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Sample records for regulator herbicides prevent

  1. Epigenetic regulation – contribution to herbicide resistance in weeds?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Markus, C.; Pečinka, Aleš; Karan, R.; Barney, J. N.; Merotto, A.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 74, č. 2 (2018), s. 275-281 ISSN 1526-498X Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : DNA methylation * epigenetic s * gene expression * gene regulation * herbicide detoxification * plant stress response Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 3.253, year: 2016

  2. PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF DIMETHYLAMINE VAPORS EMISSION: HERBICIDE PRODUCTION PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorana Arsenijević

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The widely used herbicide, dimethylamine salt of 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D-DMA, is usually prepared by mixing a dimethylamine (DMA aqueous solution with a solid 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D. The vapors of the both, reactants and products, are potentially hazardous for the environment. The contribution of DMA vapors in overall pollution from this process is most significant, concerning vapor pressures data of these pollutants. Therefore, the control of the air pollution in the manufacture and handling of methylamines is very important. Within this paper, the optimal air pollution control system in preparation of 2,4-D-DMA was developed for the pesticides manufacturing industry. This study employed the simple pollution prevention concept to reduce the emission of DMA vapors at the source. The investigations were performed on the pilot plant scale. To reduce the emission of DMA vapors, the effluent gases from the herbicide preparation zone were passed through the packed bed scrubber (water - scrubbing medium, and the catalytic reactor in sequence. The end result is a substantially improved air quality in the working area, as well as in the urbanized areas located near the chemical plant.

  3. Effects of growth regulator herbicide on downy brome (Bromus tectorum) seed production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous research showed growth regulator herbicides, such as picloram and aminopyralid, have a sterilizing effect on Japanese brome (Bromus japonicus Thunb.) that can reduce this invasive annual grass’s seed production nearly 100%. This suggests growth regulators might be used to control invasive ...

  4. REDUCTION OF HERBICIDE AND WATER STRESS IN SPRING BARLEY BY REGULATORS OF POLYAMINE BIOSYNTHESIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavol Trebichalský

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out under artificial light of fluorescent lamps starting with 60 % full water capacity which was afterwards decreased on 40 % and finally the plants of barley were not watered. 30 plants of this cereal after plant emergence were thinned on 22 pieces. Experiment was treated by triazine herbicide, as well as its mixtures of regulators of polyamine synthesis: γ-aminobutyric acid, 1.3-propylenediamine dihydrochloride and salicyl acid. Solo application of triazine herbicide during water stress had negative balance on formation of root and above ground biomass. Addition of regulators of polyamine synthesis had positive effects on mentioned parameters, but not in comparison to control variant. These stress factors were eliminated most significantly only the application of GABA (100 g.ha-1 in mixture with herbicide.

  5. Regulation of photosynthetic electron flow in isolated chloroplasts by bicarbonate, formate and herbicides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snel, J.F.H.

    1985-01-01

    This thesis describes some efforts that were made to gain a better understanding of the processes involved in the regulation of photosynthetic electron flow by bicarbonate, formate and herbicides in chloroplasts. In the past decade a large amount of research has been devoted to get insight into the

  6. Hormonal changes in spring barley after triazine herbicide treatment and its mixtures of regulators of polyamine biosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavol Trebichalský

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants adapt to abiotic stress by undergoing diverse biochemical and physiological changes that involve hormone-dependent signalling pathways. The effects of regulators of polyamine biosynthesis can be mimicked by exogenous chemical regulators such as herbicide safeners, which not only enhance stress tolerance but also confer hormetic benefits such as increased vigor and yield. The phytohormones, abscisic acid (ABA and auxin (IAA play key roles in regulating stress responses in plants. Two years pot trials at Slovak University of agriculture Nitra were carried out with analyses of contents of plant hormones in spring barley grain of variety Kompakt: indolyl-acetic acid (IAA and abscisic acid (ABA, after exposing of tested plants to herbicide stress, as well as the possible decrease of these stress factors with application of regulators of polyamine synthesis was evaluated. At 1st year in spring barley grain after application of solo triazine herbicide treatment in dose 0,5 L.ha-1 an increase of all analyzed plant hormones was observed and contrary, at 2nd year there was the decrease of their contents. From our work there is an obvious influence of herbicide stress induced by application of certain dose of triazine herbicide at 1st year. Expect of the variant with mixture of triazine herbicide (in amount of 0,5 L.ha-1 and 29,6 g.ha-1 DAB, at this year all by us applied regulators of polyamine synthesis reduced the level of both plant hormones. Higher affect of stress caused by enhanced content of soluble macroelements in soil where the plants of barley were grown was observed next year. Soil with increased contents of macronutrients (mg.kg-1: N30.7 + P108.3 + K261.5 + Mg604.2 had reducing effect on contents of plant hormones in barley grain at variant treated with solo triazine herbicide (in dose at 0,5 L.ha-1 in comparison to control variant. The mixtures of regulators of polyamine synthesis reduced the contents of IAA only in comparison to

  7. Best management practices to reduce and prevent water pollution with herbicides from run-off and erosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gehring, Klaus

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The natural phenomenon of run-off and erosion lead to unpreventable pesticide water pollution in case of extreme weather conditions. In this relationship the use of herbicides involves a higher risk than other pesticides because of the specific terms of application. Directive 2009/128/EC for the sustainable use of pesticides aspires to enhanced water protection. German national action plan contains quantitative objectives which require strong reduction of water pollution by run-off and erosion of pesticides and accordingly herbicides. The European TOPPS prowadis project developed a consolidated and basic diagnosis concept for the first time to determine the field specific run-off risk. Compatible mitigation measures were linked to specific risk scenarios. Risk diagnosis and suitable mitigation measures determine best management practices for the prevention of run-off and erosion. Different new diagnosis methods and the implementation are presented. Further documents and information are available on the web [http://www.topps-life.org/].

  8. Regulation of Microbial Herbicide Transformation by Coupled Moisture and Oxygen Dynamics in Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschmann, G.; Pagel, H.; Uksa, M.; Streck, T.; Milojevic, T.; Rezanezhad, F.; Van Cappellen, P.

    2017-12-01

    The key processes of herbicide fate in agricultural soils are well-characterized. However, most of these studies are from batch experiments that were conducted under optimal aerobic conditions. In order to delineate the processes controlling herbicide (i.e., phenoxy herbicide 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid, MCPA) turnover in soil under variable moisture conditions, we conducted a state-of-the-art soil column experiment, with a highly instrumented automated soil column system, under constant and oscillating water table regimes. In this system, the position of the water table was imposed using a computer-controlled, multi-channel pump connected to a hydrostatic equilibrium reservoir and a water storage reservoir. The soil samples were collected from a fertilized, arable and carbon-limited agricultural field site in Germany. The efflux of CO2 was determined from headspace gas measurements as an integrated signal of microbial respiration activity. Moisture and oxygen profiles along the soil column were monitored continuously using high-resolution moisture content probes and luminescence-based Multi Fiber Optode (MuFO) microsensors, respectively. Pore water and solid-phase samples were collected periodically at 8 depths and analyzed for MCPA, dissolved inorganic and organic carbon concentrations as well as the abundance of specific MCPA-degrading bacteria. The results indicated a clear effect of the water table fluctuations on CO2 fluxes, with lower fluxes during imbibition periods and enhanced CO2 fluxes after drainage. In this presentation, we focus on the results of temporal changes in the vertical distribution of herbicide, specific herbicide degraders, organic carbon concentration, moisture content and oxygen. We expect that the high spatial and temporal resolution of measurements from this experiment will allow robust calibration of a reactive transport model for the soil columns, with subsequent identification and quantification of rate limiting processes of

  9. 33 CFR Appendix E to Part 273 - Preventive Safety Measures in Handling of Herbicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... Special care is required to prevent contamination of the inside of gloves. 9. Approved respirators must be... holes in top, bottom, and sides of metal containers or crush them so they cannot collect water or be...

  10. Effect of selectivity of herbicides and plant growth regulators used in sugarcane crops on immature stages of Trichogramma galloi (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae).

    OpenAIRE

    OLIVEIRA, H. N. de; ANTIGO, M. R.; CARVALHO, G. A.; GLAESER, D. F.

    2014-01-01

    Herbicides and plant growth regulators are often used in sugarcane management. However, the use of non-selective pesticides can cause adverse effects on the efficiency of beneficial insects in integrated pest management. Within this context, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of such products on the immature stages of the parasitoid Trichogramma galloi. Eggs of Diatraea saccharalis containing the parasitoid at the egg-larva stage and at the prepupal and pupal stages were immersed in test...

  11. Effect of selectivity of herbicides and plant growth regulators used in sugarcane crops on immature stages of Trichogramma galloi (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, H.N.; Antigo, M.R.; Carvalho, G.A.; Glaeser, D.F.

    2014-01-01

    Herbicides and plant growth regulators are often used in sugarcane management. However, the use of non-selective pesticides can cause adverse effects on the efficiency of beneficial insects in integrated pest management. Within this context, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of such products on the immature stages of the parasitoid Trichogramma galloi. Eggs of Diatraea saccharalis containing the parasitoid at the egg-larva stage and at the prepupal and pupal stages were immersed in test...

  12. Herbicide Persistence in Seawater Simulation Experiments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Mercurio

    Full Text Available Herbicides are detected year-round in marine waters, including those of the World Heritage listed Great Barrier Reef (GBR. The few previous studies that have investigated herbicide persistence in seawater generally reported half-lives in the order of months, and several studies were too short to detect significant degradation. Here we investigated the persistence of eight herbicides commonly detected in the GBR or its catchments in standard OECD simulation flask experiments, but with the aim to mimic natural conditions similar to those found on the GBR (i.e., relatively low herbicide concentrations, typical temperatures, light and microbial communities. Very little degradation was recorded over the standard 60 d period (Experiment 1 so a second experiment was extended to 365 d. Half-lives of PSII herbicides ametryn, atrazine, diuron, hexazinone and tebuthiuron were consistently greater than a year, indicating high persistence. The detection of atrazine and diuron metabolites and longer persistence in mercuric chloride-treated seawater confirmed that biodegradation contributed to the breakdown of herbicides. The shortest half-life recorded was 88 d for growth-regulating herbicide 2,4-D at 31°C in the dark, while the fatty acid-inhibitor metolachlor exhibited a minimum half-life of 281 d. The presence of moderate light and elevated temperatures affected the persistence of most of the herbicides; however, the scale and direction of the differences were not predictable and were likely due to changes in microbial community composition. The persistence estimates here represent some of the first appropriate data for application in risk assessments for herbicide exposure in tropical marine systems. The long persistence of herbicides identified in the present study helps explain detection of herbicides in nearshore waters of the GBR year round. Little degradation of these herbicides would be expected during the wet season with runoff and associated

  13. Herbicide Persistence in Seawater Simulation Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercurio, Philip; Mueller, Jochen F.; Eaglesham, Geoff; Flores, Florita; Negri, Andrew P.

    2015-01-01

    Herbicides are detected year-round in marine waters, including those of the World Heritage listed Great Barrier Reef (GBR). The few previous studies that have investigated herbicide persistence in seawater generally reported half-lives in the order of months, and several studies were too short to detect significant degradation. Here we investigated the persistence of eight herbicides commonly detected in the GBR or its catchments in standard OECD simulation flask experiments, but with the aim to mimic natural conditions similar to those found on the GBR (i.e., relatively low herbicide concentrations, typical temperatures, light and microbial communities). Very little degradation was recorded over the standard 60 d period (Experiment 1) so a second experiment was extended to 365 d. Half-lives of PSII herbicides ametryn, atrazine, diuron, hexazinone and tebuthiuron were consistently greater than a year, indicating high persistence. The detection of atrazine and diuron metabolites and longer persistence in mercuric chloride-treated seawater confirmed that biodegradation contributed to the breakdown of herbicides. The shortest half-life recorded was 88 d for growth-regulating herbicide 2,4-D at 31°C in the dark, while the fatty acid-inhibitor metolachlor exhibited a minimum half-life of 281 d. The presence of moderate light and elevated temperatures affected the persistence of most of the herbicides; however, the scale and direction of the differences were not predictable and were likely due to changes in microbial community composition. The persistence estimates here represent some of the first appropriate data for application in risk assessments for herbicide exposure in tropical marine systems. The long persistence of herbicides identified in the present study helps explain detection of herbicides in nearshore waters of the GBR year round. Little degradation of these herbicides would be expected during the wet season with runoff and associated flood plumes

  14. Rate and Timing Effects of Growth Regulating Herbicides Applications on Grain Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor Growth and Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry E. Besançon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dicamba and 2,4-D are among the most common and inexpensive herbicides used to control broadleaf weeds. However, different studies have pointed the risk of crop injury and grain sorghum yield reduction with postemergence applications of 2,4-D. No research data on grain sorghum response to 2,4-D or dicamba exists in the Southeastern United States. Consequently, a study was conducted to investigate crop growth and yield response to 2,4-D (100, 220, and 330 g acid equivalent ha−1 and dicamba (280 g acid equivalent ha−1 applied on 20 to 65 cm tall sorghum. Greater stunting resulted from 2,4-D applied at 330 g acid equivalent ha−1 or below 45 cm tall sorghum whereas lodging prevailed with 2,4-D at 330 g acid equivalent ha−1 and dicamba applied beyond 35 cm tall crop. Regardless of local environmental conditions, 2,4-D applied up to 35 cm tall did not negatively impact grain yield. There was a trend for yields to be somewhat lower when 2,4-D was applied on 45 or 55 cm tall sorghum whereas application on 65 cm tall sorghum systematically decreased yields. More caution should be taken with dicamba since yield reduction has been reported as early as applications made on 35 cm tall sorghum for a potentially dicamba sensitive cultivar.

