WorldWideScience

Sample records for regulatory constraints

  1. Selective constraints in experimentally defined primate regulatory regions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Gaffney

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Changes in gene regulation may be important in evolution. However, the evolutionary properties of regulatory mutations are currently poorly understood. This is partly the result of an incomplete annotation of functional regulatory DNA in many species. For example, transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs, a major component of eukaryotic regulatory architecture, are typically short, degenerate, and therefore difficult to differentiate from randomly occurring, nonfunctional sequences. Furthermore, although sites such as TFBSs can be computationally predicted using evolutionary conservation as a criterion, estimates of the true level of selective constraint (defined as the fraction of strongly deleterious mutations occurring at a locus in regulatory regions will, by definition, be upwardly biased in datasets that are a priori evolutionarily conserved. Here we investigate the fitness effects of regulatory mutations using two complementary datasets of human TFBSs that are likely to be relatively free of ascertainment bias with respect to evolutionary conservation but, importantly, are supported by experimental data. The first is a collection of almost >2,100 human TFBSs drawn from the literature in the TRANSFAC database, and the second is derived from several recent high-throughput chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with genomic microarray (ChIP-chip analyses. We also define a set of putative cis-regulatory modules (pCRMs by spatially clustering multiple TFBSs that regulate the same gene. We find that a relatively high proportion ( approximately 37% of mutations at TFBSs are strongly deleterious, similar to that at a 2-fold degenerate protein-coding site. However, constraint is significantly reduced in human and chimpanzee pCRMS and ChIP-chip sequences, relative to macaques. We estimate that the fraction of regulatory mutations that have been driven to fixation by positive selection in humans is not significantly different from zero. We also find

  2. Dose constraint for Industrial gammagraphy developed by regulatory authorities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salinas Mariaca, Rodrigo

    2008-01-01

    Aware that the dose limitation established by the Basic Safety Standards, is one of the radiation protection requirements necessary but not sufficient; and also aware that given the characteristics of the different practices and the culture of security already achieved in such practices, the workers occupationally exposed are far below from the respective limits. It becomes imperative to improve and exploit another of the requirements established by the referred standards, which is the Dose Constraint. This job takes as a basis the dose history having in the Bolivian Authority in nuclear issues, referred to the practices related to Nuclear Gauges, Well Logging, Radiotherapy and Industrial Gammagraphy (practices considered dangerous). This analysis is intended to be the pivot for the remainder practices and had as its goal, the establishment of a specific dose constraint value. The dose constraint suggested for every practices studied, were determined considering the percentile 95 and with the logic that if that 95% are able to achieve certain values of effective dose, the other 5% should be able to adapt their working conditions in order to decrease their doses. The spread of this work is intended not only aware, to other regulatory bodies to achieve a symbiosis between the different requirements of the Standard, but basically emphasize the fact that it is not convenient let the requirement of dose constraint exclusively in the hands of the regulated institutions and associated workers; making it, very subjective among those institutions according to their analysis (many times with no statistical support). Furthermore these dose constraint values should be determined previously to a new practice authorization or failing shortly after its implementation. (author)

  3. Blue Water Footprint Management in a UK Poultry Supply Chain under Environmental Regulatory Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoum Tsolakis

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Chicken is the most consumed meat in the UK, accounting for 40% of meat consumption, while national production sufficiency reaches about 80%. As a farmed animal product, chicken meat is responsible for significant freshwater appropriation volumes during its production cycle. In this context, this research aims at exploring freshwater dynamics in the UK processed poultry industry. Specifically, we develop a System Dynamics model to capture the blue water footprint, as a key sustainability performance indicator of a poultry supply chain, in the case that relevant environmental and regulatory constraints are applied. The model contributes towards investigating the impact of two potential policy-making scenarios, namely, the “water penalty” and the “water tax”, on the nexus between profitability and water usage across the poultry supply chain. Responding to the regulatory constraints, the food processor either reconfigures the supply chain through rethinking desired inventory levels or implements a water management intervention. The results indicate that investing in water-friendly production technologies could offer a greater advantage to sustainable supply chains in terms of blue water efficiency and profitability, compared to employing inventory management strategies. Overall, our analysis highlights that effective policy-making and technology-driven interventions could provide potential towards ensuring economic growth and environmental sustainability of the UK poultry sector.

  4. Project management with regulatory constraints: Return to service of San Onofre Unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosmer, J.

    1986-01-01

    Station acceptance of the RTS work was completed in early November, 1984. The unit completed a successful integrated leak rate test, hot function test, and 200 hour warranty run in December, 1984 six weeks ahead of the CPUC mandate. Capital expenditures, although greater than the initial forecast, were two million dollars less than the 37.5 million dollar CPUC cap. The unit has run essentially trouble-free at current rated power until the current 1985 outage. Strategies and lessons learned that contributed to a successful RTS (e.g., all regulatory and economic constraints were met) included the use of numerous brainstorm sessions between SCE, Bechtel, and other consultants; innovative state of the art technical criterion (e.g., realistic versus overly conservative engineering); and budget and schedule contingencies consistent with the known and unknown risks

  5. Breeding and regulatory opportunities and constraints for developing broccoli cultivars adapted to organic agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renaud, E.N.C.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is about the regulatory and technical challenges to the organic seed and breeding sector. This study specifically explored the mutual influence of the regulatory environment for organic seed sector development in the United States (US), Europe Union (EU) and Mexico, and the extent to

  6. R&D and Innovation Management in the Brazilian Electricity Sector: the Regulatory Constraint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denile Cominato Boer

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In 2000 it became mandatory to the Brazilian electricity companies to invest in research, development and innovation (RDI. These investments are performed by firms and regulated by the Brazilian Electricity Regulatory Agency (ANEEL. Since then companies have sought ways to cope with this obligation creating internal structures and managerial processes. This article presents the evolution of RDI management routines and organizational models based on a multiple-case study conducted between 2011 and 2012 with seven companies that represent about 27% of the total RDI investment performed in the period of 2008 to 2013. The research showed that firms created minimalist management and organizational structures to handle with the RDI enforcement. Companies have been much more concerned with the regulatory risk (the risk of non-accomplishment with the obligations than to any strategic use of RDI effort since the legal framework is based on punishment rather than in stimulus.

  7. Analytical design of an industrial two-term controller for optimal regulatory control of open-loop unstable processes under operational constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchamna, Rodrigue; Lee, Moonyong

    2018-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel optimization-based approach for the design of an industrial two-term proportional-integral (PI) controller for the optimal regulatory control of unstable processes subjected to three common operational constraints related to the process variable, manipulated variable and its rate of change. To derive analytical design relations, the constrained optimal control problem in the time domain was transformed into an unconstrained optimization problem in a new parameter space via an effective parameterization. The resulting optimal PI controller has been verified to yield optimal performance and stability of an open-loop unstable first-order process under operational constraints. The proposed analytical design method explicitly takes into account the operational constraints in the controller design stage and also provides useful insights into the optimal controller design. Practical procedures for designing optimal PI parameters and a feasible constraint set exclusive of complex optimization steps are also proposed. The proposed controller was compared with several other PI controllers to illustrate its performance. The robustness of the proposed controller against plant-model mismatch has also been investigated. Copyright © 2018 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of spot and passive sampling for monitoring, flux estimation and risk assessment of pesticides within the constraints of a typical regulatory monitoring scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zulin; Troldborg, Mads; Yates, Kyari; Osprey, Mark; Kerr, Christine; Hallett, Paul D; Baggaley, Nikki; Rhind, Stewart M; Dawson, Julian J C; Hough, Rupert L

    2016-11-01

    In many agricultural catchments of Europe and North America, pesticides occur at generally low concentrations with significant temporal variation. This poses several challenges for both monitoring and understanding ecological risks/impacts of these chemicals. This study aimed to compare the performance of passive and spot sampling strategies given the constraints of typical regulatory monitoring. Nine pesticides were investigated in a river currently undergoing regulatory monitoring (River Ugie, Scotland). Within this regulatory framework, spot and passive sampling were undertaken to understand spatiotemporal occurrence, mass loads and ecological risks. All the target pesticides were detected in water by both sampling strategies. Chlorotoluron was observed to be the dominant pesticide by both spot (maximum: 111.8ng/l, mean: 9.35ng/l) and passive sampling (maximum: 39.24ng/l, mean: 4.76ng/l). The annual pesticide loads were estimated to be 2735g and 1837g based on the spot and passive sampling data, respectively. The spatiotemporal trend suggested that agricultural activities were the primary source of the compounds with variability in loads explained in large by timing of pesticide applications and rainfall. The risk assessment showed chlorotoluron and chlorpyrifos posed the highest ecological risks with 23% of the chlorotoluron spot samples and 36% of the chlorpyrifos passive samples resulting in a Risk Quotient greater than 0.1. This suggests that mitigation measures might need to be taken to reduce the input of pesticides into the river. The overall comparison of the two sampling strategies supported the hypothesis that passive sampling tends to integrate the contaminants over a period of exposure and allows quantification of contamination at low concentration. The results suggested that within a regulatory monitoring context passive sampling was more suitable for flux estimation and risk assessment of trace contaminants which cannot be diagnosed by spot

  9. PlantPAN: Plant promoter analysis navigator, for identifying combinatorial cis-regulatory elements with distance constraint in plant gene groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Hsien-Da

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The elucidation of transcriptional regulation in plant genes is important area of research for plant scientists, following the mapping of various plant genomes, such as A. thaliana, O. sativa and Z. mays. A variety of bioinformatic servers or databases of plant promoters have been established, although most have been focused only on annotating transcription factor binding sites in a single gene and have neglected some important regulatory elements (tandem repeats and CpG/CpNpG islands in promoter regions. Additionally, the combinatorial interaction of transcription factors (TFs is important in regulating the gene group that is associated with the same expression pattern. Therefore, a tool for detecting the co-regulation of transcription factors in a group of gene promoters is required. Results This study develops a database-assisted system, PlantPAN (Plant Promoter Analysis Navigator, for recognizing combinatorial cis-regulatory elements with a distance constraint in sets of plant genes. The system collects the plant transcription factor binding profiles from PLACE, TRANSFAC (public release 7.0, AGRIS, and JASPER databases and allows users to input a group of gene IDs or promoter sequences, enabling the co-occurrence of combinatorial transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs within a defined distance (20 bp to 200 bp to be identified. Furthermore, the new resource enables other regulatory features in a plant promoter, such as CpG/CpNpG islands and tandem repeats, to be displayed. The regulatory elements in the conserved regions of the promoters across homologous genes are detected and presented. Conclusion In addition to providing a user-friendly input/output interface, PlantPAN has numerous advantages in the analysis of a plant promoter. Several case studies have established the effectiveness of PlantPAN. This novel analytical resource is now freely available at http://PlantPAN.mbc.nctu.edu.tw.

  10. Low-level radioactive waste from commercial nuclear reactors. Volume 3. Bibliographic abstracts of significant source references. Part 2. Bibliography for treatment, storage, disposal and transportation regulatory constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jolley, R.L.; Rodgers, B.R.

    1986-05-01

    The overall task of this program was to provide an assessment of currently available technology for treating commercial low-level radioactive waste (LLRW), to initiate development of a methodology for choosing one technology for a given application, and to identify research needed to improve current treatment techniques and decision methodology. The resulting report is issued in four volumes. Volume 3 of this series is a collection of abstracts of most of the reference documents used for this study. Because of the large volume of literature, the abstracts have been printed in two separate parts. Federal, state, and local regulations affect the decision process for selecting technology applications. Regulations may favor a particular technology and may prevent application of others. Volume 3, part 2 presents abstracts of the regulatory constraint documents that relate to all phases of LLRW management (e.g., treatment, packaging, storage, transportation, and disposal).

  11. Why are investors not interested in my radiotracer? The industrial and regulatory constraints in the development of radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmermann, Richard G.

    2013-01-01

    Four criteria are essential in the acceptance by investors of new radiopharmaceuticals: the existence of a market and a medical need, the quality of the science and technology behind the new molecule, the feasibility and compliance with regulations and the limited competitive landscape. Potential investors need to get more convincing market evidence, largely beyond the nice preclinical data generated to the point of first discussion. A properly protected compound not jeopardized by earlier published results is a must. A guarantee of an easy and secured source of the ligand is obvious. A safe access to the radionuclide in volumes corresponding to the targeted market is rarely taken into account, but of utmost importance. The evaluation of new drugs by investors will include the evaluation of the real market size for the targeted indication and the position of the drug in the healthcare environment at the time to market. This includes the potential competition with other radiopharmaceuticals, but also with conventional drugs or competitive modalities also at time to market. Both criteria are usually not easily accessible to researchers whose acquaintance remains limited to the scientific and technical part. Starting from this set of information, a first business plan can be deduced based on a best estimate for price per dose and a rough evaluation about the chance and level of reimbursement. In the following most of the events are covered that could jeopardize the development of the drug, focusing on the industrial, economic and regulatory aspects, comprehending the detailed analysis of the currently best available radionuclides

  12. Why are investors not interested in my radiotracer? The industrial and regulatory constraints in the development of radiopharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Richard G

    2013-02-01

    Four criteria are essential in the acceptance by investors of new radiopharmaceuticals: the existence of a market and a medical need, the quality of the science and technology behind the new molecule, the feasibility and compliance with regulations and the limited competitive landscape. Potential investors need to get more convincing market evidence, largely beyond the nice preclinical data generated to the point of first discussion. A properly protected compound not jeopardized by earlier published results is a must. A guarantee of an easy and secured source of the ligand is obvious. A safe access to the radionuclide in volumes corresponding to the targeted market is rarely taken into account, but of utmost importance. The evaluation of new drugs by investors will include the evaluation of the real market size for the targeted indication and the position of the drug in the healthcare environment at the time to market. This includes the potential competition with other radiopharmaceuticals, but also with conventional drugs or competitive modalities also at time to market. Both criteria are usually not easily accessible to researchers whose acquaintance remains limited to the scientific and technical part. Starting from this set of information, a first business plan can be deduced based on a best estimate for price per dose and a rough evaluation about the chance and level of reimbursement. In the following most of the events are covered that could jeopardize the development of the drug, focusing on the industrial, economic and regulatory aspects, comprehending the detailed analysis of the currently best available radionuclides. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Inferring Broad Regulatory Biology from Time Course Data: Have We Reached an Upper Bound under Constraints Typical of In Vivo Studies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Vashishtha

    Full Text Available There is a growing appreciation for the network biology that regulates the coordinated expression of molecular and cellular markers however questions persist regarding the identifiability of these networks. Here we explore some of the issues relevant to recovering directed regulatory networks from time course data collected under experimental constraints typical of in vivo studies. NetSim simulations of sparsely connected biological networks were used to evaluate two simple feature selection techniques used in the construction of linear Ordinary Differential Equation (ODE models, namely truncation of terms versus latent vector projection. Performance was compared with ODE-based Time Series Network Identification (TSNI integral, and the information-theoretic Time-Delay ARACNE (TD-ARACNE. Projection-based techniques and TSNI integral outperformed truncation-based selection and TD-ARACNE on aggregate networks with edge densities of 10-30%, i.e. transcription factor, protein-protein cliques and immune signaling networks. All were more robust to noise than truncation-based feature selection. Performance was comparable on the in silico 10-node DREAM 3 network, a 5-node Yeast synthetic network designed for In vivo Reverse-engineering and Modeling Assessment (IRMA and a 9-node human HeLa cell cycle network of similar size and edge density. Performance was more sensitive to the number of time courses than to sample frequency and extrapolated better to larger networks by grouping experiments. In all cases performance declined rapidly in larger networks with lower edge density. Limited recovery and high false positive rates obtained overall bring into question our ability to generate informative time course data rather than the design of any particular reverse engineering algorithm.

  14. Constraint Differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mödersheim, Sebastian Alexander; Basin, David; Viganò, Luca

    2010-01-01

    We introduce constraint differentiation, a powerful technique for reducing search when model-checking security protocols using constraint-based methods. Constraint differentiation works by eliminating certain kinds of redundancies that arise in the search space when using constraints to represent...... results show that constraint differentiation substantially reduces search and considerably improves the performance of OFMC, enabling its application to a wider class of problems....

  15. Solar constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Provost, J.

    1984-01-01

    Accurate tests of the theory of stellar structure and evolution are available from the Sun's observations. The solar constraints are reviewed, with a special attention to the recent progress in observing global solar oscillations. Each constraint is sensitive to a given region of the Sun. The present solar models (standard, low Z, mixed) are discussed with respect to neutrino flux, low and high degree five-minute oscillations and low degree internal gravity modes. It appears that actually there do not exist solar models able to fully account for all the observed quantities. (Auth.)

  16. The constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, P.M.S.

    1987-01-01

    There are considerable incentives for the use of nuclear in preference to other sources for base load electricity generation in most of the developed world. These are economic, strategic, environmental and climatic. However, there are two potential constraints which could hinder the development of nuclear power to its full economic potential. These are public opinion and financial regulations which distort the nuclear economic advantage. The concerns of the anti-nuclear lobby are over safety, (especially following the Chernobyl accident), the management of radioactive waste, the potential effects of large scale exposure of the population to radiation and weapons proliferation. These are discussed. The financial constraint is over two factors, the availability of funds and the perception of cost, both of which are discussed. (U.K.)

  17. Regulatory agencies and regulatory risk

    OpenAIRE

    Knieps, Günter; Weiß, Hans-Jörg

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to show that regulatory risk is due to the discretionary behaviour of regulatory agencies, caused by a too extensive regulatory mandate provided by the legislator. The normative point of reference and a behavioural model of regulatory agencies based on the positive theory of regulation are presented. Regulatory risk with regard to the future behaviour of regulatory agencies is modelled as the consequence of the ex ante uncertainty about the relative influence of inter...

  18. Regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This publication, compiled in 8 chapters, presents the regulatory system developed by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NRA) of the Argentine Republic. The following activities and developed topics in this document describe: the evolution of the nuclear regulatory activity in Argentina; the Argentine regulatory system; the nuclear regulatory laws and standards; the inspection and safeguards of nuclear facilities; the emergency systems; the environmental systems; the environmental monitoring; the analysis laboratories on physical and biological dosimetry, prenatal irradiation, internal irradiation, radiation measurements, detection techniques on nuclear testing, medical program on radiation protection; the institutional relations with national and international organization; the training courses and meeting; the technical information

  19. Dose constraints, what are they now?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazo, T.

    2005-01-01

    The concept of a source-related dose constraint was first introduced in ICPR publication 60. The idea was to provide a number that individual exposures from a single, specific source should not exceed, and below which optimisation of protection should take place. Dose constraints were applied to occupational and public exposures from practices. In order to simplify and clarify the ICRP's recommendations, the latest draft, RPO5, presents dose constraints again, and with the same meaning as in publication 60. However, the dose constraints are now applied in all situations, not just practices. This new approach does provide simplification, in that a single concept is applied to all types of exposures (normal situations, accident situations, and existing situations). However, the approach and numerical values that are selected by regulatory authorities for the application of the concept, particularly in normal situations which are also subject to dose limits, will be crucial to the implementation of the system of radiological protection. (author)

  20. Financing Constraints and Entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    William R. Kerr; Ramana Nanda

    2009-01-01

    Financing constraints are one of the biggest concerns impacting potential entrepreneurs around the world. Given the important role that entrepreneurship is believed to play in the process of economic growth, alleviating financing constraints for would-be entrepreneurs is also an important goal for policymakers worldwide. We review two major streams of research examining the relevance of financing constraints for entrepreneurship. We then introduce a framework that provides a unified perspecti...

  1. Temporal Concurrent Constraint Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens; Valencia Posso, Frank Dan

    2002-01-01

    The ntcc calculus is a model of non-deterministic temporal concurrent constraint programming. In this paper we study behavioral notions for this calculus. In the underlying computational model, concurrent constraint processes are executed in discrete time intervals. The behavioral notions studied...... reflect the reactive interactions between concurrent constraint processes and their environment, as well as internal interactions between individual processes. Relationships between the suggested notions are studied, and they are all proved to be decidable for a substantial fragment of the calculus...

  2. Temporal Concurrent Constraint Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens; Palamidessi, Catuscia; Valencia, Frank Dan

    2002-01-01

    The ntcc calculus is a model of non-deterministic temporal concurrent constraint programming. In this paper we study behavioral notions for this calculus. In the underlying computational model, concurrent constraint processes are executed in discrete time intervals. The behavioral notions studied...

  3. Evaluating Distributed Timing Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, C.H.; Drejer, N.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper we describe a solution to the problem of implementing time-optimal evaluation of timing constraints in distributed real-time systems.......In this paper we describe a solution to the problem of implementing time-optimal evaluation of timing constraints in distributed real-time systems....

  4. Theory of Constraints (TOC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Aage U.

    2004-01-01

    Tankegangen bag Theory of Constraints samt planlægningsprincippet Drum-Buffer-Rope. Endvidere skitse af The Thinking Process.......Tankegangen bag Theory of Constraints samt planlægningsprincippet Drum-Buffer-Rope. Endvidere skitse af The Thinking Process....

  5. Constraint-based reachability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Gotlieb

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Iterative imperative programs can be considered as infinite-state systems computing over possibly unbounded domains. Studying reachability in these systems is challenging as it requires to deal with an infinite number of states with standard backward or forward exploration strategies. An approach that we call Constraint-based reachability, is proposed to address reachability problems by exploring program states using a constraint model of the whole program. The keypoint of the approach is to interpret imperative constructions such as conditionals, loops, array and memory manipulations with the fundamental notion of constraint over a computational domain. By combining constraint filtering and abstraction techniques, Constraint-based reachability is able to solve reachability problems which are usually outside the scope of backward or forward exploration strategies. This paper proposes an interpretation of classical filtering consistencies used in Constraint Programming as abstract domain computations, and shows how this approach can be used to produce a constraint solver that efficiently generates solutions for reachability problems that are unsolvable by other approaches.

  6. Regulatory Anatomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoeyer, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    This article proposes the term “safety logics” to understand attempts within the European Union (EU) to harmonize member state legislation to ensure a safe and stable supply of human biological material for transplants and transfusions. With safety logics, I refer to assemblages of discourses, le...... they arise. In short, I expose the regulatory anatomy of the policy landscape....

  7. Regulatory Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Poul F.; Vetterlein, Antje

    2018-01-01

    Regulatory governance frameworks have become essential building blocks of world society. From supply chains to the regimes surrounding international organizations, extensive governance frameworks have emerged which structure and channel a variety of social exchanges, including economic, political...... by the International Transitional Administrations (ITAs) in Kosovo and Iraq as well as global supply chains and their impact on the garment industry in Bangladesh....

  8. Resources, constraints and capabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhondt, S.; Oeij, P.R.A.; Schröder, A.

    2018-01-01

    Human and financial resources as well as organisational capabilities are needed to overcome the manifold constraints social innovators are facing. To unlock the potential of social innovation for the whole society new (social) innovation friendly environments and new governance structures

  9. Design with Nonlinear Constraints

    KAUST Repository

    Tang, Chengcheng

    2015-01-01

    . The first application is the design of meshes under both geometric and static constraints, including self-supporting polyhedral meshes that are not height fields. Then, with a formulation bridging mesh based and spline based representations, the application

  10. Dynamics and causality constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousa, Manoelito M. de

    2001-04-01

    The physical meaning and the geometrical interpretation of causality implementation in classical field theories are discussed. Causality in field theory are kinematical constraints dynamically implemented via solutions of the field equation, but in a limit of zero-distance from the field sources part of these constraints carries a dynamical content that explains old problems of classical electrodynamics away with deep implications to the nature of physicals interactions. (author)

  11. Momentum constraint relaxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marronetti, Pedro

    2006-01-01

    Full relativistic simulations in three dimensions invariably develop runaway modes that grow exponentially and are accompanied by violations of the Hamiltonian and momentum constraints. Recently, we introduced a numerical method (Hamiltonian relaxation) that greatly reduces the Hamiltonian constraint violation and helps improve the quality of the numerical model. We present here a method that controls the violation of the momentum constraint. The method is based on the addition of a longitudinal component to the traceless extrinsic curvature A ij -tilde, generated by a vector potential w i , as outlined by York. The components of w i are relaxed to solve approximately the momentum constraint equations, slowly pushing the evolution towards the space of solutions of the constraint equations. We test this method with simulations of binary neutron stars in circular orbits and show that it effectively controls the growth of the aforementioned violations. We also show that a full numerical enforcement of the constraints, as opposed to the gentle correction of the momentum relaxation scheme, results in the development of instabilities that stop the runs shortly

  12. Selection of new constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugier, A.

    2003-01-01

    The selected new constraints should be consistent with the scale of concern i.e. be expressed roughly as fractions or multiples of the average annual background. They should take into account risk considerations and include the values of the currents limits, constraints and other action levels. The recommendation is to select four leading values for the new constraints: 500 mSv ( single event or in a decade) as a maximum value, 0.01 mSv/year as a minimum value; and two intermediate values: 20 mSv/year and 0.3 mSv/year. This new set of dose constraints, representing basic minimum standards of protection for the individuals taking into account the specificity of the exposure situations are thus coherent with the current values which can be found in ICRP Publications. A few warning need however to be noticed: There is no more multi sources limit set by ICRP. The coherence between the proposed value of dose constraint (20 mSv/year) and the current occupational dose limit of 20 mSv/year is valid only if the workers are exposed to one single source. When there is more than one source, it will be necessary to apportion. The value of 1000 mSv lifetimes used for relocation can be expressed into annual dose, which gives approximately 10 mSv/year and is coherent with the proposed dose constraint. (N.C.)

  13. Constraints based analysis of extended cybernetic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandli, Aravinda R; Venkatesh, Kareenhalli V; Modak, Jayant M

    2015-11-01

    The cybernetic modeling framework provides an interesting approach to model the regulatory phenomena occurring in microorganisms. In the present work, we adopt a constraints based approach to analyze the nonlinear behavior of the extended equations of the cybernetic model. We first show that the cybernetic model exhibits linear growth behavior under the constraint of no resource allocation for the induction of the key enzyme. We then quantify the maximum achievable specific growth rate of microorganisms on mixtures of substitutable substrates under various kinds of regulation and show its use in gaining an understanding of the regulatory strategies of microorganisms. Finally, we show that Saccharomyces cerevisiae exhibits suboptimal dynamic growth with a long diauxic lag phase when growing on a mixture of glucose and galactose and discuss on its potential to achieve optimal growth with a significantly reduced diauxic lag period. The analysis carried out in the present study illustrates the utility of adopting a constraints based approach to understand the dynamic growth strategies of microorganisms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Misconceptions and constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitten, M.; Mahon, R.

    2005-01-01

    In theory, the sterile insect technique (SIT) is applicable to a wide variety of invertebrate pests. However, in practice, the approach has been successfully applied to only a few major pests. Chapters in this volume address possible reasons for this discrepancy, e.g. Klassen, Lance and McInnis, and Robinson and Hendrichs. The shortfall between theory and practice is partly due to the persistence of some common misconceptions, but it is mainly due to one constraint, or a combination of constraints, that are biological, financial, social or political in nature. This chapter's goal is to dispel some major misconceptions, and view the constraints as challenges to overcome, seeing them as opportunities to exploit. Some of the common misconceptions include: (1) released insects retain residual radiation, (2) females must be monogamous, (3) released males must be fully sterile, (4) eradication is the only goal, (5) the SIT is too sophisticated for developing countries, and (6) the SIT is not a component of an area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) strategy. The more obvious constraints are the perceived high costs of the SIT, and the low competitiveness of released sterile males. The perceived high up-front costs of the SIT, their visibility, and the lack of private investment (compared with alternative suppression measures) emerge as serious constraints. Failure to appreciate the true nature of genetic approaches, such as the SIT, may pose a significant constraint to the wider adoption of the SIT and other genetically-based tactics, e.g. transgenic genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Lack of support for the necessary underpinning strategic research also appears to be an important constraint. Hence the case for extensive strategic research in ecology, population dynamics, genetics, and insect behaviour and nutrition is a compelling one. Raising the competitiveness of released sterile males remains the major research objective of the SIT. (author)

  15. Optimal Tax Depreciation Lives and Charges under Regulatory Constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Waegenaere, A.M.B.; Wielhouwer, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    Depreciation is not only a representation of the loss in asset-value over time.It is also a strategic tool for management and can be used to minimize tax payments.In this paper we derive the depreciation scheme that minimizes the expected value of the present value of future tax payments for two

  16. Occupational dose constraint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heilbron Filho, Paulo Fernando Lavalle; Xavier, Ana Maria

    2005-01-01

    The revision process of the international radiological protection regulations has resulted in the adoption of new concepts, such as practice, intervention, avoidable and restriction of dose (dose constraint). The latter deserving of special mention since it may involve reducing a priori of the dose limits established both for the public and to individuals occupationally exposed, values that can be further reduced, depending on the application of the principle of optimization. This article aims to present, with clarity, from the criteria adopted to define dose constraint values to the public, a methodology to establish the dose constraint values for occupationally exposed individuals, as well as an example of the application of this methodology to the practice of industrial radiography

  17. Psychological constraints on egalitarianism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasperbauer, Tyler Joshua

    2015-01-01

    processes motivating people to resist various aspects of egalitarianism. I argue for two theses, one normative and one descriptive. The normative thesis holds that egalitarians must take psychological constraints into account when constructing egalitarian ideals. I draw from non-ideal theories in political...... philosophy, which aim to construct moral goals with current social and political constraints in mind, to argue that human psychology must be part of a non-ideal theory of egalitarianism. The descriptive thesis holds that the most fundamental psychological challenge to egalitarian ideals comes from what......Debates over egalitarianism for the most part are not concerned with constraints on achieving an egalitarian society, beyond discussions of the deficiencies of egalitarian theory itself. This paper looks beyond objections to egalitarianism as such and investigates the relevant psychological...

  18. Institutional opportunities and constraints to biomass development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costello, R.; Finnell, J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper examines a number of institutional opportunities and constraints applicable to biomass as well as other renewable energy technologies. Technological progress that improves performance or increases system efficiencies can open doors to deployment; however, market success depends on overcoming the institutional challenges that these technologies will face. It can be far more difficult to put into place the necessary institutional mechanisms which will drive these commercialization efforts. The keys to the successful implementation of energy technologies and, in particular, biomass power technologies, are issues that can be categorized as: (1) regulatory; (2) financial; (3) infrastructural; and (4) perceptual. (author)

  19. Constraint-based scheduling applying constraint programming to scheduling problems

    CERN Document Server

    Baptiste, Philippe; Nuijten, Wim

    2001-01-01

    Constraint Programming is a problem-solving paradigm that establishes a clear distinction between two pivotal aspects of a problem: (1) a precise definition of the constraints that define the problem to be solved and (2) the algorithms and heuristics enabling the selection of decisions to solve the problem. It is because of these capabilities that Constraint Programming is increasingly being employed as a problem-solving tool to solve scheduling problems. Hence the development of Constraint-Based Scheduling as a field of study. The aim of this book is to provide an overview of the most widely used Constraint-Based Scheduling techniques. Following the principles of Constraint Programming, the book consists of three distinct parts: The first chapter introduces the basic principles of Constraint Programming and provides a model of the constraints that are the most often encountered in scheduling problems. Chapters 2, 3, 4, and 5 are focused on the propagation of resource constraints, which usually are responsibl...

  20. Constraints on Dbar uplifts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alwis, S.P. de

    2016-01-01

    We discuss constraints on KKLT/KKLMMT and LVS scenarios that use anti-branes to get an uplift to a deSitter vacuum, coming from requiring the validity of an effective field theory description of the physics. We find these are not always satisfied or are hard to satisfy.

  1. Ecosystems emerging. 5: Constraints

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Patten, B. C.; Straškraba, Milan; Jorgensen, S. E.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 222, č. 16 (2011), s. 2945-2972 ISSN 0304-3800 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : constraint * epistemic * ontic Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.326, year: 2011 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0304380011002274

  2. Constraints and Ambiguity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dove, Graham; Biskjær, Michael Mose; Lundqvist, Caroline Emilie

    2017-01-01

    groups of students building three models each. We studied groups building with traditional plastic bricks and also using a digital environment. The building tasks students undertake, and our subsequent analysis, are informed by the role constraints and ambiguity play in creative processes. Based...

  3. Regulatory Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Helen W.; Whitson, Peggy A.; Putcha, Lakshmi; Baker, Ellen; Smith, Scott M.; Stewart, Karen; Gretebeck, Randall; Nimmagudda, R. R.; Schoeller, Dale A.; Davis-Street, Janis

    1999-01-01

    As noted elsewhere in this report, a central goal of the Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project (EDOMP) was to ensure that cardiovascular and muscle function were adequate to perform an emergency egress after 16 days of spaceflight. The goals of the Regulatory Physiology component of the EDOMP were to identify and subsequently ameliorate those biochemical and nutritional factors that deplete physiological reserves or increase risk for disease, and to facilitate the development of effective muscle, exercise, and cardiovascular countermeasures. The component investigations designed to meet these goals focused on biochemical and physiological aspects of nutrition and metabolism, the risk of renal (kidney) stone formation, gastrointestinal function, and sleep in space. Investigations involved both ground-based protocols to validate proposed methods and flight studies to test those methods. Two hardware tests were also completed.

  4. Regulatory Benchmarking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agrell, Per J.; Bogetoft, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Benchmarking methods, and in particular Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), have become well-established and informative tools for economic regulation. DEA is now routinely used by European regulators to set reasonable revenue caps for energy transmission and distribution system operators. The appli......Benchmarking methods, and in particular Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), have become well-established and informative tools for economic regulation. DEA is now routinely used by European regulators to set reasonable revenue caps for energy transmission and distribution system operators....... The application of bench-marking in regulation, however, requires specific steps in terms of data validation, model specification and outlier detection that are not systematically documented in open publications, leading to discussions about regulatory stability and economic feasibility of these techniques...

  5. Regulatory Benchmarking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agrell, Per J.; Bogetoft, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Benchmarking methods, and in particular Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), have become well-established and informative tools for economic regulation. DEA is now routinely used by European regulators to set reasonable revenue caps for energy transmission and distribution system operators. The appli......Benchmarking methods, and in particular Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), have become well-established and informative tools for economic regulation. DEA is now routinely used by European regulators to set reasonable revenue caps for energy transmission and distribution system operators....... The application of benchmarking in regulation, however, requires specific steps in terms of data validation, model specification and outlier detection that are not systematically documented in open publications, leading to discussions about regulatory stability and economic feasibility of these techniques...

  6. Regulatory authority infrastructure for Namibia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shangula, K.

    2001-01-01

    The Republic of Namibia is participating in the International Atomic Energy Agency's Model Project for the Improvement of National Regulatory Authority Infrastructures in Member States. The paper illustrates our experience in solving problems and difficulties confronted in establishing an effective regulatory authority operating within the existing national infrastructure that should be supported by the Government. An effective regulatory authority is seen as part of the wider administrative scope of our Government through ministerial mandates given by the State from time to time, guaranteeing its independence when implementing legal provisions under statutes. Sections of the report illustrate our experience in the following areas: 1. National radiation protection policy 2. Structure of our national regulatory authority 3. Laws and regulations 4. Provisions for notification, authorization and registration 5. In-depth security measures for radiation sources and radioactive material 6. Systems for the inspection of radiation sources, radioactive materials, enforcement of legal provisions 7. Extent of the applications of radiation sources and radioactive materials in the country. The paper provides information regarding existing Government policy on radiation protection; structure and legal aspects of the national regulatory, including statutes and regulations; the extent of application and uses of radiation sources and security of radioactive materials; human resources: strengths and constraints; management practices and financing of regulatory authority; and plans for emergency recovery of orphan sources. National plans for management of disused sources, recovery of orphan sources, abnormal emergencies, communication of information to affected persons on exposure effects, and the safety training of persons using these applications are discussed. the paper provides a summary and some suggestions of the way forward for Namibia. (author)

  7. Graphical constraints: a graphical user interface for constraint problems

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira, Nelson Manuel Marques

    2015-01-01

    A constraint satisfaction problem is a classical artificial intelligence paradigm characterized by a set of variables (each variable with an associated domain of possible values), and a set of constraints that specify relations among subsets of these variables. Solutions are assignments of values to all variables that satisfy all the constraints. Many real world problems may be modelled by means of constraints. The range of problems that can use this representation is very diverse and embrace...

  8. Distance Constraint Satisfaction Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodirsky, Manuel; Dalmau, Victor; Martin, Barnaby; Pinsker, Michael

    We study the complexity of constraint satisfaction problems for templates Γ that are first-order definable in ({ Z}; {suc}), the integers with the successor relation. Assuming a widely believed conjecture from finite domain constraint satisfaction (we require the tractability conjecture by Bulatov, Jeavons and Krokhin in the special case of transitive finite templates), we provide a full classification for the case that Γ is locally finite (i.e., the Gaifman graph of Γ has finite degree). We show that one of the following is true: The structure Γ is homomorphically equivalent to a structure with a certain majority polymorphism (which we call modular median) and CSP(Γ) can be solved in polynomial time, or Γ is homomorphically equivalent to a finite transitive structure, or CSP(Γ) is NP-complete.

  9. Constraint-based scheduling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweben, Monte

    1993-01-01

    The GERRY scheduling system developed by NASA Ames with assistance from the Lockheed Space Operations Company, and the Lockheed Artificial Intelligence Center, uses a method called constraint-based iterative repair. Using this technique, one encodes both hard rules and preference criteria into data structures called constraints. GERRY repeatedly attempts to improve schedules by seeking repairs for violated constraints. The system provides a general scheduling framework which is being tested on two NASA applications. The larger of the two is the Space Shuttle Ground Processing problem which entails the scheduling of all the inspection, repair, and maintenance tasks required to prepare the orbiter for flight. The other application involves power allocation for the NASA Ames wind tunnels. Here the system will be used to schedule wind tunnel tests with the goal of minimizing power costs. In this paper, we describe the GERRY system and its application to the Space Shuttle problem. We also speculate as to how the system would be used for manufacturing, transportation, and military problems.

  10. Risk literacy for scientists. Invitation to regulatory science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Kyoko

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses a regulatory science, which fills a gap between scientific knowledge and regulatory actions. The author provides examples of the regulatory science employed in chemical risk assessment, such as the linear non-threshold theory. In the regulatory science, scientific data as well as scientific reasoning based on scientific knowledge - or regulatory rules - should play an important role. It is important to recognize that the rules facilitate transparent decision making under conditions of uncertainty and time constraints. Furthermore, the development of traditional or pure science results in the validation of regulatory rules, and subsequently, the regulatory science procedure develops more systematically. The concept of this science should be understood by those engaged in governmental decision making. (author)

  11. Efficient Searching with Linear Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agarwal, Pankaj K.; Arge, Lars Allan; Erickson, Jeff

    2000-01-01

    We show how to preprocess a set S of points in d into an external memory data structure that efficiently supports linear-constraint queries. Each query is in the form of a linear constraint xd a0+∑d−1i=1 aixi; the data structure must report all the points of S that satisfy the constraint. This pr...

  12. Deepening Contractions and Collateral Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henrik; Ravn, Søren Hove; Santoro, Emiliano

    and occasionally non-binding credit constraints. Easier credit access increases the likelihood that constraints become slack in the face of expansionary shocks, while contractionary shocks are further amplified due to tighter constraints. As a result, busts gradually become deeper than booms. Based...

  13. The Issue of Unit Constraints and the Non-Confiscatory Electricity Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haji Bashi, Mazaher; Rahmati, Iman; Bak, Claus Leth

    2017-01-01

    Security constraint unit commitment is devised to drive the generation unit schedule in a deregulated environment. Generation bids, transmission system constraints and generation unit constraints are thoroughly considered in this optimization problem. It is acceptable that the transmission system...... normal condition constraints may affect the economic opportunities of the generation companies in the electricity market. Transmission system limitations are the inherent limits of the market environment but this is not true for the generation unit constraints. It means that the generation unit...... constraint of a certain player should not affect the economic opportunities of the rivals. If this happen, generation units can claim to the electricity market regulatory board. In this paper the effect of generation unit constraint on the market outcome is discussed. A fair mechanism is introduced in which...

  14. Design with Nonlinear Constraints

    KAUST Repository

    Tang, Chengcheng

    2015-12-10

    Most modern industrial and architectural designs need to satisfy the requirements of their targeted performance and respect the limitations of available fabrication technologies. At the same time, they should reflect the artistic considerations and personal taste of the designers, which cannot be simply formulated as optimization goals with single best solutions. This thesis aims at a general, flexible yet e cient computational framework for interactive creation, exploration and discovery of serviceable, constructible, and stylish designs. By formulating nonlinear engineering considerations as linear or quadratic expressions by introducing auxiliary variables, the constrained space could be e ciently accessed by the proposed algorithm Guided Projection, with the guidance of aesthetic formulations. The approach is introduced through applications in different scenarios, its effectiveness is demonstrated by examples that were difficult or even impossible to be computationally designed before. The first application is the design of meshes under both geometric and static constraints, including self-supporting polyhedral meshes that are not height fields. Then, with a formulation bridging mesh based and spline based representations, the application is extended to developable surfaces including origami with curved creases. Finally, general approaches to extend hard constraints and soft energies are discussed, followed by a concluding remark outlooking possible future studies.

  15. Searching for genomic constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lio` , P [Cambridge, Univ. (United Kingdom). Genetics Dept.; Ruffo, S [Florence, Univ. (Italy). Fac. di Ingegneria. Dipt. di Energetica ` S. Stecco`

    1998-01-01

    The authors have analyzed general properties of very long DNA sequences belonging to simple and complex organisms, by using different correlation methods. They have distinguished those base compositional rules that concern the entire genome which they call `genomic constraints` from the rules that depend on the `external natural selection` acting on single genes, i. e. protein-centered constraints. They show that G + C content, purine / pyrimidine distributions and biological complexity of the organism are the most important factors which determine base compositional rules and genome complexity. Three main facts are here reported: bacteria with high G + C content have more restrictions on base composition than those with low G + C content; at constant G + C content more complex organisms, ranging from prokaryotes to higher eukaryotes (e.g. human) display an increase of repeats 10-20 nucleotides long, which are also partly responsible for long-range correlations; work selection of length 3 to 10 is stronger in human and in bacteria for two distinct reasons. With respect to previous studies, they have also compared the genomic sequence of the archeon Methanococcus jannaschii with those of bacteria and eukaryotes: it shows sometimes an intermediate statistical behaviour.

  16. Searching for genomic constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lio', P.; Ruffo, S.

    1998-01-01

    The authors have analyzed general properties of very long DNA sequences belonging to simple and complex organisms, by using different correlation methods. They have distinguished those base compositional rules that concern the entire genome which they call 'genomic constraints' from the rules that depend on the 'external natural selection' acting on single genes, i. e. protein-centered constraints. They show that G + C content, purine / pyrimidine distributions and biological complexity of the organism are the most important factors which determine base compositional rules and genome complexity. Three main facts are here reported: bacteria with high G + C content have more restrictions on base composition than those with low G + C content; at constant G + C content more complex organisms, ranging from prokaryotes to higher eukaryotes (e.g. human) display an increase of repeats 10-20 nucleotides long, which are also partly responsible for long-range correlations; work selection of length 3 to 10 is stronger in human and in bacteria for two distinct reasons. With respect to previous studies, they have also compared the genomic sequence of the archeon Methanococcus jannaschii with those of bacteria and eukaryotes: it shows sometimes an intermediate statistical behaviour

  17. Supergravity constraints on monojets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nandi, S.

    1986-01-01

    In the standard model, supplemented by N = 1 minimal supergravity, all the supersymmetric particle masses can be expressed in terms of a few unknown parameters. The resulting mass relations, and the laboratory and the cosmological bounds on these superpartner masses are used to put constraints on the supersymmetric origin of the CERN monojets. The latest MAC data at PEP excludes the scalar quarks, of masses up to 45 GeV, as the origin of these monojets. The cosmological bounds, for a stable photino, excludes the mass range necessary for the light gluino-heavy squark production interpretation. These difficulties can be avoided by going beyond the minimal supergravity theory. Irrespective of the monojets, the importance of the stable γ as the source of the cosmological dark matter is emphasized

  18. Temporal Concurrent Constraint Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valencia, Frank Dan

    Concurrent constraint programming (ccp) is a formalism for concurrency in which agents interact with one another by telling (adding) and asking (reading) information in a shared medium. Temporal ccp extends ccp by allowing agents to be constrained by time conditions. This dissertation studies...... temporal ccp by developing a process calculus called ntcc. The ntcc calculus generalizes the tcc model, the latter being a temporal ccp model for deterministic and synchronouss timed reactive systems. The calculus is built upon few basic ideas but it captures several aspects of timed systems. As tcc, ntcc...... structures, robotic devises, multi-agent systems and music applications. The calculus is provided with a denotational semantics that captures the reactive computations of processes in the presence of arbitrary environments. The denotation is proven to be fully-abstract for a substantial fragment...

