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Sample records for regulatory circuit underlying

  1. Regulatory heterochronies and loose temporal scaling between sea star and sea urchin regulatory circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gildor, Tsvia; Hinman, Veronica; Ben-Tabou-De-Leon, Smadar

    2017-01-01

    It has long been argued that heterochrony, a change in relative timing of a developmental process, is a major source of evolutionary innovation. Heterochronic changes of regulatory gene activation could be the underlying molecular mechanism driving heterochronic changes through evolution. Here, we compare the temporal expression profiles of key regulatory circuits between sea urchin and sea star, representative of two classes of Echinoderms that shared a common ancestor about 500 million years ago. The morphologies of the sea urchin and sea star embryos are largely comparable, yet, differences in certain mesodermal cell types and ectodermal patterning result in distinct larval body plans. We generated high resolution temporal profiles of 17 mesodermally-, endodermally- and ectodermally-expressed regulatory genes in the sea star, Patiria miniata, and compared these to their orthologs in the Mediterranean sea urchin, Paracentrotus lividus. We found that the maternal to zygotic transition is delayed in the sea star compared to the sea urchin, in agreement with the longer cleavage stage in the sea star. Interestingly, the order of gene activation shows the highest variation in the relatively diverged mesodermal circuit, while the correlations of expression dynamics are the highest in the strongly conserved endodermal circuit. We detected loose scaling of the developmental rates of these species and observed interspecies heterochronies within all studied regulatory circuits. Thus, after 500 million years of parallel evolution, mild heterochronies between the species are frequently observed and the tight temporal scaling observed for closely related species no longer holds.

  2. Regulatory Circuits Linking Energy Status to Growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, W.M.

    2017-01-01

    Plant growth and development critically depend on carbon nutrient status. Over the past years several core regulatory systems that link plant carbon status to growth have emerged. The core regulatory systems studied include the trehalose 6-phosphate (T6P) signaling system and the Target of Rapamycin

  3. Interrogating the topological robustness of gene regulatory circuits by randomization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Huang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important roles of cells is performing their cellular tasks properly for survival. Cells usually achieve robust functionality, for example, cell-fate decision-making and signal transduction, through multiple layers of regulation involving many genes. Despite the combinatorial complexity of gene regulation, its quantitative behavior has been typically studied on the basis of experimentally verified core gene regulatory circuitry, composed of a small set of important elements. It is still unclear how such a core circuit operates in the presence of many other regulatory molecules and in a crowded and noisy cellular environment. Here we report a new computational method, named random circuit perturbation (RACIPE, for interrogating the robust dynamical behavior of a gene regulatory circuit even without accurate measurements of circuit kinetic parameters. RACIPE generates an ensemble of random kinetic models corresponding to a fixed circuit topology, and utilizes statistical tools to identify generic properties of the circuit. By applying RACIPE to simple toggle-switch-like motifs, we observed that the stable states of all models converge to experimentally observed gene state clusters even when the parameters are strongly perturbed. RACIPE was further applied to a proposed 22-gene network of the Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT, from which we identified four experimentally observed gene states, including the states that are associated with two different types of hybrid Epithelial/Mesenchymal phenotypes. Our results suggest that dynamics of a gene circuit is mainly determined by its topology, not by detailed circuit parameters. Our work provides a theoretical foundation for circuit-based systems biology modeling. We anticipate RACIPE to be a powerful tool to predict and decode circuit design principles in an unbiased manner, and to quantitatively evaluate the robustness and heterogeneity of gene expression.

  4. POEM: Identifying joint additive effects on regulatory circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya eBotzman

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Motivation: Expression Quantitative Trait Locus (eQTL mapping tackles the problem of identifying variation in DNA sequence that have an effect on the transcriptional regulatory network. Major computational efforts are aimed at characterizing the joint effects of several eQTLs acting in concert to govern the expression of the same genes. Yet, progress towards a comprehensive prediction of such joint effects is limited. For example, existing eQTL methods commonly discover interacting loci affecting the expression levels of a module of co-regulated genes. Such ‘modularization’ approaches, however, are focused on epistatic relations and thus have limited utility for the case of additive (non-epistatic effects.Results: Here we present POEM (Pairwise effect On Expression Modules, a methodology for identifying pairwise eQTL effects on gene modules. POEM is specifically designed to achieve high performance in the case of additive joint effects. We applied POEM to transcription profiles measured in bone marrow-derived dendritic cells across a population of genotyped mice. Our study reveals widespread additive, trans-acting pairwise effects on gene modules, characterizes their organizational principles, and highlights high-order interconnections between modules within the immune signaling network. These analyses elucidate the central role of additive pairwise effect in regulatory circuits, and provide computational tools for future investigations into the interplay between eQTLs.Availability: The software described in this article is available at csgi.tau.ac.il/POEM/.

  5. Energy reduction for a dual circuit cooling water system using advanced regulatory control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, C.J.; Craig, I.K.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Potentially reduce energy required by a dual circuit cooling water system by 30%. • Accomplished using an advanced regulatory control and switching strategy. • No formal process model is required. • Can be implemented on control system hardware commonly used in industry. - Abstract: Various process utilities are used in the petrochemical industry as auxiliary variables to facilitate the addition/removal of energy to/from the process, power process equipment and inhibit unwanted reaction. Optimisation activities usually focus on the process itself or on the utility consumption though the generation and distribution of these utilities are often overlooked in this regard. Many utilities are prepared or generated far from the process plant and have to be transported or transmitted, giving rise to more losses and potential inefficiencies. To illustrate the potential benefit of utility optimisation, this paper explores the control of a dual circuit cooling water system with focus on energy reduction subject process constraints. This is accomplished through the development of an advanced regulatory control (ARC) and switching strategy which does not require the development of a system model, only rudimentary knowledge of the behaviour of the process and system constraints. The novelty of this manuscript lies in the fact that it demonstrates that significant energy savings can be obtained by applying ARC to a process utility containing both discrete and continuous dynamics. Furthermore, the proposed ARC strategy does not require a plant model, uses only existing plant equipment, and can be implemented on control system hardware commonly used in industry. The simulation results indicate energy saving potential in the region of 30% on the system under investigation.

  6. Nonchaoticity of Ordinary Differential Equations Describing Autonomous Transcriptional Regulatory Circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Pengfei; Hu Gang; Chen Runsheng

    2008-01-01

    Gene transcriptional regulation (TR) processes are often described by coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODEs). When the dimension of TR circuits is high (e.g. n ≥ 3) the motions of the corresponding ODEs may, very probably, show self-sustained oscillations and chaos. On the other hand, chaoticity may be harmful for the normal biological functions of TR processes. In this letter we numerically study the dynamics of 3-gene TR ODEs in great detail, and investigate many 4-, 5-, and 10-gene TR systems by randomly choosing figures and parameters in the conventionally accepted ranges. And we find that oscillations are very seldom and no chaotic motion is observed, even if the dimension of systems is sufficiently high (n ≥ 3). It is argued that the observation of nonchaoticity of these ODEs agrees with normal functions of actual TR processes

  7. Oncogenes Activate an Autonomous Transcriptional Regulatory Circuit That Drives Glioblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh K. Singh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Efforts to identify and target glioblastoma (GBM drivers have primarily focused on receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs. Clinical benefits, however, have been elusive. Here, we identify an SRY-related box 2 (SOX2 transcriptional regulatory network that is independent of upstream RTKs and capable of driving glioma-initiating cells. We identified oligodendrocyte lineage transcription factor 2 (OLIG2 and zinc-finger E-box binding homeobox 1 (ZEB1, which are frequently co-expressed irrespective of driver mutations, as potential SOX2 targets. In murine glioma models, we show that different combinations of tumor suppressor and oncogene mutations can activate Sox2, Olig2, and Zeb1 expression. We demonstrate that ectopic co-expression of the three transcription factors can transform tumor-suppressor-deficient astrocytes into glioma-initiating cells in the absence of an upstream RTK oncogene. Finally, we demonstrate that the transcriptional inhibitor mithramycin downregulates SOX2 and its target genes, resulting in markedly reduced proliferation of GBM cells in vivo.

  8. An HIV feedback resistor: auto-regulatory circuit deactivator and noise buffer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, Leor S; Shenk, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Animal viruses (e.g., lentiviruses and herpesviruses) use transcriptional positive feedback (i.e., transactivation) to regulate their gene expression. But positive-feedback circuits are inherently unstable when turned off, which presents a particular dilemma for latent viruses that lack transcriptional repressor motifs. Here we show that a dissipative feedback resistor, composed of enzymatic interconversion of the transactivator, converts transactivation circuits into excitable systems that generate transient pulses of expression, which decay to zero. We use HIV-1 as a model system and analyze single-cell expression kinetics to explore whether the HIV-1 transactivator of transcription (Tat) uses a resistor to shut off transactivation. The Tat feedback circuit was found to lack bi-stability and Tat self-cooperativity but exhibited a pulse of activity upon transactivation, all in agreement with the feedback resistor model. Guided by a mathematical model, biochemical and genetic perturbation of the suspected Tat feedback resistor altered the circuit's stability and reduced susceptibility to molecular noise, in agreement with model predictions. We propose that the feedback resistor is a necessary, but possibly not sufficient, condition for turning off noisy transactivation circuits lacking a repressor motif (e.g., HIV-1 Tat). Feedback resistors may be a paradigm for examining other auto-regulatory circuits and may inform upon how viral latency is established, maintained, and broken.

  9. Sub-circuits of a gene regulatory network control a developmental epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Lindsay R; McClay, David R

    2014-04-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a fundamental cell state change that transforms epithelial to mesenchymal cells during embryonic development, adult tissue repair and cancer metastasis. EMT includes a complex series of intermediate cell state changes including remodeling of the basement membrane, apical constriction, epithelial de-adhesion, directed motility, loss of apical-basal polarity, and acquisition of mesenchymal adhesion and polarity. Transcriptional regulatory state changes must ultimately coordinate the timing and execution of these cell biological processes. A well-characterized gene regulatory network (GRN) in the sea urchin embryo was used to identify the transcription factors that control five distinct cell changes during EMT. Single transcription factors were perturbed and the consequences followed with in vivo time-lapse imaging or immunostaining assays. The data show that five different sub-circuits of the GRN control five distinct cell biological activities, each part of the complex EMT process. Thirteen transcription factors (TFs) expressed specifically in pre-EMT cells were required for EMT. Three TFs highest in the GRN specified and activated EMT (alx1, ets1, tbr) and the 10 TFs downstream of those (tel, erg, hex, tgif, snail, twist, foxn2/3, dri, foxb, foxo) were also required for EMT. No single TF functioned in all five sub-circuits, indicating that there is no EMT master regulator. Instead, the resulting sub-circuit topologies suggest EMT requires multiple simultaneous regulatory mechanisms: forward cascades, parallel inputs and positive-feedback lock downs. The interconnected and overlapping nature of the sub-circuits provides one explanation for the seamless orchestration by the embryo of cell state changes leading to successful EMT.

  10. Using perturbations to identify the brain circuits underlying active vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurtz, Robert H

    2015-09-19

    The visual and oculomotor systems in the brain have been studied extensively in the primate. Together, they can be regarded as a single brain system that underlies active vision--the normal vision that begins with visual processing in the retina and extends through the brain to the generation of eye movement by the brainstem. The system is probably one of the most thoroughly studied brain systems in the primate, and it offers an ideal opportunity to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of the series of perturbation techniques that have been used to study it. The perturbations have been critical in moving from correlations between neuronal activity and behaviour closer to a causal relation between neuronal activity and behaviour. The same perturbation techniques have also been used to tease out neuronal circuits that are related to active vision that in turn are driving behaviour. The evolution of perturbation techniques includes ablation of both cortical and subcortical targets, punctate chemical lesions, reversible inactivations, electrical stimulation, and finally the expanding optogenetic techniques. The evolution of perturbation techniques has supported progressively stronger conclusions about what neuronal circuits in the brain underlie active vision and how the circuits themselves might be organized.

  11. A Regulatory Circuit Composed of a Transcription Factor, IscR, and a Regulatory RNA, RyhB, Controls Fe-S Cluster Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Mandin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Fe-S clusters are cofactors conserved through all domains of life. Once assembled by dedicated ISC and/or SUF scaffolds, Fe-S clusters are conveyed to their apo-targets via A-type carrier proteins (ATCs. Escherichia coli possesses four such ATCs. ErpA is the only ATC essential under aerobiosis. Recent studies reported a possible regulation of the erpA mRNA by the small RNA (sRNA RyhB, which controls the expression of many genes under iron starvation. Surprisingly, erpA has not been identified in recent transcriptomic analysis of the iron starvation response, thus bringing into question the actual physiological significance of the putative regulation of erpA by RyhB. Using an sRNA library, we show that among 26 sRNAs, only RyhB represses the expression of an erpA-lacZ translational fusion. We further demonstrate that this repression occurs during iron starvation. Using mutational analysis, we show that RyhB base pairs to the erpA mRNA, inducing its disappearance. In addition, IscR, the master regulator of Fe-S homeostasis, represses expression of erpA at the transcriptional level when iron is abundant, but depleting iron from the medium alleviates this repression. The conjunction of transcriptional derepression by IscR and posttranscriptional repression by RyhB under Fe-limiting conditions is best described as an incoherent regulatory circuit. This double regulation allows full expression of erpA at iron concentrations for which Fe-S biogenesis switches from the ISC to the SUF system. We further provide evidence that this regulatory circuit coordinates ATC usage to iron availability.

  12. Convergent synaptic and circuit substrates underlying autism genetic risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Aaron; Li, Guohui; Lu, Zhongming; Qiu, Shenfeng

    2014-02-01

    There has been a surge of diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) over the past decade. While large, high powered genome screening studies of children with ASD have identified numerous genetic risk factors, research efforts to understanding how each of these risk factors contributes to the development autism has met with limited success. Revealing the mechanisms by which these genetic risk factors affect brain development and predispose a child to autism requires mechanistic understanding of the neurobiological changes underlying this devastating group of developmental disorders at multifaceted molecular, cellular and system levels. It has been increasingly clear that the normal trajectory of neurodevelopment is compromised in autism, in multiple domains as much as aberrant neuronal production, growth, functional maturation, patterned connectivity, and balanced excitation and inhibition of brain networks. Many autism risk factors identified in humans have been now reconstituted in experimental mouse models to allow mechanistic interrogation of the biological role of the risk gene. Studies utilizing these mouse models have revealed that underlying the enormous heterogeneity of perturbed cellular events, mechanisms directing synaptic and circuit assembly may provide a unifying explanation for the pathophysiological changes and behavioral endophenotypes seen in autism, although synaptic perturbations are far from being the only alterations relevant for ASD. In this review, we discuss synaptic and circuit abnormalities obtained from several prevalent mouse models, particularly those reflecting syndromic forms of ASD that are caused by single gene perturbations. These compiled results reveal that ASD risk genes contribute to proper signaling of the developing gene networks that maintain synaptic and circuit homeostasis, which is fundamental to normal brain development.

  13. A Regulatory Circuit Composed of a Transcription Factor, IscR, and a Regulatory RNA, RyhB, Controls Fe-S Cluster Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandin, Pierre; Chareyre, Sylvia; Barras, Frédéric

    2016-09-20

    Fe-S clusters are cofactors conserved through all domains of life. Once assembled by dedicated ISC and/or SUF scaffolds, Fe-S clusters are conveyed to their apo-targets via A-type carrier proteins (ATCs). Escherichia coli possesses four such ATCs. ErpA is the only ATC essential under aerobiosis. Recent studies reported a possible regulation of the erpA mRNA by the small RNA (sRNA) RyhB, which controls the expression of many genes under iron starvation. Surprisingly, erpA has not been identified in recent transcriptomic analysis of the iron starvation response, thus bringing into question the actual physiological significance of the putative regulation of erpA by RyhB. Using an sRNA library, we show that among 26 sRNAs, only RyhB represses the expression of an erpA-lacZ translational fusion. We further demonstrate that this repression occurs during iron starvation. Using mutational analysis, we show that RyhB base pairs to the erpA mRNA, inducing its disappearance. In addition, IscR, the master regulator of Fe-S homeostasis, represses expression of erpA at the transcriptional level when iron is abundant, but depleting iron from the medium alleviates this repression. The conjunction of transcriptional derepression by IscR and posttranscriptional repression by RyhB under Fe-limiting conditions is best described as an incoherent regulatory circuit. This double regulation allows full expression of erpA at iron concentrations for which Fe-S biogenesis switches from the ISC to the SUF system. We further provide evidence that this regulatory circuit coordinates ATC usage to iron availability. Regulatory small RNAs (sRNAs) have emerged as major actors in the control of gene expression in the last few decades. Relatively little is known about how these regulators interact with classical transcription factors to coordinate genetic responses. We show here how an sRNA, RyhB, and a transcription factor, IscR, regulate expression of an essential gene, erpA, in the bacterium E

  14. Design, Analysis and Test of Logic Circuits Under Uncertainty

    CERN Document Server

    Krishnaswamy, Smita; Hayes, John P

    2013-01-01

    Integrated circuits (ICs) increasingly exhibit uncertain characteristics due to soft errors, inherently probabilistic devices, and manufacturing variability. As device technologies scale, these effects can be detrimental to the reliability of logic circuits.  To improve future semiconductor designs, this book describes methods for analyzing, designing, and testing circuits subject to probabilistic effects. The authors first develop techniques to model inherently probabilistic methods in logic circuits and to test circuits for determining their reliability after they are manufactured. Then, they study error-masking mechanisms intrinsic to digital circuits and show how to leverage them to design more reliable circuits.  The book describes techniques for:   • Modeling and reasoning about probabilistic behavior in logic circuits, including a matrix-based reliability-analysis framework;   • Accurate analysis of soft-error rate (SER) based on functional-simulation, sufficiently scalable for use in gate-l...

  15. Regulatory behaviour under threat of court reversal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Söderberg, Magnus; Menezes, Flavio; Santolino, Miguel

    2018-01-01

    , (ii) inexperienced regulators care more about not having their decisions overturned than experienced regulators, and (iii) experienced regulators also care about consumer surplus. The theoretical implications are tested using a database of Swedish regulatory decisions from the electricity distribution...... sector. We provide empirical evidence that inexperienced regulators are more likely to set higher regulated prices than experienced regulators, and as the complexity of the case increases, there are on averagemore overturned decisions and higher prices for inexperienced regulators. The links between...... experience, complexity and regulatory outcomes are both statistically and economically significant. Simulations show that if those decisions that were not appealed had been appealed, then the court would have lowered the prices by 10% on average....

  16. Equivalent Electrical Circuits of Thermoelectric Generators under Different Operating Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saima Siouane

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Energy harvesting has become a promising and alternative solution to conventional energy generation patterns to overcome the problem of supplying autonomous electrical systems. More particularly, thermal energy harvesting technologies have drawn a major interest in both research and industry. Thermoelectric Generators (TEGs can be used in two different operating conditions, under constant temperature gradient or constant heat flow. The commonly used TEG electrical model, based on a voltage source in series with an electrical resistance, shows its limitations especially under constant heat flow conditions. Here, the analytical electrical modeling, taking into consideration the internal and contact thermal resistances of a TEG under constant temperature gradient and constant heat flow conditions, is first given. To give further insight into the electrical behavior of a TEG module in different operating conditions, we propose a new and original way of emulating the above analytical expressions with usual electronics components (voltage source, resistors, diode, whose values are determined with the TEG’s parameters. Note that such a TEG emulation is particularly suited when designing the electronic circuitry commonly associated to the TEG, to realize both Maximum Power Point Tracking and output voltage regulation. First, the proposed equivalent electrical circuits are validated through simulation with a SPICE environment in static operating conditions using only one value of either temperature gradient or heat flow. Then, they are also analyzed in dynamic operating conditions where both temperature gradient and heat flow are considered as time-varying functions.

  17. Cognitive consilience: Primate non-primary neuroanatomical circuits underlying cognition

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    Soren Van Hout Solari

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Interactions between the cerebral cortex, thalamus, and basal ganglia form the basis ofcognitive information processing in the mammalian brain. Understanding the principles ofneuroanatomical organization in these structures is critical to understanding the functions theyperform and ultimately how the human brain works. We have manually distilled and synthesizedhundreds of primate neuroanatomy facts into a single interactive visualization. The resultingpicture represents the fundamental neuroanatomical blueprint upon which cognitive functionsmust be implemented. Within this framework we hypothesize and detail 7 functional circuitscorresponding to psychological perspectives on the brain: consolidated long-term declarativememory, short-term declarative memory, working memory/information processing, behavioralmemory selection, behavioral memory output, cognitive control, and cortical information flow regulation. Each circuit is described in terms of distinguishable neuronal groups including thecerebral isocortex (9 pyramidal neuronal groups, parahippocampal gyrus and hippocampus,thalamus (4 neuronal groups, basal ganglia (7 neuronal groups, metencephalon, basal forebrainand other subcortical nuclei. We focus on neuroanatomy related to primate non-primary corticalsystems to elucidate the basis underlying the distinct homotypical cognitive architecture. To dis-play the breadth of this review, we introduce a novel method of integrating and presenting datain multiple independent visualizations: an interactive website (www.cognitiveconsilience.comand standalone iPhone and iPad applications. With these tools we present a unique, annotatedview of neuroanatomical consilience (integration of knowledge.

  18. Capacitive effects in IGBTs limiting their reliability under short circuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reigosa, Paula Diaz; Iannuzzo, Francesco; Rahimo, Munaf

    2017-01-01

    The short-circuit oscillation mechanism in IGBTs is investigated in this paper by the aid of semiconductor device simulation tools. A 3.3-kV IGBT cell has been used for the simulations demonstrating that a single IGBT cell is able to oscillate together with the external circuit parasitic elements....... The work presented here through both circuit and device analysis, confirms that the oscillations can be understood with focus on the device capacitive effects coming from the interaction between carrier concentration and the electric field. The paper also shows the 2-D effects during one oscillation cycle...

  19. Energy pumping in electrical circuits under avalanche noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Kiyoshi; Sagawa, Takahiro; Hayakawa, Hisao

    2014-07-01

    We theoretically study energy pumping processes in an electrical circuit with avalanche diodes, where non-Gaussian athermal noise plays a crucial role. We show that a positive amount of energy (work) can be extracted by an external manipulation of the circuit in a cyclic way, even when the system is spatially symmetric. We discuss the properties of the energy pumping process for both quasistatic and finite-time cases, and analytically obtain formulas for the amounts of the work and the power. Our results demonstrate the significance of the non-Gaussianity in energetics of electrical circuits.

  20. Core Transcriptional Regulatory Circuit Controlled by the TAL1 Complex in Human T Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    OpenAIRE

    Sanda, Takaomi; Lawton, Lee N.; Barrasa, M. Inmaculada; Fan, Zi Peng; Kohlhammer, Holger; Gutierrez, Alejandro; Ma, Wenxue; Tatarek, Jessica; Ahn, Yebin; Kelliher, Michelle A.; Jamieson, Catriona H.M.; Staudt, Louis M.; Young, Richard A.; Look, A. Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The oncogenic transcription factor TAL1/SCL is aberrantly expressed in over 40% of cases of human T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL), emphasizing its importance in the molecular pathogenesis of T-ALL. Here we identify the core transcriptional regulatory circuit controlled by TAL1 and its regulatory partners HEB, E2A, LMO1/2, GATA3 and RUNX1. We show that TAL1 forms a positive interconnected auto-regulatory loop with GATA3 and RUNX1, and that the TAL1 complex directly activates the MY...

  1. Integrated optical switch circuit operating under FPGA control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stabile, R.; Zal, M.; Williams, K.A.; Bienstman, P.; Morthier, G.; Roelkens, G.; et al., xx

    2011-01-01

    Integrated photonic circuits are enabling an abrupt step change in networking systems providing massive bandwidth and record transmission. The increasing complexity of high connectivity photonic integrated switches requires sophisticated control planes and more intimate high speed electronics. Here

  2. Failure of the integrated circuits involving complementary MOS transistors under thermal and ionizing radiation stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarrabayrouse, G.; Rossel, P.; Buxo, J.; Vialaret, G.

    Some criteria for reliability and sorting of complementary MOS transistor integrated circuits are proposed, that take account for special environmental stresses near plane reactors or nuclear reactor cores. An analysis of the damaging causes for these circuits at high and low temperatures is proposed, results obtained on the evolution of these devices under irradiation and irradiation behaviors are discussed. The whole set of experiments has been carried out on CD 4007 AD(K) circuits [fr

  3. Protection Scheme for Modular Multilevel Converters under Diode Open-Circuit Faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Fujin; Zhu, Rongwu; Liu, Dong

    2018-01-01

    devices. The diode open-circuit fault in the submodule (SM) is an important issue for the MMC, which would affect the performance of the MMC and disrupt the operation of the MMC. This paper analyzes the impact of diode open-circuit failures in the SMs on the performance of the MMC and proposes...... a protection scheme for the MMC under diode open-circuit faults. The proposed protection scheme not only can effectively eliminate the possible caused high voltage due to the diode open-circuit fault but also can quickly detect the faulty SMs, which effectively avoids the destruction and protects the MMC....... The proposed protection scheme is verified with a downscale MMC prototype in the laboratory. The results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed protection scheme for the MMC under diode open-circuit faults....

  4. Alterations in Striatal Circuits Underlying Addiction-Like Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Jin; Lee, Joo Han; Yun, Kyunghwa; Kim, Joung-Hun

    2017-06-30

    Drug addiction is a severe psychiatric disorder characterized by the compulsive pursuit of drugs of abuse despite potential adverse consequences. Although several decades of studies have revealed that psychostimulant use can result in extensive alterations of neural circuits and physiology, no effective therapeutic strategies or medicines for drug addiction currently exist. Changes in neuronal connectivity and regulation occurring after repeated drug exposure contribute to addiction-like behaviors in animal models. Among the involved brain areas, including those of the reward system, the striatum is the major area of convergence for glutamate, GABA, and dopamine transmission, and this brain region potentially determines stereotyped behaviors. Although the physiological consequences of striatal neurons after drug exposure have been relatively well documented, it remains to be clarified how changes in striatal connectivity underlie and modulate the expression of addiction-like behaviors. Understanding how striatal circuits contribute to addiction-like behaviors may lead to the development of strategies that successfully attenuate drug-induced behavioral changes. In this review, we summarize the results of recent studies that have examined striatal circuitry and pathway-specific alterations leading to addiction-like behaviors to provide an updated framework for future investigations.

  5. Reconstructing the regulatory circuit of cell fate determination in yeast mating response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Bin; Yuan, Haiyu; Zhang, Rongfei; Wang, Xuan; Zhang, Shuwen; Ouyang, Qi; Hao, Nan; Luo, Chunxiong

    2017-07-01

    Massive technological advances enabled high-throughput measurements of proteomic changes in biological processes. However, retrieving biological insights from large-scale protein dynamics data remains a challenging task. Here we used the mating differentiation in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model and developed integrated experimental and computational approaches to analyze the proteomic dynamics during the process of cell fate determination. When exposed to a high dose of mating pheromone, the yeast cell undergoes growth arrest and forms a shmoo-like morphology; however, at intermediate doses, chemotropic elongated growth is initialized. To understand the gene regulatory networks that control this differentiation switch, we employed a high-throughput microfluidic imaging system that allows real-time and simultaneous measurements of cell growth and protein expression. Using kinetic modeling of protein dynamics, we classified the stimulus-dependent changes in protein abundance into two sources: global changes due to physiological alterations and gene-specific changes. A quantitative framework was proposed to decouple gene-specific regulatory modes from the growth-dependent global modulation of protein abundance. Based on the temporal patterns of gene-specific regulation, we established the network architectures underlying distinct cell fates using a reverse engineering method and uncovered the dose-dependent rewiring of gene regulatory network during mating differentiation. Furthermore, our results suggested a potential crosstalk between the pheromone response pathway and the target of rapamycin (TOR)-regulated ribosomal biogenesis pathway, which might underlie a cell differentiation switch in yeast mating response. In summary, our modeling approach addresses the distinct impacts of the global and gene-specific regulation on the control of protein dynamics and provides new insights into the mechanisms of cell fate determination. We anticipate that our

  6. Core transcriptional regulatory circuit controlled by the TAL1 complex in human T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanda, Takaomi; Lawton, Lee N; Barrasa, M Inmaculada; Fan, Zi Peng; Kohlhammer, Holger; Gutierrez, Alejandro; Ma, Wenxue; Tatarek, Jessica; Ahn, Yebin; Kelliher, Michelle A; Jamieson, Catriona H M; Staudt, Louis M; Young, Richard A; Look, A Thomas

    2012-08-14

    The oncogenic transcription factor TAL1/SCL is aberrantly expressed in over 40% of cases of human T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL), emphasizing its importance in the molecular pathogenesis of T-ALL. Here we identify the core transcriptional regulatory circuit controlled by TAL1 and its regulatory partners HEB, E2A, LMO1/2, GATA3, and RUNX1. We show that TAL1 forms a positive interconnected autoregulatory loop with GATA3 and RUNX1 and that the TAL1 complex directly activates the MYB oncogene, forming a positive feed-forward regulatory loop that reinforces and stabilizes the TAL1-regulated oncogenic program. One of the critical downstream targets in this circuitry is the TRIB2 gene, which is oppositely regulated by TAL1 and E2A/HEB and is essential for the survival of T-ALL cells. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Ancestral regulatory circuits governing ectoderm patterning downstream of Nodal and BMP2/4 revealed by gene regulatory network analysis in an echinoderm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Saudemont

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Echinoderms, which are phylogenetically related to vertebrates and produce large numbers of transparent embryos that can be experimentally manipulated, offer many advantages for the analysis of the gene regulatory networks (GRN regulating germ layer formation. During development of the sea urchin embryo, the ectoderm is the source of signals that pattern all three germ layers along the dorsal-ventral axis. How this signaling center controls patterning and morphogenesis of the embryo is not understood. Here, we report a large-scale analysis of the GRN deployed in response to the activity of this signaling center in the embryos of the Mediterranean sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus, in which studies with high spatial resolution are possible. By using a combination of in situ hybridization screening, overexpression of mRNA, recombinant ligand treatments, and morpholino-based loss-of-function studies, we identified a cohort of transcription factors and signaling molecules expressed in the ventral ectoderm, dorsal ectoderm, and interposed neurogenic ("ciliary band" region in response to the known key signaling molecules Nodal and BMP2/4 and defined the epistatic relationships between the most important genes. The resultant GRN showed a number of striking features. First, Nodal was found to be essential for the expression of all ventral and dorsal marker genes, and BMP2/4 for all dorsal genes. Second, goosecoid was identified as a central player in a regulatory sub-circuit controlling mouth formation, while tbx2/3 emerged as a critical factor for differentiation of the dorsal ectoderm. Finally, and unexpectedly, a neurogenic ectoderm regulatory circuit characterized by expression of "ciliary band" genes was triggered in the absence of TGF beta signaling. We propose a novel model for ectoderm regionalization, in which neural ectoderm is the default fate in the absence of TGF beta signaling, and suggest that the stomodeal and neural subcircuits that we

  8. Transcriptional regulatory programs underlying barley germination and regulatory functions of Gibberellin and abscisic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Seed germination is a complex multi-stage developmental process, and mainly accomplished through concerted activities of many gene products and biological pathways that are often subjected to strict developmental regulation. Gibberellins (GA) and abscisic acid (ABA) are two key phytohormones regulating seed germination and seedling growth. However, transcriptional regulatory networks underlying seed germination and its associated biological pathways are largely unknown. Results The studies examined transcriptomes of barley representing six distinct and well characterized germination stages and revealed that the transcriptional regulatory program underlying barley germination was composed of early, late, and post-germination phases. Each phase was accompanied with transcriptional up-regulation of distinct biological pathways. Cell wall synthesis and regulatory components including transcription factors, signaling and post-translational modification components were specifically and transiently up-regulated in early germination phase while histone families and many metabolic pathways were up-regulated in late germination phase. Photosynthesis and seed reserve mobilization pathways were up-regulated in post-germination phase. However, stress related pathways and seed storage proteins were suppressed through the entire course of germination. A set of genes were transiently up-regulated within three hours of imbibition, and might play roles in initiating biological pathways involved in seed germination. However, highly abundant transcripts in dry barley and Arabidopsis seeds were significantly conserved. Comparison with transcriptomes of barley aleurone in response to GA and ABA identified three sets of germination responsive genes that were regulated coordinately by GA, antagonistically by ABA, and coordinately by GA but antagonistically by ABA. Major CHO metabolism, cell wall degradation and protein degradation pathways were up-regulated by both GA and seed

  9. Transcriptional regulatory programs underlying barley germination and regulatory functions of Gibberellin and abscisic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Li

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Seed germination is a complex multi-stage developmental process, and mainly accomplished through concerted activities of many gene products and biological pathways that are often subjected to strict developmental regulation. Gibberellins (GA and abscisic acid (ABA are two key phytohormones regulating seed germination and seedling growth. However, transcriptional regulatory networks underlying seed germination and its associated biological pathways are largely unknown. Results The studies examined transcriptomes of barley representing six distinct and well characterized germination stages and revealed that the transcriptional regulatory program underlying barley germination was composed of early, late, and post-germination phases. Each phase was accompanied with transcriptional up-regulation of distinct biological pathways. Cell wall synthesis and regulatory components including transcription factors, signaling and post-translational modification components were specifically and transiently up-regulated in early germination phase while histone families and many metabolic pathways were up-regulated in late germination phase. Photosynthesis and seed reserve mobilization pathways were up-regulated in post-germination phase. However, stress related pathways and seed storage proteins were suppressed through the entire course of germination. A set of genes were transiently up-regulated within three hours of imbibition, and might play roles in initiating biological pathways involved in seed germination. However, highly abundant transcripts in dry barley and Arabidopsis seeds were significantly conserved. Comparison with transcriptomes of barley aleurone in response to GA and ABA identified three sets of germination responsive genes that were regulated coordinately by GA, antagonistically by ABA, and coordinately by GA but antagonistically by ABA. Major CHO metabolism, cell wall degradation and protein degradation pathways were up

  10. Ontogeny of neural circuits underlying spatial memory in the rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Alexander Ainge

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Spatial memory is a well characterised psychological function in both humans and rodents. The combined computations of a network of systems including place cells in the hippocampus, grid cells in the medial entorhinal cortex and head direction cells found in numerous structures in the brain have been suggested to form the neural instantiation of the cognitive map as first described by Tolman in 1948. However, while our understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying spatial representations in adults is relatively sophisticated, we know substantially less about how this network develops in young animals. In this article we review studies examining the developmental timescale that these systems follow. Electrophysiological recordings from very young rats show that directional information is at adult levels at the outset of navigational experience. The systems supporting allocentric memory, however, take longer to mature. This is consistent with behavioural studies of young rats which show that spatial memory based on head direction develops very early but that allocentric spatial memory takes longer to mature. We go on to report new data demonstrating that memory for associations between objects and their spatial locations is slower to develop than memory for objects alone. This is again consistent with previous reports suggesting that adult like spatial representations have a protracted development in rats and also suggests that the systems involved in processing non-spatial stimuli come online earlier.

  11. Conserved Transcriptional Regulatory Programs Underlying Rice and Barley Germination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Li; Tian, Shulan; Kaeppler, Shawn; Liu, Zongrang; An, Yong-Qiang (Charles)

    2014-01-01

    Germination is a biological process important to plant development and agricultural production. Barley and rice diverged 50 million years ago, but share a similar germination process. To gain insight into the conservation of their underlying gene regulatory programs, we compared transcriptomes of barley and rice at start, middle and end points of germination, and revealed that germination regulated barley and rice genes (BRs) diverged significantly in expression patterns and/or protein sequences. However, BRs with higher protein sequence similarity tended to have more conserved expression patterns. We identified and characterized 316 sets of conserved barley and rice genes (cBRs) with high similarity in both protein sequences and expression patterns, and provided a comprehensive depiction of the transcriptional regulatory program conserved in barley and rice germination at gene, pathway and systems levels. The cBRs encoded proteins involved in a variety of biological pathways and had a wide range of expression patterns. The cBRs encoding key regulatory components in signaling pathways often had diverse expression patterns. Early germination up-regulation of cell wall metabolic pathway and peroxidases, and late germination up-regulation of chromatin structure and remodeling pathways were conserved in both barley and rice. Protein sequence and expression pattern of a gene change quickly if it is not subjected to a functional constraint. Preserving germination-regulated expression patterns and protein sequences of those cBRs for 50 million years strongly suggests that the cBRs are functionally significant and equivalent in germination, and contribute to the ancient characteristics of germination preserved in barley and rice. The functional significance and equivalence of the cBR genes predicted here can serve as a foundation to further characterize their biological functions and facilitate bridging rice and barley germination research with greater confidence. PMID

  12. EQUATIONS OF ELECTRIC MOTOR POWER SUPPLY UNIT DISSYMMETRY UNDER PHASE SHORT-CIRCUIT FAULT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.Y. Tchaban

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, a formula is introduced for calculating electric motor supply unit voltage under feeding by a common transformer in the condition of a phase short-circuit in one of the motors. The formula is used in every time step of electromechanical state equations integration.

  13. Deciphering molecular circuits from genetic variation underlying transcriptional responsiveness to stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gat-Viks, Irit; Chevrier, Nicolas; Wilentzik, Roni; Eisenhaure, Thomas; Raychowdhury, Raktima; Steuerman, Yael; Shalek, Alex K; Hacohen, Nir; Amit, Ido; Regev, Aviv

    2013-04-01

    Individual genetic variation affects gene responsiveness to stimuli, often by influencing complex molecular circuits. Here we combine genomic and intermediate-scale transcriptional profiling with computational methods to identify variants that affect the responsiveness of genes to stimuli (responsiveness quantitative trait loci or reQTLs) and to position these variants in molecular circuit diagrams. We apply this approach to study variation in transcriptional responsiveness to pathogen components in dendritic cells from recombinant inbred mouse strains. We identify reQTLs that correlate with particular stimuli and position them in known pathways. For example, in response to a virus-like stimulus, a trans-acting variant responds as an activator of the antiviral response; using RNA interference, we identify Rgs16 as the likely causal gene. Our approach charts an experimental and analytic path to decipher the mechanisms underlying genetic variation in circuits that control responses to stimuli.

  14. Identification of functional elements and regulatory circuits by Drosophila modENCODE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Sushmita; Ernst, Jason; Kharchenko, Peter V; Kheradpour, Pouya; Negre, Nicolas; Eaton, Matthew L; Landolin, Jane M; Bristow, Christopher A; Ma, Lijia; Lin, Michael F; Washietl, Stefan; Arshinoff, Bradley I; Ay, Ferhat; Meyer, Patrick E; Robine, Nicolas; Washington, Nicole L; Di Stefano, Luisa; Berezikov, Eugene; Brown, Christopher D; Candeias, Rogerio; Carlson, Joseph W; Carr, Adrian; Jungreis, Irwin; Marbach, Daniel; Sealfon, Rachel; Tolstorukov, Michael Y; Will, Sebastian; Alekseyenko, Artyom A; Artieri, Carlo; Booth, Benjamin W; Brooks, Angela N; Dai, Qi; Davis, Carrie A; Duff, Michael O; Feng, Xin; Gorchakov, Andrey A; Gu, Tingting; Henikoff, Jorja G; Kapranov, Philipp; Li, Renhua; MacAlpine, Heather K; Malone, John; Minoda, Aki; Nordman, Jared; Okamura, Katsutomo; Perry, Marc; Powell, Sara K; Riddle, Nicole C; Sakai, Akiko; Samsonova, Anastasia; Sandler, Jeremy E; Schwartz, Yuri B; Sher, Noa; Spokony, Rebecca; Sturgill, David; van Baren, Marijke; Wan, Kenneth H; Yang, Li; Yu, Charles; Feingold, Elise; Good, Peter; Guyer, Mark; Lowdon, Rebecca; Ahmad, Kami; Andrews, Justen; Berger, Bonnie; Brenner, Steven E; Brent, Michael R; Cherbas, Lucy; Elgin, Sarah C R; Gingeras, Thomas R; Grossman, Robert; Hoskins, Roger A; Kaufman, Thomas C; Kent, William; Kuroda, Mitzi I; Orr-Weaver, Terry; Perrimon, Norbert; Pirrotta, Vincenzo; Posakony, James W; Ren, Bing; Russell, Steven; Cherbas, Peter; Graveley, Brenton R; Lewis, Suzanna; Micklem, Gos; Oliver, Brian; Park, Peter J; Celniker, Susan E; Henikoff, Steven; Karpen, Gary H; Lai, Eric C; MacAlpine, David M; Stein, Lincoln D; White, Kevin P; Kellis, Manolis

    2010-12-24

    To gain insight into how genomic information is translated into cellular and developmental programs, the Drosophila model organism Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (modENCODE) project is comprehensively mapping transcripts, histone modifications, chromosomal proteins, transcription factors, replication proteins and intermediates, and nucleosome properties across a developmental time course and in multiple cell lines. We have generated more than 700 data sets and discovered protein-coding, noncoding, RNA regulatory, replication, and chromatin elements, more than tripling the annotated portion of the Drosophila genome. Correlated activity patterns of these elements reveal a functional regulatory network, which predicts putative new functions for genes, reveals stage- and tissue-specific regulators, and enables gene-expression prediction. Our results provide a foundation for directed experimental and computational studies in Drosophila and related species and also a model for systematic data integration toward comprehensive genomic and functional annotation.

  15. The effect of recombination under short-circuit conditions on the determination of charge transport properties in nanostructured photoelectrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva-Cab, J; Anta, J A; Oskam, G

    2016-01-28

    We report on the commonly unaccounted for process of recombination under short-circuit conditions in nanostructured photoelectrodes with special attention to the charge collection efficiency. It is observed that when recombination under short circuit conditions is significant, small perturbation methods overestimate the charge-collection efficiency, which is related to the inaccurate determination of the electron diffusion coefficient and diffusion length.

  16. Cobalt deposition studies in the primary circuit under BWR conditions (Phase 1 and 2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, Peter

    1996-04-01

    This report presents the results from the first 2 phases of an experiment performed to investigate the effects of water chemistry on cobalt transport and deposition in the primary circuit under BWR conditions. Two high pressure water loops have been used to compare the incorporation of cobalt into the oxide films on coupons of various LWR primary circuit constructional materials, with several pretreatments, under Hydrogen Water Chemistry (HWC) and Normal Water Chemistry (NWC) conditions. Cobalt-60 deposition rates onto samples that had been pre-oxidised in air were lower than on samples that had been exposed previously in a water loop or had untreated surfaces. In NWC, oxide layers were thicker, normalised Co-60 deposition rates were higher and Co-60 activities per unit volume of oxide were greater. Some evidence has been produced to support the conclusions of other workers that a chromium-rich outer oxide layer is responsible for enhanced cobalt incorporation. (author)

  17. A general circuit model for spintronic devices under electric and magnetic fields

    KAUST Repository

    Alawein, Meshal

    2017-10-25

    In this work, we present a circuit model of diffusive spintronic devices capable of capturing the effects of both electric and magnetic fields. Starting from a modified version of the well-established drift-diffusion equations, we derive general equivalent circuit models of semiconducting/metallic nonmagnets and metallic ferromagnets. In contrast to other models that are based on steady-state transport equations which might also neglect certain effects such as thermal fluctuations, spin dissipation in the ferromagnets, and spin precession under magnetic fields, our model incorporates most of the important physics and is based on a time-dependent formulation. An application of our model is shown through simulations of a nonlocal spin-valve under the presence of a magnetic field, where we reproduce experimental results of electrical measurements that demonstrate the phenomena of spin precession and dephasing (“Hanle effect”).

  18. MicroRNA-7/NF-κB signaling regulatory feedback circuit regulates gastric carcinogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiao-Di; Lu, Yuan-Yuan; Guo, Hao; Xie, Hua-Hong; He, Li-Jie; Shen, Gao-Fei; Zhou, Jin-Feng; Li, Ting; Hu, Si-Jun; Zhou, Lin; Han, Ya-Nan; Liang, Shu-Li; Wang, Xin; Wu, Kai-Chun; Shi, Yong-Quan; Nie, Yong-Zhan

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs play essential roles in gene expression regulation during carcinogenesis. Here, we investigated the role of miR-7 and the mechanism by which it is dysregulated in gastric cancer (GC). We used genome-wide screenings and identified RELA and FOS as novel targets of miR-7. Overexpression of miR-7 repressed RELA and FOS expression and prevented GC cell proliferation and tumorigenesis. These effects were clinically relevant, as low miR-7 expression was correlated with high RELA and FOS expression and poor survival in GC patients. Intriguingly, we found that miR-7 indirectly regulated RELA activation by targeting the IκB kinase IKKε. Furthermore, IKKε and RELA can repress miR-7 transcription, which forms a feedback circuit between miR-7 and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signaling. Additionally, we demonstrate that down-regulation of miR-7 may occur as a result of the aberrant activation of NF-κB signaling by Helicobacter pylori infection. These findings suggest that miR-7 may serve as an important regulator in GC development and progression. PMID:26261179

  19. Identification of functional elements and regulatory circuits by Drosophila modENCODE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, Sushmita; Ernst, Jason; Kharchenko, Peter V.; Kheradpour, Pouya; Negre, Nicolas; Eaton, Matthew L.; Landolin, Jane M.; Bristow, Christopher A.; Ma, Lijia; Lin, Michael F.; Washietl, Stefan; Arshinoff, Bradley I.; Ay, Ferhat; Meyer, Patrick E.; Robine, Nicolas; Washington, Nicole L.; Stefano, Luisa Di; Berezikov, Eugene; Brown, Christopher D.; Candeias, Rogerio; Carlson, Joseph W.; Carr, Adrian; Jungreis, Irwin; Marbach, Daniel; Sealfon, Rachel; Tolstorukov, Michael Y.; Will, Sebastian; Alekseyenko, Artyom A.; Artieri, Carlo; Booth, Benjamin W.; Brooks, Angela N.; Dai, Qi; Davis, Carrie A.; Duff, Michael O.; Feng, Xin; Gorchakov, Andrey A.; Gu, Tingting; Henikoff, Jorja G.; Kapranov, Philipp; Li, Renhua; MacAlpine, Heather K.; Malone, John; Minoda, Aki; Nordman, Jared; Okamura, Katsutomo; Perry, Marc; Powell, Sara K.; Riddle, Nicole C.; Sakai, Akiko; Samsonova, Anastasia; Sandler, Jeremy E.; Schwartz, Yuri B.; Sher, Noa; Spokony, Rebecca; Sturgill, David; van Baren, Marijke; Wan, Kenneth H.; Yang, Li; Yu, Charles; Feingold, Elise; Good, Peter; Guyer, Mark; Lowdon, Rebecca; Ahmad, Kami; Andrews, Justen; Berger, Bonnie; Brenner, Steven E.; Brent, Michael R.; Cherbas, Lucy; Elgin, Sarah C. R.; Gingeras, Thomas R.; Grossman, Robert; Hoskins, Roger A.; Kaufman, Thomas C.; Kent, William; Kuroda, Mitzi I.; Orr-Weaver, Terry; Perrimon, Norbert; Pirrotta, Vincenzo; Posakony, James W.; Ren, Bing; Russell, Steven; Cherbas, Peter; Graveley, Brenton R.; Lewis, Suzanna; Micklem, Gos; Oliver, Brian; Park, Peter J.; Celniker, Susan E.; Henikoff, Steven; Karpen, Gary H.; Lai, Eric C.; MacAlpine, David M.; Stein, Lincoln D.; White, Kevin P.; Kellis, Manolis

    2010-12-22

    To gain insight into how genomic information is translated into cellular and developmental programs, the Drosophila model organism Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (modENCODE) project is comprehensively mapping transcripts, histone modifications, chromosomal proteins, transcription factors, replication proteins and intermediates, and nucleosome properties across a developmental time course and in multiple cell lines. We have generated more than 700 data sets and discovered protein-coding, noncoding, RNA regulatory, replication, and chromatin elements, more than tripling the annotated portion of the Drosophila genome. Correlated activity patterns of these elements reveal a functional regulatory network, which predicts putative new functions for genes, reveals stage- and tissue-specific regulators, and enables gene-expression prediction. Our results provide a foundation for directed experimental and computational studies in Drosophila and related species and also a model for systematic data integration toward comprehensive genomic and functional annotation. Several years after the complete genetic sequencing of many species, it is still unclear how to translate genomic information into a functional map of cellular and developmental programs. The Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) (1) and model organism ENCODE (modENCODE) (2) projects use diverse genomic assays to comprehensively annotate the Homo sapiens (human), Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly), and Caenorhabditis elegans (worm) genomes, through systematic generation and computational integration of functional genomic data sets. Previous genomic studies in flies have made seminal contributions to our understanding of basic biological mechanisms and genome functions, facilitated by genetic, experimental, computational, and manual annotation of the euchromatic and heterochromatic genome (3), small genome size, short life cycle, and a deep knowledge of development, gene function, and chromosome biology. The functions

  20. An AML1-ETO/miR-29b-1 regulatory circuit modulates phenotypic properties of acute myeloid leukemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Sayyed K; Perez, Andrew W; White, Elizabeth S; Lian, Jane B; Stein, Janet L; Stein, Gary S

    2017-06-20

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is characterized by an aggressive clinical course and frequent cytogenetic abnormalities that include specific chromosomal translocations. The 8;21 chromosomal rearrangement disrupts the key hematopoietic RUNX1 transcription factor, and contributes to leukemia through recruitment of co-repressor complexes to RUNX1 target genes, altered subnuclear localization, and deregulation of the myeloid gene regulatory program. However, a role of non-coding microRNAs (miRs) in t(8;21)-mediated leukemogenesis is minimally understood. We present evidence of an interplay between the tumor suppressor miR-29b-1 and the AML1-ETO (also designated RUNX1-RUNX1T1) oncogene that is encoded by the t(8;21). We find that AML1-ETO and corepressor NCoR co-occupy the miR-29a/b-1 locus and downregulate its expression in leukemia cells. Conversely, re-introduction of miR-29b-1 in leukemia cells expressing AML1-ETO causes significant downregulation at the protein level through direct targeting of the 3' untranslated region of the chimeric transcript. Restoration of miR-29b-1 expression in leukemia cells results in decreased cell growth and increased apoptosis. The AML1-ETO-dependent differentiation block and transcriptional program are partially reversed by miR-29b-1. Our findings establish a novel regulatory circuit between the tumor-suppressive miR-29b-1 and the oncogenic AML1-ETO that controls the leukemic phenotype in t(8;21)-carrying acute myeloid leukemia.

  1. A Yin-Yang 1/miR-30a regulatory circuit modulates autophagy in pancreatic cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chuang; Zhang, Jing-Jing; Peng, Yun-Peng; Zhu, Yi; Yin, Ling-Di; Wei, Ji-Shu; Gao, Wen-Tao; Jiang, Kui-Rong; Miao, Yi

    2017-10-19

    Autophagy is a highly regulated biological process that mediates the degradation of intracellular components. It is required for tumor cell metabolism and homeostasis. Yin-Yang 1 (YY1) has been reported to be involved in autophagy in several carcinomas. However, its role in autophagy in pancreatic cancer, one of the deadliest human malignancies, is unknown. Here, we investigated the function of YY1 in pancreatic cancer cells autophagy and its mechanisms of action. The activity of cells undergoing autophagy was assessed using transmission electron microscopy, immunofluorescence, and Western blotting. A luciferase activity assay, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) were also used to identify putative downstream targets of YY1. YY1 was confirmed to regulate autophagy in pancreatic cancer cells. It was found to directly regulate the expression of miR-30a, a known modulator of autophagy-associated genes. Furthermore, overexpression of miR-30a attenuated the pro-autophagic effects of YY1. Cumulatively, our data suggest that miR-30a acts in a feedback loop to modulate the pro-autophagic activities of YY1. Thus, autophagy in pancreatic cancer cells may be regulated, in part, by a tightly coordinated YY1/miR-30a regulatory circuit. These findings provide a potential druggable target for the development of treatments for pancreatic cancer.

  2. Comparison of stationary and oscillatory dynamics described by differential equations and Boolean maps in transcriptional regulatory circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Weiming; Li, Pengfei; Huang, Xuhui; Xia, Qinzhi; Mi, Yuanyuan; Chen, Runsheng; Hu, Gang

    2010-10-01

    Exploring the principle and relationship of gene transcriptional regulations (TR) has been becoming a generally researched issue. So far, two major mathematical methods, ordinary differential equation (ODE) method and Boolean map (BM) method have been widely used for these purposes. It is commonly believed that simplified BMs are reasonable approximations of more realistic ODEs, and both methods may reveal qualitatively the same essential features though the dynamical details of both systems may show some differences. In this Letter we exhaustively enumerated all the 3-gene networks and many autonomous randomly constructed TR networks with more genes by using both the ODE and BM methods. In comparison we found that both methods provide practically identical results in most of cases of steady solutions. However, to our great surprise, most of network structures showing periodic cycles with the BM method possess only stationary states in ODE descriptions. These observations strongly suggest that many periodic oscillations and other complicated oscillatory states revealed by the BM rule may be related to the computational errors of variable and time discretizations and rarely have correspondence in realistic biology transcriptional regulatory circuits.

