being developed [2]. Based on the relevance and demand for studies both in the field of medicine and information retrieval, it was decided to start the development of a search engine for the MEDLINE database search on the basis of the Saint-Petersburg State University with the support of Pavlov First Saint-Petersburg State Medical University and Tashkent Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education. Novelty and value of the proposed system are characterized by the use of ranking method of relevant abstracts. It is suggested that the system will be able to perform ranking based on studies level of evidence and to apply GRADE criteria for system evaluation. The assigned task falls within the domain of information retrieval and machine learning. Based on the results of implementation from previous work [3], in which the main goal was to cluster abstracts from MEDLINE database by subtypes of medical interventions, a set of algorithms for clustering in this study was selected: K-means, K-means ++, EM from the sklearn (http://scikit-learn.org) and WEKA (http://www.cs.waikato.ac.nz/~ml/weka/) libraries, together with the methods of Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) [4] choosing the first 210 facts and the model "bag of words" [5] to represent clustered documents

  17. Event-based state estimation a stochastic perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, Dawei; Chen, Tongwen

    2016-01-01

    This book explores event-based estimation problems. It shows how several stochastic approaches are developed to maintain estimation performance when sensors perform their updates at slower rates only when needed. The self-contained presentation makes this book suitable for readers with no more than a basic knowledge of probability analysis, matrix algebra and linear systems. The introduction and literature review provide information, while the main content deals with estimation problems from four distinct angles in a stochastic setting, using numerous illustrative examples and comparisons. The text elucidates both theoretical developments and their applications, and is rounded out by a review of open problems. This book is a valuable resource for researchers and students who wish to expand their knowledge and work in the area of event-triggered systems. At the same time, engineers and practitioners in industrial process control will benefit from the event-triggering technique that reduces communication costs ...

  18. GPU Based Software Correlators - Perspectives for VLBI2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobiger, Thomas; Kimura, Moritaka; Takefuji, Kazuhiro; Oyama, Tomoaki; Koyama, Yasuhiro; Kondo, Tetsuro; Gotoh, Tadahiro; Amagai, Jun

    2010-01-01

    Caused by historical separation and driven by the requirements of the PC gaming industry, Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) have evolved to massive parallel processing systems which entered the area of non-graphic related applications. Although a single processing core on the GPU is much slower and provides less functionality than its counterpart on the CPU, the huge number of these small processing entities outperforms the classical processors when the application can be parallelized. Thus, in recent years various radio astronomical projects have started to make use of this technology either to realize the correlator on this platform or to establish the post-processing pipeline with GPUs. Therefore, the feasibility of GPUs as a choice for a VLBI correlator is being investigated, including pros and cons of this technology. Additionally, a GPU based software correlator will be reviewed with respect to energy consumption/GFlop/sec and cost/GFlop/sec.

  19. A global perspective on trends in nature-based tourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmford, Andrew; Beresford, James; Green, Jonathan; Naidoo, Robin; Walpole, Matt; Manica, Andrea

    2009-06-30

    Reports of rapid growth in nature-based tourism and recreation add significant weight to the economic case for biodiversity conservation but seem to contradict widely voiced concerns that people are becoming increasingly isolated from nature. This apparent paradox has been highlighted by a recent study showing that on a per capita basis, visits to natural areas in the United States and Japan have declined over the last two decades. These results have been cited as evidence of "a fundamental and pervasive shift away from nature-based recreation"-but how widespread is this phenomenon? We address this question by looking at temporal trends in visitor numbers at 280 protected areas (PAs) from 20 countries. This more geographically representative dataset shows that while PA visitation (whether measured as total or per capita visit numbers) is indeed declining in the United States and Japan, it is generally increasing elsewhere. Total visit numbers are growing in 15 of the 20 countries for which we could get data, with the median national rate of change unrelated to the national rate of population growth but negatively associated with wealth. Reasons for this reversal of growth in the richest countries are difficult to pin down with existing data, but the pattern is mirrored by trends in international tourist arrivals as a whole and so may not necessarily be caused by disaffection with nature. Irrespective of the explanation, it is clear that despite important downturns in some countries, nature-related tourism is far from declining everywhere, and may still have considerable potential both to generate funds for conservation and to shape people's attitudes to the environment.

  20. Increasing self-regulatory energy using an Internet-based training application delivered by smartphone technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranwell, Jo; Benford, Steve; Houghton, Robert J; Golembewski, Michael; Golembewksi, Michael; Fischer, Joel E; Hagger, Martin S

    2014-03-01

    Self-control resources can be defined in terms of "energy." Repeated attempts to override desires and impulses can result in a state of reduced self-control energy termed "ego depletion" leading to a reduced capacity to regulate future self-control behaviors effectively. Regular practice or "training" on self-control tasks may improve an individual's capacity to overcome ego depletion effectively. The current research tested the effectiveness of training using a novel Internet-based smartphone application to improve self-control and reduce ego depletion. In two experiments, participants were randomly assigned to either an experimental group, which received a daily program of self-control training using a modified Stroop-task Internet-based application delivered via smartphone to participants over a 4-week period, or a no-training control group. Participants assigned to the experimental group performed significantly better on post-training laboratory self-control tasks relative to participants in the control group. Findings support the hypothesized training effect on self-control and highlight the effectiveness of a novel Internet-based application delivered by smartphone as a practical means to administer and monitor a self-control training program. The smartphone training application has considerable advantages over other means to train self-control adopted in previous studies in that it has increased ecological validity and enables effective monitoring of compliance with the training program.

  1. Measuring sustainability based upon various perspectives: a case study of a hill station in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estoque, Ronald C; Murayama, Yuji

    2014-11-01

    A hill station is a town or city situated in mountain regions in the tropics founded during the western colonization in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Hill stations have moderate temperatures, and are known for their relatively good natural environments, which generate valuable ecosystem services that benefit the local population. However, rapid urbanization threatens the sustainability of these areas. This study evaluates the sustainability of the urbanization process of Baguio City, a hill station city in Southeast Asia and the summer capital of the Philippines, by determining the relationship between its velocity of urbanization and velocity of urban sustainability based upon various perspectives. From an equal weight perspective (of the triple bottom line of sustainability components, namely environmental, social, and economic) and a pro-economic perspective, the results revealed that the urbanization of Baguio City has been moving toward a "sustainable urbanization." However, from the environmental and eco-sustainable human development perspectives, the results indicated that it has been moving toward an "unsustainable urbanization." The paper discusses the implications of the findings for the planning of sustainable development for Baguio City, including some critical challenges in sustainability assessment and the applicability of the framework used for future sustainability assessments of the other hill stations in Southeast Asia.

  2. Complexity Analysis of Industrial Organizations Based on a Perspective of Systems Engineering Analysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. H. Garbie

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Complexity in industrial organizations became more difficult and complex to be solved and it needs more attention from academicians and technicians. For these reasons, complexity in industrial organizations represents a new challenge in the next decades. Until now, analysis of industrial organizations complexity is still remaining a research topic of immense international interest and they require reduction in their complexity. In this paper, analysis of complexity in industrial organizations is shown based on the perspective of systems engineering analyst. In this perspective, analysis of complexity was divided into different levels and these levels were defined as complexity levels. A framework of analyzing these levels was proposed and suggested based on the complexity in industrial organizations. This analysis was divided into four main issues: industrial system vision, industrial system structure, industrial system operating, and industrial system evaluating. This analysis shows that the complexity of industrial organizations is still an ill-structured and a multi-dimensional problem.

  3. Theoretical Perspectives of Adherence to Web-Based Interventions: a Scoping Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Cathal; Bergin, Michael; Wells, John Sg

    2017-07-20

    The purpose of this paper is to review the literature as this relates to theoretical perspectives of adherence to web-based interventions, drawing upon empirical evidence from the fields of psychology, business, information technology and health care. A scoping review of the literature utilising principles outlined by Arksey and O'Malley was undertaken. Several relevant theoretical perspectives have emerged, eight of which are charted and discussed in this review. These are the Internet Intervention Model, Persuasive Systems Design, the 'PERMA' framework, the Support Accountability Model, the Model of User Engagement, the Technology Acceptance Model, the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of IT and the Conceptual Model of User Engagement. The findings of the review indicate that an interdisciplinary approach, incorporating a range of technological, environmental and individual factors, may be needed in order to comprehensively explain user adherence to web-based interventions.

  4. Athlete brand construction: A perspective based on fans' perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Hasaan

    Full Text Available Abstract The purpose of this study was to develop a framework for understanding the antecedents and components of athlete brand. Based on a set of 21 interviews conducted in three different countries, a detailed framework is proposed including five antecedents and two components of athlete brand. The antecedents are media (social media, mass media, video games and major sport events, oral communications (word of mouth, and rumors and narratives, impression management, social agents (parents, family members, friends and community, and teams and sport (sport interest, team interest and team geographical location. In turn, the components of athlete brand are related with on-field attributes (behavior, team, achievements, style of play and skills and off-field attributes (physical attraction, lifestyle, personal appeal, ethnicity and entertainment. Complementarily, these components of athlete brand are proposed to have an impact on fans' loyalty towards the athlete. Implications of these findings for building and managing athlete brand are discussed, and directions for future studies are provided.

  5. Dialectical thinking and fairness-based perspectives of affirmative action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hideg, Ivona; Ferris, D Lance

    2017-05-01

    Affirmative action (AA) policies are among the most effective means for enhancing diversity and equality in the workplace, yet are also often viewed with scorn by the wider public. Fairness-based explanations for this scorn suggest AA policies provide preferential treatment to minorities, violating procedural fairness principles of consistent treatment. In other words, to promote equality in the workplace, effective AA policies promote inequality when selecting employees, and the broader public perceives this to be procedurally unfair. Given this inconsistency underlies negative reactions to AA policies, we argue that better preparing individuals to deal with inconsistencies can mitigate negative reactions to AA policies. Integrating theories from the fairness and cognitive styles literature, we demonstrate across 4 studies how dialectical thinking-a cognitive style associated with accepting inconsistencies in one's environment-increases support for AA policies via procedural fairness perceptions. Specifically, we found support for our propositions across a variety of AA policy types (i.e., strong and weak preference policies) and when conceptualizing dialectical thinking either as an individual difference or as a state that can be primed-including being primed by the framing of the AA policy itself. We discuss theoretical contributions and insights for policy-making at government and organizational levels. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Perovskite-Based Solar Cells: Materials, Methods, and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Zhou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel all-solid-state, hybrid solar cell based on organic-inorganic metal halide perovskite (CH3NH3PbX3 materials has attracted great attention from the researchers all over the world and is considered to be one of the top 10 scientific breakthroughs in 2013. The perovskite materials can be used not only as light-absorbing layer, but also as an electron/hole transport layer due to the advantages of its high extinction coefficient, high charge mobility, long carrier lifetime, and long carrier diffusion distance. The photoelectric power conversion efficiency of the perovskite solar cells has increased from 3.8% in 2009 to 22.1% in 2016, making perovskite solar cells the best potential candidate for the new generation of solar cells to replace traditional silicon solar cells in the future. In this paper, we introduce the development and mechanism of perovskite solar cells, describe the specific function of each layer, and focus on the improvement in the function of such layers and its influence on the cell performance. Next, the synthesis methods of the perovskite light-absorbing layer and the performance characteristics are discussed. Finally, the challenges and prospects for the development of perovskite solar cells are also briefly presented.

  7. Developing Mindfulness in College Students through Movement-Based Courses: Effects on Self-Regulatory Self-Efficacy, Mood, Stress, and Sleep Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Karen; Harrison, Mandy; Adams, Marianne; Quin, Rebecca H.; Greeson, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study examined whether mindfulness increased through participation in movement-based courses and whether changes in self-regulatory self-efficacy, mood, and perceived stress mediated the relationship between increased mindfulness and better sleep. Participants: 166 college students enrolled in the 2007-2008 academic year in 15 week…

  8. The Construction of Regulatory Network for Insulin-Mediated Genes by Integrating Methods Based on Transcription Factor Binding Motifs and Gene Expression Variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeim Jung

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a complex metabolic disorder associated with multiple genetic, developmental and environmental factors. The recent advances in gene expression microarray technologies as well as network-based analysis methodologies provide groundbreaking opportunities to study type 2 diabetes mellitus. In the present study, we used previously published gene expression microarray datasets of human skeletal muscle samples collected from 20 insulin sensitive individuals before and after insulin treatment in order to construct insulin-mediated regulatory network. Based on a motif discovery method implemented by iRegulon, a Cytoscape app, we identified 25 candidate regulons, motifs of which were enriched among the promoters of 478 up-regulated genes and 82 down-regulated genes. We then looked for a hierarchical network of the candidate regulators, in such a way that the conditional combination of their expression changes may explain those of their target genes. Using Genomica, a software tool for regulatory network construction, we obtained a hierarchical network of eight regulons that were used to map insulin downstream signaling network. Taken together, the results illustrate the benefits of combining completely different methods such as motif-based regulatory factor discovery and expression level-based construction of regulatory network of their target genes in understanding insulin induced biological processes and signaling pathways.

  9. The Construction of Regulatory Network for Insulin-Mediated Genes by Integrating Methods Based on Transcription Factor Binding Motifs and Gene Expression Variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hyeim; Han, Seonggyun; Kim, Sangsoo

    2015-09-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a complex metabolic disorder associated with multiple genetic, developmental and environmental factors. The recent advances in gene expression microarray technologies as well as network-based analysis methodologies provide groundbreaking opportunities to study type 2 diabetes mellitus. In the present study, we used previously published gene expression microarray datasets of human skeletal muscle samples collected from 20 insulin sensitive individuals before and after insulin treatment in order to construct insulin-mediated regulatory network. Based on a motif discovery method implemented by iRegulon, a Cytoscape app, we identified 25 candidate regulons, motifs of which were enriched among the promoters of 478 up-regulated genes and 82 down-regulated genes. We then looked for a hierarchical network of the candidate regulators, in such a way that the conditional combination of their expression changes may explain those of their target genes. Using Genomica, a software tool for regulatory network construction, we obtained a hierarchical network of eight regulons that were used to map insulin downstream signaling network. Taken together, the results illustrate the benefits of combining completely different methods such as motif-based regulatory factor discovery and expression level-based construction of regulatory network of their target genes in understanding insulin induced biological processes and signaling pathways.

  10. Arts-based learning in medical education: the students' perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Croix, Anne; Rose, Catharine; Wildig, Emma; Willson, Suzy

    2011-11-01

    Arts subjects are often included in medical school curricula to facilitate the exploration of non-scientific elements of medicine, such as communication, social, political, emotional and spiritual issues. However, little research has reported on students' experience of arts teaching. Performing Medicine is a programme created by the Clod Ensemble theatre company in collaboration with Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, and the Department of Drama at Queen Mary University, London. Professional artists run a range of workshops exploring issues relating to health care and work to develop students' professional skills in self-presentation, observation, communication, self-care and their understanding of difference. This article presents an analysis of student-written material about Performing Medicine. A dataset of written student materials (reflections and feedback), drawn from three academic years (2006-2009), was analysed using the qualitative methods of thematic analysis and word frequency analysis. Five prevalent themes were identified: (i) Acting like a doctor; (ii) Developing broader awareness of others; (iii) The self in focus; (iv) The art of communication, and (v) A place for arts-based teaching within the medical curriculum. The corpus linguistic analysis confirmed and elaborated on the five themes found in the thematic analysis. Students generally felt that arts teaching made a valuable contribution to the medical curriculum. Many felt the training would reduce 'performance anxiety' in situations such as examinations, presentations and new placements. Group work developed camaraderie and students enjoyed the opportunity to learn new skills through creative writing, theatre and movement sessions. Some sessions developed students' ability to engage with and relate to people from very different backgrounds than their own. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2011.

  11. Concordance-based adherence support service delivery: consumer perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Pasquier, Sophie; Aslani, Parisa

    2008-12-01

    pressures, financial constraints, the gap of competence and power between patients and doctors. Pharmacists should consider consumers' needs for information and establishing concordance, as well as their expectations of the pharmacy profession, in delivering concordance based adherence support services. Given participants' high demand for medicine information, an opportunity might exist for pharmacists to influence consumers' expectations by offering information which is tailored towards their needs.

  12. Location Based Mobile Computing–A Tuplespace Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Fongen

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Location based or ”context aware” computing is becoming increasingly recognized as a vital part of a mobile computing environment. As a consequence, the need for location-management middleware is widely recognized and actively researched. Location-management is frequently offered to the application through a “location API” (e.g. JSR 179 where the mobile unit can find out its own location as coordinates or as “building, floor, room” values. It is then up to the application to map the coordinates into a set of localized variables, e.g. direction to the nearest bookshop or the local timezone. It is the opinion of the authors that a localization API should be more transparent and more integrated: The localized values should be handed to the application directly, and the API for doing so should be the same as the general storage mechanisms. Our proposed middleware for location and context management is built on top of Mobispace. Mobispace is a distributed tuplespace made for mobile units (J2me where replication between local replicas takes place with a central server (over GPRS or with other mobile units (using Bluetooth. Since a Bluetooth connection indicates physical proximity to another node, a set of stationary nodes may distribute locality information over Bluetooth connections, and this information may be retrieved through the ordinary tuplespace API. Besides the integration with the general framework for communication and coordination the middleware offers straightforward answers to questions like: Where is node X located? Which nodes are near me? What is the trace of node Y?

  13. From Agent-based models to network analysis (and return): the policy-making perspective.

    OpenAIRE

    Fontana, Magda; Terna, Pietro

    2015-01-01

    An important perspective use of Agent-based models (ABMs) is that of being employed as tools to support decision systems in policy-making, in the complex systems framework. Such models can be usefully employed at two different levels: to help in deciding (policy-maker level) and to empower the capabilities of people in evaluating the effectiveness of policies (citizen level). Consequently, the class of ABMs for policymaking needs to be both quite simple in its structure and highly sophisticat...

  14. EFFECTIVE BLENDED LEARNING PRACTICES: Evidence-based Perspectives in ICT-facilitated Education

    OpenAIRE

    Reviewed by Yasin OZARSLAN

    2009-01-01

    EFFECTIVE BLENDED LEARNING PRACTICES:Evidence-based Perspectives in ICT-facilitated EducationEdited by Elizabeth Stacey and Philippa Gerbic, Information ScienceReference; 1 edition (March 30, 2009), ISBN-10: 1605662968, 358 pp.Reviewed by Yasin OZARSLANFaculty of Education,Eskisehir Osmangazi University,Eskisehir-TURKEYBlended learning refers to the integration of faceto-face and online learning activities with the goal of maximizing the value of students' experiences in both settings. This b...

  15. STARNET 2: a web-based tool for accelerating discovery of gene regulatory networks using microarray co-expression data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VanBuren Vincent

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although expression microarrays have become a standard tool used by biologists, analysis of data produced by microarray experiments may still present challenges. Comparison of data from different platforms, organisms, and labs may involve complicated data processing, and inferring relationships between genes remains difficult. Results STARNET 2 is a new web-based tool that allows post hoc visual analysis of correlations that are derived from expression microarray data. STARNET 2 facilitates user discovery of putative gene regulatory networks in a variety of species (human, rat, mouse, chicken, zebrafish, Drosophila, C. elegans, S. cerevisiae, Arabidopsis and rice by graphing networks of genes that are closely co-expressed across a large heterogeneous set of preselected microarray experiments. For each of the represented organisms, raw microarray data were retrieved from NCBI's Gene Expression Omnibus for a selected Affymetrix platform. All pairwise Pearson correlation coefficients were computed for expression profiles measured on each platform, respectively. These precompiled results were stored in a MySQL database, and supplemented by additional data retrieved from NCBI. A web-based tool allows user-specified queries of the database, centered at a gene of interest. The result of a query includes graphs of correlation networks, graphs of known interactions involving genes and gene products that are present in the correlation networks, and initial statistical analyses. Two analyses may be performed in parallel to compare networks, which is facilitated by the new HEATSEEKER module. Conclusion STARNET 2 is a useful tool for developing new hypotheses about regulatory relationships between genes and gene products, and has coverage for 10 species. Interpretation of the correlation networks is supported with a database of previously documented interactions, a test for enrichment of Gene Ontology terms, and heat maps of correlation

  16. Redox active materials for metal compound based hybrid electrochemical energy storage: a perspective view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tuyen; Montemor, M. Fátima

    2017-11-01

    Metal compound based hybrid electrochemical energy storage (HEES) is currently emerging as a highly promising solution to provide enhanced storage capacity and high power performance. Properties of metal compound based redox active electrodes, including chemical composition, morphology, crystal structure and conductivity govern the performance of storage devices. In this perspective, we highlight the recent advances on HEES and discuss possible strategies to explore further the electrochemical response and to improve the storage performance. Redox active binders and redox active electrolytes, operating together with metal compound based electrodes, to provide additional charge storage will also be discussed.

  17. Perspectives on Resource Recovery from Bio-Based Production Processes: From Concept to Implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    S.B.A. Udugama, Isuru; Mansouri, Seyed Soheil; Mitic, Aleksandar

    2017-01-01

    and environmental points of view, implying relatively easy future implementation on pilot- and full-scale levels in the bio-based industry. Reviewing such technologies is therefore the focus here. Considerations about technology readiness level (TRL) and Net Present Value (NPV) are included in the review, since TRL...... and NPV contribute significantly to the techno-economic evaluation of future and promising process solutions. Based on the present review, a qualitative guideline for resource recovery from bio-based production processes is proposed. Finally, future approaches and perspectives toward identification...

  18. Canadian drug regulatory framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, L; Lazzaro, M; Petersen, C

    2007-03-01

    The role of regulatory drug submission evaluators in Canada is to critically assess both the data submitted and the sponsor's interpretation of the data in order to reach an evidence-, and context-based recommendation as to the potential benefits and potential harms (i.e., risks) associated with taking the drug under the proposed conditions of use. The purpose of this document is to outline the regulatory framework in which this assessment occurs, including: defining what "authorization to market a drug in Canada" means, in terms of the role of the sponsor, the responsibility of Health Canada in applying the Food and Drugs Act prior to and after marketing authorization, and the distinction between regulatory authorization versus physician authorization; highlighting organizational, process and legal factors within Health Canada related to authorization of clinical trials and authorization to market a drug; considerations during the review process, such as regulatory and scientific issues related to the drug, patient populations and trial designs; application of international guidelines, and decisions from other jurisdictions; regulatory realities regarding drug authorization, including the requirement for wording in the Product Monograph to accurately reflect the information currently available on the safe and effective use of a drug, and that hypothesis-confirming studies are essential to regulatory endorsement; current issues related to the review of therapies for dementia, such as assessing preventative treatments, and therapies that have symptomatic versus disease-modifying effects, statistical issues regarding missing data, and trial design issues.

  19. Creative economy and knowledge-based society. Perspectives for Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Istudor Laura Gabriela

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Creative economy is a rather new concept that started developing during the last decade, being currently applied to a variety of activities and professions. It has become an important sector of the global economy, being sustained and promoted by the European Union, especially in the context of an innovative and knowledge-based society. Within this new type of economy, creativity, innovation and knowledge management are essential factors that lead to a smart, sustainable and inclusive development in regard to the creation of new jobs and to the social inclusion requirements. According to John Howkins (2001, the creative industries / sectors include art, research, advertising, movies, theatre, software, with the possibility of the concept of creative economy to be extended to other non-artistic and IT related fields, where improvements are expected to arise through innovation and creativity. The Global Creativity Index (GCI and the European Innovation Scoreboard (EIS, are two benchmarking tools that measure the creativity and innovation degree of the countries in the European Union, placing Romania within the last positions, especially with respect to intellectual property rights and entrepreneurship. The research methodology consists of both qualitative and quantitative methods, while the research questions to be answered are What is the degree of innovation in Romania compared to other states? What can be done in order to increase the level of innovation in Romania? In this viewpoint, the paper analyzes the development of the creative industries / sectors in Romania, in the context of creative economy and innovation. The objective of the paper is to analyze the extent to which the concept of creative economy can be promoted and implemented in Romania, given its increasing importance at the international level, with countries such as the United Kingdom that already adopted strategies to sustain this kind of economy in the past years. In order to

  20. Regulatory Practices and School-based Research: Making Sense of Research Ethics/Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Ann Tilley

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the ethics/research review practices of a university Research Ethics Board (REB and a school board Research Review Committee (RRC. Applications to conduct school-based research submitted to the REB and RRC and in-depth, open-ended interviews with REB and RRC members serve as data for the study. In this paper, we highlight the institutional board decisions, especially requests for clarification documented in the applications, giving specific attention to applications proposing qualitative/teacher research. Empirical research focused on the inside workings of REBs and RRCs, which would provide particular kinds of knowledge related to research/ethics review, is recommended. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0902326

  1. Regulatory Anatomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoeyer, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    This article proposes the term “safety logics” to understand attempts within the European Union (EU) to harmonize member state legislation to ensure a safe and stable supply of human biological material for transplants and transfusions. With safety logics, I refer to assemblages of discourses, le...... they arise. In short, I expose the regulatory anatomy of the policy landscape....

  2. How to Avoid Stereotypes? Evaluation of a Strategy based on Self-Regulatory Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranda, María; Montes-Berges, Beatriz

    2016-06-10

    Based on research on the motivational processes involved in preventing and controlling stereotypes, we aimed to assess whether temporary activation of egalitarian goals - by means of a task that gives respondents exposure to a text on gender inequality - can prevent stereotyped answers on the task. The task asks participants to place women and men into a hierarchical organizational structure. Two specific objectives were established: first, to control the effect of prejudice and egalitarian commitment on the dependent variable; and second, to study gender differences in task responses. The study included 474 college students, 153 men and 321 women. Their mean age was 20.04 (SD = 4.43). ANCOVA indicated main effects of condition, F(1) = 4.15, p = .042, η2 = .081 (control condition without goal activation vs. experimental condition with goal activation) and sex, F(1) = 40.46, p stereotyped answers more than participants in the control condition. Furthermore, women's performance on the task was more egalitarian than men's. Finally, there was a significant interaction effect of condition and type of organization, F(2) = 3.97, p = .019, η2 = .017; participants assigning candidates to the feminized organization differed the most across conditions.

  3. Rule–based regulatory and metabolic model for Quorum sensing in P. aeruginosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background In the pathogen P. aeruginosa, the formation of virulence factors is regulated via Quorum sensing signaling pathways. Due to the increasing number of strains that are resistant to antibiotics, there is a high interest to develop novel antiinfectives. In the combat of resistant bacteria, selective blockade of the bacterial cell–to–cell communication (Quorum sensing) has gained special interest as anti–virulence strategy. Here, we modeled the las, rhl, and pqs Quorum sensing systems by a multi–level logical approach to analyze how enzyme inhibitors and receptor antagonists effect the formation of autoinducers and virulence factors. Results Our rule–based simulations fulfill the behavior expected from literature considering the external level of autoinducers. In the presence of PqsBCD inhibitors, the external HHQ and PQS levels are indeed clearly reduced. The magnitude of this effect strongly depends on the inhibition level. However, it seems that the pyocyanin pathway is incomplete. Conclusions To match experimental observations we suggest a modified network topology in which PqsE and PqsR acts as receptors and an autoinducer as ligand that up–regulate pyocyanin in a concerted manner. While the PQS biosynthesis is more appropriate as target to inhibit the HHQ and PQS formation, blocking the receptor PqsR that regulates the biosynthesis reduces the pyocyanin level stronger. PMID:23965312

  4. Improving Metabolic Pathway Efficiency by Statistical Model-Based Multivariate Regulatory Metabolic Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Peng; Rizzoni, Elizabeth Anne; Sul, Se-Yeong; Stephanopoulos, Gregory

    2017-01-20

    Metabolic engineering entails target modification of cell metabolism to maximize the production of a specific compound. For empowering combinatorial optimization in strain engineering, tools and algorithms are needed to efficiently sample the multidimensional gene expression space and locate the desirable overproduction phenotype. We addressed this challenge by employing design of experiment (DoE) models to quantitatively correlate gene expression with strain performance. By fractionally sampling the gene expression landscape, we statistically screened the dominant enzyme targets that determine metabolic pathway efficiency. An empirical quadratic regression model was subsequently used to identify the optimal gene expression patterns of the investigated pathway. As a proof of concept, our approach yielded the natural product violacein at 525.4 mg/L in shake flasks, a 3.2-fold increase from the baseline strain. Violacein production was further increased to 1.31 g/L in a controlled benchtop bioreactor. We found that formulating discretized gene expression levels into logarithmic variables (Linlog transformation) was essential for implementing this DoE-based optimization procedure. The reported methodology can aid multivariate combinatorial pathway engineering and may be generalized as a standard procedure for accelerating strain engineering and improving metabolic pathway efficiency.