  19. As to achieve regulatory action, regulatory approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cid, R.; Encinas, D.

    2014-01-01

    The achievement of the effectiveness in the performance of a nuclear regulatory body has been a permanent challenge in the recent history of nuclear regulation. In the post-Fukushima era this challenge is even more important. This article addresses the subject from two complementary points of view: the characteristics of an effective regulatory body and the regulatory approaches. This work is based on the most recent studies carried out by the Committee on Nuclear Regulatory Activities, CNRA (OECD/NEA), as well as on the experience of the Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear, CSN, the Spanish regulatory body. Rafael Cid is the representative of CSN in these project: Diego Encinas has participated in the study on regulatory approaches. (Author)

  20. Minimal Flavor Constraints for Technicolor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakuma, Hidenori; Sannino, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the constraints on the the vacuum polarization of the standard model gauge bosons from a minimal set of flavor observables valid for a general class of models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking. We will show that the constraints have a strong impact on the self-coupling and mas......We analyze the constraints on the the vacuum polarization of the standard model gauge bosons from a minimal set of flavor observables valid for a general class of models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking. We will show that the constraints have a strong impact on the self...

  1. Social Constraints on Animate Vision

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Breazeal, Cynthia; Edsinger, Aaron; Fitzpatrick, Paul; Scassellati, Brian

    2000-01-01

    .... In humanoid robotic systems, or in any animate vision system that interacts with people, social dynamics provide additional levels of constraint and provide additional opportunities for processing economy...

  2. Modifier constraint in alkali borophosphate glasses using topological constraint theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiang [Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Zeng, Huidan, E-mail: hdzeng@ecust.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Jiang, Qi [Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Zhao, Donghui [Unifrax Corporation, Niagara Falls, NY 14305 (United States); Chen, Guorong [Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Wang, Zhaofeng; Sun, Luyi [Department of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering and Polymer Program, Institute of Materials Science, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269 (United States); Chen, Jianding [Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China)

    2016-12-01

    In recent years, composition-dependent properties of glasses have been successfully predicted using the topological constraint theory. The constraints of the glass network are derived from two main parts: network formers and network modifiers. The constraints of the network formers can be calculated on the basis of the topological structure of the glass. However, the latter cannot be accurately calculated in this way, because of the existing of ionic bonds. In this paper, the constraints of the modifier ions in phosphate glasses were thoroughly investigated using the topological constraint theory. The results show that the constraints of the modifier ions are gradually increased with the addition of alkali oxides. Furthermore, an improved topological constraint theory for borophosphate glasses is proposed by taking the composition-dependent constraints of the network modifiers into consideration. The proposed theory is subsequently evaluated by analyzing the composition dependence of the glass transition temperature in alkali borophosphate glasses. This method is supposed to be extended to other similar glass systems containing alkali ions.

  3. Seismological Constraints on Geodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomnitz, C.

    2004-12-01

    Earth is an open thermodynamic system radiating heat energy into space. A transition from geostatic earth models such as PREM to geodynamical models is needed. We discuss possible thermodynamic constraints on the variables that govern the distribution of forces and flows in the deep Earth. In this paper we assume that the temperature distribution is time-invariant, so that all flows vanish at steady state except for the heat flow Jq per unit area (Kuiken, 1994). Superscript 0 will refer to the steady state while x denotes the excited state of the system. We may write σ 0=(J{q}0ṡX{q}0)/T where Xq is the conjugate force corresponding to Jq, and σ is the rate of entropy production per unit volume. Consider now what happens after the occurrence of an earthquake at time t=0 and location (0,0,0). The earthquake introduces a stress drop Δ P(x,y,z) at all points of the system. Response flows are directed along the gradients toward the epicentral area, and the entropy production will increase with time as (Prigogine, 1947) σ x(t)=σ 0+α {1}/(t+β )+α {2}/(t+β )2+etc A seismological constraint on the parameters may be obtained from Omori's empirical relation N(t)=p/(t+q) where N(t) is the number of aftershocks at time t following the main shock. It may be assumed that p/q\\sim\\alpha_{1}/\\beta times a constant. Another useful constraint is the Mexican-hat geometry of the seismic transient as obtained e.g. from InSAR radar interferometry. For strike-slip events such as Landers the distribution of \\DeltaP is quadrantal, and an oval-shaped seismicity gap develops about the epicenter. A weak outer triggering maxiμm is found at a distance of about 17 fault lengths. Such patterns may be extracted from earthquake catalogs by statistical analysis (Lomnitz, 1996). Finally, the energy of the perturbation must be at least equal to the recovery energy. The total energy expended in an aftershock sequence can be found approximately by integrating the local contribution over

  4. Observational constraints on interstellar chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winnewisser, G.

    1984-01-01

    The author points out presently existing observational constraints in the detection of interstellar molecular species and the limits they may cast on our knowledge of interstellar chemistry. The constraints which arise from the molecular side are summarised and some technical difficulties encountered in detecting new species are discussed. Some implications for our understanding of molecular formation processes are considered. (Auth.)

  5. Market segmentation using perceived constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinhee Jun; Gerard Kyle; Andrew Mowen

    2008-01-01

    We examined the practical utility of segmenting potential visitors to Cleveland Metroparks using their constraint profiles. Our analysis identified three segments based on their scores on the dimensions of constraints: Other priorities--visitors who scored the highest on 'other priorities' dimension; Highly Constrained--visitors who scored relatively high on...

  6. Fixed Costs and Hours Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, William R.

    2011-01-01

    Hours constraints are typically identified by worker responses to questions asking whether they would prefer a job with more hours and more pay or fewer hours and less pay. Because jobs with different hours but the same rate of pay may be infeasible when there are fixed costs of employment or mandatory overtime premia, the constraint in those…

  7. An Introduction to 'Creativity Constraints'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Onarheim, Balder; Biskjær, Michael Mose

    2013-01-01

    Constraints play a vital role as both restrainers and enablers in innovation processes by governing what the creative agent/s can and cannot do, and what the output can and cannot be. Notions of constraints are common in creativity research, but current contributions are highly dispersed due to n...

  8. Constraint Programming for Context Comprehension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning

    2014-01-01

    A close similarity is demonstrated between context comprehension, such as discourse analysis, and constraint programming. The constraint store takes the role of a growing knowledge base learned throughout the discourse, and a suitable con- straint solver does the job of incorporating new pieces...

  9. Professional and Regulatory Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Professional and Regulatory search are designed for people who use EPA web resources to do their job. You will be searching collections where information that is not relevant to Environmental and Regulatory professionals.

  10. Vocabulary Constraint on Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Sutarsyah

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This case study was carried out in the English Education Department of State University of Malang. The aim of the study was to identify and describe the vocabulary in the reading text and to seek if the text is useful for reading skill development. A descriptive qualitative design was applied to obtain the data. For this purpose, some available computer programs were used to find the description of vocabulary in the texts. It was found that the 20 texts containing 7,945 words are dominated by low frequency words which account for 16.97% of the words in the texts. The high frequency words occurring in the texts were dominated by function words. In the case of word levels, it was found that the texts have very limited number of words from GSL (General Service List of English Words (West, 1953. The proportion of the first 1,000 words of GSL only accounts for 44.6%. The data also show that the texts contain too large proportion of words which are not in the three levels (the first 2,000 and UWL. These words account for 26.44% of the running words in the texts.  It is believed that the constraints are due to the selection of the texts which are made of a series of short-unrelated texts. This kind of text is subject to the accumulation of low frequency words especially those of content words and limited of words from GSL. It could also defeat the development of students' reading skills and vocabulary enrichment.

  11. Future nuclear regulatory challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Royen, J.

    1998-01-01

    In December 1996, the NEA Committee on Nuclear Regulatory Activities concluded that changes resulting from economic deregulation and other recent developments affecting nuclear power programmes have consequences both for licensees and regulatory authorities. A number of potential problems and issues which will present a challenge to nuclear regulatory bodies over the next ten years have been identified in a report just released. (author)

  12. Regulatory activities; Actividades regulatorias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This publication, compiled in 8 chapters, presents the regulatory system developed by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NRA) of the Argentine Republic. The following activities and developed topics in this document describe: the evolution of the nuclear regulatory activity in Argentina; the Argentine regulatory system; the nuclear regulatory laws and standards; the inspection and safeguards of nuclear facilities; the emergency systems; the environmental systems; the environmental monitoring; the analysis laboratories on physical and biological dosimetry, prenatal irradiation, internal irradiation, radiation measurements, detection techniques on nuclear testing, medical program on radiation protection; the institutional relations with national and international organization; the training courses and meeting; the technical information.

  13. Methods for ensuring compliance with regulatory requirements: regulators and operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleischmann, A.W.

    1989-01-01

    Some of the methods of ensuring compliance with regulatory requirements contained in various radiation protection documents such as Regulations, ICRP Recommendations etc. are considered. These include radiation safety officers and radiation safety committees, personnel monitoring services, dissemination of information, inspection services and legislative power of enforcement. Difficulties in ensuring compliance include outmoded legislation, financial and personnel constraints

  14. Infrastructure of the Regulatory Authority and Performance Indexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velasquez, Silvia

    2001-01-01

    This presentation overviews the following issues: elements of a control regulatory program, inspections program, procedures, indexes of users performance, priorities on: registration, criteria for practices of low risk, dose levels in medical exposures, dose constraints and training of personnel. These aspects are considered in the guides prepared within ARCAL XX framework

  15. Digital publication of EDF's regulatory files

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picard, Pauline

    2012-06-01

    The Engineering Centre of Deconstruction and Environment wants to modernize the distribution of its regulatory filings in digital form. This project requires a prior upstream of its implementation to determine the best publishing solution suited to the constraints of diffusion and heritage protection of EDF

  16. 78 FR 14840 - U.S.-EU High Level Regulatory Cooperation Forum-Stakeholder Session

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-07

    ... OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET U.S.-EU High Level Regulatory Cooperation Forum--Stakeholder... the future. Time constraints may prevent some stakeholders from making presentations on April 10th or... stakeholder session agenda will in no way prejudge the specific elements of a future transatlantic regulatory...

  17. Machine tongues. X. Constraint languages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levitt, D.

    Constraint languages and programming environments will help the designer produce a lucid description of a problem domain, and then of particular situations and problems in it. Early versions of these languages were given descriptions of real world domain constraints, like the operation of electrical and mechanical parts. More recently, the author has automated a vocabulary for describing musical jazz phrases, using constraint language as a jazz improviser. General constraint languages will handle all of these domains. Once the model is in place, the system will connect built-in code fragments and algorithms to answer questions about situations; that is, to help solve problems. Bugs will surface not in code, but in designs themselves. 15 references.

  18. Fluid convection, constraint and causation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Robert C.

    2012-01-01

    Complexity—nonlinear dynamics for my purposes in this essay—is rich with metaphysical and epistemological implications but is receiving sustained philosophical analysis only recently. I will explore some of the subtleties of causation and constraint in Rayleigh–Bénard convection as an example of a complex phenomenon, and extract some lessons for further philosophical reflection on top-down constraint and causation particularly with respect to causal foundationalism. PMID:23386955

  19. Research and regulatory review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macleod, J.S.; Fryer, D.R.H.

    1979-01-01

    To enable the regulatory review to be effectively undertaken by the regulatory body, there is a need for it to have ready access to information generated by research activities. Certain advantages have been seen to be gained by the regulatory body itself directly allocating and controlling some portion of these activities. The princial reasons for reaching this conclusion are summarised and a brief description of the Inspectorates directly sponsored programme outlined. (author)

  20. Regulatory Commission of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Map Help Regulatory Commission of Alaska Login Forgot Password Arrow Image Forgot password? View Cart login Procedures for Requesting Login For Consumers General Information Telephone Electric Natural Gas

  1. Developmental constraints on behavioural flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holekamp, Kay E; Swanson, Eli M; Van Meter, Page E

    2013-05-19

    We suggest that variation in mammalian behavioural flexibility not accounted for by current socioecological models may be explained in part by developmental constraints. From our own work, we provide examples of constraints affecting variation in behavioural flexibility, not only among individuals, but also among species and higher taxonomic units. We first implicate organizational maternal effects of androgens in shaping individual differences in aggressive behaviour emitted by female spotted hyaenas throughout the lifespan. We then compare carnivores and primates with respect to their locomotor and craniofacial adaptations. We inquire whether antagonistic selection pressures on the skull might impose differential functional constraints on evolvability of skulls and brains in these two orders, thus ultimately affecting behavioural flexibility in each group. We suggest that, even when carnivores and primates would theoretically benefit from the same adaptations with respect to behavioural flexibility, carnivores may nevertheless exhibit less behavioural flexibility than primates because of constraints imposed by past adaptations in the morphology of the limbs and skull. Phylogenetic analysis consistent with this idea suggests greater evolutionary lability in relative brain size within families of primates than carnivores. Thus, consideration of developmental constraints may help elucidate variation in mammalian behavioural flexibility.

  2. Data assimilation with inequality constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacker, W. C.

    If values of variables in a numerical model are limited to specified ranges, these restrictions should be enforced when data are assimilated. The simplest option is to assimilate without regard for constraints and then to correct any violations without worrying about additional corrections implied by correlated errors. This paper addresses the incorporation of inequality constraints into the standard variational framework of optimal interpolation with emphasis on our limited knowledge of the underlying probability distributions. Simple examples involving only two or three variables are used to illustrate graphically how active constraints can be treated as error-free data when background errors obey a truncated multi-normal distribution. Using Lagrange multipliers, the formalism is expanded to encompass the active constraints. Two algorithms are presented, both relying on a solution ignoring the inequality constraints to discover violations to be enforced. While explicitly enforcing a subset can, via correlations, correct the others, pragmatism based on our poor knowledge of the underlying probability distributions suggests the expedient of enforcing them all explicitly to avoid the computationally expensive task of determining the minimum active set. If additional violations are encountered with these solutions, the process can be repeated. Simple examples are used to illustrate the algorithms and to examine the nature of the corrections implied by correlated errors.

  3. Constraint programming and decision making

    CERN Document Server

    Kreinovich, Vladik

    2014-01-01

    In many application areas, it is necessary to make effective decisions under constraints. Several area-specific techniques are known for such decision problems; however, because these techniques are area-specific, it is not easy to apply each technique to other applications areas. Cross-fertilization between different application areas is one of the main objectives of the annual International Workshops on Constraint Programming and Decision Making. Those workshops, held in the US (El Paso, Texas), in Europe (Lyon, France), and in Asia (Novosibirsk, Russia), from 2008 to 2012, have attracted researchers and practitioners from all over the world. This volume presents extended versions of selected papers from those workshops. These papers deal with all stages of decision making under constraints: (1) formulating the problem of multi-criteria decision making in precise terms, (2) determining when the corresponding decision problem is algorithmically solvable; (3) finding the corresponding algorithms, and making...

  4. How Do Severe Constraints Affect the Search Ability of Multiobjective Evolutionary Algorithms in Water Resources?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarkin, T. J.; Kasprzyk, J. R.; Raseman, W. J.; Herman, J. D.

    2015-12-01

    This study contributes a diagnostic assessment of multiobjective evolutionary algorithm (MOEA) search on a set of water resources problem formulations with different configurations of constraints. Unlike constraints in classical optimization modeling, constraints within MOEA simulation-optimization represent limits on acceptable performance that delineate whether solutions within the search problem are feasible. Constraints are relevant because of the emergent pressures on water resources systems: increasing public awareness of their sustainability, coupled with regulatory pressures on water management agencies. In this study, we test several state-of-the-art MOEAs that utilize restricted tournament selection for constraint handling on varying configurations of water resources planning problems. For example, a problem that has no constraints on performance levels will be compared with a problem with several severe constraints, and a problem with constraints that have less severe values on the constraint thresholds. One such problem, Lower Rio Grande Valley (LRGV) portfolio planning, has been solved with a suite of constraints that ensure high reliability, low cost variability, and acceptable performance in a single year severe drought. But to date, it is unclear whether or not the constraints are negatively affecting MOEAs' ability to solve the problem effectively. Two categories of results are explored. The first category uses control maps of algorithm performance to determine if the algorithm's performance is sensitive to user-defined parameters. The second category uses run-time performance metrics to determine the time required for the algorithm to reach sufficient levels of convergence and diversity on the solution sets. Our work exploring the effect of constraints will better enable practitioners to define MOEA problem formulations for real-world systems, especially when stakeholders are concerned with achieving fixed levels of performance according to one or

  5. Statistical significance of cis-regulatory modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Andrew D

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is becoming increasingly important for researchers to be able to scan through large genomic regions for transcription factor binding sites or clusters of binding sites forming cis-regulatory modules. Correspondingly, there has been a push to develop algorithms for the rapid detection and assessment of cis-regulatory modules. While various algorithms for this purpose have been introduced, most are not well suited for rapid, genome scale scanning. Results We introduce methods designed for the detection and statistical evaluation of cis-regulatory modules, modeled as either clusters of individual binding sites or as combinations of sites with constrained organization. In order to determine the statistical significance of module sites, we first need a method to determine the statistical significance of single transcription factor binding site matches. We introduce a straightforward method of estimating the statistical significance of single site matches using a database of known promoters to produce data structures that can be used to estimate p-values for binding site matches. We next introduce a technique to calculate the statistical significance of the arrangement of binding sites within a module using a max-gap model. If the module scanned for has defined organizational parameters, the probability of the module is corrected to account for organizational constraints. The statistical significance of single site matches and the architecture of sites within the module can be combined to provide an overall estimation of statistical significance of cis-regulatory module sites. Conclusion The methods introduced in this paper allow for the detection and statistical evaluation of single transcription factor binding sites and cis-regulatory modules. The features described are implemented in the Search Tool for Occurrences of Regulatory Motifs (STORM and MODSTORM software.

  6. NRC Regulatory Agenda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    The NRC Regulatory Agenda is a compilation of all rules on which the NRC has recently completed action, or has proposed action, or is considering action, and all petitions for rulemaking which have been received by the Commission and are pending disposition by the Commission. The Regulatory Agenda is updated and issued each quarter

  7. NRC regulatory agenda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    The NRC Regulatory Agenda is a compilation of all rules on which the NRC has recently completed action, or has proposed action, or is considering action, and all petitions for rulemaking which have been received by the Commission and are pending disposition by the Commission. The Regulatory Agenda is updated and issued each quarter

  8. NRC regulatory agenda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The NRC Regulatory Agenda is a compilation of all rules on which the NRC has proposed or is considering action and all petitions for rulemaking which have been received by the Commission and are pending disposition by the Commission. The Regulatory Agenda is updated and issued each quarter

  9. NRC regulatory agenda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-04-01

    The NRC Regulatory Agenda is a compilation of all rules on which the NRC has recently completed action or has proposed, or is considering action and all petitions for rulemaking which have been received by the Commission and are pending disposition by the Commission. The Regulatory Agenda is updated and issued each quarter

  10. NRC Regulatory Agenda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-08-01

    The NRC Regulatory Agenda is a compilation of all rules on which the NRC has recently completed action or has proposed, or is considering action and all petitions for rulemaking which have been received by the commission and are pending disposition by the Commission. The Regulatory Agenda is updated and issued each quarter

  11. Trust in regulatory regimes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Six, Frédérique; Verhoest, Koen

    2017-01-01

    Within political and administrative sciences generally, trust as a concept is contested, especially in the field of regulatory governance. This groundbreaking book is the first to systematically explore the role and dynamics of trust within regulatory regimes. Conceptualizing, mapping and analyzing

  12. Nuclear Regulatory legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-06-01

    This compilation of statutes and material pertaining to nuclear regulatory legislation through the 97th Congress, 2nd Session, has been prepared by the Office of the Executive Legal Director, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, with the assistance of staff, for use as an internal resource document

  13. Improving nuclear regulatory effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Ensuring that nuclear installations are operated and maintained in such a way that their impact on public health and safety is as low as reasonably practicable has been and will continue to be the cornerstone of nuclear regulation. In the past, nuclear incidents provided the main impetus for regulatory change. Today, economic factors, deregulation, technological advancements, government oversight and the general requirements for openness and accountability are leading regulatory bodies to review their effectiveness. In addition, seeking to enhance the present level of nuclear safety by continuously improving the effectiveness of regulatory bodies is seen as one of the ways to strengthen public confidence in the regulatory systems. This report covers the basic concepts underlying nuclear regulatory effectiveness, advances being made and future requirements. The intended audience is primarily nuclear safety regulators, but government authorities, nuclear power plant operators and the general public may also be interested. (author)

  14. Development of radiopharmaceuticals and industrial constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmermann, R.

    2005-01-01

    The development process of a diagnostic or therapeutic radiopharmaceutical does not really differ from the development of a classical drug. Some specific properties of these nuclear medicine tools mainly linked to the ease to follow their distribution in the human body allow to save a couple of years out of the dozen of years required to bring a drug on the market. Overall development costs can be significantly reduced for the same reason. An industrial who wants to invest in such a business bases its analysis on other criteria that need to evaluate the medical, safety and regulatory environment at the time of drug launching. Competition is obviously a major decision criteria, but in order to evaluate the market potential, other data must be available such as the analysis of the medical landscape, the reimbursement issues, the technology evolution, the investment needs or the development of other imaging modalities, among others. In fact all these parameters concentrate toward a common criteria, the profitability of the project. Nuclear medicine moved from an art and crafts era towards the industrial era and hence plunged from the twentieth to the twenty first century in the economic reality with all its constraints and consequences. (author)

  15. Constraint elimination in dynamical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R. P.; Likins, P. W.

    1989-01-01

    Large space structures (LSSs) and other dynamical systems of current interest are often extremely complex assemblies of rigid and flexible bodies subjected to kinematical constraints. A formulation is presented for the governing equations of constrained multibody systems via the application of singular value decomposition (SVD). The resulting equations of motion are shown to be of minimum dimension.

  16. Constraint Programming versus Mathematical Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper

    2003-01-01

    Constraint Logic Programming (CLP) is a relatively new technique from the 80's with origins in Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence. Lately, much research have been focused on ways of using CLP within the paradigm of Operations Research (OR) and vice versa. The purpose of this paper...

  17. Sterile neutrino constraints from cosmology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamann, Jan; Hannestad, Steen; Raffelt, Georg G.

    2012-01-01

    The presence of light particles beyond the standard model's three neutrino species can profoundly impact the physics of decoupling and primordial nucleosynthesis. I review the observational signatures of extra light species, present constraints from recent data, and discuss the implications of po...... of possible sterile neutrinos with O(eV)-masses for cosmology....

  18. Intertemporal consumption and credit constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth-Petersen, Søren

    2010-01-01

    There is continuing controversy over the importance of credit constraints. This paper investigates whether total household expenditure and debt is affected by an exogenous increase in access to credit provided by a credit market reform that enabled Danish house owners to use housing equity...

  19. Financial Constraints: Explaining Your Position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cargill, Jennifer

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the importance of educating library patrons about the library's finances and the impact of budget constraints and the escalating cost of serials on materials acquisition. Steps that can be taken in educating patrons by interpreting and publicizing financial information are suggested. (MES)

  20. Regulatory guidance document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-05-01

    The Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) Program Management System Manual requires preparation of the OCRWM Regulatory Guidance Document (RGD) that addresses licensing, environmental compliance, and safety and health compliance. The document provides: regulatory compliance policy; guidance to OCRWM organizational elements to ensure a consistent approach when complying with regulatory requirements; strategies to achieve policy objectives; organizational responsibilities for regulatory compliance; guidance with regard to Program compliance oversight; and guidance on the contents of a project-level Regulatory Compliance Plan. The scope of the RGD includes site suitability evaluation, licensing, environmental compliance, and safety and health compliance, in accordance with the direction provided by Section 4.6.3 of the PMS Manual. Site suitability evaluation and regulatory compliance during site characterization are significant activities, particularly with regard to the YW MSA. OCRWM's evaluation of whether the Yucca Mountain site is suitable for repository development must precede its submittal of a license application to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Accordingly, site suitability evaluation is discussed in Chapter 4, and the general statements of policy regarding site suitability evaluation are discussed in Section 2.1. Although much of the data and analyses may initially be similar, the licensing process is discussed separately in Chapter 5. Environmental compliance is discussed in Chapter 6. Safety and Health compliance is discussed in Chapter 7

  1. Managing Regulatory Body Competence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    In 2001, the IAEA published TECDOC 1254, which examined the way in which the recognized functions of a regulatory body for nuclear facilities results in competence needs. Using the systematic approach to training (SAT), TECDOC 1254 provided a framework for regulatory bodies for managing training and developing and their maintaining their competence. It has been successfully used by many regulators. The IAEA has also introduced a methodology and an assessment tool - Guidelines for Systematic Assessment of Regulatory Competence Needs (SARCoN) - which provides practical guidance on analysing the training and development needs of a regulatory body and, through a gap analysis, guidance on establishing competence needs and how to meet them. In 2009, the IAEA established a steering committee (supported by a bureau) with the mission to advise the IAEA on how it could best assist Member States to develop suitable competence management systems for their regulatory bodies. The committee recommended the development of a safety report on managing staff competence as an integral part of a regulatory body's management system. This Safety Report was developed in response to this request. It supersedes TECDOC 1254, broadens its application to regulatory bodies for all facilities and activities, and builds upon the experience gained through the application of TECDOC 1254 and SARCoN and the feedback received from Member States. This Safety Report applies to the management of adequate competence as needs change, and as such is equally applicable to the needs of States 'embarking' on a nuclear power programme. It also deals with the special case of building up the competence of regulatory bodies as part of the overall process of establishing an 'embarking' State's regulatory system

  2. Creativity from Constraints in Engineering Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Onarheim, Balder

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the role of constraints in limiting and enhancing creativity in engineering design. Based on a review of literature relating constraints to creativity, the paper presents a longitudinal participatory study from Coloplast A/S, a major international producer of disposable...... and ownership of formal constraints played a crucial role in defining their influence on creativity – along with the tacit constraints held by the designers. The designers were found to be highly constraint focused, and four main creative strategies for constraint manipulation were observed: blackboxing...

  3. NRC regulatory agenda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-10-01

    The Regulatory Agenda is a quarterly compilation of all rules on which the NRC has recently completed action or has proposed, or is considering action and of all petitions for rulemaking that the NRC has received that are pending disposition

  4. NRC regulatory agenda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-04-01

    The Regulatory Agenda is a quarterly compilation of all rules on which the NRC has recently completed action or has proposed, or is considering action and of all petitions for rulemaking that the NRC has received that are pending disposition

  5. Through the regulatory hoop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirner, N.P.

    1985-01-01

    There are many regulatory hoops through which waste generators, brokers, and disposal site operators must jump to dispose of waste safely. As the proposed exclusionary date of January 1, 1986, approaches, these regulatory hoops have the distinct possibility of multiplying or at least changing shape. The state of Washington, in its role as an Agreement State with the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, licenses and inspects the commercial operator of the Northwest Compact's low-level radioactive waste disposal site on the Hanford Reservation. Washington has received as much as 53%, or 1.4 million cubic feet per year, of the nation's total volume of waste disposed. To control such a large volume of waste, a regulatory program involving six agencies has developed over the years in Washington

  6. A compendium of chameleon constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burrage, Clare; Sakstein, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    The chameleon model is a scalar field theory with a screening mechanism that explains how a cosmologically relevant light scalar can avoid the constraints of intra-solar-system searches for fifth-forces. The chameleon is a popular dark energy candidate and also arises in f ( R ) theories of gravity. Whilst the chameleon is designed to avoid historical searches for fifth-forces it is not unobservable and much effort has gone into identifying the best observables and experiments to detect it. These results are not always presented for the same models or in the same language, a particular problem when comparing astrophysical and laboratory searches making it difficult to understand what regions of parameter space remain. Here we present combined constraints on the chameleon model from astrophysical and laboratory searches for the first time and identify the remaining windows of parameter space. We discuss the implications for cosmological chameleon searches and future small-scale probes.

  7. A compendium of chameleon constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burrage, Clare [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Sakstein, Jeremy, E-mail: clare.burrage@nottingham.ac.uk, E-mail: jeremy.sakstein@port.ac.uk [Center for Particle Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, 209 S. 33rd St., Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)

    2016-11-01

    The chameleon model is a scalar field theory with a screening mechanism that explains how a cosmologically relevant light scalar can avoid the constraints of intra-solar-system searches for fifth-forces. The chameleon is a popular dark energy candidate and also arises in f ( R ) theories of gravity. Whilst the chameleon is designed to avoid historical searches for fifth-forces it is not unobservable and much effort has gone into identifying the best observables and experiments to detect it. These results are not always presented for the same models or in the same language, a particular problem when comparing astrophysical and laboratory searches making it difficult to understand what regions of parameter space remain. Here we present combined constraints on the chameleon model from astrophysical and laboratory searches for the first time and identify the remaining windows of parameter space. We discuss the implications for cosmological chameleon searches and future small-scale probes.

  8. Self-Imposed Creativity Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biskjaer, Michael Mose

    2013-01-01

    Abstract This dissertation epitomizes three years of research guided by the research question: how can we conceptualize creative self-binding as a resource in art and design processes? Concretely, the dissertation seeks to offer insight into the puzzling observation that highly skilled creative...... practitioners sometimes freely and intentionally impose rigid rules, peculiar principles, and other kinds of creative obstructions on themselves as a means to spur momentum in the process and reach a distinctly original outcome. To investigate this the dissertation is composed of four papers (Part II) framed...... of analysis. Informed by the insight that constraints both enable and restrain creative agency, the dissertation’s main contention is that creative self- binding may profitably be conceptualized as the exercise of self-imposed creativity constraints. Thus, the dissertation marks an analytical move from vague...

  9. Unitarity constraints on trimaximal mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Sanjeev

    2010-01-01

    When the neutrino mass eigenstate ν 2 is trimaximally mixed, the mixing matrix is called trimaximal. The middle column of the trimaximal mixing matrix is identical to tribimaximal mixing and the other two columns are subject to unitarity constraints. This corresponds to a mixing matrix with four independent parameters in the most general case. Apart from the two Majorana phases, the mixing matrix has only one free parameter in the CP conserving limit. Trimaximality results in interesting interplay between mixing angles and CP violation. A notion of maximal CP violation naturally emerges here: CP violation is maximal for maximal 2-3 mixing. Similarly, there is a natural constraint on the deviation from maximal 2-3 mixing which takes its maximal value in the CP conserving limit.

  10. Macroscopic constraints on string unification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, T.R.

    1989-03-01

    The comparison of sting theory with experiment requires a huge extrapolation from the microscopic distances, of order of the Planck length, up to the macroscopic laboratory distances. The quantum effects give rise to large corrections to the macroscopic predictions of sting unification. I discus the model-independent constraints on the gravitational sector of string theory due to the inevitable existence of universal Fradkin-Tseytlin dilatons. 9 refs

  11. Financial Constraints and Franchising Decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Kai-Uwe Kuhn; Francine Lafontaine; Ying Fan

    2013-01-01

    We study how the financial constraints of agents affect the behavior of principals in the context of franchising. We develop an empirical model of franchising starting with a principal-agent framework that emphasizes the role of franchisees' collateral from an incentive perspective. We estimate the determinants of chains' entry (into franchising) and growth decisions using data on franchised chains and data on local macroeconomic conditions. In particular, we use collateralizable housing weal...

  12. Analysis of Space Tourism Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnal, Christophe

    2002-01-01

    Space tourism appears today as a new Eldorado in a relatively near future. Private operators are already proposing services for leisure trips in Low Earth Orbit, and some happy few even tested them. But are these exceptional events really marking the dawn of a new space age ? The constraints associated to the space tourism are severe : - the economical balance of space tourism is tricky; development costs of large manned - the technical definition of such large vehicles is challenging, mainly when considering - the physiological aptitude of passengers will have a major impact on the mission - the orbital environment will also lead to mission constraints on aspects such as radiation, However, these constraints never appear as show-stoppers and have to be dealt with pragmatically: - what are the recommendations one can make for future research in the field of space - which typical roadmap shall one consider to develop realistically this new market ? - what are the synergies with the conventional missions and with the existing infrastructure, - how can a phased development start soon ? The paper proposes hints aiming at improving the credibility of Space Tourism and describes the orientations to follow in order to solve the major hurdles found in such an exciting development.

  13. Infrared Constraint on Ultraviolet Theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Yuhsin [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)

    2012-08-01

    While our current paradigm of particle physics, the Standard Model (SM), has been extremely successful at explaining experiments, it is theoretically incomplete and must be embedded into a larger framework. In this thesis, we review the main motivations for theories beyond the SM (BSM) and the ways such theories can be constrained using low energy physics. The hierarchy problem, neutrino mass and the existence of dark matter (DM) are the main reasons why the SM is incomplete . Two of the most plausible theories that may solve the hierarchy problem are the Randall-Sundrum (RS) models and supersymmetry (SUSY). RS models usually suffer from strong flavor constraints, while SUSY models produce extra degrees of freedom that need to be hidden from current experiments. To show the importance of infrared (IR) physics constraints, we discuss the flavor bounds on the anarchic RS model in both the lepton and quark sectors. For SUSY models, we discuss the difficulties in obtaining a phenomenologically allowed gaugino mass, its relation to R-symmetry breaking, and how to build a model that avoids this problem. For the neutrino mass problem, we discuss the idea of generating small neutrino masses using compositeness. By requiring successful leptogenesis and the existence of warm dark matter (WDM), we can set various constraints on the hidden composite sector. Finally, to give an example of model independent bounds from collider experiments, we show how to constrain the DM–SM particle interactions using collider results with an effective coupling description.

  14. Isocurvature constraints on portal couplings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kainulainen, Kimmo; Nurmi, Sami; Vaskonen, Ville [Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, P.O.Box 35 (YFL), FI-40014 University of Jyväskylä (Finland); Tenkanen, Tommi; Tuominen, Kimmo, E-mail: kimmo.kainulainen@jyu.fi, E-mail: sami.t.nurmi@jyu.fi, E-mail: tommi.tenkanen@helsinki.fi, E-mail: kimmo.i.tuominen@helsinki.fi, E-mail: ville.vaskonen@jyu.fi [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki P.O. Box 64, FI-00014, Helsinki (Finland)

    2016-06-01

    We consider portal models which are ultraweakly coupled with the Standard Model, and confront them with observational constraints on dark matter abundance and isocurvature perturbations. We assume the hidden sector to contain a real singlet scalar s and a sterile neutrino ψ coupled to s via a pseudoscalar Yukawa term. During inflation, a primordial condensate consisting of the singlet scalar s is generated, and its contribution to the isocurvature perturbations is imprinted onto the dark matter abundance. We compute the total dark matter abundance including the contributions from condensate decay and nonthermal production from the Standard Model sector. We then use the Planck limit on isocurvature perturbations to derive a novel constraint connecting dark matter mass and the singlet self coupling with the scale of inflation: m {sub DM}/GeV ∼< 0.2λ{sub s}{sup 3/8} ( H {sub *}/10{sup 11} GeV){sup −3/2}. This constraint is relevant in most portal models ultraweakly coupled with the Standard Model and containing light singlet scalar fields.

  15. Relaxations of semiring constraint satisfaction problems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Leenen, L

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The Semiring Constraint Satisfaction Problem (SCSP) framework is a popular approach for the representation of partial constraint satisfaction problems. In this framework preferences can be associated with tuples of values of the variable domains...

  16. Transmission and capacity pricing and constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fusco, M.

    1999-01-01

    A series of overhead viewgraphs accompanied this presentation which discussed the following issues regarding the North American electric power industry: (1) capacity pricing transmission constraints, (2) nature of transmission constraints, (3) consequences of transmission constraints, and (4) prices as market evidence. Some solutions suggested for pricing constraints included the development of contingent contracts, back-up power in supply regions, and new line capacity construction. 8 tabs., 20 figs

  17. Ant colony optimization and constraint programming

    CERN Document Server

    Solnon, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Ant colony optimization is a metaheuristic which has been successfully applied to a wide range of combinatorial optimization problems. The author describes this metaheuristic and studies its efficiency for solving some hard combinatorial problems, with a specific focus on constraint programming. The text is organized into three parts. The first part introduces constraint programming, which provides high level features to declaratively model problems by means of constraints. It describes the main existing approaches for solving constraint satisfaction problems, including complete tree search

  18. Perceptions of regulatory approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halin, Magnus; Leinonen, Ruusaliisa

    2012-01-01

    Ms. Ruusaliisa Leinonen and Mr. Magnus Halin from Fortum gave a joint presentation on industry perceptions of regulatory oversight of LMfS/SC. It was concluded that an open culture of discussion exists between the regulator (STUK) and the licensee, based on the common goal of nuclear safety. An example was provided of on how regulatory interventions helped foster improvements to individual and collective dose rate trends, which had remained static. Regulatory interventions included discussions on the ALARA concept to reinforce the requirement to continuously strive for improvements in safety performance. Safety culture has also been built into regulatory inspections in recent years. Training days have also been organised by the regulatory body to help develop a shared understanding of safety culture between licensee and regulatory personnel. Fortum has also developed their own training for managers and supervisors. Training and ongoing discussion on LMfS/SC safety culture is considered particularly important because both Fortum and the regulatory body are experiencing an influx of new staff due to the demographic profile of their organisations. It was noted that further work is needed to reach a common understanding of safety culture on a practical level (e.g., for a mechanic setting to work), and in relation to the inspection criteria used by the regulator. The challenges associated with companies with a mix of energy types were also discussed. This can make it more difficult to understand responsibilities and decision making processes, including the role of the parent body organisation. It also makes communication more challenging due to increased complexity and a larger number of stakeholders

  19. The Ambiguous Role of Constraints in Creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biskjær, Michael Mose; Onarheim, Balder; Wiltschnig, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between creativity and constraints is often described in the literature either in rather imprecise, general concepts or in relation to very specific domains. Cross-domain and cross-disciplinary takes on how the handling of constraints influences creative activities are rare. In t......-disciplinary research into the ambiguous role of constraints in creativity....

  20. Learning and Parallelization Boost Constraint Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Xi

    2013-01-01

    Constraint satisfaction problems are a powerful way to abstract and represent academic and real-world problems from both artificial intelligence and operations research. A constraint satisfaction problem is typically addressed by a sequential constraint solver running on a single processor. Rather than construct a new, parallel solver, this work…

  1. A general treatment of dynamic integrity constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Brock, EO

    This paper introduces a general, set-theoretic model for expressing dynamic integrity constraints, i.e., integrity constraints on the state changes that are allowed in a given state space. In a managerial context, such dynamic integrity constraints can be seen as representations of "real world"

  2. Nuclear regulatory decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieland, Patricia; Almeida, Ivan Pedro Salati de

    2011-01-01

    The scientific considerations upon which the nuclear regulations are based provide objective criteria for decisions on nuclear safety matters. However, the decisions that a regulatory agency takes go far beyond granting or not an operating license based on assessment of compliance. It may involve decisions about hiring experts or research, appeals, responses to other government agencies, international agreements, etc.. In all cases, top management of the regulatory agency should hear and decide the best balance between the benefits of regulatory action and undue risks and other associated impacts that may arise, including issues of credibility and reputation. The establishment of a decision framework based on well established principles and criteria ensures performance stability and consistency, preventing individual subjectivity. This article analyzes the challenges to the decision-making by regulatory agencies to ensure coherence and consistency in decisions, even in situations where there is uncertainty, lack of reliable information and even divergence of opinions among experts. The article explores the basic elements for a framework for regulatory decision-making. (author)

  3. Nuclear regulatory decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The fundamental objective of all nuclear safety regulatory bodies is to ensure that nuclear utilities operate their plants at all times in an acceptably safe manner. In meeting this objective, the regulatory body should strive to ensure that its regulatory decisions are technically sound, consistent from case to case, and timely. In addition, the regulator must be aware that its decisions and the circumstances surrounding those decisions can affect how its stakeholders, such as government policy makers, the industry it regulates, and the public, view it as an effective and credible regulator. In order to maintain the confidence of those stakeholders, the regulator should make sure that its decisions are transparent, have a clear basis in law and regulations, and are seen by impartial observers to be fair to all parties. Based on the work of a Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) expert group, this report discusses some of the basic principles and criteria that a regulatory body should consider in making decisions and describes the elements of an integrated framework for regulatory decision making. (author)

  4. Exploring Multiple Constraints of Anthropogenic Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arellano, A. F., Jr.; Tang, W.; Silva, S. J.; Raman, A.

    2017-12-01

    It is imperative that we provide more accurate and consistent analysis of anthropogenic pollution emissions at scales that is relevant to air quality, energy, and environmental policy. Here, we present three proof-of-concept studies that explore observational constraints from ground, aircraft, and satellite-derived measurements of atmospheric composition on bulk characteristics of anthropogenic combustion in megacities and fire regions. We focus on jointly analyzing co-emitted combustion products such as CO2, NO2, CO, SO2, and aerosols from GOSAT, OCO-2, OMI, MOPITT, and MODIS retrievals, in conjunction with USEPA AQS and NASA field campaigns. Each of these constituents exhibit distinct atmospheric signatures that depend on fuel type, combustion technology, process, practices and regulatory policies. Our results show that distinguishable patterns and relationships between the increases in concentrations across the megacity (or enhancements) due to emissions of these constituents enable us to: a) identify trends in combustion activity and efficiency, and b) reconcile discrepancies between state- to country-based emission inventories and modeled concentrations of these constituents. For example, the trends in enhancement ratios of these species reveal combustion emission pathways for China and United States that are not captured by current emission inventories and chemical reanalysis. Analysis of their joint distributions has considerable potential utility in current and future integrated constituent data assimilation and inverse modeling activities for monitoring, verifying, and reporting emissions, particularly for regions with few observations and limited information on local combustion processes. This work also motivates the need for continuous and preferably collocated satellite measurements of atmospheric composition, including CH4 and CO2, and studies related to improving the applicability and integration of these observations with ground- and aircraft- based

  5. Constraint effects in heavy-section steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, B.R.; Shum, D.K.M.; Keeney-Walker, J.; Theiss, T.J.

    1993-01-01

    A focal point of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission-funded Heavy-Section Steel Technology (HSST) Program is the development of technology required for accurate assessment of fracture-prevention margins in commercial nuclear reactor pressure vessels (RPVs). In a series of investigations, the HSST Program is seeking to obtain an improved understanding of the relationships governing transfer of fracture toughness data from small-scale specimens to large-scale structures. This paper describes two analytical approaches to the transferability issues that are being evaluated in the HSST Program. One is a continuum correlative methodology based on two-parameter descriptions (K-T or J-Q) of the near crack-tip fields that incorporate effects of the higher-order T-stress for linear-elastic fracture mechanics conditions or the Q-stress for more general elastic-plastic fracture mechanics conditions. The second approach utilizes a micromechanical predictive methodology that relates cleavage crack initiation to the attainment of a critical volume enclosed within a selected maximum principal stress contour surrounding the crack tip. In preliminary evaluations, these methodologies were applied to experimental data taken from several intermediate- and large-scale testing programs. Results and conclusions from these applications are discussed in the paper. Applications of the methodologies to analytical studies concerning biaxial stress effects on fracture toughness and safety margin assessments of an RPV subjected to pressurized-thermal-shock transient loadings are also presented. While these fracture methodologies appear to show promise in being able to differentiate among crack-tip constraint levels, numerous issues were identified in the HSST studies that require further investigation. Recommendations are given concerning future work intended to resolve several of these issues. 42 refs., 26 figs., 1 tab

  6. Constraint Specialisation in Horn Clause Verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kafle, Bishoksan; Gallagher, John Patrick

    2015-01-01

    We present a method for specialising the constraints in constrained Horn clauses with respect to a goal. We use abstract interpretation to compute a model of a query-answer transformation of a given set of clauses and a goal. The effect is to propagate the constraints from the goal top......-down and propagate answer constraints bottom-up. Our approach does not unfold the clauses at all; we use the constraints from the model to compute a specialised version of each clause in the program. The approach is independent of the abstract domain and the constraints theory underlying the clauses. Experimental...

  7. Constraint specialisation in Horn clause verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kafle, Bishoksan; Gallagher, John Patrick

    2017-01-01

    We present a method for specialising the constraints in constrained Horn clauses with respect to a goal. We use abstract interpretation to compute a model of a query–answer transformed version of a given set of clauses and a goal. The constraints from the model are then used to compute...... a specialised version of each clause. The effect is to propagate the constraints from the goal top-down and propagate answer constraints bottom-up. The specialisation procedure can be repeated to yield further specialisation. The approach is independent of the abstract domain and the constraint theory...