  15. Regulating gambling to prevent addiction: more necessary now than ever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chóliz, Mariano; Saiz-Ruiz, Jerónimo

    2016-06-15

    The American Psychiatric Association published the 5th Edition of DSM in May 2013, in which the gambling disorder is included within the category of addictive disorders -a long-standing and recurrent demand from the clinical, social and scientific fields. Nevertheless, the harmful effects of gambling have not been considered by the Government, which is the main area of addiction prevention.The present article is a proposal for the regulation of gambling by the Government through the different levels of the State (national, regional and even local), which has the ultimate goal of preventing gambling addiction. This proposal has been presented to the Chamber of Deputies of the Congress, as part of the Congress-Senate Joint Committee for the Study of Drug Problems. The proposed regulation is based on the evidence provided by scientific studies on the prevention of addiction.

  16. Photosensitized herbicidal action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zweig, A; Nachtigall, G W [American Cyanamid Co., Stamford, Conn.

    1975-12-01

    The herbicidal action produced by the colorless hydrocarbon fluoranthene sprayed on the leaves of growing plants did not occur when uv radiation was removed from the light to which the plants are exposed. If the uv component of the light under which the plants were grown was augmented, the herbicidal effect of fluoranthene was increased. The mechanism of this photodynamic action is discussed.

  17. Investigation of the herbicide glyphosate and the plant growth regulators chlormequat and mepiquat in cereals produced in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granby, Kit; Gabrielsen, Martin Vahl

    2001-01-01

    An LC-MS/ MS method for analysing glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) in cereals was developed. The method is based on extraction with water and detection of the ions from the fragmentation m/z 170 --> 88 (glyphosate) and m/z 112 --> 30 (AMPA), using electrospray interface in the pos......An LC-MS/ MS method for analysing glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) in cereals was developed. The method is based on extraction with water and detection of the ions from the fragmentation m/z 170 --> 88 (glyphosate) and m/z 112 --> 30 (AMPA), using electrospray interface....../kg for the 1998 harvest (n=49). Thus, the figures were well below the maximum residue limit (MRL) and no violations were observed. The plant growth regulators chlormequat and/or mepiquat were investigated in cereals from the Danish harvest of 1999 where 83% of the samples contained chlormequat (n=46) compared...... with 87% of the samples from the 1997 harvest (n=52). The average concentration of chlormequat in 1999 was 0.32 mg/kg compared with 0.23 mg/kg in 1997. At 2.9 mg/kg, one sample of wheat bran was exceeding the MRL of 2 mg/kg for wheat. The intakes of the pesticides through the diet of cereals were...

  18. Endogenous 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal in microalga Chlorella kessleri acts as a bioactive indicator of pollution with common herbicides and growth regulating factor of hormesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoljaric, Dubravka; Cipak, Ana; Horvatic, Janja; Andrisic, Luka; Waeg, Georg; Zarkovic, Neven; Jaganjac, Morana

    2011-10-01

    Oxidative stress, i.e. excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), leads to lipid peroxidation and to formation of reactive aldehydes (e.g. 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal; HNE), which act as second messengers of free radicals. It was previously shown that herbicides can induce ROS production in algal cells. In the current paper, the unicellular green microalga Chlorella kessleri was used to study the effect of two herbicides (S-metolachlor and terbuthylazine) and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) on oxidative stress induction, HNE formation, chlorophyll content and the cell growth. Production of HNE was detected in this study for the first time in the cells of unicellular green algae using the antibody specific for the HNE-histidine adducts revealing the HNE-histidine adducts even in untreated, control C. kessleri. Exposure of algal cells to herbicides and H(2)O(2) increased the ROS production, modifying production of HNE. Namely, 4h upon treatment the levels of HNE-histidine conjugates were below controls. However, their amount increased afterwards. The increase of HNE levels in algae was followed by their increased growth rate, as was previously described for human carcinoma cells. Hence, changes in the cellular HNE content upon herbicide treatment inducing lipid oxidative stress and alterations in cellular growth rate of C. kessleri resemble adaptation of malignant cells to the HNE treatment. Therefore, as an addition to the standard toxicity tests, the evaluation of HNE-protein adducts in C. kessleri might indicate environmental pollution with lipid peroxidation-inducing herbicides. Finally, C. kessleri might be a convenient experimental model to further study cellular hormetic adaptation to oxidative stress-derived aldehydes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Annual Herbicide Loadings

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Pesticides, Herbicides, Fungicides...etc, are used for a variety of purposes, including control of household, lawn, and garden pests; for control of mosquitoes and...

  20. Expanding the eco-evolutionary context of herbicide resistance research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neve, Paul; Busi, Roberto; Renton, Michael; Vila-Aiub, Martin M

    2014-09-01

    The potential for human-driven evolution in economically and environmentally important organisms in medicine, agriculture and conservation management is now widely recognised. The evolution of herbicide resistance in weeds is a classic example of rapid adaptation in the face of human-mediated selection. Management strategies that aim to slow or prevent the evolution of herbicide resistance must be informed by an understanding of the ecological and evolutionary factors that drive selection in weed populations. Here, we argue for a greater focus on the ultimate causes of selection for resistance in herbicide resistance studies. The emerging fields of eco-evolutionary dynamics and applied evolutionary biology offer a means to achieve this goal and to consider herbicide resistance in a broader and sometimes novel context. Four relevant research questions are presented, which examine (i) the impact of herbicide dose on selection for resistance, (ii) plant fitness in herbicide resistance studies, (iii) the efficacy of herbicide rotations and mixtures and (iv) the impacts of gene flow on resistance evolution and spread. In all cases, fundamental ecology and evolution have the potential to offer new insights into herbicide resistance evolution and management. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Effects of herbicides on fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solomon, Keith R.; Dalhoff, Kristoffer; Volz, David

    2013-01-01

    Herbicides are used to control weeds and are usually targeted to processes and target sites that are specific to plants. As a result, most herbicides are not acutely toxic to fish. Exceptions to this general rule are uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation and some herbicides that interfere...... with cell division. Chronic and sublethal effects have been studied for some herbicides, but fewer data are available for these effects than for acute effects. The sublethal effects of herbicides that have been studied include reproduction, stress, olfaction, and behavior. Although some of these responses......, and reproduction. As with all pesticides, herbicides may have indirect effects in fish. These effects are mediated by herbicide-induced changes in food webs or in the physical environment. Indirect effects can only occur if direct effects occur first and would be mediated by the killing of plants by herbicides...

  2. Regulations on the prevention of ionizing radiation hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The regulations are defined under the labor safety and health law and the provisions of the order for enforcing the law. The enterpriser shall try to reduce to the minimum doses of ionizing radiation received by workers. Ionizing radiation hereunder includes such rays as deutron, proton, beta, electron, neutron, gamma and X-ray. The enterpriser engaged in radiation business shall indicate by marks the area whose radiation dose may exceed 30 mili-rem per week by exterior radiation or radioactive materials in the air. Doses of the workers regularly engaged in radiation business in the controlled area shall not surpass the accumulative dose calculated by the formula D = 5(N-18), when D means limit of accumulative dose (unit rem) and N number of the age of the worker concerned. Doses of the workers entering into the controlled area on business shall not go over 1.5 rem for a year. The maximum permissible dose is 12 rem for the urgent work. Measures for prevention from exterior radiation are designated, including irradiation tubes, filter plates, signals, shelters and alarms, etc. Independent regular inspection, record, measurement and others are particularly essential. Prevention of contamination, emergent measures, appointment of the head of X or gamma rays business, measurement of working environment, health examination and others are stipulated respectively. (Okada, K.)

  3. The role of government and regulation in cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brawley, Otis W

    2017-08-01

    The world population is ageing and increasing in size. As a result, the numbers of people diagnosed with and dying of cancer are increasing. Cancer is also a growing problem in developing countries. Government, be it local, state, provincial, national, or even a union of nations, has clear roles in the control of cancer. It is widely appreciated that much of the research that has defined the causes and treatment of cancer was, and is, government funded. Less appreciated, the body of work about how to control cancer shows the importance of an environment that encourages individuals to adopt healthy behaviours, and government has a vitally important role. Through regulation, education, and support programmes, governments can create an environment in which tobacco use is reduced and citizens maintain good levels of physical activity, healthy bodyweight, and good nutrition. Cancer prevention and the creation of a culture of health is an essential mission of government, beyond that of the traditional health-focused departments such as health ministries; it is in the domain of governmental agencies involved in environmental protection, occupational safety, and transportation. Cancer prevention and health promotion are also in the realm of the zoning board, the board of education, and the board of health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Preventive Command and Control Regulation: A Case Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Junquera

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study is to evaluate new preventive command-and-control environmental regulation’s competitive effects on automobile manufacturers and their suppliers. The methodology that we have used is a case analysis, and its main aim is to study an unfamiliar situation. Therefore, we have chosen cases from each of the groups: two suppliers and one manufacturer. The new regulation obliges automobile companies to deeply modify their process technologies and their relationships with their suppliers (toughening requirements and strengthening long-term relationships and to require their workers to train in environmental matters. Complying with regulation by suppliers will be possible if product and process designs are modified. However, only organisational actions, which include workers’ training in environmental and quality matters and activities to recover value in factories, are capable to achieve it. In any case, these factories have already been affected by trade-offs between environmental and other more classic manufacturing objectives, especially quality.

  5. Herbicide options for hardwood management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew W. Ezell; A. Brady Self

    2016-01-01

    The use of herbicides in hardwood management presents special problems in that many of the most effective herbicides are either designed to control hardwoods or the product is not labeled for such applications. Numerous studies involving herbicide application in hardwoods have been completed at Mississippi State University. This paper is a compilation of results from...

  6. Enterobacter sp. I-3, a bio-herbicide inhibits gibberellins biosynthetic pathway and regulates abscisic acid and amino acids synthesis to control plant growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Ramalingam; Park, Jae-Man; Lee, In-Jung

    2016-12-01

    Very few bacterial species were identified as bio-herbicides for weed control. The present research was focused to elucidate the plant growth retardant properties of Enterobacter sp. I-3 during their interaction by determining the changes in endogenous photosynthetic pigments, plant hormones and amino acids. The two bacterial isolates I-4-5 and I-3 were used to select the superior bacterium for controlling weed seeds (Echinochloa crus-galli L. and Portulaca oleracea L.) germination. The post-inoculation of I-3 (Enterobacter sp. I-3) significantly inhibited the weeds seed germination than their controls. The mechanism of bacterium induced plant growth reduction was identified in lettuce treated with I-3 bacterium and compared their effects with known chemical herbicide, trinexapac-ethyl (TE). The treatment of I-3 and TE showed a significant inhibitory effect on shoot length, leaf number, leaf length, leaf width, shoot weight, root weight and chlorophyll content in lettuce seedlings. The endogenous gibberellins (GAs) and abscisic acid (ABA) analysis showed that Enterobacter sp. I-3 treated plants had lower levels of GAs (GA 12 , GA 19 , GA 20 and GA 8 ) and GAs/ABA ratio and then, the higher level of ABA when compared to their controls. Indeed, the individual amino acids ie., aspartic acid, glutamic acid, glycine, threonine, alanine, serine, leucine, isoleucine and tyrosine were declined in TE and I-3 exposed plants. Our results suggest that the utilization of Enterobacter sp. I-3 inhibits the GAs pathway and amino acids synthesis in weeds to control their growth can be an alternative to chemical herbicides. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. selective herbicide glyphosate

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aghomotsegin

    2016-05-04

    May 4, 2016 ... concentrations of the test chemical at 0.625, 1.25, 2.5, 5 and 10 mg/L, respectively. The percentage growth rate ... production, processing, storage, transport or marketing of ... Herbicides commonly known as weed-killers are.