  3. Technical efficiency under alternative environmental regulatory regimes : the case of Dutch horticulture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlist, van der A.J.; Withagen, C.A.A.M.; Folmer, H.

    2007-01-01

    We consider the performance of small and medium sized enterprises in Dutch horticulture under different environmental policy regimes across time. We address the question whether technical performance differs under these alternative regulatory regimes to test Porter's hypothesis that stricter

  4. Architecture of transcriptional regulatory circuits is knitted over the topology of bio-molecular interaction networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soberano de Oliveira, Ana Paula; Patil, Kiran Raosaheb; Nielsen, Jens

    2008-01-01

    is to use the topology of bio-molecular interaction networks in order to constrain the solution space. Such approaches systematically integrate the existing biological knowledge with the 'omics' data. Results: Here we introduce a hypothesis-driven method that integrates bio-molecular network topology......Background: Uncovering the operating principles underlying cellular processes by using 'omics' data is often a difficult task due to the high-dimensionality of the solution space that spans all interactions among the bio-molecules under consideration. A rational way to overcome this problem...... with transcriptome data, thereby allowing the identification of key biological features (Reporter Features) around which transcriptional changes are significantly concentrated. We have combined transcriptome data with different biological networks in order to identify Reporter Gene Ontologies, Reporter Transcription...

  5. Transcriptome profiling reveals regulatory mechanisms underlying Corolla Senescence in Petunia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic regulatory mechanisms that govern petal natural senescence in petunia is complicated and unclear. To identify key genes and pathways that regulate the process, we initiated a transcriptome analysis in petunia petals at four developmental time points, including petal opening without anthesis ...

  6. VoIP under the EU regulatory framework : preventing foreclosure?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sadowski, B.M.; Straathof, B.

    2005-01-01

    In June 2004, the European Commission (EC) issued an "Information and Consultation Document" (European Commission 2004) that discussed how the Regulatory Framework of the European Union (EU) should be adapted to accommodate Voice over IP (VoIP) and invited relevant parties to comment on the

  7. Correction: The effect of recombination under short-circuit conditions on the determination of charge transport properties in nanostructured photoelectrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva-Cab, J; Anta, J A; Oskam, G

    2016-05-28

    Correction for 'The effect of recombination under short-circuit conditions on the determination of charge transport properties in nanostructured photoelectrodes' by J. Villanueva-Cab et al., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2016, 18, 2303-2308.

  8. Bridging the Gap: Towards a Cell-Type Specific Understanding of Neural Circuits Underlying Fear Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, KM; Morrison, FG; Ressler, KJ

    2016-01-01

    Fear and anxiety-related disorders are remarkably common and debilitating, and are often characterized by dysregulated fear responses. Rodent models of fear learning and memory have taken great strides towards elucidating the specific neuronal circuitries underlying the learning of fear responses. The present review addresses recent research utilizing optogenetic approaches to parse circuitries underlying fear behaviors. It also highlights the powerful advances made when optogenetic techniques are utilized in a genetically defined, cell-type specific, manner. The application of next-generation genetic and sequencing approaches in a cell-type specific context will be essential for a mechanistic understanding of the neural circuitry underlying fear behavior and for the rational design of targeted, circuit specific, pharmacologic interventions for the treatment and prevention of fear-related disorders. PMID:27470092

  9. IMPROVING THE STABILITY OF TONAL TRACK CIRCUITS UNDER FLUCTUATIONS OF BALLAST RESISTANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. Honcharov

    2013-11-01

    improve the reliability of tonal track circuits, to provide their stable operation under fluctuations of ballast resistance due to determination of the actual insulation resistance of rail line and the adaptation of track circuits to the actual conditions of their operation.

  10. Regulatory networks in pollen development under cold stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Dev Sharma

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cold stress modifies anthers’ metabolic pathways to induce pollen sterility. Cold-tolerant plants, unlike the susceptible ones, produce high proportion of viable pollen. Anthers in susceptible plants, when exposed to cold stress, increase abscisic acid (ABA metabolism and reduce ABA catabolism. Increased ABA negatively regulates expression of tapetum cell wall bound invertase and monosaccharide transport genes resulting in distorted carbohydrate pool in anther. Cold-stress also reduces endogenous levels of the bioactive gibberellins (GAs, GA4 and GA7, in susceptible anthers by repression of the GA biosynthesis genes. Here we discuss recent findings on mechanisms of cold susceptibility in anthers which determine pollen sterility. We also discuss differences in regulatory pathways between cold-stressed anthers of susceptible and tolerant plants that decide pollen sterility or viability.

  11. Plasticity of regulatory T cells under cytokine pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaconu, Carmen C; Neagu, Ana I; Lungu, Răzvan; Tardei, Graţiela; Alexiu, Irina; Bleotu, Coralia; Economescu, Mihaela Chivu; Bumbăcea, Roxana S; Pele, Irina; Bumbăcea, Dragoş

    2010-01-01

    CD4+ T helper (Th) cells have been divided into different subsets as defined by their cytokine products and functions after their activation. CD4+ T cell subsets are continuously discovered and until now Th1, Th2, Th9, Th17, and regulatory T (Treg) cells have been almost unanimously recognized but yet not completely characterized. The selective production of cytokines by each of the subsets is probably the master key of the mechanisms of immune regulation. The cytokine milieu is extremely important on deciding the fate of T cells. Generally, more than one cytokine is needed for differentiating to a particular lineage and just recently it was shown that this status quo of commitment could be challenged. It is well known that cytokines bind to Type I/II cytokine receptors signaling via Janus kinases (JAKs) followed by activation of Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (STAT). STAT molecules work together with other transcription factors (Foxp3, RORgammat and RORalpha, T-bet, GATA3, Runx 1, NFAT, etc.) also controlled by cytokines, in modulating the Th phenotype and functions. In this review, we analyze the plasticity of Treg population focusing on the most recent discoveries on how microenvironmental cytokines refine/modify Treg phenotype and function, thus changing their fate.

  12. Social buffering of stress responses in nonhuman primates: Maternal regulation of the development of emotional regulatory brain circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Mar M; McCormack, Kai M; Howell, Brittany R

    2015-01-01

    Social buffering, the phenomenon by which the presence of a familiar individual reduces or even eliminates stress- and fear-induced responses, exists in different animal species and has been examined in the context of the mother-infant relationship, in addition to adults. Although it is a well-known effect, the biological mechanisms that underlie it as well as its developmental impact are not well understood. Here, we provide a review of evidence of social and maternal buffering of stress reactivity in nonhuman primates, and some data from our group suggesting that when the mother-infant relationship is disrupted, maternal buffering is impaired. This evidence underscores the critical role that maternal care plays for proper regulation and development of emotional and stress responses of primate infants. Disruptions of the parent-infant bond constitute early adverse experiences associated with increased risk for psychopathology. We will focus on infant maltreatment, a devastating experience not only for humans, but for nonhuman primates as well. Taking advantage of this naturalistic animal model of adverse maternal caregiving, we have shown that competent maternal care is critical for the development of healthy attachment, social behavior, and emotional and stress regulation, as well as of the neural circuits underlying these functions.

  13. Social Buffering of Stress Responses in Nonhuman Primates: Maternal Regulation of the Development of Emotional Regulatory Brain Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, Kai M.; Howell, Brittany R.

    2015-01-01

    Social buffering, the phenomenon by which the presence of a familiar individual reduces or even eliminates stress- and fear-induced responses exists in different animal species, and has been examined in the context of the mother-infant relationship in addition to adults. Although it is a well-known effect, the biological mechanisms, which underlie it, as well as its developmental impact are not well understood. Here we provide a review of evidence of social and maternal buffering of stress reactivity in nonhuman primates, and some data from our group suggesting that when the mother-infant relationship is disrupted maternal buffering is impaired. This evidence underscores the critical role that maternal care plays for proper regulation and development of emotional and stress responses of primate infants. Disruptions of the parent-infant bond constitute early adverse experiences associated with increased risk for psychopathology. We will focus on infant maltreatment, a devastating experience not only for humans, but for nonhuman primates as well. Taking advantage of this naturalistic animal model of adverse maternal caregiving we have shown that competent maternal care is critical for the development of healthy attachment, social behavior and emotional and stress regulation, as well as of neural circuits underlying these functions. PMID:26324227

  14. 10 CFR 30.12 - Persons using byproduct material under certain Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Persons using byproduct material under certain Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory Commission contracts. 30.12 Section 30.12 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY... Persons using byproduct material under certain Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory Commission...

  15. Robustness of MW-Level IGBT modules against gate oscillations under short circuit events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reigosa, Paula Diaz; Wu, Rui; Iannuzzo, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    The susceptibility of MW-level IGBT power modules to critical gate voltage oscillations during short circuit events has been evidenced experimentally. This paper proposes a sensitivity analysis method to better understand the oscillating behavior dependence on different operating conditions (i...... the oscillation phenomenon, as well as to further improve the device performance during short circuit....

  16. Aging evaluation of electrical circuits using the ECCAD [Electrical Circuit Characterization and Diagnostic] system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edson, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    As a part of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program, an aging assessment of electrical circuits was conducted at the Shippingport Atomic Power Station Decommissioning Project. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effectiveness of the Electrical Circuit Characterization and Diagnostic (ECCAD) system in identifying circuit conditions, to determine the present condition of selected electrical circuits, and correlate the results with aging effects. To accomplish this task, a series of electrical tests was performed on each circuit using the ECCAD system, which is composed of commercially available electronic test equipment under computer control. Test results indicate that the ECCAD system is effective in detecting and identifying aging and service wear in selected electrical circuits. The major area of degradation in the circuits tested was at the termination/connection points, whereas the cables were in generally good condition

  17. QUESTIONS TO REGULATORY FRAMEWORK ACCOUNTING AND FINANCIAL STATEMENTS UNDER IFRS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Shvets

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available With the system approach in article analyzes the situation and problems of legal regulation and providing accounting and financial reporting in terms of standardization and harmonization of the principles of IFRS. The evaluation of the provisions and objectives of the strategy for reform of accounting and reporting rules and the requirements of European integration processes. Analyzed and determined the degree of influence of accounting and analytical science and education for the development and implementation of new approaches to the reform process and regulation of accounting, control and audit. critical analysis of the draft amendments to the existing regulations, current views on instytutsiynist accounting under uncertainty and systemic crisis outlined organizational problems and possible solutions to methodological council of accounting.

  18. Microscale failure mechanisms leading to internal short circuit in Li-ion batteries under complex loading scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sahraei, E.; Bosco, E.; Dixon, B.; Lai, B.

    2016-01-01

    One of the least understood mechanisms of Li-ion batteries is the development of internal short circuits under mechanical loads. In this study, a micro mechanical model is developed and subjected to various loading scenarios to understand the sequence of failure in the multi-layer, multi-material

  19. EQUATIONS OF ELECTRIC MOTOR POWER SUPPLY UNIT DISSYMMETRY UNDER PHASE-TO-PHASE SHORT-CIRCUIT FAULT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.Y. Tchaban

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, a formula is introduced to calculate electric motor supply unit voltage under feeding by a common transformer in the condition of a phase-to-phase short-circuit. The formula is used in every time step of electromechanical state equations integration.

  20. Magnetic Circuit Design and Multiphysics Analysis of a Novel MR Damper for Applications under High Velocity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiajia Zheng

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A novel magnetorheological (MR damper with a multistage piston and independent input currents is designed and analyzed. The equivalent magnetic circuit model is investigated along with the relation between magnetic induction density in the working gap and input currents of the electromagnetic coils. Finite element method (FEM is used to analyze the distribution of magnetic field through the MR fluid region. Considering the real situation, coupling equations are presented to analyze the electromagnetic-thermal-flow coupling problems. Software COMSOL is used to analyze the multiphysics, that is, electromagnetic, thermal dynamic, and fluid mechanic. A measurement index involving total damping force, dynamic range, and induction time needed for magnetic coil is put forward to evaluate the performance of the novel multistage MR damper. The simulation results show that it is promising for applications under high velocity and works better when more electromagnetic coils are applied with input currents separately. Besides, in order to reduce energy consumption, it is recommended to apply more electromagnetic coils with relative low currents based on the analysis of pressure drop along the annular gap.

  1. Robust and Energy-Efficient Ultra-Low-Voltage Circuit Design under Timing Constraints in 65/45 nm CMOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Bol

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultra-low-voltage operation improves energy efficiency of logic circuits by a factor of 10×, at the expense of speed, which is acceptable for applications with low-to-medium performance requirements such as RFID, biomedical devices and wireless sensors. However, in 65/45 nm CMOS, variability and short-channel effects significantly harm robustness and timing closure of ultra-low-voltage circuits by reducing noise margins and jeopardizing gate delays. The consequent guardband on the supply voltage to meet a reasonable manufacturing yield potentially ruins energy efficiency. Moreover, high leakage currents in these technologies degrade energy efficiency in case of long stand-by periods. In this paper, we review recently published techniques to design robust and energy-efficient ultra-low-voltage circuits in 65/45 nm CMOS under relaxed yet strict timing constraints.

  2. Persistent activity in a recurrent circuit underlies courtship memory in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaoliang; Lenek, Daniela; Dag, Ugur; Dickson, Barry J

    2018-01-01

    Recurrent connections are thought to be a common feature of the neural circuits that encode memories, but how memories are laid down in such circuits is not fully understood. Here we present evidence that courtship memory in Drosophila relies on the recurrent circuit between mushroom body gamma (MBγ), M6 output, and aSP13 dopaminergic neurons. We demonstrate persistent neuronal activity of aSP13 neurons and show that it transiently potentiates synaptic transmission from MBγ>M6 neurons. M6 neurons in turn provide input to aSP13 neurons, prolonging potentiation of MBγ>M6 synapses over time periods that match short-term memory. These data support a model in which persistent aSP13 activity within a recurrent circuit lays the foundation for a short-term memory. PMID:29322941

  3. Persistent activity in a recurrent circuit underlies courtship memory in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaoliang; Lenek, Daniela; Dag, Ugur; Dickson, Barry J; Keleman, Krystyna

    2018-01-11

    Recurrent connections are thought to be a common feature of the neural circuits that encode memories, but how memories are laid down in such circuits is not fully understood. Here we present evidence that courtship memory in Drosophila relies on the recurrent circuit between mushroom body gamma (MBγ), M6 output, and aSP13 dopaminergic neurons. We demonstrate persistent neuronal activity of aSP13 neurons and show that it transiently potentiates synaptic transmission from MBγ>M6 neurons. M6 neurons in turn provide input to aSP13 neurons, prolonging potentiation of MB γ >M6 synapses over time periods that match short-term memory. These data support a model in which persistent aSP13 activity within a recurrent circuit lays the foundation for a short-term memory. © 2018, Zhao et al.

  4. Mechanisms underlying the endogenous dopaminergic inhibition of spinal locomotor circuit function in Xenopus tadpoles

    OpenAIRE

    Picton, Laurence D.; Sillar, Keith T.

    2016-01-01

    This work was supported by the Biotechnology and Biological Science Research Council (BBSRC) [grant number BB/JO1446X/1]. Dopamine plays important roles in the development and modulation of motor control circuits. Here we show that dopamine exerts potent effects on the central pattern generator circuit controlling locomotory swimming in post-embryonic Xenopus tadpoles. Dopamine (0.5-100 µM) reduced fictive swim bout occurrence and caused both spontaneous and evoked episodes to become short...

  5. 10 CFR 40.11 - Persons using source material under certain Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Persons using source material under certain Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory Commission contracts. 40.11 Section 40.11 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY... certain Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory Commission contracts. Except to the extent that...

  6. 77 FR 59567 - Retrospective Regulatory Review Under E.O. 13563

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-28

    ... #0;notices is to give interested persons an opportunity to participate in #0;the rule making prior to... Immigration Review 8 CFR Parts 1003, 1103, 1208, 1211, 1212, 1215, 1216, 1235 [EOIR No. 178] RIN 1125-AA71 Retrospective Regulatory Review Under E.O. 13563 AGENCY: Executive Office for Immigration Review, Department of...

  7. 76 FR 47527 - Retrospective Regulatory Review Under E.O. 13563

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security 15 CFR Chapter VII [Docket No. 110711380-1379-01] RIN 0694-XA37 Retrospective Regulatory Review Under E.O. 13563 AGENCY: Bureau of Industry and Security, Commerce. ACTION: Notice of inquiry. SUMMARY: The Bureau of Industry and Security (BIS...

  8. Interaction of ultrashort laser pulses and silicon solar cells under short circuit conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mundus, M., E-mail: markus.mundus@ise.fraunhofer.de; Giesecke, J. A.; Fischer, P.; Hohl-Ebinger, J.; Warta, W. [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems (ISE), Heidenhofstraße 2, 79110 Freiburg (Germany)

    2015-02-28

    Ultrashort pulse lasers are promising tools for numerous measurement purposes. Among other benefits their high peak powers allow for efficient generation of wavelengths in broad spectral ranges and at spectral powers that are orders of magnitude higher than in conventional light sources. Very recently this has been exploited for the establishment of sophisticated measurement facilities for electrical characterization of photovoltaic (PV) devices. As the high peak powers of ultrashort pulses promote nonlinear optical effects they might also give rise to nonlinear interactions with the devices under test that possibly manipulate the measurement outcome. In this paper, we present a comprehensive theoretical and experimental study of the nonlinearities affecting short circuit current (I{sub SC}) measurements of silicon (Si) solar cells. We derive a set of coupled differential equations describing the radiation-device interaction and discuss the nonlinearities incorporated in those. By a semi-analytical approach introducing a quasi-steady-state approximation and integrating a Green's function we solve the system of equations and obtain simulated I{sub SC} values. We validate the theoretical model by I{sub SC} ratios obtained from a double ring resonator setup capable for reproducible generation of various ultrashort pulse trains. Finally, we apply the model to conduct the most prominent comparison of I{sub SC} generated by ultrashort pulses versus continuous illumination. We conclude by the important finding that the nonlinearities induced by ultrashort pulses are negligible for the most common I{sub SC} measurements. However, we also find that more specialized measurements (e.g., of concentrating PV or Si-multijunction devices as well as highly localized electrical characterizations) will be biased by two-photon-absorption distorting the I{sub SC} measurement.

  9. Reduced-order modeling of piezoelectric energy harvesters with nonlinear circuits under complex conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Hong-Jun; Zhang, Zhi-Wei; Shi, Zhi-Fei; Li, Hong

    2018-04-01

    A fully coupled modeling approach is developed for piezoelectric energy harvesters in this work based on the use of available robust finite element packages and efficient reducing order modeling techniques. At first, the harvester is modeled using finite element packages. The dynamic equilibrium equations of harvesters are rebuilt by extracting system matrices from the finite element model using built-in commands without any additional tools. A Krylov subspace-based scheme is then applied to obtain a reduced-order model for improving simulation efficiency but preserving the key features of harvesters. Co-simulation of the reduced-order model with nonlinear energy harvesting circuits is achieved in a system level. Several examples in both cases of harmonic response and transient response analysis are conducted to validate the present approach. The proposed approach allows to improve the simulation efficiency by several orders of magnitude. Moreover, the parameters used in the equivalent circuit model can be conveniently obtained by the proposed eigenvector-based model order reduction technique. More importantly, this work establishes a methodology for modeling of piezoelectric energy harvesters with any complicated mechanical geometries and nonlinear circuits. The input load may be more complex also. The method can be employed by harvester designers to optimal mechanical structures or by circuit designers to develop novel energy harvesting circuits.

  10. The effects of intrinsic noise on the behaviour of bistable cell regulatory systems under quasi-steady state conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Cruz, Roberto; Guerrero, Pilar; Spill, Fabian; Alarcón, Tomás

    2015-08-21

    We analyse the effect of intrinsic fluctuations on the properties of bistable stochastic systems with time scale separation operating under quasi-steady state conditions. We first formulate a stochastic generalisation of the quasi-steady state approximation based on the semi-classical approximation of the partial differential equation for the generating function associated with the chemical master equation. Such approximation proceeds by optimising an action functional whose associated set of Euler-Lagrange (Hamilton) equations provides the most likely fluctuation path. We show that, under appropriate conditions granting time scale separation, the Hamiltonian can be re-scaled so that the set of Hamilton equations splits up into slow and fast variables, whereby the quasi-steady state approximation can be applied. We analyse two particular examples of systems whose mean-field limit has been shown to exhibit bi-stability: an enzyme-catalysed system of two mutually inhibitory proteins and a gene regulatory circuit with self-activation. Our theory establishes that the number of molecules of the conserved species is order parameters whose variation regulates bistable behaviour in the associated systems beyond the predictions of the mean-field theory. This prediction is fully confirmed by direct numerical simulations using the stochastic simulation algorithm. This result allows us to propose strategies whereby, by varying the number of molecules of the three conserved chemical species, cell properties associated to bistable behaviour (phenotype, cell-cycle status, etc.) can be controlled.

  11. The effects of intrinsic noise on the behaviour of bistable cell regulatory systems under quasi-steady state conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, Roberto; Alarcón, Tomás de la [Centre de Recerca Matemàtica. Edifici C, Campus de Bellaterra, 08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); Departament de Matemàtiques, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); Guerrero, Pilar [Department of Mathematics, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Spill, Fabian [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Boston University, 44 Cummington Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2015-08-21

    We analyse the effect of intrinsic fluctuations on the properties of bistable stochastic systems with time scale separation operating under quasi-steady state conditions. We first formulate a stochastic generalisation of the quasi-steady state approximation based on the semi-classical approximation of the partial differential equation for the generating function associated with the chemical master equation. Such approximation proceeds by optimising an action functional whose associated set of Euler-Lagrange (Hamilton) equations provides the most likely fluctuation path. We show that, under appropriate conditions granting time scale separation, the Hamiltonian can be re-scaled so that the set of Hamilton equations splits up into slow and fast variables, whereby the quasi-steady state approximation can be applied. We analyse two particular examples of systems whose mean-field limit has been shown to exhibit bi-stability: an enzyme-catalysed system of two mutually inhibitory proteins and a gene regulatory circuit with self-activation. Our theory establishes that the number of molecules of the conserved species is order parameters whose variation regulates bistable behaviour in the associated systems beyond the predictions of the mean-field theory. This prediction is fully confirmed by direct numerical simulations using the stochastic simulation algorithm. This result allows us to propose strategies whereby, by varying the number of molecules of the three conserved chemical species, cell properties associated to bistable behaviour (phenotype, cell-cycle status, etc.) can be controlled.

  12. Unstable behaviour of normally-off GaN E-HEMT under short-circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, P. J.; Maset, E.; Sanchis-Kilders, E.; Esteve, V.; Jordán, J.; Bta Ejea, J.; Ferreres, A.

    2018-04-01

    The short-circuit capability of power switching devices plays an important role in fault detection and the protection of power circuits. In this work, an experimental study on the short-circuit (SC) capability of commercial 600 V Gallium Nitride enhancement-mode high-electron-mobility transistors (E-HEMT) is presented. A different failure mechanism has been identified for commercial p-doped GaN gate (p-GaN) HEMT and metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) HEMT. In addition to the well known thermal breakdown, a premature breakdown is shown on both GaN HEMTs, triggered by hot electron trapping at the surface, which demonstrates that current commercial GaN HEMTs has requirements for improving their SC ruggedness.

  13. Method for Evaluating the Corrosion Resistance of Aluminum Metallization of Integrated Circuits under Multifactorial Influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolomiets, V. I.

    2018-03-01

    The influence of complex influence of climatic factors (temperature, humidity) and electric mode (supply voltage) on the corrosion resistance of metallization of integrated circuits has been considered. The regression dependence of the average time of trouble-free operation t on the mentioned factors has been established in the form of a modified Arrhenius equation that is adequate in a wide range of factor values and is suitable for selecting accelerated test modes. A technique for evaluating the corrosion resistance of aluminum metallization of depressurized CMOS integrated circuits has been proposed.

  14. Protein and mRNA levels support the notion that a genetic regulatory circuit controls growth phases in E. coli populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustino Martinez-Antonio

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial populations transition between growing and non-growing phases, based on nutrient availability and stresses conditions. The hallmark of a growing state is anabolism, including DNA replication and cell division. In contrast, bacteria in a growth-arrested state acquire a resistant physiology and diminished metabolism. However, there is little knowledge on how this transition occurs at the molecular level. Here, we provide new evidence that a multi-element genetic regulatory circuit might work to maintain genetic control among growth-phase transitions in Escherichia coli. This work contributes to the discovering of design principles behind the performance of biological functions, which could be of relevance on the new disciplines of biological engineering and synthetic biology.

  15. Solar cell degradation under open circuit condition in out-doors-in desert region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Boussaid

    Full Text Available The reliability of solar cells is an important parameter in the design of photovoltaic systems and particularly for cost estimation. Solar cell degradation is the result of various operating conditions; temperature is one of most important factors. Installed PV modules in desert regions are subjected to various temperature changes with significant gradient leading to accelerated degradation. In the present work, we demonstrate the influence of open-circuit condition on the degradation of PV modules. The experiment is carried out in the desert region of ADRAR (southern Algeria using two modules IJISEL of single-crystal silicon. A continuous monitoring allows analysis of both performances of modules for duration of 330 days. The module in open-circuit condition reaches higher temperature means than the module in charging condition; therefore, it undergoes a higher degradation. By simulation, we found that the life of a PV module (whose power output is close to 50% in a condition of an open-circuit in the desert region could be reduced to 4 years, and that has a significant impact on economy. Keywords: WEIBULL, Photovoltaic, Degradation, Open-circuit, Single-crystal, Silicon

  16. 10 CFR 70.11 - Persons using special nuclear material under certain Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Persons using special nuclear material under certain Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory Commission contracts. 70.11 Section 70.11 Energy NUCLEAR... using special nuclear material under certain Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory Commission...

  17. Identification of a new gene regulatory circuit involving B cell receptor activated signaling using a combined analysis of experimental, clinical and global gene expression data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, Alexandra; Meyer, Katharina; Walther, Neele; Stolz, Ailine; Feist, Maren; Hand, Elisabeth; von Bonin, Frederike; Evers, Maurits; Kohler, Christian; Shirneshan, Katayoon; Vockerodt, Martina; Klapper, Wolfram; Szczepanowski, Monika; Murray, Paul G.; Bastians, Holger; Trümper, Lorenz; Spang, Rainer; Kube, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    To discover new regulatory pathways in B lymphoma cells, we performed a combined analysis of experimental, clinical and global gene expression data. We identified a specific cluster of genes that was coherently expressed in primary lymphoma samples and suppressed by activation of the B cell receptor (BCR) through αIgM treatment of lymphoma cells in vitro. This gene cluster, which we called BCR.1, includes numerous cell cycle regulators. A reduced expression of BCR.1 genes after BCR activation was observed in different cell lines and also in CD10+ germinal center B cells. We found that BCR activation led to a delayed entry to and progression of mitosis and defects in metaphase. Cytogenetic changes were detected upon long-term αIgM treatment. Furthermore, an inverse correlation of BCR.1 genes with c-Myc co-regulated genes in distinct groups of lymphoma patients was observed. Finally, we showed that the BCR.1 index discriminates activated B cell-like and germinal centre B cell-like diffuse large B cell lymphoma supporting the functional relevance of this new regulatory circuit and the power of guided clustering for biomarker discovery. PMID:27166259

  18. The shift of energy regulatory powers under the framework of Directive 2009/72/EC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimm, N. S.

    2011-01-01

    The paper examines the powers of Member States' national regulatory authorities under the framework of Directive 2009/72/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 13 July 2009 concerning common rules for the internal market in electricity and repealing Directive 2003/54/EC (OJEU L 176/37) and analyses the implications of framework of Directive 2009/72/EC on the national laws of the Member States, in particular on the Austrian and German constitutional, administrative and energy laws. The Introductory Part gives a historical overview of the development of national energy regulators under European energy legislation. This Part shows that the national regulatory authorities attract increased attention and that their regulatory powers are on a constant rise. In order to understand the huge impact of the framework of Directive 2009/72/EC on the regulatory regimes of the Member States, this Part briefly examines the former and current powers of the national energy regulators under Austrian and German law. Part Two analyses whether the powers conferred upon national energy regulators under the framework of Directive 2009/72/EC have been enhanced in comparison to those established under the framework of Directive 2003/54/EC. The main focus lies thereby on the propositions made by the European Commission in its Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council amending Directive 2003/54/EC concerning common rules for the internal market in electricity (COM (2007) 528 final, 2.1) and laid down in Directive 2009/72/EC. Part Two comes to the conclusion that the powers of the national energy regulators under the framework of Directive 2009/72/EC have indeed been enhanced in comparison to former regime of Directive 2003/54/EC. Part Three demonstrates that the enhancement of national energy regulators' powers does not benefit the Member States. On the contrary, they lose considerable powers of control over their own national energy regulators. While

  19. Circuit-field coupled finite element analysis method for an electromagnetic acoustic transducer under pulsed voltage excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Kuan-Sheng; Huang Song-Ling; Zhao Wei; Wang Shen

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an analytical method for electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs) under voltage excitation and considers the non-uniform distribution of the biased magnetic field. A complete model of EMATs including the non-uniform biased magnetic field, a pulsed eddy current field and the acoustic field is built up. The pulsed voltage excitation is transformed to the frequency domain by fast Fourier transformation (FFT). In terms of the time harmonic field equations of the EMAT system, the impedances of the coils under different frequencies are calculated according to the circuit-field coupling method and Poynting's theorem. Then the currents under different frequencies are calculated according to Ohm's law and the pulsed current excitation is obtained by inverse fast Fourier transformation (IFFT). Lastly, the sequentially coupled finite element method (FEM) is used to calculate the Lorentz force in the EMATs under the current excitation. An actual EMAT with a two-layer two-bundle printed circuit board (PCB) coil, a rectangular permanent magnet and an aluminium specimen is analysed. The coil impedances and the pulsed current are calculated and compared with the experimental results. Their agreement verified the validity of the proposed method. Furthermore, the influences of lift-off distances and the non-uniform static magnetic field on the Lorentz force under pulsed voltage excitation are studied. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  20. Aromatic inhibitors derived from ammonia-pretreated lignocellulose hinder bacterial ethanologenesis by activating regulatory circuits controlling inhibitor efflux and detoxification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David H. Keating

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Efficient microbial conversion of lignocellulosic hydrolysates to biofuels is a key barrier to the economically viable deployment of lignocellulosic biofuels. A chief contributor to this barrier is the impact on microbial processes and energy metabolism of lignocellulose-derived inhibitors, including phenolic carboxylates, phenolic amides (for ammonia-pretreated biomass, phenolic aldehydes, and furfurals. To understand the bacterial pathways induced by inhibitors present in ammonia-pretreated biomass hydrolysates, which are less well studied than acid-pretreated biomass hydrolysates, we developed and exploited synthetic mimics of ammonia-pretreated corn stover hydrolysate (ACSH. To determine regulatory responses to the inhibitors normally present in ACSH, we measured transcript and protein levels in an Escherichia coli ethanologen using RNA-seq and quantitative proteomics during fermentation to ethanol of synthetic hydrolysates containing or lacking the inhibitors. Our study identified four major regulators mediating these responses, the MarA/SoxS/Rob network, AaeR, FrmR, and YqhC. Induction of these regulons was correlated with a reduced rate of ethanol production, buildup of pyruvate, depletion of ATP and NAD(PH, and an inhibition of xylose conversion. The aromatic aldehyde inhibitor 5-hydroxymethylfurfural appeared to be reduced to its alcohol form by the ethanologen during fermentation, whereas phenolic acid and amide inhibitors were not metabolized. Together, our findings establish that the major regulatory responses to lignocellulose-derived inhibitors are mediated by transcriptional rather than translational regulators, suggest that energy consumed for inhibitor efflux and detoxification may limit biofuel production, and identify a network of regulators for future synthetic biology efforts.

  1. Phenotypic stability and plasticity in GMP-derived cells as determined by their underlying regulatory network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Carlos; Mendoza, Luis

    2018-04-01

    Blood cell formation has been recognized as a suitable system to study celular differentiation mainly because of its experimental accessibility, and because it shows characteristics such as hierarchical and gradual bifurcated patterns of commitment, which are present in several developmental processes. Although hematopoiesis has been extensively studied and there is a wealth of molecular and cellular data about it, it is not clear how the underlying molecular regulatory networks define or restrict cellular differentiation processes. Here, we infer the molecular regulatory network that controls the differentiation of a blood cell subpopulation derived from the granulocyte-monocyte precursor (GMP), comprising monocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils and mast cells. We integrate published qualitative experimental data into a model to describe temporal expression patterns observed in GMP-derived cells. The model is implemented as a Boolean network, and its dynamical behavior is studied. Steady states of the network can be clearly identified with the expression profiles of monocytes, mast cells, neutrophils, basophils, and eosinophils, under wild-type and mutant backgrounds. All scripts are publicly available at https://github.com/caramirezal/RegulatoryNetworkGMPModel. lmendoza@biomedicas.unam.mx. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  2. Double-layer rotor magnetic shield performance analysis in high temperature superconducting synchronous generators under short circuit fault conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hekmati, Arsalan; Aliahmadi, Mehdi

    2016-12-01

    High temperature superconducting, HTS, synchronous machines benefit from a rotor magnetic shield in order to protect superconducting coils against asynchronous magnetic fields. This magnetic shield, however, suffers from exerted Lorentz forces generated in light of induced eddy currents during transient conditions, e.g. stator windings short-circuit fault. In addition, to the exerted electromagnetic forces, eddy current losses and the associated effects on the cryogenic system are the other consequences of shielding HTS coils. This study aims at investigating the Rotor Magnetic Shield, RMS, performance in HTS synchronous generators under stator winding short-circuit fault conditions. The induced eddy currents in different circumferential positions of the rotor magnetic shield along with associated Joule heating losses would be studied using 2-D time-stepping Finite Element Analysis, FEA. The investigation of Lorentz forces exerted on the magnetic shield during transient conditions has also been performed in this paper. The obtained results show that double line-to-ground fault is of the most importance among different types of short-circuit faults. It was revealed that when it comes to the design of the rotor magnetic shields, in addition to the eddy current distribution and the associated ohmic losses, two phase-to-ground fault should be taken into account since the produced electromagnetic forces in the time of fault conditions are more severe during double line-to-ground fault.

  3. Technical efficiency under alternative environmental regulatory regimes: The case of Dutch horticulture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Vlist, Arno J.; Withagen, Cees; Folmer, Henk

    2007-01-01

    We consider the performance of small and medium sized enterprises in Dutch horticulture under different environmental policy regimes across time. We address the question whether technical performance differs under these alternative regulatory regimes to test Porter's hypothesis that stricter environmental regulation reduces technical inefficiency. For this purpose, we use a stochastic production frontier framework allowing for inclusion of policy variables to measure the effect of alternative environmental policy regimes on firms' performance. The main result is that stricter environmental policy regimes have indeed reduced technical inefficiencies in Dutch horticulture. The estimation results indicate amongst others that the 1997 agreement on energy, nutrient and pesticides use enhances technical efficiency. Firms under the strict environmental policy regime are found to be more technically efficient than those under a lax regime, thereby supporting the claims by Porter and Van der Linde (Porter, M., Van der Linde, C., 1995. Green and Competitive: Ending the stalemate. Harvard Business Review 73, pp. 120-137) concerning Dutch horticulture. (author)

  4. Solid-state circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Pridham, G J

    2013-01-01

    Solid-State Circuits provides an introduction to the theory and practice underlying solid-state circuits, laying particular emphasis on field effect transistors and integrated circuits. Topics range from construction and characteristics of semiconductor devices to rectification and power supplies, low-frequency amplifiers, sine- and square-wave oscillators, and high-frequency effects and circuits. Black-box equivalent circuits of bipolar transistors, physical equivalent circuits of bipolar transistors, and equivalent circuits of field effect transistors are also covered. This volume is divided

  5. 4th Circuit: asymptomatic HIV is not a disability under ADA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-09-05

    The 4th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals ruled that [name removed], who is HIV-positive, cannot continue with his lawsuit alleging that NationsBank of Maryland fired him because of his HIV status. The court decided that [name removed] did not make a case of discrimination against his employer because his work performance was substandard. Additionally, the court ruled that HIV infection in and of itself does not constitute a disability and therefore [name removed] is not protected by the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). The court ruled that [name removed] failed to prove that his asymptomatic HIV infection was an impairment or that it substantially limits a major life activity. When the ADA was enacted in 1990 it was presumed that anyone with HIV would be protected from discrimination and reports filed by both the House of Representatives and the Senate indicated that legislators felt that HIV infection constituted an impairment. This ruling made by the 4th Circuit seems to discount the legislation's intent. The court rejected [name removed]'s suggestion that the ability to procreate and engage in intimate sexual relations was a limitation of a major life activity. Dissenters argued that the opinion is not based on sound medical facts because HIV, even if it is asymptomatic, is an impairment. The dissent also contends that Mr. [Name removed] was not given fair and ample opportunity to prove that his HIV infection is disabling. The court was in sharp disagreement relative to [name removed]'s job performance. The court majority said that [name removed] failed to meet sales goals and engaged in unprofessional behavior. The dissent countered that [name removed]'s sales record exceeded that of another employee who was not terminated.

  6. Progranulin facilitates conversion and function of regulatory T cells under inflammatory conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanhua Wei

    Full Text Available The progranulin (PGRN is known to protect regulatory T cells (Tregs from a negative regulation by TNF-α, and its levels are elevated in various kinds of autoimmune diseases. Whether PGRN directly regulates the conversion of CD4+CD25-T cells into Foxp3-expressing regulatory T cells (iTreg, and whether PGRN affects the immunosuppressive function of Tregs, however, remain unknown. In this study we provide evidences demonstrating that PGRN is able to stimulate the conversion of CD4+CD25-T cells into iTreg in a dose-dependent manner in vitro. In addition, PGRN showed synergistic effects with TGF-β1 on the induction of iTreg. PGRN was required for the immunosuppressive function of Tregs, since PGRN-deficient Tregs have a significant decreased ability to suppress the proliferation of effector T cells (Teff. In addition, PGRN deficiency caused a marked reduction in Tregs number in the course of inflammatory arthritis, although no significant difference was observed in the numbers of Tregs between wild type and PGRN deficient mice during development. Furthermore, PGRN deficiency led to significant upregulation of the Wnt receptor gene Fzd2. Collectively, this study reveals that PGRN directly regulates the numbers and function of Tregs under inflammatory conditions, and provides new insight into the immune regulatory mechanism of PGRN in the pathogenesis of inflammatory and immune-related diseases.

  7. Computational modeling identifies key gene regulatory interactions underlying phenobarbital-mediated tumor promotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luisier, Raphaëlle; Unterberger, Elif B.; Goodman, Jay I.; Schwarz, Michael; Moggs, Jonathan; Terranova, Rémi; van Nimwegen, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Gene regulatory interactions underlying the early stages of non-genotoxic carcinogenesis are poorly understood. Here, we have identified key candidate regulators of phenobarbital (PB)-mediated mouse liver tumorigenesis, a well-characterized model of non-genotoxic carcinogenesis, by applying a new computational modeling approach to a comprehensive collection of in vivo gene expression studies. We have combined our previously developed motif activity response analysis (MARA), which models gene expression patterns in terms of computationally predicted transcription factor binding sites with singular value decomposition (SVD) of the inferred motif activities, to disentangle the roles that different transcriptional regulators play in specific biological pathways of tumor promotion. Furthermore, transgenic mouse models enabled us to identify which of these regulatory activities was downstream of constitutive androstane receptor and β-catenin signaling, both crucial components of PB-mediated liver tumorigenesis. We propose novel roles for E2F and ZFP161 in PB-mediated hepatocyte proliferation and suggest that PB-mediated suppression of ESR1 activity contributes to the development of a tumor-prone environment. Our study shows that combining MARA with SVD allows for automated identification of independent transcription regulatory programs within a complex in vivo tissue environment and provides novel mechanistic insights into PB-mediated hepatocarcinogenesis. PMID:24464994

  8. A pancreatic exocrine-like cell regulatory circuit operating in the upper stomach of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus larva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perillo, Margherita; Wang, Yue Julia; Leach, Steven D; Arnone, Maria Ina

    2016-05-26

    Digestive cells are present in all metazoans and provide the energy necessary for the whole organism. Pancreatic exocrine cells are a unique vertebrate cell type involved in extracellular digestion of a wide range of nutrients. Although the organization and regulation of this cell type is intensively studied in vertebrates, its evolutionary history is still unknown. In order to understand which are the elements that define the pancreatic exocrine phenotype, we have analyzed the expression of genes that contribute to specification and function of this cell-type in an early branching deuterostome, the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. We defined the spatial and temporal expression of sea urchin orthologs of pancreatic exocrine genes and described a unique population of cells clustered in the upper stomach of the sea urchin embryo where exocrine markers are co-expressed. We used a combination of perturbation analysis, drug and feeding experiments and found that in these cells of the sea urchin embryo gene expression and gene regulatory interactions resemble that of bona fide pancreatic exocrine cells. We show that the sea urchin Ptf1a, a key transcriptional activator of digestive enzymes in pancreatic exocrine cells, can substitute for its vertebrate ortholog in activating downstream genes. Collectively, our study is the first to show with molecular tools that defining features of a vertebrate cell-type, the pancreatic exocrine cell, are shared by a non-vertebrate deuterostome. Our results indicate that the functional cell-type unit of the vertebrate pancreas may evolutionarily predate the emergence of the pancreas as a discrete organ. From an evolutionary perspective, these results encourage to further explore the homologs of other vertebrate cell-types in traditional or newly emerging deuterostome systems.

  9. Role of the DmpR-mediated regulatory circuit in bacterial biodegradation properties in methylphenol-amended soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarand, I; Skärfstad, E; Forsman, M; Romantschuk, M; Shingler, V

    2001-01-01

    Pathway substrates and some structural analogues directly activate the regulatory protein DmpR to promote transcription of the dmp operon genes encoding the (methyl)phenol degradative pathway of Pseudomonas sp. strain CF600. While a wide range of phenols can activate DmpR, the location and nature of substituents on the basic phenolic ring can limit the level of activation and thus utilization of some compounds as assessed by growth on plates. Here we address the role of the aromatic effector response of DmpR in determining degradative properties in two soil matrices that provide different nutritional conditions. Using the wild-type system and an isogenic counterpart containing a DmpR mutant with enhanced ability to respond to para-substituted phenols, we demonstrate (i) that the enhanced in vitro biodegradative capacity of the regulator mutant strain is manifested in the two different soil types and (ii) that exposure of the wild-type strain to 4-methylphenol-contaminated soil led to rapid selection of a subpopulation exhibiting enhanced capacities to degrade the compound. Genetic and functional analyses of 10 of these derivatives demonstrated that all harbored a single mutation in the sensory domain of DmpR that mediated the phenotype in each case. These findings establish a dominating role for the aromatic effector response of DmpR in determining degradation properties. Moreover, the results indicate that the ability to rapidly adapt regulator properties to different profiles of polluting compounds may underlie the evolutionary success of DmpR-like regulators in controlling aromatic catabolic pathways.

  10. Deciphering Cis-Regulatory Element Mediated Combinatorial Regulation in Rice under Blast Infected Condition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arindam Deb

    Full Text Available Combinations of cis-regulatory elements (CREs present at the promoters facilitate the binding of several transcription factors (TFs, thereby altering the consequent gene expressions. Due to the eminent complexity of the regulatory mechanism, the combinatorics of CRE-mediated transcriptional regulation has been elusive. In this work, we have developed a new methodology that quantifies the co-occurrence tendencies of CREs present in a set of promoter sequences; these co-occurrence scores are filtered in three consecutive steps to test their statistical significance; and the significantly co-occurring CRE pairs are presented as networks. These networks of co-occurring CREs are further transformed to derive higher order of regulatory combinatorics. We have further applied this methodology on the differentially up-regulated gene-sets of rice tissues under fungal (Magnaporthe infected conditions to demonstrate how it helps to understand the CRE-mediated combinatorial gene regulation. Our analysis includes a wide spectrum of biologically important results. The CRE pairs having a strong tendency to co-occur often exhibit very similar joint distribution patterns at the promoters of rice. We couple the network approach with experimental results of plant gene regulation and defense mechanisms and find evidences of auto and cross regulation among TF families, cross-talk among multiple hormone signaling pathways, similarities and dissimilarities in regulatory combinatorics between different tissues, etc. Our analyses have pointed a highly distributed nature of the combinatorial gene regulation facilitating an efficient alteration in response to fungal attack. All together, our proposed methodology could be an important approach in understanding the combinatorial gene regulation. It can be further applied to unravel the tissue and/or condition specific combinatorial gene regulation in other eukaryotic systems with the availability of annotated genomic

  11. The mechanisms underlying corrosion product formation and deposition in nuclear power plant circuits through the action of galvanic and thermal electromotive forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brusakov, V.P.; Sedov, V.M.; Khitrov, Yu.A.; Brusov, K.N.; Razmashkin, N.V.; Versin, V.V.; Rybalchenko, I.L.

    1983-01-01

    From a theoretical standpoint, the processes of formation of corrosion products in nuclear power plant circuits, deposition of corrosion products on the circuit surfaces, formation of an equilibrium concentration of corrosion products in the coolant, and distribution of radionuclides resulting from corrosion in different parts of the circuit are considered. It is shown that the main driving forces for the mass-transfer processes in the circuits are the thermal and galvanic electromotive forces (EMF) of the microcouples. On the basis of the theoretical concepts developed the authors have obtained analytical dependences for calculating the individual stages of the process of corrosion product transfer in the circuits. The mechanisms underlying the processes which occur as a result of thermal and galvanic EMFs are considered, together with the factors influencing these processes. The results of verification of the dependences by computational methods are given and they are compared with operational data from nuclear and conventional thermal power plants and with experimental data. (author)

  12. Cladodes, leaf-like organs in Asparagus, show the significance of co-option of pre-existing genetic regulatory circuit for morphological diversity of plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Hokuto; Yamaguchi, Takahiro; Tsukaya, Hirokazu

    2012-08-01

    Plants in the genus Asparagus have determinate leaf-like organs called cladodes in the position of leaf axils. Because of their leaf-like morphology, axillary position, and morphological variation, it has been unclear how this unusual organ has evolved and diversified. In the previous study, we have shown that cladodes in the genus Asparagus are modified axillary shoots and proposed a model that cladodes have arisen by co-option and deployment of genetic regulatory circuit (GRC) involved in leaf development. Moreover, we proposed that the alteration of the expression pattern of genes involved in establishment of adaxial/abaxial polarity has led to the morphological diversification from leaf-like to rod-like form of cladodes in the genus. Thus, these results indicated that the co-option and alteration of pre-existing GRC play an important role in acquisition and subsequent morphological diversification. Here, we present data of further expression analysis of A. asparagoides. The results suggested that only a part of the GRC involved in leaf development appears to have been co-opted into cladode development. Based on our study and several examples of the morphological diversification, we briefly discuss the importance of co-option of pre-existing GRC and its genetic modularity in the morphological diversity of plants during evolution.

  13. Automatic design of digital synthetic gene circuits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario A Marchisio

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available De novo computational design of synthetic gene circuits that achieve well-defined target functions is a hard task. Existing, brute-force approaches run optimization algorithms on the structure and on the kinetic parameter values of the network. However, more direct rational methods for automatic circuit design are lacking. Focusing on digital synthetic gene circuits, we developed a methodology and a corresponding tool for in silico automatic design. For a given truth table that specifies a circuit's input-output relations, our algorithm generates and ranks several possible circuit schemes without the need for any optimization. Logic behavior is reproduced by the action of regulatory factors and chemicals on the promoters and on the ribosome binding sites of biological Boolean gates. Simulations of circuits with up to four inputs show a faithful and unequivocal truth table representation, even under parametric perturbations and stochastic noise. A comparison with already implemented circuits, in addition, reveals the potential for simpler designs with the same function. Therefore, we expect the method to help both in devising new circuits and in simplifying existing solutions.

  14. Fault-Tolerant Control of ANPC Three-Level Inverter Based on Order-Reduction Optimal Control Strategy under Multi-Device Open-Circuit Fault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shi-Zhou; Wang, Chun-Jie; Lin, Fang-Li; Li, Shi-Xiang

    2017-10-31

    The multi-device open-circuit fault is a common fault of ANPC (Active Neutral-Point Clamped) three-level inverter and effect the operation stability of the whole system. To improve the operation stability, this paper summarized the main solutions currently firstly and analyzed all the possible states of multi-device open-circuit fault. Secondly, an order-reduction optimal control strategy was proposed under multi-device open-circuit fault to realize fault-tolerant control based on the topology and control requirement of ANPC three-level inverter and operation stability. This control strategy can solve the faults with different operation states, and can works in order-reduction state under specific open-circuit faults with specific combined devices, which sacrifices the control quality to obtain the stability priority control. Finally, the simulation and experiment proved the effectiveness of the proposed strategy.

  15. Genome-wide identification of regulatory elements and reconstruction of gene regulatory networks of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii under carbon deprivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Vischi Winck

    Full Text Available The unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a long-established model organism for studies on photosynthesis and carbon metabolism-related physiology. Under conditions of air-level carbon dioxide concentration [CO2], a carbon concentrating mechanism (CCM is induced to facilitate cellular carbon uptake. CCM increases the availability of carbon dioxide at the site of cellular carbon fixation. To improve our understanding of the transcriptional control of the CCM, we employed FAIRE-seq (formaldehyde-assisted Isolation of Regulatory Elements, followed by deep sequencing to determine nucleosome-depleted chromatin regions of algal cells subjected to carbon deprivation. Our FAIRE data recapitulated the positions of known regulatory elements in the promoter of the periplasmic carbonic anhydrase (Cah1 gene, which is upregulated during CCM induction, and revealed new candidate regulatory elements at a genome-wide scale. In addition, time series expression patterns of 130 transcription factor (TF and transcription regulator (TR genes were obtained for cells cultured under photoautotrophic condition and subjected to a shift from high to low [CO2]. Groups of co-expressed genes were identified and a putative directed gene-regulatory network underlying the CCM was reconstructed from the gene expression data using the recently developed IOTA (inner composition alignment method. Among the candidate regulatory genes, two members of the MYB-related TF family, Lcr1 (Low-CO 2 response regulator 1 and Lcr2 (Low-CO2 response regulator 2, may play an important role in down-regulating the expression of a particular set of TF and TR genes in response to low [CO2]. The results obtained provide new insights into the transcriptional control of the CCM and revealed more than 60 new candidate regulatory genes. Deep sequencing of nucleosome-depleted genomic regions indicated the presence of new, previously unknown regulatory elements in the C. reinhardtii genome

  16. A review of human biomonitoring data used in regulatory risk assessment under Canada's Chemicals Management Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zidek, Angelika; Macey, Kristin; MacKinnon, Leona; Patel, Mikin; Poddalgoda, Devika; Zhang, Yi

    2017-03-01

    As a part of the Chemicals Management Plan launched in 2006, the Government of Canada is assessing and managing, where appropriate, the potential health and ecological risks associated with approximately 4300 substances under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act (1999). Since that time, nearly 3000 substances have been assessed, with human biomonitoring (HBM) data playing an increasingly important role for some substances. Case studies are presented, including both inorganic and organic substances (i.e., selenium, triclosan, phthalates), which highlight the impact and overall role HBM has had in regulatory decision making in Canada for these three substances as well as criteria used in the application of HBM data in human health risk assessment. An overview of its limitations in terms of how and when HBM data can be applied, when assessing human health in a regulatory setting, is discussed as well as the role HBM data can play in priority setting. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Electrochemical migration, whisker formation, and corrosion behavior of printed circuit board under wet H2S environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou, Shiwen; Li, Xiaogang; Dong, Chaofang; Ding, Kangkang; Xiao, Kui

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •The electrochemical migration, whisker formation, and corrosion behavior of PCB under wet H 2 S environment were observed and studied systematically. •The process of electrochemical migration of solder joints is explained. •The corrosion mechanism of PCB interconnectors induced by micro pores under wet H 2 S environment is discussed, and the corrosion reaction model is proposed. -- Abstract: Electrochemical migration, whisker formation, and corrosion behavior of printed circuit board (PCB) under wet H 2 S environment were analyzed by environment scanning electron microscope (ESEM), Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) with mapping and element phase cluster (EPC) techniques, Raman Spectrum analysis and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) technology. The results showed that nonuniform corrosion behavior occurred on PCB surfaces under 1 ppm wet H 2 S at 40 °C; whiskers formed on the inner sidewall of via-holes with a growth rate of 1.2 Å/s; numerous corrosion products migrated through the pore of plated gold layer, which broke off the protective layer. The corrosion rate was accelerated according to the big-cathode-small-anode model

  18. 76 FR 13549 - Reducing Regulatory Burden; Retrospective Review Under E.O. 13563

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ...'s regulatory program more effective and less burdensome in achieving its regulatory objectives by... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 15 CFR Chapter IX 50 CFR.... 13563 AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Request for...