  8. Nuclear energy and external constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lattes, R.; Thiriet, L.

    1983-01-01

    The structural factors of this crisis probably predominate over factors arising out the economic situation, even if explanations vary in this respect. In this article devoted to nuclear energy, a possible means of Loosering external constraints the current international economic environment is firstly outlined; the context in which the policies of industrialized countries, and therefore that of France, must be developed. An examination of the possible role of energy policies in general and nuclear policies in particular as an instrument of economic policy in providing a partial solution to this crisis, will then enable to quantitatively evaluate the effects of such policies at a national level [fr

  9. Nuclear Regulatory Legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-08-01

    This compilation of statutes and material pertaining to nuclear regulatory legislation through the 100th Congress, 2nd Session, has been prepared by the Office of the General Counsel, US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, with the assistance of staff, for use as an internal resource document. Persons using this document are placed on notice that it may not be used as an authoritative citation in lieu of the primary legislative sources. Furthermore, while every effort has been made to ensure the completeness and accuracy of this material, neither the United States Government, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, nor any of their employees makes any expressed or implied warranty or assumes liability for the accuracy or completeness of the material presented in this compilation

  10. Regulatory and licensee surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Prior to the workshop two CSNI/WGHOF surveys were distributed. One survey was directed at regulatory bodies and the other was directed at plant licensees. The surveys were: 1 - Regulatory Expectations of Licensees' Arrangements to Ensure Suitable Organisational Structure, Resources and Competencies to Manage Safety (sent to WGHOF regulatory members). The survey requested that the respondents provide a brief overview of the situation related to plant organisations in their country, their regulatory expectations and their formal requirements. The survey addressed three subjects: the demonstration and documentation of organisational structures, resources and competencies, organisational changes, issues for improvement (for both current and new plants). Responses were received from eleven regulatory bodies. 2 - Approaches to Justify Organisational Suitability (sent to selected licensees). The purpose of the survey to was to gain an understanding of how licensees ensure organisational suitability, resources and competencies. This information was used to assist in the development of the issues and subjects that were addressed at the group discussion sessions. Responses were received from over fifteen licensees from nine countries. The survey requested that the licensees provide information on how they ensure effective organisational structures at their plants. The survey grouped the questions into the following four categories: organisational safety functions, resource and competence, decision-making and communication, good examples and improvement needs. The findings from these surveys were used in conjunction with other factors to identify the key issues for the workshop discussion sessions. The responses from these two surveys are discussed briefly in Sections 4 and 5 of this report. More extensive reviews of the regulatory and licensee responses are provided in Appendix 1

  11. Prediction of regulatory elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandelin, Albin

    2008-01-01

    Finding the regulatory mechanisms responsible for gene expression remains one of the most important challenges for biomedical research. A major focus in cellular biology is to find functional transcription factor binding sites (TFBS) responsible for the regulation of a downstream gene. As wet......-lab methods are time consuming and expensive, it is not realistic to identify TFBS for all uncharacterized genes in the genome by purely experimental means. Computational methods aimed at predicting potential regulatory regions can increase the efficiency of wet-lab experiments significantly. Here, methods...

  12. Rationales for regulatory activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perhac, R.M. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1997-02-01

    The author provides an outline which touches on the types of concerns about risk evaluation which are addressed in the process of establishing regulatory guides. Broadly he says regulatory activity serves three broad constituents: (1) Paternalism (private risk); (2) Promotion of social welfare (public risks); (3) Protection of individual rights (public risks). He then discusses some of the major issues encountered in reaching a decision on what is an acceptable level of risk within each of these areas, and how one establishes such a level.

  13. Developmental constraint of insect audition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strauß Johannes

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insect ears contain very different numbers of sensory cells, from only one sensory cell in some moths to thousands of sensory cells, e.g. in cicadas. These differences still await functional explanation and especially the large numbers in cicadas remain puzzling. Insects of the different orders have distinct developmental sequences for the generation of auditory organs. These sensory cells might have different functions depending on the developmental stages. Here we propose that constraints arising during development are also important for the design of insect ears and might influence cell numbers of the adults. Presentation of the hypothesis We propose that the functional requirements of the subadult stages determine the adult complement of sensory units in the auditory system of cicadas. The hypothetical larval sensory organ should function as a vibration receiver, representing a functional caenogenesis. Testing the hypothesis Experiments at different levels have to be designed to test the hypothesis. Firstly, the neuroanatomy of the larval sense organ should be analyzed to detail. Secondly, the function should be unraveled neurophysiologically and behaviorally. Thirdly, the persistence of the sensory cells and the rebuilding of the sensory organ to the adult should be investigated. Implications of the hypothesis Usually, the evolution of insect ears is viewed with respect to physiological and neuronal mechanisms of sound perception. This view should be extended to the development of sense organs. Functional requirements during postembryonic development may act as constraints for the evolution of adult organs, as exemplified with the auditory system of cicadas.

  14. The EU commission and national governments as partners: EC regulatory expansion in telecommunications 1979-2000

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Thatcher

    2001-01-01

    Explicitly or implicitly, general models of European integration claim that EC regulatory expansion involves a struggle for power between Commission and national governments. The Commission is seen as a policy entrepreneur, taking the initiative to drive forward integration (Sandholtz and Zysman 1989). It seeks regulatory expansion due to constraints on its expenditure (Majone 1996, ch4). Neo-functionalists emphasise the Commission's ability to expand its role against the wishes of government...

  15. Developing regulatory approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axelsson, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Lars Axelsson presented SSM progress on oversight of LMfS/SC since the Chester 1 Workshop in 2007. Current SSM approaches for safety culture oversight include targeted safety management and safety culture inspections, compliance inspections which cover aspects of safety management/safety culture and multi-disciplinary team inspections. Examples of themes for targeted inspections include management of ambiguous operational situations or other weak signals, understanding of and attitudes to Human Performance tools, the Safety Department's role and authority and Leadership for safety. All regulatory activities provide inputs for the SSM yearly safety evaluation of each licensee. A form has been developed to capture safety culture observations from inspections and other interactions with licensees. Analysis will be performed to identify patterns and provide information to support planning of specific Safety Culture activities. Training has been developed for regulatory staff to enhance the quality of regulatory interventions on safety culture. This includes a half-day seminar to provide an overview of safety culture, and a workshop which provides more in-depth discussion on cultural issues and how to capture those during regulatory activities. Future plans include guidance for inspectors, and informal seminars on safety culture with licensees

  16. NRC Regulatory Agenda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-07-01

    This document compilation of all rules on which the NRC has recently completed action, or has proposed action, or is considering action, and all petitions for rule making which have been received by the Commission and are pending disposition by the Commission. The Regulatory Agenda is updated and issued each quarter

  17. NRC regulatory agenda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-02-01

    This document is a compilation of all rules on which the NRC has recently completed action, or has proposed action, or is considered action, and all petitions for rulemaking which have been received by the Commission and are pending disposition by the Commission. The Regulatory Agenda is updated and issued each quarter

  18. NRC Regulatory Agenda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-07-01

    This document is a compilation of all rules on which the NRC has proposed or is considering action and all petitions for rulemaking which have been received by the Commission and are pending disposition by the Commission. The Regulatory Agenda is updated and issued each quarter

  19. NRC regulatory agenda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    This document provides a compilation of all rules on which the NRC has recently completed action, or has proposed action, or is considering action, and all petitions for rulemaking which have been received by the Commission and are pending disposition by the Commission. The Regulatory Agenda is updated and issued each quarter

  20. Comments on regulatory reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendrie, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    Nuclear regulatory reform is divided into two parts. The first part contains all those matters for which new legislation is required. The second part concerns all those matters that are within the power of the Commission under existing statutes. Recommendations are presented

  1. Comments on regulatory reform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrie, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    Nuclear regulatory reform is divided into two parts. The first part contains all those matters for which new legislation is required. The second part concerns all those matters that are within the power of the Commission under existing statutes. Recommendations are presented.

  2. 3 CFR - Regulatory Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... as a means of promoting regulatory goals. The fundamental principles and structures governing... review. In this time of fundamental transformation, that process—and the principles governing regulation... the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) has reviewed Federal regulations. The purposes of such...

  3. Thermomechanical constraints and constitutive formulations in thermoelasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baek S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate three classes of constraints in a thermoelastic body: (i a deformation-temperature constraint, (ii a deformation-entropy constraint, and (iii a deformation-energy constraint. These constraints are obtained as limits of unconstrained thermoelastic materials and we show that constraints (ii and (iii are equivalent. By using a limiting procedure, we show that for the constraint (i, the entropy plays the role of a Lagrange multiplier while for (ii and (iii, the absolute temperature plays the role of Lagrange multiplier. We further demonstrate that the governing equations for materials subject to constraint (i are identical to those of an unconstrained material whose internal energy is an affine function of the entropy, while those for materials subject to constraints (ii and (iii are identical to those of an unstrained material whose Helmholtz potential is affine in the absolute temperature. Finally, we model the thermoelastic response of a peroxide-cured vulcanizate of natural rubber and show that imposing the constraint in which the volume change depends only on the internal energy leads to very good predictions (compared to experimental results of the stress and temperature response under isothermal and isentropic conditions.

  4. From physical dose constraints to equivalent uniform dose constraints in inverse radiotherapy planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thieke, Christian; Bortfeld, Thomas; Niemierko, Andrzej; Nill, Simeon

    2003-01-01

    Optimization algorithms in inverse radiotherapy planning need information about the desired dose distribution. Usually the planner defines physical dose constraints for each structure of the treatment plan, either in form of minimum and maximum doses or as dose-volume constraints. The concept of equivalent uniform dose (EUD) was designed to describe dose distributions with a higher clinical relevance. In this paper, we present a method to consider the EUD as an optimization constraint by using the method of projections onto convex sets (POCS). In each iteration of the optimization loop, for the actual dose distribution of an organ that violates an EUD constraint a new dose distribution is calculated that satisfies the EUD constraint, leading to voxel-based physical dose constraints. The new dose distribution is found by projecting the current one onto the convex set of all dose distributions fulfilling the EUD constraint. The algorithm is easy to integrate into existing inverse planning systems, and it allows the planner to choose between physical and EUD constraints separately for each structure. A clinical case of a head and neck tumor is optimized using three different sets of constraints: physical constraints for all structures, physical constraints for the target and EUD constraints for the organs at risk, and EUD constraints for all structures. The results show that the POCS method converges stable and given EUD constraints are reached closely

  5. Metric approach to quantum constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brody, Dorje C; Hughston, Lane P; Gustavsson, Anna C T

    2009-01-01

    A framework for deriving equations of motion for constrained quantum systems is introduced and a procedure for its implementation is outlined. In special cases, the proposed new method, which takes advantage of the fact that the space of pure states in quantum mechanics has both a symplectic structure and a metric structure, reduces to a quantum analogue of the Dirac theory of constraints in classical mechanics. Explicit examples involving spin-1/2 particles are worked out in detail: in the first example, our approach coincides with a quantum version of the Dirac formalism, while the second example illustrates how a situation that cannot be treated by Dirac's approach can nevertheless be dealt with in the present scheme.

  6. Cosmographic Constraints and Cosmic Fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Capozziello

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem of reproducing dark energy effects is reviewed here with particular interest devoted to cosmography. We summarize some of the most relevant cosmological models, based on the assumption that the corresponding barotropic equations of state evolve as the universe expands, giving rise to the accelerated expansion. We describe in detail the ΛCDM (Λ-Cold Dark Matter and ωCDM models, considering also some specific examples, e.g., Chevallier–Polarsky–Linder, the Chaplygin gas and the Dvali–Gabadadze–Porrati cosmological model. Finally, we consider the cosmological consequences of f(R and f(T gravities and their impact on the framework of cosmography. Keeping these considerations in mind, we point out the model-independent procedure related to cosmography, showing how to match the series of cosmological observables to the free parameters of each model. We critically discuss the role played by cosmography, as a selection criterion to check whether a particular model passes or does not present cosmological constraints. In so doing, we find out cosmological bounds by fitting the luminosity distance expansion of the redshift, z, adopting the recent Union 2.1 dataset of supernovae, combined with the baryonic acoustic oscillation and the cosmic microwave background measurements. We perform cosmographic analyses, imposing different priors on the Hubble rate present value. In addition, we compare our results with recent PLANCK limits, showing that the ΛCDM and ωCDM models seem to be the favorite with respect to other dark energy models. However, we show that cosmographic constraints on f(R and f(T cannot discriminate between extensions of General Relativity and dark energy models, leading to a disadvantageous degeneracy problem.

  7. Causality Constraints in Conformal Field Theory

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Causality places nontrivial constraints on QFT in Lorentzian signature, for example fixing the signs of certain terms in the low energy Lagrangian. In d-dimensional conformal field theory, we show how such constraints are encoded in crossing symmetry of Euclidean correlators, and derive analogous constraints directly from the conformal bootstrap (analytically). The bootstrap setup is a Lorentzian four-point function corresponding to propagation through a shockwave. Crossing symmetry fixes the signs of certain log terms that appear in the conformal block expansion, which constrains the interactions of low-lying operators. As an application, we use the bootstrap to rederive the well known sign constraint on the (∂φ)4 coupling in effective field theory, from a dual CFT. We also find constraints on theories with higher spin conserved currents. Our analysis is restricted to scalar correlators, but we argue that similar methods should also impose nontrivial constraints on the interactions of spinni...

  8. Constraint Embedding for Multibody System Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Abhinandan

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a constraint embedding approach for the handling of local closure constraints in multibody system dynamics. The approach uses spatial operator techniques to eliminate local-loop constraints from the system and effectively convert the system into tree-topology systems. This approach allows the direct derivation of recursive O(N) techniques for solving the system dynamics and avoiding the expensive steps that would otherwise be required for handling the closedchain dynamics. The approach is very effective for systems where the constraints are confined to small-subgraphs within the system topology. The paper provides background on the spatial operator O(N) algorithms, the extensions for handling embedded constraints, and concludes with some examples of such constraints.

  9. Use of dose constraints in public exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tageldein, Amged

    2015-02-01

    An overview of the dose constraints in public exposures has been carried out in this project. The establishment, development and the application of the concept of dose constraints are reviewed with regards to public exposure. The role of dose constraints in the process of optimization of radiation protection was described and has been showed that the concept of the dose constraints along with many other concept of radiation protection is widely applied in the optimization of exposure to radiation. From the beginning of the establishment of dose constraints as a concept in radiation protection, the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP) has published a number of documents that provides detailed application related to radiation protection and safety of public exposure from ionizing radiation. This work provides an overview of such publications and related documents with special emphasis on optimization of public exposure using dose constraints. (au)

  10. Causality constraints in conformal field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartman, Thomas; Jain, Sachin; Kundu, Sandipan [Department of Physics, Cornell University,Ithaca, New York (United States)

    2016-05-17

    Causality places nontrivial constraints on QFT in Lorentzian signature, for example fixing the signs of certain terms in the low energy Lagrangian. In d dimensional conformal field theory, we show how such constraints are encoded in crossing symmetry of Euclidean correlators, and derive analogous constraints directly from the conformal bootstrap (analytically). The bootstrap setup is a Lorentzian four-point function corresponding to propagation through a shockwave. Crossing symmetry fixes the signs of certain log terms that appear in the conformal block expansion, which constrains the interactions of low-lying operators. As an application, we use the bootstrap to rederive the well known sign constraint on the (∂ϕ){sup 4} coupling in effective field theory, from a dual CFT. We also find constraints on theories with higher spin conserved currents. Our analysis is restricted to scalar correlators, but we argue that similar methods should also impose nontrivial constraints on the interactions of spinning operators.

  11. Regulatory Monitoring of Fortified Foods: Identifying Barriers and Good Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Laura A; Vossenaar, Marieke; Garrett, Greg S

    2015-01-01

    While fortification of staple foods and condiments has gained enormous global traction, poor performance persists throughout many aspects of implementation, most notably around the critical element of regulatory monitoring, which is essential for ensuring foods meet national fortification standards. Where coverage of fortified foods is high, limited nutritional impact of fortification programs largely exists due to regulatory monitoring that insufficiently identifies and holds producers accountable for underfortified products. Based on quality assurance data from 20 national fortification programs in 12 countries, we estimate that less than half of the samples are adequately fortified against relevant national standards. In this paper, we outline key findings from a literature review, key informant interviews with 11 fortification experts, and semi-quantitative surveys with 39 individuals from regulatory agencies and the food fortification industry in 17 countries on the perceived effectiveness of regulatory monitoring systems and barriers to compliance against national fortification standards. Findings highlight that regulatory agencies and industry disagree on the value that enforcement mechanisms have in ensuring compliance against standards. Perceived political risk of enforcement and poorly resourced inspectorate capacity appear to adversely reinforce each other within an environment of unclear legislation to create a major hurdle for improving overall compliance of fortification programs against national standards. Budget constraints affect the ability of regulatory agencies to create a well-trained inspector cadre and improve the detection and enforcement of non-compliant and underfortified products. Recommendations to improve fortification compliance include improving technical capacity; ensuring sustained leadership, accountability, and funding in both the private and the public sectors; and removing political barriers to ensure consistent detection of

  12. Constraint-based Word Segmentation for Chinese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning; Bo, Li

    2014-01-01

    -hoc and statistically based methods. In this paper, we show experiments of implementing different approaches to CWSP in the framework of CHR Grammars [Christiansen, 2005] that provides a constraint solving approach to language analysis. CHR Grammars are based upon Constraint Handling Rules, CHR [Frühwirth, 1998, 2009......], which is a declarative, high-level programming language for specification and implementation of constraint solvers....

  13. Stability Constraints for Robust Model Predictive Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda G. S. Ottoni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an approach for the robust stabilization of systems controlled by MPC strategies. Uncertain SISO linear systems with box-bounded parametric uncertainties are considered. The proposed approach delivers some constraints on the control inputs which impose sufficient conditions for the convergence of the system output. These stability constraints can be included in the set of constraints dealt with by existing MPC design strategies, in this way leading to the “robustification” of the MPC.

  14. Some cosmological constraints on gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schramm, D.N.

    1983-01-01

    In these lectures, a review is made of various constraints cosmology may place on gauge theories. Particular emphasis is placed on those constraints obtainable from Big Bang Nucleosynthesis, with only brief mention made of Big Bang Baryosynthesis. There is also a considerable discussion of astrophysical constraints on masses and lifetimes of neutrinos with specific mention of the 'missing mass (light)' problem of galactic dynamics. (orig./HSI)

  15. Nuclear Regulatory Commission information digest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-03-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission information digest provides summary information regarding the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, its regulatory responsibilities, and areas licensed by the commission. This is an annual publication for the general use of the NRC Staff and is available to the public. The digest is divided into two parts: the first presents an overview of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the second provides data on NRC commercial nuclear reactor licensees and commercial nuclear power reactors worldwide

  16. Generalized Pauli constraints in small atoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schilling, Christian; Altunbulak, Murat; Knecht, Stefan

    2018-01-01

    investigations have found evidence that these constraints are exactly saturated in several physically relevant systems, e.g., in a certain electronic state of the beryllium atom. It has been suggested that, in such cases, the constraints, rather than the details of the Hamiltonian, dictate the system......'s qualitative behavior. Here, we revisit this question with state-of-the-art numerical methods for small atoms. We find that the constraints are, in fact, not exactly saturated, but that they lie much closer to the surface defined by the constraints than the geometry of the problem would suggest. While...

  17. Production Team Maintenance: Systemic Constraints Impacting Implementation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moore, Terry

    1997-01-01

    .... Identified constraints included: integrating the PTM positioning strategy into the AMC corporate strategic planning process, manpower modeling simulator limitations, labor force authorizations and decentralization...

  18. Review of Minimal Flavor Constraints for Technicolor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    S. Fukano, Hidenori; Sannino, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the constraints on the the vacuum polarization of the standard model gauge bosons from a minimal set of flavor observables valid for a general class of models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking. We will show that the constraints have a strong impact on the self-coupling and mas......We analyze the constraints on the the vacuum polarization of the standard model gauge bosons from a minimal set of flavor observables valid for a general class of models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking. We will show that the constraints have a strong impact on the self...

  19. Toward an automaton Constraint for Local Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun He

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available We explore the idea of using finite automata to implement new constraints for local search (this is already a successful technique in constraint-based global search. We show how it is possible to maintain incrementally the violations of a constraint and its decision variables from an automaton that describes a ground checker for that constraint. We establish the practicality of our approach idea on real-life personnel rostering problems, and show that it is competitive with the approach of [Pralong, 2007].

  20. Notes on Timed Concurrent Constraint Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens; Valencia, Frank D.

    2004-01-01

    and program reactive systems. This note provides a comprehensive introduction to the background for and central notions from the theory of tccp. Furthermore, it surveys recent results on a particular tccp calculus, ntcc, and it provides a classification of the expressive power of various tccp languages.......A constraint is a piece of (partial) information on the values of the variables of a system. Concurrent constraint programming (ccp) is a model of concurrency in which agents (also called processes) interact by telling and asking information (constraints) to and from a shared store (a constraint...

  1. Characteristics of regulatory regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noralv Veggeland

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The overarching theme of this paper is institutional analysis of basic characteristics of regulatory regimes. The concepts of path dependence and administrative traditions are used throughout. Self-reinforcing or positive feedback processes in political systems represent a basic framework. The empirical point of departure is the EU public procurement directive linked to OECD data concerning use of outsourcing among member states. The question is asked: What has caused the Nordic countries, traditionally not belonging to the Anglo-Saxon market-centred administrative tradition, to be placed so high on the ranking as users of the Market-Type Mechanism (MTM of outsourcing in the public sector vs. in-house provision of services? A thesis is that the reason may be complex, but might be found in an innovative Scandinavian regulatory approach rooted in the Nordic model.

  2. NRC regulatory agenda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-07-01

    The NRC Regulatory Agenda is a compilation of all rules on which the NRC has recently completed action, or has proposed action, or is considering action, and all petitions for rulemaking which have been received by the Commission and are pending disposition by the Commission. The Regulatory Agenda is updated and issued each quarter. The rules on which final action has been taken since March 31, 1993 are: Repeal of NRC standards of conduct; Fitness-for-duty requirements for licensees who possess, use, or transport Category I material; Training and qualification of nuclear power plant personnel; Monitoring the effectiveness of maintenance at nuclear power plants; Licensing requirements for land disposal of radioactive wastes; and Licensees' announcements of safeguards inspections

  3. A flexible regulatory framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvennoinen, T.

    2000-01-01

    Regulatory reform of the Finnish electricity market meant opening up potentially competitive parts of the electricity sector to competition and eliminating all unnecessary forms of regulation covering generation, wholesale supply, retail supply, and foreign trade in electricity. New types of control and regulatory mechanisms and institutions were set up for those parts of the electricity industry that were excluded from competition, such as network operations. Network activities now have to be licensed, whereas no licence is needed for generation or supply. A new sector-specific regulatory authority was established in 1995 to coincide with the implementation of the Electricity Market Act, known as the Electricity Market Authority. This is responsible for regulating network activities and retail supply to captive customers. The core function of the authority, which employs some 14 people, is to promote the smooth operation of the Finnish electricity market and to oversee the implementation of the Electricity Market Act and its provisions. Its most important duties are linked to overseeing the process by which network companies price their electricity. As price regulation no longer exists, all the companies in the electricity sector set their tariffs independently, even network companies. The job of controlling the pricing of network services is handed by the Electricity Market Authority, following the principles of competition control. Pricing control takes place ex post - after a pricing system has been adopted by a company and concentrates on individual cases and companies. There is no ex ante system of setting or approving prices and tariffs by the regulator. The tariffs and pricing of network services can be evaluated, however, by both the Electricity Market Authority and the Finnish Competition Authority, which have overlapping powers as regards the pricing of network activities. The Finnish regulatory framework can be described as a system of light

  4. Unlocking the Constraints of Cyanobacterial Productivity: Acclimations Enabling Ultrafast Growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, Hans C.; McClure, Ryan S.; Hill, Eric A.; Markillie, Lye Meng; Chrisler, William B.; Romine, Margie F.; McDermott, Jason E.; Posewitz, Matthew C.; Bryant, Donald A.; Konopka, Allan E.; Fredrickson, James K.; Beliaev, Alexander S.

    2016-07-26

    ABSTRACT

    Harnessing the metabolic potential of photosynthetic microbes for next-generation biotechnology objectives requires detailed scientific understanding of the physiological constraints and regulatory controls affecting carbon partitioning between biomass, metabolite storage pools, and bioproduct synthesis. We dissected the cellular mechanisms underlying the remarkable physiological robustness of the euryhaline unicellular cyanobacteriumSynechococcussp. strain PCC 7002 (Synechococcus7002) and identify key mechanisms that allow cyanobacteria to achieve unprecedented photoautotrophic productivities (~2.5-h doubling time). Ultrafast growth ofSynechococcus7002 was supported by high rates of photosynthetic electron transfer and linked to significantly elevated transcription of precursor biosynthesis and protein translation machinery. Notably, no growth or photosynthesis inhibition signatures were observed under any of the tested experimental conditions. Finally, the ultrafast growth inSynechococcus7002 was also linked to a 300% expansion of average cell volume. We hypothesize that this cellular adaptation is required at high irradiances to support higher cell division rates and reduce deleterious effects, corresponding to high light, through increased carbon and reductant sequestration.

    IMPORTANCEEfficient coupling between photosynthesis and productivity is central to the development of biotechnology based on solar energy. Therefore, understanding the factors constraining maximum rates of carbon processing is necessary to identify regulatory mechanisms and devise strategies to overcome productivity constraints. Here, we interrogate the molecular mechanisms that operate at a systems level to allow cyanobacteria to achieve ultrafast growth. This was done by considering growth and photosynthetic kinetics with global transcription patterns. We have delineated

  5. The changing regulatory environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caron, G.

    1999-01-01

    The role and value of regulation in the energy sector was discussed, demonstrating how, despite common perception, regulation is an essential part of Canada's strategy to find and develop new opportunities. The future vision of regulation for industry participants was presented with particular focus on issues related to streamlining the regulatory process. As far as pipelines are concerned, regulatory actions are necessary to facilitate capacity increases and to ensure the line's integrity, safety and environmental record. Furthermore, regulation provides economic solutions where market forces cannot provide them, as for example where business has elements of monopoly. It arbitrates interests of landowners, business, consumers, and environmental groups. It looks for ways to ensure conditions under which competition can flourish. It acts as the guardian of citizens' rights in a democratic society by providing citizens with an opportunity to be heard on the building or expansion of pipelines and associated facilities. As citizens become more and more concerned about their property and the land that surrounds them, citizen involvement in decision making about how industry activity affects their quality of life will become correspondingly more important. Regulatory agencies are committed to facilitate this engagement by flexible hearing procedures and by making use of evolving communication and information technology

  6. Regulatory aspects of radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kristensen, K.

    1985-01-01

    Regulatory systems in the field of radiopharmaceuticals have two main purposes: efficacy and safety. Efficacy expresses the quality of the diagnostic and therapeutic process for the patient. Safety involves the patient, the staff, and the environment. The world situation regarding regulations for radiopharmaceuticals is reviewed on the basis of a survey in WHO Member States. The main content of such regulations is discussed. The special properties of radiopharmaceuticals compared with ordinary drugs may call for modified regulations. Several countries are preparing such regulations. Close co-operation and good understanding among scientists working in hospital research, industry and regulatory bodies will be of great importance for the fast and safe introduction of new radiopharmaceuticals for the benefit of the patient. Before introducing new legislation in this field, a radiopharmaceutical expert should analyse the situation in the country and the relationship to the existing regulations. It is expected that the most important factor in promoting the fast introduction of new, safe and effective radiopharmaceuticals will be the training of people working within the regulatory bodies. It is foreseen that the IAEA and WHO will have an important role to play by providing expert advice and training in this area. (author)

  7. Safeguards decision making in the public and regulatory environment, and the potential role of quantitative approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherr, T.S.

    1981-01-01

    This paper briefly examines the nature of the safeguards program's objectives and constraints, and the inherent limitations on comprehensive quantification. It discusses the nature of the public and regulatory processes employed in safeguards decision making, and examines their implications regarding the potential role of quantitative approaches to safeguards policy and operational decision making

  8. Self-Regulatory Strategies in Daily Life: Selection, Optimization, and Compensation and Everyday Memory Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Stephanie A.; Rickenbach, Elizabeth H.; Lachman, Margie E.

    2016-01-01

    The effective use of self-regulatory strategies, such as selection, optimization, and compensation (SOC) requires resources. However, it is theorized that SOC use is most advantageous for those experiencing losses and diminishing resources. The present study explored this seeming paradox within the context of limitations or constraints due to…

  9. Non-standard constraints within In-Core Fuel Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maldonado, G.I. [University of Cincinnati, P.O. Box 210072, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0072 (United States); Torres, C. [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gestion de Combustible, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Marrote, G.N.; Ruiz U, V. [Global Nuclear Fuel, Americas, LLC, PO Box 780, M/C A16, Wilmington, NC28402 (United States)]. e-mail: Ivan.Maldonado@uc.edu

    2004-07-01

    Recent advancements in the area of nuclear fuel management optimization have been considerable and widespread. Therefore, it is not surprising that the design of today's nuclear fuel reloads can be a highly automated process that is often accompanied by sophisticated optimization software and graphical user interfaces to assist core designers. Most typically, among other objectives, optimization software seeks to maximize the energy efficiency of a fuel cycle while satisfying a variety of safety, operational, and regulatory constraints. Concurrently, the general industry trend continues to be one of pursuing higher generating capacity (i.e., power up-rates) alongside cycle length extensions. As these increasingly invaluable software tools and ambitious performance goals are pursued in unison, more aggressive core designs ultimately emerge that effectively minimize the margins to limits and, in some cases, may turn out less forgiving or accommodating to changes in underlying key assumptions. The purpose of this article is to highlight a few 'non-standard', though common constraints that can affect a BWR core design but which are often difficult, if not impossible, to implement into an automated setting. In a way, this article indirectly emphasizes the unique and irreplaceable role of the experienced designer in light of 'real life' situations. (Author)

  10. Non-standard constraints within In-Core Fuel Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maldonado, G.I.; Torres, C.; Marrote, G.N.; Ruiz U, V.

    2004-01-01

    Recent advancements in the area of nuclear fuel management optimization have been considerable and widespread. Therefore, it is not surprising that the design of today's nuclear fuel reloads can be a highly automated process that is often accompanied by sophisticated optimization software and graphical user interfaces to assist core designers. Most typically, among other objectives, optimization software seeks to maximize the energy efficiency of a fuel cycle while satisfying a variety of safety, operational, and regulatory constraints. Concurrently, the general industry trend continues to be one of pursuing higher generating capacity (i.e., power up-rates) alongside cycle length extensions. As these increasingly invaluable software tools and ambitious performance goals are pursued in unison, more aggressive core designs ultimately emerge that effectively minimize the margins to limits and, in some cases, may turn out less forgiving or accommodating to changes in underlying key assumptions. The purpose of this article is to highlight a few 'non-standard', though common constraints that can affect a BWR core design but which are often difficult, if not impossible, to implement into an automated setting. In a way, this article indirectly emphasizes the unique and irreplaceable role of the experienced designer in light of 'real life' situations. (Author)

  11. Optimal Stopping with Information Constraint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lempa, Jukka

    2012-01-01

    We study the optimal stopping problem proposed by Dupuis and Wang (Adv. Appl. Probab. 34:141–157, 2002). In this maximization problem of the expected present value of the exercise payoff, the underlying dynamics follow a linear diffusion. The decision maker is not allowed to stop at any time she chooses but rather on the jump times of an independent Poisson process. Dupuis and Wang (Adv. Appl. Probab. 34:141–157, 2002), solve this problem in the case where the underlying is a geometric Brownian motion and the payoff function is of American call option type. In the current study, we propose a mild set of conditions (covering the setup of Dupuis and Wang in Adv. Appl. Probab. 34:141–157, 2002) on both the underlying and the payoff and build and use a Markovian apparatus based on the Bellman principle of optimality to solve the problem under these conditions. We also discuss the interpretation of this model as optimal timing of an irreversible investment decision under an exogenous information constraint.

  12. Application of Regulatory Focus Theory to Search Advertising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowle, Elyse N.; Georgia, Emily J.; Doss, Brian D.; Updegraff, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to test the utility of regulatory focus theory principles in a real-world setting; specifically, Internet hosted text advertisements. Effect of compatibility of the ad text with the regulatory focus of the consumer was examined. Design/methodology/approach Advertisements were created using Google AdWords. Data were collected for the number of views and clicks each ad received. Effect of regulatory fit was measured using logistic regression. Findings Logistic regression analyses demonstrated that there was a strong main effect for keyword, such that users were almost six times as likely to click on a promotion advertisement as a prevention advertisement, as well as a main effect for compatibility, such that users were twice as likely to click on an advertisement with content that was consistent with their keyword. Finally, there was a strong interaction of these two variables, such that the effect of consistent advertisements was stronger for promotion searches than for prevention searches. Research limitations/implications The effect of ad compatibility had medium to large effect sizes, suggesting that individuals’ state may have more influence on advertising response than do individuals’ traits (e.g. personality traits). Measurement of regulatory fit was limited by the constraints of Google AdWords. Practical implications The results of this study provide a possible framework for ad creation for Internet advertisers. Originality/value This paper is the first study to demonstrate the utility of regulatory focus theory in online advertising. PMID:26430293

  13. Application of Regulatory Focus Theory to Search Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowle, Elyse N; Georgia, Emily J; Doss, Brian D; Updegraff, John A

    The purpose of this paper is to test the utility of regulatory focus theory principles in a real-world setting; specifically, Internet hosted text advertisements. Effect of compatibility of the ad text with the regulatory focus of the consumer was examined. Advertisements were created using Google AdWords. Data were collected for the number of views and clicks each ad received. Effect of regulatory fit was measured using logistic regression. Logistic regression analyses demonstrated that there was a strong main effect for keyword, such that users were almost six times as likely to click on a promotion advertisement as a prevention advertisement, as well as a main effect for compatibility, such that users were twice as likely to click on an advertisement with content that was consistent with their keyword. Finally, there was a strong interaction of these two variables, such that the effect of consistent advertisements was stronger for promotion searches than for prevention searches. The effect of ad compatibility had medium to large effect sizes, suggesting that individuals' state may have more influence on advertising response than do individuals' traits (e.g. personality traits). Measurement of regulatory fit was limited by the constraints of Google AdWords. The results of this study provide a possible framework for ad creation for Internet advertisers. This paper is the first study to demonstrate the utility of regulatory focus theory in online advertising.

  14. Towards a predictive theory for genetic regulatory networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkacik, Gasper

    When cells respond to changes in the environment by regulating the expression levels of their genes, we often draw parallels between these biological processes and engineered information processing systems. One can go beyond this qualitative analogy, however, by analyzing information transmission in biochemical ``hardware'' using Shannon's information theory. Here, gene regulation is viewed as a transmission channel operating under restrictive constraints set by the resource costs and intracellular noise. We present a series of results demonstrating that a theory of information transmission in genetic regulatory circuits feasibly yields non-trivial, testable predictions. These predictions concern strategies by which individual gene regulatory elements, e.g., promoters or enhancers, read out their signals; as well as strategies by which small networks of genes, independently or in spatially coupled settings, respond to their inputs. These predictions can be quantitatively compared to the known regulatory networks and their function, and can elucidate how reproducible biological processes, such as embryonic development, can be orchestrated by networks built out of noisy components. Preliminary successes in the gap gene network of the fruit fly Drosophila indicate that a full ab initio theoretical prediction of a regulatory network is possible, a feat that has not yet been achieved for any real regulatory network. We end by describing open challenges on the path towards such a prediction.

  15. Linear determining equations for differential constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaptsov, O V

    1998-01-01

    A construction of differential constraints compatible with partial differential equations is considered. Certain linear determining equations with parameters are used to find such differential constraints. They generalize the classical determining equations used in the search for admissible Lie operators. As applications of this approach equations of an ideal incompressible fluid and non-linear heat equations are discussed

  16. Optimal Portfolio Choice with Wash Sale Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup Jensen, Bjarne; Marekwica, Marcel

    2011-01-01

    We analytically solve the portfolio choice problem in the presence of wash sale constraints in a two-period model with one risky asset. Our results show that wash sale constraints can heavily affect portfolio choice of investors with unrealized losses. The trading behavior of such investors...

  17. Freedom and constraint analysis and optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Dannis Michel; Boer, Steven; Aarts, Ronald G.K.M.; Meijaard, Jacob Philippus; Jonker, Jan B.

    2011-01-01

    Many mathematical and intuitive methods for constraint analysis of mechanisms have been proposed. In this article we compare three methods. Method one is based on Grüblers equation. Method two uses an intuitive analysis method based on opening kinematic loops and evaluating the constraints at the

  18. Network Design with Node Degree Balance Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael Berliner; Crainic, Teodor Gabriel

    This presentation discusses an extension to the network design model where there in addition to the flow conservation constraints also are constraints that require design conservation. This means that the number of arcs entering and leaving a node must be the same. As will be shown the model has ...

  19. Constraint solving for direct manipulation of features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lourenco, D.; Oliveira, P.; Noort, A.; Bidarra, R.

    2006-01-01

    In current commercial feature modeling systems, support for direct manipulation of features is not commonly available. This is partly due to the strong reliance of such systems on constraints, but also to the lack of speed of current constraint solvers. In this paper, an approach to the optimization

  20. A Temporal Concurrent Constraint Programming Calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palamidessi, Catuscia; Valencia Posso, Frank Darwin

    2001-01-01

    The tcc model is a formalism for reactive concurrent constraint programming. In this paper we propose a model of temporal concurrent constraint programming which adds to tcc the capability of modeling asynchronous and non-deterministic timed behavior. We call this tcc extension the ntcc calculus...

  1. Modifier constraints in alkali ultraphosphate glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigues, B.P.; Mauro, J.C.; Yue, Yuanzheng

    2014-01-01

    In applying the recently introduced concept of cationic constraint strength [J. Chem. Phys. 140, 214501 (2014)] to bond constraint theory (BCT) of binary phosphate glasses in the ultraphosphate region of xR2O-(1-x)P2O5 (with x ≤ 0.5 and R = {Li, Na, Cs}), we demonstrate that a fundamental limitat...

  2. Specifying Dynamic and Deontic Integrity Constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, Roelf J.; Meyer, John-Jules; Weigand, Hans

    In the dominant view of knowledge bases (KB's), a KB is a set of facts (atomic sentences) and integrity constraints (IC's). An IC is then a sentence which must at least be consistent with the other sentences in the KB, This view obliterates the distinction between, for example, the constraint that

  3. Solar system constraints on disformal gravity theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ip, Hiu Yan; Schmidt, Fabian; Sakstein, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    Disformal theories of gravity are scalar-tensor theories where the scalar couples derivatively to matter via the Jordan frame metric. These models have recently attracted interest in the cosmological context since they admit accelerating solutions. We derive the solution for a static isolated mass in generic disformal gravity theories and transform it into the parameterised post-Newtonian form. This allows us to investigate constraints placed on such theories by local tests of gravity. The tightest constraints come from preferred-frame effects due to the motion of the Solar System with respect to the evolving cosmological background field. The constraints we obtain improve upon the previous solar system constraints by two orders of magnitude, and constrain the scale of the disformal coupling for generic models to ℳ ∼> 100 eV. These constraints render all disformal effects irrelevant for cosmology

  4. Short-sale Constraints and Credit Runs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Venter, Gyuri

    ), creditors with high private signals are more lenient to roll over debt, and a bank with lower asset quality remains solvent. This leads to higher allocative efficiency in the real economy. My result thus implies that the decrease in average informativeness due to short-sale constraints can be more than......This paper studies how short-sale constraints affect the informational efficiency of market prices and the link between prices and economic activity. I show that under short-sale constraints security prices contain less information. However, short-sale constraints increase the informativeness...... the price of an asset the bank holds. I show that short-selling constraints in the financial market lead to the revival of self-fulfilling beliefs about the beliefs and actions of others, and create multiple equilibria. In the equilibrium where agents rely more on public information (i.e., the price...

  5. Revisiting the simplicity constraints and coherent intertwiners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupuis, Maite; Livine, Etera R

    2011-01-01

    In the context of loop quantum gravity and spinfoam models, the simplicity constraints are essential in that they allow one to write general relativity as a constrained topological BF theory. In this work, we apply the recently developed U(N) framework for SU(2) intertwiners to the issue of imposing the simplicity constraints to spin network states. More particularly, we focus on solving on individual intertwiners in the 4D Euclidean theory. We review the standard way of solving the simplicity constraints using coherent intertwiners and we explain how these fit within the U(N) framework. Then we show how these constraints can be written as a closed u(N) algebra and we propose a set of U(N) coherent states that solves all the simplicity constraints weakly for an arbitrary Immirzi parameter.

  6. Constraints on nuclear power development in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandfon, W.W.

    1984-01-01

    The U.S. nuclear option appears, at this time, to be disappearing. Determinants of energy supply seem to be changing from engineering and economic factors to other considerations. Regulatory and financial constraints now appear to be dominating the guidelines for electrical energy expansion. American electric utilities, for the most part, have not been able to obtain sufficient revenues to cover their costs of production. What price increases that they are being allowed to charge their customers come too late to keep up with inflation. They require increasing quantities of outside funding in the form of debt and equity capital. This they can only obtain at record high rates, if at all. Most utilities are not even earning what their regulators have determined are fair returns. Financial problems and regulatory tangles severely affect nuclear power, despite its proven technology and environmental and economic benefits. If the United States loses the nuclear alternative, the economic consequences of limiting fuels for electric base load generation to coal only will be severe; analogous to a monopoly situation in fuel supply. It is doubtful, despite the huge resources of coal, that the coal industry can satisfy even a reduced future demand. The question then becomes whether the technological leader of the world may in the future be faced with blackouts and rationing of electricity

  7. Hamiltonian constraint in polymer parametrized field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laddha, Alok; Varadarajan, Madhavan

    2011-01-01

    Recently, a generally covariant reformulation of two-dimensional flat spacetime free scalar field theory known as parametrized field theory was quantized using loop quantum gravity (LQG) type ''polymer'' representations. Physical states were constructed, without intermediate regularization structures, by averaging over the group of gauge transformations generated by the constraints, the constraint algebra being a Lie algebra. We consider classically equivalent combinations of these constraints corresponding to a diffeomorphism and a Hamiltonian constraint, which, as in gravity, define a Dirac algebra. Our treatment of the quantum constraints parallels that of LQG and obtains the following results, expected to be of use in the construction of the quantum dynamics of LQG: (i) the (triangulated) Hamiltonian constraint acts only on vertices, its construction involves some of the same ambiguities as in LQG and its action on diffeomorphism invariant states admits a continuum limit, (ii) if the regulating holonomies are in representations tailored to the edge labels of the state, all previously obtained physical states lie in the kernel of the Hamiltonian constraint, (iii) the commutator of two (density weight 1) Hamiltonian constraints as well as the operator correspondent of their classical Poisson bracket converge to zero in the continuum limit defined by diffeomorphism invariant states, and vanish on the Lewandowski-Marolf habitat, (iv) the rescaled density 2 Hamiltonian constraints and their commutator are ill-defined on the Lewandowski-Marolf habitat despite the well-definedness of the operator correspondent of their classical Poisson bracket there, (v) there is a new habitat which supports a nontrivial representation of the Poisson-Lie algebra of density 2 constraints.