  8. CADDIS Volume 2. Sources, Stressors and Responses: Herbicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction to the herbicides module, when to list herbicides as a candidate cause, ways to measure herbicides, simple and detailed conceptual diagrams for herbicides, herbicides module references and literature reviews.

  9. Dicotyledon Weed Quantification Algorithm for Selective Herbicide Application in Maize Crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Morten Stigaard; Nyholm Jørgensen, Rasmus; Midtiby, Henrik Skov

    2016-01-01

    The stricter legislation within the European Union for the regulation of herbicides that are prone to leaching causes a greater economic burden on the agricultural industry through taxation. Owing to the increased economic burden, research in reducing herbicide usage has been prompted. High-resol...

  10. Herbicides in environmental pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, M.J.; Haq, A.; Maqbool, U.

    1997-01-01

    Herbicide effectiveness on the most pernicious weeds including cyperus rotundus may be limited because spray droplets are not well retained or because penetration and/or translocation is restricted. As a result, chemical pollute the environment and is hazardous to the human health. Monitoring studies ad undertaken to check that the flate and environmental effects of herbicides under field condition are consistent with prediction. Studies on /sup 14/-glyphosate in Cyperus rotundus using radiotracer methods indicated that out of five formulations studies formulation No.3 was the best from penetration point of view of the chemical whereas formulation No. 4 with the high dose showed effective retention and uniform translocation of the chemical after five days of the treatment. Cuticular penetration and translocation of glyphosate in the formulations with or without surfactants have also been studied in C. rotundus. It is also concluded that synperonic surfactants, diesel oil or glycerol did not influence the translocation of glyphosate within the weed. The translocation mainly occurred down swards and accumulated in the plant parts located below the treated zone. (author)

  11. Relationship between weed dormancy and herbicide rotations: implications in resistance evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmency, Henri; Colbach, Nathalie; Le Corre, Valérie

    2017-10-01

    It is suggested that selection for late germinating seed cohorts is significantly associated with herbicide resistance in some cropping systems. In turn, it is conceivable that rotating herbicide modes of action selects for populations with mutations for increased secondary dormancy, thus partially overcoming the delaying effect of rotation on resistance evolution. Modified seed dormancy could affect management strategies - like herbicide rotation - that are used to prevent or control herbicide resistance. Here, we review the literature for data on seed dormancy and germination dynamics of herbicide-resistant versus susceptible plants. Few studies use plant material with similar genetic backgrounds, so there are few really comparative data. Increased dormancy and delayed germination may co-occur with resistance to ACCase inhibitors, but there is no clear-cut link with resistance to other herbicide classes. Population shifts are due in part to pleiotropic effects of the resistance genes, but interaction with the cropping system is also possible. We provide an example of a model simulation that accounts for genetic diversity in the dormancy trait, and subsequent consequences for various cropping systems. We strongly recommend adding more accurate and detailed mechanistic modelling to the current tools used today to predict the efficiency of prevention and management of herbicide resistance. These models should be validated through long-term experimental designs including mono-herbicide versus chemical rotation in the field. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Past and future regulation to prevent a systemic financial crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Sarcinelli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is a revised and updated version of that published on the March 2010 issues of Moneta e Credito. It was there claimed that, up to now, the G20 has supervised the process to revitalize the real economy affected by the Great Recession through fiscal stimuli and a very easy monetary policy, and to rescue the battered financial system by injecting capital into giant banks and firms. The G20 is now turning its attention to financial regulation, with the FSB as its main operational arm. The ideas that are being proposed stress the need for disincentives toward too much risk taking (more capital, higher liquidity, limits to remunerations and bonuses, etc., particularly by big and complex financial institutions that are likely to entail systemic risks. The paper maintains that, as the disincentive approach is insufficient to deter financial managers looking for power, some kind of segmentation needs to be introduced, as suggested by Paul Volcker.

  13. Natural compounds as next-generation herbicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayan, Franck E; Duke, Stephen O

    2014-11-01

    Herbicides with new modes of action (MOAs) are badly needed due to the rapidly evolving resistance to commercial herbicides, but a new MOA has not been introduced in over 20 years. The greatest pest management challenge for organic agriculture is the lack of effective natural product herbicides. The structural diversity and evolved biological activity of natural phytotoxins offer opportunities for the development of both directly used natural compounds and synthetic herbicides with new target sites based on the structures of natural phytotoxins. Natural phytotoxins are also a source for the discovery of new herbicide target sites that can serve as the focus of traditional herbicide discovery efforts. There are many examples of strong natural phytotoxins with MOAs other than those used by commercial herbicides, which indicates that there are molecular targets of herbicides that can be added to the current repertoire of commercial herbicide MOAs. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  14. Cloud based, Open Source Software Application for Mitigating Herbicide Drift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraswat, D.; Scott, B.

    2014-12-01

    The spread of herbicide resistant weeds has resulted in the need for clearly marked fields. In response to this need, the University of Arkansas Cooperative Extension Service launched a program named Flag the Technology in 2011. This program uses color-coded flags as a visual alert of the herbicide trait technology within a farm field. The flag based program also serves to help avoid herbicide misapplication and prevent herbicide drift damage between fields with differing crop technologies. This program has been endorsed by Southern Weed Science Society of America and is attracting interest from across the USA, Canada, and Australia. However, flags have risk of misplacement or disappearance due to mischief or severe windstorms/thunderstorms, respectively. This presentation will discuss the design and development of a cloud-based, free application utilizing open-source technologies, called Flag the Technology Cloud (FTTCloud), for allowing agricultural stakeholders to color code their farm fields for indicating herbicide resistant technologies. The developed software utilizes modern web development practices, widely used design technologies, and basic geographic information system (GIS) based interactive interfaces for representing, color-coding, searching, and visualizing fields. This program has also been made compatible for a wider usability on different size devices- smartphones, tablets, desktops and laptops.

  15. Regulations on the prevention of ionizing radiation hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    In accordance with the Law on Health and Safety at Work (Law No. 57, 1972) the regulations require any employer who runs an undertaking performing radiation-related works (hereinafter called ''the employer'') to protect his employees from ionizing radiation hazards. Chapter 1 (general provisions) gives the definitions of such technical terms as the ionizing radiations, the radioactive substances and the radiation-related works. Chapter 2 defines the controlled areas and the tolerance doses of radiation exposures. The controlled areas mean the areas within which the employer is required: to control the radiation doses; to prohibit access thereto of anyone other than who are necessary there; not to cause any person who is engaged there in the radiation-related works to be exposed to the radiation dose more than 3 rem within 3 months and any other person who has access regularly thereto to be exposed to more than 1.5 rem within a year; and to build special rooms for containing prescribed radiation-related appliances or apparatus. Chapter 4 requires the employer to build special working rooms for the treatment of such radioactive substances that are not sealed up tightly, and also prescribes the requirements concerning the construction of such rooms. (Matsushima, A.)

  16. Concerns over use of glyphosate-based herbicides and risks associated with exposures: a consensus statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, John Peterson; Antoniou, Michael N; Blumberg, Bruce; Carroll, Lynn; Colborn, Theo; Everett, Lorne G; Hansen, Michael; Landrigan, Philip J; Lanphear, Bruce P; Mesnage, Robin; Vandenberg, Laura N; Vom Saal, Frederick S; Welshons, Wade V; Benbrook, Charles M

    2016-02-17

    The broad-spectrum herbicide glyphosate (common trade name "Roundup") was first sold to farmers in 1974. Since the late 1970s, the volume of glyphosate-based herbicides (GBHs) applied has increased approximately 100-fold. Further increases in the volume applied are likely due to more and higher rates of application in response to the widespread emergence of glyphosate-resistant weeds and new, pre-harvest, dessicant use patterns. GBHs were developed to replace or reduce reliance on herbicides causing well-documented problems associated with drift and crop damage, slipping efficacy, and human health risks. Initial industry toxicity testing suggested that GBHs posed relatively low risks to non-target species, including mammals, leading regulatory authorities worldwide to set high acceptable exposure limits. To accommodate changes in GBH use patterns associated with genetically engineered, herbicide-tolerant crops, regulators have dramatically increased tolerance levels in maize, oilseed (soybeans and canola), and alfalfa crops and related livestock feeds. Animal and epidemiology studies published in the last decade, however, point to the need for a fresh look at glyphosate toxicity. Furthermore, the World Health Organization's International Agency for Research on Cancer recently concluded that glyphosate is "probably carcinogenic to humans." In response to changing GBH use patterns and advances in scientific understanding of their potential hazards, we have produced a Statement of Concern drawing on emerging science relevant to the safety of GBHs. Our Statement of Concern considers current published literature describing GBH uses, mechanisms of action, toxicity in laboratory animals, and epidemiological studies. It also examines the derivation of current human safety standards. We conclude that: (1) GBHs are the most heavily applied herbicide in the world and usage continues to rise; (2) Worldwide, GBHs often contaminate drinking water sources, precipitation, and air

  17. Degradation of Herbicides in the Tropical Marine Environment: Influence of Light and Sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercurio, Philip; Mueller, Jochen F; Eaglesham, Geoff; O'Brien, Jake; Flores, Florita; Negri, Andrew P

    2016-01-01

    Widespread contamination of nearshore marine systems, including the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) lagoon, with agricultural herbicides has long been recognised. The fate of these contaminants in the marine environment is poorly understood but the detection of photosystem II (PSII) herbicides in the GBR year-round suggests very slow degradation rates. Here, we evaluated the persistence of a range of commonly detected herbicides in marine water under field-relevant concentrations and conditions. Twelve-month degradation experiments were conducted in large open tanks, under different light scenarios and in the presence and absence of natural sediments. All PSII herbicides were persistent under control conditions (dark, no sediments) with half-lives of 300 d for atrazine, 499 d diuron, 1994 d hexazinone, 1766 d tebuthiuron, while the non-PSII herbicides were less persistent at 147 d for metolachlor and 59 d for 2,4-D. The degradation of herbicides was 2-10 fold more rapid in the presence of a diurnal light cycle and coastal sediments; apart from 2,4-D which degraded more slowly in the presence of light. Despite the more rapid degradation observed for most herbicides in the presence of light and sediments, the half-lives remained > 100 d for the PS II herbicides. The effects of light and sediments on herbicide persistence were likely due to their influence on microbial community composition and its ability to utilise the herbicides as a carbon source. These results help explain the year-round presence of PSII herbicides in marine systems, including the GBR, but more research on the transport, degradation and toxicity on a wider range of pesticides and their transformation products is needed to improve their regulation in sensitive environments.

  18. 34 CFR 86.1 - What is the purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse... ALCOHOL ABUSE PREVENTION General § 86.1 What is the purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations? The purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations is to implement section 22 of...

  19. Self-Regulation, Cooperative Learning, and Academic Self-Efficacy: Interactions to Prevent School Failure

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Río, Francisco Javier; Cecchini Estrada, José Antonio; Méndez Giménez, Antonio; Prieto Saborit, José Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Learning to learn and learning to cooperate are two important goals for individuals. Moreover, self regulation has been identified as fundamental to prevent school failure. The goal of the present study was to assess the interactions between self-regulated learning, cooperative learning and academic self-efficacy in secondary education students experiencing cooperative learning as the main pedagogical approach for at least one school year. 2.513 secondary education students (1.308 males, 1.20...

  20. Spot Spraying Reduces Herbicide Concentrations in Runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melland, Alice R; Silburn, D Mark; McHugh, Allen D; Fillols, Emilie; Rojas-Ponce, Samuel; Baillie, Craig; Lewis, Stephen

    2016-05-25

    Rainfall simulator trials were conducted on sugar cane paddocks across dry-tropical and subtropical Queensland, Australia, to examine the potential for spot spraying to reduce herbicide losses in runoff. Recommended rates of the herbicides glyphosate, 2,4-D, fluoroxypyr, atrazine, and diuron were sprayed onto 0, 20, 40, 50, 70, or 100% of the area of runoff plots. Simulated rainfall was applied 2 days after spraying to induce runoff at one plant cane and three ratoon crop sites. Over 50% of all herbicides were transported in the dissolved phase of runoff, regardless of the herbicide's sediment-water partition coefficient. For most sites and herbicides, runoff herbicide concentrations decreased with decreasing spray coverage and with decreasing herbicide load in the soil and cane residues. Importantly, sites with higher infiltration prior to runoff and lower total runoff had lower runoff herbicide concentrations.

