WorldWideScience

Sample records for regulatory equity act

  1. Private Equity and Regulatory Capital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongaerts, D.; Charlier, E.

    2008-01-01

    Regulatory Capital requirements for European banks have been put forward in the Basel II Capital Framework and subsequently in the Capital Requirements Directive (CRD) of the EU. We provide a detailed discussion of the capital requirements for private equity investments under the simple risk weight

  2. Pay Equity Act, 17 May 1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    This document contains major provisions of the 1988 Pay Equity Act of Prince Edward Island, Canada. (Nova Scotia enacted similar legislation in 1988.) This act defines "female-dominated class" or "male-dominated class" as a class with 60% or more female or male incumbents, respectively. The objective of this act is to achieve pay equity among public sector employers and employees by identifying systemic gender discrimination through a comparison of the relative wages and value of the work performed by female- and male-dominated classes. The value of work is to be determined by considering the skill, effort, and responsibility required by the work as well as the conditions under which it is performed. A difference in wages between a female- and male-dominated class performing work of equal or comparable value can be justified by a formal performance appraisal system or formal seniority system that does not discriminate on the basis of gender or by a skills shortage which requires a temporary inflation in wages to attract workers for a certain position. No wages shall be reduced to implement pay equity. Implementation of pay equity will include the work of bargaining agents to achieve agreement on salient points. Pay equity may be implemented in four stages over a period of 24 months.

  3. Nuclear Regulatory Authority Act, 2015 (Act 895)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-04-01

    An Act to establish a Nuclear Regulatory Authority in Ghana. This Act provides for the regulation and management of activities and practices for the peaceful use of nuclear material or energy, and to provide for the protection of persons and the environment against the harmful effects of radiation; and to ensure the effective implementation of the country’s international obligations and for related matters. This Act replaced the Radiation Protection Instrument, of 1993 (LI 1559).

  4. Implications of the Employment Equity Act for the higher education ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is argued that these crucial challenges B specialized higher education legislation and policy developments, the "pool" issue, funding and rationalization, universities as a unique workplace, and the individual legacies of universities B define the space in which the Employment Equity Act may be interpreted in the higher ...

  5. Pay Equity Act (No. 34 of 1987), 29 June 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    This document contains major provisions of Ontario, Canada's 1987 Pay Equity Act. The Act seeks to redress systemic gender discrimination in compensation for work performed by employees in "female job classes" and applies to all private sector employers in Ontario with 10 or more employees, all public sector employers, and the employees of applicable employers. The Act continues to apply even if an employer subsequently reduces the number of employees below 10. The Act calls for identification of systemic gender discrimination in compensation through comparisons between female job classes and male job classes in terms of compensation and value of work performed, which is a composite of skill, effort, and responsibility normally required. Pay equity is deemed achieved when the job rate for the female job class is at least equal to the rate for a male job class in the same establishment. If there is no male job class to use for comparison, pay equity is achieved when the female job rate is at least equal to the job rate of a male job class in the same establishment that, at the time of comparison, had a higher job rate while performing work of lower value than the female job class. Differences in compensation between a female and a male job class are allowed if they result from a formal seniority system that does not discriminate on basis of gender, a temporary training or development assignment equally available to males and females, a specified merit compensation plan, actions taken as the result of a gender-neutral reevaluation process, or a skills shortage leading to a temporary inflation in compensation. Pay equity will not be achieved by reducing any employee's compensation. The Act establishes a Pay Equity Commission to oversee implementation.

  6. Rock Equity Holdings, LLC - Clean Water Act Public Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA is providing notice of an Administrative Penalty Assessment in the form of an Expedited Storm Water Settlement Agreement against Rock Equity Holdings, LLC, for alleged violations at The Cove at Kettlestone/98th Street Reconstruction located at 3015

  7. Organ procurement and transplantation: implementation of the HIV Organ Policy Equity Act. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-08

    This final rule amends the regulations implementing the National Organ Transplant Act of 1984, as amended, (NOTA) pursuant to statutory requirements of the HIV Organ Policy Equity Act (HOPE Act), enacted in 2013. In accordance with the mandates of the HOPE Act, this regulation removes the current regulatory provision that requires the Organ Procurement Transplantation Network (OPTN) to adopt and use standards for preventing the acquisition of organs from individuals known to be infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In its place, this regulation includes new requirements that organs from individuals infected with HIV may be transplanted only into individuals who are infected with HIV before receiving such organs and who are participating in clinical research approved by an institutional review board, as provided by regulation. The only exception to this requirement of participation in such clinical research is if the Secretary publishes a determination in the future that participation in such clinical research, as a requirement for transplants of organs from individuals infected with HIV, is no longer warranted. In addition, this regulatory change establishes that OPTN standards must ensure that any HIV-infected transplant recipients are participating in clinical research in accordance with the research criteria to be published by the Secretary. Alternately, if and when the Secretary determines that participation in such clinical research should no longer be a requirement for transplants with organs from donors infected with HIV to individuals infected with HIV, the regulation mandates that the OPTN adopt and use standards of quality, as directed by the Secretary, consistent with the law and in a way that ensures the changes will not reduce the safety of organ transplantation.

  8. "I am not a number! I am a free man!" The Employment Equity Act ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The author critically examines the organising principle of the affirmative action provisions of the Employment Equity Act (or EEA), as well as the implications of the recent judgment by the Constitutional Court in its first case involving the application of affirmative action in the employment context (and in terms of the EEA) ...

  9. Moving from the HIV Organ Policy Equity Act to HIV Organ Policy Equity in action: changing practice and challenging stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doby, Brianna L; Tobian, Aaron A R; Segev, Dorry L; Durand, Christine M

    2018-04-01

    The HIV Organ Policy Equity (HOPE) Act, signed in 2013, reversed the federal ban on HIV-to-HIV transplantation. In this review, we examine the progress in HOPE implementation, the current status of HIV-to-HIV transplantation, and remaining challenges. Pursuant to the HOPE Act, the Department of Health and Human Services revised federal regulations to allow HIV-to-HIV transplants under research protocols adherent to criteria published by the National Institutes of Health. The first HIV-to-HIV kidney and liver transplants were performed at Johns Hopkins in March of 2016. Legal and practical challenges remain. Further efforts are needed to educate potential HIV+ donors and to support Organ Procurement Organizations. As of November 2017, there are 22 transplant centers approved to perform HIV-to-HIV transplants in 10 United Network for Organ Sharing regions. To date, 16 Organ Procurement Organizations in 22 states have evaluated HIV+ donors. The National Institutes of Health-funded HOPE in Action: A Multicenter Clinical Trial of HIV-to-HIV Deceased Donor (HIVDD) Kidney Transplantation Kidney Trial will launch at 19 transplant centers in December of 2017. A HOPE in Action Multicenter HIVDD Liver Trial is in development. Significant progress toward full HOPE implementation has been made though barriers remain. Some challenges are unique to HIV-HIV transplantation, whereas others are amplifications of issues across the current transplant system. In addition to a public health benefit for all transplant candidates in the United States, partnership on the HOPE Act has the potential to address systemic challenges to national donation and transplantation.

  10. The Alberta Case: The Challenge to the School Amendment Act, 1994 and Provincial Achievement of Fiscal Equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferson, Anne L.

    1996-01-01

    Addresses litigation launched by a wealthy school district against the Alberta (Canada) Ministry of Education, regarding legislation to increase fiscal equity among school systems. Reviews the concept of fiscal equality, financial plans to achieve this goal, and the Alberta funding structure. Describes proposed changes to the School Act. The…

  11. The Employment Equity Act, 1998 (and other Myths about the Pursuit of "Equality", "Equity" and "Dignity" in Post-Apartheid South Africa (PART 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre M Louw

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The author critically examines the organising principle of the affirmative action provisions of the Employment Equity Act (or EEA, as well as the implications of the recent judgment by the Constitutional Court in its first case involving the application of affirmative action in the employment context (and in terms of the EEA – SAPS v Solidarity obo Barnard. While reiterating the need for restitutionary measures such as affirmative action in South Africa, the author concludes – probably quite controversially - that the EEA's treatment of affirmative action has nothing to do with the equality right in the Bill of Rights, and that the Act pursues a different (and omnipresent social engineering agenda by the state. The author calls for this realisation to prompt future affirmative action cases arising from the application of this Act to be removed from the scheme of (and potential defences available under the equality jurisprudence, and for the courts to critically interrogate the constitutionality of the EEA's affirmative action scheme within its own context. The author believes that Chapter III of the Act is unconstitutional in this sense, and he calls for the scrapping of its provisions. He also calls for a (more constitutionally-compliant exposition from the Constitutional Court of the parameters of legitimate affirmative action under the Bill of Rights, and adds his voice to the numerous calls for reconsideration of the "rationality test" expounded in Minister of Finance v van Heerden. More generally, the author considers the apparently all-pervasive application of the government ideology of the pursuit of demographic representivity in "transformation" of employment and other contexts (expressing grave doubts about its constitutionality along the way. In Part 1 of this piece (which precedes this article in this edition, the author considers the constitutional requirements for a legitimate affirmative action programme or measure. He then

  12. Trans-acting translational regulatory RNA binding proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Robert F; Smith, Tom S; Mulroney, Thomas; Queiroz, Rayner M L; Pizzinga, Mariavittoria; Dezi, Veronica; Villenueva, Eneko; Ramakrishna, Manasa; Lilley, Kathryn S; Willis, Anne E

    2018-05-01

    The canonical molecular machinery required for global mRNA translation and its control has been well defined, with distinct sets of proteins involved in the processes of translation initiation, elongation and termination. Additionally, noncanonical, trans-acting regulatory RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) are necessary to provide mRNA-specific translation, and these interact with 5' and 3' untranslated regions and coding regions of mRNA to regulate ribosome recruitment and transit. Recently it has also been demonstrated that trans-acting ribosomal proteins direct the translation of specific mRNAs. Importantly, it has been shown that subsets of RBPs often work in concert, forming distinct regulatory complexes upon different cellular perturbation, creating an RBP combinatorial code, which through the translation of specific subsets of mRNAs, dictate cell fate. With the development of new methodologies, a plethora of novel RNA binding proteins have recently been identified, although the function of many of these proteins within mRNA translation is unknown. In this review we will discuss these methodologies and their shortcomings when applied to the study of translation, which need to be addressed to enable a better understanding of trans-acting translational regulatory proteins. Moreover, we discuss the protein domains that are responsible for RNA binding as well as the RNA motifs to which they bind, and the role of trans-acting ribosomal proteins in directing the translation of specific mRNAs. This article is categorized under: RNA Interactions with Proteins and Other Molecules > RNA-Protein Complexes Translation > Translation Regulation Translation > Translation Mechanisms. © 2018 Medical Research Council and University of Cambridge. WIREs RNA published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Viewing Health Equity through a Legal Lens: Title VI of the 1964 Civil Rights Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Sara; Schmucker, Sara

    2017-10-01

    Enacted as part of the watershed Civil Rights Act of 1964, Title VI prohibits discrimination by federally assisted entities on the basis of race, color, or national origin. Indeed, the law is as broad as federal funding across the full range of programs and services that affect health. Over the years, governmental enforcement efforts have waxed and waned, and private litigants have confronted barriers to directly invoking its protections. But Title VI endures as the formal mechanism by which the nation rejects discrimination within federally funded programs and services. Enforcement efforts confront problems of proof, remedies whose effectiveness may be blunted by underlying residential segregation patterns, and a judiciary closed to legal challenges focusing on discriminatory impact rather than intentional discrimination. But Title VI enforcement has experienced a resurgence, with strategies that seek to use the law as a basic compliance tool across the range of federally assisted programs. This resurgence reflects an enduring commitment to more equitable outcomes in federally funded programs that bear directly on community health, and it stands as a testament to the vital importance of a legal framework designed to move the nation toward greater health equity. Copyright © 2017 by Duke University Press.

  14. 78 FR 61999 - Hydropower Regulatory Efficiency Act of 2013; Supplemental Notice of Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. AD13-9-000] Hydropower Regulatory Efficiency Act of 2013; Supplemental Notice of Workshop As announced in the Notices issued on September 3, 2013 and September 18, 2013, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC or Commission...

  15. 14 CFR 399.73 - Definition of small business for Regulatory Flexibility Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definition of small business for Regulatory... Rulemaking Proceedings § 399.73 Definition of small business for Regulatory Flexibility Act. For the purposes... Flexibility Act), a direct air carrier or foreign air carrier is a small business if it provides air...

  16. The Choice between Rights-Preserving Issue Methods : Regulatory and Financial Aspects of Issuing Seasoned Equity in the UK

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korteweg, A.G.; Renneboog, L.D.R.

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines the choice between two rights-preserving issue methods of seasoned equity offers in the UK as well as the factors determining the offer price and stock market announcement reactions.Firstly, equity issues in the UK are underwritten for different reasons than in other

  17. 78 FR 58535 - Hydropower Regulatory Efficiency Act of 2013; Supplemental Notice of Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. AD13-9-000] Hydropower... license for hydropower development at non-powered dams and closed-loop pumped storage projects in compliance with section 6 of the Hydropower Regulatory Efficiency Act of 2013. The workshop will be held in...

  18. 78 FR 55251 - Hydropower Regulatory Efficiency Act of 2013; Notice of Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. AD13-9-000] Hydropower... hydropower development at non-powered dams and closed-loop pumped storage projects in compliance with section 6 of the Hydropower Regulatory Efficiency Act of 2013. Participants should be prepared to discuss...

  19. The Choice between Rights-Preserving Issue Methods: Regulatory and Financial Aspects of Issuing Seasoned Equity in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Korteweg, A.G.; Renneboog, L.D.R.

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines the choice between two rights-preserving issue methods of seasoned equity offers in the UK as well as the factors determining the offer price and stock market announcement reactions.Firstly, equity issues in the UK are underwritten for different reasons than in other countries.Only severely financially distressed companies choose not to underwrite their share offer. Second, the average announcement reaction to non-underwritten issues is much more negative than to underwrit...

  20. Federal Pay Equity Act of 1984. Part 2. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Compensation and Employee Benefits of the Committee on Post Office and Civil Service, House of Representatives, Ninety-Eighth Congress, Second Session on H.R. 4599 and H.R. 5092. (May 30, July 17, October 18, 1984).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U. S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Post Office and Civil Service.

    In these three congressional hearings on pay equity, focuses are on two bills--the Federal Pay Equity Act of 1984, which would examine wage discrimination within the Federal civil service system, and the Pay Equity Act of 1984, which would mandate the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission to report regularly on activities to enforce pay equity…

  1. A method for selecting cis-acting regulatory sequences that respond to small molecule effectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allas Ülar

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several cis-acting regulatory sequences functioning at the level of mRNA or nascent peptide and specifically influencing transcription or translation have been described. These regulatory elements often respond to specific chemicals. Results We have developed a method that allows us to select cis-acting regulatory sequences that respond to diverse chemicals. The method is based on the β-lactamase gene containing a random sequence inserted into the beginning of the ORF. Several rounds of selection are used to isolate sequences that suppress β-lactamase expression in response to the compound under study. We have isolated sequences that respond to erythromycin, troleandomycin, chloramphenicol, meta-toluate and homoserine lactone. By introducing synonymous and non-synonymous mutations we have shown that at least in the case of erythromycin the sequences act at the peptide level. We have also tested the cross-activities of the constructs and found that in most cases the sequences respond most strongly to the compound on which they were isolated. Conclusions Several selected peptides showed ligand-specific changes in amino acid frequencies, but no consensus motif could be identified. This is consistent with previous observations on natural cis-acting peptides, showing that it is often impossible to demonstrate a consensus. Applying the currently developed method on a larger scale, by selecting and comparing an extended set of sequences, might allow the sequence rules underlying the activity of cis-acting regulatory peptides to be identified.

  2. In silico analysis of cis-acting regulatory elements in 5' regulatory regions of sucrose transporter gene families in rice (Oryza sativa Japonica) and Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibraheem, Omodele; Botha, Christiaan E J; Bradley, Graeme

    2010-12-01

    The regulation of gene expression involves a multifarious regulatory system. Each gene contains a unique combination of cis-acting regulatory sequence elements in the 5' regulatory region that determines its temporal and spatial expression. Cis-acting regulatory elements are essential transcriptional gene regulatory units; they control many biological processes and stress responses. Thus a full understanding of the transcriptional gene regulation system will depend on successful functional analyses of cis-acting elements. Cis-acting regulatory elements present within the 5' regulatory region of the sucrose transporter gene families in rice (Oryza sativa Japonica cultivar-group) and Arabidopsis thaliana, were identified using a bioinformatics approach. The possible cis-acting regulatory elements were predicted by scanning 1.5kbp of 5' regulatory regions of the sucrose transporter genes translational start sites, using Plant CARE, PLACE and Genomatix Matinspector professional databases. Several cis-acting regulatory elements that are associated with plant development, plant hormonal regulation and stress response were identified, and were present in varying frequencies within the 1.5kbp of 5' regulatory region, among which are; A-box, RY, CAT, Pyrimidine-box, Sucrose-box, ABRE, ARF, ERE, GARE, Me-JA, ARE, DRE, GA-motif, GATA, GT-1, MYC, MYB, W-box, and I-box. This result reveals the probable cis-acting regulatory elements that possibly are involved in the expression and regulation of sucrose transporter gene families in rice and Arabidopsis thaliana during cellular development or environmental stress conditions. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Organization of cis-acting regulatory elements in osmotic- and cold-stress-responsive promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuko; Shinozaki, Kazuo

    2005-02-01

    cis-Acting regulatory elements are important molecular switches involved in the transcriptional regulation of a dynamic network of gene activities controlling various biological processes, including abiotic stress responses, hormone responses and developmental processes. In particular, understanding regulatory gene networks in stress response cascades depends on successful functional analyses of cis-acting elements. The ever-improving accuracy of transcriptome expression profiling has led to the identification of various combinations of cis-acting elements in the promoter regions of stress-inducible genes involved in stress and hormone responses. Here we discuss major cis-acting elements, such as the ABA-responsive element (ABRE) and the dehydration-responsive element/C-repeat (DRE/CRT), that are a vital part of ABA-dependent and ABA-independent gene expression in osmotic and cold stress responses.

  4. Equal Pay for Work of Equal Value in Terms of the Employment Equity Act 55 of 1998: Lessons from the International Labour Organisation and the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamier Ebrahim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Equal pay is an area of employment law that is complex and not easily understood. This complexity is recognised by the International Labour Organisation (ILO, which notes that equal pay for work of equal value has proved to be difficult to understand, both with regard to what it entails and in its application. Amendments have been made to the Employment Equity Act 55 of 1998 (EEA to include a specific provision to regulate equal pay claims in the form of section 6(4-(5 of the EEA. The amendments were made in terms of the Employment Equity Amendment Act 47 of 2013, which came into effect on 1 August 2014 by presidential proclamation. Prior to section 6(4, the EEA did not contain a specific provision regulating equal pay claims. Claims could be brought in terms of section 6(1 of the EEA, which prohibits unfair discrimination on a number of grounds. The recent amendments to the EEA in the form of section 6(4-(5 (including the Employment Equity Regulations and the Code of Good Practice on Equal Pay for Work of Equal Value in respect of equal pay claims is a response to the ILO's criticism of South Africa's failure to include specific equal pay provisions in the EEA. Section 6(4 of the EEA provides for three causes of action in respect of equal pay. They are as follows: (a equal pay for the same work; (b equal pay for substantially the same work; and (c equal pay for work of equal value. The first two causes of action are not difficult to understand as opposed to the third cause of action, which is complex. The ILO has recognised the complexity of the third cause of action, "equal pay for work of equal value". In Mangena v Fila South Africa 2009 12 BLLR 1224 (LC, the Labour Court remarked in the context of an equal pay for work of equal value claim that it does not have expertise in job grading and in the allocation of value to particular occupations. This article will deal with the third cause of action only, "equal pay for work of equal value". The

  5. Equal Pay for Work of Equal Value in Terms of the Employment Equity Act 55 of 1998: Lessons from the International Labour Organisation and the United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Shamier Ebrahim

    2016-01-01

    Equal pay is an area of employment law that is complex and not easily understood. This complexity is recognised by the International Labour Organisation (ILO), which notes that equal pay for work of equal value has proved to be difficult to understand, both with regard to what it entails and in its application. Amendments have been made to the Employment Equity Act 55 of 1998 (EEA) to include a specific provision to regulate equal pay claims in the form of section 6(4)-(5) of the EEA. The ame...

  6. The European Model Company Act: How to choose an efficient regulatory approach?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cleff, Evelyne Beatrix

    ) on the organization of company laws reflect an interesting paradigm shift. Whereas, previously company law was primarily focused on preventing abuse, there is now a trend towards legislation that promote commerce and satisfy the needs of business. This means that the goal of economic efficiency is having...... an increasing influence on the framing of company legislation, such as the choice between mandatory or default rules. This article introduces the project "European Company Law and the choice of Regulatory Method" which is carried out in collaboration with the European Model Company Act Group. The project aims...... to analyze the appropriateness of different regulatory methods which are available to achieve the regulatory goals.   ...

  7. The Indian Gaming Regulatory Act and Its Effects on American Indian Economic Development

    OpenAIRE

    Randall K. Q. Akee; Katherine A. Spilde; Jonathan B. Taylor

    2015-01-01

    The Indian Gaming Regulatory Act (IGRA), passed by the US Congress in 1988, was a watershed in the history of policymaking directed toward reservation-resident American Indians. IGRA set the stage for tribal government-owned gaming facilities. It also shaped how this new industry would develop and how tribal governments would invest gaming revenues. Since then, Indian gaming has approached commercial, state-licensed gaming in total revenues. Gaming operations have had a far-reaching and trans...

  8. PlantCARE, a plant cis-acting regulatory element database

    OpenAIRE

    Rombauts, Stephane; Déhais, Patrice; Van Montagu, Marc; Rouzé, Pierre

    1999-01-01

    PlantCARE is a database of plant cis- acting regulatory elements, enhancers and repressors. Besides the transcription motifs found on a sequence, it also offers a link to the EMBL entry that contains the full gene sequence as well as a description of the conditions in which a motif becomes functional. The information on these sites is given by matrices, consensus and individual site sequences on particular genes, depending on the available information. PlantCARE is a relational database avail...

  9. Regulatory challenges in developing long-acting antiretrovirals for treatment and prevention of HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, Vikram; Au, Stanley; Belew, Yodit; Miele, Peter; Struble, Kimberly

    2015-07-01

    To outline some of the regulatory challenges inherent to the development of long-acting antiretrovirals (ARVs) for the treatment or prevention of HIV infection. Despite advances in drug development that have reduced ARV dosing to once daily, suboptimal drug adherence remains an obstacle to successful HIV treatment. Further, large randomized trials of once daily oral ARVs for preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) have shown that drug adherence correlates strongly with prophylactic effect and study outcomes. Thus, the prospect of developing long-acting ARVs, which may mitigate drug adherence issues, has attracted considerable attention lately. Because of their pharmacokinetic properties, the development of long-acting ARVs can present novel regulatory challenges. Chief among them is determining the appropriate dosing regimen, the need for an oral lead-in, and whether existing data with an approved oral agent, if available, can be leveraged for a treatment or prevention indication. For PrEP, because validated biomarkers are lacking, additional nonclinical studies and evaluation of tissue concentrations in multiple compartments may be necessary to identify optimal dosages. Study design and choice of controls for registrational trials of new long-acting PrEP agents might also prove challenging following the availability of an oral PrEP drug.

  10. Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978. Annual report to Congress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1980-05-01

    Titles I and III of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 (PURPA) establish retail regulatory policies for electric and natural gas utilities, respectively, aimed at achieving three purposes: conservation of energy supplied by electric and gas utilities; efficiency in the use of facilities and resources by these utilities; equitable rates to electricity and natural gas consumers. PURPA also continues the pilot utility implementation program, authorized under Title II of the Energy Conservation and Production ACT (ECPA), to encourage adoption of cost-based rates and efficient energy-management practices. The purpose of this report is twofold: (1) to summarize and analyze the progress that state regulatory authorities and certain nonregulated utilities have made in their consideration of the PURPA standards; and (2) to summarize the Department of Energy (DOE) activities relating to PURPA and ECPA. The report provides a broad overview and assessment of the status of electric and gas regulation nationwide, and thus helps provide the basis for congressional and DOE actions targeted on the utility industry to address pressing national energy problems.

  11. Regulatory Lessons for Internet Traffic Management from Japan, the European Union, and the United States: Toward Equity, Neutrality and Transparency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Harris Stevenson

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available As network neutrality has been one of the most contentious Internet public policy issues of the past decade, this article provides a comparative overview of events, policies, and legislation surrounding Internet traffic management practises (ITMPs (e.g., network neutrality in Japan, the European Union, the United States, and Canada. Using the frame provided by Richard Rose of “hybrid lessons”to create a policy synthesis, the paper details the telecom policy environment, Internet Service provider competition, legislative jurisdiction, remedies for ITMPs, consumer transparency, and adherence to privacy protection in each country. The analysis focuses on Canada’s first significant regulatory effort to address network neutrality, which came during the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission 2009 process on Internet traffic management. This paper presents a brief overview of the Canadian regulatory environment and the specific questions which were the subject of the CRTC review. Employing Richard Rose’s methods for comparative public policy analysis, we offer a number of regulatory “lessons” from Japan, the European Union, and the United States based on their experiences with traffic management issues. Applying these lessons to the Canadian context, we make several specific policy recommendations, among them that competition be encouraged within the Internet service provider space, that network management practises be reasonable and limited, and that ISPs provide full disclosure of network management policies and practises.

  12. 78 FR 62322 - Hydropower Regulatory Efficiency Act of 2013; Notice of Rescheduled Two-Year Licensing Process...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. AD13-9-000] Hydropower... recommendations on the feasibility of a two-year process for the issuance of a license for hydropower development... Hydropower Regulatory Efficiency Act of 2013. The workshop will be held in the Commission Meeting Room at 888...

  13. Federal Pay Equity Act of 1984. Part 1. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Compensation and Employee Benefits of the Committee on Post Office and Civil Service, House of Representatives, Ninety-Eighth Congress, Second Session on H.R. 4599...and H.R. 5092. (April 3-4, 1984).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U. S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Post Office and Civil Service.

    This document contains two congressional hearings on H.R. 4599, the Federal Pay Equity Act of 1984, and H.R. 5092, the Pay Equity Act of 1984. These bills would mandate the Office of Personnel Management to study wage discrepancies in the Federal classification structure and to devise a more equitable job evaluation program and would require…

  14. Equity yields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrugt, E.; van Binsbergen, J.H.; Koijen, R.S.J.; Hueskes, W.

    2013-01-01

    We study a new data set of dividend futures with maturities up to ten years across three world regions: the US, Europe, and Japan. We use these asset prices to construct equity yields, analogous to bond yields. We decompose the equity yields to obtain a term structure of expected dividend growth

  15. Gender equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiva, M

    1999-01-01

    This paper focuses on gender equity. Gender equity is difficult to achieve when there is no economic, social, or political equity. The Gender Development Index evidenced this. There were a lot of instances where women are psychologically traumatized, whether it is through domestic rape, purchased sexual services in the red light area, and seduction or violation of neighbors, relatives, daughter or child. The economic changes linked with globalization and media's influence have worsened women's position. The policy for empowerment of women is an attempt toward ensuring equity. Furthermore, many women and women's organizations are trying to address these inequities; wherein they fight for strong acceptance of women's rights, social, economic, and political rights, as well as equities between gender and within gender.

  16. Making the Most of the Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA): Helping States Focus on School Equity, Quality and Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penuel, William; Meyer, Elizabeth; Valladares, Michelle Renée

    2016-01-01

    Staff in State Departments of Education are diligently reviewing and revising their state accountability systems to meet the new requirements and opportunities of the Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA). ESSA is the latest reauthorization of the 1965 Elementary and Secondary Education Act, the primary federal bill guiding K-12 education policy. As a…

  17. 77 FR 61620 - Privacy Act of 1974; Home Equity Reverse Mortgage Information Technology (HERMIT)-Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-10

    ... or default. Authority for maintenance of the system: Section 255 of the National Housing Act of 1934... 24x7 security guards including electronic access and surveillance capabilities (CCTV and recorders...

  18. Neutral forces acting on intragenomic variability shape the Escherichia coli regulatory network topology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruths, Troy; Nakhleh, Luay

    2013-05-07

    Cis-regulatory networks (CRNs) play a central role in cellular decision making. Like every other biological system, CRNs undergo evolution, which shapes their properties by a combination of adaptive and nonadaptive evolutionary forces. Teasing apart these forces is an important step toward functional analyses of the different components of CRNs, designing regulatory perturbation experiments, and constructing synthetic networks. Although tests of neutrality and selection based on molecular sequence data exist, no such tests are currently available based on CRNs. In this work, we present a unique genotype model of CRNs that is grounded in a genomic context and demonstrate its use in identifying portions of the CRN with properties explainable by neutral evolutionary forces at the system, subsystem, and operon levels. We leverage our model against experimentally derived data from Escherichia coli. The results of this analysis show statistically significant and substantial neutral trends in properties previously identified as adaptive in origin--degree distribution, clustering coefficient, and motifs--within the E. coli CRN. Our model captures the tightly coupled genome-interactome of an organism and enables analyses of how evolutionary events acting at the genome level, such as mutation, and at the population level, such as genetic drift, give rise to neutral patterns that we can quantify in CRNs.

  19. Implementation of the waste management transfer act. Requirements from a regulatory point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller-Dehn, Christian

    2017-01-01

    In future in Germany, the state will be responsible for financing and handling the interim and final storage of radioactive waste from nuclear power plants. With regard to interim storage, this objective is achieved with the provisions of the Waste Management Transfer Act. Regulatory implementation is based on these regulations. BGZ Gesellschaft fuer Zwischenlager mbH is responsible for interim storage on behalf of the Federal Government. Simultaneously with the transfer of interim storage facilities to BGZ a legal transfer of approval is carried out. Insofar as there is a technical, organisational or personnel conjunction with the nuclear power plant operation, which continues to exist beyond this deadline and is relevant for regulatory purposes, a regulation is made via a service contract with the BGZ. This ensures compliance with the licensing regulations. Irradiated fuel assemblies and the waste from reprocessing can be handed over to BGZ from 1 January 2019 onwards and waste with negligible heat generation can be disposed of as of the determination of their proper packaging.

  20. Advocates for Women's Sports Say 1988 Civil-Rights Act Has Not Brought Hoped-for Equity with Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberlander, Susan

    1989-01-01

    The passage of the Civil Rights Restoration Act of 1988 was seen by advocates of women's sports as a powerful tool to redress sex imbalances in college sports programs, but few sex discrimination complaints have been filed as a result. The reasons are disputed and not fully understood. (MSE)

  1. Recent developments in the Clean Water Act: Section 404 regulatory program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelsch, T. (EPA, Washington, DC (United States))

    1992-12-01

    Since the late 1970's and the 1980's, the Nation has become increasingly aware of the vital role wetlands play in providing habitat, protecting us from flooding and maintaining surface water quality. This public awakening came at the same time that the Fish and Wildlife Service's National Wetlands Inventory published reports indicating that less than one half of the wetlands that existed when the Europeans came to the US remain. The reports also indicated that the US was continuing to lose approximately 450,000 acres of our wetlands per year. Although recent data updating the status and trends of wetland losses for the 1980's indicate that the rate of loss has decreased, the Fish and Wildlife Service estimates indicate that approximately 290,000 acres of wetlands are still lost each year. Any loss in the natural functions provided by wetlands is not just felt in the environment; we simultaneously sustain, as a loss to our national economy, a decline in the income that could have been derived from the fisheries, recreation and other critical services performed by wetland systems. Clearly wetlands merit protection. However, in the US, where over 75 percent of our remaining wetlands are on private property, the protection of wetlands is often a difficult and sometimes contentious issue -- evoking debate about private property rights, economic development, the public interest in protecting wetland values, and the kind of world we wish to leave for future generations. Section 404 of the Clean Water Act establishes the primary Federal regulatory program providing protection for the Nation's remaining wetlands. The Section 404 permit program is recognized by both its supporters and critics as one of the strongest, yet often most contentious, Federal environmental protection programs. This presentation provides an overview of the Section 404 regulatory requirements and discusses some of the recent developments that have stirred considerable

  2. The rules implementing sections 201 and 210 of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978: A regulatory history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danziger, R. N.

    1980-01-01

    The act provides that utilities must purchase power for qualifying producers of electricity at nondiscriminatory rates. It exempts private generators from virtually all state and federal utility regulation. Pertinent reference material is provided.

  3. Regulatory policy issues and the Clean Air Act: Issues and papers from the state implementation workshops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, K. [ed.; Burns, R.E.

    1993-07-01

    The National Regulatory Research Institute (NRRI), with funding from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the US Department of Energy (DOE), conducted four regional workshops` on state public utility commission implementation of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA). The workshops had four objectives: (1) to discuss key issues and concerns on CAAA implementation, (2) to encourage a discussion among states on issues of common interests, (3) to attempt to reach consensus, where possible, on key issues, and (4) to provide the workshop participants with information and materials to assist in developing state rules, orders, and procedures. From the federal perspective, a primary goal was to ensure that workshop participants return to their states with a comprehensive background and understanding of how state commission actions may affect implementation of the CAAA and to be able to provide guidance to their jurisdictional utilities. It was hoped that this would reduce some of the uncertainty utilities face and assist in the development of an efficient allowance market. This report is divided into two main sections. In Section II, eleven principal issues are identified and discussed. These issues were chosen because they were either the most frequently discussed or they were related to the questions asked in response to the speakers` presentations. This section does not cover all the issues relevant to state implementation nor all the issues discussed at the workshops; rather, Section II is intended to provide an overview of the,planning, ratemaking, and multistate issues. Part III is a series of workshop papers presented by some of the speakers. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  4. Equity Valuation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Ove; Feltham, Gerald A.

    , interest rates, expected equity returns, and inflation rates are all stochastic. We explicitly characterize the risk-adjustments to the fundamentals in an equilibrium setting. We show how the term structure of risk-adjustments depends on both the time-series properties of the free cash flows......-coupon interest rates. We show that standard estimates of the cost of capital, based on historical stock returns, are likely to be a significantly biased measure of the firm’s cost of capital, but also that the bias is almost impossible to quantify empirically. The new approach recognizes that, in practice......We review and critically examine the standard approach to equity valuation using a constant risk-adjusted cost of capital, and we develop a new valuation approach discounting risk-adjusted fundamentals, such as expected free cash flows and residual operating income, using nominal zero...

  5. Brand equity

    OpenAIRE

    Hildebrandt, Lutz; Tischer, Sven

    2012-01-01

    To explore how occurring critical incidents affect customer-brand relations, this study measures the impact on the basis of an online experiment. For this purpose, 1,122 usable responses are gathered considering the smartphone brands of Apple and Nokia as well as different scenarios. The respective reactions to these negative incidents are evaluated using the concept of customer-based brand equity. More precisely, a structure equation model is specified and differences in latent factor means ...

  6. Rising equity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burr, M.T.

    1992-01-01

    This article reports on the results of a financial rankings survey of the independent energy industry indicating that lenders and investors provided more than five billion dollars in capital for new, private power projects during the first six months of 1992. The topics of the article include rising equity requirements, corporate finance, mergers and acquisitions, project finance investors, revenue bonds, project finance lenders for new projects, project finance lenders for restructurings, and project finance advisors

  7. The Employment Equity Act, 1998

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MJM Venter

    EEA from our equality jurisprudence in terms of section 9 of the Bill of Rights. ..... standard, in effect applied a form of fairness review to the case at hand.16 Cameron J .... gender representation to the third decimal;26 Coetzer's non-filling of ...... four black women, nine coloured men, one coloured woman, seven Indian men, ...

  8. The Employment Equity Act, 1998

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MJM Venter

    gender representation to the third decimal;26 Coetzer's non-filling of essential .... Alleged discrimination under the Constitution … raises its own problems. ..... of a racial balance in the workforce are just too numerous and significant for this.

  9. The Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act evaluation study: Impact on specialty behavioral healthcare utilization and spending among enrollees with substance use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Sarah; Xu, Haiyong; Harwood, Jessica M; Azocar, Francisca; Hurley, Brian; Ettner, Susan L

    2017-09-01

    The federal Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act (MHPAEA) sought to eliminate historical disparities between behavioral health and medical health insurance benefits among the commercially insured. This study determines whether MHPAEA was associated with increased BH expenditures and utilization among a population with substance use disorder (SUD) diagnoses. Claims and eligibility data from 5,987,776 enrollees, 2008-2013, were obtained from a national, commercial, managed behavioral health organization. An interrupted time series study design with segmented regression analysis estimated time trends of per-member-per-month (PMPM) spending and use before (2008-2009), during (2010), and after (2011-2013) MHPAEA compliance. The study sample contained individuals with drug or alcohol use disorder diagnosis during study period (N=2,716,473 member-month observations). Outcomes included: total, plan, patient out-of-pocket spending; outpatient utilization (assessment/diagnostic evaluation visits; medication management; individual, group and family psychotherapy, and structured outpatient care); intermediate care utilization (day treatment; recovery home and residential); and inpatient utilization. Starting at the beginning of the post-parity period, MHPAEA was associated with increased levels of PMPM total and plan spending ($25.80 [p=0.01]; $28.33 [p=0.00], respectively), as well as the number of PMPM assessment/evaluation, individual psychotherapy, and group psychotherapy visits, and inpatient days (0.01 visits [p=0.01]; 0.02 visits [p=0.01]; 0.01 visits [p=0.03]; 0.01days [p=0.01], respectively). Following these initial level changes, MHPAEA was also associated with monthly increases in PMPM total, plan, and patent out-of-pocket spending ($2.56/month [p=0.00]; $2.25/month [p=0.00]; $0.27 [p=0.03], respectively), as well as structured outpatient visits and inpatient days (0.0012 visits/month [p=0.01]; 0.0012days/month [p=0.00]). MHPAEA was associated with modest

  10. A saturation screen for cis-acting regulatory DNA in the Hox genes of Ciona intestinalis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keys, David N.; Lee, Byung-in; Di Gregorio, Anna; Harafuji, Naoe; Detter, Chris; Wang, Mei; Kahsai, Orsalem; Ahn, Sylvia; Arellano, Andre; Zhang, Quin; Trong, Stephan; Doyle, Sharon A.; Satoh, Noriyuki; Satou, Yutaka; Saiga, Hidetoshi; Christian, Allen; Rokhsar, Dan; Hawkins, Trevor L.; Levine, Mike; Richardson, Paul

    2005-01-05

    A screen for the systematic identification of cis-regulatory elements within large (>100 kb) genomic domains containing Hox genes was performed by using the basal chordate Ciona intestinalis. Randomly generated DNA fragments from bacterial artificial chromosomes containing two clusters of Hox genes were inserted into a vector upstream of a minimal promoter and lacZ reporter gene. A total of 222 resultant fusion genes were separately electroporated into fertilized eggs, and their regulatory activities were monitored in larvae. In sum, 21 separable cis-regulatory elements were found. These include eight Hox linked domains that drive expression in nested anterior-posterior domains of ectodermally derived tissues. In addition to vertebrate-like CNS regulation, the discovery of cis-regulatory domains that drive epidermal transcription suggests that C. intestinalis has arthropod-like Hox patterning in the epidermis.

  11. Reviewing the Suitability of Affirmative Action and the Inherent Requirements of the Job as Grounds of Justification to Equal Pay Claims in Terms Of the Employment Equity Act 55 of 1998

    OpenAIRE

    Shamier

    2018-01-01

    The Employment Equity Act 55 of 1998 ("EEA") has been amended to include a specific provision dealing with equal pay claims in the form of section 6(4). Section 6(4) of the EEA prohibits unfair discrimination in terms and conditions of employment between employees performing the same or substantially the same work or work of equal value. The Minister of Labour has issued Regulations and a Code to assist with the implementation of the principle of equal pay. Both the Regulations and the Code s...

  12. Equity Valuation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Ove; Feltham, Gerald A.

    -coupon interest rates. We show that standard estimates of the cost of capital, based on historical stock returns, are likely to be a significantly biased measure of the firm’s cost of capital, but also that the bias is almost impossible to quantify empirically. The new approach recognizes that, in practice......We review and critically examine the standard approach to equity valuation using a constant risk-adjusted cost of capital, and we develop a new valuation approach discounting risk-adjusted fundamentals, such as expected free cash flows and residual operating income, using nominal zero...

  13. Equity Valuation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Ove; Feltham, Gerald A.

    -coupon interest rates. We show that standard estimates of the cost of capital, based on historical stock returns, are likely to be a significantly biased measure of the firm’s cost of capital, but also that the bias is almost impossible to quantify empirically. The new approach recognizes that, in practice......, interest rates, expected equity returns, and inflation rates are all stochastic. We explicitly characterize the risk-adjustments to the fundamentals in an equilibrium setting. We show how the term structure of risk-adjustments depends on both the time-series properties of the free cash flows...