  8. Schedules for Regulatory Regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austvik, Ole Gunnar

    2003-01-01

    The idea of regulating transporters' terms of operations is that if the market itself does not produce optimal outcomes, then it can be mimicked to do so through regulatory and other public instruments. The first-best solution could be a subsidized (publicly owned) enterprise that sets tariffs according to marginal costs. This has been the tradition in many European countries in the aftermath of WW2. Due to lack of innovative pressure on and x-inefficiency in these companies, this solution is today viewed as inferior to the system of regulating independent (privately owned) firms. When the European gas market becomes liberalized, part of the process in many countries is to (partially) privatise the transport utilities. Privatised or not, in a liberalized market, the transport utilities should face an independent authority that overviews their operations not only in technical, but also in economic terms. Under regulation, a ''visible hand'' is introduced to correct the imperfect market's ''invisible hand''. By regulating the framework and conditions for how firms may operate, public authorities seek to achieve what is considered optimal for the society. The incentives and disincentives given for pricing and production should create mechanisms leading to an efficient allocation of resources and ''acceptable'' distribution of income. As part of intervening into firms' behavior, regulation may be introduced to direct the firm to behave in certain ways. The framework and regulatory mechanisms for the market must then be constructed in a way that companies voluntarily produce an amount at a price that gives maximal profits and simultaneously satisfies social goals. The regulations should lead to consistency between the company's desire to maximize profits and the society's desire for maximizing welfare, as in a perfectly competitive market. This is the core of regulatory economics

  9. Natural Constraints to Species Diversification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Lewitus

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Identifying modes of species diversification is fundamental to our understanding of how biodiversity changes over evolutionary time. Diversification modes are captured in species phylogenies, but characterizing the landscape of diversification has been limited by the analytical tools available for directly comparing phylogenetic trees of groups of organisms. Here, we use a novel, non-parametric approach and 214 family-level phylogenies of vertebrates representing over 500 million years of evolution to identify major diversification modes, to characterize phylogenetic space, and to evaluate the bounds and central tendencies of species diversification. We identify five principal patterns of diversification to which all vertebrate families hold. These patterns, mapped onto multidimensional space, constitute a phylogenetic space with distinct properties. Firstly, phylogenetic space occupies only a portion of all possible tree space, showing family-level phylogenies to be constrained to a limited range of diversification patterns. Secondly, the geometry of phylogenetic space is delimited by quantifiable trade-offs in tree size and the heterogeneity and stem-to-tip distribution of branching events. These trade-offs are indicative of the instability of certain diversification patterns and effectively bound speciation rates (for successful clades within upper and lower limits. Finally, both the constrained range and geometry of phylogenetic space are established by the differential effects of macroevolutionary processes on patterns of diversification. Given these properties, we show that the average path through phylogenetic space over evolutionary time traverses several diversification stages, each of which is defined by a different principal pattern of diversification and directed by a different macroevolutionary process. The identification of universal patterns and natural constraints to diversification provides a foundation for understanding the

  10. Natural Constraints to Species Diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewitus, Eric; Morlon, Hélène

    2016-08-01

    Identifying modes of species diversification is fundamental to our understanding of how biodiversity changes over evolutionary time. Diversification modes are captured in species phylogenies, but characterizing the landscape of diversification has been limited by the analytical tools available for directly comparing phylogenetic trees of groups of organisms. Here, we use a novel, non-parametric approach and 214 family-level phylogenies of vertebrates representing over 500 million years of evolution to identify major diversification modes, to characterize phylogenetic space, and to evaluate the bounds and central tendencies of species diversification. We identify five principal patterns of diversification to which all vertebrate families hold. These patterns, mapped onto multidimensional space, constitute a phylogenetic space with distinct properties. Firstly, phylogenetic space occupies only a portion of all possible tree space, showing family-level phylogenies to be constrained to a limited range of diversification patterns. Secondly, the geometry of phylogenetic space is delimited by quantifiable trade-offs in tree size and the heterogeneity and stem-to-tip distribution of branching events. These trade-offs are indicative of the instability of certain diversification patterns and effectively bound speciation rates (for successful clades) within upper and lower limits. Finally, both the constrained range and geometry of phylogenetic space are established by the differential effects of macroevolutionary processes on patterns of diversification. Given these properties, we show that the average path through phylogenetic space over evolutionary time traverses several diversification stages, each of which is defined by a different principal pattern of diversification and directed by a different macroevolutionary process. The identification of universal patterns and natural constraints to diversification provides a foundation for understanding the deep-time evolution of

  11. Natural Constraints to Species Diversification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewitus, Eric; Morlon, Hélène

    2016-01-01

    Identifying modes of species diversification is fundamental to our understanding of how biodiversity changes over evolutionary time. Diversification modes are captured in species phylogenies, but characterizing the landscape of diversification has been limited by the analytical tools available for directly comparing phylogenetic trees of groups of organisms. Here, we use a novel, non-parametric approach and 214 family-level phylogenies of vertebrates representing over 500 million years of evolution to identify major diversification modes, to characterize phylogenetic space, and to evaluate the bounds and central tendencies of species diversification. We identify five principal patterns of diversification to which all vertebrate families hold. These patterns, mapped onto multidimensional space, constitute a phylogenetic space with distinct properties. Firstly, phylogenetic space occupies only a portion of all possible tree space, showing family-level phylogenies to be constrained to a limited range of diversification patterns. Secondly, the geometry of phylogenetic space is delimited by quantifiable trade-offs in tree size and the heterogeneity and stem-to-tip distribution of branching events. These trade-offs are indicative of the instability of certain diversification patterns and effectively bound speciation rates (for successful clades) within upper and lower limits. Finally, both the constrained range and geometry of phylogenetic space are established by the differential effects of macroevolutionary processes on patterns of diversification. Given these properties, we show that the average path through phylogenetic space over evolutionary time traverses several diversification stages, each of which is defined by a different principal pattern of diversification and directed by a different macroevolutionary process. The identification of universal patterns and natural constraints to diversification provides a foundation for understanding the deep-time evolution of

  12. Few-body hypernuclear constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, B.F.

    1993-01-01

    Since the discovery of the first hyperfragment in a balloon flown emulsion stack some two score years ago, physicists have worked to understand how the addition of the strangeness degree of freedom alters the picture of nuclei and the baryon-baryon force. Because the Λ and Σ masses differ markedly from that of the proton and neutron, SU (3) symmetry is broken. How it is broken is a question of importance to the fundamental understanding of the baryon-baryon interaction. New dynamical symmetries, forbidden by the Pauli principle in conventional nuclei, appear. Three-body forces play a more significant role. A binding anomaly in A = 5 as well as a possible spin inversion between ground and excited states in A = 4 appear. Surprisingly narrow structure near the threshold for Σ production has been reported in the 4 He (K - , π - ) spectrum while no corresponding structure is observed in the companion 4 He(K - , π + ) spectrum; this has been interpreted as evidence for a Σ 4 He bound state. Finally, the reported observation of ΛΛ-hypernuclei, in particular ΛΛ 6 He, bears directly upon the possibilities for the prediction of a bound H particle--the S = -2 dibaryon. Although it is not feasible to invert the analysis and determine the interaction from the data on few-body systems, it is possible to utilize these data to constrain the models, provided one is careful. The author will explore briefly the constraints which the few-body data impose and the level of understanding that has been achieved

  13. International regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2009-01-01

    In this last part is reviewed international regulatory activities and bilateral agreements including two parts: concerning European atomic energy community with European commission proposal for a council directive setting up a community framework for nuclear safety, update of the nuclear illustrative programme in the context of the second strategic energy review, european commission recommendation on criteria for the export of radioactive waste and spent fuel to third countries and a communication on nuclear non-proliferation and the second part in relation with international atomic energy agency with a joint convention on the safety of spent fuel management and on safety of radioactive waste management (third review meeting). (N.C.)

  14. International regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2002-01-01

    Different international regulatory activities are presented: recommendation on the protection of the public against exposure to radon in drinking water supplies, amendment to the legislation implementing the regulation on imports of agricultural products originating in third countries following the Chernobyl accident, resolution on the commission green paper towards a European strategy for the security of energy supply, declaration of mandatory nature of the international code for the safe carriage of packaged irradiated nuclear fuel, plutonium and high level radioactive wastes on board ships, adoption of action plan against nuclear terrorism. (N.C.)

  15. The core to regulatory reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partridge, J.W. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) Orders 436, 500, and 636, the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, Public Utility Holding Company Act reform, and the 1992 Energy Policy Act all can have significant effects on an LDC's operations. Such changes in an LDC's environments must be balanced by changes within the utility, its marketplace, and its state regulatory environment. The question is where to start. For Columbia Gas Distribution Cos., based in Columbus, OH, the new operating foundation begins with each employee. Internal strength is critical in designing initiatives that meet the needs of the marketplace and are well-received by regulators. Employees must understand not only the regulatory environment in which the LDC operates, but also how their work contributes to a positive regulatory relationship. To achieve this, Columbia initiated the COntinuing Regulatory Education program, or CORE, in 1991. CORE is a regulatory-focused, information-initiative program coordinated by Columbia's Regulatory Policy, Planning, and Government Affairs Department. The CORE programs can take many forms, such as emerging issue discussions, dialogues with regulators and key parties, updates on regulatory fillings, regulatory policy meetings, and formal training classes. The speakers and discussion facilitators can range from human resource department trainers to senior officers, from regulatory department staff members to external experts, or from state commissioners to executives from other LDCs. The goals of CORE initiatives are to: Support a professional level of regulatory expertise through employee participation in well-developed regulatory programs presented by credible experts. Encourage a constructive state regulatory environment founded on communication and cooperation. CORE achieves these goals via five program levels: introductory basics, advanced learning, professional expertise, crossfunctional dialogues, and external idea exchanges

  16. Politically Induced Regulatory Risk and Independent Regulatory Agencies

    OpenAIRE

    Strausz, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Uncertainty in election outcomes generates politically induced regulatory risk. Political parties' risk attitudes towards such risk depend on a fluctuation effect that hurts both parties and an output--expansion effect that benefits at least one party. Notwithstanding the parties' risk attitudes, political parties have incentives to negotiate away all regulatory risk by pre-electoral bargaining. Efficient pre-electoral bargaining outcomes fully eliminate politically induced regulatory risk. P...

  17. Regulatory networks, legal federalism, and multi-level regulatory systems

    OpenAIRE

    Kerber, Wolfgang; Wendel, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Transnational regulatory networks play important roles in multi-level regulatory regimes, as e.g, the European Union. In this paper we analyze the role of regulatory networks from the perspective of the economic theory of legal federalism. Often sophisticated intermediate institutional solutions between pure centralisation and pure decentralisation can help to solve complex tradeoff problems between the benefits and problems of centralised and decentralised solutions. Drawing upon the insight...

  18. Assessment of regulatory effectiveness. Peer discussions on regulatory practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-09-01

    This report arises from the seventh series of peer discussions on regulatory practices entitled 'Assessment of Regulatory Effectiveness'. The term 'regulatory effectiveness' covers the quality of the work and level of performance of a regulatory body. In this sense, regulatory effectiveness applies to regulatory body activities aimed at preventing safety degradation and ensuring that an acceptable level of safety is being maintained by the regulated operating organizations. In addition, regulatory effectiveness encompasses the promotion of safety improvements, the timely and cost effective performance of regulatory functions in a manner which ensures the confidence of the operating organizations, the general public and the government, and striving for continuous improvements to performance. Senior regulators from 22 Member States participated in two peer group discussions during March and May 1999. The discussions were focused on the elements of an effective regulatory body, possible indicators of regulatory effectiveness and its assessment. This report presents the outcome of these meetings and recommendations of good practices identified by senior regulators, which do not necessarily reflect those of the governments of the nominating Member States, the organizations they belong to, or the International Atomic Energy Agency. In order to protect people and the environment from hazards associated with nuclear facilities, the main objective of a nuclear regulatory body is to ensure that a high level of safety in the nuclear activities under its jurisdiction is achieved, maintained and within the control of operating organizations. Even if it is possible to directly judge objective safety levels at nuclear facilities, such safety levels would not provide an exclusive indicator of regulatory effectiveness. The way the regulatory body ensures the safety of workers and the public and the way it discharges its responsibilities also determine its effectiveness. Hence the

  19. Visions of regulatory renewal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edgeworth, A.

    1998-01-01

    The economic contribution of the CEPA (Canadian Energy Pipeline Association) member companies to Canada's trade balance was discussed. CEPA member companies transport 95 per cent of the crude oil and natural gas produced in Canada to domestic and export markets. This represents a total of 5.6 Tcf of gas annually. Half of Canada's natural gas and oil production is exported to U.S. markets. All of these exports are transported by pipeline. CEPA member companies operate 90,000 km of pipeline from British Columbia to Quebec. Expansions are needed as a result of a significant increase in demand for natural gas and crude oil since 1990. Several issues exist for regulatory renewal. They include the need to create a level playing field, the overseeing of tolls and contract renewal terms, changing risk/reward trade-offs, the right to confidentiality of information and price discovery mechanism. The drivers for regulatory reform at Westcoast Energy are the need for pricing flexibility, customers desire for toll certainty, decontracting and opposition to rolled-in expansions for gathering and processing. An overview of Westcoast Energy's negotiated toll settlement, its implications, and the components of Westcoast Energy's 'light handed regulation' (LHR) was presented

  20. The regulatory dynamic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dybwad, C.

    2001-01-01

    An outline of the activities and efforts expanded by the National Energy Board to adjust to the changing natural gas market was provided in this presentation. The author began by defining the role of the National Energy Board in energy markets. It must ensure the adoption of rules and procedures that result in a more competitive and efficient market. Light-handed regulatory techniques are the norm, and the National Energy Board is now committed to facilitating the availability and flow of information so that all parties know where opportunities exist, the terms offered to buy or sell goods and services, their quality and costs. It will specialize in providing new participants with information on the workings of the market, who the players are, the regulatory processes in place, and how, when and where the market can be accessed. The manner in which the Board deals with information was reviewed, providing examples along the way to clarify some points. Some of the documents produced by the National Energy Board are being reviewed with the intent of making them easier to read and understand. Audio streaming over the Internet is another avenue being pursued to ensure individuals can listen in real time to hearings without having to be present in the room. The National Energy Board is also exploring alternative dispute resolution techniques. Consultation with energy market participants represents another facet of these efforts to be more accessible and responsive

  1. Constraint Handling Rules with Binders, Patterns and Generic Quantification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serrano, Alejandro; Hage, J.

    2017-01-01

    Constraint Handling Rules provide descriptions for constraint solvers. However, they fall short when those constraints specify some binding structure, like higher-rank types in a constraint-based type inference algorithm. In this paper, the term syntax of constraints is replaced by λ-tree syntax, in

  2. QCD unitarity constraints on Reggeon Field Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovner, Alex [Physics Department, University of Connecticut,2152 Hillside Road, Storrs, CT 06269 (United States); Levin, Eugene [Departemento de Física, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María,and Centro Científico-Tecnológico de Valparaíso,Avda. Espana 1680, Casilla 110-V, Valparaíso (Chile); Department of Particle Physics, Tel Aviv University,Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Lublinsky, Michael [Physics Department, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev,Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel); Physics Department, University of Connecticut,2152 Hillside Road, Storrs, CT 06269 (United States)

    2016-08-04

    We point out that the s-channel unitarity of QCD imposes meaningful constraints on a possible form of the QCD Reggeon Field Theory. We show that neither the BFKL nor JIMWLK nor Braun’s Hamiltonian satisfy the said constraints. In a toy, zero transverse dimensional case we construct a model that satisfies the analogous constraint and show that at infinite energy it indeed tends to a “black disk limit' as opposed to the model with triple Pomeron vertex only, routinely used as a toy model in the literature.

  3. QCD unitarity constraints on Reggeon Field Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovner, Alex; Levin, Eugene; Lublinsky, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We point out that the s-channel unitarity of QCD imposes meaningful constraints on a possible form of the QCD Reggeon Field Theory. We show that neither the BFKL nor JIMWLK nor Braun’s Hamiltonian satisfy the said constraints. In a toy, zero transverse dimensional case we construct a model that satisfies the analogous constraint and show that at infinite energy it indeed tends to a “black disk limit' as opposed to the model with triple Pomeron vertex only, routinely used as a toy model in the literature.

  4. Liquidity Constraints and Fiscal Stabilization Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristoffersen, Mark Strøm

    It is often claimed that the presence of liquidity constrained households enhances the need for and the effects of fi…scal stabilization policies. This paper studies this in a model of a small open economy with liquidity constrained households. The results show that the consequences of liquidity...... constraints are more complex than previously thought: The optimal stabilization policy in case of productivity shocks is independent of the liquidity constraints, and the presence of liquidity constraints tends to reduce the need for an active policy stabilizing productivity shocks....

  5. Use of dose constraints for occupational exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaijage, Tunu

    2015-02-01

    The use of dose constraints for occupational exposure was reviewed in this project. The role of dose constraints as used in optimization of protection of workers was described. Different issues to be considered in application of the concept and challenges associated with their implementation were also discussed. The situation where dose constraints could be misinterpreted to dose limits is also explained as the two are clearly differentiated by the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 103. Moreover, recommendations to all parties responsible for protection and safety of workers were discussed. (au)

  6. Constraint satisfaction problems CSP formalisms and techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Ghedira, Khaled

    2013-01-01

    A Constraint Satisfaction Problem (CSP) consists of a set of variables, a domain of values for each variable and a set of constraints. The objective is to assign a value for each variable such that all constraints are satisfied. CSPs continue to receive increased attention because of both their high complexity and their omnipresence in academic, industrial and even real-life problems. This is why they are the subject of intense research in both artificial intelligence and operations research. This book introduces the classic CSP and details several extensions/improvements of both formalisms a

  7. Expressing Model Constraints Visually with VMQL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Störrle, Harald

    2011-01-01

    ) for specifying constraints on UML models. We examine VMQL's usability by controlled experiments and its expressiveness by a representative sample. We conclude that VMQL is less expressive than OCL, although expressive enough for most of the constraints in the sample. In terms of usability, however, VMQL......OCL is the de facto standard language for expressing constraints and queries on UML models. However, OCL expressions are very difficult to create, understand, and maintain, even with the sophisticated tool support now available. In this paper, we propose to use the Visual Model Query Language (VMQL...

  8. Regulatory inspection of BARC facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajdeep; Jayarajan, K.

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear and radiation facilities are sited, constructed, commissioned, operated and decommissioned, in conformity with the current safety standards and codes. Regulatory bodies follow different means to ensure compliance of the standards for the safety of the personnel, the public and the environment. Regulatory Inspection (RI) is one of the important measures employed by regulatory bodies to obtain the safety status of a facility or project and to verify the fulfilment of the conditions stipulated in the consent

  9. National legislative and regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This section gathers the following national legislative and regulatory activities sorted by country: Bulgaria: General legislation; Czech Republic: General legislation; France: General legislation, Regulatory infrastructure and activity; Germany: General legislation; India: Liability and compensation, Organisation and structure; Ireland: Radiation protection, General legislation; Korea (Republic of): Organisation and structure; Lithuania: Regulatory infrastructure and activity, Radioactive waste management, Radiation protection, international cooperation, Nuclear safety; Poland: General legislation; Romania: Environmental protection; Russian Federation: Radioactive waste management; Slovenia: Nuclear safety; Spain: Liability and compensation, Nuclear security; Sweden: Nuclear safety; Turkey: Radiation protection, Regulatory infrastructure and activity, Nuclear safety, Liability and compensation; United States: General legislation

  10. Interdependent demands, regulatory constraint, and peak-load pricing. [Assessment of Bailey's model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, D T; Macgregor-Reid, G J

    1977-06-01

    A model of a regulated firm which includes an analysis of peak-load pricing has been formulated by E. E. Bailey in which three alternative modes of regulation on a profit-maximizing firm are considered. The main conclusion reached is that under a regulation limiting the rate of return on capital investment, price reductions are received solely by peak-users and that when regulation limiting the profit per unit of output or the return on costs is imposed, there are price reductions for all users. Bailey has expressly assumed that the demands in different periods are interdependent but has somehow failed to derive the correct price and welfare implications of this empirically highly relevant assumption. Her conclusions would have been perfectly correct for marginal revenues but are quite incorrect for prices, even if her assumption that price exceeds marginal revenues in every period holds. This present paper derives fully and rigorously the implications of regulation for prices, outputs, capacity, and social welfare for a profit-maximizing firm with interdependent demands. In section II, Bailey's model is reproduced and the optimal conditions are given. In section III, it is demonstrated that under the conditions of interdependent demands assumed by Bailey herself, her often-quoted conclusion concerning the effects of the return-on-investment regulation on the off-peak price is invalid. In section IV, the effects of the return-on-investment regulation on the optimal prices, outputs, capacity, and social welfare both for the case in which the demands in different periods are substitutes and for the case in which they are complements are examined. In section V, the pricing and welfare implications of the return-on-investment regulation are compared with the two other modes of regulation considered by Bailey. Section VI is a summary of all sections. (MCW)

  11. Blue Water Footprint Management in a UK Poultry Supply Chain under Environmental Regulatory Constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Naoum Tsolakis; Jagjit Singh Srai; Eirini Aivazidou

    2018-01-01

    Chicken is the most consumed meat in the UK, accounting for 40% of meat consumption, while national production sufficiency reaches about 80%. As a farmed animal product, chicken meat is responsible for significant freshwater appropriation volumes during its production cycle. In this context, this research aims at exploring freshwater dynamics in the UK processed poultry industry. Specifically, we develop a System Dynamics model to capture the blue water footprint, as a key sustainability perf...

  12. Biological constraints do not entail cognitive closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlerick, Michael

    2014-12-01

    From the premise that our biology imposes cognitive constraints on our epistemic activities, a series of prominent authors--most notably Fodor, Chomsky and McGinn--have argued that we are cognitively closed to certain aspects and properties of the world. Cognitive constraints, they argue, entail cognitive closure. I argue that this is not the case. More precisely, I detect two unwarranted conflations at the core of arguments deriving closure from constraints. The first is a conflation of what I will refer to as 'representation' and 'object of representation'. The second confuses the cognitive scope of the assisted mind for that of the unassisted mind. Cognitive closure, I conclude, cannot be established from pointing out the (uncontroversial) existence of cognitive constraints. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. institutional and resource constraints that inhibit contractor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2333147

    Keywords: Institutions; small-scale contractor performance; sugar industry. ABSTRACT ..... diverse cultural settings, women, specifically widowed or single women, have a .... constraints on business growth, such as the work limitations placed.

  14. Constraint theory multidimensional mathematical model management

    CERN Document Server

    Friedman, George J

    2017-01-01

    Packed with new material and research, this second edition of George Friedman’s bestselling Constraint Theory remains an invaluable reference for all engineers, mathematicians, and managers concerned with modeling. As in the first edition, this text analyzes the way Constraint Theory employs bipartite graphs and presents the process of locating the “kernel of constraint” trillions of times faster than brute-force approaches, determining model consistency and computational allowability. Unique in its abundance of topological pictures of the material, this book balances left- and right-brain perceptions to provide a thorough explanation of multidimensional mathematical models. Much of the extended material in this new edition also comes from Phan Phan’s PhD dissertation in 2011, titled “Expanding Constraint Theory to Determine Well-Posedness of Large Mathematical Models.” Praise for the first edition: "Dr. George Friedman is indisputably the father of the very powerful methods of constraint theory...

  15. Route constraints model based on polychromatic sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xianjun; Cai, Chao; Wang, Houjun; Li, Dongwu

    2018-03-01

    With the development of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) technology, the fields of its application are constantly expanding. The mission planning of UAV is especially important, and the planning result directly influences whether the UAV can accomplish the task. In order to make the results of mission planning for unmanned aerial vehicle more realistic, it is necessary to consider not only the physical properties of the aircraft, but also the constraints among the various equipment on the UAV. However, constraints among the equipment of UAV are complex, and the equipment has strong diversity and variability, which makes these constraints difficult to be described. In order to solve the above problem, this paper, referring to the polychromatic sets theory used in the advanced manufacturing field to describe complex systems, presents a mission constraint model of UAV based on polychromatic sets.

  16. Constraint-based Attribute and Interval Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, Ari; Frank, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we describe Constraint-based Attribute and Interval Planning (CAIP), a paradigm for representing and reasoning about plans. The paradigm enables the description of planning domains with time, resources, concurrent activities, mutual exclusions among sets of activities, disjunctive preconditions and conditional effects. We provide a theoretical foundation for the paradigm, based on temporal intervals and attributes. We then show how the plans are naturally expressed by networks of constraints, and show that the process of planning maps directly to dynamic constraint reasoning. In addition, we de ne compatibilities, a compact mechanism for describing planning domains. We describe how this framework can incorporate the use of constraint reasoning technology to improve planning. Finally, we describe EUROPA, an implementation of the CAIP framework.

  17. Automated constraint placement to maintain pile shape

    KAUST Repository

    Hsu, Shu-Wei; Keyser, John

    2012-01-01

    structure. Next, for stabilizing the structure, we pick suitable objects from those passing the equilibrium analysis and then restrict their DOFs by managing the insertion of constraints on them. The method is suitable for controlling stacking behavior

  18. Cosmological constraints on Brans-Dicke theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avilez, A; Skordis, C

    2014-07-04

    We report strong cosmological constraints on the Brans-Dicke (BD) theory of gravity using cosmic microwave background data from Planck. We consider two types of models. First, the initial condition of the scalar field is fixed to give the same effective gravitational strength Geff today as the one measured on Earth, GN. In this case, the BD parameter ω is constrained to ω>692 at the 99% confidence level, an order of magnitude improvement over previous constraints. In the second type, the initial condition for the scalar is a free parameter leading to a somewhat stronger constraint of ω>890, while Geff is constrained to 0.981theory and are valid for any Horndeski theory, the most general second-order scalar-tensor theory, which approximates the BD theory on cosmological scales. In this sense, our constraints place strong limits on possible modifications of gravity that might explain cosmic acceleration.

  19. CONSTRAINTS TO USE OF MOBILE TELEPHONY FOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key words: Constraints, mobile telephony, frequency, farmers and telecommunications service ... efficient sharing of agricultural information ... calls on the mobile phone without the need .... adequate training on the use of mobile .... Job Market.

  20. Modernizing China's Military: Opportunities and Constraints

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Crane, Keith; Cliff, Roger; Medeiros, Evan; Mulvenon, James; Overholt, William

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess future resource constraints on, and potential domestic economic and industrial contributions to, the ability of the Chinese military to become a significant threat to U.S. forces by 2025...

  1. Regulatory actions post - Fukushima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciurea Ercau, C.

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents the results of the safety reviews performed in Romania after the Fukushima accident and the resulting actions for improving the safety. The actions taken by the National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control (CNCAN) to improve the regulatory framework include the development of new regulations and the enhancement of inspection practices, taking account of the lessons learned from the Fukushima accident. A regulation on the response to transients, accidents and emergency situations at nuclear power plants has been developed, which includes requirements on transient and accident scenarios that have to be covered by the Emergency Operating Procedures (EOPs), accident scenarios to be covered by the Severe Accident Management Guidelines (SAMGs), emergency situations to be covered by the on-site emergency response plan and emergency response procedures. (authors)

  2. International regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2010-01-01

    Concerning International regulatory activities, we find for the european atomic energy community an entry into force of the lisbon treaty (2009), it amends the treaty on European union and replaces the treaty establishing the European Community by the new treaty on the functioning of the European Union; more, an amendment to council regulation on the conditions governing imports of agricultural products originating in third countries following the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station (2009). About International atomic energy agency is reported an open-ended meeting of technical and legal experts for sharing of information on states implementation of the code of conduct on the safety and security of radioactive sources and its supplementary guidance on the import and export of radioactive sources (2010). (N.C.)

  3. Regulatory mark; Marco regulatorio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-10-15

    This chapter is based on a work performed in distinct phases. The first phase consisted in of the analysis regulatory legislation existent in Brazil for the sugar-alcohol sector since the beginning of the X X century. This analysis allowed the identification of non existent points and legal devices related to the studied aspects, and that were considered as problematic for the sector expansion. In the second phase, related treaties and international agreements was studied and possible obstacles for the brazilian bio ethanol exportation for the international market. Initiatives were examined at European Union, United States of America, Caribbean and countries of the sub-Saharan Africa. In this phase, policies were identified related to the incentives and adoption of use of bio fuels added to the gasoline in countries or group of countries considered as key for the consolidation of bio ethanol as a world commodity.

  4. International regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2003-01-01

    Among international regulatory activities we find resolutions adopted by the IAEA general conference (2003), through European Union we find proposals for directives on nuclear safety and radioactive waste management, new regulation on the application of EURATOM safeguards, control of high activity sealed radioactive sources, recommendation on the protection and information of the public with regard to the continued contamination of certain wild food products following the Chernobyl accident, proposals for decisions authorizing the Member states to sign and ratify the Protocol to amend the Paris convention, p)proposals for a directive on environment liability with regard to the prevention and remedying of environmental damage, proposal of a regulation on the law applicable to non-contractual obligation. (N.C.)

  5. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Issuances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This is the thirty-sixth volume of issuances (1-396) of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and its Atomic Safety and Licensing Boards, Administrative Law Judges, and Office Directors. It covers the period from July 1, 1992-December 31, 1992. Atomic Safety and Licensing Boards are authorized by Section 191 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954. These Boards, comprised of three members conduct adjudicatory hearings on applications to construct and operate nuclear power plants and related facilities and issue initial decisions which, subject to internal review and appellate procedures, become the final Commission action with respect to those applications. Boards are drawn from the Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Panel, comprised of lawyers, nuclear physicists and engineers, environmentalists, chemists, and economists. The Atomic Energy Commission first established Licensing Boards in 1962 and the Panel in 1967

  6. Optimal capital stock and financing constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Saltari, Enrico; Giuseppe, Travaglini

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we show that financing constraints affect the optimal level of capital stock even when the financing constraint is ineffective. This happens when the firm rationally anticipates that access to external financing resources may be rationed in the future. We will show that with these expectations, the optimal investment policy is to invest less in any given period, thereby lowering the desired optimal capital stock in the long run.

  7. Credit Constraints, Political Instability, and Capital Accumulation

    OpenAIRE

    Risto Herrala; Rima Turk-Ariss

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the complex interactions between credit constraints, political instability, and capital accumulation using a novel approach based on Kiyotaki and Moore’s (1997) theoretical framework. Drawing on a unique firm-level data set from Middle-East and North Africa (MENA), empirical findings point to a large and significant effect of credit conditions on capital accumulation and suggest that continued political unrest worsens credit constraints. The results support the view that financ...

  8. Cyclic labellings with constraints at two distances

    OpenAIRE

    Leese, R; Noble, S D

    2004-01-01

    Motivated by problems in radio channel assignment, we consider the vertex-labelling of graphs with non-negative integers. The objective is to minimise the span of the labelling, subject to constraints imposed at graph distances one and two. We show that the minimum span is (up to rounding) a piecewise linear function of the constraints, and give a complete specification, together with associated optimal assignments, for trees and cycles.

  9. Portfolios with nonlinear constraints and spin glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gábor, Adrienn; Kondor, I.

    1999-12-01

    In a recent paper Galluccio, Bouchaud and Potters demonstrated that a certain portfolio problem with a nonlinear constraint maps exactly onto finding the ground states of a long-range spin glass, with the concomitant nonuniqueness and instability of the optimal portfolios. Here we put forward geometric arguments that lead to qualitatively similar conclusions, without recourse to the methods of spin glass theory, and give two more examples of portfolio problems with convex nonlinear constraints.

  10. Future Cosmological Constraints From Fast Radio Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Anthony; Weltman, Amanda; Gaensler, B. M.; Ma, Yin-Zhe; Witzemann, Amadeus

    2018-03-01

    We consider the possible observation of fast radio bursts (FRBs) with planned future radio telescopes, and investigate how well the dispersions and redshifts of these signals might constrain cosmological parameters. We construct mock catalogs of FRB dispersion measure (DM) data and employ Markov Chain Monte Carlo analysis, with which we forecast and compare with existing constraints in the flat ΛCDM model, as well as some popular extensions that include dark energy equation of state and curvature parameters. We find that the scatter in DM observations caused by inhomogeneities in the intergalactic medium (IGM) poses a big challenge to the utility of FRBs as a cosmic probe. Only in the most optimistic case, with a high number of events and low IGM variance, do FRBs aid in improving current constraints. In particular, when FRBs are combined with CMB+BAO+SNe+H 0 data, we find the biggest improvement comes in the {{{Ω }}}{{b}}{h}2 constraint. Also, we find that the dark energy equation of state is poorly constrained, while the constraint on the curvature parameter, Ω k , shows some improvement when combined with current constraints. When FRBs are combined with future baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) data from 21 cm Intensity Mapping, we find little improvement over the constraints from BAOs alone. However, the inclusion of FRBs introduces an additional parameter constraint, {{{Ω }}}{{b}}{h}2, which turns out to be comparable to existing constraints. This suggests that FRBs provide valuable information about the cosmological baryon density in the intermediate redshift universe, independent of high-redshift CMB data.

  11. Managing education/training resources to survive regulatory change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Headley-Walker, L.; DeSain, G.

    1985-01-01

    The road to development of nuclear training and education programs that prepare operators to not only competently operate a commercial nuclear power plant under routine conditions but also acquire the knowledge, experience, and confidence necessary to perform under the rigors of a significant off-normal incident has been filled with speculative opinion, recommendations, disagreement, guidelines, and downright confusion. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) had not produced a regulation that specifically addresses the nature of education/training related to off-normal incidents. No one educational process currently offered fully addresses the ideal solution for those employed in the nuclear industry. The only practical solution must be the result of collaborative efforts between utilities and educational resources. The Regents College Degree Collaboration Model provides a worthy vehicle for positive movement toward this solution and survival of the ever-changing regulatory constraints in education

  12. Generalized Pauli constraints in small atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Christian; Altunbulak, Murat; Knecht, Stefan; Lopes, Alexandre; Whitfield, James D.; Christandl, Matthias; Gross, David; Reiher, Markus

    2018-05-01

    The natural occupation numbers of fermionic systems are subject to nontrivial constraints, which include and extend the original Pauli principle. A recent mathematical breakthrough has clarified their mathematical structure and has opened up the possibility of a systematic analysis. Early investigations have found evidence that these constraints are exactly saturated in several physically relevant systems, e.g., in a certain electronic state of the beryllium atom. It has been suggested that, in such cases, the constraints, rather than the details of the Hamiltonian, dictate the system's qualitative behavior. Here, we revisit this question with state-of-the-art numerical methods for small atoms. We find that the constraints are, in fact, not exactly saturated, but that they lie much closer to the surface defined by the constraints than the geometry of the problem would suggest. While the results seem incompatible with the statement that the generalized Pauli constraints drive the behavior of these systems, they suggest that the qualitatively correct wave-function expansions can in some systems already be obtained on the basis of a limited number of Slater determinants, which is in line with numerical evidence from quantum chemistry.

  13. University Course Timetabling using Constraint Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Shahmoradi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available University course timetabling problem is a challenging and time-consuming task on the overall structure of timetable in every academic environment. The problem deals with many factors such as the number of lessons, classes, teachers, students and working time, and these are influenced by some hard and soft constraints. The aim of solving this problem is to assign courses and classes to teachers and students, so that the restrictions are held. In this paper, a constraint programming method is proposed to satisfy maximum constraints and expectation, in order to address university timetabling problem. For minimizing the penalty of soft constraints, a cost function is introduced and AHP method is used for calculating its coefficients. The proposed model is tested on department of management, University of Isfahan dataset using OPL on the IBM ILOG CPLEX Optimization Studio platform. A statistical analysis has been conducted and shows the performance of the proposed approach in satisfying all hard constraints and also the satisfying degree of the soft constraints is on maximum desirable level. The running time of the model is less than 20 minutes that is significantly better than the non-automated ones.

  14. Thermodynamic analysis of regulation in metabolic networks using constraint-based modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahadevan Radhakrishnan

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Geobacter sulfurreducens is a member of the Geobacter species, which are capable of oxidation of organic waste coupled to the reduction of heavy metals and electrode with applications in bioremediation and bioenergy generation. While the metabolism of this organism has been studied through the development of a stoichiometry based genome-scale metabolic model, the associated regulatory network has not yet been well studied. In this manuscript, we report on the implementation of a thermodynamics based metabolic flux model for Geobacter sulfurreducens. We use this updated model to identify reactions that are subject to regulatory control in the metabolic network of G. sulfurreducens using thermodynamic variability analysis. Findings As a first step, we have validated the regulatory sites and bottleneck reactions predicted by the thermodynamic flux analysis in E. coli by evaluating the expression ranges of the corresponding genes. We then identified ten reactions in the metabolic network of G. sulfurreducens that are predicted to be candidates for regulation. We then compared the free energy ranges for these reactions with the corresponding gene expression fold changes under conditions of different environmental and genetic perturbations and show that the model predictions of regulation are consistent with data. In addition, we also identify reactions that operate close to equilibrium and show that the experimentally determined exchange coefficient (a measure of reversibility is significant for these reactions. Conclusions Application of the thermodynamic constraints resulted in identification of potential bottleneck reactions not only from the central metabolism but also from the nucleotide and amino acid subsystems, thereby showing the highly coupled nature of the thermodynamic constraints. In addition, thermodynamic variability analysis serves as a valuable tool in estimating the ranges of ΔrG' of every reaction in the model

  15. Exploring the miRNA regulatory network using evolutionary correlations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedikt Obermayer

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Post-transcriptional regulation by miRNAs is a widespread and highly conserved phenomenon in metazoans, with several hundreds to thousands of conserved binding sites for each miRNA, and up to two thirds of all genes under miRNA regulation. At the same time, the effect of miRNA regulation on mRNA and protein levels is usually quite modest and associated phenotypes are often weak or subtle. This has given rise to the notion that the highly interconnected miRNA regulatory network exerts its function less through any individual link and more via collective effects that lead to a functional interdependence of network links. We present a Bayesian framework to quantify conservation of miRNA target sites using vertebrate whole-genome alignments. The increased statistical power of our phylogenetic model allows detection of evolutionary correlation in the conservation patterns of site pairs. Such correlations could result from collective functions in the regulatory network. For instance, co-conservation of target site pairs supports a selective benefit of combinatorial regulation by multiple miRNAs. We find that some miRNA families are under pronounced co-targeting constraints, indicating a high connectivity in the regulatory network, while others appear to function in a more isolated way. By analyzing coordinated targeting of different curated gene sets, we observe distinct evolutionary signatures for protein complexes and signaling pathways that could reflect differences in control strategies. Our method is easily scalable to analyze upcoming larger data sets, and readily adaptable to detect high-level selective constraints between other genomic loci. We thus provide a proof-of-principle method to understand regulatory networks from an evolutionary perspective.

  16. Regulatory focus in groupt contexts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faddegon, Krispijn Johannes

    2009-01-01

    The thesis examines the influence of group processes on the regulatory focus of individual group members. It is demonstrated that the group situation can affect group members' regulatory focus both in a top-down fashion (via the identitiy of the group) and in a bottom-up fashion (emerging from the

  17. Disclosure as a regulatory tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karsten Engsig

    2006-01-01

    The chapter analyses how disclure can be used as a regulatory tool and analyses how it has been applied so far in the area of financial market law and consumer law.......The chapter analyses how disclure can be used as a regulatory tool and analyses how it has been applied so far in the area of financial market law and consumer law....

  18. Reduction Of Constraints For Coupled Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raszewski, F.; Edwards, T.

    2009-01-01

    The homogeneity constraint was implemented in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Product Composition Control System (PCCS) to help ensure that the current durability models would be applicable to the glass compositions being processed during DWPF operations. While the homogeneity constraint is typically an issue at lower waste loadings (WLs), it may impact the operating windows for DWPF operations, where the glass forming systems may be limited to lower waste loadings based on fissile or heat load limits. In the sludge batch 1b (SB1b) variability study, application of the homogeneity constraint at the measurement acceptability region (MAR) limit eliminated much of the potential operating window for DWPF. As a result, Edwards and Brown developed criteria that allowed DWPF to relax the homogeneity constraint from the MAR to the property acceptance region (PAR) criterion, which opened up the operating window for DWPF operations. These criteria are defined as: (1) use the alumina constraint as currently implemented in PCCS (Al 2 O 3 (ge) 3 wt%) and add a sum of alkali constraint with an upper limit of 19.3 wt% (ΣM 2 O 2 O 3 constraint to 4 wt% (Al 2 O 3 (ge) 4 wt%). Herman et al. previously demonstrated that these criteria could be used to replace the homogeneity constraint for future sludge-only batches. The compositional region encompassing coupled operations flowsheets could not be bounded as these flowsheets were unknown at the time. With the initiation of coupled operations at DWPF in 2008, the need to revisit the homogeneity constraint was realized. This constraint was specifically addressed through the variability study for SB5 where it was shown that the homogeneity constraint could be ignored if the alumina and alkali constraints were imposed. Additional benefit could be gained if the homogeneity constraint could be replaced by the Al 2 O 3 and sum of alkali constraint for future coupled operations processing based on projections from Revision 14 of

  19. 75 FR 7526 - Withdrawal of Regulatory Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-19

    ...'s Electronic Reading Room at http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/doc-collections . Regulatory guides are... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2010-0052] Withdrawal of Regulatory Guide AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Withdrawal of Regulatory Guide 1.56, ``Maintenance of Water Purity in Boiling...

  20. 12 CFR 562.2 - Regulatory reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... § 562.2 Regulatory reports. (a) Definition and scope. This section applies to all regulatory reports, as... (TFR) are examples of regulatory reports. Regulatory reports are regulatory documents, not accounting... limited to, the accounting instructions provided in the TFR, guidance contained in OTS regulations...

  1. Virginia Power's regulatory reduction program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, G.D.

    1996-01-01

    Virginia Power has two nuclear plants, North Anna and Surry Power Stations, which have two units each for a total of four nuclear units. In 1992, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission solicited comments from the nuclear industry to obtain their ideas for reducing the regulatory burden on nuclear facilities. Pursuant to the new regulatory climate, Virginia Power developed an internal program to evaluate and assess the regulatory and self-imposed requirements to which they were committed, and to pursue regulatory relief or internal changes where possible and appropriate. The criteria were that public safety must be maintained, and savings must be significant. Up to the date of the conference, over US$22 million of one-time saving had been effected, and US$2.75 million in annual savings

  2. Anti-regulatory T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mads Hald

    2017-01-01

    responses to tumours or inhibiting autoimmunity development. However, recent studies report the discovery of self-reactive pro-inflammatory T cells—termed anti-regulatory T cells (anti-Tregs)—that target immune-suppressive cells. Thus, regulatory cells can now be defined as both cells that suppress immune...... reactions as well as effector cells that counteract the effects of suppressor cells and support immune reactions. Self-reactive anti-Tregs have been described that specifically recognize human leukocyte antigen-restricted epitopes derived from proteins that are normally expressed by regulatory immune cells......Our initial understanding of immune-regulatory cells was based on the discovery of suppressor cells that assure peripheral T-cell tolerance and promote immune homeostasis. Research has particularly focused on the importance of regulatory T cells (Tregs) for immune modulation, e.g. directing host...

  3. Constraint-Muse: A Soft-Constraint Based System for Music Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölzl, Matthias; Denker, Grit; Meier, Max; Wirsing, Martin

    Monoidal soft constraints are a versatile formalism for specifying and solving multi-criteria optimization problems with dynamically changing user preferences. We have developed a prototype tool for interactive music creation, called Constraint Muse, that uses monoidal soft constraints to ensure that a dynamically generated melody harmonizes with input from other sources. Constraint Muse provides an easy to use interface based on Nintendo Wii controllers and is intended to be used in music therapy for people with Parkinson’s disease and for children with high-functioning autism or Asperger’s syndrome.

  4. The trade in human organs in Tamil Nadu: the anatomy of regulatory failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraleedharan, Vangal R; Jan, Stephen; Ram Prasad, S

    2006-01-01

    There has been much recent interest in the trade in human organs in India. This paper examines both the extent to which regulatory controls through the Transplantation of Human Organs Act (1994) are effective in curbing commercialization and the nature of the constraints on the effective implementation of this Act. The study, a politico-economic analysis of health sector regulation, is based on a stakeholder analysis drawing on the views of key decision makers, service providers, organ donors and recipients. The findings indicate widespread acknowledgement of an organs trade and highlight four major constraints on the effective implementation of the Act: the commercial interests of middlemen and service providers, the ambiguities and loopholes in the Act; the low monitoring capacity of the regulatory authorities, and the pressures and responsibilities exerted upon the Authorizing Committees. A feature of the Act is that its implementation is subject to a major incentive compatibility constraint - it is seemingly not in the interests of any of the key players, including the regulatory authorities, to restrict the organ trade. To some extent, this institutional problem is created by the specific nature of the regulatory intervention, and, as a consequence, measures involving straightforward redrafting of the regulation might go some way to addressing this incentive problem. Another solution may entail a 'harm-reduction' strategy involving a controlled trade where procurement and organ matching is carried out by a government agency (this would require, however, the prior resolution of the broader ethical question concerning the legitimacy of such trade).

  5. 75 FR 11166 - Joint Meeting of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-10

    ... the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission; Notice of Joint Meeting of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission March 2, 2010. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) will hold...