  1. The accident prevention regulation 'Thermal Power Stations' and its effects in practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albert, O.

    1983-01-01

    The origin of the accident prevention regulation - ''Thermal Power Stations'' is attributable mainly to two tragic accidents. It has made organizational changes and interventions in the operational process necessary in thermal power stations. Emphasis is laid upon the consistent issue of written permits-to-work on plant components carrying a heating medium and operating under pressure and on written operating licences for the operation of boilers. The paper describes additional ways in which regulation influences the daily practices of the power station operator. Brief references is made to the draft of the revised regulation. (orig./HP) [de

  2. CSN competence in the new regulations on risk prevention at work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendez, V. E.

    1999-01-01

    This article gives a summary of the paper as submitted by the authoress at the seminar organized by the Spanish Radiological Protection Society for analyzing the implications of the regulations on risk prevention at work in medical surveillance and radiological protection of radiation workers occupationally exposed to ionizing radiations. (Author)

  3. 40 CFR Appendix L to Part 51 - Example Regulations for Prevention of Air Pollution Emergency Episodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Example Regulations for Prevention of Air Pollution Emergency Episodes L Appendix L to Part 51 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Pt. 51, App. L Appendix L to Par...

  4. Natural compounds with herbicidal activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Fracchiolla

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Research about phytotoxic activity of natural compounds could lead both to find new herbicidal active ingredients and to plan environmental friendly weed control strategies. Particularly, living organisms could be a source of compounds that are impossible, for their complexity, to synthesize artificially. More over, they could have alternative sites of action respect to the known chemical herbicides and, due to their origin, they should be more environmental safe. Many living organism, such as bacteria, fungi, insects, lichens and plants, are able to produce bioactive compounds. They generally are secondary metabolites or simply waste molecules. In this paper we make a review about these compounds, highlighting potential and constraints.

  5. Natural compounds with herbicidal activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Montemurro

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Research about phytotoxic activity of natural compounds could lead both to find new herbicidal active ingredients and to plan environmental friendly weed control strategies. Particularly, living organisms could be a source of compounds that are impossible, for their complexity, to synthesize artificially. More over, they could have alternative sites of action respect to the known chemical herbicides and, due to their origin, they should be more environmental safe. Many living organism, such as bacteria, fungi, insects, lichens and plants, are able to produce bioactive compounds. They generally are secondary metabolites or simply waste molecules. In this paper we make a review about these compounds, highlighting potential and constraints.

  6. Comparisons of Herbicide Treated and Cultivated Herbicide-Resistant Corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Arnold Bruns

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Four glyphosate resistant corn (Zea mays L. hybrids, a glufosinate-ammonium resistant hybrid, and a conventional atrazine resistant hybrid gown at Stoneville, MS in 2005, 2006, and 2007 with furrow irrigation were treated with their respective herbicides and their growth, yield, and mycotoxin incidence were compared with untreated cultivated plots. Leaf area index (LAI and dry matter accumulation (DMA were collected on a weekly basis beginning at growth stage V3 and terminating at anthesis. Crop growth rates (CRGs and relative growth rates (RGRs were calculated. Plots were later harvested, yield and yield component data collected, and kernel samples analyzed for aflatoxin and fumonisin. Leaf area index, DMA, CRG, and RGR were not different among the herbicide treated plots and from those that were cultivated. Curves for LAI and DMA were similar to those previously reported. Aflatoxin and fumonisin were relatively low in all plots. Herbicide application or the lack thereof had no negative impact on the incidence of kernel contamination by these two mycotoxins. Herbicides, especially glyphosate on resistant hybrids, have no negative effects on corn yields or kernel quality in corn produced in a humid subtropical environment.

  7. Adolescent neurocognitive development, self-regulation, and school-based drug use prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhrel, Pallav; Herzog, Thaddeus A; Black, David S; Zaman, Adnin; Riggs, Nathaniel R; Sussman, Steve

    2013-06-01

    Adolescence is marked by several key development-related changes, including neurocognitive changes. Cognitive abilities associated with self-regulation are not fully developed until late adolescence or early adulthood whereas tendencies to take risks and seek thrilling and novel experience seem to increase significantly throughout this phase, resulting in a discrepancy between increased susceptibility to poor regulation and lower ability to exercise self-control. Increased vulnerability to drug use initiation, maintenance, and dependence during adolescence may be explained based on this imbalance in the self-regulation system. In this paper, we highlight the relevance of schools as a setting for delivering adolescent drug use prevention programs that are based on recent findings from neuroscience concerning adolescent brain development. We discuss evidence from school-based as well as laboratory research that suggests that suitable training may improve adolescents' executive brain functions that underlie self-regulation abilities and, as a result, help prevent drug use and abuse. We note that considerable further research is needed in order (1) to determine that self-regulation training has effects at the neurocognitive level and (2) to effectively incorporate self-regulation training based on neuropsychological models into school-based programming.

  8. Biotechnology: herbicide-resistant crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transgenic, herbicide-resistant (HR) crops are planted on about 80% of the land covered by transgenic crops. More than 90% of HR crios are glyphosate-resistant (GR) crops, the others being resistant to glufosinate. The wide-scale adoption of HR crops, largely for economic reasons, has been the mos...

  9. Corporate Social Responsibility or Government Regulation? Evidence on Oil Spill Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jedrzej G. Frynas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Major oil spills normally occur from oil pipelines and oil tankers that are under operational control of companies, namely, oil companies and tanker owners. There are two generic responses for changing the behavior of companies with regard to oil spill prevention: mandatory government regulation or voluntary initiatives often pursued under the banner of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR. Here we investigate to what extent voluntary CSR initiatives can be effective in oil spill prevention. A global perspective on voluntary mechanisms is taken by looking at the progress of 20 oil and gas firms from around the world toward oil spill prevention, using the companies' 2010 sustainability reports for self-reported oil spill information. The analysis includes ten oil companies from OECD countries (including Exxon and Shell, among others and 10 oil companies from non-OECD countries (including Brazil's Petrobras and Indian Oil, among others. The study finds that oil spill prevention has generally improved over recent decades. Government regulation played a significant part in these improvements whereas it is less clear to what extent CSR played a significant part in these improvements. Some of CSR's key limitations are highlighted. It is not suggested that CSR should be abandoned; however, new hybrid forms of regulation that combine voluntary and mandatory elements are advocated.

  10. Rapid transporter regulation prevents substrate flow traffic jams in boron transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotta, Naoyuki; Duncan, Susan; Tanaka, Mayuki; Sato, Takafumi

    2017-01-01

    Nutrient uptake by roots often involves substrate-dependent regulated nutrient transporters. For robust uptake, the system requires a regulatory circuit within cells and a collective, coordinated behaviour across the tissue. A paradigm for such systems is boron uptake, known for its directional transport and homeostasis, as boron is essential for plant growth but toxic at high concentrations. In Arabidopsis thaliana, boron uptake occurs via diffusion facilitators (NIPs) and exporters (BORs), each presenting distinct polarity. Intriguingly, although boron soil concentrations are homogenous and stable, both transporters manifest strikingly swift boron-dependent regulation. Through mathematical modelling, we demonstrate that slower regulation of these transporters leads to physiologically detrimental oscillatory behaviour. Cells become periodically exposed to potentially cytotoxic boron levels, and nutrient throughput to the xylem becomes hampered. We conclude that, while maintaining homeostasis, swift transporter regulation within a polarised tissue context is critical to prevent intrinsic traffic-jam like behaviour of nutrient flow. PMID:28870285

  11. Designing behavioral self-regulation application for preventive personal mental healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari Hirano

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Most of computerized cognitive behavioral therapy targeted restoration and few have targeted primary prevention. The purpose of this study is to obtain the knowledge for further development on preventive mental healthcare application. We developed a personal mental healthcare application which aimed to give users the chance to manage their mental health by self-monitoring and regulating their behavior. Through the 30-day field trial, the results showed improvement of mood score through conducting of suggested action, and the depressive mood of the participants was significantly decreased after the trial. The possibility of application and further problem was confirmed.

  12. Phytotoxicity of chiral herbicide bromacil: Enantioselectivity of photosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Zunwei; Zou, Yuqin; Wang, Jia; Li, Meichao; Wen, Yuezhong

    2016-01-01

    With the wide application of chiral herbicides and the frequent detection of photosystem II (PSII) herbicides, it is of great importance to assess the direct effects of PSII herbicides on photosynthesis in an enantiomeric level. In the present study, the enantioselective phytotoxicity of bromacil (BRO), typical photosynthesis inhibition herbicide, on Arabidopsis thaliana was investigated. The results showed that S-BRO exhibited a greater inhibition of electron transmission in photosystem I (PSI) of A. thaliana than R-BRO by inhibiting the transcription of fnr 1. S-BRO also changed the chlorophyll fluorescence parameters Y (II), Y (NO), and Y (NPQ) to a greater extent than R-Bro. Transcription of genes psbO2, Lhcb3 and Lhcb6 was down-regulated in an enantioselective rhythm and S-BRO caused more serious influence, indicating that S-BRO did worse damage to the photosystem II (PSII) of A. thaliana than R-BRO. This study suggested that S-BRO disturbed the photosynthesis of plants to a larger extent than R-BRO and provided a new sight to evaluate the phytotoxicity of chiral herbicides. - Highlights: • It is necessary to assess the direct effects of PSII herbicides on photosynthesis. • Phytotoxicity of bromacil is investigated in an enantiomeric level. • Bromacil disturbed enantioselectively the photosystem II of Arabidopsis thaliana. • S-bromacil caused severer damage to photosynthesis of Arabidopsis than R-bromacil. • Photosynthesis should be considered for phytotoxicity assessment of herbicides.

  13. Phytotoxicity of chiral herbicide bromacil: Enantioselectivity of photosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Zunwei; Zou, Yuqin; Wang, Jia [MOE Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation & Ecosystem Health, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Li, Meichao [Research Center of Analysis and Measurement, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310032 (China); Wen, Yuezhong, E-mail: wenyuezhong@zju.edu.cn [MOE Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation & Ecosystem Health, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China)

    2016-04-01

    With the wide application of chiral herbicides and the frequent detection of photosystem II (PSII) herbicides, it is of great importance to assess the direct effects of PSII herbicides on photosynthesis in an enantiomeric level. In the present study, the enantioselective phytotoxicity of bromacil (BRO), typical photosynthesis inhibition herbicide, on Arabidopsis thaliana was investigated. The results showed that S-BRO exhibited a greater inhibition of electron transmission in photosystem I (PSI) of A. thaliana than R-BRO by inhibiting the transcription of fnr 1. S-BRO also changed the chlorophyll fluorescence parameters Y (II), Y (NO), and Y (NPQ) to a greater extent than R-Bro. Transcription of genes psbO2, Lhcb3 and Lhcb6 was down-regulated in an enantioselective rhythm and S-BRO caused more serious influence, indicating that S-BRO did worse damage to the photosystem II (PSII) of A. thaliana than R-BRO. This study suggested that S-BRO disturbed the photosynthesis of plants to a larger extent than R-BRO and provided a new sight to evaluate the phytotoxicity of chiral herbicides. - Highlights: • It is necessary to assess the direct effects of PSII herbicides on photosynthesis. • Phytotoxicity of bromacil is investigated in an enantiomeric level. • Bromacil disturbed enantioselectively the photosystem II of Arabidopsis thaliana. • S-bromacil caused severer damage to photosynthesis of Arabidopsis than R-bromacil. • Photosynthesis should be considered for phytotoxicity assessment of herbicides.

  14. Comparisons of Herbicide Treated and Cultivated Herbicide-Resistant Corn

    OpenAIRE

    H. Arnold Bruns; Hamed K. Abbas

    2010-01-01

    Four glyphosate resistant corn (Zea mays L.) hybrids, a glufosinate-ammonium resistant hybrid, and a conventional atrazine resistant hybrid gown at Stoneville, MS in 2005, 2006, and 2007 with furrow irrigation were treated with their respective herbicides and their growth, yield, and mycotoxin incidence were compared with untreated cultivated plots. Leaf area index (LAI) and dry matter accumulation (DMA) were collected on a weekly basis beginning at growth stage V3 and terminating at anthesi...