  19. Consigned regulatory control and effect of the owner's welding quality under the EPC mode in Fangjiashan nuclear power project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qun; Gu Tao; Wei Lianfeng; Li Hongjun

    2012-01-01

    Under EPC management mode, how to optimize resources allocation and realize effective management and control over key control points is a big difficulty facing the owner. From the owner's point of view, and through summary of practices, the paper introduces and analyses the mode and effect of consigned regulatory control over the weld quality of Fangjiashan nuclear power project. And some recognitions and point of views on popularization of specialized and consigned regulatory control are put forward. (authors)

  20. 75 FR 38958 - Declaration of Prion as a Pest under FIFRA and Amendment of EPA's Regulatory Definition of Pests...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-07

    ... Prion as a Pest under FIFRA and Amendment of EPA's Regulatory Definition of Pests to Include Prion....e., proteinaceous infectious particle) a ``pest'' under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and... is adding prion to the list of pests in EPA's regulations. This amendment, together with the formal...

  1. Oxide layers of Zr-1% Nb under PWR primary circuit conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagy, Gabor; Kerner, Zsolt; Battistig, Gabor; Pinter-Csordas, Anna; Balogh, Janos; Pajkossy, Tamas

    2001-01-01

    Oxide layers were grown on Zr-1% Nb under conditions simulating those in VVER-type pressurised water reactors (PWRs), viz. in borate solutions in an autoclave at 290 deg. C. The layers were characterised by various methods: their respective thickness values were determined by weight gain measurements, Rutherford backscattering (RBS), nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM); the electrical properties were tested by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results show that the oxide layer on Zr-1% Nb is homogeneous and somewhat thicker than that on Zircaloy-4

  2. Development of Regulatory Documents for Creation (Upgrade) of Physical Protection Systems under the Russian/American MPC and A Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izmaylov, Alexandr V.; Babkin, Vladimir; Kurov, Valeriy; Piskarev, Alexander; O'Brien, Patricia E.; Wright, Troy L.; Schlegel, Stephen C.; Hazel, Michael J.; Miller, Daniel R.; Tuttle, John D.; Kovchegin, Dmitry

    2009-01-01

    The development of new or the upgrade of existing physical protection systems (PPS) for nuclear facilities involves a multi-step and multidimensional process. The process consists of conceptual design, design, and commissioning stages. The activities associated with each of these stages are governed by Russian government and agency regulations. To ensure a uniform approach to development or upgrading of PPS at Russian nuclear facilities, the development of a range of regulatory and methodological documents is necessary. Some issues of PPS development are covered by the regulatory documents developed by Rosatom, as well as other Russian agencies with nuclear facilities under their control. This regulatory development has been accomplished as part of the U.S.-Russian MPC and A cooperation or independently by the Russian Federation. While regulatory coverage is extensive, there are a number of issues such as vulnerability analysis, effectiveness assessment, upgrading PPS, and protection of information systems for PPS that require additional regulations be developed. This paper reports on the status of regulatory coverage for PPS development or upgrade, and outlines a new approach to regulatory document development. It describes the evolutionary process of regulatory development through experience gained in the design, development and implementation of PPS as well as experience gained through the cooperative efforts of Russian and U.S. experts involved the development of MPC and A regulations.

  3. In situ electrochemical impedance spectroscopy of Zr-1%Nb under VVER primary circuit conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagy, Gabor; Kerner, Zsolt; Pajkossy, Tamas

    2002-01-01

    Oxide layers were grown on tubular samples of Zr-1%Nb under conditions simulating those in VVER-type pressurised water reactors, viz. in near-neutral borate solutions in an autoclave at 290 deg. C. These samples were investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy which was found to be suitable to follow in situ the corrosion process. A -CPE ox parallel R ox - element was used to characterise the oxide layer on Zr-1%Nb. Both the CPE ox coefficient, σ ox , and the parallel resistance, R ox , were found to be thickness dependent. The layer thickness, however, can only be calculated after a calibration procedure. The temperature dependence of the CPE ox element was also found to be anomalous while the temperature dependence of R ox indicates that the oxide layer has semiconductor properties. The relaxation time - defined as (R ox σ ox ) 1/α - was found to be quasi-independent of oxidation time and temperature; thus it is characteristic to the oxide layer on Zr-1%Nb

  4. Modeling and interpretation of electrical impedance spectra of dye solar cells operated under open-circuit conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kern, R.; Sastrawan, R.; Ferber, J.; Stangl, R.; Luther, J.

    2002-01-01

    Electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was applied in order to investigate electrochemical nanocrystalline TiO 2 dye solar cells (DSC). Typically, three characteristic frequency peaks were observed in the spectra. These frequency peaks could be explained by variations of cell parameters and by comparison with intensity-modulated photovoltage spectroscopy (IMVS). It was shown that the low-frequency peak (in the mHz range) corresponds to the Nernstian diffusion within the electrolyte, while the middle-frequency peak (in the 10-100 Hz range) reflects the properties of the photoinjected electrons within the TiO 2 . The high-frequency peak (in the kHz range) corresponds to the charge-transfer at the platinum counter electrode. For a detailed analysis of the spectra, a model was developed which allows the evaluation of EIS spectra, measured under bias illumination and under open-circuit conditions. The influence of cell parameters such as the TiO 2 layer thickness, cell thickness, charge-transfer resistance of the platinum counter electrode, and the lifetime of the photoinjected electrons, on the impedance spectra was studied both experimentally and theoretically. Finally, it is shown that EIS is a measurement method suited well for the investigation of the long-term stability of DSC, as changes of the inner cell parameters can be revealed

  5. Take it of leave it : Mechanisms underlying bacterial bistable regulatory networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siebring, Jeroen; Sorg, Robin; Herber, Martijn; Kuipers, Oscar; Filloux, Alain A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Bistable switches occur in regulatory networks that can exist in two distinct stable states. Such networks allow distinct switching of individual cells. In bacteria these switches coexist with regulatory networks that respond gradually to environmental input. Bistable switches play key roles in high

  6. Oscillator circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Graf, Rudolf F

    1996-01-01

    This series of circuits provides designers with a quick source for oscillator circuits. Why waste time paging through huge encyclopedias when you can choose the topic you need and select any of the specialized circuits sorted by application?This book in the series has 250-300 practical, ready-to-use circuit designs, with schematics and brief explanations of circuit operation. The original source for each circuit is listed in an appendix, making it easy to obtain additional information.Ready-to-use circuits.Grouped by application for easy look-up.Circuit source listing

  7. Measuring circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Graf, Rudolf F

    1996-01-01

    This series of circuits provides designers with a quick source for measuring circuits. Why waste time paging through huge encyclopedias when you can choose the topic you need and select any of the specialized circuits sorted by application?This book in the series has 250-300 practical, ready-to-use circuit designs, with schematics and brief explanations of circuit operation. The original source for each circuit is listed in an appendix, making it easy to obtain additional information.Ready-to-use circuits.Grouped by application for easy look-up.Circuit source listings

  8. The murine local lymph node assay: Regulatory and potency considerations under REACH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGarry, Helen F.

    2007-01-01

    From June 2007, new chemicals legislation on the registration, evaluation, authorisation and restriction of chemicals (REACH) will come into force across the European Union. This will require the submission of data on human health effects of chemicals, including chemical safety assessments which will require measurements of potency. For skin sensitization hazard identification, REACH states that the first-choice in vivo assay is the local lymph node assay (LLNA). This test has also been the UK competent authority's preferred test for skin sensitization since 2002, and has now replaced guinea pig tests in dossiers submitted to it under the Notification of New Substances Regulations. Advantages of the LLNA over guinea pig tests include improvements in animal welfare, a more scientific approach to hazard identification, and the inclusion of a dose-response element in the endpoint, which enables an estimation of potency. However, notifiers to the UK competent authority have sometimes been reluctant to use the assay because of concerns over false-positive reactions. Across Europe, these concerns have been heightened in the lead-up to the introduction of REACH, since the use of in vivo alternatives to the LLNA will require scientific justification. This review will address some of these concerns from a regulatory perspective

  9. The murine local lymph node assay: regulatory and potency considerations under REACH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarry, Helen F

    2007-09-05

    From June 2007, new chemicals legislation on the registration, evaluation, authorization and restriction of chemicals (REACH) will come into force across the European Union. This will require the submission of data on human health effects of chemicals, including chemical safety assessments which will require measurements of potency. For skin sensitization hazard identification, REACH states that the first-choice in vivo assay is the local lymph node assay (LLNA). This test has also been the UK competent authority's preferred test for skin sensitization since 2002, and has now replaced guinea pig tests in dossiers submitted to it under the Notification of New Substances Regulations. Advantages of the LLNA over guinea pig tests include improvements in animal welfare, a more scientific approach to hazard identification, and the inclusion of a dose-response element in the endpoint, which enables an estimation of potency. However, notifiers to the UK competent authority have sometimes been reluctant to use the assay because of concerns over false-positive reactions. Across Europe, these concerns have been heightened in the lead-up to the introduction of REACH, since the use of in vivo alternatives to the LLNA will require scientific justification. This review will address some of these concerns from a regulatory perspective.

  10. Core regulatory network motif underlies the ocellar complex patterning in Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Hidalgo, D.; Lemos, M. C.; Córdoba, A.

    2015-03-01

    During organogenesis, developmental programs governed by Gene Regulatory Networks (GRN) define the functionality, size and shape of the different constituents of living organisms. Robustness, thus, is an essential characteristic that GRNs need to fulfill in order to maintain viability and reproducibility in a species. In the present work we analyze the robustness of the patterning for the ocellar complex formation in Drosophila melanogaster fly. We have systematically pruned the GRN that drives the development of this visual system to obtain the minimum pathway able to satisfy this pattern. We found that the mechanism underlying the patterning obeys to the dynamics of a 3-nodes network motif with a double negative feedback loop fed by a morphogenetic gradient that triggers the inhibition in a French flag problem fashion. A Boolean modeling of the GRN confirms robustness in the patterning mechanism showing the same result for different network complexity levels. Interestingly, the network provides a steady state solution in the interocellar part of the patterning and an oscillatory regime in the ocelli. This theoretical result predicts that the ocellar pattern may underlie oscillatory dynamics in its genetic regulation.

  11. Techno-economic viability assessments of greener propulsion technology under potential environmental regulatory policy scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nalianda, D.K.; Kyprianidis, K.G.; Sethi, V.; Singh, R.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • An advanced method is presented for techno-economic assessment under potential environmental regulatory policy scenarios. • The viability of the contra-rotating open rotor concept is investigated under various environmental policies. • CO_2 taxation is needed to drive the aerospace industry towards greener solutions. - Abstract: Sustainability of the aviation industry, as any other industry, depends on the elasticity of demand for the product and profitability through minimising operating costs. Of paramount importance is assessing and understanding the interdependency and effects of environmentally optimised solutions and emission mitigation policies. This paper describes the development and application of assessment methodologies to better understand the effects of environmental taxation/energy policies aimed at environmental pollution reduction and the future potential economic impact they may have on the adaptation of “greener” novel technologies. These studies are undertaken using a Techno-economic Environmental Risk Assessment approach. The methodology demonstrated allows the assessment of the economic viability of new technologies compared to conventional technologies, for various CO_2 emission taxation and fuel price scenarios. It considers relative increases in acquisition price and maintenance costs. A study undertaken as a ‘proof of concept’ compares a Counter Rotating Open Rotor aircraft with a conventional aircraft for short range operations. It indicates that at current fuel price and with no carbon taxation, a highly fuel efficient technology, such as the one considered, could be rendered economically unviable. The work goes on to demonstrate that in comparison to the conventional aircraft, any economic benefits that may be accrued from improvement in fuel consumption through such a technology, may well be negated through increases in acquisition price and maintenance costs. The work further demonstrates that if policy

  12. Compact electro-thermal modeling of a SiC MOSFET power module under short-circuit conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ceccarelli, Lorenzo; Reigosa, Paula Diaz; Bahman, Amir Sajjad

    2017-01-01

    A novel physics-based, electro-thermal model which is capable of estimating accurately the short-circuit behavior and thermal instabilities of silicon carbide MOSFET multi-chip power modules is proposed in this paper. The model has been implemented in PSpice and describes the internal structure.......2 kV breakdown voltage and about 300 A rated current. The short-circuit behavior of the module is investigated experimentally through a non-destructive test setup and the model is validated. The estimation of overcurrent and temperature distribution among the chips can provide useful information...

  13. Bank Interest Margin and Default Risk under Basel III Capped Capital Adequacy Accord and Regulatory Deposit Insurance Fund Protection

    OpenAIRE

    Chuen-Ping Chang; Shi Chen

    2015-01-01

    We study the optimal bank interest margin and default risk under the capped ratio schedule of government capital instruments in the Basel III Capital Adequacy Accord and the Deposit Insurance Fund arrangement program. We show that an increase in the capped ratio (a decrease in the capped government capital injection) increases the default risk in the bank¡¯s equity return at a reduced interest margin. Regulatory deposit insurance fund protection reinforces the reduced bank interest margin and...

  14. Fast and Accurate Icepak-PSpice Co-Simulation of IGBTs under Short-Circuit with an Advanced PSpice Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Rui; Iannuzzo, Francesco; Wang, Huai

    2014-01-01

    A basic problem in the IGBT short-circuit failure mechanism study is to obtain realistic temperature distribution inside the chip, which demands accurate electrical simulation to obtain power loss distribution as well as detailed IGBT geometry and material information. This paper describes an unp...

  15. 76 FR 63276 - Reducing Regulatory Burden; Retrospective Review Under E.O. 13563

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    ... submitted either via the Board's e-filing process or in the traditional paper format. Any person using e... objectives. The order also called for public participation in this regulatory process. Although Executive... Uniform Rail Costing System, which is the Board's general purpose costing methodology for the nation's...

  16. Identifying Regulatory Patterns at the 3'end Regions of Over-expressed and Under-expressed Genes

    KAUST Repository

    Othoum, Ghofran K

    2013-05-01

    Promoters, neighboring regulatory regions and those extending further upstream of the 5’end of genes, are considered one of the main components affecting the expression status of genes in a specific phenotype. More recently research by Chen et al. (2006, 2012) and Mapendano et al. (2010) demonstrated that the 3’end regulatory regions of genes also influence gene expression. However, the association between the regulatory regions surrounding 3’end of genes and their over- or under-expression status in a particular phenotype has not been systematically studied. The aim of this study is to ascertain if regulatory regions surrounding the 3’end of genes contain sufficient regulatory information to correlate genes with their expression status in a particular phenotype. Over- and under-expressed ovarian cancer (OC) genes were used as a model. Exploratory analysis of the 3’end regions were performed by transforming the annotated regions using principal component analysis (PCA), followed by clustering the transformed data thereby achieving a clear separation of genes with different expression status. Additionally, several classification algorithms such as Naïve Bayes, Random Forest and Support Vector Machine (SVM) were tested with different parameter settings to analyze the discriminatory capacity of the 3’end regions of genes related to their gene expression status. The best performance was achieved using the SVM classification model with 10-fold cross-validation that yielded an accuracy of 98.4%, sensitivity of 99.5% and specificity of 92.5%. For gene expression status for newly available instances, based on information derived from the 3’end regions, an SVM predictive model was developed with 10-fold cross-validation that yielded an accuracy of 67.0%, sensitivity of 73.2% and specificity of 61.0%. Moreover, building an SVM with polynomial kernel model to PCA transformed data yielded an accuracy of 83.1%, sensitivity of 92.5% and specificity of 74.8% using

  17. Identifying Regulatory Patterns at the 3'end Regions of Over-expressed and Under-expressed Genes

    KAUST Repository

    Othoum, Ghofran K

    2013-01-01

    Promoters, neighboring regulatory regions and those extending further upstream of the 5’end of genes, are considered one of the main components affecting the expression status of genes in a specific phenotype. More recently research by Chen et al. (2006, 2012) and Mapendano et al. (2010) demonstrated that the 3’end regulatory regions of genes also influence gene expression. However, the association between the regulatory regions surrounding 3’end of genes and their over- or under-expression status in a particular phenotype has not been systematically studied. The aim of this study is to ascertain if regulatory regions surrounding the 3’end of genes contain sufficient regulatory information to correlate genes with their expression status in a particular phenotype. Over- and under-expressed ovarian cancer (OC) genes were used as a model. Exploratory analysis of the 3’end regions were performed by transforming the annotated regions using principal component analysis (PCA), followed by clustering the transformed data thereby achieving a clear separation of genes with different expression status. Additionally, several classification algorithms such as Naïve Bayes, Random Forest and Support Vector Machine (SVM) were tested with different parameter settings to analyze the discriminatory capacity of the 3’end regions of genes related to their gene expression status. The best performance was achieved using the SVM classification model with 10-fold cross-validation that yielded an accuracy of 98.4%, sensitivity of 99.5% and specificity of 92.5%. For gene expression status for newly available instances, based on information derived from the 3’end regions, an SVM predictive model was developed with 10-fold cross-validation that yielded an accuracy of 67.0%, sensitivity of 73.2% and specificity of 61.0%. Moreover, building an SVM with polynomial kernel model to PCA transformed data yielded an accuracy of 83.1%, sensitivity of 92.5% and specificity of 74.8% using

  18. Plasticity and innovation of regulatory mechanisms underlying seed oil content mediated by duplicated genes in the palaeopolyploid soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dajian; Zhao, Meixia; Li, Shuai; Sun, Lianjun; Wang, Weidong; Cai, Chunmei; Dierking, Emily C; Ma, Jianxin

    2017-06-01

    Many plants have undergone whole genome duplication (WGD). However, how regulatory networks underlying a particular trait are reshaped in polyploids has not been experimentally investigated. Here we show that the regulatory pathways modulating seed oil content, which involve WRINKLED1 (WRI1), LEAFY COTYLEDON1 (LEC1), and LEC2 in Arabidopsis, have been modified in the palaeopolyploid soybean. Such modifications include functional reduction of GmWRI1b of the GmWRI1a/GmWRI1b homoeologous pair relevant to WRI1, complementary non-allelic dosage effects of the GmLEC1a/GmLEC1b homoeologous pair relevant to LEC1, pseudogenization of the singleton GmLEC2 relevant to LEC2, and the rise of the LEC2-like function of GmABI3b, contrasting to its homoeolog GmABI3a, which maintains the ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE 3 (ABI3)-like function in modulating seed maturation and dormancy. The function of GmABI3b in modulating seed oil biosynthesis was fulfilled by direct binding to a RY (CATGCA) cis-regulatory element in the GmWRI1a promoter, which was absent in the GmWRI1b promoter, resulting in reduction of the GmWRI1b expression. Nevertheless, the three regulators each exhibited similar intensities of purifying selection to their respective duplicates since these pairs were formed by a WGD event that is proposed to have occurred approximately 13 million years ago (mya), suggesting that the differentiation in spatiotemporal expression between the duplicated genes is more likely to be the outcome of neutral variation in regulatory sequences. This study thus exemplifies the plasticity, dynamics, and novelty of regulatory networks mediated by WGD. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Reconfigurable Charge Pump Circuit with Variable Pumping Frequency Scheme for Harvesting Solar Energy under Various Sunlight Intensities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong Heon Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose variable pumping frequency (VPF scheme which is merged with the previous reconfigurable charge pump (RCP circuit that can change its architecture according to a given sunlight condition. Here, merging the VPF scheme with the architecture reconfiguration can improve percentage output currents better by 21.4% and 22.4% than RCP circuit with the fixed pumping frequencies of 7 MHz and 15 MHz, respectively. Comparing the VPF scheme with real maximum power points (MPP, the VPF can deliver 91.9% of the maximum amount of output current to the load on average. In terms of the power and area overheads, the VPF scheme proposed in this paper consumes the power by 0.4% of the total power consumption and occupies the layout area by 1.61% of the total layout area.

  20. An investigation of the neural circuits underlying reaching and reach-to-grasp movements: from planning to execution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara eBegliomini

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Experimental evidence suggests the existence of a sophisticated brain circuit specifically dedicated to reach-to-grasp planning and execution, both in human and non human primates (Castiello, 2005. Studies accomplished by means of neuroimaging techniques suggest the hypothesis of a dichotomy between a reach-to-grasp circuit, involving the intraparietal area (AIP, the dorsal and ventral premotor cortices (PMd and PMv - Castiello and Begliomini, 2008; Filimon, 2010 and a reaching circuit involving the medial intraparietal area (mIP and the Superior Parieto-Occipital Cortex (SPOC (Culham et al., 2006. However, the time course characterizing the involvement of these regions during the planning and execution of these two types of movements has yet to be delineated. A functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study has been conducted, including reach-to grasp and reaching only movements, performed towards either a small or a large stimulus, and Finite Impulse Response model (FIR - Henson, 2003 was adopted to monitor activation patterns from stimulus onset for a time window of 10 seconds duration. Data analysis focused on brain regions belonging either to the reaching or to the grasping network, as suggested by Castiello & Begliomini (2008.Results suggest that reaching and grasping movements planning and execution might share a common brain network, providing further confirmation to the idea that the neural underpinnings of reaching and grasping may overlap in both spatial and temporal terms (Verhagen et al., 2013.

  1. Analysis of Bernstein's factorization circuit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenstra, A.K.; Shamir, A.; Tomlinson, J.; Tromer, E.; Zheng, Y.

    2002-01-01

    In [1], Bernstein proposed a circuit-based implementation of the matrix step of the number field sieve factorization algorithm. These circuits offer an asymptotic cost reduction under the measure "construction cost x run time". We evaluate the cost of these circuits, in agreement with [1], but argue

  2. Fission product chemistry and aerosol behaviour in the primary circuit of a pressurised water reactor under severe accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowsher, B.R.

    1985-09-01

    Three key accident sequences are considered covering a representative range of different environments of pressure, flow, temperature history and degree of zircaloy oxidation, and their principle thermal hydraulic and physical characteristics affecting chemistry behaviour are identified. Inventories, chemical forms and timing of fission product release are summarized together with the major sources of structural materials and their release characteristics. Chemistry of each main fission product species is reviewed from available experimental and/or theoretical data. Studies modelling primary circuit fission product behaviour are reviewed. Requirements for further study are assessed. (UK)

  3. Air Emissions Damages from Municipal Drinking Water Treatment Under Current and Proposed Regulatory Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingerich, Daniel B; Mauter, Meagan S

    2017-09-19

    Water treatment processes present intersectoral and cross-media risk trade-offs that are not presently considered in Safe Drinking Water Act regulatory analyses. This paper develops a method for assessing the air emission implications of common municipal water treatment processes used to comply with recently promulgated and proposed regulatory standards, including concentration limits for, lead and copper, disinfection byproducts, chromium(VI), strontium, and PFOA/PFOS. Life-cycle models of electricity and chemical consumption for individual drinking water unit processes are used to estimate embedded NO x , SO 2 , PM 2.5 , and CO 2 emissions on a cubic meter basis. We estimate air emission damages from currently installed treatment processes at U.S. drinking water facilities to be on the order of $500 million USD annually. Fully complying with six promulgated and proposed rules would increase baseline air emission damages by approximately 50%, with three-quarters of these damages originating from chemical manufacturing. Despite the magnitude of these air emission damages, the net benefit of currently implemented rules remains positive. For some proposed rules, however, the promise of net benefits remains contingent on technology choice.

  4. Blue Water Footprint Management in a UK Poultry Supply Chain under Environmental Regulatory Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoum Tsolakis

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Chicken is the most consumed meat in the UK, accounting for 40% of meat consumption, while national production sufficiency reaches about 80%. As a farmed animal product, chicken meat is responsible for significant freshwater appropriation volumes during its production cycle. In this context, this research aims at exploring freshwater dynamics in the UK processed poultry industry. Specifically, we develop a System Dynamics model to capture the blue water footprint, as a key sustainability performance indicator of a poultry supply chain, in the case that relevant environmental and regulatory constraints are applied. The model contributes towards investigating the impact of two potential policy-making scenarios, namely, the “water penalty” and the “water tax”, on the nexus between profitability and water usage across the poultry supply chain. Responding to the regulatory constraints, the food processor either reconfigures the supply chain through rethinking desired inventory levels or implements a water management intervention. The results indicate that investing in water-friendly production technologies could offer a greater advantage to sustainable supply chains in terms of blue water efficiency and profitability, compared to employing inventory management strategies. Overall, our analysis highlights that effective policy-making and technology-driven interventions could provide potential towards ensuring economic growth and environmental sustainability of the UK poultry sector.

  5. Energy conservation, energy efficiency and energy savings regulatory hypotheses - taxation, subsidies and underlying economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trumpy, T. [International Legal Counsel, Brussels (Belgium)

    1995-12-01

    More efficient use of energy resources can be promoted by various regulatory means, i.e., taxation, subsidies, and pricing. Various incentives can be provided by income and revenue tax breaks-deductible energy audit fees, energy saving investment credits, breaks for energy saving entrepreneurs, and energy savings accounts run through utility accounts. Value added and excise taxes can also be adjusted to reward energy saving investments and energy saving entrepreneurial activity. Incentives can be provided in the form of cash refunds, including trade-in-and-scrap programs and reimbursements or subsidies on audit costs and liability insurance. Pricing incentives include lower rates for less energy use, prepayment of deposit related to peak load use, electronically dispatched multiple tariffs, savings credits based on prior peak use, and subsidized {open_quotes}leasing{close_quotes} of more efficient appliances and lights. Credits, with an emphasis on pooling small loans, and 5-year energy savings contracts are also discussed.

  6. Regulatory mutations in TBX3 disrupt asymmetric hair pigmentation that underlies Dun camouflage color in horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Imsland, Freyja; McGowan, Kelly; Rubin, Carl-Johan

    2016-01-01

    Dun is a wild-type coat color in horses characterized by pigment dilution with a striking pattern of dark areas termed primitive markings. Here we show that pigment dilution in Dun horses is due to radially asymmetric deposition of pigment in the growing hair caused by localized expression of the T......-box 3 (TBX3) transcription factor in hair follicles, which in turn determines the distribution of hair follicle melanocytes. Most domestic horses are non-dun, a more intensely pigmented phenotype caused by regulatory mutations impairing TBX3 expression in the hair follicle, resulting in a more...... circumferential distribution of melanocytes and pigment granules in individual hairs. We identified two different alleles (non-dun1 and non-dun2) causing non-dun color. non-dun2 is a recently derived allele, whereas the Dun and non-dun1 alleles are found in ancient horse DNA, demonstrating that this polymorphism...

  7. Abnormal Signal Analysis for a Change of the R-C Passive Elements in a Equivalent Circuit Modeling under a High Temperature Accident Condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Kil-Mo; Song, Yong-Mann; Ahan, Kwang-Il; Ha, Jea-Joo

    2007-01-01

    An electrical signal should be checked to see whether it lies within its expected electrical range when there is a doubtful condition. The normal signal level for pressure, flow, level and resistance temperature detector sensors is 4 - 20mA for most instruments as an industrial process control standard. In the case of an abnormal signal level from an instrument under a severe accident condition, it is necessary to obtain a more accurate signal validation to operate a system in a control room in NPPs. Diagnostics and analysis for some abnormal signals have been performed through an important equivalent circuits modeling for passive elements under severe accident conditions. Unlike the design basis accidents, there are some inherent uncertainties for the instrumentation capabilities under severe accident conditions. In this paper, to implement a diagnostic analysis for an equivalent circuits modeling, a kind of linked LabVIEW program for each PSpice and MULTISim code is introduced as a one body order system, which can obtain some abnormal signal patterns by a special function such as an advanced simulation tool for each PSpice and Multi-SIM code as a means of a function for a PC based ASSA (abnormal signal simulation analyzer) module

  8. Abnormal Signal Analysis for a Change of the R-C Passive Elements in a Equivalent Circuit Modeling under a High Temperature Accident Condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, Kil-Mo; Song, Yong-Mann; Ahan, Kwang-Il; Ha, Jea-Joo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    An electrical signal should be checked to see whether it lies within its expected electrical range when there is a doubtful condition. The normal signal level for pressure, flow, level and resistance temperature detector sensors is 4 - 20mA for most instruments as an industrial process control standard. In the case of an abnormal signal level from an instrument under a severe accident condition, it is necessary to obtain a more accurate signal validation to operate a system in a control room in NPPs. Diagnostics and analysis for some abnormal signals have been performed through an important equivalent circuits modeling for passive elements under severe accident conditions. Unlike the design basis accidents, there are some inherent uncertainties for the instrumentation capabilities under severe accident conditions. In this paper, to implement a diagnostic analysis for an equivalent circuits modeling, a kind of linked LabVIEW program for each PSpice and MULTISim code is introduced as a one body order system, which can obtain some abnormal signal patterns by a special function such as an advanced simulation tool for each PSpice and Multi-SIM code as a means of a function for a PC based ASSA (abnormal signal simulation analyzer) module.

  9. Resonance circuits for adiabatic circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Schlachta

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the possible techniques to reduces the power consumption in digital CMOS circuits is to slow down the charge transport. This slowdown can be achieved by introducing an inductor in the charging path. Additionally, the inductor can act as an energy storage element, conserving the energy that is normally dissipated during discharging. Together with the parasitic capacitances from the circuit a LCresonant circuit is formed.

  10. Essays on the investment behavior of independent power producers in the United States electricity industry under regulatory restructuring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jingming

    2002-09-01

    In recent years, there have been efforts at both the federal and state level to introduce greater competition and markets into the US electricity industry through regulatory restructuring. A key to the success of such efforts is the ability of the restructuring to attract investment from non-utility, independent power producers (IPPs). The two essays in this dissertation examine empirically the investment behavior of IPPs under the regulatory restructuring between 1996 and 2000. In both essays, the effects of restructuring on a firm's investment decision are decomposed into the effects that work through the investment cost and that through the expected profit from the investment. The first essay studies the entry behavior of IPPs under the restructuring. The main finding of the essay is that the restructuring has done little to lower the entry barrier faced by IPPs-high fixed cost to entry is still a main factor that hinders IPP investment. The second essay studies IPPs' decisions between investing through building new power plants ("make") and investing through acquiring divested plants ("buy"). It finds that the availability of the "buy" option does not "squeeze" out investment on new capacities. IPPs that chose to "buy" did so because they expected a lower return from "make" and hence would not have switched their investment to new capacities even if the "buy" option were not available. Therefore, divestiture is a viable policy tool for state regulators to attract more IPP investment.

  11. Independent regulatory control and monitoring of the environment at the uranium legacy sites under reclamation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shandala, N.K.; Titov, A.V.; Kiselev, S.M.; Isaev, D.V.; Aladova, R.A.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Radiation safety at areas affected by the natural uranium mining and milling facilities is very important for the environment protection and human health. For this purpose the close operator-regulator contact is required during remedial operations. One of the key mechanisms of the operating regulatory supervision of radiation safety at uranium legacy sites is organization of independent radiation control and monitoring in the course of reclamation and after its completion. The main stages of this strategy include: detailed radiation survey at the area and in the vicinity of the former uranium mining sites; threat assessment in order to identify the regulatory priorities; environmental radiation control and monitoring. Tailings and shallow disposal sites of the uranium mining wastes are the most critical areas in terms of potential hazard for the environment. Tailings are the source of contamination of the near-land air due to the radionuclide dust resuspension from the tailing surface; surface and ground water due to washing out from by precipitation and surface streams of toxic and radioactive elements. Frequently, contamination of surface and ground waters results in some problems, especially when using the leaching fluids for the solution mining and draining hydraulic fluids. Radiation risk for the residents of areas near not operating uranium mining and milling facilities depends on the following factors: radon exhalation from the surface of dumps and tailing; radioactive dust transfer; using radioactive material in building; contamination of surface water streams and aquifers used for drinking water supply; contamination of open ponds used for fish breeding and catching; contamination of foodstuffs grown in the nuclear legacy areas. Radiation monitoring is necessary for the up-to-date response to changing radiation situation during reclamation and arrangement of adequate countermeasures. We mean here comprehensive dynamic surveillance including long

  12. Procedural Justice for ‘Weaker Parties’ in Cross-Border Litigation under the EU Regulatory Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Lazić

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses how procedural justice for consumers, employees and insurance policy holders or other beneficiaries under insurance contracts has been ensured in the legal instruments of the EU legislator. The analysis focuses on the Brussels Jurisdiction Regulation, both under the current regulatory scheme and in its recently revised version. Thereby, the rules on jurisdiction, the enforcement of judgments in civil and commercial matters, as well as instruments that unify certain rules of civil procedure have been analysed. Within the context of the rules on jurisdiction, the relevance of the EU legislation for the validity and enforceability of jurisdictional clauses against weaker parties is addressed. Thereby express provisions in EU legislation, as well as relevant case law of the CJEU, have been the subject of the analysis. The changes introduced by the revised Regulation are discussed in great detail.

  13. Fifty Years of Safeguards under the EURATOM Treaty. A Regulatory Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, B.; Chare, P.

    2007-01-01

    March 2007 marked the 50th anniversary of the signing of one of the founding treaties of the European Community. The EURATOM Treaty has its origins at a time when the stability of energy supplies in Europe was a major concern. Recently, much debate has centred on the possible reform or repeal of some parts of the treaty, given that its original aim was to promote and oversee the development of nuclear energy in Europe. This debate has focused attention on the future contribution of nuclear power to increasing energy demands in an enlarged Europe. However, despite these issues there is near universal agreement that the EURATOM Treaty has played a vital role in the protection of European citizens through the controls required for nuclear materials. Chapter 7 of the treaty (Safeguards) confers wide regulatory powers to the European Commission to ensure that civil nuclear materials are not diverted from their intended use as declared by the operators. This paper describes the early period of operation of the safeguards inspectorate, and gives statistics on the numbers and types of inspections carried out by the EURATOM inspectors, and discusses from an operational point of view the value of inspection activities. Further, a critical appraisal of Articles 77-85 within Chapter 7 is made. The paper also considers those safeguards requirements that are important to strengthen, in order to maintain a strong regulatory system to oversee future challenges, particularly in the context of increasing decommissioning activities within Europe. It is noteworthy that fifty-years after the founding of the treaty, many of the concerns about security of energy supply have re-emerged. It is a measure of the vision and forward thinking of its founders that the treaty has successfully overseen the safe and secure development of nuclear power in Europe (which currently provides a third of its electricity needs) and despite the many changes and developments that have occurred, that the

  14. Electronic circuit encyclopedia 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sun Ho

    1992-10-01

    This book is composed of 15 chapters, which are amplification of weak signal and measurement circuit audio control and power amplification circuit, data transmission and wireless system, forwarding and isolation, signal converting circuit, counter and comparator, discriminator circuit, oscillation circuit and synthesizer, digital and circuit on computer image processing circuit, sensor drive circuit temperature sensor circuit, magnetic control and application circuit, motor driver circuit, measuring instrument and check tool and power control and stability circuit.

  15. Electronic circuit encyclopedia 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sun Ho

    1992-10-15

    This book is composed of 15 chapters, which are amplification of weak signal and measurement circuit audio control and power amplification circuit, data transmission and wireless system, forwarding and isolation, signal converting circuit, counter and comparator, discriminator circuit, oscillation circuit and synthesizer, digital and circuit on computer image processing circuit, sensor drive circuit temperature sensor circuit, magnetic control and application circuit, motor driver circuit, measuring instrument and check tool and power control and stability circuit.

  16. Transition of some type of integrated circuits into latch-up mode under effect of ionizing radiation of large dose rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berdichevskij, B.E.; Madzharova, T.B.

    1986-01-01

    Some types of integrated circuits (IC) are almost short-circuit, i.e. they transit to the latch-up regime under the effect of ionizing radiation pulses of large dose rate. The results of investigation into IC under their transition into the latch-up regime at supply voltage of 10 V are presented. It is shown that IC stably transit to the latch-up regime if the dinistor current becomes at least equal to the photocurrent. At bias reduction from 15 to 6 V the dose rate at which the latch-up arises grows from 2.5x10 9 to 3.5x10 9 rad (Si)/s. Burn-out of supply busbar is the usual type of IC failure at latch-up arising. Measures for IC protection from latch-up are shown. In some IC the latch-up is formed beginning from a certain critical value of dose rate, the so-called ''windows'' of latch-up

  17. A cell cycle-dependent regulatory circuit composed of 53BP1-RIF1 and BRCA1-CtIP controls DNA repair pathway choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escribano-Díaz, Cristina; Orthwein, Alexandre; Fradet-Turcotte, Amélie; Xing, Mengtan; Young, Jordan T F; Tkáč, Ján; Cook, Michael A; Rosebrock, Adam P; Munro, Meagan; Canny, Marella D; Xu, Dongyi; Durocher, Daniel

    2013-03-07

    DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair pathway choice is governed by the opposing activities of 53BP1 and BRCA1. 53BP1 stimulates nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ), whereas BRCA1 promotes end resection and homologous recombination (HR). Here we show that 53BP1 is an inhibitor of BRCA1 accumulation at DSB sites, specifically in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. ATM-dependent phosphorylation of 53BP1 physically recruits RIF1 to DSB sites, and we identify RIF1 as the critical effector of 53BP1 during DSB repair. Remarkably, RIF1 accumulation at DSB sites is strongly antagonized by BRCA1 and its interacting partner CtIP. Lastly, we show that depletion of RIF1 is able to restore end resection and RAD51 loading in BRCA1-depleted cells. This work therefore identifies a cell cycle-regulated circuit, underpinned by RIF1 and BRCA1, that governs DSB repair pathway choice to ensure that NHEJ dominates in G1 and HR is favored from S phase onward. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Changed of the working capacity of CMOS integrated circuits under ionizing radiations effect of low and high dose rate; Izmeneniya rabotosposobnosti KMOP integral`nykh mikroskhem pri vozdejstvii ioniziruyushchikh izluchenij s nizkoj i vysokoj intensivnost`yu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogatyrev, Yu V; Korshunov, F P

    1994-12-31

    Results of experimental investigations into the working capacity of different types of integrated CMOS circuits under effect of electron and gamma radiation are presented. Methods for evaluating IC CMOS under low irradiation intensity using the microcircuit testing under hugh intensity or at increased temperature with regard to the processes of parameter reconstruction after irradiation are proposed.

  19. INSULATION RESISTANCE OF PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARDS. BEHAVIOR OF CERTAIN TYPES AND MAKES UNDER DIFFERENT CLIMATIC CONDITIONS. En undersoegelse af en raekke typer og fabrikater under forskellige klimatiske forhold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olesen, S. T.

    1971-11-15

    The present study embraces measurements of insulation resistance on a number of types and makes of printed-circuit boards. The insulation measurements were performed on boards just received from the manufacturer, as well as on boards exposed to humidity or to elevated temperatures. A total of 33 types from five different material categories were obtained. The test material used thus originated from a variety of independent sources. The purpose of the project was to investigate the frequency with which batches with insufficiently baked material - and consequently having a poor insulation resistance - were encountered in practice. No such batches were in fact found, and it is likely that they do not occur as often as had previously been assumed.

  20. 7 CFR 2.22 - Under Secretary for Marketing and Regulatory Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Nutrition Education Act (7 U.S.C. 3401-3417), except as delegated to the Under Secretary for Farm and... and Recovery Act, as further amended by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments, and the Federal... Nutrition Education Act (7 U.S.C. 3405(a)); (xvii) Appoint members of the Cattlemen's Beef Promotion and...

  1. Recognition of Debt Restructuring and Resolution Measures under the European Union Regulatory Framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arons, T.M.C.

    Under the proposed Bank Recovery and Resolution Directive, member states will be required to provide for bail-in powers to restructure failing financial institutions. At this moment, the Dutch, French, UK and German legislator already provide public authorities with resolution powers. In order to be

  2. A Review on Grid-connected Converter Control for Short Circuit Power Provision under Grid Unbalanced Faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jia, Jundi; Yang, Guangya; Nielsen, Arne Hejde

    2017-01-01

    behave significantly different from the traditional alternators under grid faults. In order to evaluate the potential impact of future converter-based power systems on protective relays, it is necessary to consider diverse current control strategies of voltage source converters (VSC) under unbalanced...

  3. Performance Comparison of BPL, EtherLoop and SHDSL technology performance on existing pilot cable circuits under the presence of induced voltage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Che, Y X; Ong, H S; Lai, L C; Ong, X J; Do, N Q; Karuppiah, S

    2013-01-01

    Pilot cable is originally used for utility protection. Then, pilot cable is further utilized for SCADA communication with low frequency PSK modem in the early 1990. However, the quality of pilot cable communication drops recently. Pilot cable starts to deteriorate due to aging and other unknown factors. It is also believed that the presence of induced voltage causes interference to existing modem communication which operates at low frequency channel. Therefore, BPL (Broadband Power Line), EtherLoop and SHDSL (Symmetrical High-speed Digital Subscriber Line) modem technology are proposed as alternative communication solutions for pilot cable communication. The performance of the 3 selected technologies on existing pilot cable circuits under the presence of induced voltage are measured and compared. Total of 11 pilot circuits with different length and level of induced voltage influence are selected for modem testing. The performance of BPL, EtherLoop and SHDSL modem technology are measured by the delay, bandwidth, packet loss and the long term usability SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) application. The testing results are presented and discussed in this paper. The results show that the 3 selected technologies are dependent on distance and independent on the level of induced voltage.

  4. Insights into soybean transcriptome reconfiguration under hypoxic stress: Functional, regulatory, structural, and compositional characterization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago J Nakayama

    Full Text Available Soybean (Glycine max is one of the major crops worldwide and flooding stress affects the production and expansion of cultivated areas. Oxygen is essential for mitochondrial aerobic respiration to supply the energy demand of plant cells. Because oxygen diffusion in water is 10,000 times lower than in air, partial (hypoxic or total (anoxic oxygen deficiency is important component of flooding. Even when oxygen is externally available, oxygen deficiency frequently occurs in bulky, dense or metabolically active tissues such as phloem, meristems, seeds, and fruits. In this study, we analyzed conserved and divergent root transcriptional responses between flood-tolerant Embrapa 45 and flood-sensitive BR 4 soybean cultivars under hypoxic stress conditions with RNA-seq. To understand how soybean genes evolve and respond to hypoxia, stable and differentially expressed genes were characterized structurally and compositionally comparing its mechanistic relationship. Between cultivars, Embrapa 45 showed less up- and more down-regulated genes, and stronger induction of phosphoglucomutase (Glyma05g34790, unknown protein related to N-terminal protein myristoylation (Glyma06g03430, protein suppressor of phyA-105 (Glyma06g37080, and fibrillin (Glyma10g32620. RNA-seq and qRT-PCR analysis of non-symbiotic hemoglobin (Glyma11g12980 indicated divergence in gene structure between cultivars. Transcriptional changes for genes in amino acids and derivative metabolic process suggest involvement of amino acids metabolism in tRNA modifications, translation accuracy/efficiency, and endoplasmic reticulum stress in both cultivars under hypoxia. Gene groups differed in promoter TATA box, ABREs (ABA-responsive elements, and CRT/DREs (C-repeat/dehydration-responsive elements frequency. Gene groups also differed in structure, composition, and codon usage, indicating biological significances. Additional data suggests that cis-acting ABRE elements can mediate gene expression

  5. Insights into soybean transcriptome reconfiguration under hypoxic stress: Functional, regulatory, structural, and compositional characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Thiago J; Rodrigues, Fabiana A; Neumaier, Norman; Marcolino-Gomes, Juliana; Molinari, Hugo B C; Santiago, Thaís R; Formighieri, Eduardo F; Basso, Marcos F; Farias, José R B; Emygdio, Beatriz M; de Oliveira, Ana C B; Campos, Ângela D; Borém, Aluízio; Harmon, Frank G; Mertz-Henning, Liliane M; Nepomuceno, Alexandre L

    2017-01-01

    Soybean (Glycine max) is one of the major crops worldwide and flooding stress affects the production and expansion of cultivated areas. Oxygen is essential for mitochondrial aerobic respiration to supply the energy demand of plant cells. Because oxygen diffusion in water is 10,000 times lower than in air, partial (hypoxic) or total (anoxic) oxygen deficiency is important component of flooding. Even when oxygen is externally available, oxygen deficiency frequently occurs in bulky, dense or metabolically active tissues such as phloem, meristems, seeds, and fruits. In this study, we analyzed conserved and divergent root transcriptional responses between flood-tolerant Embrapa 45 and flood-sensitive BR 4 soybean cultivars under hypoxic stress conditions with RNA-seq. To understand how soybean genes evolve and respond to hypoxia, stable and differentially expressed genes were characterized structurally and compositionally comparing its mechanistic relationship. Between cultivars, Embrapa 45 showed less up- and more down-regulated genes, and stronger induction of phosphoglucomutase (Glyma05g34790), unknown protein related to N-terminal protein myristoylation (Glyma06g03430), protein suppressor of phyA-105 (Glyma06g37080), and fibrillin (Glyma10g32620). RNA-seq and qRT-PCR analysis of non-symbiotic hemoglobin (Glyma11g12980) indicated divergence in gene structure between cultivars. Transcriptional changes for genes in amino acids and derivative metabolic process suggest involvement of amino acids metabolism in tRNA modifications, translation accuracy/efficiency, and endoplasmic reticulum stress in both cultivars under hypoxia. Gene groups differed in promoter TATA box, ABREs (ABA-responsive elements), and CRT/DREs (C-repeat/dehydration-responsive elements) frequency. Gene groups also differed in structure, composition, and codon usage, indicating biological significances. Additional data suggests that cis-acting ABRE elements can mediate gene expression independent of ABA

  6. Transcriptome analysis reveals regulatory networks underlying differential susceptibility to Botrytis cinerea in response to nitrogen availability in Solanum lycopersicum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea eVega

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen (N is one of the main limiting nutrients for plant growth and crop yield. It is well documented that changes in nitrate availability, the main N source found in agricultural soils, influences a myriad of developmental programs and processes including the plant defense response. Indeed, many agronomical reports indicate that the plant N nutritional status influences their ability to respond effectively when challenged by different pathogens. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in N-modulation of plant susceptibility to pathogens are poorly characterized. In this work, we show that Solanum lycopersicum defense response to the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea is affected by plant N availability, with higher susceptibility in nitrate-limiting conditions. Global gene expression responses of tomato against B. cinerea under contrasting nitrate conditions reveals that plant primary metabolism is affected by the fungal infection regardless of N regimes. This result suggests that differential susceptibility to pathogen attack under contrasting N conditions is not only explained by a metabolic alteration. We used a systems biology approach to identify the transcriptional regulatory network implicated in plant response to the fungus infection under contrasting nitrate conditions. Interestingly, hub genes in this network are known key transcription factors involved in ethylene and jasmonic acid signaling. This result positions these hormones as key integrators of nitrate and defense against B. cinerea in tomato plants. Our results provide insights into potential crosstalk mechanisms between necrotrophic defense response and N status in plants.

  7. WrpA Is an Atypical Flavodoxin Family Protein under Regulatory Control of the Brucella abortus General Stress Response System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrou, Julien; Czyż, Daniel M; Willett, Jonathan W; Kim, Hye-Sook; Chhor, Gekleng; Babnigg, Gyorgy; Kim, Youngchang; Crosson, Sean

    2016-04-01

    The general stress response (GSR) system of the intracellular pathogen Brucella abortus controls the transcription of approximately 100 genes in response to a range of stress cues. The core genetic regulatory components of the GSR are required for B. abortus survival under nonoptimal growth conditions in vitro and for maintenance of chronic infection in an in vivo mouse model. The functions of the majority of the genes in the GSR transcriptional regulon remain undefined. bab1_1070 is among the most highly regulated genes in this regulon: its transcription is activated 20- to 30-fold by the GSR system under oxidative conditions in vitro. We have solved crystal structures of Bab1_1070 and demonstrate that it forms a homotetrameric complex that resembles those of WrbA-type NADH:quinone oxidoreductases, which are members of the flavodoxin protein family. However, B. abortus WrbA-related protein (WrpA) does not bind flavin cofactors with a high affinity and does not function as an NADH:quinone oxidoreductase in vitro. Soaking crystals with flavin mononucleotide (FMN) revealed a likely low-affinity binding site adjacent to the canonical WrbA flavin binding site. Deletion of wrpA (ΔwrpA) does not compromise cell survival under acute oxidative stress in vitro or attenuate infection in cell-based or mouse models. However, a ΔwrpA strain does elicit increased splenomegaly in a mouse model, suggesting that WrpA modulates B. abortus interaction with its mammalian host. Despite high structural homology with canonical WrbA proteins, we propose that B. abortus WrpA represents a functionally distinct member of the diverse flavodoxin family. Brucella abortus is an etiological agent of brucellosis, which is among the most common zoonotic diseases worldwide. The general stress response (GSR) regulatory system of B. abortus controls the transcription of approximately 100 genes and is required for maintenance of chronic infection in a murine model; the majority of GSR-regulated genes

  8. EMERGING I&C TECHNOLOGIES UNDER THE SHIFTING REGULATORY ENVIRONMENT IN SOUTH KOREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyunyoung eHeo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The role of Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA has been supplementary and Risk-Informed Applications (RIAs based on the insight from PSA has also been utilized limitedly in the licensing process for Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs in South Korea. However, as the technical significance of PSA is getting increased, PSA has become a mandatory part of Safety Analysis Reports and Periodic Safety Review. It is worthwhile to highlight the role of emerging Instrumentation and Control (I&C technologies including human-machine interface (HMI in developing more credible and realistic PSA models. Particularly, it is expected that the information technology (i.e. software embedded in digital I&C can adjust over- and under conservatism in analyzing risk. In this study, authors proposed the cases which would be able to significantly reduce risk if advanced I&C supported by information technologies is applied. In regard, the several enabling techniques and their effects are proposed. In order to improve the commercial competitiveness of NPPs, the need of collaboration and synergetic outcome of I&C, HMI and PSA should be emphasized.

  9. Emerging I&C Technologies Under the Shifting Regulatory Environment in South Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heo, Gyunyoung [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Kyung Hee University, Youngin-si (Korea, Republic of); Seong, Poong Hyun; Kang, Hyun Gook, E-mail: hyungook@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-29

    The role of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) has been supplementary and risk-informed applications based on the insight from PSA have also been utilized limitedly in the licensing process for nuclear power plants (NPPs) in South Korea. However, as the technical significance of PSA is getting increased, PSA has become a mandatory part of Safety Analysis Reports and Periodic Safety Review. It is worthwhile to highlight the role of emerging instrumentation and control (I&C) technologies including human–machine interface (HMI) in developing more credible and realistic PSA models. Particularly, it is expected that the information technology (i.e., software) embedded in digital I&C can adjust over- and under conservatism in analyzing risk. In this study, authors proposed the cases which would be able to significantly reduce risk if advanced I&C supported by information technologies is applied. In regard, the several enabling techniques and their effects are proposed. In order to improve the commercial competitiveness of NPPs, the need of collaboration and synergetic outcome of I&C, HMI, and PSA should be emphasized.

  10. Tuning of redox regulatory mechanisms, reactive oxygen species and redox homeostasis under salinity stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossain eSazzad

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Soil salinity is a crucial environmental constraint which limits biomass production at many sites on a global scale. Saline growth conditions cause osmotic and ionic imbalances, oxidative stress and perturb metabolism, e.g. the photosynthetic electron flow. The plant ability to tolerate salinity is determined by multiple biochemical and physiological mechanisms protecting cell functions, in particular by regulating proper water relations and maintaining ion homeostasis. Redox homeostasis is a fundamental cell property. Its regulation includes control of reactive oxygen species (ROS generation, sensing deviation from and readjustment of the cellular redox state. All these redox related functions have been recognized as decisive factors in salinity acclimation and adaptation. This review focuses on the core response of plants to overcome the challenges of salinity stress through regulation of ROS generation and detoxification systems and to maintain redox homeostasis. Emphasis is given to the role of NADH oxidase (RBOH, alternative oxidase (AOX, the plastid terminal oxidase (PTOX and the malate valve with the malate dehydrogenase isoforms under salt stress. Overwhelming evidence assigns an essential auxiliary function of ROS and redox homeostasis to salinity acclimation of plants.

  11. Dispersion modeling in assessing air quality of industrial projects under Indian regulatory regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandyopadhyay, Amitava [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Calcutta, 92, A.P.C.Road, Kolkata 700 009 (India)

    2010-07-01

    Environmental impact assessment (EIA) studies conducted over the years as a part of obtaining environmental clearance in accordance with Indian regulation have been given significant attention towards carrying out Gaussian dispersion modeling for predicting the ground level concentration (GLC) of pollutants, especially for SO{sub 2}. Making any adhoc decision towards recommending flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system in Indian fossil fuel combustion operations is not realistic considering the usage of fuel with low sulfur content. Thus a predictive modeling is imperative prior to making any conclusive decision. In the light of this finding, dispersion modeling has been accorded in Indian environmental regulations. This article aims at providing approaches to ascertain pollution potential for proposed power plant operation either alone or in presence of other industrial operations under different conditions. In order to assess the performance of the computational work four different cases were analyzed based on worst scenario. Results obtained through predictions were compared with National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) of India. One specific case found to overshoot the ambient air quality adversely in respect of SO2 and was therefore, suggested to install a FGD system with at least 80 % SO2 removal efficiency. With this recommendation, the cumulative prediction yielded a very conservative resultant value of 24 hourly maximum GLC of SO2 as against a value that exceeded well above the stipulated value without considering the FGD system. The computational algorithm developed can therefore, be gainfully utilized for the purpose of EIA analysis in Indian condition.