  6. Ontario regulatory update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, P.

    1998-01-01

    This paper provides a summary of recent events which when combined add up to a gradual but unmistakable movement of the energy sector in Ontario towards a fully competitive market. Some of the events precipitating this movement towards competition include the passing of the Energy Competition Act of 1998 (Bill 35), electricity deregulation, regulatory reform of the natural gas sector, and changes to the consumer protection legislation. The role of the Ontario Energy Board was also updated to bring it in line with the demands of the competitive marketplace. Among the new roles that the Board will assume are to facilitate competition, to maintain fair and reasonable rates, and to facilitate rational expansion. Another objective is to provide opportunities for including energy efficiency in government policies. Implications of the changes in the OEB's mandate for market participants were also discussed, including (1) regulated gas sales and delivery mechanisms, (2) transactional services, (3) contract restructuring, (4) consumer protection, (5) supervision of competitive market participants, and (6) market surveillance

  7. Regulatory risk coherence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remick, F.J.

    1992-01-01

    As one of the most progressive users of risk assessment in decision making, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is in a position to play an important role in influencing the development of standard government wide policies for the application of risk assessment in decision making. The NRC, with the support of the nuclear industry, should use the opportunity provided by its experience with risk assessment to actively encourage the adoption of standard national and international health-based safety goals and at the same time accelerate its own efforts to implement the safety goals it has already developed for itself. There are signs of increased recognition of the need for consistency and coherence in the application of risk assessment in government decision making. The NRC and the nuclear industry have recently taken a great step toward establishing a consistant and coherent risk assessment-based culture in the US nuclear industry. As a result of Generic Letter 88-20, which asks each commercial nuclear power plant licensee to perform an individual plant examination by September 1992, for the first time a risk assessment characterizing initiating events in each plant will exist

  8. Fuzzy Constraint-Based Agent Negotiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Menq-Wen Lin; K. Robert Lai; Ting-Jung Yu

    2005-01-01

    Conflicts between two or more parties arise for various reasons and perspectives. Thus, resolution of conflicts frequently relies on some form of negotiation. This paper presents a general problem-solving framework for modeling multi-issue multilateral negotiation using fuzzy constraints. Agent negotiation is formulated as a distributed fuzzy constraint satisfaction problem (DFCSP). Fuzzy constrains are thus used to naturally represent each agent's desires involving imprecision and human conceptualization, particularly when lexical imprecision and subjective matters are concerned. On the other hand, based on fuzzy constraint-based problem-solving, our approach enables an agent not only to systematically relax fuzzy constraints to generate a proposal, but also to employ fuzzy similarity to select the alternative that is subject to its acceptability by the opponents. This task of problem-solving is to reach an agreement that benefits all agents with a high satisfaction degree of fuzzy constraints, and move towards the deal more quickly since their search focuses only on the feasible solution space. An application to multilateral negotiation of a travel planning is provided to demonstrate the usefulness and effectiveness of our framework.

  9. Pair Production Constraints on Superluminal Neutrinos Revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, Stanley

    2012-01-01

    We revisit the pair creation constraint on superluminal neutrinos considered by Cohen and Glashow in order to clarify which types of superluminal models are constrained. We show that a model in which the superluminal neutrino is effectively light-like can evade the Cohen-Glashow constraint. In summary, any model for which the CG pair production process operates is excluded because such timelike neutrinos would not be detected by OPERA or other experiments. However, a superluminal neutrino which is effectively lightlike with fixed p 2 can evade the Cohen-Glashow constraint because of energy-momentum conservation. The coincidence involved in explaining the SN1987A constraint certainly makes such a picture improbable - but it is still intrinsically possible. The lightlike model is appealing in that it does not violate Lorentz symmetry in particle interactions, although one would expect Hughes-Drever tests to turn up a violation eventually. Other evasions of the CG constraints are also possible; perhaps, e.g., the neutrino takes a 'short cut' through extra dimensions or suffers anomalous acceleration in matter. Irrespective of the OPERA result, Lorentz-violating interactions remain possible, and ongoing experimental investigation of such possibilities should continue.

  10. Diffusion Processes Satisfying a Conservation Law Constraint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bakosi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate coupled stochastic differential equations governing N nonnegative continuous random variables that satisfy a conservation principle. In various fields a conservation law requires a set of fluctuating variables to be nonnegative and (if appropriately normalized sum to one. As a result, any stochastic differential equation model to be realizable must not produce events outside of the allowed sample space. We develop a set of constraints on the drift and diffusion terms of such stochastic models to ensure that both the nonnegativity and the unit-sum conservation law constraints are satisfied as the variables evolve in time. We investigate the consequences of the developed constraints on the Fokker-Planck equation, the associated system of stochastic differential equations, and the evolution equations of the first four moments of the probability density function. We show that random variables, satisfying a conservation law constraint, represented by stochastic diffusion processes, must have diffusion terms that are coupled and nonlinear. The set of constraints developed enables the development of statistical representations of fluctuating variables satisfying a conservation law. We exemplify the results with the bivariate beta process and the multivariate Wright-Fisher, Dirichlet, and Lochner’s generalized Dirichlet processes.

  11. Faddeev-Jackiw quantization and constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barcelos-Neto, J.; Wotzasek, C.

    1992-01-01

    In a recent Letter, Faddeev and Jackiw have shown that the reduction of constrained systems into its canonical, first-order form, can bring some new insight into the research of this field. For sympletic manifolds the geometrical structure, called Dirac or generalized bracket, is obtained directly from the inverse of the nonsingular sympletic two-form matrix. In the cases of nonsympletic manifolds, this two-form is degenerated and cannot be inverted to provide the generalized brackets. This singular behavior of the sympletic matrix is indicative of the presence of constraints that have to be carefully considered to yield to consistent results. One has two possible routes to treat this problem: Dirac has taught us how to implement the constraints into the potential part (Hamiltonian) of the canonical Lagrangian, leading to the well-known Dirac brackets, which are consistent with the constraints and can be mapped into quantum commutators (modulo ordering terms). The second route, suggested by Faddeev and Jackiw, and followed in this paper, is to implement the constraints directly into the canonical part of the first order Lagrangian, using the fact that the consistence condition for the stability of the constrained manifold is linear in the time derivative. This algorithm may lead to an invertible two-form sympletic matrix from where the Dirac brackets are readily obtained. This algorithm is used in this paper to investigate some aspects of the quantization of constrained systems with first- and second-class constraints in the sympletic approach

  12. Proposal of dose constraint values to the patient in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arranz, L.; Sastre, J.M.; Ferrer, N.; Andres, J.C. De; Guibelalde, E.; Tobarra, B.; Madrid, G.

    1996-01-01

    A dose constraint is the value of an individual dose not to be exceeded in the individual dose distribution considered in an optimization process. The objective of a dose constraints is to set a ceiling to the doses to individual from a source, practice or task which are considered acceptable in the optimization process at the design stage. Implicitly, as C. Zuur states, dose constraints are below the relevant dose limit and usually should be established as local or national levels. Exposures for medical purposes are not subject to dose limits and hence dose constraints were recommended by the ICRP just for occupational and public exposures. However, as an effective tool for optimization for medical exposures, ICRP-60 in paragraph 180 recognizes the value of applying this concept to patient diagnostic radiology with some peculiarities: 'Considerations should be given to the use of dose constraints, or investigation levels, selected by the appropriate professional or regulatory agency, for application in some common diagnostic procedures. They should be applied with flexibility to allow higher cases where indicated by sound clinical judgement.' This paper analyzes retrospectively the dose levels imparted to patient in some common examinations (chest, lumbar spine and mammography) at different optimization stages of different facilities to propose some local constraints for diagnostic examinations. Dose values have been obtained under routine working conditions. Centres included in the survey have been chosen all over Spain, classifying them with particular attention to the following aspects: -Organizational aspects of the diagnostic radiology service, i.e., operational, technical and clinical criteria, as well as quality requirements. - Evaluation and revision of routine medical protocols. -Quality control of the radiological equipment. - Quality criteria for the surveillance of the weekly procedures, with requirements of proper training of die technical staff

  13. Strengthening Regulatory Competence in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadiq, M.

    2016-01-01

    Capacity building of Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Authority is considered an essential element in pursuit of its vision to become a world class regulatory body. Since its inception in 2001, PNRA has continuously endeavoured to invest in its people, develop training infrastructure and impart sound knowledge and professional skills with the aim to improve its regulatory effectiveness. The use of nuclear and radioactive material in Pakistan has increased manifold in recent years, thus induction of more manpower was needed for regulatory oversight. PNRA adopted two pronged approach for meeting the manpower demand (a) employment of university graduates through fast track recruitment drive and (b) induction of graduates by offering fellowships for Master degree programs. Although, the newly employed staff was selected on the basis of their excellent academic qualifications in basic and applied sciences, but they required rigorous knowledge and skills in regulatory perspectives. In order to implement a structured training program, PNRA conducted Training Needs Assessment (TNA) and identified competency gaps of the regulatory staff in legal, technical, regulatory practice and behavioural domains. PNRA took several initiatives for capacity building which included establishment of a training centre for sustainability of trainings, initiation of a fellowship scheme for Master program, attachment of staff at local institutes for on-the-job training and placement at foreign regulatory bodies and organizations for technical development with the assistance of IAEA. The above strategies have been very beneficial in competence building of the PNRA staff to perform all regulatory activities indigenously for nuclear power plants, research reactors and radiation facilities. Provision of vibrant technical support to IAEA and Member States in various programs by PNRA is a landmark of these competence development efforts. This paper summarizes PNRA initiatives and the International Atomic

  14. The Danish Regulatory Reform of Telecommunications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skouby, Knud Erik

    1998-01-01

    An overview of the liberalisation process and regulatory reform of telecommunications in Denmark......An overview of the liberalisation process and regulatory reform of telecommunications in Denmark...

  15. Latin hypercube sampling with inequality constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iooss, B.; Petelet, M.; Asserin, O.; Loredo, A.

    2010-01-01

    In some studies requiring predictive and CPU-time consuming numerical models, the sampling design of the model input variables has to be chosen with caution. For this purpose, Latin hypercube sampling has a long history and has shown its robustness capabilities. In this paper we propose and discuss a new algorithm to build a Latin hypercube sample (LHS) taking into account inequality constraints between the sampled variables. This technique, called constrained Latin hypercube sampling (cLHS), consists in doing permutations on an initial LHS to honor the desired monotonic constraints. The relevance of this approach is shown on a real example concerning the numerical welding simulation, where the inequality constraints are caused by the physical decreasing of some material properties in function of the temperature. (authors)

  16. Lorentz violation. Motivation and new constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liberati, S.; Maccione, L.

    2009-09-01

    We review the main theoretical motivations and observational constraints on Planck scale sup-pressed violations of Lorentz invariance. After introducing the problems related to the phenomenological study of quantum gravitational effects, we discuss the main theoretical frameworks within which possible departures from Lorentz invariance can be described. In particular, we focus on the framework of Effective Field Theory, describing several possible ways of including Lorentz violation therein and discussing their theoretical viability. We review the main low energy effects that are expected in this framework. We discuss the current observational constraints on such a framework, focusing on those achievable through high-energy astrophysics observations. In this context we present a summary of the most recent and strongest constraints on QED with Lorentz violating non-renormalizable operators. Finally, we discuss the present status of the field and its future perspectives. (orig.)

  17. WMAP constraints on the Cardassian model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, A.A.; Sen, S.

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the constraints on the Cardassian model using the recent results from the Wilkinson microwave anisotropy probe for the locations of the peaks of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy spectrum. We find that the model is consistent with the recent observational data for a certain range of the model parameter n and the cosmological parameters. We find that the Cardassian model is favored compared to the ΛCDM model for a higher spectral index (n s ≅1) together with a lower value of the Hubble parameter h (h≤0.71). But for smaller values of n s , both ΛCDM and Cardassian models are equally favored. Also, irrespective of supernova constraints, CMB data alone predict the current acceleration of the Universe in this model. We have also studied the constraint on σ 8 , the rms density fluctuations at the 8h -1 Mpc scale

  18. Some general constraints on identical band symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guidry, M.W.; Strayer, M.R.; Wu, C.; Feng, D.H.

    1993-01-01

    We argue on general grounds that nearly identical bands observed for superdeformation and less frequently for normal deformation must be explicable in terms of a symmetry having a microscopic basis. We assume that the unknown symmetry is associated with a Lie algebra generated by terms bilinear in fermion creation and annihilation operators. Observed features of these bands and the general properties of Lie groups are then used to place constraints on acceptable algebras. Additional constraints are placed by assuming that the collective spectrum is associated with a dynamical symmetry, and examining the subgroup structure required by phenomenology. We observe that requisite symmetry cannot be unitary, and that the simplest known group structures consistent with these minimal criteria are associated with the Ginocchio algebras employed in the fermion dynamical symmetry model. However, our arguments are general in nature, and we propose that they imply model-independent constraints on any candidate explanation for identical bands

  19. Lorentz violation. Motivation and new constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liberati, S. [Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati SISSA, Trieste (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare INFN, Sezione di Trieste (Italy); Maccione, L. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2009-09-15

    We review the main theoretical motivations and observational constraints on Planck scale sup-pressed violations of Lorentz invariance. After introducing the problems related to the phenomenological study of quantum gravitational effects, we discuss the main theoretical frameworks within which possible departures from Lorentz invariance can be described. In particular, we focus on the framework of Effective Field Theory, describing several possible ways of including Lorentz violation therein and discussing their theoretical viability. We review the main low energy effects that are expected in this framework. We discuss the current observational constraints on such a framework, focusing on those achievable through high-energy astrophysics observations. In this context we present a summary of the most recent and strongest constraints on QED with Lorentz violating non-renormalizable operators. Finally, we discuss the present status of the field and its future perspectives. (orig.)

  20. Constraints and spandrels of interareal connectomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinov, Mikail

    2016-12-01

    Interareal connectomes are whole-brain wiring diagrams of white-matter pathways. Recent studies have identified modules, hubs, module hierarchies and rich clubs as structural hallmarks of these wiring diagrams. An influential current theory postulates that connectome modules are adequately explained by evolutionary pressures for wiring economy, but that the other hallmarks are not explained by such pressures and are therefore less trivial. Here, we use constraint network models to test these postulates in current gold-standard vertebrate and invertebrate interareal-connectome reconstructions. We show that empirical wiring-cost constraints inadequately explain connectome module organization, and that simultaneous module and hub constraints induce the structural byproducts of hierarchies and rich clubs. These byproducts, known as spandrels in evolutionary biology, include the structural substrate of the default-mode network. Our results imply that currently standard connectome characterizations are based on circular analyses or double dipping, and we emphasize an integrative approach to future connectome analyses for avoiding such pitfalls.

  1. Ring power balance observing plasma stability constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, R.B.; Logan, B.G.

    1982-01-01

    Ring power balance is performed for an E-ring stabilized tandem mirror reactor, taking into account constraints imposed by plasma stability. The two most important criteria are the stability of the core interchange and hot electron interchange modes. The former determines the ring thickness, the latter determines the minimum hot electron temperature; both quantities are important for power balance. The combination of the hot electron interchange constraint and the fact that the barrier density is low places the operating point on the synchrotron dominated branch of power balance. The reference case considered here requires a reasonable 34 MW of heating power deposited in the rings. We also have examined the sensitivity of the required ring power on uncertainties in the numerical coefficients of the stability constraints. We have found that the heating power is strongly affected

  2. Effective constraint algebras with structure functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bojowald, Martin; Brahma, Suddhasattwa

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the result that fluctuations and higher moments of a state, by themselves, do not imply quantum corrections in structure functions of constrained systems. Moment corrections are isolated from other types of quantum effects, such as factor-ordering choices and regularization, by introducing a new condition with two parts: (i) having a direct (or faithful) quantization of the classical structure functions, (ii) free of factor-ordering ambiguities. In particular, it is assumed that the classical constraints can be quantized in an anomaly free way, so that properties of the resulting constraint algebras can be derived. If the two-part condition is not satisfied, effective constraints can still be evaluated, but quantum effects may be stronger. Consequences for canonical quantum gravity, whose structure functions encode space–time structure, are discussed. In particular, deformed algebras found in models of loop quantum gravity provide reliable information even in the Planck regime. (paper)

  3. Managing Constraint Generators in Retail Design Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münster, Mia Borch; Haug, Anders

    case studies of fashion store design projects, the present paper addresses this gap. The and six case studies of fashion store design projects, the present paper sheds light on the types of constraints generated by the relevant constraint generators. The paper shows that in the cases studied......Retail design concepts are complex designs meeting functional and aesthetic demands. During a design process a retail designer has to consider various constraint generators such as stakeholder interests, physical limitations and restrictions. Obviously the architectural site, legislators...... and landlords need to be considered as well as the interest of the client and brand owner. Furthermore the users need to be taken into account in order to develop an interesting and functional shopping and working environments. Finally, suppliers and competitors may influence the design with regard...

  4. Strengthening Regulatory Competence in a Changing Nuclear Regulatory Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Illizastigui, P.F.

    2016-01-01

    The paper addresses the approach followed by the Cuban National Center for Nuclear Safety for the management of current and new competences of its regulatory staff with the aim of allowing those staff to effectively fulfill their core regulatory functions. The approach is realized through an Integrated System for Competence Building, which is based on the IAEA recommendations, shown to be effective in ensuring the necessary competence in the relevant areas. In the author’s opinion, competence of the regulatory staff in the area of human and organizational factors is of paramount importance and needs to be further strengthened in order to be able to assess safety performance at the facilities and detect early signs of deteriorating safety performance. The former is defined by the author as the core regulatory function “Analysis” which covers the entire spectrum of assessment tasks carried out by the regulatory staff to: a) detect declining safety performance, b) diagnose latent weaknesses (root causes) and c) make effective safety culture interventions. The author suggests that competence associated with the fulfillment of the analysis function is distinctly identified and dealt with separately in the current system of managing regulatory competence. (author)

  5. Coverage-based constraints for IMRT optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mescher, H.; Ulrich, S.; Bangert, M.

    2017-09-01

    Radiation therapy treatment planning requires an incorporation of uncertainties in order to guarantee an adequate irradiation of the tumor volumes. In current clinical practice, uncertainties are accounted for implicitly with an expansion of the target volume according to generic margin recipes. Alternatively, it is possible to account for uncertainties by explicit minimization of objectives that describe worst-case treatment scenarios, the expectation value of the treatment or the coverage probability of the target volumes during treatment planning. In this note we show that approaches relying on objectives to induce a specific coverage of the clinical target volumes are inevitably sensitive to variation of the relative weighting of the objectives. To address this issue, we introduce coverage-based constraints for intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment planning. Our implementation follows the concept of coverage-optimized planning that considers explicit error scenarios to calculate and optimize patient-specific probabilities q(\\hat{d}, \\hat{v}) of covering a specific target volume fraction \\hat{v} with a certain dose \\hat{d} . Using a constraint-based reformulation of coverage-based objectives we eliminate the trade-off between coverage and competing objectives during treatment planning. In-depth convergence tests including 324 treatment plan optimizations demonstrate the reliability of coverage-based constraints for varying levels of probability, dose and volume. General clinical applicability of coverage-based constraints is demonstrated for two cases. A sensitivity analysis regarding penalty variations within this planing study based on IMRT treatment planning using (1) coverage-based constraints, (2) coverage-based objectives, (3) probabilistic optimization, (4) robust optimization and (5) conventional margins illustrates the potential benefit of coverage-based constraints that do not require tedious adjustment of target volume objectives.

  6. International regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2004-01-01

    The 48. session of the IAEA general conference was held in Vienna from 20 to 24 september 2004 with the participation of delegates from 125 members states and representatives of various international organisations. A number of resolutions were adopted by the conference in the following fields: nuclear safety, radiation, transport and waste safety. The general conference also adopted a resolution on measures to protect against nuclear terrorism. The Director General decided in 2003 to appoint a group of experts to explore and advise on issues related to nuclear liability. This group called the International Expert Group on Nuclear Liability (I.N.L.E.X.) consists of 20 experts members from nuclear power and non nuclear power countries and from shipping and non shipping states. It serves three major functions: to create a forum of expertise to explore and advise on issues related to nuclear liability; to enhance global adherence by nuclear and non nuclear states to an effective nuclear liability regime, inter alia, on the basis of the convention on supplementary compensation for nuclear damage and the annex thereto, the Vienna convention on civil liability for nuclear damage, the Paris convention on third party liability in the field of nuclear energy, the joint protocol relating to the application of the vienna convention and the paris convention and the amendments thereto; and to assist in the development and strengthening of the national nuclear liability legal frameworks in IAEA members states to protect the public and the environment and to enhance nuclear safety. The second part of international regulatory concerns a directive on public access to environmental information made by the European Parliament. (N.C.)

  7. Judgement of Design Scheme Based on Flexible Constraint in ICAD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The conception of flexible constraint is proposed in the paper. The solution of flexible constraint is in special range, and maybe different in different instances of same design scheme. The paper emphasis on how to evaluate and optimize a design scheme with flexible constraints based on the satisfaction degree function defined on flexible constraints. The conception of flexible constraint is used to solve constraint conflict and design optimization in complicated constraint-based assembly design by the PFM parametrization assembly design system. An instance of gear-box design is used for verifying optimization method.

  8. q-Virasoro constraints in matrix models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nedelin, Anton [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Milano-Bicocca and INFN, sezione di Milano-Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 3, I-20126 Milano (Italy); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala university,Box 516, SE-75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Zabzine, Maxim [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala university,Box 516, SE-75120 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2017-03-20

    The Virasoro constraints play the important role in the study of matrix models and in understanding of the relation between matrix models and CFTs. Recently the localization calculations in supersymmetric gauge theories produced new families of matrix models and we have very limited knowledge about these matrix models. We concentrate on elliptic generalization of hermitian matrix model which corresponds to calculation of partition function on S{sup 3}×S{sup 1} for vector multiplet. We derive the q-Virasoro constraints for this matrix model. We also observe some interesting algebraic properties of the q-Virasoro algebra.

  9. Constraints on reusability of learning objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    May, Michael; Hussmann, Peter Munkebo; Jensen, Anne Skov

    2010-01-01

    It is the aim of this paper to discuss some didactic constraints on the use and reuse of digital modular learning objects. Engineering education is used as the specific context of use with examples from courses in introductory electronics and mathematics. Digital multimedia and modular learning....... Constraints on reuse arise from the nature of conceptual understanding in higher education and the functionality of learning objects within present technologies. We will need didactic as well as technical perspectives on learning objects in designing for understanding....

  10. Constraints on hadronically decaying dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garny, Mathias [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Physik-Department; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Ibarra, Alejandro [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Tran, David [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Physik-Department; Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis, MN (United States). School of Physics and Astronomy

    2012-05-15

    We present general constraints on dark matter stability in hadronic decay channels derived from measurements of cosmic-ray antiprotons.We analyze various hadronic decay modes in a model-independent manner by examining the lowest-order decays allowed by gauge and Lorentz invariance for scalar and fermionic dark matter particles and present the corresponding lower bounds on the partial decay lifetimes in those channels. We also investigate the complementarity between hadronic and gamma-ray constraints derived from searches for monochromatic lines in the sky, which can be produced at the quantum level if the dark matter decays into quark-antiquark pairs at leading order.

  11. Constraints on hadronically decaying dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garny, Mathias; Ibarra, Alejandro; Tran, David; Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis, MN

    2012-05-01

    We present general constraints on dark matter stability in hadronic decay channels derived from measurements of cosmic-ray antiprotons.We analyze various hadronic decay modes in a model-independent manner by examining the lowest-order decays allowed by gauge and Lorentz invariance for scalar and fermionic dark matter particles and present the corresponding lower bounds on the partial decay lifetimes in those channels. We also investigate the complementarity between hadronic and gamma-ray constraints derived from searches for monochromatic lines in the sky, which can be produced at the quantum level if the dark matter decays into quark-antiquark pairs at leading order.

  12. Orthology and paralogy constraints: satisfiability and consistency

    OpenAIRE

    Lafond, Manuel; El-Mabrouk, Nadia

    2014-01-01

    Background A variety of methods based on sequence similarity, reconciliation, synteny or functional characteristics, can be used to infer orthology and paralogy relations between genes of a given gene family   G . But is a given set   C of orthology/paralogy constraints possible, i.e., can they simultaneously co-exist in an evolutionary history for   G ? While previous studies have focused on full sets of constraints, here we consider the general case where   C does not necessarily involve a ...

  13. Geothermal energy and the land resource: conflicts and constraints in The Geysers-Calistoga KGRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Banion, K.; Hall, C.

    1980-07-14

    This study of potential land-related impacts of geothermal power development in The Geysers region focuses on Lake County because it has most of the undeveloped resource and the least regulatory capability. First, the land resource is characterized in terms of its ecological, hydrological, agricultural, and recreational value; intrinsic natural hazards; and the adequacy of roads and utility systems. Based on those factors, the potential land-use conflicts and constraints that geothermal development may encounter in the region are identified and the availability and relative suitability of land for such development is determined. A brief review of laws and powers germane to geothermal land-use regulation is included.

  14. 78 FR 1634 - Regulatory Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-08

    ... amendments include updates to organizational information, use of the term ``disability'' in lieu of the term.../00/13 Regulatory Flexibility Analysis Required: No. Agency Contact: Robert W. Cosgrove, External...

  15. 78 FR 44329 - Regulatory Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ... amendments include updates to organizational information, use of the term ``disability'' in lieu of the term.../00/13 Regulatory Flexibility Analysis Required: No. Agency Contact: Robert W. Cosgrove, External...

  16. 78 FR 44279 - Regulatory Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ... Vol. 78 Tuesday, No. 141 July 23, 2013 Part XI Department of Justice Semiannual Regulatory Agenda #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78 , No. 141 / Tuesday, July 23, 2013 / Unified Agenda#0;#0; [[Page 44280

  17. Recent regulatory issues in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laaksonen, J.; Tiipana, P.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents general regulatory issues from Finland since the last WWER Regulators Forum meeting in Odessa 11-13 October 2000. More specific issues concerning Loviisa NPP are described in the Annex of this paper. (author)

  18. National legislative and regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This section treats of the following National legislative and regulatory activities: 1 - France: General legislation, regulations and instruments; Nuclear trade (including non-proliferation); International co-operation; 2 - India: Licensing and regulatory infrastructure; Liability and compensation; 3 - Ireland: Nuclear safety and radiological protection (including nuclear emergency planning); Transport of radioactive material; Nuclear trade (including non-proliferation); 4 - Lithuania: Licensing and regulatory infrastructure; Nuclear safety and radiological protection (including nuclear emergency planning); Radioactive waste management; 5 - Luxembourg: Nuclear safety and radiological protection (including nuclear emergency planning); 6 - Slovak Republic: International co-operation; General legislation, regulations and instruments; 7 - Spain: Radioactive materials (including physical protection); Radioactive waste management; 8 - United States: Licensing and regulatory infrastructure

  19. Quality assurance within regulatory bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-06-01

    The IAEA directed extensive efforts during the years 1991 to 1995 to the integral revision of all NUSS quality assurance publications, which were approved and issued as Safety Series No.50-C/SG-Q, Quality Assurance for Safety in Nuclear Power Plants and other Nuclear Installations (1996). When these quality assurance publications were developed, their prime focus was on requirements against which work performed by the licensees could be measured and assessed by the regulatory bodies. In this way, they only helped to facilitate the functions of regulators. No requirements or recommendations were provided on how the regulators should ensure the effective implementation of their own activities. The present publication is a first attempt to collect, integrate and offer available experience to directly support performance of regulatory activities. It presents a comprehensive compilation on the application of quality assurance principles and methods by regulatory bodies to their activities. The aim is consistent good performance of regulatory activities through a systematic approach

  20. State/Federal Regulatory Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains presentations from the Brown to Green: Make the Connection to Renewable Energy workshop held in Santa Fe, New Mexico, during December 10-11, 2008, regarding State/Federal Regulatory Considerations.

  1. Regulatory barriers to hazardous waste technology innovation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuusinen, T.L.; Siegel, M.R.

    1991-02-01

    The primary federal regulatory programs that influence the development of new technology for hazardous waste are the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA, also commonly known as Superfund). Two important aspects of RCRA that can create barriers to hazardous waste technology innovation are technology-based waste pre-treatment standards and a cumbersome permitting program. By choosing a technology-based approach to the RCRA land disposal restrictions program, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has simultaneously created tremendous demand for the technologies specified in its regulations, while at the same time significantly reduced incentives for technology innovation that might have otherwise existed. Also, the RCRA hazardous waste permitting process can take years and cost hundreds of thousands of dollars. The natural tendency of permit writers to be cautious of unproven (i.e., innovative) technology also can create a barrier to deployment of new technologies. EPA has created several permitting innovations, however, to attempt to mitigate this latter barrier. Understanding the constraints of these permitting innovations can be important to the success of hazardous waste technology development programs. 3 refs

  2. Regulatory competition in partnership law.

    OpenAIRE

    Siems, Mathias

    2009-01-01

    Regulatory competition in company law has been extensively debated in the last few decades, but it has rarely been discussed whether there could also be regulatory competition in partnership law. This article fills this gap. It addresses the partnership law of the US, the UK, Germany, and France, and presents empirical data on the different types of partnerships and companies established in these jurisdictions. The main focus is on the use of a limited liability partnership (LLP) outside its ...

  3. Nuclear regulatory developments in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binder, M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper from CNSC discusses nuclear regulatory developments in Canada. It starts with the Fukushima accident and the effect on the nuclear sector. It summarises what CNSC has done, what it has learned and their plans going forward. It has made recommendations to IAEA for international enhancements to regulatory procedures. It outline the activities of Canada's nuclear power plants, Canada's uranium projects, deep geological repository and waste management as well as nuclear research in Canada.

  4. Regulatory facility guide for Ohio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, S.S.; Bock, R.E.; Francis, M.W.; Gove, R.M.; Johnson, P.E.; Kovac, F.M.; Mynatt, J.O. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Rymer, A.C. [Transportation Consulting Services, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1994-02-28

    The Regulatory Facility Guide (RFG) has been developed for the DOE and contractor facilities located in the state of Ohio. It provides detailed compilations of international, federal, and state transportation-related regulations applicable to shipments originating at destined to Ohio facilities. This RFG was developed as an additional resource tool for use both by traffic managers who must ensure that transportation operations are in full compliance with all applicable regulatory requirements and by oversight personnel who must verify compliance activities.

  5. Sociotechnical systems as a framework for regulatory system design and evaluation: Using Work Domain Analysis to examine a new regulatory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carden, Tony; Goode, Natassia; Read, Gemma J M; Salmon, Paul M

    2017-03-15

    Like most work systems, the domain of adventure activities has seen a series of serious incidents and subsequent calls to improve regulation. Safety regulation systems aim to promote safety and reduce accidents. However, there is scant evidence they have led to improved safety outcomes. In fact there is some evidence that the poor integration of regulatory system components has led to adverse safety outcomes in some contexts. Despite this, there is an absence of methods for evaluating regulatory and compliance systems. This article argues that sociotechnical systems theory and methods provide a suitable framework for evaluating regulatory systems. This is demonstrated through an analysis of a recently introduced set of adventure activity regulations. Work Domain Analysis (WDA) was used to describe the regulatory system in terms of its functional purposes, values and priority measures, purpose-related functions, object-related processes and cognitive objects. This allowed judgement to be made on the nature of the new regulatory system and on the constraints that may impact its efficacy following implementation. Importantly, the analysis suggests that the new system's functional purpose of ensuring safe activities is not fully supported in terms of the functions and objects available to fulfil them. Potential improvements to the design of the system are discussed along with the implications for regulatory system design and evaluation across the safety critical domains generally. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Scientific, Social, and Institutional Constraints Facing Coastal Restoration in Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiss, B.; Shabman, L. A.; Brown, G.

    2017-12-01

    Due to multiple stressors, including subsidence, accelerated sea level rise, canal construction, tropical storm damages, and basin-wide river management decisions, southern Louisiana is experiencing some of the world's highest rates of coastal land loss. Although ideas abound, the solutions proposed to mitigate for land loss are often uncertain, complex, expensive, and difficult. There are significant scientific uncertainties associated with fundamental processes including the spatial distribution of rates of subsidence, the anticipated impacts of increased inundation on marsh plant species and questions about the resilience of engineered solutions. Socially and politically, there is the need to balance navigation, flood risk management and environmental restoration with the fact that the land involved is largely privately owned and includes many communities and towns. And layered within this, there are federal and state regulatory constraints which seek to follow a myriad of existing State and Federal laws, protect the benefits realized from previous federal investments, and balance the conflicting interests of a large number of stakeholders. Additionally, current practice when implementing some environmental regulations is to assess impacts against the baseline of current conditions, not projected future, non-project conditions, making it difficult to receive a permit for projects which may have a short-term detriment, but hope for a long-term benefit. The resolution (or lack thereof) of these issues will serve to inform similar future struggles in other low lying coastal areas around the globe.

  7. Public governance-constraints and challenges for social work practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorunn Theresia Jessen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the wake of public sector reforms, the work environment of professionals is changing; there is more description of results and outputs and tighter requirements of front-line work. The changes taking place address a shift towards managerial forms of control and organizational regulations in a range of Western countries. However, the new managerial regimes have different consequences for professionals as objects and subjects of governance. This paper investigates the extent of managerial and administrative regulations in the Norwegian social services, questioning the asserted negative impacts on professional autonomy in social work practice. The empirical data derive from a survey conducted among practitioners and managers in 125 local agencies, and compared to bureaucratic rules and agency procedures that set constraints, the new management model allows both autonomy and flexibility in choosing means and measures in various fields. Most of all, collegial support plays a significant role in providing professional standards for decision-making. The increase of management techniques and standard procedures in public administration concurrently challenges social work values, translating the social services into a field of more regulatory practices.

  8. Reduction of Constraints: Applicability of the Homogeneity Constraint for Macrobatch 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peeler, D.K.

    2001-01-01

    The Product Composition Control System (PCCS) is used to determine the acceptability of each batch of Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter feed in the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME). This control system imposes several constraints on the composition of the contents of the SME to define acceptability. These constraints relate process or product properties to composition via prediction models. A SME batch is deemed acceptable if its sample composition measurements lead to acceptable property predictions after accounting for modeling, measurement and analytic uncertainties. The baseline document guiding the use of these data and models is ''SME Acceptability Determination for DWPF Process Control (U)'' by Brown and Postles [1996]. A minimum of three PCCS constraints support the prediction of the glass durability from a given SME batch. The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) is reviewing all of the PCCS constraints associated with durability. The purpose of this review is to revisit these constraints in light of the additional knowledge gained since the beginning of radioactive operations at DWPF and to identify any supplemental studies needed to amplify this knowledge so that redundant or overly conservative constraints can be eliminated or replaced by more appropriate constraints

  9. Loosening Psychometric Constraints on Educational Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Michael T.

    2017-01-01

    In response to an argument by Baird, Andrich, Hopfenbeck and Stobart (2017), Michael Kane states that there needs to be a better fit between educational assessment and learning theory. In line with this goal, Kane will examine how psychometric constraints might be loosened by relaxing some psychometric "rules" in some assessment…

  10. Fish farmers' perceptions of constraints affecting aquaculture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study focused on fish farmers' perceptions of constraints affecting aquaculture development in Akwa-Ibom State of Nigeria. Random sampling procedure was used to select 120 respondents from whom primary data was collected. Data analysis was with the aid of descriptive statistics. Results show that fish farming ...

  11. Confluence Modulo Equivalence in Constraint Handling Rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning; Kirkeby, Maja Hanne

    2015-01-01

    Previous results on confluence for Constraint Handling Rules, CHR, are generalized to take into account user-defined state equivalence relations. This allows a much larger class of programs to enjoy the advantages of confluence, which include various optimization techniques and simplified...

  12. Domain general constraints on statistical learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiessen, Erik D

    2011-01-01

    All theories of language development suggest that learning is constrained. However, theories differ on whether these constraints arise from language-specific processes or have domain-general origins such as the characteristics of human perception and information processing. The current experiments explored constraints on statistical learning of patterns, such as the phonotactic patterns of an infants' native language. Infants in these experiments were presented with a visual analog of a phonotactic learning task used by J. R. Saffran and E. D. Thiessen (2003). Saffran and Thiessen found that infants' phonotactic learning was constrained such that some patterns were learned more easily than other patterns. The current results indicate that infants' learning of visual patterns shows the same constraints as infants' learning of phonotactic patterns. This is consistent with theories suggesting that constraints arise from domain-general sources and, as such, should operate over many kinds of stimuli in addition to linguistic stimuli. © 2011 The Author. Child Development © 2011 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  13. Constraint-Referenced Analytics of Algebra Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Scot M.; White, Tobin F.

    2016-01-01

    The development of the constraint-referenced analytics tool for monitoring algebra learning activities presented here came from the desire to firstly, take a more quantitative look at student responses in collaborative algebra activities, and secondly, to situate those activities in a more traditional introductory algebra setting focusing on…

  14. Robust Utility Maximization Under Convex Portfolio Constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matoussi, Anis; Mezghani, Hanen; Mnif, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    We study a robust maximization problem from terminal wealth and consumption under a convex constraints on the portfolio. We state the existence and the uniqueness of the consumption–investment strategy by studying the associated quadratic backward stochastic differential equation. We characterize the optimal control by using the duality method and deriving a dynamic maximum principle

  15. Prospects and Constraints of Household Irrigation Practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Constraints and prospects of hand dug wells related to household irrigation were assessed in Hayelom watershed (~1045 ha), by evaluating groundwater suitability for irrigation, soil quality and impact of intervention. 181 hand dug wells have come into existence in the watershed due to intervention and benefiting about ...

  16. Primordial black holes survive SN lensing constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Bellido, Juan; Clesse, Sébastien; Fleury, Pierre

    2018-06-01

    It has been claimed in [arxiv:1712.02240] that massive primordial black holes (PBH) cannot constitute all of the dark matter (DM), because their gravitational-lensing imprint on the Hubble diagram of type Ia supernovae (SN) would be incompatible with present observations. In this note, we critically review those constraints and find several caveats on the analysis. First of all, the constraints on the fraction α of PBH in matter seem to be driven by a very restrictive choice of priors on the cosmological parameters. In particular, the degeneracy between Ωm and α was ignored and thus, by fixing Ωm, transferred the constraining power of SN magnitudes to α. Furthermore, by considering more realistic physical sizes for the type-Ia supernovae, we find an effect on the SN lensing magnification distribution that leads to significantly looser constraints. Moreover, considering a wide mass spectrum of PBH, such as a lognormal distribution, further softens the constraints from SN lensing. Finally, we find that the fraction of PBH that could constitute DM today is bounded by fPBH < 1 . 09(1 . 38) , for JLA (Union 2.1) catalogs, and thus it is perfectly compatible with an all-PBH dark matter scenario in the LIGO band.

  17. MatrixPlot: visualizing sequence constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorodkin, Jan; Stærfeldt, Hans Henrik; Lund, Ole

    1999-01-01

    MatrixPlot: visualizing sequence constraints. Sub-title Abstract Summary : MatrixPlot is a program for making high-quality matrix plots, such as mutual information plots of sequence alignments and distance matrices of sequences with known three-dimensional coordinates. The user can add information...

  18. Constraint-induced movement therapy after stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwakkel, G.; Veerbeek, J.M.; van Wegen, E.E.H.; Wolf, S.L.

    2015-01-01

    Constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) was developed to overcome upper limb impairments after stroke and is the most investigated intervention for the rehabilitation of patients. Original CIMT includes constraining of the non-paretic arm and task-oriented training. Modified versions also apply

  19. Institutional and resource constraints that inhibit contractor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results show that contractors face institutional constraints (work allocation limitations, lack of performance incentives and high transaction costs, such as negotiation costs, the risk of a loss in work and contract default risk), cash flow problems, poor physical infrastructure and a lack of labour. It is expected that the promotion ...

  20. Sustainability constraints on UK bioenergy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thornley, Patricia; Upham, Paul; Tomei, Julia

    2009-01-01

    Use of bioenergy as a renewable resource is increasing in many parts of the world and can generate significant environmental, economic and social benefits if managed with due regard to sustainability constraints. This work reviews the environmental, social and economic constraints on key feedstocks for UK heat, power and transport fuel. Key sustainability constraints include greenhouse gas savings achieved for different fuels, land availability, air quality impacts and facility siting. Applying those constraints, we estimate that existing technologies would facilitate a sustainability constrained level of medium-term bioenergy/biofuel supply to the UK of 4.9% of total energy demand, broken down into 4.3% of heat demands, 4.3% of electricity, and 5.8% of transport fuel. This suggests that attempts to increase the supply above these levels could have counterproductive sustainability impacts in the absence of compensating technology developments or identification of additional resources. The barriers that currently prevent this level of supply being achieved have been analysed and classified. This suggests that the biggest policy impacts would be in stimulating the market for heat demand in rural areas, supporting feedstock prices in a manner that incentivised efficient use/maximum greenhouse gas savings and targeting investment capital that improves yield and reduces land-take.

  1. Industrial capacity is not a constraint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walske, C.

    1977-01-01

    The improved rate at which nuclear power plants are likely to be ordered in the next two years will still be well below the annual level needed to meet official planning assumptions. Industry's capability is not a constraint but the government should be more positive on nuclear power, licensing and the fuel cycle. (author)

  2. Hours Constraints Within and Between Jobs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Euwals, R.W.

    1997-01-01

    In the empirical literature on labour supply, several models are developed to incorporate constraints on working hours. These models do not address the question to which extent working hours are constrained within and between jobs. In this paper I investigate the effect of individual changes in

  3. Management practices and production constraints of central ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    management practices of central highland goats and their major constraints. ... tance to improve the goat production potential and livelihood of the farmers in the study ... ing the productivity and income from keeping goats, there is a study gap in ..... and day time, possibly increasing the chance of getting contagious diseases.

  4. Near-Optimal Fingerprinting with Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulyás Gábor György

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Several recent studies have demonstrated that people show large behavioural uniqueness. This has serious privacy implications as most individuals become increasingly re-identifiable in large datasets or can be tracked, while they are browsing the web, using only a couple of their attributes, called as their fingerprints. Often, the success of these attacks depends on explicit constraints on the number of attributes learnable about individuals, i.e., the size of their fingerprints. These constraints can be budget as well as technical constraints imposed by the data holder. For instance, Apple restricts the number of applications that can be called by another application on iOS in order to mitigate the potential privacy threats of leaking the list of installed applications on a device. In this work, we address the problem of identifying the attributes (e.g., smartphone applications that can serve as a fingerprint of users given constraints on the size of the fingerprint. We give the best fingerprinting algorithms in general, and evaluate their effectiveness on several real-world datasets. Our results show that current privacy guards limiting the number of attributes that can be queried about individuals is insufficient to mitigate their potential privacy risks in many practical cases.

  5. Language-universal constraints on speech segmentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norris, D.; McQueen, J.M.; Cutler, A.; Butterfield, S.; Kearns, R.K.

    2001-01-01

    Two word-spotting experiments are reported that examine whether the Possible-Word Constraint (PWC; Norris, McQueen, Cutler & Butterfield, 1997) is a language-specific or language-universal strategy for the segmentation of continuous speech. The PWC disfavors parses which leave an impossible residue

  6. Neuroplasticity in Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blicher, Jakob; Near, Jamie; Næss-Schmidt, Erhard

    2014-01-01

    In healthy subjects, decreasing GABA facilitates motor learning[1]. Recent studies, using PET[2], TMS[3-5], and pharmacological challenges[6], have pointed indirectly to a decrease in neuronal inhibitory activity after stroke. Therefore, we hypothesize that a suppression of GABA levels post strok...... might be beneficial to motor recovery during Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy (CIMT)....

  7. Optimal Environmental Policy Differentials under Emissions Constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Florax, R.J.G.M.; Mulatu, A.; Withagen, C.A.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Is there a case for preferential treatment of the exposed sector in an economy when compliance to an aggregate emissions constraint induced by an international environmental agreement is mandatory? This question is being debated in many countries in the context of the implementation of the Kyoto

  8. An examination of constraints to wilderness visitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary T. Green; J. Michael Bowker; Cassandra Y. Johnson; H. Ken Cordell; Xiongfei Wang

    2007-01-01

    Certain social groups appear notably less in wilderness visitation surveys than their population proportion. This study examines whether different social groups in American society (minorities, women, rural dwellers, low income and less educated populations) perceive more constraints to wilderness visitation than other groups. Logistic regressions were fit to data from...

  9. Groundwater for sustainable development opportunities and constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel Rahman Attia, F.

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses water resources availability and demand; concept and constraints of sustainable development; ground water protection. Water issues specific for arid zones and the network on ground water protection in the Arab region are discussed. Recommendations on ground water protection in arid zones are given

  10. Borrowing constraints, multiple equilibria and monetary policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Assenza, T.

    2007-01-01

    The appealing feature of Kiyotaki and Moore's Financial Accelerator model (Kiyotaki and Moore, 1997, 2002) is the linkage of asset price changes and borrowing constraints. This framework therefore is the natural vehicle to explore the net worth channel of the monetary transmission mechanism. In the

  11. Choice within Constraints: Mothers and Schooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Miriam; Davies, Jackie; Edwards, Rosalind; Reay, Diane; Standing, Kay

    1997-01-01

    Explores, from a feminist perspective, the discourses of choice regarding how women make their choices as consumers in the education marketplace. It argues that mothers as parents are not free to choose but act within a range of constraints, i.e., their choices are limited by structural and moral possibilities in a patriarchal and racist society.…

  12. Cognitive Dissonance Reduction as Constraint Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, Thomas R.; Lepper, Mark R.