  14. Medicaid and Children's Health Insurance Programs; Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act of 2008; the Application of Mental Health Parity Requirements to Coverage Offered by Medicaid Managed Care Organizations, the Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP), and Alternative Benefit Plans. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-30

    This final rule will address the application of certain requirements set forth in the Public Health Service Act, as amended by the Paul Wellstone and Pete Domenici Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act of 2008, to coverage offered by Medicaid managed care organizations, Medicaid Alternative Benefit Plans, and Children’s Health Insurance Programs.

  15. 78 FR 42484 - Small Entity Size Standards Under the Regulatory Flexibility Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ... out the purposes of the Small Business Act. An agency may establish other definitions for ``small... Act (RFA) and request for public comment. SUMMARY: The Board is proposing to define ``small business... them within the definition of a Class III rail carrier. DATES: Comments are due by August 15, 2013. FOR...

  16. Private Equity Waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.T.J. Smit (Han); W.A. van den Berg (Ward)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThis study presents a dynamic model for the private equity market in which information revelation and uncertainty rationally explain the cyclical pattern of investment flows into private equity. The net benefit of private equity over public equity is i) uncertain and ii) agents have

  17. Revisions to the Clean Water Act Regulatory Definition of Discharge of Dredged Material; Final Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated a final rule Amending a Clean Water Act (CWA) section 404 regulation that defines the term discharge of dredged material.

  18. Regulatory restrictions and energy: The impact of the Jones Act on spot gasoline prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gius, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to estimate the effects of the Jones Act on spot gasoline prices. Although the Jones Act pertains to the domestic shipment of all types of goods, the present study will only focus on gasoline. The present study will use data obtained from the Energy Information Administration in order to determine if the price of gasoline declined during Jones Act waiver periods. Looking at daily prices, the results regarding the effects of the Jones Act on spot gasoline prices are mixed. When using a t-test, the results indicated either that there was no significant difference or that prices were actually higher during the waiver periods. When using a first-order autoregressive model, it was found that prices were lower during the 2005 waiver period but higher during the 2012 waiver. Given these inconclusive results, it is not possible to conclude that the Jones Act restrictions contribute to higher gasoline prices. - Highlights: • I examine the effect of the Jones Act on spot gasoline prices. • I use daily price data over a seven year period. • I find that the results are mixed. • For the Hurricane Katrina waiver, prices fell, but for the Hurricane Sandy waiver, prices rose

  19. 75 FR 55295 - List of Rules To Be Reviewed Pursuant to the Regulatory Flexibility Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-10

    ... securities held or to be acquired by the fund. The rule requires 17j-1 organizations to adopt codes of ethics... liability for manipulation under Sections 9(a)(2) and 10(b) of the Exchange Act, and Rule 10b-5 thereunder...

  20. PlantCARE, a database of plant cis-acting regulatory elements and a portal to tools for in silico analysis of promoter sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Lescot, Magali; Déhais, Patrice; Thijs, Gert; Marchal, Kathleen; Moreau, Yves; Van de Peer, Yves; Rouzé, Pierre; Rombauts, Stephane

    2002-01-01

    PlantCARE is a database of plant cis-acting regulatory elements, enhancers and repressors. Regulatory elements are represented by positional matrices, consensus sequences and individual sites on particular promoter sequences. Links to the EMBL, TRANSFAC and MEDLINE databases are provided when available. Data about the transcription sites are extracted mainly from the literature, supplemented with an increasing number of in silico predicted data. Apart from a general description for specific t...

  1. PROSPECT improves cis-acting regulatory element prediction by integrating expression profile data with consensus pattern searches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujibuchi, Wataru; Anderson, John S. J.; Landsman, David

    2001-01-01

    Consensus pattern and matrix-based searches designed to predict cis-acting transcriptional regulatory sequences have historically been subject to large numbers of false positives. We sought to decrease false positives by incorporating expression profile data into a consensus pattern-based search method. We have systematically analyzed the expression phenotypes of over 6000 yeast genes, across 121 expression profile experiments, and correlated them with the distribution of 14 known regulatory elements over sequences upstream of the genes. Our method is based on a metric we term probabilistic element assessment (PEA), which is a ranking of potential sites based on sequence similarity in the upstream regions of genes with similar expression phenotypes. For eight of the 14 known elements that we examined, our method had a much higher selectivity than a naïve consensus pattern search. Based on our analysis, we have developed a web-based tool called PROSPECT, which allows consensus pattern-based searching of gene clusters obtained from microarray data. PMID:11574681

  2. A trans-acting Variant within the Transcription Factor RIM101 Interacts with Genetic Background to Determine its Regulatory Capacity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Read

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Most genetic variants associated with disease occur within regulatory regions of the genome, underscoring the importance of defining the mechanisms underlying differences in regulation of gene expression between individuals. We discovered a pair of co-regulated, divergently oriented transcripts, AQY2 and ncFRE6, that are expressed in one strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, ∑1278b, but not in another, S288c. By combining classical genetics techniques with high-throughput sequencing, we identified a trans-acting single nucleotide polymorphism within the transcription factor RIM101 that causes the background-dependent expression of both transcripts. Subsequent RNA-seq experiments revealed that RIM101 regulates many more targets in S288c than in ∑1278b and that deletion of RIM101 in both backgrounds abrogates the majority of differential expression between the strains. Strikingly, only three transcripts undergo a significant change in expression after swapping RIM101 alleles between backgrounds, implying that the differences in the RIM101 allele lead to a remarkably focused transcriptional response. However, hundreds of RIM101-dependent targets undergo a subtle but consistent shift in expression in the S288c RIM101-swapped strain, but not its ∑1278b counterpart. We conclude that ∑1278b may harbor a variant(s that buffers against widespread transcriptional dysregulation upon introduction of a non-native RIM101 allele, emphasizing the importance of accounting for genetic background when assessing the impact of a regulatory variant.

  3. Customer Equity von KMUs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemel, Friedhelm W.; Henseler, Jörg; Meyer, Jorn-Axel

    2003-01-01

    Customer relationships are most important assets of many SMEs. Customer Equity is the sum of the values of all customer relationships. Customer Equity will not be found in any balance sheet, nevertheless it has strategic importance. Even if companies do not want to publish their Customer Equity for

  4. Identification of cis-acting regulatory elements in the human oxytocin gene promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, S; Zingg, H H

    1991-12-01

    The expression of hormone-inducible genes is determined by the interaction of trans-acting factors with hormone-inducible elements and elements mediating basal and cell-specific expression. We have shown earlier that the gene encoding the hypothalamic nonapeptide oxytocin (OT) is under the control of an estrogen response element (ERE). The present study was aimed at identifying cis-acting elements mediating basal expression of the OT gene. A construct containing sequences -381 to +36 of the human OT gene was linked to a reporter gene and transiently transfected into a series of neuronal and nonneuronal cell lines. Expression of this construct was cell specific: it was highest in the neuroblastoma-derived cell line, Neuro-2a, and lowest in NIH 3T3 and JEG-3 cells. By 5' deletion analysis, we determined that a segment from -49 to +36 was capable of mediating cells-pecific promoter activity. Within this segment, we identified three proximal promoter elements (PPE-1, PPE-2, and PPE-3) that are each required for promoter activity. Most notably, mutation of a conserved purine-rich element (GAGAGA) contained within PPE-2 leads to a 10-fold decrease in promoter strength. Gel mobility shift analysis with three different double-stranded oligonucleotides demonstrated that each proximal promoter element binds distinct nuclear factors. In each case, only the homologous oligonucleotide, but neither of the oligonucleotides corresponding to adjacent elements, was able to act as a competitor. Thus, a different set of factors appears to bind independently to each element. By reinserting the homologous ERE or a heterologous glucocorticoid response element upstream of intact or altered proximal promoter segments we determined that removal or mutation of proximal promoter elements decreases basal expression, but does not abrogate the hormone responsiveness of the promoter. In conclusion, these results indicate that an important component of the transcriptional activity of the OT

  5. Diverse activities of viral cis-acting RNA regulatory elements revealed using multicolor, long-term, single-cell imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocock, Ginger M; Zimdars, Laraine L; Yuan, Ming; Eliceiri, Kevin W; Ahlquist, Paul; Sherer, Nathan M

    2017-02-01

    Cis-acting RNA structural elements govern crucial aspects of viral gene expression. How these structures and other posttranscriptional signals affect RNA trafficking and translation in the context of single cells is poorly understood. Herein we describe a multicolor, long-term (>24 h) imaging strategy for measuring integrated aspects of viral RNA regulatory control in individual cells. We apply this strategy to demonstrate differential mRNA trafficking behaviors governed by RNA elements derived from three retroviruses (HIV-1, murine leukemia virus, and Mason-Pfizer monkey virus), two hepadnaviruses (hepatitis B virus and woodchuck hepatitis virus), and an intron-retaining transcript encoded by the cellular NXF1 gene. Striking behaviors include "burst" RNA nuclear export dynamics regulated by HIV-1's Rev response element and the viral Rev protein; transient aggregations of RNAs into discrete foci at or near the nuclear membrane triggered by multiple elements; and a novel, pulsiform RNA export activity regulated by the hepadnaviral posttranscriptional regulatory element. We incorporate single-cell tracking and a data-mining algorithm into our approach to obtain RNA element-specific, high-resolution gene expression signatures. Together these imaging assays constitute a tractable, systems-based platform for studying otherwise difficult to access spatiotemporal features of viral and cellular gene regulation. © 2017 Pocock et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  6. Equity and nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrader-Frechette, K.

    1994-01-01

    Following the recommendations of the US National Academy of Sciences and the mandates of the 1987 Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act, the US Department of Energy has proposed Yucca Mountain, Nevada as the site of the world's first permanent repository for high-level nuclear waste. The main justification for permanent disposal (as opposed to above-ground storage) is that it guarantees safety by means of waste isolation. This essay argues, however, that considerations of equity (safer for whom?) undercut the safety rationale. The article surveys some prima facie arguments for equity in the distribution of radwaste risks and then evaluates four objections that are based, respectively, on practicality, compensation for risks, scepticism about duties to future generations, and the uranium criterion. The conclusion is that, at least under existing regulations and policies, permanent waste disposal is highly questionable, in part, because it fails to distribute risk equitably or to compensate, in full, for this inequity

  7. Marketing assets: relating brand equity and customer equity

    OpenAIRE

    Romero, Jaime; Yagüe, María J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Brand equity and customer equity are inextricably linked. Some authors propose that marketing activities build these intangible assets simultaneously. In contrast, others suggest that brand equity is an antecedent of customer equity. In this research, we aim to shed light about the relationship between brand equity and customer equity, by empirically testing these two alternative explanations. Design/methodology/approach: We propose four research models that reflect these two alte...

  8. Impact of hepatitis C virus polymorphisms on direct-acting antiviral treatment efficacy: Regulatory analyses and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Patrick R; Komatsu, Takashi E; Deming, Damon J; Donaldson, Eric F; O'Rear, Julian J; Naeger, Lisa K

    2018-06-01

    Several highly effective, interferon-free, direct-acting antiviral (DAA)-based regimens are available for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Despite impressive efficacy overall, a small proportion of patients in registrational trials experienced treatment failure, which in some cases was associated with the detection of HCV resistance-associated substitutions (RASs) at baseline. In this article, we describe methods and key findings from independent regulatory analyses investigating the impact of baseline nonstructural (NS) 3 Q80K and NS5A RASs on the efficacy of current United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved regimens for patients with HCV genotype (GT) 1 or GT3 infection. These analyses focused on clinical trials that included patients who were previously naïve to the DAA class(es) in their investigational regimen and characterized the impact of baseline RASs that were enriched in the viral population as natural or transmitted polymorphisms (i.e., not drug-selected RASs). We used a consistent approach to optimize comparability of results across different DAA regimens and patient populations, including the use of a 15% sensitivity cutoff for next-generation sequencing results and standardized lists of NS5A RASs. These analyses confirmed that detection of NS3 Q80K or NS5A baseline RASs was associated with reduced treatment efficacy for multiple DAA regimens, but their impact was often minimized with the use of an intensified treatment regimen, such as a longer treatment duration and/or addition of ribavirin. We discuss the drug resistance-related considerations that contributed to pretreatment resistance testing and treatment recommendations in drug labeling for FDA-approved DAA regimens. Independent regulatory analyses confirmed that baseline HCV RASs can reduce the efficacy of certain DAA-based regimens in selected patient groups. However, highly effective treatment options are available for patients with or without

  9. Government Performance and Results Act: Performance plan FY 1999, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuches, J.L.

    1998-02-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (NRC) strategic plan [NUREG-1614, Vol. 1, September 1997] establishes a strategic framework that will guide future decision-making and will help the NRC continue to meet its responsibility for protecting public health and safety, promoting the common defense and security, and protecting the environment. This performance plan complements the agency`s strategic plan by setting annual goals with measurable target levels of performance for FY 1999, as required by the Government Performance and Results Act. No significant contribution was made to the preparation of the performance plan by any non-Federal entity. However, a contractor was used to help facilitate discussions and resolution of issues. Within six months after the close of FY 1999, the NRC will submit to the President and the Congress a report on program performance for FY 1999. This performance report will review the success of the agency in achieving the performance goals established for FY 1999. Where those goals have been achieved, the underlying assumptions and strategies will be examined to ensure that continued applicability is warranted in the future. If any of the FY 1999 performance goals are not met, the agency will conduct a thorough analysis of why it did not meet the goal and the actions necessary to meet-the goal in the future. One result of this analysis will be the documentation of plans and schedules for achieving the established performance goal. If the analysis should indicate that the performance goal is impractical or infeasible, the performance report will document why that is the case and what action is recommended.

  10. Government Performance and Results Act: Performance plan FY 1999, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuches, J.L.

    1998-02-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) strategic plan [NUREG-1614, Vol. 1, September 1997] establishes a strategic framework that will guide future decision-making and will help the NRC continue to meet its responsibility for protecting public health and safety, promoting the common defense and security, and protecting the environment. This performance plan complements the agency's strategic plan by setting annual goals with measurable target levels of performance for FY 1999, as required by the Government Performance and Results Act. No significant contribution was made to the preparation of the performance plan by any non-Federal entity. However, a contractor was used to help facilitate discussions and resolution of issues. Within six months after the close of FY 1999, the NRC will submit to the President and the Congress a report on program performance for FY 1999. This performance report will review the success of the agency in achieving the performance goals established for FY 1999. Where those goals have been achieved, the underlying assumptions and strategies will be examined to ensure that continued applicability is warranted in the future. If any of the FY 1999 performance goals are not met, the agency will conduct a thorough analysis of why it did not meet the goal and the actions necessary to meet-the goal in the future. One result of this analysis will be the documentation of plans and schedules for achieving the established performance goal. If the analysis should indicate that the performance goal is impractical or infeasible, the performance report will document why that is the case and what action is recommended

  11. Equal pay for work of equal value in terms of the Employment Equity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lastly, this article seeks to ascertain whether the EEA (including the Employment Equity Regulations) provides an adequate legal framework for determining an equal pay for work of equal value claim. Keywords: Equal pay; Employment Equity Act; Equality Act; International Labour Organisation; Equal Pay Guide; Equal ...

  12. Rock Equity Holdings, LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA is providing notice of an Administrative Penalty Assessment in the form of an Expedited Storm Water Settlement Agreement against Rock Equity Holdings, LLC, for alleged violations at The Cove at Kettlestone/98th Street Reconstruction located at 3015

  13. Brands and Brand Equity

    OpenAIRE

    Brunello Adrian

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays brands have become significant drivers for product purchasing and usage decisions. Thus, they constitute a substantial intangible asset for most companies. In order to gain customers and make them become loyal, firms have to establish the equity of the brand and present it in a clear and visible way to their target market. Therefore the topic of brand equity plays a major role in the creation and development of product and company brand strategy. The paper focuses on some general inf...

  14. Reviewing the Suitability of Affirmative Action and the Inherent Requirements of the Job as Grounds of Justification to Equal Pay Claims in Terms Of the Employment Equity Act 55 of 1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamier

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Employment Equity Act 55 of 1998 ("EEA" has been amended to include a specific provision dealing with equal pay claims in the form of section 6(4. Section 6(4 of the EEA prohibits unfair discrimination in terms and conditions of employment between employees performing the same or substantially the same work or work of equal value. The Minister of Labour has issued Regulations and a Code to assist with the implementation of the principle of equal pay. Both the Regulations and the Code set out the criteria for assessing work of equal value as well as the grounds of justification to a claim of equal pay for work of equal value (factors justifying differentiation in terms and conditions of employment. The EEA refers to two grounds of justification in respect of unfair discrimination claims, namely affirmative action and the inherent requirements of the job. There is support for the view that these grounds of justification are not suitable to equal pay claims. There is a contrary view that these grounds of justification can apply to equal pay claims. The Labour Courts have not had the opportunity to analyse these grounds of justification in the context of equal pay claims. It is thus necessary to analyse these grounds of justification in order to ascertain whether they provide justifications proper to equal pay claims. The purpose of this article is to analyse the grounds of justification of pay discrimination as contained in South African law, the Conventions and Materials of the International Labour Organisation and the equal pay laws of the United Kingdom. Lastly, an analysis will be undertaken to determine whether affirmative action and the inherent requirements of the job provide justifications proper to equal pay claims.

  15. Stakeholders in Equity-Based Crowdfunding: Respective Risks Over the Equity Crowdfunding Lifecycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semen Son Turan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this paper is to present a thorough research on the risk categories and specific risk factors that each immediate stakeholder faces over the equity crowdfunding lifecycle.Methodology. This study employs an exploratory approach, supported by current data to understand the global equity crowdfunding setting and the stakes for major players.Findings. Findings show that, although equity crowdfunding, can be a unique opportunity especially for underdeveloped countries and SMEs who have difficulty obtaining funding elsewhere, is also a potential peril for those who ignore or underestimate the overall and stand-alone risks that come along with each stage of the process. The findings have implications for all ventures seeking alternative financing venues, investors and equity crowdsourcing platforms. Furthermore, they pinpoint potential areas of further investigation for researchers and policy makers.Originality/Value. This study differentiates itself from the limited number of papers on equity crowdfunding, as a newly developing field of academic research, in that it underscores financial, regulatory, operational, reputational and strategic risks from several perspectives and offers recommendations on how these risks can be addressed.

  16. Health Equity Talk: Understandings of Health Equity among Health Leaders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadette M. Pauly

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Reducing health inequities is a stated goal of health systems worldwide. There is widespread commitment to health equity among public health leaders and calls for reorientation of health systems towards health equity. As part of the Equity Lens in Public Health (ELPH program of research, public health decision makers and researchers in British Columbia collaborated to study the application of a health equity lens in a time of health system renewal. We drew on intersectionality, complexity and critical social justice theories to understand how participants construct health equity and apply a health equity lens as part of public health renewal. Methods: 15 focus groups and 16 individual semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 55 health system leaders. Data were analyzed using constant comparative analysis to explore how health equity was constructed in relation to understandings and actions. Results: Four main themes were identified in terms of how health care leaders construct health equity and actions to reduce health inequities: (1 population health, (2 determinants of health, and (3 accessibility and (4 challenges of health equity talk. The first three aspects of health equity talk reflect different understandings of health equity rooted in vulnerability (individual versus structural, determinants of health (material versus social determinants, and appropriate health system responses (targeted versus universal responses. Participants identified that talking about health equity in the health care system, either inside or outside of public health, is a ‘challenging conversation’ because health equity is understood in diverse ways and there is little guidance available to apply a health equity lens. Conclusions: These findings reflect the importance of creating a shared understanding of health equity within public health systems, and providing guidance and clarity as to the meaning and application of a health

  17. Investigation of the feasibility of toll and transit agency equity sharing : white paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-12

    This research project frames the institutional constraints and opportunities for equity sharing that currently exist in the highway, transit and toll agency realms and identifies statutory, regulatory and/or policy changes that may be requried. It al...

  18. Impact of telephone nursing education program for equity in healthcare

    OpenAIRE

    H?glund, Anna T.; Carlsson, Marianne; Holmstr?m, Inger K.; Kaminsky, Elenor

    2016-01-01

    Background The Swedish Healthcare Act prescribes that healthcare should be provided according to needs and with respect for each person?s human dignity. The goal is equity in health for the whole population. In spite of this, studies have revealed that Swedish healthcare is not always provided equally. This has also been observed in telephone nursing. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate if and how an educational intervention can improve awareness of equity in healthcare...

  19. Gender, equity, and job satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-02-01

    Although equity theory has served as a theoretical framework applying to most individuals in most situations, empirical research suggests that gender may affect the utility of equity theory in explaining organizational behaviors. Studies have indicat...

  20. 基于新监管框架的中国股权众筹的“热发展”与“冷思考”%The"Rapid Development"and"Deep Thinking"on China's Equity-Based Crowdfunding under the New Regulatory Framework

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭红枫; 赵海燕

    2016-01-01

    Based on the development characteristics and the current situation of China's equity-based crowdfund-ing, this article not only verifies the development feasibilities of equity-based crowdfunding in China from four per-spectives including the policy environment, economic environment, social environment and technological environ-ment, with the help of PEST analysis, but also explores the breakthroughs for the development of China's equity-based crowdfunding under the new regulatory framework through learning from the experience of the development of foreign crowdfunding in UK and US. It suggests that we should make clear the market orientation,simplify the financ-ing procedure, reduce the financing restraints, improve the after-financing management mechanism and focus on the mode innovation.%本文立足于股权众筹在中国的发展特征、现状的基础上,运用PEST分析法从政策环境、经济环境、社会环境和技术环境四个角度证实了中国具备股权众筹发展的可行性,而且通过研究英美股权众筹的发展经验来寻找新监管框架下中国股权众筹的发展突破口,提出明确市场定位、简化融资流程且减少融资约束、完善融后管理机制、注重模式创新等建议。

  1. Marketing assets: Relating brand equity and customer equity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Romero

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Brand equity and customer equity are inextricably linked. Some authors propose that marketing activities build these intangible assets simultaneously. In contrast, others suggest that brand equity is an antecedent of customer equity. In this research, we aim to shed light about the relationship between brand equity and customer equity, by empirically testing these two alternative explanations. Design/methodology/approach: We propose four research models that reflect these two alternatives explanations regarding the link between brand equity and customer equity. In order to estimate these models we employ Structural Equations Modelling. We measure model variables using data collected through a survey to marketing managers of services companies that operate in Spain. We compare these four research models in terms of explanatory power and goodness of fit. Findings: Our results indicate that the models that correspond to the simultaneity approach have a higher explanatory power and goodness of fit than the models that suggest that brand equity is an antecedent of customer equity, thus supporting that these intangible assets are built by marketing activities at the same time. Research limitations/implications: Our results recommend caution when interpreting previous research about the effects of brand (customer equity, as they might indeed correspond to customer (brand management. Similarly, future research focusing on customer and brand management need to take into account both managerial areas in their studies. Practical implications: From a practitioners’ point of view, our findings suggest adopting a brand-customer portfolio approach to enhance company profitability. Similarly, we derive implications for firm valuation processes, which incorporate brand equity and customer equity in their calculations. Originality/value: We empirically study the relationship between brand equity and customer equity, while previous research has analyzed

  2. Regulatory risks associated with nuclear safety legislation after Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Accident in Japan. Focus on legal structure of the nuclear reactor regulation act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, Tomoyuki; Maruyama, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear safety regulations enforced after Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Accident under the Nuclear Reactor Regulation Act face the following regulatory problems that involve potential risk factors for nuclear businesses; 1) 'entity based regulation' unable to cope with business cessation or bankruptcy of the entity subject of regulation, 2) potential risk of the Nuclear Regulation Authority's inappropriate involvement in nuclear industry policy beyond their duty, and 3) compliance of backfits under vague regulations. In order to alleviate them, this report, through analyzing these regulatory problems from the view point of sound development of the nuclear industry, proposes the following regulatory reforms; (1) To clarify the rule for industry policy in nuclear regulations and enable the authority, Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry, to choose most appropriate industrial policy measure. (2) Through establishing safety goals as measures to promote continuous improvement of nuclear safety regulations, to stimulate timely adjustments of the regulations, and to introduce a legal mechanism into the nuclear regulation systems under which validity of administrative law and its application can be checked. (author)

  3. Positive- and negative-acting regulatory elements contribute to the tissue-specific expression of INNER NO OUTER, a YABBY-type transcription factor gene in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Marissa K

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The INNER NO OUTER (INO gene, which encodes a YABBY-type transcription factor, specifies and promotes the growth of the outer integument of the ovule in Arabidopsis. INO expression is limited to the abaxial cell layer of the developing outer integument of the ovule and is regulated by multiple regions of the INO promoter, including POS9, a positive element that when present in quadruplicate can produce low-level expression in the normal INO pattern. Results Significant redundancy in activity between different regions of the INO promoter is demonstrated. For specific regulatory elements, multimerization or the addition of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S general enhancer was able to activate expression of reporter gene constructs that were otherwise incapable of expression on their own. A new promoter element, POS6, is defined and is shown to include sufficient positive regulatory information to reproduce the endogenous pattern of expression in ovules, but other promoter regions are necessary to fully suppress expression outside of ovules. The full-length INO promoter, but not any of the INO promoter deletions tested, is able to act as an enhancer-blocking insulator to prevent the ectopic activation of expression by the 35S enhancer. Sequence conservation between the promoter regions of Arabidopsis thaliana, Brassica oleracea and Brassica rapa aligns closely with the functional definition of the POS6 and POS9 regions, and with a defined INO minimal promoter. The B. oleracea INO promoter is sufficient to promote a similar pattern and level of reporter gene expression in Arabidopsis to that observed for the Arabidopsis promoter. Conclusions At least two independent regions of the INO promoter contain sufficient regulatory information to direct the specific pattern but not the level of INO gene expression. These regulatory regions act in a partially redundant manner to promote the expression in a specific pattern in the ovule and

  4. Ownership options, financing structures, and regulatory considerations affecting independent power production projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, G.M.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper is a framework for analysis of the legal, financing, and policy differences between independent power production projects (IPPs) and projects with qualifying facility status (QFs) under the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA). At a basic level, there is no fundamental difference in types of ownership and financing structures available to IPPs and QFS. The key consideration, though, is the regulatory and legal implications to project participants. Significant issues arise for equity participants, lenders, developers, and project operators that are considering IPP projects. Of course, many of these same issues apply to certain types of QF projects that are not fully exempt from the Public Utility Holding Company Act (PUHCA) and the Federal Power Act (FPA)

  5. Organizing Equity Exchanges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaper, Torsten

    In the last years equity exchanges have diversified their operations into business areas such as derivatives trading, post-trading services, and software sales. Securities trading and post-trading are subject to economies of scale and scope. The integration of these functions into one institution ensures efficiency by economizing on transactions costs.

  6. Gender Equity Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington State Higher Education Coordinating Board, Olympia.

    Under a legislative mandate from the state of Washington, this report provides updated information on gender equity at each of the public institutions of higher education in Washington and at the community and technical colleges, as applicable. A look at student support and services shows that pay scales in student employment are not…

  7. Equity Literacy for All

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorski, Paul C.; Swalwell, Katy

    2015-01-01

    If the authors have learned anything working with schools across the United States, they've learned this: When it comes to educational equity, the trouble is not a lack of multicultural programs or diversity initiatives in schools. Nor is it a lack of educators who appreciate and even champion diversity. The trouble lies in how so many diversity…

  8. GRADE Equity Guidelines 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welch, Vivian A; Akl, Elie A; Pottie, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper is to describe a conceptual framework for how to consider health equity in the GRADE (Grading Recommendations Assessment and Development Evidence) guideline development process. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Consensus-based guidance developed by the GRADE working grou...

  9. Retinal Expression of the Drosophila eyes absent Gene Is Controlled by Several Cooperatively Acting Cis-regulatory Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuman, Sarah D.; Bashirullah, Arash; Kumar, Justin P.

    2016-01-01

    The eyes absent (eya) gene of the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, is a member of an evolutionarily conserved gene regulatory network that controls eye formation in all seeing animals. The loss of eya leads to the complete elimination of the compound eye while forced expression of eya in non-retinal tissues is sufficient to induce ectopic eye formation. Within the developing retina eya is expressed in a dynamic pattern and is involved in tissue specification/determination, cell proliferation, apoptosis, and cell fate choice. In this report we explore the mechanisms by which eya expression is spatially and temporally governed in the developing eye. We demonstrate that multiple cis-regulatory elements function cooperatively to control eya transcription and that spacing between a pair of enhancer elements is important for maintaining correct gene expression. Lastly, we show that the loss of eya expression in sine oculis (so) mutants is the result of massive cell death and a progressive homeotic transformation of retinal progenitor cells into head epidermis. PMID:27930646

  10. 17 CFR 1.21 - Care of money and equities accruing to customers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Care of money and equities... COMMISSION GENERAL REGULATIONS UNDER THE COMMODITY EXCHANGE ACT Customers' Money, Securities, and Property § 1.21 Care of money and equities accruing to customers. All money received directly or indirectly by...

  11. 75 FR 5452 - Regulations Under the Paul Wellstone and Pete Domenici Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-02

    ... Regulations Under the Paul Wellstone and Pete Domenici Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act of 2008... and Pete Domenici Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act of 2008 (MHPAEA). MHPAEA prohibits... collection techniques or other forms of information technology; and Estimates of capital or start-up costs...

  12. Implementation of the waste management transfer act. Requirements from a regulatory point of view; Zur Umsetzung des Entsorgungsuebergangsgesetzes. Anforderungen aus regulatorischer Sicht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller-Dehn, Christian [PreussenElektra GmbH, Hannover (Germany). Regulierung, Grundsatzfragen

    2017-11-15

    In future in Germany, the state will be responsible for financing and handling the interim and final storage of radioactive waste from nuclear power plants. With regard to interim storage, this objective is achieved with the provisions of the Waste Management Transfer Act. Regulatory implementation is based on these regulations. BGZ Gesellschaft fuer Zwischenlager mbH is responsible for interim storage on behalf of the Federal Government. Simultaneously with the transfer of interim storage facilities to BGZ a legal transfer of approval is carried out. Insofar as there is a technical, organisational or personnel conjunction with the nuclear power plant operation, which continues to exist beyond this deadline and is relevant for regulatory purposes, a regulation is made via a service contract with the BGZ. This ensures compliance with the licensing regulations. Irradiated fuel assemblies and the waste from reprocessing can be handed over to BGZ from 1 January 2019 onwards and waste with negligible heat generation can be disposed of as of the determination of their proper packaging.

  13. Securing energy equity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimsby, Lars Kare, E-mail: lars.grimsby@umb.no [Department of International Environment and Development Studies, Noragric, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, P.O. Box 5003, 1432 Aas (Norway)

    2011-11-15

    Addressing energy poverty rather than energy equity conveniently evades the problem of the gap in energy consumption per capita in the developed and developing world. For energy security policies to adequately address energy poverty it requires a widening of scope from national to global. This is a comment to the forthcoming presentation of IEA's proposition for a new architecture for financing universal modern energy access to be presented at the conference 'Energy for all-Financing access for the poor' held in Oslo in October 2011. - Highlights: > Addressing energy poverty may elude the disparity in energy consumption between rich and poor. > A minimum threshold of energy for the poor does not itself address inequity in energy consumption. > Energy equity may be secured by widening scope from national to global, from the poorest to us all.

  14. Securing energy equity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimsby, Lars Kare

    2011-01-01

    Addressing energy poverty rather than energy equity conveniently evades the problem of the gap in energy consumption per capita in the developed and developing world. For energy security policies to adequately address energy poverty it requires a widening of scope from national to global. This is a comment to the forthcoming presentation of IEA's proposition for a new architecture for financing universal modern energy access to be presented at the conference 'Energy for all-Financing access for the poor' held in Oslo in October 2011. - Highlights: → Addressing energy poverty may elude the disparity in energy consumption between rich and poor. → A minimum threshold of energy for the poor does not itself address inequity in energy consumption. → Energy equity may be secured by widening scope from national to global, from the poorest to us all.

  15. Valuing Private Equity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Morten; Wang, Neng; Yang, Jinqiang

    2014-01-01

    We investigate whether the performance of private equity (PE) investments is sufficient to compensate investors (LPs) for risk, long-term illiquidity, management, and incentive fees charged by the general partner (GP).We analyze the LPs’ portfolio-choice problem and find that management fees, car....... On average, LPs may just break even, net of management fees, carry, risk, and costs of illiquidity.......We investigate whether the performance of private equity (PE) investments is sufficient to compensate investors (LPs) for risk, long-term illiquidity, management, and incentive fees charged by the general partner (GP).We analyze the LPs’ portfolio-choice problem and find that management fees......, carried interest, and illiquidity are costly, and GPs must generate substantial alpha to compensate LPs for bearing these costs. Debt is cheap and reduces these costs, potentially explaining the high leverage of buyout transactions. Conventional interpretations of PE performance measures appear optimistic...

  16. Toward Ensuring Health Equity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petkovic, Jennifer; Epstein, Jonathan; Buchbinder, Rachelle

    2015-01-01

    , the Evaluative Linguistic Framework for Questionnaires, developed to assess text quality of questionnaires. We also considered a study assessing cross-cultural adaptation with/without back-translation and/or expert committee. The results of this preconference work were presented to the equity working group......OBJECTIVE: The goal of the Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) 12 (2014) equity working group was to determine whether and how comprehensibility of patient-reported outcome measures (PROM) should be assessed, to ensure suitability for people with low literacy and differing cultures. METHODS......: The English, Dutch, French, and Turkish Health Assessment Questionnaires and English and French Osteoarthritis Knee and Hip Quality of Life questionnaires were evaluated by applying 3 readability formulas: Flesch Reading Ease, Flesch-Kincaid grade level, and Simple Measure of Gobbledygook; and a new tool...

  17. Designing Modern Equity Portfolios

    OpenAIRE

    Ronald Jean Degen

    2011-01-01

    This aim of this paper is to describe possible ways of investing in equity; choosing the right stocks(among small-cap, large-cap, value, growth, and foreign) using fundamental analysis, defining their appropriate mix in the portfolios according to the desired return-risk profiles based on Markowitz?s modern portfolio theory, and using technical analysis to buy and sell them.

  18. Cis-acting regulatory sequences promote high-frequency gene conversion between repeated sequences in mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynard, Steven J; Baker, Mark D

    2004-01-01

    In mammalian cells, little is known about the nature of recombination-prone regions of the genome. Previously, we reported that the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) mu locus behaved as a hotspot for mitotic, intrachromosomal gene conversion (GC) between repeated mu constant (Cmu) regions in mouse hybridoma cells. To investigate whether elements within the mu gene regulatory region were required for hotspot activity, gene targeting was used to delete a 9.1 kb segment encompassing the mu gene promoter (Pmu), enhancer (Emu) and switch region (Smu) from the locus. In these cell lines, GC between the Cmu repeats was significantly reduced, indicating that this 'recombination-enhancing sequence' (RES) is necessary for GC hotspot activity at the IgH locus. Importantly, the RES fragment stimulated GC when appended to the same Cmu repeats integrated at ectopic genomic sites. We also show that deletion of Emu and flanking matrix attachment regions (MARs) from the RES abolishes GC hotspot activity at the IgH locus. However, no stimulation of ectopic GC was observed with the Emu/MARs fragment alone. Finally, we provide evidence that no correlation exists between the level of transcription and GC promoted by the RES. We suggest a model whereby Emu/MARS enhances mitotic GC at the endogenous IgH mu locus by effecting chromatin modifications in adjacent DNA.

  19. Customer equity of Pakistani fast food restaurant: A study of attitudinal customer equity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubair

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Customer Equity is true representative of relationship marketing. There are two major approach-es to measure Customer Equity: Transaction/sales based approach and Attitudinal Approach. This research is an effort to check customer equity of fast food restaurants of Pakistan by using attitudinal approach. Transactional customer equity is treated as criterion for attitudinal customer equity. Three drivers of Customer Equity are Value Equity, Brand equity and Relationship equity are taken as independent variables in this research. Convenient sampling technique was used and sample size was 393 respondents. The results show that attitudinal customer equity had strong association with transactional equity. Brand equity, value equity and relationship equity show positive associations with attitudinal customer equity.

  20. Private Equity and Industry Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernstein, Shai; Lerner, Josh; Sørensen, Morten

    2017-01-01

    The growth of the private equity industry has spurred concerns about its impact on the economy. This analysis looks across nations and industries to assess the impact of private equity on industry performance. We find that industries where private equity funds invest grow more quickly in terms...... of total production and employment and appear less exposed to aggregate shocks. Our robustness tests provide some evidence that is consistent with our effects being driven by our preferred channel....

  1. Practicing governance towards equity in health systems: LMIC perspectives and experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilson, Lucy; Lehmann, Uta; Schneider, Helen

    2017-09-15

    The unifying theme of the papers in this series is a concern for understanding the everyday practice of governance in low- and middle-income country (LMIC) health systems. Rather than seeing governance as a normative health system goal addressed through the architecture and design of accountability and regulatory frameworks, these papers provide insights into the real-world decision-making of health policy and system actors. Their multiple, routine decisions translate policy intentions into practice - and are filtered through relationships, underpinned by values and norms, influenced by organizational structures and resources, and embedded in historical and socio-political contexts. These decisions are also political acts - in that they influence who accesses benefits and whose voices are heard in decision-making, reinforcing or challenging existing institutional exclusion and power inequalities. In other words, the everyday practice of governance has direct impacts on health system equity.The papers in the series address governance through diverse health policy and system issues, consider actors located at multiple levels of the system and draw on multi-disciplinary perspectives. They present detailed examination of experiences in a range of African and Indian settings, led by authors who live and work in these settings. The overall purpose of the papers in this series is thus to provide an empirical and embedded research perspective on governance and equity in health systems.

  2. Introduction to the Unified Agenda of Federal Regulatory and Deregulatory Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-26

    ... Regulatory Commission Federal Housing Finance Agency Federal Maritime Commission Federal Mediation and... that the Regulatory Flexibility Act may require a Regulatory Flexibility Analysis, actions selected for.... Regulatory Flexibility Analysis Required -- whether an analysis is required by the Regulatory Flexibility Act...

  3. 76 FR 16345 - Net Worth and Equity Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ... acquisition must be measured under generally accepted accounting principles as referenced in the Act. 12 U.S.C... equity or member interest in the acquirer. Generally accepted accounting principles require this excess... generally accepted accounting principles. For low income-designated credit unions, net worth also includes...

  4. 76 FR 58849 - Legg Mason Partners Equity Trust, et al.;

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-22

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Investment Company Act Release No. 29789; File No. 812-13892] Legg Mason Partners Equity Trust, et al.; Notice of Application September 15, 2011. AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission (``Commission''). ACTION: Notice of an application under section 6(c) of the...

  5. redD and actII-ORF4, Pathway-Specific Regulatory Genes for Antibiotic Production in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2), Are Transcribed In Vitro by an RNA Polymerase Holoenzyme Containing σhrdD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fujii, T.; Gramajo, H.C.; Takano, E.; Bibb, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    redD and actII-ORF4, regulatory genes required for synthesis of the antibiotics undecylprodigiosin and actinorhodin by Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2), were transcribed in vitro by an RNA polymerase holoenzyme containing σhrdD. Disruption of hrdD had no effect on antibiotic production, indicating that

  6. Unilever Group : equity valuation

    OpenAIRE

    Pires, Susana Sofia Castelo

    2014-01-01

    The following dissertation has the purpose to value the Unilever Group, but more specifically Unilever N.V. being publicly traded in the Amsterdam Exchange Index. Unilever is seen as a global player and one of most successful and competitive fast-moving consumer goods companies. In order to valuate Unilever’s equity, a Discounted Cash Flow (DCF) approach is first carried out, since it is believed to be the most reliable methodology. The value estimated was €36.39, advising one to buy its s...

  7. History of Pay Equity Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbezat, Debra A.

    2002-01-01

    Traces the evolution of salary-equity studies over time, and how the findings have changed with regard to pay differences by gender and race/ethnicity. Reviews the literature on salary equity for both faculty and nonfaculty academic employees. (EV)

  8. Product Placement and Brand Equity

    OpenAIRE

    Corniani, Margherita

    2003-01-01

    Product placement is the planned insertion of a brand within a movie, a fiction, etc. It can be used with other communication tools (i.e. advertising, sales promotions, etc.) in order to disseminate brand awareness and characterize brand image, developing brand equity. In global markets, product placement is particularly useful for improving brand equity of brands with a well established brand awareness.

  9. Corporate Governance and Equity Returns

    OpenAIRE

    Uchida, Shigeru

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the relationship between corporate governance and equity returns from the small investors view point. A primary survey has been conducted to gather the data required to examine the link. Preliminary result of the study shows that the four elements of governance: board structure, transparency, fairness and responsibility are positively related with equity returns.