  12. Likelihood for transcriptions in a genetic regulatory system under asymmetric stable Lévy noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Cheng, Xiujun; Duan, Jinqiao; Kurths, Jürgen; Li, Xiaofan

    2018-01-01

    This work is devoted to investigating the evolution of concentration in a genetic regulation system, when the synthesis reaction rate is under additive and multiplicative asymmetric stable Lévy fluctuations. By focusing on the impact of skewness (i.e., non-symmetry) in the probability distributions of noise, we find that via examining the mean first exit time (MFET) and the first escape probability (FEP), the asymmetric fluctuations, interacting with nonlinearity in the system, lead to peculiar likelihood for transcription. This includes, in the additive noise case, realizing higher likelihood of transcription for larger positive skewness (i.e., asymmetry) index β, causing a stochastic bifurcation at the non-Gaussianity index value α = 1 (i.e., it is a separating point or line for the likelihood for transcription), and achieving a turning point at the threshold value β≈-0.5 (i.e., beyond which the likelihood for transcription suddenly reversed for α values). The stochastic bifurcation and turning point phenomena do not occur in the symmetric noise case (β = 0). While in the multiplicative noise case, non-Gaussianity index value α = 1 is a separating point or line for both the MFET and the FEP. We also investigate the noise enhanced stability phenomenon. Additionally, we are able to specify the regions in the whole parameter space for the asymmetric noise, in which we attain desired likelihood for transcription. We have conducted a series of numerical experiments in "regulating" the likelihood of gene transcription by tuning asymmetric stable Lévy noise indexes. This work offers insights for possible ways of achieving gene regulation in experimental research.

  13. A risk analysis for gas transport network planning expansion under regulatory uncertainty in Western Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelletier, C.; Wortmann, J.C. [Information System Cluster, Faculty of Economics and Business, Rijksuniversiteit Groningen, Landleven 5, Postbus 800, 9700 AV Groningen (Netherlands)

    2009-02-15

    The natural gas industry in Western Europe went through drastic changes induced by the unbundling of the national companies, followed by the liberalization of gas trade and the regulation of gas transmission. Natural gas transmission is operated through a network of interconnected grids, and is capacity constrained. Each of the grids is locally regulated in terms of price limits on transportation services. Local tariff differences may induce unnatural gas routing within a network, creating congestion in some part of it. This phenomena is referred to as the Jepma effect. Following Jepma (2001. Gaslevering onder druk. Stichting JIN. Available at: www.jiqweb.org (52pp) (in Dutch)) this may lead to misguided investment decisions. In this paper a multi-stage linear program is used to simulate the repartition of the natural gas flow in an interconnected grid system on a succession of contracting periods. By this simulation, the risk linked to infrastructure investment is assessed. The risk measured can be seen as the probability of a negative present net value for the investment. The model is applied on an example of two grids that are on alternative routes serving same destinations. When applied to a specific situation of North-West Europe (Germany and The Netherlands), the model clearly demonstrates that the risks turn out to be too high to invest: there are hardly any scenarios under which an acceptable ROI will be realized. Given the current tariff policy and current publicly available forecasts of demand and supply, it is unlikely that market forces will attract additional investments in transportation capacity. This reluctance to invest can be prohibitive for further growth of supply if the demand would increase significantly. (author)

  14. A risk analysis for gas transport network planning expansion under regulatory uncertainty in Western Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelletier, C.; Wortmann, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    The natural gas industry in Western Europe went through drastic changes induced by the unbundling of the national companies, followed by the liberalization of gas trade and the regulation of gas transmission. Natural gas transmission is operated through a network of interconnected grids, and is capacity constrained. Each of the grids is locally regulated in terms of price limits on transportation services. Local tariff differences may induce unnatural gas routing within a network, creating congestion in some part of it. This phenomena is referred to as the Jepma effect. Following Jepma (2001. Gaslevering onder druk. Stichting JIN. Available at: www.jiqweb.org (52pp) (in Dutch)) this may lead to misguided investment decisions. In this paper a multi-stage linear program is used to simulate the repartition of the natural gas flow in an interconnected grid system on a succession of contracting periods. By this simulation, the risk linked to infrastructure investment is assessed. The risk measured can be seen as the probability of a negative present net value for the investment. The model is applied on an example of two grids that are on alternative routes serving same destinations. When applied to a specific situation of North-West Europe (Germany and The Netherlands), the model clearly demonstrates that the risks turn out to be too high to invest: there are hardly any scenarios under which an acceptable ROI will be realized. Given the current tariff policy and current publicly available forecasts of demand and supply, it is unlikely that market forces will attract additional investments in transportation capacity. This reluctance to invest can be prohibitive for further growth of supply if the demand would increase significantly. (author)

  15. Controllable circuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    A switch-mode power circuit comprises a controllable element and a control unit. The controllable element is configured to control a current in response to a control signal supplied to the controllable element. The control unit is connected to the controllable element and provides the control...

  16. Circuit Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jane B.

    1998-01-01

    Describes a research-based activity for high school physics students in which they build an LC circuit and find its resonant frequency of oscillation using an oscilloscope. Includes a diagram of the apparatus and an explanation of the procedures. (DDR)

  17. Response characteristics of HPR1000 primary circuit under different working conditions of the atmospheric relief system after SBLOCA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sui, Danting, E-mail: suidanting@163.com [School of Nuclear Science and Engineering, North China Electric Power University, Beijing (China); Beijing Key Laboratory of Passive Safety Technology for Nuclear Energy, North China Electric Power University, Beijing (China); Lu, Daogang [School of Nuclear Science and Engineering, North China Electric Power University, Beijing (China); Beijing Key Laboratory of Passive Safety Technology for Nuclear Energy, North China Electric Power University, Beijing (China); Shang, Changzhong; Wei, Yuanyuan [China Nuclear Power Design Co., ltd (ShenZhen), Shenzhen (China); Zhang, Xianjie [School of Nuclear Science and Engineering, North China Electric Power University, Beijing (China); Beijing Key Laboratory of Passive Safety Technology for Nuclear Energy, North China Electric Power University, Beijing (China)

    2017-04-01

    Highlights: • Response of HPR1000 under different VDA conditions after SBLOCA was investigated. • Activation of VDA can trigger ACCU SI earlier with a critical point exists. • VDA capability design should compromise the critical point with reactivity feedback. - Abstract: To cope with SBLOCA in absence of High-Head Safety Injection (HHSI) from design of HPR1000, atmospheric relief system (originally named as VDA in French) is uniquely designed to help to trigger Middle Head Safety Injection (MHSI) or Low Head Safety Injection (LHSI) earlier through cooling primary system quickly after SBLOCA. To make the best use of VDA decay heat removal capability, primary and secondary system of HPR1000 was modeled with RELAP5/SCDAP computer code. After steady-state initialization, a cold leg 30 mm break SBLOCA was simulated with six simulation conditions and five additional cases including availability of ACCU, different VDA discharge locations and area. Response characteristics of primary loop under different VDA working conditions are investigated. Pressurizer pressure decreases rapidly to lower level to trigger the reactor scram, VDA activation and accumulator safety injection sequently. Peak cladding temperature is 899.45 K occurring at 222 s, which is far below the safety limit. Activation of VDA can trigger ACCU SI earlier with a critical point, while positive reactivity will be introduced due to negative moderator temperature effect and Doppler effect. Larger VDA discharge capability will introduce larger reactivity feedback, as well as induce lower core level and SG level. It's suggested that VDA discharge condition should be chosen before the critical point, with the compromise with reactivity feedback introduced due to the negative moderator temperature effect.

  18. Response characteristics of HPR1000 primary circuit under different working conditions of the atmospheric relief system after SBLOCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sui, Danting; Lu, Daogang; Shang, Changzhong; Wei, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Xianjie

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Response of HPR1000 under different VDA conditions after SBLOCA was investigated. • Activation of VDA can trigger ACCU SI earlier with a critical point exists. • VDA capability design should compromise the critical point with reactivity feedback. - Abstract: To cope with SBLOCA in absence of High-Head Safety Injection (HHSI) from design of HPR1000, atmospheric relief system (originally named as VDA in French) is uniquely designed to help to trigger Middle Head Safety Injection (MHSI) or Low Head Safety Injection (LHSI) earlier through cooling primary system quickly after SBLOCA. To make the best use of VDA decay heat removal capability, primary and secondary system of HPR1000 was modeled with RELAP5/SCDAP computer code. After steady-state initialization, a cold leg 30 mm break SBLOCA was simulated with six simulation conditions and five additional cases including availability of ACCU, different VDA discharge locations and area. Response characteristics of primary loop under different VDA working conditions are investigated. Pressurizer pressure decreases rapidly to lower level to trigger the reactor scram, VDA activation and accumulator safety injection sequently. Peak cladding temperature is 899.45 K occurring at 222 s, which is far below the safety limit. Activation of VDA can trigger ACCU SI earlier with a critical point, while positive reactivity will be introduced due to negative moderator temperature effect and Doppler effect. Larger VDA discharge capability will introduce larger reactivity feedback, as well as induce lower core level and SG level. It's suggested that VDA discharge condition should be chosen before the critical point, with the compromise with reactivity feedback introduced due to the negative moderator temperature effect.

  19. Efficiency Evaluation of Five-Phase Outer-Rotor Fault-Tolerant BLDC Drives under Healthy and Open-Circuit Faulty Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARASHLOO, R. S.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Fault tolerant motor drives are an interesting subject for many applications such as automotive industries and wind power generation. Among different configurations of these systems, five-phase BLDC drives are gaining more importance which is because of their compactness and high efficiency. Due to replacement of field windings by permanent magnets in their rotor structure, the main sources of power losses in these drives are iron (core losses, copper (winding losses, and inverter unit (semiconductor losses. Although low amplitude of power losses in five-phase BLDC drives is an important aspect for many applications, but their efficiency under faulty conditions is not considered in previous studies. In this paper, the efficiency of an outer-rotor five phase BLDC drive is evaluated under normal and different faulty conditions. Open-circuit fault is considered for one, two adjacent and two non-adjacent faulty phases. Iron core losses are calculated via FEM simulations in Flux-Cedrat software, and moreover, inverter losses and winding copper losses are simulated in MATLAB� environment. Experimental evaluations are conducted to evaluate the efficiency of the entire BLDC drive which verifies the theoretical developments.

  20. WrpA Is an Atypical Flavodoxin Family Protein under Regulatory Control of the Brucella abortus General Stress Response System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrou, Julien; Czyż, Daniel M.; Willett, Jonathan W.; Kim, Hye-Sook; Chhor, Gekleng; Babnigg, Gyorgy; Kim, Youngchang; Crosson, Sean; Stock, A. M.

    2016-02-08

    ABSTRACT

    The general stress response (GSR) system of the intracellular pathogenBrucella abortuscontrols the transcription of approximately 100 genes in response to a range of stress cues. The core genetic regulatory components of the GSR are required forB. abortussurvival under nonoptimal growth conditionsin vitroand for maintenance of chronic infection in anin vivomouse model. The functions of the majority of the genes in the GSR transcriptional regulon remain undefined.bab1_1070is among the most highly regulated genes in this regulon: its transcription is activated 20- to 30-fold by the GSR system under oxidative conditionsin vitro. We have solved crystal structures of Bab1_1070 and demonstrate that it forms a homotetrameric complex that resembles those of WrbA-type NADH:quinone oxidoreductases, which are members of the flavodoxin protein family. However,B. abortusWrbA-relatedprotein (WrpA) does not bind flavin cofactors with a high affinity and does not function as an NADH:quinone oxidoreductasein vitro. Soaking crystals with flavin mononucleotide (FMN) revealed a likely low-affinity binding site adjacent to the canonical WrbA flavin binding site. Deletion ofwrpAwrpA) does not compromise cell survival under acute oxidative stressin vitroor attenuate infection in cell-based or mouse models. However, a ΔwrpAstrain does elicit increased splenomegaly in a mouse model, suggesting that WrpA modulatesB. abortusinteraction with its mammalian host. Despite

  1. The regulatory role of endogenous iron on greenhouse gas emissions under intensive nitrogen fertilization in subtropical soils of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jiangpei; Shi, Liangsheng; Wang, Yakun; Chen, Zhuowei; Wu, Laosheng

    2018-05-01

    Anaerobic batch experiments were conducted to study the regulatory role of endogenous iron in greenhouse gas emissions under intensive nitrogen fertilization in subtropical soils of China. Fe 2+ , Fe 3+ , and NO 3 - -N dynamics and N 2 O, CH 4 , and CO 2 emissions, as well as the relationships between N fertilizer, endogenous iron, and greenhouse gas emissions were investigated. The emissions of N 2 O increased to different extents from all the test soils by N1 (260 mg N kg -1 ) application compared with N0. After 24 days of anaerobic incubation, the cumulative emissions of N 2 O from red soils in De'an (DR) were significantly higher than that from paddy soils in De'an (DP) and Qujialing (QP) under N1. However, N application enhanced CH 4 and CO 2 emissions from the red soils slightly but inhibited the emissions from paddy soils. The maximal CH 4 and CO 2 emission fluxes occurred in DP soil without N input. Pearson's correlation analysis showed that there were significant correlations (P greenhouse gas emissions mainly through the involvement in denitrification. The proportion of the electrons donated by Fe 2+ used for N 2 O production in denitrification in DP soil was approximately 37.53%. Moreover, positive correlations between Fe 2+ and CH 4 , CO 2 were found in both DR and QP soils, suggesting that endogenous iron might regulate the anaerobic decomposition of organic carbon to CH 4 and CO 2 in the two soils. Soil pH was also an important factor controlling greenhouse gas emissions by affecting endogenous iron availability and C and N transformation processes.

  2. Public Notice of Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic No. 46/2006 Coll. on specific material and facilities that are under supervision of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaclav, J.

    2006-01-01

    The Public Notice defines the list of specific material and facilities which are under supervision of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic with taking into consideration the requirements in accordance with the new atomic Act and other material. The national competence's have been practically divided in the Public Notice. These competence's concern the execution of directly binding EU rule and the Public Notice gives the details about the dividing of specific materials

  3. Interactive effects of relay and circuit breaker aging in a safety-related system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toman, G.J.; Bacanskas, V.P.; Shook, T.A.; Ladlow, C.C.; Gunther, W.

    1987-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the results of a program to evaluate the aging of circuit breakers and relays and the effects of that aging on the function of a safety system used in nuclear power plants. The program was performed under the Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission under subcontract to Brookhaven National Laboratory. There were two primary aspects to the program. In the first, the aging and failure modes of relays and circuit breakers were determined by evaluating the construction, design, and materials and the failure data related to nuclear power plant service. In the second, the interactions between a safety system and its relays and circuit breakers were evaluated to determine the effects of relay and circuit breaker aging on the function of the safety system. The aging of relays and circuit breakers was assessed through evaluation of failure data bases, discussions with utility personnel, and evaluation of equipment operating and maintenance manuals. The interaction study was based on an analysis of the safety injection system of a pressurized water reactor. The effects of stresses from the system were analyzed for the tendency to cause deterioration of the relays and circuit breakers in the system. Then the effect of the deterioration of relays and circuit breakers on the functional capability of the safety system was evaluated

  4. Contribution to the electrothermal simulation in power electronics. Development of a simulation methodology applied to switching circuits under variable operating conditions; Contribution a la simulation electrothermique en electronique de puissance. Developpement d`une methode de simulation pour circuits de commutation soumis a des commandes variables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vales, P.

    1997-03-19

    In modern hybrid or monolithic integrated power circuits, electrothermal effects can no longer be ignored. A methodology is proposed in order to simulate electrothermal effects in power circuits, with a significant reduction of the computation time while taking into account electrical and thermal time constants which are usually widely different. A supervising program, written in Fortran, uses system call sequences and manages an interactive dialog between a fast thermal simulator and a general electrical simulator. This explicit coupling process between two specific simulators requires a multi-task operating system. The developed software allows for the prediction of the electrothermal power dissipation drift in the active areas of components, and the prediction of thermally-induced coupling effects between adjacent components. An application to the study of hard switching circuits working under variable operating conditions is presented

  5. Robust Diagnosis Method Based on Parameter Estimation for an Interturn Short-Circuit Fault in Multipole PMSM under High-Speed Operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jewon; Moon, Seokbae; Jeong, Hyeyun; Kim, Sang Woo

    2015-11-20

    This paper proposes a diagnosis method for a multipole permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) under an interturn short circuit fault. Previous works in this area have suffered from the uncertainties of the PMSM parameters, which can lead to misdiagnosis. The proposed method estimates the q-axis inductance (Lq) of the faulty PMSM to solve this problem. The proposed method also estimates the faulty phase and the value of G, which serves as an index of the severity of the fault. The q-axis current is used to estimate the faulty phase, the values of G and Lq. For this reason, two open-loop observers and an optimization method based on a particle-swarm are implemented. The q-axis current of a healthy PMSM is estimated by the open-loop observer with the parameters of a healthy PMSM. The Lq estimation significantly compensates for the estimation errors in high-speed operation. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can estimate the faulty phase, G, and Lq besides exhibiting robustness against parameter uncertainties.

  6. An Icepak-PSpice Co-Simulation Method to Study the Impact of Bond Wires Fatigue on the Current and Temperature Distribution of IGBT Modules under Short-Circuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Rui; Iannuzzo, Francesco; Wang, Huai

    2014-01-01

    Bond wires fatigue is one of the dominant failure mechanisms of IGBT modules. Prior-art research mainly focuses on its impact on the end-of-life failure, while its effect on the short-circuit capability of IGBT modules is still an open issue. This paper proposes a new electro-thermal simulation...... approach enabling analyze the impact of the bond wires fatigue on the current and temperature distribution on IGBT chip surface under short-circuit. It is based on an Icepack-PSpice co-simulation by taking the advantage of both a finite element thermal model and an advanced PSpice-based multi-cell IGBT...

  7. LOGIC CIRCUIT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, G.H.; Faught, M.L.

    1963-12-24

    A device for safety rod counting in a nuclear reactor is described. A Wheatstone bridge circuit is adapted to prevent de-energizing the hopper coils of a ball backup system if safety rods, sufficient in total control effect, properly enter the reactor core to effect shut down. A plurality of resistances form one arm of the bridge, each resistance being associated with a particular safety rod and weighted in value according to the control effect of the particular safety rod. Switching means are used to switch each of the resistances in and out of the bridge circuit responsive to the presence of a particular safety rod in its effective position in the reactor core and responsive to the attainment of a predetermined velocity by a particular safety rod enroute to its effective position. The bridge is unbalanced in one direction during normal reactor operation prior to the generation of a scram signal and the switching means and resistances are adapted to unbalance the bridge in the opposite direction if the safety rods produce a predetermined amount of control effect in response to the scram signal. The bridge unbalance reversal is then utilized to prevent the actuation of the ball backup system, or, conversely, a failure of the safety rods to produce the predetermined effect produces no unbalance reversal and the ball backup system is actuated. (AEC)

  8. Short- circuit tests of circuit breakers

    OpenAIRE

    Chorovský, P.

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with short-circuit tests of low voltage electrical devices. In the first part of this paper, there are described basic types of short- circuit tests and their principles. Direct and indirect (synthetic) tests with more details are described in the second part. Each test and principles are explained separately. Oscilogram is obtained from short-circuit tests of circuit breakers at laboratory. The aim of this research work is to propose a test circuit for performing indirect test.

  9. Improvements to the DOE low-level waste regulatory structure and process under recommendation 94-2 - progress to date

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regnier, E.

    1995-01-01

    Among the concerns expressed by the Defense Nuclear Facility Safety Board (DNFSB) in its Recommendation 94-2 was the lack of a clearly defined and effective internal Department of Energy (DOE) regulatory oversight and enforcement process for ensuring that low-level radioactive waste management health, safety, and environmental requirements are met. Therefore, part of the response to the DNFSB concern is a task to clarify and strengthen the low-level waste management regulatory structure. This task is being conducted in two steps. First, consistent with the requirements of the current DOE waste management order and within the framework of the current organizational structure, interim clarification of a review process and the associated organizational responsibilities has been issued. Second, in coordination with the revision of the waste management order and consistent with the organizational responsibilities resulting from the strategic alignment of DOE, a rigorous, more independent regulatory oversight structure will be developed

  10. Improvements to the DOE low-level waste regulatory structure and process under recommendation 94-2 - progress to date

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regnier, E.

    1995-12-31

    Among the concerns expressed by the Defense Nuclear Facility Safety Board (DNFSB) in its Recommendation 94-2 was the lack of a clearly defined and effective internal Department of Energy (DOE) regulatory oversight and enforcement process for ensuring that low-level radioactive waste management health, safety, and environmental requirements are met. Therefore, part of the response to the DNFSB concern is a task to clarify and strengthen the low-level waste management regulatory structure. This task is being conducted in two steps. First, consistent with the requirements of the current DOE waste management order and within the framework of the current organizational structure, interim clarification of a review process and the associated organizational responsibilities has been issued. Second, in coordination with the revision of the waste management order and consistent with the organizational responsibilities resulting from the strategic alignment of DOE, a rigorous, more independent regulatory oversight structure will be developed.

  11. Collective of mechatronics circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-02-01

    This book is composed of three parts, which deals with mechatronics system about sensor, circuit and motor. The contents of the first part are photo sensor of collector for output, locating detection circuit with photo interrupts, photo sensor circuit with CdS cell and lamp, interface circuit with logic and LED and temperature sensor circuit. The second part deals with oscillation circuit with crystal, C-R oscillation circuit, F-V converter, timer circuit, stability power circuit, DC amp and DC-DC converter. The last part is comprised of bridge server circuit, deformation bridge server, controlling circuit of DC motor, controlling circuit with IC for PLL and driver circuit of stepping motor and driver circuit of Brushless.

  12. Collective of mechatronics circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1987-02-15

    This book is composed of three parts, which deals with mechatronics system about sensor, circuit and motor. The contents of the first part are photo sensor of collector for output, locating detection circuit with photo interrupts, photo sensor circuit with CdS cell and lamp, interface circuit with logic and LED and temperature sensor circuit. The second part deals with oscillation circuit with crystal, C-R oscillation circuit, F-V converter, timer circuit, stability power circuit, DC amp and DC-DC converter. The last part is comprised of bridge server circuit, deformation bridge server, controlling circuit of DC motor, controlling circuit with IC for PLL and driver circuit of stepping motor and driver circuit of Brushless.

  13. Circuit parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, R

    2000-03-01

    Circuit parties are extended celebrations, lasting from a day to a week, primarily attended by gay and bisexual men in their thirties and forties. These large-scale dance parties move from city to city and draw thousands of participants. The risks for contracting HIV during these parties include recreational drug use and unsafe sex. Limited data exists on the level of risk at these parties, and participants are skeptical of outside help because of past criticism of these events. Health care and HIV advocates can promote risk-reduction strategies with the cooperation of party planners and can counsel individuals to personally reduce their own risk. To convey the message, HIV prevention workers should emphasize positive and community-centered aspects of the parties, such as taking care of friends and avoiding overdose.

  14. Commutation circuit for an HVDC circuit breaker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premerlani, William J.

    1981-01-01

    A commutation circuit for a high voltage DC circuit breaker incorporates a resistor capacitor combination and a charging circuit connected to the main breaker, such that a commutating capacitor is discharged in opposition to the load current to force the current in an arc after breaker opening to zero to facilitate arc interruption. In a particular embodiment, a normally open commutating circuit is connected across the contacts of a main DC circuit breaker to absorb the inductive system energy trapped by breaker opening and to limit recovery voltages to a level tolerable by the commutating circuit components.

  15. Robust dynamical pattern formation from a multifunctional minimal genetic circuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrera Javier

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A practical problem during the analysis of natural networks is their complexity, thus the use of synthetic circuits would allow to unveil the natural mechanisms of operation. Autocatalytic gene regulatory networks play an important role in shaping the development of multicellular organisms, whereas oscillatory circuits are used to control gene expression under variable environments such as the light-dark cycle. Results We propose a new mechanism to generate developmental patterns and oscillations using a minimal number of genes. For this, we design a synthetic gene circuit with an antagonistic self-regulation to study the spatio-temporal control of protein expression. Here, we show that our minimal system can behave as a biological clock or memory, and it exhibites an inherent robustness due to a quorum sensing mechanism. We analyze this property by accounting for molecular noise in an heterogeneous population. We also show how the period of the oscillations is tunable by environmental signals, and we study the bifurcations of the system by constructing different phase diagrams. Conclusions As this minimal circuit is based on a single transcriptional unit, it provides a new mechanism based on post-translational interactions to generate targeted spatio-temporal behavior.

  16. Analog circuit design designing dynamic circuit response

    CERN Document Server

    Feucht, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    This second volume, Designing Dynamic Circuit Response builds upon the first volume Designing Amplifier Circuits by extending coverage to include reactances and their time- and frequency-related behavioral consequences.

  17. Trigger circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verity, P.R.; Chaplain, M.D.; Turner, G.D.J.

    1984-01-01

    A monostable trigger circuit comprises transistors TR2 and TR3 arranged with their collectors and bases interconnected. The collector of the transistor TR2 is connected to the base of transistor TR3 via a capacitor C2 the main current path of a grounded base transistor TR1 and resistive means R2,R3. The collector of transistor TR3 is connected to the base of transistor TR2 via resistive means R6, R7. In the stable state all the transistors are OFF, the capacitor C2 is charged, and the output is LOW. A positive pulse input to the base of TR2 switches it ON, which in turn lowers the voltage at points A and B and so switches TR1 ON so that C2 can discharge via R2, R3, which in turn switches TR3 ON making the output high. Thus all three transistors are latched ON. When C2 has discharged sufficiently TR1 switches OFF, followed by TR3 (making the output low again) and TR2. The components C1, C3 and R4 serve to reduce noise, and the diode D1 is optional. (author)

  18. Circuit card failures and industry mitigation strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondal, U. [Candu Owners Group, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2012-07-01

    In recent years the nuclear industry has experienced an increase in circuit card failures due to ageing of components, inadequate Preventive Maintenance (PM), lack of effective circuit card health monitoring, etc. Circuit card failures have caused loss of critical equipment, e.g., electro hydraulic governors, Safety Systems, resulting in loss of function and in some cases loss of generation. INPO completed a root cause analysis of 40 Reactor Trips/Scrams in US reactors and has recommended several actions to mitigate Circuit Card failures. Obsolescence of discrete components has posed many challenges in conducting effective preventative maintenance on circuit cards. In many cases, repairs have resulted in installation of components that compromise performance of the circuit cards. Improper termination and worn edge connectors have caused intermittent contacts contributing to circuit card failures. Traditionally, little attention is paid to relay functions and preventative maintenance of relay. Relays contribute significantly to circuit card failures and have dominated loss of generation across the power industry. The INPO study recommended a number of actions to mitigate circuit card failures, such as; identification of critical components and single point vulnerabilities; strategic preventative maintenance; protection of circuit boards against electrostatic discharge; limiting power cycles; performing an effective burn-in prior to commissioning of the circuit cards; monitoring performance of DC power supplies; limiting cabinet temperatures; managing of component aging/degradation mechanism, etc. A subcommittee has been set up under INPO sponsorship to understand the causes of circuit card failure and to develop an effective mitigation strategy. (author)

  19. Output signal analysis for a variation of the R-C passive elements in a 4-2 mA R-L-C equivalent circuit modeling under a high temperature accident condition in NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kil-Mo, Koo; Sang-Baik, Kim; Hee-Dong, Kim; Gyu-Tae, Kim

    2007-01-01

    An electrical signal should be checked to see whether it lies within its expected electrical range when there is a doubtful condition. The normal signal level for pressure, flow, level and resistance temperature detector sensors is 4-20 mA in most industrial process controls. In the case of an abnormal signal level from an instrument under a severe accident condition, it is necessary to obtain a more accurate signal validation to operate a system in a control room in NPPs. Diagnostics and analysis for some abnormal signals have been performed through an important equivalent circuits modeling for passive elements under severe accident conditions. Unlike the design basis accidents, there are some inherent uncertainties for the instrumentation capabilities under severe accident conditions. In this paper, to implement a diagnostic analysis for an equivalent circuits modeling, a kind of linked LabVIEW program for each PSpice and MULTI-SIM code is introduced as a one body order system, which can obtain some abnormal signal patterns by a special function such as an advanced simulation tool for each PSpice and Multi-SIM code as a means of a function for a PC based ASSA (Abnormal Signal Simulation Analyzer) module. The output signal can be analyzed by a comparative analysis of each PSpice and Multi-SIM code for a 4-20 mA circuit modeling which is by a composition of an R-L-C passive circuit as an alternating range of the elements for the temperature accident condition. In this simulation, a new simulator through an analysis of the important equivalent circuits modeling has been designed, the designed simulator is composed of the LabVIEW code as a main tool and the out-put file of each PSpice code and a Multi-SIM engine code as an engine tool is exported to the in-put file of the LabVIEW code. There are 3 main function units of the ASSA module, the first one is individual PSpice and Multi-SIM engine code units to comprise an equivalent circuit element, the second one is the

  20. The air quality and regional climate effects of widespread solar power generation under a changing regulatory environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millstein, D.; Zhai, P.; Menon, S.

    2011-12-01

    Over the past decade significant reductions of NOx and SOx emissions from coal burning power plants in the U.S. have been achieved due to regulatory action and substitution of new generation towards natural gas and wind power. Low natural gas prices, ever decreasing solar generation costs, and proposed regulatory changes, such as to the Cross State Air Pollution Rule, promise further long-run coal power plant emission reductions. Reduced power plant emissions have the potential to affect ozone and particulate air quality and influence regional climate through aerosol cloud interactions and visibility effects. Here we investigate, on a national scale, the effects on future (~2030) air quality and regional climate of power plant emission regulations in contrast to and combination with policies designed to aggressively promote solar electricity generation. A sophisticated, economic and engineering based, hourly power generation dispatch model is developed to explore the integration of significant solar generation resources (>10% on an energy basis) at various regions across the county, providing detailed estimates of substitution of solar generation for fossil fuel generation resources. Future air pollutant emissions from all sectors of the economy are scaled based on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's National Emission Inventory to account for activity changes based on population and economic projections derived from county level U.S. Census data and the Energy Information Administration's Annual Energy Outlook. Further adjustments are made for technological and regulatory changes applicable within various sectors, for example, emission intensity adjustments to on-road diesel trucking due to exhaust treatment and improved engine design. The future year 2030 is selected for the emissions scenarios to allow for the development of significant solar generation resources. A regional climate and air quality model (Weather Research and Forecasting, WRF model) is

  1. Circuit design on plastic foils

    CERN Document Server

    Raiteri, Daniele; Roermund, Arthur H M

    2015-01-01

    This book illustrates a variety of circuit designs on plastic foils and provides all the information needed to undertake successful designs in large-area electronics.  The authors demonstrate architectural, circuit, layout, and device solutions and explain the reasons and the creative process behind each. Readers will learn how to keep under control large-area technologies and achieve robust, reliable circuit designs that can face the challenges imposed by low-cost low-temperature high-throughput manufacturing.   • Discusses implications of problems associated with large-area electronics and compares them to standard silicon; • Provides the basis for understanding physics and modeling of disordered material; • Includes guidelines to quickly setup the basic CAD tools enabling efficient and reliable designs; • Illustrates practical solutions to cope with hard/soft faults, variability, mismatch, aging and bias stress at architecture, circuit, layout, and device levels.

  2. Circuit analysis for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Santiago, John

    2013-01-01

    Circuits overloaded from electric circuit analysis? Many universities require that students pursuing a degree in electrical or computer engineering take an Electric Circuit Analysis course to determine who will ""make the cut"" and continue in the degree program. Circuit Analysis For Dummies will help these students to better understand electric circuit analysis by presenting the information in an effective and straightforward manner. Circuit Analysis For Dummies gives you clear-cut information about the topics covered in an electric circuit analysis courses to help

  3. Current limiter circuit system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witcher, Joseph Brandon; Bredemann, Michael V.

    2017-09-05

    An apparatus comprising a steady state sensing circuit, a switching circuit, and a detection circuit. The steady state sensing circuit is connected to a first, a second and a third node. The first node is connected to a first device, the second node is connected to a second device, and the steady state sensing circuit causes a scaled current to flow at the third node. The scaled current is proportional to a voltage difference between the first and second node. The switching circuit limits an amount of current that flows between the first and second device. The detection circuit is connected to the third node and the switching circuit. The detection circuit monitors the scaled current at the third node and controls the switching circuit to limit the amount of the current that flows between the first and second device when the scaled current is greater than a desired level.

  4. Regulatory agencies and regulatory risk

    OpenAIRE

    Knieps, Günter; Weiß, Hans-Jörg

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to show that regulatory risk is due to the discretionary behaviour of regulatory agencies, caused by a too extensive regulatory mandate provided by the legislator. The normative point of reference and a behavioural model of regulatory agencies based on the positive theory of regulation are presented. Regulatory risk with regard to the future behaviour of regulatory agencies is modelled as the consequence of the ex ante uncertainty about the relative influence of inter...

  5. On inappropriately used neuronal circuits as a possible basis of the ``loop-swimming'' behaviour of fish under reduced gravity: a theoretical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anken, R. H.; Rahmann, H.

    One hypothesis for the explanation of the so-called ``loop-swimming'' behaviour in fish when being subjected to reduced gravity assumes that the activities of the differently weighted otoliths of the two labyrinths are well compensated on ground but that a functional asymmetry is induced in weightlessness, resulting in a tonus asymmetry of the body and by this generating the ``loop-swimming'' behaviour. The basis of this abnormal behaviour has to be searched for in the central nervous system (cns), where the signal-transduction from the inner ear- related signal internalisation to the signal response takes place. Circuits within the CNS of fish, that could possibly generate the ``loop-swimming'', might be as follows: An asymmetric activation of vestibulospinal circuits would directly result in a tonus asymmetry of the body. An asymmetric activation of the oculomotor nucleus would generate an asymmetrical rotation of the eyes. This would cause in its turn asymmetric images on the two retinas, which were forwarded to the diencephalic accessory optic system (AOS). It is the task of the AOS to stabilize retinal images, thereby involving the cerebellum, which is the main integration center for sensory and motor modalities. With this, the cerebellar output would generate a tonus asymmetry of the body in order to make the body of the fish follow its eyes. Such movements (especially when assuming an open loop control) would end up in the aforementioned ``loop-swimming'' behaviour.

  6. Asymptotic and numerical prediction of current-voltage curves for an organic bilayer solar cell under varying illumination and comparison to the Shockley equivalent circuit

    KAUST Repository

    Foster, J. M.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a drift-diffusion model is used to derive the current-voltage curves of an organic bilayer solar cell consisting of slabs of electron acceptor and electron donor materials sandwiched together between current collectors. A simplified version of the standard drift-diffusion equations is employed in which minority carrier densities are neglected. This is justified by the large disparities in electron affinity and ionisation potential between the two materials. The resulting equations are solved (via both asymptotic and numerical techniques) in conjunction with (i) Ohmic boundary conditions on the contacts and (ii) an internal boundary condition, imposed on the interface between the two materials, that accounts for charge pair generation (resulting from the dissociation of excitons) and charge pair recombination. Current-voltage curves are calculated from the solution to this model as a function of the strength of the solar charge generation. In the physically relevant power generating regime, it is shown that these current-voltage curves are well-approximated by a Shockley equivalent circuit model. Furthermore, since our drift-diffusion model is predictive, it can be used to directly calculate equivalent circuit parameters from the material parameters of the device. © 2013 AIP Publishing LLC.

  7. Intuitive analog circuit design

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Intuitive Analog Circuit Design outlines ways of thinking about analog circuits and systems that let you develop a feel for what a good, working analog circuit design should be. This book reflects author Marc Thompson's 30 years of experience designing analog and power electronics circuits and teaching graduate-level analog circuit design, and is the ideal reference for anyone who needs a straightforward introduction to the subject. In this book, Dr. Thompson describes intuitive and ""back-of-the-envelope"" techniques for designing and analyzing analog circuits, including transistor amplifi

  8. The circuit designer's companion

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Tim

    1991-01-01

    The Circuit Designer's Companion covers the theoretical aspects and practices in analogue and digital circuit design. Electronic circuit design involves designing a circuit that will fulfill its specified function and designing the same circuit so that every production model of it will fulfill its specified function, and no other undesired and unspecified function.This book is composed of nine chapters and starts with a review of the concept of grounding, wiring, and printed circuits. The subsequent chapters deal with the passive and active components of circuitry design. These topics are foll

  9. Electronic devices and circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Pridham, Gordon John

    1972-01-01

    Electronic Devices and Circuits, Volume 3 provides a comprehensive account on electronic devices and circuits and includes introductory network theory and physics. The physics of semiconductor devices is described, along with field effect transistors, small-signal equivalent circuits of bipolar transistors, and integrated circuits. Linear and non-linear circuits as well as logic circuits are also considered. This volume is comprised of 12 chapters and begins with an analysis of the use of Laplace transforms for analysis of filter networks, followed by a discussion on the physical properties of

  10. Electrical Circuits and Water Analogies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Frederick A.; Wilson, Jerry D.

    1974-01-01

    Briefly describes water analogies for electrical circuits and presents plans for the construction of apparatus to demonstrate these analogies. Demonstrations include series circuits, parallel circuits, and capacitors. (GS)

  11. Electric circuits essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, Editors of

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Electric Circuits I includes units, notation, resistive circuits, experimental laws, transient circuits, network theorems, techniques of circuit analysis, sinusoidal analysis, polyph

  12. Up in smoke: regulatory immortality for 'grandfathered' power plants under the NSR rule changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conrad G. Schneider [Clean Air Task Force (USA)

    2004-01-01

    The US New Source Review (NSR) program requires power plant owners to install modern pollution control whenever they upgrade their plants in a way that will cause more pollution. The Clean Air Task Force and other environmental organizations and dozens of states and municipalities have challenged changes to the NSR rule change exempting grandfathered power plants under certain conditions. The author discussed this legislation and whether the Clear Skies Act will be effective. 9 refs.

  13. Quasi-Linear Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, William; Bird, Ross; Eldred, Dennis; Zook, Jon; Knowles, Gareth

    2013-01-01

    This work involved developing spacequalifiable switch mode DC/DC power supplies that improve performance with fewer components, and result in elimination of digital components and reduction in magnetics. This design is for missions where systems may be operating under extreme conditions, especially at elevated temperature levels from 200 to 300 degC. Prior art for radiation-tolerant DC/DC converters has been accomplished utilizing classical magnetic-based switch mode converter topologies; however, this requires specific shielding and component de-rating to meet the high-reliability specifications. It requires complex measurement and feedback components, and will not enable automatic re-optimization for larger changes in voltage supply or electrical loading condition. The innovation is a switch mode DC/DC power supply that eliminates the need for processors and most magnetics. It can provide a well-regulated voltage supply with a gain of 1:100 step-up to 8:1 step down, tolerating an up to 30% fluctuation of the voltage supply parameters. The circuit incorporates a ceramic core transformer in a manner that enables it to provide a well-regulated voltage output without use of any processor components or magnetic transformers. The circuit adjusts its internal parameters to re-optimize its performance for changes in supply voltage, environmental conditions, or electrical loading at the output

  14. Piezoelectric drive circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treu, C.A. Jr.

    1999-08-31

    A piezoelectric motor drive circuit is provided which utilizes the piezoelectric elements as oscillators and a Meacham half-bridge approach to develop feedback from the motor ground circuit to produce a signal to drive amplifiers to power the motor. The circuit automatically compensates for shifts in harmonic frequency of the piezoelectric elements due to pressure and temperature changes. 7 figs.

  15. Load testing circuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    A load testing circuit a circuit tests the load impedance of a load connected to an amplifier. The load impedance includes a first terminal and a second terminal, the load testing circuit comprising a signal generator providing a test signal of a defined bandwidth to the first terminal of the load...

  16. Short-circuit logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Ponse, A.

    2010-01-01

    Short-circuit evaluation denotes the semantics of propositional connectives in which the second argument is only evaluated if the first argument does not suffice to determine the value of the expression. In programming, short-circuit evaluation is widely used. A short-circuit logic is a variant of

  17. Signal sampling circuit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwsma, S.M.; Vertregt, Maarten

    2011-01-01

    A sampling circuit for sampling a signal is disclosed. The sampling circuit comprises a plurality of sampling channels adapted to sample the signal in time-multiplexed fashion, each sampling channel comprising a respective track-and-hold circuit connected to a respective analogue to digital

  18. Signal sampling circuit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwsma, S.M.; Vertregt, Maarten

    2010-01-01

    A sampling circuit for sampling a signal is disclosed. The sampling circuit comprises a plurality of sampling channels adapted to sample the signal in time-multiplexed fashion, each sampling channel comprising a respective track-and-hold circuit connected to a respective analogue to digital

  19. Modulation of redox regulatory molecules and electron transport chain activity in muscle of air breathing fish Heteropneustes fossilis under air exposure stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paital, Biswaranjan

    2014-01-01

    Responses of redox regulatory system to long-term survival (>18 h) of the catfish Heteropneustes fossilis in air are not yet understood. Lipid and protein oxidation level, oxidant (H2O2) generation, antioxidative status (levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and reductase, ascorbic acid and non-protein sulfhydryl) and activities of respiratory complexes (I, II, III and IV) in mitochondria were investigated in muscle of H. fossilis under air exposure condition (0, 3, 6, 12 and 18 h at 25 °C). The increased levels of both H2O2 and tissue oxidation were observed due to the decreased activities of antioxidant enzymes in muscle under water deprivation condition. However, ascorbic acid and non-protein thiol groups were the highest at 18 h air exposure time. A linear increase in complex II activity with air exposure time and an increase up to 12 h followed by a decrease in activity of complex I at 18 h were observed. Negative correlation was observed for complex III and V activity with exposure time. Critical time to modulate the above parameters was found to be 3 h air exposure. Dehydration induced oxidative stress due to modulation of electron transport chain and redox metabolizing enzymes in muscle of H. fossilis was clearly observed. Possible contribution of redox regulatory system in muscle tissue of the fish for long-term survival in air is elucidated. Results of the present study may be useful to understand the redox metabolism in muscle of fishes those are exposed to air in general and air breathing fishes in particular.

  20. Regulatory Architecture of the LβT2 Gonadotrope Cell Underlying the Response to Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederique Ruf-Zamojski

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The LβT2 mouse pituitary cell line has many characteristics of a mature gonadotrope and is a widely used model system for studying the developmental processes and the response to gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH. The global epigenetic landscape, which contributes to cell-specific gene regulatory mechanisms, and the single-cell transcriptome response variation of LβT2 cells have not been previously investigated. Here, we integrate the transcriptome and genome-wide chromatin accessibility state of LβT2 cells during GnRH stimulation. In addition, we examine cell-to-cell variability in the transcriptional response to GnRH using Gel bead-in-Emulsion Drop-seq technology. Analysis of a bulk RNA-seq data set obtained 45 min after exposure to either GnRH or vehicle identified 112 transcripts that were regulated >4-fold by GnRH (FDR < 0.05. The top regulated transcripts constitute, as determined by Bayesian massive public data integration analysis, a human pituitary-relevant coordinated gene program. Chromatin accessibility [assay for transposase-accessible chromatin with high-throughput sequencing (ATAC-seq] data sets generated from GnRH-treated LβT2 cells identified more than 58,000 open chromatin regions, some containing notches consistent with bound transcription factor footprints. The study of the most prominent open regions showed that 75% were in transcriptionally active promoters or introns, supporting their involvement in active transcription. Lhb, Cga, and Egr1 showed significantly open chromatin over their promoters. While Fshb was closed over its promoter, several discrete significantly open regions were found at −40 to −90 kb, which may represent novel upstream enhancers. Chromatin accessibility determined by ATAC-seq was associated with high levels of gene expression determined by RNA-seq. We obtained high-quality single-cell Gel bead-in-Emulsion Drop-seq transcriptome data, with an average of >4,000 expressed genes

  1. Statistical modeling implicates neuroanatomical circuit mediating stress relief by 'comfort' food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich-Lai, Yvonne M; Christiansen, Anne M; Wang, Xia; Song, Seongho; Herman, James P

    2016-07-01

    A history of eating highly palatable foods reduces physiological and emotional responses to stress. For instance, we have previously shown that limited sucrose intake (4 ml of 30 % sucrose twice daily for 14 days) reduces hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis responses to stress. However, the neural mechanisms underlying stress relief by such 'comfort' foods are unclear, and could reveal an endogenous brain pathway for stress mitigation. As such, the present work assessed the expression of several proteins related to neuronal activation and/or plasticity in multiple stress- and reward-regulatory brain regions of rats after limited sucrose (vs. water control) intake. These data were then subjected to a series of statistical analyses, including Bayesian modeling, to identify the most likely neurocircuit mediating stress relief by sucrose. The analyses suggest that sucrose reduces HPA activation by dampening an excitatory basolateral amygdala-medial amygdala circuit, while also potentiating an inhibitory bed nucleus of the stria terminalis principle subdivision-mediated circuit, resulting in reduced HPA activation after stress. Collectively, the results support the hypothesis that sucrose limits stress responses via plastic changes to the structure and function of stress-regulatory neural circuits. The work also illustrates that advanced statistical methods are useful approaches to identify potentially novel and important underlying relationships in biological datasets.

  2. Statistical modeling implicates neuroanatomical circuit mediating stress relief by ‘comfort’ food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich-Lai, Yvonne M.; Christiansen, Anne M.; Wang, Xia; Song, Seongho; Herman, James P.

    2015-01-01

    A history of eating highly-palatable foods reduces physiological and emotional responses to stress. For instance, we have previously shown that limited sucrose intake (4 ml of 30% sucrose twice daily for 14 days) reduces hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis responses to stress. However, the neural mechanisms underlying stress relief by such ‘comfort’ foods are unclear, and could reveal an endogenous brain pathway for stress mitigation. As such, the present work assessed the expression of several proteins related to neuronal activation and/or plasticity in multiple stress- and reward-regulatory brain regions of rats after limited sucrose (vs. water control) intake. These data were then subjected to a series of statistical analyses, including Bayesian modeling, to identify the most likely neurocircuit mediating stress relief by sucrose. The analyses suggest that sucrose reduces HPA activation by dampening an excitatory basolateral amygdala - medial amygdala circuit, while also potentiating an inhibitory bed nucleus of the stria terminalis principle subdivision-mediated circuit, resulting in reduced HPA activation after stress. Collectively, the results support the hypothesis that sucrose limits stress responses via plastic changes to the structure and function of stress-regulatory neural circuits. The work also illustrates that advanced statistical methods are useful approaches to identify potentially novel and important underlying relationships in biological data sets. PMID:26246177

  3. The TCA Pathway is an Important Player in the Regulatory Network Governing Vibrio alginolyticus Adhesion Under Adversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lixing; Huang, Li; Yan, Qingpi; Qin, Yingxue; Ma, Ying; Lin, Mao; Xu, Xiaojin; Zheng, Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Adhesion is a critical step in the initial stage of Vibrio alginolyticus infection; therefore, it is important to understand the underlying mechanisms governing the adhesion of V. alginolyticus and determine if environmental factors have any effect. A greater understanding of this process may assist in developing preventive measures for reducing infection. In our previous research, we presented the first RNA-seq data from V. alginolyticus cultured under stress conditions that resulted in reduced adhesion. Based on the RNA-seq data, we found that the Tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA pathway) might be closely related to adhesion. Environmental interactions with the TCA pathway might alter adhesion. To validate this, bioinformatics analysis, quantitative Real-Time PCR (qPCR), RNAi, and in vitro adhesion assays were performed, while V. alginolyticus was treated with various stresses including temperature, pH, salinity, and starvation. The expression of genes involved in the TCA pathway was confirmed by qPCR, which reinforced the reliability of the sequencing data. Silencing of these genes was capable of reducing the adhesion ability of V. alginolyticus. Adhesion of V. alginolyticus is influenced substantially by environmental factors and the TCA pathway is sensitive to some environmental stresses, especially changes in pH and starvation. Our results indicated that (1) the TCA pathway plays a key role in V. alginolyticus adhesion: (2) the TCA pathway is sensitive to environmental stresses.

  4. The TCA pathway is an important player in the regulatory network governing Vibrio alginolyticus adhesion under adversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixing eHuang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Adhesion is a critical step in the initial stage of Vibrio alginolyticus infection; therefore, it is important to understand the underlying mechanisms governing the adhesion of V. alginolyticus and determine if environmental factors have any effect. A greater understanding of this process may assist in developing preventive measures for reducing infection. In our previous research, we presented the first RNA-seq data from V. alginolyticus cultured under stress conditions that resulted in reduced adhesion. Based on the RNA-seq data, we found that the Tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA pathway might be closely related to adhesion. Environmental interactions with the TCA pathway might alter adhesion. To validate this, bioinformatics analysis, qPCR, RNAi and in vitro adhesion assays were performed, while V. alginolyticus was treated with various stresses including temperature, pH, salinity and starvation. The expression of genes involved in the TCA pathway was confirmed by qPCR, which reinforced the reliability of the sequencing data. Silencing of these genes was capable of reducing the adhesion ability of V. alginolyticus. Adhesion of V. alginolyticus is influenced substantially by environmental factors and the TCA pathway is sensitive to some environmental stresses, especially changes in pH and starvation. Our results indicated that 1 the TCA pathway plays a key role in V. alginolyticus adhesion: 2 the TCA pathway is sensitive to environmental stresses.

  5. Environmental impacts of combining pig slurry acidification and separation under different regulatory regimes - a life cycle assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    ten Hoeve, Marieke; Gomez Muñoz, Beatriz; Jensen, Lars Stoumann

    2016-01-01

    Global livestock production is increasing rapidly, leading to larger amounts of manure and environmental impacts. Technologies that can be applied to treat manure in order to decrease certain environmental impacts include separation and acidification. In this study, a life cycle assessment was used...... on the environmental impacts of the technologies. The impact categories analysed were climate change, terrestrial, marine and freshwater eutrophication, fossil resource depletion and toxicity potential. In-house slurry acidification appeared to be the most beneficial scenario under both N and P regulations. Slurry...... separation led to a lower freshwater eutrophication potential than the other scenarios in which N regulations alone were in force, while these environmental benefits disappeared after implementation of stricter P regulations. With N regulations alone, there was a synergetic positive effect of combining in-house...

  6. Under the Cloak of Whiteness: A Circuit of Culture Analysis of Opportunity Hoarding and Colour-blind Racism Inside US Advertising Internship Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Boulton

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on qualitative fieldwork at three large agencies, this article adapts Richard Johnson’s “circuit of culture” (1986 as a framework to examine both the material practices that help reproduce an overwhelmingly white labour force within US advertising agencies and the ideological screens that conceal them from scrutiny, critique, and reform. I argue that efforts to diversify advertising through internship-based affirmative action programs are ultimately undermined and overwhelmed by the more widespread systems of white privilege whereby agency executives and powerful clients bypass the application process and directly place personal friends and relatives into highly sought after internship slots. Furthermore, I contend that such material practices of class preference are masked, and thereby enabled, by ideological screens of colour-blind meritocracy. I argue that colour-blindness leads to meritocracy in theory, but race discrimination in practice, and conclude with a discussion of some possible implications for communication theory in general and critical media industry studies in particular.

  7. Feedback in analog circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Ochoa, Agustin

    2016-01-01

    This book describes a consistent and direct methodology to the analysis and design of analog circuits with particular application to circuits containing feedback. The analysis and design of circuits containing feedback is generally presented by either following a series of examples where each circuit is simplified through the use of insight or experience (someone else’s), or a complete nodal-matrix analysis generating lots of algebra. Neither of these approaches leads to gaining insight into the design process easily. The author develops a systematic approach to circuit analysis, the Driving Point Impedance and Signal Flow Graphs (DPI/SFG) method that does not require a-priori insight to the circuit being considered and results in factored analysis supporting the design function. This approach enables designers to account fully for loading and the bi-directional nature of elements both in the feedback path and in the amplifier itself, properties many times assumed negligible and ignored. Feedback circuits a...