  5. Inferring Alcoholism SNPs and Regulatory Chemical Compounds Based on Ensemble Bayesian Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huan; Sun, Jiatong; Jiang, Hong; Wang, Xianyue; Wu, Lingxiang; Wu, Wei; Wang, Qh

    2017-01-01

    The disturbance of consciousness is one of the most common symptoms of those have alcoholism and may cause disability and mortality. Previous studies indicated that several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) increase the susceptibility of alcoholism. In this study, we utilized the Ensemble Bayesian Network (EBN) method to identify causal SNPs of alcoholism based on the verified GAW14 data. We built a Bayesian network combining random process and greedy search by using Genetic Analysis Workshop 14 (GAW14) dataset to establish EBN of SNPs. Then we predicted the association between SNPs and alcoholism by determining Bayes' prior probability. Thirteen out of eighteen SNPs directly connected with alcoholism were found concordance with potential risk regions of alcoholism in OMIM database. As many SNPs were found contributing to alteration on gene expression, known as expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs), we further sought to identify chemical compounds acting as regulators of alcoholism genes captured by causal SNPs. Chloroprene and valproic acid were identified as the expression regulators for genes C11orf66 and SALL3 which were captured by alcoholism SNPs, respectively. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  6. Biofuel and other biomass based products from contaminated sites - Potentials and barriers from Swedish perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson-Skoeld, Yvonne; Enell, Anja; Rihm, Thomas; Haglund, Kristina; Wik, Ola (Swedish Geotechnical Institute, Linkoeping (Sweden)); Blom, Sonja; Angelbratt, Alexandra (FB Engineering AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)); Bardos, Paul (r3 Environmental Technology Ltd, Reading (United Kingdom)); Track, Thomas (DECHEMA e. V., Frankfurt am Main (Germany)); Keuning, Sytze (Bioclear b.v., Groningen (Netherlands))

    2009-07-01

    In this report, results are presented based on interviews and literature surveys on the triggers and stoppers for non food crop on contaminated land in Sweden. The report also includes a first estimate of potential marginal land for biofuel production in Sweden. The report is a first step to explore the feasibility of a range of possible approaches to combine risk based land management (RBLM) with non-food crop land-uses and organic matter re-use as appropriate in a Swedish context. The focus of the report is on the treatment of contaminated land by phyto-remediation and on biofuel cultivation. In Sweden, like all other countries in Europe, areas of land have been degraded by past use. Such previously developed land includes areas affected by mining, fallout from industrial processes such as smelting, areas elevated with contaminated dredged sediments, former landfill sites and many other areas where the decline of industrial activity has left a legacy of degraded land and communities. The extent of contamination may not be sufficient to trigger remediation under current regulatory conditions, and there may be little economic incentive to regenerate the affected areas. An ideal solution would be a land management approach that is able to pay for itself. Biomass from coppice or other plantations has long been seen as a possible means of achieving this goal. Phyto remediation offers a low cost method for remediation of areas that are not candidates for conventional regeneration. The optimal conditions for phyto remediation are large land areas of low or mediate contamination. Phyto remediation is also suitable to prevent spreading of contaminants, for example in green areas such as in cities, as waste water buffer and small size remediation areas with diffuse spreading. Phyto remediation implies that plants, fungi or algae are used to remediate, control or increase the natural attenuation of contaminants. Depending on the contaminating species and the site conditions

  7. SU-F-P-10: A Web-Based Radiation Safety Relational Database Module for Regulatory Compliance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosen, C; Ramsay, B; Konerth, S; Roller, D; Ramsay, A [Dade Moeller Health Group, Kalamazoo, MI (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Maintaining compliance with Radioactive Materials Licenses is inherently a time-consuming task requiring focus and attention to detail. Staff tasked with these responsibilities, such as the Radiation Safety Officer and associated personnel must retain disparate records for eventual placement into one or more annual reports. Entering results and records in a relational database using a web browser as the interface, and storing that data in a cloud-based storage site, removes procedural barriers. The data becomes more adaptable for mining and sharing. Methods: Web-based code was written utilizing the web framework Django, written in Python. Additionally, the application utilizes JavaScript for front-end interaction, SQL, HTML and CSS. Quality assurance code testing is performed in a sequential style, and new code is only added after the successful testing of the previous goals. Separate sections of the module include data entry and analysis for audits, surveys, quality management, and continuous quality improvement. Data elements can be adapted for quarterly and annual reporting, and for immediate notification of user determined alarm settings. Results: Current advances are focusing on user interface issues, and determining the simplest manner by which to teach the user to build query forms. One solution has been to prepare library documents that a user can select or edit in place of creation a new document. Forms are being developed based upon Nuclear Regulatory Commission federal code, and will be expanded to include State Regulations. Conclusion: Establishing a secure website to act as the portal for data entry, storage and manipulation can lead to added efficiencies for a Radiation Safety Program. Access to multiple databases can lead to mining for big data programs, and for determining safety issues before they occur. Overcoming web programming challenges, a category that includes mathematical handling, is providing challenges that are being overcome.

  8. Comprehensive Luciferase-Based Reporter Gene Assay Reveals Previously Masked Up-Regulatory Effects of miRNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danae Campos-Melo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that regulate the majority of the transcriptome at a post-transcriptional level. Because of this critical role, it is important to ensure that the assays used to determine their functionality are robust and reproducible. Typically, the reporter gene assay in cell-based systems has been the first-line method to study miRNA functionality. In order to overcome some of the potential errors in interpretation that can be associated with this assay, we have developed a detailed protocol for the luciferase reporter gene assay that has been modified for miRNAs. We demonstrate that normalization against the effect of the miRNA and cellular factors on the luciferase coding sequence is essential to obtain the specific impact of the miRNA on the 3'UTR (untranslated region target. Our findings suggest that there is a real possibility that the roles for miRNA in transcriptome regulation may be misreported due to inaccurate normalization of experimental data and also that up-regulatory effects of miRNAs are not uncommon in cells. We propose to establish this comprehensive method as standard for miRNA luciferase reporter assays to avoid errors and misinterpretations in the functionality of miRNAs.

  9. Promoting prosocial behavior and self-regulatory skills in preschool children through a mindfulness-based Kindness Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flook, Lisa; Goldberg, Simon B; Pinger, Laura; Davidson, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    Self-regulatory abilities are robust predictors of important outcomes across the life span, yet they are rarely taught explicitly in school. Using a randomized controlled design, the present study investigated the effects of a 12-week mindfulness-based Kindness Curriculum (KC) delivered in a public school setting on executive function, self-regulation, and prosocial behavior in a sample of 68 preschool children. The KC intervention group showed greater improvements in social competence and earned higher report card grades in domains of learning, health, and social-emotional development, whereas the control group exhibited more selfish behavior over time. Interpretation of effect sizes overall indicate small to medium effects favoring the KC group on measures of cognitive flexibility and delay of gratification. Baseline functioning was found to moderate treatment effects with KC children initially lower in social competence and executive functioning demonstrating larger gains in social competence relative to the control group. These findings, observed over a relatively short intervention period, support the promise of this program for promoting self-regulation and prosocial behavior in young children. They also support the need for future investigation of program implementation across diverse settings.

  10. The regulatory requirements, design bases, researches and assessments in the field of Ukrainian NPP's seismic safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mykolaychuk, O.; Mayboroda, O.; Krytskyy, V.; Karnaukhov, O. [Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources, (Ukraine)

    2001-07-01

    State Nuclear Regulatory Authority of Ukraine (SNRA) pays large attention to problem of nuclear installations seismic stability. As a result the seismic design regulatory guides is revised, additional seismic researches of NPP sites are conducted, seismic reassessment of NPP designs were begun. The experts involved address all seismic related factors under close contact with the staff of NPP, design institutes and research organizations. This document takes stock on the situation and the research programs. (author)

  11. An inquiry into the concept of infancy care based on the perspective of Islam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari-Mianaei, Soheila; Alimohammadi, Nasrollah; Banki-Poorfard, Amir-Hossein; Hasanpour, Marzieh

    2017-10-01

    All schools of thought believe that infancy is crucial to the formation and development of the human character. Nevertheless, a search of literature revealed the lack of a clear definition of the concept of 'infancy care based on an Islamic perspective' in nursing texts. As the lack of a clear definition of a concept conveys the inapplicability of that concept to its relevant field and community, this study was conducted to explore and determine the characteristic features of the concept of infancy care based on the perspective of Islam. Walker and Avant's (Strategies for theory construction in nursing. Prentice Hall, Boston, 2011) literary concept synthesis as the manner of concept development approach was conducted. Islamic documents were surveyed without any time limitation. Findings involved the extraction of six main concepts, including God as the Merciful Nurturer, mother as the symbol of the Creativity and Divinity of God, infant as a person with dignity and potential for excellence, parents as the nurture way paver, basic principles of nurturing, and holistic lifelong health promotion. The theoretical definition of each concept was presented. From the perspective of Islam, infant care is the nurturing of a human who has been conceived with dignity, certain rights, identity, and the capacity for development and excellence. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Current status and future perspectives of accelerator-based x-ray light sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Takashi

    2017-09-01

    State-of-the-art x-ray light sources are nowadays based on large-scale electron accelerators, because the synchrotron radiation (SR) and x-ray free electron laser (XFEL) radiation generated by high-energy electron beams have many advantages over other alternatives in terms of the wavelength tunability, high brightness and flux, high coherence, flexible polarization states, and so on. This is the reason why SR and XFEL light sources have largely contributed to the evolution of x-ray science. This paper reviews the current status of such accelerator-based x-ray light source facilities and discusses their future perspectives.

  13. Emissions to the Atmosphere from Amine-Based Post Combustion CO2 Capture Plant – Regulatory Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azzi Merched

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Amine-based Post Combustion Capture (PCC of CO2 is a readily available technology that can be deployed to reduce CO2 emissions from coal fired power plants. However, PCC plants will likely release small quantities of amine and amine degradation products to the atmosphere along with the treated flue gas. The possible environmental effects of these emissions have been examined through different studies carried out around the world. Based on flue gas from a 400 MW ultra-supercritical coal fired power plant Aspen-Plus PCC process simulations were used to predict the potential atmospheric emissions from the plant. Different research initiatives carried out in this area have produced new knowledge that has significantly reduced the risk perception for the release of amine and amine degradation products to the atmosphere. In addition to the reduction of the CO2 emissions, the PCC technology will also help in reducing SOx and NO2 emissions. However, some other pollutants such as NH3 and aerosols will increase if appropriate control technologies are not adopted. To study the atmospheric photo-oxidation of amines, attempts are being made to develop chemical reaction schemes that can be used for air quality assessment. However, more research is still required in this area to estimate the reactivity of amino solvents in the presence of other pollutants such as NOx and other volatile organic compounds in the background air. Current air quality guidelines may need to be updated to include limits for the additional pollutants such as NH3, nitrosamines and nitramines once more information related to their emissions is available. This paper focuses on describing the predicted concentrations of major pollutants that are expected to be released from a coal fired power plant obtained by ASPEN-Plus PCC process simulations in terms of current air quality regulations and other regulatory aspects.

  14. Towards a future with large penetration of distributed generation: Is the current regulation of electricity distribution ready? Regulatory recommendations under a European perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cossent, Rafael [Instituto de Investigacion Tecnologica, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria, Universidad Pontificia Comillas, C/ Quintana 21, 28008 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: Rafael.Cossent@iit.upcomillas.es; Gomez, Tomas; Frias, Pablo [Instituto de Investigacion Tecnologica, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria, Universidad Pontificia Comillas, C/ Quintana 21, 28008 Madrid (Spain)

    2009-03-15

    The European Energy Policy promotes renewable energy sources and energy efficiency as means to mitigate environmental impact, increase security of supply and ensure economic competitiveness. As a result, the penetration levels of distributed generation (DG) in electricity networks are bound to increase. Distribution networks and distribution system operators (DSOs) will be especially affected by growing levels of DG. This paper reviews the current regulation of distribution in the European Union Member States, focusing on those aspects that might hinder the future integration of DG. Several regulatory issues that may hinder a successful integration of DG have been identified. Recommendations to improve the current situation are proposed. Regarding economic signals sent to DG, connection charges and cost-reflective use-of-system charges together with incentives to provide ancillary services are the key aspects. Concerning DSOs regulation, unbundling from generation and supply according to the European Electricity Directive, incentives for optimal planning and network operation considering DG, including energy losses and quality of service, and innovation schemes to migrate to active networks are the most relevant topics.

  15. Towards a future with large penetration of distributed generation. Is the current regulation of electricity distribution ready? Regulatory recommendations under a European perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cossent, Rafael; Gomez, Tomas; Frias, Pablo [Instituto de Investigacion Tecnologica, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria, Universidad Pontificia Comillas, C/ Quintana 21, 28008 Madrid (Spain)

    2009-03-15

    The European Energy Policy promotes renewable energy sources and energy efficiency as means to mitigate environmental impact, increase security of supply and ensure economic competitiveness. As a result, the penetration levels of distributed generation (DG) in electricity networks are bound to increase. Distribution networks and distribution system operators (DSOs) will be especially affected by growing levels of DG. This paper reviews the current regulation of distribution in the European Union Member States, focusing on those aspects that might hinder the future integration of DG. Several regulatory issues that may hinder a successful integration of DG have been identified. Recommendations to improve the current situation are proposed. Regarding economic signals sent to DG, connection charges and cost-reflective use-of-system charges together with incentives to provide ancillary services are the key aspects. Concerning DSOs regulation, unbundling from generation and supply according to the European Electricity Directive, incentives for optimal planning and network operation considering DG, including energy losses and quality of service, and innovation schemes to migrate to active networks are the most relevant topics. (author)

  16. Regulatory on the corporate social responsibility in the context of sustainable development by mandatory in the world trade organization law perspective (case study in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SH. M. Hum. TAUFIQURRAHMAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Regulatory on the Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR by mandatory in Indonesia as stipulated in Article 74 of Law No. 40/2007 on the Limited Liability Company (hereafter the Company Law raises a contradiction. Those who agree argue that the company is not solely for profit, but more than that are participating in social issues and the preservation of the environment within the framework of sustainable development. Conversely, those who disagree view that social issues and the environment are the full responsibility of state. The involvement of a corporation in social and environmental activities is voluntary. Verdict of the Indonesian Constitutional Court in case no. 53/PUU-VI / / 2008 dated 13 April 2009 which rejected a requesting of material test of the Article 74 paragraph (1, (2 and (3 of the Company Law confirms the existence of the CSR by mandatory in international trade traffic today. The analytical results indicates that mandatory CSR regulation in the Company Law is not a form of a state intervention to the private activities. In addition, the arrangement is not contrary to the principles of free trade within the framework of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT / World Trade Organization (WTO.

  17. Reconsidering Styles of Regulatory Enforcement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    May, Peter J.; Winter, Søren

    2000-01-01

    This study addresses enforcement styles of regulatory inspectors, based on an examination of the municipal enforcement of agro-environmental policies in Denmark. Our findings make three contributions to the regulatory literature. One contribution is to add empirical support for theorizing about...

  18. Reconsidering Styles of Regulatory Enforcement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    J. May, Peter; Winter, Søren

    2007-01-01

    This study addresses enforcement styles of regulatory inspectors based on an examination of the municipal enforcement of agro-environmental policies in Denmark. Our findings make three contributions to the regulatory literature. One contribution is to add empirical support for theorizing about...

  19. LoTo: a graphlet based method for the comparison of local topology between gene regulatory networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto J. Martin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the main challenges of the post-genomic era is the understanding of how gene expression is controlled. Changes in gene expression lay behind diverse biological phenomena such as development, disease and the adaptation to different environmental conditions. Despite the availability of well-established methods to identify these changes, tools to discern how gene regulation is orchestrated are still required. The regulation of gene expression is usually depicted as a Gene Regulatory Network (GRN where changes in the network structure (i.e., network topology represent adjustments of gene regulation. Like other networks, GRNs are composed of basic building blocks; small induced subgraphs called graphlets. Here we present LoTo, a novel method that using Graphlet Based Metrics (GBMs identifies topological variations between different states of a GRN. Under our approach, different states of a GRN are analyzed to determine the types of graphlet formed by all triplets of nodes in the network. Subsequently, graphlets occurring in a state of the network are compared to those formed by the same three nodes in another version of the network. Once the comparisons are performed, LoTo applies metrics from binary classification problems calculated on the existence and absence of graphlets to assess the topological similarity between both network states. Experiments performed on randomized networks demonstrate that GBMs are more sensitive to topological variation than the same metrics calculated on single edges. Additional comparisons with other common metrics demonstrate that our GBMs are capable to identify nodes whose local topology changes between different states of the network. Notably, due to the explicit use of graphlets, LoTo captures topological variations that are disregarded by other approaches. LoTo is freely available as an online web server at http://dlab.cl/loto.

  20. Cis and trans regulatory mechanisms control AP2-mediated B cell receptor endocytosis via select tyrosine-based motifs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Busman-Sahay

    Full Text Available Following antigen recognition, B cell receptor (BCR-mediated endocytosis is the first step of antigen processing and presentation to CD4+ T cells, a crucial component of the initiation and control of the humoral immune response. Despite this, the molecular mechanism of BCR internalization is poorly understood. Recently, studies of activated B cell-like diffuse large B cell lymphoma (ABC DLBCL have shown that mutations within the BCR subunit CD79b leads to increased BCR surface expression, suggesting that CD79b may control BCR internalization. Adaptor protein 2 (AP2 is the major mediator of receptor endocytosis via clathrin-coated pits. The BCR contains five putative AP2-binding YxxØ motifs, including four that are present within two immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs (ITAMs. Using a combination of in vitro and in situ approaches, we establish that the sole mediator of AP2-dependent BCR internalization is the membrane proximal ITAM YxxØ motif in CD79b, which is a major target of mutation in ABC DLBCL. In addition, we establish that BCR internalization can be regulated at a minimum of two different levels: regulation of YxxØ AP2 binding in cis by downstream ITAM-embedded DCSM and QTAT regulatory elements and regulation in trans by the partner cytoplasmic domain of the CD79 heterodimer. Beyond establishing the basic rules governing BCR internalization, these results illustrate an underappreciated role for ITAM residues in controlling clathrin-dependent endocytosis and highlight the complex mechanisms that control the activity of AP2 binding motifs in this receptor system.

  1. Cis and trans regulatory mechanisms control AP2-mediated B cell receptor endocytosis via select tyrosine-based motifs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busman-Sahay, Kathleen; Drake, Lisa; Sitaram, Anand; Marks, Michael; Drake, James R

    2013-01-01

    Following antigen recognition, B cell receptor (BCR)-mediated endocytosis is the first step of antigen processing and presentation to CD4+ T cells, a crucial component of the initiation and control of the humoral immune response. Despite this, the molecular mechanism of BCR internalization is poorly understood. Recently, studies of activated B cell-like diffuse large B cell lymphoma (ABC DLBCL) have shown that mutations within the BCR subunit CD79b leads to increased BCR surface expression, suggesting that CD79b may control BCR internalization. Adaptor protein 2 (AP2) is the major mediator of receptor endocytosis via clathrin-coated pits. The BCR contains five putative AP2-binding YxxØ motifs, including four that are present within two immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs (ITAMs). Using a combination of in vitro and in situ approaches, we establish that the sole mediator of AP2-dependent BCR internalization is the membrane proximal ITAM YxxØ motif in CD79b, which is a major target of mutation in ABC DLBCL. In addition, we establish that BCR internalization can be regulated at a minimum of two different levels: regulation of YxxØ AP2 binding in cis by downstream ITAM-embedded DCSM and QTAT regulatory elements and regulation in trans by the partner cytoplasmic domain of the CD79 heterodimer. Beyond establishing the basic rules governing BCR internalization, these results illustrate an underappreciated role for ITAM residues in controlling clathrin-dependent endocytosis and highlight the complex mechanisms that control the activity of AP2 binding motifs in this receptor system.

  2. Stable psychological functioning after surgery for epilepsy: An informant-based perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Marcie L; Tranel, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    Psychological adjustment following surgery for epilepsy has been assessed primarily with self-report measures. In the current work, we investigated pre- to postoperative changes in various dimensions of personality and behavior from the perspective of a well-known family member or friend for 27 patients operated on for medically intractable epilepsy. For each patient, a close family member or friend ("informant") provided pre- and postoperative ratings on five dimensions of personality and behavior. All ratings were collected during the chronic epoch of recovery, when personality and behavior of the patients are relatively stable. Self-report measures were also used to examine the relation between self-report and informant-report assessment of psychological adjustment. Lastly, the relation between seizure outcomes and psychological adjustment was investigated. Personality and behavior characteristics, as rated by an informant, remained stable and within a normal range of functioning following surgery for epilepsy. There were no significant differences between pre- and postoperative levels of executive functioning, social behavior, hypo-emotionality, irascibility, or distress. Informant-ratings on levels of current depression and overall current psychological functioning were significantly related to patient reports of current depression and global personality characteristics derived from the MMPI-2 (e.g., psychasthenia, schizophrenia, hypomania, psychopathic deviation, social introversion). There was no significant relationship between seizure outcome and psychological adjustment. Informant-based reports on psychological adjustment following surgery for epilepsy provide a unique perspective on important aspects of the success of the intervention. Assessing outcomes beyond seizure status is important for developing a comprehensive understanding of the potential consequences of surgery for epilepsy. Based on the current work, personality and behavior seem to be

  3. Developing mindfulness in college students through movement-based courses: effects on self-regulatory self-efficacy, mood, stress, and sleep quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Karen; Harrison, Mandy; Adams, Marianne; Quin, Rebecca H; Greeson, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    This study examined whether mindfulness increased through participation in movement-based courses and whether changes in self-regulatory self-efficacy, mood, and perceived stress mediated the relationship between increased mindfulness and better sleep. 166 college students enrolled in the 2007-2008 academic year in 15 week classes in Pilates, Taiji quan, or GYROKINESIS. At beginning, middle, and end of the semester, participants completed measures of mindfulness, self-regulatory self-efficacy, mood, perceived stress, and sleep quality. Total mindfulness scores and mindfulness subscales increased overall. Greater changes in mindfulness were directly related to better sleep quality at the end of the semester after adjusting for sleep disturbance at the beginning. Tiredness, Negative Arousal, Relaxation, and Perceived Stress mediated the effect of increased mindfulness on improved sleep. Movement-based courses can increase mindfulness. Increased mindfulness accounts for changes in mood and perceived stress, which explain, in part, improved sleep quality.

  4. Perspectives of IT Artefacts: Information Systems based on Complex Mathematical Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carugati, Andrea

    2002-01-01

    A solution for production scheduling that is lately attracting the interests of the manufacturing industry involves the use of complex mathematical modeling techniques in scheduling software. However this technology is fairly unknown among manufacturing practitioners, as are the social problems...... of its development and use. The aim of this article is to show how an approach based on multiple perspectives can help understand the emergence of complex software and help understand why and how the reasons and motives of the different stakeholders are, at times, incompatible....

  5. Model-based nonlinear control of hydraulic servo systems: Challenges, developments and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jianyong

    2017-11-01

    Hydraulic servo system plays a significant role in industries, and usually acts as a core point in control and power transmission. Although linear theory-based control methods have been well established, advanced controller design methods for hydraulic servo system to achieve high performance is still an unending pursuit along with the development of modern industry. Essential nonlinearity is a unique feature and makes model-based nonlinear control more attractive, due to benefit from prior knowledge of the servo valve controlled hydraulic system. In this paper, a discussion for challenges in model-based nonlinear control, latest developments and brief perspectives of hydraulic servo systems are presented: Modelling uncertainty in hydraulic system is a major challenge, which includes parametric uncertainty and time-varying disturbance; some specific requirements also arise ad hoc difficulties such as nonlinear friction during low velocity tracking, severe disturbance, periodic disturbance, etc.; to handle various challenges, nonlinear solutions including parameter adaptation, nonlinear robust control, state and disturbance observation, backstepping design and so on, are proposed and integrated, theoretical analysis and lots of applications reveal their powerful capability to solve pertinent problems; and at the end, some perspectives and associated research topics (measurement noise, constraints, inner valve dynamics, input nonlinearity, etc.) in nonlinear hydraulic servo control are briefly explored and discussed.

  6. Impact of regulatory spin of pioglitazone on prescription of antidiabetic drugs among physicians in India: A multicentre questionnaire-based observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aman Goyal

    2017-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: Majority of the physicians though were aware of the regulatory changes with regard to pioglitazone, but their prescribing patterns were not changed for this drug. However, it was being used at lower than the recommended dose. There is a need for generating more evidence through improved pharmacovigilance activities and large-scale population-based prospective studies regarding the safety issues of pioglitazone, so as to make effectual risk-benefit analysis for its continual use in T2DM.

  7. Thiol-based redox regulation in sexual plant reproduction: new insights and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose A Traverso

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The success of sexual reproduction in plants involves (i the proper formation of the plant gametophytes (pollen and embryo sac containing the gametes, (ii the accomplishment of specific interactions between pollen grains and the stigma, which subsequently lead to (iii the fusion of the gametes and eventually to (iv the seed setting. Owing to the lack of mobility, plants have developed specific regulatory mechanisms to control all developmental events underlying the sexual plant reproduction according to environmental challenges. Over the last decade, redox regulation and signaling have come into sight as crucial mechanisms able to manage critical stages during sexual plant reproduction. This regulation involves a complex redox network which includes reactive oxygen species (ROS, reactive nitrogen species (RNS, glutathione and other classic buffer molecules or antioxidant proteins, and some thiol/disulphide-containing proteins belonging to the thioredoxin superfamily, like glutaredoxins (GRXs or thioredoxins (TRXs. These proteins participate as critical elements not only in the switch between the mitotic to the meiotic cycle but also at further developmental stages of microsporogenesis. They are also implicated in the regulation of pollen rejection as the result of self incompatibility. In addition, they display precise space-temporal patterns of expression and are present in specific localizations like the stigmatic papillae or the mature pollen, although their functions and subcellular localizations are not clear yet. In this review we summarize insights and perspectives about the presence of thiol/disulphide-containing proteins in plant reproduction, taking into account the general context of the cell redox network.

  8. Detecting Internal Control Problems Based on COSO and Islamic Perspective: Case on SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuniarti Hidayah Suyoso Putra

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – The presence of Small Medium Enterprises (SMEs has been able to be livelihoods sources and absorb more labor, even though it has a relative smaller contribution of additional value compared to the Large-scale Enterprises. The number of economic actors of SMEs spread across area from urban to rural. However, SMEs have faced several serious problems. These problems are caused by the unique characteristics of SMEs itself. First, lack of managerial skills due to limited human resources and lack of monitoring which it is rarely conducted by the manager or the owner. Second, lack of information and technology to carry out operations. Both problems have great impacts in lack of internal controls. Third, SMEs also face problems in developing business scale, limited access to capital to the banks and financial institutions due to the lack of transparency. Therefore, this research aimed to detect to what extent of the problems arising in the application and assessment of internal controls performed by SMEs.Method – The research employs descriptive qualitative research method through direct observation, interview and business documentation owned by the company. Research materials are 29 SMEs consisting of 19 trading SMEs and 10 service SMEs. All SMEs are located in Malang city. Detection of application and assessment of internal controls in this study is based on the COSO framework and the Islamic perspective.Result – Internal control activities indicators apply the five principles of COSO framework which focused on three layers. First layer is self-assessment control area. Second layer is environment control area and the third layer is independent control area. While the Islamic perspective is focused on the internal control of business activities based on the Qur'an and Hadith. The results derive from application and assessment based on COSO framework and Islamic perspectives are complementary in improving the practice of internal

  9. SCOR based key success factors in cooking oil supply chain buyers perspective in Padang City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahara, Fatimah; Hadiguna, Rika Ampuh

    2017-11-01

    Supply chain of cooking oil is a network of companies from palm oil as raw material to retailers which work to create the value and deliver products into the end consumers. This paper is aimed to study key success factors based on consumer's perspective as the last stage in the supply chain. Consumers who are examined in this study are restaurants management or owners. Restaurant is the biggest consumption of cooking oil. The factors is studied based on Supply Chain Operation Reference (SCOR) version 10.0. Factors used are formulated based on the third-level metrics of SCOR Model. Factors are analyzed using factors analysis. This study found factors which become key success factors in managing supply chain of cooking oil encompass reliability, responsiveness and agility. Key success factors can be applied by governments as policy making and cooking oil companies as formulation of the distribution strategies.

  10. BaTiO3-based piezoelectrics: Fundamentals, current status, and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, M.; Novak, N.; Rojas, V.; Patel, S.; Vaish, R.; Koruza, J.; Rossetti, G. A.; Rödel, J.