  10. Is Nordic Private Equity Different?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spliid, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Most research on private equity is based on American theory, tested on American empirical data. Nevertheless, the private equity concept has gained a solid foothold in the Nordic region, especially in Sweden. This article analyzes whether American-biased assumptions prevail in the Nordic countries...

  11. Intergenerational equity and conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otoole, R. P.; Walton, A. L.

    1980-01-01

    The issue of integenerational equity in the use of natural resources is discussed in the context of coal mining conversion. An attempt to determine if there is a clear-cut benefit to future generations in setting minimum coal extraction efficiency standards in mining is made. It is demonstrated that preserving fossil fuels beyond the economically efficient level is not necessarily beneficial to future generations even in terms of their own preferences. Setting fossil fuel conservation targets for intermediate products (i.e. energy) may increase the quantities of fossil fuels available to future generations and hence lower the costs, but there may be serious disadvantages to future generations as well. The use of relatively inexpensive fossil fuels in this generation may result in more infrastructure development and more knowledge production available to future generations. The value of fossil fuels versus these other endowments in the future depends on many factors which cannot possibly be evaluated at present. Since there is no idea of whether future generations are being helped or harmed, it is recommended that integenerational equity not be used as a factor in setting coal mine extraction efficiency standards, or in establishing requirements.

  12. Opportunities for Energy Development in Water Conduits: A Report Prepared in Response to Section 7 of the Hydropower Regulatory Efficiency Act of 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sale, Michael J. [BCS, Incorporated, Laurel, MD (United States); Bishop, Norman A. [Knight Piesold, Chicago, IL (United States); Reiser, Sonya L. [Knight Piesold, Chicago, IL (United States); Johnson, Kurt [Telluride Energy LLC, Grand Junction, CO (United States); Bailey, Andrea C. [BCS, Incorporated, Laurel, MD (United States); Frank, Anthony [BCS, Incorporated, Laurel, MD (United States); Smith, Brennan T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Division

    2014-09-01

    In Section 7 of the Hydropower Regulatory Efficiency Act (HREA) of 2013 (P.L. 113-23), Congress directed the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to prepare an analysis of conduit hydropower opportunities available in the United States and to present case studies that describe the potential energy generation from these types of hydropower projects. Those analyses have been included in a new DOE report to Congress, and this ORNL/TM provides additional technical details supporting that report. Conduit hydropower offers important new ways to enhance renewable energy portfolios in the United States, as well as to increase the energy efficiency of water delivery systems. Conduit hydropower projects are constructed on existing water-conveyance structures, such as irrigation canals or pressurized pipelines that deliver water to municipalities, industry, or agricultural water users. Although water conveyance infrastructures are usually designed for non-power purposes, new renewable energy can often be harvested from them without affecting their original purpose and without the need to construct new dams or diversions. Conduit hydropower differs from more conventional hydropower development in that it is generally not located on natural rivers or waterways and therefore does not involve the types of environmental impacts that are associated with hydropower. The addition of hydropower to existing water conduits can provide valuable new revenue sources from clean, renewable energy. The new energy can be used within the existing water distribution systems to offset other energy demands, or it can be sold into regional transmission systems.

  13. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Reform Could Impact People With CF The Preserving Employee Wellness Programs Act Our Advocacy Work Advocacy Achievements Advocacy News Briefings, Testimonies, and Regulatory ...

  14. Challenges of Ensuring Equity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pasgaard, Maya

    and on a conceptual framework to examine equity in REDD+. Qualitative research with a case study in Cambodia provides the empirical foundation for the thesis, supplemented with a quantitative analysis of climate change research to address the fourth research question. Together, these articles and approaches...... these challenges, specific recomm ndations are summarized in the thesis, namely: better integration of qualitative methods in social assessments, greater emphasis on local inclusion and representativeness in relation to resource access and decision-making, more field research and cross...... social assessments in REDD+ are inadequate due to a dominant positivistic approach to methods and indicators for social assessment, which contrasts the complexities and context of REDD+ projects; 2) The distribution of costs and benefits within communities in Oddar Meanchey is uneven, as the costs...

  15. Social Security and the Equity Premium Puzzle

    OpenAIRE

    Olovsson, Conny

    2004-01-01

    This paper shows that social security may be an important factor in explaining the equity premium puzzle. In the absence of shortselling constraints, the young shortsell bonds to the middle-aged and buy equity. Social security reduces the bond demand of the middle-aged, thereby restricting the possibilities of the young to finance their equity purchases. Their equity demand increases as does the average return to equity. Social security also increases the covariance between future consumption...

  16. Equity Versus Non-Equity International Strategic Alliances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Globerman, Steven; Nielsen, Bo Bernhard

    A substantial literature has evolved focusing on the ownership structure of international strategic alliances (ISAs). Most of the relevant studies are theoretical in nature and concentrate on the conceptual factors that influence the choice between equity and non-equity structures. A smaller numb...... involving Danish firms. Our study documents how the determinants of governance mode choice vary in importance depending upon the "quality" of the governance infrastructure of the host country....

  17. Essays on executive equity-based compensation and equity ownership

    OpenAIRE

    Elsilä, A. (Anna)

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A major proposition of the agency theory is that the conflict of interests between an agent and a principal is reduced when the agent’s wealth and compensation are tied to the performance of the firm. Apart from the direct predicted relation to corporate performance, compensating managers with equity instruments has implications for corporate risk-taking and payout policy choices. Additionally, equity-based compensation practices are to a large extent shaped by institutional facto...

  18. 78 FR 77770 - Ironwood Equity Fund, LP; Notice Seeking Exemption Under Section 312 of the Small Business...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-24

    ... proposes to Finance a small business in which its Associate Ironwood Mezzanine Fund II, LP has an equity... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [ License No. 01171-0406] Ironwood Equity Fund, LP; Notice Seeking Exemption Under Section 312 of the Small Business Investment Act, Conflicts of Interest Notice is hereby...

  19. Social equity, mobility, and access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    This report discusses how transportation policies can aggravate or alleviate social equity problems. Current transit systems : (Detroit, Atlanta, Cleveland, Denver, and St. Louis) were studied with respect to their strategies and relative success in ...

  20. Sustainability : Intergeneration Equity and Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Y.D. [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    2001-06-01

    Regarding intergenerational equity as prerequisite for sustainability, we derive an optimal investment rule for intergenerational equity from an optimization model allowing for capital accumulation and pollution. This rule provides a condition for intergenerational equity such that an economy maintains constant net value of investment the difference between the physical capital investment value and the environmental resource depletion(pollution) value. This rule is more generalized condition for intergenerational equity than the 'keep capital intact' rule suggested by Hartwick(1977) and Solow(1999), in a sense that this rule includes their condition as a special. Also, we expect this rule to offer an empirical measure of sustainability. In addition, we discuss a variety of recent environmental issues in practice, especially associated with the implications from the rule. (author). 13 refs.

  1. Equity Impacts of Environmental Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio M. Bento

    2013-01-01

    This article surveys recent literature on the equity impacts of environmental policy. We focus on studies that look at the distribution of costs and benefits of alternative environmental policies. We also examine potentially important trade-offs between efficiency and equity that arise in the context of environmental policy, as well as transition effects. In many of the applications surveyed here, environmental policies can be regressive. Strategies are discussed to reduce this regressivity t...

  2. Equity effects of economic instruments for greenhouse gas abatement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, D. Jr.

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses the equity effects of using economic instruments--such as a carbon tax or carbon emissions trading program--to regulate greenhouse gas emissions. Determining these equity effects is more complicated than assessing overall costs and benefits, although some of the same issues arise. Among the key issues are the following: (1) benchmark for evaluating impacts of economic instruments (status quo or regulatory program that achieves the same emission reductions); (2) use of any government revenues collected, which are transfers overall but affect gains and losses; (3) time period (long-term or transitional impacts); and (4) groupings (income groups, sectors or regions). Empirical studies suggest that a national tax is regressive in the US but may be less so in other countries. The equity impacts of an international carbon tax or emissions trading program differ greatly depending upon the specific elements. The paper considers options to compensate or mitigate adverse effects to income groups, sectors, or regions of the world. Although impossible to avoid all losses to every group, it would be possible to avoid major equity effects if carbon taxes or carbon trading programs were used to control global warming

  3. Plans and schedules for implementation of US Nuclear Regulatory Commission responsibilities under the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 (P.L. 99-240)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunkelman, M.M.

    1987-08-01

    This document makes available the plans and schedules for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) implementation of its responsibilities under the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 (LLRWPAA). The present document identifies the provisions of the LLRWPAA that affect the programs of the NRC, identifies what the NRC must do to fulfill each of its requirements under the LLRWPAA, and establishes schedules for carrying out these requirements

  4. Ubuntu: An African Equity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TW Bennett

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In the midst of concerns about serious offences committed by young people, the Child Justice Act is the first formal legislative step to introduce restorative justice in South Africa, and promotes reconciliation and problem solving as an approach to the criminal behaviour of youth. This article analyses the new place of restorative justice and ubuntu in the Act through an analysis of the Preamble, Objects and General Principles sections of the Act as well as the chapters on diversion and sentencing. It notes that there is a clear and consistent framework for restorative justice and ubuntu in the Act that accords with the Constitutional Court’s understanding of both concepts. In addition, the article also enquires if the inclusion of these concepts has created a criminal justice system for children that does not hold them properly accountable for their actions. The question as to whether or not the Act has created a "just say sorry" regime is answered in the negative by way of reference to the numerous checks and balances included in the Act by the legislature. In this context it is contended that the inclusion of ubuntu-related ideologies remains relevant to the development of indigenous and locally constructed images of Africanised forms of justice, but that the true test of how it is integrated into the criminal justice system lies in the manner in which criminal justice role-players engage with ubuntu and how its implementation is effected.

  5. The effect of unethical behavior on brand equity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh Faezeh Rezazadeh Baei

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study explains the components of ethical behavior and their impacts on life insurance companies in province of Mazandaran, Iran. There were 367 insurance representatives and the study selects a sample of 187 ones based on Cochran formula and 2 questionnaires were distributed among them. The first questionnaire, unethical behavior, includes 8 items including Bribery, Cheating, Deception, Interact with colleagues, Act as social behavior, Uncommitted to firm and Irresponsibility. In addition, the questionnaire of brand equity contains three components of Awareness, Perceived quality and Loyalty. Using structural equation modeling, the study has determined that the effects of cheating and deception on unethical behaviors were not confirmed but the effects of other factors, bribery, interact with colleagues, act as social behavior, uncommitted to firm and irresponsibility on unethical behavior were confirmed. In addition, three components of Awareness, Perceived quality and Loyalty had positive relationship with brand equity.

  6. Equity, tariffing, regulation: analysis of the cost allocation policies of an electric utility industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezzina, J.

    1998-01-01

    In this work, an analysis in terms of equity of policies of tariffing regulation and cost allocation of a multi-products electric company (organized as a natural monopoly) is proposed. The goal is double. In a standard point of view, the first goal is to show that today's literature in the domains of public economy, industrial organization and regulation (traditionally based on efficiency considerations) is able to supply reading keys for the analysis of moral philosophy problems. In a positive point of view, the second goal is to demonstrate that the equity criterion is operational enough to judge tariffing management practices in a particular industrial environment and can be used as a regulatory instrument by an ethics-concerned authority. The document is organized in two parts. An ethical and economical analysis of the equity concepts between allocation efficiency, production efficiency and tariffing practices of companies is proposed first. A particular equity concept is considered which is ready to be implemented for the regulation of a public utility, and the ins and outs expected with an equity theory of tariffing practices are evoked. In a second part, an analysis of goal conflicts between the authority and the regulated company is made in a point of view of equity regulation and cost allocation. An improved equity criterion is defined first, from which a measure is built and becomes a tool for the regulatory authority. Then, its use by a regulatory authority fully informed or encountering information asymmetry problems are analyzed in order to show its stakes on the cost allocation and tariffing policies of the company. (J.S.)

  7. [On improvement of the mechanism for establishing and changing indicators of quality and food safety in the regulatory and legal acts of the Eurasian Economical Union].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnautov, O V

    2016-01-01

    In accordance with the Treaty on the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU) to ensure the sanitary and epidemiological welfare of the population within the Union, a coordinated policy in agreed policy in the sphere of application of sanitary measures is carried out. Sanitary measures are the obligatory requirements and procedures, including requirements for the final product, processing methods, production, transportation, storage and disposal, sampling procedures, methods of research (tests), risk assessment, the state registration, requirements for packaging directly aimed at ensuring the safety of products (goods) in order to protect human welfare, and they should be applied on the basis having a scientific explanation, and only to the extent that is necessary to protect human welfare. Sanitary measures applied within the Union should be based on international and regional standards, guidelines and (or) the recommendations, except when they based on appropriate scientific studies and explanations. In this case sanitary measures which could provide a higher level of sanitary protection are introduced. At present, the mechanism of the development, justification and approval of common sanitary and epidemiological requirements (ESR) and procedures of the Eurasian Economic Commission (the Commission) is not installed. The absence of a clear mechanism for the development, approval and implementation of the ESR to the products (goods) on the basis having a scientific explanation on the one hand could lead to the creation of unjustified barriers to foreign and mutual trade, on the other--to weaken the level of safety for human life and health of products (goods) placed on markets of the Union. In order to bring the regulatory legal acts of the Customs Union in accordance with the Treaty on the Eurasian Economic Union the Commission in cooperation with the competent authorities of the Member States in the field of sanitary and epidemiological welfare developed the project of

  8. Interstellar Sweat Equity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, M. H.; Becker, R. E.; O'Donnell, D. J.; Brody, A. R.

    So, you have just launched aboard the Starship, headed to an exoplanet light years from Earth. You will spend the rest of your natural life on this journey in the expectation and hope that your grandchildren will arrive safely, land, and build a new settlement. You will need to govern the community onboard the Starship. This system of governance must meet unique requirements for participation, representation, and decision-making. On a spaceship that can fly and operate by itself, what will the crewmembers do for their generations in transit? Certainly, they will train and train again to practice the skills they will need upon arrival at a new world. However, this vicarious practice neither suffices to prepare the future pioneers for their destiny at a new star nor will it provide them with the satisfaction in their own work. To hone the crewmembers' inventive and technical skills, to challenge and prepare them for pioneering, the crew would build and expand the interstellar ship in transit. This transstellar ``sweat equity'' gives a stake in the enterprise to all the people, providing meaningful and useful activity to the new generations of crewmembers. They build all the new segments of the vessel from raw materials - including atmosphere - stored on board. Construction of new pressure shell modules would be one option, but they also reconstruct or fill-in existing pressurized volumes. The crew makes new life support system components and develops new agricultural modules in anticipation of their future needs. Upon arrival at the new star or planet, the crew shall apply these robustly developed skills and self-sufficient spirit to their new home.

  9. Food sovereignty, food security and health equity: a meta-narrative mapping exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiler, Anelyse M; Hergesheimer, Chris; Brisbois, Ben; Wittman, Hannah; Yassi, Annalee; Spiegel, Jerry M

    2015-10-01

    There has been growing policy interest in social justice issues related to both health and food. We sought to understand the state of knowledge on relationships between health equity--i.e. health inequalities that are socially produced--and food systems, where the concepts of 'food security' and 'food sovereignty' are prominent. We undertook exploratory scoping and mapping stages of a 'meta-narrative synthesis' on pathways from global food systems to health equity outcomes. The review was oriented by a conceptual framework delineating eight pathways to health (in)equity through the food system: 1--Multi-Scalar Environmental, Social Context; 2--Occupational Exposures; 3--Environmental Change; 4--Traditional Livelihoods, Cultural Continuity; 5--Intake of Contaminants; 6--Nutrition; 7--Social Determinants of Health and 8--Political, Economic and Regulatory context. The terms 'food security' and 'food sovereignty' were, respectively, paired with a series of health equity-related terms. Combinations of health equity and food security (1414 citations) greatly outnumbered pairings with food sovereignty (18 citations). Prominent crosscutting themes that were observed included climate change, biotechnology, gender, racialization, indigeneity, poverty, citizenship and HIV as well as institutional barriers to reducing health inequities in the food system. The literature indicates that food sovereignty-based approaches to health in specific contexts, such as advancing healthy school food systems, promoting soil fertility, gender equity and nutrition, and addressing structural racism, can complement the longer-term socio-political restructuring processes that health equity requires. Our conceptual model offers a useful starting point for identifying interventions with strong potential to promote health equity. A research agenda to explore project-based interventions in the food system along these pathways can support the identification of ways to strengthen both food

  10. Framework for Evaluation of Equity Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bexley, Emmaline; Harris, Kerri-Lee; James, Richard

    2010-01-01

    The Framework for Evaluation of Equity Initiatives has been prepared to support the Go8 Equity Strategy. Its purpose is to assist Group of Eight (Go8) universities to evaluate the effectiveness of their equity initiatives and interventions in the context of federal policies and the distinctive missions and responsibilities of the individual Go8…

  11. Equity Portfolio Management Using Option Price Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Pan, Xuhui (Nick)

    We survey the recent academic literature that uses option-implied information to construct equity portfolios. Studies show that equity managers can earn a positive alpha by using information in individual equity options, by using stocks' exposure to information in market index options, and by usi...

  12. Regulatory Capital: Why Is It Different?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoenmaker, D.

    2015-01-01

    The global financial crisis has highlighted that deviations between the accounting and regulatory concepts of equity capital have gone too far. Accounting standards have been going too far in the application of fair value accounting. If there are no markets during times of crises, it does not make

  13. Equity Gauge Zambia : Enhancing Governance, Equity and Health ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... identifying strategies for and indicators of equitable community participation; refining a ... Human resources for health in Zambia : equity and health system strengthening; some local perspectives (IDRC lunch hour discussion, Ottawa, 22 Mar. ... and adaptive water management: Innovative solutions from the Global South”.

  14. Shareowners' Equity at Campbell Soup: How Can Equity Be Negative?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohrman, Mary Beth; Stuerke, Pamela S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an instructional case based on the 2001 annual report of the Campbell Soup Company (CPB). During that year, CPB's shareowners' equity went from a surplus of USD137 million to a deficit of USD247 million. The analysis will allow students to determine that the change resulted from borrowing to purchase treasury stock. Students…

  15. The Factor Structure in Equity Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Fournier, Mathieu; Jacobs, Kris

    Principal component analysis of equity options on Dow-Jones firms reveals a strong factor structure. The first principal component explains 77% of the variation in the equity volatility level, 77% of the variation in the equity option skew, and 60% of the implied volatility term structure across...... equities. Furthermore, the first principal component has a 92% correlation with S&P500 index option volatility, a 64% correlation with the index option skew, and a 80% correlation with the index option term structure. We develop an equity option valuation model that captures this factor structure...

  16. Consumer Learning and Brand Equity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M.J. van Osselaer (Stijn); J.W. Alba (Joseph)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractA series of experiments illustrates a learning process that enhances brand equity at the expense of quality-determining attributes. When the relationship between brand name and product quality is learned prior to the relationship between product attributes and quality, inhibition of the

  17. Style drift in private equity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cumming, D.; Fleming, G.; Schwienbacher, A.

    2009-01-01

    We introduce the concept of style drift to private equity investment. We present theory and evidence pertaining to style drifts in terms of a fund manager's stated focus on particular stages of entrepreneurial development. We develop a model that derives conditions under which style drifts are less

  18. Private Equity Capital in a Less Developed Economy: Evidence, Issues and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melusi Mpofu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the structure of the private equity industry and issues that impact on its development and growth in Zimbabwe. Studies conducted internationally have unequivocally demonstrated the importance of private equity investments in assisting firms at start/growth phase and decline phase. However there is a dearth of literature on how these financial intermediaries assist in unlocking firm value from an emerging markets perspective. The study uses the document analysis and an exploratory research paradigms to achieve the stated objectives. The study finds that the venture capital industry in Zimbabwe mimics similar industries in other countries except that it is constrained by market liquidity. Lack of regulation and viable business sectors coupled with excessive risks in the political economy narrows the scope of private equity operations. Several issues impacting on the development of the private equity industry are identified and evaluated. The study has policy implications for the development of regulatory framework to bolster the growth of the private equity industry in emerging market economies. This study provides new evidence and policy suggestions on the operations of the private equity industry in a liquidity constrained and less developed economy.

  19. Plans and schedules for implementation of US Nuclear Regulatory Commission responsibilities under the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 (P.L. 99-240)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunkelman, M.M.; Kearney, M.S.; MacDougall, R.D.

    1986-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to make available to the states and other interested parties, the plans and schedules for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) implementation of its responsibilities under Public Law 99-240, the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 (LLRWPAA). This document identifies the provisions of the LLRWPAA which affect the programs of the NRC, identifies what the NRC must do to fulfill each of its requirements under the LLRWPAA, and establishes schedules for carrying out these requirements. The plans and schedules are current as of June 1986

  20. Food sovereignty, food security and health equity: a meta-narrative mapping exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiler, Anelyse M.; Hergesheimer, Chris; Brisbois, Ben; Wittman, Hannah; Yassi, Annalee; Spiegel, Jerry M.

    2015-01-01

    There has been growing policy interest in social justice issues related to both health and food. We sought to understand the state of knowledge on relationships between health equity—i.e. health inequalities that are socially produced—and food systems, where the concepts of ‘food security’ and ‘food sovereignty’ are prominent. We undertook exploratory scoping and mapping stages of a ‘meta-narrative synthesis’ on pathways from global food systems to health equity outcomes. The review was oriented by a conceptual framework delineating eight pathways to health (in)equity through the food system: 1—Multi-Scalar Environmental, Social Context; 2—Occupational Exposures; 3—Environmental Change; 4—Traditional Livelihoods, Cultural Continuity; 5—Intake of Contaminants; 6—Nutrition; 7—Social Determinants of Health and 8—Political, Economic and Regulatory context. The terms ‘food security’ and ‘food sovereignty’ were, respectively, paired with a series of health equity-related terms. Combinations of health equity and food security (1414 citations) greatly outnumbered pairings with food sovereignty (18 citations). Prominent crosscutting themes that were observed included climate change, biotechnology, gender, racialization, indigeneity, poverty, citizenship and HIV as well as institutional barriers to reducing health inequities in the food system. The literature indicates that food sovereignty-based approaches to health in specific contexts, such as advancing healthy school food systems, promoting soil fertility, gender equity and nutrition, and addressing structural racism, can complement the longer-term socio-political restructuring processes that health equity requires. Our conceptual model offers a useful starting point for identifying interventions with strong potential to promote health equity. A research agenda to explore project-based interventions in the food system along these pathways can support the identification of ways to

  1. The R2R3-MYB–Like Regulatory Factor EOBI, Acting Downstream of EOBII, Regulates Scent Production by Activating ODO1 and Structural Scent-Related Genes in Petunia[C][W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzer-Rimon, Ben; Farhi, Moran; Albo, Boaz; Cna’ani, Alon; Ben Zvi, Michal Moyal; Masci, Tania; Edelbaum, Orit; Yu, Yixun; Shklarman, Elena; Ovadis, Marianna; Vainstein, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Flower scent is a highly dynamic trait, under developmental, spatial, and diurnal regulation. The mechanism governing scent production is only beginning to be unraveled. In petunia (Petunia hybrida), EMISSION OF BENZENOIDS II (EOBII) controls transcription of both the shikimate pathway-regulating MYB factor ODORANT1 (ODO1) and phenylpropanoid scent-related structural genes. A promoter-activation screen identified an R2R3-MYB–like regulatory factor of phenylpropanoid volatile biosynthesis acting downstream of EOBII, designated EOBI. EOBI silencing led to downregulation of ODO1 and numerous structural scent-related genes from both the shikimate and phenylpropanoid pathways. The ability of EOBI to directly activate ODO1, as revealed by electrophoretic mobility shift assay and yeast one-hybrid analysis, place EOBI upstream of ODO1 in regulating substrate availability for volatile biosynthesis. Interestingly, ODO1-silenced transgenic petunia flowers accumulated higher EOBI transcript levels than controls, suggesting a complex feedback loop between these regulatory factors. The accumulation pattern of EOBI transcript relative to EOBII and ODO1, and the effect of up/downregulation of EOBII on transcript levels of EOBI and ODO1, further support these factors' hierarchical relationships. The dependence of scent production on EOBI expression and its direct interaction with both regulatory and structural genes provide evidence for EOBI’s wide-ranging involvement in the production of floral volatiles. PMID:23275577

  2. The R2R3-MYB-like regulatory factor EOBI, acting downstream of EOBII, regulates scent production by activating ODO1 and structural scent-related genes in petunia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzer-Rimon, Ben; Farhi, Moran; Albo, Boaz; Cna'ani, Alon; Ben Zvi, Michal Moyal; Masci, Tania; Edelbaum, Orit; Yu, Yixun; Shklarman, Elena; Ovadis, Marianna; Vainstein, Alexander

    2012-12-01

    Flower scent is a highly dynamic trait, under developmental, spatial, and diurnal regulation. The mechanism governing scent production is only beginning to be unraveled. In petunia (Petunia hybrida), EMISSION OF BENZENOIDS II (EOBII) controls transcription of both the shikimate pathway-regulating MYB factor ODORANT1 (ODO1) and phenylpropanoid scent-related structural genes. A promoter-activation screen identified an R2R3-MYB-like regulatory factor of phenylpropanoid volatile biosynthesis acting downstream of EOBII, designated EOBI. EOBI silencing led to downregulation of ODO1 and numerous structural scent-related genes from both the shikimate and phenylpropanoid pathways. The ability of EOBI to directly activate ODO1, as revealed by electrophoretic mobility shift assay and yeast one-hybrid analysis, place EOBI upstream of ODO1 in regulating substrate availability for volatile biosynthesis. Interestingly, ODO1-silenced transgenic petunia flowers accumulated higher EOBI transcript levels than controls, suggesting a complex feedback loop between these regulatory factors. The accumulation pattern of EOBI transcript relative to EOBII and ODO1, and the effect of up/downregulation of EOBII on transcript levels of EOBI and ODO1, further support these factors' hierarchical relationships. The dependence of scent production on EOBI expression and its direct interaction with both regulatory and structural genes provide evidence for EOBI's wide-ranging involvement in the production of floral volatiles.

  3. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... CF Community in Health Care Reform Milestones in Health Care Reform How Tax Reform Could Impact People With CF The Preserving Employee Wellness Programs Act Our Advocacy Work Advocacy Achievements Advocacy News Briefings, Testimonies, and Regulatory ...

  4. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The Preserving Employee Wellness Programs Act Our Advocacy Work Advocacy Achievements Advocacy News Briefings, Testimonies, and Regulatory Comments Congressional Cystic Fibrosis Caucus Our Policy Agenda Policy Principles SIGN UP FOR ADVOCACY ACTION ...

  5. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... people with cystic fibrosis so that they make smart decisions about CF-related research, treatment, and access ... The Preserving Employee Wellness Programs Act Our Advocacy Work Advocacy Achievements Advocacy News Briefings, Testimonies, and Regulatory ...

  6. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... resources you need to continuously build upon this work. Awards and Grants Career Development Awards Research Awards ... The Preserving Employee Wellness Programs Act Our Advocacy Work Advocacy Achievements Advocacy News Briefings, Testimonies, and Regulatory ...

  7. Equity, Economic Growth and Lifestyle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Niels I; Nørgaard, Jørgen; Hvelplund, Frede

    2011-01-01

    Consequences of global warming are appearing much faster than assumed just a few years ago and irreversible ”tipping points” are few years ahead [IPCC, James Hansen]. So far, strategies for mitigation of global warming have mostly been focusing on technological solutions e.g. renewable energy...... such questions as national and international equity, “limits to growth”, alternative employment policies, military and security policy and alternatives to traditional GDP as the dominant indicator of welfare and of sound development....

  8. Equity valuation of Tesco Plc.

    OpenAIRE

    Schmitz, Clemens

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation aimed to value the British retailer Tesco Plc. The objective was to determine a target price for the company and as a consequence determine a buy or sell recommendation when comparing it to the current market price. After the state of the art of literature regarding equity valuation has been assessed, the retail industry as well as Tesco have been analysed in more detail. Based on this, the retail business of Tesco has been valued using the Adjusted Present Va...

  9. Strategic pricing of equity issues

    OpenAIRE

    Klaus Ritzberger; Frank Milne

    2002-01-01

    Consider a general equilibrium model where agents may behave strategically. Specifically, suppose some firm issues new shares. If the primary market price is controlled by the issuing institution and investors' expectations on future equity prices are constant in their share purchases, the share price on the primary market cannot exceed the secondary market share price. In certain cases this may imply strict underpricing of newly issued shares. If investors perceive an influence on future sha...

  10. Equity, Economic Growth and Lifestyle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Niels I; Nørgaard, Jørgen; Hvelplund, Frede

    2011-01-01

    sources (RES) in the supply sector and energy efficiency in the demand sector. Much less attention has been given to potential changes in life style and to alternative economic and social systems. This chapter will focus on non-technological strategies for mitigation of global warming including...... such questions as national and international equity, “limits to growth”, alternative employment policies, military and security policy and alternatives to traditional GDP as the dominant indicator of welfare and of sound development....

  11. Regulatory agencies and regulatory risk

    OpenAIRE

    Knieps, Günter; Weiß, Hans-Jörg

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to show that regulatory risk is due to the discretionary behaviour of regulatory agencies, caused by a too extensive regulatory mandate provided by the legislator. The normative point of reference and a behavioural model of regulatory agencies based on the positive theory of regulation are presented. Regulatory risk with regard to the future behaviour of regulatory agencies is modelled as the consequence of the ex ante uncertainty about the relative influence of inter...

  12. Examining equity: a multidimensional framework for assessing equity in payments for ecosystem services

    OpenAIRE

    McDermott, Melanie; Mahanty, Sango; Schreckenberg, Kathrin

    2012-01-01

    Concern over social equity dominates current debates about payments for ecosystem services and reduced deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+). Yet, despite the apprehension that these initiatives may undermine equity, the term is generally left undefined. This paper presents a systematic framework for the analysis of equity that can be used to examine how local equity is affected as the global value of ecosystem services changes. Our framework identifies three dimensions that form the c...

  13. Equity Portfolio Management Using Option Price Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Pan, Xuhui (Nick)

    We survey the recent academic literature that uses option-implied information to construct equity portfolios. Studies show that equity managers can earn a positive alpha by using information in individual equity options, by using stocks' exposure to information in market index options, and by using...... stocks' exposure to crude oil option information. Option-implied information can also help construct better mean-variance portfolios and better estimates of market beta....

  14. Private label brand equity: a conceptual framework

    OpenAIRE

    Xara-Brasil, Duarte; Marreiros, Cristina; Dionísio, Andreia

    2012-01-01

    Trabalho apresentado na AMA/ACRA First Triennial Conference, 18-21 de abril de 2012, Seattle, USA This paper presents a conceptual framework to analyze private label brand equity in a retail context. Several authors proposed brand equity models as Aaker (1996), Keller (1993) and Yoo and Donthu (2001), and specific research has been done in retail industry (Jara & Cliquet, 2009), (Pappu & Quester, 2006). To study private label brand equity, we suggest a framework based on the Yo...

  15. Reviewing the Concept of Brand Equity and Evaluating Consumer-Based Brand Equity (CBBE) Models

    OpenAIRE

    Sanaz Farjam; Xu Hongyi

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the concept of brand equity and discuss its different perspectives, we try to review existing literature of brand equity and evaluate various Customer-based brand equity models to provide a collection from well-known databases for further research in this area.Classification-JEL: M00

  16. Pesticides used in forest nursery management in the United States and the impact of the Food Quality Protection Act and other regulatory actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesus A. Cota

    2002-01-01

    The Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) of 1996 has placed new standards on the registration and regulation of pesticides intended to protect children. The most significant changed mandated by FQPA relate to the registration process termed the "Risk Cup." This approach to risk analysis has resulted in greater restrictions on the application of pesticides used...

  17. H.R. 3532: This act may be cited as the Nuclear Regulatory Commission Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1999. Introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundred Fifth Congress, Second Session, March 24, 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This bill authorizes appropriations for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission for fiscal year 1999. It is divided into the following sections: Section 1. Short title; Section 102. Allocation of amounts authorized; Section 103. Retention of funds; Section 104. Transfer of certain funds; Section 105. Limitation; Section 106. License fee exemption; Section 107. NRC user fees and actual charges. Section 201. Office location; Section 202. Period of a combined license; Section 203. Gift acceptance authority; Section 204. Carrying of firearms by licensee employees; Section 205. Sabotage of production, utilization or waste storage facilities under construction; Section 206. Unauthorized introduction of dangerous weapons; and Section 207. Continuation of Commissioner service

  18. 17 CFR 245.103 - Issuer right of recovery; right of action by equity security owner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., conversion or termination of a derivative security) in violation of section 306(a)(1) of that Act of an... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Issuer right of recovery; right of action by equity security owner. 245.103 Section 245.103 Commodity and Securities Exchanges...

  19. Building Bridges between Psychological Science and Education: Cultural Stereotypes, STEM, and Equity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Master, Allison; Meltzoff, Andrew N.

    2016-01-01

    There is a gender gap in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education. This presents a worldwide problem of inequity. Sociocultural stereotypes associating STEM with males act as barriers that prevent girls from developing interests in STEM. This article aims to show that we can increase equity and enhance outcomes for a…

  20. Equal pay for work of equal value in terms of the Employment Equity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Equal pay for work of equal value in terms of the Employment Equity Act 55 of 1998: lessons from the International Labour Organisation and the United Kingdom. ... Alternatively, you can download the PDF file directly to your computer, from where it can be opened using a PDF reader. To download the PDF, click the ...

  1. Using principles of justice to assess the modal equity of regional transportation plans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golub, A.; Martens, C.J.C.M.

    2014-01-01

    While equity has been an important consideration for transportation planning agencies in the U.S. following the passage of Civil Rights Act of 1964 (Title VI specifically) and the subsequent Department of Transportation directives, there is little guidance on how to assess the distribution of

  2. 77 FR 15163 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-14

    ... troubling trend of reduced participation in the equity markets by individual investors, and that nearly 30... different asset classes within a single strategy. NASDAQ also notes that cash equities and options markets...-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of...

  3. 77 FR 21823 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-11

    ... Commission Chairman on what she viewed as a troubling trend of reduced participation in the equity markets by... investment strategy. NASDAQ also notes that cash equities and options markets are linked, with liquidity and...-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of...

  4. 75 FR 58464 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Amex LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    ...--NYSE Amex Equities (Anti-Money Laundering Compliance Program) replaced old Rule 445--NYSE Amex Equities...-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Amex LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change... solicited or received with respect to the proposed rule change. III. Date of Effectiveness of the Proposed...

  5. Impact of telephone nursing education program for equity in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höglund, Anna T; Carlsson, Marianne; Holmström, Inger K; Kaminsky, Elenor

    2016-09-21

    The Swedish Healthcare Act prescribes that healthcare should be provided according to needs and with respect for each person's human dignity. The goal is equity in health for the whole population. In spite of this, studies have revealed that Swedish healthcare is not always provided equally. This has also been observed in telephone nursing. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate if and how an educational intervention can improve awareness of equity in healthcare among telephone nurses. The study had a quasi-experimental design, with one intervention group and one control group. A base-line measurement was performed before an educational intervention and a follow-up measurement was made afterwards in both groups, using a study specific questionnaire in which fictive persons of different age, gender and ethnicity were assessed concerning, e.g., power over one's own life, quality of life and experience of discrimination. The educational intervention consisted of a web-based lecture, literature and a seminar, covering aspects of inequality in healthcare related to gender, age and ethnicity, and gender and intersectionality theories as explaining models for these conditions. The results showed few significant differences before and after the intervention in the intervention group. Also in the control group few significant differences were found in the second measurement, although no intervention was performed in that group. The reason might be that the instrument used was not sensitive enough to pick up an expected raised awareness of equity in healthcare, or that solely the act of filling out the questionnaire can create a sort of intervention effect. Fictive persons born in Sweden and of young age were assessed to have a higher Good life-index than the fictive persons born outside Europe and of higher age in all assessments. The results are an imperative that equity in healthcare still needs to be educated and discussed in different healthcare

  6. THE EQUITY PREMIUM PUZZLE AND EMOTIONAL ASSET PRICING

    OpenAIRE

    MARC GÜRTLER; NORA HARTMANN

    2007-01-01

    "Since the equity premium as well as the risk-free rate puzzle question the concepts central to financial and economic modeling, we apply behavioral decision theory to asset pricing in view of solving these puzzles. U.S. stock market data for the period 1960-2003 and German stock market data for the period 1977-2003 show that emotional investors who act in accordance to Bell's (1985) disappointment theory -a special case of prospect theory- and additionally administer mental accounts demand a...

  7. Consumer Based-Brand Equity

    OpenAIRE

    Ekinci, Yuksel

    2014-01-01

    Research Objectives The objectives of this study are to: - Assess external validity of Nam et al.’s (2011) CBBE model in different culture (Turkey) and new service context (fashion retailing). - Compare validity of Nam et al.’s (2011) CBBE model with the brand equity model introduced by Yoo and Donthu (2001). - Expand the Nam et al.’s (2011) model by introducing “brand awareness”. Universidad de Málaga. Campus de Excelencia Internacional Andalucía Tech.

  8. Equity in the social sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enbar, M.

    1984-01-01

    This review suggests that many social scientists and philosophers are increasingly sensitive to the ethical and moral dimensions of analytic endeavors and of normative policymaking, in particular to the fact that no purely technical fix exists for problems whose solutions impinge upon the political process. The presence of equity issues widens the scope of the decision making process, requiring the consideration of a broader field of options and consequences and an awareness of the institutional and social fabrics from which solutions to previous analogous problems were fashioned. Current policy must reflect greater sensitivity to the distributional outcomes of major collective decisions and to the moral and ethical foundations which underlie them. 85 references

  9. PNG Education System: Equity Trends and Comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheret, Michael

    This paper identifies and discusses inequities in the educational system of Papua New Guinea (PNG). It begins by explaining the use of the Gini coefficient as an equity index, and then discusses inequities and equity trends in four concern areas: geographic distribution of formal education between provinces; educational achievement; distribution…

  10. Illiquidity Premia in the Equity Options Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Goyenko, Ruslan; Jacobs, Kris

    2018-01-01

    constructed from intraday effective spreads for a large panel of U.S. equities, and they are robust to different empirical implementations. Our findings are consistent with evidence that market makers in the equity options market hold large and risky net long positions, and positive illiquidity premia...

  11. Accessibility, equity and efficiency. Part 1: Introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurs, Karst Teunis; Dentinho, T.; Patuelli, R.; Geurs, K.T.; Patuelli, R.; Dentinho, T.

    2016-01-01

    The tension between efficiency and equity has been the focus of major debate since equity aspects started to be considered as part of project evaluation procedures (Thomopoulos et al. 2009). In this book, we contribute to the debate by focusing on the links and trade-offs between accessibility,

  12. Equity Mispricing and Leverage Adjustment Costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warr, R.S.; Elliott, W.B.; Koeter-Kant, J.; Oztekin, O.

    2012-01-01

    We find that equity mispricing impacts the speed at which firms adjust to their target leverage (TL) and does so in predictable ways depending on whether the firm is over- or underlevered. For example, firms that are above their TL and should therefore issue equity (or retire debt) adjust more

  13. On the Real Effects of Private Equity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.G.J. Roosenboom (Peter)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractPrivate equity has become an increasingly important part of our economy. Around the world the companies owned by private equity investors account for a substantial percentage of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and private sector employment. These investors have recently been under fire in

  14. Explaining the performance of Chinese equity funds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Xiaohong; Shi, Qiqiang

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the determinants of Chinese equity fund performance measured by market benchmark adjusted returns and risk adjusted return (Jensen’s Alpha). The sample covers 193 equity funds from January 2006 to December 2011, including both bear (2008 and 2011) and bull (2006, 2007, 2009, and

  15. Leisure Today: Equity Issues in Leisure Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dustin, Daniel L., Ed.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Seven articles on equity issues in leisure services focus on conservation for the future, resource allocation inequities in wildland recreation, leisure services for people of color and people with disabilities, serving all children in community recreation, women and leisure services, and equity in public sector resource allocations. (JD)

  16. 77 FR 1545 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-10

    ....15c3-5. Because these are NYSE Arca proprietary firms, the regulatory risk of extending the time to...-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule... Trail System Rules, for Equity Trading Permit Holders That Are Not Financial Industry Regulatory...

  17. 77 FR 31060 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; the Options Clearing Corporation; Notice of Filing and of Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-24

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-67021; File No. SR-OCC-2012-07] Self-Regulatory... from interested persons. \\1\\ 15 U.S.C. 78s(b)(1). \\2\\ 17 CFR 240.19b-4. I. Self-Regulatory Organization... equity options. II. Self-Regulatory Organization's Statement of the Purpose of, and Statutory Basis for...