  15. [Regulation of food advertising on television for the prevention of childhood obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Catalina González; Samur, Eduardo Atalah

    2011-09-01

    Obesity is a serious global epidemic and the prevention strategies implemented have been insufficient. Numerous environmental factors have been associated with risk of obesity and their full consideration in prevention policies is important. The connection between food advertising on television and childhood obesity has been demonstrated. The large number of advertisements for unhealthy foods targeted at children through television and its possible impact on health has led some countries to legislate on this matter. However, a conceptual framework of reference enabling legislation must be internationally defined in order to achieve a real impact in preventing childhood obesity. This paper reviews scientific evidence on the relationship between food advertising and childhood obesity as a basis for developing public policies to regulate food marketing on television.

  16. Selectivity and stability of vegetation-applied herbicides in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Barakova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. An experiment was carried out during 2013 – 2015 in the experimental field of the Field Crops Institute, Chirpan, with two cotton cultivars − Helius and Darmi (Gossypium hirsutum L.. Herbicides: Goal 2 E, oxyfluorfen (80 ml/da; Linuron 45 SC, linuron (200 ml/da; Wing-P, pendimethalin + dimethenamid (400 ml/da; Merlin 750 WG, isoxaflutol (5 g/da; Bazagran 480 SL, bentazone (150 ml/da were investigated. They were treated separately or combined with growth regulator Amalgerol (500 ml/da or foliar fertilizer Lactofol O (500 ml/da in the budding stage of the cotton. It was established that selectivity is the lowest in the two cotton cultivars with herbicides Linuron 45 CK and Merlin 750 WG. The purpose of this investigation was to establish the selectivity and stability of some herbicides and their tank mixtures on the cotton by influence of different meteorological conditions. It has been found that the highest phytotoxicity on cotton is given the vegetation-applied herbicides Merlin and Linuron. Foliar fertilizer Laktofol O reduces phytotoxicity of herbicides Goal, Wing, Merlin and Bazagran in two cotton cultivars. Herbicides Wing and Bazagran have excellent selectivity for the two cotton cultivars – Helius and Darmi. The highest yield was obtained by vegetation treatment with herbicide Bazagran, followed by herbicides Wing and Goal. Tank mixtures of Goal, Bazagran and Wing with Laktofol, followed by those with Amalgerol are technologically the most valuable. They combine high yield with high stability over the years. Аlone application of herbicides Linuron and Merlin and their tank mixtures with Amalgerol and Laktofol have low estimate.

  17. Microevolution of ALS inhibitor herbicide resistance in loose silky bentgrass (Apera spica-venti)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babineau, Marielle

    , the ALS resistant biotypes have a fitness advantage over the susceptible biotype in time to germination and time to flowering and seed production growth stages. This study increased the understanding of the spatial, phenotypic, genetic and ecological processes and consequences in ALS herbicide resistance......-neighborhood experiments were conducted with ALS resistant and susceptible populations with a randomized genetic background, vegetative and reproductive growth stages were compared. The results show a large variation in the response of neighboring populations to ALS herbicide. Multiple resistance is observed between ALS...... from known metabolic herbicide resistance pathways, such as cytochrome P450s, ABC-transporters, UDP-glycosyltransferase and glutathione S-transferase, are identified and quantified. Different gene families are up-regulated at different times after herbicide treatment. In low competition conditions...

  18. Sensor-based assessment of herbicide effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Streibig, Jens Carl; Rasmussen, Jesper; Andújar, D.

    2014-01-01

    Non-destructive assessment of herbicide effects may be able to support integrated weed management. To test whether effects of herbicides on canopy variables could be detected by sensors, two crops were used as models and treated with herbicides at BBCH 20 using a logarithmic sprayer. Twelve days...... after spraying at BBCH 25 and 42 days after sowing, nine sensor systems scanned a spring barley and an oilseed rape field experiment sown at different densities and sprayed with increasing field rates of glyphosate and tribenuron-methyl. The objective was to compare ED50s for crops and weeds derived...... by the different sensors in relation to crop density and herbicides. Although sensors were not directly developed to detect herbicide symptoms, they all detected changes in canopy colours or height and crop density. Generally ED50s showed the same pattern in response to crop density within herbicide...

  19. Self-Regulation, Cooperative Learning, and Academic Self-Efficacy: Interactions to Prevent School Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Rio, Javier; Cecchini, Jose A; Méndez-Gimenez, Antonio; Mendez-Alonso, David; Prieto, Jose A

    2017-01-01

    Learning to learn and learning to cooperate are two important goals for individuals. Moreover, self regulation has been identified as fundamental to prevent school failure. The goal of the present study was to assess the interactions between self-regulated learning, cooperative learning and academic self-efficacy in secondary education students experiencing cooperative learning as the main pedagogical approach for at least one school year. 2.513 secondary education students (1.308 males, 1.205 females), 12-17 years old ( M = 13.85, SD = 1.29), enrolled in 17 different schools belonging to the National Network of Schools on Cooperative Learning in Spain agreed to participate. They all had experienced this pedagogical approach a minimum of one school year. Participants were asked to complete the cooperative learning questionnaire, the strategies to control the study questionnaire and the global academic self-efficacy questionnaire. Participants were grouped based on their perceptions on cooperative learning and self-regulated learning in their classes. A combination of hierarchical and κ -means cluster analyses was used. Results revealed a four-cluster solution: cluster one included students with low levels of cooperative learning, self-regulated learning and academic self-efficacy, cluster two included students with high levels of cooperative learning, self-regulated learning and academic self-efficacy, cluster three included students with high levels of cooperative learning, low levels of self-regulated learning and intermediate-low levels of academic self-efficacy, and, finally, cluster four included students with high levels of self-regulated learning, low levels of cooperative learning, and intermediate-high levels of academic self-efficacy. Self-regulated learning was found more influential than cooperative learning on students' academic self-efficacy. In cooperative learning contexts students interact through different types of regulations: self, co, and

  20. Self-Regulation, Cooperative Learning, and Academic Self-Efficacy: Interactions to Prevent School Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Rio, Javier; Cecchini, Jose A.; Méndez-Gimenez, Antonio; Mendez-Alonso, David; Prieto, Jose A.

    2017-01-01

    Learning to learn and learning to cooperate are two important goals for individuals. Moreover, self regulation has been identified as fundamental to prevent school failure. The goal of the present study was to assess the interactions between self-regulated learning, cooperative learning and academic self-efficacy in secondary education students experiencing cooperative learning as the main pedagogical approach for at least one school year. 2.513 secondary education students (1.308 males, 1.205 females), 12–17 years old (M = 13.85, SD = 1.29), enrolled in 17 different schools belonging to the National Network of Schools on Cooperative Learning in Spain agreed to participate. They all had experienced this pedagogical approach a minimum of one school year. Participants were asked to complete the cooperative learning questionnaire, the strategies to control the study questionnaire and the global academic self-efficacy questionnaire. Participants were grouped based on their perceptions on cooperative learning and self-regulated learning in their classes. A combination of hierarchical and κ-means cluster analyses was used. Results revealed a four-cluster solution: cluster one included students with low levels of cooperative learning, self-regulated learning and academic self-efficacy, cluster two included students with high levels of cooperative learning, self-regulated learning and academic self-efficacy, cluster three included students with high levels of cooperative learning, low levels of self-regulated learning and intermediate-low levels of academic self-efficacy, and, finally, cluster four included students with high levels of self-regulated learning, low levels of cooperative learning, and intermediate-high levels of academic self-efficacy. Self-regulated learning was found more influential than cooperative learning on students’ academic self-efficacy. In cooperative learning contexts students interact through different types of regulations: self, co, and

  1. Sorption behaviour of herbicides in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luchini, L.C.; Wiendl, F.M.; Ruegg, E.F.; Instituto Biologico, Sao Paulo

    1988-01-01

    Environmental contamination by herbicides is related with the sorption phenomenon of these compounds in the soils. The behaviour of paraquat, 2,4-D and diuron was studied in soils with different physico-chemical properties, through the Freundlich adsorption and desorption isotherms, using 14 C-radiolabeled herbicides. Results of the range of the adsorption-desorption of each herbicide was related mainly with the chemical characteristics of these compounds. (author) [pt

  2. Delivery of calibration workshops covering herbicide application equipment : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-31

    Proper herbicide sprayer set-up and calibration are critical to the success of the Oklahoma Department of Transportation (ODOT) herbicide program. Sprayer system set-up and calibration training is provided in annual continuing education herbicide wor...

  3. CADDIS Volume 2. Sources, Stressors and Responses: Herbicides - Detailed Conceptual Diagram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction to the herbicides module, when to list herbicides as a candidate cause, ways to measure herbicides, simple and detailed conceptual diagrams for herbicides, herbicides module references and literature reviews.

  4. CADDIS Volume 2. Sources, Stressors and Responses: Herbicides - Simple Conceptual Diagram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction to the herbicides module, when to list herbicides as a candidate cause, ways to measure herbicides, simple and detailed conceptual diagrams for herbicides, herbicides module references and literature reviews.

  5. Regulation of defensive function on gingival epithelial cells can prevent periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Tsuyoshi; Yoshimoto, Tetsuya; Kajiya, Mikihito; Ouhara, Kazuhisa; Matsuda, Shinji; Takemura, Tasuku; Akutagawa, Keiichi; Takeda, Katsuhiro; Mizuno, Noriyoshi; Kurihara, Hidemi

    2018-05-01

    Periodontal disease is a bacterial biofilm-associated inflammatory disease that has been implicated in many systemic diseases. A new preventive method for periodontal disease needs to be developed in order to promote the health of the elderly in a super-aged society. The gingival epithelium plays an important role as a mechanical barrier against bacterial invasion and a part of the innate immune response to infectious inflammation in periodontal tissue. The disorganization of cell-cell interactions and subsequent inflammation contribute to the initiation of periodontal disease. These make us consider that regulation of host defensive functions, epithelial barrier and neutrophil activity, may become novel preventive methods for periodontal inflammation. Based on this concept, we have found that several agents regulate the barrier function of gingival epithelial cells and suppress the accumulation of neutrophils in the gingival epithelium. We herein introduce the actions of irsogladine maleate, azithromycin, amphotericin B, and Houttuynia cordata (dokudami in Japanese), which is commonly used in traditional medicine, on the epithelial barrier and neutrophil migration in gingival epithelial cells in vivo and in vitro , in order to provide support for the clinical application of these agents to the prevention of periodontal inflammation.

  6. Regulation of Hypertension for Secondary Prevention of Stroke: The Possible 'Bridging Function' of Acupuncture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Haizhen; Han, Yuhui; Du, Yuzheng; Shi, Xuemin; Huang, Huiyuan; Yu, Xiaoyang; Tan, Xiaochan; Hu, Chunxiao; Wang, Yue; Zhou, Shiyuan

    2018-01-01

    Worldwide, stroke is the leading cause of mortality and disability, with hypertension being an independent risk factor for a secondary stroke. Acupuncture for the treatment of hypertension gains more attention in alternative and complementary medicine, but the results are inconsistent. Few studies regarding the secondary prevention of stroke by managing hypertension with acupuncture have been carried out as there are some problems regarding the antihypertensive drug status in the secondary prevention of stroke. Still, the potential of acupuncture in regulating the blood pressure for secondary stroke prevention deserves our focus. This review is based on papers recorded in the PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science databases, from their inception until March 28, 2017, and retrieved with the following search terms: hypertension and acupuncture, limited in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs), stress-induced (or cold-induced) hypertensive or pre-hypertensive models. We find that, in these hypertensive animals, acupuncture could mainly influence factors related to the nervous system, oxidative stress, the endocrine system, cardiovascular function, and hemorheology, which are closely associated with the stroke outcome. This trend may give us a hint that acupuncture might well participate in the secondary prevention of stroke through these pathways when used in the management of hypertension. © 2018 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  7. Neogenin, a regulator of adult hippocampal neurogenesis, prevents depressive-like behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Dong; Sun, Xiang-Dong; Zhao, Lu; Lee, Dae-Hoon; Hu, Jin-Xia; Tang, Fu-Lei; Pan, Jin-Xiu; Mei, Lin; Zhu, Xiao-Juan; Xiong, Wen-Cheng

    2018-01-08

    Adult neurogenesis in hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) is a complex, but precisely controlled process. Dysregulation of this event contributes to multiple neurological disorders, including major depression. Thus, it is of considerable interest to investigate how adult hippocampal neurogenesis is regulated. Here, we present evidence for neogenin, a multifunctional transmembrane receptor, to regulate adult mouse hippocampal neurogenesis. Loss of neogenin in adult neural stem cells (NSCs) or neural progenitor cells (NPCs) impaired NSCs/NPCs proliferation and neurogenesis, whereas increased their astrocytic differentiation. Mechanistic studies revealed a role for neogenin to positively regulate Gli1, a crucial downstream transcriptional factor of sonic hedgehog, and expression of Gli1 into neogenin depleted NSCs/NPCs restores their proliferation. Further morphological and functional studies showed additional abnormities, including reduced dendritic branches and spines, and impaired glutamatergic neuro-transmission, in neogenin-depleted new-born DG neurons; and mice with depletion of neogenin in NSCs/NPCs exhibited depressive-like behavior. These results thus demonstrate unrecognized functions of neogenin in adult hippocampal NSCs/NPCs-promoting NSCs/NPCs proliferation and neurogenesis and preventing astrogliogenesis and depressive-like behavior, and suggest neogenin regulation of Gli1 signaling as a possible underlying mechanism.