    2017-12-01

    We present a critical review that encompasses the fundamentals and state-of-the-art knowledge of barium titanate-based piezoelectrics. First, the essential crystallography, thermodynamic relations, and concepts necessary to understand piezoelectricity and ferroelectricity in barium titanate are discussed. Strategies to optimize piezoelectric properties through microstructure control and chemical modification are also introduced. Thereafter, we systematically review the synthesis, microstructure, and phase diagrams of barium titanate-based piezoelectrics and provide a detailed compilation of their functional and mechanical properties. The most salient materials treated include the (Ba,Ca)(Zr,Ti)O3, (Ba,Ca)(Sn,Ti)O3, and (Ba,Ca)(Hf,Ti)O3 solid solution systems. The technological relevance of barium titanate-based piezoelectrics is also discussed and some potential market indicators are outlined. Finally, perspectives on productive lines of future research and promising areas for the applications of these materials are presented.

  11. 77 FR 50172 - Expert Forum on the Use of Performance-Based Regulatory Models in the U.S. Oil and Gas Industry...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-20

    ... Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations; Contra Costa County California Industrial Safety Ordinance; United... regulatory approaches; Whether these models could create synergies between multiple agencies; and What types...

  12. A marketing perspective on disseminating evidence-based approaches to disease prevention and health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maibach, Edward W; Van Duyn, Mary Ann S; Bloodgood, Bonny

    2006-07-01

    Evidence-based disease prevention practice guidelines can provide a rationale for health programming decisions, which should, in turn, lead to improved public health outcomes. This logic has stimulated the creation of a growing number of evidence-based prevention practice guidelines, including the Guide to Community Preventive Services. Few systematic efforts have been made to document the degree of adoption and implementation of these approaches, although the evidence on translation of research into practice in other health fields indicates that the adoption and implementation rate is low. Drawing on the marketing literature, we suggest three approaches to enhance the adoption and implementation of evidence-based approaches: 1) conducting consumer research with prospective adopters to identify their perspectives on how evidence-based prevention programs can advance their organization's mission, 2) building sustainable distribution channels to promote and deliver evidence-based programs to prospective adopters, and 3) improving access to easily implemented programs that are consistent with evidence-based guidelines. Newly emerging paradigms of prevention research (e.g., RE-AIM) that are more attuned to the needs of the marketplace will likely yield a new generation of evidence-based preventive approaches that can be more effectively disseminated. We suggest that the public health community prioritize the dissemination of evidence-based prevention approaches, because doing so is a potent environmental change strategy for enhancing health.

  13. Patients, evidence and genes: an exploration of GPs' perspectives on gene-based personalized nutrition advice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwman, Laura; Te Molder, Hedwig; Hiddink, Gerrit

    2008-12-01

    Nutrigenomics science examines the response of individuals to food compounds using post-genomics technology. It is expected that in the future, personalized nutrition advice can be provided based on information about genetic make-up. Gene-based personalized nutrition advice emerges at the junction of different disciplines and technologies and may directly influence people's lives. Therefore, public concern is to be expected. Because GPs are gatekeepers of health care, their involvement in early stages of the development process is desirable. In 2006, 15 GPs were interviewed to collect their perceived barriers and opportunities towards involvement in gene-based nutrition advice. The interviews were qualitatively analysed with use of Atlas.ti, a qualitative analysis programme. The participants held a mostly critical view towards such personalized nutrition advice. They argued that findings of nutritional studies lacked robustness, were not based on patients' needs and were often equivocal. And that a patient central perspective urges them to question consequences for patients. Participants argued that GPs should be involved in selecting and monitoring patients in nutrigenomics studies. Early involvement of GPs in the development process is needed to allow for the integration of their practical, social and ethical considerations in the technical and scientific agendas. However, the background of their critical attitude towards nutrigenomics-based personalized nutrition, and nutrition advice more generally, has to be explored further. To facilitate a joint learning process and to improve socio-technical decision making with respect to this innovation, initiatives that allow different stakeholders to exchange their perspectives should be organized.

  14. Regulatory Benchmarking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agrell, Per J.; Bogetoft, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Benchmarking methods, and in particular Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), have become well-established and informative tools for economic regulation. DEA is now routinely used by European regulators to set reasonable revenue caps for energy transmission and distribution system operators. The appli......Benchmarking methods, and in particular Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), have become well-established and informative tools for economic regulation. DEA is now routinely used by European regulators to set reasonable revenue caps for energy transmission and distribution system operators....... The application of bench-marking in regulation, however, requires specific steps in terms of data validation, model specification and outlier detection that are not systematically documented in open publications, leading to discussions about regulatory stability and economic feasibility of these techniques...

  15. Regulatory Benchmarking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agrell, Per J.; Bogetoft, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Benchmarking methods, and in particular Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), have become well-established and informative tools for economic regulation. DEA is now routinely used by European regulators to set reasonable revenue caps for energy transmission and distribution system operators. The appli......Benchmarking methods, and in particular Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), have become well-established and informative tools for economic regulation. DEA is now routinely used by European regulators to set reasonable revenue caps for energy transmission and distribution system operators....... The application of benchmarking in regulation, however, requires specific steps in terms of data validation, model specification and outlier detection that are not systematically documented in open publications, leading to discussions about regulatory stability and economic feasibility of these techniques...

  16. Use of an EZ-Tn5-based random mutagenesis system to identify a novel toxin regulatory locus in Clostridium perfringens strain 13.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge E Vidal

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Although useful for probing bacterial pathogenesis and physiology, current random mutagenesis systems suffer limitations for studying the toxin-producing bacterium Clostridium perfringens.An EZ-Tn5-based random mutagenesis approach was developed for use in C. perfringens. This mutagenesis system identified a new regulatory locus controlling toxin production by strain 13, a C. perfringens type A strain. The novel locus, encoding proteins with homology to the AgrB and AgrD components of the Agr quorum sensing system of Staphylococcus aureus and two hypothetical proteins, was found to regulate early production of both alpha toxin and perfringolysin O (PFO by strain 13. PFO production by the strain 13 DeltaagrB mutant could be restored by genetic complementation or by physical complementation, i.e. by co-culture of the strain 13 DeltaagrB mutant with a pfoA mutant of either strain 13 or C. perfringens type C CN3685. A similar AgrB- and AgrD-encoding locus is identifiable in all sequenced C. perfringens strains, including type B, C, D, and E isolates, suggesting this regulatory locus contributes to toxin regulation by most C. perfringens strains. In strain 13, the agrB and agrD genes were found to be co-transcribed in an operon with two upstream genes encoding hypothetical proteins.The new Tn5-based random mutagenesis system developed in this study is more efficient and random than previously reported C. perfringens random mutagenesis approaches. It allowed identification of a novel C. perfringens toxin regulatory locus with homology to the Agr system of S. aureus and which functions as expected of an Agr-like quorum sensing system. Since previous studies have shown that alpha toxin and perfringolysin O are responsible for strain 13-induced clostridial myonecrosis in the mouse model, the new agr regulatory locus may have importance for strain 13 virulence.

  17. EDITORIAL: Perspectives Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewhurst, Richard

    2011-05-01

    In this issue, we are delighted to publish the second in a series of articles under the banner of Perspectives. The series commenced in late 2008, when Udo Kaatze [1] published an article about the powerful technique of dielectric spectrometry for liquid measurements. In addition to examining the very wide frequency range from 10-6 Hz to 10-13 Hz, an outline of possible future developments was presented. Some challenging tasks for the future were briefly outlined. The format of the article was different to the usual style of a contributed paper or review article. Instead, it represented a short summary of recent work in the field and offered a viewpoint of an expert in the area. Its commentary noted several milestones that had been recently achieved, and then looked to the future. The Perspective format allowed the author to provide some opinion about the challenges of the future not normally permitted in a Topical Review. The journal now intends to publish several more Perspectives. For example, in this issue David Birch [2] presents a Perspective about another important measurement science, namely fluorescence detections and their future directions. These are based on an old technique which provided the basis for detecting the presence of molecular species. Successful research led to an understanding and description of the phenomenon of molecular fluorescence in terms of excited state energies, transitions, symmetries and rate parameters. More recently, using fluorescence as a probe, and with the exploitation of new technologies, new applications have included the study of protein, vision, photosynthesis, membranes and DNA. Indeed nowhere has fluorescence had more impact than in the biosciences. Once again, the intention of the Perspective article has been to highlight recent milestones within the field. Importantly, it also indicates some of the future challenges. Such Perspectives are an occasional series. They are not intended to deflect from the balance of

  18. Character Development Through Youth Sport: High School Coaches’ Perspectives about a Character-based Education Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaitlyn A. Ferris

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study examined high school sports coaches’ perspectives about a character-based coach education workshop designed to promote positive coaching practices and transform the culture of youth sports. Fifteen coaches (Mage = 42.07, SD = 14.62, 73.3% male provided feedback about Positive Coaching Alliance’s (PCA “Double-Goal Coach” training program and what aspects of the workshop they applied to their coaching practices. Results indicated that coaches believed that participation in PCA workshops contributed to the value coaches attributed to individuals, to coach-oriented character development, and to positive relationships within youth sports. The coaches also suggested changes in future PCA workshops. These findings provide preliminary evidence that coaches’ incorporate skills acquired through participation in character-based coach education programs. We discuss implications for coaches and athletes, and for policies aimed at enhancing positive youth attributes developed through sport.

  19. [Health promotion based on assets: how to work with this perspective in local interventions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cofiño, Rafael; Aviñó, Dory; Benedé, Carmen Belén; Botello, Blanca; Cubillo, Jara; Morgan, Antony; Paredes-Carbonell, Joan Josep; Hernán, Mariano

    2016-11-01

    An asset-based approach could be useful to revitalise health promotion or community health interventions combining work with multiple partnerships, positive health, community engagement, equity and orientation of health determinants. We set some recommendations about how to incorporate the assets model in programmes, projects and interventions in health promotion. Some techniques are described for assets mapping and some experiences with this methodology being developed in different regions are systematised. We propose the term "Asset-based Health Promotion/Community Health" as an operational definition to work at the local level with a community engagement and participatory approach, building alliances between different institutions at the state-regional level and trying to create a framework for action with the generation of evaluations and evidence to work on population interventions from the perspective of positive health. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Process of Fragment-Based Lead Discovery—A Perspective from NMR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongsheng Ma

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Fragment-based lead discovery (FBLD has proven fruitful during the past two decades for a variety of targets, even challenging protein–protein interaction (PPI systems. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy plays a vital role, from initial fragment-based screening to lead generation, because of its power to probe the intrinsically weak interactions between targets and low-molecular-weight fragments. Here, we review the NMR FBLD process from initial library construction to lead generation. We describe technical aspects regarding fragment library design, ligand- and protein-observed screening, and protein–ligand structure model generation. For weak binders, the initial hit-to-lead evolution can be guided by structural information retrieved from NMR spectroscopy, including chemical shift perturbation, transferred pseudocontact shifts, and paramagnetic relaxation enhancement. This perspective examines structure-guided optimization from weak fragment screening hits to potent leads for challenging PPI targets.

  1. Youth Perspectives on Meaningful Participation in Community Based Programs: A Qualitative Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherer W. Royce

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Allowing the voiceless to have a voice is a tenet of empowerment. This paper highlights research that employed a participatory action research framework to gain a better understanding of young people’s perceptions about youth empowerment and acquire their perspective (voice about the meaningfulness of participation in out-of-school advocacy and volunteer program activities. Using Photovoice, the research provides a missing point of view in youth empowerment model development. Results indicate that the quality of a youth’s participation in a community-based program is determined by 1 youth expressing themselves without censorship, 2 occasions for youth to expand their social networks with youth and adults, and 3 adults observing and valuing youth contributions. These findings raise implications for community-based, youth empowerment programs including program philosophy, program procedures, youth empowerment content and activities, and adult leadership style. The findings may assist practitioners when designing youth empowering activities and researchers when operationalizing youth empowerment.

  2. Harmonization based on regulatory science between scientific and commercial radio uses in a case of ultrawideband radio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohno, Ryuji; Iinatti, Jari; Sameshima, Keiko

    2016-12-01

    Harmonization for scientific and commercial radio uses is one of the unsolved problems in academia, industry, and regulatory bodies. The demands for commercial radio, mobile communications, and broadcasting have significantly increased over the past few decades; therefore, interference has become a major concern. There is an increasing need to prevent such interferences, for example, between commercial radio systems and other potentially sensitive radio systems such as those used for radio astronomy or studies. When discussing the fairness in resolving such conflicts, regulatory science may be a useful multidisciplinary approach as it scientifically investigates the advantages and disadvantages of a new application or technology for conflicts between different stakeholders through a mathematical analysis of risks versus benefits of the given technology. Such an analysis enables fair rules or regulations to be made. In this study, we apply the above-mentioned concept to harmonize the scientific and commercial uses of radio. After a brief introduction to regulatory science, a case study about the coexistence between ultrawideband commercial radio systems and radio astronomy is considered. Finally, a proposal by International Union of Radio Science, Japan, to the Science Council of Japan in the Cabinet Office to establish a "Center for Coexistence and Harmonization of Scientific and Commercial Uses of Radio Waves" is explained.

  3. A versatile method to design stem-loop primer-based quantitative PCR assays for detecting small regulatory RNA molecules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsolt Czimmerer

    Full Text Available Short regulatory RNA-s have been identified as key regulators of gene expression in eukaryotes. They have been involved in the regulation of both physiological and pathological processes such as embryonal development, immunoregulation and cancer. One of their relevant characteristics is their high stability, which makes them excellent candidates for use as biomarkers. Their number is constantly increasing as next generation sequencing methods reveal more and more details of their synthesis. These novel findings aim for new detection methods for the individual short regulatory RNA-s in order to be able to confirm the primary data and characterize newly identified subtypes in different biological conditions. We have developed a flexible method to design RT-qPCR assays that are very sensitive and robust. The newly designed assays were tested extensively in samples from plant, mouse and even human formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissues. Moreover, we have shown that these assays are able to quantify endogenously generated shRNA molecules. The assay design method is freely available for anyone who wishes to use a robust and flexible system for the quantitative analysis of matured regulatory RNA-s.

  4. A versatile method to design stem-loop primer-based quantitative PCR assays for detecting small regulatory RNA molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czimmerer, Zsolt; Hulvely, Julianna; Simandi, Zoltan; Varallyay, Eva; Havelda, Zoltan; Szabo, Erzsebet; Varga, Attila; Dezso, Balazs; Balogh, Maria; Horvath, Attila; Domokos, Balint; Torok, Zsolt; Nagy, Laszlo; Balint, Balint L

    2013-01-01

    Short regulatory RNA-s have been identified as key regulators of gene expression in eukaryotes. They have been involved in the regulation of both physiological and pathological processes such as embryonal development, immunoregulation and cancer. One of their relevant characteristics is their high stability, which makes them excellent candidates for use as biomarkers. Their number is constantly increasing as next generation sequencing methods reveal more and more details of their synthesis. These novel findings aim for new detection methods for the individual short regulatory RNA-s in order to be able to confirm the primary data and characterize newly identified subtypes in different biological conditions. We have developed a flexible method to design RT-qPCR assays that are very sensitive and robust. The newly designed assays were tested extensively in samples from plant, mouse and even human formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissues. Moreover, we have shown that these assays are able to quantify endogenously generated shRNA molecules. The assay design method is freely available for anyone who wishes to use a robust and flexible system for the quantitative analysis of matured regulatory RNA-s.

  5. Adaptive Dynamics of Regulatory Networks: Size Matters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinetz Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available To accomplish adaptability, all living organisms are constructed of regulatory networks on different levels which are capable to differentially respond to a variety of environmental inputs. Structure of regulatory networks determines their phenotypical plasticity, that is, the degree of detail and appropriateness of regulatory replies to environmental or developmental challenges. This regulatory network structure is encoded within the genotype. Our conceptual simulation study investigates how network structure constrains the evolution of networks and their adaptive abilities. The focus is on the structural parameter network size. We show that small regulatory networks adapt fast, but not as good as larger networks in the longer perspective. Selection leads to an optimal network size dependent on heterogeneity of the environment and time pressure of adaptation. Optimal mutation rates are higher for smaller networks. We put special emphasis on discussing our simulation results on the background of functional observations from experimental and evolutionary biology.

  6. Perspectives of Community- and Faith-Based Organizations about Partnering with Local Health Departments for Disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Stajura

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Public health emergency planners can better perform their mission if they develop and maintain effective relationships with community- and faith-based organizations in their jurisdictions. This qualitative study presents six themes that emerged from 20 key informant interviews representing a wide range of American community- and faith-based organizations across different types of jurisdictions, organizational types, and missions. This research seeks to provide local health department public health emergency planners with tools to assess and improve their inter-organizational community relationships. The themes identified address the importance of community engagement, leadership, intergroup dynamics and communication, and resources. Community- and faith-based organizations perceive that they are underutilized or untapped resources with respect to public health emergencies and disasters. One key reason for this is that many public health departments limit their engagement with community- and faith-based organizations to a one-way “push” model for information dissemination, rather than engaging them in other ways or improving their capacity. Beyond a reprioritization of staff time, few other resources would be required. From the perspective of community- and faith-based organizations, the quality of relationships seems to matter more than discrete resources provided by such ties.

  7. [The Perspectives and Expectations of New Nursing Graduates Regarding the Hospital-Based Nursing Students Scholarship].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuan-Ling; Tsai, Yun-Fang; Shao, Jung-Hua; Shyu, Yea-Ing

    2016-10-01

    The hospital-based scholarship is a relatively recent incentive used by hospitals to recruit new nursing graduates. Few studies have explored the impact of these scholarship programs on hospital recruitment. To explore the perspectives and expectations of new nursing graduates on the application of a hospital-based scholarship for nursing students. This study used a qualitative research approach. Purposive sampling was used to recruit 20 new nursing graduates from one university in northern Taiwan in 2013. Content analysis was applied to analyze the data. Two themes were identified by participants who had applied for a hospital-based scholarship: "aspire to be a nursing-scholarship recipient and work towards this aspiration" and "look forward to receiving a nursing-scholarship and imagine possible features of the future life." One theme was identified by participants who had not applied for a hospital-based scholarship: "agree with the policy of hospital-based scholarship but resist the restrictions on their life." Although both groups agreed that the scholarship program helped relieve financial stresses, participants who had applied for the scholarship tended to hold positive and aggressive attitudes towards the nursing scholarship. Conversely, participants who had not applied for the scholarship did so due to the perceived conflicts between the scholarship and their career plans. It is recommended to consider providing career-planning assistance to new graduates and to arrange that students who sign a scholarship contract have their clinical practice in their working unit in order to improve adaptation.

  8. Perspectives of community- and faith-based organizations about partnering with local health departments for disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stajura, Michael; Glik, Deborah; Eisenman, David; Prelip, Michael; Martel, Andrea; Sammartinova, Jitka

    2012-07-01

    Public health emergency planners can better perform their mission if they develop and maintain effective relationships with community- and faith-based organizations in their jurisdictions. This qualitative study presents six themes that emerged from 20 key informant interviews representing a wide range of American community- and faith-based organizations across different types of jurisdictions, organizational types, and missions. This research seeks to provide local health department public health emergency planners with tools to assess and improve their inter-organizational community relationships. The themes identified address the importance of community engagement, leadership, intergroup dynamics and communication, and resources. Community- and faith-based organizations perceive that they are underutilized or untapped resources with respect to public health emergencies and disasters. One key reason for this is that many public health departments limit their engagement with community- and faith-based organizations to a one-way "push" model for information dissemination, rather than engaging them in other ways or improving their capacity. Beyond a reprioritization of staff time, few other resources would be required. From the perspective of community- and faith-based organizations, the quality of relationships seems to matter more than discrete resources provided by such ties.

  9. INQUIRY –BASED LEARNING FOR ENHANCING CRITICAL THINKING SKILLS: INDONESIAN STUDENTS‘ PERSPECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hersulastuti Hersulastuti

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper was mainly intended to shed light on students‘ response towards the implementation of Inquiry-Based Learning (IBL in Reading and Writing subject, and explore its benefits for enhancing critical thinking skills from students‘perspectives in ELT context. This research was conducted through a qualitative case study approach. Three students of graduate program were purposively selected to be the participants. Data were gathered primarily from observation notes and interviews, and then further analyzed using interractive model analysis as proposed by Miles & Huberman (1994. The findings demonstrate that students have good responses towards the implementation of IBL. Moreover, IBL is beneficial to make students become more self-directed, selfdisciplined, self-monitored thinkers. Through IBL, students develop their critical thinking abilities: 1 raise vital questions and problems; 2 gather and assess relevant information; 3 drawing well-reasoned conclusions; and 4 communicate effectively with others to seek solution to complex problems.

  10. Usability of Web-based Personal Health Records: An Analysis of Consumers' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tiankai; Dolezel, Diane

    2016-01-01

    Personal health records (PHRs) have many benefits, including the ability to increase involvement of patients in their care, which provides better healthcare outcomes. Although issues related to usability of PHRs are a significant barrier to adoption, there is a paucity of research in this area. Thus, the researchers explored consumers' perspective on the usability of two commercially available web-based PHRs. Data from the Usefulness, Satisfaction, and Ease of Use questionnaire were collected from a sample of health information management students (N = 90). A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that Microsoft HealthVault had higher scores in most usability categories when compared to Health Companion. Study results indicated that PHR developers should evaluate Microsoft HealthVault as a model for improving PHR usability. PMID:27134611

  11. A Hydrometeorological Perspective on the Karakoram Anomaly Using Unique Valley-Based Synoptic Weather Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashir, Furrukh; Zeng, Xubin; Gupta, Hoshin; Hazenberg, Pieter

    2017-10-01

    Glaciers in the eastern Hindukush, western Karakoram, and northwestern Himalayan mountain ranges of Northern Pakistan are not responding to global warming in the same manner as their counterparts elsewhere. Their retreat rates are less than the global average, and some are either stable or growing. Various investigations have questioned the role of climatic factors in regard to this anomalous behavior, widely referred to as "The Karakoram Anomaly." Here, for the first time, we present a hydrometeorological perspective based on five decades of synoptic weather observations collected by the meteorological network of Pakistan. Analysis of this unique data set indicates that increased regional scale humidity, cloud cover, and precipitation, along with decreased net radiation, near-surface wind speed, potential evapotranspiration, and river flow, especially during the summer season, represent a substantial change in the energy, mass, and momentum fluxes that are facilitating the establishment of the Karakoram anomaly.

  12. Can nurses teach tomorrow's doctors? A nursing perspective on involvement in community-based medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe Deborah Crofts Kate Billingham, A

    2000-01-01

    The increasing importance of primary care suggests an important role for the whole primary healthcare team in the education of 'tomorrow's doctors'. Few studies have evaluated the contribution and views of staff other than general practitioners. We used a questionnaire survey to elicit the perspective of 65 community-based nurses involved in a new undergraduate medical course. Some 67% of the cohort had already undertaken training to teach others, and were confident of their teaching skills but were overly reliant on the general practitioners for information, and on the goodwill of colleagues for time to teach. The findings suggest a need for structural changes in the process of multidisciplinary medical education, supporting the need for teaching commitments to be coordinated at practice rather than individual tutor level. The high level of professional development for teaching among community nurses suggests that there is a sound basis for encouraging such valuable professional input into medical education in the future.

  13. Information-encountering-based Learning Model Construction from the Perspective of Information Encountering Theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Wanwan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available [Purpose/significance] Under the “Internet +” ecology, information encountering is an important and efficient way to solve the problem of information acquisition. Therefore, the learning (encountered-information-based learning or EI-learning after information encountering is more meaningful. [Method/process] On the basis of literature review of information encountering theories and its models, this paper analyzed EI-learning from the perspective of Unicom and New-constructivism to build the EI-learning model and provided related countermeasures. [Result/conclusion] The EI-learning model includes six elements: information encountering, encountered information management, learning strategy, learning process, learning outcomes and learning to share. And this paper puts forward related countermeasures to promote the EI-learning, including: improving information literacy education, perfecting technology ecosystem, designing information community.

  14. Evaluating Social and National Education Textbooks Based on the Criteria of Knowledge-Based Economy from the Perspectives of Elementary Teachers in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Edwan, Zaid Suleiman; Hamaidi, Diala Abdul Hadi

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge-based economy is a new implemented trend in the field of education in Jordan. The ministry of education in Jordan attempts to implement this trend's philosophy in its textbooks. This study examined the extent to which the (1st-3rd grade) social and national textbooks reflect knowledge-based economy criteria from the perspective of…

  15. Scientific, economic, regulatory, and ethical challenges of bringing science-based pediatric nutrition products to the U.S. market and ensuring their availability for patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, Russell J; Goldsmith, Arthur H

    2014-11-01

    Many nutrition products and related drugs are unavailable or not consistently available to clinicians despite a body of clinical data and experience supporting their use. Many of these can be related to drug shortages that have increased since 2009. In addition, there are potentially useful products that are not approved for a specific use or are no longer being manufactured. This review broadly examines the product availability gap from the perspectives of a clinician/former nutrition industry medical director and an economist. The process of pediatric nutrition product and related drug innovation, as well as its drivers and the steps involved in bringing a product to market, is first described. This is followed by an assessment of factors influencing product availability beyond the innovation process, including regulatory issues, manufacturing compliance, purchasing practices, and other factors related to drug and nutrition product pricing and reimbursement. Three pediatric case examples are reviewed and placed in the context of the prior review. Last, recent and future possible steps toward closing the product availability gap are discussed. © 2014 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  16. A perspective on paper-based microfluidics: Current status and future trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xu; Ballerini, David R.; Shen, Wei

    2012-01-01

    “Paper-based microfluidics” or “lab on paper,” as a burgeoning research field with its beginning in 2007, provides a novel system for fluid handling and fluid analysis for a variety of applications including health diagnostics, environmental monitoring as well as food quality testing. The reasons why paper becomes an attractive substrate for making microfluidic systems include: (1) it is a ubiquitous and extremely cheap cellulosic material; (2) it is compatible with many chemical/biochemical/medical applications; and (3) it transports liquids using capillary forces without the assistance of external forces. By building microfluidic channels on paper, liquid flow is confined within the channels, and therefore, liquid flow can be guided in a controlled manner. A variety of 2D and even 3D microfluidic channels have been created on paper, which are able to transport liquids in the predesigned pathways on paper. At the current stage of its development, paper-based microfluidic system is claimed to be low-cost, easy-to-use, disposable, and equipment-free, and therefore, is a rising technology particularly relevant to improving the healthcare and disease screening in the developing world, especially for those areas with no- or low-infrastructure and limited trained medical and health professionals. The research in paper-based microfluidics is experiencing a period of explosion; most published works have focused on: (1) inventing low-cost and simple fabrication techniques for paper-based microfluidic devices; and (2) exploring new applications of paper-based microfluidics by incorporating efficient detection methods. This paper aims to review both the fabrication techniques and applications of paper-based microfluidics reported to date. This paper also attempts to convey to the readers, from the authors’ point of view the current limitations of paper-based microfluidics which require further research, and a few perspective directions this new analytical system

  17. Time Series Analysis of Non-Gaussian Observations Based on State Space Models from Both Classical and Bayesian Perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Durbin, J.; Koopman, S.J.M.

    1998-01-01

    The analysis of non-Gaussian time series using state space models is considered from both classical and Bayesian perspectives. The treatment in both cases is based on simulation using importance sampling and antithetic variables; Monte Carlo Markov chain methods are not employed. Non-Gaussian

  18. The Relative Effect of Team-Based Learning on Motivation and Learning: A Self-Determination Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeno, Lucas M.; Raaheim, Arild; Kristensen, Sara Madeleine; Kristensen, Kjell Daniel; Hole, Torstein Nielsen; Haugland, Mildrid J.; Mæland, Silje

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the effects of team-based learning (TBL) on motivation and learning in a quasi-experimental study. The study employs a self-determination theory perspective to investigate the motivational effects of implementing TBL in a physiotherapy course in higher education. We adopted a one-group pretest-posttest design. The results show that…

  19. Including Students' Diverse Perspectives on Classroom Interactions into Video-Based Professional Development for Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogler, Anna-Marietha; Prediger, Susanne

    2017-01-01

    Video is often used in professional development courses to sensitize mathematics teachers to students' thinking and issues of classroom interaction. This article presents an approach that incorporates students' perspectives on mathematics classroom interactions into video-based professional development in order to enhance teachers' reflection on…

  20. Fresh Faces, New Places: Moving beyond Teacher-Researcher Perspectives in Hip-Hop-Based Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irby, Decoteau J.; Hall, H. Bernard

    2011-01-01

    Grounded in critical and culturally relevant theory, hip-hop-based education (HHBE) research documents the use of hip-hop in educational settings. Despite the richness of the emerging field, overreliance on teacher-researcher perspectives leaves much to be desired. Little is known of the extent and ways HHBE is used by nonresearching K-12…

  1. Prioritizing the 21st Century Superintendent's Skill Set and Knowledge Base from the School Board Leadership Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Teri L.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the extent that specific research based skill sets and areas of knowledge emerged as highly important, moderately important, and less important from the perspective of school board leadership as it pertains to 21st century superintendents. The study further disaggregated the data by specific school…

  2. Using the base-of-the-pyramid perspective to catalyze interdependence-based collaborations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Ted; Anupindi, Ravi

    2012-07-31

    Improving food security and nutrition in the developing world remains among society's most intractable challenges and continues despite a wide variety of investments. Both donor- and enterprise-led initiatives, for example, have explored including smallholder farmers in their value chains. However, these efforts have had only modest success, partly because the private and development sectors prefer to maintain their independence. Research from the base-of-the-pyramid domain offers new insights into how collaborative interdependence between sectors can enhance the connection between profits and the alleviation of poverty. In this article, we identify the strengths and weaknesses of donor-led and enterprise-led value chain initiatives. We then explore how insights from the base-of-the-pyramid domain yield a set of interdependence-based collaboration strategies that can achieve more sustainable and scalable outcomes.