  8. Regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This publication, compiled in 8 chapters, presents the regulatory system developed by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NRA) of the Argentine Republic. The following activities and developed topics in this document describe: the evolution of the nuclear regulatory activity in Argentina; the Argentine regulatory system; the nuclear regulatory laws and standards; the inspection and safeguards of nuclear facilities; the emergency systems; the environmental systems; the environmental monitoring; the analysis laboratories on physical and biological dosimetry, prenatal irradiation, internal irradiation, radiation measurements, detection techniques on nuclear testing, medical program on radiation protection; the institutional relations with national and international organization; the training courses and meeting; the technical information

  9. Groundwater Modeling in Support of Water Resources Management and Planning under Complex Climate, Regulatory, and Economic Stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emin C. Dogrul

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater is an important resource that meets part or all of the water demand in many developed basins. Since it is an integral part of the hydrologic cycle, management of groundwater resources must consider not only the management of surface flows but also the variability in climate. In addition, agricultural and urban activities both affect the availability of water resources and are affected by it. Arguably, the Central Valley of the State of California, USA, can be considered a basin where all stresses that can possibly affect the management of groundwater resources seem to have come together: a vibrant economy that depends on water, a relatively dry climate, a disparity between water demand and availability both in time and space, heavily managed stream flows that are susceptible to water quality issues and sea level rise, degradation of aquifer conditions due to over-pumping, and degradation of the environment with multiple species becoming endangered. Over the past fifteen years, the California Department of Water Resources has developed and maintained the Integrated Water Flow Model (IWFM to aid in groundwater management and planning under complex, and often competing, requirements. This paper will describe features of IWFM as a generic modeling tool, and showcase several of its innovative applications within California.

  10. Improving nuclear regulatory effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Ensuring that nuclear installations are operated and maintained in such a way that their impact on public health and safety is as low as reasonably practicable has been and will continue to be the cornerstone of nuclear regulation. In the past, nuclear incidents provided the main impetus for regulatory change. Today, economic factors, deregulation, technological advancements, government oversight and the general requirements for openness and accountability are leading regulatory bodies to review their effectiveness. In addition, seeking to enhance the present level of nuclear safety by continuously improving the effectiveness of regulatory bodies is seen as one of the ways to strengthen public confidence in the regulatory systems. This report covers the basic concepts underlying nuclear regulatory effectiveness, advances being made and future requirements. The intended audience is primarily nuclear safety regulators, but government authorities, nuclear power plant operators and the general public may also be interested. (author)

  11. Regulatory role of tetR gene in a novel gene cluster of Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae RS-1 under oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He eLiu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae is the causal agent of bacterial brown stripe disease in rice. In this study, we characterized a novel horizontal transfer of a gene cluster, including tetR, on the chromosome of A. avenae subsp. avenae RS-1 by genome-wide analysis. TetR acted as a repressor in this gene cluster and the oxidative stress resistance was enhanced in tetR-deletion mutant strain. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA demonstrated that TetR regulator bound directly to the promoter of this gene cluster. Consistently, the results of quantitative real-time PCR also showed alterations in expression of associated genes. Moreover, the proteins affected by TetR under oxidative stress were revealed by comparing proteomic profiles of wild-type and mutant strains via 1D SDS-PAGE and LC-MS/MS analyses. Taken together, our results demonstrated that tetR gene in this novel gene cluster contributed to cell survival under oxidative stress, and TetR protein played an important regulatory role in growth kinetics, biofilm-forming capability, SOD and catalase activity, and oxide detoxicating ability.

  12. Regulatory role of tetR gene in a novel gene cluster of Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae RS-1 under oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, He; Yang, Chun-Lan; Ge, Meng-Yu; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Li, Bin; Zhao, Wen-Jun; Chen, Gong-You; Zhu, Bo; Xie, Guan-Lin

    2014-01-01

    Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae is the causal agent of bacterial brown stripe disease in rice. In this study, we characterized a novel horizontal transfer of a gene cluster, including tetR, on the chromosome of A. avenae subsp. avenae RS-1 by genome-wide analysis. TetR acted as a repressor in this gene cluster and the oxidative stress resistance was enhanced in tetR-deletion mutant strain. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay demonstrated that TetR regulator bound directly to the promoter of this gene cluster. Consistently, the results of quantitative real-time PCR also showed alterations in expression of associated genes. Moreover, the proteins affected by TetR under oxidative stress were revealed by comparing proteomic profiles of wild-type and mutant strains via 1D SDS-PAGE and LC-MS/MS analyses. Taken together, our results demonstrated that tetR gene in this novel gene cluster contributed to cell survival under oxidative stress, and TetR protein played an important regulatory role in growth kinetics, biofilm-forming capability, superoxide dismutase and catalase activity, and oxide detoxicating ability.

  13. The role of First Nations in oil and gas development under federal regulatory regimes: Options for change and lessons from New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, T. R. [Borden, Ladner, Gervais, LLP., Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    This thesis was prepared at the University of Ottawa in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Laws (LL.M.). It is included here in its entirety. It outlines the role played by First Nations under federal oil and gas regulatory regimes and makes recommendations designed to enable First Nations groups to participate in oil and gas development. A persuasive argument is made on legal and policy grounds for an active role for First Nations in oil and gas development within their traditional territories. This position is supported by a comprehensive analysis of three federal oil and gas regimes -- the Northern, Offshore and Indian Reserve regimes -- their legislative frameworks and recent developments in aboriginal jurisprudence and policy. Further support for the recommendations is adduced by comparing the Canadian situation with relevant contemporary resource management issues in New Zealand. The author recommends the immediate creation of a Consultation Model for a range of consultation processes that vary depending upon the nature of the issue. Over the longer term, development of First Nation Models is recommended. These models should be adjustable by careful monitoring of the successes and failures of First Nation oil and gas management regimes under Comprehensive Land Claim Agreements. It is suggested that internal capacity issues with respect to infrastructure and expertise must be addressed before First Nation groups can establish economically viable oil and gas models. [320 refs.].

  14. Towards a predictive theory for genetic regulatory networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkacik, Gasper

    When cells respond to changes in the environment by regulating the expression levels of their genes, we often draw parallels between these biological processes and engineered information processing systems. One can go beyond this qualitative analogy, however, by analyzing information transmission in biochemical ``hardware'' using Shannon's information theory. Here, gene regulation is viewed as a transmission channel operating under restrictive constraints set by the resource costs and intracellular noise. We present a series of results demonstrating that a theory of information transmission in genetic regulatory circuits feasibly yields non-trivial, testable predictions. These predictions concern strategies by which individual gene regulatory elements, e.g., promoters or enhancers, read out their signals; as well as strategies by which small networks of genes, independently or in spatially coupled settings, respond to their inputs. These predictions can be quantitatively compared to the known regulatory networks and their function, and can elucidate how reproducible biological processes, such as embryonic development, can be orchestrated by networks built out of noisy components. Preliminary successes in the gap gene network of the fruit fly Drosophila indicate that a full ab initio theoretical prediction of a regulatory network is possible, a feat that has not yet been achieved for any real regulatory network. We end by describing open challenges on the path towards such a prediction.

  15. Electric circuits and signals

    CERN Document Server

    Sabah, Nassir H

    2007-01-01

    Circuit Variables and Elements Overview Learning Objectives Electric Current Voltage Electric Power and Energy Assigned Positive Directions Active and Passive Circuit Elements Voltage and Current Sources The Resistor The Capacitor The Inductor Concluding Remarks Summary of Main Concepts and Results Learning Outcomes Supplementary Topics on CD Problems and Exercises Basic Circuit Connections and Laws Overview Learning Objectives Circuit Terminology Kirchhoff's Laws Voltage Division and Series Connection of Resistors Current Division and Parallel Connection of Resistors D-Y Transformation Source Equivalence and Transformation Reduced-Voltage Supply Summary of Main Concepts and Results Learning Outcomes Supplementary Topics and Examples on CD Problems and Exercises Basic Analysis of Resistive Circuits Overview Learning Objectives Number of Independent Circuit Equations Node-Voltage Analysis Special Considerations in Node-Voltage Analysis Mesh-Current Analysis Special Conside...

  16. [Shunt and short circuit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel-Abundis, Alberto

    2006-01-01

    Shunt and short circuit are antonyms. In French, the term shunt has been adopted to denote the alternative pathway of blood flow. However, in French, as well as in Spanish, the word short circuit (court-circuit and cortocircuito) is synonymous with shunt, giving rise to a linguistic and scientific inconsistency. Scientific because shunt and short circuit made reference to a phenomenon that occurs in the field of the physics. Because shunt and short circuit are antonyms, it is necessary to clarify that shunt is an alternative pathway of flow from a net of high resistance to a net of low resistance, maintaining the stream. Short circuit is the interruption of the flow, because a high resistance impeaches the flood. This concept is applied to electrical and cardiovascular physiology, as well as to the metabolic pathways.

  17. Analog circuits cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Hickman, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Analog Circuits Cookbook presents articles about advanced circuit techniques, components and concepts, useful IC for analog signal processing in the audio range, direct digital synthesis, and ingenious video op-amp. The book also includes articles about amplitude measurements on RF signals, linear optical imager, power supplies and devices, and RF circuits and techniques. Professionals and students of electrical engineering will find the book informative and useful.

  18. Analog circuit design

    CERN Document Server

    Dobkin, Bob

    2012-01-01

    Analog circuit and system design today is more essential than ever before. With the growth of digital systems, wireless communications, complex industrial and automotive systems, designers are being challenged to develop sophisticated analog solutions. This comprehensive source book of circuit design solutions aids engineers with elegant and practical design techniques that focus on common analog challenges. The book's in-depth application examples provide insight into circuit design and application solutions that you can apply in today's demanding designs. <

  19. Regenerative feedback resonant circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A. Mark; Kelly, James F.; McCloy, John S.; McMakin, Douglas L.

    2014-09-02

    A regenerative feedback resonant circuit for measuring a transient response in a loop is disclosed. The circuit includes an amplifier for generating a signal in the loop. The circuit further includes a resonator having a resonant cavity and a material located within the cavity. The signal sent into the resonator produces a resonant frequency. A variation of the resonant frequency due to perturbations in electromagnetic properties of the material is measured.

  20. CMOS circuits manual

    CERN Document Server

    Marston, R M

    1995-01-01

    CMOS Circuits Manual is a user's guide for CMOS. The book emphasizes the practical aspects of CMOS and provides circuits, tables, and graphs to further relate the fundamentals with the applications. The text first discusses the basic principles and characteristics of the CMOS devices. The succeeding chapters detail the types of CMOS IC, including simple inverter, gate and logic ICs and circuits, and complex counters and decoders. The last chapter presents a miscellaneous collection of two dozen useful CMOS circuits. The book will be useful to researchers and professionals who employ CMOS circu

  1. Timergenerator circuits manual

    CERN Document Server

    Marston, R M

    2013-01-01

    Timer/Generator Circuits Manual is an 11-chapter text that deals mainly with waveform generator techniques and circuits. Each chapter starts with an explanation of the basic principles of its subject followed by a wide range of practical circuit designs. This work presents a total of over 300 practical circuits, diagrams, and tables.Chapter 1 outlines the basic principles and the different types of generator. Chapters 2 to 9 deal with a specific type of waveform generator, including sine, square, triangular, sawtooth, and special waveform generators pulse. These chapters also include pulse gen

  2. Electronic devices and circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Pridham, Gordon John

    1968-01-01

    Electronic Devices and Circuits, Volume 1 deals with the design and applications of electronic devices and circuits such as passive components, diodes, triodes and transistors, rectification and power supplies, amplifying circuits, electronic instruments, and oscillators. These topics are supported with introductory network theory and physics. This volume is comprised of nine chapters and begins by explaining the operation of resistive, inductive, and capacitive elements in direct and alternating current circuits. The theory for some of the expressions quoted in later chapters is presented. Th

  3. Maximum Acceleration Recording Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Coarsely digitized maximum levels recorded in blown fuses. Circuit feeds power to accelerometer and makes nonvolatile record of maximum level to which output of accelerometer rises during measurement interval. In comparison with inertia-type single-preset-trip-point mechanical maximum-acceleration-recording devices, circuit weighs less, occupies less space, and records accelerations within narrower bands of uncertainty. In comparison with prior electronic data-acquisition systems designed for same purpose, circuit simpler, less bulky, consumes less power, costs and analysis of data recorded in magnetic or electronic memory devices. Circuit used, for example, to record accelerations to which commodities subjected during transportation on trucks.

  4. MOS integrated circuit design

    CERN Document Server

    Wolfendale, E

    2013-01-01

    MOS Integral Circuit Design aims to help in the design of integrated circuits, especially large-scale ones, using MOS Technology through teaching of techniques, practical applications, and examples. The book covers topics such as design equation and process parameters; MOS static and dynamic circuits; logic design techniques, system partitioning, and layout techniques. Also featured are computer aids such as logic simulation and mask layout, as well as examples on simple MOS design. The text is recommended for electrical engineers who would like to know how to use MOS for integral circuit desi

  5. Circuits and filters handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Wai-Kai

    2003-01-01

    A bestseller in its first edition, The Circuits and Filters Handbook has been thoroughly updated to provide the most current, most comprehensive information available in both the classical and emerging fields of circuits and filters, both analog and digital. This edition contains 29 new chapters, with significant additions in the areas of computer-aided design, circuit simulation, VLSI circuits, design automation, and active and digital filters. It will undoubtedly take its place as the engineer's first choice in looking for solutions to problems encountered in the design, analysis, and behavi

  6. Security electronics circuits manual

    CERN Document Server

    MARSTON, R M

    1998-01-01

    Security Electronics Circuits Manual is an invaluable guide for engineers and technicians in the security industry. It will also prove to be a useful guide for students and experimenters, as well as providing experienced amateurs and DIY enthusiasts with numerous ideas to protect their homes, businesses and properties.As with all Ray Marston's Circuits Manuals, the style is easy-to-read and non-mathematical, with the emphasis firmly on practical applications, circuits and design ideas. The ICs and other devices used in the practical circuits are modestly priced and readily available ty

  7. 75 FR 79049 - Notice of Issuance of Regulatory Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-17

    ... site under ``Regulatory Guides'' at http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/doc-collections/ . The regulatory... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2008-0427] Notice of Issuance of Regulatory Guide AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice of Issuance and Availability of Regulatory Guide 3.12...

  8. 76 FR 18262 - Notice of issuance of Regulatory Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ... site under ``Regulatory Guides'' at http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/doc-collections/ . The regulatory... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2009-0277] Notice of issuance of Regulatory Guide AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice of Issuance and Availability of Regulatory Guide 1.44...

  9. 76 FR 14107 - Notice of Issuance of Regulatory Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... site under ``Regulatory Guides'' at http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/doc-collections/ . The regulatory... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2009-0276] Notice of Issuance of Regulatory Guide AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice of Issuance and Availability of Regulatory Guide 1.43...

  10. 76 FR 14108 - Notice of Issuance of Regulatory Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... site under ``Regulatory Guides'' at http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/doc-collections/ . The regulatory... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2009-0275] Notice of Issuance of Regulatory Guide AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice of Issuance and Availability of Regulatory Guide 1.50...

  11. Strategic behaviour under regulatory benchmarking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamasb, T. [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Applied Economics; Nillesen, P. [NUON NV (Netherlands); Pollitt, M. [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). Judge Inst. of Management

    2004-09-01

    In order to improve the efficiency of electricity distribution networks, some regulators have adopted incentive regulation schemes that rely on performance benchmarking. Although regulation benchmarking can influence the ''regulation game,'' the subject has received limited attention. This paper discusses how strategic behaviour can result in inefficient behaviour by firms. We then use the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) method with US utility data to examine implications of illustrative cases of strategic behaviour reported by regulators. The results show that gaming can have significant effects on the measured performance and profitability of firms. (author)

  12. Vision from next generation sequencing: multi-dimensional genome-wide analysis for producing gene regulatory networks underlying retinal development, aging and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hyun-Jin; Ratnapriya, Rinki; Cogliati, Tiziana; Kim, Jung-Woong; Swaroop, Anand

    2015-05-01

    Genomics and genetics have invaded all aspects of biology and medicine, opening uncharted territory for scientific exploration. The definition of "gene" itself has become ambiguous, and the central dogma is continuously being revised and expanded. Computational biology and computational medicine are no longer intellectual domains of the chosen few. Next generation sequencing (NGS) technology, together with novel methods of pattern recognition and network analyses, has revolutionized the way we think about fundamental biological mechanisms and cellular pathways. In this review, we discuss NGS-based genome-wide approaches that can provide deeper insights into retinal development, aging and disease pathogenesis. We first focus on gene regulatory networks (GRNs) that govern the differentiation of retinal photoreceptors and modulate adaptive response during aging. Then, we discuss NGS technology in the context of retinal disease and develop a vision for therapies based on network biology. We should emphasize that basic strategies for network construction and analyses can be transported to any tissue or cell type. We believe that specific and uniform guidelines are required for generation of genome, transcriptome and epigenome data to facilitate comparative analysis and integration of multi-dimensional data sets, and for constructing networks underlying complex biological processes. As cellular homeostasis and organismal survival are dependent on gene-gene and gene-environment interactions, we believe that network-based biology will provide the foundation for deciphering disease mechanisms and discovering novel drug targets for retinal neurodegenerative diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Genome-wide Reconstruction of OxyR and SoxRS Transcriptional Regulatory Networks under Oxidative Stress in Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Woo Seo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Three transcription factors (TFs, OxyR, SoxR, and SoxS, play a critical role in transcriptional regulation of the defense system for oxidative stress in bacteria. However, their full genome-wide regulatory potential is unknown. Here, we perform a genome-scale reconstruction of the OxyR, SoxR, and SoxS regulons in Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655. Integrative data analysis reveals that a total of 68 genes in 51 transcription units (TUs belong to these regulons. Among them, 48 genes showed more than 2-fold changes in expression level under single-TF-knockout conditions. This reconstruction expands the genome-wide roles of these factors to include direct activation of genes related to amino acid biosynthesis (methionine and aromatic amino acids, cell wall synthesis (lipid A biosynthesis and peptidoglycan growth, and divalent metal ion transport (Mn2+, Zn2+, and Mg2+. Investigating the co-regulation of these genes with other stress-response TFs reveals that they are independently regulated by stress-specific TFs.

  14. Analytical design of an industrial two-term controller for optimal regulatory control of open-loop unstable processes under operational constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchamna, Rodrigue; Lee, Moonyong

    2018-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel optimization-based approach for the design of an industrial two-term proportional-integral (PI) controller for the optimal regulatory control of unstable processes subjected to three common operational constraints related to the process variable, manipulated variable and its rate of change. To derive analytical design relations, the constrained optimal control problem in the time domain was transformed into an unconstrained optimization problem in a new parameter space via an effective parameterization. The resulting optimal PI controller has been verified to yield optimal performance and stability of an open-loop unstable first-order process under operational constraints. The proposed analytical design method explicitly takes into account the operational constraints in the controller design stage and also provides useful insights into the optimal controller design. Practical procedures for designing optimal PI parameters and a feasible constraint set exclusive of complex optimization steps are also proposed. The proposed controller was compared with several other PI controllers to illustrate its performance. The robustness of the proposed controller against plant-model mismatch has also been investigated. Copyright © 2018 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. 75 FR 22868 - Withdrawal of Regulatory Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-30

    ...'s public Web site under ``Regulatory Guides'' in the NRC's Electronic Reading Room at http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/doc-collections . Regulatory guides are also available for inspection at the NRC's... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2010-0167] Withdrawal of Regulatory Guide AGENCY: Nuclear...

  16. Seed maturation associated transcriptional programs and regulatory networks underlying genotypic difference in seed dormancy and size/weight in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Yuji; Gao, Feng; Jordan, Mark C; Ayele, Belay T

    2017-09-16

    Maturation forms one of the critical seed developmental phases and it is characterized mainly by programmed cell death, dormancy and desiccation, however, the transcriptional programs and regulatory networks underlying acquisition of dormancy and deposition of storage reserves during the maturation phase of seed development are poorly understood in wheat. The present study performed comparative spatiotemporal transcriptomic analysis of seed maturation in two wheat genotypes with contrasting seed weight/size and dormancy phenotype. The embryo and endosperm tissues of maturing seeds appeared to exhibit genotype-specific temporal shifts in gene expression profile that might contribute to the seed phenotypic variations. Functional annotations of gene clusters suggest that the two tissues exhibit distinct but genotypically overlapping molecular functions. Motif enrichment predicts genotypically distinct abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellin (GA) regulated transcriptional networks contribute to the contrasting seed weight/size and dormancy phenotypes between the two genotypes. While other ABA responsive element (ABRE) motifs are enriched in both genotypes, the prevalence of G-box-like motif specifically in tissues of the dormant genotype suggests distinct ABA mediated transcriptional mechanisms control the establishment of dormancy during seed maturation. In agreement with this, the bZIP transcription factors that co-express with ABRE enriched embryonic genes differ with genotype. The enrichment of SITEIIATCYTC motif specifically in embryo clusters of maturing seeds irrespective of genotype predicts a tissue specific role for the respective TCP transcription factors with no or minimal contribution to the variations in seed dormancy. The results of this study advance our understanding of the seed maturation associated molecular mechanisms underlying variation in dormancy and weight/size in wheat seeds, which is a critical step towards the designing of molecular strategies

  17. Evaluating the implementation of health and safety innovations under a regulatory context: A collective case study of Ontario’s safer needle regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chambers Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Implementation effectiveness models have identified important factors that can promote the successful implementation of an innovation; however, these models have been examined within contexts where innovations are adopted voluntarily and often ignore the socio-political and environmental context. In the field of occupational health and safety, there are circumstances where organizations must adopt innovations to comply with a regulatory standard. Examining how the external environment can facilitate or challenge an organization’s change process may add to our understanding of implementation effectiveness. The objective of this study is to describe implementation facilitators and barriers in the context of a regulation designed to promote the uptake of safer engineered medical devices in healthcare. Methods The proposed study will focus on Ontario’s safer needle regulation (2007 which requires healthcare organizations to transition to the use of safer engineered medical devices for the prevention of needlestick injuries. A collective case study design will be used to learn from the experiences of three acute care hospitals in the province of Ontario, Canada. Interviews with management and front-line healthcare workers and analysis of supporting documents will be used to describe the implementation experience and examine issues associated with the integration of these devices. The data collection and analysis process will be influenced by a conceptual framework that draws from implementation science and the occupational health and safety literature. Discussion The focus of this study in addition to the methodology creates a unique opportunity to contribute to the field of implementation science. First, the study will explore implementation experiences under circumstances where regulatory pressures are influencing the organization's change process. Second, the timing of this study provides an opportunity to focus on issues

  18. Integrative modeling of eQTLs and cis-regulatory elements suggests mechanisms underlying cell type specificity of eQTLs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher D Brown

    Full Text Available Genetic variants in cis-regulatory elements or trans-acting regulators frequently influence the quantity and spatiotemporal distribution of gene transcription. Recent interest in expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL mapping has paralleled the adoption of genome-wide association studies (GWAS for the analysis of complex traits and disease in humans. Under the hypothesis that many GWAS associations tag non-coding SNPs with small effects, and that these SNPs exert phenotypic control by modifying gene expression, it has become common to interpret GWAS associations using eQTL data. To fully exploit the mechanistic interpretability of eQTL-GWAS comparisons, an improved understanding of the genetic architecture and causal mechanisms of cell type specificity of eQTLs is required. We address this need by performing an eQTL analysis in three parts: first we identified eQTLs from eleven studies on seven cell types; then we integrated eQTL data with cis-regulatory element (CRE data from the ENCODE project; finally we built a set of classifiers to predict the cell type specificity of eQTLs. The cell type specificity of eQTLs is associated with eQTL SNP overlap with hundreds of cell type specific CRE classes, including enhancer, promoter, and repressive chromatin marks, regions of open chromatin, and many classes of DNA binding proteins. These associations provide insight into the molecular mechanisms generating the cell type specificity of eQTLs and the mode of regulation of corresponding eQTLs. Using a random forest classifier with cell specific CRE-SNP overlap as features, we demonstrate the feasibility of predicting the cell type specificity of eQTLs. We then demonstrate that CREs from a trait-associated cell type can be used to annotate GWAS associations in the absence of eQTL data for that cell type. We anticipate that such integrative, predictive modeling of cell specificity will improve our ability to understand the mechanistic basis of human

  19. Evaluating the implementation of health and safety innovations under a regulatory context: a collective case study of Ontario's safer needle regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Andrea; Mustard, Cameron A; Breslin, Curtis; Holness, Linn; Nichol, Kathryn

    2013-01-22

    Implementation effectiveness models have identified important factors that can promote the successful implementation of an innovation; however, these models have been examined within contexts where innovations are adopted voluntarily and often ignore the socio-political and environmental context. In the field of occupational health and safety, there are circumstances where organizations must adopt innovations to comply with a regulatory standard. Examining how the external environment can facilitate or challenge an organization's change process may add to our understanding of implementation effectiveness. The objective of this study is to describe implementation facilitators and barriers in the context of a regulation designed to promote the uptake of safer engineered medical devices in healthcare. The proposed study will focus on Ontario's safer needle regulation (2007) which requires healthcare organizations to transition to the use of safer engineered medical devices for the prevention of needlestick injuries. A collective case study design will be used to learn from the experiences of three acute care hospitals in the province of Ontario, Canada. Interviews with management and front-line healthcare workers and analysis of supporting documents will be used to describe the implementation experience and examine issues associated with the integration of these devices. The data collection and analysis process will be influenced by a conceptual framework that draws from implementation science and the occupational health and safety literature. The focus of this study in addition to the methodology creates a unique opportunity to contribute to the field of implementation science. First, the study will explore implementation experiences under circumstances where regulatory pressures are influencing the organization's change process. Second, the timing of this study provides an opportunity to focus on issues that arise during later stages of implementation, a phase

  20. Circuits on Cylinders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristoffer Arnsfelt; Miltersen, Peter Bro; Vinay, V

    2006-01-01

    We consider the computational power of constant width polynomial size cylindrical circuits and nondeterministic branching programs. We show that every function computed by a Pi2 o MOD o AC0 circuit can also be computed by a constant width polynomial size cylindrical nondeterministic branching pro...

  1. Operational amplifier circuits analysis and design

    CERN Document Server

    Nelson, J C C

    1995-01-01

    This book, a revised and updated version of the author's Basic Operational Amplifiers (Butterworths 1986), enables the non-specialist to make effective use of readily available integrated circuit operational amplifiers for a range of applications, including instrumentation, signal generation and processing.It is assumed the reader has a background in the basic techniques of circuit analysis, particularly the use of j notation for reactive circuits, with a corresponding level of mathematical ability. The underlying theory is explained with sufficient but not excessive, detail. A range of compu

  2. CMOS analog circuit design

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, Phillip E

    1987-01-01

    This text presents the principles and techniques for designing analog circuits to be implemented in a CMOS technology. The level is appropriate for seniors and graduate students familiar with basic electronics, including biasing, modeling, circuit analysis, and some familiarity with frequency response. Students learn the methodology of analog integrated circuit design through a hierarchically-oriented approach to the subject that provides thorough background and practical guidance for designing CMOS analog circuits, including modeling, simulation, and testing. The authors' vast industrial experience and knowledge is reflected in the circuits, techniques, and principles presented. They even identify the many common pitfalls that lie in the path of the beginning designer--expert advice from veteran designers. The text mixes the academic and practical viewpoints in a treatment that is neither superficial nor overly detailed, providing the perfect balance.

  3. Brain Circuits Encoding Reward from Pain Relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navratilova, Edita; Atcherley, Christopher W; Porreca, Frank

    2015-11-01

    Relief from pain in humans is rewarding and pleasurable. Primary rewards, or reward-predictive cues, are encoded in brain reward/motivational circuits. While considerable advances have been made in our understanding of reward circuits underlying positive reinforcement, less is known about the circuits underlying the hedonic and reinforcing actions of pain relief. We review findings from electrophysiological, neuroimaging, and behavioral studies supporting the concept that the rewarding effect of pain relief requires opioid signaling in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), activation of midbrain dopamine neurons, and the release of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Understanding of circuits that govern the reward of pain relief may allow the discovery of more effective and satisfying therapies for patients with acute or chronic pain.

  4. Plans and schedules for implementation of US Nuclear Regulatory Commission responsibilities under the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 (P.L. 99-240)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunkelman, M.M.

    1987-08-01

    This document makes available the plans and schedules for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) implementation of its responsibilities under the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 (LLRWPAA). The present document identifies the provisions of the LLRWPAA that affect the programs of the NRC, identifies what the NRC must do to fulfill each of its requirements under the LLRWPAA, and establishes schedules for carrying out these requirements

  5. Genes co-regulated with LBD16 in nematode feeding sites inferred from in silico analysis show similarities to regulatory circuits mediated by the auxin/cytokinin balance in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Javier; Fenoll, Carmen; Escobar, Carolina

    2015-01-01

    Plant endoparasitic nematodes, root-knot and cyst nematodes (RKNs and CNs) induce within the root vascular cylinder transfer cells used for nourishing, termed giant cells (GCs) and syncytia. Understanding the molecular mechanisms behind this process is essential to develop tools for nematode control. Based on the crucial role in gall development of LBD16, also a key component of the auxin pathway leading to the divisions in the xylem pole pericycle during lateral root (LR) formation, we investigated genes co-regulated with LBD16 in different transcriptomes and analyzed their similarities and differences with those of RKNs and CNs feeding sites (FS). This analysis confirmed LBD16 and its co-regulated genes, integrated in signaling cascades mediated by auxins during LR and callus formation, as a particular feature of RKN-FS distinct to CNs. However, LBD16, and its positively co-regulated genes, were repressed in syncytia, suggesting a selective down- regulation of the LBD16 auxin mediated pathways in CNs-FS. Interestingly, cytokinin-induced genes are enriched in syncytia and we encountered similarities between the transcriptome of shoot regeneration from callus, modulated by cytokinins, and that of syncytia. These findings establish differences in the regulatory networks leading to both FS formation, probably modulated by the auxin/cytokinin balance.

  6. Development of a kinetic model, including rate constant estimations, on iodine and caesium behaviour in the primary circuit of LWR's under accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, A.; Buron, J.M.; Fernandez, S.

    1991-07-01

    In this report, a kinetic model has been developed with the aim to try to reproduce the chemical phenomena that take place in a flowing system containing steam, hydrogen and iodine and caesium vapours. The work is divided into two different parts. The first part consists in the estimation, through the Activited Complex Theory, of the reaction rate constants, for the chosen reactions, and the development of the kinetic model based on the concept of ideal tubular chemical reactor. The second part deals with the application of such model to several cases, which were taken from the Phase B 'Scoping Calculations' of the Phebus-FP Project (sequence AB) and the SFD-ST and SFD1.1 experiments. The main conclusion obtained from this work is that the assumption of instantaneous equilibrium could be inacurrate in order to estimate the iodine and caesium species distribution under severe accidents conditions

  7. Approximate circuits for increased reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlet, Jason R.; Mayo, Jackson R.

    2015-08-18

    Embodiments of the invention describe a Boolean circuit having a voter circuit and a plurality of approximate circuits each based, at least in part, on a reference circuit. The approximate circuits are each to generate one or more output signals based on values of received input signals. The voter circuit is to receive the one or more output signals generated by each of the approximate circuits, and is to output one or more signals corresponding to a majority value of the received signals. At least some of the approximate circuits are to generate an output value different than the reference circuit for one or more input signal values; however, for each possible input signal value, the majority values of the one or more output signals generated by the approximate circuits and received by the voter circuit correspond to output signal result values of the reference circuit.

  8. Predicting the conditions under which vibroacoustic resonances with external periodic loads occur in the primary coolant circuits of VVER-based NPPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proskuryakov, K. N.; Fedorov, A. I.; Zaporozhets, M. V.

    2015-08-01

    The accident at the Japanese Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP) caused by an earthquake showed the need of taking further efforts aimed at improving the design and engineering solutions for ensuring seismic resistance of NPPs with due regard to mutual influence of the dynamic processes occurring in the NPP building structures and process systems. Resonance interaction between the vibrations of NPP equipment and coolant pressure pulsations leads to an abnormal growth of dynamic stresses in structural materials, accelerated exhaustion of equipment service life, and increased number of sudden equipment failures. The article presents the results from a combined calculation-theoretical and experimental substantiation of mutual amplification of two kinds of external periodic loads caused by rotation of the reactor coolant pump (RCP) rotor and an earthquake. The data of vibration measurements at an NPP are presented, which confirm the predicted multiple amplification of vibrations in the steam generator and RCP at a certain combination of coolant thermal-hydraulic parameters. It is shown that the vibration frequencies of the main equipment may fall in the frequency band corresponding to the maximal values in the envelope response spectra constructed on the basis of floor accelerograms. The article presents the results from prediction of conditions under which vibroacoustic resonances with external periodic loads take place, which confirm the occurrence of additional earthquake-induced multiple growth of pressure pulsation intensity in the steam generator at the 8.3 Hz frequency and additional multiple growth of vibrations of the RCP and the steam generator cold header at the 16.6 Hz frequency. It is shown that at the elastic wave frequency equal to 8.3 Hz in the coolant, resonance occurs with the frequency of forced vibrations caused by the rotation of the RCP rotor. A conclusion is drawn about the possibility of exceeding the design level of equipment vibrations

  9. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α and CCN2 form a regulatory circuit in hypoxic nucleus pulposus cells: CCN2 suppresses HIF-1α level and transcriptional activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Cassie M; Fujita, Nobuyuki; Huang, Bau-Lin; Ong, Jessica R; Lyons, Karen M; Shapiro, Irving M; Risbud, Makarand V

    2013-05-03

    The objective of the study was to investigate if hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α and connective tissue growth factor (CCN2) form a regulatory network in hypoxic nucleus pulposus (NP) cells. A decrease in CCN2 expression and proximal promoter activity was observed in NP cells after hypoxic culture. Analysis of both human and mouse CCN2 promoters using the JASPAR core database revealed the presence of putative hypoxia response elements. Transfection experiments showed that both promoter activities and CCN2 expression decreases in hypoxia in a HIF-1α-dependent fashion. Interestingly, deletion analysis and mutation of the hypoxia responsive elements individually or in combination resulted in no change in promoter activity in response to hypoxia or in response to HIF-1α, suggesting an indirect mode of regulation. Notably, silencing of endogenous CCN2 increased HIF-1α levels and its target gene expression, suggesting a role for CCN2 in controlling basal HIF-1α levels. On the other hand, treatment of cells with rCCN2 resulted in a decrease in the ability of HIF-1α transactivating domain to recruit co-activators and diminished target gene expression. Last, knockdown of CCN2 in NP cells results in a significant decrease in GAG synthesis and expression of AGGRECAN and COLLAGEN II. Immunohistochemical staining of intervertebral discs of Ccn2 null embryos shows a decrease in aggrecan. These findings reveal a negative feedback loop between CCN2 and HIF-1α in NP cells and demonstrate a role for CCN2 in maintaining matrix homeostasis in this tissue.

  10. Inferring Broad Regulatory Biology from Time Course Data: Have We Reached an Upper Bound under Constraints Typical of In Vivo Studies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Vashishtha

    Full Text Available There is a growing appreciation for the network biology that regulates the coordinated expression of molecular and cellular markers however questions persist regarding the identifiability of these networks. Here we explore some of the issues relevant to recovering directed regulatory networks from time course data collected under experimental constraints typical of in vivo studies. NetSim simulations of sparsely connected biological networks were used to evaluate two simple feature selection techniques used in the construction of linear Ordinary Differential Equation (ODE models, namely truncation of terms versus latent vector projection. Performance was compared with ODE-based Time Series Network Identification (TSNI integral, and the information-theoretic Time-Delay ARACNE (TD-ARACNE. Projection-based techniques and TSNI integral outperformed truncation-based selection and TD-ARACNE on aggregate networks with edge densities of 10-30%, i.e. transcription factor, protein-protein cliques and immune signaling networks. All were more robust to noise than truncation-based feature selection. Performance was comparable on the in silico 10-node DREAM 3 network, a 5-node Yeast synthetic network designed for In vivo Reverse-engineering and Modeling Assessment (IRMA and a 9-node human HeLa cell cycle network of similar size and edge density. Performance was more sensitive to the number of time courses than to sample frequency and extrapolated better to larger networks by grouping experiments. In all cases performance declined rapidly in larger networks with lower edge density. Limited recovery and high false positive rates obtained overall bring into question our ability to generate informative time course data rather than the design of any particular reverse engineering algorithm.

  11. Troubleshooting analog circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Pease, Robert A

    1991-01-01

    Troubleshooting Analog Circuits is a guidebook for solving product or process related problems in analog circuits. The book also provides advice in selecting equipment, preventing problems, and general tips. The coverage of the book includes the philosophy of troubleshooting; the modes of failure of various components; and preventive measures. The text also deals with the active components of analog circuits, including diodes and rectifiers, optically coupled devices, solar cells, and batteries. The book will be of great use to both students and practitioners of electronics engineering. Other

  12. Modern TTL circuits manual

    CERN Document Server

    Marston, R M

    2013-01-01

    Modern TTL Circuits Manual provides an introduction to the basic principles of Transistor-Transistor Logic (TTL). This book outlines the major features of the 74 series of integrated circuits (ICs) and introduces the various sub-groups of the TTL family.Organized into seven chapters, this book begins with an overview of the basics of digital ICs. This text then examines the symbology and mathematics of digital logic. Other chapters consider a variety of topics, including waveform generator circuitry, clocked flip-flop and counter circuits, special counter/dividers, registers, data latches, com

  13. Circuit analysis with Multisim

    CERN Document Server

    Baez-Lopez, David

    2011-01-01

    This book is concerned with circuit simulation using National Instruments Multisim. It focuses on the use and comprehension of the working techniques for electrical and electronic circuit simulation. The first chapters are devoted to basic circuit analysis.It starts by describing in detail how to perform a DC analysis using only resistors and independent and controlled sources. Then, it introduces capacitors and inductors to make a transient analysis. In the case of transient analysis, it is possible to have an initial condition either in the capacitor voltage or in the inductor current, or bo

  14. Optoelectronics circuits manual

    CERN Document Server

    Marston, R M

    2013-01-01

    Optoelectronics Circuits Manual covers the basic principles and characteristics of the best known types of optoelectronic devices, as well as the practical applications of many of these optoelectronic devices. The book describes LED display circuits and LED dot- and bar-graph circuits and discusses the applications of seven-segment displays, light-sensitive devices, optocouplers, and a variety of brightness control techniques. The text also tackles infrared light-beam alarms and multichannel remote control systems. The book provides practical user information and circuitry and illustrations.

  15. 'Speedy' superconducting circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holst, T.

    1994-01-01

    The most promising concept for realizing ultra-fast superconducting digital circuits is the Rapid Single Flux Quantum (RSFQ) logic. The basic physical principle behind RSFQ logic, which include the storage and transfer of individual magnetic flux quanta in Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices (SQUIDs), is explained. A Set-Reset flip-flop is used as an example of the implementation of an RSFQ based circuit. Finally, the outlook for high-temperature superconducting materials in connection with RSFQ circuits is discussed in some details. (au)

  16. Approach of Czech regulatory body to LBB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tendera, P.

    1997-04-01

    At present there are two NPPs equipped with PWR units in Czech Republic. The Dukovany, NPP is about ten years in operation (four units 440 MW - WWBFL model 213) and Tomelin NPP is under construction (two units 1000 MW - WWER model 320). Both NPPs were built to Soviet design and according to Soviet regulations and standards but most of equipment for primary circuits was supplied by home manufacturers. The objective of the Czech LBB program is to prove the LBB status of the primary piping systems of there NPPs and the LBB concept is a part of strategy to meet western style safety standards. The reason for the Czech LBB project is a lack of some standard safety Facilities too. For both Dukovany and Tomelin NPPs a full LBB analysis should be carried out. The application of LBB to the piping system should be also a cost effective means to avoid installations of pipe whip restraints and jet shields. The Czech regulatory body issued non-mandatory requirement, {open_quotes}Leak Before Break{close_quotes} which is in compliance with national legal documents and which is based on the US NRC Regulatory Procedures and US standards (ASMF CODE, ANSI). The requirement has been published in the document {open_quotes}Safety of Nuclear Facilities{close_quotes} No 1/1991 as {open_quotes}Requirements on the Content and Format of Safety Reports and their Supplements{close_quote} and consist of two parts (1) procedure for obtaining proof of evidence {open_quotes}Leak Before Break{close_quotes} (2) leak detection systems for the pressurized reactor primary circuit. At present some changes concerning both parts of the above document will be introduced. The reasons for this modifications will be presented.

  17. Approach for Czech regulatory body to LBB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tendera, P. [State Office for Nuclear Safety (SONS), Prague (Czech Republic)

    1997-04-01

    At present there are two NPPs equipped with PWR units in Czech Republic. The Dukovany NPP is about ten years in operation (four units 440 MW - WWER model 213) and Temelin NPP is under construction (two units 1000 MW-WWER model 320). Both NPPs were built to Soviet design and according to Soviet regulations and standards but most of equipment for primary circuits was supplied by home manufactures. The objective for the Czech LBB programme is to prove the LBB status of the primary piping systems of these NPPs and the LBB concept is a part of strategy to meet western style safety standards. The reason for the Czech LBB project is a lack of some standard safety facilities, too. For both Dukovany and Temolin NPPs a full LBB analysis should be carried out. The application of LBB to the piping system should be also a cost effective means to avoid installations of pipe whip restraints and jet shields. The Czech regulatory body issued non-mandatory requirement {open_quotes}Leak Before Break{close_quotes} which is in compliance with national legal documents and which is based on the US NRC Regulatory Procedures and US standards (ASME, CODE, ANSI). The requirement has been published in the document {open_quotes}Safety of Nuclear Facilities{close_quotes} No. 1/1991 as {open_quotes}Requirements on the Content and Format of Safety Reports and their Supplements{close_quotes} and consists of two parts (1) procedure for obtaining proof of evidence {open_quotes}Leak Before Break{close_quotes} (2) leak detection systems for the pressurized reactor primary circuit. At present some changes concerning both parts of the above document will be introduced. The reasons for this modifications will be presented.

  18. Experimental study on short-circuit characteristics of the new protection circuit of insulated gate bipolar transistor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, In-Hwan; Choi, Young-Hwan; Ha, Min-Woo; Han, Min-Koo; Choi, Yearn-Ik

    2006-01-01

    A new protection circuit employing the collector to emitter voltage (V CE ) sensing scheme for short-circuit withstanding capability of the insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) is proposed and verified by experimental results. Because the current path between the gate and collector can be successfully eliminated in the proposed protection circuit, the power consumption can be reduced and the gate input impedance can be increased. Previous study is limited to dc characteristics. However, experimental results show that the proposed protection circuit successfully reduces the over-current of main IGBT by 80.4% under the short-circuit condition

  19. SELANSI: a toolbox for simulation of stochastic gene regulatory networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pájaro, Manuel; Otero-Muras, Irene; Vázquez, Carlos; Alonso, Antonio A

    2018-03-01

    Gene regulation is inherently stochastic. In many applications concerning Systems and Synthetic Biology such as the reverse engineering and the de novo design of genetic circuits, stochastic effects (yet potentially crucial) are often neglected due to the high computational cost of stochastic simulations. With advances in these fields there is an increasing need of tools providing accurate approximations of the stochastic dynamics of gene regulatory networks (GRNs) with reduced computational effort. This work presents SELANSI (SEmi-LAgrangian SImulation of GRNs), a software toolbox for the simulation of stochastic multidimensional gene regulatory networks. SELANSI exploits intrinsic structural properties of gene regulatory networks to accurately approximate the corresponding Chemical Master Equation with a partial integral differential equation that is solved by a semi-lagrangian method with high efficiency. Networks under consideration might involve multiple genes with self and cross regulations, in which genes can be regulated by different transcription factors. Moreover, the validity of the method is not restricted to a particular type of kinetics. The tool offers total flexibility regarding network topology, kinetics and parameterization, as well as simulation options. SELANSI runs under the MATLAB environment, and is available under GPLv3 license at https://sites.google.com/view/selansi. antonio@iim.csic.es. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  20. Analogue circuits simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendo, C

    1988-09-01

    Most analogue simulators have evolved from SPICE. The history and description of SPICE-like simulators are given. From a mathematical formulation of the electronic circuit the following analysis are possible: DC, AC, transient, noise, distortion, Worst Case and Statistical.

  1. Printed circuit for ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    1999-01-01

    A printed circuit board made by scientists in the ATLAS collaboration for the transition radiaton tracker (TRT). This will read data produced when a high energy particle crosses the boundary between two materials with different electrical properties.

  2. Magnonic logic circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khitun, Alexander; Bao Mingqiang; Wang, Kang L

    2010-01-01

    We describe and analyse possible approaches to magnonic logic circuits and basic elements required for circuit construction. A distinctive feature of the magnonic circuitry is that information is transmitted by spin waves propagating in the magnetic waveguides without the use of electric current. The latter makes it possible to exploit spin wave phenomena for more efficient data transfer and enhanced logic functionality. We describe possible schemes for general computing and special task data processing. The functional throughput of the magnonic logic gates is estimated and compared with the conventional transistor-based approach. Magnonic logic circuits allow scaling down to the deep submicrometre range and THz frequency operation. The scaling is in favour of the magnonic circuits offering a significant functional advantage over the traditional approach. The disadvantages and problems of the spin wave devices are also discussed.

  3. Josephson Circuits as Vector Quantum Spins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samach, Gabriel; Kerman, Andrew J.

    While superconducting circuits based on Josephson junction technology can be engineered to represent spins in the quantum transverse-field Ising model, no circuit architecture to date has succeeded in emulating the vector quantum spin models of interest for next-generation quantum annealers and quantum simulators. Here, we present novel Josephson circuits which may provide these capabilities. We discuss our rigorous quantum-mechanical simulations of these circuits, as well as the larger architectures they may enable. This research was funded by the Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI) and the Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity (IARPA) under Air Force Contract No. FA8721-05-C-0002. The views and conclusions contained herein are those of the authors and should not be interpreted as necessarily representing the official policies or endorsements, either expressed or implied, of ODNI, IARPA, or the US Government.

  4. Peak reading detector circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courtin, E.; Grund, K.; Traub, S.; Zeeb, H.

    1975-01-01

    The peak reading detector circuit serves for picking up the instants during which peaks of a given polarity occur in sequences of signals in which the extreme values, their time intervals, and the curve shape of the signals vary. The signal sequences appear in measuring the foetal heart beat frequence from amplitude-modulated ultrasonic, electrocardiagram, and blood pressure signals. In order to prevent undesired emission of output signals from, e. g., disturbing intermediate extreme values, the circuit consists of the series connections of a circuit to simulate an ideal diode, a strong unit, a discriminator for the direction of charging current, a time-delay circuit, and an electronic switch lying in the decharging circuit of the storage unit. The time-delay circuit thereby causes storing of a preliminary maximum value being used only after a certain time delay for the emission of the output signal. If a larger extreme value occurs during the delay time the preliminary maximum value is cleared and the delay time starts running anew. (DG/PB) [de

  5. Color Coding of Circuit Quantities in Introductory Circuit Analysis Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisslein, Jana; Johnson, Amy M.; Reisslein, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Learning the analysis of electrical circuits represented by circuit diagrams is often challenging for novice students. An open research question in electrical circuit analysis instruction is whether color coding of the mathematical symbols (variables) that denote electrical quantities can improve circuit analysis learning. The present study…

  6. Project Circuits in a Basic Electric Circuits Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, James P.; Plumb, Carolyn; Revia, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    The use of project circuits (a photoplethysmograph circuit and a simple audio amplifier), introduced in a sophomore-level electric circuits course utilizing active learning and inquiry-based methods, is described. The development of the project circuits was initiated to promote enhanced engagement and deeper understanding of course content among…

  7. Computational aspects of feedback in neural circuits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Maass

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available It has previously been shown that generic cortical microcircuit models can perform complex real-time computations on continuous input streams, provided that these computations can be carried out with a rapidly fading memory. We investigate the computational capability of such circuits in the more realistic case where not only readout neurons, but in addition a few neurons within the circuit, have been trained for specific tasks. This is essentially equivalent to the case where the output of trained readout neurons is fed back into the circuit. We show that this new model overcomes the limitation of a rapidly fading memory. In fact, we prove that in the idealized case without noise it can carry out any conceivable digital or analog computation on time-varying inputs. But even with noise, the resulting computational model can perform a large class of biologically relevant real-time computations that require a nonfading memory. We demonstrate these computational implications of feedback both theoretically, and through computer simulations of detailed cortical microcircuit models that are subject to noise and have complex inherent dynamics. We show that the application of simple learning procedures (such as linear regression or perceptron learning to a few neurons enables such circuits to represent time over behaviorally relevant long time spans, to integrate evidence from incoming spike trains over longer periods of time, and to process new information contained in such spike trains in diverse ways according to the current internal state of the circuit. In particular we show that such generic cortical microcircuits with feedback provide a new model for working memory that is consistent with a large set of biological constraints. Although this article examines primarily the computational role of feedback in circuits of neurons, the mathematical principles on which its analysis is based apply to a variety of dynamical systems. Hence they may also

  8. Aging evaluation of electrical circuits using the ECCAD system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edson, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    As a part of the Nuclear Regulator Commission Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program, an aging assessment of electrical circuits was conducted at the Shippingport atomic power station decommissioning project. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effectiveness of the electrical circuit characterization and diagnostic (ECCAD) system in identifying circuit conditions, to determine the present condition of selected electrical circuits, and correlate the results with aging effects. To accomplish this task, a series of electrical tests was performed on each circuit using the ECCAD system, which is composed of commercially available electronic test equipment under computer control. Test results indicate that the ECCAD system is effective in detecting and identifying aging and service wear in selected electrical circuits. The major area of degradation in the circuits tested was at the termination/connection points, whereas the cables were in generally good condition

  9. The Effect of UV-Irradiation (under Short-Circuit Condition) on Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Sensitized with a Ru-Complex Dye Functionalized with a (diphenylamino)Styryl-Thio phen Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonomura, K.; Xu, Y.; Marinado, T.; Hagberg, D.P.; Sun, L.; Boschloo, G.; Hagfeldt, A.; Rong Zhang, R.; Boschloo, G.; Hagfeldt, A.

    2009-01-01

    A new ruthenium complex, cis-di(thiocyanato)(2,2'-bipyridine-4,4'-dicarboxylic acid)(4,4'-bis (2-(5-(2-(4-diphenylaminophenyl)ethenyl) -thiophen-2-yl)ethenyl)-2,2'-bipyridine)ruthenium(II) (named E322) has been synthesized for use in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). Higher extinction coefficient and a broader absorption compared to the standard Ru-dye, N719, were aimed. DSCs were fabricated with E322, and the efficiency was 0.12% initially. (4.06% for N719, as reference). The efficiency was enhanced to 1.83% by exposing the cell under simulated sunlight containing UV-irradiation at short-circuit condition. The reasons of this enhancement are (1) enhanceing electron injection from sensitizer to TiO 2 following a shift toward positive potentials of the conduction band of TiO 2 by the adsorption of protons or cations from the sensitizer, or from the redox electrolyte and (2) improving the regeneration reaction of the oxidized dye by the redox electrolyte by the dissolution of aggregated dye from the surface of TiO 2 following the treatment.

  10. Receiver Gain Modulation Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Hollis; Racette, Paul; Walker, David; Gu, Dazhen

    2011-01-01

    A receiver gain modulation circuit (RGMC) was developed that modulates the power gain of the output of a radiometer receiver with a test signal. As the radiometer receiver switches between calibration noise references, the test signal is mixed with the calibrated noise and thus produces an ensemble set of measurements from which ensemble statistical analysis can be used to extract statistical information about the test signal. The RGMC is an enabling technology of the ensemble detector. As a key component for achieving ensemble detection and analysis, the RGMC has broad aeronautical and space applications. The RGMC can be used to test and develop new calibration algorithms, for example, to detect gain anomalies, and/or correct for slow drifts that affect climate-quality measurements over an accelerated time scale. A generalized approach to analyzing radiometer system designs yields a mathematical treatment of noise reference measurements in calibration algorithms. By treating the measurements from the different noise references as ensemble samples of the receiver state, i.e. receiver gain, a quantitative description of the non-stationary properties of the underlying receiver fluctuations can be derived. Excellent agreement has been obtained between model calculations and radiometric measurements. The mathematical formulation is equivalent to modulating the gain of a stable receiver with an externally generated signal and is the basis for ensemble detection and analysis (EDA). The concept of generating ensemble data sets using an ensemble detector is similar to the ensemble data sets generated as part of ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) with exception of a key distinguishing factor. EEMD adds noise to the signal under study whereas EDA mixes the signal with calibrated noise. It is mixing with calibrated noise that permits the measurement of temporal-functional variability of uncertainty in the underlying process. The RGMC permits the evaluation of EDA by

  11. Circuit bridging of components by smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, T.J.; Nowlen, S.P.; Anderson, D.J.