  8. Selectable tolerance to herbicides by mutated acetolactate synthase genes integrated into the chloroplast genome of tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Masanori; Goto, Maki; Hanai, Moeko; Shimizu, Tsutomu; Izawa, Norihiko; Kanamoto, Hirosuke; Tomizawa, Ken-Ichi; Yokota, Akiho; Kobayashi, Hirokazu

    2008-08-01

    Strategies employed for the production of genetically modified (GM) crops are premised on (1) the avoidance of gene transfer in the field; (2) the use of genes derived from edible organisms such as plants; (3) preventing the appearance of herbicide-resistant weeds; and (4) maintaining transgenes without obstructing plant cell propagation. To this end, we developed a novel vector system for chloroplast transformation with acetolactate synthase (ALS). ALS catalyzes the first step in the biosynthesis of the branched amino acids, and its enzymatic activity is inhibited by certain classes of herbicides. We generated a series of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutated ALS (mALS) genes and introduced constructs with mALS and the aminoglycoside 3'-adenyltransferase gene (aadA) into the tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) chloroplast genome by particle bombardment. Transplastomic plants were selected using their resistance to spectinomycin. The effects of herbicides on transplastomic mALS activity were examined by a colorimetric assay using the leaves of transplastomic plants. We found that transplastomic G121A, A122V, and P197S plants were specifically tolerant to pyrimidinylcarboxylate, imidazolinon, and sulfonylurea/pyrimidinylcarboxylate herbicides, respectively. Transplastomic plants possessing mALSs were able to grow in the presence of various herbicides, thus affirming the relationship between mALSs and the associated resistance to herbicides. Our results show that mALS genes integrated into the chloroplast genome are useful sustainable markers that function to exclude plants other than those that are GM while maintaining transplastomic crops. This investigation suggests that the resistance management of weeds in the field amid growing GM crops is possible using (1) a series of mALSs that confer specific resistance to herbicides and (2) a strategy that employs herbicide rotation.

  9. Biotechnology approaches to developing herbicide tolerance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of herbicides has revolutionized weed control in many crop production systems. However, with the increasing development of weed resistances to many popular selective herbicides, the need has arisen to rethink the application of chemical weed control. Approaches to maintain the efficiency of chemical weed ...

  10. FLAMMABILITY OF HERBICIDE-TREATED GUAVA FOLIAGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guava leaves treated with herbicide were found to be less flammable than untreated green leaves or dead leaves . Differences in flammability were...determined by small-scale laboratory fires, differential thermal analysis, and thermogravimetric analysis. The herbicide-treated leaves had a higher ash

  11. Response of Saw Palmetto to Three Herbicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.L. Michael; D.G. Neary

    1985-01-01

    Saw palmetto [Serona repens (Bartram) Small] can be controlled with herbicides. Garion® 4E1/2 and Brush Killer® 800 were evaluated for effectiveness againest saw palmetto when they were applied at three rates in April, June, and August. Oust® was tested at three rates in April only. Herbicides were not effective with April...

  12. SELECTIVITY OF DIFFERENT HERBICIDES TO COWPEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Aires Sizenando Filho2

    2013-12-01

    1.5 = recommended rate + half the recommended rate. At the end of the experiment it was found that: the cowpea showed phytotoxicity to use herbicide among 14 and 21 AAD; the herbicides diuron and metolachlor showed a rate "middle" in control weed, while the pendimethalin wasn't efficient for those function.

  13. Herbicide residues in grapes and wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, G G; Williams, B

    1999-05-01

    The persistence of several common herbicides from grapes to wine has been studied. Shiraz, Tarrango and Doradillo grapes were separately sprayed with either norflurazon, oxyfluorfen, oxadiazon or trifluralin-persistent herbicides commonly used for weed control in vineyards. The dissipation of the herbicides from the grapes was followed for 28 days following treatment. Results showed that norflurazon was the most persist herbicide although there were detectable residues of all the herbicides on both red and white grapes at the end of the study period. The penetration of herbicides into the flesh of the grapes was found to be significantly greater for white grapes than for red grapes. Small-lot winemaking experiments showed that norflurazon persisted at levels close to the initial concentration through vinification and into the finished wine. The other herbicides degraded, essentially via first-order kinetics, within the period of "first fermentation" and had largely disappeared after 28 days. The use of charcoal together with filter pads, or with diatomaceous earth was shown to be very effective in removing herbicide residues from the wine. A 5% charcoal filter removed more than 96% of the norflurazon persisting in the treated wine.

  14. Control of Butterfly Bush with Postemergence Herbicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterfly bush (Buddleja davidii) is classified as invasive in several parts of the United States. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of four herbicides and two application methods on postemergence butterfly bush control. The four herbicides included: Roundup (glyphosate)...

  15. Imazapyr (herbicide) seed dressing increases yield, suppresses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    from damage. In 1998/99 season, a trial was initiated at Chitedze Research Station under artificial infection, to evaluate the effects of seed dressing with imazapyr (an acetolactate synthase {ALS} inhibiting herbicide) using three seed treatment methods (coating, priming or drenching) and three herbicide rates (15, 30 and 45 ...

  16. Resistance risk assessment within herbicide authorisation--a call for sensitivity data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulber, Lena; Nordmeyer, Henning; Zwerger, Peter

    2013-02-01

    In most European countries, the risk of herbicide resistance is assessed as part of the authorisation of herbicides in accordance with EPPO Standard PP 1/213(2). Because the susceptibility of weed populations to a certain herbicide may vary greatly, one part of resistance risk assessment is the testing for sensitivity variation among different populations of target weed species with a high resistance risk. This paper emphasises the importance of sensitivity data provision with regard to the recent EU Regulation (EC) 1107/2009 concerning the placing of plant protection products on the market and outlines the main technical requirements for sensitivity data. A useful principle is that sensitivity data should be provided for all herbicides with a high resistance risk regardless of whether resistance has already evolved against the herbicidal substance. Methodical details regarding the generation of sensitivity data are discussed, together with remaining questions that will need to be addressed if a harmonised assessment of herbicide resistance risk is to be achieved. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Environmental toxicology: Degradation of herbicides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbin, F.T.; Monaco, T.J.; Bjelk, L.A.

    1991-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the advances that have been made for the quantitative analysis of radiotracers in thin-layer chromatography through the development of computer controlled imaging proportional counters (IPC). IPC has been developed to give high sensitivity digital data from an entire TLC separation in one measurement. The imaging capability provides a 100 percent improvement over mechanical scanners. Sensitivity is 100 DPM or less with 14 C and higher energy isotopes. Investigations of herbicide metabolism in plant cell suspension cultures are presented with procedures for the use of this technique

  18. Enforcing regulations on alcohol sales and use as universal environmental prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalbí, Joan R; Bartroli, Montserrat; Bosque-Prous, Marina; Guitart, Anna M; Serra-Batiste, Enric; Casas, Conrad; Brugal, M Teresa

    2015-12-15

    The informal social control over alcohol consumption that was traditional in Southern European countries has weakened. At the same time there is an increase in binge drinking and drunkenness among young people in Spain. To mitigate this problem, regulations on alcohol and driving and restrictions on the sale and consumption of alcohol have been adopted. This paper documents the current regulations in the city of Barcelona and describes efforts to enforce them and their outcomes. Data from the municipal information systems on infringements reported for the period 2008-13 are provided. There is an increasing pressure of municipal services to enforce the rules in two areas: a) alcohol sales at night (retailers); and b) consumption in the public space (citizens). An increase in the controls of drink-driving has also taken place, and the proportion above legal limits has decreased. The largest relative increase occurred in the control of retailers. In Barcelona interventions are made to limit the supply and consumption of alcohol at low cost and during the night, and of driving under the influence of alcohol. There have been no documented episodes of massive drinking in public spaces (known as 'botellón') in the city. These actions, which complement other preventive efforts based on health education, can change the social perceptions of alcohol by minors in a direction less favorable to consumption, promoting environmental prevention.

  19. Discovery of Putative Herbicide Resistance Genes and Its Regulatory Network in Chickpea Using Transcriptome Sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir A. Iquebal

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. contributes 75% of total pulse production. Being cheaper than animal protein, makes it important in dietary requirement of developing countries. Weed not only competes with chickpea resulting into drastic yield reduction but also creates problem of harboring fungi, bacterial diseases and insect pests. Chemical approach having new herbicide discovery has constraint of limited lead molecule options, statutory regulations and environmental clearance. Through genetic approach, transgenic herbicide tolerant crop has given successful result but led to serious concern over ecological safety thus non-transgenic approach like marker assisted selection is desirable. Since large variability in tolerance limit of herbicide already exists in chickpea varieties, thus the genes offering herbicide tolerance can be introgressed in variety improvement programme. Transcriptome studies can discover such associated key genes with herbicide tolerance in chickpea.Results: This is first transcriptomic studies of chickpea or even any legume crop using two herbicide susceptible and tolerant genotypes exposed to imidazoline (Imazethapyr. Approximately 90 million paired-end reads generated from four samples were processed and assembled into 30,803 contigs using reference based assembly. We report 6,310 differentially expressed genes (DEGs, of which 3,037 were regulated by 980 miRNAs, 1,528 transcription factors associated with 897 DEGs, 47 Hub proteins, 3,540 putative Simple Sequence Repeat-Functional Domain Marker (SSR-FDM, 13,778 genic Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP putative markers and 1,174 Indels. Randomly selected 20 DEGs were validated using qPCR. Pathway analysis suggested that xenobiotic degradation related gene, glutathione S-transferase (GST were only up-regulated in presence of herbicide. Down-regulation of DNA replication genes and up-regulation of abscisic acid pathway genes were observed. Study further reveals

  20. A State-by-State Assessment of Food Service Regulations for Prevention of Norovirus Outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambhampati, Anita; Shioda, Kayoko; Gould, L Hannah; Sharp, Donald; Brown, Laura G; Parashar, Umesh D; Hall, Aron J

    2016-09-01

    Noroviruses are the leading cause of foodborne disease in the United States. Foodborne transmission of norovirus is often associated with contamination of food during preparation by an infected food worker. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Food Code provides model food safety regulations for preventing transmission of foodborne disease in restaurants; however, adoption of specific provisions is at the discretion of state and local governments. We analyzed the food service regulations of all 50 states and the District of Columbia (i.e., 51 states) to describe differences in adoption of norovirus-related Food Code provisions into state food service regulations. We then assessed potential correlations between adoption of these regulations and characteristics of foodborne norovirus outbreaks reported to the National Outbreak Reporting System from 2009 through 2014. Of the 51 states assessed, all (100%) required food workers to wash their hands, and 39 (76%) prohibited bare-hand contact with ready-to-eat food. Thirty states (59%) required exclusion of staff with vomiting and diarrhea until 24 h after cessation of symptoms. Provisions requiring a certified food protection manager (CFPM) and a response plan for contamination events (i.e., vomiting) were least commonly adopted; 26 states (51%) required a CFPM, and 8 (16%) required a response plan. Although not statistically significant, states that adopted the provisions prohibiting bare-hand contact (0.45 versus 0.74, P =0.07), requiring a CFPM (0.38 versus 0.75, P =0.09), and excluding ill staff for ≥24 h after symptom resolution (0.44 versus 0.73, P =0.24) each reported fewer foodborne norovirus outbreaks per million person-years than did those states without these provisions. Adoption and compliance with federal recommended food service regulations may decrease the incidence of foodborne norovirus outbreaks.