  3. Perspective of Value-Based Management of Spinal Disorders in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teles, Alisson R; Righesso, Orlando; Gullo, Maria Carolina R; Ghogawala, Zoher; Falavigna, Asdrubal

    2016-03-01

    The state of value-based management of spinal disorders and ongoing Brazilian strategies toward its implementation are highlighted in this article. The health care system, economic impact of spine surgery, use of patient-reported outcomes, ongoing studies about health economics, and current strategies toward implementation of quality assessment of spine care in Brazil are reviewed. During the past 20 years, there has been an increase of 226% in the number and 540% in the total cost of spine surgeries in the public health system. Examples of economic regulatory mechanisms involve the process of health technology assessment and the auditing processes imposed by health insurance companies. Some barriers to implementing clinical registries were identified from a large Latin American survey. Strategies based on education and technical support have been conducted to improve the quality of comparative-effectiveness research in spine care. Only 1 cost-utility study on spine care has been published until now. The paradigm of value-based management of spinal disorders is still incipient in Brazil. Some issues from our analysis must be emphasized: (1) Brazil presents many regional disparities and scarce resources for health care; it is crucial for the health system to allocate resources based on the value of interventions; (2) because of the high economic and social burden of developing new technologies for diagnosis and treatment, research in health economics of spine care in Brazil should be prioritized; (3) these efforts would help to provide a more accessible and effective health system for patients with spinal problems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Parent perspectives on family-based psychosocial interventions in pediatric cancer: a mixed-methods approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocking, Matthew C; Kazak, Anne E; Schneider, Stephanie; Barkman, Darlene; Barakat, Lamia P; Deatrick, Janet A

    2014-05-01

    Family-based interventions in pediatric cancer face challenges associated with integrating psychosocial care into a period of intensive treatment and escalating stress. Little research has sought input from parents on the role of interventions delivered shortly after diagnosis. This mixed-methods study obtained parents' perspectives on the potential role of family-based interventions. Twenty-five parents provided feedback on the structure and timing of psychosocial interventions via focus groups and a questionnaire. Qualitative analyses resulted in three themes that were illustrative of a traumatic stress framework: (1) tension between focusing on child with cancer and addressing other family needs, (2) factors influencing parents' perception of a shared experience with other parents, and (3) the importance of matching interventions to the trajectory of parent adjustment. Quantitative data indicated that parents preferred intervention within 6 months of diagnosis, with almost half favoring within 2 months of diagnosis, and the majority wanted interventions targeted to parents only. Qualitative themes highlight the importance of using a traumatic stress framework to inform the development of family-based interventions for those affected by pediatric cancer.

  5. Perspective on Catalytic Hydrodeoxygenation of Biomass Pyrolysis Oils: Essential Roles of Fe-Based Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Yongchun; Hensley, Alyssa; McEwen, Jean-Sabin; Wang, Yong

    2016-06-27

    Catalytic fast pyrolysis is the most promising approach for biofuel production, due to its simple process and versatility to handle lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks with varying and complex compositions. Compared with in situ catalytic fast pyrolysis, ex situ catalytic pyrolysis has the flexibility of optimizing the pyrolysis step and catalytic process individually to improve the quality of pyrolysis oil (stability, oxygen content, acid number, etc.) and to maximize the carbon efficiency in the conversion of biomass to pyrolysis oil. Hydrodeoxygenation is one of the key catalytic functions in ex situ catalytic fast pyrolysis. Recently, Fe-based catalysts have been reported to exhibit superior catalytic properties in hydrodeoxygenation of model compounds in pyrolysis oil, which potentially makes the ex situ pyrolysis of biomass commercially viable due to the abundance and low cost of Fe. Here, we briefly summarize the recent progress on Fe-based catalysts for hydrodeoxygenation of biomass, and provide perspectives on how to further improve Fe-based catalysts (activity and stability) for their potential applications in the emerging area of biomass conversion.

  6. How can an existential-phenomenological Bildung perspective throw light on the potentials and workings of Problem-Based Learning?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feilberg, Casper

    2018-01-01

    What is the purpose of higher learning and the ideals of the university? What traits characterize the habitus of the profession that the students enter after completing their studies? Including such Bildung-perspectives (Gadamer) and profession-perspectives (Bourdieu) makes it possible to come...... to a deeper understanding of the workings and potentials of Problem-Based Learning, and of the demands that this educational philosophy place on the institution, supervisor and student. Through case studies it is demonstrated that project work contributes to psychology students’ embodiment of the habitus...

  7. EFFECTIVE BLENDED LEARNING PRACTICES: Evidence-based Perspectives in ICT-facilitated Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reviewed by Yasin OZARSLAN

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available EFFECTIVE BLENDED LEARNING PRACTICES:Evidence-based Perspectives in ICT-facilitated EducationEdited by Elizabeth Stacey and Philippa Gerbic, Information ScienceReference; 1 edition (March 30, 2009, ISBN-10: 1605662968, 358 pp.Reviewed by Yasin OZARSLANFaculty of Education,Eskisehir Osmangazi University,Eskisehir-TURKEYBlended learning refers to the integration of faceto-face and online learning activities with the goal of maximizing the value of students' experiences in both settings. This book collects new international research into many aspects of blended learningfrom the perspectives of learners, teachers, designers, and professional and academic developers in various disciplines, learningcommunities and universities from around the world. This book addresses the relative newness of online learning within blended environments. The book's broader audience is anyone who isinterested in areas such as blended learning, communities of learning, virtual education, professional learning and community development, instructional technology, flexible learning, distance education and collaborative learning.Blended approaches in teacher education, blending collaborative online learning,blended learning and teaching philosophies, campus-based student learning environments, ICT-enhanced blended learning, learning communities for K-12 teachers, professional development for blended learning, reciprocal mentoring,redesigning initial teacher education, responses to blended environments, strategiesfor blended teaching and learning, virtual learning and real communities are the topics covered in this book.It reviews literature about blended learning in relation to the three sections of the book and discusses strategies for teaching and learning and establishing communities in its different contexts. The chapters of this book provide research perspectives on a range of blended learning issues and contexts and discuss implications for teaching and learning. The

  8. Method of single-step full parallax synthetic holographic stereogram printing based on effective perspective images' segmentation and mosaicking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jian; Yuan, Quan; Huang, Yingqing; Jiang, Xiaoyu; Yan, Xingpeng

    2017-09-18

    With the principle of ray-tracing and the reversibility of light propagation, a new method of single-step full parallax synthetic holographic stereogram printing based on effective perspective images' segmentation and mosaicking (EPISM) is proposed. The perspective images of the scene are first sampled by a virtual camera and the exposing images, which are called synthetic effective perspective images, are achieved using the algorithm of effective perspective images' segmentation and mosaicking according to the propagation law of light and the viewing frustum effect of human eyes. The hogels are exposed using the synthetic effective perspective images in sequence to form the whole holographic stereogram. The influence of modeling parameters on the reconstructed images are also analyzed, and experimental results have demonstrated that the full parallax holographic stereogram printing with the proposed method could provide good reconstructed images by single-step printing. Moreover, detailed experiments with different holographic element sizes, different scene reconstructed distances, and different imaging planes are also analyzed and implemented.

  9. Chemistry based on renewable raw materials: perspectives for a sugar cane-based biorefinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villela Filho, Murillo; Araujo, Carlos; Bonfá, Alfredo; Porto, Weber

    2011-01-01

    Carbohydrates are nowadays a very competitive feedstock for the chemical industry because their availability is compatible with world-scale chemical production and their price, based on the carbon content, is comparable to that of petrochemicals. At the same time, demand is rising for biobased products. Brazilian sugar cane is a competitive feedstock source that is opening the door to a wide range of bio-based products. This essay begins with the importance of the feedstock for the chemical industry and discusses developments in sugar cane processing that lead to low cost feedstocks. Thus, sugar cane enables a new chemical industry, as it delivers a competitive raw material and a source of energy. As a result, sugar mills are being transformed into sustainable biorefineries that fully exploit the potential of sugar cane.

  10. Senior executives' perspectives of integrated reporting regulatory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African listed companies are among the fi rst in the world to be subject to compliance with integrated reporting requirements in terms of stock exchange listing requirements. Integrated reporting, as a novel and evolutionary step in corporate reporting, along with the infl uence that integrated thinking and integrated ...

  11. Senior executives' perspectives of integrated reporting regulatory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kirstam

    2014-12-09

    Dec 9, 2014 ... environmental reporting (De Villiers, Rinaldi, Unerman 2014: 6). The recent integrated reporting developments form part of the global process of progress towards an ideal regime for reporting that could adequately address the needs of a rapidly changing 21st century business landscape. This challenging.

  12. Classification and regulatory perspectives of dietary fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan-Jhen Dai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This review discusses the history and evolution of the state of dietary fiber (DF with account of refinements in extraction methods and legal definitions subsequent to the launch of DF hypothesis. For a long time, defining and regulating DFs relied heavily on their chemical compositions and analytical methods. Although chemical compositions and analytical methods still play an important role in the definition of DF, physiological activity has also been taken into consideration. The precise definition of DF is still evolving, particularly whether oligosaccharides degrees of polymerization (DP 3–9 should be considered as DF or not. Decades of scientific research have initiated the expansion of the term DF to include indigestible oligosaccharides with their DP between 3 and 9; hence responding to the positive health benefits of DF as well as fulfilling the needs in food labeling regulations.

  13. Classification and regulatory perspectives of dietary fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Fan-Jhen; Chau, Chi-Fai

    2017-01-01

    This review discusses the history and evolution of the state of dietary fiber (DF) with account of refinements in extraction methods and legal definitions subsequent to the launch of DF hypothesis. For a long time, defining and regulating DFs relied heavily on their chemical compositions and analytical methods. Although chemical compositions and analytical methods still play an important role in the definition of DF, physiological activity has also been taken into consideration. The precise definition of DF is still evolving, particularly whether oligosaccharides degrees of polymerization (DP) 3-9 should be considered as DF or not. Decades of scientific research have initiated the expansion of the term DF to include indigestible oligosaccharides with their DP between 3 and 9; hence responding to the positive health benefits of DF as well as fulfilling the needs in food labeling regulations. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. P2RP: a Web-based framework for the identification and analysis of regulatory proteins in prokaryotic genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barakat, Mohamed; Ortet, Philippe; Whitworth, David E

    2013-04-20

    Regulatory proteins (RPs) such as transcription factors (TFs) and two-component system (TCS) proteins control how prokaryotic cells respond to changes in their external and/or internal state. Identification and annotation of TFs and TCSs is non-trivial, and between-genome comparisons are often confounded by different standards in annotation. There is a need for user-friendly, fast and convenient tools to allow researchers to overcome the inherent variability in annotation between genome sequences. We have developed the web-server P2RP (Predicted Prokaryotic Regulatory Proteins), which enables users to identify and annotate TFs and TCS proteins within their sequences of interest. Users can input amino acid or genomic DNA sequences, and predicted proteins therein are scanned for the possession of DNA-binding domains and/or TCS domains. RPs identified in this manner are categorised into families, unambiguously annotated, and a detailed description of their features generated, using an integrated software pipeline. P2RP results can then be outputted in user-specified formats. Biologists have an increasing need for fast and intuitively usable tools, which is why P2RP has been developed as an interactive system. As well as assisting experimental biologists to interrogate novel sequence data, it is hoped that P2RP will be built into genome annotation pipelines and re-annotation processes, to increase the consistency of RP annotation in public genomic sequences. P2RP is the first publicly available tool for predicting and analysing RP proteins in users' sequences. The server is freely available and can be accessed along with documentation at http://www.p2rp.org.

  15. Regulatory aspects on nanomedicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainz, Vanessa; Conniot, João; Matos, Ana I; Peres, Carina; Zupancic, Eva; Moura, Liane; Silva, Liana C; Florindo, Helena F; Gaspar, Rogério S

    2015-12-18

    Nanomedicines have been in the forefront of pharmaceutical research in the last decades, creating new challenges for research community, industry, and regulators. There is a strong demand for the fast development of scientific and technological tools to address unmet medical needs, thus improving human health care and life quality. Tremendous advances in the biomaterials and nanotechnology fields have prompted their use as promising tools to overcome important drawbacks, mostly associated to the non-specific effects of conventional therapeutic approaches. However, the wide range of application of nanomedicines demands a profound knowledge and characterization of these complex products. Their properties need to be extensively understood to avoid unpredicted effects on patients, such as potential immune reactivity. Research policy and alliances have been bringing together scientists, regulators, industry, and, more frequently in recent years, patient representatives and patient advocacy institutions. In order to successfully enhance the development of new technologies, improved strategies for research-based corporate organizations, more integrated research tools dealing with appropriate translational requirements aiming at clinical development, and proactive regulatory policies are essential in the near future. This review focuses on the most important aspects currently recognized as key factors for the regulation of nanomedicines, discussing the efforts under development by industry and regulatory agencies to promote their translation into the market. Regulatory Science aspects driving a faster and safer development of nanomedicines will be a central issue for the next years. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Anti-regulatory T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mads Hald

    2017-01-01

    Our initial understanding of immune-regulatory cells was based on the discovery of suppressor cells that assure peripheral T-cell tolerance and promote immune homeostasis. Research has particularly focused on the importance of regulatory T cells (Tregs) for immune modulation, e.g. directing host...... responses to tumours or inhibiting autoimmunity development. However, recent studies report the discovery of self-reactive pro-inflammatory T cells—termed anti-regulatory T cells (anti-Tregs)—that target immune-suppressive cells. Thus, regulatory cells can now be defined as both cells that suppress immune......-reactive T cells that recognize such targets may be activated due to the strong activation signal given by their cognate targets. The current review describes the existing knowledge regarding these self-reactive anti-Tregs, providing examples of antigen-specific anti-Tregs and discussing their possible roles...

  17. Characteristics of good mathematics lecturers based on students and lecturers perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hapsari, Trusti; Putri, Dian Permana; Raharjo, Jajo Firman

    2017-05-01

    This study aims to determine the characteristics of good mathematics lecturers based on students' and lecturers' perspectivesand compare the characteristics of good lecturers/ teachers which are in accordance with the findings of some previous studies and the theories. This study is survey study. The Data were collected through questionnaires and interview. The population consists of some mathematics students from the first level through the third level and some mathematics education lecturers of a private university in West Java. Qualitative analysis was undertaken to examine the results of questionnaires and interviews. The finding shows that the characteristic of good mathematics lecturers is inspiring. They can inspire other mathematics lecturers and educators in general. Based on the students and lecturers' perspective, some characteristics of good mathematics lecturers are mastering the materials well, being on time, being objective, understanding the students, presenting the materials with clearly, and being disciplined. Some other characteristic mentioned are: teaching eagerly, being unhurried, being friendly, giving exemplary and preparing the lesson well. These characteristics are not much different from the characteristics described by some previous researchers and some theories of experts, i.e. mastering the subject matters well, pedagogic, and work wholeheartedly.

  18. Making the Grade in a Portfolio-Based System: Student Performance and the Student Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowacki, Amy S.

    2013-01-01

    Assessment is such an integral part of the educational system that we rarely reflect on its value and impact. Portfolios have gained in popularity, but much attention has emphasized the end-user and portfolio assessment. Here we focus on the portfolio creator (the student) and examine whether their educational needs are met with such an assessment method. This study aims to investigate how assessment practices influence classroom performance and the learning experience of the student in a graduate education setting. Studied were 33 medical students at the Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine of Case Western Reserve University, a program utilizing a portfolio-based system. The students may elect to simultaneously enroll in a Masters program; however, these programs employ traditional letter grades. Thus creating a unique opportunity to assess 25 portfolio only (P) students and 8 portfolio and grade (PG) students concurrently taking a course that counts for both programs. Classroom performance was measured via a comprehensive evaluation where the PG students scored modestly better (median total scores, 72% P vs. 76% PG). Additionally, a survey was conducted to gain insight into student’s perspective on how assessment method impacts the learning experience. The students in the PG group (those receiving a grade) reported increased stress but greater affirmation and self-assurance regarding their knowledge and skill mastery. Incorporation of such affirmation remains a challenge for portfolio-based systems and an area for investigation and improvement. PMID:23565103

  19. On the Origin of Pantepui montane biotas: A Perspective Based on the Phylogeny of Aulacorhynchus toucanets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Bonaccorso

    Full Text Available To understand the origin of Pantepui montane biotas, we studied the biogeography of toucanets in the genus Aulacorhynchus. These birds are ideal for analyzing historical relationships among Neotropical montane regions, given their geographic distribution from Mexico south to Bolivia, including northern Venezuela (Cordillera de la Costa, and the Pantepui. Analyses were based on molecular phylogenies using mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences. Topology tests were applied to compare alternative hypotheses that may explain the current distribution of Aulacorhynchus toucanets, in the context of previous hypotheses of the origin of Pantepui montane biotas. Biogeographic reconstructions in RASP and Lagrange were used to estimate the ancestral area of the genus, and an analysis in BEAST was used to estimate a time framework for its diversification. A sister relationship between the Pantepui and Andes+Cordillera de la Costa was significantly more likely than topologies indicating other hypothesis for the origin of Pantepui populations. The Andes was inferred as the ancestral area for Aulacorhynchus, and the group has diversified since the late Miocene. The biogeographic patterns found herein, in which the Andes are the source for biotas of other regions, are consistent with those found for flowerpiercers and tanagers, and do not support the hypothesis of the geologically old Pantepui as a source of Neotropical montain diversity. Based on the high potential for cryptic speciation and isolation of Pantepui populations, we consider that phylogenetic studies of additional taxa are important from a conservation perspective.

  20. Making the grade in a portfolio-based system: student performance and the student perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowacki, Amy S

    2013-01-01

    Assessment is such an integral part of the educational system that we rarely reflect on its value and impact. Portfolios have gained in popularity, but much attention has emphasized the end-user and portfolio assessment. Here we focus on the portfolio creator (the student) and examine whether their educational needs are met with such an assessment method. This study aims to investigate how assessment practices influence classroom performance and the learning experience of the student in a graduate education setting. Studied were 33 medical students at the Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine of Case Western Reserve University, a program utilizing a portfolio-based system. The students may elect to simultaneously enroll in a Masters program; however, these programs employ traditional letter grades. Thus creating a unique opportunity to assess 25 portfolio only (P) students and 8 portfolio and grade (PG) students concurrently taking a course that counts for both programs. Classroom performance was measured via a comprehensive evaluation where the PG students scored modestly better (median total scores, 72% P vs. 76% PG). Additionally, a survey was conducted to gain insight into student's perspective on how assessment method impacts the learning experience. The students in the PG group (those receiving a grade) reported increased stress but greater affirmation and self-assurance regarding their knowledge and skill mastery. Incorporation of such affirmation remains a challenge for portfolio-based systems and an area for investigation and improvement.

  1. On Developing a Taxonomy for Multidisciplinary Design Optimization: A Decision-Based Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Kemper; Mistree, Farrokh

    1995-01-01

    In this paper, we approach MDO from a Decision-Based Design (DBD) perspective and explore classification schemes for designing complex systems and processes. Specifically, we focus on decisions, which are only a small portion of the Decision Support Problem (DSP) Technique, our implementation of DBD. We map coupled nonhierarchical and hierarchical representations from the DSP Technique into the Balling-Sobieski (B-S) framework (Balling and Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, 1994), and integrate domain-independent linguistic terms to complete our taxonomy. Application of DSPs to the design of complex, multidisciplinary systems include passenger aircraft, ships, damage tolerant structural and mechanical systems, and thermal energy systems. In this paper we show that Balling-Sobieski framework is consistent with that of the Decision Support Problem Technique through the use of linguistic entities to describe the same type of formulations. We show that the underlying linguistics of the solution approaches are the same and can be coalesced into a homogeneous framework with which to base the research, application, and technology MDO upon. We introduce, in the Balling-Sobieski framework, examples of multidisciplinary design, namely, aircraft, damage tolerant structural and mechanical systems, and thermal energy systems.

  2. Making the grade in a portfolio-based system: student performance and the student perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy S. Nowacki

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Assessment is such an integral part of the educational system that we rarely reflect on its value and impact. Portfolios have gained in popularity, but much attention has emphasized the end-user and portfolio assessment. Here we focus on the portfolio creator (the student and examine whether their educational needs are met with such an assessment method. This study aims to investigate how assessment practices influence classroom performance and the learning experience of the student in a graduate education setting. Studied were 33 medical students at the Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine of Case Western Reserve University, a program utilizing a portfolio-based system. The students may elect to simultaneously enroll in a Masters program; however, these programs employ traditional letter grades. Thus creating a unique opportunity to assess 25 portfolio only (P students and 8 portfolio and grade (PG students concurrently taking a course that counts for both programs. Classroom performance was measured via a comprehensive evaluation where the PG students scored modestly better (median total scores, 72% P vs. 76% PG. Additionally, a survey was conducted to gain insight into student’s perspective on how assessment method impacts the learning experience. The students in the PG group (those receiving a grade reported increased stress but greater affirmation and self-assurance regarding their knowledge and skill mastery. Incorporation of such affirmation remains a challenge for portfolio-based systems and an area for investigation and improvement.

  3. Technological developments and future perspectives on graphene-based metamaterials: a primer for neurosurgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattei, Tobias A; Rehman, Azeem A

    2014-05-01

    Graphene, a monolayer atomic-scale honeycomb lattice of carbon atoms, has been considered the greatest revolution in metamaterials research in the past 5 years. Its developers were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 2010, and massive funding has been directed to graphene-based experimental research in the last years. For instance, an international scientific collaboration has recently received a €1 billion grant from the European Flagship Initiative, the largest amount of financial resources ever granted for a single research project in the history of modern science. Because of graphene's unique optical, thermal, mechanical, electronic, and quantum properties, the incorporation of graphene-based metamaterials to biomedical applications is expected to lead to major technological breakthroughs in the next few decades. Current frontline research in graphene technology includes the development of high-performance, lightweight, and malleable electronic devices, new optical modulators, ultracapacitors, molecular biodevices, organic photovoltaic cells, lithium-ion microbatteries, frequency multipliers, quantum dots, and integrated circuits, just to mention a few. With such advances, graphene technology is expected to significantly impact several areas of neurosurgery, including neuro-oncology, neurointensive care, neuroregeneration research, peripheral nerve surgery, functional neurosurgery, and spine surgery. In this topic review, the authors provide a basic introduction to the main electrophysical properties of graphene. Additionally, future perspectives of ongoing frontline investigations on this new metamaterial are discussed, with special emphasis on those research fields that are expected to most substantially impact experimental and clinical neurosurgery in the near future.

  4. A Framework for Cloud Based E-Government from the Perspective of Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pusp Raj Joshi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite significant efforts to initiate electronic government projects, developing countries are still struggling to reap the benefits of using e-government services. An effective implementation of e-government infrastructure is necessary to increase the efficiency and transparency of the government services. There are several studies that observed causes like lack of infrastructure support, lack of payment gateway and improper e-government service delivery channel as main barriers to a wider adoption of e-government services. The main contribution of this research is to propose a cloud-based G2G (Government-to-government e-government framework for a viable e-government solution from the perspective of developing countries. We have introduced a list of concepts and a systematic process to guide the implementation of e-government project based on the government’s vision, goals, chosen services through the service delivery channel to the appropriate cloud service and deployment model. We have used Nepal as a context of the case study and applied the framework to a real e-government project of driving licensing department using action research methodology. The results from the study show that the G2G approach of e-government implementation would be the best for providing effective government services to the stakeholders of developing countries. The proposed framework also supports a smooth integration of government services and reduces the time of the overall project.

  5. Students' Perceptions of Teaching in Context-based and Traditional Chemistry Classrooms: Comparing content, learning activities, and interpersonal perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overman, Michelle; Vermunt, Jan D.; Meijer, Paulien C.; Bulte, Astrid M. W.; Brekelmans, Mieke

    2014-07-01

    Context-based curriculum reforms in chemistry education are thought to bring greater diversity to the ways in which chemistry teachers organize their teaching. First and foremost, students are expected to perceive this diversity. However, empirical research on how students perceive their teacher's teaching in context-based chemistry classrooms, and whether this teaching differs from traditional chemistry lessons, is scarce. This study aims to develop our understanding of what teaching looks like, according to students, in context-based chemistry classrooms compared with traditional chemistry classrooms. As such, it might also provide a better understanding of whether teachers implement and attain the intentions of curriculum developers. To study teacher behaviour we used three theoretical perspectives deemed to be important for student learning: a content perspective, a learning activities perspective, and an interpersonal perspective. Data were collected from 480 students in 24 secondary chemistry classes in the Netherlands. Our findings suggest that, according to the students, the changes in teaching in context-based chemistry classrooms imply a lessening of the emphasis on fundamental chemistry and the use of a teacher-centred approach, compared with traditional chemistry classrooms. However, teachers in context-based chemistry classrooms seem not to display more 'context-based' teaching behaviour, such as emphasizing the relation between chemistry, technology, and society and using a student-centred approach. Furthermore, students in context-based chemistry classrooms perceive their teachers as having less interpersonal control and showing less affiliation than teachers in traditional chemistry classrooms. Our findings should be interpreted in the context of former and daily experiences of both teachers and students. As only chemistry is reformed in the schools in which context-based chemistry is implemented, it is challenging for both students and teachers to

  6. Individual Learner Differences In Web-based Learning Environments: From Cognitive, Affective and Social-cultural Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    KOC, Mustafa

    2005-01-01

    Individual Learner DifferencesIn Web-based Learning Environments:From Cognitive, Affective and Social-cultural Perspectives Mustafa KOCPh.D Candidate Instructional TechnologyUniversity of Illinois at Urbana-ChampaignUrbana, IL - USA ABSTRACT Throughout the paper, the issues of individual differences in web-based learning, also known as online instruction, online training or distance education were examined and implications for designing distance education were discussed. Although the main pu...

  7. Regulatory Snapshots: integrative mining of regulatory modules from expression time series and regulatory networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana P Gonçalves

    Full Text Available Explaining regulatory mechanisms is crucial to understand complex cellular responses leading to system perturbations. Some strategies reverse engineer regulatory interactions from experimental data, while others identify functional regulatory units (modules under the assumption that biological systems yield a modular organization. Most modular studies focus on network structure and static properties, ignoring that gene regulation is largely driven by stimulus-response behavior. Expression time series are key to gain insight into dynamics, but have been insufficiently explored by current methods, which often (1 apply generic algorithms unsuited for expression analysis over time, due to inability to maintain the chronology of events or incorporate time dependency; (2 ignore local patterns, abundant in most interesting cases of transcriptional activity; (3 neglect physical binding or lack automatic association of regulators, focusing mainly on expression patterns; or (4 limit the discovery to a predefined number of modules. We propose Regulatory Snapshots, an integrative mining approach to identify regulatory modules over time by combining transcriptional control with response, while overcoming the above challenges. Temporal biclustering is first used to reveal transcriptional modules composed of genes showing coherent expression profiles over time. Personalized ranking is then applied to prioritize prominent regulators targeting the modules at each time point using a network of documented regulatory associations and the expression data. Custom graphics are finally depicted to expose the regulatory activity in a module at consecutive time points (snapshots. Regulatory Snapshots successfully unraveled modules underlying yeast response to heat shock and human epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, based on regulations documented in the YEASTRACT and JASPAR databases, respectively, and available expression data. Regulatory players involved in

  8. Conducting polymer-based hybrid assemblies for electrochemical sensing: a materials science perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janáky, Csaba; Visy, Csaba

    2013-04-01

    In this topical review, progress achieved in amperometric sensing of different analytes over conducting polymer-based hybrid electrocatalysts is summarized. We report a variety of synthetic methods and the resulting hybrid assemblies, with the effectiveness of such strategies, for designing conjugated polymer-based hybrids as robust sensors for amperometric detection. Beyond incorporation of metal nanoparticles, metal-oxide and non-oxide semiconductors, carbon-based nanomaterials (nanotubes, graphene, and graphene oxide), and special dopant ions are also discussed. Moreover, some particularly interesting miscellaneous approaches, for example photo-amperometric sensing or use of overoxidized polymers, are also emphasized. Determination of dissolved gases (for example O2, NO, and NO2), ions (sulfite, nitrite, nitrate, chlorate, bromate, and iodate) and smaller and larger molecules (for example H2O2, ascorbic acid (AA), dopamine (DA), urea (UA), amino acids, hydrazine, NADH, serotonin, and epinephrine) is discussed. These achievements are reviewed from the materials perspective, addressing both synthetic and electrocatalytic aspects of the polymer-based modified electrodes. Beyond simple or more sophisticated mixing, a wide range of methods of preparation is presented, including chemical (one-pot polymerization, impregnation), electrochemical (co-deposition, doping type inclusion, etc.) and combined strategies. Classification of such synthetic routes is also included. However, it is important to note that we omit studies in which conducting polymers alone were used for determination of different species. Furthermore, because excellent reviews--cited in this work also--are available on immobilization of biomolecules (for example enzymes) for biosensing purposes, this topic, also, is excluded.