    1996-01-01

    It is argued that the reduction of cognitive dissonance can be viewed as a constraint satisfaction problem, and a computational model of the process of consonance seeking is proposed. Simulations from this model matched psychological findings from the insufficient justification and free-choice paradigms of cognitive dissonance theory. (SLD)

  13. Data Driven Constraints for the SVM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darkner, Sune; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder

    2012-01-01

    We propose a generalized data driven constraint for support vector machines exemplified by classification of paired observations in general and specifically on the human ear canal. This is particularly interesting in dynamic cases such as tissue movement or pathologies developing over time. Assum...

  14. Reinforcement, Behavior Constraint, and the Overjustification Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Bruce W.

    1980-01-01

    Four levels of the behavior constraint-reinforcement variable were manipulated: attractive reward, unattractive reward, request to perform, and a no-reward control. Only the unattractive reward and request groups showed the performance decrements that suggest the overjustification effect. It is concluded that reinforcement does not cause the…

  15. Affordability Constraints in Major Defense Acquisitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    memo, does not provide a detailed recipe for those who must produce quantitative affordability constraints. Enclosure 8 of the January 7, 2015 version...3.0’s full title includes “Achieving Dominant Capabilities 2015 Lot 2028 Lot 2038 Lot $0 $100 $200 $300 $400 $ 500 $600 $700 $800 $900 0 10000 20000

  16. Perceptual Constraints on Infant Memory Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhardstein, Peter; Liu, Jane; Rovee-Collier, Carolyn

    1998-01-01

    Three experiments examined characteristics of a stimulus-cueing retrieval from long-term memory for 3-month olds. Used mobiles displaying either Qs (feature-present stimuli) or Os (feature-absent stimuli) and tested 24 hours later. Findings indicated that target-distractor similarity constraints, whether or not a feature-present stimulus, would…

  17. On the canonical treatment of Lagrangian constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbashov, B.M.

    2001-01-01

    The canonical treatment of dynamic systems with manifest Lagrangian constraints proposed by Berezin is applied to concrete examples: a special Lagrangian linear in velocities, relativistic particles in proper time gauge, a relativistic string in orthonormal gauge, and the Maxwell field in the Lorentz gauge

  18. CONSTRAINTS AND PROBLEMS OF INTERNET SERVICES IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In spite of the benefits of the Internet to learning, teaching and research a number of difficulties still bedevil the provision of services in Nigeria. The objective of this study was to examine the constraints and problems of Internet Services at the Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife. Questionnaires were administered to ...

  19. Ability or Finances as Constraints on Entrepreneurship?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Meisner Nielsen, Kasper

    2012-01-01

    We use a natural experiment in Denmark to test the hypothesis that aspiring entrepreneurs face financial constraints because of low entrepreneurial quality. We identify 304 constrained entrepreneurs who start a business after receiving windfall wealth and examine the performance of these marginal...

  20. Ability or Finances as Constraints on Entrepreneurship?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Meisner Nielsen, Kasper

    We use a natural experiment in Denmark to test the hypothesis that aspiring entrepreneurs face financial constraints because of low entrepreneurial quality. We identify 304 constrained entrepreneurs who start a business after receiving windfall wealth and examine the performance of these marginal...

  1. Quantum centipedes with strong global constraint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grange, Pascal

    2017-06-01

    A centipede made of N quantum walkers on a one-dimensional lattice is considered. The distance between two consecutive legs is either one or two lattice spacings, and a global constraint is imposed: the maximal distance between the first and last leg is N  +  1. This is the strongest global constraint compatible with walking. For an initial value of the wave function corresponding to a localized configuration at the origin, the probability law of the first leg of the centipede can be expressed in closed form in terms of Bessel functions. The dispersion relation and the group velocities are worked out exactly. Their maximal group velocity goes to zero when N goes to infinity, which is in contrast with the behaviour of group velocities of quantum centipedes without global constraint, which were recently shown by Krapivsky, Luck and Mallick to give rise to ballistic spreading of extremal wave-front at non-zero velocity in the large-N limit. The corresponding Hamiltonians are implemented numerically, based on a block structure of the space of configurations corresponding to compositions of the integer N. The growth of the maximal group velocity when the strong constraint is gradually relaxed is explored, and observed to be linear in the density of gaps allowed in the configurations. Heuristic arguments are presented to infer that the large-N limit of the globally constrained model can yield finite group velocities provided the allowed number of gaps is a finite fraction of N.

  2. Egalitarian Risk Sharing under Liquidity Constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, M.; Boonen, T.

    2014-01-01

    Undertaking joint projects in practice involves a lot of uncertainty, especially when it comes to the final costs. This paper addresses the problem of sharing realized costs by the participants, subject to their indvidual liquidity constraints. If all cost levels can be accounted for, and it the

  3. Constraints on the CP-Violating MSSM

    CERN Document Server

    Arbey, A; Godbole, R M; Mahmoudi, F

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the prospects for observing CP violation in the MSSM with six CP-violating phases, using a geometric approach to maximise CP-violating observables subject to the experimental upper bounds on electric dipole moments. We consider constraints from Higgs physics, flavour physics, the dark matter relic density and spin-independent scattering cross section with matter.

  4. Constraints To Effective Community Development Projects Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study focused on the perceived constraints to effective community development projects among rural households in Calabar agricultural zone of Cross River State, Nigeria. Data were collected with the aid of structured questionnaire from 104 randomly selected respondents in the study area. Data analysis was by the ...

  5. Nuclear safety: an operational constraint or necessity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauvenet, A.

    1983-01-01

    Different aspects of the nuclear safety in the operation of power stations are analysed. There is always a danger that safety is considered as a constraint at operator level, but it is essential that human factors and working conditions be taken into consideration [fr

  6. Tilapia culture in Kuwait: constraints and solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Ridha, M.T.

    2006-01-01

    Tilapia farming in Kuwait is in its early stages. Slow growth, high production cost and poor demand are the major constraints to the expansion of tilapia culture in Kuwait. This article presents some suggestions for overcoming these problems to improve the economic feasibility of tilapia culture in Kuwait.

  7. Constraints on low energy Compton scattering amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raszillier, I.

    1979-04-01

    We derive the constraints and correlations of fairly general type for Compton scattering amplitudes at energies below photoproduction threshold and fixed momentum transfer, following from (an upper bound on) the corresponding differential cross section above photoproduction threshold. The derivation involves the solution of an extremal problem in a certain space of vector - valued analytic functions. (author)

  8. A Microkernel Architecture for Constraint Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Michel, Laurent; Van Hentenryck, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a microkernel architecture for constraint programming organized around a number of small number of core functionalities and minimal interfaces. The architecture contrasts with the monolithic nature of many implementations. Experimental results indicate that the software engineering benefits are not incompatible with runtime efficiency.

  9. On the canonical treatment of Lagrangian constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbashov, B.M.

    2001-01-01

    The canonical treatment of dynamic systems with manifest Lagrangian constraints proposed by Berezin is applied to concrete examples: a specific Lagrangian linear in velocities, relativistic particles in proper time gauge, a relativistic string in orthonormal gauge, and the Maxwell field in the Lorentz gauge

  10. Confluence Modulo Equivalence in Constraint Handling Rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning; Kirkeby, Maja Hanne

    2014-01-01

    Previous results on confluence for Constraint Handling Rules, CHR, are generalized to take into account user-defined state equivalence relations. This allows a much larger class of programs to enjoy the ad- vantages of confluence, which include various optimization techniques and simplified...

  11. Constraint Embedding Technique for Multibody System Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Simon S.; Cheng, Michael K.

    2011-01-01

    Multibody dynamics play a critical role in simulation testbeds for space missions. There has been a considerable interest in the development of efficient computational algorithms for solving the dynamics of multibody systems. Mass matrix factorization and inversion techniques and the O(N) class of forward dynamics algorithms developed using a spatial operator algebra stand out as important breakthrough on this front. Techniques such as these provide the efficient algorithms and methods for the application and implementation of such multibody dynamics models. However, these methods are limited only to tree-topology multibody systems. Closed-chain topology systems require different techniques that are not as efficient or as broad as those for tree-topology systems. The closed-chain forward dynamics approach consists of treating the closed-chain topology as a tree-topology system subject to additional closure constraints. The resulting forward dynamics solution consists of: (a) ignoring the closure constraints and using the O(N) algorithm to solve for the free unconstrained accelerations for the system; (b) using the tree-topology solution to compute a correction force to enforce the closure constraints; and (c) correcting the unconstrained accelerations with correction accelerations resulting from the correction forces. This constraint-embedding technique shows how to use direct embedding to eliminate local closure-loops in the system and effectively convert the system back to a tree-topology system. At this point, standard tree-topology techniques can be brought to bear on the problem. The approach uses a spatial operator algebra approach to formulating the equations of motion. The operators are block-partitioned around the local body subgroups to convert them into aggregate bodies. Mass matrix operator factorization and inversion techniques are applied to the reformulated tree-topology system. Thus in essence, the new technique allows conversion of a system with

  12. 75 FR 22868 - Withdrawal of Regulatory Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-30

    ...'s public Web site under ``Regulatory Guides'' in the NRC's Electronic Reading Room at http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/doc-collections . Regulatory guides are also available for inspection at the NRC's... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2010-0167] Withdrawal of Regulatory Guide AGENCY: Nuclear...

  13. Toward making the constraint hypersurface an attractor in free evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiske, David R.

    2004-01-01

    When constructing numerical solutions to systems of evolution equations subject to a constraint, one must decide what role the constraint equations will play in the evolution system. In one popular choice, known as free evolution, a simulation is treated as a Cauchy problem, with the initial data constructed to satisfy the constraint equations. This initial data are then evolved via the evolution equations with no further enforcement of the constraint equations. The evolution, however, via the discretized evolution equations introduce constraint violating modes at the level of truncation error, and these constraint violating modes will behave in a formalism dependent way. This paper presents a generic method for incorporating the constraint equations into the evolution equations so that the off-constraint dynamics are biased toward the constraint satisfying solutions

  14. Behavioral Economic Laboratory Research in Tobacco Regulatory Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidey, Jennifer W; Cassidy, Rachel N; Miller, Mollie E; Smith, Tracy T

    2016-10-01

    Research that can provide a scientific foundation for the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) tobacco policy decisions is needed to inform tobacco regulatory policy. One factor that affects the impact of a tobacco product on public health is its intensity of use, which is determined, in part, by its abuse liability or reinforcing efficacy. Behavioral economic tasks have considerable utility for assessing the reinforcing efficacy of current and emerging tobacco products. This paper provides a narrative review of several behavioral economic laboratory tasks and identifies important applications to tobacco regulatory science. Behavioral economic laboratory assessments, including operant self-administration, choice tasks and purchase tasks, can be used generate behavioral economic data on the effect of price and other constraints on tobacco product consumption. These tasks could provide an expedited simulation of the effects of various tobacco control policies across populations of interest to the FDA. Tobacco regulatory research questions that can be addressed with behavioral economic tasks include assessments of the impact of product characteristics on product demand, assessments of the abuse liability of novel and potential modified risk tobacco products (MRTPs), and assessments of the impact of conventional and novel products in vulnerable populations.

  15. Constraints and Creativity in NPD - Testing the Impact of 'Late Constraints'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Onarheim, Balder; Valgeirsdóttir, Dagný

    experiment was conducted, involving 12 teams of industrial designers from three different countries, each team working on two 30 minutes design tasks. In one condition all constraints were given at the start, and in the other one new radical constraint was added after 12 minutes. The output from all 24 tasks......The aim of the presented work is to investigate how the timing of project constraints can influence the creativity of the output in New Product Development (NPD) projects. When seeking to produce a creative output, is it beneficial to know all constraints when initiating a project...... was assessed for creativity using the Consensual Assessment Technique (CAT), and a comparative within-subjects analysis found no significant different between the two conditions. Controlling for task and assessor a small but non-significant effect was found, in favor of the ‘late constraint’ condition. Thus...

  16. Optimal Portfolios Under Dynamic Shortfall Constraints | Akume ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    industry standard with regulatory authorities enforcing its use in risk measurement and management. Despite its widespread acceptance, VaR is not coherent. Tail Conditional Expectation (TCE), on the other hand, for an underlying continuous distribution, is a coherent risk measures. Our focus in this paper is the dynamic ...

  17. Optimal Portfolios Under Dynamic Shortfall Constraints

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    industry standard with regulatory authorities enforcing its use in risk measure- ment and management. Despite its widespread acceptance, VaR is not coherent. Tail Conditional Expectation (TCE), on the other hand, for an underlying con- tinuous distribution, is a coherent risk measures. Our focus in this paper is the dynamic ...

  18. Risk constraint measures developed for the outcome-based strategy for tank waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, B.L.; Gajewski, S.J.; Glantz, C.L.

    1996-09-01

    This report is one of a series of supporting documents for the outcome-based characterization strategy developed by PNNL. This report presents a set of proposed risk measures with risk constraint (acceptance) levels for use in the Value of Information process used in the NCS. The characterization strategy has developed a risk-based Value of Information (VOI) approach for comparing the cost-effectiveness of characterizing versus mitigating particular waste tanks or tank clusters. The preference between characterizing or mitigating in order to prevent an accident depends on the cost of those activities relative to the cost of the consequences of the accident. The consequences are defined as adverse impacts measured across a broad set of risk categories such as worker dose, public cancers, ecological harm, and sociocultural impacts. Within each risk measure, various open-quotes constraint levelsclose quotes have been identified that reflect regulatory standards or conventionally negotiated thresholds of harm to Hanford resources and values. The cost of consequences includes the open-quotes costs close-quote of exceeding those constraint levels as well as a strictly linear costing per unit of impact within each of the risk measures. In actual application, VOI based-decision making is an iterative process, with a preliminary low-precision screen of potential technical options against the major risk constraints, followed by VOI analysis to determine the cost-effectiveness of gathering additional information and to select a preferred technical option, and finally a posterior screen to determine whether the preferred option meets all relevant risk constraints and acceptability criteria

  19. Regulatory Expectations for Safety Culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Su Jin; Oh, Jang Jin; Choi, Young Sung [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The oversight of licensee's safety culture becomes an important issue that attracts great public and political concerns recently in Korea. Beginning from the intended violation of rules, a series of corruptions, documents forgery and disclosure of wrong-doings made the public think that the whole mindset of nuclear workers has been inadequate. Thus, they are demanding that safety culture shall be improved and that regulatory body shall play more roles and responsibilities for the improvements and oversight for them. This paper introduces, as an effort of regulatory side, recent changes in the role of regulators in safety culture, regulatory expectations on the desired status of licensee's safety culture, the pilot inspection program for safety culture and research activity for the development of oversight system. After the Fukushima accident in Japan 2011, many critics has searched for cultural factors that caused the unacceptable negligence pervaded in Japan nuclear society and the renewed emphasis has been placed on rebuilding safety culture by operators, regulators, and relevant institutions globally. Significant progress has been made in how to approach safety culture and led to a new perspective different from the existing normative assessment method both in operators and regulatory side. Regulatory expectations and oversight of them are based on such a new holistic concept for human, organizational and cultural elements to maintain and strengthen the integrity of defense in depth and consequently nuclear safety.

  20. Radioactive waste below regulatory concern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuder, S.M.

    1987-01-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) published two notices in the Federal Register concerning radioactive waste below regulatory concern. The first, a Commission Policy Statement and Implementation Plan published August 29, 1986, concerns petition to exempt specific radioactive waste streams from the regulations. The second, an Advanced Notice of Proposed Rulemaking published Decemger 2, 1986, addresses the concept of generic rulemaking by the NRC on radioactive wastes that are below regulatory concern. Radioactive waste determined to be below regulatory concern would not be subject to regulatory control and would not need to go to a licensed low-level radioactive waste disposal site. The Policy Statement and Implementation Plan describe (1) the information a petitioner should file in support of a petition to exempt a specific waste stream, (2) the decision criteria the Commission intends to use for judging the petition, and (3) the internal administrative procedures to use be followed in order to permit the Commission to act upon the petition in an expedited manner

  1. The Regulatory Independence of FANR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ALNuaimi, Fatema; Choi, Kwang Shik

    2012-01-01

    Regulatory independence is meant to provide a conservative system of policy making in order to comply with the problems that are forecasted upon the basis of assumptions. The Federal Authorization of Nuclear Regulation (FANR) is a regulatory commission that was formed to be regulatory body that governs the generation of nuclear power in United Arab Emirates. It was established under the UAE nuclear law (9/2009) as an independent regulatory body that was tasked with the regulation of all nuclear activities in the United Arab Emirates. As an independent body, FANR was tasked with ensuring that the regulation of the nuclear sector is done in effective and transparent manner to ensure its accountability to the people. Being independent, the regulatory body develops national nuclear regulations based on laid down safety standards by the International Atomic Energy Agency, ensuring that they are based on scientific and proven technologies The role of FANR is to ensure that the all corporations that undertake nuclear activities follow the laid down procedures and objectives and ensure safety measures are taken keenly to ensure the safety of the workers and the general public while at the same time ensuring the environment is free from nuclear radiations

  2. Regulatory Expectations for Safety Culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Su Jin; Oh, Jang Jin; Choi, Young Sung

    2014-01-01

    The oversight of licensee's safety culture becomes an important issue that attracts great public and political concerns recently in Korea. Beginning from the intended violation of rules, a series of corruptions, documents forgery and disclosure of wrong-doings made the public think that the whole mindset of nuclear workers has been inadequate. Thus, they are demanding that safety culture shall be improved and that regulatory body shall play more roles and responsibilities for the improvements and oversight for them. This paper introduces, as an effort of regulatory side, recent changes in the role of regulators in safety culture, regulatory expectations on the desired status of licensee's safety culture, the pilot inspection program for safety culture and research activity for the development of oversight system. After the Fukushima accident in Japan 2011, many critics has searched for cultural factors that caused the unacceptable negligence pervaded in Japan nuclear society and the renewed emphasis has been placed on rebuilding safety culture by operators, regulators, and relevant institutions globally. Significant progress has been made in how to approach safety culture and led to a new perspective different from the existing normative assessment method both in operators and regulatory side. Regulatory expectations and oversight of them are based on such a new holistic concept for human, organizational and cultural elements to maintain and strengthen the integrity of defense in depth and consequently nuclear safety

  3. The Regulatory Independence of FANR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ALNuaimi, Fatema; Choi, Kwang Shik [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    Regulatory independence is meant to provide a conservative system of policy making in order to comply with the problems that are forecasted upon the basis of assumptions. The Federal Authorization of Nuclear Regulation (FANR) is a regulatory commission that was formed to be regulatory body that governs the generation of nuclear power in United Arab Emirates. It was established under the UAE nuclear law (9/2009) as an independent regulatory body that was tasked with the regulation of all nuclear activities in the United Arab Emirates. As an independent body, FANR was tasked with ensuring that the regulation of the nuclear sector is done in effective and transparent manner to ensure its accountability to the people. Being independent, the regulatory body develops national nuclear regulations based on laid down safety standards by the International Atomic Energy Agency, ensuring that they are based on scientific and proven technologies The role of FANR is to ensure that the all corporations that undertake nuclear activities follow the laid down procedures and objectives and ensure safety measures are taken keenly to ensure the safety of the workers and the general public while at the same time ensuring the environment is free from nuclear radiations

  4. Constraint qualifications and optimality conditions for optimization problems with cardinality constraints

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Červinka, Michal; Kanzow, Ch.; Schwartz, A.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 160, č. 1 (2016), s. 353-377 ISSN 0025-5610 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP402/12/1309; GA ČR GA15-00735S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Cardinality constraints * Constraint qualifications * Optimality conditions * KKT conditions * Strongly stationary points Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 2.446, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2016/MTR/cervinka-0461165.pdf

  5. Medical image segmentation by means of constraint satisfaction neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.T.; Tsao, C.K.; Lin, W.C.

    1990-01-01

    This paper applies the concept of constraint satisfaction neural network (CSNN) to the problem of medical image segmentation. Constraint satisfaction (or constraint propagation), the procedure to achieve global consistency through local computation, is an important paradigm in artificial intelligence. CSNN can be viewed as a three-dimensional neural network, with the two-dimensional image matrix as its base, augmented by various constraint labels for each pixel. These constraint labels can be interpreted as the connections and the topology of the neural network. Through parallel and iterative processes, the CSNN will approach a solution that satisfies the given constraints thus providing segmented regions with global consistency

  6. Regulatory authority information system RAIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz, P.; Mrabit, K.; Miaw, S.

    2000-01-01

    In this lecture the principles of the regulatory authority information system (RAIS) are presented. RAIS is a tool currently being developed by the IAEA for the Regulatory Authorities. It is a part of a set of supporting actions designed to assist member states in achieving the objectives of the Model project on radiation and waste safety infrastructure. RAIS is a tool that provides the management of the Regulatory Authority with the key information needed for the planning and implementation of activities and to ensure confidence that resources are optimally used. The RAIS contains five modules: Inventory of installations and radiation sources; Authorization process; Inspection and follow-up actions; Information on personal dosimetry; Assessment of effectiveness by means of performance indicators

  7. Transparency of nuclear regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    One of the main missions of nuclear regulators is to protect the public, and this cannot be completely achieved without public confidence. The more a regulatory process is transparent, the more such confidence will grow. Despite important cultural differences across countries, a number of common features characterise media and public expectations regarding any activity with an associated risk. A common understanding of transparency and main stakeholders' expectations in the field of nuclear safety were identified during this workshop, together with a number of conditions and practices aimed at improving the transparency of nuclear regulatory activities. These conditions and practices are described herein, and will be of particular interest to all those working in the nuclear regulatory field. Their implementation may, however, differ from one country to another depending on national context. (authors)

  8. Optimisation and constraints - a view from ICRP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunster, H.J.

    1994-01-01

    The optimisation of protection has been the major policy underlying the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection for more than 20 years. In earlier forms, the concept can be traced back to 1951. Constraints are more recent, appearing in their present form only in the 1990 recommendations of the Commission. The requirement to keep all exposures as low as reasonably achievable applies to both normal and potential exposures. The policy and the techniques are well established for normal exposures, i.e. exposures that are certain to occur. The application to potential exposures, i.e. exposures that have a probability of occurring that is less than unity, is more difficult and is still under international discussion. Constraints are needed to limit the inequity associated with the use of collective dose in cost-benefit analysis and to provide a margin to protect individuals who may be exposed to more than one source. (author)

  9. Constraints on stellar evolution from pulsations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, A.N.

    1984-01-01

    Consideration of the many types of intrinsic variable stars, that is, those that pulsate, reveals that perhaps a dozen classes can indicate some constraints that affect the results of stellar evolution calculations, or some interpretations of observations. Many of these constraints are not very strong or may not even be well defined yet. The author discusses the case for six classes: classical Cepheids with their measured Wesselink radii, the observed surface effective temperatures of the known eleven double-mode Cepheids, the pulsation periods and measured surface effective temperatures of three R CrB variables, the delta Scuti variable VZ Cnc with a very large ratio of its two observed periods, the nonradial oscillations of the Sun, and the period ratios of the newly discovered double-mode RR Lyrae variables. (Auth.)

  10. Microbial diversity arising from thermodynamic constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Großkopf, Tobias; Soyer, Orkun S

    2016-01-01

    The microbial world displays an immense taxonomic diversity. This diversity is manifested also in a multitude of metabolic pathways that can utilise different substrates and produce different products. Here, we propose that these observations directly link to thermodynamic constraints that inherently arise from the metabolic basis of microbial growth. We show that thermodynamic constraints can enable coexistence of microbes that utilise the same substrate but produce different end products. We find that this thermodynamics-driven emergence of diversity is most relevant for metabolic conversions with low free energy as seen for example under anaerobic conditions, where population dynamics is governed by thermodynamic effects rather than kinetic factors such as substrate uptake rates. These findings provide a general understanding of the microbial diversity based on the first principles of thermodynamics. As such they provide a thermodynamics-based framework for explaining the observed microbial diversity in different natural and synthetic environments. PMID:27035705

  11. Microbial diversity arising from thermodynamic constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Großkopf, Tobias; Soyer, Orkun S

    2016-11-01

    The microbial world displays an immense taxonomic diversity. This diversity is manifested also in a multitude of metabolic pathways that can utilise different substrates and produce different products. Here, we propose that these observations directly link to thermodynamic constraints that inherently arise from the metabolic basis of microbial growth. We show that thermodynamic constraints can enable coexistence of microbes that utilise the same substrate but produce different end products. We find that this thermodynamics-driven emergence of diversity is most relevant for metabolic conversions with low free energy as seen for example under anaerobic conditions, where population dynamics is governed by thermodynamic effects rather than kinetic factors such as substrate uptake rates. These findings provide a general understanding of the microbial diversity based on the first principles of thermodynamics. As such they provide a thermodynamics-based framework for explaining the observed microbial diversity in different natural and synthetic environments.

  12. Locality constraints and 2D quasicrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Socolar, J.E.S.

    1990-01-01

    The plausible assumption that long-range interactions between atoms are negligible in a quasicrystal leaks to the study of tilings that obey constraints on the local configurations of tiles. The theory of such constraints (called matching rules) for 2D quasicrystal tilings is reviewed here. Different types of matching rules are defined and examples of tilings obeying them are given where known. The role of tile decoration is discussed and is shown to be significant in at least two cases (octagonal and dodecagonal duals of periodic 4-grids and 6-grids). A new result is introduced: a constructive procedure is described for generating weak matching rules for tilings with N-fold symmetry, for any N that is either a prime number or twice a prime number. The physics associated with weak matching rules, results on local growth rules, and the case of icosahedral symmetry are all briefly discussed. (author). 29 refs, 4 figs

  13. Neutrino mass constraints on β decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Takeyasu M.; Prezeau, Gary

    2005-01-01

    Using the general connection between the upper limit on the neutrino mass and the upper limits on certain types of non-standard-model interactions that can generate loop corrections to the neutrino mass, we derive constraints on some non-standard-model d→ue - ν interactions. When cast into limits on n→pe - ν coupling constants, our results yield constraints on scalar and tensor weak interactions improved by more than an order of magnitude over the current experimental limits. When combined with the existing limits, our results yield vertical bar C S /C V vertical bar or approx. 5x10 -3 , vertical bar C S ' /C V vertical bar or approx. 5x10 -3 , vertical bar C T /C A vertical bar -2 , and vertical bar C T ' /C A vertical bar -2

  14. Constraints from jet calculus on quark recombination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, L.M.; Lassila, K.E.; Willen, D.

    1979-01-01

    Within the QCD jet calculus formalism, we deduce an equation describing recombination of quarks and antiquarks into mesons within a quark or gluon jet. This equation relates the recombination function R(x 1 ,x 2 ,x) used in current literature to the fragmentation function for producing that same meson out of the parton initiating the jet. We submit currently used recombination functions to our consistency test, taking as input mainly the u-quark fragmentation data into π + mesons, but also s-quark fragmentation into K - mesons. The constraint is well satisfied at large Q 2 for large moments. Our results depend on one parameter, Q 0 2 , the constraint equation being satisfied for small values of this parameter

  15. Financial Constraints and Nominal Price Rigidities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menno, Dominik Francesco; Balleer, Almut; Hristov, Nikolay

    This paper investigates how financial market imperfections and the frequency of price adjustment interact. Based on new firm-level evidence for Germany, we document that financially constrained firms adjust prices more often than their unconstrained counterparts, both upwards and downwards. We show...... that these empirical patterns are consistent with a partial equilibrium menu-cost model with a working capital constraint. We then use the model to show how the presence of financial frictions changes profits and the price distribution of firms compared to a model without financial frictions. Our results suggest...... that tighter financial constraints are associated with higher nominal rigidities, higher prices and lower output. Moreover, in response to aggregate shocks, aggregate price rigidity moves substantially, the response of inflation is dampened, while output reacts more in the presence of financial frictions...

  16. Automated constraint placement to maintain pile shape

    KAUST Repository

    Hsu, Shu-Wei

    2012-11-01

    We present a simulation control to support art-directable stacking designs by automatically adding constraints to stabilize the stacking structure. We begin by adapting equilibrium analysis in a local scheme to find "stable" objects of the stacking structure. Next, for stabilizing the structure, we pick suitable objects from those passing the equilibrium analysis and then restrict their DOFs by managing the insertion of constraints on them. The method is suitable for controlling stacking behavior of large scale. Results show that our control method can be used in varied ways for creating plausible animation. In addition, the method can be easily implemented as a plug-in into existing simulation solvers without changing the fundamental operations of the solvers. © 2012 ACM.

  17. Fundamental constraints on some event data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, I.A.

    1986-01-01

    A modified version of Searle's theory of the structure of human action has been explained and applied to man machine interaction. The comprehensiveness of the theory has been demonstrated, in particular its explanation of human performance and that its consistency with current theories of human error for which it provides an overall setting. The importance of the mental component of human error is highlighted and the constraints that this puts on the collection analysis and use of human error data. Examples have been given to illustrate and apply the theory ranging from considerations of the tenuousness of the link between safety goals and data to simple valve operations. Two approaches which recognise the constraints shown by the theory have been explained. (orig./DG)

  18. Constraints on backreaction in dust universes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raesaenen, Syksy

    2006-01-01

    We study backreaction in dust universes using exact equations which do not rely on perturbation theory, concentrating on theoretical and observational constraints. In particular, we discuss the recent suggestion (Kolb et al 2005 Preprint hep-th/0503117) that superhorizon perturbations could explain present-day accelerated expansion as a useful example which can be ruled out. We note that a backreaction explanation of late-time acceleration will have to involve spatial curvature and subhorizon perturbations

  19. Constraints on Large-Block Shareholders

    OpenAIRE

    Clifford G. Holderness; Dennis P. Sheehan

    1998-01-01

    Corporate managers who own a majority of the common stock in their company or who represent another firm owning such an interest appear to be less constrained than managers of diffusely held firms, yet their power to harm minority shareholders must be circumscribed by some organizational or legal arrangements. Empirical investigations reveal that boards of directors in majority-owned firms are little different from firms with diffuse stock ownership. Another source of constraints on a majorit...

  20. Constraints on fermion mixing with exotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nardi, E.; Tommasini, D.

    1991-11-01

    We analyze the constraints on the mixing angles of the standard fermions with new heavy particles with exotic SU(2) x U(1) quantum number assignments (left-handed singlets or right-handed doublets), that appear in many extensions of the electroweak theory. The updated Charged Current and Neutral Current experimental data, including also the recent Z-peak measurements, are considered. The results of the global analysis of all these data are then presented

  1. On the covariantization of the Chiral constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wotzasek, Clovis; Abreu, E.M.C. de; Neves, C.

    1994-01-01

    We show that a complete covariantization of the chiral constraint in the Floreanini-Jackiw necessitates an infinite number of auxiliary Wess-Zumino fields otherwise the covariantization is only partial and unable to remove the nonlocality in the chiral boson operator. We comment on recent works that claim to obtain covariantization through the use of Batalin-Fradklin-Tyutin method, that uses just one Wess-Zumino field. (author)

  2. Hours Constraints Within and Between Jobs

    OpenAIRE

    Euwals, R.W.

    1997-01-01

    In the empirical literature on labour supply, several models are developed to incorporate constraints on working hours. These models do not address the question to which extent working hours are constrained within and between jobs. In this paper I investigate the effect of individual changes in labour supply preferences on actual working hours. The availability of subjective information on the individual’s preferred working hours gives direct measures on the degree of adjustment of working ho...

  3. Prominent Constraints Faced by Government Managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-01

    organizations have varied cultures and missions. 8 There has been little researc -h on the identification of these constraints and the effective...Additionally, in the current environment they4 15 are responsible to set the rate schedule for various services provided to NAVAIR, and to market ...NAVAIR. They are paid on the basis of work to be performed. This allows a better cost accounting system, but results in some marketing behavior by the

  4. Work Hours Constraints: Impacts and Policy Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Constant, Amelie F.; Otterbach, Steffen

    2011-01-01

    If individuals reveal their preference as consumers, then they are taken seriously. What happens if individuals, as employees, reveal their preferences in working hours? And what happens if there is a misalignment between actual hours worked and preferred hours, the so-called work hours constraints? How does this affect the productivity of workers, their health, and overall life satisfaction? Labor supply and corresponding demand are fundamental to production. Labor economists know for long t...

  5. Embedded System Synthesis under Memory Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jan; Bjørn-Jørgensen, Peter

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a genetic algorithm to solve the system synthesis problem of mapping a time constrained single-rate system specification onto a given heterogeneous architecture which may contain irregular interconnection structures. The synthesis is performed under memory constraints, that is......, the algorithm takes into account the memory size of processors and the size of interface buffers of communication links, and in particular the complicated interplay of these. The presented algorithm is implemented as part of the LY-COS cosynthesis system....

  6. Least Squares Problems with Absolute Quadratic Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Schöne

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes linear least squares problems with absolute quadratic constraints. We develop a generalized theory following Bookstein's conic-fitting and Fitzgibbon's direct ellipse-specific fitting. Under simple preconditions, it can be shown that a minimum always exists and can be determined by a generalized eigenvalue problem. This problem is numerically reduced to an eigenvalue problem by multiplications of Givens' rotations. Finally, four applications of this approach are presented.

  7. Information Constraints and Financial Aid Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Judith Scott-Clayton

    2012-01-01

    One justification for public support of higher education is that prospective students, particularly those from underprivileged groups, lack complete information about the costs and benefits of a college degree. Beyond financial considerations, students may also lack information about what they need to do academically to prepare for and successfully complete college. Yet until recently, college aid programs have typically paid little attention to students' information constraints, and the comp...

  8. National legislative and regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This section treats of the following activities sorted by country: 1 - Belarus: International cooperation, Organisation and structure, Licensing and regulatory infrastructure, Nuclear safety and radiological protection; 2 - France: Nuclear safety and radiological protection, Radioactive waste management, Environmental protection, Liability and compensation, International co-operation; 3 - Hungary: General legislation, Radioactive waste management, Nuclear security; 4 - Ireland: Nuclear safety and radiological protection (including emergency planning); 5 - Lithuania: Licensing and regulatory infrastructure; 6 - Moldova: Nuclear safety and radiological protection; 7 - Portugal: Radioactive waste management, Nuclear safety and radiological protection; 8 - Slovak Republic: Radioactive waste management, Liability and compensation; 9 - Spain: Radioactive waste management; 10 - Ukraine: Radioactive waste management; 11 - United Kingdom: Organisation and structure

  9. Glycoconjugate Vaccines: The Regulatory Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Most vaccines, including the currently available glycoconjugate vaccines, are administered to healthy infants, to prevent future disease. The safety of a prospective vaccine is a key prerequisite for approval. Undesired side effects would not only have the potential to damage the individual infant but also lead to a loss of confidence in the respective vaccine-or vaccines in general-on a population level. Thus, regulatory requirements, particularly with regard to safety, are extremely rigorous. This chapter highlights regulatory aspects on carbohydrate-based vaccines with an emphasis on analytical approaches to ensure the consistent quality of successive manufacturing lots.

  10. Regulatory frameworks for decentralised energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodman, Bridget; Baker, Philip

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers aspects of the current regulatory frameworks for markets and infrastructure which can inhibit the deployment of decentralised energy. The government has stated that decentralised energy can make a positive contribution to reducing the UK's carbon emissions, but recognises that at the moment the technologies face market and regulatory barriers. If it is to become a viable alternative to centralised generation, energy market design and the regulation of energy infrastructure will have to evolve to ensure that decentralised options are no longer locked out. (author)

  11. National legislative and regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This section of the Bulletin presents a summary of the recent national legislative and regulatory activities sorted by country and topic: - Algeria: Nuclear security. - France: Radioactive waste management; Nuclear safety and radiological protection; General legislation; International co-operation. - Germany: International trade. - Indonesia: Nuclear security, General legislation. - Ireland: Nuclear safety and radiological protection; General legislation. - Lithuania: Nuclear security; Nuclear safety and radiological protection. - Slovak Republic: International co-operation; Liability and compensation; Environmental protection. - Switzerland: Radioactive waste management. - United Arab Emirates: Liability and compensation. - United States: Radioactive waste management; Licensing and regulatory infrastructure

  12. Croatian energy regulatory council - independent Croatian regulatory body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klepo, M.

    2002-01-01

    By means of approving five energy laws, the Republic of Croatia established an appropriate legislative framework for energy sector regulation. A series of sub-law acts is presently being elaborated as well as some additional documents in order to bring about transparent and non-discriminatory provisions for the establishment of electric energy, gas, oil/oil derivatives and thermal energy markets, i.e. for the introduction and management of market activities and public services. A considerable share of these activities relates to the definition of transparent regulatory mechanisms that would guarantee the implementation of regulation rules based on the law, and be carried out by the independent regulatory body - Croatian Energy Regulatory Council. The Council's rights and obligations include firm executive functions, which present obligations to every energy entity. A dissatisfied party may set in motion a settlement of dispute, if it maintains that the decisions are not based on the law or reveal a flaw in the procedure. Therefore, it is the Council's priority to always make careful and law-abiding decisions. This paper gives insight into the regulatory framework elements based on the laws including the Council's organisational structure and non-profit entities that will prepare act proposals for the Council and perform other professional activities. (author)

  13. Cosmological constraints with clustering-based redshifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovetz, Ely D.; Raccanelli, Alvise; Rahman, Mubdi

    2017-07-01

    We demonstrate that observations lacking reliable redshift information, such as photometric and radio continuum surveys, can produce robust measurements of cosmological parameters when empowered by clustering-based redshift estimation. This method infers the redshift distribution based on the spatial clustering of sources, using cross-correlation with a reference data set with known redshifts. Applying this method to the existing Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) photometric galaxies, and projecting to future radio continuum surveys, we show that sources can be efficiently divided into several redshift bins, increasing their ability to constrain cosmological parameters. We forecast constraints on the dark-energy equation of state and on local non-Gaussianity parameters. We explore several pertinent issues, including the trade-off between including more sources and minimizing the overlap between bins, the shot-noise limitations on binning and the predicted performance of the method at high redshifts, and most importantly pay special attention to possible degeneracies with the galaxy bias. Remarkably, we find that once this technique is implemented, constraints on dynamical dark energy from the SDSS imaging catalogue can be competitive with, or better than, those from the spectroscopic BOSS survey and even future planned experiments. Further, constraints on primordial non-Gaussianity from future large-sky radio-continuum surveys can outperform those from the Planck cosmic microwave background experiment and rival those from future spectroscopic galaxy surveys. The application of this method thus holds tremendous promise for cosmology.

  14. Distributed Unmixing of Hyperspectral Datawith Sparsity Constraint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshsokhan, S.; Rajabi, R.; Zayyani, H.

    2017-09-01

    Spectral unmixing (SU) is a data processing problem in hyperspectral remote sensing. The significant challenge in the SU problem is how to identify endmembers and their weights, accurately. For estimation of signature and fractional abundance matrices in a blind problem, nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF) and its developments are used widely in the SU problem. One of the constraints which was added to NMF is sparsity constraint that was regularized by L1/2 norm. In this paper, a new algorithm based on distributed optimization has been used for spectral unmixing. In the proposed algorithm, a network including single-node clusters has been employed. Each pixel in hyperspectral images considered as a node in this network. The distributed unmixing with sparsity constraint has been optimized with diffusion LMS strategy, and then the update equations for fractional abundance and signature matrices are obtained. Simulation results based on defined performance metrics, illustrate advantage of the proposed algorithm in spectral unmixing of hyperspectral data compared with other methods. The results show that the AAD and SAD of the proposed approach are improved respectively about 6 and 27 percent toward distributed unmixing in SNR=25dB.

  15. Current constraints on the cosmic growth history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bean, Rachel; Tangmatitham, Matipon

    2010-01-01

    We present constraints on the cosmic growth history with recent cosmological data, allowing for deviations from ΛCDM as might arise if cosmic acceleration is due to modifications to general relativity or inhomogeneous dark energy. We combine measures of the cosmic expansion history, from Type 1a supernovae, baryon acoustic oscillations, and the cosmic microwave background (CMB), with constraints on the growth of structure from recent galaxy, CMB, and weak lensing surveys along with integated Sachs Wolfe-galaxy cross correlations. Deviations from ΛCDM are parameterized by phenomenological modifications to the Poisson equation and the relationship between the two Newtonian potentials. We find modifications that are present at the time the CMB is formed are tightly constrained through their impact on the well-measured CMB acoustic peaks. By contrast, constraints on late-time modifications to the growth history, as might arise if modifications are related to the onset of cosmic acceleration, are far weaker, but remain consistent with ΛCDM at the 95% confidence level. For these late-time modifications we find that differences in the evolution on large and small scales could provide an interesting signature by which to search for modified growth histories with future wide angular coverage, large scale structure surveys.

  16. Use of dose constraints in medical exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutanga, N. V. T.

    2013-04-01

    Medical-related radiation is the largest source of controllable radiation exposure to humans and it accounts for more than 95% of radiation exposure from man-made sources. Medical exposure to radiation is exposure incurred by patients as part of their own medical or dental diagnosis or treatment; by persons, other than those occupationally exposed, knowingly, while voluntarily helping in the support and comfort of patients; and by volunteers in a programme of biomedical research involving their exposure. Because it is planned exposure, medical exposure has to conform to a set of principles of protection that apply equally to all controllable exposure situations: the principle of justification, the principle of optimisation of protection, and the principle of application of limits on maximum doses in planned situations. In this study the concept of dose constraints is being scrutinized to see if it can be applied in medical exposures and the benefits of such restrictions. Dose constraints can only be applied to exposure to persons voluntary helping in the support and comfort of patients as well as volunteers in the programme of biomedical research. There are no dose constraints for patients but the concept of reference levels applies. (au)

  17. Constraints on grand unified superstring theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.; Lopez, J.L.; Nanopoulos, D.V.; Houston Advanced Research Center

    1990-01-01

    We evaluate some constraints on the construction of grand unified superstring theories (GUSTs) using higher level Kac-Moody algebras on the world-sheet. In the most general formulation of the heterotic string in four dimensions, an analysis of the basic GUST model-building constraints, including a realistic hidden gauge group, reveals that there are no E 6 models and any SO(10) models can only exist at level-5. Also, any such SU(5) models can exist only for levels 4≤k≤19. These SO(10) and SU(5) models risk having many large, massless, phenomenologically troublesome representations. We also show that with a suitable hidden sector gauge group, it is possible to avoid free light fractionally charged particles, which are endemic to string derived models. We list all such groups and their representations for the flipped SU(5)xU(1) model. We conclude that a sufficiently binding hidden sector gauge group becomes a basic model-building constraint. (orig.)

  18. Constraints on stellar evolution from pulsations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, A.N.

    1983-01-01

    Consideration of the many types of intrinsic variable stars, that is, those that pulsate, reveals that perhaps a dozen classes can indicate some constraints that affect the results of stellar evolution calculations, or some interpretations of observations. Many of these constraints are not very strong or may not even be well defined yet. In this review we discuss only the case for six classes: classical Cepheids with their measured Wesselink radii, the observed surface effective temperatures of the known eleven double-mode Cepheids, the pulsation periods and measured surface effective temperatures of three R CrB variables, the delta Scuti variable VZ Cnc with a very large ratio of its two observed periods, the nonradial oscillations of our sun, and the period ratios of the newly discovered double-mode RR Lyrae variables. Unfortunately, the present state of knowledge about the exact compositions; mass loss and its dependence on the mass, radius, luminosity, and composition; ;and internal mixing processes, as well as sometimes the more basic parameters such as luminosities and surface effective temperatures prevent us from applying strong constraints for every case where currently the possibility exists

  19. New constraints for canonical general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reisenberger, M.P.

    1995-01-01

    Ashtekar's canonical theory of classical complex Euclidean GR (no Lorentzian reality conditions) is found to be invariant under the full algebra of infinitesimal 4-diffeomorphisms, but non-invariant under some finite proper 4-diffeos when the densitized dreibein, E a i , is degenerate. The breakdown of 4-diffeo invariance appears to be due to the inability of the Ashtekar Hamiltonian to generate births and deaths of E flux loops (leaving open the possibility that a new 'causality condition' forbidding the birth of flux loops might justify the non-invariance of the theory).A fully 4-diffeo invariant canonical theory in Ashtekar's variables, derived from Plebanski's action, is found to have constraints that are stronger than Ashtekar's for rank E< 2. The corresponding Hamiltonian generates births and deaths of E flux loops.It is argued that this implies a finite amplitude for births and deaths of loops in the physical states of quantum GR in the loop representation, thus modifying this (partly defined) theory substantially.Some of the new constraints are second class, leading to difficulties in quantization in the connection representation. This problem might be overcome in a very nice way by transforming to the classical loop variables, or the 'Faraday line' variables of Newman and Rovelli, and then solving the offending constraints.Note that, though motivated by quantum considerations, the present paper is classical in substance. (orig.)