    1996-10-01

    Smoke can adversely affect digital electronics; in the short term, it can lead to circuit bridging and in the long term to corrosion of metal parts. This report is a summary of the work to date and component-level tests by Sandia National Laboratories for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to determine the impact of smoke on digital instrumentation and control equipment. The component tests focused on short-term effects such as circuit bridging in typical components and the factors that can influence how much the smoke will affect them. These factors include the component technology and packaging, physical board protection, and environmental conditions such as the amount of smoke, temperature of burn, and humidity level. The likelihood of circuit bridging was tested by measuring leakage currents and converting those currents to resistance in ohms. Hermetically sealed ceramic packages were more resistant to smoke than plastic packages. Coating the boards with an acrylic spray provided some protection against circuit bridging. The smoke generation factors that affect the resistance the most are humidity, fuel level, and burn temperature. The use of CO 2 as a fire suppressant, the presence of galvanic metal, and the presence of PVC did not significantly affect the outcome of these results

  12. Comments on regulatory reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendrie, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    Nuclear regulatory reform is divided into two parts. The first part contains all those matters for which new legislation is required. The second part concerns all those matters that are within the power of the Commission under existing statutes. Recommendations are presented

  13. Comments on regulatory reform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrie, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    Nuclear regulatory reform is divided into two parts. The first part contains all those matters for which new legislation is required. The second part concerns all those matters that are within the power of the Commission under existing statutes. Recommendations are presented.

  14. 75 FR 52999 - Notice of Issuance of Regulatory Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    ... site under ``Regulatory Guides'' at http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/doc-collections/ . In addition... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2009-0556] Notice of Issuance of Regulatory Guide AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice of Issuance and Availability of Regulatory Guide 8.35...

  15. 75 FR 20868 - Notice of Issuance of Regulatory Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-21

    ... available through the NRC's public Web site under ``Regulatory Guides'' at http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/doc... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2009-0351] Notice of Issuance of Regulatory Guide AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice of Issuance and Availability of Regulatory Guide 1.68.2...

  16. 75 FR 42170 - Final Regulatory Guide: Issuance, Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-20

    ... NRC's public Web site under ``Regulatory Guides'' at http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/doc-collections... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2009-0425] Final Regulatory Guide: Issuance, Availability AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice of Issuance and Availability of Regulatory Guide...

  17. 75 FR 81675 - Notice of Issuance of Regulatory Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-28

    ... through the NRC's public Web site under ``Regulatory Guides'' at http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/doc... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2010-0031] Notice of Issuance of Regulatory Guide AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice of Issuance and Availability of Regulatory Guide 4.16...

  18. 75 FR 48381 - Final Regulatory Guide: Issuance, Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-10

    ... NRC's public Web site under ``Regulatory Guides'' at http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/doc-collections... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2010-0274] Final Regulatory Guide: Issuance, Availability AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice of issuance and availability of Regulatory Guide...

  19. 75 FR 37842 - Notice of Issuance of Regulatory Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-30

    ... site under ``Regulatory Guides'' at http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/doc-collections/ . In addition... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2009-0396] Notice of Issuance of Regulatory Guide AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice of Issuance and Availability of Regulatory Guide 2.5...

  20. 75 FR 43207 - Notice of Issuance of Regulatory Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-23

    ... NRC's public Web site under ``Regulatory Guides'' at http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/doc-collections... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2009-0282] Notice of Issuance of Regulatory Guide AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice of Issuance and Availability of Regulatory Guide 1.141...

  1. 75 FR 20399 - Notice of Issuance of Regulatory Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-19

    ... the NRC's public Web site under ``Regulatory Guides'' at http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/doc-collections... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2009-0418] Notice of Issuance of Regulatory Guide AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice of Issuance and Availability of Regulatory Guide 6.9...

  2. 76 FR 31382 - Notice of Issuance of Regulatory Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-31

    ... the NRC's public Web site under ``Regulatory Guides'' at http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/doc-collections... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2010-0287] Notice of Issuance of Regulatory Guide AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice of Issuance and Availability of Regulatory Guide 8.2...

  3. 76 FR 24539 - Final Regulatory Guide: Issuance, Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-02

    ... site under ``Regulatory Guides'' at http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/doc-collections/ . Electronic copies... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2010-0181] Final Regulatory Guide: Issuance, Availability AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice of Issuance and Availability of Regulatory Guide...

  4. Low latency asynchronous interface circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowski, Greg

    2017-06-20

    In one form, a logic circuit includes an asynchronous logic circuit, a synchronous logic circuit, and an interface circuit coupled between the asynchronous logic circuit and the synchronous logic circuit. The asynchronous logic circuit has a plurality of asynchronous outputs for providing a corresponding plurality of asynchronous signals. The synchronous logic circuit has a plurality of synchronous inputs corresponding to the plurality of asynchronous outputs, a stretch input for receiving a stretch signal, and a clock output for providing a clock signal. The synchronous logic circuit provides the clock signal as a periodic signal but prolongs a predetermined state of the clock signal while the stretch signal is active. The asynchronous interface detects whether metastability could occur when latching any of the plurality of the asynchronous outputs of the asynchronous logic circuit using said clock signal, and activates the stretch signal while the metastability could occur.

  5. Noise processing by microRNA-mediated circuits: The Incoherent Feed-Forward Loop, revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Grigolon

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The intrinsic stochasticity of gene expression is usually mitigated in higher eukaryotes by post-transcriptional regulation channels that stabilise the output layer, most notably protein levels. The discovery of small non-coding RNAs (miRNAs in specific motifs of the genetic regulatory network has led to identifying noise buffering as the possible key function they exert in regulation. Recent in vitro and in silico studies have corroborated this hypothesis. It is however also known that miRNA-mediated noise reduction is hampered by transcriptional bursting in simple topologies. Here, using stochastic simulations validated by analytical calculations based on van Kampen's expansion, we revisit the noise-buffering capacity of the miRNA-mediated Incoherent Feed Forward Loop (IFFL, a small module that is widespread in the gene regulatory networks of higher eukaryotes, in order to account for the effects of intermittency in the transcriptional activity of the modulator gene. We show that bursting considerably alters the circuit's ability to control static protein noise. By comparing with other regulatory architectures, we find that direct transcriptional regulation significantly outperforms the IFFL in a broad range of kinetic parameters. This suggests that, under pulsatile inputs, static noise reduction may be less important than dynamical aspects of noise and information processing in characterising the performance of regulatory elements.

  6. The transcriptomes of two heritable cell types illuminate the circuit governing their differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian B Tuch

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The differentiation of cells into distinct cell types, each of which is heritable for many generations, underlies many biological phenomena. White and opaque cells of the fungal pathogen Candida albicans are two such heritable cell types, each thought to be adapted to unique niches within their human host. To systematically investigate their differences, we performed strand-specific, massively-parallel sequencing of RNA from C. albicans white and opaque cells. With these data we first annotated the C. albicans transcriptome, finding hundreds of novel differentially-expressed transcripts. Using the new annotation, we compared differences in transcript abundance between the two cell types with the genomic regions bound by a master regulator of the white-opaque switch (Wor1. We found that the revised transcriptional landscape considerably alters our understanding of the circuit governing differentiation. In particular, we can now resolve the poor concordance between binding of a master regulator and the differential expression of adjacent genes, a discrepancy observed in several other studies of cell differentiation. More than one third of the Wor1-bound differentially-expressed transcripts were previously unannotated, which explains the formerly puzzling presence of Wor1 at these positions along the genome. Many of these newly identified Wor1-regulated genes are non-coding and transcribed antisense to coding transcripts. We also find that 5' and 3' UTRs of mRNAs in the circuit are unusually long and that 5' UTRs often differ in length between cell-types, suggesting UTRs encode important regulatory information and that use of alternative promoters is widespread. Further analysis revealed that the revised Wor1 circuit bears several striking similarities to the Oct4 circuit that specifies the pluripotency of mammalian embryonic stem cells. Additional characteristics shared with the Oct4 circuit suggest a set of general hallmarks characteristic of

  7. Junction and circuit fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackel, L.D.

    1980-01-01

    Great strides have been made in Josephson junction fabrication in the four years since the first IC SQUID meeting. Advances in lithography have allowed the production of devices with planar dimensions as small as a few hundred angstroms. Improved technology has provided ultra-high sensitivity SQUIDS, high-efficiency low-noise mixers, and complex integrated circuits. This review highlights some of the new fabrication procedures. The review consists of three parts. Part 1 is a short summary of the requirements on junctions for various applications. Part 2 reviews intergrated circuit fabrication, including tunnel junction logic circuits made at IBM and Bell Labs, and microbridge radiation sources made at SUNY at Stony Brook. Part 3 describes new junction fabrication techniques, the major emphasis of this review. This part includes a discussion of small oxide-barrier tunnel junctions, semiconductor barrier junctions, and microbridge junctions. Part 3 concludes by considering very fine lithography and limitations to miniaturization. (orig.)

  8. Effects of smoke on functional circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, T.J.

    1997-10-01

    Nuclear power plants are converting to digital instrumentation and control systems; however, the effects of abnormal environments such as fire and smoke on such systems are not known. There are no standard tests for smoke, but previous smoke exposure tests at Sandia National Laboratories have shown that digital communications can be temporarily interrupted during a smoke exposure. Another concern is the long-term corrosion of metals exposed to the acidic gases produced by a cable fire. This report documents measurements of basic functional circuits during and up to 1 day after exposure to smoke created by burning cable insulation. Printed wiring boards were exposed to the smoke in an enclosed chamber for 1 hour. For high-resistance circuits, the smoke lowered the resistance of the surface of the board and caused the circuits to short during the exposure. These circuits recovered after the smoke was vented. For low-resistance circuits, the smoke caused their resistance to increase slightly. A polyurethane conformal coating substantially reduced the effects of smoke. A high-speed digital circuit was unaffected. A second experiment on different logic chip technologies showed that the critical shunt resistance that would cause failure was dependent on the chip technology and that the components used in the smoke exposures were some of the most smoke tolerant. The smoke densities in these tests were high enough to cause changes in high impedance (resistance) circuits during exposure, but did not affect most of the other circuits. Conformal coatings and the characteristics of chip technologies should be considered when designing circuitry for nuclear power plant safety systems, which must be highly reliable under a variety of operating and accident conditions. 10 refs., 34 figs., 18 tabs

  9. DMILL circuits. The hardened electronics decuples its performances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    Thanks to the DMILL (mixed logic-linear hardening) technology under development at the CEA, MHS, a French company specialized in the fabrication of integrated circuits now produces hardened electronic circuits ten times more resistant to radiations than its competitors. Outside the initial market (several thousands of circuits for the LHC particle accelerator of Geneva), a broad choice of applications is opened to this technology: national defense, space, civil nuclear and medical engineering, and high temperature applications. Short paper. (J.S.)

  10. [Smart therapeutics based on synthetic gene circuits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Shuguang; Xie, Zhen

    2017-03-25

    Synthetic biology has an important impact on biology research since its birth. Applying the thought and methods that reference from electrical engineering, synthetic biology uncovers many regulatory mechanisms of life systems, transforms and expands a series of biological components. Therefore, it brings a wide range of biomedical applications, including providing new ideas for disease diagnosis and treatment. This review describes the latest advances in the field of disease diagnosis and therapy based on mammalian cell or bacterial synthetic gene circuits, and provides new ideas for future smart therapy design.

  11. Regulatory Anatomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoeyer, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    This article proposes the term “safety logics” to understand attempts within the European Union (EU) to harmonize member state legislation to ensure a safe and stable supply of human biological material for transplants and transfusions. With safety logics, I refer to assemblages of discourses, le...... they arise. In short, I expose the regulatory anatomy of the policy landscape....

  12. Regulatory Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Poul F.; Vetterlein, Antje

    2018-01-01

    Regulatory governance frameworks have become essential building blocks of world society. From supply chains to the regimes surrounding international organizations, extensive governance frameworks have emerged which structure and channel a variety of social exchanges, including economic, political...... by the International Transitional Administrations (ITAs) in Kosovo and Iraq as well as global supply chains and their impact on the garment industry in Bangladesh....

  13. Small circuits for cryptography.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torgerson, Mark Dolan; Draelos, Timothy John; Schroeppel, Richard Crabtree; Miller, Russell D.; Anderson, William Erik

    2005-10-01

    This report examines a number of hardware circuit design issues associated with implementing certain functions in FPGA and ASIC technologies. Here we show circuit designs for AES and SHA-1 that have an extremely small hardware footprint, yet show reasonably good performance characteristics as compared to the state of the art designs found in the literature. Our AES performance numbers are fueled by an optimized composite field S-box design for the Stratix chipset. Our SHA-1 designs use register packing and feedback functionalities of the Stratix LE, which reduce the logic element usage by as much as 72% as compared to other SHA-1 designs.

  14. Silicon integrated circuit process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Duck

    1985-12-01

    This book introduces the process of silicon integrated circuit. It is composed of seven parts, which are oxidation process, diffusion process, ion implantation process such as ion implantation equipment, damage, annealing and influence on manufacture of integrated circuit and device, chemical vapor deposition process like silicon Epitaxy LPCVD and PECVD, photolithography process, including a sensitizer, spin, harden bake, reflection of light and problems related process, infrared light bake, wet-etch, dry etch, special etch and problems of etching, metal process like metal process like metal-silicon connection, aluminum process, credibility of aluminum and test process.

  15. Primer printed circuit boards

    CERN Document Server

    Argyle, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Step-by-step instructions for making your own PCBs at home. Making your own printed circuit board (PCB) might seem a daunting task, but once you master the steps, it's easy to attain professional-looking results. Printed circuit boards, which connect chips and other components, are what make almost all modern electronic devices possible. PCBs are made from sheets of fiberglass clad with copper, usually in multiplelayers. Cut a computer motherboard in two, for instance, and you'll often see five or more differently patterned layers. Making boards at home is relatively easy

  16. Silicon integrated circuit process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong Duck

    1985-12-15

    This book introduces the process of silicon integrated circuit. It is composed of seven parts, which are oxidation process, diffusion process, ion implantation process such as ion implantation equipment, damage, annealing and influence on manufacture of integrated circuit and device, chemical vapor deposition process like silicon Epitaxy LPCVD and PECVD, photolithography process, including a sensitizer, spin, harden bake, reflection of light and problems related process, infrared light bake, wet-etch, dry etch, special etch and problems of etching, metal process like metal process like metal-silicon connection, aluminum process, credibility of aluminum and test process.

  17. Circuit design for reliability

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Yu; Wirth, Gilson

    2015-01-01

    This book presents physical understanding, modeling and simulation, on-chip characterization, layout solutions, and design techniques that are effective to enhance the reliability of various circuit units.  The authors provide readers with techniques for state of the art and future technologies, ranging from technology modeling, fault detection and analysis, circuit hardening, and reliability management. Provides comprehensive review on various reliability mechanisms at sub-45nm nodes; Describes practical modeling and characterization techniques for reliability; Includes thorough presentation of robust design techniques for major VLSI design units; Promotes physical understanding with first-principle simulations.

  18. Electronic circuits fundamentals & applications

    CERN Document Server

    Tooley, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Electronics explained in one volume, using both theoretical and practical applications.New chapter on Raspberry PiCompanion website contains free electronic tools to aid learning for students and a question bank for lecturersPractical investigations and questions within each chapter help reinforce learning Mike Tooley provides all the information required to get to grips with the fundamentals of electronics, detailing the underpinning knowledge necessary to appreciate the operation of a wide range of electronic circuits, including amplifiers, logic circuits, power supplies and oscillators. The

  19. Plans and schedules for implementation of US Nuclear Regulatory Commission responsibilities under the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 (P.L. 99-240)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunkelman, M.M.; Kearney, M.S.; MacDougall, R.D.

    1986-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to make available to the states and other interested parties, the plans and schedules for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) implementation of its responsibilities under Public Law 99-240, the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 (LLRWPAA). This document identifies the provisions of the LLRWPAA which affect the programs of the NRC, identifies what the NRC must do to fulfill each of its requirements under the LLRWPAA, and establishes schedules for carrying out these requirements. The plans and schedules are current as of June 1986

  20. Design of synthetic biological logic circuits based on evolutionary algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Chia-Hua; Lin, Chun-Liang; Chang, Yen-Chang; Jennawasin, Tanagorn; Chen, Po-Kuei

    2013-08-01

    The construction of an artificial biological logic circuit using systematic strategy is recognised as one of the most important topics for the development of synthetic biology. In this study, a real-structured genetic algorithm (RSGA), which combines general advantages of the traditional real genetic algorithm with those of the structured genetic algorithm, is proposed to deal with the biological logic circuit design problem. A general model with the cis-regulatory input function and appropriate promoter activity functions is proposed to synthesise a wide variety of fundamental logic gates such as NOT, Buffer, AND, OR, NAND, NOR and XOR. The results obtained can be extended to synthesise advanced combinational and sequential logic circuits by topologically distinct connections. The resulting optimal design of these logic gates and circuits are established via the RSGA. The in silico computer-based modelling technology has been verified showing its great advantages in the purpose.

  1. ESD analog circuits and design

    CERN Document Server

    Voldman, Steven H

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive and in-depth review of analog circuit layout, schematic architecture, device, power network and ESD design This book will provide a balanced overview of analog circuit design layout, analog circuit schematic development, architecture of chips, and ESD design.  It will start at an introductory level and will bring the reader right up to the state-of-the-art. Two critical design aspects for analog and power integrated circuits are combined. The first design aspect covers analog circuit design techniques to achieve the desired circuit performance. The second and main aspect pres

  2. Unstable oscillators based hyperchaotic circuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murali, K.; Tamasevicius, A.; G. Mykolaitis, A.

    1999-01-01

    A simple 4th order hyperchaotic circuit with unstable oscillators is described. The circuit contains two negative impedance converters, two inductors, two capacitors, a linear resistor and a diode. The Lyapunov exponents are presented to confirm hyperchaotic nature of the oscillations in the circ...... in the circuit. The performance of the circuit is investigated by means of numerical integration of appropriate differential equations, PSPICE simulations, and hardware experiment.......A simple 4th order hyperchaotic circuit with unstable oscillators is described. The circuit contains two negative impedance converters, two inductors, two capacitors, a linear resistor and a diode. The Lyapunov exponents are presented to confirm hyperchaotic nature of the oscillations...

  3. The test of VLSI circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baviere, Ph.

    Tests which have proven effective for evaluating VLSI circuits for space applications are described. It is recommended that circuits be examined after each manfacturing step to gain fast feedback on inadequacies in the production system. Data from failure modes which occur during operational lifetimes of circuits also permit redefinition of the manufacturing and quality control process to eliminate the defects identified. Other tests include determination of the operational envelope of the circuits, examination of the circuit response to controlled inputs, and the performance and functional speeds of ROM and RAM memories. Finally, it is desirable that all new circuits be designed with testing in mind.

  4. Electronic Circuit Analysis Language (ECAL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenghang, C.

    1983-03-01

    The computer aided design technique is an important development in computer applications and it is an important component of computer science. The special language for electronic circuit analysis is the foundation of computer aided design or computer aided circuit analysis (abbreviated as CACD and CACA) of simulated circuits. Electronic circuit analysis language (ECAL) is a comparatively simple and easy to use circuit analysis special language which uses the FORTRAN language to carry out the explanatory executions. It is capable of conducting dc analysis, ac analysis, and transient analysis of a circuit. Futhermore, the results of the dc analysis can be used directly as the initial conditions for the ac and transient analyses.

  5. An integrated circuit switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, E. L.

    1969-01-01

    Multi-chip integrated circuit switch consists of a GaAs photon-emitting diode in close proximity with S1 phototransistor. A high current gain is obtained when the transistor has a high forward common-emitter current gain.

  6. Automatic sweep circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefe, D.J.

    1980-01-01

    An automatically sweeping circuit for searching for an evoked response in an output signal in time with respect to a trigger input is described. Digital counters are used to activate a detector at precise intervals, and monitoring is repeated for statistical accuracy. If the response is not found then a different time window is examined until the signal is found

  7. Automatic sweep circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, Donald J.

    1980-01-01

    An automatically sweeping circuit for searching for an evoked response in an output signal in time with respect to a trigger input. Digital counters are used to activate a detector at precise intervals, and monitoring is repeated for statistical accuracy. If the response is not found then a different time window is examined until the signal is found.

  8. "Printed-circuit" rectenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, R. M.

    1977-01-01

    Rectifying antenna is less bulky structure for absorbing transmitted microwave power and converting it into electrical current. Printed-circuit approach, using microstrip technology and circularly polarized antenna, makes polarization orientation unimportant and allows much smaller arrays for given performance. Innovation is particularly useful with proposed electric vehicles powered by beam microwaves.

  9. Het onzichtbare circuit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, Bram

    2013-01-01

    De chip, of geïntegreerde schakeling, heeft in een razend tempo ons leven ingrijpend veranderd. Het lijkt zo vanzelfsprekend dat er weer een nieuwe generatie smartphones, tablets of computers is. Maar dat is het niet. Prof.dr.ir. Bram Nauta, hoogleraar Integrated Circuit Design, laat in zijn rede

  10. Voltage regulating circuit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2005-01-01

    A voltage regulating circuit comprising a rectifier (2) for receiving an AC voltage (Vmains) and for generating a rectified AC voltage (vrec), and a capacitor (3) connected in parallel with said rectified AC voltage for providing a DC voltage (VDC) over a load (5), characterized by a unidirectional

  11. Streaming Reduction Circuit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerards, Marco Egbertus Theodorus; Kuper, Jan; Kokkeler, Andre B.J.; Molenkamp, Egbert

    2009-01-01

    Reduction circuits are used to reduce rows of floating point values to single values. Binary floating point operators often have deep pipelines, which may cause hazards when many consecutive rows have to be reduced. We present an algorithm by which any number of consecutive rows of arbitrary lengths

  12. A Magnetic Circuit Demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderkooy, John; Lowe, June

    1995-01-01

    Presents a demonstration designed to illustrate Faraday's, Ampere's, and Lenz's laws and to reinforce the concepts through the analysis of a two-loop magnetic circuit. Can be made dramatic and challenging for sophisticated students but is suitable for an introductory course in electricity and magnetism. (JRH)

  13. Assessment of regulatory effectiveness. Peer discussions on regulatory practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-09-01

    This report arises from the seventh series of peer discussions on regulatory practices entitled 'Assessment of Regulatory Effectiveness'. The term 'regulatory effectiveness' covers the quality of the work and level of performance of a regulatory body. In this sense, regulatory effectiveness applies to regulatory body activities aimed at preventing safety degradation and ensuring that an acceptable level of safety is being maintained by the regulated operating organizations. In addition, regulatory effectiveness encompasses the promotion of safety improvements, the timely and cost effective performance of regulatory functions in a manner which ensures the confidence of the operating organizations, the general public and the government, and striving for continuous improvements to performance. Senior regulators from 22 Member States participated in two peer group discussions during March and May 1999. The discussions were focused on the elements of an effective regulatory body, possible indicators of regulatory effectiveness and its assessment. This report presents the outcome of these meetings and recommendations of good practices identified by senior regulators, which do not necessarily reflect those of the governments of the nominating Member States, the organizations they belong to, or the International Atomic Energy Agency. In order to protect people and the environment from hazards associated with nuclear facilities, the main objective of a nuclear regulatory body is to ensure that a high level of safety in the nuclear activities under its jurisdiction is achieved, maintained and within the control of operating organizations. Even if it is possible to directly judge objective safety levels at nuclear facilities, such safety levels would not provide an exclusive indicator of regulatory effectiveness. The way the regulatory body ensures the safety of workers and the public and the way it discharges its responsibilities also determine its effectiveness. Hence the

  14. Computer-aided engineering of semiconductor integrated circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meindl, J. D.; Dutton, R. W.; Gibbons, J. F.; Helms, C. R.; Plummer, J. D.; Tiller, W. A.; Ho, C. P.; Saraswat, K. C.; Deal, B. E.; Kamins, T. I.

    1980-07-01

    Economical procurement of small quantities of high performance custom integrated circuits for military systems is impeded by inadequate process, device and circuit models that handicap low cost computer aided design. The principal objective of this program is to formulate physical models of fabrication processes, devices and circuits to allow total computer-aided design of custom large-scale integrated circuits. The basic areas under investigation are (1) thermal oxidation, (2) ion implantation and diffusion, (3) chemical vapor deposition of silicon and refractory metal silicides, (4) device simulation and analytic measurements. This report discusses the fourth year of the program.

  15. Fuel Cell Equivalent Electric Circuit Parameter Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Christian; Zhou, Fan; Andreasen, Søren Juhl

    In this work a simple model for a fuel cell is investigated for diagnostic purpose. The fuel cell is characterized, with respect to the electrical impedance of the fuel cell at non-faulty conditions and under variations in load current. Based on this the equivalent electrical circuit parameters can...

  16. Unit: Electric Circuits, Inspection Pack, National Trial Print.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Australian Science Education Project, Toorak, Victoria.

    As a part of the unit materials in the series produced by the Australian Science Education Project, this teacher edition is primarily composed of a core relating to simple circuits, a test form, and options. Options are given under the headings: Your Invention; "How Long Does a Call Last?"; One, Two, Three Wires; Parallel Circuits; More…

  17. The LMT circuit and SPICE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Erik; Murali, K.; Tamacevicius, Arunas

    2006-01-01

    The state equations of the LMT circuit are modeled as a dedicated analogue computer circuit and solved by means of PSpice. The nonlinear part of the system is studied. Problems with the PSpice program are presented....

  18. Resistor Combinations for Parallel Circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McTernan, James P.

    1978-01-01

    To help simplify both teaching and learning of parallel circuits, a high school electricity/electronics teacher presents and illustrates the use of tables of values for parallel resistive circuits in which total resistances are whole numbers. (MF)

  19. Detecting short circuits during assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deboo, G. J.

    1980-01-01

    Detector circuit identifies shorts between bus bars of electronic equipment being wired. Detector sounds alarm and indicates which planes are shorted. Power and ground bus bars are scanned continuously until short circuit occurs.

  20. BR-5 primary circuit decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efimov, I.A.; Nikulin, M.P.; Smirnov-Averin, A.P.; Tymosh, B.S.; Shereshkov, V.S.

    1976-01-01

    Results and methodology of steam-water and acid decontamination of the primary coolant circuit SBR-5 reactor in 1971 are discussed. Regeneration process in a cold trap of the primary coolant circuit is discussed

  1. A bio-inspired spatial patterning circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kai-Yuan; Joe, Danial J; Shealy, James B; Land, Bruce R; Shen, Xiling

    2014-01-01

    Lateral Inhibition (LI) is a widely conserved patterning mechanism in biological systems across species. Distinct from better-known Turing patterns, LI depend on cell-cell contact rather than diffusion. We built an in silico genetic circuit model to analyze the dynamic properties of LI. The model revealed that LI amplifies differences between neighboring cells to push them into opposite states, hence forming stable 2-D patterns. Inspired by this insight, we designed and implemented an electronic circuit that recapitulates LI patterning dynamics. This biomimetic system serve as a physical model to elucidate the design principle of generating robust patterning through spatial feedback, regardless of the underlying devices being biological or electrical.

  2. MOS voltage automatic tuning circuit

    OpenAIRE

    李, 田茂; 中田, 辰則; 松本, 寛樹

    2004-01-01

    Abstract ###Automatic tuning circuit adjusts frequency performance to compensate for the process variation. Phase locked ###loop (PLL) is a suitable oscillator for the integrated circuit. It is a feedback system that compares the input ###phase with the output phase. It can make the output frequency equal to the input frequency. In this paper, PLL ###fomed of MOSFET's is presented.The presented circuit consists of XOR circuit, Low-pass filter and Relaxation ###Oscillator. On PSPICE simulation...

  3. Behavioral synthesis of asynchronous circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sune Fallgaard

    2005-01-01

    This thesis presents a method for behavioral synthesis of asynchronous circuits, which aims at providing a synthesis flow which uses and tranfers methods from synchronous circuits to asynchronous circuits. We move the synchronous behavioral synthesis abstraction into the asynchronous handshake...... is idle. This reduces unnecessary switching activity in the individual functional units and therefore the energy consumption of the entire circuit. A collection of behavioral synthesis algorithms have been developed allowing the designer to perform time and power constrained design space exploration...

  4. Selected collection of circuit drawings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The many electronics circuits have been constracted in the Electronics Shop for use in nuclear experiments or other purposes of this Institute. The types of these circuits amount to about 500 items in total since 1968. This report describes the electronics circuit diagrams selected from this collection. The circuit details are not presented in this report, because these are already been published in the other technical reports. (auth.)

  5. Diode, transistor & fet circuits manual

    CERN Document Server

    Marston, R M

    2013-01-01

    Diode, Transistor and FET Circuits Manual is a handbook of circuits based on discrete semiconductor components such as diodes, transistors, and FETS. The book also includes diagrams and practical circuits. The book describes basic and special diode characteristics, heat wave-rectifier circuits, transformers, filter capacitors, and rectifier ratings. The text also presents practical applications of associated devices, for example, zeners, varicaps, photodiodes, or LEDs, as well as it describes bipolar transistor characteristics. The transistor can be used in three basic amplifier configuration

  6. Functional Disturbances Within Frontostriatal Circuits Across Multiple Childhood Psychopathologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Rachel; Maia, Tiago V.; Peterson, Bradley S.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Neuroimaging studies of healthy individuals inform us about the normative maturation of the frontostriatal circuits that subserve self-regulatory control processes. Findings from these studies can be used as a reference frame against which to compare the aberrant development of these processes in individuals across a wide range of childhood psychopathologies. Method The authors reviewed extensive neuroimaging evidence for the presence of abnormalities in frontostriatal circuits in children and adults with Tourette’s syndrome and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) as well as a more limited number of imaging studies of adolescents and adults with anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa that, together, implicate dysregulation of frontostriatal control systems in the pathogenesis of these eating disorders. Results The presence of an impaired capacity for self-regulatory control that derives from abnormal development of frontostriatal circuits likely interacts in similar ways with normally occurring somatic sensations and motor urges, intrusive thoughts, sensations of hunger, and preoccupation with body shape and weight to contribute, respectively, to the development of the tics of Tourette’s syndrome, the obsessions of OCD, the binge eating behaviors of bulimia, and the self-starvation of anorexia. Conclusions Analogous brain mechanisms in parallel frontostriatal circuits, or even in differing portions of the same frontostriatal circuit, may underlie the differing behavioral disturbances in these multiple disorders, although further research is needed to confirm this hypothesis. PMID:19448188

  7. High voltage MOSFET switching circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1994-01-01

    The problem of source lead inductance in a MOSFET switching circuit is compensated for by adding an inductor to the gate circuit. The gate circuit inductor produces an inductive spike which counters the source lead inductive drop to produce a rectangular drive voltage waveform at the internal gate-source terminals of the MOSFET.

  8. Application of Memristors in Microwave Passive Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Potrebic

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The recent implementation of the fourth fundamental electric circuit element, the memristor, opened new vistas in many fields of engineering applications. In this paper, we explore several RF/microwave passive circuits that might benefit from the memristor salient characteristics. We consider a power divider, coupled resonator bandpass filters, and a low-reflection quasi-Gaussian lowpass filter with lossy elements. We utilize memristors as configurable linear resistors and we propose memristor-based bandpass filters that feature suppression of parasitic frequency pass bands and widening of the desired rejection band. The simulations are performed in the time domain, using LTspice, and the RF/microwave circuits under consideration are modeled by ideal elements available in LTspice.

  9. Neuromorphic Silicon Neuron Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indiveri, Giacomo; Linares-Barranco, Bernabé; Hamilton, Tara Julia; van Schaik, André; Etienne-Cummings, Ralph; Delbruck, Tobi; Liu, Shih-Chii; Dudek, Piotr; Häfliger, Philipp; Renaud, Sylvie; Schemmel, Johannes; Cauwenberghs, Gert; Arthur, John; Hynna, Kai; Folowosele, Fopefolu; Saighi, Sylvain; Serrano-Gotarredona, Teresa; Wijekoon, Jayawan; Wang, Yingxue; Boahen, Kwabena

    2011-01-01

    Hardware implementations of spiking neurons can be extremely useful for a large variety of applications, ranging from high-speed modeling of large-scale neural systems to real-time behaving systems, to bidirectional brain–machine interfaces. The specific circuit solutions used to implement silicon neurons depend on the application requirements. In this paper we describe the most common building blocks and techniques used to implement these circuits, and present an overview of a wide range of neuromorphic silicon neurons, which implement different computational models, ranging from biophysically realistic and conductance-based Hodgkin–Huxley models to bi-dimensional generalized adaptive integrate and fire models. We compare the different design methodologies used for each silicon neuron design described, and demonstrate their features with experimental results, measured from a wide range of fabricated VLSI chips. PMID:21747754

  10. Neuromorphic silicon neuron circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo eIndiveri

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Hardware implementations of spiking neurons can be extremely useful for a large variety of applications, ranging from high-speed modeling of large-scale neural systems to real-time behaving systems, to bidirectional brain-machine interfaces. The specific circuit solutions used to implement silicon neurons depend on the application requirements. In this paper we describe the most common building blocks and techniques used to implement these circuits, and present an overview of a wide range of neuromorphic silicon neurons, which implement different computational models, ranging from biophysically realistic and conductance based Hodgkin-Huxley models to bi-dimensional generalized adaptive Integrate and Fire models. We compare the different design methodologies used for each silicon neuron design described, and demonstrate their features with experimental results, measured from a wide range of fabricated VLSI chips.

  11. Electronic circuit design with HEP computational tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaz, Mario

    1996-01-01

    CPSPICE is an electronic circuit statistical simulation program developed to run in a parallel environment under UNIX operating system and TCP/IP communications protocol, using CPS - Cooperative Processes Software , SPICE program and CERNLIB software package. It is part of a set of tools being develop, intended to help electronic engineers to design, model and simulate complex systems and circuits for High Energy Physics detectors, based on statistical methods, using the same software and methodology used by HEP physicists for data analysis. CPSPICE simulates electronic circuits by Monte Carlo method, through several different processes running simultaneously SPICE in UNIX parallel computers or workstation farms. Data transfer between CPS processes for a modified version of SPICE2G6 is done by RAM memory, but can also be done through hard disk files if no source files are available for the simulator, and for bigger simulation outputs files. Simulation results are written in a HBOOK file as a NTUPLE, to be examined by HBOOK in batch model or graphics, and analyzed by statistical procedures available. The HBOOK file be stored on hard disk for small amount of data, or into Exabyte tape file for large amount of data. HEP tools also helps circuit or component modeling, like MINUT program from CERNLIB, that implements Nelder and Mead Simplex and Gradient with or without derivatives algorithms, and can be used for design optimization.This paper presents CPSPICE program implementation. The scheme adopted is suitable to make parallel other electronic circuit simulators. (author)

  12. The thought of formulating regulatory planning under new situation——The establishment of Fujian regulatory planning guidelines%新形势下控制性详细规划编制的思路——《福建省城市控制性详细规划编制导则》制定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李川

    2012-01-01

    Regulatory plan is the statutory planning in Urban and rural planning law,which is the most steady way in planning management and occupies an important position in Planning and management system.With the made of Fujian regulatory planning guide lines and the analysis of practices around China,the paper tries to make a new thought of regulatory planning under current situation.%控制性详细规划是我国《城乡规划法》中规定的法定性规划,是规划管理上最具刚性的抓手,在规划编制和管理体系中有着重要地位。本文结合〈福建控制性详细规划编制导则〉的制定,在分析研究各地做法基础上,探索新形势下控制性详细规划编制的思路。

  13. Integrated circuit structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The invention describes the fabrication of integrated circuit structures, such as read-only memory components of field-effect transistors, which may be fabricated and then maintained in inventory, and later selectively modified in accordance with a desired pattern. It is claimed that MOS depletion-mode devices in accordance with the invention can be fabricated at lower cost and at higher yields. (U.K.)

  14. Integrated Circuit Immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sketoe, J. G.; Clark, Anthony

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a DOD E3 program overview on integrated circuit immunity. The topics include: 1) EMI Immunity Testing; 2) Threshold Definition; 3) Bias Tee Function; 4) Bias Tee Calibration Set-Up; 5) EDM Test Figure; 6) EMI Immunity Levels; 7) NAND vs. and Gate Immunity; 8) TTL vs. LS Immunity Levels; 9) TP vs. OC Immunity Levels; 10) 7805 Volt Reg Immunity; and 11) Seventies Chip Set. This paper is presented in viewgraph form.

  15. Integrated coincidence circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borejko, V.F.; Grebenyuk, V.M.; Zinov, V.G.

    1976-01-01

    The description is given of two coincidence units employing integral circuits in the VISHNYA standard. The units are distinguished for the coincidence selection element which is essentially a combination of a tunnel diode and microcircuits. The output fast response of the units is at least 90 MHz in the mode of the output signal unshaped in duration and 50 MHz minimum in the mode of the output signal shaping. The resolution time of the units is dependent upon the duration of input signals

  16. Semiconductor integrated circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, A.E.; Schwenker, R.O.; Ziegler, J.F.

    1979-01-01

    An improved method involving ion implantation to form non-epitaxial semiconductor integrated circuits. These are made by forming a silicon substrate of one conductivity type with a recessed silicon dioxide region extending into the substrate and enclosing a portion of the silicon substrate. A beam of ions of opposite conductivity type impurity is directed at the substrate at an energy and dosage level sufficient to form a first region of opposite conductivity within the silicon dioxide region. This impurity having a concentration peak below the surface of the substrate forms a region of the one conductivity type which extends from the substrate surface into the first opposite type region to a depth between the concentration peak and the surface and forms a second region of opposite conductivity type. The method, materials and ion beam conditions are detailed. Vertical bipolar integrated circuits can be made this way when the first opposite type conductivity region will function as a collector. Also circuits with inverted bipolar devices when this first region functions as a 'buried'' emitter region. (U.K.)

  17. Management of waste from nuclear facilities as a regulatory problem. Requirements to be met by legislation under conditions of uncertainty. Die Entsorgung der Kernenergie als Regelungsproblem. Zu den Anforderungen an Gesetzgebung unter Ungewissheitsbedingungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ladeur, K.H.

    1989-07-01

    The author presents a brief review of the development of the nuclear waste management regime in the Atomic Energy Act, referring also to court decissions and the literature. The article analyses the constitutionality of the waste management regulations of section 9a and following sections, and of the provisions on reprocessing (section 7, sub-sec. (1)), primarily under the aspect of the principle of proviso of legality in general, reformulated by the theory of materiality, and in particular with regard to the requirement of 'backfitting' in order to improve the regulatory system for complex and especially technological matters. (orig./RST).

  18. Measurements of the Effects of Smoke on Active Circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, T.J.

    1999-01-01

    Smoke has long been recognized as the most common source of fire damage to electrical equipment; however, most failures have been analyzed after the fire was out and the smoke vented. The effects caused while the smoke is still in the air have not been explored. Such effects have implications for new digital equipment being installed in nuclear reactors. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission is sponsoring work to determine the impact of smoke on digital instrumentation and control. As part of this program, Sandia National Laboratories has tested simple active circuits to determine how smoke affects them. These tests included the study of three possible failure modes on a functional board: (1) circuit bridging, (2) corrosion (metal loss), and (3) induction of stray capacitance. The performance of nine different circuits was measured continuously on bare and conformably coated boards during smoke exposures lasting 1 hour each and continued for 24 hours after the exposure started. The circuit that was most affected by smoke (100% change in measured values) was the one most sensitive to circuit bridging. Its high impedance (50 MOmega) was shorted during the exposure, but in some cases recovered after the smoke was vented. The other two failure modes, corrosion and induced stray capacitance, caused little change in the function of the circuits. The smoke permanently increased resistance of the circuit tested for corrosion, implying that the cent acts were corroded. However, the change was very small (< 2%). The stray-capacitance test circuit showed very little change after a smoke exposure in either the short or long term. The results of the tests suggest that conformal coatings and type of circuit are major considerations when designing digital circuitry to be used in critical control systems

  19. Measurements of the effects of smoke on active circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, T.J.

    1998-01-01

    Smoke has long been recognized as the most common source of fire damage to electrical equipment; however, most failures have been analyzed after the fire was out and the smoke vented. The effects caused while the smoke is still in the air have not been explored. Such effects have implications for new digital equipment being installed in nuclear reactors. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is sponsoring work to determine the impact of smoke on digital instrumentation and control. As part of this program, Sandia National Laboratories has tested simple active circuits to determine how smoke affects them. These tests included the study of three possible failure modes on a functional board: (1) circuit bridging, (2) corrosion (metal loss), and (3) induction of stray capacitance. The performance of nine different circuits was measured continuously on bare and conformally coated boards during smoke exposures lasting 1 hour each and continued for 24 hours after the exposure started. The circuit that was most affected by smoke (100% change in measured values) was the one most sensitive to circuit bridging. Its high impedance (50 Mohm) was shorted during the exposure, but in some cases recovered after the smoke was vented. The other two failure modes, corrosion and induced stray capacitance, caused little change in the function of the circuits. The smoke permanently increased resistance of the circuit tested for corrosion, implying that the contacts were corroded. However, the change was very small (< 2%). The stray capacitance test circuit showed very little change after a smoke exposure in either the short or long term. The results of the tests suggest that conformal coatings and type of circuit are major considerations when designing digital circuitry to be used in critical control systems

  20. Interface Circuit For Printer Port

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Jerry H.; Yadlowsky, Ann B.

    1991-01-01

    Electronic circuit, called printer-port interface circuit (PPI) developed to overcome certain disadvantages of previous methods for connecting IBM PC or PC-compatible computer to other equipment. Has both reading and writing modes of operation. Very simple, requiring only six integrated circuits. Provides for moderately fast rates of transfer of data and uses existing unmodified circuit card in IBM PC. When used with appropriate software, circuit converts printer port on IBM PC, XT, AT, or compatible personal computer to general purpose, 8-bit-data, 16-bit address bus that connects to multitude of devices.

  1. Changes to the shuttle circuits

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2011-01-01

    To fit with passengers expectation, there will be some changes to the shuttle circuits as from Monday 10 October. See details on http://cern.ch/ShuttleService (on line on 7 October). Circuit No. 5 is cancelled as circuit No. 1 also stops at Bldg. 33. In order to guarantee shorter travel times, circuit No. 1 will circulate on Meyrin site only and circuit No. 2, with departures from Bldg. 33 and 500, on Prévessin site only. Site Services Section

  2. Thermionic integrated circuits: electronics for hostile environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynn, D.K.; McCormick, J.B.; MacRoberts, M.D.J.; Wilde, D.K.; Dooley, G.R.; Brown, D.R.

    1985-01-01

    Thermionic integrated circuits combine vacuum tube technology with integrated circuit techniques to form integrated vacuum triode circuits. These circuits are capable of extended operation in both high-temperature and high-radiation environments

  3. Power system with an integrated lubrication circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Brian D [East Peoria, IL; Akasam, Sivaprasad [Peoria, IL; Algrain, Marcelo C [Peoria, IL; Johnson, Kris W [Washington, IL; Lane, William H [Chillicothe, IL

    2009-11-10

    A power system includes an engine having a first lubrication circuit and at least one auxiliary power unit having a second lubrication circuit. The first lubrication circuit is in fluid communication with the second lubrication circuit.

  4. Integrated coherent matter wave circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, C.; Boshier, M. G.

    2015-01-01

    An integrated coherent matter wave circuit is a single device, analogous to an integrated optical circuit, in which coherent de Broglie waves are created and then launched into waveguides where they can be switched, divided, recombined, and detected as they propagate. Applications of such circuits include guided atom interferometers, atomtronic circuits, and precisely controlled delivery of atoms. We report experiments demonstrating integrated circuits for guided coherent matter waves. The circuit elements are created with the painted potential technique, a form of time-averaged optical dipole potential in which a rapidly moving, tightly focused laser beam exerts forces on atoms through their electric polarizability. Moreover, the source of coherent matter waves is a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). Finally, we launch BECs into painted waveguides that guide them around bends and form switches, phase coherent beamsplitters, and closed circuits. These are the basic elements that are needed to engineer arbitrarily complex matter wave circuitry

  5. Simulation of electronic circuit sensitivity towards humidity using electrochemical data on water layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joshy, Salil; Verdingovas, Vadimas; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl

    2015-01-01

    Climatic conditions like temperature and humidity have direct influence on the operation of electronic circuits. The effects of temperature on the operation of electronic circuits have been widely investigated, while the effect of humidity and solder flux residues are not well understood including...... the effect on circuit and PCBA (printed circuit board assembly) layout design. This paper elucidates a methodology for analyzing the sensitivity of an electronic circuit based on parasitic circuit analysis using data on electrical property of the water layer formed under humid as well as contaminated...

  6. Genetic moderation of the association between regulatory focus and reward responsiveness: a proof-of-concept study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Elena L; Hariri, Ahmad R; Pizzagalli, Diego A; Strauman, Timothy J

    2013-02-01

    Recent studies implicate individual differences in regulatory focus as contributing to self-regulatory dysfunction, particularly not responding to positive outcomes. How such individual differences emerge, however, is unclear. We conducted a proof-of-concept study to examine the moderating effects of genetically driven variation in dopamine signaling, a key modulator of neural reward circuits, on the association between regulatory focus and reward cue responsiveness. Healthy Caucasians (N=59) completed a measure of chronic regulatory focus and a probabilistic reward task. A common functional genetic polymorphism impacting prefrontal dopamine signaling (COMT rs4680) was evaluated. Response bias, the participants' propensity to modulate behavior as a function of reward, was predicted by an interaction of regulatory focus and COMT genotype. Specifically, self-perceived success at achieving promotion goals predicted total response bias, but only for individuals with the COMT genotype (Val/Val) associated with relatively increased phasic dopamine signaling and cognitive flexibility. The combination of success in promotion goal pursuit and Val/Val genotype appears to facilitate responding to reward opportunities in the environment. This study is among the first to integrate an assessment of self-regulatory style with an examination of genetic variability that underlies responsiveness to positive outcomes in goal pursuit.

  7. Testing methods of gaseous admixtures in HLMC circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shelemet'ev, V.M.; Martynov, P.N.; Askhadullin, R.Sh.; Storozhenko, A.N.; Sadovnichij, R.P.; Ivanov, I.I.

    2014-01-01

    Control of gas phase is the effective method for state diagnostics of circuit of nuclear power facilities with heavy liquid metal coolants. Use of developing in IPPE solid electrolyte and conductometric oxygen and hydrogen sensors, which are set directly in gas system of the primary circuit, allows to maintain continuously control of oxygen and hydrogen content as well as operational efficiency and accuracy of these parameters determination under various situations related with oxygen and hydrogen insertion into circuit. Sensors ensure long-term safe operation under extreme conditions of high temperatures, pressures, humidity, etc., and are advanced devices for application in nuclear power facilities with heavy liquid metal coolants [ru

  8. 30 CFR 77.902-1 - Fail safe ground check circuits; maximum voltage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... voltage. 77.902-1 Section 77.902-1 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Low- and Medium-Voltage Alternating Current Circuits § 77.902-1 Fail safe ground check circuits; maximum voltage. The maximum voltage used for ground check circuits under § 77.902...

  9. Regulatory Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Helen W.; Whitson, Peggy A.; Putcha, Lakshmi; Baker, Ellen; Smith, Scott M.; Stewart, Karen; Gretebeck, Randall; Nimmagudda, R. R.; Schoeller, Dale A.; Davis-Street, Janis

    1999-01-01

    As noted elsewhere in this report, a central goal of the Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project (EDOMP) was to ensure that cardiovascular and muscle function were adequate to perform an emergency egress after 16 days of spaceflight. The goals of the Regulatory Physiology component of the EDOMP were to identify and subsequently ameliorate those biochemical and nutritional factors that deplete physiological reserves or increase risk for disease, and to facilitate the development of effective muscle, exercise, and cardiovascular countermeasures. The component investigations designed to meet these goals focused on biochemical and physiological aspects of nutrition and metabolism, the risk of renal (kidney) stone formation, gastrointestinal function, and sleep in space. Investigations involved both ground-based protocols to validate proposed methods and flight studies to test those methods. Two hardware tests were also completed.

  10. Regulatory Benchmarking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agrell, Per J.; Bogetoft, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Benchmarking methods, and in particular Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), have become well-established and informative tools for economic regulation. DEA is now routinely used by European regulators to set reasonable revenue caps for energy transmission and distribution system operators. The appli......Benchmarking methods, and in particular Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), have become well-established and informative tools for economic regulation. DEA is now routinely used by European regulators to set reasonable revenue caps for energy transmission and distribution system operators....... The application of bench-marking in regulation, however, requires specific steps in terms of data validation, model specification and outlier detection that are not systematically documented in open publications, leading to discussions about regulatory stability and economic feasibility of these techniques...

  11. Regulatory Benchmarking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agrell, Per J.; Bogetoft, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Benchmarking methods, and in particular Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), have become well-established and informative tools for economic regulation. DEA is now routinely used by European regulators to set reasonable revenue caps for energy transmission and distribution system operators. The appli......Benchmarking methods, and in particular Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), have become well-established and informative tools for economic regulation. DEA is now routinely used by European regulators to set reasonable revenue caps for energy transmission and distribution system operators....... The application of benchmarking in regulation, however, requires specific steps in terms of data validation, model specification and outlier detection that are not systematically documented in open publications, leading to discussions about regulatory stability and economic feasibility of these techniques...

  12. Dynamic pulse difference circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erickson, G.L.

    1978-01-01

    A digital electronic circuit of especial use for subtracting background activity pulses in gamma spectrometry is disclosed which comprises an up-down counter connected to count up with signal-channel pulses and to count down with background-channel pulses. A detector responsive to the count position of the up-down counter provides a signal when the up-down counter has completed one scaling sequence cycle of counts in the up direction. In an alternate embodiment, a detector responsive to the count position of the up-down counter provides a signal upon overflow of the counter

  13. Electronics circuits and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bishop, Owen

    2007-01-01

    The material in Electronics - Circuits and Systems is a truly up-to-date textbook, with coverage carefully matched to the electronics units of the 2007 BTEC National Engineering and the latest AS and A Level specifications in Electronics from AQA, OCR and WJEC. The material has been organized with a logical learning progression, making it ideal for a wide range of pre-degree courses in electronics. The approach is student-centred and includes: numerous examples and activities; web research topics; Self Test features, highlighted key facts, formulae and definitions. Each chapter ends with a set

  14. Electric circuits problem solver

    CERN Document Server

    REA, Editors of

    2012-01-01

    Each Problem Solver is an insightful and essential study and solution guide chock-full of clear, concise problem-solving gems. All your questions can be found in one convenient source from one of the most trusted names in reference solution guides. More useful, more practical, and more informative, these study aids are the best review books and textbook companions available. Nothing remotely as comprehensive or as helpful exists in their subject anywhere. Perfect for undergraduate and graduate studies.Here in this highly useful reference is the finest overview of electric circuits currently av

  15. Digital logic circuit test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Gil Jung; Yang, Hong Young

    2011-03-15

    This book is about digital logic circuit test, which lists the digital basic theory, basic gate like and, or And Not gate, NAND/NOR gate such as NAND gate, NOR gate, AND and OR, logic function, EX-OR gate, adder and subtractor, decoder and encoder, multiplexer, demultiplexer, flip-flop, counter such as up/down counter modulus N counter and Reset type counter, shift register, D/A and A/D converter and two supplements list of using components and TTL manual and CMOS manual.

  16. Photonic Integrated Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krainak, Michael; Merritt, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Integrated photonics generally is the integration of multiple lithographically defined photonic and electronic components and devices (e.g. lasers, detectors, waveguides passive structures, modulators, electronic control and optical interconnects) on a single platform with nanometer-scale feature sizes. The development of photonic integrated circuits permits size, weight, power and cost reductions for spacecraft microprocessors, optical communication, processor buses, advanced data processing, and integrated optic science instrument optical systems, subsystems and components. This is particularly critical for small spacecraft platforms. We will give an overview of some NASA applications for integrated photonics.

  17. Integrated circuit cell library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Sterling R. (Inventor); Miles, Lowell H. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    According to the invention, an ASIC cell library for use in creation of custom integrated circuits is disclosed. The ASIC cell library includes some first cells and some second cells. Each of the second cells includes two or more kernel cells. The ASIC cell library is at least 5% comprised of second cells. In various embodiments, the ASIC cell library could be 10% or more, 20% or more, 30% or more, 40% or more, 50% or more, 60% or more, 70% or more, 80% or more, 90% or more, or 95% or more comprised of second cells.

  18. Nano integrated circuit process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Yung Sup

    2004-02-01

    This book contains nine chapters, which are introduction of manufacture of semiconductor chip, oxidation such as Dry-oxidation, wet oxidation, oxidation model and oxide film, diffusion like diffusion process, diffusion equation, diffusion coefficient and diffusion system, ion implantation, including ion distribution, channeling, multiimplantation and masking and its system, sputtering such as CVD and PVD, lithography, wet etch and dry etch, interconnection and flattening like metal-silicon connection, silicide, multiple layer metal process and flattening, an integrated circuit process, including MOSFET and CMOS.