  1. Regulation of Budding Yeast CENP-A levels Prevents Misincorporation at Promoter Nucleosomes and Transcriptional Defects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica M Hildebrand

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The exclusive localization of the histone H3 variant CENP-A to centromeres is essential for accurate chromosome segregation. Ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis helps to ensure that CENP-A does not mislocalize to euchromatin, which can lead to genomic instability. Consistent with this, overexpression of the budding yeast CENP-A(Cse4 is lethal in cells lacking Psh1, the E3 ubiquitin ligase that targets CENP-A(Cse4 for degradation. To identify additional mechanisms that prevent CENP-A(Cse4 misincorporation and lethality, we analyzed the genome-wide mislocalization pattern of overexpressed CENP-A(Cse4 in the presence and absence of Psh1 by chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by high throughput sequencing. We found that ectopic CENP-A(Cse4 is enriched at promoters that contain histone H2A.Z(Htz1 nucleosomes, but that H2A.Z(Htz1 is not required for CENP-A(Cse4 mislocalization. Instead, the INO80 complex, which removes H2A.Z(Htz1 from nucleosomes, promotes the ectopic deposition of CENP-A(Cse4. Transcriptional profiling revealed gene expression changes in the psh1Δ cells overexpressing CENP-A(Cse4. The down-regulated genes are enriched for CENP-A(Cse4 mislocalization to promoters, while the up-regulated genes correlate with those that are also transcriptionally up-regulated in an htz1Δ strain. Together, these data show that regulating centromeric nucleosome localization is not only critical for maintaining centromere function, but also for ensuring accurate promoter function and transcriptional regulation.

  2. Emotion in obesity discourse: understanding public attitudes towards regulations for obesity prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Lucy C; Warin, Megan J; Moore, Vivienne M; Street, Jackie M

    2016-05-01

    Intense concern about obesity in the public imagination and in political, academic and media discourses has catalysed advocacy efforts to implement regulatory measures to reduce the occurrence of obesity in Australia and elsewhere. This article explores public attitudes towards the possible implementation of regulations to address obesity by analysing emotions within popular discourses. Drawing on reader comments attached to obesity-relevant news articles published on Australian news and current affairs websites, we examine how popular anxieties about the 'obesity crisis' and vitriol directed at obese individuals circulate alongside understandings of the appropriate role of government to legitimise regulatory reform to address obesity. Employing Ahmed's theorisation of 'affective economies' and broader literature on emotional cultures, we argue that obesity regulations achieve popular support within affective economies oriented to neoliberal and individualist constructions of obesity. These economies preclude constructions of obesity as a structural problem in popular discourse; instead positioning anti-obesity regulations as a government-endorsed vehicle for discrimination directed at obese people. Findings implicate a new set of ethical challenges for those championing regulatory reform for obesity prevention. © 2015 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.

  3. Rice Transcriptome Analysis to Identify Possible Herbicide Quinclorac Detoxification Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenying eXu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Quinclorac is a highly selective auxin-type herbicide, and is widely used in the effective control of barnyard grass in paddy rice fields, improving the world’s rice yield. The herbicide mode of action of quinclorac has been proposed and hormone interactions affect quinclorac signaling. Because of widespread use, quinclorac may be transported outside rice fields with the drainage waters, leading to soil and water pollution and environmental health problems.In this study, we used 57K Affymetrix rice whole-genome array to identify quinclorac signaling response genes to study the molecular mechanisms of action and detoxification of quinclorac in rice plants. Overall, 637 probe sets were identified with differential expression levels under either 6 or 24 h of quinclorac treatment. Auxin-related genes such as GH3 and OsIAAs responded to quinclorac treatment. Gene Ontology analysis showed that genes of detoxification-related family genes were significantly enriched, including cytochrome P450, GST, UGT, and ABC and drug transporter genes. Moreover, real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that top candidate P450 families such as CYP81, CYP709C and CYP72A genes were universally induced by different herbicides. Some Arabidopsis genes for the same P450 family were up-regulated under quinclorac treatment.We conduct rice whole-genome GeneChip analysis and the first global identification of quinclorac response genes. This work may provide potential markers for detoxification of quinclorac and biomonitors of environmental chemical pollution.

  4. Catalase activity prevents exercise-induced up-regulation of vasoprotective proteins in venous tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, Vu Thao-Vi; Floeren, Melanie; Kumpf, Stephanie; Both, Charlotte; Peter, Bärbel; Balz, Vera; Suvorava, Tatsiana; Kojda, Georg

    2011-11-01

    Physical activity induces favourable changes of arterial gene expression and protein activity, although little is known about its effect in venous tissue. Although our understanding of the initiating molecular signals is still incomplete, increased expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) is considered a key event. This study sought to investigate the effects of two different training protocols on the expression of eNOS and extracellular superoxide dismutase (ecSOD) in venous and lung tissue and to evaluate the underlying molecular mechanisms. C57Bl/6 mice underwent voluntary exercise or forced physical activity. Changes of vascular mRNA and protein levels and activity of eNOS, ecSOD and catalase were determined in aorta, heart, lung and vena cava. Both training protocols similarly increased relative heart weight and resulted in up-regulation of aortic and myocardial eNOS. In striking contrast, eNOS expression in vena cava and lung remained unchanged. Likewise, exercise up-regulated ecSOD in the aorta and in left ventricular tissue but remained unchanged in lung tissue. Catalase expression in lung tissue and vena cava of exercised mice exceeded that in aorta by 6.9- and 10-fold, respectively, suggesting a lack of stimulatory effects of hydrogen peroxide. In accordance, treatment of mice with the catalase inhibitor aminotriazole for 6 weeks resulted in significant up-regulation of eNOS and ecSOD in vena cava. These data suggest that physiological venous catalase activity prevents exercise-induced up-regulation of eNOS and ecSOD. Furthermore, therapeutic inhibition of vascular catalase might improve pulmonary rehabilitation. © 2011 The Authors Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine © 2011 Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Emotion Regulation, Coping, and Decision Making: Three Linked Skills for Preventing Externalizing Problems in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modecki, Kathryn L; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J; Guerra, Nancy

    2017-03-01

    Research on executive control during the teenage years points to shortfalls in emotion regulation, coping, and decision making as three linked capabilities associated with youth's externalizing behavior problems. Evidence gleaned from a detailed review of the literature makes clear that improvement of all three capabilities is critical to help young people better navigate challenges and prevent or reduce externalizing and related problems. Moreover, interventions can successfully improve these three capabilities and have been found to produce behavioral improvements with real-world significance. Examples of how successful interventions remediate more than one of these capabilities are provided. Future directions in research and practice are also proposed to move the field toward the development of more comprehensive programs for adolescents to foster their integration. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  6. Noise exposure and hearing loss prevention programmes after 20 years of regulations in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniell, W E; Swan, S S; McDaniel, M M; Camp, J E; Cohen, M A; Stebbins, J G

    2006-05-01

    To evaluate noise exposures and hearing loss prevention efforts in industries with relatively high rates of workers' compensation claims for hearing loss. Washington State workers' compensation records were used to identify up to 10 companies in each of eight industries. Each company (n = 76) was evaluated by a management interview, employee personal noise dosimetry (n = 983), and employee interviews (n = 1557). Full-shift average exposures were > or =85 dBA for 50% of monitored employees, using Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) parameters with a 5 dB exchange rate (L(ave)), but 74% were > or =85 dBA using a 3 dB exchange rate (L(eq)). Only 14% had L(ave) > or =90 dBA, but 42% had L(eq) > or =90 dBA. Most companies conducted noise measurements, but most kept no records, and consideration of noise controls was low in all industries. Hearing loss prevention programmes were commonly incomplete. Management interview scores (higher score = more complete programme) showed significant associations with percentage of employees having L(ave) > or =85 dBA and presence of a union (multiple linear regression; R2 = 0.24). Overall, 62% of interviewed employees reported always using hearing protection when exposed. Protector use showed significant associations with percentage of employees specifically required to use protection, management score, and average employee time spent > or =95 dBA (R2 = 0.65). The findings raise serious concerns about the adequacy of prevention, regulation, and enforcement strategies in the United States. The percentage of workers with excessive exposure was 1.5-3 times higher using a 3 dB exchange rate instead of the OSHA specified 5 dB exchange rate. Most companies gave limited or no attention to noise controls and relied primarily on hearing protection to prevent hearing loss; yet 38% of employees did not use protectors routinely. Protector use was highest when hearing loss prevention programmes were most complete, indicating that

  7. Anthocyanin prevents CD40-activated proinflammatory signaling in endothelial cells by regulating cholesterol distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Min; Ling, Wenhua; Zhu, Huilian; Wang, Qing; Ma, Jing; Hou, Mengjun; Tang, Zhihong; Li, Lan; Ye, Qinyuan

    2007-03-01

    Intracellular tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factors (TRAFs) translocation to lipid rafts is a key element in CD40-induced signaling. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of anthocyanin on CD40-mediated proinflammatory events in human endothelial cells and the underlying possible molecular mechanism. Treatment of endothelial cells with anthocyanin prevented from CD40-induced proinflammatory status, measured by production of IL-6, IL-8, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 through inhibiting CD40-induced nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation. TRAF-2 played pivotal role in CD40-NF-kappaB pathway as TRAF-2 small interference RNA (siRNA) diminished CD40-induced NF-kappaB activation and inflammation. TRAF-2 overexpression increased CD40-mediated NF-kappaB activation. Moreover, TRAF-2 almost totally recruited to lipid rafts after stimulation by CD40 ligand and depletion of cholesterol diminished CD40-mediated NF-kappaB activation. Exposure to anthocyanin not only interrupted TRAF-2 recruitment to lipid rafts but also decreased cholesterol content in Triton X-100 insoluble lipid rafts. However, anthocyanin did not influence the interaction between CD40 ligand and CD40 receptor. Our findings suggest that anthocyanin protects from CD40-induced proinflammatory signaling by preventing TRAF-2 translocation to lipid rafts through regulation of cholesterol distribution, which thereby may represent a mechanism that would explain the anti-inflammatory response of anthocyanin.

  8. The regulations for enforcing the law concerning prevention from radiation hazards due to radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The regulations are wholly revised under the law concerning prevention from radiation hazards due to radioisotopes and the provisions of the order for enforcing the law. Basic concepts and terms are defined, such as: employee engaged in radiation work; person regularly entering into the controlled area; the maximum permissible exposure dose; accumulative dose; the maximum permissible accumulative dose; the maximum permissible concentration in the air; the maximum permissible concentration under water; the maximum permissible surface density. The application for permission of the uses shall be made according to the form attached and include as appendix following documents: copy of register of the applicant legal person; plane drawings of the works or the enterprise and their surroundings in reduced scales and with directions, centering on facilities in use, of storage and disposal, etc. The report of the uses shall list name and address of the user, object and method of the uses, and include as annex copy of register of the user legal person and papers explaining the expected date of beginning and the period of the uses, etc. Standards of the uses, refilling, storage, transport and disposal are in detail stipulated. Specified measures shall be taken for measurement, prevention of radiation hazards, finding out of persons injured by radiation and others. (Okada, K.)

  9. The regulations for enforcing the law concerning prevention from radiation hazards due to radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    These provisions are established on the basis of and to enforce the ''Law for the prevention of radiation hazards due to radioisotopes'' and the Enforcement Order for the ''Law concerning the prevention of radiation hazards due to radioisotopes''. The Regulation includes the definitions of terms, applications for the permission of the use of radioisotopes, standards on usage, obligation of measurement, persons in charge of radiation, etc. Terms are explained, such as persons engaging in radiation works, persons who enter at any time the control areas, radiation facilities, maximum permissible exposure dose, cumulative dose, maximum permissible cumulative dose, maximum permissible concentration in the air, maximum permissible concentration in water and maximum permissible surface density. The applications for permission in written forms are required for the use, sale and abandonment of radioisotopes. Radioisotopes or the apparatuses for generating radiation shall be used in the using facilities. The measurement of radiation dose rate, particle flux density and contamination due to radioisotopes shall be made with radiation-measuring instruments. At least one person shall be chosen as the chief radiation-handling person in each factory, establishment, selling office or abandoning establishment by a user, a trademan or a person engaged in abandonment of radioisotopes. The forms for the application for permission, etc. are attached. (Okada, K.)