  20. Tail Risk Constraints and Maximum Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Geman

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Portfolio selection in the financial literature has essentially been analyzed under two central assumptions: full knowledge of the joint probability distribution of the returns of the securities that will comprise the target portfolio; and investors’ preferences are expressed through a utility function. In the real world, operators build portfolios under risk constraints which are expressed both by their clients and regulators and which bear on the maximal loss that may be generated over a given time period at a given confidence level (the so-called Value at Risk of the position. Interestingly, in the finance literature, a serious discussion of how much or little is known from a probabilistic standpoint about the multi-dimensional density of the assets’ returns seems to be of limited relevance. Our approach in contrast is to highlight these issues and then adopt throughout a framework of entropy maximization to represent the real world ignorance of the “true” probability distributions, both univariate and multivariate, of traded securities’ returns. In this setting, we identify the optimal portfolio under a number of downside risk constraints. Two interesting results are exhibited: (i the left- tail constraints are sufficiently powerful to override all other considerations in the conventional theory; (ii the “barbell portfolio” (maximal certainty/ low risk in one set of holdings, maximal uncertainty in another, which is quite familiar to traders, naturally emerges in our construction.

  1. Constraint theory, singular lagrangians and multitemporal dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lusanna, L.

    1988-01-01

    Singular Lagrangians and constraint theory permeate theoretical physics, as shown by the relevance of gauge theories, string models and general relativity. Their study used finite---dimensional models as a guide to develop the theory, but their main use was in classical field theory, due to the necessity of understanding their quantization. The covariant quantization of singular Lagrangians led to the BRST approach and to the theory of the effective action. On the other hand their phase---space formulation, culminated with the BFV approach for first class, second class and reducible constraints. It, in turn, gave new insights in the theory of singular Lagrangians and constraints and in their cohomological aspects. However the Hamiltonian approach to field theory is highly nontrivial, is open to criticism due to its problems with locality, geometry and manifest covariance and its canonical quantization has still to be developed, because there is no proof of the renormalizability of the Schroedinger representation of field theory. This paper discusses how, notwithstanding these developments, there is still a big amount of ambiguity at every level of the theory

  2. Orthology and paralogy constraints: satisfiability and consistency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafond, Manuel; El-Mabrouk, Nadia

    2014-01-01

    A variety of methods based on sequence similarity, reconciliation, synteny or functional characteristics, can be used to infer orthology and paralogy relations between genes of a given gene family  G. But is a given set  C of orthology/paralogy constraints possible, i.e., can they simultaneously co-exist in an evolutionary history for  G? While previous studies have focused on full sets of constraints, here we consider the general case where  C does not necessarily involve a constraint for each pair of genes. The problem is subdivided in two parts: (1) Is  C satisfiable, i.e. can we find an event-labeled gene tree G inducing  C? (2) Is there such a G which is consistent, i.e., such that all displayed triplet phylogenies are included in a species tree? Previous results on the Graph sandwich problem can be used to answer to (1), and we provide polynomial-time algorithms for satisfiability and consistency with a given species tree. We also describe a new polynomial-time algorithm for the case of consistency with an unknown species tree and full knowledge of pairwise orthology/paralogy relationships, as well as a branch-and-bound algorithm in the case when unknown relations are present. We show that our algorithms can be used in combination with ProteinOrtho, a sequence similarity-based orthology detection tool, to extract a set of robust orthology/paralogy relationships.

  3. 76 FR 20759 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate..., 2011, Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. (``FINRA'') filed with the Securities and Exchange.... For more information about the rulebook consolidation process, see Information Notice, March 12, 2008...

  4. 76 FR 40412 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-08

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate..., Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. (``FINRA'') filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission... a more limited application by their terms. For more information about the rulebook consolidation...

  5. 75 FR 60157 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-29

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate..., 2010, Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. (``FINRA'') filed with the Securities and Exchange... information about the rulebook consolidation process, see Information Notice, March 12, 2008 (Rulebook...

  6. 75 FR 71164 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-22

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate..., 2010, Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. (``FINRA'') filed with the Securities and Exchange.... For more information about the rulebook consolidation process, see Information Notice, March 12, 2008...

  7. 76 FR 12380 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-07

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Amendment No. 1..., the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. (``FINRA'') filed with the Securities and Exchange... information about the rulebook consolidation process, see Information Notice, March 12, 2008 (Rulebook...

  8. 76 FR 66344 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Order Approving...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-26

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change... 31, 2011, Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. (``FINRA'') (f/k/a National Association of... consolidation process, see Information Notice, March 12, 2008 (Rulebook Consolidation Process). For convenience...

  9. 75 FR 17456 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Order Approving...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-06

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change..., Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. (``FINRA'') filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission... terms. For more information about the rulebook consolidation process, see Information Notice, March 12...

  10. Regulatory Control of Radiation Sources. Safety Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This Safety Guide is intended to assist States in implementing the requirements established in Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-1, Legal and Governmental Infrastructure for Nuclear, Radiation, Radioactive Waste and Transport Safety, for a national regulatory infrastructure to regulate any practice involving radiation sources in medicine, industry, research, agriculture and education. The Safety Guide provides advice on the legislative basis for establishing regulatory bodies, including the effective independence of the regulatory body. It also provides guidance on implementing the functions and activities of regulatory bodies: the development of regulations and guides on radiation safety; implementation of a system for notification and authorization; carrying out regulatory inspections; taking necessary enforcement actions; and investigating accidents and circumstances potentially giving rise to accidents. The various aspects relating to the regulatory control of consumer products are explained, including justification, optimization of exposure, safety assessment and authorization. Guidance is also provided on the organization and staffing of regulatory bodies. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Legal framework for a regulatory infrastructure; 3. Principal functions and activities of the regulatory body; 4. Regulatory control of the supply of consumer products; 5. Functions of the regulatory body shared with other governmental agencies; 6. Organization and staffing of the regulatory body; 7. Documentation of the functions and activities of the regulatory body; 8. Support services; 9. Quality management for the regulatory system.

  11. Canonical and D-transformations in Theories with Constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Gitman, Dmitri M.

    1995-01-01

    A class class of transformations in a super phase space (we call them D-transformations) is described, which play in theories with second-class constraints the role of ordinary canonical transformations in theories without constraints.

  12. Branch and bound algorithms to solve semiring constraint satisfaction problems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Leenen, L

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The Semiring Constraint Satisfaction Problem (SCSP) framework is a popular approach for the representation of partial constraint satisfaction problems. Considerable research has been done in solving SCSPs, but limited work has been done in building...

  13. Differential constraints and exact solutions of nonlinear diffusion equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaptsov, Oleg V; Verevkin, Igor V

    2003-01-01

    The differential constraints are applied to obtain explicit solutions of nonlinear diffusion equations. Certain linear determining equations with parameters are used to find such differential constraints. They generalize the determining equations used in the search for classical Lie symmetries

  14. A combined constraint handling framework: an empirical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Si, Chengyong; Hu, Junjie; Lan, Tian

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a new combined constraint handling framework (CCHF) for solving constrained optimization problems (COPs). The framework combines promising aspects of different constraint handling techniques (CHTs) in different situations with consideration of problem characteristics. In order...

  15. A study for good regulatin of the CANDU's in Korea. Development of safety regulatory requirement for CANDU nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Se Ki; Shin, Y. K.; Kim, J. S.; Yu, Y. J.; Lee, Y. J. [Ajou Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-03-15

    The objective of project is to derive the policy recommendations to improve the efficiency of CANDU plants regulation. These policy recommendations will eventually contribute to the upgrading of Korean nuclear regulatory system and safety enhancement. During the first phase of this 2 years study, following research activities were done. On-site survey and analysis on CANDU plants regulation. Review on CANDU plants regulating experiences and current constraints. Review and analysis on the new Canadian regulatory approach.

  16. Empirical Bayes conditional independence graphs for regulatory network recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdi, Rami; Madduri, Abishek S.; Wang, Guoqing; Strulovici-Barel, Yael; Salit, Jacqueline; Hackett, Neil R.; Crystal, Ronald G.; Mezey, Jason G.

    2012-01-01

    Motivation: Computational inference methods that make use of graphical models to extract regulatory networks from gene expression data can have difficulty reconstructing dense regions of a network, a consequence of both computational complexity and unreliable parameter estimation when sample size is small. As a result, identification of hub genes is of special difficulty for these methods. Methods: We present a new algorithm, Empirical Light Mutual Min (ELMM), for large network reconstruction that has properties well suited for recovery of graphs with high-degree nodes. ELMM reconstructs the undirected graph of a regulatory network using empirical Bayes conditional independence testing with a heuristic relaxation of independence constraints in dense areas of the graph. This relaxation allows only one gene of a pair with a putative relation to be aware of the network connection, an approach that is aimed at easing multiple testing problems associated with recovering densely connected structures. Results: Using in silico data, we show that ELMM has better performance than commonly used network inference algorithms including GeneNet, ARACNE, FOCI, GENIE3 and GLASSO. We also apply ELMM to reconstruct a network among 5492 genes expressed in human lung airway epithelium of healthy non-smokers, healthy smokers and individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease assayed using microarrays. The analysis identifies dense sub-networks that are consistent with known regulatory relationships in the lung airway and also suggests novel hub regulatory relationships among a number of genes that play roles in oxidative stress and secretion. Availability and implementation: Software for running ELMM is made available at http://mezeylab.cb.bscb.cornell.edu/Software.aspx. Contact: ramimahdi@yahoo.com or jgm45@cornell.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:22685074

  17. Pension fund's illiquid assets allocation under liquidity and capital constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Broeders, Dirk; Jansen, Kristy; Werker, Bas

    2017-01-01

    This paper empirically assesses the impact of liquidity and capital constraints on the allocation of defined benefit pension funds to illiquid assets. Liquidity constraints result from short-term pension payments and collateral requirements on derivatives. Capital constraints follow from the requirement to retain sufficient capital to absorb unexpected losses. Liability duration and hedging affect the allocation to illiquid assets through both these constraints. First, we find a hump-shaped i...

  18. ON Integrated Chance Constraints in ALM for Pension Funds

    OpenAIRE

    Youssouf A. F. Toukourou; Fran\\c{c}ois Dufresne

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the role of integrated chance constraints (ICC) as quantitative risk constraints in asset and liability management (ALM) for pension funds. We define two types of ICC: the one period integrated chance constraint (OICC) and the multiperiod integrated chance constraint (MICC). As their names suggest, the OICC covers only one period whereas several periods are taken into account with the MICC. A multistage stochastic linear programming model is therefore developed for this purpose and...

  19. Interim guidelines on performance constraints for nuclear waste disposal in crystalline rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    Performance constraint guidelines have been developed for geologic disposal of nuclear waste in crystalline rock. The approach taken in defining these guidelines was to consider the thermal, thermomechanical, and thermochemical behavior for three regions (very-near field, near field, and far field) of the repository during three time periods (operational, containment, and isolation) associated with the disposal system. Limits are proposed to ensure compliance with the current repository criteria proposed by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) concerning repository siting and performance assessment. These criteria are: Substantial containment of all radionuclides within the waste package for a period of time between 300 and 1000 years after emplacement. Release rate after loss of containment of one part in 100,000 annually per radionuclide based on the nuclides inventory when the waste package is breached, and in situ ground-water transit time of 1000 years from the repository horizon to the accessible environment, compliance with the performance constraint guidelines presented herein will be required to ensure that the final repository design is in compliance with NRC criteria. The constraint guidelines have also been developed to satisfy the requirement for technical conservatism. 40 refs., 14 figs., 4 tabs

  20. NULIFE - Project CABINET. RPV Assessment under Consideration of Constraint and Warm Pre-Stress Effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obermeier, F.; Nicak, Tomas; Keim, Elisabeth; Fekete, Tamas; Scibetta, Marc; Planman, Tapio; Laukkanen, Anssi; Carcia, Carlos Cueto-Felgueroso; Sattari-Far, Iradj

    2012-01-01

    At the moment, nuclear power plant regulators do not predominantly consider constraint and biaxial effects in their concepts for failure assessment of nuclear components. The warm pre-stressing (WPS) effect is only partly considered in some assessment procedures and codes. There is also a lack of a harmonized treatment of these effects in the safety assessment of European plants. This paper introduces the project CABINET (Constraint and Biaxial Loading Effects and their Interactions Considering Thermal Transients) which is a collaborative project under the EU's Network of Excellence NULIFE. The overall objective of CABINET is to investigate and understand constraint, biaxial loading and WPS effects in terms of a clearly defined application window, especially in the light of long term operation. The focus lies on already available experimental data and methodologies. The intention is to provide recommendations for a harmonized application of those effects in European nuclear safety assessment. The possibility to include different level of analysis depending on input data and acceptance of National Regulatory Body is also being evaluated. Although the CABINET project is not completed yet, it has been found that it is possible to rationalize the different existing codes. (author)

  1. Radiation practices and regulatory control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The general principles to be observed in the regulatory control of ionizing radiation use and practices are specified in the guide. It also takes into account of additions and alterations needed for for compliance with the European Union (EU) directives that have not been mentioned in other STUK/ST-guides. (6 refs.)

  2. Management systems for regulatory authorities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mpandanyama, Rujeko Lynette

    2015-02-01

    For a regulatory body to fulfil its statutory obligations, there is need to develop and implement a regulatory management system that has the necessary arrangements for achieving and maintaining high quality performance in regulating the safety of nuclear and radiation facilities under its authority. Hence, the regulatory management system needs to fully integrate the human resources, processes and physical resources of the organization. This study sought to provide an understanding of the concept, principles, policies and fundamentals of management systems as they relate to regulatory systems in the field of radiation protection and to make appropriate recommendations to ensure that an effective management system exists for the control of ionizing radiation and radiation sources and addresses all relevant stakeholders in Zimbabwe. A comparative analysis was done on the current management status and the ideal management system, which led to the identification of the gaps existing. The main key that was found to be of significance was lack of linkages between processes and management tools within the institution. (au)

  3. Private Equity and Regulatory Capital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongaerts, D.; Charlier, E.

    2008-01-01

    Regulatory Capital requirements for European banks have been put forward in the Basel II Capital Framework and subsequently in the Capital Requirements Directive (CRD) of the EU. We provide a detailed discussion of the capital requirements for private equity investments under the simple risk weight

  4. Radiation practices and regulatory control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The general principles to be observed in the regulatory control of ionizing radiation use and practices are specified in the guide. It also takes into account of additions and alterations needed for for compliance with the European Union (EU) directives that have not been mentioned in other STUK/ST-guides. (6 refs.).

  5. Regulatory perspectives of concept assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flavelle, Peter A.

    1987-09-01

    The Atomic Energy Control Board is the head agency for the regulatory review of the Assessment of the Canadian Concept for Nuclear Fuel Waste Disposal being done by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited and Ontario Hydro. This paper describes the regulatory perspective of how the Concept Assessment could demonstrate the feasibility of a disposal conforming to regulatory requirements. The long-term aspects of Concept Assessment encourage the use of various predictive techniques for different time scales. Each technique will have a different potential for establishing confidence in the predictions. The predicted performance of a facility during operation should have a very high confidence, as it can be based on standard engineering calculations and the predictions can be validated later by monitoring during operation. The predictions of the transient period following closure of the facility should achieve a medium level of confidence, since they can be based on extrapolations of predictions of operational performance, using models that can be calibrated with monitoring data and with averaged input data derived from natural analog studies. Predictions based on fundamental processes will have a medium level of confidence when made to intermediate times after closure. Long-term predictions using generic or typical input data or Monte Carlo calculations of simplified models will have the least confidence and yet they can still contribute to the confidence that the disposal concept will conform to regulatory requirements

  6. NRC regulatory information conference: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-09-01

    This volume of the report provides the proceedings from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Regulatory Information Conference that was held at the Mayflower Hotel, Washington, DC, on April 18, 19, and 20, 1989. This conference was held by the NRC and chaired by Dr. Thomas E. Mosley, Director, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulations (NRR) and coordinated by S. Singh Bajwa, Chief, Technical Assistance Management Section, NRR. There were approximately 550 participants from nine countries at the conference. The countries represented were Canada, England, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Spain, Taiwan, Yugoslavia, and the United States. The NRC staff discussed with nuclear industry its regulatory philosophy and approach and the bases on which they have been established. Furthermore, the NRC staff discussed several initiatives that have been implemented recently and their bases as well as NRC's expectations for new initiatives to further improve safety. The figures contained in Appendix A to the volume correspond to the slides that were shown during the presentations. Volume 2 of this report contains the formal papers that were distributed at the beginning of the Regulatory Information Conference and other information about the conference

  7. DELPHI ANALYSIS OF CONSTRAINTS TO MAIZE PRODUCTION IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A descriptive Delphi study was conducted to: identify constraints to maize production on SNL from the perspectives of crop researchers, extension officers and farmers; categorise the constraints; rank them in order of importance; and identify ways of addressing them. A total of 33 constraint items were identified and ...

  8. Extended Set Constraints and Tree Grammar Abstraction of Programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mads; Gallagher, John Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Set constraints are relations between sets of ground terms or trees. This paper presents two main contributions: firstly we consider an extension of the systems of set constraints to include a tuple constructor, and secondly we construct a simplified solution procedure for set constraints. We...

  9. A comparison of debt and primary-deficit constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribeiro, M.P.; Beetsma, R.; Schabert, A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper compares constraints on the public debt with constraints on the primary deficit. The analysis takes into account how an optimizing government reacts to the different constraints when deciding on a spending and borrowing plan. We find that the economy behaves similarly under both

  10. Constraint programming for modelling and solving modal satisfiability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, S.; Gennari, R.; de Rijke, M.

    2003-01-01

    We explore to what extent and how efficiently constraint programmingcan be used in the context of automated reasoning for modal logics. We encode modal satisfiability problems as constraint satisfactionproblems with non-boolean domains, together with suitable constraints.Experiments show that the

  11. Pension fund's illiquid assets allocation under liquidity and capital constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeders, Dirk; Jansen, Kristy; Werker, Bas

    2017-01-01

    This paper empirically assesses the impact of liquidity and capital constraints on the allocation of defined benefit pension funds to illiquid assets. Liquidity constraints result from short-term pension payments and collateral requirements on derivatives. Capital constraints follow from the

  12. 77 FR 52791 - Regulatory Capital Rules: Regulatory Capital, Implementation of Basel III, Minimum Regulatory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-30

    ... the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (BCBS) in ``Basel III: A Global Regulatory Framework for... seeking comment on the two related NPRs published elsewhere in today's Federal Register. The two related... them on Regulations.gov without change, including any business or personal information that you provide...

  13. Dynamical dark energy: Current constraints and forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhye, Amol; Ishak, Mustapha; Steinhardt, Paul J.

    2005-09-01

    We consider how well the dark energy equation of state w as a function of redshift z will be measured using current and anticipated experiments. We use a procedure which takes fair account of the uncertainties in the functional dependence of w on z, as well as the parameter degeneracies, and avoids the use of strong prior constraints. We apply the procedure to current data from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe, Sloan Digital Sky Survey, and the supernova searches, and obtain results that are consistent with other analyses using different combinations of data sets. The effects of systematic experimental errors and variations in the analysis technique are discussed. Next, we use the same procedure to forecast the dark energy constraints achievable by the end of the decade, assuming 8 years of Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe data and realistic projections for ground-based measurements of supernovae and weak lensing. We find the 2σ constraints on the current value of w to be Δw0(2σ)=0.20, and on dw/dz (between z=0 and z=1) to be Δw1(2σ)=0.37. Finally, we compare these limits to other projections in the literature. Most show only a modest improvement; others show a more substantial improvement, but there are serious concerns about systematics. The remaining uncertainty still allows a significant span of competing dark energy models. Most likely, new kinds of measurements, or experiments more sophisticated than those currently planned, are needed to reveal the true nature of dark energy.

  14. Association of Regulatory Boards of Optometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... website of the Association of Regulatory Boards of Optometry (ARBO). ARBO's web site is designed to provide resources to regulatory boards of optometry throughout the world. State/Provincial/Territorial Boards of ...

  15. Small Business Administration Semiannual Regulatory Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-20

    ... small business concerns owned and controlled by women, and to women wishing to start a small business... Business Administration Semiannual Regulatory Agenda] Part XVII Small Business Administration Semiannual Regulatory Agenda [[Page 79864

  16. Constraints on stress-energy perturbations in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traschen, J.

    1985-01-01

    Conditions are found for the existence of integral constraints on stress-energy perturbations in general relativity. The integral constraints can be thought of as a general-relativistic generalization of the conservation of energy and momentum of matter perturbations in special relativity. The constraints are stated in terms of a vector field V, and the Robertson-Walker spacetimes are shown to have such constraint vectors. Although in general V is not a Killing vector, in a vacuum spacetime the constraint vectors are precisely the Killing vectors

  17. [The Nature and Issues of Drug Addiction Treatment under Constraint].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirion, Bastien

    This article is exploring different forms of constraint that are exerted in the field of drug addiction treatment. The objective of this article is to establish benchmarks and to stimulate reflection about the ethical and clinical implications of those constraints in the field of drug addiction treatment. This article is presenting a critical review of different forms of constraint that can be exerted in Canada in regard to the treatment of drug addiction. In the first section of the article, a definition of therapeutic intervention is proposed, that includes the dimension of power, which justifies the importance of considering the coercive aspects of treatment. The second section, which represents the core section of the paper, is devoted to the presentation of different levels of constraint that can be distinguished in regard to drug addicts who are under treatment. Three levels of constraint are exposed: judicial constraint, institutional constraint and relational constraint. The coercive aspect of treatment can then be recognized as a combination of all tree levels of constraint. Judicial constraint refers to any form of constraint in which the court or the judge is imposing or recommending treatment. This particular level of constraint can take different forms, such as therapeutic remands, conditions of a probation order, conditions of a conditional sentence of imprisonment, and coercive treatment such as the ones provided through drug courts. Institutional constraint refers to any form of constraint exerted within any institutional setting, such as correctional facilities and programs offered in community. Correctional facilities being limited by their own specific mission, it might have a major impact on the way the objectives of treatment are defined. Those limitations can then be considered as a form of constraint, in which drug users don't have much space to express their personal needs. Finally, relational constraint refers to any form of constraint in

  18. Nonlinear Model Predictive Control with Constraint Satisfactions for a Quadcopter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ye; Ramirez-Jaime, Andres; Xu, Feng; Puig, Vicenç

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a nonlinear model predictive control (NMPC) strategy combined with constraint satisfactions for a quadcopter. The full dynamics of the quadcopter describing the attitude and position are nonlinear, which are quite sensitive to changes of inputs and disturbances. By means of constraint satisfactions, partial nonlinearities and modeling errors of the control-oriented model of full dynamics can be transformed into the inequality constraints. Subsequently, the quadcopter can be controlled by an NMPC controller with the updated constraints generated by constraint satisfactions. Finally, the simulation results applied to a quadcopter simulator are provided to show the effectiveness of the proposed strategy.

  19. Epidemics on adaptive networks with geometric constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Leah; Schwartz, Ira

    2008-03-01

    When a population is faced with an epidemic outbreak, individuals may modify their social behavior to avoid exposure to the disease. Recent work has considered models in which the contact network is rewired dynamically so that susceptibles avoid contact with infectives. We consider extensions in which the rewiring is subject to constraints that preserve key properties of the social network structure. Constraining to a fixed degree distribution destroys previously observed bistable behavior. The most effective rewiring strategy is found to depend on the spreading rate.

  20. Constraints on the braneworld from compact stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felipe, R.G. [Instituto Politecnico de Lisboa, ISEL, Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Lisboa, Lisboa (Portugal); Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Departamento de Fisica, Centro de Fisica Teorica de Particulas, CFTP, Lisboa (Portugal); Paret, D.M. [Universidad de la Habana, Departamento de Fisica General, Facultad de Fisica, La Habana (Cuba); Martinez, A.P. [Instituto de Cibernetica, Matematica y Fisica (ICIMAF), La Habana (Cuba); Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Mexico, Distrito Federal (Mexico)

    2016-06-15

    According to the braneworld idea, ordinary matter is confined on a three-dimensional space (brane) that is embedded in a higher-dimensional space-time where gravity propagates. In this work, after reviewing the limits coming from general relativity, finiteness of pressure and causality on the brane, we derive observational constraints on the braneworld parameters from the existence of stable compact stars. The analysis is carried out by solving numerically the brane-modified Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equations, using different representative equations of state to describe matter in the star interior. The cases of normal dense matter, pure quark matter and hybrid matter are considered. (orig.)

  1. Combined constraints on holographic bosonic technicolor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carone, Christopher D.; Primulando, Reinard

    2010-01-01

    We consider a model of strong electroweak symmetry breaking in which the expectation value of an additional, possibly composite, scalar field is responsible for the generation of fermion masses. The dynamics of the strongly coupled sector is defined and studied via its holographic dual, and does not correspond to a simple, scaled-up version of QCD. We consider the bounds from perturbative unitarity, the S parameter, and the mass of the Higgs-like scalar. We show that the combination of these constraints leaves a relatively limited region of parameter space viable, and suggests the qualitative features of the model that might be probed at the LHC.

  2. Mean-Reverting Portfolio With Budget Constraint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ziping; Palomar, Daniel P.

    2018-05-01

    This paper considers the mean-reverting portfolio design problem arising from statistical arbitrage in the financial markets. We first propose a general problem formulation aimed at finding a portfolio of underlying component assets by optimizing a mean-reversion criterion characterizing the mean-reversion strength, taking into consideration the variance of the portfolio and an investment budget constraint. Then several specific problems are considered based on the general formulation, and efficient algorithms are proposed. Numerical results on both synthetic and market data show that our proposed mean-reverting portfolio design methods can generate consistent profits and outperform the traditional design methods and the benchmark methods in the literature.

  3. Phloem physics: mechanisms, constraints, and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Kaare H

    2018-04-13

    Plants have evolved specialized vascular tissues for the distribution of energy, water, nutrients, and for communication. The phloem transports sugars from photosynthetic source regions (e.g. mature leaves) to sugar sinks (e.g. developing tissues such as buds, flowers, roots). Moreover, chemical signals such as hormones, RNAs and proteins also move in the phloem. Basic physical processes strongly limit phloem anatomy and function. This paper provides an overview of recent research and perspectives on phloem biomechanics and the physical constraints relevant to sugar transport in plants. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Unique supply function equilibrium with capacity constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmberg, Paer

    2008-01-01

    Consider a market where producers submit supply functions to a procurement auction with uncertain demand, e.g. an electricity auction. In the Supply Function Equilibrium (SFE), every firm commits to the supply function that maximises expected profit in the one-shot game given the supply functions of competitors. A basic weakness of the SFE is the presence of multiple equilibria. This paper shows that with (i) symmetric producers, (ii) perfectly inelastic demand, (iii) a price cap, and (iv) capacity constraints that bind with a positive probability, there exists a unique, symmetric SFE. (author)

  5. Variational calculus with constraints on general algebroids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grabowska, Katarzyna [Physics Department, Division of Mathematical Methods in Physics, University of Warsaw, Hoza 69, 00-681 Warszawa (Poland); Grabowski, Janusz [Institute of Mathematics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Sniadeckich 8, PO Box 21, 00-956 Warszawa (Poland)], E-mail: konieczn@fuw.edu.pl, E-mail: jagrab@impan.gov.pl

    2008-05-02

    Variational calculus on a vector bundle E equipped with a structure of a general algebroid is developed, together with the corresponding analogs of Euler-Lagrange equations. Constrained systems are introduced in the variational and geometrical settings. The constrained Euler-Lagrange equations are derived for analogs of holonomic, vakonomic and nonholonomic constraints. This general model covers the majority of first-order Lagrangian systems which are present in the literature and reduces to the standard variational calculus and the Euler-Lagrange equations in classical mechanics for E = TM.

  6. Black hole entropy, universality, and horizon constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlip, Steven

    2006-01-01

    To ask a question about a black hole in quantum gravity, one must restrict initial or boundary data to ensure that a black hole is actually present. For two-dimensional dilaton gravity, and probably a much wider class of theories, I show that the imposition of a 'stretched horizon' constraint modifies the algebra of symmetries at the horizon, allowing the use of conformal field theory techniques to determine the asymptotic density of states. The result reproduces the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy without any need for detailed assumptions about the microscopic theory. Horizon symmetries may thus offer an answer to the problem of universality of black hole entropy

  7. Black hole entropy, universality, and horizon constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlip, Steven [Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2006-03-01

    To ask a question about a black hole in quantum gravity, one must restrict initial or boundary data to ensure that a black hole is actually present. For two-dimensional dilaton gravity, and probably a much wider class of theories, I show that the imposition of a 'stretched horizon' constraint modifies the algebra of symmetries at the horizon, allowing the use of conformal field theory techniques to determine the asymptotic density of states. The result reproduces the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy without any need for detailed assumptions about the microscopic theory. Horizon symmetries may thus offer an answer to the problem of universality of black hole entropy.

  8. Variational constraints for electrical-impedance tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berryman, J.G.; Kohn, R.V.

    1990-01-01

    The task of electrical-impedance tomography is to invert boundary measurements for the conductivity distribution of a body. This inverse problem can be formulated so the primary data are the measured powers dissipated across injection electrodes. Then, since these powers are minima of the pertinent (dual) variational principles, feasibility constraints can be found for the nonlinear inversion problem. When power may be measured accurately, the existence of these dual variational principles implies that any exact solution must lie at a point of intersection of the two feasibility boundaries

  9. Soft Budget Constraints in Professional Football

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm, Rasmus K.; Nielsen, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    European professional football clubs go out of business even though they operate chronically on the edge of financial collapse? The paper argues that the paradox can be explained by the fact that professional football clubs operate within soft budget constraints in a way which is similar to the role...... of large companies in socialist economies – a phenomenon which was first identified by the Hungarian Economist János Kornai. More generally, it is argued that our understanding of the peculiar economics of professional team sports can be enhanced significantly by applying the soft budget constrain concept...

  10. Intelligence Constraints on Terrorist Network Plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Gordon

    Since 9/11, the western intelligence and law enforcement services have managed to interdict the great majority of planned attacks against their home countries. Network analysis shows that there are important intelligence constraints on the number and complexity of terrorist plots. If two many terrorists are involved in plots at a given time, a tipping point is reached whereby it becomes progressively easier for the dots to be joined and for the conspirators to be arrested, and for the aggregate evidence to secure convictions. Implications of this analysis are presented for the campaign to win hearts and minds.

  11. Overlapping constraint for variational surface reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanæs, Henrik; Solem, J.E.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper a counter example, illustrating a shortcoming in most variational formulations for 3D surface estimation, is presented. The nature of this shortcoming is a lack of an overlapping constraint. A remedy for this shortcoming is presented in the form of a penalty function with an analysi...... of the effects of this function on surface motion. For practical purposes, this will only have minor influence on current methods. However, the insight provided in the analysis is likely to influence future developments in the field of variational surface reconstruction....

  12. Variational calculus with constraints on general algebroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabowska, Katarzyna; Grabowski, Janusz

    2008-01-01

    Variational calculus on a vector bundle E equipped with a structure of a general algebroid is developed, together with the corresponding analogs of Euler-Lagrange equations. Constrained systems are introduced in the variational and geometrical settings. The constrained Euler-Lagrange equations are derived for analogs of holonomic, vakonomic and nonholonomic constraints. This general model covers the majority of first-order Lagrangian systems which are present in the literature and reduces to the standard variational calculus and the Euler-Lagrange equations in classical mechanics for E = TM

  13. CMB constraints on running non-Gaussianity

    OpenAIRE

    Oppizzi, Filippo; Liguori, Michele; Renzi, Alessandro; Arroja, Frederico; Bartolo, Nicola

    2017-01-01

    We develop a complete set of tools for CMB forecasting, simulation and estimation of primordial running bispectra, arising from a variety of curvaton and single-field (DBI) models of Inflation. We validate our pipeline using mock CMB running non-Gaussianity realizations and test it on real data by obtaining experimental constraints on the $f_{\\rm NL}$ running spectral index, $n_{\\rm NG}$, using WMAP 9-year data. Our final bounds (68\\% C.L.) read $-0.3< n_{\\rm NG}

  14. Total-variation regularization with bound constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chartrand, Rick; Wohlberg, Brendt

    2009-01-01

    We present a new algorithm for bound-constrained total-variation (TV) regularization that in comparison with its predecessors is simple, fast, and flexible. We use a splitting approach to decouple TV minimization from enforcing the constraints. Consequently, existing TV solvers can be employed with minimal alteration. This also makes the approach straightforward to generalize to any situation where TV can be applied. We consider deblurring of images with Gaussian or salt-and-pepper noise, as well as Abel inversion of radiographs with Poisson noise. We incorporate previous iterative reweighting algorithms to solve the TV portion.

  15. Constraints on Gauge Field Production during Inflation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nurmi, Sami; Sloth, Martin Snoager

    2014-01-01

    In order to gain new insights into the gauge field couplings in the early universe, we consider the constraints on gauge field production during inflation imposed by requiring that their effect on the CMB anisotropies are subdominant. In particular, we calculate systematically the bispectrum...... of the primordial curvature perturbation induced by the presence of vector gauge fields during inflation. Using a model independent parametrization in terms of magnetic non-linearity parameters, we calculate for the first time the contribution to the bispectrum from the cross correlation between the inflaton...

  16. Big bang nucleosynthesis constraints on bulk neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goh, H.S.; Mohapatra, R.N.

    2002-01-01

    We examine the constraints imposed by the requirement of successful nucleosynthesis on models with one large extra hidden space dimension and a single bulk neutrino residing in this dimension. We solve the Boltzmann kinetic equation for the thermal distribution of the Kaluza-Klein modes and evaluate their contribution to the energy density at the big bang nucleosynthesis epoch to constrain the size of the extra dimension R -1 ≡μ and the parameter sin 2 2θ which characterizes the mixing between the active and bulk neutrinos

  17. Gamma ray constraints on decaying dark matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cirelli, M.; Moulin, E.; Panci, P.

    2012-01-01

    We derive new bounds on decaying dark matter from the gamma ray measurements of (i) the isotropic residual (extragalactic) background by Fermi and (ii) the Fornax galaxy cluster by H.E.S.S. We find that those from (i) are among the most stringent constraints currently available, for a large range...... of dark matter masses and a variety of decay modes, excluding half-lives up to similar to 10(26) to few 10(27) seconds. In particular, they rule out the interpretation in terms of decaying dark matter of the e(+/-) spectral features in PAMELA, Fermi and H.E.S.S., unless very conservative choices...

  18. Participation Constraints in the Stock Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Meisner Nielsen, Kasper

    2011-01-01

    We use a natural experiment to investigate the impact of participation constraints on individuals' decisions to invest in the stock market. Unexpected inheritance due to sudden deaths results in exogenous variation in financial wealth, and allows us to examine whether fixed entry and ongoing...... participation costs cause non-participation. We have three key findings. First, windfall wealth has a positive effect on participation. Second, the majority of households do not react to sizeable windfalls by entering the stock market, but hold on to substantial safe assets—even over longer horizons. Third...

  19. Low energy constraints and scalar leptoquarks⋆

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fajfer Svjetlana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of a colored weak doublet scalar state with mass below 1 TeV can provide an explanation of the observed branching ratios in B → D(∗τντ decays. Constraints coming from Z → bb̄, muon g − 2, lepton flavor violating decays are derived. The colored scalar is accommodated within 45 representation of SU(5 group of unification. We show that presence of color scalar can improve mass relations in the up-type quark sector mass. Impact of the colored scalar embedding in 45-dimensional representation of SU(5 on low-energy phenomenology is also presented.

  20. IAEA '77: between politics and factual constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freytag, A.

    1976-01-01

    The IAEA's organization of its 20th General Conference at Rio de Janeiro clearly underlined the importance of a comprehensive international transfer of nuclear technology. Despite all efforts to keep the Agency out of general political confrontations, the Conference was tinged politically by the PLO and South Africa problems. Besides the next five year program, which was agreed upon in the light of existing factual constraints, the support and control functions of the IAEA and next year's Salzburg Fuel Cycle Conference were other main topics of discussion. The 1977 IAEA budget was approved at a level of 43.5 million, the General Fund at 6.5 million. (orig.) [de

  1. Mission Implementation Constraints on Planetary Muon Radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Cathleen E.; Kedar, Sharon; Naudet, Charles; Webb, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Cost: Use heritage hardware, especially use a tested landing system to reduce cost (Phoenix or MSL EDL stage). The sky crane technology delivers higher mass to the surface and enables reaching targets at higher elevation, but at a higher mission cost. Rover vs. Stationary Lander: Rover-mounted instrument enables tomography, but the increased weight of the rover reduces the allowable payload weight. Mass is the critical design constraint for an instrument for a planetary mission. Many factors that are minor factors or do not enter into design considerations for terrestrial operation are important for a planetary application. (Landing site, diurnal temperature variation, instrument portability, shock/vibration)

  2. Modeling Network Transition Constraints with Hypergraphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrod, Steven

    2011-01-01

    Discrete time dynamic graphs are frequently used to model multicommodity flows or activity paths through constrained resources, but simple graphs fail to capture the interaction effects of resource transitions. The resulting schedules are not operationally feasible, and return inflated objective...... values. A directed hypergraph formulation is derived to address railway network sequencing constraints, and an experimental problem sample solved to estimate the magnitude of objective inflation when interaction effects are ignored. The model is used to demonstrate the value of advance scheduling...... of train paths on a busy North American railway....

  3. The Political Economy of Regulatory Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Strausz, Roland

    2009-01-01

    I investigate the argument that, in a two–party system with different regulatory objectives, political uncertainty generates regulatory risk. I show that this risk has a fluctuation effect that hurts both parties and an output–expansion effect that benefits one party. Consequently, at least one party dislikes regulatory risk. Moreover, both political parties gain from eliminating regulatory risk when political divergence is small or the winning probability of the regulatory–risk–averse party ...

  4. Nuclear Regulatory Commission 1989 Information Digest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-03-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission 1989 Information Digest provides summary information regarding the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, its regulatory responsibilities, and areas licensed by the Commission. This is the first of an annual publication for the general use of the NRC staff and is available to the public. The Digest is divided into two parts: the first presents an overview of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the second provides data on NRC commercial nuclear reactor licensees and commercial nuclear power reactors worldwide

  5. Regulatory point of view of SAT application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juhasz, L.

    2002-01-01

    I present the regulatory system for monitoring operator training and check competency of operator personnel in Hungary and the effects of SAT to the regulatory framework/practice related to recruitment, training and authorisation of operating personnel. Also I introduce an application to manage the initial and refreshing training to regulatory bodies. (author)

  6. 40 CFR 92.6 - Regulatory structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Regulatory structure. 92.6 Section 92... Regulations for Locomotives and Locomotive Engines § 92.6 Regulatory structure. This section provides an overview of the regulatory structure of this part. (a) The regulations of this part 92 are intended to...

  7. 40 CFR 94.6 - Regulatory structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Regulatory structure. 94.6 Section 94... for Compression-Ignition Marine Engines § 94.6 Regulatory structure. This section provides an overview of the regulatory structure of this part. (a) The regulations of this Part 94 are intended to control...

  8. 75 FR 21686 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-26

    ... to pay arbitration awards to remain in the securities industry presents regulatory risks and is...-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule... Regulatory Authority, Inc. (``FINRA'') filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (``SEC'' or...

  9. 76 FR 21932 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Order Granting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-19

    ... statement therein, as follows: I. Introduction On February 4, 2011, the Financial Industry Regulatory...-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Order Granting Approval of a... Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. (``FINRA'') to amend Rule 13806 of the Code of Arbitration...

  10. 75 FR 63878 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Self-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-18

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; Self-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of...(b)(1). \\2\\ 17 CFR 240.19b-4. I. Self-Regulatory Organization's Statement of the Terms of Substance... Public Reference Room. II. Self-Regulatory Organization's Statement of the Purpose of, and Statutory...

  11. Evaluation of uranium resources. Problems and constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, R.M.

    1979-01-01

    Growing awareness that the era of cheap energy is over has led to current efforts by governments and international organizations to examine the question of the adequacy of energy resources on a global scale. Despite the relative success of the NEA and the IAEA efforts in the study of world uranium supply, there is a need for such studies to become still more comprehensive and broader in scope. A basic problem exists with respect to the lack of a universally accepted set of resource terms by which to classify resource estimates once they are made. Often voids exist in international assessments because of insufficient data with respect to known resources and occasionally because of a lack of expertise to make the required estimates. With respect to the assessment of undiscovered uranium resources, major constraints are the relatively embryonic state of methodology for assessment of undiscovered resources and the fact that the inventory of basic geology, geochemical, and geophysical data is either incomplete or non-existent in many parts of the world. Finally, once resource estimates are made, there is often an unclear understanding about when and at what rate the resources can be made available. Hopefully, current efforts will lead to a solution to some of the principal problems and constraints which may be impeding progress toward an expansion and improvement of world uranium resource assessments. (author)

  12. Movement constraints on interpersonal coordination and communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolston, Michael T; Shockley, Kevin; Riley, Michael A; Richardson, Michael J

    2014-10-01

    The present study investigated how constraining movement affects interpersonal coordination and joint cognitive performance. Pairs of participants worked cooperatively to solve picture-puzzle tasks in which they conversed to identify differences between pictures in 3 degree-of-constraint conditions: both participants were free to move their hands (free-free; FF); both participants' hands were restrained (restrained-restrained; RR); and the hands of 1 participant were free while the hands of the other participant were restrained (free-restrained; FR). Eye tracking data were collected, and movement was measured at the waist, hand, and head. Data were analyzed using Cross-Recurrence Quantification Analysis (CRQ). Postural sway coordination, gaze coordination, and task performance were predicted to be highest in FF, followed by RR, and then by FR. Results showed the asymmetric FR condition generally exhibited lesser degrees of coordination than the symmetric Conditions FF and RR, and that the patterning of coordination in the symmetric conditions varied across the measured body segments. These results demonstrate that movement restraints affect not only interpersonal postural coordination, but also joint attention. Additionally, significant positive relationships were found between task performance and total amount of anterior-posterior movement measured at the head, hand and waist; number of utterances; and number of differences pairs found in the puzzles. These findings indicate a relationship between movement and task performance consistent with the hypotheses that both interpersonal coordination and cognitive performance are sensitive to local action constraints.

  13. Constraints on particle physics from cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schramm, D.N.; Charlton, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    Cosmology and particle physics have become symbiotic in their relationship. In the past, developments in physics have been used to explain astrophysics problems. Recently, cosmology also has been able to place constraints on particle properties and these constraints can be tested by experiment. Thus, the flow of information at the interface of particle physics and cosmology is no longer just one-way. (Astronomy is no longer a parasite of physics.) Many examples of the interchange are described in this review. The timeline of cosmology is rapidly filling in as later events find their explanations in earlier events. In this review, the authors mention what is known about each epoch and show how it might constrain the particle models. Since a great deal of effort is devoted currently to the study of the dark matter problem, special emphasis will be placed on this issue. This study of dark matter and galaxy formation will allow us to draw upon much of what was discussed in earlier epochs. This review draws heavily on a previous review by the authors

  14. Stochastic population dynamics under resource constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavane, Ajinkya S., E-mail: ajinkyagavane@gmail.com; Nigam, Rahul, E-mail: rahul.nigam@hyderabad.bits-pilani.ac.in [BITS Pilani Hyderabad Campus, Shameerpet, Hyd - 500078 (India)

    2016-06-02

    This paper investigates the population growth of a certain species in which every generation reproduces thrice over a period of predefined time, under certain constraints of resources needed for survival of population. We study the survival period of a species by randomizing the reproduction probabilities within a window at same predefined ages and the resources are being produced by the working force of the population at a variable rate. This randomness in the reproduction rate makes the population growth stochastic in nature and one cannot predict the exact form of evolution. Hence we study the growth by running simulations for such a population and taking an ensemble averaged over 500 to 5000 such simulations as per the need. While the population reproduces in a stochastic manner, we have implemented a constraint on the amount of resources available for the population. This is important to make the simulations more realistic. The rate of resource production then is tuned to find the rate which suits the survival of the species. We also compute the mean life time of the species corresponding to different resource production rate. Study for these outcomes in the parameter space defined by the reproduction probabilities and rate of resource production is carried out.