  9. College Freshmen Students' Perspectives on Weight Gain Prevention in the Digital Age: Web-Based Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Courtney M; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Larsen, Chelsea A; Magradey, Karen; Brandt, Heather M; Wilcox, Sara; Sundstrom, Beth; West, Delia Smith

    2017-10-12

    College freshmen are highly vulnerable to experiencing weight gain, and this phenomenon is associated with an increased risk of chronic diseases and mortality in older adulthood. Technology offers an attractive and scalable way to deliver behavioral weight gain prevention interventions for this population. Weight gain prevention programs that harness the appeal and widespread reach of Web-based technologies (electronic health or eHealth) are increasingly being evaluated in college students. Yet, few of these interventions are informed by college students' perspectives on weight gain prevention and related lifestyle behaviors. The objective of this study was to assess college freshmen students' concern about weight gain and associated topics, as well as their interest in and delivery medium preferences for eHealth programs focused on these topics. Web-based surveys that addressed college freshmen students' (convenience sample of N=50) perspectives on weight gain prevention were administered at the beginning and end of the fall 2015 semester as part of a longitudinal investigation of health-related issues and experiences in first semester college freshmen. Data on weight gain prevention-related concerns and corresponding interest in eHealth programs targeting topics of potential concern, as well as preferred program delivery medium and current technology use were gathered and analyzed using descriptive statistics. A considerable proportion of the freshmen sample expressed concern about weight gain (74%, 37/50) and both traditional (healthy diet: 86%, 43/50; physical activity: 64%, 32/50) and less frequently addressed (stress: 82%, 41/50; sleep: 74%, 37/50; anxiety and depression: 60%, 30/50) associated topics within the context of behavioral weight gain prevention. The proportion of students who reported interest in eHealth promotion programs targeting these topics was also generally high (ranging from 52% [26/50] for stress management to 70% [35/50] for eating a

  10. Partnering with community-based organizations: an academic institution's evolving perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Keith C; Brusuelas, Rebecca; Jones, Loretta; Miranda, Jeanne; Duru, O Kenrik; Mangione, Carol M

    2007-01-01

    ) giving additional perspectives and balance for the partnerships; and (6) participating as a critical component of the mentor pool. Our evolving perspective on CBPR has reinforced the importance of a MOU to document the roles and expectations of each partner and a carefully selected CAB to develop and enhance true collaboration with community partners. We cannot overemphasize the importance of educating academia to truly value the role of community and resident experts as equitable and necessary partners to most effectively perform quality research and ultimately bring evidenced-based care for diverse elderly communities into a real-life setting.

  11. Evidence-based medicine meets person-centred care: a collaborative perspective on the relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Amy I; Djulbegovic, Ben; Biswas, Rakesh; Chatterjee, Pranab

    2015-12-01

    In a recent list-serve, the way forward for evidence-based medicine was discussed. The purpose of this paper was to share the reflections and multiple perspectives discussed in this peer-to-peer encounter and to invite the reader to think with a mind for positive change in the practice of health care. Let us begin with a simple question. What if we dared to look at evidence-based medicine (EBM) and informed shared decision making like two wheels on a bike? They both need to be full of substance, well connected, lubricated and working in balance, propelled and guided by a competent driver, with good vision to get the bike where we want it to go. We need all the tools in the toolkit for the bike to stay operational and to meet the needs of the driver. By the same rationale, evidence alone is necessary but not sufficient for decision making; values are necessary and if neglected, may default to feelings based on social pressures and peer influence. Medical decisions, even shared ones, lack focus without evidence and application. Just as a bike may need a tune up from time to time to maintain optimal performance, EBM may benefit from a tune up where we challenge ourselves to move away from general assumptions and traditions and instead think clearly about the issues we face and how to ask well-formed, specific questions to get the answers to meet the needs we face in health care. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Perspectives of dental students and faculty about evidence-based dental practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelkarim, Ahmad; Sullivan, Donna

    2014-12-01

    The study aimed at evaluating attitudes and perceptions of dental students and faculty toward evidence-based practice, integration of technology and social media, general practitioners' and specialists' scope of practice, and dental practice rewards and disadvantages. A survey instrument was designed with 10 statements rated on a five-point Likert scale (strongly agree to strongly disagree) and an optional comment section. The survey instrument was delivered through SurveyMonkey, whereby 401 students and 182 faculty members from ten U.S. dental schools participated (16% estimated response rate). Null hypotheses regarding the equality between the responses of the two groups were statistically tested using Mann-Whitney U test. Statistical significance was set at .05. Evidence-based practice is positively perceived by both groups, but with significantly higher support by faculty than students (P = 0.002). Both groups agreed that technological advancements are advantageous (P = 0.95), but do not constitute good dentistry and cannot mask poor clinical skills. Students showed higher support for social media than faculty (P = 0.000). Both groups perceived group practices positively. Faculty members showed higher agreement than students toward limitation of dental specialists' practices to their specialties (P = 0.000). Both groups are aware of practice disadvantages, such as increased litigation, health risks, and detriment to the dentist's posture. However, they both perceive dental practice positively despite all these challenges. Students and faculty share generally comparable perspectives toward dental practice. They are both in agreement with evidence-based practice and adoption of technology. They both acknowledge practice limitations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A Model of Yeast Cell-Cycle Regulation Based on a Standard Component Modeling Strategy for Protein Regulatory Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laomettachit, Teeraphan; Chen, Katherine C; Baumann, William T; Tyson, John J

    2016-01-01

    To understand the molecular mechanisms that regulate cell cycle progression in eukaryotes, a variety of mathematical modeling approaches have been employed, ranging from Boolean networks and differential equations to stochastic simulations. Each approach has its own characteristic strengths and weaknesses. In this paper, we propose a "standard component" modeling strategy that combines advantageous features of Boolean networks, differential equations and stochastic simulations in a framework that acknowledges the typical sorts of reactions found in protein regulatory networks. Applying this strategy to a comprehensive mechanism of the budding yeast cell cycle, we illustrate the potential value of standard component modeling. The deterministic version of our model reproduces the phenotypic properties of wild-type cells and of 125 mutant strains. The stochastic version of our model reproduces the cell-to-cell variability of wild-type cells and the partial viability of the CLB2-dbΔ clb5Δ mutant strain. Our simulations show that mathematical modeling with "standard components" can capture in quantitative detail many essential properties of cell cycle control in budding yeast.

  14. A Model of Yeast Cell-Cycle Regulation Based on a Standard Component Modeling Strategy for Protein Regulatory Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teeraphan Laomettachit

    Full Text Available To understand the molecular mechanisms that regulate cell cycle progression in eukaryotes, a variety of mathematical modeling approaches have been employed, ranging from Boolean networks and differential equations to stochastic simulations. Each approach has its own characteristic strengths and weaknesses. In this paper, we propose a "standard component" modeling strategy that combines advantageous features of Boolean networks, differential equations and stochastic simulations in a framework that acknowledges the typical sorts of reactions found in protein regulatory networks. Applying this strategy to a comprehensive mechanism of the budding yeast cell cycle, we illustrate the potential value of standard component modeling. The deterministic version of our model reproduces the phenotypic properties of wild-type cells and of 125 mutant strains. The stochastic version of our model reproduces the cell-to-cell variability of wild-type cells and the partial viability of the CLB2-dbΔ clb5Δ mutant strain. Our simulations show that mathematical modeling with "standard components" can capture in quantitative detail many essential properties of cell cycle control in budding yeast.

  15. Rights-based food and nutrition perspective: 21st century challenge for dietetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florencio, C A

    2001-06-01

    Progress in addressing the problems of hunger and malnutrition has been slow and uneven across regions and countries of the world. A rights-based perspective, not merely a utilitarian argument, must serve as the rationale for humans to be properly nourished. Rights impose corresponding binding obligations on others and the concept of rights holders and duty bearers goes beyond the human development paradigm. The right to adequate food is realized when every man, woman and child, alone or in community with others, has physical and economic access at all times to adequate food or means for its procurement. As duty bearers, governments are obligated to assure the realization of that right and accountable if the right is violated. The use of the human rights approach to adequate food necessarily implies a re-examination and fundamental changes in the way we think about hunger and malnutrition and their causes; the manner of shaping and reshaping policies; the context and processes of planning, monitoring and evaluating programmes; and the substance and method of research and education in food and nutrition. Dietitians and dietetic associations can be instrumental in making the human right to adequate food a reality.

  16. The bacterial rhizobiome of hyperaccumulators: future perspectives based on omics analysis and advanced microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna eVisioli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperaccumulators are plants that can extract heavy metal ions from the soil and translocate those ions to the shoots, where they are sequestered and detoxified. Hyperaccumulation depends not only on the availability of mobilized metal ions in the soil, but also on the enhanced activity of metal transporters and metal chelators which may be provided by the plant or its associated microbes. The rhizobiome is captured by plant root exudates from the complex microbial community in the soil, and may colonize the root surface or infiltrate the root cortex. This community can increase the root surface area by inducing hairy root proliferation. It may also increase the solubility of metals in the rhizosphere and promote the uptake of soluble metals by the plant. The bacterial rhizobiome, a subset of specialized microorganisms that colonize the plant rhizosphere and endosphere, makes an important contribution to the hyperaccumulator phenotype. In this review, we discuss classic and more recent tools that are used to study the interactions between hyperaccumulators and the bacterial rhizobiome, and consider future perspectives based on the use of omics analysis and microscopy to study plant metabolism in the context of metal accumulation. Recent data suggest that metal-resistant bacteria isolated from the hyperaccumulator rhizosphere and endosphere could be useful in applications such as phytoextraction and phytoremediation, although more research is required to determine whether such properties can be transferred successfully to non-accumulator species.

  17. Faith-based perspectives on the use of chimeric organisms for medical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degeling, Chris; Irvine, Rob; Kerridge, Ian

    2014-04-01

    Efforts to advance our understanding of neurodegenerative diseases involve the creation chimeric organisms from human neural stem cells and primate embryos--known as prenatal chimeras. The existence of potential mentally complex beings with human and non-human neural apparatus raises fundamental questions as to the ethical permissibility of chimeric research and the moral status of the creatures it creates. Even as bioethicists find fewer reasons to be troubled by most types of chimeric organisms, social attitudes towards the non-human world are often influenced by religious beliefs. In this paper scholars representing eight major religious traditions provide a brief commentary on a hypothetical case concerning the development and use of prenatal human-animal chimeric primates in medical research. These commentaries reflect the plurality and complexity within and between religious discourses of our relationships with other species. Views on the moral status and permissibility of research on neural human animal chimeras vary. The authors provide an introduction to those who seek a better understanding of how faith-based perspectives might enter into biomedical ethics and public discourse towards forms of biomedical research that involves chimeric organisms.

  18. Valuing Trial Designs from a Pharmaceutical Perspective Using Value-Based Pricing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeze, Penny; Brennan, Alan

    2015-11-01

    Our aim was to adapt the traditional framework for expected net benefit of sampling (ENBS) to be more compatible with drug development trials from the pharmaceutical perspective. We modify the traditional framework for conducting ENBS and assume that the price of the drug is conditional on the trial outcomes. We use a value-based pricing (VBP) criterion to determine price conditional on trial data using Bayesian updating of cost-effectiveness (CE) model parameters. We assume that there is a threshold price below which the company would not market the new intervention. We present a case study in which a phase III trial sample size and trial duration are varied. For each trial design, we sampled 10,000 trial outcomes and estimated VBP using a CE model. The expected commercial net benefit is calculated as the expected profits minus the trial costs. A clinical trial with shorter follow-up, and larger sample size, generated the greatest expected commercial net benefit. Increasing the duration of follow-up had a modest impact on profit forecasts. Expected net benefit of sampling can be adapted to value clinical trials in the pharmaceutical industry to optimise the expected commercial net benefit. However, the analyses can be very time consuming for complex CE models. © 2014 The Authors. Health Economics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Vulnerability analysis for airport networks based on fuzzy soft sets: From the structural and functional perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Shanmei

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, much attention has been paid to the reliability and vulnerability of critical infrastructure. In air traffic systems, the vulnerability analysis for airport networks can be used to guide air traffic administrations in their prioritization of the maintenance and repair of airports, as well as to avoid unnecessary disturbances in the planning of flight schedules. In this paper, the evaluation methods of airport importance and network efficiency are established. Firstly, the evaluation indices of airport importance are proposed from both the topological and functional perspectives. The topological characteristics come from the structure of airport network and the functional features stem from the traffic flow distribution taking place inside the network. Secondly, an integrated evaluation method based on fuzzy soft set theory is proposed to identify the key airports, which can fuse together importance indices over different time intervals. Thirdly, an airport network efficiency method is established for the purpose of assessing the accuracy of the evaluation method. Finally, empirical studies using real traffic data of US and China’s airport networks show that the evaluation method proposed in this paper is the most accurate. The vulnerability of US and China’s airport networks is compared. The similarities and differences between airport geography distribution and airport importance distribution are discussed here and the dynamics of airport importance is studied as well.

  20. Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, and questioning youths' perspectives of inclusive school-based sexuality education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowen, L Kris; Winges-Yanez, Nichole

    2014-01-01

    Sexuality education is perceived as one way to prevent unhealthy sexual behaviors. However, current sexuality education materials are not tailored to fit the needs of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer/questioning (LGBTQ) youth, and many have been critiqued for disenfranchising these populations. This study solicited the perspectives of LGBTQ youth on their experiences with school-based sexuality education in order to create a framework of LGBTQ-inclusive sexuality education. Five semistructured focus groups (N = 30 LGBTQ participants) were conducted to investigate the sexuality education experiences of LGBTQ youth and to solicit youth suggestions for improving the inclusiveness of sexuality education curricula. Results indicate that LGBTQ youth perceive current sexuality education as primarily "exclusive," although examples of "inclusive" sexuality education were provided. In addition, participants provided suggestions for creating a more inclusive experience, such as directly discussing LGBTQ issues, emphasizing sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention over pregnancy prevention, and addressing healthy relationships. Educators and policymakers can use these ideas to help improve the quality of sexuality education-not only to make it more inclusive for LGBTQ youth but to make sexuality education more inclusive for all young people.

  1. Dispelling myths about intravenous fish oil-based lipid emulsions: a clinical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ApSimon, Michele

    2017-12-18

    Intravenous lipid emulsions (IVLEs) are an essential component of parenteral nutrition. With the recent incorporation of new lipid emulsions into the Canadian and American market, the clinician responsible for prescribing these lipids should be educated regarding the different fatty acid (FA) profiles of these lipids, as well as their metabolic and functional effects. New IVLEs contain a mix of soybean oil and olive oil, or a mix of soybean oil, coconut oil, olive oil and fish oil. These new lipid emulsions provide less essential fatty acids (FAs) (linoleic and alpha linolenic acids) than in pure soybean oil, yet incorporation of fish oil into an IVLE may decrease the amount of essential FAs required. Fish oil is a treatment for hypertriglyceridemia, and therefore, IVLEs that include fish oil may decrease serum triglycerides. Historical perspective is that fish oil can be associated with increased bleeding time. Evidence suggests that there is no association between fish oil and increased bleeding in patients, even those who are using anticoagulants. New IVLEs provide less vitamin K than soybean oil alone. Patients, or the parenteral nutrition solutions that include these new IVLEs should be supplemented with vitamin K. Canadian and American Guidelines for IVLEs were based on soybean oil. Current practice should be tailored to which IVLE is being prescribed.

  2. Food waste conversion options in Singapore: environmental impacts based on an LCA perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoo, Hsien H; Lim, Teik Z; Tan, Reginald B H

    2010-02-15

    Proper management and recycling of huge volumes of food waste is one of the challenges faced by Singapore. Semakau island - the only offshore landfill of the nation - only accepts inert, inorganic solid waste and therefore a large bulk of food waste is directed to incinerators. A remaining small percent is sent for recycling via anaerobic digestion (AD), followed by composting of the digestate material. This article investigates the environmental performance of four food waste conversion scenarios - based on a life cycle assessment perspective - taking into account air emissions, useful energy from the incinerators and AD process, as well as carbon dioxide mitigation from the compost products derived from the digestate material and a proposed aerobic composting system. The life cycle impact results were generated for global warming, acidification, eutrophication, photochemical oxidation and energy use. The total normalized results showed that a small-scale proposed aerobic composting system is more environmentally favorable than incinerators, but less ideal compared to the AD process. By making full use of the AD's Recycling Phase II process alone, the Singapore Green Plan's 2012 aim to increase the recycling of food waste to 30% can easily be achieved, along with reduced global warming impacts.

  3. A comparative Kano analysis on customer satisfaction based on customer and employment perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakineh Noorinasab

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available These days, there is a tight competition among business units and all production units or service businesses attempt to use different techniques to increase their market shares. In such environment, customer normally says the last word, in fact, customer plays an important role and in many organizations, it is considered as part of their assets. The purpose of this paper is to propose a hybrid method to detect important criteria using Kano three-dimensional method and prioritize them using analytical hierarchy process. We implement the proposed model of this paper for one of Iranian banks called Bank Melli Iran. The study determines 25 different attributes, categorizes them in three different groups based on Kano model, and ranks them in terms of customers and employees' perspective. The results of the survey indicate that customer and employees mostly have similar views since there are 21 common attributes between them. However, the priorities of these 21 items are often different in terms of two groups of employees and customers.

  4. Family Based Premarital Teenager Education in Islamic Education Perspective in Kaili Community in Palu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Markarma

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The widespread of premarital pregnancy is caused by rampant  promiscuity among female teenagers. The promiscuity occurs due to lack parents’ supervision. Female teenagers  often break  religious, ethical, moral and customary norms. Therefore,  it is important to provide teenagers with pre-marriage education materials. Islam teaches its adherents not to be in hurry in everything except in five things: burial of corpse, paying debts, serving travelers, repenting, and marrying. This study attempts to examine family-based premarital sex education in Islamic education perspectives in the Kaili community in the Palu Valley. The researcher used a quantitative-descriptive approach to see the relationship of research variables. The results show that, the majority of housewife knowledge about premarital education is very low. This certainly affect the lack of premarital sex  education of their young daughters. Low knowledge of housewives and young female regarding premarital sex  education because families do  not teach and socialize moral, ethical, and ethical values effectively in their communities.

  5. User Perspectives of Reference Management Software in a Context-Based Learning Situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Akramy

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Scientific writing is an important aspect of the student's education. Writing requires the student to give reference sources in a proper manner in accordance with a certain style. Experience has found that the process to deal with different styles requires time. Critical thinking is a fundamental requirement in scientific work and as such requires no detailed knowledge about different styles structure. Today's technology makes it possible to facilitate scientific writing using reference management software. The current reference management tools available are license-based and others are available free through the Internet. In recent years, social media, such as Facebook, Blogs and Wikipedia have received increasing attention. The discussion, in educational settings, has touched on the pros and cons, but also on the potential opportunities using social media in educational settings. Social media creates opportunities for communication, which in turn affects learning. This learning can be described as collaborative. Illeris (2007 points out that such learning refers to activities where a group of people strive to learn and develop something together. Thus, it is the technical possibilities that facilitate communication and learning. From an educational point of view Vygotsky appears to be central in terms of pedagogy and technology. His theoretical argument is based on a sociocultural perspective where people learn from each other and are believed to be active in its social context using technology as a helpful instrument. Individual knowledge thus grows between individuals (Vygotsky, 1978. The teacher's role, based on Vygotsky's sociocultural perspective, is to encourage good learning environments, and thus use existing technology in the educational setting. With this background, the purpose of this study was to examine two different reference management software tools, Zotero (a social media free downloaded from Internet and EndNote (license

  6. Parent Perspectives on Home-Based Intervention for Young Children with Developmental Disabilities: The Parent-Implemented Communication Strategies (PiCS) Project in Illinois, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadan, Hedda; Stoner, Julia B.; Angell, Maureen E.

    2015-01-01

    Parents' perspectives on a home-based, parent-implemented social-pragmatic communication intervention for young children aged 37 to 60 months with limited expressive language are presented in this report. The researchers analyzed the perspectives of seven parent participants in the Institute of Education Sciences-funded Parent-Implemented…

  7. Application of the perspective-based reading technique in the nuclear I and C context. CORSICA work report 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahtinen, J.

    2012-07-01

    Inspections and reviews are one of the most effective ways of detecting errors in software development. The methods are also cost-effective because defects can be spotted early in the development, and thus the cost of repairing the defects is lower. Reading techniques are the procedures that are used in the inspection or review of a software artefact. The most common procedures are simple ad-hoc reading and a checklist- based reading technique. However, more advanced and detailed procedures have been created for various purposes. This report reviews the state-of-the-art software reading techniques used in inspections and reviews, and briefly reviews some of the empirical research in this context. The majority of the empirical research results indicate that, for example, perspective-based reading is more cost-effective and can detect more defects than more basic reading techniques. This report also describes how perspective-based reading can be applied to the inspection of nuclear-domain requirement specifications. For this purpose, seven perspective-based reading scenarios have been created. (orig.)

  8. The core regulatory network in human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Man-Sun; Kim, Dongsan; Kang, Nam Sook; Kim, Jeong-Rae

    2017-03-04

    In order to discover the common characteristics of various cell types in the human body, many researches have been conducted to find the set of genes commonly expressed in various cell types and tissues. However, the functional characteristics of a cell is determined by the complex regulatory relationships among the genes rather than by expressed genes themselves. Therefore, it is more important to identify and analyze a core regulatory network where all regulatory relationship between genes are active across all cell types to uncover the common features of various cell types. Here, based on hundreds of tissue-specific gene regulatory networks constructed by recent genome-wide experimental data, we constructed the core regulatory network. Interestingly, we found that the core regulatory network is organized by simple cascade and has few complex regulations such as feedback or feed-forward loops. Moreover, we discovered that the regulatory links from genes in the core regulatory network to genes in the peripheral regulatory network are much more abundant than the reverse direction links. These results suggest that the core regulatory network locates at the top of regulatory network and plays a role as a 'hub' in terms of information flow, and the information that is common to all cells can be modified to achieve the tissue-specific characteristics through various types of feedback and feed-forward loops in the peripheral regulatory networks. We also found that the genes in the core regulatory network are evolutionary conserved, essential and non-disease, non-druggable genes compared to the peripheral genes. Overall, our study provides an insight into how all human cells share a common function and generate tissue-specific functional traits by transmitting and processing information through regulatory network. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Remote Sensing for Field-Based Crop Phenotyping: Current Status and Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guijun; Liu, Jiangang; Zhao, Chunjiang; Li, Zhenhong; Huang, Yanbo; Yu, Haiyang; Xu, Bo; Yang, Xiaodong; Zhu, Dongmei; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Ruyang; Feng, Haikuan; Zhao, Xiaoqing; Li, Zhenhai; Li, Heli; Yang, Hao

    2017-01-01

    Phenotyping plays an important role in crop science research; the accurate and rapid acquisition of phenotypic information of plants or cells in different environments is helpful for exploring the inheritance and expression patterns of the genome to determine the association of genomic and phenotypic information to increase the crop yield. Traditional methods for acquiring crop traits, such as plant height, leaf color, leaf area index (LAI), chlorophyll content, biomass and yield, rely on manual sampling, which is time-consuming and laborious. Unmanned aerial vehicle remote sensing platforms (UAV-RSPs) equipped with different sensors have recently become an important approach for fast and non-destructive high throughput phenotyping and have the advantage of flexible and convenient operation, on-demand access to data and high spatial resolution. UAV-RSPs are a powerful tool for studying phenomics and genomics. As the methods and applications for field phenotyping using UAVs to users who willing to derive phenotypic parameters from large fields and tests with the minimum effort on field work and getting highly reliable results are necessary, the current status and perspectives on the topic of UAV-RSPs for field-based phenotyping were reviewed based on the literature survey of crop phenotyping using UAV-RSPs in the Web of Science™ Core Collection database and cases study by NERCITA. The reference for the selection of UAV platforms and remote sensing sensors, the commonly adopted methods and typical applications for analyzing phenotypic traits by UAV-RSPs, and the challenge for crop phenotyping by UAV-RSPs were considered. The review can provide theoretical and technical support to promote the applications of UAV-RSPs for crop phenotyping. PMID:28713402

  10. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Remote Sensing for Field-Based Crop Phenotyping: Current Status and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guijun Yang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Phenotyping plays an important role in crop science research; the accurate and rapid acquisition of phenotypic information of plants or cells in different environments is helpful for exploring the inheritance and expression patterns of the genome to determine the association of genomic and phenotypic information to increase the crop yield. Traditional methods for acquiring crop traits, such as plant height, leaf color, leaf area index (LAI, chlorophyll content, biomass and yield, rely on manual sampling, which is time-consuming and laborious. Unmanned aerial vehicle remote sensing platforms (UAV-RSPs equipped with different sensors have recently become an important approach for fast and non-destructive high throughput phenotyping and have the advantage of flexible and convenient operation, on-demand access to data and high spatial resolution. UAV-RSPs are a powerful tool for studying phenomics and genomics. As the methods and applications for field phenotyping using UAVs to users who willing to derive phenotypic parameters from large fields and tests with the minimum effort on field work and getting highly reliable results are necessary, the current status and perspectives on the topic of UAV-RSPs for field-based phenotyping were reviewed based on the literature survey of crop phenotyping using UAV-RSPs in the Web of Science™ Core Collection database and cases study by NERCITA. The reference for the selection of UAV platforms and remote sensing sensors, the commonly adopted methods and typical applications for analyzing phenotypic traits by UAV-RSPs, and the challenge for crop phenotyping by UAV-RSPs were considered. The review can provide theoretical and technical support to promote the applications of UAV-RSPs for crop phenotyping.

  11. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Remote Sensing for Field-Based Crop Phenotyping: Current Status and Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guijun; Liu, Jiangang; Zhao, Chunjiang; Li, Zhenhong; Huang, Yanbo; Yu, Haiyang; Xu, Bo; Yang, Xiaodong; Zhu, Dongmei; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Ruyang; Feng, Haikuan; Zhao, Xiaoqing; Li, Zhenhai; Li, Heli; Yang, Hao

    2017-01-01

    Phenotyping plays an important role in crop science research; the accurate and rapid acquisition of phenotypic information of plants or cells in different environments is helpful for exploring the inheritance and expression patterns of the genome to determine the association of genomic and phenotypic information to increase the crop yield. Traditional methods for acquiring crop traits, such as plant height, leaf color, leaf area index (LAI), chlorophyll content, biomass and yield, rely on manual sampling, which is time-consuming and laborious. Unmanned aerial vehicle remote sensing platforms (UAV-RSPs) equipped with different sensors have recently become an important approach for fast and non-destructive high throughput phenotyping and have the advantage of flexible and convenient operation, on-demand access to data and high spatial resolution. UAV-RSPs are a powerful tool for studying phenomics and genomics. As the methods and applications for field phenotyping using UAVs to users who willing to derive phenotypic parameters from large fields and tests with the minimum effort on field work and getting highly reliable results are necessary, the current status and perspectives on the topic of UAV-RSPs for field-based phenotyping were reviewed based on the literature survey of crop phenotyping using UAV-RSPs in the Web of Science™ Core Collection database and cases study by NERCITA. The reference for the selection of UAV platforms and remote sensing sensors, the commonly adopted methods and typical applications for analyzing phenotypic traits by UAV-RSPs, and the challenge for crop phenotyping by UAV-RSPs were considered. The review can provide theoretical and technical support to promote the applications of UAV-RSPs for crop phenotyping.