  19. Electronic logic circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, J

    2013-01-01

    Most branches of organizing utilize digital electronic systems. This book introduces the design of such systems using basic logic elements as the components. The material is presented in a straightforward manner suitable for students of electronic engineering and computer science. The book is also of use to engineers in related disciplines who require a clear introduction to logic circuits. This third edition has been revised to encompass the most recent advances in technology as well as the latest trends in components and notation. It includes a wide coverage of application specific integrate

  20. Linear integrated circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Carr, Joseph

    1996-01-01

    The linear IC market is large and growing, as is the demand for well trained technicians and engineers who understand how these devices work and how to apply them. Linear Integrated Circuits provides in-depth coverage of the devices and their operation, but not at the expense of practical applications in which linear devices figure prominently. This book is written for a wide readership from FE and first degree students, to hobbyists and professionals.Chapter 1 offers a general introduction that will provide students with the foundations of linear IC technology. From chapter 2 onwa

  1. Nano integrated circuit process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Yung Sup

    2004-02-15

    This book contains nine chapters, which are introduction of manufacture of semiconductor chip, oxidation such as Dry-oxidation, wet oxidation, oxidation model and oxide film, diffusion like diffusion process, diffusion equation, diffusion coefficient and diffusion system, ion implantation, including ion distribution, channeling, multiimplantation and masking and its system, sputtering such as CVD and PVD, lithography, wet etch and dry etch, interconnection and flattening like metal-silicon connection, silicide, multiple layer metal process and flattening, an integrated circuit process, including MOSFET and CMOS.

  2. Electronics circuits and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bishop, Owen

    2011-01-01

    The material in Electronics - Circuits and Systems is a truly up-to-date textbook, with coverage carefully matched to the electronics units of the 2007 BTEC National Engineering and the latest AS and A Level specifications in Electronics from AQA, OCR and WJEC. The material has been organized with a logical learning progression, making it ideal for a wide range of pre-degree courses in electronics. The approach is student-centred and includes: numerous examples and activities; web research topics; Self Test features, highlighted key facts, formulae and definitions. Ea

  3. Optoelectronics circuits manual

    CERN Document Server

    Marston, R M

    1999-01-01

    This manual is a useful single-volume guide specifically aimed at the practical design engineer, technician, and experimenter, as well as the electronics student and amateur. It deals with the subject in an easy to read, down to earth, and non-mathematical yet comprehensive manner, explaining the basic principles and characteristics of the best known devices, and presenting the reader with many practical applications and over 200 circuits. Most of the ICs and other devices used are inexpensive and readily available types, with universally recognised type numbers.The second edition

  4. Spike timing precision of neuronal circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilinc, Deniz; Demir, Alper

    2018-04-17

    Spike timing is believed to be a key factor in sensory information encoding and computations performed by the neurons and neuronal circuits. However, the considerable noise and variability, arising from the inherently stochastic mechanisms that exist in the neurons and the synapses, degrade spike timing precision. Computational modeling can help decipher the mechanisms utilized by the neuronal circuits in order to regulate timing precision. In this paper, we utilize semi-analytical techniques, which were adapted from previously developed methods for electronic circuits, for the stochastic characterization of neuronal circuits. These techniques, which are orders of magnitude faster than traditional Monte Carlo type simulations, can be used to directly compute the spike timing jitter variance, power spectral densities, correlation functions, and other stochastic characterizations of neuronal circuit operation. We consider three distinct neuronal circuit motifs: Feedback inhibition, synaptic integration, and synaptic coupling. First, we show that both the spike timing precision and the energy efficiency of a spiking neuron are improved with feedback inhibition. We unveil the underlying mechanism through which this is achieved. Then, we demonstrate that a neuron can improve on the timing precision of its synaptic inputs, coming from multiple sources, via synaptic integration: The phase of the output spikes of the integrator neuron has the same variance as that of the sample average of the phases of its inputs. Finally, we reveal that weak synaptic coupling among neurons, in a fully connected network, enables them to behave like a single neuron with a larger membrane area, resulting in an improvement in the timing precision through cooperation.

  5. 75 FR 2894 - Withdrawal of Regulatory Guide 1.148

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-19

    ... downloading through the NRC's public Web site under ``Regulatory Guides'' in the NRC's Electronic Reading Room at http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/doc-collections . Regulatory guides are also available for... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2010-0013] Withdrawal of Regulatory Guide 1.148 AGENCY: Nuclear...

  6. 75 FR 70044 - Withdrawal of Regulatory Guide 1.39

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-16

    ... downloading through the NRC's public Web site under ``Regulatory Guides'' in the NRC's Electronic Reading Room at http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/doollectionsc-c . Regulatory guides are also available for... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2010-0354] Withdrawal of Regulatory Guide 1.39 AGENCY: Nuclear...

  7. Optically controllable molecular logic circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Takahiro; Fujii, Ryo; Ogura, Yusuke; Tanida, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Molecular logic circuits represent a promising technology for observation and manipulation of biological systems at the molecular level. However, the implementation of molecular logic circuits for temporal and programmable operation remains challenging. In this paper, we demonstrate an optically controllable logic circuit that uses fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) for signaling. The FRET-based signaling process is modulated by both molecular and optical inputs. Based on the distance dependence of FRET, the FRET pathways required to execute molecular logic operations are formed on a DNA nanostructure as a circuit based on its molecular inputs. In addition, the FRET pathways on the DNA nanostructure are controlled optically, using photoswitching fluorescent molecules to instruct the execution of the desired operation and the related timings. The behavior of the circuit can thus be controlled using external optical signals. As an example, a molecular logic circuit capable of executing two different logic operations was studied. The circuit contains functional DNAs and a DNA scaffold to construct two FRET routes for executing Input 1 AND Input 2 and Input 1 AND NOT Input 3 operations on molecular inputs. The circuit produced the correct outputs with all possible combinations of the inputs by following the light signals. Moreover, the operation execution timings were controlled based on light irradiation and the circuit responded to time-dependent inputs. The experimental results demonstrate that the circuit changes the output for the required operations following the input of temporal light signals

  8. Sequential circuit design for radiation hardened multiple voltage integrated circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Lawrence T [Phoenix, AZ; McIver, III, John K.

    2009-11-24

    The present invention includes a radiation hardened sequential circuit, such as a bistable circuit, flip-flop or other suitable design that presents substantial immunity to ionizing radiation while simultaneously maintaining a low operating voltage. In one embodiment, the circuit includes a plurality of logic elements that operate on relatively low voltage, and a master and slave latches each having storage elements that operate on a relatively high voltage.

  9. Integrating microRNA and mRNA expression profiles of neuronal progenitors to identify regulatory networks underlying the onset of cortical neurogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barker Jeffery L

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cortical development is a complex process that includes sequential generation of neuronal progenitors, which proliferate and migrate to form the stratified layers of the developing cortex. To identify the individual microRNAs (miRNAs and mRNAs that may regulate the genetic network guiding the earliest phase of cortical development, the expression profiles of rat neuronal progenitors obtained at embryonic day 11 (E11, E12 and E13 were analyzed. Results Neuronal progenitors were purified from telencephalic dissociates by a positive-selection strategy featuring surface labeling with tetanus-toxin and cholera-toxin followed by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Microarray analyses revealed the fractions of miRNAs and mRNAs that were up-regulated or down-regulated in these neuronal progenitors at the beginning of cortical development. Nearly half of the dynamically expressed miRNAs were negatively correlated with the expression of their predicted target mRNAs. Conclusion These data support a regulatory role for miRNAs during the transition from neuronal progenitors into the earliest differentiating cortical neurons. In addition, by supplying a robust data set in which miRNA and mRNA profiles originate from the same purified cell type, this empirical study may facilitate the development of new algorithms to integrate various "-omics" data sets.

  10. Simple Cell Balance Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Steven D.; Byers, Jerry W.; Martin, James A.

    2012-01-01

    A method has been developed for continuous cell voltage balancing for rechargeable batteries (e.g. lithium ion batteries). A resistor divider chain is provided that generates a set of voltages representing the ideal cell voltage (the voltage of each cell should be as if the cells were perfectly balanced). An operational amplifier circuit with an added current buffer stage generates the ideal voltage with a very high degree of accuracy, using the concept of negative feedback. The ideal voltages are each connected to the corresponding cell through a current- limiting resistance. Over time, having the cell connected to the ideal voltage provides a balancing current that moves the cell voltage very close to that ideal level. In effect, it adjusts the current of each cell during charging, discharging, and standby periods to force the cell voltages to be equal to the ideal voltages generated by the resistor divider. The device also includes solid-state switches that disconnect the circuit from the battery so that it will not discharge the battery during storage. This solution requires relatively few parts and is, therefore, of lower cost and of increased reliability due to the fewer failure modes. Additionally, this design uses very little power. A preliminary model predicts a power usage of 0.18 W for an 8-cell battery. This approach is applicable to a wide range of battery capacities and voltages.

  11. Quantum-Circuit Refrigerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    MöTtöNen, Mikko; Tan, Kuan Y.; Masuda, Shumpei; Partanen, Matti; Lake, Russell E.; Govenius, Joonas; Silveri, Matti; Grabert, Hermann

    Quantum technology holds great potential in providing revolutionizing practical applications. However, fast and precise cooling of the functional quantum degrees of freedom on demand remains a major challenge in many solid-state implementations, such as superconducting circuits. We demonstrate direct cooling of a superconducting resonator mode using voltage-controllable quantum tunneling of electrons in a nanoscale refrigerator. In our first experiments on this type of a quantum-circuit refrigerator, we measure the drop in the mode temperature by electron thermometry at a resistor which is coupled to the resonator mode through ohmic losses. To eliminate unwanted dissipation, we remove the probe resistor and directly observe the power spectrum of the resonator output in agreement with the so-called P(E) theory. We also demonstrate in microwave reflection experiments that the internal quality factor of the resonator can be tuned by orders of magnitude. In the future, our refrigerator can be integrated with different quantum electric devices, potentially enhancing their performance. For example, it may prove useful in the initialization of superconducting quantum bits and in dissipation-assisted quantum annealing. We acknowledge European Research Council Grant SINGLEOUT (278117) and QUESS (681311) for funding.

  12. Analysis of multiple spurions and associated circuits in Cofrentes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina, J. J.; Celaya, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    The article describes the process followed by the Cofrentes Nuclear Power Plant (CNC) to conduct the analysis of multiple spurious in compliance with regulatory standards IS-30 rev 1 and CSN Safety Guide 1.19 based on the recommendations of the NEI-00-01 Guidance for Post-fire Safe Shutdown Circuit and NUREG/CR-6850. Fire PRA Methodology for Nuclear Power Facilities. (Author)

  13. Arithmetic circuits for DSP applications

    CERN Document Server

    Stouraitis, Thanos

    2017-01-01

    Arithmetic Circuits for DSP Applications is a complete resource on arithmetic circuits for digital signal processing (DSP). It covers the key concepts, designs and developments of different types of arithmetic circuits, which can be used for improving the efficiency of implementation of a multitude of DSP applications. Each chapter includes various applications of the respective class of arithmetic circuits along with information on the future scope of research. Written for students, engineers, and researchers in electrical and computer engineering, this comprehensive text offers a clear understanding of different types of arithmetic circuits used for digital signal processing applications. The text includes contributions from noted researchers on a wide range of topics, including a review o circuits used in implementing basic operations like additions and multiplications; distributed arithmetic as a technique for the multiplier-less implementation of inner products for DSP applications; discussions on look ...

  14. Integrated circuit cooled turbine blade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ching-Pang; Jiang, Nan; Um, Jae Y.; Holloman, Harry; Koester, Steven

    2017-08-29

    A turbine rotor blade includes at least two integrated cooling circuits that are formed within the blade that include a leading edge circuit having a first cavity and a second cavity and a trailing edge circuit that includes at least a third cavity located aft of the second cavity. The trailing edge circuit flows aft with at least two substantially 180-degree turns at the tip end and the root end of the blade providing at least a penultimate cavity and a last cavity. The last cavity is located along a trailing edge of the blade. A tip axial cooling channel connects to the first cavity of the leading edge circuit and the penultimate cavity of the trailing edge circuit. At least one crossover hole connects the penultimate cavity to the last cavity substantially near the tip end of the blade.

  15. Control circuit for transformer relay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyatt, G.A.

    1984-01-01

    A control circuit for a transformer relay which will automatically momentarily control the transformer relay to a selected state upon energization of the control circuit. The control circuit has an energy storage element and a current director coupled in series and adapted to be coupled with the secondary winding of the transformer relay. A device for discharge is coupled across the energy storage element. The energy storage element and current director will momentarily allow a unidirectional flow of current in the secondary winding of the transformer relay upon application of energy to the control circuit. When energy is not applied to the control circuit the device for discharge will allow the energy storage element to discharge and be available for another operation of the control circuit

  16. A Framework for Quantitative Modeling of Neural Circuits Involved in Sleep-to-Wake Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siamak eSorooshyari

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Identifying the neuronal circuits and dynamics of sleep-to-wake transition is essential to understanding brain regulation of behavioral states, including sleep-wake cycles, arousal, and hyperarousal. Recent work by different laboratories has used optogenetics to determine the role of individual neuromodulators in state transitions. The optogenetically-driven data does not yet provide a multi-dimensional schematic of the mechanisms underlying changes in vigilance states. This work presents a modeling framework to interpret, assist, and drive research on the sleep-regulatory network. We identify feedback, redundancy, and gating hierarchy as three fundamental aspects of this model. The presented model is expected to expand as additional data on the contribution of each transmitter to a vigilance state becomes available. Incorporation of conductance-based models of neuronal ensembles into this model and existing models of cortical excitability will provide more comprehensive insight into sleep dynamics as well as sleep and arousal-related disorders.

  17. Investigation on the Short Circuit Safe Operation Area of SiC MOSFET Power Modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reigosa, Paula Diaz; Luo, Haoze; Iannuzzo, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    This paper gives a better insight of the short circuit capability of state-of-the-art SiC MOSFET power modules rated at 1.2 kV by highlighting the physical limits under different operating conditions. Two different failure mechanisms have been identified, both reducing the short-circuit capability...... of SiC power modules in respect to discrete SiC devices. Based on such failure mechanisms, two short circuit criteria (i.e., short circuit current-based criterion and gate voltage-based criterion) are proposed in order to ensure their robustness under short-circuit conditions. A Safe Operation Area (SOA...

  18. Integrated Circuit Electromagnetic Immunity Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sketoe, J. G.

    2000-08-01

    This handbook presents the results of the Boeing Company effort for NASA under contract NAS8-98217. Immunity level data for certain integrated circuit parts are discussed herein, along with analytical techniques for applying the data to electronics systems. This handbook is built heavily on the one produced in the seventies by McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Company (MDAC, MDC Report E1929 of 1 August 1978, entitled Integrated Circuit Electromagnetic Susceptibility Handbook, known commonly as the ICES Handbook, which has served countless systems designers for over 20 years). Sections 2 and 3 supplement the device susceptibility data presented in section 4 by presenting information on related material required to use the IC susceptibility information. Section 2 concerns itself with electromagnetic susceptibility analysis and serves as a guide in using the information contained in the rest of the handbook. A suggested system hardening requirements is presented in this chapter. Section 3 briefly discusses coupling and shielding considerations. For conservatism and simplicity, a worst case approach is advocated to determine the maximum amount of RF power picked up from a given field. This handbook expands the scope of the immunity data in this Handbook is to of 10 MHz to 10 GHz. However, the analytical techniques provided are applicable to much higher frequencies as well. It is expected however, that the upper frequency limit of concern is near 10 GHz. This is due to two factors; the pickup of microwave energy on system cables and wiring falls off as the square of the wavelength, and component response falls off at a rapid rate due to the effects of parasitic shunt paths for the RF energy. It should be noted also that the pickup on wires and cables does not approach infinity as the frequency decreases (as would be expected by extrapolating the square law dependence of the high frequency roll-off to lower frequencies) but levels off due to mismatch effects.

  19. Source-circuit design overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, R. G., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The source circuit is the fundamental electrical building block of a large central-station array; it consists of a series-parallel network of solar cells that develops full system voltage. The array field is generally made up of a large number of parallel source circuits. Source-circuit electrical configuration is driven by a number of design considerations, which must be considered simultaneously. Array fault tolerance and hot spot heating endurance are examined in detail.

  20. Radiation-sensitive switching circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, J.H.; Cockshott, C.P.

    1976-03-16

    A radiation-sensitive switching circuit has a light emitting diode which supplies light to a photo-transistor, the light being interrupted from time to time. When the photo-transistor is illuminated, current builds up and when this current reaches a predetermined value, a trigger circuit changes state. The peak output of the photo-transistor is measured and the trigger circuit is arranged to change state when the output of the device is a set proportion of the peak output, so as to allow for aging of the components. The circuit is designed to control the ignition system in an automobile engine.

  1. Four-junction superconducting circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yueyin; Xiong, Wei; He, Xiao-Ling; Li, Tie-Fu; You, J. Q.

    2016-01-01

    We develop a theory for the quantum circuit consisting of a superconducting loop interrupted by four Josephson junctions and pierced by a magnetic flux (either static or time-dependent). In addition to the similarity with the typical three-junction flux qubit in the double-well regime, we demonstrate the difference of the four-junction circuit from its three-junction analogue, including its advantages over the latter. Moreover, the four-junction circuit in the single-well regime is also investigated. Our theory provides a tool to explore the physical properties of this four-junction superconducting circuit. PMID:27356619

  2. Chaotic behavior learning of Chua's circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Jian-Cheng

    2012-01-01

    Least-square support vector machines (LS-SVM) are applied for learning the chaotic behavior of Chua's circuit. The system is divided into three multiple-input single-output (MISO) structures and the LS-SVM are trained individually. Comparing with classical approaches, the proposed one reduces the structural complexity and the selection of parameters is avoided. Some parameters of the attractor are used to compare the chaotic behavior of the reconstructed and the original systems for model validation. Results show that the LS-SVM combined with the MISO can be trained to identify the underlying link among Chua's circuit state variables, and exhibit the chaotic attractors under the autonomous working mode

  3. Pro-apoptotic signaling induced by Retinoic acid and dsRNA is under the control of Interferon Regulatory Factor-3 in breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, Ana R; Cosgaya, José M; Aranda, Ana; Jiménez-Lara, Ana M

    2017-07-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most lethal malignancies for women. Retinoic acid (RA) and double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) are considered signaling molecules with potential anticancer activity. RA, co-administered with the dsRNA mimic polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C)), synergizes to induce a TRAIL (Tumor-Necrosis-Factor Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand)- dependent apoptotic program in breast cancer cells. Here, we report that RA/poly(I:C) co-treatment, synergically, induce the activation of Interferon Regulatory Factor-3 (IRF3) in breast cancer cells. IRF3 activation is mediated by a member of the pathogen recognition receptors, Toll-like receptor-3 (TLR3), since its depletion abrogates IRF3 activation by RA/poly(I:C) co-treatment. Besides induction of TRAIL, apoptosis induced by RA/poly(I:C) correlates with the increased expression of pro-apoptotic TRAIL receptors, TRAIL-R1/2, and the inhibition of the antagonistic receptors TRAIL-R3/4. IRF3 plays an important role in RA/poly(I:C)-induced apoptosis since IRF3 depletion suppresses caspase-8 and caspase-3 activation, TRAIL expression upregulation and apoptosis. Interestingly, RA/poly(I:C) combination synergizes to induce a bioactive autocrine/paracrine loop of type-I Interferons (IFNs) which is ultimately responsible for TRAIL and TRAIL-R1/2 expression upregulation, while inhibition of TRAIL-R3/4 expression is type-I IFN-independent. Our results highlight the importance of IRF3 and type-I IFNs signaling for the pro-apoptotic effects induced by RA and synthetic dsRNA in breast cancer cells.

  4. LS1 Report: short-circuit tests

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2014-01-01

    As the LS1 draws to an end, teams move from installation projects to a phase of intense testing. Among these are the so-called 'short-circuit tests'. Currently under way at Point 7, these tests verify the cables, the interlocks, the energy extraction systems, the power converters that provide current to the superconducting magnets and the cooling system.   Thermal camera images taken during tests at point 4 (IP4). Before putting beam into the LHC, all of the machine's hardware components need to be put to the test. Out of these, the most complicated are the superconducting circuits, which have a myriad of different failure modes with interlock and control systems. While these will be tested at cold - during powering tests to be done in August - work can still be done beforehand. "While the circuits in the magnets themselves cannot be tested at warm, what we can do is verify the power converter and the circuits right up to the place the cables go into the magn...

  5. Changes in activities of both photosystems and the regulatory effect of cyclic electron flow in field-grown cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L) under water deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Xiao-Ping; Zhang, Ya-Li; Yao, He-Sheng; Han, Ji-Mei; Chow, Wah Soon; Fan, Da-Yong; Zhang, Wang-Feng

    2018-01-01

    To clarify the influence of water deficit on the functionality of the photosynthetic apparatus of cotton plants, leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll a fluorescence, and P700 redox state were examined in field-grown cotton Gossypium hirsutum L. cv. Xinluzao 45. In addition, we measured changes in the P515 signal and analyzed the activity of ATP synthase and the trans-thylakoid proton gradient (ΔpH). With increasing water deficit, the net CO 2 assimilation rate (A N ) and stomatal conductance (g s ) significantly decreased, but the maximum quantum efficiency of PSII photochemistry (F v /F m ) did not change. The photochemical activity of photosystem II (PSII) was reflected by the photochemical quenching coefficient (qP), quantum efficiency of photosystem II [Y(II)], and electron transport rate through PSII [ETR(II)], while the activity of photosystem I (PSI) was reflected by the quantum efficiency of photosystem I [Y(I)] and the electron transport rate through PSI [ETR(I)]. Both activities were maintained under mild water deficit, but were slightly decreased under moderate water deficit. Under moderate water deficit, cyclic electron flow (CEF), the fraction of absorbed light dissipated thermally via the ΔpH- and xanthophyll-regulated process [Y(NPQ)], and the fraction of P700 oxidized under a given set of conditions [Y(ND)] increased. Our results suggest that the activities of both photosystems are stable under mild water deficit and decrease only slightly under moderate water deficit. Moderate water deficit stimulates CEF, and the stimulation of CEF is essential for protecting PSI and PSII against photoinhibition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Memristor Circuits and Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Zidan, Mohammed A.

    2015-05-01

    Current CMOS-based technologies are facing design challenges related to the continuous scaling down of the minimum feature size, according to Moore’s law. Moreover, conventional computing architecture is no longer an effective way of fulfilling modern applications demands, such as big data analysis, pattern recognition, and vector processing. Therefore, there is an exigent need to shift to new technologies, at both the architecture and the device levels. Recently, memristor devices and structures attracted attention for being promising candidates for this job. Memristor device adds a new dimension for designing novel circuits and systems. In addition, high-density memristor-based crossbar is widely considered to be the essential element for future memory and bio-inspired computing systems. However, numerous challenges need to be addressed before the memristor genuinely replaces current memory and computing technologies, which is the motivation behind this research effort. In order to address the technology challenges, we begin by fabricating and modeling the memristor device. The devices fabricated at our local clean room enriched our understanding of the memristive phenomenon and enabled the experimental testing for our memristor-based circuits. Moreover, our proposed mathematical modeling for memristor behavior is an essential element for the theoretical circuit design stage. Designing and addressing the challenges of memristor systems with practical complexity, however, requires an extra step, which takes the form of a reliable and modular simulation platform. We, therefore, built a new simulation platform for the resistive crossbar, which can simulate realistic size arrays filled with real memory data. In addition, this simulation platform includes various crossbar nonidealities in order to obtain accurate simulation results. Consequently, we were able to address the significant challenges facing the high density memristor crossbar, as the building block for

  7. Basic electronic circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Buckley, P M

    1980-01-01

    In the past, the teaching of electricity and electronics has more often than not been carried out from a theoretical and often highly academic standpoint. Fundamentals and basic concepts have often been presented with no indication of their practical appli­ cations, and all too frequently they have been illustrated by artificially contrived laboratory experiments bearing little relationship to the outside world. The course comes in the form of fourteen fairly open-ended constructional experiments or projects. Each experiment has associated with it a construction exercise and an explanation. The basic idea behind this dual presentation is that the student can embark on each circuit following only the briefest possible instructions and that an open-ended approach is thereby not prejudiced by an initial lengthy encounter with the theory behind the project; this being a sure way to dampen enthusiasm at the outset. As the investigation progresses, questions inevitably arise. Descriptions of the phenomena encounte...

  8. ECCS control circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Takashi.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To afford a sufficient margin to pressure vibrations upon starting of an automatic depressurization system by dispersing pressure vibration in suppression water due to the opening action of an automatic releaf valve in the automatic depressurization system thereby reducing the dynamic load exerted to the surface of the suppression walls. Constitution: Upon occurrence of loss of coolant accidents, an automatic releaf valve for automatic depressurization is opened to deliver the steams in the pressure vessel into the suppression pool. Since a plurality of automatic releaf valves have usually been disposed, if they are opened simultaneously, excess dynamic loads are exerted due to the pressure vibrations to the wall surface of the suppression pool. In this invention, a control circuit is disposed such that the opening timing for each of the automatic releaf valves is deviated upon occurrence of a driving signal for the automatic depressurization system to thereby disperse the pressure vibrations in the suppression water. (Kamimura, M.)

  9. A dishwasher for circuits

    CERN Multimedia

    Rosaria Marraffino

    2014-01-01

    You have always been told that electronic devices fear water. However, at the Surface Mount Devices (SMD) Workshop here at CERN all the electronic assemblies are cleaned with a machine that looks like a… dishwasher.   The circuit dishwasher. Credit: Clara Nellist.  If you think the image above shows a dishwasher, you wouldn’t be completely wrong. Apart from the fact that the whole pumping system and the case itself are made entirely from stainless steel and chemical resistant materials, and the fact that it washes electrical boards instead of dishes… it works exactly like a dishwasher. It’s a professional machine (mainly used in the pharmaceutical industry) designed to clean everything that can be washed with a water-based chemical soap. This type of treatment increases the lifetime of the electronic boards and therefore the LHC's reliability by preventing corrosion problems in the severe radiation and ozone environment of the LHC tunn...

  10. Modeling cortical circuits.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohrer, Brandon Robinson; Rothganger, Fredrick H.; Verzi, Stephen J.; Xavier, Patrick Gordon

    2010-09-01

    The neocortex is perhaps the highest region of the human brain, where audio and visual perception takes place along with many important cognitive functions. An important research goal is to describe the mechanisms implemented by the neocortex. There is an apparent regularity in the structure of the neocortex [Brodmann 1909, Mountcastle 1957] which may help simplify this task. The work reported here addresses the problem of how to describe the putative repeated units ('cortical circuits') in a manner that is easily understood and manipulated, with the long-term goal of developing a mathematical and algorithmic description of their function. The approach is to reduce each algorithm to an enhanced perceptron-like structure and describe its computation using difference equations. We organize this algorithmic processing into larger structures based on physiological observations, and implement key modeling concepts in software which runs on parallel computing hardware.

  11. Inductive circuit arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansfield, Peter; Coxon, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    A switched coil arrangement is connected in a bridge configuration of four switches S 1 , S 2 , S 3 and S 4 which are each shunted by diodes D 1 , D 2 , D 3 and D 4 so that current can flow in either direction through a coil L depending on the setting of the switches. A capacitor C is connected across the bridge through a switch S 5 to receive the inductive energy stored in coil L on breaking the current flow path through the coil. The electrostatic energy stored in capacitor C can then be used to supply current through the coil in the reverse direction either immediately or after a time delay. Coil L may be a superconductive coil. Losses in the circuit can be made up by a trickle charge of capacitor C from a separate supply V 2 . The device may be used in nuclear magnetic resonance imaging. (author)

  12. The changing regulatory environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caron, G.

    1999-01-01

    The role and value of regulation in the energy sector was discussed, demonstrating how, despite common perception, regulation is an essential part of Canada's strategy to find and develop new opportunities. The future vision of regulation for industry participants was presented with particular focus on issues related to streamlining the regulatory process. As far as pipelines are concerned, regulatory actions are necessary to facilitate capacity increases and to ensure the line's integrity, safety and environmental record. Furthermore, regulation provides economic solutions where market forces cannot provide them, as for example where business has elements of monopoly. It arbitrates interests of landowners, business, consumers, and environmental groups. It looks for ways to ensure conditions under which competition can flourish. It acts as the guardian of citizens' rights in a democratic society by providing citizens with an opportunity to be heard on the building or expansion of pipelines and associated facilities. As citizens become more and more concerned about their property and the land that surrounds them, citizen involvement in decision making about how industry activity affects their quality of life will become correspondingly more important. Regulatory agencies are committed to facilitate this engagement by flexible hearing procedures and by making use of evolving communication and information technology

  13. Regulatory and legal support of taxes-and-duties liabilities accounting and audit under the conditions of financial and economic crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Kupalova, G.; Matvienko, T.

    2010-01-01

    Actual problems of legislative control of tax transactions accounting and audit in Ukraine under the conditions of financial crisis are investigated. Priority directions of their solving with the view of the legislative, methodical and organization problems and taking into consideration tax system reformation and International Financial Reporting Standards introduction are defined.

  14. D.C. Circuit broadly extends NEPA coverage for nuclear power plant accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rush, S.B.

    1983-01-01

    According to the D.C. Circuit Court of Appeals, the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) now requires complete evaluation of all aspects of human health affected by nuclear development, including psychological health. The Supreme Court may not agree with the circuit court's conclusion that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission must pay special attention to psychological health effects from nuclear accidents because this extension of NEPA may become a major new tool for slowing the development of nuclear energy production

  15. Three-phase short circuit calculation method based on pre-computed surface for doubly fed induction generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, J.; Liu, Q.

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents an improved short circuit calculation method, based on pre-computed surface to determine the short circuit current of a distribution system with multiple doubly fed induction generators (DFIGs). The short circuit current, injected into power grid by DFIG, is determined by low voltage ride through (LVRT) control and protection under grid fault. However, the existing methods are difficult to calculate the short circuit current of DFIG in engineering practice due to its complexity. A short circuit calculation method, based on pre-computed surface, was proposed by developing the surface of short circuit current changing with the calculating impedance and the open circuit voltage. And the short circuit currents were derived by taking into account the rotor excitation and crowbar activation time. Finally, the pre-computed surfaces of short circuit current at different time were established, and the procedure of DFIG short circuit calculation considering its LVRT was designed. The correctness of proposed method was verified by simulation.

  16. Compact Circuit Preprocesses Accelerometer Output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Compact electronic circuit transfers dc power to, and preprocesses ac output of, accelerometer and associated preamplifier. Incorporated into accelerometer case during initial fabrication or retrofit onto commercial accelerometer. Made of commercial integrated circuits and other conventional components; made smaller by use of micrologic and surface-mount technology.

  17. Comminution circuits for compact itabirites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Ferreira Pinto

    Full Text Available Abstract In the beneficiation of compact Itabirites, crushing and grinding account for major operational and capital costs. As such, the study and development of comminution circuits have a fundamental importance for feasibility and optimization of compact Itabirite beneficiation. This work makes a comparison between comminution circuits for compact Itabirites from the Iron Quadrangle. The circuits developed are: a crushing and ball mill circuit (CB, a SAG mill and ball mill circuit (SAB and a single stage SAG mill circuit (SSSAG. For the SAB circuit, the use of pebble crushing is analyzed (SABC. An industrial circuit for 25 million tons of run of mine was developed for each route from tests on a pilot scale (grinding and industrial scale. The energy consumption obtained for grinding in the pilot tests was compared with that reported by Donda and Bond. The SSSAG route had the lowest energy consumption, 11.8kWh/t and the SAB route had the highest energy consumption, 15.8kWh/t. The CB and SABC routes had a similar energy consumption of 14.4 kWh/t and 14.5 kWh/t respectively.

  18. Current-mode minimax circuit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassenaar, R.F.

    1992-01-01

    The minimum-maximum (minimax) circuit selects the minimum and maximum of two input currents. Four transistors in matched pairs are operated in the saturation region. Because the behavior of the circuit is based on matched devices and is independent of the relationship between the drain current and

  19. Short-circuit impedance measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Knud Ole Helgesen; Nielsen, Arne Hejde; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2003-01-01

    Methods for estimating the short-circuit impedance in the power grid are investigated for various voltage levels and situations. The short-circuit impedance is measured, preferably from naturally occurring load changes in the grid, and it is shown that such a measurement system faces different...

  20. Cell short circuit, preshort signature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lurie, C.

    1980-01-01

    Short-circuit events observed in ground test simulations of DSCS-3 battery in-orbit operations are analyzed. Voltage signatures appearing in the data preceding the short-circuit event are evaluated. The ground test simulation is briefly described along with performance during reconditioning discharges. Results suggest that a characteristic signature develops prior to a shorting event.

  1. Enhancement of Linear Circuit Program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaunholt, Hans; Dabu, Mihaela; Beldiman, Octavian

    1996-01-01

    In this report a preliminary user friendly interface has been added to the LCP2 program making it possible to describe an electronic circuit by actually drawing the circuit on the screen. Component values and other options and parameters can easily be set by the aid of the interface. The interface...

  2. Development of the signalling circuits for reactor emergency protection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov, A.V.; Nikiforov, B.N.; Ogon'kov, A.I.; Sychinskij, Yu.L.

    1978-01-01

    Construction of circuits for nuclear reactor emergency protection according to the power level and rate of power rise with the use of integrated microcircuits is discussed. Circuits of relay- and transformer-based logical signaling devices are presented. It is noted that disadvantages of a transformer-based loaical sianaling device are great power consumption (about 300 mW) and slow response limited by the time constant of the output smoothing filter. Further development of circuits under consideration is associated with the employment of new optronic elements intended to replace the transformers

  3. Formalization, equivalence and generalization of basic resonance electrical circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penev, Dimitar; Arnaudov, Dimitar; Hinov, Nikolay

    2017-12-01

    In the work are presented basic resonance circuits, which are used in resonance energy converters. The following resonant circuits are considered: serial, serial with parallel load parallel capacitor, parallel and parallel with serial loaded inductance. For the circuits under consideration, expressions are generated for the frequencies of own oscillations and for the equivalence of the active power emitted in the load. Mathematical expressions are graphically constructed and verified using computer simulations. The results obtained are used in the model based design of resonant energy converters with DC or AC output. This guaranteed the output indicators of power electronic devices.

  4. Automatic circuit analysis based on mask information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preas, B.T.; Lindsay, B.W.; Gwyn, C.W.

    1976-01-01

    The Circuit Mask Translator (CMAT) code has been developed which converts integrated circuit mask information into a circuit schematic. Logical operations, pattern recognition, and special functions are used to identify and interconnect diodes, transistors, capacitors, and resistances. The circuit topology provided by the translator is compatible with the input required for a circuit analysis program

  5. Pulse Detecting Genetic Circuit – A New Design Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inniss, Mara; Iba, Hitoshi; Way, Jeffrey C.

    2016-01-01

    A robust cellular counter could enable synthetic biologists to design complex circuits with diverse behaviors. The existing synthetic-biological counters, responsive to the beginning of the pulse, are sensitive to the pulse duration. Here we present a pulse detecting circuit that responds only at the falling edge of a pulse–analogous to negative edge triggered electric circuits. As biological events do not follow precise timing, use of such a pulse detector would enable the design of robust asynchronous counters which can count the completion of events. This transcription-based pulse detecting circuit depends on the interaction of two co-expressed lambdoid phage-derived proteins: the first is unstable and inhibits the regulatory activity of the second, stable protein. At the end of the pulse the unstable inhibitor protein disappears from the cell and the second protein triggers the recording of the event completion. Using stochastic simulation we showed that the proposed design can detect the completion of the pulse irrespective to the pulse duration. In our simulation we also showed that fusing the pulse detector with a phage lambda memory element we can construct a counter which can be extended to count larger numbers. The proposed design principle is a new control mechanism for synthetic biology which can be integrated in different circuits for identifying the completion of an event. PMID:27907045

  6. Isocost Lines Describe the Cellular Economy of Genetic Circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyorgy, Andras; Jiménez, José I; Yazbek, John; Huang, Hsin-Ho; Chung, Hattie; Weiss, Ron; Del Vecchio, Domitilla

    2015-08-04

    Genetic circuits in living cells share transcriptional and translational resources that are available in limited amounts. This leads to unexpected couplings among seemingly unconnected modules, which result in poorly predictable circuit behavior. In this study, we determine these interdependencies between products of different genes by characterizing the economy of how transcriptional and translational resources are allocated to the production of proteins in genetic circuits. We discover that, when expressed from the same plasmid, the combinations of attainable protein concentrations are constrained by a linear relationship, which can be interpreted as an isocost line, a concept used in microeconomics. We created a library of circuits with two reporter genes, one constitutive and the other inducible in the same plasmid, without a regulatory path between them. In agreement with the model predictions, experiments reveal that the isocost line rotates when changing the ribosome binding site strength of the inducible gene and shifts when modifying the plasmid copy number. These results demonstrate that isocost lines can be employed to predict how genetic circuits become coupled when sharing resources and provide design guidelines for minimizing the effects of such couplings. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Regulatory pathways for vaccines for developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milstien, Julie; Belgharbi, Lahouari

    2004-01-01

    Vaccines that are designed for use only in developing countries face regulatory hurdles that may restrict their use. There are two primary reasons for this: most regulatory authorities are set up to address regulation of products for use only within their jurisdictions and regulatory authorities in developing countries traditionally have been considered weak. Some options for regulatory pathways for such products have been identified: licensing in the country of manufacture, file review by the European Medicines Evaluation Agency on behalf of WHO, export to a country with a competent national regulatory authority (NRA) that could handle all regulatory functions for the developing country market, shared manufacturing and licensing in a developing country with competent manufacturing and regulatory capacity, and use of a contracted independent entity for global regulatory approval. These options have been evaluated on the basis of five criteria: assurance of all regulatory functions for the life of the product, appropriateness of epidemiological assessment, applicability to products no longer used in the domestic market of the manufacturing country, reduction of regulatory risk for the manufacturer, and existing rules and regulations for implementation. No one option satisfies all criteria. For all options, national infrastructures (including the underlying regulatory legislative framework, particularly to formulate and implement local evidence-based vaccine policy) must be developed. WHO has led work to develop this capacity with some success. The paper outlines additional areas of action required by the international community to assure development and use of vaccines needed for the developing world. PMID:15042235

  8. Electrical short circuit and current overload tests on aircraft wiring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Patricia

    1995-01-01

    The findings of electrical short circuit and current overload tests performed on commercial aircraft wiring are presented. A series of bench-scale tests were conducted to evaluate circuit breaker response to overcurrent and to determine if the wire showed any visible signs of thermal degradation due to overcurrent. Three types of wire used in commercial aircraft were evaluated: MIL-W-22759/34 (150 C rated), MIL-W-81381/12 (200 C rated), and BMS 1360 (260 C rated). A second series of tests evaluated circuit breaker response to short circuits and ticking faults. These tests were also meant to determine if the three test wires behaved differently under these conditions and if a short circuit or ticking fault could start a fire. It is concluded that circuit breakers provided reliable overcurrent protection. Circuit breakers may not protect wire from ticking faults but can protect wire from direct shorts. These tests indicated that the appearance of a wire subjected to a current that totally degrades the insulation looks identical to a wire subjected to a fire; however the 'fire exposed' conductor was more brittle than the conductor degraded by overcurrent. Preliminary testing indicates that direct short circuits are not likely to start a fire. Preliminary testing indicated that direct short circuits do not erode insulation and conductor to the extent that ticking faults did. Circuit breakers may not safeguard against the ignition of flammable materials by ticking faults. The flammability of materials near ticking faults is far more important than the rating of the wire insulation material.

  9. Designing Robustness to Temperature in a Feedforward Loop Circuit

    OpenAIRE

    Sen, Shaunak; Kim, Jongmin; Murray, Richard M.

    2013-01-01

    Incoherent feedforward loops represent important biomolecular circuit elements capable of a rich set of dynamic behavior including adaptation and pulsed responses. Temperature can modulate some of these properties through its effect on the underlying reaction rate parameters. It is generally unclear how to design such a circuit where the properties are robust to variations in temperature. Here, we address this issue using a combination of tools from control and dynamical systems theory as wel...

  10. Qubit state tomography in a superconducting circuit via weak measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Lupei; Xu, Luting; Feng, Wei; Li, Xin-Qi

    2017-03-01

    In this work we present a study on a new scheme for measuring the qubit state in a circuit quantum electrodynamics (QED) system, based on weak measurement and the concept of weak value. To be applicable under generic parameter conditions, our formulation and analysis are carried out for finite-strength weak measurement, and in particular beyond the bad-cavity and weak-response limits. The proposed study is accessible to present state-of-the-art circuit QED experiments.

  11. Unraveling the central proopiomelanocortin neural circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron J. Mercer

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Central proopiomelanocortin (POMC neurons form a potent anorexigenic network, but our understanding of the integration of this hypothalamic circuit throughout the central nervous system (CNS remains incomplete. POMC neurons extend projections along the rostrocaudal axis of the brain, and can signal with both POMC-derived peptides and fast amino acid neurotransmitters. Although recent experimental advances in circuit-level manipulation have been applied to POMC neurons, many pivotal questions still remain: How and where do POMC neurons integrate metabolic information? Under what conditions do POMC neurons release bioactive molecules throughout the CNS? Are GABA and glutamate or neuropeptides released from POMC neurons more crucial for modulating feeding and metabolism? Resolving the exact stoichiometry of signals evoked from POMC neurons under different metabolic conditions therefore remains an ongoing endeavor. In this review, we analyze the anatomical atlas of this network juxtaposed to the physiological signaling of POMC neurons both in vitro and in vivo. We also consider novel genetic tools to further characterize the function of the POMC circuit in vivo. Our goal is to synthesize a global view of the POMC network, and to highlight gaps that require further research to expand our knowledge on how these neurons modulate energy balance.

  12. Nanofluidic Transistor Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hsueh-Chia; Cheng, Li-Jing; Yan, Yu; Slouka, Zdenek; Senapati, Satyajyoti

    2012-02-01

    Non-equilibrium ion/fluid transport physics across on-chip membranes/nanopores is used to construct rectifying, hysteretic, oscillatory, excitatory and inhibitory nanofluidic elements. Analogs to linear resistors, capacitors, inductors and constant-phase elements were reported earlier (Chang and Yossifon, BMF 2009). Nonlinear rectifier is designed by introducing intra-membrane conductivity gradient and by asymmetric external depletion with a reverse rectification (Yossifon and Chang, PRL, PRE, Europhys Lett 2009-2011). Gating phenomenon is introduced by functionalizing polyelectrolytes whose conformation is field/pH sensitive (Wang, Chang and Zhu, Macromolecules 2010). Surface ion depletion can drive Rubinstein's microvortex instability (Chang, Yossifon and Demekhin, Annual Rev of Fluid Mech, 2012) or Onsager-Wien's water dissociation phenomenon, leading to two distinct overlimiting I-V features. Bipolar membranes exhibit an S-hysteresis due to water dissociation (Cheng and Chang, BMF 2011). Coupling the hysteretic diode with some linear elements result in autonomous ion current oscillations, which undergo classical transitions to chaos. Our integrated nanofluidic circuits are used for molecular sensing, protein separation/concentration, electrospray etc.

  13. Vacuum die attach for integrated circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, E.H.; Tuckerman, D.B.

    1991-09-10

    A thin film eutectic bond for attaching an integrated circuit die to a circuit substrate is formed by coating at least one bonding surface on the die and substrate with an alloying metal, assembling the die and substrate under compression loading, and heating the assembly to an alloying temperature in a vacuum. A very thin bond, 10 microns or less, which is substantially void free, is produced. These bonds have high reliability, good heat and electrical conduction, and high temperature tolerance. The bonds are formed in a vacuum chamber, using a positioning and loading fixture to compression load the die, and an IR lamp or other heat source. For bonding a silicon die to a silicon substrate, a gold silicon alloy bond is used. Multiple dies can be bonded simultaneously. No scrubbing is required. 1 figure.

  14. Neural Circuit Mechanisms of Social Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Patrick; Hong, Weizhe

    2018-04-04

    We live in a world that is largely socially constructed, and we are constantly involved in and fundamentally influenced by a broad array of complex social interactions. Social behaviors among conspecifics, either conflictive or cooperative, are exhibited by all sexually reproducing animal species and are essential for the health, survival, and reproduction of animals. Conversely, impairment in social function is a prominent feature of several neuropsychiatric disorders, such as autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia. Despite the importance of social behaviors, many fundamental questions remain unanswered. How is social sensory information processed and integrated in the nervous system? How are different social behavioral decisions selected and modulated in brain circuits? Here we discuss conceptual issues and recent advances in our understanding of brain regions and neural circuit mechanisms underlying the regulation of social behaviors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Experimental Device for Learning of Logical Circuit Design using Integrated Circuits

    OpenAIRE

    石橋, 孝昭

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental device for learning of logical circuit design using integrated circuits and breadboards. The experimental device can be made at a low cost and can be used for many subjects such as logical circuits, computer engineering, basic electricity, electrical circuits and electronic circuits. The proposed device is effective to learn the logical circuits than the usual lecture.

  16. Diagnosis of soft faults in analog integrated circuits based on fractional correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Yong; Shi Yibing; Zhang Wei

    2012-01-01

    Aiming at the problem of diagnosing soft faults in analog integrated circuits, an approach based on fractional correlation is proposed. First, the Volterra series of the circuit under test (CUT) decomposed by the fractional wavelet packet are used to calculate the fractional correlation functions. Then, the calculated fractional correlation functions are used to form the fault signatures of the CUT. By comparing the fault signatures, the different soft faulty conditions of the CUT are identified and the faults are located. Simulations of benchmark circuits illustrate the proposed method and validate its effectiveness in diagnosing soft faults in analog integrated circuits. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  17. Variational integrators for electric circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ober-Blöbaum, Sina; Tao, Molei; Cheng, Mulin; Owhadi, Houman; Marsden, Jerrold E.

    2013-01-01

    In this contribution, we develop a variational integrator for the simulation of (stochastic and multiscale) electric circuits. When considering the dynamics of an electric circuit, one is faced with three special situations: 1. The system involves external (control) forcing through external (controlled) voltage sources and resistors. 2. The system is constrained via the Kirchhoff current (KCL) and voltage laws (KVL). 3. The Lagrangian is degenerate. Based on a geometric setting, an appropriate variational formulation is presented to model the circuit from which the equations of motion are derived. A time-discrete variational formulation provides an iteration scheme for the simulation of the electric circuit. Dependent on the discretization, the intrinsic degeneracy of the system can be canceled for the discrete variational scheme. In this way, a variational integrator is constructed that gains several advantages compared to standard integration tools for circuits; in particular, a comparison to BDF methods (which are usually the method of choice for the simulation of electric circuits) shows that even for simple LCR circuits, a better energy behavior and frequency spectrum preservation can be observed using the developed variational integrator

  18. Integrated circuits, and design and manufacture thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auracher, Stefan; Pribbernow, Claus; Hils, Andreas

    2006-04-18

    A representation of a macro for an integrated circuit layout. The representation may define sub-circuit cells of a module. The module may have a predefined functionality. The sub-circuit cells may include at least one reusable circuit cell. The reusable circuit cell may be configured such that when the predefined functionality of the module is not used, the reusable circuit cell is available for re-use.

  19. Gene Circuit Analysis of the Terminal Gap Gene huckebein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashyraliyev, Maksat; Siggens, Ken; Janssens, Hilde; Blom, Joke; Akam, Michael; Jaeger, Johannes

    2009-01-01

    The early embryo of Drosophila melanogaster provides a powerful model system to study the role of genes in pattern formation. The gap gene network constitutes the first zygotic regulatory tier in the hierarchy of the segmentation genes involved in specifying the position of body segments. Here, we use an integrative, systems-level approach to investigate the regulatory effect of the terminal gap gene huckebein (hkb) on gap gene expression. We present quantitative expression data for the Hkb protein, which enable us to include hkb in gap gene circuit models. Gap gene circuits are mathematical models of gene networks used as computational tools to extract regulatory information from spatial expression data. This is achieved by fitting the model to gap gene expression patterns, in order to obtain estimates for regulatory parameters which predict a specific network topology. We show how considering variability in the data combined with analysis of parameter determinability significantly improves the biological relevance and consistency of the approach. Our models are in agreement with earlier results, which they extend in two important respects: First, we show that Hkb is involved in the regulation of the posterior hunchback (hb) domain, but does not have any other essential function. Specifically, Hkb is required for the anterior shift in the posterior border of this domain, which is now reproduced correctly in our models. Second, gap gene circuits presented here are able to reproduce mutants of terminal gap genes, while previously published models were unable to reproduce any null mutants correctly. As a consequence, our models now capture the expression dynamics of all posterior gap genes and some variational properties of the system correctly. This is an important step towards a better, quantitative understanding of the developmental and evolutionary dynamics of the gap gene network. PMID:19876378

  20. Private Equity and Regulatory Capital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongaerts, D.; Charlier, E.

    2008-01-01

    Regulatory Capital requirements for European banks have been put forward in the Basel II Capital Framework and subsequently in the Capital Requirements Directive (CRD) of the EU. We provide a detailed discussion of the capital requirements for private equity investments under the simple risk weight

  1. As to achieve regulatory action, regulatory approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cid, R.; Encinas, D.

    2014-01-01

    The achievement of the effectiveness in the performance of a nuclear regulatory body has been a permanent challenge in the recent history of nuclear regulation. In the post-Fukushima era this challenge is even more important. This article addresses the subject from two complementary points of view: the characteristics of an effective regulatory body and the regulatory approaches. This work is based on the most recent studies carried out by the Committee on Nuclear Regulatory Activities, CNRA (OECD/NEA), as well as on the experience of the Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear, CSN, the Spanish regulatory body. Rafael Cid is the representative of CSN in these project: Diego Encinas has participated in the study on regulatory approaches. (Author)

  2. Radiation-sensitive switching circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, J.H.; Cockshott, C.P.

    1976-03-16

    A radiation-sensitive switching circuit includes a light emitting diode which from time to time illuminates a photo-transistor, the photo-transistor serving when its output reaches a predetermined value to operate a trigger circuit. In order to allow for aging of the components, the current flow through the diode is increased when the output from the transistor falls below a known level. Conveniently, this is achieved by having a transistor in parallel with the diode, and turning the transistor off when the output from the phototransistor becomes too low. The circuit is designed to control the ignition system in an automobile engine.

  3. The Maplin electronic circuits handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Tooley, Michael

    1990-01-01

    The Maplin Electronic Circuits Handbook provides pertinent data, formula, explanation, practical guidance, theory and practical guidance in the design, testing, and construction of electronic circuits. This book discusses the developments in electronics technology techniques.Organized into 11 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the common types of passive component. This text then provides the reader with sufficient information to make a correct selection of passive components for use in the circuits. Other chapters consider the various types of the most commonly used semiconductor

  4. Secure integrated circuits and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Verbauwhede, Ingrid MR

    2010-01-01

    On any advanced integrated circuit or 'system-on-chip' there is a need for security. In many applications the actual implementation has become the weakest link in security rather than the algorithms or protocols. The purpose of the book is to give the integrated circuits and systems designer an insight into the basics of security and cryptography from the implementation point of view. As a designer of integrated circuits and systems it is important to know both the state-of-the-art attacks as well as the countermeasures. Optimizing for security is different from optimizations for speed, area,

  5. 76 FR 6587 - Pennsylvania Regulatory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-07

    ... [PA-159-FOR; OSM 2010-0017] Pennsylvania Regulatory Program AGENCY: Office of Surface Mining... remove a required amendment to the Pennsylvania regulatory program (the ``Pennsylvania program'') under... program amendment codified in the Federal regulations, Pennsylvania has submitted information that it...

  6. INTEGRATED SENSOR EVALUATION CIRCUIT AND METHOD FOR OPERATING SAID CIRCUIT

    OpenAIRE

    Krüger, Jens; Gausa, Dominik

    2015-01-01

    WO15090426A1 Sensor evaluation device and method for operating said device Integrated sensor evaluation circuit for evaluating a sensor signal (14) received from a sensor (12), having a first connection (28a) for connection to the sensor and a second connection (28b) for connection to the sensor. The integrated sensor evaluation circuit comprises a configuration data memory (16) for storing configuration data which describe signal properties of a plurality of sensor control signals (26a-c). T...

  7. A Method for Automatic Inspection of Printed Circuit Boards by Using the Thermal Signature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amer, H.H.; Zekry, A.A.; Elaraby, S.; Ghareeb, K.E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to design a system for automating inspection of the printed circuit boards (PCBs) by using the thermal signature of the different integrated circuits (I.C). The proposed inspection system consists of the inspection circuit, data acquisition system (DAS) and personal computer. Inspection is done by comparing the thermal signature of normally operated circuit with the thermal signature of circuit under test. One thermistor is assigned to each component in the circuit. The thermistor must touch tightly the surface of the I.C. to sense its temperature during the inspection process. Matlab software is used to represent the thermal signature through different colors. The Turbo C software is used to develop a program for acquiring and comparing the thermal signature of the circuit under the test with the reference circuit. If the colors of the two thermal signatures for the same I.C. are same then the circuit under test is fault free and does not contain any defect. On the other side, if the colors of the two thermal signatures for the same I.C. are different then the circuit under test is defective

  8. Gene regulatory and signaling networks exhibit distinct topological distributions of motifs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Gustavo Rodrigues; Nakaya, Helder Imoto; Costa, Luciano da Fontoura

    2018-04-01

    The biological processes of cellular decision making and differentiation involve a plethora of signaling pathways and gene regulatory circuits. These networks in turn exhibit a multitude of motifs playing crucial parts in regulating network activity. Here we compare the topological placement of motifs in gene regulatory and signaling networks and observe that it suggests different evolutionary strategies in motif distribution for distinct cellular subnetworks.