  18. Investigating different factors influencing on brand equity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsane Zamanimoghadam

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to determine and prioritize factors influencing on brand equity in consumer’s point of view for a case study of Samsung appliance consumers in city of Tehran, Iran. The study investigates the effects of four factors in terms of the customer's perspective, price, advertisement, family and brand image, by dimensions of brand equity, perceived quality, brand awareness, brand association, brand loyalty, on brand equity. The research method is based on a descriptive-survey research. The questionnaire includes Samsung consumers in city of Tehran, Iran. To test the hypotheses, SPSS and LISREL software packages are used. For data analysis, descriptive statistics and inferential statistical tests including structural equation modeling and path analysis are used. The results of the survey have indicated that family and brand image influence positively on brand equity but the effects of advertisement and price on brand equity were not confirmed.

  19. DISPOSITION EFFECT AMONG BRAZILIAN EQUITY FUND MANAGERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Pozzi Lucchesi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The disposition effect predicts that investors tend to sell winning stocks too soon and ride losing stocks too long. Despite the wide range of research evidence about this issue, the reasons that lead investors to act this way are still subject to much controversy between rational and behavioral explanations. In this article, the main goal was to test two competing behavioral motivations to justify the disposition effect: prospect theory and mean reversion bias. To achieve it, an analysis of monthly transactions for a sample of 51 Brazilian equity funds from 2002 to 2008 was conducted and regression models with qualitative dependent variables were estimated in order to set the probability of a manager to realize a capital gain or loss as a function of the stock return. The results brought evidence that prospect theory seems to guide the decision-making process of the managers, but the hypothesis that the disposition effect is due to mean reversion bias could not be confirmed.

  20. The Pro-Cyclical Impact of Basel III Regulatory Capital on Bank Capital Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Guoxiang

    2014-01-01

    To raise the quality of regulatory capital, Basel III capital rules recognize unrealized gains and losses on all available-for-sale (AFS) securities in Common Equity Tier 1 Capital (CET1). However, by examining the correlations between U.S. GDP growth rate, interest rates and regulatory capital ratios computed using Basel III regulatory capital definition for six U.S. global systemically important banks (G-SIBs) since 2007, this chapter finds that Basel III regulatory capital will enhance the...

  1. The core to regulatory reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partridge, J.W. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) Orders 436, 500, and 636, the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, Public Utility Holding Company Act reform, and the 1992 Energy Policy Act all can have significant effects on an LDC's operations. Such changes in an LDC's environments must be balanced by changes within the utility, its marketplace, and its state regulatory environment. The question is where to start. For Columbia Gas Distribution Cos., based in Columbus, OH, the new operating foundation begins with each employee. Internal strength is critical in designing initiatives that meet the needs of the marketplace and are well-received by regulators. Employees must understand not only the regulatory environment in which the LDC operates, but also how their work contributes to a positive regulatory relationship. To achieve this, Columbia initiated the COntinuing Regulatory Education program, or CORE, in 1991. CORE is a regulatory-focused, information-initiative program coordinated by Columbia's Regulatory Policy, Planning, and Government Affairs Department. The CORE programs can take many forms, such as emerging issue discussions, dialogues with regulators and key parties, updates on regulatory fillings, regulatory policy meetings, and formal training classes. The speakers and discussion facilitators can range from human resource department trainers to senior officers, from regulatory department staff members to external experts, or from state commissioners to executives from other LDCs. The goals of CORE initiatives are to: Support a professional level of regulatory expertise through employee participation in well-developed regulatory programs presented by credible experts. Encourage a constructive state regulatory environment founded on communication and cooperation. CORE achieves these goals via five program levels: introductory basics, advanced learning, professional expertise, crossfunctional dialogues, and external idea exchanges

  2. THE BORROWER CHARACTERISTICS IN HOT EQUITY MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HALIL DINCER KAYA

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, I examine the characteristics of U.S. corporate borrowers (public debt, private placement, and syndicated loan firms in HOT versus COLD equity markets. My main objective is to see the characteristics of firms that choose debt financing even when the equity market is HOT. HOT equity markets are defined as the top twenty percent of the months in terms of the de-trended number of equity offerings. I find that the HOT equity market borrowers generally have higher market-to-book ratios compared to the COLD market borrowers. Also, in HOT equity markets, the public debt firms (i.e. the corporate bond issuers tend to have fewer tangible assets, the private placement firms tend to be smaller and highly levered, and the syndicated loan firms tend to be smaller, more profitable, and less levered compared to the COLD market firms. When I look at the number of transactions in each market, I find that when the equity market is active (i.e. HOT, the syndicated loan market is even more active. During these periods, the public debt market is also active (although not as much as the equity or the syndicated loan markets. When I look at the sizes of the transactions in each market, I find that the private placements tend to be significantly larger in HOT markets compared to COLD markets. I conclude that while the equity, the public debt, and the syndicated loan markets move together in terms of market activity, the equity market and the private placement markets move together in terms of the size of the transaction.

  3. 78 FR 68488 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE MKT LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change Amending...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-14

    ... bad faith or unethically.''). Rule 2010--Equities is a broad ethical concept that covers all unethical... regulatory responsibilities for certain NYSE rules and rule interpretations (``FINRA Incorporated NYSE Rules...

  4. Atomic Act amended

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drabova, D.

    2002-01-01

    In the paper by the chairwoman of the Czech nuclear regulatory authority, the history of Czech nuclear legislation is outlined, the reasons for the amendment of the Atomic Act (Act No. 18/1997) are explained, and the amendments themselves are highlighted. The Act No. 13/2002 of 18 December 2001 is reproduced from the official Collection of Acts of the Czech Republic in the facsimile form. The following acts were thereby amended: Atomic Act No. 18/1997, Metrology Act No. 505/1990, Public Health Protection Act No. 258/2000, and Act No. 2/1969 on the Establishment of Ministries and Other Governmental Agencies of the Czech Republic. (P.A.)

  5. 217 THE LAND USE ACT AND EQUITY FACTOR IN PROPERTY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    discretion in tax management, provides harsh and inequitable penalties on tax defaulters, does not provide any .... remains one of the fundamental pillars of taxation guideline globally. ..... expense of the land owner and a disincentive to property investments. It is an .... establishing clear indices for tax valuation and review.

  6. UBUNTU: A NEW AFRICAN EQUITY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pjj

    and Others v Director: Private Security Industry Regulatory Authority and Others,. 34 for instance .... Assurance v Greater Johannesburg Metropolitan Council,. 56 the Court ..... could not be used directly to intervene in contractual relationships.

  7. Regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This publication, compiled in 8 chapters, presents the regulatory system developed by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NRA) of the Argentine Republic. The following activities and developed topics in this document describe: the evolution of the nuclear regulatory activity in Argentina; the Argentine regulatory system; the nuclear regulatory laws and standards; the inspection and safeguards of nuclear facilities; the emergency systems; the environmental systems; the environmental monitoring; the analysis laboratories on physical and biological dosimetry, prenatal irradiation, internal irradiation, radiation measurements, detection techniques on nuclear testing, medical program on radiation protection; the institutional relations with national and international organization; the training courses and meeting; the technical information

  8. In-silico analysis of cis-acting regulatory elements of pathogenesis-related proteins of Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Amritpreet; Pati, Pratap Kumar; Pati, Aparna Maitra; Nagpal, Avinash Kaur

    2017-01-01

    Pathogenesis related (PR) proteins are low molecular weight family of proteins induced in plants under various biotic and abiotic stresses. They play an important role in plant-defense mechanism. PRs have wide range of functions, acting as hydrolases, peroxidases, chitinases, anti-fungal, protease inhibitors etc. In the present study, an attempt has been made to analyze promoter regions of PR1, PR2, PR5, PR9, PR10 and PR12 of Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa. Analysis of cis-element distribution revealed the functional multiplicity of PRs and provides insight into the gene regulation. CpG islands are observed only in rice PRs, which indicates that monocot genome contains more GC rich motifs than dicots. Tandem repeats were also observed in 5' UTR of PR genes. Thus, the present study provides an understanding of regulation of PR genes and their versatile roles in plants.

  9. Confronting the Equity "Learning Problem" through Practitioner Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching, Cheryl D.

    2018-01-01

    This study examined how participation in an inquiry-based workshop on assessing course syllabi for equity-mindedness and cultural inclusivity fostered community college math faculty learning about racial/ethnic equity and equity-mindedness. Findings show that the workshop prompted reflection on what equity means and how participants' teaching…

  10. The Factor Structure in Equity Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Fournier, Mathieu; Jacobs, Kris

    2018-01-01

    Equity options display a strong factor structure. The first principal components of the equity volatility levels, skews, and term structures explain a substantial fraction of the crosssectional variation. Furthermore, these principal components are highly correlated with the S&P 500 index option...... volatility, skew, and term structure, respectively. We develop an equity option valuation model that captures this factor structure. The model predicts that firms with higher market betas have higher implied volatilities, steeper moneyness slopes, and a term structure that covaries more with the market...

  11. Banking Firm, Equity and Value at Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udo Broll

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the interaction between the solvency probability of a banking firm and the diversification potential of its asset portfolio when determining optimal equity capital. The purpose of this paper is to incorporate value at risk (VaR into the firm-theoretical model of a banking firm facing the risk of asset return. Given the necessity to achieve a confidence level for solvency, we demonstrate that diversification reduces the amount of equity. Notably, the VaR concept excludes a separation of equity policy and asset-liability management.

  12. The Factor Structure in Equity Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Fournier, Mathieu; Jacobs, Kris

    Equity options display a strong factor structure. The first principal components of the equity volatility levels, skews, and term structures explain a substantial fraction of the cross-sectional variation. Furthermore, these principal components are highly correlated with the S&P500 index option...... volatility, skew, and term structure respectively. We develop an equity option valuation model that captures this factor structure. The model predicts that firms with higher market betas have higher implied volatilities, steeper moneyness slopes, and a term structure that co-varies more with the market...

  13. Equity trees and graphs via information theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harré, M.; Bossomaier, T.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the similarities and differences between two measures of the relationship between equities traded in financial markets. Our measures are the correlation coefficients and the mutual information. In the context of financial markets correlation coefficients are well established whereas mutual information has not previously been as well studied despite its theoretically appealing properties. We show that asset trees which are derived from either the correlation coefficients or the mutual information have a mixture of both similarities and differences at the individual equity level and at the macroscopic level. We then extend our consideration from trees to graphs using the "genus 0" condition recently introduced in order to study the networks of equities.

  14. H.R. 5448: a bill to amend the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, to reorganize the functions of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission by abolishing the Commission and in its place establishing the Nuclear Regulation and Safety Agency. Introduced in the House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, Second Session, August 15, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The Omnibus Nuclear Safety Act of 1986 amends the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 by replacing the Nuclear Regulatory Commission with a new entity, the Nuclear Regulation and Safety Agency. The purposes are to promote an energy policy that is better coordinated and more consistent with the protection of public health and safety. The new agency would also expedite licensing for construction and operation of nuclear power plants by using pre-approved standardized designs and sites

  15. Consumption-based Equity Valuation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Christian; Christensen, Peter O.

    2016-01-01

    implementations of standard valuation models, both in terms of median absolute valuation errors (MAVE) and in terms of excess returns on simple investment strategies based on the differences between model and market prices. The CCAPM-based valuation model yields a significantly lower MAVE than the best performing...... standard valuation model. Both types of models can identify investment strategies with subsequent excess returns. The CCAPM-based valuation model yields time-series of realized hedge returns with more and higher positive returns and fewer and less negative returns compared with the time-series of realized...... through a risk-adjusted cost of equity in the denominator. The risk adjustments are derived based on assumptions about the time-series properties of residual income returns and aggregate consumption rather than on historical stock returns. We compare the performance of the model with several...

  16. Consumption-based Equity Valuation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Christian; Christensen, Peter Ove

    2013-01-01

    the performance of the model with several implementations of standard valuation models, both in terms of absolute valuation errors, and in terms of the returns on simple investment strategies based on the differences between model and market prices in the respective valuation models. The CCAPM-based valuation...... model performs substantially better than the best performing standard valuation model when comparing absolute valuation errors. Both types of models are able to identify investment strategies with subsequent excess returns but also in this setting, the CCAPM-based valuation model outperforms...... residual income for risk in the numerator rather than through a risk-adjusted cost of equity in the denominator. The risk-adjustments are derived based on assumptions about the time-series properties of residual income returns and aggregate consumption rather than on historical stock returns. We compare...

  17. The Equity-Equality Conflict

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, Steen

    2013-01-01

    -for-performance systems) perceived as fair and when are they not? When can differences in contribution (equity) overrule the social norm of equality? Which contingent reward structure should be applied for teamwork members, if any? Which structure to motivate employees to a continuous search for smarter working......This article investigatesthe factors that determine workplace actors’ appeal to social norms of fairness in some situations and what ‘fairness’ is perceived as consisting of. When is a pay level considered as relativity fair, and when is it not? When are contingent pay systems (i.e. pay...... procedures and solutions? These are central concerns of motivation theory, where rational choice decisions are counterbalanced by endowment effectsor other fairness concerns. Management is placed in a dilemma between what is, e.g., an economically rational structure of incentives, on the one hand, and what...

  18. Liquidity Risk and Distressed Equity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medhat, Mamdouh

    I show theoretically and empirically that cash holdings can help rationalize the low returns to distressed equity. In my model, levered firms with financing constraints optimally choose their cash holdings to eliminate liquidity risk and optimally default when insolvent. Using data on solvency......, liquidity, and returns for US firms, I find evidence consistent with the model’s predictions: (1) In all solvency levels, the average firm holds enough liquid assets to cover its short-term liabilities; less solvent firms have (2) a higher fraction of their total assets in liquid assets and therefore (3......) lower conditional betas and (4) lower returns; (5) the profits of long-short solvency strategies are highest among firms with low liquidity; and (6) the profits of long-short liquidity strategies are highest among firms with low solvency....

  19. Venture Capital and Other Private Equity: A Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Metrick; Ayako Yasuda

    2010-01-01

    We review the theory and evidence on venture capital (VC) and other private equity: why professional private equity exists, what private equity managers do with their portfolio companies, what returns they earn, who earns more and why, what determines the design of contracts signed between (i) private equity managers and their portfolio companies and (ii) private equity managers and their investors (limited partners), and how/whether these contractual designs affect outcomes. Findings highlig...

  20. Private Equity for Retail Investors : How to efficiently involve Finnish retail investors in private equity

    OpenAIRE

    Moita, Angelo

    2017-01-01

    Private equity has been the best performing asset class for institutional investors. Meanwhile, retail investors have been left out from the asset class for several reasons, such as legislation and wealth profiling. This study aims at assessing the types of private equity vehicles that could be the most appropriate for Finnish retail investors. The study solely focuses on the investment opportunities, hence it does not cover investment behaviour. Private equity should not be a primary as...

  1. Compliance. Regulatory policy P-211

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-05-01

    This regulatory policy describes the basic principles and directives for establishing and conducting the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) Compliance Program. The program is aimed at securing compliance by regulated persons with regulatory requirements made under the Nuclear Safety and Control Act ('the Act'). The policy applies to persons who are regulated by the CNSC through the Act, regulations and licences, as well as by decisions and orders made under the Act. The policy applies to officers and employees of the CNSC, and its authorized representatives or agents, who are involved in developing and carrying out compliance activities. Compliance, in the context of this policy, means conformity by regulated persons with the legally binding requirements of the Act, and the CNSC regulations, licences, decisions, and orders made under the Act. Compliance activities are CNSC measures of promotion, verification and enforcement aimed at securing compliance by regulated person with the applicable legally binding requirements. (author)

  2. Equity and Value in 'Precision Medicine'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Muir; Lagerberg, Tyra; Dombrádi, Viktor

    2017-04-01

    Precision medicine carries huge potential in the treatment of many diseases, particularly those with high-penetrance monogenic underpinnings. However, precision medicine through genomic technologies also has ethical implications. We will define allocative, personal, and technical value ('triple value') in healthcare and how this relates to equity. Equity is here taken to be implicit in the concept of triple value in countries that have publicly funded healthcare systems. It will be argued that precision medicine risks concentrating resources to those that already experience greater access to healthcare and power in society, nationally as well as globally. Healthcare payers, clinicians, and patients must all be involved in optimising the potential of precision medicine, without reducing equity. Throughout, the discussion will refer to the NHS RightCare Programme, which is a national initiative aiming to improve value and equity in the context of NHS England.

  3. Equity Theory Ratios as Causal Schemas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexios Arvanitis

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Equity theory approaches justice evaluations based on ratios of exchange inputs to exchange outcomes. Situations are evaluated as just if ratios are equal and unjust if unequal. We suggest that equity ratios serve a more fundamental cognitive function than the evaluation of justice. More particularly, we propose that they serve as causal schemas for exchange outcomes, that is, they assist in determining whether certain outcomes are caused by inputs of other people in the context of an exchange process. Equality or inequality of ratios in this sense points to an exchange process. Indeed, Study 1 shows that different exchange situations, such as disproportional or balanced proportional situations, create perceptions of give-and-take on the basis of equity ratios. Study 2 shows that perceptions of justice are based more on communicatively accepted rules of interaction than equity-based evaluations, thereby offering a distinction between an attribution and an evaluation cognitive process for exchange outcomes.

  4. RELIGIOUS AND CULTURAL ISSUES IN GENDER EQUITY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    RELIGIOUS AND CULTURAL ISSUES IN GENDER EQUITY: IMPLICATION FOR ... Education and Culture of any country determine its developmental rate. Culture affects the way ... expectations that people of one gender are expected to fulfill ...

  5. Iranian nursing students' perspectives of educational equity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrzad Ghiyasvandian

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Around the world there is a growing consensus that students' rights must be protected, regardless of race, creed, color, sex, religion, and socioeconomic status. One of these rights is the educational equity. However, little is known about these phenomena in nursing education. The aim of this study was to explore the educational equity from the perspective of nursing students. A qualitative study was conducted. Thus, we purposefully recruited for in-depth interviews 13 nursing students (8 female and 5 male. All interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed by thematic analysis approach to identify categories and themes. Four main themes emerged from the data: Fair Educational Opportunity, fair evaluation, attempts to combat discrimination, and employing qualified teachers.  It is argued that educational equity should be developed in higher education. Principles of equity and students' rights may form the most basic rationale for all formal and informal efforts to extend the right of equal access to education.

  6. Improvement of Educational Equity & Teacher Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María J. Rodríguez

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Educational improvement for equity and professional teacher development are crucial issues concerning the essential right all students have of a good education. Firstly the article proposes a contextual reflection on improvement, some considerations related to well known traditions in the field and particularly the social justice and its relationships and implication for educational politics, curriculum, teaching, teacher and community. Secondly, it claims for the coherence of teacher professional development to educational equity. Different analysis and proposals are outlined related to policies and tasks the public administration should undertake and some dimensions of teacher education are considered attending educational equity criteria. Professional learning communities are described and valued as a hypothetical framework in order to improve equity and teacher education relationships.

  7. 76 FR 6774 - Equity and Excellence Commission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-08

    ... rise to the achievement gap, with a focus on systems of finance, and recommend appropriate ways in... recommendations for restructuring school finance systems to achieve equity in the distribution of educational...

  8. 76 FR 55059 - Equity and Excellence Commission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-06

    ... gap, with a focus on systems of finance, and recommend appropriate ways in which Federal policies... restructuring school finance systems to achieve equity in the distribution of educational resources and further...

  9. Equity Theory Ratios as Causal Schemas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvanitis, Alexios; Hantzi, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Equity theory approaches justice evaluations based on ratios of exchange inputs to exchange outcomes. Situations are evaluated as just if ratios are equal and unjust if unequal. We suggest that equity ratios serve a more fundamental cognitive function than the evaluation of justice. More particularly, we propose that they serve as causal schemas for exchange outcomes, that is, they assist in determining whether certain outcomes are caused by inputs of other people in the context of an exchange process. Equality or inequality of ratios in this sense points to an exchange process. Indeed, Study 1 shows that different exchange situations, such as disproportional or balanced proportional situations, create perceptions of give-and-take on the basis of equity ratios. Study 2 shows that perceptions of justice are based more on communicatively accepted rules of interaction than equity-based evaluations, thereby offering a distinction between an attribution and an evaluation cognitive process for exchange outcomes.

  10. 28 CFR 548.15 - Equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Beliefs and Practices of Committed Offenders § 548.15 Equity. No one may disparage the religious beliefs of an inmate, nor coerce or harass an inmate to change religious affiliation. Attendance at all...

  11. Determinants of Beef and Pork Brand Equity

    OpenAIRE

    Parcell, Joseph L.; Schroeder, Ted C.

    2003-01-01

    A set of consumer-level characteristic demand models were estimated to determine the level of brand equity for pork and beef meat cuts. Results indicate that brand premiums and discounts vary by private, national, and store brands; and brand equity varies across meat cuts carrying the same brand name. Other results are that product size discounts are linear, meat items on sale are significantly discounted to non-sale items, specialty stores typically do not garner higher prices than supermark...

  12. Equity Volatility and Corporate Bond Yields

    OpenAIRE

    John Y. Campbell; Glen B. Taksler

    2002-01-01

    This paper explores the effect of equity volatility on corporate bond yields. Panel data for the late 1990s show that idiosyncratic firm-level volatility can explain as much cross-sectional variation in yields as can credit ratings. This finding, together with the upward trend in idiosyncratic equity volatility documented by Campbell, Lettau, Malkiel, and Xu (2001), helps to explain recent increases in corporate bond yields. The definitive version is available at www.blackwell-synergy.com.

  13. Brand equity in the Pakistani hotel industry

    OpenAIRE

    Ishaq, Muhammad Ishtiaq; Hussain, Nazia; Asim, Ali Ijaz; Cheema, Luqman J.

    2014-01-01

    Brand equity is considered as the most important aspect of branding, which is a set of brands' assets and liabilities, its symbol or name that subtracts from or adds the value provided by a product or service to a firm and customers. The current research endeavor was to identify the interrelationship of customer-based brand equity dimensions (brand awareness, brand loyalty, brand image, and service quality) in Pakistani hotel industry. Data was collected from 821 consumers who experienced the...

  14. Setting priorities for knowledge translation of Cochrane reviews for health equity: Evidence for Equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugwell, Peter; Petkovic, Jennifer; Welch, Vivian; Vincent, Jennifer; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Churchill, Rachel; deSavigny, Don; Mbuagbaw, Lawrence; Pantoja, Tomas

    2017-12-02

    A focus on equity in health can be seen in many global development goals and reports, research and international declarations. With the development of a relevant framework and methods, the Campbell and Cochrane Equity Methods Group has encouraged the application of an 'equity lens' to systematic reviews, and many organizations publish reviews intended to address health equity. The purpose of the Evidence for Equity (E4E) project was to conduct a priority-setting exercise and apply an equity lens by developing a knowledge translation product comprising summaries of systematic reviews from the Cochrane Library. E4E translates evidence from systematic reviews into 'friendly front end' summaries for policy makers. The following topic areas with high burdens of disease globally, were selected for the pilot: diabetes/obesity, HIV/AIDS, malaria, nutrition, and mental health/depression. For each topic area, a "stakeholder panel" was assembled that included policymakers and researchers. A systematic search of Cochrane reviews was conducted for each area to identify equity-relevant interventions with a meaningful impact. Panel chairs developed a rating sheet which was used by all panels to rank the importance of these interventions by: 1) Ease of Implementation; 2) Health System Requirements; 3)Universality/Generalizability/Share of Burden; and 4) Impact on Inequities/Effect on equity. The ratings of panel members were averaged for each intervention and criterion, and interventions were ordered according to the average overall ratings. Stakeholder panels identified the top 10 interventions from their respective topic areas. The evidence on these interventions is being summarized with an equity focus and the results posted online, at http://methods.cochrane.org/equity/e4e-series . This method provides an explicit approach to setting priorities by systematic review groups and funders for providing decision makers with evidence for the most important equity

  15. Incentives, equity and the Able Chooser Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grill, Kalle

    2017-03-01

    Health incentive schemes aim to produce healthier behaviours in target populations. They may do so both by making incentivised options more salient and by making them less costly. Changes in costs only result in healthier behaviour if the individual rationally assesses the cost change and acts accordingly. Not all people do this well. Those who fail to respond rationally to incentives will typically include those who are least able to make prudent choices more generally. This group will typically include the least advantaged more generally, since disadvantage inhibits one's effective ability to choose well and since poor choices tend to cause or aggravate disadvantage. Therefore, within the target population, health benefits to the better off may come at the cost of aggravated inequity. This is one instance of a problem I name the Able Chooser Problem, previously emphasised by Richard Arneson in relation to coercive paternalism. I describe and discuss this problem by distinguishing between policy options and their effects on the choice situation of individuals. Both positive and negative incentives, as well as mandates that are less than perfectly effective, require some sort of rational deliberation and action and so face the Able Chooser Problem. In contrast, effective restriction of what options are physically available, as well as choice context design that makes some options more salient or appealing, does not demand rational agency. These considerations provide an equity-based argument for preferring smart design of our choice and living environment to incentives and mandates. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  16. Keynes, population, and equity prices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarascio, V J

    1985-01-01

    Keynes in 1937 examined the phenomenon of the Great Depression from a longrun perspective in contradiction to the "General Theory," where the focus was on the shortrun. "Some Economic Consequences of a Declining Population," Keynes' article, reveals the context in which the "General Theory" was written. In the "General Theory," the focus is on short-term fluctuations, i.e., business cycles, but Keynes fails to provide any theoretical explanation as to why the depression of the 1930s was so severe and intractable. In the 1937 article, the depression is seen as the result of the combined effects of a decline in longrun growth due to population growth decline and a shortrun cyclical decline, together producing severe economic consequences. What is important for the purposes of this discussion is the implication, within the context of the 1937 article, that not only was the stock market crash of 1929 related to population change (with its accompanying collapse in expectations) but that, in general, changes in the rate of growth of population are accompanied by stock price movements in the same direction. The remainder of the discussion is devoted to a simple empirical test of this relationship. The data used are population size (POP), defined as the total residential population in the US from 1870-1979, and the Standard and Poor 500 Stock index (SP) for the corresponding 109-year period. In addition, a 3rd series was constructed, a price deflated Standard and Poor index (RSP) with a base period of 1870, to account for possible inflationary distortion of the index. The empirical results do not invalidate the hypothesis that population growth rates affect equity markets. In fact, there seems to be strong evidence that they are related in a manner suggestive of Keynes' intutition, namely, that the stock market crash of 1929 was due to factors more fundamental than those often perceived from a shortrun perspective. According to Keynes (1937), population is the most

  17. Does Book Values and Earnings Affect Equity Values of Corporate Entities in Nigeria?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edirin Jeroh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the article: In this study, we appraised the effect which book values and earnings would have on equity values of quoted corporate entities in Nigeria. In view of this, we obtained secondary data from the published reports of 105 firms selected for this study. The study period was 10 years (2005–2014. Methodology/methods: The regression technique was employed to scrutinize the data sourced from sampled entities’ annual accounts. Additionally, the Breusch-Pagan/ Cook-Weisberg Test was employed along with the VIF Test to verify whether the sourced data were normally distributed or whether there was the presence or otherwise of multicollinearity amid the explanatory (independent variables. Scientific aim: This study aims to empirically establish with available statistics, the extent in which variations in equity values of quoted corporate entities in Nigeria could be accounted for by changes in book values and earnings. Findings: Results from our analysis revealed inter alia, that book value per share and earnings jointly had significant and positive effect on equity values of Nigerian quoted firms. Conclusion: Since earnings was significant in attempting to ascertain equity values of Nigerian firms, it was thus recommend that regulatory bodies like the Financial Reporting Council of Nigeria among others should develop enforceable strategies and sanctions that would discourage and eliminate all forms of earnings manipulation that may distort the information reported in the financial statements of quoted corporate entities in Nigeria

  18. Slum Upgrading and Health Equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corburn, Jason; Sverdlik, Alice

    2017-03-24

    Informal settlement upgrading is widely recognized for enhancing shelter and promoting economic development, yet its potential to improve health equity is usually overlooked. Almost one in seven people on the planet are expected to reside in urban informal settlements, or slums, by 2030. Slum upgrading is the process of delivering place-based environmental and social improvements to the urban poor, including land tenure, housing, infrastructure, employment, health services and political and social inclusion. The processes and products of slum upgrading can address multiple environmental determinants of health. This paper reviewed urban slum upgrading evaluations from cities across Asia, Africa and Latin America and found that few captured the multiple health benefits of upgrading. With the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) focused on improving well-being for billions of city-dwellers, slum upgrading should be viewed as a key strategy to promote health, equitable development and reduce climate change vulnerabilities. We conclude with suggestions for how slum upgrading might more explicitly capture its health benefits, such as through the use of health impact assessment (HIA) and adopting an urban health in all policies (HiAP) framework. Urban slum upgrading must be more explicitly designed, implemented and evaluated to capture its multiple global environmental health benefits.

  19. Brand equity v kategorii jogurtů na českém trhu.

    OpenAIRE

    Flodrová, Tereza

    2008-01-01

    Thesis deals with the subject of brand value / equity. In the application part equity of selected brands of yoghurts is measured using Equity Builder and Brand Power methodologies and recommendations for their brand equity growth are given.

  20. 75 FR 20018 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Order Approving a Proposed Rule Change, As...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-16

    ... any equity exchange. Given the competitive pressures that currently characterize the U.S. equity... number of alternative sources of information that impose significant competitive pressures on BATS in... competitive pressure on BATS to act equitably, fairly, and reasonably in setting the terms of its proposal...

  1. Societal foundations for explaining fertility: Gender equity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter McDonald

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Gender equity theory in relation to fertility argues that very low fertility is the result of incoherence in the levels of gender equity in individually-oriented social institutions and family-oriented social institutions. The salience of gender to the fertility transition is strong in theory but not as strong in specification of testable hypotheses as has been pointed out in the literature. OBJECTIVE The paper aims to clarify the specification of gender equity theory through a discussion of the difference between equity and equality and to suggest methods that might be applied to test the theory. METHODS The theory is restated and further developed using literature from different disciplines. The method is described using a decomposition of fertility for women by human capital levels. RESULTS The clarification of the theory includes a reminder that the theory relates to differences in fertility between countries and not to differences in fertility between women in the same country. In comparisons between countries, higher gender equity leads to higher fertility. In comparisons of fertility across women in the same country, higher gender equity does not necessarily imply higher fertility. In relation to measurement, a specification is suggested that effectively compares women across countries controlling for their level of human capital. Simple graphics are used to indicate ways in which fertility between countries may vary. CONCLUSIONS The paper concludes that it is likely the gender equity theory can be tested more readily by examining the behaviour across countries of women with higher levels of human capital.

  2. The Role of Courts in Shaping Health Equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Mark A

    2017-10-01

    United States' courts have played a limited, yet key, role in shaping health equity in three areas of law: racial discrimination, disability discrimination, and constitutional rights. Executive and administrative action has been much more instrumental than judicial decisions in advancing racial equality in health care. Courts have been reluctant to intervene on racial justice because overt discrimination has largely disappeared, and the Supreme Court has interpreted civil rights laws in a fashion that restricts judicial authority to address more subtle or diffused forms of disparate impact. In contrast, courts have been more active in limiting disability discrimination by expanding the conditions that are considered disabling and by articulating and applying the operative concepts "reasonable accommodation" and "other qualified" in the context of both treatment and insurance coverage decisions. Finally, regarding constitutional rights, courts have had limited opportunity to intervene because, outside of specially protected arenas such as reproduction, constitutional law gives government wide discretion to define health and safety goals and methods. Thus, courts have had only a limited role in shaping health equity in the United States. It remains to be seen whether this will change under the Affordable Care Act or whatever health reform measure might replace it. Copyright © 2017 by Duke University Press.

  3. Diminishing musyarakah investment model based on equity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffar, Maheran Mohd; Zain, Shaharir Mohamad; Jemain, Abdul Aziz

    2017-11-01

    Most of the mudharabah and musyarakah contract funds are involved in debt financing. This does not support the theory that profit sharing contract is better than that of debt financing due to the sharing of risks and ownership of equity. Indeed, it is believed that Islamic banking is a financial model based on equity or musyarakah which emphasis on the sharing of risks, profit and loss in the investment between the investor and entrepreneur. The focus of this paper is to introduce the mathematical model that internalizes diminishing musyarakah, the sharing of profit and equity between entrepreneur and investor. The entrepreneur pays monthly-differed payment to buy out the equity that belongs to the investor (bank) where at the end of the specified period, the entrepreneur owns the business and the investor (bank) exits the joint venture. The model is able to calculate the amount of equity at any time for both parties and hence would be a guide in helping to estimate the value of investment should the entrepreneur or investor exit before the end of the specified period. The model is closer to the Islamic principles for justice and fairness.

  4. On the evolutionary origins of equity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Debove

    Full Text Available Equity, defined as reward according to contribution, is considered a central aspect of human fairness in both philosophical debates and scientific research. Despite large amounts of research on the evolutionary origins of fairness, the evolutionary rationale behind equity is still unknown. Here, we investigate how equity can be understood in the context of the cooperative environment in which humans evolved. We model a population of individuals who cooperate to produce and divide a resource, and choose their cooperative partners based on how they are willing to divide the resource. Agent-based simulations, an analytical model, and extended simulations using neural networks provide converging evidence that equity is the best evolutionary strategy in such an environment: individuals maximize their fitness by dividing benefits in proportion to their own and their partners' relative contribution. The need to be chosen as a cooperative partner thus creates a selection pressure strong enough to explain the evolution of preferences for equity. We discuss the limitations of our model, the discrepancies between its predictions and empirical data, and how interindividual and intercultural variability fit within this framework.

  5. Health care and equity in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balarajan, Y; Selvaraj, S; Subramanian, S V

    2011-02-05

    In India, despite improvements in access to health care, inequalities are related to socioeconomic status, geography, and gender, and are compounded by high out-of-pocket expenditures, with more than three-quarters of the increasing financial burden of health care being met by households. Health-care expenditures exacerbate poverty, with about 39 million additional people falling into poverty every year as a result of such expenditures. We identify key challenges for the achievement of equity in service provision, and equity in financing and financial risk protection in India. These challenges include an imbalance in resource allocation, inadequate physical access to high-quality health services and human resources for health, high out-of-pocket health expenditures, inflation in health spending, and behavioural factors that affect the demand for appropriate health care. Use of equity metrics in monitoring, assessment, and strategic planning; investment in development of a rigorous knowledge base of health-systems research; development of a refined equity-focused process of deliberative decision making in health reform; and redefinition of the specific responsibilities and accountabilities of key actors are needed to try to achieve equity in health care in India. The implementation of these principles with strengthened public health and primary-care services will help to ensure a more equitable health care for India's population. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A Critical Review on Studies of Relationship Education in the Gender Equity Education of Taiwan: 10 Years and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hsing-Chen; You, Mei-Hui

    2017-01-01

    With discourse analyses, this paper attempts to review the research development of relationship education in Taiwan for nearly a decade after the "Gender Equity Education Act" was announced in 2004, including the research topics generated, the knowledge accumulated, and the results achieved. This paper focuses not only on how the power…

  7. Alternative measures of the Federal Reserve Banks' cost of equity capital

    OpenAIRE

    Barnes, Michelle L.; Lopez, Jose A.

    2005-01-01

    The Monetary Control Act of 1980 requires the Federal Reserve System to provide payment services to depository institutions through the twelve Federal Reserve Banks at prices that fully reflect the costs a private-sector provider would incur, including a cost of equity capital (COE). Although Fama and French (1997) conclude that COE estimates are “woefully” and “unavoidably” imprecise, the Reserve Banks require such an estimate every year. We examine several COE estimates based on the Capital...

  8. ACCOUNTING, TAX AND FINANCIAL APPROACHES CONCERNING THE CONCEPT OF EQUITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela TULVINSCHI

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Substantiating the concept of equity is an issue of interest to specialists in accounting, taxation and finance. The purpose of this article is to present three of the sensitive issues generated by the concept of equity. One aspect considered is the demarcation of financial liabilities from the equity instruments. The distinction between equity and debt instruments is necessary because it has consequences on financial reporting. A second part of the study focuses on the fiscal side, trying to find the answer to the question: Are there deferred taxes recognized in equity? Deferred tax liabilities will be presented at the end of the year in equity and not debt, because they are related to gains recorded directly in equity. The third part of the article discusses the financial importance of equity, focusing on subscription and attribution rights as financial instruments used when raising capital. By creating subscription rights it is desired to obtain immediate funds needed to finance the entity.

  9. 14 CFR 313.4 - Major regulatory actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) PROCEDURAL REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION OF THE ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT § 313.4 Major regulatory... of actions shall not be deemed as major regulatory actions requiring an energy statement: (1) Tariff...

  10. Experiences in accessing the U.S. equity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gosbee, G. F. J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper was designed to deal with three issues: (1) reasons for the difficulty of attracting U.S. capital into Canada; (2) Canadian companies' need for U.S. capital, and (3) how to successfully attract U.S. capital. As far as the reasons for the difficulties of attracting U.S. capital are concerned, intense world-wide competition for U.S. capital, the relatively small capital needs in Canada, the relatively poorly developed reporting practices, passive management and shareholders, and Canada's more stringent regulatory practices were highlighted as being most responsible. As to whether Canadian companies need U.S. capital, the answer was in the affirmative, citing multiple expansion, shareholder base diversification and the large equity raising power of the U.S. market as contributing factors. With regard to attracting U.S. capital into Canada, the advice given included differentiating the company, adopting U.S. reporting practices, addressing regulatory concerns, obtaining U.S.listings, and outperforming competitors

  11. 78 FR 27169 - Regulatory Flexibility Act Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration 49 CFR Chapter... parts 174, 177, 191, and 192... 2013 2014 Transportation of Natural and Other Gas by Pipeline; Annual... review of some of 49 CFR parts 106, 107, 171. The full analysis document for the hazardous materials...

  12. Negotiating equity for management of DOE wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnes, S.A.

    1994-01-01

    One important factor frustrating optimal management of Department of Energy (DOE)-complex wastes is the inability to use licensed and permitted facilities systematically. Achieving the goal of optimal use of DOE's waste management facilities is politically problematic for two reasons. First, no locale wants to bear a disproportionate burden from DOE wastes. Second, the burden imposed by additional wastes transported from one site to another is difficult to characterize. To develop a viable framework for equitably distributing these burdens while achieving efficient use of all DOE waste management facilities, several implementation and equity issues must be addressed and resolved. This paper discusses stakeholder and equity issues and proposes a framework for joint research and action that could facilitate equity negotiations among stakeholder and move toward a more optimal use of DOE's waste management capabilities

  13. Brand Equity Evolution: a System Dynamics Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Crescitelli

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the greatest challenges in brand management lies in monitoring brand equity over time. This paper aimsto present a simulation model able to represent this evolution. The model was drawn on brand equity concepts developed by Aaker and Joachimsthaler (2000, using the system dynamics methodology. The use ofcomputational dynamic models aims to create new sources of information able to sensitize academics and managers alike to the dynamic implications of their brand management. As a result, an easily implementable model was generated, capable of executing continuous scenario simulations by surveying casual relations among the variables that explain brand equity. Moreover, the existence of a number of system modeling tools will allow extensive application of the concepts used in this study in practical situations, both in professional and educational settings

  14. Negotiating equity for management of DOE wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnes, S.A.

    1993-01-01

    One important factor frustrating optimal management of DOE-complex wastes is inability to use licensed and permitted facilities systematically. Achieving the goal of optimal use of DOE's waste management facilities is politically problematic for two reasons. First, no locale wants to bear a disproportionate burden from DOE wastes. Second, the burden imposed by additional wastes transported from one site to another is difficult to characterize. To develop a viable framework for equitably distributing these burdens while achieving efficient use of all DOE waste management facilities, several implementation and equity issues must be addressed and resolved. This paper discusses stakeholders and equity issues and proposes a framework for joint research and action that could facilitate equity negotiations among stakeholders and move toward a more optimal use of DOE's waste management capabilities

  15. Governing health equity in Scandinavian municipalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheele, Christian Elling; Little, Ingvild; Diderichsen, Finn

    2018-01-01

    AIMS: Local governments in the Scandinavian countries are increasingly committed to reduce health inequity through 'health equity in all policies' (HEiAP) governance. There exists, however, only very sporadic implementation evidence concerning municipal HEiAP governance, which is the focus...... of this study. METHODS: Data are based on qualitative thematic network analysis of 20 interviews conducted from 2014 to 2015 with Scandinavian political and administrative practitioners. RESULTS: We identify 24 factors located within three categories; political processes, where insufficient political commitment...... to health equity goals outside of the health sector and inadequate economic prioritization budget curbs implementation. Concerning evidence, there is a lack of epidemiological data, detailed evidence of health equity interventions as well as indicators relevant for monitoring implementation. Concerted...

  16. Country brand equity model: Sustainability perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodorović Milivoj

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a model of country brand equity that incorporates the issue of sustainability in determining destination brand equity. In particular, the model includes elements of sustainability as its core dimensions and promotes the concept of the country sustainability promise that transforms destination resources into the positive perception and experience. The theoretical model is empirically tested using global secondary data confirming that country image is the most important element followed by sustainability and loyalty. Also, the analysis suggests the existence of the higher order construct confirming the country brand equity concept. Based on the research findings, the article offers some implications to the destination managers by suggesting the direction for further development and strategy implementation.