  15. Instabilities constraint and relativistic mean field parametrization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulaksono, A.; Kasmudin; Buervenich, T.J.; Reinhard, P.-G.; Maruhn, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Two parameter sets (Set 1 and Set 2) of the standard relativistic mean field (RMF) model plus additional vector isoscalar nonlinear term, which are constrained by a set of criteria 20 determined by symmetric nuclear matter stabilities at high densities due to longitudinal and transversal particle–hole excitation modes are investigated. In the latter parameter set, δ meson and isoscalar as well as isovector tensor contributions are included. The effects in selected finite nuclei and nuclear matter properties predicted by both parameter sets are systematically studied and compared with the ones predicted by well-known RMF parameter sets. The vector isoscalar nonlinear term addition and instability constraints have reasonably good effects in the high-density properties of the isoscalar sector of nuclear matter and certain finite nuclei properties. However, even though the δ meson and isovector tensor are included, the incompatibility with the constraints from some experimental data in certain nuclear properties at saturation point and the excessive stiffness of the isovector nuclear matter equation of state at high densities as well as the incorrect isotonic trend in binding the energies of finite nuclei are still encountered. It is shown that the problem may be remedied if we introduce additional nonlinear terms not only in the isovector but also in the isoscalar vectors. (author)

  16. Observational Constraints for Modeling Diffuse Molecular Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federman, S. R.

    2014-02-01

    Ground-based and space-borne observations of diffuse molecular clouds suggest a number of areas where further improvements to modeling efforts is warranted. I will highlight those that have the widest applicability. The range in CO fractionation caused by selective isotope photodissociation, in particular the large 12C16O/13C16O ratios observed toward stars in Ophiuchus, is not reproduced well by current models. Our ongoing laboratory measurements of oscillator strengths and predissociation rates for Rydberg transitions in CO isotopologues may help clarify the situtation. The CH+ abundance continues to draw attention. Small scale structure seen toward ζ Per may provide additional constraints on the possible synthesis routes. The connection between results from optical transitions and those from radio and sub-millimeter wave transitions requires further effort. A study of OH+ and OH toward background stars reveals that these species favor different environments. This brings to focus the need to model each cloud along the line of sight separately, and to allow the physical conditions to vary within an individual cloud, in order to gain further insight into the chemistry. Now that an extensive set of data on molecular excitation is available, the models should seek to reproduce these data to place further constraints on the modeling results.

  17. Legal, ethical,and economic constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Libassi, F.P.; Donaldson, L.F.

    1980-01-01

    This paper considers the legal, ethical, and economic constraints to developing a comprehensive knowledge of the biological effects of ionizing radiation. These constraints are not fixed and immutable; rather they are determined by the political process. Political issues cannot be evaded. The basic objective of developing a comprehensive knowledge about the biological effects of ionizing radiation exists as an objective not only because we wish to add to the store of human knowledge but also because we have important use for that knowledge. It will assist our decision-makers to make choices that affect us all. These choices require both hard factual information and application of political judgment. Research supplies some of the hard factual information and should be as free as possible from political influence in its execution. At the same time, the political choices that must be made influence the direction and nature of the research program as a whole. Similarly, the legal, ethical, and economic factors that constrain our ability to expand knowledge through research reflect a judgment by political agents that values other than expansion of knowledge should be recognized and given effect

  18. Heat exchanger networks design with constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amidpur, M.; Zoghi, A.; Nasiri, N.

    2000-01-01

    So far there have been two approaches to the problem of heat recovery system design where stream matching constraints exist. The first approach involves mathematical techniques for solving the combinational problem taking due recognition of the constraints. These methodologies are now efficient, still suffer from the problem of taking a significant amount of control and direction away from the designer. The second approach based upon so called pinch technology and involves the use of adaptation of standard problem table algorithm. Unfortunately, the proposed methodologies are not very easy to understand, therefore they fail to provide the insight and generally associated with these approaches. Here, a new pinch based methodology is presented. In this method, we modified the traditional numerical targeting procedure-problem table algorithm which is stream cascade table. Unconstrained groups are established by using of artificial intelligence method such that they have minimum utility consumption among different alternatives. Each group is an individual network, therefore, traditional optimization, used in pinch technology, should be employed. By transferring energy between groups heat recovery can be maximized, then each group designs individually and finally networks combine together. One of the advantages of using this method is simple targeting and easy networks-design. Besides the approach has the potential using of new network design methods such as dual temperature approach, flexible pinch design, pseudo pinch design. It is hoped that this methodology provides insight easy network design

  19. Hydrostatic equilibrium of stars without electroneutrality constraint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivoruchenko, M. I.; Nadyozhin, D. K.; Yudin, A. V.

    2018-04-01

    The general solution of hydrostatic equilibrium equations for a two-component fluid of ions and electrons without a local electroneutrality constraint is found in the framework of Newtonian gravity theory. In agreement with the Poincaré theorem on analyticity and in the context of Dyson's argument, the general solution is demonstrated to possess a fixed (essential) singularity in the gravitational constant G at G =0 . The regular component of the general solution can be determined by perturbation theory in G starting from a locally neutral solution. The nonperturbative component obtained using the method of Wentzel, Kramers and Brillouin is exponentially small in the inner layers of the star and grows rapidly in the outward direction. Near the surface of the star, both components are comparable in magnitude, and their nonlinear interplay determines the properties of an electro- or ionosphere. The stellar charge varies within the limits of -0.1 to 150 C per solar mass. The properties of electro- and ionospheres are exponentially sensitive to variations of the fluid densities in the central regions of the star. The general solutions of two exactly solvable stellar models without a local electroneutrality constraint are also presented.

  20. Cosmological constraints on the neutron lifetime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvati, L.; Pagano, L.; Melchiorri, A. [Physics Department, Università di Roma ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, 00185, Rome (Italy); Consiglio, R., E-mail: laura.salvati@roma1.infn.it, E-mail: luca.pagano@roma1.infn.it, E-mail: rconsiglio@na.infn.it, E-mail: alessandro.melchiorri@roma1.infn.it [Physics Department, Università di Napoli ' ' Federico II' ' , Complesso Universitario Monte S. Angelo, Via Cintia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy)

    2016-03-01

    We derive new constraints on the neutron lifetime based on the recent Planck 2015 observations of temperature and polarization anisotropies of the CMB. Under the assumption of standard Big Bang Nucleosynthesis, we show that Planck data constrains the neutron lifetime to τ{sub n} = (907±69) [s] at 68% c.l.. Moreover, by including the direct measurements of primordial Helium abundance of Aver et al. (2015) and Izotov et al. (2014), we show that cosmological data provide the stringent constraints τ{sub n} = (875±19) [s] and τ{sub n} = (921±11) [s] respectively. The latter appears to be in tension with neutron lifetime value quoted by the Particle Data Group (τ{sub n} = (880.3±1.1) [s]). Future CMB surveys as COrE+, in combination with a weak lensing survey as EUCLID, could constrain the neutron lifetime up to a ∼ 6 [s] precision.

  1. Emerging carbon constraints for corporate risk management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busch, Timo; Hoffmann, Volker H.

    2007-01-01

    While discussions about global sustainability challenges abound, the financial risks that they incur, albeit important, have received less attention. We suggest that corporate risk assessments should include sustainability-related aspects, especially with relation to the natural environment, and encompass the flux of critical materials within a company's value chain. Such a comprehensive risk assessment takes into account input- as well as output-related factors. With this paper, we focus on the flux of carbon and define carbon constraints that emerge due to the disposition of fossil fuels in the input dimension and due to direct and indirect climate change effects in the output dimension. We review the literature regarding the financial consequences of carbon constraints on the macroeconomic, sector, and company level. We conclude that: a) financial consequences seem to be asymmetrically distributed between and within sectors, b) the individual risk exposure of companies depends on the intensity of and dependency on carbon-based materials and energy, and c) financial markets have only started to incorporate these aspects in their valuations. This paper ends with recommendations on how to incorporate our results in an integrated carbon risk management framework. (author)

  2. Condensation with two constraints and disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barré, J.; Mangeolle, L.

    2018-04-01

    We consider a set of positive random variables obeying two additive constraints, a linear and a quadratic one; these constraints mimic the conservation laws of a dynamical system. In the simplest setting, without disorder, it is known that such a system may undergo a ‘condensation’ transition, whereby one random variable becomes much larger than the others; this transition has been related to the spontaneous appearance of non linear localized excitations in certain nonlinear chains, called breathers. Motivated by the study of breathers in a disordered discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation, we study different instances of this problem in presence of a quenched disorder. Unless the disorder is too strong, the phase diagram looks like the one without disorder, with a transition separating a fluid phase, where all variables have the same order of magnitude, and a condensed phase, where one variable is much larger than the others. We then show that the condensed phase exhibits various degrees of ‘intermediate symmetry breaking’: the site hosting the condensate is chosen neither uniformly at random, nor is it fixed by the disorder realization. Throughout the article, our heuristic arguments are complemented with direct Monte Carlo simulations.

  3. Updated constraints on the cosmic string tension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battye, Richard; Moss, Adam

    2010-01-01

    We reexamine the constraints on the cosmic string tension from cosmic microwave background (CMB) and matter power spectra, and also from limits on a stochastic background of gravitational waves provided by pulsar timing. We discuss the different approaches to modeling string evolution and radiation. In particular, we show that the unconnected segment model can describe CMB spectra expected from thin string (Nambu) and field theory (Abelian-Higgs) simulations using the computed values for the correlation length, rms string velocity and small-scale structure relevant to each variety of simulation. Applying the computed spectra in a fit to CMB and SDSS data we find that Gμ/c 2 -7 (2σ) if the Nambu simulations are correct and Gμ/c 2 -7 in the Abelian-Higgs case. The degeneracy between Gμ/c 2 and the power spectrum slope n S is substantially reduced from previous work. Inclusion of constraints on the baryon density from big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) imply that n S 2 and loop production size, α, we find that Gμ/c 2 -7 for αc 2 /(ΓGμ) 2 -11 /α for αc 2 /(ΓGμ)>>1.

  4. Experimental constraint on quark electric dipole moments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tianbo; Zhao, Zhiwen; Gao, Haiyan

    2018-04-01

    The electric dipole moments (EDMs) of nucleons are sensitive probes of additional C P violation sources beyond the standard model to account for the baryon number asymmetry of the universe. As a fundamental quantity of the nucleon structure, tensor charge is also a bridge that relates nucleon EDMs to quark EDMs. With a combination of nucleon EDM measurements and tensor charge extractions, we investigate the experimental constraint on quark EDMs, and its sensitivity to C P violation sources from new physics beyond the electroweak scale. We obtain the current limits on quark EDMs as 1.27 ×10-24 e .cm for the up quark and 1.17 ×10-24 e .cm for the down quark at the scale of 4 GeV2 . We also study the impact of future nucleon EDM and tensor charge measurements, and show that upcoming new experiments will improve the constraint on quark EDMs by about 3 orders of magnitude leading to a much more sensitive probe of new physics models.

  5. Regulatory aspects of NPP safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kastchiev, G.

    1999-01-01

    Extensive review of the NPP Safety is presented including tasks of Ministry of Health, Ministry of Internal Affairs, Ministry of Environment and Waters, Ministry of Defense in the field of national system for monitoring the nuclear power. In the frame of national nuclear safety legislation Bulgaria is in the process of approximation of the national legislation to that of EC. Detailed analysis of the status of regulatory body, its functions, organisation structure, responsibilities and future tasks is included. Basis for establishing the system of regulatory inspections and safety enforcement as well as intensification of inspections is described. Assessment of safety modifications is concerned with complex program for reconstruction of Units 1-4 of Kozloduy NPP, as well as for modernisation of Units 5 and 6. Qualification and licensing of the NPP personnel, Year 2000 problem, priorities and the need of international assistance are mentioned

  6. Regulatory aspects of mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyle, R.R.; Orlando, D.A.

    1990-01-01

    Mixed waste is waste that satisfies the definition of low-level radioactive waste in the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 (LLRWPAA) and contains hazardous waste that is either: (1) listed as a hazardous waste in 40 CFR 261, Subpart D; or (2) causes the waste to exhibit any of the characteristics identified in 40 CFR 261, Subpart C. Low-level radioactive waste is defined in the LLRWPAA as radioactive material that is not high level waste, spent nuclear fuel, or byproduct material, as defined in Section 11e(2) of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, and is classified as low-level waste by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This paper discusses dual regulatory (NRC and Environmental Protection Agency) responsibility, overview of joint NRC/EPA guidance, workshops, national mixed waste survey, and principal mixed waste uncertainties

  7. Compliance. Regulatory policy P-211

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-05-01

    This regulatory policy describes the basic principles and directives for establishing and conducting the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) Compliance Program. The program is aimed at securing compliance by regulated persons with regulatory requirements made under the Nuclear Safety and Control Act ('the Act'). The policy applies to persons who are regulated by the CNSC through the Act, regulations and licences, as well as by decisions and orders made under the Act. The policy applies to officers and employees of the CNSC, and its authorized representatives or agents, who are involved in developing and carrying out compliance activities. Compliance, in the context of this policy, means conformity by regulated persons with the legally binding requirements of the Act, and the CNSC regulations, licences, decisions, and orders made under the Act. Compliance activities are CNSC measures of promotion, verification and enforcement aimed at securing compliance by regulated person with the applicable legally binding requirements. (author)

  8. Planck constraints on holographic dark energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Miao; Zhang, Zhenhui; Li, Xiao-Dong; Ma, Yin-Zhe; Zhang, Xin

    2013-01-01

    We perform a detailed investigation on the cosmological constraints on the holographic dark energy (HDE) model by using the Plank data. We find that HDE can provide a good fit to the Plank high-l (l ∼> 40) temperature power spectrum, while the discrepancy at l ≅ 20-40 found in the ΛCDM model remains unsolved in the HDE model. The Plank data alone can lead to strong and reliable constraint on the HDE parameter c. At the 68% confidence level (CL), we obtain c = 0.508 ± 0.207 with Plank+WP+lensing, favoring the present phantom behavior of HDE at the more than 2σ CL. By combining Plank+WP with the external astrophysical data sets, i.e. the BAO measurements from 6dFGS+SDSS DR7(R)+BOSS DR9, the direct Hubble constant measurement result (H 0 = 73.8 ± 2.4 kms −1 Mpc −1 ) from the HST, the SNLS3 supernovae data set, and Union2.1 supernovae data set, we get the 68% CL constraint results c = 0.484 ± 0.070, 0.474 ± 0.049, 0.594 ± 0.051, and 0.642 ± 0.066, respectively. The constraints can be improved by 2%-15% if we further add the Plank lensing data into the analysis. Compared with the WMAP-9 results, the Plank results reduce the error by 30%-60%, and prefer a phantom-like HDE at higher significant level. We also investigate the tension between different data sets. We find no evident tension when we combine Plank data with BAO and HST. Especially, we find that the strong correlation between Ω m h 3 and dark energy parameters is helpful in relieving the tension between the Plank and HST measurements. The residual value of χ 2 Plank+WP+HST −χ 2 Plank+WP is 7.8 in the ΛCDM model, and is reduced to 1.0 or 0.3 if we switch the dark energy to w model or the holographic model. When we introduce supernovae data sets into the analysis, some tension appears. We find that the SNLS3 data set is in tension with all other data sets; for example, for the Plank+WP, WMAP-9 and BAO+HST, the corresponding Δχ 2 is equal to 6.4, 3.5 and 4.1, respectively. As a comparison

  9. Regulatory aspects of emergency planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamgochian, M.T.

    1986-01-01

    The paper discusses the advances that have been made in the USA in the field of emergency planning over the past several years and considers regulatory changes that may be on the horizon. The paper examines the importance of severe accident source terms and their relationship to emergency preparedness, recent research results of work on source terms, and the experience gained from evaluation of licensee performance during annual emergency preparedness exercises. (author)

  10. Regulatory Office for Network Industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The main goal of the economic regulation of network industries is to ensure a balance between the interests of consumers and investors and to encourage providing high-quality goods and services. The task of the regulatory authority is to protect the interests of consumers against monopolistic behaviour of regulated enterprises. At the same time, the regulatory office has to protect the interests of investors by giving them an opportunity to achieve an adequate return on their investments. And last, but not least, the regulatory office has to provide regulated enterprises with appropriate incentives to make them function in an efficient and effective manner and to guarantee the security of delivery of energies and related services. All this creates an efficient regulatory framework that is capable of attracting the required amount and type of investments. This also means providing third party access to the grids, the opening of energy markets, the un-bundling of accounts according to production, distribution, transmission and other activities and the establishment of a transparent and stable legislative environment for regulated companies, investors and consumers. Otherwise, in the long run consumers may suffer from a serious deterioration of service quality, although in the short run they are protected against increased prices. Under the Act No. 276/2001 Coll. on Regulation of Network Industries and on amendment of some acts the Office for Regulation of Network Industries has been commissioned to implement the main objectives of regulation of network industries. By network industries the Act No. 276/2001 Coll. on Regulation means the following areas: (a) Production, purchase, transit and distribution of electricity; (b) Production, purchase, transit and distribution of gas; (c) Production, purchase and distribution of heat; (d) Water management activities relating to the operation of the public water supply system or the public sewerage system; (e) Water management

  11. The conduct of regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, H.A.

    1975-01-01

    The main emphasis is placed on the legal responsibility of the utility in UK to build and operate its plant to avoid any nuclear hazard. The regulatory practices have endeavoured to inculcate a proper emphasis towards safety by the people who comprise the management of the utility, and to avoid any erosion of their legal responsibility as the best and possibly only practical means to achieve adequate safety standards. (orig./HP) [de

  12. Regulatory control, legislation and framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parthasarathy, K.S.

    1998-01-01

    The legislation and regulations, a regulatory authority to authorise and inspect the regulated activities and to enforce the legislation and regulations, sufficient financial and man-power resources are the essential parts of a national infrastructure to implement the Basic Safety Standards. The legal framework consists of legislation (Act passed by Parliament) and the regulations (framed by the government and endorsed by the Parliament). This paper is primarily deals with the the legal framework set up in India for atomic energy activities

  13. Regulatory change and monetary policy

    OpenAIRE

    Bank for International Settlements

    2015-01-01

    Report submitted by a Working Group established by the Committee on the Global Financial System and the Markets Committee. The Group was chaired by Ulrich Bindseil (European Central Bank) and William R Nelson (Federal Reserve Board). Financial regulation is evolving, as policymakers seek to strengthen the financial system in order to make it more robust and resilient. Changes in the regulatory environment are likely to have an impact on financial system structure and on the behaviour of finan...

  14. National legislative and regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2009-01-01

    This part gathers the national legislative and regulatory activities. The subjects tackled are as follow: radiological protection (Belgium), transport of radioactive materials (Belgium, France), general legislation (Brazil, Ireland, Republic of Moldova, Serbia, Turkey), third part liability (Japan), radioactive waste management (Korea, Romania, Slovenia, Usa), regime of radioactive materials (Romania), organisation and structure (Switzerland), regime of nuclear installations (Usa), regulations on nuclear trade (Usa). (N.C)

  15. National legislative and regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This section treats of the following National legislative and regulatory activities: 1 - Canada: Liability and compensation; 2 - France: Liability and compensation; Nuclear safety and radiological protection; 3 - Greece: Organisation and structure; 4 - Hungary: General legislation; 5 - India: Liability and compensation; 6 - Japan: Liability and compensation; 7 - Korea: Liability and compensation; 8 - Lithuania: General legislation; Transport of radioactive material; 9 - Slovak Republic: International co-operation; Liability and compensation; 10 - Slovenia: General legislation; 11 - Switzerland: Liability and compensation; 12 - United States: Radioactive waste management

  16. Principles of good regulatory research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, K.

    1991-01-01

    The Commissioner of the US Regulatory Commission addresses several important research-related subjects. The paper describes the Agency philosophy with respect to independence, openness, efficiency, clarity, and reliability; research philosophy with respect to the need for research, the need for quality, and the need for efficiency; research areas with respect to plant aging, human factors, severe accident analysis, advanced reactors, and radioactive waste management; and systems approach to reactor operations, training, licensing, and maintenance

  17. Pareto-optimal reversed-phase chromatography separation of three insulin variants with a solubility constraint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkell, Karolina; Knutson, Hans-Kristian; Frederiksen, Søren S; Breil, Martin P; Nilsson, Bernt

    2018-01-12

    With the shift of focus of the regulatory bodies, from fixed process conditions towards flexible ones based on process understanding, model-based optimization is becoming an important tool for process development within the biopharmaceutical industry. In this paper, a multi-objective optimization study of separation of three insulin variants by reversed-phase chromatography (RPC) is presented. The decision variables were the load factor, the concentrations of ethanol and KCl in the eluent, and the cut points for the product pooling. In addition to the purity constraints, a solubility constraint on the total insulin concentration was applied. The insulin solubility is a function of the ethanol concentration in the mobile phase, and the main aim was to investigate the effect of this constraint on the maximal productivity. Multi-objective optimization was performed with and without the solubility constraint, and visualized as Pareto fronts, showing the optimal combinations of the two objectives productivity and yield for each case. Comparison of the constrained and unconstrained Pareto fronts showed that the former diverges when the constraint becomes active, because the increase in productivity with decreasing yield is almost halted. Consequently, we suggest the operating point at which the total outlet concentration of insulin reaches the solubility limit as the most suitable one. According to the results from the constrained optimizations, the maximal productivity on the C 4 adsorbent (0.41 kg/(m 3  column h)) is less than half of that on the C 18 adsorbent (0.87 kg/(m 3  column h)). This is partly caused by the higher selectivity between the insulin variants on the C 18 adsorbent, but the main reason is the difference in how the solubility constraint affects the processes. Since the optimal ethanol concentration for elution on the C 18 adsorbent is higher than for the C 4 one, the insulin solubility is also higher, allowing a higher pool concentration

  18. Regulatory Myeloid Cells in Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosborough, Brian R.; Raïch-Regué, Dàlia; Turnquist, Heth R.; Thomson, Angus W.

    2013-01-01

    Regulatory myeloid cells (RMC) are emerging as novel targets for immunosuppressive (IS) agents and hold considerable promise as cellular therapeutic agents. Herein, we discuss the ability of regulatory macrophages (Mreg), regulatory dendritic cells (DCreg) and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) to regulate alloimmunity, their potential as cellular therapeutic agents and the IS agents that target their function. We consider protocols for the generation of RMC and the selection of donor- or recipient-derived cells for adoptive cell therapy. Additionally, the issues of cell trafficking and antigen (Ag) specificity following RMC transfer are discussed. Improved understanding of the immunobiology of these cells has increased the possibility of moving RMC into the clinic to reduce the burden of current IS agents and promote Ag-specific tolerance. In the second half of this review, we discuss the influence of established and experimental IS agents on myeloid cell populations. IS agents believed historically to act primarily on T cell activation and proliferation are emerging as important regulators of RMC function. Better insights into the influence of IS agents on RMC will enhance our ability to develop cell therapy protocols to promote the function of these cells. Moreover, novel IS agents may be designed to target RMC in situ to promote Ag-specific immune regulation in transplantation and usher in a new era of immune modulation exploiting cells of myeloid origin. PMID:24092382

  19. Regulatory difficulties in a developing country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, W.R. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    The regulatory agency assigned the task of regulating the initial entry into the field of nuclear power generation by a developing country has a very difficult job. Based on the authors' experience during the start-up and initial operation of Ko-Ri Unit I, the first power reactor in the Republic of Korea, observations on regulatory difficulties and recommendations for improved regulatory effectiveness are offered. The problem areas can be loosely grouped into three general categories: (1) Lack of adequate technical knowledge which is the basis for all effective regulation; (2) Difficulties with understanding and utilization of the required regulatory documentation; (3) Failure to establish the proper regulatory environment. Examples are cited from actual experience during the Ko-Ri Unit I start-up to demonstrate the impact that regulatory activities can have on a plant construction and testing programme. The problems encountered are not unique to developing countries but also exist in the United States of America. Recommendations are offered which should be beneficial to either newly formed regulatory agencies or agencies wishing to improve their abilities and effectiveness. These include: (1) Additional training of regulatory inspectors in plant operations; (2) Additional experience gained by participation in regulatory activities in other countries; (3) Increased attention given to regulatory documents, especially plant technical specifications; (4) Establishment of formal lines of communication between the utility and the regulatory agency; (5) Clear definition of regulatory responsibilities to avoid areas of overlapping jurisdiction; (6) Active participation by the regulatory staff very early in the project. It is hoped that these and other recommendations offered will greatly improve regulatory effectiveness and at the same time demonstrate that when the decision is made to 'go nuclear', a strong commitment must be made to develop and support a technically

  20. Risk-based Regulatory Evaluation Program methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DuCharme, A.R.; Sanders, G.A.; Carlson, D.D.; Asselin, S.V.

    1987-01-01

    The objectives of this DOE-supported Regulatory Evaluation Progrwam are to analyze and evaluate the safety importance and economic significance of existing regulatory guidance in order to assist in the improvement of the regulatory process for current generation and future design reactors. A risk-based cost-benefit methodology was developed to evaluate the safety benefit and cost of specific regulations or Standard Review Plan sections. Risk-based methods can be used in lieu of or in combination with deterministic methods in developing regulatory requirements and reaching regulatory decisions

  1. Genomic Features That Predict Allelic Imbalance in Humans Suggest Patterns of Constraint on Gene Expression Variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fédrigo, Olivier; Haygood, Ralph; Mukherjee, Sayan; Wray, Gregory A.

    2009-01-01

    Variation in gene expression is an important contributor to phenotypic diversity within and between species. Although this variation often has a genetic component, identification of the genetic variants driving this relationship remains challenging. In particular, measurements of gene expression usually do not reveal whether the genetic basis for any observed variation lies in cis or in trans to the gene, a distinction that has direct relevance to the physical location of the underlying genetic variant, and which may also impact its evolutionary trajectory. Allelic imbalance measurements identify cis-acting genetic effects by assaying the relative contribution of the two alleles of a cis-regulatory region to gene expression within individuals. Identification of patterns that predict commonly imbalanced genes could therefore serve as a useful tool and also shed light on the evolution of cis-regulatory variation itself. Here, we show that sequence motifs, polymorphism levels, and divergence levels around a gene can be used to predict commonly imbalanced genes in a human data set. Reduction of this feature set to four factors revealed that only one factor significantly differentiated between commonly imbalanced and nonimbalanced genes. We demonstrate that these results are consistent between the original data set and a second published data set in humans obtained using different technical and statistical methods. Finally, we show that variation in the single allelic imbalance-associated factor is partially explained by the density of genes in the region of a target gene (allelic imbalance is less probable for genes in gene-dense regions), and, to a lesser extent, the evenness of expression of the gene across tissues and the magnitude of negative selection on putative regulatory regions of the gene. These results suggest that the genomic distribution of functional cis-regulatory variants in the human genome is nonrandom, perhaps due to local differences in evolutionary

  2. Regulatory pathways for vaccines for developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milstien, Julie; Belgharbi, Lahouari

    2004-01-01

    Vaccines that are designed for use only in developing countries face regulatory hurdles that may restrict their use. There are two primary reasons for this: most regulatory authorities are set up to address regulation of products for use only within their jurisdictions and regulatory authorities in developing countries traditionally have been considered weak. Some options for regulatory pathways for such products have been identified: licensing in the country of manufacture, file review by the European Medicines Evaluation Agency on behalf of WHO, export to a country with a competent national regulatory authority (NRA) that could handle all regulatory functions for the developing country market, shared manufacturing and licensing in a developing country with competent manufacturing and regulatory capacity, and use of a contracted independent entity for global regulatory approval. These options have been evaluated on the basis of five criteria: assurance of all regulatory functions for the life of the product, appropriateness of epidemiological assessment, applicability to products no longer used in the domestic market of the manufacturing country, reduction of regulatory risk for the manufacturer, and existing rules and regulations for implementation. No one option satisfies all criteria. For all options, national infrastructures (including the underlying regulatory legislative framework, particularly to formulate and implement local evidence-based vaccine policy) must be developed. WHO has led work to develop this capacity with some success. The paper outlines additional areas of action required by the international community to assure development and use of vaccines needed for the developing world. PMID:15042235

  3. Organization of nuclear regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blidaru, Valentin

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents the structure, missions and organizational aspects of the CNCAN, the National Commission for the control of nuclear activities in Romania. The paper addresses the following main issues: 1.General aspects; 2.Organizational structure of the NRA in Romania; 3.General description of the Division for Nuclear Safety Assessments; 4.Specific activities; 5.Regulatory approaches and practices. Under the title of 'General aspects' the following three basic statements are highlighted: 1.CNCAN is a governmental organization responsible for the development of the regulatory framework, the control of its implementation and the licensing of nuclear facilities; 2.CNCAN is the national authority competent in exercising the regulatory activity, authorization and control in the nuclear field provided by the law No. 111/ 1996 republished in 1998; 3.The Commission exercises its functions independently of the ministries and other authorities of the public control administration being subordinated to the Romanian Government. The organizational structure is as follows: - President, the Managerial Council and the Advisory Council coordinating the four General Divisions that are responsible for: - Nuclear Safety with Division of Nuclear Safety Assessment and Division of Nuclear Objectives Surveillance; - Radiological Safety with Division of Radiological Safety Assessment and Division of Operational Radiation Protection; - Surveillance of Environmental Radioactivity with Division of Assessment and Analysis and Division of National Network; - Development and Resource with the Division of Economy and Division of Human Resources. In addition under direct coordination of the President operate the Division of Radiation Protection, Transport and Radioactive Waste and the Division of International Cooperation and Communication. Specific activities are listed describing among others the issues of: - Safety of nuclear installation; - Evaluation relating to licensing of nuclear

  4. Impact of State and Federal regulatory policy on natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malloy, K.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents information which demonstrates the decline in the use and subsequent demand of natural gas as the result of regulatory constraints. These regulations have allowed for a 10 percent decline in the use of natural gas in the last 20 years. The author believes that the major reason for this decline is the existence of State and Federal regulatory requirements which prevent the natural gas industry from effectively responding to new market opportunities. The paper goes on to discuss historical regulations such as the Fuel Use Act and the Natural Gas Policy Act which caused severe impacts to development in the gas industry by placing incremental price controls on natural gas. The author then discusses the effect of deregulation and how it has boosted the gas industry. He specifically discusses the US Canada Free-Trade Agreement and the new negotiations which would greatly enhance the gas sales to Mexico. Finally the author goes on to discuss deregulatory stances proposed as part of the National Energy Strategy regarding natural gas. These include the removal of obstacles to building new pipeline capacities; reformation of rates policies; assurances of nondiscriminatory access to natural gas pipeline services and facilities; and removal of impediments to free and open international trade in natural gas

  5. Construction and Operation of a Deep Geological Spent Fuel Repository in Sweden; Some Regulatory Aspects and Challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedberg, Bengt

    2014-01-01

    The implementation of a deep geological spent fuel disposal concept in Sweden poses challenges on both implementer and regulator in many aspects. One such challenge is the application of the regulatory framework in a different situation compared to conventional process type nuclear facilities. A specific challenge in this regard is how to understand and address constraints from post-closure safety related to the construction and operation of the repository. The maybe most challenging aspect, however, is the unusually long time frame, i.e. many generations, for realization of the project. This paper addresses some of these challenges from a regulatory perspective. (authors)

  6. Adaptive laser link reconfiguration using constraint propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crone, M. S.; Julich, P. M.; Cook, L. M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes Harris AI research performed on the Adaptive Link Reconfiguration (ALR) study for Rome Lab, and focuses on the application of constraint propagation to the problem of link reconfiguration for the proposed space based Strategic Defense System (SDS) Brilliant Pebbles (BP) communications system. According to the concept of operations at the time of the study, laser communications will exist between BP's and to ground entry points. Long-term links typical of RF transmission will not exist. This study addressed an initial implementation of BP's based on the Global Protection Against Limited Strikes (GPALS) SDI mission. The number of satellites and rings studied was representative of this problem. An orbital dynamics program was used to generate line-of-site data for the modeled architecture. This was input into a discrete event simulation implemented in the Harris developed COnstraint Propagation Expert System (COPES) Shell, developed initially on the Rome Lab BM/C3 study. Using a model of the network and several heuristics, the COPES shell was used to develop the Heuristic Adaptive Link Ordering (HALO) Algorithm to rank and order potential laser links according to probability of communication. A reduced set of links based on this ranking would then be used by a routing algorithm to select the next hop. This paper includes an overview of Constraint Propagation as an Artificial Intelligence technique and its embodiment in the COPES shell. It describes the design and implementation of both the simulation of the GPALS BP network and the HALO algorithm in COPES. This is described using a 59 Data Flow Diagram, State Transition Diagrams, and Structured English PDL. It describes a laser communications model and the heuristics involved in rank-ordering the potential communication links. The generation of simulation data is described along with its interface via COPES to the Harris developed View Net graphical tool for visual analysis of communications

  7. The Regulatory Review Process in South Africa: Challenges and Opportunities for a New Improved System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyter, Andrea; Gouws, Joey; Salek, Sam; Walker, Stuart

    2018-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the regulatory review process in South Africa from 2015 to 2017, identify the key milestones and timelines; evaluate the effectiveness of measures to ensure consistency, transparency, timeliness, and predictability in the review process; and to provide recommendations for enhanced regulatory practices. A questionnaire was completed by the Medicines Control Council (MCC) to describe the organization of the authority, record key milestones and timelines in the review process and to identify good review practices (GRevPs). Currently, the MCC conducts a full assessment of quality, efficacy, and safety data in the review of all applications. The overall regulatory median approval time decreased by 14% in 2017 (1411 calendar days) compared with that of 2016, despite the 27% increase in the number of applications. However, the MCC has no target for overall approval time of new active substance applications and no targets for key review milestones. Guidelines, standard operating procedures, and review templates are in place, while the formal implementation of GRevPs and the application of an electronic document management system are planned for the near future. As the MCC transitions to the newly established South Africa Health Products Regulatory Authority, it would be crucial for the authority to recognize the opportunities for an enhanced regulatory review and should consider models such as abridged assessment, which encompass elements of risk stratification and reliance. It is hoped that resource constraints may then be alleviated and capacity developed to meet target timelines.

  8. A global regulatory science agenda for vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmgren, Lindsay; Li, Xuguang; Wilson, Carolyn; Ball, Robert; Wang, Junzhi; Cichutek, Klaus; Pfleiderer, Michael; Kato, Atsushi; Cavaleri, Marco; Southern, James; Jivapaisarnpong, Teeranart; Minor, Philip; Griffiths, Elwyn; Sohn, Yeowon; Wood, David

    2013-04-18

    The Decade of Vaccines Collaboration and development of the Global Vaccine Action Plan provides a catalyst and unique opportunity for regulators worldwide to develop and propose a global regulatory science agenda for vaccines. Regulatory oversight is critical to allow access to vaccines that are safe, effective, and of assured quality. Methods used by regulators need to constantly evolve so that scientific and technological advances are applied to address challenges such as new products and technologies, and also to provide an increased understanding of benefits and risks of existing products. Regulatory science builds on high-quality basic research, and encompasses at least two broad categories. First, there is laboratory-based regulatory science. Illustrative examples include development of correlates of immunity; or correlates of safety; or of improved product characterization and potency assays. Included in such science would be tools to standardize assays used for regulatory purposes. Second, there is science to develop regulatory processes. Illustrative examples include adaptive clinical trial designs; or tools to analyze the benefit-risk decision-making process of regulators; or novel pharmacovigilance methodologies. Included in such science would be initiatives to standardize regulatory processes (e.g., definitions of terms for adverse events [AEs] following immunization). The aim of a global regulatory science agenda is to transform current national efforts, mainly by well-resourced regulatory agencies, into a coordinated action plan to support global immunization goals. This article provides examples of how regulatory science has, in the past, contributed to improved access to vaccines, and identifies gaps that could be addressed through a global regulatory science agenda. The article also identifies challenges to implementing a regulatory science agenda and proposes strategies and actions to fill these gaps. A global regulatory science agenda will enable

  9. Renewable Energy Prices in State-Level Feed-in Tariffs: Federal Law Constraints and Possible Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hempling, S.; Elefant, C.; Cory, K.; Porter, K.

    2010-01-01

    State legislatures and state utility commissions trying to attract renewable energy projects are considering feed-in tariffs, which obligate retail utilities to purchase electricity from renewable producers under standard arrangements specifying prices, terms, and conditions. The use of feed-in tariffs simplifies the purchase process, provides revenue certainty to generators, and reduces the cost of financing generating projects. However, some argue that federal law--including the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 (PURPA) and the Federal Power Act of 1935 (FPA)--constrain state-level feed-in tariffs. This report seeks to reduce the legal uncertainties for states contemplating feed-in tariffs by explaining the constraints imposed by federal statutes. It describes the federal constraints, identifies transaction categories that are free of those constraints, and offers ways for state and federal policymakers to interpret or modify existing law to remove or reduce these constraints. This report proposes ways to revise these federal statutes. It creates a broad working definition of a state-level feed-in tariff. Given this definition, this report concludes there are paths to non-preempted, state-level feed-in tariffs under current federal law.

  10. On a Nonstationary Route Problem with Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Chentsov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The extremal route problem of permutations under constraints in the form of preceding conditions is investigated. It is supposed that an executer leaves the initial point (the base after which he visits a system of megalopolises (finite goal sets and performs some work on each megalopolis. The cost functions for executor permutations and interior works depend on the “visiting moment” that can correspond to the real time or can also correspond to the natural regular succession (the first visiting, the second visiting, and so on. An economic variant of the widely interpreted dynamic programming method (DPM is constructed. On this basis an optimal computer realized algorithm is constructed. A variant of a greed algorithm is proposed.

  11. Identifying energy constraints to parasite resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, D E; Little, T J

    2011-01-01

    Life-history theory suggests that energetically expensive traits may trade off against each other, resulting in costs associated with the development or maintenance of a particular phenotype. The deployment of resistance mechanisms during parasite exposure is one such trait, and thus their potential benefit in fighting off parasites may be offset by costs to other fitness-related traits. In this study, we used trade-off theory as a basis to test whether stimulating an increased development rate in juvenile Daphnia would reveal energetic constraints to its ability to resist infection upon subsequent exposure to the castrating parasite, Pasteuria ramosa. We show that the presumably energetically expensive process of increased development rate does result in more infected hosts, suggesting that parasite resistance requires the allocation of resources from a limited source, and thus has the potential to be costly.

  12. Constraints on the evolution of phenotypic plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murren, Courtney J; Auld, Josh R.; Callahan, Hilary S

    2015-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity is ubiquitous and generally regarded as a key mechanism for enabling organisms to survive in the face of environmental change. Because no organism is infinitely or ideally plastic, theory suggests that there must be limits (for example, the lack of ability to produce...... an optimal trait) to the evolution of phenotypic plasticity, or that plasticity may have inherent significant costs. Yet numerous experimental studies have not detected widespread costs. Explicitly differentiating plasticity costs from phenotype costs, we re-evaluate fundamental questions of the limits...... to the evolution of plasticity and of generalists vs specialists. We advocate for the view that relaxed selection and variable selection intensities are likely more important constraints to the evolution of plasticity than the costs of plasticity. Some forms of plasticity, such as learning, may be inherently...

  13. A note on migration with borrowing constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghatak, S; Levine, P

    1994-12-01

    "This note examines an important conflict between the theory and evidence on migration in LDCs. While the Harris-Todaro class of models explain the phenomenon of migration mainly by expected income differential between the economically advanced and the backward regions, the actual evidence in some cases suggests that migration could actually rise following a rise in income in backward areas. We resolve this puzzle by analysing migration in the context of the existence of imperfect credit markets in LDCs. We show that under certain plausible conditions, the rate of migration from the rural to the urban areas may actually rise when rural wages rise, as they ease the constraints on borrowing by potential migrants." excerpt

  14. Constraint Embedding for Vehicle Suspension Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain Abhinandan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this research is to achieve close to real-time dynamics performance for allowing auto-pilot in-the-loop testing of unmanned ground vehicles (UGV for urban as well as off-road scenarios. The overall vehicle dynamics performance is governed by the multibody dynamics model for the vehicle, the wheel/terrain interaction dynamics and the onboard control system. The topic of this paper is the development of computationally efficient and accurate dynamics model for ground vehicles with complex suspension dynamics. A challenge is that typical vehicle suspensions involve closed-chain loops which require expensive DAE integration techniques. In this paper, we illustrate the use the alternative constraint embedding technique to reduce the cost and improve the accuracy of the dynamics model for the vehicle.

  15. Cosmological Constraints on Mirror Matter Parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallemacq, Quentin; Ciarcelluti, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Up-to-date estimates of the cosmological parameters are presented as a result of numerical simulations of cosmic microwave background and large scale structure, considering a flat Universe in which the dark matter is made entirely or partly of mirror matter, and the primordial perturbations are scalar adiabatic and in linear regime. A statistical analysis using the Markov Chain Monte Carlo method allows to obtain constraints of the cosmological parameters. As a result, we show that a Universe with pure mirror dark matter is statistically equivalent to the case of an admixture with cold dark matter. The upper limits for the ratio of the temperatures of ordinary and mirror sectors are around 0.3 for both the cosmological models, which show the presence of a dominant fraction of mirror matter, 0.06≲Ω_m_i_r_r_o_rh"2≲0.12.

  16. Regional magnetic anomaly constraints on continental rifting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonfrese, R. R. B.; Hinze, W. J.; Olivier, R.; Bentley, C. R.

    1985-01-01

    Radially polarized MAGSAT anomalies of North and South America, Europe, Africa, India, Australia and Antarctica demonstrate remarkably detailed correlation of regional magnetic lithospheric sources across rifted margins when plotted on a reconstruction of Pangea. These major magnetic features apparently preserve their integrity until a superimposed metamorphoric event alters the magnitude and pattern of the anomalies. The longevity of continental scale magnetic anomalies contrasts markedly with that of regional gravity anomalies which tend to reflect predominantly isostatic adjustments associated with neo-tectonism. First observed as a result of NASA's magnetic satellite programs, these anomalies provide new and fundamental constraints on the geologic evolution and dynamics of the continents and oceans. Accordingly, satellite magnetic observations provide a further tool for investigating continental drift to compliment other lines of evidence in paleoclimatology, paleontology, paleomagnetism, and studies of the radiometric ages and geometric fit of the continents.

  17. A new spin on causality constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartman, Thomas; Jain, Sachin; Kundu, Sandipan [Department of Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York (United States)

    2016-10-26

    Causality in a shockwave state is related to the analytic properties of a four-point correlation function. Extending recent results for scalar probes, we show that this constrains the couplings of the stress tensor to light spinning operators in conformal field theory, and interpret these constraints in terms of the interaction with null energy. For spin-1 and spin-2 conserved currents in four dimensions, the resulting inequalities are a subset of the Hofman-Maldacena conditions for positive energy deposition. It is well known that energy conditions in holographic theories are related to causality on the gravity side; our results make a connection on the CFT side, and extend it to non-holographic theories.

  18. Variables as Contextual Constraints in Translating Irony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babîi Oana

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The translator’s role and responsibility are high in any act of interlingual communication, and even higher when irony, an indirect and deliberately elusive form of communication, is involved in the translation process. By allowing more than one possible interpretation, irony is inevitably exposed to the risk of being misunderstood. This paper attempts to capture the complexity of translating irony, making use of theoretical frameworks provided by literary studies and translation studies. It analyses if and how the types of irony, the literary genres and the cultural, normative factors, perceived as potential contextual constraints, have an impact on the translator’ choices in rendering irony in translation, taking illustrative examples from Jonathan Swift, Oscar Wilde, Aldous Huxley and David Lodge’s works.

  19. Soft Budget Constraints in Public Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Donald J

    2016-05-01

    A soft budget constraint arises when a government is unable to commit to not 'bailout' a public hospital if the public hospital exhausts its budget before the end of the budget period. It is shown that if the political costs of a 'bailout' are relatively small, then the public hospital exhausts the welfare-maximising budget before the end of the budget period and a 'bailout' occurs. In anticipation, the government offers a budget to the public hospital that may be greater than or less than the welfare-maximising budget. In either case, the public hospital treats 'too many' elective patients before the 'bailout' and 'too few' after. The introduction of a private hospital reduces the size of any 'bailout' and increases welfare. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Power System Operations With Water Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, F.; Wang, J.

    2015-12-01

    The interdependency between water and energy, although known for many decades, has not received enough attention until recent events under extreme weather conditions (especially droughts). On one hand, water and several types of energy supplies have become increasingly scarce; the demand on water and energy continues to grow. On the other hand, the climate change has become more and more disruptive (i.e., intensity and frequency of extreme events), causing severe challenges to both systems simultaneously. Water and energy systems have become deeply coupled and challenges from extreme weather events must be addressed in a coordinated way across the two systems.In this work, we will build quantitative models to capture the interactions between water and energy systems. We will incorporate water constraints in power system operations and study the impact of water scarcity on power system resilience.