  12. Calcium hydroxyapatite-based photocatalysts for environment remediation: Characteristics, performances and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccirillo, C; L Castro, P M

    2017-05-15

    Calcium hydroxyapatite Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 (HAp) is a material widely used in biomedicine, for bone implants manufacture, due to its biocompatibility. HAp has also application for environmental remediation, as it can be employed as metal removal; moreover, it has the capability of effectively adsorbing organic molecules its surface. In recent years, the photocatalytic properties of HAp have been investigated; indeed several studies report of HAp used as photocatalyst, either on its own or combined with other photocatalytic materials. Although in the majority of cases the activity was induced by UV light, some reports of visible light-activated materials were reported. Here we present a critical review of the latest developments for HAp-based photocatalysts; the materials discussed are undoped single phase HAp, doped HAp and HAp-containing composites. For undoped single phase HAp, the possible surface treatment and lattice defects which can lead to a photoactive material are discussed. Considering doped HAp, the use of Ti4+ (the most common dopant) is described, with particular attention to the effects that this metal have on the characteristics of the material (i.e. crystallinity) and on its photocatalytic behaviour. The use of other dopants is also discussed. For the multiphasic materials, the combination of HAp with other photocatalysts is discussed, mainly but not only with titanium dioxide TiO2. Overall, HAp is a compound with high potential as photocatalyst; this property, combined with its capability for heavy metal removal, makes it a multifunctional material for environmental remediation. As future perspectives, further studies, based on the results obtained until present, should be performed, to improve the performance of the materials and/or shift the band gap into the visible. The use of other dopants and/or the combination with other photocatalysts, for instance, are features which is worth exploring. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The self-regulatory role of anticipated group-based shame and guilt in inhibiting in-group favoritism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shepherd, Lee; Spears, Russell; Manstead, Antony Stephen

    2013-01-01

    In three studies, we examined whether the anticipation of group-based guilt and shame inhibits in-group favoritism. In Studies 1 and 2, anticipated group-based shame negatively predicted in-group favoritism; in neither study did anticipated group-based guilt uniquely predict in-group favoritism. In

  14. Traditional Chinese medicine and the positive correlation with homeostatic evolution of human being: based on medical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie-Hua

    2012-08-01

    Adaptation is an eternal theme of biological evolution. The paper aims at exploring the conception of positive correlation between traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and human homeostatic evolution based on medical perspective. Discussions mainly involve TCM conforming to natural laws and natural evolution of life, spontaneous harmonization of yin and yang and operating system of human self-healing, modern human immunology and human endogenous immune function in TCM, self-homeostasis of human micro-ecological state and balance mechanism on regulating base in TCM, as well as adaptation-eternal theme of biological evolution and safeguarding adaptability-value of TCM. In perspective of medicine, theory and practice of TCM are in positive correlation with human homeostatic evolution, and what TCM tries to maintain is human intrinsic adaptive capability to disease and nature. Therefore, it is the core value of TCM, which is to be further studied, explored, realized and known to the world.

  15. Functional characterization of a three-component regulatory system involved in quorum sensing-based regulation of peptide antibiotic production in Carnobacterium maltaromaticum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quadri Luis EN

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quorum sensing is a form of cell-to-cell communication that allows bacteria to control a wide range of physiological processes in a population density-dependent manner. Production of peptide antibiotics is one of the processes regulated by quorum sensing in several species of Gram-positive bacteria, including strains of Carnobacterium maltaromaticum. This bacterium and its peptide antibiotics are of interest due to their potential applications in food preservation. The molecular bases of the quorum sensing phenomenon controlling peptide antibiotic production in C. maltaromaticum remain poorly understood. The present study was aimed at gaining a deeper insight into the molecular mechanism involved in quorum sensing-mediated regulation of peptide antibiotic (bacteriocin production by C. maltaromaticum. We report the functional analyses of the CS (autoinducer-CbnK (histidine protein kinase-CbnR (response regulator three-component regulatory system and the three regulated promoters involved in peptide antibiotic production in C. maltaromaticum LV17B. Results CS-CbnK-CbnR system-dependent activation of carnobacterial promoters was demonstrated in both homologous and heterologous hosts using a two-plasmid system with a β-glucuronidase (GusA reporter read-out. The results of our analyses support a model in which the CbnK-CbnR two-component signal transduction system is necessary and sufficient to transduce the signal of the peptide autoinducer CS into the activation of the promoters that drive the expression of the genes required for production of the carnobacterial peptide antibiotics and the immunity proteins that protect the producer bacterium. Conclusions The CS-CbnK-CbnR triad forms a three-component regulatory system by which production of peptide antibiotics by C. maltaromaticum LV17B is controlled in a population density-dependent (or cell proximity-dependent manner. This regulatory mechanism would permit the bacterial

  16. Based on the value perspective of positive psychology : how is working life reflected in the public discourse?

    OpenAIRE

    Holt, Hanne Kristine

    2006-01-01

    From the value perspective of positive psychology, this project was designed to analyse the Norwegian working life ideology as it is presented in the public discourse. The analysis of the public discourse was conducted in three phases. These involved a thorough content analysis of topics that were presented in the discourse, and an in-depth discourse oriented analysis of the material. Based on these analyses, it was possible to identify changes in the usage of language, reflecting changes in ...

  17. Leader-Member Exchange, Organization-Based Self-Esteem, and Task Performance-A Life-Stage Perspective-

    OpenAIRE

    鄭,有希

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on the leader-member exchange(LMX)theory and the intelligent career theory, we propose that a subordinates’age moderates the relationship between the quality of LMX and task performance. In addition, the study hypothesizes that organization-based self-esteem(OBSE)mediates the moderating effect of age on the relationship between the LMX quality and subordinate task performance, from the self-esteem perspective.

  18. A grey-based group decision-making methodology for the selection of hydrogen technologiess in Life Cycle Sustainability perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manzardo, Alessandro; Ren, Jingzheng; Mazzi, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this research is to develop a grey-based group decision-making methodology for the selection of the best renewable energy technology (including hydrogen) using a life cycle sustainability perspective. The traditional grey relational analysis has been modified to better address...... using the proposed methodology, electrolysis of water technology by hydropower has been considered to be the best technology for hydrogen production according to the decision-making group....

  19. Effects of a strengths-based perspective support group among Taiwanese women who left a violent intimate partner relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Wen-Li; Ko, Nai-Ying; Shu, Bih-Ching

    2016-02-01

    To examine the effects of an 8-week strengths-based perspective group intervention on hope, resilience and depression in Taiwanese women who left a violent intimate partner relationship. Studies on interventions for abused women have primarily focused on psychological problems. However, the effect of group intervention on the psychological strengths of abused women is still unknown. A two-group, quasi-experimental design using repeated measures was used in this study. Twenty-nine Taiwanese women who left violent intimate partner relationships were assigned to two groups and five participants did not complete the study. The experimental group (n = 8) underwent an 8-week strengths-based perspective group intervention developed by the investigators; the control group (n = 16) received no intervention. The effects of the intervention on the participants' hope, resilience and depression levels were evaluated as a pretest, post-test 1 (8th week) and post-test 2 (12th week) and were compared. The Chinese version of the State Hope Scale, the 25-item Resilience Scale, and the Taiwanese Depression Questionnaire were used in this study. On the eighth and twelfth weeks after the strengths-based perspective group intervention, we found significantly lower scores on the depression scale in the experimental group. In the eighth week, participants in the experimental group had significantly lower scores on the pathway of hope subscales than those in the control group. A strengths-based perspective support group intervention designed specifically for women who left a violent intimate partner relationship significantly reduced the participants' level of depressive symptoms and improved the pathway component of hope. This research highlights the importance of nurses not only focused on problems but also on the psychological strengths in practice of abused women survivors. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Perspectives on reactor safety. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haskin, F.E. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering; Camp, A.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hodge, S.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Engineering Technology Div.

    1997-11-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) maintains a technical training center at Chattanooga, Tennessee to provide appropriate training to both new and experienced NRC employees. This document describes a one-week course in reactor safety concepts. The course consists of five modules: (1) the development of safety concepts; (2) severe accident perspectives; (3) accident progression in the reactor vessel; (4) containment characteristics and design bases; and (5) source terms and offsite consequences. The course text is accompanied by slides and videos during the actual presentation of the course.

  1. Hybrid Materials Based on Magnetic Layered Double Hydroxides: A Molecular Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abellán, Gonzalo; Martí-Gastaldo, Carlos; Ribera, Antonio; Coronado, Eugenio

    2015-06-16

    Design of functional hybrids lies at the very core of synthetic chemistry as it has enabled the development of an unlimited number of solids displaying unprecedented or even improved properties built upon the association at the molecular level of quite disparate components by chemical design. Multifunctional hybrids are a particularly appealing case among hybrid organic/inorganic materials. Here, chemical knowledge is used to deploy molecular components bearing different functionalities within a single solid so that these properties can coexist or event interact leading to unprecedented phenomena. From a molecular perspective, this can be done either by controlled assembly of organic/inorganic molecular tectons into an extended architecture of hybrid nature or by intercalation of organic moieties within the empty channels or interlamellar space offered by inorganic solids with three-dimensional (MOFs, zeolites, and mesoporous hosts) or layered structures (phosphates, silicates, metal dichalcogenides, or anionic clays). This Account specifically illustrates the use of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) in the preparation of magnetic hybrids, in line with the development of soft inorganic chemistry processes (also called "Chimie Douce"), which has significantly contributed to boost the preparation hybrid materials based on solid-state hosts and subsequent development of applications. Several features sustain the importance of LDHs in this context. Their magnetism can be manipulated at a molecular level by adequate choice of constituting metals and interlayer separation for tuning the nature and extent of magnetic interactions across and between planes. They display unparalleled versatility in accommodating a broad range of anionic species in their interlamellar space that encompasses not only simple anions but chemical systems of increasing dimensionality and functionalities. Their swelling characteristics allow for their exfoliation in organic solvents with high

  2. 3 CFR - Regulatory Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Regulatory Review Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Memorandum of January 30, 2009 Regulatory Review Memorandum for the Heads of Executive Departments and Agencies For well over two decades, the Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs (OIRA) at...

  3. Finding Groups Using Model-Based Cluster Analysis: Heterogeneous Emotional Self-Regulatory Processes and Heavy Alcohol Use Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mun, Eun Young; von Eye, Alexander; Bates, Marsha E.; Vaschillo, Evgeny G.

    2008-01-01

    Model-based cluster analysis is a new clustering procedure to investigate population heterogeneity utilizing finite mixture multivariate normal densities. It is an inferentially based, statistically principled procedure that allows comparison of nonnested models using the Bayesian information criterion to compare multiple models and identify the…

  4. Population-based health promotion perspective for older driver safety: Conceptual framework to intervention plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherrilene Classen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Sherrilene Classen1,2, Ellen DS Lopez3, Sandra Winter2, Kezia D Awadzi4, Nita Ferree5, Cynthia W Garvan61Department of Occupational Therapy, College of Public Health and Health Professions (CPHHP, University of Florida (UF, Gainesville, FL, USA; 2PhD Program in Rehabilitation Science, CPHHP, UF Gainesville, FL, USA; 3Department of Behavioral Science and Community Health, CPHHP, UF, Gainesville, FL, USA; 4Department of Health Services Research, Management, and Policy, CPHHP, UF, Gainesville, FL, USA; 5Health Science Center Libraries, UF, Gainesville, FL, USA; 6Division of Biostatistics, College of Medicine, UF, Gainesville, FL, USAAbstract: The topic of motor vehicle crashes among the elderly is dynamic and multi-faceted requiring a comprehensive and synergistic approach to intervention planning. This approach must be based on the values of a given population as well as health statistics and asserted through community, organizational and policy strategies. An integrated summary of the predictors (quantitative research, and views (qualitative research of the older drivers and their stakeholders, does not currently exist. This study provided an explicit socio-ecological view explaining the interrelation of possible causative factors, an integrated summary of these causative factors, and empirical guidelines for developing public health interventions to promote older driver safety. Using a mixed methods approach, we were able to compare and integrate main findings from a national crash dataset with perspectives of stakeholders. We identified: 11 multi-causal factors for safe elderly driving; the importance of the environmental factors - previously underrated in the literature- interacting with behavioral and health factors; and the interrelatedness among many socio-ecological factors. For the first time, to our knowledge, we conceptualized the fundamental elements of a multi-causal health promotion plan, with measurable intermediate and long

  5. Tick-Borne Diseases in Turkey: A Review Based on One Health Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inci, Abdullah; Yildirim, Alparslan; Duzlu, Onder; Doganay, Mehmet; Aksoy, Serap

    2016-12-01

    The importance of tick-borne diseases is increasing all over the world, including Turkey. Global warming, environmental and ecological changes and the existence of suitable habitats increase the impact of ticks and result in frequent emergence or re-emergence of tick-borne diseases (TBDs) with zoonotic characteristics. In Turkey, almost 19 TBDs have been reported in animals and men, involving four protozoa (babesiosis, theileriosis, cytauxzoonosis, hepatozoonosis), one filarial nematode (acanthocheilonemasis), ten bacterial agents (anaplasmosis, ehrlichiosis, aegyptianellosis, tick-borne typhus, Candidatus Rickettsia vini, Lyme borreliosis, tick-borne relapsing fever [TBRF], tularaemia, bartonellosis, and hemoplasmosis), and four viral infections (tick-borne encephalitis [TBE], Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever [CCHF], louping-ill [LI], and lumpy skin disease [LSD]). The growing number of TBD cases, in particular the fatal viral epidemics in humans, have led to increased public awareness and concern against TBDs in recent years. The World Health Organization (WHO) has developed a new political concept, called the "One Health" initiative, which is especially relevant for developing strategies against tick infestations and TBD control in humans and animals. It would be beneficial for Turkey to adopt this new strategy and establish specific research and control programs in coordination with international organizations like WHO, the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE), the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the European Center for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) to combat TBDs based on the "One Health Initiative" concept. In this article, we review the occurrence of primary TBDs in man and animals in Turkey in light of the "One Health" perspective.

  6. Tick-Borne Diseases in Turkey: A Review Based on One Health Perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Inci

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The importance of tick-borne diseases is increasing all over the world, including Turkey. Global warming, environmental and ecological changes and the existence of suitable habitats increase the impact of ticks and result in frequent emergence or re-emergence of tick-borne diseases (TBDs with zoonotic characteristics. In Turkey, almost 19 TBDs have been reported in animals and men, involving four protozoa (babesiosis, theileriosis, cytauxzoonosis, hepatozoonosis, one filarial nematode (acanthocheilonemasis, ten bacterial agents (anaplasmosis, ehrlichiosis, aegyptianellosis, tick-borne typhus, Candidatus Rickettsia vini, Lyme borreliosis, tick-borne relapsing fever [TBRF], tularaemia, bartonellosis, and hemoplasmosis, and four viral infections (tick-borne encephalitis [TBE], Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever [CCHF], louping-ill [LI], and lumpy skin disease [LSD]. The growing number of TBD cases, in particular the fatal viral epidemics in humans, have led to increased public awareness and concern against TBDs in recent years. The World Health Organization (WHO has developed a new political concept, called the "One Health" initiative, which is especially relevant for developing strategies against tick infestations and TBD control in humans and animals. It would be beneficial for Turkey to adopt this new strategy and establish specific research and control programs in coordination with international organizations like WHO, the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, and the European Center for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC to combat TBDs based on the "One Health Initiative" concept. In this article, we review the occurrence of primary TBDs in man and animals in Turkey in light of the "One Health" perspective.

  7. Time perspective and early-onset substance use: a model based on stress-coping theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, T A; Sandy, J M; Yaeger, A M

    2001-06-01

    This research tested the relation of time perspective to early-onset substance use (tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana) with a sample of 454 elementary school students with a mean age of 11.8 years. An adaptation of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (P. G. Zimbardo & J. N. Boyd, 1999) was administered with measures derived from stress-coping theory. Independent effects showed future orientation inversely related to substance use and present orientation positively related to substance use. Structural modeling analysis indicated that the relation of time perspective measures to substance use was indirect, mediated through behavioral coping and anger coping. Proximal factors for substance use were negative affect, peer substance use, and resistance efficacy. Results are discussed with respect to epigenetic models and the role of executive functions in self-control ability.

  8. Experience with Regulatory Strategies in Nuclear Power Oversight. Part 1: An International Exploratory Study. Part 2: Workshop Discussions and Conclusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melber, Barbara [Melber Consulting, Seattle, WA (United States); Durbin, Nancy E. [Nancy E. Durbin Consulting, Kirkland, WA (United States); Tael, Irene (ed.) [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2005-03-01

    This report presents the results of a study which explored the use of six different regulatory strategies for oversight of commercial nuclear power facilities: prescriptive, case-based, outcome-based, risk-based, process-based, and self-assessment strategies. Information was collected on experiences with the use of these different regulatory strategies from experts from nuclear regulatory agencies in Canada, Finland, Spain, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States. Systematic, structured open-ended interviews with expert regulators with extensive experience were used in order to understand how regulatory strategies are applied in practice. Common patterns were identified regarding: Experts' perspectives on the major benefits and difficulties of using specific regulatory strategies; Experts' experiences with using regulatory strategies for three areas of oversight-design and modifications, quality systems, and training and qualifications; Expert views of the consequences of different regulatory strategies; Issues that emerged in the interviews regarding regulatory strategies. The major benefit of a prescriptive strategy was that it is clear about requirements and expectations. The major difficulties were that it takes responsibility away from the licensee, it requires a high use of regulator resources and is rigid and difficult to change. A case-based strategy had the key benefit of flexibility for adapting regulatory responses to unique situations, but the difficulties of being considered arbitrary, inconsistent, and unfair and requiring heavy resource use. An outcome-based strategy had the main benefit of allowing licensees to decide the best way to operate m order to meet safety goals, but the major difficulty of identifying appropriate ways to measure safety performance. The major benefit of a risk strategy was its use co prioritize safety issues and allocate resources. However, it was considered inappropriate to use as a stand alone strategy

  9. Meeting Regulatory Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Michael Fred

    2017-02-01

    The world is experiencing change at an unprecedented pace, as reflected in social, cultural, economic, political, and technological advances around the globe. Regulatory agencies, like the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), must also transform in response to and in preparation for these changes. In 2014, the NRC staff commenced Project Aim 2020 to transform the agency by enhancing efficiency, agility, and responsiveness, while accomplishing NRC's safety and security mission. Following Commission review and approval in 2015, the NRC began implementing the approved strategies, including strategic workforce planning to provide confidence that NRC will have employees with the right skills and talents at the right time to accomplish the agency's mission. Based on the work conducted so far, ensuring an adequate pipeline of radiation protection professionals is a significant need that NRC shares with states and other government agencies, private industry, academia, as well as international counterparts. NRC is working to ensure that sufficient radiation protection professionals will be available to fulfill its safety and security mission and leverage the work of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, the Conference of Radiation Control Program Directors, the Health Physics Society, the Organization of Agreement States, the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Nuclear Energy Agency, and others.

  10. Combination of nanoparticle-based therapeutic vaccination and transient ablation of regulatory T cells enhances anti-viral immunity during chronic retroviral infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuschke, Torben; Rotan, Olga; Bayer, Wibke; Sokolova, Viktoriya; Hansen, Wiebke; Sparwasser, Tim; Dittmer, Ulf; Epple, Matthias; Buer, Jan; Westendorf, Astrid M

    2016-04-14

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) have been shown to limit anti-viral immunity during chronic retroviral infection and to restrict vaccine-induced T cell responses. The objective of the study was to assess whether a combinational therapy of nanoparticle-based therapeutic vaccination and concomitant transient ablation of Tregs augments anti-viral immunity and improves virus control in chronically retrovirus-infected mice. Therefore, chronically Friend retrovirus (FV)-infected mice were immunized with calcium phosphate (CaP) nanoparticles functionalized with TLR9 ligand CpG and CD8(+) or CD4(+) T cell epitope peptides (GagL85-93 or Env gp70123-141) of FV. In addition, Tregs were ablated during the immunization process. Reactivation of CD4(+) and CD8(+) effector T cells was analysed and the viral loads were determined. Therapeutic vaccination of chronically FV-infected mice with functionalized CaP nanoparticles transiently reactivated cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells and significantly reduced the viral loads. Transient ablation of Tregs during nanoparticle-based therapeutic vaccination strongly enhanced anti-viral immunity and further decreased viral burden. Our data illustrate a crucial role for CD4(+) Foxp3(+) Tregs in the suppression of anti-viral T cell responses during therapeutic vaccination against chronic retroviral infection. Thus, the combination of transient Treg ablation and therapeutic nanoparticle-based vaccination confers robust and sustained anti-viral immunity.

  11. Transcriptional regulatory proteins as biosensing tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Kendrick; Joel, Smita; Feliciano, Jessika; Feltus, Agatha; Pasini, Patrizia; Wynn, Daniel; Dau, Peter; Dikici, Emre; Deo, Sapna K; Daunert, Sylvia

    2017-06-22

    We have developed sensing systems employing different classes of transcriptional regulatory proteins genetically and chemically modified to incorporate a fluorescent reporter molecule for detection of arsenic, hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (OH-PCBs), and cyclic AMP (cAMP). These are the first examples of optical sensing systems based on transcriptional regulatory proteins.

  12. Regulatory physiology discipline science plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    The focus of the Regulatory Physiology discipline of the Space Physiology and Countermeasures Program is twofold. First, to determine and study how microgravity and associated factors of space flight affect the regulatory mechanisms by which humans adapt and achieve homeostasis and thereby regulate their ability to respond to internal and external signals; and, second, to study selected physiological systems that have been demonstrated to be influenced by gravity. The Regulatory Physiology discipline, as defined here, is composed of seven subdisciplines: (1) Circadian Rhythms, (2) Endocrinology, (3) Fluid and Electrolyte Regulation, (4) Hematology, (5) Immunology, (6) Metabolism and Nutrition, and (7) Temperature Regulation. The purpose of this Discipline Science Plan is to provide a conceptual strategy for NASA's Life Sciences Division research and development activities in the area of regulatory physiology. It covers the research areas critical to NASA's programmatic requirements for the Extended-Duration Orbiter, Space Station Freedom, and exploration mission science activities. These science activities include ground-based and flight; basic, applied, and operational; and animal and human research and development. This document summarizes the current status of the program, outlines available knowledge, establishes goals and objectives, identifies science priorities, and defines critical questions in regulatory physiology. It contains a general plan that will be used by both NASA Headquarters Program Offices and the field centers to review and plan basic, applied, and operational intramural and extramural research and development activities in this area.

  13. Anti-regulatory T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Mads Hald

    2017-04-01

    Our initial understanding of immune-regulatory cells was based on the discovery of suppressor cells that assure peripheral T-cell tolerance and promote immune homeostasis. Research has particularly focused on the importance of regulatory T cells (Tregs) for immune modulation, e.g. directing host responses to tumours or inhibiting autoimmunity development. However, recent studies report the discovery of self-reactive pro-inflammatory T cells-termed anti-regulatory T cells (anti-Tregs)-that target immune-suppressive cells. Thus, regulatory cells can now be defined as both cells that suppress immune reactions as well as effector cells that counteract the effects of suppressor cells and support immune reactions. Self-reactive anti-Tregs have been described that specifically recognize human leukocyte antigen-restricted epitopes derived from proteins that are normally expressed by regulatory immune cells, including indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), tryptophan 2,6-dioxygenase (TDO), programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1), and forkhead box P3 (Foxp3). These proteins are highly expressed in professional antigen-presenting cells under various physiological conditions, such as inflammation and stress. Therefore, self-reactive T cells that recognize such targets may be activated due to the strong activation signal given by their cognate targets. The current review describes the existing knowledge regarding these self-reactive anti-Tregs, providing examples of antigen-specific anti-Tregs and discussing their possible roles in immune homeostasis and their potential future clinical applications.

  14. Metacognitive Load--Useful, or Extraneous Concept? Metacognitive and Self-Regulatory Demands in Computer-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwonke, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Instructional design theories such as the "cognitive load theory" (CLT) or the "cognitive theory of multimedia learning" (CTML) explain learning difficulties in (computer-based) learning usually as a result of design deficiencies that hinder effective schema construction. However, learners often struggle even in well-designed…

  15. Network-based integration of molecular and physiological data elucidates regulatory mechanisms underlying adaptation to high-fat diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derous, D.; Kelder, T.; Schothorst, E.M. van; Erk, M. van; Voigt, A.; Klaus, S.; Keijer, J.; Radonjic, M.

    2015-01-01

    Health is influenced by interplay of molecular, physiological and environmental factors. To effectively maintain health and prevent disease, health-relevant relations need to be understood at multiple levels of biological complexity. Network-based methods provide a powerful platform for integration

  16. Multiple Intelligence Theory and Foreign Language Learning: A Brain-Based Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Jane; Fonseca, Mª Carmen

    2004-01-01

    Gardner's Multiple Intelligences theory is presented as a cognitive perspective on intelligence which has profound implications for education in general. More specifically, it has led to the application of eight of these frames to language teaching and learning. In this chapter, we will argue in favour of the application of MIT to the EFL…

  17. Assessment of the Inquiry-Based Project Application in Science Education upon Turkish Science Teachers' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinoglu, Orhan

    2008-01-01

    Aim of the study is to assess the project works and application processes in science education of 6th, 7th and 8th grades in primary education upon teachers' perspectives. The research was fulfilled upon the descriptive survey model to collect data. Participants of the research were 90 teachers, having project management experience in science…

  18. Play-Based Interview Methods for Exploring Young Children's Perspectives on Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koller, Donna; San Juan, Valerie

    2015-01-01

    Inclusive education provides learning opportunities for children with disabilities in regular settings with other children. Despite the prevalence of inclusive education, few qualitative studies have adequately explored young children's perspectives on inclusion. This paper reviews the findings of a preliminary qualitative study where play-based…

  19. Black World Language Instructors in Higher Education: Social Justice-Based Perspectives and Pedagogies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murrell, Mariah S.

    2017-01-01

    The field of world language education is one that has historically been dominated by traditional pedagogical practices and perspectives that limit the opportunity for rich, critical examination of course content. This often leaves much to be desired in students' learning experiences for many students, and frequently causes students of color to…

  20. Effective Blended Learning Practices: Evidence-Based Perspectives in ICT-Facilitated Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, Elizabeth, Ed.; Gerbic, Philippa, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    New innovations of online learning within blended environments create a need within academia for research on best practices in teaching. This book provides insight into the practice of blended learning in higher education. This unique book collects new international research into many aspects of blended learning from the perspectives of learners,…

  1. Feedback revisited : Adding perspectives based on positive psychology implications for theory and classroom practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voerman, Lia|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304835463; Korthagen, Fred A. J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/06936432X; Meijer, Paulien C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/176063765; Simons, Robert Jan

    2014-01-01

    Teacher feedback has mainly been described from the point of view of cognitive psychology. We aim to add to the body of knowledge on teacher feedback by considering the perspective of positive psychology. We describe possible consequences of two concerns of positive psychology: (1) the importance of

  2. Understanding Higher Education-Based Teacher Educators' Identities in Hong Kong: A Sociocultural Linguistic Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Rui

    2016-01-01

    While teacher educator identities have received increasing attention over the past decade, there is a lack of research on teacher educators' professional identities in the complex and shifting higher education contexts. Informed by the sociocultural linguistic perspective, this study investigates two language teacher educators' professional…

  3. Challenges Experienced by Korean Medical Students and Tutors during Problem-Based Learning: A Cultural Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Hyunjung; Choi, Ikseon; Rhee, Byoung Doo; Tae-Lee, Jong

    2016-01-01

    How people learn is influenced by the cultural contexts in which their learning occurs. This qualitative case study explored challenges Korean medical students and tutors experienced during their PBL sessions from a cultural perspective using Hofstede's cultural dimensions. Twelve preclinical medical students and nine tutors from a large Korean…

  4. PERSPECTIVES OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF MUCOSAL VACCINES AGAINST DANGEROUS INFECTIONS ON THE BASE OF TRANSGENIC PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Tretyakova

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Mucosal vaccines created on the base of transgenic plants reacting with mucosal layers of the intestines and other organs are considered to be the perspective method of the vaccination. These vaccines induce both mucosal and general humoral immunogenicity after the peroral administration. The folding of antigenic proteins synthesizing in plants occurs via eukaryotic type and has advantages before yeast and prokaryotic platforms. This feature results to more adequate synthesis of antibodies against pathogens and to the interaction with effector molecules of complement. Earlier we together with The State Scientific Center “Vector”, Institute of chemical biology and fundamental medicine SB RAS and Dr R.Hammond from Laboratory of Plant Pathology (Maryland, USA created two candidate vaccines : one of them against AIDS (HIV-1 and hepatitis B on the base of the chimeric gene TBI-HBS, encoding simultaneously 9 antigenic determinants of HIV-1 and the main surface antigen of hepatitis B (HBsAg. The second candidate vaccine was created against hepatitis B on the base of the genetic construct with the gene preS2-S encoding the synthesis of two subunits of the main surface antigen of hepatitis B and the signal peptide HDEL which directed antigens for the accumulation on ER. Both vaccines were tested on mice and confirmed their immunogenicity as the pronounced antibodies response. Twice vaccinated mice maintained the antibodies response during 11 months after there was little tendency to lowering. It was established that transgenic plants – vaccines (tomato kept the capability to the synthesis of antigenic determinants in seven seed generations during 7 years. The results of the development of the mucosal vaccine against cervical carcinoma (carcinoma of uterine cervix evoked by human papillomaviruses of high oncogenic risks were presented in this report. We created the genetic construct consisting of 35S CaMV promoter, Ώ (omega leader of TMV, the

  5. Community-Based Services and Depression from Person-Environment Fit Perspective: Focusing on Functional Impairments and Living Alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, BoRin; Park, Sojung; Bishop-Saucier, Jennifer; Amorim, Carrie

    2017-01-01

    Guided by the Person-Environment Fit perspective, we investigated the extent to which personal and environmental factors influence depression among community-dwelling adults. The data came from the special section about community-based service utilization in the 2012 Health and Retirement Study (N=1,710). Although community-based service was not significantly associated with depression after controlling for covariates, respondents with functional limitations and living alone were less likely to be depressed when using community-based services. This study demonstrates the different associations between community-based services and depression depending on personal needs. It discusses the importance of community-based services for aging-in-place policy, particularly among vulnerable populations.