  17. Negotiating equity for management of DOE wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnes, S.A.

    1994-01-01

    One important factor frustrating optimal management of Department of Energy (DOE)-complex wastes is the inability to use licensed and permitted facilities systematically. Achieving the goal of optimal use of DOE's waste management facilities is politically problematic for two reasons. First, no locale wants to bear a disproportionate burden from DOE wastes. Second, the burden imposed by additional wastes transported from one site to another is difficult to characterize. To develop a viable framework for equitably distributing these burdens while achieving efficient use of all DOE waste management facilities, several implementation and equity issues must be addressed and resolved. This paper discusses stakeholders and equity issues and proposes a framework for joint research and action that could facilitate equity negotiations among stakeholders and move toward a more optimal use of DOE's waste management capabilities

  18. Medical pluralism: global perspectives on equity issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marian, Florica

    2007-12-01

    Over the last decades, awareness has increased about the phenomenon of medical pluralism and the importance to integrate biomedicine and other forms of health care. The broad variety of healing cultures existing alongside biomedicine is called complementary or alternative medicine (CAM) in industrialized countries and traditional medicine (TM) in developing countries. Considerable debate has arisen about ethical problems related to the growing use of CAM in industrialized countries. This article focuses on equity issues and aims to consider them from a global perspective of medical pluralism. Several dimensions of equity are explored and their interrelatedness discussed: access to care, research (paradigm and founding) and recognition. This so-called 'equity circle' is then related to Iris Marion Young's justice theory and particularly to the concepts of cultural imperialism, powerlessness and marginalisation.

  19. The Equity Share in New Issues and Aggregate Stock Returns

    OpenAIRE

    Malcolm Baker; Jeffrey Wurgler

    1999-01-01

    The share of equity issues in total new equity and debt issues is a strong predictor of U.S. stock market returns between 1928 and 1997. In particular, firms issue relatively more equity than debt just before periods of low market returns. The equity share in new issues has stable predictive power in both halves of the sample period, and after controlling for other known predictors. We do not find support for efficient market ex

  20. Conceptualization of the Relationship between Brand Equity and Purchase Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Ogunnaike, Olaleke Olusye; Kehinde, Oladele Joseph; Omoyayi, Oluwadamilola Oluwatosin; Popoola, Oluwamakinde Oluwamayowa; Amoruwa, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Assessing the customer perspective of brand equity will provide deep understanding of how brands influence purchase behaviour of customers. The purpose of this paper is to formulate a conceptual framework that will provide an understanding of the relationship existing between the elements of brand equity and that of purchase behaviour. The adoption of Aaker’s brand equity model will serve as a guide for conceiving associations between brand equity and purchase behaviour for this study. Litera...

  1. Moving towards global health equity: Opportunities and threats: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MESKE

    time in recent history. ... Results: Equity has been a long quest in public health and global health equity could be seen as part of ... Sub-Saharan Africa will remain an enduring preoccupation ..... In recent years, “Equity as a shared vision for health and ..... skilled workers is evolving as a policy position in the US and Europe.

  2. 26 CFR 1.809-10 - Computation of equity base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Computation of equity base. 1.809-10 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Gain and Loss from Operations § 1.809-10 Computation of equity base. (a) In general. For purposes of section 809, the equity base of a life insurance company includes the amount of any...

  3. La valutazione degli investimenti finanziati tramite equity crowdfunding

    OpenAIRE

    Zanetti, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Evoluzione e dimensione del crowdfunding, La valutazione e strutturazione dell’investimento tramite equity crowdfunding, Valutazioni implicite nelle raccolte fondi in equity crowdfunding, Peculiarità specifiche dell’equity crowdfunding, Un confronto con la bolla valutativa delle aziende internet degli anni 2000

  4. Gender Equity and Mass Communication's Female Student Majority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golombisky, Kim

    2002-01-01

    Provides an overview of the history and politics of gender equity to make problematic the phrase "gender equity," to introduce the gender equity in education literature, and to outline some issues relevant to mass communication. Suggests that equal access represents a sex-blind approach dependent on a male standard. (SG)

  5. Reviving Pay Equity: New Strategies for Attacking the Wage Gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Peggy; Figart, Deborah M.

    1998-01-01

    Pay equity remains a problem linked to the problem of low pay. Pay equity must be understood as one solution to the problem of securing a living wage for women and men in the restructuring economy as well as a means for challenging gender equity. (JOW)

  6. Do Firms Replenish Executives’ Incentives After Equity Sales?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ladika, T.

    2013-01-01

    After selling firm equity, executives' incentives to maximize shareholder value may decrease. How do boards respond? Theory shows boards can restore executives' incentives by shifting subsequent pay from cash toward equity. Unobservable firm-level changes that cause executives to sell equity and

  7. Value at risk, bank equity and credit risk

    OpenAIRE

    Broll, Udo; Wahl, Jack E.

    2003-01-01

    We study the implications of the value at risk concept for the bank's optimum amount of equity capital under credit risk. The market value of loans is risky and lognormally distributed. We show that the required equity capital depends upon managerial and market factors. Furthermore, the bank's equity and asset/liability management has to be addressed simultaneously by bank managers.

  8. Inquiry as an Entry Point to Equity in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Gail; El Turkey, Houssein; Cilli-Turner, Emily; Savic, Milos; Karakok, Gulden; Plaxco, David

    2017-01-01

    Although many policy documents include equity as part of mathematics education standards and principles, researchers continue to explore means by which equity might be supported in classrooms and at the institutional level. Teaching practices that include opportunities for students to engage in active learning have been proposed to address equity.…

  9. As Endowment Managers Turn to Private Equity, Questions Arise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Andrea; Blumenstyk, Goldie

    2012-01-01

    Endowment growth in 2011 came in no small part because universities have increasingly invested in private equity--the same private equity that has become a hot-button issue on the 2012 campaign trail, with some candidates and commentators calling into question its social value. Private equity is "of increasing significance" for endowments. It made…

  10. 12 CFR 5.36 - Other equity investments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Other equity investments. 5.36 Section 5.36... PROCEDURES FOR CORPORATE ACTIVITIES Expansion of Activities § 5.36 Other equity investments. (a) Authority... types of equity investments pursuant to 12 U.S.C. 24(Seventh) and other statutes. These investments are...

  11. Legal aspects of intergenerational equity issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, H.P.

    1984-01-01

    This paper examines the extent to which American law and legal institutions have addressed problems of intergenerational equities. Beginning with a definition of the issue, the paper goes on to address conservation law, public debt ceilings, property law, and eugenic laws. The research supports the conclusion that neither statutory law, the formal expression of public policy articulated by the legislature, nor common law, the case-by-case definition of private legal rights by the courts has developed a coherent set of legal principles for dealing with the difficult problems of intergenerational equity. 15 references

  12. Illiquidity Premia in the Equity Options Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Goyenko, Ruslan; Jacobs, Kris

    , including standard measures of illiquidity of the underlying stock, determinants of spreads, and a measure of net demand pressure. The positive illiquidity premium we find is consistent with existing evidence that market makers in the equity options market hold net long positions.......Illiquidity is well-known to be a significant determinant of stock and bond returns. We are the first to estimate illiquidity premia in equity option markets using effective spreads for a large cross-section of firms. The risk-adjusted return spread for illiquid over liquid options is 23 bps per...

  13. Equity in health and health care reforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, S M

    1999-01-01

    In planning healthcare reforms increasing attention has been focused on the issue of equity. Inequities in the provision of healthcare exist even in relatively egalitarian societies. Poverty is still one of the major contributors to ill health and there are many powerful influences in society that continue to thwart the goal of a maximally equitable system for the provision of healthcare. The principles of equity in a healthcare system have been well articulated in recent years. It is incumbent on healthcare professionals who understand the issues to join the efforts towards a more humane and equitable healthcare system in their societies.

  14. Option-implied measures of equity risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chang, Bo-Young; Christoffersen, Peter; Vainberg, Gregory

    2012-01-01

    Equity risk measured by beta is of great interest to both academics and practitioners. Existing estimates of beta use historical returns. Many studies have found option-implied volatility to be a strong predictor of future realized volatility. We find that option-implied volatility and skewness...... are also good predictors of future realized beta. Motivated by this finding, we establish a set of assumptions needed to construct a beta estimate from option-implied return moments using equity and index options. This beta can be computed using only option data on a single day. It is therefore potentially...

  15. Tax Efficiency vs. Tax Equity – Points of View regarding Tax Optimum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stela Aurelia Toader

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Starting from the idea that tax equity requirements, administration costs and the tendency towards tax evasion determine the design of tax systems, it is important to identify a satisfactory efficiency/equity deal in order to build a tax system as close to optimum requirements as possible. Prior Work Previous studies proved that an optimum tax system is that through which it will be collected a level of tax revenues which will satisfy budgetary demands, while losing only a minimum ‘amount’ of welfare. In what degree the Romanian tax system meets these requirements? Approach We envisage analyzing the possibilities of improving Romanian tax system as to come nearest to optimum requirements. Results We can conclude fiscal system can uphold important improvements in what assuring tax equity is concerned, resulting in raising the degree of free conformation in the field of tax payment and, implicitly, the degree of tax efficiency. Implications Knowing to what extent it can be acted upon in the direction of finding that satisfactory efficiency/equity deal may allow oneself to identify the blueprint of a tax system in which the loss of welfare is kept down to minimum. Value For the Romanian institutions empowered to impose taxes, the knowledge of the possibilities of making the tax system more efficient can be important while aiming at reducing the level of evasion phenomenon.

  16. 75 FR 64306 - Sunshine Act Meeting Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-19

    ... Transmission System. Hydro H-1 P-12107-005 Granite County, Montana. H-2 P-2496-222 Eugene Water and Electric... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Sunshine Act Meeting Notice October 14... Sunshine Act (Pub. L. 94-409), 5 U.S.C. 552b: Agency Holding Meeting: Federal Energy Regulatory Commission...

  17. How well does consumer-based brand equity align with sales-based brand equity and marketing mix response?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Datta, Hannes; Ailawadi, Kusum L.; van Heerde, H.J.

    Brand equity is the differential preference and response to marketing effort that a product obtains because of its brand identification. Brand equity can be measured based on either consumer perceptions or on sales. Consumer-based brand equity (CBBE) measures what consumers think and feel about the

  18. An Experiment Examining the Relationship of Affect, Equity, and Equity Sensitivity, With Organizational Citizenship Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Kalanick, Julie Lynn

    2006-01-01

    This study employed an experimental design intended to be an analog to the workplace to simultaneously examine the affect orientation and equity theory explanations of OCBs, which were evaluated as prosocial behaviors. Participants were 188 undergraduates. Participantsâ dispositional variables were measured at time 1, and at time 2, participants experienced an equity manipulation and were given the opportunity to perform prosocial behaviors. Results indicated a distinction between the decis...

  19. Decomposing European bond and equity volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Charlotte

    The paper investigates volatility spillover from US and aggregate European asset markets into European national asset markets. A main contribution is that bond and equity volatilities are analyzed simultaneously. A new model belonging to the "volatilityspillover" family is suggested: The conditio...

  20. Equity and Quality Dimensions in Educational Effectiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kyriakides, L.; Creemers, B.P.M.; Charalambous, E.

    2018-01-01

    This book aims to make a contribution to the theory, research and practice on quality and equity in education by providing a comprehensive overview of these two dimensions of educational effectiveness and proposing a methodological instrument that may be used to measure the contribution that each

  1. Gender Equity, Sport Sponsorship, and Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiamouyiannis, Athena

    2009-01-01

    As the pressure to win in select collegiate sports escalates, financial pressures mount, and the need to comply with Title IX regulations and gender equity policies continues, athletics administrators are faced with having to make difficult decisions regarding their sport programs. To assist in the decision-making process regarding sport programs,…

  2. Housing equity, residential mobility and commuting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloze, Gintautas; Skak, Morten

    2016-01-01

    Highly productive economies require a flexible labor force with workers that move in accordance with the changing demand for goods and services. In times with falling housing prices, the mobility of home owning workers may be hampered by a lock-in effect of low or even negative housing equity. Th...

  3. Opinion Health equity from the African perspective

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MESKE

    will not be able to realize meaningful poverty alleviation despite the creditable record of relatively high economic ... Poverty reduction is the MDG goal most crucial to health equity. Anyangwe et.al characterize poverty as both .... disaster, the Horn of Africa recently experienced drought-caused famine and a similar threat is ...

  4. Market Impact Costs of Institutional Equity Trades

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bikker, J.A.; Spierdijk, L.; van der Sluis, P.J.

    2008-01-01

    This article analyzes market impact costs of equity trading by one of the world's largest pension funds. We find that, on average, these costs are small in terms of market disruption, but substantial in terms of costs for the pension fund. Average market impact costs equal 20 basis points for buys

  5. Market Impact Costs of Institutional Equity Trades

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sluis, P.J.; Bikker, J.A.; Spierdijk, L.

    2007-01-01

    This article analyzes market impact costs of equity trading by one of the world's largest pension funds. We find that, on average, these costs are small in terms of market disruption, but substantial in terms of costs for the pension fund. Average market impact costs equal 20 basis points for buys

  6. Market impact costs of institutional equity trades

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bikker, Jacob A.; Spierdijk, Laura; van der Sluis, Pieter Jelle

    2007-01-01

    This article analyzes market impact costs of equity trading by one of the world's largest pension funds. We find that, on average, these costs are small in terms of market disruption, but substantial in terms of costs for the pension fund. Average market impact costs equal 20 basis points for buys

  7. Social Conflict and Sex Equity in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quantz, Richard A.

    1983-01-01

    Holds that male/female differences in such behavior characteristics as aggression, cooperation/competition, compliance, and anxiety are not innate, but rather are social strategies available to both sexes and utilized whenever reasonable. Suggests that the sex equity problems in education can be solved by eliminating differential treatment of boys…

  8. Strategic default and equity risk across countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Favara, G.; Schroth, E.; Valta, P.

    2010-01-01

    We test whether the firm’s systematic equity risk reflects the shareholders’ incentives to default strategically on the firm’s debt. We use a real options model to relate the shareholders’ strategic default behavior to frictions in the debt renegotiation procedure. We test the model’s predictions

  9. Learning, Official Languages and Employment Equity Advisor ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Job Summary Plans and coordinates human resources services in the areas of Learning, Official Languages (OL) and Employment Equity (EE) while ensuring that management's needs are met. Provides operational services and advises managers and employees in determining their needs, analyzing problems, ...

  10. Disability and Equity in Higher Education Accessibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alphin, Henry C., Jr., Ed.; Lavine, Jennie, Ed.; Chan, Roy Y., Ed.

    2017-01-01

    Education is the foundation to almost all successful lives. It is vital that learning opportunities are available on a global scale, regardless of individual disabilities or differences, and to create more inclusive educational practices. "Disability and Equity in Higher Education Accessibility" is a comprehensive reference source for…

  11. Addressing Gender Equity in Nonfaculty Salaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toukoushian, Robert K.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses methodology of gender equity studies on noninstructional employees of colleges and universities, including variable selection in the multiple regression model and alternative approaches for measuring wage gaps. Analysis of staff data at one institution finds that experience and market differences account for 80 percent of gender pay…

  12. Private equity investments and disclosure policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beuselinck, C.A.C.; Deloof, M.; Manigart, S.

    2008-01-01

    In the current study, we dynamically analyze unlisted firms’ voluntary disclosure decisions around private equity (PE) participation. First, we disentangle the role of disclosure in attracting PE investments. In addition, we examine the extent to which a firm’s disclosure policy is affected by the

  13. Strengthening Equity through Applied Research Capacity Building ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    There exists limited understanding of how e-Health solutions are perceived, designed, implemented and used. ... The Strengthening Equity through Applied Research Capacity Building in e-Health (SEARCH) program will cultivate local research capacity to examine e-health and ... Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine.

  14. Employment Equity | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    At IDRC, diversity is one of the keys to our success. We are committed to achieving employment equity for designated groups in our workforce. Our goal is to create and maintain an innovative and responsive work environment where employees are valued and respected. Designated groups – Definitions.

  15. The Joint Dynamics of Equity Market Factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Langlois, Hugues

    2013-01-01

    The 4 equity market factors from Fama and French (1993) and Carhart (1997) are pervasive in academia and practice. However, not much is known about their joint distribution and dynamics. We find striking evidence of asymmetric tail dependence across the factors. While the linear factor correlatio...

  16. 19 CFR 351.507 - Equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of a government-provided equity infusion, a benefit exists to the extent that the investment decision... company as a whole. In making the equityworthiness determination, the Secretary may examine the following..., adjusted, if appropriate, to conform to generally accepted accounting principles; (C) Rates of return on...

  17. Governance for Equity in Health Systems Deadline

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Jean-Claude Dumais

    2012-09-12

    Sep 12, 2012 ... of training and mentorship in research, research management, and grant administration allows awardees to pursue their research goals in a dynamic team environment in one of the world's leaders in generating new knowledge to meet global challenges. IDRC's Governance for Equity in Health Systems ...

  18. Diversity, Equity, & Inclusion at Berkeley Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkeley Lab A-Z Index Directory Search Diversity, Equity, & Inclusion at Berkeley Lab Home Diversity & Inclusion Council Women Scientists & Engineers Council Employee Resource Groups -and culture of inclusion are key to attracting and engaging the brightest minds and furthering our

  19. Globalisation, Equity and Social Development | Mkandawire ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Sociological Review / Revue Africaine de Sociologie. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 6, No 1 (2002) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Globalisation, Equity and ...

  20. Teaching for Equity: A Transformationist Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Tiffany R.; Trail, Amelia El-Hindi

    2010-01-01

    Today's teachers must be equipped to reach all children and embrace a pedagogy of equity. Toward that end, teacher preparation programs need to foster a transformationist pedagogy which allows students to develop into culturally responsive teachers. This paper describes three components of a teacher preparation program that embraces teaching for…

  1. 7 CFR 1735.18 - Additional equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE GENERAL POLICIES, TYPES OF LOANS, LOAN REQUIREMENTS-TELECOMMUNICATIONS PROGRAM Loan Purposes and Basic Policies § 1735.18 Additional equity. If determined by the Administrator to be necessary for loan security, a borrower applying for an initial loan shall increase its net worth as a percentage of assets to...

  2. Volatility Spillover Effects in European Equity Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baele, L.

    2003-01-01

    This paper quantifies the magnitude and time-varying nature of volatility spillovers from the aggregate European (EU) and US market to 13 local European equity markets.I develop a shock spillover model that decomposes local unexpected returns into a country speciffic shock, a regional European

  3. Argentina : Gender Equity in the Private Sector

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2010-01-01

    First tested in Mexico in 2003, and most recently applied in 2009 in Argentina, the World Bank has developed a model to incorporate gender equity into private sector organizations while simultaneously enhancing their business. Under the model, participating organizations conduct a self-diagnosis to identify gender biases and gaps in the operations. This baseline is then used to create and ...

  4. Australia’s gender pay equity legislation: how new, how different, what prospects?

    OpenAIRE

    Sara Charlesworth; Fiona Macdonald

    2015-01-01

    Australia’s equal pay laws have recently been renovated through the Workplace Gender Equality Act 2012 and the Fair Work Act 2009. In light of these changes, it is timely to ask how effective Australia’s legislative approach is likely to be for progressing pay equity. This article presents an analysis of Australia’s current equal pay provisions, assessing their potential on the basis of their operation to date and through recent experience in Canada and the UK. Although focused on outcomes, w...

  5. Protocol for the development of a CONSORT-equity guideline to improve reporting of health equity in randomized trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Vivian; Jull, J; Petkovic, J; Armstrong, R; Boyer, Y; Cuervo, L G; Edwards, Sjl; Lydiatt, A; Gough, D; Grimshaw, J; Kristjansson, E; Mbuagbaw, L; McGowan, J; Moher, D; Pantoja, T; Petticrew, M; Pottie, K; Rader, T; Shea, B; Taljaard, M; Waters, E; Weijer, C; Wells, G A; White, H; Whitehead, M; Tugwell, P

    2015-10-21

    Health equity concerns the absence of avoidable and unfair differences in health. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) can provide evidence about the impact of an intervention on health equity for specific disadvantaged populations or in general populations; this is important for equity-focused decision-making. Previous work has identified a lack of adequate reporting guidelines for assessing health equity in RCTs. The objective of this study is to develop guidelines to improve the reporting of health equity considerations in RCTs, as an extension of the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT). A six-phase study using integrated knowledge translation governed by a study executive and advisory board will assemble empirical evidence to inform the CONSORT-equity extension. To create the guideline, the following steps are proposed: (1) develop a conceptual framework for identifying "equity-relevant trials," (2) assess empirical evidence regarding reporting of equity-relevant trials, (3) consult with global methods and content experts on how to improve reporting of health equity in RCTs, (4) collect broad feedback and prioritize items needed to improve reporting of health equity in RCTs, (5) establish consensus on the CONSORT-equity extension: the guideline for equity-relevant trials, and (6) broadly disseminate and implement the CONSORT-equity extension. This work will be relevant to a broad range of RCTs addressing questions of effectiveness for strategies to improve practice and policy in the areas of social determinants of health, clinical care, health systems, public health, and international development, where health and/or access to health care is a primary outcome. The outcomes include a reporting guideline (CONSORT-equity extension) for equity-relevant RCTs and a knowledge translation strategy to broadly encourage its uptake and use by journal editors, authors, and funding agencies.

  6. Equity trade-offs in conservation decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Elizabeth A; Bennett, Nathan J; Ives, Christopher D; Friedman, Rachel; Davis, Katrina J; Archibald, Carla; Wilson, Kerrie A

    2018-04-01

    Conservation decisions increasingly involve multiple environmental and social objectives, which result in complex decision contexts with high potential for trade-offs. Improving social equity is one such objective that is often considered an enabler of successful outcomes and a virtuous ideal in itself. Despite its idealized importance in conservation policy, social equity is often highly simplified or ill-defined and is applied uncritically. What constitutes equitable outcomes and processes is highly normative and subject to ethical deliberation. Different ethical frameworks may lead to different conceptions of equity through alternative perspectives of what is good or right. This can lead to different and potentially conflicting equity objectives in practice. We promote a more transparent, nuanced, and pluralistic conceptualization of equity in conservation decision making that particularly recognizes where multidimensional equity objectives may conflict. To help identify and mitigate ethical conflicts and avoid cases of good intentions producing bad outcomes, we encourage a more analytical incorporation of equity into conservation decision making particularly during mechanistic integration of equity objectives. We recommend that in conservation planning motivations and objectives for equity be made explicit within the problem context, methods used to incorporate equity objectives be applied with respect to stated objectives, and, should objectives dictate, evaluation of equity outcomes and adaptation of strategies be employed during policy implementation. © 2017 Society for Conservation Biology.

  7. What does equity in health mean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, G

    1987-01-01

    The author posits some ethical concerns and theories of distribution in order to gain some insight into the meaning of equity in health, as referred to in WHO documents. It is pointed out that the lack of clarity in the WHO positions is evidenced by examining 1) the European strategy document, which focuses on giving equal health to all and equity access to health care, and 2) the Global Strategy for Health, which talks about reducing inequality and health as a human right. The question raised in document 1 is whether more equal sharing of health might mean less health for the available quantity of resources. The question raised in document 2 is whether there is a right to health per se. The question is how does one measure health policy effects. Health effects are different for an 8-year-old girl and an octogenarian. How does one measure the fairness of access to health care in remote mountain villages versus an urban area? Is equal utilization which is more easily measured comparable to equal need as a measure? How does one distribute doctors equitably? The author espouses the determinant of health as Aday's illness and health promotion, which is not biased by class and controversy. The Aday definition embraces both demand and need, although his definition is still open to question. Concepts of health with distinction between need and demand are made. Theories of Veatch which relate to distributive justice and equity in health care are provided as entitlement theory (market forces determine allocation of resources), utilitarianism (greatest good for the greatest number regardless of redistribution issues), maximum theory (maximize the minimum position or giver priority to the least well off), and equality (fairness in distribution). Different organizational and financing structures will influence the approach to equity. The conclusion is that equity is a value laden concept which has no uniquely correct definition. 5 theories of equity in distribution of health

  8. Modelling home equity conversion loans with life insurance models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baškot Bojan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Home equity represents a reserve that can be used for providing additional money for its owners during their retirement. Life insurance models can be successfully applied to model home equity conversion loans. The home equity conversion loan is a financial product that provides a certain flexibility by using home equity as a resource for a quality life during retirement. Home equity conversion loans do not have a predetermined maturity date, as do conventional loans. But, like every loan, it must be repaid. One potential advantage of using a home equity conversion loan during tough financial times instead of some types of need-based assistance is that eligibility is straightforward. Home equity conversion loans can be useful tools in the process of pension system reform.

  9. Health care and equity in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balarajan, Yarlini; Selvaraj, S; Subramanian, S V

    2011-01-01

    India’s health system faces the ongoing challenge of responding to the needs of the most disadvantaged members of Indian society. Despite progress in improving access to health care, inequalities by socioeconomic status, geography and gender continue to persist. This is compounded by high out-of-pocket expenditures, with the rising financial burden of health care falling overwhelming on private households, which account for more than three-quarter of health spending in India. Health expenditures are responsible for more than half of Indian households falling into poverty; the impact of this has been increasing pushing around 39 million Indians into poverty each year. In this paper, we identify key challenges to equity in service delivery, and equity in financing and financial risk protection in India. These include imbalanced resource allocation, limited physical access to quality health services and inadequate human resources for health; high out-of-pocket health expenditures, health spending inflation, and behavioral factors that affect the demand for appropriate health care. Complementing other paper in this Series, we argue for the application of certain principles in the pursuit of equity in health care in India. These are the adoption of equity metrics in monitoring, evaluation and strategic planning, investment in developing a rigorous knowledge-base of health systems research; development of more equity-focused process of deliberative decision-making in health reform, and redefinition of the specific responsibilities and accountabilities of key actors. The implementation of these principles, together with strengthening of public health and primary care services, provide an approach for ensuring more equitable health care for India’s population. PMID:21227492

  10. Regulatory Anatomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoeyer, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    This article proposes the term “safety logics” to understand attempts within the European Union (EU) to harmonize member state legislation to ensure a safe and stable supply of human biological material for transplants and transfusions. With safety logics, I refer to assemblages of discourses, le...... they arise. In short, I expose the regulatory anatomy of the policy landscape....

  11. Regulatory Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Poul F.; Vetterlein, Antje

    2018-01-01

    Regulatory governance frameworks have become essential building blocks of world society. From supply chains to the regimes surrounding international organizations, extensive governance frameworks have emerged which structure and channel a variety of social exchanges, including economic, political...... by the International Transitional Administrations (ITAs) in Kosovo and Iraq as well as global supply chains and their impact on the garment industry in Bangladesh....

  12. A flexible regulatory framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvennoinen, T.

    2000-01-01

    Regulatory reform of the Finnish electricity market meant opening up potentially competitive parts of the electricity sector to competition and eliminating all unnecessary forms of regulation covering generation, wholesale supply, retail supply, and foreign trade in electricity. New types of control and regulatory mechanisms and institutions were set up for those parts of the electricity industry that were excluded from competition, such as network operations. Network activities now have to be licensed, whereas no licence is needed for generation or supply. A new sector-specific regulatory authority was established in 1995 to coincide with the implementation of the Electricity Market Act, known as the Electricity Market Authority. This is responsible for regulating network activities and retail supply to captive customers. The core function of the authority, which employs some 14 people, is to promote the smooth operation of the Finnish electricity market and to oversee the implementation of the Electricity Market Act and its provisions. Its most important duties are linked to overseeing the process by which network companies price their electricity. As price regulation no longer exists, all the companies in the electricity sector set their tariffs independently, even network companies. The job of controlling the pricing of network services is handed by the Electricity Market Authority, following the principles of competition control. Pricing control takes place ex post - after a pricing system has been adopted by a company and concentrates on individual cases and companies. There is no ex ante system of setting or approving prices and tariffs by the regulator. The tariffs and pricing of network services can be evaluated, however, by both the Electricity Market Authority and the Finnish Competition Authority, which have overlapping powers as regards the pricing of network activities. The Finnish regulatory framework can be described as a system of light

  13. Investor herds and oil prices evidence in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC equity markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talat Ulussever

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper scrutinizes the effect of crude oil prices on herd behavior among investors in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC stock markets. Using firm level data from Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Oman, Kuwait, Bahrain, Dubai and Abu Dhabi stock exchanges, we examine equity return dispersions within industry portfolios and test whether investor herds exist in these markets. We then assess whether crude oil price movements have any effect on the investment behavior of traders in the aforementioned markets. Our findings reveal significant evidence supporting herd behavior in all GCC equity markets with the exception of Oman and Qatar, more consistently during periods of market losses. Furthermore, we find significant oil price effects on herd behavior in these markets, particularly during periods of extreme positive changes in the price of oil. Our findings suggest that investors’ tendency to act as a herd in the said markets is significantly affected by the developments in the oil market.

  14. Corporate Negative Equity: The Evidence from the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Mokhova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available After the Global Financial Crisis the frequency of reported losses of companies has increased significantly in countries of the European Union. Moreover, the financial leverage of companies have increased and even exceeded 100% in several countries. The reason of this development is negative equity that companies find themselves to report. At first sight negative equities are caused by accumulated losses from prior periods. However, there are some other reasons that can result in increasing negative equities in companies. They remain adequate as long as a company is able to pay its bills. Nevertheless, a company with negative equity is exposed to risks. This paper investigates whether the corporate negative equity is a sign of the future failure of a company. We examine non-financial manufactured companies from selected countries of the European Union within the period 2005–2012 from database Amadeus (Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Poland and Germany. By the means of comparison between negative and positive equities we applied descriptive statistics and Pearson correlation analysis. We find that in all surveyed countries the size positively influences the equity of companies. Other factors as profitability and growth opportunities do not influence the corporate equity. In addition the binary logistic regression analysis has been conducted based on the evidence from Czech companies. Our results indicate that negative equities are not a sign of bankruptcy or insolvency of a company. But the low profitability or low business activities (that are predictors of bankruptcy might lead to negative equities in the balance sheet.

  15. Nuclear regulatory legislation: 102d Congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-10-01

    This document is a compilation of nuclear regulatory legislation and other relevant material through the 102d Congress, 2d Session. This compilation has been prepared for use as a resource document, which the NRC intends to update at the end of every Congress. The contents of NUREG-0980 include: The Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended; Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, as amended, Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978; Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act; Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982; and NRC Authorization and Appropriations Acts. Other materials included are statutes and treaties on export licensing, nuclear non-proliferation, and environmental protection

  16. Nuclear regulatory legislation, 102d Congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-10-01

    This document is a compilation of nuclear regulatory legislation and other relevant material through the 102d Congress, 2d Session. This compilation has been prepared for use as a resource document, which the NRC intends to update at the end of every Congress. The contents of NUREG-0980 include The Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended; Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, as amended, Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978; Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act; Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982; and NRC Authorization and Appropriations Acts. Other materials included are statutes and treaties on export licensing, nuclear non-proliferation, and environmental protection

  17. Nuclear regulatory legislation, 101st Congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-06-01

    This document is a compilation of nuclear regulatory legislation and other relevant material through the 101st Congress, 2nd Session. This compilation has been prepared for use as a resource document, which the NRC intends to update at the end of every Congress. The contents of NUREG-0980 include The Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended: Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, as amended; Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978; Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act; Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982; and NRC Authorization and Appropriations Acts. Other materials included are statues and treaties on export licensing, nuclear non-proliferation, and environmental protection

  18. Pollution prevention: A regulatory update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walzer, A.E.; Maynard, J.W.

    1993-01-01

    Pollution prevention is the emphasis of the 1990s environmental philosophy. This new environmental era was ushered in when President Bush signed the Pollution Prevention Act in October 1990. This law, with its accompanying philosophy, was in response to the realization that end-of-the-pipe treatment, which frequently changed the media in which a pollutant or waste was discharged, was inadequate to protect the environment and human health. Pollution prevention advocates source reduction, where material substitutions and engineering solutions are sought to reduce the volume and toxicity of waste and pollutants. This proactive approach reduces environmental impacts such as those of former waste sites which have produced environmental legacies that will cost billions of dollars and take decades to remediate. This paper describes pollution prevention philosophy and summarizes regulatory pollution prevention requirements. It describes current regulatory trends in the area of pollution prevention, including voluntary programs and enforcement actions. The Pollution Prevention Act of 1990 is described, and pollution prevention initiatives embodied in other laws, including the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act, the Emergency Planning and Community Right-To-Know Act, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, and the Toxic Substances Control Act, are discussed. A historical overview of waste minimization initiatives within the Department of Energy is given, and other pollution prevention initiatives that affect federal facilities, such as Executive Order 12780, which mandates recycling and the procurement of recycled materials, are also outlined

  19. Margin Requirements and Equity Option Returns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hitzemann, Steffen; Hofmann, Michael; Uhrig-Homburg, Marliese

    In equity option markets, traders face margin requirements both for the options themselves and for hedging-related positions in the underlying stock market. We show that these requirements carry a significant margin premium in the cross-section of equity option returns. The sign of the margin...... premium depends on demand pressure: If end-users are on the long side of the market, option returns decrease with margins, while they increase otherwise. Our results are statistically and economically significant and robust to different margin specifications and various control variables. We explain our...... findings by a model of funding-constrained derivatives dealers that require compensation for satisfying end-users’ option demand....

  20. Margin Requirements and Equity Option Returns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hitzemann, Steffen; Hofmann, Michael; Uhrig-Homburg, Marliese

    In equity option markets, traders face margin requirements both for the options themselves and for hedging-related positions in the underlying stock market. We show that these requirements carry a significant "margin premium" in the cross-section of equity option returns. The sign of the margin...... premium depends on demand pressure: If end-users are on the long side of the market, option returns decrease with margins, while they increase otherwise. Our results are statistically and economically significant and robust to different margin specifications and various control variables. We explain our...... findings by a model of funding-constrained derivatives dealers that require compensation for satisfying end-users’ option demand....

  1. Illiquidity Premia in the Equity Options Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Goyenko, Ruslan; Jacobs, Kris

    Illiquidity is well-known to be a significant determinant of stock and bond returns. We report on illiquidity premia in the equity options market. An increase in option illiquidity decreases the current option price and implies higher expected option returns. This effect is statistically and econ......Illiquidity is well-known to be a significant determinant of stock and bond returns. We report on illiquidity premia in the equity options market. An increase in option illiquidity decreases the current option price and implies higher expected option returns. This effect is statistically...... and economically signifi…cant. It is robust across different empirical approaches and when including various control variables. The illiquidity of the underlying stock affects the option return negatively, consistent with a hedging argument: When stock market illiquidity increases, the cost of replicating...

  2. Performance Persistence of Equity Funds in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Filip

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the phenomenon of performance persistence of equity funds in Hungary in two time perspectives: 1-year and 6-month perspectives. The empirical results confirm the occurrence of performance dependence in consecutive periods. There is also a strong evidence of short-term persistence in the total horizon of the study (from the beginning of 2000 to the end of 2009, and in several sub-periods. The 1-year persistence was also found in the tested sample and, in general, depended on the measure applied. Furthermore, I observed performance reversal, which can be partly explained by trend changes in the financial markets. The persistence of equity funds performance in Hungary is shaped by market factors rather than the diversity of managerial characteristics.

  3. How equity markets view heavy oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janisch, M. L. [Nesbitt Burns Research, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    Factors that influence the equity market in investment decisions vis-a-vis the oil sands/heavy oil industry were reviewed. The importance of financing methods (debt, royalty trusts, common equity), liquidity of investments, absolute vs. relative performance, comparative economics vis-a-vis conventional oil producers, oil prices, operating cost drivers (technology, natural gas costs, cost/availability of diluent), transportation and refining capacity, were summarized. In the final analysis, consistent economic success on a large scale, combined with an assessment of available alternatives, were considered to be the most likely motivators for portfolio managers. As a cautionary note, it was noted that traditionally, oil and gas investors have not been known to be in the forefront to invest in research and development.

  4. How equity markets view heavy oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janisch, M. L.

    1996-01-01

    Factors that influence the equity market in investment decisions vis-a-vis the oil sands/heavy oil industry were reviewed. The importance of financing methods (debt, royalty trusts, common equity), liquidity of investments, absolute vs. relative performance, comparative economics vis-a-vis conventional oil producers, oil prices, operating cost drivers (technology, natural gas costs, cost/availability of diluent), transportation and refining capacity, were summarized. In the final analysis, consistent economic success on a large scale, combined with an assessment of available alternatives, were considered to be the most likely motivators for portfolio managers. As a cautionary note, it was noted that traditionally, oil and gas investors have not been known to be in the forefront to invest in research and development

  5. Privacy Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about the Privacy Act of 1974, the Electronic Government Act of 2002, the Federal Information Security Management Act, and other information about the Environmental Protection Agency maintains its records.

  6. Equity in Adaptation to Climate Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gemenne, F.

    2009-01-01

    Most observers agree that equity has become a key condition for the success of a global agreement on climate, and that any deal that would seem inequitable would be doomed to fail. The UNFCCC (United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change) makes a distinction between developed countries, developing countries, and least advanced countries; as well as between vulnerable countries and particularly vulnerable countries. The first distinction has to do with equity in mitigation efforts, whereas the latter is concerned with equity in the allocation of adaptation funding (Mace 2006). Adaptation itself is poorly defined: the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Change) does not go further than defining it as the adjustment of human or natural systems confronted to a new or changing environment (IPCC 2007). It took a very long time for adaptation to be acknowledged as a key aspect of the fight against global warming. Funding mechanisms were long overdue when they were finally implemented, and remain heavily discussed. A sufficient amount of funding for adaptation appears today as the sine qua non condition for the participation of developing countries to a global deal on climate. This amount has been estimated at US$ 100 billion at least on a yearly basis, including support for mitigation efforts. However, though equity concerns have been placed at the core of the negotiation on mitigation efforts, they have been little addressed in the discussions on adaptation. As a result of this, the criteria that will be used to allocate the adaptation funding remain unclear and vague, which could be detrimental for the negotiation process as a whole. This paper aims to offer a new perspective on this issue, departing from the traditional perspective inspired by retributive justice. (author)

  7. History and the Equity Risk Premium

    OpenAIRE

    William Goetzmann; Roger Ibbotson

    2005-01-01

    We summarize some of our own past findings and place them in the context of the historical development of the idea of the equity risk premium and its empirical measurement by financial economists. In particular, we focus on how the theory of compensation for investment risk developed in the 20th century in tandem with the empirical analysis of historical investment performance. Finally, we update our study of the historical performance of the New York Stock Exchange over the period 1792 to th...

  8. Cooperate! A paradigm shift for health equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wei-Ching; Fraser, Joy H

    2017-02-21

    The role of competition and cooperation in relation to the goal of health equity is examined in this paper. The authors explain why the win-lose mentality associated with avoidable competition is ethically questionable and less effective than cooperation in achieving positive outcomes, particularly as it relates to health and health equity. Competition, which differentiates winners from losers, often with the winner-takes-all reward system, inevitably leads to a few winners and many losers, resulting in social inequality, which, in turn, engenders and perpetuates health inequity.Competitive market-driven approaches to healthcare-brought about by capitalism, neo-liberalization, and globalization, based primarily on a competitive framework-are shown to have contributed to growing inequities with respect to the social determinants of health, and have undermined equal opportunity to access health care and achieve health equity. It is possible to redistribute income and wealth to reduce social inequality, but globalization poses increasing challenges to policy makers. John Stuart Mill provided a passionate, philosophical defense of cooperatives, followed by Karl Polanyi who offered an insightful critique of both state socialism and especially the self-regulating market, thereby opening up the cooperative way of shaping the future. We cite Hannah Arendt's "the banality of evil" to characterize the tragic concept of "ethical fading" witnessed in business and everyday life all over the world, often committed (without thinking and reflecting) by ordinary people under competitive pressures.To promote equity in health for all, we recommend the adoption of a radically new cooperation paradigm, applied whenever possible, to everything in our daily lives.