  9. Effects of Regulatory Self-Questioning on Secondary-Level Students' Problem-Solving Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pate, Michael L.; Miller, Greg

    2011-01-01

    A randomized posttest-only control group experimental design was used to determine the effects of regulatory self-questioning on secondary-level career and technical education students' electrical circuit theory test scores. Students who participated in the self-questioning group were asked to answer a list of regulatory questions as they solved…

  10. Quantum circuit behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poulton, D.

    1989-09-01

    Single electron tunnelling in multiply connected weak link systems is considered. Using a second quantised approach the tunnel current, in both normal and superconducting systems, using perturbation theory, is derived. The tunnel currents are determined as a function of an Aharanov-Bohm phase (acquired by the electrons). Using these results, the multiply connected system is then discussed when coupled to a resonant LC circuit. The resulting dynamics of this composite system are then determined. In the superconducting case the results are compared and contrasted with flux mode behaviour seen in large superconducting weak link rings. Systems in which the predicted dynamics may be seen are also discussed. In analogy to the electron tunnelling analysis, the tunnelling of magnetic flux quanta through the weak link is also considered. Here, the voltage across the weak link, due to flux tunnelling, is determined as a function of an externally applied current. This is done for both singly and multiply connected flux systems. The results are compared and contrasted with charge mode behaviour seen in superconducting weak link systems. Finally, the behaviour of simple quantum fluids is considered when subject to an external rotation. Using a microscopic analysis it is found that the microscopic quantum behaviour of the particles is manifest on a macroscopic level. Results are derived for bosonic, fermionic and BCS pair-type systems. The connection between flux quantisation in electromagnetic systems is also made. Using these results, the dynamics of such a quantum fluid is considered when coupled to a rotating torsional oscillator. The results are compared with those found in SQUID devices. A model is also presented which discusses the possible excited state dynamics of such a fluid. (author)

  11. Underlying mechanism of regulatory actions of diclofenac, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent, on neuronal potassium channels and firing: an experimental and theoretical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, C W; Hung, T Y; Liao, Y K; Hsu, M C; Wu, S N

    2013-06-01

    Diclofenac (DIC), a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, is known to exert anti-nociceptive and anti-convulsant actions; however, its effects on ion currents, in neurons remain debatable. We aimed to investigate (1) potential effects of diclofenac on membrane potential and potassium currents in differentiated NSC-34 neuronal cells and dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons with whole-cell patch-clamp technology, and (2) firing of action potentials (APs), using a simulation model from hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons based on diclofenac's effects on potassium currents. In the NSC-34 cells, diclofenac exerted an inhibitory effect on delayed-rectifier K⁺ current (I(KDR)) with an IC₅₀ value of 73 μM. Diclofenac not merely inhibited the I(KDR) amplitude in response to membrane depolarization, but also accelerated the process of current inactivation. The inhibition by diclofenac of IK(DR) was not reversed by subsequent application of either naloxone. Importantly, diclofenac (300 μM) increased the amplitude of M-type K⁺ current (I)(KM)), while flupirtine (10 μM) or meclofenamic acid (10 μM) enhanced it effectively. Consistently, diclofenac (100 μM) increased the amplitude of I(KM) and diminished the I(KDR) amplitude, with a shortening of inactivation time constant in DRG neurons. Furthermore, by using the simulation modeling, we demonstrated the potential electrophysiological mechanisms underlying changes in AP firing caused by diclofenac. During the exposure to diclofenac, the actions on both I(KM) and I(KDR) could be potential mechanism through which it influences the excitability of fast-spiking neurons. Caution needs to be made in attributing the effects of diclofenac primarily to those produced by the activation of I(KM).

  12. Transistor and integrated circuit manufacture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colman, D.

    1978-01-01

    This invention relates to the manufacture of transistors and integrated circuits by ion bombardment techniques and is particularly, but not exclusively, of value in the manufacture of so-called integrated injection logic circuitry. (author)

  13. Time domain analog circuit simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fijnvandraat, J.G.; Houben, S.H.M.J.; Maten, ter E.J.W.; Peters, J.M.F.

    2006-01-01

    Recent developments of new methods for simulating electric circuits are described. Emphasis is put on methods that fit existing datastructures for backward differentiation formulae methods. These methods can be modified to apply to hierarchically organized datastructures, which allows for efficient

  14. Discharge quenching circuit for counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karasik, A.S.

    1982-01-01

    A circuit for quenching discharges in gas-discharge detectors with working voltage of 3-5 kV based on transistors operating in the avalanche mode is described. The quenching circuit consists of a coordinating emitter follower, amplifier-shaper for avalanche key cascade control which changes potential on the counter electrodes and a shaper of discharge quenching duration. The emitter follower is assembled according to a widely used flowsheet with two transistors. The circuit permits to obtain a rectangular quenching pulse with front of 100 ns and an amplitude of up to 3.2 kV at duration of 500 μm-8 ms. Application of the quenching circuit described permits to obtain countering characteristics with the slope less than or equal to 0.02%/V and plateau extent greater than or equal to 300 V [ru

  15. Transistor and integrated circuit manufacture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colman, D

    1978-09-27

    This invention relates to the manufacture of transistors and integrated circuits by ion bombardment techniques and is particularly, but not exclusively, of value in the manufacture of so-called integrated injection logic circuitry.

  16. Ignition circuit for combustion engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, H W

    1977-05-26

    The invention refers to the ignition circuit for combustion engines, which are battery fed. The circuit contains a transistor and an oscillator to produce an output voltage on the secondary winding of an output transformer to supply an ignition current. The plant is controlled by an interrupter. The purpose of the invention is to form such a circuit that improved sparks for ignition are produced, on the one hand, and that on the other hand, the plant can continue to function after loss of the oscillator. The problem is solved by the battery and the secondary winding of the output transformers of the oscillator are connected via a rectifier circuit to produce a resultant total voltage with the ignition coil from the battery voltage and the rectified pulsating oscillator output.

  17. Reverse engineering of integrated circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm, Gregory H.; Eckmann, Steven T.; Lain, Christopher M.; Veroff, Robert L.

    2003-01-01

    Software and a method therein to analyze circuits. The software comprises several tools, each of which perform particular functions in the Reverse Engineering process. The analyst, through a standard interface, directs each tool to the portion of the task to which it is most well suited, rendering previously intractable problems solvable. The tools are generally used iteratively to produce a successively more abstract picture of a circuit, about which incomplete a priori knowledge exists.

  18. Schedules for Regulatory Regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austvik, Ole Gunnar

    2003-01-01

    The idea of regulating transporters' terms of operations is that if the market itself does not produce optimal outcomes, then it can be mimicked to do so through regulatory and other public instruments. The first-best solution could be a subsidized (publicly owned) enterprise that sets tariffs according to marginal costs. This has been the tradition in many European countries in the aftermath of WW2. Due to lack of innovative pressure on and x-inefficiency in these companies, this solution is today viewed as inferior to the system of regulating independent (privately owned) firms. When the European gas market becomes liberalized, part of the process in many countries is to (partially) privatise the transport utilities. Privatised or not, in a liberalized market, the transport utilities should face an independent authority that overviews their operations not only in technical, but also in economic terms. Under regulation, a ''visible hand'' is introduced to correct the imperfect market's ''invisible hand''. By regulating the framework and conditions for how firms may operate, public authorities seek to achieve what is considered optimal for the society. The incentives and disincentives given for pricing and production should create mechanisms leading to an efficient allocation of resources and ''acceptable'' distribution of income. As part of intervening into firms' behavior, regulation may be introduced to direct the firm to behave in certain ways. The framework and regulatory mechanisms for the market must then be constructed in a way that companies voluntarily produce an amount at a price that gives maximal profits and simultaneously satisfies social goals. The regulations should lead to consistency between the company's desire to maximize profits and the society's desire for maximizing welfare, as in a perfectly competitive market. This is the core of regulatory economics

  19. Progress in radiation immune thermionic integrated circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynn, D.K.; McCormick, J.B.

    1985-08-01

    This report describes the results of a program directed at evaluating the thermionic integrated circuit (TIC) technology for applicability to military systems. Previous programs under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, have developed an initial TIC technology base and demonstrated operation in high-temperature and high-radiation environments. The program described in this report has two parts: (1) a technical portion in which experiments and analyses were conducted to refine perceptions of near-term as well as ultimate performance levels of the TIC technology and (2) an applications portion in which the technical conclusions were to be evaluated against potential military applications. This report draws several conclusions that strongly suggest that (1) useful radiation-hard/high-temperature operable integrated circuits can be developed using the TIC technology; (2) because of their ability to survive and operate in hostile environments, a variety of potential military applications have been projected for this technology; and (3) based on the above two conclusions, an aggressive TIC development program should be initiated to provide the designers of future systems with integrated circuits and devices with the unique features of the TICs

  20. Progress in radiation immune thermionic integrated circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynn, D.K.; McCormick, J.B. (comps.)

    1985-08-01

    This report describes the results of a program directed at evaluating the thermionic integrated circuit (TIC) technology for applicability to military systems. Previous programs under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, have developed an initial TIC technology base and demonstrated operation in high-temperature and high-radiation environments. The program described in this report has two parts: (1) a technical portion in which experiments and analyses were conducted to refine perceptions of near-term as well as ultimate performance levels of the TIC technology and (2) an applications portion in which the technical conclusions were to be evaluated against potential military applications. This report draws several conclusions that strongly suggest that (1) useful radiation-hard/high-temperature operable integrated circuits can be developed using the TIC technology; (2) because of their ability to survive and operate in hostile environments, a variety of potential military applications have been projected for this technology; and (3) based on the above two conclusions, an aggressive TIC development program should be initiated to provide the designers of future systems with integrated circuits and devices with the unique features of the TICs.

  1. Genetic Spot Optimization for Peak Power Estimation in Large VLSI Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S. Hsiao

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Estimating peak power involves optimization of the circuit's switching function. The switching of a given gate is not only dependent on the output capacitance of the node, but also heavily dependent on the gate delays in the circuit, since multiple switching events can result from uneven circuit delay paths in the circuit. Genetic spot expansion and optimization are proposed in this paper to estimate tight peak power bounds for large sequential circuits. The optimization spot shifts and expands dynamically based on the maximum power potential (MPP of the nodes under optimization. Four genetic spot optimization heuristics are studied for sequential circuits. Experimental results showed an average of 70.7% tighter peak power bounds for large sequential benchmark circuits was achieved in short execution times.

  2. Experimental study of natural circulation circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemos, Wanderley F.; Su, Jian, E-mail: wlemos@lasme.coppe.ufrj.br, E-mail: sujian@lasme.coppe.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (LASME/COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Simulacao e Metodos Numericos; Faccini, Jose L.H., E-mail: faccini@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (LTE/IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Termo-Hidraulica Experimental

    2011-07-01

    This work presents an experimental study about fluid flows behavior in natural circulation, under conditions of single-phase flow. The experiment was performed through experimental thermal-hydraulic circuit built at IEN. This test equipment has performance similar to passive system of residual heat removal present in Advanced Pressurized Water Reactors (APWR). This experimental study aims to observing and analyzing the natural circulation phenomenon, using this experimental circuit that was dimensioned and built based on concepts of similarity and scale. This philosophy allows the analysis of natural circulation behavior in single-phase flow conditions proportionally to the functioning real conditions of a nuclear reactor. The experiment was performed through procedures to initialization of hydraulic feeding of primary and secondary circuits and electrical energizing of resistors installed inside heater. Power controller has availability to adjust values of electrical power to feeding resistors, in order to portray several conditions of energy decay of nuclear reactor in a steady state. Data acquisition system allows the measurement and monitoring of the evolution of the temperature in various points through thermocouples installed in strategic points along hydraulic circuit. The behavior of the natural circulation phenomenon was monitored by graphical interface on computer screen, showing the temperature evolutions of measuring points and results stored in digital spreadsheets. The results stored in digital spreadsheets allowed the getting of data to graphic construction and discussion about natural circulation phenomenon. Finally, the calculus of Reynolds number allowed the establishment for a correlation of friction in function of geometric scales of length, heights and cross section of tubing, considering a natural circulation flow throughout in the region of hot leg. (author)

  3. Experimental study of natural circulation circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemos, Wanderley F.; Su, Jian; Faccini, Jose L.H.

    2011-01-01

    This work presents an experimental study about fluid flows behavior in natural circulation, under conditions of single-phase flow. The experiment was performed through experimental thermal-hydraulic circuit built at IEN. This test equipment has performance similar to passive system of residual heat removal present in Advanced Pressurized Water Reactors (APWR). This experimental study aims to observing and analyzing the natural circulation phenomenon, using this experimental circuit that was dimensioned and built based on concepts of similarity and scale. This philosophy allows the analysis of natural circulation behavior in single-phase flow conditions proportionally to the functioning real conditions of a nuclear reactor. The experiment was performed through procedures to initialization of hydraulic feeding of primary and secondary circuits and electrical energizing of resistors installed inside heater. Power controller has availability to adjust values of electrical power to feeding resistors, in order to portray several conditions of energy decay of nuclear reactor in a steady state. Data acquisition system allows the measurement and monitoring of the evolution of the temperature in various points through thermocouples installed in strategic points along hydraulic circuit. The behavior of the natural circulation phenomenon was monitored by graphical interface on computer screen, showing the temperature evolutions of measuring points and results stored in digital spreadsheets. The results stored in digital spreadsheets allowed the getting of data to graphic construction and discussion about natural circulation phenomenon. Finally, the calculus of Reynolds number allowed the establishment for a correlation of friction in function of geometric scales of length, heights and cross section of tubing, considering a natural circulation flow throughout in the region of hot leg. (author)

  4. Removal of Gross Air Embolization from Cardiopulmonary Bypass Circuits with Integrated Arterial Line Filters: A Comparison of Circuit Designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reagor, James A; Holt, David W

    2016-03-01

    Advances in technology, the desire to minimize blood product transfusions, and concerns relating to inflammatory mediators have lead many practitioners and manufacturers to minimize cardiopulmonary bypass (CBP) circuit designs. The oxygenator and arterial line filter (ALF) have been integrated into one device as a method of attaining a reduction in prime volume and surface area. The instructions for use of a currently available oxygenator with integrated ALF recommends incorporating a recirculation line distal to the oxygenator. However, according to an unscientific survey, 70% of respondents utilize CPB circuits incorporating integrated ALFs without a path of recirculation distal to the oxygenator outlet. Considering this circuit design, the ability to quickly remove a gross air bolus in the blood path distal to the oxygenator may be compromised. This in vitro study was designed to determine if the time required to remove a gross air bolus from a CPB circuit without a path of recirculation distal to the oxygenator will be significantly longer than that of a circuit with a path of recirculation distal to the oxygenator. A significant difference was found in the mean time required to remove a gross air bolus between the circuit designs (p = .0003). Additionally, There was found to be a statistically significant difference in the mean time required to remove a gross air bolus between Trial 1 and Trials 4 (p = .015) and 5 (p =.014) irrespective of the circuit design. Under the parameters of this study, a recirculation line distal to an oxygenator with an integrated ALF significantly decreases the time it takes to remove an air bolus from the CPB circuit and may be safer for clinical use than the same circuit without a recirculation line.

  5. Integration of Bacterial Small RNAs in Regulatory Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitzan, Mor; Rehani, Rotem; Margalit, Hanah

    2017-05-22

    Small RNAs (sRNAs) are central regulators of gene expression in bacteria, controlling target genes posttranscriptionally by base pairing with their mRNAs. sRNAs are involved in many cellular processes and have unique regulatory characteristics. In this review, we discuss the properties of regulation by sRNAs and how it differs from and combines with transcriptional regulation. We describe the global characteristics of the sRNA-target networks in bacteria using graph-theoretic approaches and review the local integration of sRNAs in mixed regulatory circuits, including feed-forward loops and their combinations, feedback loops, and circuits made of an sRNA and another regulator, both derived from the same transcript. Finally, we discuss the competition effects in posttranscriptional regulatory networks that may arise over shared targets, shared regulators, and shared resources and how they may lead to signal propagation across the network.

  6. The Regulatory Independence of FANR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ALNuaimi, Fatema; Choi, Kwang Shik

    2012-01-01

    Regulatory independence is meant to provide a conservative system of policy making in order to comply with the problems that are forecasted upon the basis of assumptions. The Federal Authorization of Nuclear Regulation (FANR) is a regulatory commission that was formed to be regulatory body that governs the generation of nuclear power in United Arab Emirates. It was established under the UAE nuclear law (9/2009) as an independent regulatory body that was tasked with the regulation of all nuclear activities in the United Arab Emirates. As an independent body, FANR was tasked with ensuring that the regulation of the nuclear sector is done in effective and transparent manner to ensure its accountability to the people. Being independent, the regulatory body develops national nuclear regulations based on laid down safety standards by the International Atomic Energy Agency, ensuring that they are based on scientific and proven technologies The role of FANR is to ensure that the all corporations that undertake nuclear activities follow the laid down procedures and objectives and ensure safety measures are taken keenly to ensure the safety of the workers and the general public while at the same time ensuring the environment is free from nuclear radiations

  7. The Regulatory Independence of FANR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ALNuaimi, Fatema; Choi, Kwang Shik [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    Regulatory independence is meant to provide a conservative system of policy making in order to comply with the problems that are forecasted upon the basis of assumptions. The Federal Authorization of Nuclear Regulation (FANR) is a regulatory commission that was formed to be regulatory body that governs the generation of nuclear power in United Arab Emirates. It was established under the UAE nuclear law (9/2009) as an independent regulatory body that was tasked with the regulation of all nuclear activities in the United Arab Emirates. As an independent body, FANR was tasked with ensuring that the regulation of the nuclear sector is done in effective and transparent manner to ensure its accountability to the people. Being independent, the regulatory body develops national nuclear regulations based on laid down safety standards by the International Atomic Energy Agency, ensuring that they are based on scientific and proven technologies The role of FANR is to ensure that the all corporations that undertake nuclear activities follow the laid down procedures and objectives and ensure safety measures are taken keenly to ensure the safety of the workers and the general public while at the same time ensuring the environment is free from nuclear radiations

  8. Rewiring the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) transcription circuit: Engineering a recombination-resistant genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yount, Boyd; Roberts, Rhonda S.; Lindesmith, Lisa; Baric, Ralph S.

    2006-08-01

    Live virus vaccines provide significant protection against many detrimental human and animal diseases, but reversion to virulence by mutation and recombination has reduced appeal. Using severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus as a model, we engineered a different transcription regulatory circuit and isolated recombinant viruses. The transcription network allowed for efficient expression of the viral transcripts and proteins, and the recombinant viruses replicated to WT levels. Recombinant genomes were then constructed that contained mixtures of the WT and mutant regulatory circuits, reflecting recombinant viruses that might occur in nature. Although viable viruses could readily be isolated from WT and recombinant genomes containing homogeneous transcription circuits, chimeras that contained mixed regulatory networks were invariantly lethal, because viable chimeric viruses were not isolated. Mechanistically, mixed regulatory circuits promoted inefficient subgenomic transcription from inappropriate start sites, resulting in truncated ORFs and effectively minimize viral structural protein expression. Engineering regulatory transcription circuits of intercommunicating alleles successfully introduces genetic traps into a viral genome that are lethal in RNA recombinant progeny viruses. regulation | systems biology | vaccine design

  9. Spectral Purity Enhancement via Polyphase Multipath Circuits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mensink, E.; Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Nauta, Bram

    2004-01-01

    The central question of this paper is: can we enhance the spectral purity of nonlinear circuits by using polyphase multipath circuits? The basic idea behind polyphase multipath circuits is to split the nonlinear circuits into two or more paths and exploit phase differences between these paths to

  10. Distortion Cancellation via Polyphase Multipath Circuits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mensink, E.; Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Nauta, Bram

    The central question of this paper is: can we enhance the spectral purity of nonlinear circuits with the help of polyphase multipath circuits. Polyphase multipath circuits are circuits with two or more paths that exploit phase differences between the paths to cancel unwanted signals. It turns out

  11. Dynamic theory for the mesoscopic electric circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Bin; Shen Xiaojuan; Li Youquan; Sun LiLy; Yin Zhujian

    2005-01-01

    The quantum theory for mesoscopic electric circuit with charge discreteness is briefly described. The minibands of quasienergy in LC design mesoscopic electric circuit have been found. In the mesoscopic 'pure' inductance design circuit, just like in the mesoscopic metallic rings, the quantum dynamic characteristics have been obtained explicitly. In the 'pure' capacity design circuit, the Coulomb blockade had also been addressed

  12. Multi-Layer E-Textile Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Lucy E.; Bibeau, Kaila; Mulligan, Lucie; Frith, Ashton; Simon, Cory

    2012-01-01

    Stitched e-textile circuits facilitate wearable, flexible, comfortable wearable technology. However, while stitched methods of e-textile circuits are common, multi-layer circuit creation remains a challenge. Here, we present methods of stitched multi-layer circuit creation using accessible tools and techniques.

  13. Activity-regulated genes as mediators of neural circuit plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Jennifer H; Nedivi, Elly

    2011-08-01

    Modifications of neuronal circuits allow the brain to adapt and change with experience. This plasticity manifests during development and throughout life, and can be remarkably long lasting. Evidence has linked activity-regulated gene expression to the long-term structural and electrophysiological adaptations that take place during developmental critical periods, learning and memory, and alterations to sensory map representations in the adult. In all these cases, the cellular response to neuronal activity integrates multiple tightly coordinated mechanisms to precisely orchestrate long-lasting, functional and structural changes in brain circuits. Experience-dependent plasticity is triggered when neuronal excitation activates cellular signaling pathways from the synapse to the nucleus that initiate new programs of gene expression. The protein products of activity-regulated genes then work via a diverse array of cellular mechanisms to modify neuronal functional properties. Synaptic strengthening or weakening can reweight existing circuit connections, while structural changes including synapse addition and elimination create new connections. Posttranscriptional regulatory mechanisms, often also dependent on activity, further modulate activity-regulated gene transcript and protein function. Thus, activity-regulated genes implement varied forms of structural and functional plasticity to fine-tune brain circuit wiring. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Professional and Regulatory Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Professional and Regulatory search are designed for people who use EPA web resources to do their job. You will be searching collections where information that is not relevant to Environmental and Regulatory professionals.

  15. Compliance. Regulatory policy P-211

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-05-01

    This regulatory policy describes the basic principles and directives for establishing and conducting the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) Compliance Program. The program is aimed at securing compliance by regulated persons with regulatory requirements made under the Nuclear Safety and Control Act ('the Act'). The policy applies to persons who are regulated by the CNSC through the Act, regulations and licences, as well as by decisions and orders made under the Act. The policy applies to officers and employees of the CNSC, and its authorized representatives or agents, who are involved in developing and carrying out compliance activities. Compliance, in the context of this policy, means conformity by regulated persons with the legally binding requirements of the Act, and the CNSC regulations, licences, decisions, and orders made under the Act. Compliance activities are CNSC measures of promotion, verification and enforcement aimed at securing compliance by regulated person with the applicable legally binding requirements. (author)

  16. Testing Fixture For Microwave Integrated Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanofsky, Robert; Shalkhauser, Kurt

    1989-01-01

    Testing fixture facilitates radio-frequency characterization of microwave and millimeter-wave integrated circuits. Includes base onto which two cosine-tapered ridge waveguide-to-microstrip transitions fastened. Length and profile of taper determined analytically to provide maximum bandwidth and minimum insertion loss. Each cosine taper provides transformation from high impedance of waveguide to characteristic impedance of microstrip. Used in conjunction with automatic network analyzer to provide user with deembedded scattering parameters of device under test. Operates from 26.5 to 40.0 GHz, but operation extends to much higher frequencies.

  17. Microwave plasmatrons for giant integrated circuit processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrin, A.B.

    2000-02-01

    A method for calculating the interaction of a powerful microwave with a plane layer of magnetoactive low-pressure plasma under conditions of electron cyclotron resonance is presented. In this paper, the plasma layer is situated between a plane dielectric layer and a plane metal screen. The calculation model contains the microwave energy balance, particle balance, and electron energy balance. The equation that expressed microwave properties of nonuniform magnetoactive plasma is found. The numerical calculations of the microwave-plasma interaction for a one-dimensional model of the problem are considered. Applications of the results for microwave plasmatrons designed for processing giant integrated circuits are suggested.

  18. 76 FR 20052 - Notice of Issuance of Regulatory Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-11

    ... the NRC's public Web site under ``Regulatory Guides'' at http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/doc-collections... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2010-0187] Notice of Issuance of Regulatory Guide AGENCY... Guide 1.149, ``Nuclear Power Plant Simulation Facilities for Use in Operator Training, License...

  19. Future nuclear regulatory challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Royen, J.

    1998-01-01

    In December 1996, the NEA Committee on Nuclear Regulatory Activities concluded that changes resulting from economic deregulation and other recent developments affecting nuclear power programmes have consequences both for licensees and regulatory authorities. A number of potential problems and issues which will present a challenge to nuclear regulatory bodies over the next ten years have been identified in a report just released. (author)

  20. Instrumentation and test gear circuits manual

    CERN Document Server

    Marston, R M

    2013-01-01

    Instrumentation and Test Gear Circuits Manual provides diagrams, graphs, tables, and discussions of several types of practical circuits. The practical circuits covered in this book include attenuators, bridges, scope trace doublers, timebases, and digital frequency meters. Chapter 1 discusses the basic instrumentation and test gear principles. Chapter 2 deals with the design of passive attenuators, and Chapter 3 with passive and active filter circuits. The subsequent chapters tackle 'bridge' circuits, analogue and digital metering techniques and circuitry, signal and waveform generation, and p

  1. Logic circuits from zero forcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgarth, Daniel; Giovannetti, Vittorio; Hogben, Leslie; Severini, Simone; Young, Michael

    We design logic circuits based on the notion of zero forcing on graphs; each gate of the circuits is a gadget in which zero forcing is performed. We show that such circuits can evaluate every monotone Boolean function. By using two vertices to encode each logical bit, we obtain universal computation. We also highlight a phenomenon of "back forcing" as a property of each function. Such a phenomenon occurs in a circuit when the input of gates which have been already used at a given time step is further modified by a computation actually performed at a later stage. Finally, we show that zero forcing can be also used to implement reversible computation. The model introduced here provides a potentially new tool in the analysis of Boolean functions, with particular attention to monotonicity. Moreover, in the light of applications of zero forcing in quantum mechanics, the link with Boolean functions may suggest a new directions in quantum control theory and in the study of engineered quantum spin systems. It is an open technical problem to verify whether there is a link between zero forcing and computation with contact circuits.

  2. Installations having pressurised fluid circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigg, S.; Grant, J.

    1977-01-01

    Reference is made to nuclear installations having pressurised coolant flow circuits. Breaches in such circuits may quickly result in much damage to the plant. Devices such as non-return valves, orifice plates, and automatically operated shut-off valves have been provided to prevent or reduce fluid flow through a breached pipe line, but such devices have several disadvantages; they may present large restrictions to normal flow of coolant, and may depend on the operation of ancillary equipment, with consequent delay in bringing them into operation in an emergency. Other expedients that have been adopted to prevent or reduce reverse flow through an upstream breach comprise various forms of hydraulic counter flow brakes. The arrangement described has at least one variable fluid brake comprising a fluidic device connected into a duct in the pressurised circuit, the device having an inlet, an outlet, a vortex chamber between the inlet and outlet, a control jet for introducing fluid into the vortex chamber, connections communicating the inlet and the outlet into one part of the circuit and the control jet into another region at a complementary pressure so that, in the event of a breach in the circuit in one region, fluid passes from the other region to enter the vortex chamber to stimulate pressure to create a flow restricting vortex in the chamber that reduces flow through the breach. The system finds particular application to stream generating pressure tube reactors, such as the steam generating heavy water reactor at UKAEA, Winfrith. (U.K.)

  3. 30 CFR 75.601-1 - Short circuit protection; ratings and settings of circuit breakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Short circuit protection; ratings and settings... Trailing Cables § 75.601-1 Short circuit protection; ratings and settings of circuit breakers. Circuit breakers providing short circuit protection for trailing cables shall be set so as not to exceed the...

  4. 30 CFR 77.506 - Electric equipment and circuits; overload and short-circuit protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... short-circuit protection. 77.506 Section 77.506 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... circuits; overload and short-circuit protection. Automatic circuit-breaking devices or fuses of the correct type and capacity shall be installed so as to protect all electric equipment and circuits against short...

  5. 30 CFR 75.518 - Electric equipment and circuits; overload and short circuit protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... short circuit protection. 75.518 Section 75.518 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... Equipment-General § 75.518 Electric equipment and circuits; overload and short circuit protection... installed so as to protect all electric equipment and circuits against short circuit and overloads. Three...

  6. A high-precision synchronization circuit for clock distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Chong; Tan Hongzhou; Duan Zhikui; Ding Yi

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a novel structure of a high-precision synchronization circuit, HPSC, using interleaved delay units and a dynamic compensation circuit is proposed. HPSCs are designed for synchronization of clock distribution networks in large-scale integrated circuits, where high-quality clocks are required. The application of a hybrid structure of a coarse delay line and dynamic compensation circuit performs roughly the alignment of the clock signal in two clock cycles, and finishes the fine tuning in the next three clock cycles with the phase error suppressed under 3.8 ps. The proposed circuit is implemented and fabricated using a SMIC 0.13 μm 1P6M process with a supply voltage at 1.2 V. The allowed operation frequency ranges from 200 to 800 MHz, and the duty cycle ranges between [20%, 80%]. The active area of the core circuits is 245 × 134 μm 2 , and the power consumption is 1.64 mW at 500 MHz. (paper)

  7. Regulatory activities; Actividades regulatorias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This publication, compiled in 8 chapters, presents the regulatory system developed by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NRA) of the Argentine Republic. The following activities and developed topics in this document describe: the evolution of the nuclear regulatory activity in Argentina; the Argentine regulatory system; the nuclear regulatory laws and standards; the inspection and safeguards of nuclear facilities; the emergency systems; the environmental systems; the environmental monitoring; the analysis laboratories on physical and biological dosimetry, prenatal irradiation, internal irradiation, radiation measurements, detection techniques on nuclear testing, medical program on radiation protection; the institutional relations with national and international organization; the training courses and meeting; the technical information.

  8. Technique for forecasting the radiation damages of digital large-scale integrated circuits under cosmic ray ions effect; Metodika prognozirovaniya radiatsionnykh sbolev tsifrovykh bis pri vozdejstv ii ionov kosmicheskikh luchej

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verkhoturov, V M [and others

    1994-12-31

    Rated experimental methods for forecasting the frequency of radiation failures of digital LSIC and SLSIC of the space vehicle electronic board equipment under effect of cosmic ray ions are considered.

  9. Multiplication circuit for particle identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerlier, Jean

    1962-01-01

    After having commented some characteristics of the particles present in a cyclotron, and their interactions, this report addresses the development and the implementation of a method and a device for selecting and counting particles. The author presents the principle and existing techniques of selection. In comparison with an existing device, the proportional counter and the scintillator are replaced by junctions: a surface barrier type junction (a silicon N layer with a very thin oxygen layer playing the role of the P layer), and lithium-based junction (a silicon P type layer made intrinsic by migration of lithium). The author then describes the developed circuit and assembly (background of the choice of a multiplication circuit), and their operation. In the next part, he presents the performed tests and discuses the obtained results. He finally outlines the benefits of the herein presented circuit [fr

  10. Wiring of electronic evaluation circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, R.; Svoboda, Z.

    1977-01-01

    The wiring is described of electronic evaluation circuits for the automatic viewing of photographic paper strip negatives on which line tracks with an angular scatter relative to the spectrograph longitudinal axis were recorded during the oblique flight of nuclear particles during exposure in the spectrograph. In coincidence evaluation, the size of the angular scatter eventually requires that evaluation dead time be increased. The equipment consists of minimally two fixed registers and a block of logic circuits whose output is designed such as will allow connection to equipment for recording signals corresponding to the number of tracks on the film. The connection may be implemented using integrated circuits guaranteeing high operating reliability and life. (J.B.)

  11. Counterpulse railgun energy recovery circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honig, E.M.

    1986-01-01

    This patent describes a counterpulse railgun energy recovery circuit for propelling a projectile along a railgun the counterpulse railgun energy recovery circuit consists of: a railgun having an effective inductance; a source inductor initially charged to an initial current; current means for initially charging the source inductor to the initial current; first current-zero type switching means; second current-zero type switching; third current-zero type switching; muzzle current-zero type switching means; transfer capacitor, the transfer capacitor is for cooperating with the first, second, third, and muzzle current-zero type switching means for providing a resonant circuit for transferring current from the source inductor to the effective inductance of the railgun during the propelling of a projectile along the railgun and for returning current from the effective inductance of the railgun to the source inductance after the projectile has exited the railgun

  12. Vertically Integrated Circuits at Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deptuch, Grzegorz; Demarteau, Marcel; Hoff, James; Lipton, Ronald; Shenai, Alpana; Trimpl, Marcel; Yarema, Raymond; Zimmerman, Tom

    2009-01-01

    The exploration of the vertically integrated circuits, also commonly known as 3D-IC technology, for applications in radiation detection started at Fermilab in 2006. This paper examines the opportunities that vertical integration offers by looking at various 3D designs that have been completed by Fermilab. The emphasis is on opportunities that are presented by through silicon vias (TSV), wafer and circuit thinning and finally fusion bonding techniques to replace conventional bump bonding. Early work by Fermilab has led to an international consortium for the development of 3D-IC circuits for High Energy Physics. The consortium has submitted over 25 different designs for the Fermilab organized MPW run organized for the first time.

  13. Regulatory authority infrastructure for Namibia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shangula, K.

    2001-01-01

    The Republic of Namibia is participating in the International Atomic Energy Agency's Model Project for the Improvement of National Regulatory Authority Infrastructures in Member States. The paper illustrates our experience in solving problems and difficulties confronted in establishing an effective regulatory authority operating within the existing national infrastructure that should be supported by the Government. An effective regulatory authority is seen as part of the wider administrative scope of our Government through ministerial mandates given by the State from time to time, guaranteeing its independence when implementing legal provisions under statutes. Sections of the report illustrate our experience in the following areas: 1. National radiation protection policy 2. Structure of our national regulatory authority 3. Laws and regulations 4. Provisions for notification, authorization and registration 5. In-depth security measures for radiation sources and radioactive material 6. Systems for the inspection of radiation sources, radioactive materials, enforcement of legal provisions 7. Extent of the applications of radiation sources and radioactive materials in the country. The paper provides information regarding existing Government policy on radiation protection; structure and legal aspects of the national regulatory, including statutes and regulations; the extent of application and uses of radiation sources and security of radioactive materials; human resources: strengths and constraints; management practices and financing of regulatory authority; and plans for emergency recovery of orphan sources. National plans for management of disused sources, recovery of orphan sources, abnormal emergencies, communication of information to affected persons on exposure effects, and the safety training of persons using these applications are discussed. the paper provides a summary and some suggestions of the way forward for Namibia. (author)

  14. Fermionic models with superconducting circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Las Heras, Urtzi; Garcia-Alvarez, Laura; Mezzacapo, Antonio; Lamata, Lucas [University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, Department of Physical Chemistry, Bilbao (Spain); Solano, Enrique [University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, Department of Physical Chemistry, Bilbao (Spain); IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science, Bilbao (Spain)

    2015-12-01

    We propose a method for the efficient quantum simulation of fermionic systems with superconducting circuits. It consists in the suitable use of Jordan-Wigner mapping, Trotter decomposition, and multiqubit gates, be with the use of a quantum bus or direct capacitive couplings. We apply our method to the paradigmatic cases of 1D and 2D Fermi-Hubbard models, involving couplings with nearest and next-nearest neighbours. Furthermore, we propose an optimal architecture for this model and discuss the benchmarking of the simulations in realistic circuit quantum electrodynamics setups. (orig.)

  15. Circuit modeling for electromagnetic compatibility

    CERN Document Server

    Darney, Ian B

    2013-01-01

    Very simply, electromagnetic interference (EMI) costs money, reduces profits, and generally wreaks havoc for circuit designers in all industries. This book shows how the analytic tools of circuit theory can be used to simulate the coupling of interference into, and out of, any signal link in the system being reviewed. The technique is simple, systematic and accurate. It enables the design of any equipment to be tailored to meet EMC requirements. Every electronic system consists of a number of functional modules interconnected by signal links and power supply lines. Electromagnetic interference

  16. Relative ultrasound energy measurement circuit

    OpenAIRE

    Gustafsson, E.Martin I.; Johansson, Jonny; Delsing, Jerker

    2005-01-01

    A relative ultrasound energy estimation circuit has been designed in a standard 0.35-μm CMOS process, to be a part of a thumb size internet connected wireless ultrasound measurement system. This circuit measures the relative energy between received ultrasound pulses, and presents an output signal that is linear to the received energy. Post-layout simulations indicate 7 bit linearity for 500 mV input signals, 5 μsec startup and stop times, 2.6 mW power consumption during active state. The acti...

  17. Simplified design of filter circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Lenk, John

    1999-01-01

    Simplified Design of Filter Circuits, the eighth book in this popular series, is a step-by-step guide to designing filters using off-the-shelf ICs. The book starts with the basic operating principles of filters and common applications, then moves on to describe how to design circuits by using and modifying chips available on the market today. Lenk's emphasis is on practical, simplified approaches to solving design problems.Contains practical designs using off-the-shelf ICsStraightforward, no-nonsense approachHighly illustrated with manufacturer's data sheets

  18. Programming languages for circuit design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Michael; Yordanov, Boyan

    2015-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of a programming language for Genetic Engineering of Cells (GEC). A GEC program specifies a genetic circuit at a high level of abstraction through constraints on otherwise unspecified DNA parts. The GEC compiler then selects parts which satisfy the constraints from a given parts database. GEC further provides more conventional programming language constructs for abstraction, e.g., through modularity. The GEC language and compiler is available through a Web tool which also provides functionality, e.g., for simulation of designed circuits.

  19. Endogenous money, circuits and financialization

    OpenAIRE

    Malcolm Sawyer

    2013-01-01

    This paper locates the endogenous money approach in a circuitist framework. It argues for the significance of the credit creation process for the evolution of the economy and the absence of any notion of ‘neutrality of money’. Clearing banks are distinguished from other financial institutions as the providers of initial finance in a circuit whereas other financial institutions operate in a final finance circuit. Financialization is here viewed in terms of the growth of financial assets an...

  20. Cable Hot Shorts and Circuit Analysis in Fire Risk Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaChance, Jeffrey; Nowlen, Steven P.; Wyant, Frank

    1999-01-01

    Under existing methods of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA), the analysis of fire-induced circuit faults has typically been conducted on a simplistic basis. In particular, those hot-short methodologies that have been applied remain controversial in regards to the scope of the assessments, the underlying methods, and the assumptions employed. To address weaknesses in fire PRA methodologies, the USNRC has initiated a fire risk analysis research program that includes a task for improving the tools for performing circuit analysis. The objective of this task is to obtain a better understanding of the mechanisms linking fire-induced cable damage to potentially risk-significant failure modes of power, control, and instrumentation cables. This paper discusses the current status of the circuit analysis task

  1. Classical and quantum stochastic models of resistive and memristive circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, John E.; Zhang, Guofeng

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine stochastic Markovian models for circuits in phase space for which the drift term is equivalent to the standard circuit equations. In particular, we include dissipative components corresponding to both a resistor and a memristor in series. We obtain a dilation of the problem which is canonical in the sense that the underlying Poisson bracket structure is preserved under the stochastic flow. We do this first of all for standard Wiener noise but also treat the problem using a new concept of symplectic noise, where the Poisson structure is extended to the noise as well as the circuit variables, and in particular where we have canonically conjugate noises. Finally, we construct a dilation which describes the quantum mechanical analogue.

  2. Implementation of Chua's circuit using simulated inductance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopakumar, K.; Premlet, B.; Gopchandran, K. G.

    2011-05-01

    In this study we describe how to build an inductorless version of the classic Chua's circuit. A suitable inductor for Chua's circuit is often hard to procure. The required inductor for the circuit is designed using simple circuit elements such as resistors, capacitors and operational amplifiers. The complete circuit can be implemented by using off-the-shelf components, and it can readily be integrated on a single chip. This design of Chua's circuit allows the original dynamics to be slowed down to just a few hertz, enabling implementation of sophisticated control schemes without severe time restrictions. Another novel feature of the circuit is that losses associated with capacitors due to leakages can easily be compensated by providing negative resistance using the same setup. The chaotic behaviour of the circuit is verified by PSpice and Multisim simulation and also by experimental study on a circuit breadboard. The results give excellent agreement with each other and with the results of previous investigators.

  3. Noise Expands the Response Range of the Bacillus subtilis Competence Circuit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Mugler

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Gene regulatory circuits must contend with intrinsic noise that arises due to finite numbers of proteins. While some circuits act to reduce this noise, others appear to exploit it. A striking example is the competence circuit in Bacillus subtilis, which exhibits much larger noise in the duration of its competence events than a synthetically constructed analog that performs the same function. Here, using stochastic modeling and fluorescence microscopy, we show that this larger noise allows cells to exit terminal phenotypic states, which expands the range of stress levels to which cells are responsive and leads to phenotypic heterogeneity at the population level. This is an important example of how noise confers a functional benefit in a genetic decision-making circuit.

  4. Advanced circuit simulation using Multisim workbench

    CERN Document Server

    Báez-López, David; Cervantes-Villagómez, Ofelia Delfina

    2012-01-01

    Multisim is now the de facto standard for circuit simulation. It is a SPICE-based circuit simulator which combines analog, discrete-time, and mixed-mode circuits. In addition, it is the only simulator which incorporates microcontroller simulation in the same environment. It also includes a tool for printed circuit board design.Advanced Circuit Simulation Using Multisim Workbench is a companion book to Circuit Analysis Using Multisim, published by Morgan & Claypool in 2011. This new book covers advanced analyses and the creation of models and subcircuits. It also includes coverage of transmissi

  5. Digital circuit boards mach 1 GHz

    CERN Document Server

    Morrison, Ralph

    2012-01-01

    A unique, practical approach to the design of high-speed digital circuit boards The demand for ever-faster digital circuit designs is beginning to render the circuit theory used by engineers ineffective. Digital Circuit Boards presents an alternative to the circuit theory approach, emphasizing energy flow rather than just signal interconnection to explain logic circuit behavior. The book shows how treating design in terms of transmission lines will ensure that the logic will function, addressing both storage and movement of electrical energy on these lines. It cove

  6. Clocking Scheme for Switched-Capacitor Circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensgaard-Madsen, Jesper

    1998-01-01

    A novel clocking scheme for switched-capacitor (SC) circuits is presented. It can enhance the understanding of SC circuits and the errors caused by MOSFET (MOS) switches. Charge errors, and techniques to make SC circuits less sensitive to them are discussed.......A novel clocking scheme for switched-capacitor (SC) circuits is presented. It can enhance the understanding of SC circuits and the errors caused by MOSFET (MOS) switches. Charge errors, and techniques to make SC circuits less sensitive to them are discussed....

  7. Unbalanced Neuronal Circuits in Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Volkow, Nora D.; Wang, Gen-Jack; Tomasi, Dardo; Baler, Ruben D.

    2013-01-01

    Through sequential waves of drug-induced neurochemical stimulation, addiction co-opts the brain's neuronal circuits that mediate reward, motivation, , to behavioral inflexibility and a severe disruption of self-control and compulsive drug intake. Brain imaging technologies have allowed neuroscientists to map out the neural landscape of addiction in the human brain and to understand how drugs modify it.

  8. A Low Noise Electronic Circuit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annema, Anne J.; Leenaerts, Dominicus M.W.; de Vreede, Petrus W.H.

    2002-01-01

    An electronic circuit, which can be used as a Low Noise Amplifier (LNA), comprises two complementary Field Effect Transistors (M1, M2; M5, M6), each having a gate, a source and a drain. The gates are connected together as a common input terminal, and the drains are connected together as a

  9. Circuit design for RF transceivers

    CERN Document Server

    Leenaerts, Domine; Vaucher, Cicero S

    2007-01-01

    Second edition of this successful 2001 RF Circuit Design book, has been updated, latest technology reviews have been added as well as several actual case studies. Due to the authors being active in industry as well as academia, this should prove to be an essential guide on RF Transceiver Design for students and engineers.

  10. Integrated Circuit Stellar Magnitude Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, James A.

    1978-01-01

    Describes an electronic circuit which can be used to demonstrate the stellar magnitude scale. Six rectangular light-emitting diodes with independently adjustable duty cycles represent stars of magnitudes 1 through 6. Experimentally verifies the logarithmic response of the eye. (Author/GA)

  11. Simulated annealing and circuit layout

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, E.H.L.; Laarhoven, van P.J.M.

    1991-01-01

    We discuss the problem of approximately sotvlng circuit layout problems by simulated annealing. For this we first summarize the theoretical concepts of the simulated annealing algorithm using Ihe theory of homogeneous and inhomogeneous Markov chains. Next we briefly review general aspects of the

  12. Circuit breaker and bus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, H.F.

    1978-01-01

    Two close-open operations are required each pulse cycle at approximately 3 MA with the breaker in series with the burn supply, both forming a leg in parallel with the E-coil and the homopolar. To conduct the 3-MA current, approximately 30 breaker units are connected in parallel. Each unit is equipped with a counterpulse capacitor bank, and the bus for the 30 units is provided with a common saturable reactor core made of strip steel wound around the bus. Oil breakers of a special design are chosen because of their high arc resistance facilitating the current transfer to the homopolar machine and for obtaining precision timing in opening and closing of the contacts. The precision timing is achieved by a shock wave method with the oil serving as hydraulic medium. Each of the parallel breaker units possesses two sets of contacts, a stationary and a transient one. A 1-mΩ resistor in series with the transient contacts of each breaker unit is to improve the current sharing. The bus consists of room temperature copper, stranded and transposed to help provide current equalization under transient conditions

  13. Emergency reactor cooling circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araki, Hidefumi; Matsumoto, Tomoyuki; Kataoka, Yoshiyuki.

    1994-01-01

    Cooling water in a gravitationally dropping water reservoir is injected into a reactor pressure vessel passing through a pipeline upon occurrence of emergency. The pipeline is inclined downwardly having one end thereof being in communication with the pressure vessel. During normal operation, the cooling water in the upper portion of the inclined pipeline is heated by convection heat transfer from the communication portion with the pressure vessel. On the other hand, cooling water present at a position lower than the communication portion forms cooling water lumps. Accordingly, temperature stratification layers are formed in the inclined pipeline. Therefore, temperature rise of water in a vertical pipeline connected to the inclined pipeline is small. With such a constitution, the amount of heat lost from the pressure vessel by way of the water injection pipeline is reduced. Further, there is no worry that cooling water to be injected upon occurrence of emergency is boiled under reduced pressure in the injection pipeline to delay the depressurization of the pressure vessel. (I.N.)

  14. Influence of simulated microgravity on clock genes expression rhythmicity and underlying blood circulating miRNAs-mRNA co-expression regulatory mechanism in C57BL/6J mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Ke; Qu, Lina

    Purpose: It is vital for astronauts to maintain the optimal alertness and neurobehavioral function. Among various factors that exist in the space flight and long-duration mission environment, gravity changes may probably an essential environmental factor to interfere with internal circadian rhythms homeostasis and sleep quality, but the underlying mechanism is unclear. Mammals' biological clock is controlled by the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), and peripheral organs adjust their own rhythmicity with the central signals. Nevertheless the mechanism underlying this synchronizition process is still unknown. microRNAs (miRNAs) are about 19˜22nt long regulatory RNAs that serve as critical modulators of post-transcriptional gene regulation. Recently, circulating miRNAs were found to have the regulatory role between cells and peripheral tissues, besides its function inside the cells. This study aims to investigate the regulatory signal transduction role of miRNAs between SCN and peripheral biological clock effecter tissues and to further decipher the mechanism of circadian disturbance under microgravity. Method: Firstly, based on the assumption that severe alterations in the expression of genes known to be involved in circadian rhythms may affect the expression of other genes, the labeled cDNA from liver and suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of clock-knockout mice and control mice in different time points were cohybridized to microarrays. The fold change exceeding 2 (FC>2) was used to identify genes with altered expression levels in the knockout mice compared with control mice. Secondly, male C57BL/6J mice at 8 weeks of age were individually caged and acclimatized to the laboratory conditions (12h light/dark cycle) before being used for continuous core body temperature and activity monitoring. The mice were individually caged and tail suspended using a strip of adhesive surgical tape attached to a chain hanging from a pulley. Peripheral blood and liver tissues collection

  15. Management systems for regulatory authorities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mpandanyama, Rujeko Lynette

    2015-02-01

    For a regulatory body to fulfil its statutory obligations, there is need to develop and implement a regulatory management system that has the necessary arrangements for achieving and maintaining high quality performance in regulating the safety of nuclear and radiation facilities under its authority. Hence, the regulatory management system needs to fully integrate the human resources, processes and physical resources of the organization. This study sought to provide an understanding of the concept, principles, policies and fundamentals of management systems as they relate to regulatory systems in the field of radiation protection and to make appropriate recommendations to ensure that an effective management system exists for the control of ionizing radiation and radiation sources and addresses all relevant stakeholders in Zimbabwe. A comparative analysis was done on the current management status and the ideal management system, which led to the identification of the gaps existing. The main key that was found to be of significance was lack of linkages between processes and management tools within the institution. (au)

  16. A NEW CONTROL CIRCUIT AND COMPUTER SOFTWARE FOR CONTROLING PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Berkant SELEK

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a new microcontroller circuit was designed and new computer software was implemented to control power flow currents of renewable energy system, which is established in Solar Energy Institute, Ege University, Bornova, Izmir, Turkey. PIC18F452 microcontroller based electronic circuit was designed to control another electronic circuit that includes power electronic switching components. Readily available standard control circuits are designed for switching single level inverters. In contrary, implemented circuit allows to switch multilevel inverters. In addition, because the efficiency of solar energy panels is considerably low, solar panels should be operated under the maximum power point (MPP. Therefore, MPP algorithm is included in the designed control circuit. Next, the control circuit also includes a serial communication interface based on RS232 standard. Using this interface enables the user to choose all functions available in the control circuit and take status report via computer software. Last, a general purpose command set was designed to establish communication between the computer software and the microcontroller-based control circuit. As a result, it is aimed that this study supply a basis for the researchers who want to develop own control circuits or more visual software.

  17. An ADC-free adaptive interface circuit of resistive sensor for electronic nose system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chia-Lin; Chiu, Shih-Wen; Tang, Kea-Tiong

    2013-01-01

    The initial resistance of chemiresistive gas sensors could be affected by temperature, humidity, and background odors. In a sensing system, the traditional interface circuit always requires an ADC to convert analog signal to digital signal. In this paper, we propose an ADC-free adaptive interface circuit for a resistive gas sensor to read sensor signal and cancel the baseline drift. Furthermore, methanol was used to test the proposed interface circuit, which was connected with a FIGARO® gas sensor. This circuit was fabricated by TSMC 0.18 µm CMOS process, and consumed 86.41 µW under 1 V supply voltage.

  18. Gas microstrip detectors based on flexible printed circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salomon, M.; Crowe, K.; Faszer, W.; Lindsay, P.; Curran Maier, J.M.

    1995-09-01

    We have studied the properties of a new type of Gas Microstrip Counter built using flexible printed circuit technology. We describe the manufacturing procedures, the assembly of the device, as well as its operation under a variety of conditions, gases and types of radiation. We also describe two new passivation materials, Tantalum and Niobium, which produce effective surfaces. (author)

  19. Packaging Solutions for Mitigating IGBT Short-Circuit Instabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reigosa, Paula Diaz; Iannuzzo, Francesco; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the gate voltage oscillations occurring under short-circuit conditions in Insulated-Gate Bipolar Transistors are investigated, together with their dependency with respect to stray inductance variations. By using AnSYS Q3D Extractor, electromagnetic simulations are conducted to extr...

  20. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF PROCESSES IN AN INDEPENDENT GENERATOR WITH A NONCONTACT CASCADE THREE-PHASE MODULATED EXCITER VIA A STAR-CONNECTED CIRCUIT UNDER ACTIVE-INDUCTIVE LOADING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.M. Vasyliv

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available By means of mathematical experiment, the author investigates electromagnetic and electromechanical processes in an independent electric power supply system based on an asynchronized generator with a three-phase modulated exciter. The processes are analyzed to specify the working capacity of the power supply system during its operation under active-inductive loading. Regularities of the electromagnetic and electromechanical processes behavior versus load intensity and the modulator scheme are identified.