  6. BRNI: Modular analysis of transcriptional regulatory programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nachman Iftach

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transcriptional responses often consist of regulatory modules – sets of genes with a shared expression pattern that are controlled by the same regulatory mechanisms. Previous methods allow dissecting regulatory modules from genomics data, such as expression profiles, protein-DNA binding, and promoter sequences. In cases where physical protein-DNA data are lacking, such methods are essential for the analysis of the underlying regulatory program. Results Here, we present a novel approach for the analysis of modular regulatory programs. Our method – Biochemical Regulatory Network Inference (BRNI – is based on an algorithm that learns from expression data a biochemically-motivated regulatory program. It describes the expression profiles of gene modules consisting of hundreds of genes using a small number of regulators and affinity parameters. We developed an ensemble learning algorithm that ensures the robustness of the learned model. We then use the topology of the learned regulatory program to guide the discovery of a library of cis-regulatory motifs, and determined the motif compositions associated with each module. We test our method on the cell cycle regulatory program of the fission yeast. We discovered 16 coherent modules, covering diverse processes from cell division to metabolism and associated them with 18 learned regulatory elements, including both known cell-cycle regulatory elements (MCB, Ace2, PCB, ACCCT box and novel ones, some of which are associated with G2 modules. We integrate the regulatory relations from the expression- and motif-based models into a single network, highlighting specific topologies that result in distinct dynamics of gene expression in the fission yeast cell cycle. Conclusion Our approach provides a biologically-driven, principled way for deconstructing a set of genes into meaningful transcriptional modules and identifying their associated cis-regulatory programs. Our analysis sheds

  7. Development of a tripolar model of technology acceptance: Hospital-based physicians' perspective on EHR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beglaryan, Mher; Petrosyan, Varduhi; Bunker, Edward

    2017-06-01

    In health care, information technologies (IT) hold a promise to harness an ever-increasing flow of health related information and bring significant benefits including improved quality of care, efficiency, and cost containment. One of the main tools for collecting and utilizing health data is the Electronic Health Record (EHR). EHRs implementation can face numerous barriers to acceptance including attitudes and perceptions of potential users, required effort attributed to their implementation and usage, and resistance to change. Various theories explicate different aspects of technology deployment, implementation, and acceptance. One of the common theories is the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), which helps to study the implementation of different healthcare IT applications. The objectives of this study are: to understand the barriers of EHR implementation from the perspective of physicians; to identify major determinants of physicians' acceptance of technology; and develop a model that explains better how EHRs (and technologies in general) are accepted by physicians. The proposed model derives from a cross-sectional survey of physicians selected through multi-stage cluster sampling from the hospitals of Yerevan, Armenia. The study team designed the survey instrument based on a literature review on barriers of EHR implementation. The analysis employed exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) with a robust weighted least squares (WLSMV) estimator for categorical indicators. The analysis progressed in two steps: appraisal of the measurement model and testing of the structural model. The derived model identifies the following factors as direct determinants of behavioral intention to use a novel technology: projected collective usefulness; personal innovativeness; patient influence; and resistance to change. Other factors (e.g., organizational change, professional relationships, administrative monitoring, organizational support and computer anxiety) exert their

  8. Identification of regulatory modules in genome scale transcription regulatory networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qi; Grene, Ruth; Heath, Lenwood S; Li, Song

    2017-12-15

    In gene regulatory networks, transcription factors often function as co-regulators to synergistically induce or inhibit expression of their target genes. However, most existing module-finding algorithms can only identify densely connected genes but not co-regulators in regulatory networks. We have developed a new computational method, CoReg, to identify transcription co-regulators in large-scale regulatory networks. CoReg calculates gene similarities based on number of common neighbors of any two genes. Using simulated and real networks, we compared the performance of different similarity indices and existing module-finding algorithms and we found CoReg outperforms other published methods in identifying co-regulatory genes. We applied CoReg to a large-scale network of Arabidopsis with more than 2.8 million edges and we analyzed more than 2,300 published gene expression profiles to charaterize co-expression patterns of gene moduled identified by CoReg. We identified three types of modules in the Arabidopsis network: regulator modules, target modules and intermediate modules. Regulator modules include genes with more than 90% edges as out-going edges; Target modules include genes with more than 90% edges as incoming edges. Other modules are classified as intermediate modules. We found that genes in target modules tend to be highly co-expressed under abiotic stress conditions, suggesting this network struture is robust against perturbation. Our analysis shows that the CoReg is an accurate method in identifying co-regulatory genes in large-scale networks. We provide CoReg as an R package, which can be applied in finding co-regulators in any organisms with genome-scale regulatory network data.

  9. Regulatory mark; Marco regulatorio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-10-15

    This chapter is based on a work performed in distinct phases. The first phase consisted in of the analysis regulatory legislation existent in Brazil for the sugar-alcohol sector since the beginning of the X X century. This analysis allowed the identification of non existent points and legal devices related to the studied aspects, and that were considered as problematic for the sector expansion. In the second phase, related treaties and international agreements was studied and possible obstacles for the brazilian bio ethanol exportation for the international market. Initiatives were examined at European Union, United States of America, Caribbean and countries of the sub-Saharan Africa. In this phase, policies were identified related to the incentives and adoption of use of bio fuels added to the gasoline in countries or group of countries considered as key for the consolidation of bio ethanol as a world commodity.

  10. Continuing professional development--global perspectives: synopsis of a workshop held during the International Association of Dental Research meeting in Gothenburg, Sweden, 2003. Part 2: regulatory and accreditation systems and evidence for improving the performance of the dental team.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Best, H.A.; Eaton, K.A.; Plasschaert, A.J.M.; Toh, C.G.; Grayden, S.K.; Senakola, E.; Rohlin, M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper is the second in a series of two that report on continuing professional development (CPD). Details of the informants and the methodologies used were reported in the first paper. This paper reports the data and information presented on the topics of regulatory and accreditation systems for

  11. mRNA chip-based analysis on transcription factor regulatory network central nodes of protection targets of Deproteinized Extract of Calf Blood on acute liver injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guangyu; Xu, Jinhe; Han, Xiao; Li, Hongyu; Yuan, Guangxin; An, Liping; Du, Peige

    2018-01-27

    Our previous study found that Deproteinized Extract of Calf Blood (DECB) could protect the acute liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride in mice, but the target-related transcription factors and their regulatory networks were not comprehensively studied. Based on the mRNA expression microarray data obtained in the previous study, the mRNA transcription factor regulatory networks were constructed by screening the transcription factors of differentially expressed genes and their corresponding target proteins, and the analysis on the functions and pathways of the regulatory network central nodes was performed. Eight genes Ltf, Tnf, Il6, Jun, Il12b, Stat3, Rel and Crem could regulate the inflammatory factors, and TNF signaling pathway and Jak-STAT signaling pathway might play an important role in the mechanism through which DECB protected the liver of mice. DECB can not only inhibit the apoptosis of hepatocytes, but also inhibit the inflammatory cytokines. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. The scientific and regulatory rationale for indication extrapolation: a case study based on the infliximab biosimilar CT-P13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinisch, Walter; Louis, Edouard; Danese, Silvio

    2015-01-01

    Extrapolation of clinical data from other indications is an important concept in the development of biosimilars. This process depends on strict comparability exercises to establish similarity to the reference medicinal product. However, the extrapolation paradigm has prompted a fierce scientific debate. CT-P13 (Remsima(®), Inflectra(®)), an infliximab biosimilar, is a TNF antagonist used to treat immune-mediated inflammatory diseases. On the basis of totality of similarity data, the EMA approved CT-P13 for all indications held by its reference medicinal product (Remicade(®)) including inflammatory bowel disease. This article reviews the mechanisms of action of TNF antagonists in immune-mediated inflammatory diseases and illustrates the comparable profiles of CT-P13 and reference medicinal product on which the extrapolation of indications including inflammatory bowel disease is based.

  13. Regulatory Incentives and Disincentives for Utility Investments in Grid Modernization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kihm, Steve [Seventhware, Madison, WI (United States); Beecher, Janice [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Inst. of Public Utilities; Lehr, Ronald L.

    2017-05-31

    Electric power is America's most capital-intensive industry, with more than $100 billion invested each year in energy infrastructure. Investment needs are likely to grow as electric utilities make power systems more reliable and resilient, deploy advanced digital technologies, and facilitate new services to meet some consumers' expectations for greater choice and control. But do current regulatory approaches provide the appropriate incentives for grid modernization investments? This report presents three perspectives: -Financial analyst Steve Kihm begins by explaining that any major investor-owned electric utility that wants to raise capital today can do so at a reasonable cost. The question is whether utility managers want to raise capital for grid modernization. Specifically, they look for investments that create the most value for their existing shareholders. In cases where grid modernization investments are not the best choice in terms of shareholder value, Kihm describes shareholder incentive mechanisms that regulators could consider to encourage such investments when they are in the public interest. -From an institutional perspective, Dr. Janice Beecher finds that the traditional rate-base/rate of return regulatory model provides powerful incentives for utilities to pursue investments, cost control, efficiency and even innovation, and it is well suited to the policy objectives of grid modernization. Prudence of grid modernization investments (fair returns) depends on careful evaluation of the specific asset, and any special incentives (bonus returns) should be used only if they promote economic efficiency consistent with the core goals of economic regulation. According to Beecher, realizing the promises of grid modernization depends on effective implementation of the traditional regulatory model and ratemaking tools to serve the public interest. -Conversely, former commissioner and clean energy consultant Ron Lehr says that rapid electric industry

  14. LEARNING BASED ON SOCIAL PROBLEMS FROM AN INTERDISCIPLINARY PERSPECTIVE: ETHICAL DILEMMAS OF SOCIAL INTERVENTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Miguel Rondón-García

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is inspired by an innovative educational project developed at the University of Malaga (Spain during 2013-2015. Complies with the requirements of the European Higher Education Area, concerning the acquisition of systemic, instrumental and interpersonal skills, an innovative learning experience, inspired by the need for feedback from the social sciences and socialization of knowledge, is proposed from the perspective of the common curriculum. Its main purpose is aimed at ensuring optimum results about learning in Social Work degree in related social disciplines, from a common and creative epistemology. The results have enabled the production of a didactic approach consisting of problem situations, the partner from practice materials. This information has been provided by the professionals involved empirically in practice, in order to generate educational resources, educational and social to scientific knowledge production tools. Welfare cases have been analyzed from all disciplinary perspectives or social sciences related to social work and disseminated for faculty, professional and academic use.

  15. The Case of Value Based Communication—Epistemological and Methodological Reflections from a System Theoretical Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria von Groddeck

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to reflect the epistemological and methodological aspects of an empirical research study which analyzes the phenomenon of increased value communication within business organizations from a system theoretical perspective in the tradition of Niklas LUHMANN. Drawing on the theoretical term of observation it shows how a research perspective can be developed which opens up the scope for an empirical analysis of communication practices. This analysis focuses on the reconstruction of these practices by first understanding how these practices stabilize themselves and second by contrasting different practices to educe an understanding of different forms of observation of the relevant phenomenon and of the functions of these forms. Thus, this approach combines system theoretical epistemology, analytical research strategies, such as form and functional analysis, and qualitative research methods, such as narrative interviews, participant observation and document analysis. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1003177

  16. Participation of the family in hospital-based palliative cancer care: perspective of nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelle Miranda da Silva

    Full Text Available The objective was to understand the perspective of nurses about the participation of the family in palliative cancer care and to analyze the nursing care strategies to meet their needs. Descriptive and qualitative research, conducted at the National Cancer Institute between January and March 2013, with 17 nurses. Elements of the Roy Adaptation Model were used for the interpretation of the data. Two categoriesemergedfrom the thematic analysis: perspective of nurses about the presence and valuation of family in the hospital; and appointing strategies to encourage family participation in care and meet their needs. This participation is essentialand represents a training opportunity for the purpose of homecare. Nurses create strategies to encourage it and seek to meet the needs. The results contribute to promote the family adaptation and integrity, in order to balance the dependent and independent behaviors, aimingfor quality of life and comfort. Further studies are neededdue to the challenges of the specialty.

  17. Gene-based analysis of regulatory variants identifies 4 putative novel asthma risk genes related to nucleotide synthesis and signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Manuel A R; Jansen, Rick; Willemsen, Gonneke; Penninx, Brenda; Bain, Lisa M; Vicente, Cristina T; Revez, Joana A; Matheson, Melanie C; Hui, Jennie; Tung, Joyce Y; Baltic, Svetlana; Le Souëf, Peter; Montgomery, Grant W; Martin, Nicholas G; Robertson, Colin F; James, Alan; Thompson, Philip J; Boomsma, Dorret I; Hopper, John L; Hinds, David A; Werder, Rhiannon B; Phipps, Simon

    2017-04-01

    Hundreds of genetic variants are thought to contribute to variation in asthma risk by modulating gene expression. Methods that increase the power of genome-wide association studies (GWASs) to identify risk-associated variants are needed. We sought to develop a method that aggregates the evidence for association with disease risk across expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) of a gene and use this approach to identify asthma risk genes. We developed a gene-based test and software package called EUGENE that (1) is applicable to GWAS summary statistics; (2) considers both cis- and trans-eQTLs; (3) incorporates eQTLs identified in different tissues; and (4) uses simulations to account for multiple testing. We applied this approach to 2 published asthma GWASs (combined n = 46,044) and used mouse studies to provide initial functional insights into 2 genes with novel genetic associations. We tested the association between asthma and 17,190 genes that were found to have cis- and/or trans-eQTLs across 16 published eQTL studies. At an empirical FDR of 5%, 48 genes were associated with asthma risk. Of these, for 37, the association was driven by eQTLs located in established risk loci for allergic disease, including 6 genes not previously implicated in disease cause (eg, LIMS1, TINF2, and SAFB). The remaining 11 significant genes represent potential novel genetic associations with asthma. The association with 4 of these replicated in an independent GWAS: B4GALT3, USMG5, P2RY13, and P2RY14, which are genes involved in nucleotide synthesis or nucleotide-dependent cell activation. In mouse studies, P2ry13 and P2ry14-purinergic receptors activated by adenosine 5-diphosphate and UDP-sugars, respectively-were upregulated after allergen challenge, notably in airway epithelial cells, eosinophils, and neutrophils. Intranasal exposure with receptor agonists induced the release of IL-33 and subsequent eosinophil infiltration into the lungs. We identified novel associations between

  18. MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCE THEORY AND FOREIGN LANGUAGE LEARNING:A BRAIN-BASED PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Arnold

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Gardner's Multiple Intelligences theory is presented as a cognitive perspective on intelligence which has profound implications for education in general. More specifically, it has led to the application of eight of these frames to language teaching and learning. In this chapter, we will argue in favour of the application of MIT to the EFL classroom, using as support some of the major insights for language teaching from brain science.

  19. Citation-Based Journal Rankings for AI Research A Business Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Chun Hung; Clyde W. Holsapple; Lee, Anita

    1996-01-01

    A significant and growing area of business-computing research is concerned with AI. Knowledge about which journals are the most influential forums for disseminating AI research is important for business school faculty, students, administrators, and librarians. To date, there has been only one study attempting to rank AI journals from a business-computing perspective. It used a subjective methodology, surveying opinions of business faculty about a prespecified list of 30 journals. Here, we rep...

  20. Dentistry-based approaches to sleep-disordered breathing, algorithms, and multidisciplinary perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Michael S; Artal, Roy; Burch, Miguel A; Cain, Richard P; Campano, Ruwanthi; Cohen, Harry G; Mann, Christopher A; Morgan, Todd; Owens, Judith A; Pullinger, Andrew; Relle, Robert; Roesler, John M; Sotos, John; Yagiela, John A; Ziman, Ronald B; Simmons, Jerald H

    2012-02-01

    Sleep disorders affect more than 20 percent of the U.S. population, but less than 7 percent have been medically diagnosed. Dentists are ideally positioned to identify many patients who fall under the grouping of sleep-disordered breathing. This paper presents perspectives on sleep-related issues from various medical specialties with a goal to broaden the dentist's appreciation of this topic and open avenues of communication. Algorithms are proposed to guide dentists following positive screenings for sleep-disordered breathing.

  1. REVIEW: Effective Blended Learning Practices:
Evidence-Based Perspectives In Ict-Facilitated Education

    OpenAIRE

    OZARSLAN, Reviewed By Yasin

    2009-01-01

    Blended learning refers to the integration of face-to-face and online learning activities with the goal of maximizing the value of students' experiences in both settings. This book collects new international research into many aspects of blended learning from the perspectives of learners, teachers, designers, and professional and academic developers in various disciplines, learning communities and universities from around the world. This book addresses the relative newness of online lear...

  2. Development of a real-time PCR for Escherichia coli based on gadE, an acid response regulatory gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, G E; Simmons, M; Wasilenko, J L; Narang, N; Cray, W C; Bodeis-Jones, S; Martin, G; Gaines, S; Seal, B S

    2015-02-01

    Increasingly, molecular methods have become important in identification and confirmation of bacteria at the species level. Rapid molecular methods provide sensitivity and specificity while reducing cost and resources. The primary goal of this study was to develop a real-time PCR assay for identification of Escherichia coli from an agar plate. GadE (gadE) directly regulates the glutamate-dependent acid response system (GDAR) in E. coli and is responsible for survival of at pH 2. Based on gene sequence data, a real-time PCR assay targeting gadE was developed for this purpose. Seventy bacterial isolates recovered from ground beef enrichments and 714 isolates from caecal contents were identified biochemically and tested with the real-time PCR assay developed in this study. The PCR assay and the biochemical identification had 100% agreement on the tested isolates. The gadE real-time PCR assay was demonstrated in this study to be an inexpensive, reliable method for confirming E. coli colonies within 1.5 h from an agar plate, thereby saving on final identification time. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  3. Understanding emergent collectivity and clustering in nuclei from a symmetry-based no-core shell-model perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Dreyfuss, A. C.; Launey, K. D.; Dytrych, T.; Draayer, J. P.; Baker, R. B.; Deibel, C. M.; Bahri, C.

    2016-01-01

    We present a detailed discussion of the structure of the low-lying positive-parity energy spectrum of $^{12}$C from a no-core shell-model perspective. The approach utilizes a fraction of the usual shell-model space and extends its multi-shell reach via the symmetry-based no-core symplectic shell model (NCSpM) with a simple, physically-informed effective interaction. We focus on the ground-state rotational band, the Hoyle state and its $2^+$ and $4^+$ excitations, as well as the giant monopole...

  4. Agent-based modeling as a research method for exploring joint decision making in organizations – a distributed cognition perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Svend Erik

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes an agent-based model to explore aspects of decision making in organizations from a distributed cognition perspective. Within distributed cognition research cognition is conceptualized as a process that takes place - not only within individuals’ minds but also between them...... decision making and distributed cognition......., as they interact with each other. This means that the interactions between individuals impact both the outcome of the decision process and the individuals’ cognition, which in turn will impact their subsequent decisions. The paper outlines how this dynamic and complex task can be modeled taking into account...

  5. Regulatory Information By Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Find environmental regulatory, compliance, & enforcement information for various business, industry and government sectors, listed by NAICS code. Sectors include agriculture, automotive, petroleum manufacturing, oil & gas extraction & other manufacturing

  6. Does Basel II destabilize financial markets? An agent-based financial market perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermsen, O.

    2010-01-01

    We use a financial market model that is able to replicate stylized facts of financial markets quite successfully. We adjust this model by integrating regulations of Basel II concerning market risk. The result is a considerable destabilization of the regulated financial market with a significant increase of extreme events (extraordinary profits and losses). Since the intention of Basel II regulations is to ensure banks have enough regulatory capital to withstand periods involving extraordinary losses, it is alarming that - on the contrary - these regulations may provoke an increase in precisely such extraordinary events.

  7. Identification of critical regulatory genes in cancer signaling network using controllability analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindran, Vandana; Sunitha, V.; Bagler, Ganesh

    2017-05-01

    Cancer is characterized by a complex web of regulatory mechanisms which makes it difficult to identify features that are central to its control. Molecular integrative models of cancer, generated with the help of data from experimental assays, facilitate use of control theory to probe for ways of controlling the state of such a complex dynamic network. We modeled the human cancer signaling network as a directed graph and analyzed it for its controllability, identification of driver nodes and their characterization. We identified the driver nodes using the maximum matching algorithm and classified them as backbone, peripheral and ordinary based on their role in regulatory interactions and control of the network. We found that the backbone driver nodes were key to driving the regulatory network into cancer phenotype (via mutations) as well as for steering into healthy phenotype (as drug targets). This implies that while backbone genes could lead to cancer by virtue of mutations, they are also therapeutic targets of cancer. Further, based on their impact on the size of the set of driver nodes, genes were characterized as indispensable, dispensable and neutral. Indispensable nodes within backbone of the network emerged as central to regulatory mechanisms of control of cancer. In addition to probing the cancer signaling network from the perspective of control, our findings suggest that indispensable backbone driver nodes could be potentially leveraged as therapeutic targets. This study also illustrates the application of structural controllability for studying the mechanisms underlying the regulation of complex diseases.

  8. Evaluation of a 3-dimensional voxel-based neuronavigation system with perspective image rendering for keyhole approaches to the skull base: an anatomical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feigl, Guenther C; Krischek, Boris; Ritz, Rainer; Thaher, Firas; Marquardt, Jakob S; Hirt, Bernhard; Korn, Andreas; Schumann, Martin; Tatagiba, Marcos; Ebner, Florian H

    2014-01-01

    Keeping track of the endoscope tip in 3 planes (axial, coronal, and sagittal) while performing skull base surgeries can be difficult because the surgeon is focused most on the live video images of the endoscope. For that reason, it was the aim of this anatomical cadaver study to evaluate the usefulness of a voxel-based neuronavigation system with 3-dimensional (3D) perspective image rendering for endoscopic procedures through keyhole approaches to the skull base. On 5 whole-body fixed cadavers, frontolateral and retrosigmoid approaches were performed bilaterally using a neuronavigation system with 3D perspective image rendering (Cbyon, Med-Surgical Services Inc., Sunnyvale, California). Target points defined on the selected target structures were approached with the navigated ∅ 4-mm 0° endoscope (Storz, Tuttlingen, Germany). Using an Endocameleon 4-mm rigid endoscope capable of changing its angle of view while remaining stationary, the surgical field was checked for injuries before and after insertion of the navigated 0° endoscope. The median neuronavigation registration error was 0.95 mm (range 0.6 to 1.2 mm). Evaluation showed that 100% of the defined targets were reached and visualized. Neither a target structure nor neurovascular structures or surrounding brain tissue were injured by the navigated 0° endoscope. A neuronavigation system with 3D voxel-based perspective image rendering could potentially improve safety during complex skull base surgeries, and possibly also help to improve surgical results. Such a system, however, cannot replace a neurosurgeon's experience nor surgical skill or anatomical knowledge. It is an excellent teaching tool for young neurosurgeons, but it also has some limitations. Therefore, clinical studies will be necessary to further evaluate the benefits of this type of neuronavigation system in a clinical setting. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Milk-based nutraceutical for treating autoimmune arthritis via the stimulation of IL-10- and TGF-β-producing CD39+ regulatory T cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Maddaloni

    Full Text Available Autoimmune diseases arise from the loss of tolerance to self, and because the etiologies of such diseases are largely unknown, symptomatic treatments rely on anti-inflammatory and analgesic agents. Tolerogenic treatments that can reverse disease are preferred, but again, often thwarted by not knowing the responsible auto-antigens (auto-Ags. Hence, a viable alternative to stimulating regulatory T cells (Tregs is to induce bystander tolerance. Colonization factor antigen I (CFA/I has been shown to evoke bystander immunity and to hasten Ag-specific Treg development independent of auto-Ag. To translate in treating human autoimmune diseases, the food-based Lactococcus was engineered to express CFA/I fimbriae, and Lactococcus-CFA/I fermented milk fed to arthritic mice proved highly efficacious. Protection occurred via CD39+ Tregs producing TGF-β and IL-10 to potently suppress TNF-α production and neutrophil influx into the joints. Thus, these data demonstrate the feasibility of oral nutraceuticals for treating arthritis, and potency of protection against arthritis was improved relative to that obtained with Salmonella-CFA/I.

  10. Milk-Based Nutraceutical for Treating Autoimmune Arthritis via the Stimulation of IL-10- and TGF-β-producing CD39+ Regulatory T Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddaloni, Massimo; Kochetkova, Irina; Jun, SangMu; Callis, Gayle; Thornburg, Theresa; Pascual, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases arise from the loss of tolerance to self, and because the etiologies of such diseases are largely unknown, symptomatic treatments rely on anti-inflammatory and analgesic agents. Tolerogenic treatments that can reverse disease are preferred, but again, often thwarted by not knowing the responsible auto-antigens (auto-Ags). Hence, a viable alternative to stimulating regulatory T cells (Tregs) is to induce bystander tolerance. Colonization factor antigen I (CFA/I) has been shown to evoke bystander immunity and to hasten Ag-specific Treg development independent of auto-Ag. To translate in treating human autoimmune diseases, the food-based Lactococcus was engineered to express CFA/I fimbriae, and Lactococcus-CFA/I fermented milk fed to arthritic mice proved highly efficacious. Protection occurred via CD39+ Tregs producing TGF-β and IL-10 to potently suppress TNF-α production and neutrophil influx into the joints. Thus, these data demonstrate the feasibility of oral nutraceuticals for treating arthritis, and potency of protection against arthritis was improved relative to that obtained with Salmonella-CFA/I. PMID:25629976

  11. Functional alignment of regulatory networks: a study of temperate phages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ala Trusina

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between the design and functionality of molecular networks is now a key issue in biology. Comparison of regulatory networks performing similar tasks can provide insights into how network architecture is constrained by the functions it directs. Here, we discuss methods of network comparison based on network architecture and signaling logic. Introducing local and global signaling scores for the difference between two networks, we quantify similarities between evolutionarily closely and distantly related bacteriophages. Despite the large evolutionary separation between phage lambda and 186, their networks are found to be similar when difference is measured in terms of global signaling. We finally discuss how network alignment can be used to pinpoint protein similarities viewed from the network perspective.

  12. Perspectives of women of color in science-based education and careers. Summary of the conference on diversity in science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    Research on inequality or stratification in science and engineering tends to concentrate on black/white or male/female difference; very few studies have discussions of both race and gender. Consequently, very little is known about the exact course that women of color take in science-based education and employment or about the course that steers them out of science-based careers. Questions abound: What are the environmental factors that affect the choices in education and science-based careers of women of color? What has influenced women of color who currently are in science-based careers? Is critical mass important and, if so, what are the keys to increasing it? What recommendations can be made to colleges and universities, faculty members, employers, the federal government, women of color themselves, and to improve the conditions and numbers of women of color in science-based careers? These questions prompted the National Research Council`s Committee on Women in Science and Engineering (CWSE) to convene a conference on Diversity in Science: Perspectives on the Retention of Minority Women in Science, Engineering, and Health-Care Professions, held on October 21--23, 1995. Confronting the problem of the lack of knowledge about the journey of women of color in science-based education and career, the conference offered opportunities for these women to describe the paths that they have taken and to identify strategies for success. Their perspectives ground this report. For purposes of this document, women of color include women in the following racial or ethnic groups: Hispanics, African-Americans, Asian and Pacific Islanders, and American Indians and Alaskan Natives. Science-based careers include those in the physical sciences and mathematics, life sciences, social sciences, and engineering.