  9. Health equity monitoring for healthcare quality assurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cookson, R; Asaria, M; Ali, S; Shaw, R; Doran, T; Goldblatt, P

    2018-02-01

    Population-wide health equity monitoring remains isolated from mainstream healthcare quality assurance. As a result, healthcare organizations remain ill-informed about the health equity impacts of their decisions - despite becoming increasingly well-informed about quality of care for the average patient. We present a new and improved analytical approach to integrating health equity into mainstream healthcare quality assurance, illustrate how this approach has been applied in the English National Health Service, and discuss how it could be applied in other countries. We illustrate the approach using a key quality indicator that is widely used to assess how well healthcare is co-ordinated between primary, community and acute settings: emergency inpatient hospital admissions for ambulatory care sensitive chronic conditions ("potentially avoidable emergency admissions", for short). Whole-population data for 2015 on potentially avoidable emergency admissions in England were linked with neighborhood deprivation indices. Inequality within the populations served by 209 clinical commissioning groups (CCGs: care purchasing organizations with mean population 272,000) was compared against two benchmarks - national inequality and inequality within ten similar populations - using neighborhood-level models to simulate the gap in indirectly standardized admissions between most and least deprived neighborhoods. The modelled inequality gap for England was 927 potentially avoidable emergency admissions per 100,000 people, implying 263,894 excess hospitalizations associated with inequality. Against this national benchmark, 17% of CCGs had significantly worse-than-benchmark equity, and 23% significantly better. The corresponding figures were 11% and 12% respectively against the similar populations benchmark. Deprivation-related inequality in potentially avoidable emergency admissions varies substantially between English CCGs serving similar populations, beyond expected statistical

  10. PATTERNS FOR DETERMINING THE COST OF EQUITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GHEORGHE HOLT

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The cost of equities represents the rate of return required by the shareholders of the company, to provide a return on their investment in its heritage. Significant in this respect, there are the size of future profit and general meeting of shareholders decisions on distribution ratio of net profit for the year for dividends. The return required by shareholders is an opportunity cost based on return expected by investors for investment with the same risk.

  11. Globalisation and schooling: equity and access issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajda, Joseph

    2011-03-01

    This review essay focuses on the prominence given to globalisation and discourses of globalisation in education reforms and pedagogy, as well as the way conceptual thinking in this area has changed and developed, due to competing ideologies, forces of globalisation and political, economic and cultural transformations. It analyses and evaluates the shifts in methodological approaches to globalisation and its effects on education policy and pedagogy. It focuses on forces of globalisation, ideology, social inequality and implications for equity and access to quality education.

  12. Equity in Health Care Expenditure in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olanrewaju Olaniyan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Equity isone of the basic principles of health systems and features explicitly in theNigerian health financing policy. Despite acclaimed commitment to theimplementation of this policy through various pro-poor health programmes andinterventions, the level of inequity in health status and access to basichealth care interventions remain high. This paper examines the equity of healthcare expenditure by individuals in Nigeria. The paper evaluated equity in out-of-pocketspending( OOP for the country and separately for the six geopolitical zones ofthe country.The methodological framework rests onKakwani Progressivity Indices (KPIs, ReynoldSmolensky indices andconcentration indices (CIs using data from the 2004 Nigerian National LivingStandard Survey( NLSS collected by the National Bureau of Statistics. .The results reveal that health financing isregressive with the incidence disproportionately rest on poor households withabout 70% of the total expenditure on health is through out-of-pocket paymentsby households. Poor households are prone to bear most of the expenses in theevent of any health shock. The catastrophic consequences thus push some intopoverty, and aggravate the poverty of others.The paper therefore suggests that thecountry’s health financingsystems must be designed not only to allow people to access services when theyare needed, but must also protect household, from financial catastrophe, byreducing OOP spending through risk pooling and prepayment schemes within thehealth system.Keywords:                            Equity, Health careexpenditure, Kakwani progressivity index, Nigeria.

  13. FOMC communication and emerging equity markets

    OpenAIRE

    Hayo, Bernd; Kutan, Ali M.; Neuenkirch, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    Using a GARCH model, we study the effects of Federal Funds target rate changes and FOMC communication on emerging equity market returns and volatility over the period 1998–2006. First, both types of news have a significant impact on market returns. Second, target rate changes are more important than informal communication. Third, the occurrence of monetary policy reports lowers price volatility. Finally, American emerging markets react more to U.S. news than non-American markets.

  14. Health Equity in a Trump Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Deborah

    2017-10-01

    Donald Trump's rhetoric and leadership are destroying the "culture of community" necessary for progress on health equity. His one-line promises to provide "quality health care at a fraction of the cost" smack of neoliberal nostrums that shifted ever more costs onto patients, thereby preventing many people from getting care. The dangers of Trump go far beyond health policy, however; Trump's presidency threatens the political and cultural institutions that make any good policy possible. Copyright © 2017 by Duke University Press.

  15. Decomposing European bond and equity volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Christiansen, Charlotte

    2004-01-01

    The paper investigates volatility spillover from US and aggregate European asset markets into European national asset markets. A main contribution is that bond and equity volatilities are analyzed simultaneously. A new model belonging to the "volatilityspillover" family is suggested: The conditional variance of e.g. the unexpected German stock return is divided into separate effects from the contemporaneous idiosyncratic variance of US bonds, US stocks, European bonds, European stocks, German...

  16. Financial Development, Growth and Equity in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Armando Castelar Pinheiro; Regis Bonelli

    2015-01-01

    Financial markets help to foster growth and productivity through their role in mobilizing savings to finance investment and production, selecting and monitoring investment projects, diversifying risks, and allowing investment and production to be carried out in the most productive scale and time frame. This paper examines the links between financial development, growth and equity. The focus is on the Brazilian case, but we also aim at contributing to a broader discussion on the role of financ...

  17. From local adaptation to activism and global solidarity: framing a research and innovation agenda towards true health equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Eric A; Gostin, Lawrence O

    2017-02-21

    The proposal for a global health treaty aimed at health equity, the Framework Convention on Global Health, raises the fundamental question of whether we can achieve true health equity, globally and domestically, and if not, how close we can come. Considerable knowledge currently exists about the measures required to, at the least, greatly improve health equity. Why, then, do immense inequities remain? Building on this basic question, we propose four areas that could help drive the health equity research and innovation agenda over the coming years.First, recognizing that local contexts will often affect the success of policies aimed at health equity, local research will be critical to adapt strategies to particular settings. This part of the research agenda would be well-served by directly engaging intended beneficiaries for their insights, including through participatory action research, where the research contributes to action towards greater health equity.Second, even with the need for more local knowledge, why is the copious knowledge on how to reduce inequities not more frequently acted upon? What are the best strategies to close policymakers' knowledge gaps and to generate the political will to apply existing knowledge about improving health equity, developing the policies and devoting the resources required? Linked to this is the need to continue to build our understanding of how to empower the activism that can reshape power dynamics.Today's unequal power dynamics contribute significantly to disparities in a third area of focus, the social determinants of health, which are the primary drivers of today's health inequities. Continuing to improve our understanding of the pathways through which they operate can help in developing strategies to change these determinants and disrupt harmful pathways.And fourth, we return to the motivating question of whether we can achieve health equity. For example, can all countries have universal health coverage that

  18. The changing regulatory environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caron, G.

    1999-01-01

    The role and value of regulation in the energy sector was discussed, demonstrating how, despite common perception, regulation is an essential part of Canada's strategy to find and develop new opportunities. The future vision of regulation for industry participants was presented with particular focus on issues related to streamlining the regulatory process. As far as pipelines are concerned, regulatory actions are necessary to facilitate capacity increases and to ensure the line's integrity, safety and environmental record. Furthermore, regulation provides economic solutions where market forces cannot provide them, as for example where business has elements of monopoly. It arbitrates interests of landowners, business, consumers, and environmental groups. It looks for ways to ensure conditions under which competition can flourish. It acts as the guardian of citizens' rights in a democratic society by providing citizens with an opportunity to be heard on the building or expansion of pipelines and associated facilities. As citizens become more and more concerned about their property and the land that surrounds them, citizen involvement in decision making about how industry activity affects their quality of life will become correspondingly more important. Regulatory agencies are committed to facilitate this engagement by flexible hearing procedures and by making use of evolving communication and information technology

  19. Collaboration and Gender Equity among Academic Scientists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joya Misra

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Universities were established as hierarchical bureaucracies that reward individual attainment in evaluating success. Yet collaboration is crucial both to 21st century science and, we argue, to advancing equity for women academic scientists. We draw from research on gender equity and on collaboration in higher education, and report on data collected on one campus. Sixteen focus group meetings were held with 85 faculty members from STEM departments, separated by faculty rank and gender (i.e., assistant professor men, full professor women. Participants were asked structured questions about the role of collaboration in research, career development, and departmental decision-making. Inductive analyses of focus group data led to the development of a theoretical model in which resources, recognition, and relationships create conditions under which collaboration is likely to produce more gender equitable outcomes for STEM faculty. Ensuring women faculty have equal access to resources is central to safeguarding their success; relationships, including mutual mentoring, inclusion and collegiality, facilitate women’s careers in academia; and recognition of collaborative work bolsters women’s professional advancement. We further propose that gender equity will be stronger in STEM where resources, relationships, and recognition intersect—having multiplicative rather than additive effects.

  20. Equity Gains in Bangladesh Primary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, A. Mushtaque R.; Nath, Samir R.; Choudhury, Rasheda K.

    2003-11-01

    Although equity is a desirable objective of any form of development intervention, including education, not many studies dwell upon this important area. Information on related trends is even more rare. This essay uses field-level data from Bangladesh to examine equity levels and trends in primary education, including enrolment and quality of learning, focusing on equity for different gender, urban or rural, economic and ethnic groups. The study shows that while some disparity between girls and boys has been eliminated, girls are still far behind boys in terms of learning achievement. Children belonging to poorer families and ethnic minority groups lag behind the respective dominant groups in terms of both enrolment and learning achievement. At the same time, there have been some improvements for hitherto excluded groups such as rural girls and children of the poor. These changes are attributed mainly to 'positive discriminatory' steps taken by the government and non-governmental organizations in favour of such groups. If this trend continues, Bangladesh can look forward to establishing itself as a more equitable society than it is now.

  1. DETERMINANTS OF BRAND EQUITY: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY OF IT INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Fahid MUQADDAS

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The performance of any brand can be measured by many methods. One of the widely used ways to calculate brand performance is through brand equity. Brand equity can be observed by customer’s perspective as well as financial perspective. This research paper investigates the impact of advertising and promotion, research and development (RD and profitability (return on assets on brand equity. In this research paper data is used from 20 international IT brands for a period of 5 years from 2011 to 2015. The results show that advertising and promotion and profitability have statistically significant impact on brand equity whereas RD doesn’t make significant impact on brand equity. Based on the findings, it is observed that advertising is having the strongest impact on brand equity.

  2. International portfolio diversification: United States and south Asian equity markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mushtaq Rizwan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the dynamic liaison between US and three developing South Asian equity markets in short and long term. To gauge the long-term relationship, we applied Johansen co-integration procedure as all the representative indices are found to be non-stationary at level. The findings illustrate that the US equity market index exhibits a reasonably different movement over time in contrast to the three developing equity markets under consideration. However, the Granger-causality test divulge that the direction of causality scamper from US equity market to the three South Asian markets. It further indicates that within the three developing equity markets the direction of causality emanates from Bombay stock market to Karachi and Colombo. Overall, the results of the study suggest that the American investors can get higher returns through international diversification into developing equity markets, while the US stock market would also be a gainful upshot for South Asian investors.

  3. Customer based brand equity: evidence from the hotel industry

    OpenAIRE

    Kayaman, Rüçhan; Araslı, Hüseyin

    2007-01-01

    The paper aims to explore interrelations of the four brand equity components; brand awareness, brand loyalty, perceived quality and brand image in hotel industry and improve the conceptualization of customer-based hotel brand equity. The paper is based on the recommendations of previous studies, the scale constructed to measure consumer-based brand equity included brand awareness, brand loyalty, perceived quality and brand image. The present study used a sample of 345 actual customers from 11...

  4. Pay equity, minimum wage and equality at work

    OpenAIRE

    Rubery, Jill

    2003-01-01

    Reviews the underlying causes of pay discrimination embedded within the organization of the labour market and structures of pay and reward. Discusses the need to focus on pay equity as part of a general strategy of promoting equity and decent work and examines the case for using minimum wage policies in comparison to more targeted equal pay policies to reduce gender pay equity. Identifies potential obstacles to or support for such policies and describes experiences of the use of minimum wages...

  5. DETERMINANTS OF BRAND EQUITY: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY OF IT INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Fahid MUQADDAS; Ishtiaq AHMAD

    2016-01-01

    The performance of any brand can be measured by many methods. One of the widely used ways to calculate brand performance is through brand equity. Brand equity can be observed by customer’s perspective as well as financial perspective. This research paper investigates the impact of advertising and promotion, research and development (RD) and profitability (return on assets) on brand equity. In this research paper data is used from 20 international IT brands for a period of 5 years from 2011 to...

  6. Determinants of Brand Equity: Offering a Model to Chocolate Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Emari Hossien

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the underlying dimensions of brand equity in the chocolate industry. For this purpose, researchers developed a model to identify which factors are influential in building brand equity. The second purpose was to assess brand loyalty and brand images mediating effect between brand attitude, brand personality, brand association with brand equity. The study employed structural equation modeling to investigate the causal relationships between the dimensions...

  7. International Reserves and the Composition of Equity Capital Inflows

    OpenAIRE

    Xingwang Qian; Andreas Steiner

    2012-01-01

    We study the effect of central banks' international reserve hoardings on the composition of equity capital inflows, namely the ratio of portfolio equity investment (PEI) to foreign direct investment (FDI). Foreign investors' decisions regarding the location and the type of equity capital investment might be influenced by a country's level of international reserves. In a simple theoretical model, we show that higher reserves, thanks to their ability to lower exchange rate risk, reduce the risk...

  8. The equity of school facilities funding: Examples from Kentucky.

    OpenAIRE

    William J. Glenn; Lawrence O. Picus; Allan Odden; Anabel Aportela

    2009-01-01

    While there is an extensive literature analyzing the relative equity of state funding systems for current operating revenues, there is a dearth of research on capital funding systems. This article presents an analysis of the school capital funding system in Kentucky since 1990, using the operating-revenue analysis concepts of horizontal equity, vertical equity, and fiscal neutrality. In general one could tentatively conclude that Kentucky’s capital-funding system was reasonably equitable unti...

  9. Do Private Labels Build Retailer Brand Equity? An Empirical Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Xara-Brasil, Duarte; Marreiros, Cristina; Dionísio, Andreia

    2015-01-01

    This research is focused on retailer’s equity and brand equity, with an application to food retailer’s private labels. The study is supported on existing brand equity studies, namely Aaker, Keller, Yoo & Donthu and Pappu & Quester. The proposed conceptual model was tested through a survey to a sample of consumers, who do most of their food shopping in one of the two main Portuguese retailers. We obtained and validated a measurement and a structural model with appropriate model ...

  10. BRAND EQUITY OF LAHORE FORT AS A TOURISM DESTINATION BRAND

    OpenAIRE

    KASHIF, MUHAMMAD; SAMSI, SITI ZAKIAH MELATU; SARIFUDDIN, SYAMSULANG

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTStudies that measure the brand equity of destination brands by using the Customer-Based Brand Equity (CBBE) model in a developing country context are scarce. The present study investigates the destination brand equity of the Lahore Fort by employing the CBBE model in a developing country context of Pakistan. Following the positivist tradition, we adopted a survey-based approach to collect data from 237 tourists visiting the Lahore Fort. Data were collected through a questionnaire deve...

  11. Teknologi Informasi Dalam Membentuk Atribut Brand Equity Suatu Produk

    OpenAIRE

    Damayanti, Kristiana Asih

    2004-01-01

    Product is known from its merk and Customer will choice and buy product which havegood and famous merk. For it, Company have to built good merk which can describe fromBrand Equity. Brand Equity has five atributes: Brand Assosiation, Brand Awareness,Perceived Quality, Brand Loyalty, and other atributes.This paper has a goal to make a model how Information Technology in built everyatributes of Brand Equity.

  12. The effect of customer-base reputation on brand equity

    OpenAIRE

    Shahriyar Azizi; Behnaz Roustaian; Manizghe Gharache; Bahman Hajipour

    2016-01-01

    Among the most important sectors of Iranian economy is banking, an industry which has become more competitive over the recent decade. An objective of banks marketing is to increase brand equity. Since reputation is an important factor in improvement of brand equity, the present research evaluated the impact of bank customer-based reputation on total brand equity. A survey was conducted in Tehran metropolitan area, with the sample size of 246 people. Findings showed the positive impact of bank...

  13. 78 FR 17176 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Defense Base Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-20

    ... Regulation; Defense Base Act AGENCIES: Department of Defense (DoD), General Services Administration (GSA... the Defense Base Act. DATES: Interested parties should submit written comments to the Regulatory... Act as extended by the Defense Base Act. II. Discussion and Analysis The Defense Base Act of 1941...

  14. Health equity in Lebanon: a microeconomic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raad Firas

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The health sector in Lebanon suffers from high levels of spending and is acknowledged to be a source of fiscal waste. Lebanon initiated a series of health sector reforms which aim at containing the fiscal waste caused by high and inefficient public health expenditures. Yet these reforms do not address the issues of health equity in use and coverage of healthcare services, which appear to be acute. This paper takes a closer look at the micro-level inequities in the use of healthcare, in access, in ability to pay, and in some health outcomes. Methods We use data from the 2004/2005 Multi Purpose Survey of Households in Lebanon to conduct health equity analysis, including equity in need, access and outcomes. We briefly describe the data and explain some of its limitations. We examine, in turn, and using standardization techniques, the equity in health care utilization, the impact of catastrophic health payments on household wellbeing, the effect of health payment on household impoverishment, the equity implications of existing health financing methods, and health characteristics by geographical region. Results We find that the incidence of disability decreases steadily across expenditure quintiles, whereas the incidence of chronic disease shows the opposite pattern, which may be an indication of better diagnostics for higher quintiles. The presence of any health-related expenditure is regressive while the magnitude of out-of-pocket expenditures on health is progressive. Spending on health is found to be "normal" and income-elastic. Catastrophic health payments are likelier among disadvantaged groups (in terms of income, geography and gender. However, the cash amounts of catastrophic payments are progressive. Poverty is associated with lower insurance coverage for both private and public insurance. While the insured seem to spend an average of almost LL93,000 ($62 on health a year in excess of the uninsured, they devote a smaller

  15. 76 FR 76472 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-07

    ... at the Commission's Public Reference Room. II. Self-Regulatory Organization's Statement of the... facility or system which NASDAQ operates or controls. \\7\\ 15 U.S.C. 78f. \\8\\ 15 U.S.C. 78f(b)(4). NASDAQ... Release No. 61358 (January 14, 2010), 75 FR 3594 (January 21, 2010) (Concept Release on Equity Market...

  16. DETERMINANTS OF RETURN ON EQUITY OF COOPERATIVE BANKS IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Bieniasz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to analyse the diversity of return on equity in the cooperative banks in Poland in 2010– 2014. The analysis was conducted using data of the Polish Financial Supervision Authority, on the basis of a modifi ed decomposition rate of return on equity. Assessment of the rate of return on equity was made in a size of banks, as determined by the value of assets. In addition, in order to determine the strength and direction of impact the individual components of the model on the formation of return on equity method was applied functional. The study suggests that cooperative banks eff ectively use the equity, because the rate of return on equity was signifi cantly higher than the rate of return on assets. The average return on assets in 2010–2014 was relatively lower in the largest banks and ranged from 0.7–0.9%, and the smallest banks return on assets was approximately 1%. In turn, the return on equity was higher at banks with major assets (over 200 million PLN. In 2013–2014 the rate of return both on assets and equity expressly declined. The main determinants of changes in return on equity were changing the multiplier reduction of profi t from banking activities by operating costs and costs of banking risk and return on assets, as well as measured result on banking activities.

  17. Understanding Gender-Based Wage Discrimination: Legal Interpretation and Trends of Pay Equity in Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Gaye

    1990-01-01

    Traces the history of laws and litigation concerning pay equity issues, also referred to as wage equity and comparable worth. Suggests that universities and colleges identify possible problems and take voluntary corrective measures before pay-equity problems arise. (MLF)

  18. 75 FR 29793 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-27

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate... (``Act'') \\1\\ and Rule 19b-4 thereunder,\\2\\ notice is hereby given that on May 4, 2010, Financial.... For more information about the rulebook consolidation process, see Information Notice, March 12, 2008...

  19. Canada's Clean Air Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This paper provided an outline of Canada's Clean Air Act and examined some of the regulatory changes that will occur as a result of its implementation. The Act is being introduced to strengthen the legislative basis for taking action on reducing air pollution and GHGs, and will allow the government to regulate both indoor and outdoor air pollutants and GHGs. The Act will require the Ministers of the Environment and Health to establish national air quality objectives, as well as to monitor and report on their attainment. The Canadian Environmental Protection Act will be amended to enable the government to regulate the blending of fuels and their components. The Motor Vehicle Fuel Consumption Standards Act will also be amended to enhance the government's authority to regulate vehicle fuel efficiency. The Energy Efficiency Act will also be expanded to allow the government to set energy efficiency standards and labelling requirements for a wider range of consumer and commercial products. The Act will commit to short, medium and long-term industrial air pollution targets. Regulations will be proposed for emissions from industry; on-road and off-road vehicles and engines; and consumer and commercial products. It was concluded that the Government of Canada will continue to consult with provinces, territories, industries and Canadians to set and reach targets for the reduction of both indoor and outdoor air pollutants and GHG emissions. 6 figs

  20. Nuclear regulatory legislation, 104th Congress, Volume 1, No. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-12-01

    This document is the first of two volumes compiling statutes and material pertaining to nuclear regulatory legislation through the 104th Congress, 2nd Session. It is intended for use as a U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) internal resource document. Legislative information reproduced in this document includes portions of the Atomic Energy Act, Energy Reorganization Act, Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act, and Nuclear Waste Policy Act. Other information included in this volume pertains to NRC user fees, NRC authorizations, the Inspector General Act, and the Administrative Procedure Act

  1. Nuclear regulatory legislation, 104th Congress, Volume 1, No. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This document is the first of two volumes compiling statutes and material pertaining to nuclear regulatory legislation through the 104th Congress, 2nd Session. It is intended for use as a U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) internal resource document. Legislative information reproduced in this document includes portions of the Atomic Energy Act, Energy Reorganization Act, Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act, and Nuclear Waste Policy Act. Other information included in this volume pertains to NRC user fees, NRC authorizations, the Inspector General Act, and the Administrative Procedure Act.

  2. Structure of Cost of Equity as the Dependence on the Corporate- and Market Life Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeněk Konečný

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the article: Companies, like all living creatures, goes through their life cycle, which includes some partial phases. Each of these phases is specific. Depending up the corporate life cycle, there are changed managerial decisions, that have an considerable influence, among others, on financial indicators like liquidity (current ratio, quick ratio, cash ratio, return (on investment, assets, equity, sales, economic value added, or cost of capital. The purpose of this article is to show relations between corporate life cycle and the structure of cost of equity. Furthermore, there will be, besides the corporate life cycle, considered also the market life cycle and market positions, that can companies hold on the market, on which they are acting. Methodology/methods: There is used a method, based on the analysis of secondary data, gotten from financial statements of selected companies and from statistical and analytical documents, published by Czech Ministry of Industry and Trade. There are selected 39 companies, acting on the czech market with motor vehicles production. The data are gathered for periods from 2002 up to 2010. There is used a model by Reiners (2004 to identify phases of corporate- and market life cycle and market positions. For finding out the structure of cost of equity there is used the constructional model by Czech Ministry of Industry and Trade. Scientific aim: The selected companies are divided into groups with considering different phases of their life cycle and with considering their different market positions. There are for each period found out numbers of companies from these groups, that reached the minimal value, the value within the interval and maximal value of all risk rewards, that are, besides the riskless rate, components of cost of equity. Findings: The greatest part of cost of equity, reached on the market, is the riskless rate. Other components (and their shares on the cost of equity

  3. Regulatory Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Helen W.; Whitson, Peggy A.; Putcha, Lakshmi; Baker, Ellen; Smith, Scott M.; Stewart, Karen; Gretebeck, Randall; Nimmagudda, R. R.; Schoeller, Dale A.; Davis-Street, Janis

    1999-01-01

    As noted elsewhere in this report, a central goal of the Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project (EDOMP) was to ensure that cardiovascular and muscle function were adequate to perform an emergency egress after 16 days of spaceflight. The goals of the Regulatory Physiology component of the EDOMP were to identify and subsequently ameliorate those biochemical and nutritional factors that deplete physiological reserves or increase risk for disease, and to facilitate the development of effective muscle, exercise, and cardiovascular countermeasures. The component investigations designed to meet these goals focused on biochemical and physiological aspects of nutrition and metabolism, the risk of renal (kidney) stone formation, gastrointestinal function, and sleep in space. Investigations involved both ground-based protocols to validate proposed methods and flight studies to test those methods. Two hardware tests were also completed.

  4. Regulatory Benchmarking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agrell, Per J.; Bogetoft, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Benchmarking methods, and in particular Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), have become well-established and informative tools for economic regulation. DEA is now routinely used by European regulators to set reasonable revenue caps for energy transmission and distribution system operators. The appli......Benchmarking methods, and in particular Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), have become well-established and informative tools for economic regulation. DEA is now routinely used by European regulators to set reasonable revenue caps for energy transmission and distribution system operators....... The application of bench-marking in regulation, however, requires specific steps in terms of data validation, model specification and outlier detection that are not systematically documented in open publications, leading to discussions about regulatory stability and economic feasibility of these techniques...

  5. Regulatory Benchmarking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agrell, Per J.; Bogetoft, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Benchmarking methods, and in particular Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), have become well-established and informative tools for economic regulation. DEA is now routinely used by European regulators to set reasonable revenue caps for energy transmission and distribution system operators. The appli......Benchmarking methods, and in particular Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), have become well-established and informative tools for economic regulation. DEA is now routinely used by European regulators to set reasonable revenue caps for energy transmission and distribution system operators....... The application of benchmarking in regulation, however, requires specific steps in terms of data validation, model specification and outlier detection that are not systematically documented in open publications, leading to discussions about regulatory stability and economic feasibility of these techniques...

  6. Dual Language Immersion Program Equity and Access: Is There Equity for All Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Patricia Espinoza

    2016-01-01

    This is a mixed methods study of K-12 school administrators with dual language immersion school leadership expertise. The paramount research focus was to identify equity and access issues in dual language immersion programs serving grades K-12, as identified by school administrators who have led such programs. A total pool of 498 were invited to…

  7. Croatian energy regulatory council - independent Croatian regulatory body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klepo, M.

    2002-01-01

    By means of approving five energy laws, the Republic of Croatia established an appropriate legislative framework for energy sector regulation. A series of sub-law acts is presently being elaborated as well as some additional documents in order to bring about transparent and non-discriminatory provisions for the establishment of electric energy, gas, oil/oil derivatives and thermal energy markets, i.e. for the introduction and management of market activities and public services. A considerable share of these activities relates to the definition of transparent regulatory mechanisms that would guarantee the implementation of regulation rules based on the law, and be carried out by the independent regulatory body - Croatian Energy Regulatory Council. The Council's rights and obligations include firm executive functions, which present obligations to every energy entity. A dissatisfied party may set in motion a settlement of dispute, if it maintains that the decisions are not based on the law or reveal a flaw in the procedure. Therefore, it is the Council's priority to always make careful and law-abiding decisions. This paper gives insight into the regulatory framework elements based on the laws including the Council's organisational structure and non-profit entities that will prepare act proposals for the Council and perform other professional activities. (author)

  8. National legislative and regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2011-01-01

    This chapter of Nuclear Law Bulletin gathers some documents about national legislative and regulatory activities: - Belgium: Amendment of the Act on classification and security clearances, certifications and security notifications; Czech Republic: Resolution of the government of the Czech Republic on the time schedule of preparatory works for enlarging the nuclear power plant Temelin; Finland: Temporary Amendment to the Nuclear Liability Act; Ireland: Merchant Shipping Act; Romania: Emergency Ordinance on the identification, designation and protection of critical infrastructures; Emergency Ordinance on the control regime of dual-use items; Amendment to the Act on the safe conduct of nuclear activities; Nuclear safety norms on design and construction of nuclear power plants and nuclear safety norms on siting of nuclear power plants; United Kingdom: Establishment of the Office for Nuclear Regulation; United States: Waste Confidence Decision and Rule Update; Response to recent events in Japan

  9. Discounting human lives: Uranium and global equity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, B.A.

    1993-01-01

    Long-term, global environmental health risks complicate efforts to evaluate the efficiency and equity of economic activities from a public welfare perspective. This study sets out a practical framework based on the theory of neoclassical welfare economics for evaluating whether an economic activity yields such inefficient or inequitable net effects to justify government intervention from a variety of decision-making perspectives. It applies this empirical approach to the case of public policies that encouraged uranium production (the mining, milling, and refining of uranium ore) near Elliot Lake and Blind River in Northern Ontario. The analysis tests the two-fold hypothesis that if future negative externalities of production are considered along with past net effects, the these policies result in (1) an inefficient allocation of economic resources according to the potential Pareto criterion, and (2) an inequitable distribution of impacts according to Rawls' maximin criterion. The analytical framework to test these hypotheses has three parts: Risk-cost-benefit analysis, distributions analysis, and efficiency and equity analysis. Quantitative impacts are derived from empirical estimates of cost and benefit streams during 1956 to 1990, and modelled future cancer death costs. Net effects are aggregated to nine observations across three dimensions: Geographic, intergenerational, and social. Qualitative observations are provided about the boom-and-bust uranium economy, environmental burdens, and other unquantifiable impacts. The results illustrate how underlying normative assumptions overwhelm other aspects of efficiency and equity analyses of long-term, global environmental changes. These assumptions appear in discounting equations that ultimately derive from a priori allocations of rights to natural assets and corollary duties to protect such rights. More than two-thirds of the discounting scenarios yield inefficient outcomes and over ninety percent are inequitable

  10. Shifting the balance: equity and sustainable consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermeulen, Sonja; Garside, Ben; De Morais, Gabriela Weber

    2009-01-15

    On our finite planet, the dictates of ecology and technology limit growth. Yet a key element of this issue – consumption – has until recently hardly figured on policy agendas. Now there is growing recognition that transformation towards a low-carbon, resource-efficient economy means tackling consumption as well as production. Governments and businesses are beginning to make concerted, if uncoordinated, efforts to reduce energy and resource use. Rethinking consumption could, however, drive an even bigger wedge between rich and poor. Any new agenda for consumption needs to factor in equity as well as environmental benefit.

  11. Skill and Luck in Private Equity Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korteweg, Arthur; Sørensen, Morten

    2017-01-01

    Private equity (PE) performance is persistent, with PE firms consistently producing high (or low) net-of-fees returns. We use a new variance decomposition model to isolate three components of persistence. We find high long-term persistence: the spread in expected net-of-fee future returns between...... top and bottom quartile PE firms is 7–8 percentage points annually. This spread is estimated controlling for spurious persistence, which arises mechanically from the overlap of contemporaneous funds. Performance is noisy, however, making it difficult for investors to identify the PE funds with top...... quartile expected future performance and leaving little investable persistence....

  12. Equity in multiproduct supply chain network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina SAEE BOSTANABAD

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, multiproduct supply chain network is investigated with equity consideration,namely, obtaining the optimal flow pattern, in such a way that no user in the network can increasehis(her benefit with change in product’s sending path. However, each kind of products, has anindividual cost function and, at the same time, contributes to its own and other product’s cost functionin an individual way. An algorithm is developed to find optimal flow pattern for such multiproductsupply chain network.

  13. Equity issues in radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasperson, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    The 15 papers in this book deal with the equity issues of locus, legacy and labor/laity as they occur in the nuclear industry's handling of radioactive wastes. The intent is to identify and clarify inequities in alternative approaches to radioactive waste management in a way that will inform current public policy deliberations and planning. The papers are arranged in five parts which put the problem in perspective, then define the locus, the legacy, and the labor problem, and conclude with a set of proposals for a more equitable management. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 15 chapters selected for INS, EDB, and EPA

  14. Regulatory aspects of mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyle, R.R.; Orlando, D.A.

    1990-01-01

    Mixed waste is waste that satisfies the definition of low-level radioactive waste in the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 (LLRWPAA) and contains hazardous waste that is either: (1) listed as a hazardous waste in 40 CFR 261, Subpart D; or (2) causes the waste to exhibit any of the characteristics identified in 40 CFR 261, Subpart C. Low-level radioactive waste is defined in the LLRWPAA as radioactive material that is not high level waste, spent nuclear fuel, or byproduct material, as defined in Section 11e(2) of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, and is classified as low-level waste by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This paper discusses dual regulatory (NRC and Environmental Protection Agency) responsibility, overview of joint NRC/EPA guidance, workshops, national mixed waste survey, and principal mixed waste uncertainties

  15. The Aggregate and Distributional Effects of the Tax Reform Act of 1986 on Firm Valuation.

    OpenAIRE

    Givoly, Dan; Hayn, Carla

    1991-01-01

    The authors examine the aggregate and distributional effects of the Tax Reform Act of 1986 on equity values of publicly traded corporations. The results show that the effect of the act on the aggregate equity value of corporations was consistent with the present value of the projected added tax collection from the corporate sector. The cross-sectional variation in the magnitude and direction of the stock price response to the Tax Reform Act of 1986 was a function of both the direct and indire...

  16. A theoretical and practical perspective on the equity risk premium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salomons, Roelof

    In historical perspective, equity returns have been higher than interest rates but have also varied a good deal more. However, the average excess return has been larger than what could be expected based on classical equilibrium theory: the equity risk premium (ERP) puzzle. This paper has two

  17. Primary Healthcare Spending : Striving for Equity under Fiscal ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Primary Healthcare Spending : Striving for Equity under Fiscal Federalism. Couverture du livre Primary Healthcare Spending: Striving for Equity under Fiscal Federalism. Auteur(s) : Okore Apia Okorafor. Maison(s) d'édition : UCT Press, CRDI. 1 avril 2010. ISBN : 9781919895215. 200 pages. e-ISBN : 9781552504895.

  18. The Economics of Independent Living: Efficiency, Equity and Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, E.; Kennelly, B.

    1996-01-01

    This article explores the meaning of efficiency and equity in the context of independent living programs for people with disabilities. Conflicts in costs and trade-offs in various scenarios of the efficiency/equity equation are examined in terms of theories of utilitarianism, contractarianism, justice and mutual advantage, and justice as…

  19. Equity Prices, Productivity Growth, and the 'New Economy'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jakob Brøchner; Davis, E. Philip

    The sharp increase in equity prices over the 1990s was widely attributed to permanently higher productivity growth derived from the New Economy. This paper establishes a rational expectations model of technology innovations and equity prices, which shows that under plausible assumptions...

  20. Federal Funding to Promote Sex Equity in Education: 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Susan S.; Goodman, Melanie A.

    This publication discusses federal funds which are available for research and development in sex equity in education. A major objective is to identify specific Federal funding opportunities for projects focusing on sex equity. Another objective is to help individuals understand the overall Federal pattern of support for activities to promote sex…

  1. The Equity Myth: Racialization and Indigeneity at Canadian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Frances; Dua, Enakshi; James, Carl E.; Kobayashi, Audrey; Li, Peter; Ramos, Howard; Smith, Malinda S.

    2017-01-01

    The university is often regarded as a bastion of liberal democracy where equity and diversity are promoted and racism does not exist. In reality, the university still excludes many people and is a site of racialization that is subtle, complex, and sophisticated. While some studies do point to the persistence of systemic barriers to equity and…

  2. Beyond contracts : Governing structures in non-equity alliances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reuer, Jeffrey; Devarakonda, S.V.

    Non-equity alliances are often portrayed in the literature as purely contractual collaborative agreements. This paper questions the notion that contractual safeguards and incentives alone provide the formal governance mechanisms that undergird non-equity alliances. We argue and show that partners

  3. Which Updates During an Equity Crowdfunding Campaign Increase Crowd Participation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.H. Block (Jörn); L. Hornuf (Lars); A. Moritz (Alexandra)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractStart-ups often post updates during equity crowdfunding campaigns. Yet, little is known about the effects of such updates on funding success. We investigate this question using hand-collected data from 71 funding campaigns on two German equity crowdfunding portals. Using a combination of

  4. On the Road to Success in Equity Crowdfunding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.A. Ralcheva (Aleksandrina); P.G.J. Roosenboom (Peter)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThis paper extends the role of signaling and certification to the context of equity crowdfunding by looking into the determinants of funding success on the world's largest equity crowdfunding platform Crowdcube. We identify and empirically test four potential (third party) signals of

  5. Equity crowdfunding in China : Current practice and important legal issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Jing

    2017-01-01

    By studying two leading Chinese equity crowdfunding portals, namely, Renrentou and Zhongou8, this paper provides the very first empirical evidence on the practice and regulation of equity crowdfunding in China. In the case of Renrentou, I examine a hand-collected sample consisting of the investment

  6. Market timing and the debt-equity choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elliot, W.B.; Koeter-Kant, J.; Warr, R.S.

    2008-01-01

    We test the market timing theory of capital structure using an earnings-based valuation model that allows us to separate equity mispricing from growth options and time-varying adverse selection; thus avoiding the multiple interpretations of book-to-market ratio. We find that equity market mispricing

  7. A Recommitment Strategy for Long Term Private Equity Fund Investors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.J. de Zwart (Gerben); B. Frieser (Brian); D.J.C. van Dijk (Dick)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThis paper develops a reinvestment strategy for private equity which aims to keep its portfolio weight equal to a desired strategic allocation, while taking into account the illiquid nature of private equity. Historical simulations (1980-2005) show that our dynamic strategy is capable of

  8. Foregrounding Issues of Equity and Diversity in Educational Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niesche, Richard; Keddie, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    This article documents the leadership practices within one secondary school in Queensland, Australia that uses equity as a central philosophy. Drawing on specific elements of productive leadership as defined by Hayes et al., the article draws attention to how the school's common equity agenda, its supportive social relations, and its dispersed…

  9. Do Professors Have Customer-Based Brand Equity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jillapalli, Ravi K.; Jillapalli, Regina

    2014-01-01

    This research endeavors to understand whether certain professors have customer-based brand equity (CBBE) in the minds of students. Consequently, the purpose of this study is to conceptualize, develop, and empirically test a model of customer-based professor brand equity. Survey data gathered from 465 undergraduate business students were used to…

  10. Generalized financial ratios to predict the equity premium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Algaba, Andres; Boudt, Kris

    2017-01-01

    Empirical evidence for the price-dividend ratio to be a predictor of the equity premium is weak. We argue that changes in the economic conditions and market composition lead to a time-varying relationship between prices, dividends and the equity premium. Exploiting the information in the rolling

  11. Equity and Access in the Workplace: A Feminist HRD Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenziano, Laura

    2008-01-01

    The issues of equity and access are becoming increasingly important as the workforce becomes diversified. As the number of minority groups in the ranks of organizations grows, there is a need to examine the issues related to equity and access from a perspective that strives for equality, e.g. feminist theory. This paper examines feminism's…

  12. Taxes and gender equity: Codes, behaviours, and (un)intended ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-12-06

    Dec 6, 2010 ... English · Français ... Might tax policies be used to promote gender equity and transform existing gendered roles in society? ... These implicit biases operate through the structure of work-related deductions and allowances ... Country case studies are included in “Taxation and Gender Equity: A Comparative ...

  13. Analysis of stage-investing strategy in equity financing market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUN Minghui

    2007-01-01

    Stage-investing strategy is a primary measure to mitigate asymmetric information during equity investment. This paper attempts to investigate the problem faced by equity investors wishing to make optimal investment decision under stage-investing strategy.A serial investment-decision making model will be designed to help investors to take the best choice.

  14. Performance Evaluation of Equity Mutual Funds in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Rini Demi Pangestuti

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Mutual funds considered as an investment alternative for investors. One type of mutual fund that attracts many investors was the equity mutual funds. Equity mutual fund is a type of mutual funds that most part of the investment consists of stocks in the capital market so the risk rate was higher than the other types of mutual funds. For its different characteristic, the measurement for equity funds performance did not be same with other types of mutual funds. As a stock portfolio, equity mutual funds can be measured by portfolio measurement methods such as Sharpe Index, Treynor Ratio, Jensen Index, Adjusted Sharpe Index, Adjusted Jensen Index, and Sortino Ratio. This study was conducted by using all of those performance measurements as most research in Indonesia was conducted by using limited performance measurements (focusing on Sharpe Index, Treynor Ratio, and Jensen Index. This study aims to evaluated the performance of 42 equity mutual funds available in Indonesia by employing Sharpe Index, Treynor Ratio, Jensen Index, Adjusted Sharpe Index (ASI, Adjusted Jensen Index (AJI, and Sortino Ratio because most previous researches in Indonesian setting disregards ASI and AJI. In general, it was concluded that the SAM Indonesian Equity was the best performing equity fund during the study period. It was further found that most equity mutual fund studied have been well diversified.

  15. 17 CFR 190.07 - Calculation of allowed net equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...; and (iii) The current realizable market value, determined as of the close of the market on the last... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calculation of allowed net... BANKRUPTCY § 190.07 Calculation of allowed net equity. Allowed net equity shall be computed as follows: (a...

  16. Which updates during an equity crowdfunding campaign increase crowd participation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Block, J. (Jörn); Hornuf, L. (Lars); Moritz, A. (Alexandra)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractStart-ups often post updates during equity crowdfunding campaigns. However, little is known about the effects of such updates on crowd participation. We investigate this question by using hand-collected data from 71 funding campaigns and 39,399 investment decisions on two German equity

  17. Co-investments of sovereign wealth funds in private equity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mc Cahery, Joseph; de Roode, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Direct investments are the preferred vehicle for large institutional investors to have control over their portfolio investments. We study the deal structure of direct investments by sovereign wealth funds (SWFs) in private equity transactions. We find that SWFs shift from investing in private equity

  18. Public Value Mapping of Equity in Emerging Nanomedicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, Catherine P.

    2011-01-01

    Public values failure occurs when the market and the public sector fail to provide goods and services required to achieve the core values of society such as equity (Bozeman 2007). That public policy for emerging health technologies should address intrinsic societal values such as equity is not a novel concept. However, the ways that the public…

  19. Convertibles and hedge funds as distributors of equity exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, S.; Grundy, B.; Lewis, C.; Verwijmeren, P.

    2012-01-01

    By buying convertibles and shorting the underlying stock, hedge funds distribute equity exposure to well-diversified shareholders. We find that firms with characteristics that make seasoned equity offerings expensive are more likely to issue convertibles to hedge funds. We conclude that hedge funds

  20. Empirical Essays on Debt, Equity, and Convertible Securities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Verwijmeren (Patrick)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis dissertation consists of four empirical studies on firms’ financing decisions. In the first two studies, we investigate the debt-equity choice for a large number of U.S. firms. We find that firms prefer debt financing over equity financing in case a debt issue allows the firm to

  1. The Equity of School Facilities Funding: Examples from Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, William J.; Picus, Lawrence O.; Odden, Allan; Aportela, Anabel

    2009-01-01

    While there is an extensive literature analyzing the relative equity of state funding systems for current operating revenues, there is a dearth of research on capital funding systems. This article presents an analysis of the school capital funding system in Kentucky since 1990, using the operating-revenue analysis concepts of horizontal equity,…

  2. Equity in Health and Health Financing: Building and Strengthening ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Equity in Health and Health Financing: Building and Strengthening Developing Country Networks. Equity in health is a pressing global concern. Disparities in health status and access to health care within and across countries are both a cause and a consequence of social inequality. Access to health services continues to ...

  3. 75 FR 64147 - Privacy Act; Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-19

    .... (relating to alcohol). After the organizational change, TTB conducted a review of its records to determine... notice of proposed rulemaking is required, the provisions of the Regulatory Flexibility Act (5 U.S.C. 601...

  4. 77 FR 28595 - Sunshine Act Meeting Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-15

    ... Power Cooperative; Great River Energy; Hoosier Energy Rural Electric Cooperative, Inc.; Indiana...-000 National Grid Transmission Services Corporation and Bangor Hydro Electric Company. Hydro H-1 P... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Sunshine Act Meeting Notice The...

  5. The Constraints and Risk Factors of Equity Crowdfunding Developments in China%中国股权类众筹发展的制约因素及风险研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张小涛; 岳文华; 张学锋

    2014-01-01

    In this paper,firstly we introduced the development status of crowdfunding in the developed countries and regions,and then analyzed the constraints and risk factors of crowdfunding,especially equity crowdfunding from the perspective of laws and regulations. Finally,we explored the JOBS acts of America to propose suggestions for the crowdfunding,especially equity crowdfunding developments in China,that is,to modify existing laws or introduce new laws as soon as possible,to ensure the legitimacy of crowdfunding in the form of legislation,to establish self-regulatory organizations of crowdfunding,and to define qualified investors.%首先对发达国家及国内众筹发展的现状进行梳理和分析,并在此基础上从法律法规、监管等几个方面分析国内众筹,尤其是股权类众筹发展面临的制约因素和风险。最后分析美国的JOBS法案,为我国发展众筹,尤其是股权类众筹提出政策建议,即尽快修改或者出台新的相关法律法规、以立法的形式确保众筹融资的合法性、建立众筹融资行业自律组织及明确合格投资者制度等。

  6. Regulatory control, legislation and framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parthasarathy, K.S.

    1998-01-01

    The legislation and regulations, a regulatory authority to authorise and inspect the regulated activities and to enforce the legislation and regulations, sufficient financial and man-power resources are the essential parts of a national infrastructure to implement the Basic Safety Standards. The legal framework consists of legislation (Act passed by Parliament) and the regulations (framed by the government and endorsed by the Parliament). This paper is primarily deals with the the legal framework set up in India for atomic energy activities

  7. Managing Consumer-Based Brand Equity in Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Vukasovic

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to establish the key elements of brand equity for international students by exploring existing brand equity theory in its applicability to international higher education (HE. The main objective of this research is to enhance academic understanding of brand equity in the HE sector and explore the implications for management practice. Quantitative data collected via a self-completion survey are used to test a model of brand equity in the context of HE. The empirical setting is Slovenia, which has a mixture of public and private provision and an increasingly competitive environment. The results provide support for the proposed conceptual model, with image-related and awareness-related determinants. The findings of this research provided evidence that the customer-based brand equity model can be applied to the HE context as an element of competitive advantage and used to guide marketing activities for Universities internationally.

  8. 75 FR 5355 - Sunshine Act; Meeting Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-02

    ...). (Contact: Dominick Orlando, 301-415-6749.) This meeting will be webcast live at the Web address, http://www... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2010-0002] Sunshine Act; Meeting Notice AGENCY HOLDING THE MEETINGS: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. DATES: Weeks of February 1, 8, 15, 22, March 1, 8, 2010. PLACE...

  9. Global Equity Gauge Alliance: reflections on early experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, David; Bambas, Lexi; Acurio, David; Baya, Banza; Bhuiya, Abbas; Chowdhury, A Mushtaque R; Grisurapong, Siriwan; Liu, Yuanli; Ngom, Pierre; Ngulube, Thabale J; Ntuli, Antoinette; Sanders, David; Vega, Jeanette; Shukla, Abhay; Braveman, Paula A

    2003-09-01

    The paper traces the evolution and working of the Global Equity Gauge Alliance (GEGA) and its efforts to promote health equity. GEGA places health equity squarely within a larger framework of social justice, linking findings on socioeconomic and health inequalities with differentials in power, wealth, and prestige in society. The Alliance's 11 country-level partners, called Equity Gauges, share a common action-based vision and framework called the Equity Gauge Strategy. An Equity Gauge seeks to reduce health inequities through three broad spheres of action, referred to as the 'pillars' of the Equity Gauge Strategy, which define a set of interconnected and overlapping actions. Measuring and tracking the inequalities and interpreting their ethical import are pursued through the Assessment and Monitoring pillar. This information provides an evidence base that can be used in strategic ways for influencing policy-makers through actions in the Advocacy pillar and for supporting grassroots groups and civil society through actions in the Community Empowerment pillar. The paper provides examples of strategies for promoting pro-equity policy and social change and reviews experiences and lessons, both in terms of technical success of interventions and in relation to the conceptual development and refinement of the Equity Gauge Strategy and overall direction of the Alliance. To become most effective in furthering health equity at both national and global levels, the Alliance must now reach out to and involve a wider range of organizations, groups, and actors at both national and international levels. Sustainability of this promising experiment depends, in part, on adequate resources but also on the ability to attract and develop talented leadership.

  10. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Issuances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This is the thirty-sixth volume of issuances (1-396) of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and its Atomic Safety and Licensing Boards, Administrative Law Judges, and Office Directors. It covers the period from July 1, 1992-December 31, 1992. Atomic Safety and Licensing Boards are authorized by Section 191 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954. These Boards, comprised of three members conduct adjudicatory hearings on applications to construct and operate nuclear power plants and related facilities and issue initial decisions which, subject to internal review and appellate procedures, become the final Commission action with respect to those applications. Boards are drawn from the Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Panel, comprised of lawyers, nuclear physicists and engineers, environmentalists, chemists, and economists. The Atomic Energy Commission first established Licensing Boards in 1962 and the Panel in 1967

  11. Brand Equity of a Tourist Destination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwa-Kyung Kim

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In the current climate of severe competition among tourist destinations, the importance of brand equity in tourism marketing is increasing. This study looks at the impact of branding in relation to the largest group of inbound overseas tourists to South Korea, the Chinese. Data for the current study were obtained from a survey of tourists visiting Seoul from the Greater China region, including Mainland China, Hong Kong, Macao, Taiwan, and the Chinese living in Southeast Asia. The survey was conducted in popular sightseeing spots, four and five-star hotels in the Seoul Metropolitan Area, and the Incheon International Airport. The respondents were selected randomly, with effort expended to avoid any potential bias in the composition of the sample. Out of a total of 385 distributed questionnaires, 350 (China 191, Hong Kong 71, Taiwan 68, others 20 were selected as valid and finally used in the analysis. The results of this study suggest that price and word of mouth have beneficial effects on perceived quality, publicity, and brand awareness, and advertisement has beneficial effects on brand image. We also found that brand awareness and perceived quality have impacts on brand image, and brand image is related to brand loyalty. This is a pioneering study on the relationships between influencing factors, destination brand equity and its elements, and brand loyalty, with respect to Seoul, South Korea, as a tourism destination for tourists from China.

  12. Radioactive waste below regulatory concern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuder, S.M.

    1987-01-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) published two notices in the Federal Register concerning radioactive waste below regulatory concern. The first, a Commission Policy Statement and Implementation Plan published August 29, 1986, concerns petition to exempt specific radioactive waste streams from the regulations. The second, an Advanced Notice of Proposed Rulemaking published Decemger 2, 1986, addresses the concept of generic rulemaking by the NRC on radioactive wastes that are below regulatory concern. Radioactive waste determined to be below regulatory concern would not be subject to regulatory control and would not need to go to a licensed low-level radioactive waste disposal site. The Policy Statement and Implementation Plan describe (1) the information a petitioner should file in support of a petition to exempt a specific waste stream, (2) the decision criteria the Commission intends to use for judging the petition, and (3) the internal administrative procedures to use be followed in order to permit the Commission to act upon the petition in an expedited manner

  13. ACTS 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Co-curator of ACTS 2014 together with Rasmus Holmboe, Judith Schwarzbart and Sanne Kofoed. ACTS is the Museum of Contemporary Art’s international bi-annual festival. ACTS was established in 2011 and, while the primary focus is on sound and performance art, it also looks toward socially oriented art....... For the 2014 festival, the museum has entered into a collaboration with the Department for Performance Design at Roskilde University – with continued focus on sound and performance art, and social art in public spaces. With ACTS, art moves out of its usual exhibition space and instead utilizes the city, its...... various possibilities and public spaces as a stage. ACTS takes place in and around the museum and diverse locations in Roskilde city. ACTS is partly curated by the museum staff and partly by guest curators. ACTS 2014 is supported by Nordea-fonden and is a part of the project The Museum goes downtown....

  14. A unified architecture of transcriptional regulatory elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Robin; Sandelin, Albin Gustav; Danko, Charles G.

    2015-01-01

    Gene expression is precisely controlled in time and space through the integration of signals that act at gene promoters and gene-distal enhancers. Classically, promoters and enhancers are considered separate classes of regulatory elements, often distinguished by histone modifications. However...... and enhancers are considered a single class of functional element, with a unified architecture for transcription initiation. The context of interacting regulatory elements and the surrounding sequences determine local transcriptional output as well as the enhancer and promoter activities of individual elements....

  15. Equity Analytics: A Methodological Approach for Quantifying Participation Patterns in Mathematics Classroom Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinholz, Daniel L.; Shah, Niral

    2018-01-01

    Equity in mathematics classroom discourse is a pressing concern, but analyzing issues of equity using observational tools remains a challenge. In this article, we propose equity analytics as a quantitative approach to analyzing aspects of equity and inequity in classrooms. We introduce a classroom observation tool that focuses on relatively…

  16. The role of debt and equity finance over the business cycle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Covas, F.; den Haan, W.J.

    2012-01-01

    If equity issuance is introduced into the costly state verification framework and the friction firms face in raising equity is acyclical, then the model cannot simultaneously generate procyclical equity issuance and a countercyclical default rate. This requires a countercyclical equity issuance

  17. The effects of customer equity drivers on loyalty across services industries and firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ou, Yi-Chun; Verhoef, Peter C.; Wiesel, Thorsten

    Customer equity drivers (CEDs)-value equity, brand equity, and relationship equity-positively affect loyalty intentions, but this effect varies across industries and firms. We empirically examine potential industry and firm characteristics that explain why the CEDs-loyalty link varies across

  18. Equity weighting and the marginal damage costs of climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthoff, David [The Economic and Social Research Institute, Dublin (Ireland)]|[International Max Planck Research School on Earth System Modelling, Hamburg (Germany)]|[Research Unit Sustainability and Global Change, Hamburg University and Centre for Marine and Atmospheric Science, Hamburg (Germany); Hepburn, Cameron [Smith School of Enterprise and the Environment, and James Martin Institute, Said Business School, University of Oxford, and New College, Oxford (United Kingdom); Tol, Richard S.J. [The Economic and Social Research Institute, Dublin (Ireland)]|[Research Unit Sustainability and Global Change, Hamburg University and Centre for Marine and Atmospheric Science, Hamburg (Germany)]|[Institute for Environmental Studies, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands)]|[Engineering and Public Policy, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2009-01-15

    Climate change will give rise to different impacts in different countries, and different countries have different levels of development. Equity-weighted estimates of the (marginal) impact of greenhouse gas emissions reflect these differences. This paper analyses the impact of equity weighting on the marginal damage cost of carbon dioxide emissions, and reaches four main conclusions. First, equity-weighted estimates are substantially higher than estimates without equity-weights; equity-weights may even change the sign of the social cost estimates. Second, estimates differ by two orders of magnitude depending on the region to which the equity weights are normalised. Third, equity-weighted estimates are sensitive to the resolution of the impact estimates. Depending on the assumed intra-regional income distribution, estimates may be more than twice as high if national rather than regional impacts are aggregated. Fourth, variations in the assumed inequality aversion have different impacts in different scenarios, not only because different scenarios have different emissions and hence warming, but also because different scenarios have different income differences, different growth rates, and different vulnerabilities. (author)

  19. Equity weighting and the marginal damage costs of climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anthoff, David; Hepburn, Cameron; Tol, Richard S.J.

    2009-01-01

    Climate change will give rise to different impacts in different countries, and different countries have different levels of development. Equity-weighted estimates of the (marginal) impact of greenhouse gas emissions reflect these differences. This paper analyses the impact of equity weighting on the marginal damage cost of carbon dioxide emissions, and reaches four main conclusions. First, equity-weighted estimates are substantially higher than estimates without equity-weights; equity-weights may even change the sign of the social cost estimates. Second, estimates differ by two orders of magnitude depending on the region to which the equity weights are normalised. Third, equity-weighted estimates are sensitive to the resolution of the impact estimates. Depending on the assumed intra-regional income distribution, estimates may be more than twice as high if national rather than regional impacts are aggregated. Fourth, variations in the assumed inequality aversion have different impacts in different scenarios, not only because different scenarios have different emissions and hence warming, but also because different scenarios have different income differences, different growth rates, and different vulnerabilities. (author)

  20. 78 FR 44403 - Unified Agenda of Federal Regulatory and Deregulatory Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ... agenda (the Agenda) in accordance with Public Law 96-354, ``The Regulatory Flexibility Act,'' and... goals; (2) support for the Strategic Plan organizational excellence objectives; (3) a governmental... Flexibility Act Section 610 of the Regulatory Flexibility Act (RFA) requires agencies to conduct a review...

  1. Equity gap? - Which equity gap? On the financing structure of Germany's Mittelstand

    OpenAIRE

    Bannier, Christina E.; Grote, Michael H.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the financing structure of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Germany and questions whether an equity gap - or, more generally, a financing gap -exists. Reviewing the literature and available data sources, we find that financing constraints seem to affect, if at all, only a very small subgroup among highly growth-oriented firms. We do not detect any structural problems in average SME's capital structure. Rather, German Mittelstand firms appear to be non-growth or...

  2. Personality correlates of equity sensitivity for samples of Canadian, Bulgarian, and Mexican business people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintu-Wimsatt, Alma; Madjourova-Davri, Anna; Lozada, Héctor R

    2008-02-01

    Equity sensitivity concerns perceptions of what is or is not equitable. Previous studies have shown that equity sensitivity is associated with one's relationship orientation. Relationships are also influenced by personality variables. As both personality and equity sensitivity influence relationships, equity sensitivity and personality may be correlated also; so, this study examined that possibility. The relations of equity sensitivity with 3 personality variables were explored across three culturally different samples. This allowed validation across cultures of the proposed equity-personality relationship which has traditionally been assessed in a U.S. setting. In general, personality-equity sensitivity relationship was not supported across the samples.

  3. Nuclear Regulatory Commission: more aggressive leadership needed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staats, E.B.

    1980-01-01

    The Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 which established the Nuclear Regulatory Commission required GAO to evaluate the Commission's performance by January 18, 1980. This report responds to that requirement. GAO concluded that, although improvements have been made, the Commission's nuclear regulatory performance can be characterized best as slow, indecisive, cautious - in a word, complacent. This has largely resulted from a lack of aggressive leadership as evidenced by the Commissioners' failure to establish regulatory goals, control policymaking, and most importantly, clearly define their roles in nuclear regulation

  4. No 592 - Radiation Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This Act will enter into force on 1 January 1992. The scope of the Act is extensive as, in addition to ionizing radiation, it will also apply to activities involving exposure to natural radiation and non-ionizing radiation. Its purpose is to prevent and restrict harmful effects to health resulting from radiation. The basic principles of the Act are that the practice involving radiation should be justified; radiation protection should be optimized; and radiation doses should be as low as reasonably achievable. Licensed organisations using radiation will be responsible for the safety of the activity involving exposure to radiation and for having available the appropriate expertise to this effect. The required so-called safety licence provides the regulatory control to ensure that radiation is used sensibly, that the equipment and shields are technically acceptable and the operating personnel is competent, and that the radioactive waste is dealt with appropriately. The Radiation Act will also apply to nuclear activities within the scope of the 1987 Nuclear Energy Act [fr

  5. Regulatory Office for Network Industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The main goal of the economic regulation of network industries is to ensure a balance between the interests of consumers and investors and to encourage providing high-quality goods and services. The task of the regulatory authority is to protect the interests of consumers against monopolistic behaviour of regulated enterprises. At the same time, the regulatory office has to protect the interests of investors by giving them an opportunity to achieve an adequate return on their investments. And last, but not least, the regulatory office has to provide regulated enterprises with appropriate incentives to make them function in an efficient and effective manner and to guarantee the security of delivery of energies and related services. All this creates an efficient regulatory framework that is capable of attracting the required amount and type of investments. This also means providing third party access to the grids, the opening of energy markets, the un-bundling of accounts according to production, distribution, transmission and other activities and the establishment of a transparent and stable legislative environment for regulated companies, investors and consumers. Otherwise, in the long run consumers may suffer from a serious deterioration of service quality, although in the short run they are protected against increased prices. Under the Act No. 276/2001 Coll. on Regulation of Network Industries and on amendment of some acts the Office for Regulation of Network Industries has been commissioned to implement the main objectives of regulation of network industries. By network industries the Act No. 276/2001 Coll. on Regulation means the following areas: (a) Production, purchase, transit and distribution of electricity; (b) Production, purchase, transit and distribution of gas; (c) Production, purchase and distribution of heat; (d) Water management activities relating to the operation of the public water supply system or the public sewerage system; (e) Water management

  6. Settlement-date Accounting for Equity Share Options - Conceptual Validity and Numerical Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Peder Fredslund

    -date accounting are fully conceptually valid. They represent measurements of one partner group's share of total equity with effect for another group's share of total equity and income: the shareholders' part. Partially, this equity and income sharing model is already the basis for existing accounting standards......This paper demonstrates that settlement-date accounting for equity share options can be seen as an accounting method which implements a shareholder focused residually rewarded partners' equity view. This equity view represents a simple, natural extension of the shareholder proprietary view....... It implicates an equity and income sharing model for accounting which is characterized by specification of both shareholders' and non-shareholders' parts of total equity and income. When using this equity and income sharing model, the remeasurements of equity share option obligations made by settlement...

  7. Relationship between Major Developed Equity Markets and Major Frontier Equity Markets of World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Mansoor Baig

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The core aim of this study is to compute the long run relationship between frontier equity markets Pakistan (KSE 100 Index, Argentina (MERVAL BUENOS AIRES stock Exchange, NSE.20 (Kenya, MSM 30 (MSI Oman and equity markets of developed world (OMXS30 Sweden, SMI (Switzerland, SSE Composite Index (China and STI index (Singapore by taking weekly values from stock return prices for the period 1st week of January-2000 to last week of January/2014. Descriptive statistic, Correlation, Augmented dickey fuller (ADF, Phillips Perron test, Johanson and Jelseluis test of co-integration, Granger causality test, Variance Decomposition Test and Impulse Response are used to find the relationship among frontier and developed markets. The results of this study reveal that frontier markets have no long run relationship with equity markets of developed world. Furthermore, this study is helpful for investors to enhance the returns by diversifying the unsystematic risk at given level of profit because results of this study confirm that markets are no cointegrated.

  8. The global financial crisis and health equity: early experiences from Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruckert, Arne; Labonté, Ronald

    2014-01-06

    It is widely acknowledged that austerity measures in the wake of the global financial crisis are starting to undermine population health results. Yet, few research studies have focused on the ways in which the financial crisis and the ensuing 'Great Recession' have affected health equity, especially through their impact on social determinants of health; neither has much attention been given to the health consequences of the fiscal austerity regime that quickly followed a brief period of counter-cyclical government spending for bank bailouts and economic stimulus. Canada has not remained insulated from these developments, despite its relative success in maneuvering the global financial crisis. The study draws on three sources of evidence: A series of semi-structured interviews in Ottawa and Toronto, with key informants selected on the basis of their expertise (n = 12); an analysis of recent (2012) Canadian and Ontario budgetary impacts on social determinants of health; and documentation of trend data on key social health determinants pre- and post the financial crisis. The findings suggest that health equity is primarily impacted through two main pathways related to the global financial crisis: austerity budgets and associated program cutbacks in areas crucial to addressing the inequitable distribution of social determinants of health, including social assistance, housing, and education; and the qualitative transformation of labor markets, with precarious forms of employment expanding rapidly in the aftermath of the global financial crisis. Preliminary evidence suggests that these tendencies will lead to a further deepening of existing health inequities, unless counter-acted through a change in policy direction. This article documents some of the effects of financial crisis and severe economic decline on health equity in Canada. However, more research is necessary to study policy choices that could mitigate this effect. Since the policy response to a similar set of

  9. Consumer-Based Brand Equity: A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Szőcs

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The concept of brand equity has gained in popularity since the 1980s, and since then, the field has undergone significant development. The concept of consumer-based brand equity has become a central marketing concept due to the increasing scientific and business interest in brands, since the approach according to which brands constitute one of the most valuable intangible assets of the companies is becoming increasingly widespread. The paper offers an updated literature review of this important research topic, providing a classification of brand equity models focusing on consumer based models. The most important models are critically reviewed from the perspective of model structure, methodology used and validity.

  10. The effects of multimedia advertising on building brand equity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Pirayesh

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the effects of multimedia advertisement on building brand equity. The proposed study uses two questionnaires, one for multimedia advertisement, which consists of 17 questions and the other one for measuring brand equity. The survey is applied among 384 randomly selected customers who do their daily businesses with banks located in province of Kordestan, Iran. Using Pearson correlation as well as linear regression techniques, the study has determined a positive and meaningful relationship between these two variables. In our survey, word of mouth advertisement seems to have the highest impact on brand equity followed by having seminars.

  11. Equity prices, productivity growth and 'The New Economy'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jakob B.; Davis, E. Philip

    2006-01-01

    The sharp increase in equity prices over the 1990s was widely attributed to permanently higher productivity growth derived from the New Economy. This article establishes a rational expectations model of technology innovations and equity prices, which shows that under plausible assumptions......, productivity advances can only have temporary effects on the fundamentals of equity prices. Using historical data on productivity of R&D capital, patent capital and fixed capital for 11 OECD countries, empirical evidence gives strong support for the model by suggesting that technological innovations indeed...

  12. Market and Style Timing: German Equity and Bond Funds

    OpenAIRE

    Hayley, S.; Nitzsche, D.; Cuthbertson, K.

    2016-01-01

    We apply parametric and non-parametric estimates to test market and style timing ability of individual German equity and bond mutual funds using a sample of over 500 equity and 350 bond funds, over the period 1990-2009. For equity funds, both approaches indicate no successful market timers in the 1990-1999 or 2000-2009 periods, but in 2000-2009 the non-parametric approach gives fewer unsuccessful market timers than the parametric approach. There is evidence of successful style timing using th...

  13. Consumer-Based Brand Equity: A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Szőcs

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of brand equity has gained in popularity since the 1980s, and since then, the field has undergone significant development. The concept of consumer-based brand equity has become a central marketing concept due to the increasing scientific and business interest in brands, since the approach according to which brands constitute one of the most valuable intangible assets of the companies is becoming increasingly widespread. The paper offers an updated literature review of this important research topic, providing a classification of brand equity models focusing on consumer based models. The most important models are critically reviewed from the perspective of model structure, methodology used and validity.

  14. Ecology, equity and economics: reframing dryland policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hesse, Ced

    2011-11-15

    Drylands are among the world's most variable and unpredictable environments. But people here have long learnt how to live with and harness this variability to support sustainable and productive economies, societies and ecosystems. Policymakers have for too long ignored this wealth of experience and expertise with dire consequences. Attempts to replace traditional land use practices with modern techniques have simply exacerbated poverty, degradation and conflict. In the face of climate change and increasing uncertainty in the drylands, the need to reframe policy and practice has never been greater. The future must be built on sound scientific information, local knowledge, informed participation and the wisdom of customary institutions that emphasise social equity, ecological integrity and economic development.

  15. Equity Market Timing: Testing Using Brazilian IPOs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luiz Rossi Jr

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes whether the behavior related to the equity market timing affected the recent IPO wave of Brazilian firms and exerted an impact on companies'capital structure. Using data from january 2004 to december 2007 the paper classifies the months in the sample in hot or cold according the number of IPOs that took place in each month. The paper confirms an oportunistic behavior by the firms that issue a higher volume of stocks in periods classified as hot. The paper also shows that the impact of this behavior on companies` capital structure is very limited. Although there is a reduction in companies` leverage right after the IPO, this returns to its previous level only a few quarters after the IPO.

  16. European Integration between Equity, Efficiency and Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Marchis

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Throughout this article I tried to highlight the path for improving the Europeans standards ofliving. Poverty, inequality and efficiency are the key concepts of the welfare economic. Similar to many otherarticles about equity, efficiency and welfare, this article offers an account of the challenges facing theEuropean Union welfare in a context of global economy assessing the ability of different components of thewelfare governance to respond to these challenges. The welfare of European Union is analyzed under themultidimensional aspects of integration, such as: internal versus external integration and multilevelintegration. Aging, changes in the labor market, increased mobility are particular aspects that characterize EUand under the fundamental reform of Europe 2020 Strategy, welfare economic becomes a priority even if thepolitical integration comes first to the economic one. As Europe grows more diverse, the welfare economictranslates from desire to necessity.

  17. Pure global externalities. International efficiency and equity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musgrave, P.B.

    1995-01-01

    The argument for a carbon tax to reduce CO 2 emissions to the global arena is extended and the distribution as well as efficiency issues posed by a global agreement on carbon taxation are examined. The author distinguishes four alternative international arrangements in addition to the 'no cooperation' case. The arrangements allow for various equity rules to reflect what are considered to be equitable changes from the baseline position. Although the results of Musgrave's exercise lay no strong claims to validity as empirical findings, the relative patterns that emerge, nonetheless, contribute to an understanding of the issues that must be faced in arriving at acceptable international forms of cooperation. 1 fig., 6 tabs., 10 refs

  18. Strategies and tactics in structuring equity offerings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emes, A. F.

    1998-01-01

    Volatile changes in the oil and gas sector investment climate within the last few months were reviewed in an effort to illustrate that despite the sharp downturn in the attractiveness of gas and oil sector investments, certain financing transactions are still being completed, and 'deals' are still available, provided that they are made attractive to investors. Investors may be more selective, may be looking more carefully at the issuing company's track record and management, but they are still there for the right deal. Flow-through offerings, share-for-share, or share-for-property acquisitions, joint ventures, sale of assets as alternative to equity, the junior capital pool as an alternative to initial public offering, the reverse take over, use of the royalty tax market, project financing, convertible debentures, and the use of warrants were explored as options available to issuers to attract investors even during difficult times

  19. Comparing Distributions of Environmental Outcomes for Regulatory Environmental Justice Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn Sheriff

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Economists have long been interested in measuring distributional impacts of policy interventions. As environmental justice (EJ emerged as an ethical issue in the 1970s, the academic literature has provided statistical analyses of the incidence and causes of various environmental outcomes as they relate to race, income, and other demographic variables. In the context of regulatory impacts, however, there is a lack of consensus regarding what information is relevant for EJ analysis, and how best to present it. This paper helps frame the discussion by suggesting a set of questions fundamental to regulatory EJ analysis, reviewing past approaches to quantifying distributional equity, and discussing the potential for adapting existing tools to the regulatory context.

  20. Design, Development and Implementation of Decision Support Systems for Private Equity Investment

    OpenAIRE

    Vroomen, Paul

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this research is to design, develop and implement an intelligent decision support system (IDSS) for making rational private equity investment decisions. (Private equity investments are capital investments in enterprises that are not traded on public equity markets; they include Equity Buy-Out, Venture Capital, and the new Equity Crowd Funding (ECF) asset classes). The design and development of the IDSS requires the integration of investment science (valuation theory, portfoli...

  1. 76 FR 44076 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-22

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change To Amend NASDAQ Stock Market Equities Trading Rules 4757 and 4758 and NASDAQ Options... NASDAQ Stock Market LLC (the ``Exchange'' or ``NASDAQ'') filed with the Securities and Exchange...

  2. 77 FR 38351 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change To List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-27

    ... copper market is the third largest metals market in terms of physical volume. Much of the copper traded...-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change To List and Trade Shares of iShares Copper Trust Pursuant to NYSE Arca Equities Rule 8.201 June 22, 2012. Pursuant to Section...

  3. 78 FR 54697 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE MKT LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-05

    ... and NYSE Amex Options Rule 900.2NY(77); and (iii) non- member organization and non-ATP Holder broker... described in Items I, II and III below, which Items have been prepared by the self-regulatory organization... Rules of the NYSE MKT Equities Rules, and ATP Holders, as that term is defined in NYSE Amex Options Rule...

  4. 78 FR 9961 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMS BX, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-12

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-68840; File No. SR-BX-2013-008] Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMS BX, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change To Add Routing Functionality to the NASDAQ OMX BX Equities Market February 6, 2013. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1...

  5. National legislative and regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2001-01-01

    These columns treat of the legislative and regulatory activities of different OECD countries: Australia (environment protection and biodiversity conservation act and regulations, 1999-2000); Bulgaria (basic standards for radiation protection, 2000); France (decree on the standard tax charged on polluting activities due from operators of installations classified for environmental protection purposes, 2000; amendment of the orders on the transport of dangerous goods by road and by rail, 2000); Georgia (law on nuclear and radiation safety, 1998); Germany (amendments to nuclear legislation implementing EURATOM directives, 2000; amendment to the nuclear third party liability provisions of the atomic energy act, 2001; amendment to the foreign trade ordinance, 2000; ordinance on the treatment of foodstuffs with radiation, 2000; general administrative regulations on radioactivity limits in food and feeds); Ireland (European communities regulations on foodstuffs treated with ionizing radiations, 2000); Japan (law for nuclear sitting area development, 2000; Republic of Korea (amendments to the act on compensation for nuclear damage, 2001); Latvia (act on radiation safety and nuclear safety, 2000); Lithuania (resolution approving the decommissioning program for Unit 1, Ignalina NPP, 2001); Luxembourg (grand-ducal regulations on the protection of the public against the risks resulting from ionizing radiation, 2000; grand-ducal regulations relating to foods and food ingredients treated with ionizing radiation, 2000); Mexico (norm regarding selection, qualification and training requirements for staff of a NPP, 2000; norm regarding solid residue as radioactive waste, 2000); Mongolia (law on nuclear weapons free status and its implementing resolution, 2000); Netherlands (amendment to the nuclear energy act, 2000); Norway (act on radiation and use of radiation, 2000); Pakistan (nuclear authority ordinance, 2001); Poland (atomic energy act, 2000); Spain (royal decree on activities

  6. Regulatory aspects of NPP safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuller, J.; Brandejs, P.; Miasnikov, A.; Svab, M.

    1999-01-01

    In beginning, a history of legislative process regulating industrial utilisation of nuclear energy is given, including detailed list of decrees issued by the first regulatory body supervising Czech nuclear installations - Czechoslovak Atomic Energy Commission (CSKAE). Current status of nuclear regulations and radiation protection, especially in connection with Atomic Act (Act No 18/1997 Coll.), is described. The Atomic Act transfers into the Czech legal system a number of obligations following from the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage and Joint Protocol relating to the Application of the Vienna and Paris Convention, to which the Czech Republic had acceded. Actual duties and competence of current nuclear regulatory body - State Office for Nuclear Safety (SUJB) - are given in detail. Execution of the State supervision of peaceful utilisation of nuclear energy and ionising radiation is laid out in several articles of the Act, which comprises: control activities of the SUJB, remedial measures, penalties. Material and human resources are sufficient for fulfilment of the basic functions for which SUJB is authorised by the law. For 1998, the SUJB allotted staff of 149, approximately 2/3 of that number are nuclear safety and radiation protection inspectors. The SUJB budget for 1998 is approximately 180 million Czech crowns (roughly 6 million US dollars). Inspection activity of SUJB is carried out in three different ways: routine inspections, planned specialised inspections, inspections as a response to a certain situation (ad-hoc inspections). Approach to the licensing of major plant upgrades and backfittings are mainly illustrated on the Temelin NPP licensing. Regulatory position and practices concerning review activities are presented. (author)

  7. Legal principles of regulatory administration and nuclear safety regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyeong Hui; Cheong, Sang Kee [Hannam Univ., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-12-15

    This research presents a critical analysis and evaluation of principles of administrative laws in order to provide framework of structural reform on the nuclear safety regulation system. The focus of this analysis and evaluation is centered around the area of origin of regulatory administrative laws; authorities of regulation; procedures of regulatory actions; regulatory enforcement; and administrative relief system. In chapter 2 the concept of regulatory administration is analysed. Chapter 3 identifies the origin of regulatory administration and the principles of administration laws. It also examines legal nature of the nuclear safety standard. In relation to regulatory authorities. Chapter 4 identifies role and responsibility of administration authorities and institutions. It also examines fundamental principles of delegation of power. Then the chapter discusses the nuclear safety regulation authorities and their roles and responsibilities. Chapter 5 classifies and examines regulatory administration actions. Chapter 6 evaluates enforcement measure for effectiveness of regulation. Finally, chapter 7 discusses the administrative relief system for reviewing unreasonable regulatory acts.

  8. Examining equity in access to long-lasting insecticide nets and artemisinin-based combination therapy in Anambra state, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mbachu Chinyere O

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to achieve universal health coverage, the government of Anambra State, southeast Nigeria has distributed free Long-lasting Insecticide treated Nets (LLINs to the general population and delivered free Artemisinin-based Combination Therapy (ACT to pregnant women and children less than 5 years. However, the levels of coverage with LLINS and ACTs is not clear, especially coverage of different socio-economic status (SES population groups. This study was carried out to determine the level of coverage and access to LLINs and ACTs amongst different SES groups. Methods A questionnaire was used to collect data from randomly selected households in 19 local government areas of the State. Selected households had a pregnant woman and/or a child less than 5 years. The lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS methodology was used in sampling. The questionnaire explored the availability and utilization of LLINs and ACTs from 2394 households. An asset-based SES index was used to examine the level of access of LLINS and ACTs to different SES quintiles. Results It was found that 80.5 % of the households had an LLIN and 64.4 % of the households stated that they actually used the nets the previous night. The findings showed that 42.3 % of pregnant women who had fever within the past month received ACTs, while 37.5 % of children ≪5 years old who had malaria in the past month had received ACTs. There was equity in ownership of nets for the range 1–5 nets per household. No significant SES difference was found in use of ACTs for treatment of malaria in children under five years old and in pregnant women. Conclusions The free distribution of LLINs and ACTs increased household coverage of both malaria control interventions and bridged the equity gap in access to them among the most vulnerable groups.

  9. Examining equity in access to long-lasting insecticide nets and artemisinin-based combination therapy in Anambra State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbachu, Chinyere O; Onwujekwe, Obinna E; Uzochukwu, Benjamin S C; Uchegbu, Eloka; Oranuba, Joseph; Ilika, Amobi L

    2012-05-22

    In order to achieve universal health coverage, the government of Anambra State, southeast Nigeria has distributed free Long-lasting Insecticide treated Nets (LLINs) to the general population and delivered free Artemisinin-based Combination Therapy (ACT) to pregnant women and children less than 5 years. However, the levels of coverage with LLINS and ACTs is not clear, especially coverage of different socio-economic status (SES) population groups. This study was carried out to determine the level of coverage and access to LLINs and ACTs amongst different SES groups. A questionnaire was used to collect data from randomly selected households in 19 local government areas of the State. Selected households had a pregnant woman and/or a child less than 5 years. The lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) methodology was used in sampling. The questionnaire explored the availability and utilization of LLINs and ACTs from 2394 households. An asset-based SES index was used to examine the level of access of LLINS and ACTs to different SES quintiles. It was found that 80.5% of the households had an LLIN and 64.4% of the households stated that they actually used the nets the previous night. The findings showed that 42.3% of pregnant women who had fever within the past month received ACTs, while 37.5% of children<5 years old who had malaria in the past month had received ACTs. There was equity in ownership of nets for the range 1-5 nets per household. No significant SES difference was found in use of ACTs for treatment of malaria in children under five years old and in pregnant women. The free distribution of LLINs and ACTs increased household coverage of both malaria control interventions and bridged the equity gap in access to them among the most vulnerable groups.

  10. Curatorial Acts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bal, M.

    2012-01-01

    In a self-critical inquiry into my own recent work of co-curating and the experience of seeing my video work being curated by others, this article examines acts of framing as performative acts that seek to transform visitors' preconceptions. This affective effect is pursued by means of immersion,

  11. As to achieve regulatory action, regulatory approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cid, R.; Encinas, D.

    2014-01-01

    The achievement of the effectiveness in the performance of a nuclear regulatory body has been a permanent challenge in the recent history of nuclear regulation. In the post-Fukushima era this challenge is even more important. This article addresses the subject from two complementary points of view: the characteristics of an effective regulatory body and the regulatory approaches. This work is based on the most recent studies carried out by the Committee on Nuclear Regulatory Activities, CNRA (OECD/NEA), as well as on the experience of the Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear, CSN, the Spanish regulatory body. Rafael Cid is the representative of CSN in these project: Diego Encinas has participated in the study on regulatory approaches. (Author)

  12. Taxation and Gender Equity: A Comparative Analysis of Direct and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-06-10

    Jun 10, 2010 ... Taxation and Gender Equity: A Comparative Analysis of Direct and Indirect Taxes in Developing and Developed Countries ... This highly original book is essential reading for everyone concerned with equality in taxation.

  13. Primary Healthcare Spending: Striving for Equity under Fiscal ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-04-01

    Apr 1, 2010 ... Book cover Primary Healthcare Spending: Striving for Equity under Fiscal Federalism ... Primary Healthcare Spending is an important reference for ... field of health policy and health economics, agencies involved in providing ...

  14. Disadvantageous Situation of Retail Investors in Equity Crowdfunding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuanglong Wan

    2017-01-01

    This essay focuses on the onerous situation of retail investors in the proliferating equity crowdfunding. It points out and explains in detail four aspects of situation: insufficient information, misleading information, weak bargaining power and low liqui

  15. Advancing the Science of Qualitative Research to Promote Health Equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Derek M; Shelton, Rachel C; Kegler, Michelle

    2017-10-01

    Qualitative methods have long been a part of health education research, but how qualitative approaches advance health equity has not been well described. Qualitative research is an increasingly important methodologic tool to use in efforts to understand, inform, and advance health equity. Qualitative research provides critical insight into the subjective meaning and context of health that can be essential for understanding where and how to intervene to inform health equity research and practice. We describe the larger context for this special theme issue of Health Education & Behavior, provide brief overviews of the 15 articles that comprise the issue, and discuss the promise of qualitative research that seeks to contextualize and illuminate answers to research questions in efforts to promote health equity. We highlight the critical role that qualitative research can play in considering and incorporating a diverse array of contextual information that is difficult to capture in quantitative research.