  13. Regulatory Issues Surrounding Merchant Interconnection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuijlaars, Kees-Jan; Zwart, Gijsbert [Office for Energy Regulation (DTe), The Hague (Netherlands)

    2003-11-01

    We discussed various issues concerning the regulatory perspective on private investment in interconnectors. One might claim that leaving investment in transmission infrastructure to competing market parties is more efficient than relying on regulated investment only (especially in the case of long (DC) lines connecting previously unconnected parts of the grids, so that externalities from e.g. loop flows do not play a significant role). We considered that some aspects of interconnection might reduce these market benefits. In particular, the large fixed costs of interconnection construction may lead to significant under investment (due to both first mover monopoly power and the fact that part of generation cost efficiencies realised by interconnection are not captured by the investor itself, and remain external to the investment decision). Second, merchant ownership restricts future opportunities for adaptation of regulation, as would be required e.g. for introduction of potentially more sophisticated methods of congestion management or market splitting. Some of the disadvantages of merchant investment may be mitigated however by a suitable regulatory framework, and we discussed some views in this direction. The issues we discussed are not intended to give a complete framework, and detailed regulation will certainly involve many more specific requirements. Areas we did not touch upon include e.g. the treatment of deep connection costs, rules for operation and maintenance of the line, and impact on availability of capacity on other interconnections.

  14. Self-Regulation and Mechanisms of Action in Psychotherapy: A Theory-Based Translational Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauman, Timothy J.; Goetz, Elena L.; Detloff, Allison M.; MacDuffie, Katherine E.; Zaunmüller, Luisa; Lutz, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    Psychotherapy is a complex, multi-layered process with the potential to bring about changes at multiple levels of functioning, from the neurobiology of the brain to the individual’s role in the social world. Although studies of the mechanisms by which psychotherapy leads to change continue to appear, there remains much to be learned about how psychological interventions work. To guide explorations of how and for whom particular treatment approaches lead to change, researchers can rely on theory to identify potential loci for change and on translational research methods to integrate basic behavioral science and neuroscience with clinical science. In this article, we describe research linking individual differences in the self-regulation of personal goal pursuit with the etiology and treatment of mood disorders. The research draws upon regulatory focus theory as a model of self-regulation and on microintervention designs – controlled laboratory investigations of a specific therapeutic technique – to generate and test hypotheses about how psychological interventions can help to reverse maladaptive self-regulatory processes. PMID:23072383

  15. Single-domain antibody-based and linker-free bispecific antibodies targeting FcγRIII induce potent antitumor activity without recruiting regulatory T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozan, Caroline; Cornillon, Amélie; Pétiard, Corinne; Chartier, Martine; Behar, Ghislaine; Boix, Charlotte; Kerfelec, Brigitte; Robert, Bruno; Pèlegrin, André; Chames, Patrick; Teillaud, Jean-Luc; Baty, Daniel

    2013-08-01

    Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity, one of the most prominent modes of action of antitumor antibodies, suffers from important limitations due to the need for optimal interactions with Fcγ receptors. In this work, we report the design of a new bispecific antibody format, compact and linker-free, based on the use of llama single-domain antibodies that are capable of circumventing most of these limitations. This bispecific antibody format was created by fusing single-domain antibodies directed against the carcinoembryonic antigen and the activating FcγRIIIa receptor to human Cκ and CH1 immunoglobulin G1 domains, acting as a natural dimerization motif. In vitro and in vivo characterization of these Fab-like bispecific molecules revealed favorable features for further development as a therapeutic molecule. They are easy to produce in Escherichia coli, very stable, and elicit potent lysis of tumor cells by human natural killer cells at picomolar concentrations. Unlike conventional antibodies, they do not engage inhibitory FcγRIIb receptor, do not compete with serum immunoglobulins G for receptor binding, and their cytotoxic activity is independent of Fc glycosylation and FcγRIIIa polymorphism. As opposed to anti-CD3 bispecific antitumor antibodies, they do not engage regulatory T cells as these latter cells do not express FcγRIII. Studies in nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient gamma mice xenografted with carcinoembryonic antigen-positive tumor cells showed that Fab-like bispecific molecules in the presence of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells significantly slow down tumor growth. This new compact, linker-free bispecific antibody format offers a promising approach for optimizing antibody-based therapies.

  16. A grey-based group decision-making methodology for the selection of hydrogen technologiess in Life Cycle Sustainability perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manzardo, Alessandro; Ren, Jingzheng; Mazzi, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this research is to develop a grey-based group decision-making methodology for the selection of the best renewable energy technology (including hydrogen) using a life cycle sustainability perspective. The traditional grey relational analysis has been modified to better address th...... using the proposed methodology, electrolysis of water technology by hydropower has been considered to be the best technology for hydrogen production according to the decision-making group....... the issue of uncertainty. The proposed methodology allows multi-person to participate in the decision-making process and to give linguistic evaluation on the weights of the criteria and the performance of the alternative technologies. In this paper, twelve hydrogen production technologies have been assessed......The objective of this research is to develop a grey-based group decision-making methodology for the selection of the best renewable energy technology (including hydrogen) using a life cycle sustainability perspective. The traditional grey relational analysis has been modified to better address...

  17. Resilience-based perspectives to guiding high-nature-value farmland through socioeconomic change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plieninger, Tobias; Bieling, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Global environmental challenges require approaches that integrate biodiversity conservation, food production, and livelihoods at landscape scales. We reviewed the approach of conserving biodiversity on "high-nature-value" (HNV) farmland, covering 75 million ha in Europe, from a resilience...... perspective. Despite growing recognition in natural resource policies, many HNV farmlands have vanished, and the remaining ones are vulnerable to socioeconomic changes. Using landscapelevel cases across Europe, we considered the following social-ecological system properties and components...... conservation efforts for HNV farmland have focused too much on static, isolated, and monosectoral conservation strategies, and that stimulation of resilience and adaptation is essential for guiding HNV farmland through rapid change....

  18. The role of self-regulatory skills and automaticity on the effectiveness of a brief weight loss habit-based intervention: secondary analysis of the 10 top tips randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliemann, Nathalie; Vickerstaff, Victoria; Croker, Helen; Johnson, Fiona; Nazareth, Irwin; Beeken, Rebecca J

    2017-09-05

    Habit-interventions are designed to promote the automaticity of healthy behaviours and may also enhance self-regulatory skills during the habit-formation process. A recent trial of habit-based advice for weight loss (10 Top Tips; 10TT), found that patients allocated to 10TT lost significantly more weight over 3 months than those allocated to usual care, and reported greater increases in automaticity for the target behaviours. The current study aimed to test the hypothesis that i) 10TT increased self-regulatory skills more than usual care, and ii) that self-regulatory skills and automaticity changes mediated the effect of 10TT on weight loss. 537 obese patients from 14 primary care practices in the UK were randomized to receive 10TT or usual care. Patients in the 10TT group received a leaflet containing tips for weight loss and healthy habits formation, a self-monitoring log book and a wallet-sized shopping guide on how to read food labels. Patients were weighed and completed validated questionnaires for self-regulation and automaticity at baseline and 3-month follow-up. Within-group and Between-group effects were explored using Paired T-test and ANCOVA, respectively. Mediation was assessed using bootstrapping to estimate indirect effects and the sobel test. Over 3 months patients who were given 10TT reported greater increases in self-regulatory skills (Mean difference: .08; 95% CI .01; .15) than those who received usual care. Changes in self-regulatory skills and automaticity over 3 months mediated the effect of the intervention on weight loss (β = .52, 95% Bias Corrected CI .17; .91). As hypothesised, 10TT enhanced self-regulatory skills and changes in self-regulatory skills and automaticity mediated the effect of the intervention on weight loss. This supports the proposition that self-regulatory training and habit formation are important features of weight loss interventions. This study was prospectively registered with the International Standard Randomised

  19. A change navigation-based, scenario planning process within a developing world context from an Afro-centric leadership perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris A. Geldenhuys

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: In the hyper turbulent context faced currently by organisations, more flexible strategic planning approaches, such as scenario planning which take into account a more comprehensive range of possible futures for an organisation, will position organisations better than conventional forecast and estimates that depend only on a single, linearly extrapolated, strategic response.Research purpose: This study aimed to investigate how scenario-based planning (a strictly cognitive management tool can be combined with organisational change navigation (a practice addressing the emotionality of change and how this integrated process should be aligned with the prerequisites imposed by a developing country context and an Afro-centric leadership perspective in order to make the process more context relevant and aligned.Motivation for the study: The integration of organisational change navigation with conventional scenario based planning, as well as the incorporation of the perquisites of a developing countries and an Afro-centric leadership perspective, will give organisations a more robust, holistic strategic management tool that will add significantly more value within a rapidly, radically and unpredictably changing world.Research design, approach and method: The adopted research approach comprised a combination of the sourcing of the latest thinking in the literature (the ‘theory’ as well as the views of seasoned practitioners of scenario planning (the ‘practice’ through an iterative research process, moving between theory and practice, back to practice and finally returning to theory in order to arrive at a validated expanded and enhanced scenario-based planning process which is both theory and practice ‘proof’.Main findings: A management tool incorporating the change navigation and the unique features of developing countries and Afro-centric leadership was formulated and empirically validated. This management tool is referred to as

  20. The Bio-Economy Concept and Knowledge Base in a Public Goods and Farmer Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto Schmidt

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Currently an industrial perspective dominates the EU policy framework for a European bio-economy. The Commission’s proposal on the bio-economy emphasises greater resource-efficiency, largely within an industrial perspective on global economic competitiveness, benefiting capital-intensive industries at higher levels of the value chain. However a responsible bio-economy must initially address the sustainable use of resources. Many farmers are not only commodity producers but also providers of quality food and managers of the eco-system. A public goods-oriented bio-economy emphasises agro-ecological methods, organic and low (external input farming systems, ecosystem services, social innovation in multi-stakeholder collective practices and joint production of knowledge. The potential of farmers and SMEs to contribute to innovation must be fully recognised. This approach recognises the importance of local knowledge enhancing local capabilities, while also accommodating diversity and complexity. Therefore the bio-economy concept should have a much broader scope than the dominant one in European Commission innovation policy. Socio-economic research is needed to inform strategies, pathways and stakeholder cooperation towards sustainability goals.

  1. Interactions of severe accident research and regulatory positions (ISARRP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sehgal, B.R. (comp.) [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Nuclear Power Safety

    2001-12-01

    The work Programme of the ISARRP Project was divided into several work packages. The work was conducted in the form of presentations and discussions, held during several meetings whose character was that of workshops. Short reports were prepared by the partners assigned to each task. Work Package 1: Critical review of the SA phenomenological research. The objective of this work package was to consider the progress made world-wide in research on the resolution of the outstanding phenomenological issues posed by severe accidents. Work Package 2: Relevance of severe accident research to SAMG requirements and implementation. The objective of this work package was to relate the progress made in the resolution of the SA issues to the practical matter of what results are required or have been used for the management of severe accidents. Clearly, the SAMG is the most important avenue employed by the regulatory organizations to assure themselves of the safe (from public perspective) performance of a nuclear plant in a postulated severe accident event. Work Package 3: Relevance of severe accident research to PSA and the risk informed regulatory approach. The objectives of this work package is to relate the results obtained by the severe accident research to the requirements of a PSA and of the new trend of employing the risk informed approach in promulgating regulations. Clearly a PSA identifies vulnerabilities in the knowledge base, however, their importance is decidedly plant specific. Nevertheless the uncertainties in the phenomenology or in resolution of issues lead to uncertainties in the PSA conclusions and in the adoption of the risk informed approach. Work Package 4: Questionnaire and the evaluation of responses to the questions. The purpose of this work package is to solicit the views of the regulatory organizations towards the results of the SA research and the benefits they have derived from it in terms of regulatory actions, or in the confidence they have gained

  2. Natural analog studies: Licensing perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradbury, J.W. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-09-01

    This report describes the licensing perspective of the term {open_quotes}natural analog studies{close_quotes} as used in CFR Part 60. It describes the misunderstandings related to its definition which has become evident during discussions at the U.S Nuclear Regulatory Commission meetings and tries to clarify the appropriate applications of natural analog studies to aspects of repository site characterization.

  3. School Psychology: A Public Health Framework: III. Managing Disruptive Behavior in Schools: The Value of a Public Health and Evidence-Based Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Lisa

    2003-01-01

    This article emphasizes the value of an evidence-based and public health perspective in managing disruptive behavior. Information about comprehensive school-based programs and classroom management techniques for disruptive behavior disorders is presented and the important role school psychologists can play in implementing these programs discussed.…

  4. What patients think about E-health: patients' perspective on internet-based cognitive behavioral treatment for patients with rheumatoid arthritis and psoriasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferwerda, M.; Beugen, S. van; Burik, A. van; Middendorp, H. van; Jong, E.M.G.J. de; Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de; Riel, P.L.C.M. van; Evers, A.W.M.

    2013-01-01

    In the past decade, the use of internet-based cognitive behavioral treatments (internet-based CBT) for a wide range of patients has grown intensively. Incorporating the patients' opinions and perspective into new health care innovations might improve the quality and applicability of these

  5. The need for supplemental breast cancer screening modalities: a perspective of population-based breast cancer screening programs in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uematsu, Takayoshi

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses possible supplemental breast cancer screening modalities for younger women with dense breasts from a perspective of population-based breast cancer screening program in Japan. Supplemental breast cancer screening modalities have been proposed to increase the sensitivity and detection rates of early stage breast cancer in women with dense breasts; however, there are no global guidelines that recommend the use of supplemental breast cancer screening modalities in such women. Also, no criterion standard exists for breast density assessment. Based on the current situation of breast imaging in Japan, the possible supplemental breast cancer screening modalities are ultrasonography, digital breast tomosynthesis, and breast magnetic resonance imaging. An appropriate population-based breast cancer screening program based on the balance between cost and benefit should be a high priority. Further research based on evidence-based medicine is encouraged. It is very important that the ethnicity, workforce, workflow, and resources for breast cancer screening in each country should be considered when considering supplemental breast cancer screening modalities for women with dense breasts.

  6. Resilience-Based Perspectives to Guiding High-Nature-Value Farmland through Socioeconomic Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Plieninger

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Global environmental challenges require approaches that integrate biodiversity conservation, food production, and livelihoods at landscape scales. We reviewed the approach of conserving biodiversity on "high-nature-value" (HNV farmland, covering 75 million ha in Europe, from a resilience perspective. Despite growing recognition in natural resource policies, many HNV farmlands have vanished, and the remaining ones are vulnerable to socioeconomic changes. Using landscape-level cases across Europe, we considered the following social-ecological system properties and components and their integration into HNV farmland management: (1 coupling of social and ecological systems, (2 key variables, (3 adaptive cycles, (4 regime shifts, (5 cascading effects, (6 ecosystem stewardship and collaboration, (7 social capital, and (8 traditional ecological knowledge. We argue that previous conservation efforts for HNV farmland have focused too much on static, isolated, and monosectoral conservation strategies, and that stimulation of resilience and adaptation is essential for guiding HNV farmland through rapid change.

  7. Plasticity in the Human Visual Cortex: An Ophthalmology-Based Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Andreia Martins; Silva, Maria Fátima; Murta, Joaquim

    2013-01-01

    Neuroplasticity refers to the ability of the brain to reorganize the function and structure of its connections in response to changes in the environment. Adult human visual cortex shows several manifestations of plasticity, such as perceptual learning and adaptation, working under the top-down influence of attention. Plasticity results from the interplay of several mechanisms, including the GABAergic system, epigenetic factors, mitochondrial activity, and structural remodeling of synaptic connectivity. There is also a downside of plasticity, that is, maladaptive plasticity, in which there are behavioral losses resulting from plasticity changes in the human brain. Understanding plasticity mechanisms could have major implications in the diagnosis and treatment of ocular diseases, such as retinal disorders, cataract and refractive surgery, amblyopia, and in the evaluation of surgical materials and techniques. Furthermore, eliciting plasticity could open new perspectives in the development of strategies that trigger plasticity for better medical and surgical outcomes. PMID:24205505

  8. Regulatory and institutional challenges of corporate governance in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    From a banking industry perspective, good corporate governance demands that banks will operate in a safe and sound manner, comply with applicable laws and regulations and protect the interests of depositors. This paper, however, posits that unless accompanied by institutional and regulatory reforms the code of ...

  9. Potentials and economic efficiency analysis of voltage regulated transformers based on the regulatory conditions; Einsatzpotentiale und Wirtschaftlichkeitsanalysen des regelbaren Ortsnetztransformators unter regulatorischen Rahmenbedingungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiedeldey, Michael; Brennauer, Bernd [Allgaeuer Ueberlandwerk GmbH, Kempten (Germany); Pienitz, Sven [AllgaeuNetz GmbH und Co. KG, Kempten (Germany); Kraemmer, Michael; Frings, Robert [STAWAG Netz GmbH, Aachen (Germany); Peitz, Michael; Goedde, Markus [RWTH, Aachen (Germany). IFHT; Smolka, Thomas [Maschinenfabrik Reinhausen GmbH, Regensburg (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    The potentials of voltage regulated transformers (RONT) are analysed in consideration of the possible voltage range problems in 2030. The technical and economical potentials of RONT are examined using examples of two particular field cases. Finally the necessary changes in the german regulatory conditions are identified.

  10. Genetic variations in regulatory pathways of fatty acid and glucose metabolism are associated with obesity phenotypes: a population-based cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den S.W.; Dolle, M.E.T.; Imholz, S.; A, van der D.L.; Slot, van 't R.; Wijmenga, C.; Verschuren, W.M.M.; Strien, C.; Siezen, C.L.E.; Hoebee, B.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Boer, J.M.A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: As nuclear receptors and transcription factors have an important regulatory function in adipocyte differentiation and fat storage, genetic variation in these key regulators and downstream pathways may be involved in the onset of obesity. Objective: To explore associations between single

  11. Genetic variations in regulatory pathways of fatty acid and glucose metabolism are associated with obesity phenotypes : a population-based cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, S. W.; Dolle, M. E. T.; Imholz, S.; van der A, D. L.; van 't Slot, R.; Wijmenga, C.; Verschuren, W. M. M.; Strien, C.; Siezen, C. L. E.; Hoebee, B.; Feskens, E. J. M.; Boer, J. M. A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: As nuclear receptors and transcription factors have an important regulatory function in adipocyte differentiation and fat storage, genetic variation in these key regulators and downstream pathways may be involved in the onset of obesity. Objective: To explore associations between single

  12. End of FY10 report - used fuel disposition technical bases and lessons learned : legal and regulatory framework for high-level waste disposition in the United States.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiner, Ruth F.; Blink, James A. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA); Rechard, Robert Paul; Perry, Frank (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM); Jenkins-Smith, Hank C. (University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK); Carter, Joe (Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, Aiken, SC); Nutt, Mark (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Cotton, Tom (Complex Systems Group, Washington DC)

    2010-09-01

    This report examines the current policy, legal, and regulatory framework pertaining to used nuclear fuel and high level waste management in the United States. The goal is to identify potential changes that if made could add flexibility and possibly improve the chances of successfully implementing technical aspects of a nuclear waste policy. Experience suggests that the regulatory framework should be established prior to initiating future repository development. Concerning specifics of the regulatory framework, reasonable expectation as the standard of proof was successfully implemented and could be retained in the future; yet, the current classification system for radioactive waste, including hazardous constituents, warrants reexamination. Whether or not consideration of multiple sites are considered simultaneously in the future, inclusion of mechanisms such as deliberate use of performance assessment to manage site characterization would be wise. Because of experience gained here and abroad, diversity of geologic media is not particularly necessary as a criterion in site selection guidelines for multiple sites. Stepwise development of the repository program that includes flexibility also warrants serious consideration. Furthermore, integration of the waste management system from storage, transportation, and disposition, should be examined and would be facilitated by integration of the legal and regulatory framework. Finally, in order to enhance acceptability of future repository development, the national policy should be cognizant of those policy and technical attributes that enhance initial acceptance, and those policy and technical attributes that maintain and broaden credibility.

  13. Analysis of Undergraduate Students’ Mathematical Understanding Ability of the Limit of Function Based on APOS Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afgani, M. W.; Suryadi, D.; Dahlan, J. A.

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to know the level of undergraduate students’ mathematical understanding ability based on APOS theory perspective. The APOS theory provides an evaluation framework to describe the level of students’ understanding and mental structure about their conception to a mathematics concept. The levels of understanding in APOS theory are action, process, object, and schema conception. The subjects were 59 students of mathematics education whom had attended a class of the limit of function at a university in Palembang. The method was qualitative descriptive with 4 test items. The result showed that most of students were still at the level of action conception. They could calculate and use procedure precisely to the mathematics objects that was given, but could not reach the higher conception yet.

  14. Current state and future perspectives of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP)-based diagnosis of filamentous fungi and yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niessen, Ludwig

    2015-01-01

    Loop-mediated isothermal amplification is a rather novel method of enzymatic deoxyribonucleic acid amplification which can be applied for the diagnosis of viruses, bacteria, and fungi. Although firmly established in viral and bacterial diagnosis, the technology has only recently been applied to a noteworthy number of species in the filamentous fungi and yeasts. The current review gives an overview of the literature so far published on the topic by discussing the different groups of fungal organisms to which the method has been applied. Moreover, the method is described in detail as well as the different possibilities available for signal detection and quantification and sample preparation. Future perspective of loop-mediated isothermal amplification-based assays is discussed in the light of applicability for fungal diagnostics.

  15. Clock Synchronization in Wireless Sensor Networks: Analysis and Design of Error Precision Based on Lossy Networked Control Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Ting

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by the importance of the clock synchronization in wireless sensor networks (WSNs, due to the packet loss, the synchronization error variance is a random variable and may exceed the designed boundary of the synchronization variance. Based on the clock synchronization state space model, this paper establishes the model of synchronization error variance analysis and design issues. In the analysis issue, assuming sensor nodes exchange clock information in the network with packet loss, we find a minimum clock information packet arrival rate in order to guarantee the synchronization precision at synchronization node. In the design issue, assuming sensor node freely schedules whether to send the clock information, we look for an optimal clock information exchange rate between synchronization node and reference node which offers the optimal tradeoff between energy consumption and synchronization precision at synchronization node. Finally, simulations further verify the validity of clock synchronization analysis and design from the perspective of synchronization error variance.

  16. End-User Attitudes towards Location-Based Services and Future Mobile Wireless Devices: The Students’ Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Cramariuc

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, location-enabled mobile phones are becoming more and more widespread. Various players in the mobile business forecast that, in the future, a significant part of total wireless revenue will come from Location-Based Services (LBS. An LBS system extracts information about the user’s geographical location and provides services based on the positioning information. A successful LBS service should create value for the end-user, by satisfying some of the users’ needs or wants, and at the same time preserving the key factors of the mobile wireless device, such as low costs, low battery consumption, and small size. From many users’ perspectives, location services and mobile location capabilities are still rather poorly known and poorly understood. The aim of this research is to investigate users’ views on the LBS, their requirements in terms of mobile device characteristics, their concerns in terms of privacy and usability, and their opinion on LBS applications that might increase the social wellbeing in the future wireless world. Our research is based on two surveys performed among 105 students (average student age: 24 years from two European technical universities. The survey questions were intended to solicit the youngsters’ views on present and future technological trends and on their perceived needs and wishes regarding Location-Based Services, with the aim of obtaining a better understanding of designer constraints when building a location receiver and generating new ideas related to potential future killer LBS applications.

  17. PERSPECTIVE: Toward an artificial cell based on gene expression in vesicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noireaux, Vincent; Bar-Ziv, Roy; Godefroy, Jeremy; Salman, Hanna; Libchaber, Albert

    2005-09-01

    We present a new experimental approach to build an artificial cell using the translation machinery of a cell-free expression system as the hardware and a DNA synthetic genome as the software. This approach, inspired by the self-replicating automata of von Neumann, uses cytoplasmic extracts, encapsulated in phospholipid vesicles, to assemble custom-made genetic circuits to develop the functions of a minimal cell. Although this approach can find applications, especially in biotechnology, the primary goal is to understand how a DNA algorithm can be designed to build an operating system that has some of the properties of life. We provide insights on this cell-free approach as well as new results to transform step by step a long-lived vesicle bioreactor into an artificial cell. We show how the green fluorescent protein can be anchored to the membrane and we give indications of a possible insertion mechanism of integral membrane proteins. With vesicles composed of different phospholipids, the fusion protein alpha-hemolysin-eGFP can be expressed to reveal patterns on the membrane. The specific degradation complex ClpXP from E. coli is introduced to create a sink for the synthesized proteins. Perspectives and subsequent limitations of this approach are discussed.

  18. Dogs demonstrate perspective taking based on geometrical gaze following in a Guesser-Knower task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catala, Amélie; Mang, Britta; Wallis, Lisa; Huber, Ludwig

    2017-07-01

    Currently, there is still no consensus about whether animals can ascribe mental states (Theory of Mind) to themselves and others. Showing animals can respond to cues that indicate whether another has visual access to a target or not, and that they are able to use this information as a basis for whom to rely on as an informant, is an important step forward in this direction. Domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) with human informants are an ideal model, because they show high sensitivity towards human eye contact, they have proven able to assess the attentional state of humans in food-stealing or food-begging contexts, and they follow human gaze behind a barrier when searching for food. With 16 dogs, we not only replicated the main results of Maginnity and Grace (Anim Cogn 17(6):1375-1392, 2014) who recently found that dogs preferred to follow the pointing of a human who witnessed a food hiding event over a human who did not (the Guesser-Knower task), but also extended this finding with a further, critical control for behaviour-reading: two informants showed identical looking behaviour, but due to their different position in the room, only one had the opportunity to see where the food was hidden by a third person. Preference for the Knower in this critical test provides solid evidence for geometrical gaze following and perspective taking in dogs.

  19. Perspectives on utilization of community based health information systems in Western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flora, Otieno Careena; Margaret, Kaseje; Dan, Kaseje

    2017-01-01

    Health information systems (HIS) are considered fundamental for the efficient delivery of high quality health care. However, a large number of legal and practical constraints influence the design and introduction of such systems. The inability to quantify and analyse situations with credible data and to use data in planning and managing service delivery plagues Africa. Establishing effective information systems and using this data for planning efficient health service delivery is essential to district health systems' performance improvement. Community Health Units in Kenya are central points for community data collection, analysis, dissemination and use. In Kenya, data tend to be collected for reporting purposes and not for decision-making at the point of collection. This paper describes the perspectives of local users on information use in various socio-economic contexts in Kenya. Information for this study was gathered through semi-structured interviews. The interviewees were purposefully selected from various community health units and public health facilities in the study area. The data were organized and analysed manually, grouping them into themes and categories. Information needs of the community included service utilization and health status information. Dialogue was the main way of information utilization in the community. However, health systems and personal challenges impeded proper collection and use of information. The challenges experienced in health information utilization may be overcome by linkages and coordination between the community and the health facilities. The personal challenges can be remedied using a motivational package that includes training of the Community Health Workers.

  20. Pregnancy related issues in inflammatory bowel disease: evidence base and patients' perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selinger, Christian P; Leong, Rupert Wl; Lal, Simon

    2012-06-07

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) affects women of childbearing age and can influence fertility, pregnancy and decisions regarding breastfeeding. Women with IBD need to consider the possible course of disease during pregnancy, the benefits and risks associated with medications required for disease management during pregnancy and breastfeeding and the effects of mode of delivery on their disease. When indicated, aminosalicylates and thiopurines can be safely used during pregnancy. Infliximab and Adalimumab are considered probably safe during the first two trimesters. During the third trimester the placenta can be crossed and caution should be applied. Methotrexate is associated with severe teratogenicity due to its folate antagonism and is strictly contraindicated. Women with IBD tend to deliver earlier than healthy women, but can have a vaginal delivery in most cases. Caesarean sections are generally recommended for women with active perianal disease or after ileo-anal pouch surgery.While the impact of disease activity and medication has been addressed in several studies, there are minimal studies evaluating patients' perspective on these issues. Women's attitudes may influence their decision to have children and can positively or negatively influence the chance of conceiving, and their beliefs regarding therapies may impact on the course of their disease during pregnancy and/or breastfeeding. This review article outlines the impact of IBD and its treatment on pregnancy, and examines the available data on patients' views on this subject.