  16. Review of the Linkages between Gender Equity and Climate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Review of the Linkages between Gender Equity and Climate Change Issues in ... thereby exacerbating inequalities in health status and access to adequate food, clean ... Again, in traditional societies, women are even more vulnerable to the ...

  17. Efficiency and Equity Performance of a Coordinated Ramp Metering Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duo Li

    2016-10-01

    software AIMSUN. Simulation results revealed that the equity of the motorway system can be improved significantly by using the proposed strategy without compromising much on the efficiency of the system.

  18. Re-thinking instructional strategies for enhancing gender equity in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Re-thinking instructional strategies for enhancing gender equity in learning ... instructional mode on the cognitive achievement of boys and girls in primary science. ... Results revealed no statistically significant difference in the achievement of ...

  19. Discount rates, equity weights and the social cost of carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hope, Chris

    2008-01-01

    Equity weighting has been proposed as a way of allowing welfare equivalents to be included in the social cost of carbon since a dollar to a poor person is worth more than a dollar to a rich one. Here we use the PAGE2002 integrated assessment model to show that the social cost of carbon is higher without equity weights (an elasticity of marginal utility with respect to income of 0) than with them. This might seem counter-intuitive, but it comes about because of the logical link between equity weights and discount rates; as the elasticity goes from 0 to - 0.5 to - 1.0, the social rate of time preference rises, and the drop in present values that results far outweighs the small increase in impacts that equity weights bring. (author)

  20. Striving to Achieve Gender Equity in Education: A Zimbabwean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Striving to Achieve Gender Equity in Education: A Zimbabwean Experience ... of all forms of inequalities in its society, including gender inequalities in education. ... implementation of policies meant to promote education of girls and women.

  1. Missing Links: Gender Equity in Science and Technology for ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Missing Links: Gender Equity in Science and Technology for Development. Book cover ... Gender Working Group of the United Nations Commission on Science and Technology for Development. Publisher(s): ... Knowledge. Innovation.

  2. Trade, Gender and Equity in Latin America : Knowledge for Political ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project will analyze the complex trade liberalization-gender equity nexus, focusing ... Interface of research on gender and trade with the negotiations of trade agreements ... IDRC invites applications for the IDRC Doctoral Research Awards.

  3. Ubuntu: An African Equity | Bennett | Potchefstroom Electronic Law ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING AJOL ... responsibility, trust and harmony. KEYWORDS: Ubuntu, equity, reconciliation, human dignity, humanity, social harmony, restorative justice, cultural heritage.

  4. The challenges of achieving gender equity in a government ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The challenges of achieving gender equity in a government department: a case study of ... particularly in terms of the upward mobility of women in the workplace, remains open. ... leadership should be considered in addressing gender issues.

  5. Tracking Gender Equity under Economic Reforms: Continuity and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Tracking Gender Equity under Economic Reforms: Continuity and Change in South ... She has a master's degree in economics from the Delhi School of Economics ... An IDRC delegation will join international delegates and city representatives ...

  6. Sectoral job training as an intervention to improve health equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Emma K

    2010-04-01

    A growing literature on the social determinants of health strongly suggests the value of examining social policy interventions for their potential links to health equity. I investigate how sectoral job training, an intervention favored by the Obama administration, might be conceptualized as an intervention to improve health equity. Sectoral job training programs ideally train workers, who are typically low income, for upwardly mobile job opportunities within specific industries. I first explore the relationships between resource redistribution and health equity. Next, I discuss how sectoral job training theoretically redistributes resources and the ways in which these resources might translate into improved health. Finally, I make recommendations for strengthening the link between sectoral job training and improved health equity.

  7. Longevity, Growth and Intergenerational Equity - The Deterministic Case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben M.; Gestsson, Marias Halldór

    . We develop an overlapping generations model in continuous time which encompasses different generations with different mortality rates and thus longevity. Allowing for both trend increases in longevity and productivity, we address the issue of intergenerational equity under a utilitarian criterion...

  8. An assessment of Regional and Gender equity in healthcare ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assesses regional and gender equity in healthcare coverage under two different ... 1Department of Geography and Resource Development ...... government budgets, 3) innovative financing and, 4) development assistance for health; ...

  9. Pengaruh Pengungkapan Corporate Social Responsibility terhadap Cost Of Equity Perusahaan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitta Ariyani

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR Disclosure on Cost of Equity Capital. CSR disclosure index is measured based on Global Reporting Initiative standards, while Cost of Equity Capital is measured by Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM. This study uses manufacturing companies which is listed on Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX in 2010. By purposive sampling, this research obtained 72 companies as a samples. The control variables used are financial leverage and firm size. Multiple regression analysis by SPSS 16 was run for testing the hypothesis. The result show that CSR disclosure and financial leverage have no effect to Cost of Equity. Then, firm size have positive effect to Cost of Equity.

  10. Using connectivity for measuring equity in transit provision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplan, Sigal; Popoks, Dmitrijs; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2014-01-01

    . In addition, transit connectivity weighs the impedance components according to their relative importance to travelers. The assessment of equity was performed for the multi-modal transit system in the Greater Copenhagen Area, renowned for its transit-oriented finger-plan. The assessment method used a GIS...... representation of the network (i.e., service lines, timetables, metro stations, train stations, and bus stops), and transit assignment results (i.e., level-of-service times, passenger flows). The assessment method proved effective in calculating location-based and potential-accessibility measures and Gini...... coefficients of inequality in the Greater Copenhagen Area. Results show that the transit-oriented development contributes to spatial equity with high connectivity in densely populated zones, vertical equity with comparable connectivity in high income and low income zones, inter-generational equity with good...

  11. Learning health equity frameworks within a community of scholars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Kamila A; Dovydaitis, Tiffany; Beacham, Barbara; Bohinski, Julia M; Brawner, Bridgette M; Clements, Carla P; Everett, Janine S; Gomes, Melissa M; Harner, Holly; McDonald, Catherine C; Pinkston, Esther; Sommers, Marilyn S

    2011-10-01

    Scholars in nursing science have long espoused the concept of health equity without specifically using the term or dialoguing about the social determinants of health and social justice. This article describes the development, implementation, and evaluation of a doctoral and postdoctoral seminar collective entitled "Health Equity: Conceptual, Linguistic, Methodological, and Ethical Issues." The course enabled scholars-in-training to consider the construct and its nuances and frame a personal philosophy of health equity. An example of how a group of emerging scholars can engage in the important, but difficult, discourse related to health equity is provided. The collective provided a forum for debate, intellectual growth, and increased insight for students and faculty. The lessons learned by all participants have the potential to enrich doctoral and postdoctoral scientific training in nursing science and may serve as a model for other research training programs in the health sciences. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  12. Equity in access to ARV drugs in Malawi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-05-01

    May 1, 2007 ... included):'We found that financial resources are not regarded as .... The dangers implied in this statement are obvious. ..... Mwansambo, A., & Chizimba, R. (2004) Consolidated report on equity in access to ARVs. Lilongwe:.

  13. Gender Equity Employment in Polytechnics in South East Zone of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Uduchukwu (2001) observes that there is gender inequality in ... 2. The Gender Equity Employment Status in State-owned. Polytechnics in South East Zone of Nigeria .... traditional Occupation as well as the Perspectives of Married.

  14. 77 FR 15089 - Equity and Excellence Commission Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-14

    ... rise to the achievement gap, with a focus on systems of finance, and recommend appropriate ways in... make recommendations for restructuring school finance systems to achieve equity in the distribution of...

  15. \\'Sweat Equity\\': Women\\'s Participation in Subsidised Housing in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. The notion of \\"sweat equity\\" has been promoted as an integral part of subsidised housing in South African Housing policy. It\\'s tougher for females, though. Africa Insight Vol.34(2/3) 2004: 58-64 ...

  16. 76 FR 63817 - Disclosure of Information; Privacy Act Regulations; Notice and Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-14

    ..., paper, reports of examination, work papers, and correspondence relating to such reports, to the.... Regulatory Flexibility Act The Regulatory Flexibility Act, 5 U.S.C. 601, et seq., (RFA) applies only to rules... and comment requirements of the APA, the requirement to prepare a final regulatory flexibility...

  17. Brand Equity – Measuring Corporate Brand Strength in the Swedish Smartphone Market; Dimensions of Corporate Brand Equity from a Consumer Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Lökken, Andreas; Nayar, Malini; Runering, Maria

    2012-01-01

    This study deals with the concept of brand equity composition in the Swedish smartphone market. The three dimensions used to describe brand equity are based on Aaker’s definition of consumer based brand equity namely; brand awareness, brand loyalty and perceived quality. The corporate brands represented on the market are analyzed with regards to consumer rating and brand equity composition using a proven theoretical model and a standardized questionnaire. The findings in this study indicate t...

  18. Determinants of Success in Private Equity-Venture Capital Investments

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Gledson de Carvalho; Eduardo Madureira Rodrigues Siqueira; Humberto Gallucci Netto

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the determinants of performance of the investments of private equity and venture capital (PEVC) funds in Brazil. We use two unique databases: the First Brazilian Private Equity and Venture Capital Census and the Guia-GVcepe Endeavor, with information on this industry for the period 1999 to 2007. As measures of performance we use the percentage and number of exits through IPO, acquisition by a company or by another investor. Our results indicate that the factors influen...

  19. The effects of selected marketing mix activities on brand equity

    OpenAIRE

    Ng, Lee Chin

    2004-01-01

    Branding has never been more important than in a competitive environment. Branding is the process of creating an association between symbol / object / emotion / perception and a product / company with the goal of driving loyalty and creating differentiation. The importance of the concept of brand equity has been on the rise. The dimension of brand equity consists of (i) perceived quality, (ii) brand loyalty, (iii) brand awareness, (iv) brand associations and (iv) other proprietary brand asset...

  20. Determining the impact of brand equity on consumer purchase intention

    OpenAIRE

    Özçifçi, Vesile

    2017-01-01

    In this study, it was attempted to determine whichbrand equity element is more effective regarding the mobile phone purchase ofuniversity students. Brand equity is defined in three dimensions which arebrand awareness, perceived quality and brand loyalty. Data was collected by1190 subjects studying at the faculties of Aksaray University. The data wastested by Structural Equation Modeling. As a result of the research, it wasfound that brand awareness affects perceived quality, but it does not a...

  1. Can Equity Volatility Explain the Global Loan Pricing Puzzle?

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis Gaul; Pinar Uysal

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines whether unobservable differences in firm volatility are responsible for the global loan pricing puzzle, which is the observation that corporate loan interest rates appear to be lower in Europe than in the United States. We analyze whether equity volatility, an error prone measure of firm volatility, can explain this difference in loan spreads. We show that using equity volatility in OLS regressions will result in biased and inconsistent estimates of the difference in U.S. ...

  2. Private equity ownership and nursing home financial performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Rohit; Weech-Maldonado, Robert; Harman, Jeffrey S; Laberge, Alex; Hyer, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    Private equity has acquired multiple large nursing home chains within the last few years; by 2009, it owned nearly 1,900 nursing homes. Private equity is said to improve the financial performance of acquired facilities. However, no study has yet examined the financial performance of private equity nursing homes, ergo this study. The primary purpose of this study is to understand the financial performance of private equity nursing homes and how it compares with other investor-owned facilities. It also seeks to understand the approach favored by private equity to improve financial performance-for instance, whether they prefer to cut costs or maximize revenues or follow a mixed approach. Secondary data from Medicare cost reports, the Online Survey, Certification and Reporting, Area Resource File, and Brown University's Long-term Care Focus data set are combined to construct a longitudinal data set for the study period 2000-2007. The final sample is 2,822 observations after eliminating all not-for-profit, independent, and hospital-based facilities. Dependent financial variables consist of operating revenues and costs, operating and total margins, payer mix (census Medicare, census Medicaid, census other), and acuity index. Independent variables primarily reflect private equity ownership. The study was analyzed using ordinary least squares, gamma distribution with log link, logit with binomial family link, and logistic regression. Private equity nursing homes have higher operating margin as well as total margin; they also report higher operating revenues and costs. No significant differences in payer mix are noted. Results suggest that private equity delivers superior financial performance compared with other investor-owned nursing homes. However, causes for concern remain particularly with the long-term financial sustainability of these facilities.

  3. Antecedents dari Brand Equity pada Hotel Santika di Bsd Tangerang

    OpenAIRE

    Susiati, Asriani

    2013-01-01

    This study refers to previous studies, by kevin kam Fung So and Ceridwyn King (2009). The background of this research was to prove the management approaches that brand equity as the key assets for hotel industries and provide brand manger hotel to evaluate brand equity as an outcome brand strategies. The objectives of this research was : (a) the positive effect of company's presented brand to brand awareness, (b) the positive effect of company's presented brand to brand meaning, (c) the posit...

  4. Analisis Brand Equity Bina Nusantara University di Lingkungan SMU Jakarta

    OpenAIRE

    Dewanti, Retno; Masruroh, Masruroh; B., Doni

    2007-01-01

    This Research of Binus University brand equity have been conducted by using 5 elements of brand equity: brand awareness, brand association, perceived quality, brand loyalty, and market behavior. The research methodologies was descriptive, its explained perception of 3th level high school students from 10 privates as well public high schools in west Jakarta and east Jakarta. The result of this research was Binus university brand awareness was in top of mind level. There were 3 (three) associat...

  5. Marketing mix effects on private labels brand equity

    OpenAIRE

    Abril, Carmen; Rodriguez-Cánovas, Belén

    2017-01-01

    The present study explores some marketing mix effects on private labels brand equity creation. The research aims to study the effect of some elements under retailer's direct control such as in-store communications, in-store promotions and distribution intensity as well as other general marketing mix levers such as advertising, perceived price, and monetary promotions. The results indicate that the most efficient marketing mix tools for private label brand equity creation are private labels in...

  6. Craft's brand equity in CZ, focusing on canoeing

    OpenAIRE

    Šťastný, Šimon

    2013-01-01

    Title: Craft's brand equity in CZ, focusing on flat water canoeing. Objectives: The objective of this dissertation is to find out what is the Craft's brand equity and to suggest how to improve it on the Czech market. That would be based on marketing research and supplementary interview. I will be using marketing research and supplementary interview. Methods: In this dissertation the method of electronic questioning was used. The questionnaires were sent by email address after first contact on...

  7. Marginal versus Average Beta of Equity under Corporate Taxation

    OpenAIRE

    Lund, Diderik

    2009-01-01

    Even for fully equity-financed firms there may be substantial effects of taxation on the after-tax cost of capital. Among the few studies of these effects, even fewer identify all effects correctly. When marginal investment is taxed together with inframarginal, marginal beta differs from average if there are investment-related deductions like depreciation. To calculate asset betas, one should not only 'unlever observed equity betas, but 'untax' and 'unaverage' them. Risky tax claims are value...

  8. Analyzing Equity Capital Programs of Banks for Cooperatives

    OpenAIRE

    Ismail Ahmad; Ken D. Duft; Ron C. Mittelhammer

    1986-01-01

    Characteristics of Banks for Cooperatives term loan and equity capital programs contribute toward complex intermittent exchanges of positive and negative cash flows between the cooperative lender and borrower and complicate the analysis of the net present value and effective interest of the financing project. A multiperiod linear program was developed to analyze the effect of variations in equity capital program components on the present value of the financing project. Furthermore, the concep...

  9. An Equity Centered Management Approach to Exploiting Sport Employee Productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Robert C.

    2017-01-01

    A primary goal ofsport organizations is to exploit employees’ abilities to their fullestcapacities. Sport managers who successfully maximize employee productivity willgreatly increase the chances of achieving the organization’s goals andobjectives. The full potential of sport employees’ abilities can be realizedthrough the application of the equity component grounded in Adam’s EquityTheory (Adams, 1963). Centered on the premise that the relationship betweensport manager and employer must be o...

  10. Learning activism, acting with phronesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yew-Jin

    2015-12-01

    The article "Socio-political development of private school children mobilising for disadvantaged others" by Darren Hoeg, Natalie Lemelin, and Lawrence Bencze described a language-learning curriculum that drew on elements of Socioscientific issues and Science, Technology, Society and Environment. Results showed that with a number of enabling factors acting in concert, learning about and engagement in practical action for social justice and equity are possible. An alternative but highly compatible framework is now introduced—phronetic social research—as an action-oriented, wisdom-seeking research stance for the social sciences. By so doing, it is hoped that forms of phronetic social research can gain wider currency among those that promote activism as one of many valued outcomes of an education in science.

  11. The Tragedy of Maldistribution: Climate, Sustainability, and Equity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A. Stanton

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This essay is an initial exploration of the dimensions of the equity/sustainability linkage from the perspective of public goods analysis. Sustainability requires an abundance of public goods. Where these commons lack governance, sustainability is at risk. Equity is a critical component of sustainability that can itself be viewed as a public good, subject to deterioration (maldistribution when left ungoverned. As is the case for so many forms of environmental degradation, the private benefits of maldistribution tend to overshadow the larger social costs, and the result is a degradation of equity. This article sketches out the analogy of equity as a public good by: examining the evidence regarding current and historical income equality within and between countries; introducing the characteristics of public goods and grounding equity in this idiom; reviewing several theories explaining the sub-optimal provision of environmental goods; applying these theoretical frameworks to the case of equity, with an examination of the potential causes of, and solutions to, maldistribution; and, finally, addressing equity’s critical role as a component of sustainability in the case of climate change, with implications for climate policy.

  12. BRAND EQUITY OF LAHORE FORT AS A TOURISM DESTINATION BRAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Kashif

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies that measure the brand equity of destination brands by using the Customer-Based Brand Equity (CBBE model in a developing country context are scarce. The present study investigates the destination brand equity of the Lahore Fort by employing the CBBE model in a developing country context of Pakistan. Following the positivist tradition, we adopted a survey-based approach to collect data from 237 tourists visiting the Lahore Fort. Data were collected through a questionnaire developed to explain the relationship of brand awareness, brand image, brand association, and brand loyalty with Lahore Fort’s overall brand equity. We used various robust statistical techniques such as correlation, regression and confirmatory factor analysis (using PLS method to reach meaningful conclusions and found that brand image and brand associations positively contribute to brand loyalty. Furthermore, brand loyalty significantly contributes towards overall brand equity. Pragmatically, this study measures the customer based brand equity of the Lahore Fort, a destination brand. The results are useful as they suggest a few strategies that can help policy makers to enhance Lahore Fort’s brand performance.

  13. FACTORS INFLUENCING BRAND EQUITY OF BALI AS A TOURISM DESTINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Ketut Surya Diarta

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Globally, competition among tourism destinations is more stringent in getting foreign tourists, including Bali. One effort to win the competition is increasing destination brand equity through maintaining its influencing factors and gaining tourist positive behavior toward destination. This effort, in long run, will increase and stabilize destination revenue and sustainability. This research aims to analyze factors influencing brand equity of Bali as a tourism destination. This research was conducted in Bali’s five major tourism objects. The 240 foreign tourists were chosen as respondents through convenience sampling technique. Data were analyzed using factor analysis. The results showed that factors that significantly influenced Bali brand equity were: symbolic and experiential benefit factor, direct and indirect destinations attributes, destination reliability and tangibility, assurance and empathy, brand destinations recognition and recall, destinations common psychological attributes, destination common functional attributes, unique functional attributes, behavioral loyalty, destination awareness, and attitudinal loyalty. Given the fluctuative nature of brand equity, Bali needs a consistent effort to maintain or to enhance brand equity of Bali as a tourism destination. Maintaining the dominant factors that influence the strength of brand equity can be used as a basis to develop destination branding strategy to expand market segment,  choose the right target market, and anchoring destination position in world market competition.

  14. An equity tool for health impact assessments: Reflections from Mongolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, Jeremy; Wagler, Meghan; Lkhagvasuren, Oyun; Laing, Lory; Davison, Colleen; Janes, Craig

    2012-01-01

    A health impact assessment (HIA) is a tool for assessing the potential effects of a project or policy on a population's health. In this paper, we discuss a tool for successfully integrating equity concerns into HIAs. This discussion is the product of collaboration by Mongolian and Canadian experts, and it incorporates comments and suggestions of participants of a workshop on equity focused HIAs that took place in Mongolia in October, 2010. Our motivation for discussing this tool is based on the observation that existing HIAs tend either to fail to define equity or use problematic accounts of this concept. In this paper we give an overview of socio-demographic and health indicators in Mongolia and briefly discuss its mining industry. We then review three accounts of equity and argue for the importance of developing a consensus understanding of this concept when integrating considerations of equity into an HIA. Finally, we present findings from the workshop in Mongolia and outline a tool, derived from lessons from this workshop, for critically considering and integrating the concept of equity into an HIA.

  15. Nuclear regulatory legislation, 104th Congress. Volume 2, No. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-12-01

    This document is the second of two volumes compiling statutes and material pertaining to nuclear regulatory legislation through the 104th Congress, 2nd Session. It is intended for use as a U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) internal resource document. Legislative information reproduced in this document includes portions of the Paperwork Reduction Act, various acts pertaining to low-level radioactive waste, the Clean Air Act, the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, the National Environmental Policy Act, the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act, the West Valley Demonstration Project Act, Nuclear Non-Proliferation and Export Licensing Statutes, and selected treaties, agreements, and executive orders. Other information provided pertains to Commissioner tenure, NRC appropriations, the Chief Financial Officers Act, information technology management reform, and Federal civil penalties

  16. Nuclear regulatory legislation, 104th Congress. Volume 2, No. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This document is the second of two volumes compiling statutes and material pertaining to nuclear regulatory legislation through the 104th Congress, 2nd Session. It is intended for use as a U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) internal resource document. Legislative information reproduced in this document includes portions of the Paperwork Reduction Act, various acts pertaining to low-level radioactive waste, the Clean Air Act, the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, the National Environmental Policy Act, the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act, the West Valley Demonstration Project Act, Nuclear Non-Proliferation and Export Licensing Statutes, and selected treaties, agreements, and executive orders. Other information provided pertains to Commissioner tenure, NRC appropriations, the Chief Financial Officers Act, information technology management reform, and Federal civil penalties.

  17. The European Model Company Act

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cleff, Evelyne Beatrix

    2011-01-01

    European Company Law regulation is currently undergoing a reform. These reforms raise a number of regulatory questions, such as what should be the aims of companies' legislation, and how these aims should best be met by regulation. Many of the reforms and discussions (both on EU and national level...... an increasing influence on the framing of company legislation, such as the choice between mandatory or default rules. This article introduces the project 'European Company Law and the choice of Regulatory Method' which is carried out in collaboration with the 'European Model Company Act Group'. The project aims...

  18. Instigating involvement through consumer-based brand equity : an attitudinal study of consumer-based brand equity and consumer involvement

    OpenAIRE

    Bredberg, David; Holmquist, Johan

    2009-01-01

    Recent research on links between dimensions of consumer-based brand equity, as well as links to consumer involvement, has shown that it is a significant predictor of purchase behavior. The purpose of this dissertation is to explore the affect brands have on consumer involvement. We attempt to investigate how consumer-based brand equity affects the level of consumer involvement. Based on consumer behavior theory and previous research of these areas, gathered primary data (an empirical investig...

  19. Examining Equity Sensitivity: An Investigation Using the Big Five and HEXACO Models of Personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodley, Hayden J R; Bourdage, Joshua S; Ogunfowora, Babatunde; Nguyen, Brenda

    2015-01-01

    The construct of equity sensitivity describes an individual's preference about his/her desired input to outcome ratio. Individuals high on equity sensitivity tend to be more input oriented, and are often called "Benevolents." Individuals low on equity sensitivity are more outcome oriented, and are described as "Entitleds." Given that equity sensitivity has often been described as a trait, the purpose of the present study was to examine major personality correlates of equity sensitivity, so as to inform both the nature of equity sensitivity, and the potential processes through which certain broad personality traits may relate to outcomes. We examined the personality correlates of equity sensitivity across three studies (total N = 1170), two personality models (i.e., the Big Five and HEXACO), the two most common measures of equity sensitivity (i.e., the Equity Preference Questionnaire and Equity Sensitivity Inventory), and using both self and peer reports of personality (in Study 3). Although results varied somewhat across samples, the personality variables of Conscientiousness and Honesty-Humility, followed by Agreeableness, were the most robust predictors of equity sensitivity. Individuals higher on these traits were more likely to be Benevolents, whereas those lower on these traits were more likely to be Entitleds. Although some associations between Extraversion, Openness, and Neuroticism and equity sensitivity were observed, these were generally not robust. Overall, it appears that there are several prominent personality variables underlying equity sensitivity, and that the addition of the HEXACO model's dimension of Honesty-Humility substantially contributes to our understanding of equity sensitivity.

  20. Modeling Equity for Alternative Water Rate Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, R.; Mjelde, J.

    2011-12-01

    The rising popularity of increasing block rates for urban water runs counter to mainstream economic recommendations, yet decision makers in rate design forums are attracted to the notion of higher prices for larger users. Among economists, it is widely appreciated that uniform rates have stronger efficiency properties than increasing block rates, especially when volumetric prices incorporate intrinsic water value. Yet, except for regions where water market purchases have forced urban authorities to include water value in water rates, economic arguments have weakly penetrated policy. In this presentation, recent evidence will be reviewed regarding long term trends in urban rate structures while observing economic principles pertaining to these choices. The main objective is to investigate the equity of increasing block rates as contrasted to uniform rates for a representative city. Using data from four Texas cities, household water demand is established as a function of marginal price, income, weather, number of residents, and property characteristics. Two alternative rate proposals are designed on the basis of recent experiences for both water and wastewater rates. After specifying a reasonable number (~200) of diverse households populating the city and parameterizing each household's characteristics, every household's consumption selections are simulated for twelve months. This procedure is repeated for both rate systems. Monthly water and wastewater bills are also computed for each household. Most importantly, while balancing the budget of the city utility we compute the effect of switching rate structures on the welfares of households of differing types. Some of the empirical findings are as follows. Under conditions of absent water scarcity, households of opposing characters such as low versus high income do not have strong preferences regarding rate structure selection. This changes as water scarcity rises and as water's opportunity costs are allowed to

  1. ACT Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to clot, the higher the degree of clotting inhibition. During surgery, the ACT is kept above a ... What is ECLS? An Introduction to Extracorporeal Life Support. University of Michigan Health System [On-line information]. ...

  2. Integrating environmental equity, energy and sustainability: A spatial-temporal study of electric power generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touche, George Earl

    The theoretical scope of this dissertation encompasses the ecological factors of equity and energy. Literature important to environmental justice and sustainability are reviewed, and a general integration of global concepts is delineated. The conceptual framework includes ecological integrity, quality human development, intra- and inter-generational equity and risk originating from human economic activity and modern energy production. The empirical focus of this study concentrates on environmental equity and electric power generation within the United States. Several designs are employed while using paired t-tests, independent t-tests, zero-order correlation coefficients and regression coefficients to test seven sets of hypotheses. Examinations are conducted at the census tract level within Texas and at the state level across the United States. At the community level within Texas, communities that host coal or natural gas utility power plants and corresponding comparison communities that do not host such power plants are tested for compositional differences. Comparisons are made both before and after the power plants began operating for purposes of assessing outcomes of the siting process and impacts of the power plants. Relationships between the compositions of the hosting communities and the risks and benefits originating from the observed power plants are also examined. At the statewide level across the United States, relationships between statewide composition variables and risks and benefits originating from statewide electric power generation are examined. Findings indicate the existence of some limited environmental inequities, but they do not indicate disparities that confirm the general thesis of environmental racism put forth by environmental justice advocates. Although environmental justice strategies that would utilize Title VI of the 1964 Civil Rights Act and the disparate impact standard do not appear to be applicable, some findings suggest potential

  3. [Understanding local concepts of equity to formulate public health policies in Burkina Faso].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridde, Valéry

    2006-01-01

    Equity is an essential health promotion concept and must be included at the heart of public health policy making. However, equity, which can also be referred to as social justice, is a polysemic and contextual term which definition must stem from the discourse and values of the society where the policies are implemented. Using a case study from Burkina Faso, we try to show that the non-acknowledgement of the local concept of social justice in the policy making process partly explains the resulting policies' relative failure to achieve social justice. Data collection methods vary (individual and group interviews, concept mapping, participant observation, document analyses) and there are qualitative and quantitative analyses. The four groups of actors who generally participate in the policy making process participated in the data collection. With no intention to generalise the results to the entire country, the results show that mass social mobilisation for justice is egalitarian in type. Health or social inequalities are understood by individuals as facts which we cannot act upon, while the inequalities to access care are qualified as unjust, and it is possible to intervene to reduce them if incentive measures to this effect are taken. We also observed a certain social difficulty to conceive sub-groups of population and fierce will to not destabilise social peace, which can be provoked when looking for justice for the impoverished sectors of the population. This research allows better understanding about the emic aspect of equity and seems to confirm the importance of taking into account local values, especially social justice, when determining public policy.

  4. 77 FR 25868 - Iowa Regulatory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-02

    ... reference of applicable portions of 30 CFR part 700 to End from the July 1, 2002, version to the July 1, 2010, version. Additionally, Iowa proposed to revise its Program related to ownership and control by... the Iowa regulatory program (Iowa program) under the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of...

  5. FORUM ISSUES IN THE ENFORCEMENT OF REGULATORY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in his role as father of the country. In modern times, the ... of self-regulatory organisations in most financial markets who thus far have ..... companies and their officers under the Act? There are as yet no clear an- swers to ..... 578 (High Court of Singapore) where Chief Justice Yong Pung How held that to establish a breach of ...

  6. 76 FR 7762 - Drinking Water: Regulatory Determination on Perchlorate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ...-9262-8] RIN 2040-AF08 Drinking Water: Regulatory Determination on Perchlorate AGENCY: Environmental...'s) regulatory determination for perchlorate in accordance with the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA... substantial likelihood that perchlorate will occur in public water systems with a frequency and at levels of...

  7. Equity, sustainability and governance in urban settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Marilyn; Hancock, Trevor

    2016-03-01

    In this commentary the urban setting is explored from the perspective of ecological sustainability and social equity. Urban-related issues are highlighted related to social inequality, deficits in urban infrastructures, behavior-related illnesses and risks, global ecological changes, and urban sprawl. Approaches to addressing these issues are described from the perspective of urban governance, urban planning and design, social determinants of health, health promotion, and personal and community empowerment. Examples of successful strategies are provided from Latin America, including using participatory instruments (assessments, evaluation, participatory budgeting, etc.), establishing intersectoral committees, increasing participation of civil society organizations, and developing virtual forums and networks to channel participatory and collaborative processes. A way forward is proposed, using the urban setting to show the imperative of creating intersectoral policies and programs that produce environments that are both healthy and sustainable. It will be important to include new forms of social participation and use social media to facilitate citizen decision-making and active participation of all sectors of society, especially excluded groups. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Developmental Origins, Epigenetics, and Equity: Moving Upstream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallack, Lawrence; Thornburg, Kent

    2016-05-01

    The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease and the related science of epigenetics redefines the meaning of what constitutes upstream approaches to significant social and public health problems. An increasingly frequent concept being expressed is "When it comes to your health, your zip code may be more important than your genetic code". Epigenetics explains how the environment-our zip code-literally gets under our skin, creates biological changes that increase our vulnerability for disease, and even children's prospects for social success, over their life course and into future generations. This science requires us to rethink where disease comes from and the best way to promote health. It identifies the most fundamental social equity issue in our society: that initial social and biological disadvantage, established even prior to birth, and linked to the social experience of prior generations, is made worse by adverse environments throughout the life course. But at the same time, it provides hope because it tells us that a concerted focus on using public policy to improve our social, physical, and economic environments can ultimately change our biology and the trajectory of health and social success into future generations.

  9. NEW REGULATION OF PRIVATE EQUITY AND VENTURE CAPITAL FUNDS AND OPEN QUESTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Audić Vuletić

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an analysis of the new regulation of private equity and venture capital funds which are in Croatian law regulated by Alternative Investment Funds Act and ordinances. These funds can offer their units only via private offering to primarily professional, i.e. qualifying investors. They invest mostly in shares and units of companies, including both companies in early (start-ups and in later stage of business. For the companies in which they invest, these funds are very signifi cant as they can provide capital for even small entrepreneurs which could not obtain fi nancing from traditional sources (e. g. banks. This article analyzes investment transactions between private equity (further in text: PE and venture capital (further in text: VC funds and the company in which they invest (portfolio company. PE and VC funds represent a new segment in the Croatian capital market which is still developing and whose potential is yet to be fully recognized. PE and VC funds are not regulated on the EU level. However, managers of AIFs, including PE and VC funds are under certain conditions. Authors shall analyze these legal sources, both on the EU and on the domestic level, with emphasis on the regulation of managers of AIFs when they acquire controlling stake in non-listed companies and issuers, which is of special interest to PE and VC funds due to their investment techniques. In that light, authors question if there is a mechanism which ensures that PE and VC funds act as a socially responsible shareholders/unitholders in portfolio companies (public accountability of the managers of AIFs. If so, authors argue the existence of possible confl ict of interest, as it is not clear in whose interest should managers of PE and VC funds act: in the interest of their investors or in the interest of the portfolio company.

  10. Professional and Regulatory Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Professional and Regulatory search are designed for people who use EPA web resources to do their job. You will be searching collections where information that is not relevant to Environmental and Regulatory professionals.

  11. Significant components of service brand equity in healthcare sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahal, Hardeep; Bala, Madhu

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to examine three significant components of service brand equity--i.e. perceived service quality, brand loyalty, and brand image--and analyze relationships among the components of brand equity and also their relationship with brand equity, which is still to be theorized and developed in the healthcare literature. Effective responses were received from 206 respondents, selected conveniently from the localities of Jammu city. After scale item analysis, the data were analyzed using factor analysis, correlations, t-tests, multiple regression analysis and path modeling using SEM. The findings of the study support that service brand equity in the healthcare sector is greatly influenced by brand loyalty and perceived quality. However, brand image has an indirect effect on service brand equity through brand loyalty (mediating variable). The research can be criticized on the ground that data were selected conveniently from respondents residing in the city of Jammu, India. But at the same time the respondents were appropriate for the study as they have adequate knowledge about the hospitals, and were associated with the selected hospital for more than four years. Furthermore, the validity and reliability of the data are strong enough to take care of the limitations of the convenience sampling selection method. The study has unique value addition to the service marketing vis-à-vis healthcare literature, from both theoretical and managerial perspectives. The study establishes a direct and significant relationship between service brand equity and its two components, i.e. perceived service quality and brand loyalty in the healthcare sector. It also provides directions to healthcare service providers in creating, enhancing, and maintaining service brand equity through service quality and brand loyalty, to sustain competitive advantage.

  12. How have Global Health Initiatives impacted on health equity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanefeld, Johanna

    2008-01-01

    This review examines the impact of Global Health Initiatives (GHIs) on health equity, focusing on low- and middle-income countries. It is a summary of a literature review commissioned by the WHO Commission on the Social Determinants of Health. GHIs have emerged during the past decade as a mechanism in development assistance for health. The review focuses on three GHIs, the US President's Emergency Plan For AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), the World Bank's Multi-country AIDS Programme (MAP) and the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, TB and Malaria. All three have leveraged significant amounts of funding for their focal diseases - together these three GHIs provide an estimated two-thirds of external resources going to HIV/AIDS. This paper examines their impact on gender equity. An analysis of these Initiatives finds that they have a significant impact on health equity, including gender equity, through their processes of programme formulation and implementation, and through the activities they fund and implement, including through their impact on health systems and human resources. However, GHIs have so far paid insufficient attention to health inequities. While increasingly acknowledging equity, including gender equity, as a concern, Initiatives have so far failed to adequately translate this into programmes that address drivers of health inequity, including gender inequities. The review highlights the comparative advantage of individual GHIs, which point to an increased need for, and continued difficulties in, harmonisation of activities at country level. On the basis of this comparative analysis, key recommendations are made. They include a call for equity-sensitive targets, the collection of gender-disaggregated data, the use of policy-making processes for empowerment, programmes that explicitly address causes of health inequity and impact assessments of interventions' effect on social inequities.

  13. Brand equity and willingness to pay for condoms in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, W Douglas; Taruberekera, Noah; Longfield, Kim; Snider, Jeremy

    2011-10-26

    Zimbabwe suffers from one of the greatest burdens of HIV/AIDS in the world that has been compounded by social and economic instability in the past decade. However, from 2001 to 2009 HIV prevalence among 15-49 year olds declined from 26% to approximately 14%. Behavior change and condom use may in part explain this decline.PSI-Zimbabwe socially markets the Protector Plus (P+) branded line of condoms. When Zimbabwe converted to a dollar-based economy in 2009, the price of condoms was greatly increased and new marketing efforts were undertaken. This paper evaluates the role of condom marketing, a multi-dimensional scale of brand peceptions (brand equity), and price in condom use behavior. We randomly sampled sexually active men age 15-49 from 3 groups - current P+ users, former users, and free condom users. We compared their brand equity and willingness to pay based on survey results. We estimated multivariable logistic regression models to compare the 3 groups. We found that the brand equity scale was positive correlated with willingness to pay and with condom use. Former users also indicated a high willingness to pay for condoms. We found differences in brand equity between the 3 groups, with current P+ users having the highest P+ brand equity. As observed in previous studies, higher brand equity was associated with more of the targeted health behavior, in this case and more consistent condom use. Zimbabwe men have highly positive brand perceptions of P+. There is an opportunity to grow the total condom market in Zimbabwe by increasing brand equity across user groups. Some former users may resume using condoms through more effective marketing. Some free users may be willing to pay for condoms. Achieving these objectives will expand the total condom market and reduce HIV risk behaviors.

  14. Ontario regulatory update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, P.

    1998-01-01

    This paper provides a summary of recent events which when combined add up to a gradual but unmistakable movement of the energy sector in Ontario towards a fully competitive market. Some of the events precipitating this movement towards competition include the passing of the Energy Competition Act of 1998 (Bill 35), electricity deregulation, regulatory reform of the natural gas sector, and changes to the consumer protection legislation. The role of the Ontario Energy Board was also updated to bring it in line with the demands of the competitive marketplace. Among the new roles that the Board will assume are to facilitate competition, to maintain fair and reasonable rates, and to facilitate rational expansion. Another objective is to provide opportunities for including energy efficiency in government policies. Implications of the changes in the OEB's mandate for market participants were also discussed, including (1) regulated gas sales and delivery mechanisms, (2) transactional services, (3) contract restructuring, (4) consumer protection, (5) supervision of competitive market participants, and (6) market surveillance

  15. 17 CFR 1.59 - Activities of self-regulatory organization employees, governing board members, committee members...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Activities of self-regulatory... COMMODITY EXCHANGE ACT Miscellaneous § 1.59 Activities of self-regulatory organization employees, governing...) Self-regulatory organization means “self-regulatory organization,” as defined in Commission regulation...

  16. Future nuclear regulatory challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Royen, J.

    1998-01-01

    In December 1996, the NEA Committee on Nuclear Regulatory Activities concluded that changes resulting from economic deregulation and other recent developments affecting nuclear power programmes have consequences both for licensees and regulatory authorities. A number of potential problems and issues which will present a challenge to nuclear regulatory bodies over the next ten years have been identified in a report just released. (author)

  17. Nuclear Regulatory legislation: 103d Congress. Volume 1, No. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    This document is a compilation of nuclear regulatory legislation and other relevant material through the 103d Congress, 2d Session. This compilation has been prepared for use as a resource document, which the NRC intends to update at the end of every Congress. The contents of NUREG-0980 include the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended; Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, as amended, Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978; Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act; Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982; and NRC Authorization and Appropriations Acts. Other materials included are statutes and treaties on export licensing, nuclear non-proliferation, and environmental protection

  18. Nuclear regulatory legislation, 102d Congress. Volume 2, No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    This document is a compilation of nuclear regulatory legislation and other relevant material through the 102d Congress, 2d Session. This compilation has been prepared for use as a resource document, which the NRC intends to update at the end of every Congress. The contents of NUREG-0980 include The Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended; Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, as amended, Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978; Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act; Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982; and NRC Authorization and Appropriations Acts. Other materials included are statutes and treaties on export licensing, nuclear non-proliferation, and environmental protection.

  19. Nuclear regulatory legislation: 102d Congress. Volume 1, No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    This document is a compilation of nuclear regulatory legislation and other relevant material through the 102d Congress, 2d Session. This compilation has been prepared for use as a resource document, which the NRC intends to update at the end of every Congress. The contents of NUREG-0980 include: The Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended; Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, as amended, Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978; Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act; Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982; and NRC Authorization and Appropriations Acts. Other materials included are statutes and treaties on export licensing, nuclear non-proliferation, and environmental protection.

  20. Nuclear Regulatory legislation: 103d Congress. Volume 1, No. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This document is a compilation of nuclear regulatory legislation and other relevant material through the 103d Congress, 2d Session. This compilation has been prepared for use as a resource document, which the NRC intends to update at the end of every Congress. The contents of NUREG-0980 include the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended; Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, as amended, Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978; Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act; Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982; and NRC Authorization and Appropriations Acts. Other materials included are statutes and treaties on export licensing, nuclear non-proliferation, and environmental protection.