  10. Renal hypertension prevents run training modification of cardiomyocyte diastolic Ca2+ regulation in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, B M; Lynch, J M; Snyder, S M; Moore, R L

    2001-06-01

    The combined effects of endurance run training and renal hypertension on cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]c) dynamics and Na+-dependent Ca2+ regulation in rat left ventricular cardiomyocytes were examined. Male Fischer 344 rats underwent stenosis of the left renal artery [hypertensive (Ht), n = 18] or a sham operation [normotensive (Nt), n = 20]. One-half of the rats from each group were treadmill trained for >16 wk. Cardiomyocyte fura 2 fluorescence ratio transients were recorded for 7 min during electrical pacing at 0.5 Hz, 2 mM extracellular Ca2+ concentration, and 29 degrees C. The rate of [Ca2+]c decline was not changed by run training in the Nt group but was reduced in the Ht group. At 7 min, cardiomyocytes were exposed to 10 mM caffeine in the absence of Na+ and Ca2+, which triggered sarcoplasmic reticular Ca2+ release and suppressed Ca2+ efflux via Na+/Ca2+ exchanger. External Na+ was then added, and Na+-dependent Ca2+ efflux rate was recorded. Treadmill training significantly enhanced Na+-dependent Ca2+ efflux rate under these conditions in the Nt group but not in the Ht group. These data provide evidence that renal hypertension prevents the normal run training-induced modifications in diastolic [Ca2+]c regulation mechanisms, including Na+/Ca2+ exchanger.

  11. 7 CFR 925.304 - California Desert Grape Regulation 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... for market as natural grapes by performing all the normal cultural practices, but not using any inorganic fertilizers or agricultural chemicals including insecticides, herbicides, and growth regulators...

  12. Herbicides in the environment alter infection dynamics in a microbial host-parasite system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Wyngaert, Silke; Gsell, A.S.; Spaak, P.; Ibelings, B.W.

    2013-01-01

    Parasites play an important role in the regulation of host population growth. How these ubiquitous stressors interact with anthropogenic stressors is less often studied. In a full factorial experiment we explored the independent and combined effects of the widely used herbicide diuron and a chytrid

  13. Herbicide and pesticide occurrence in the soils of children's playgrounds in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapcanin, Aida; Cakal, Mirsada; Imamovic, Belma; Salihovic, Mirsada; Pehlic, Ekrem; Jacimovic, Zeljko; Jancan, Gordan

    2016-08-01

    Pesticide pollution in Sarajevo public playgrounds is an important health and environmental issue, and the lack of information about it is causing concerns amongst the general population as well as researchers. Since children are in direct contact with surface soils on children's playgrounds, such soils should be much more carefully examined. Furthermore, herbicides and pesticides get transmitted from soil surfaces brought from outside the urban areas, or they get dispersed following their direct applications in urban areas. Infants' and children's health can be directly affected by polluted soils because of the inherent toxicity and widespread use of the different pesticides in urban environments such as playgrounds. In addition to that, the presence of chromated copper arsenate (CCA) wood preservative pesticide found as soil pollutant in playing equipment was also documented. Soil samples from playgrounds were collected and analyzed for triazines, carbamates, dithiocarbamates, phenolic herbicides and organochlorine pesticides. Samples for the determination of heavy metals Cu, Cr and As were prepared by microwave-assisted acid digestion, and the findings were determined by using an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer. Triazines, carbamates, dithiocarbamates, chlorphenoxy compounds, phenolic herbicides, organochlorine pesticides and organotin compounds were detected in playground soils and their determined concentrations (mg/kg) were respectively found as follows: herbicides and pesticides on human health, which strengthens the case for a more preventative and protective approach to the uncontrolled presence of herbicides and pesticides in Sarajevo's playground soils.

  14. Assessing the extent and effects of herbicide drift into Danish hedgerows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Marianne Bruus; Andersen, H. V.; Strandberg, M. T.

    Very low dosages of herbicides are known to cause effects on bird cherry (Prunus avium) and hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna). It is not yet known whether other hedgerow trees and shrubs are equally sensitive to herbicide drift, to which extent spray drift into hedges and other habitats close to fiel...... were assessed. Metsulfuron methyl effects on Sambucus nigra (elder) and Sorbus intermedia were studied in separate experiments and will include second year effects. Methods and preliminary results are presented and discussed in relation to pesticide regulation....

  15. Are Management-Based Regulations Effective? Evidence from State Pollution Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennear, Lori Snyder

    2007-01-01

    This paper evaluates a recent innovation in regulating risk called management-based regulation. Traditionally, risk regulation has either specified a particular means of achieving a risk-reduction goal or specified the goal and left the means of achieving that goal up to the regulated entity. In contrast, management-based regulation neither…

  16. Effect of Butachlor Herbicide on Earthworm Eisenia fetidaIts Histological Perspicuity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gobi, M.; Gunasekaran, P.

    2010-01-01

    With the advent of the Green Revolution, there has been a quantum leap in the use of synthetic herbicides and pesticides throughout the world to sustain high yielding crop varieties. Continuous use of these synthetic chemicals leads to loss of soil fertility and soil organisms. To explore the effect of exposure to commercial herbicide (Butachlor) on the life history parameters (biomass, clitellum development, and cocoon production) and the histological changes in the earthworm Eisenia fetida over 60 days, the dried cow dung was contaminated with 0.2575 mg/ kg -1 , 0.5150 mg/ kg -1 , and 2.5750 mg/ kg -1 of butachlor based on the LC 50 value, and a control was maintained. The mean earthworm biomass was found to be decreased with increasing herbicide concentration. Similarly, cocoon production was also reduced by the increasing herbicide concentration. A possible explanation is an increased demand for energy, needed for the regulation and detoxification of herbicide. All earthworms in the exposed group were found to have glandular cell enlargement and to be vacuolated

  17. Effect of Butachlor Herbicide on Earthworm Eisenia fetida—Its Histological Perspicuity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthukaruppan Gobi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of the Green Revolution, there has been a quantum leap in the use of synthetic herbicides and pesticides throughout the world to sustain high yielding crop varieties. Continuous use of these synthetic chemicals leads to loss of soil fertility and soil organisms. To explore the effect of exposure to commercial herbicide (Butachlor on the life history parameters (biomass, clitellum development, and cocoon production and the histological changes in the earthworm Eisenia fetida over 60 days, the dried cow dung was contaminated with 0.2575 mg kg−1, 0.5150 mg kg−1, and 2.5750 mg kg−1 of butachlor based on the LC50 value, and a control was maintained. The mean earthworm biomass was found to be decreased with increasing herbicide concentration. Similarly, cocoon production was also reduced by the increasing herbicide concentration. A possible explanation is an increased demand for energy, needed for the regulation and detoxification of herbicide. All earthworms in the exposed group were found to have glandular cell enlargement and to be vacuolated.

  18. Potential organic herbicides for squash production: Pelargonic acid herbicides AXXE (registered trademark) and Scythe (registered trademark)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organic squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) producers need appropriate herbicides that can effectively provide season- long weed control. Research was conducted in southeast Oklahoma (Atoka County, Lane, OK) to determine the impact of potential organic herbicides on weed control efficacy, crop injury, and y...

  19. Genetically Modified Herbicide-Tolerant Crops, Weeds, and Herbicides: Overview and Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonny, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops have been and continue to be a subject of controversy despite their rapid adoption by farmers where approved. For the last two decades, an important matter of debate has been their impact on pesticide use, particularly for herbicide-tolerant (HT) crops. Some claim that these crops bring about a decrease in herbicide use, while others claim the opposite. In fact, since 1996, most cultivated GMOs have been GMHT crops, which involve the use of an associated herbicide, generally glyphosate. In their very first years of adoption, HT crops often led to some decrease in herbicide use. However, the repetition of glyphosate-tolerant crops and of glyphosate only applications in the same fields without sufficient alternation and herbicide diversity has contributed to the appearance of glyphosate-resistant weeds. These weeds have resulted in a rise in the use of glyphosate and other herbicides. This article explores this situation and the impacts of herbicide-resistant weeds, using an interdisciplinary approach and drawing on recent data. The paper analyzes the spread of GMHT crops worldwide and their consequences on herbicide use in the USA in particular. It then addresses the global development of glyphosate-resistant weeds and their impact, particularly focusing on the USA. Finally, the last section explores how industry, farmers, and weed scientists are coping with the spread of resistant weeds. The concluding comments deal more widely with trends in GM crops.

  20. Herbicide resistance and biodiversity: agronomic and environmental aspects of genetically modified herbicide-resistant plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütte, Gesine; Eckerstorfer, Michael; Rastelli, Valentina; Reichenbecher, Wolfram; Restrepo-Vassalli, Sara; Ruohonen-Lehto, Marja; Saucy, Anne-Gabrielle Wuest; Mertens, Martha

    2017-01-01

    Farmland biodiversity is an important characteristic when assessing sustainability of agricultural practices and is of major international concern. Scientific data indicate that agricultural intensification and pesticide use are among the main drivers of biodiversity loss. The analysed data and experiences do not support statements that herbicide-resistant crops provide consistently better yields than conventional crops or reduce herbicide amounts. They rather show that the adoption of herbicide-resistant crops impacts agronomy, agricultural practice, and weed management and contributes to biodiversity loss in several ways: (i) many studies show that glyphosate-based herbicides, which were commonly regarded as less harmful, are toxic to a range of aquatic organisms and adversely affect the soil and intestinal microflora and plant disease resistance; the increased use of 2,4-D or dicamba, linked to new herbicide-resistant crops, causes special concerns. (ii) The adoption of herbicide-resistant crops has reduced crop rotation and favoured weed management that is solely based on the use of herbicides. (iii) Continuous herbicide resistance cropping and the intensive use of glyphosate over the last 20 years have led to the appearance of at least 34 glyphosate-resistant weed species worldwide. Although recommended for many years, farmers did not counter resistance development in weeds by integrated weed management, but continued to rely on herbicides as sole measure. Despite occurrence of widespread resistance in weeds to other herbicides, industry rather develops transgenic crops with additional herbicide resistance genes. (iv) Agricultural management based on broad-spectrum herbicides as in herbicide-resistant crops further decreases diversity and abundance of wild plants and impacts arthropod fauna and other farmland animals. Taken together, adverse impacts of herbicide-resistant crops on biodiversity, when widely adopted, should be expected and are indeed very hard

  1. ATM regulates Cdt1 stability during the unperturbed S phase to prevent re-replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwahori, Satoko; Kohmon, Daisuke; Kobayashi, Junya; Tani, Yuhei; Yugawa, Takashi; Komatsu, Kenshi; Kiyono, Tohru; Sugimoto, Nozomi; Fujita, Masatoshi

    2014-01-01

    Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) plays crucial roles in DNA damage responses, especially with regard to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). However, it appears that ATM can be activated not only by DSB, but also by some changes in chromatin architecture, suggesting potential ATM function in cell cycle control. Here, we found that ATM is involved in timely degradation of Cdt1, a critical replication licensing factor, during the unperturbed S phase. At least in certain cell types, degradation of p27Kip1 was also impaired by ATM inhibition. The novel ATM function for Cdt1 regulation was dependent on its kinase activity and NBS1. Indeed, we found that ATM is moderately phosphorylated at Ser1981 during the S phase. ATM silencing induced partial reduction in levels of Skp2, a component of SCFSkp2 ubiquitin ligase that controls Cdt1 degradation. Furthermore, Skp2 silencing resulted in Cdt1 stabilization like ATM inhibition. In addition, as reported previously, ATM silencing partially prevented Akt phosphorylation at Ser473, indicative of its activation, and Akt inhibition led to modest stabilization of Cdt1. Therefore, the ATM-Akt-SCFSkp2 pathway may partly contribute to the novel ATM function. Finally, ATM inhibition rendered cells hypersensitive to induction of re-replication, indicating importance for maintenance of genome stability. PMID:24280901

  2. Regulatory focus and generalized trust: the impact of prevention-focused self-regulation on trusting others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Johannes; Mayo, Ruth; Greifeneder, Rainer; Pfattheicher, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    The current research suggests that taking self-regulatory mechanisms into account provides insights regarding individuals' responses to threats in social interactions. In general, based on the notion that a prevention-focused orientation of self-regulation is associated with a need for security and a vigilant tendency to avoid losses and other types of negative events we advocate that a prevention-focused orientation, both as a disposition as well as a situationally induced state, lowers generalized trust, thus hindering cooperation within social interactions that entail threats. Specifically, we found that the more individuals' habitual self-regulatory orientation is dominated by a prevention focus, the less likely they are to score high on a self-report measure of generalized trust (Study 1), and to express trust in a trust game paradigm as manifested in lower sums of transferred money (Studies 2 and 3). Similar findings were found when prevention focus was situationally manipulated (Study 4). Finally, one possible factor underlying the impact of prevention-focused self-regulation on generalized trust was demonstrated as individuals with a special sensitivity to negative information were significantly affected by a subtle prevention focus manipulation (versus control condition) in that they reacted with reduced trust in the trust game (Study 5). In sum, the current findings document the crucial relevance of self-regulatory orientations as conceptualized in regulatory focus theory regarding generalized trust and responses to threats within a social interaction. The theoretical and applied implications of the findings are discussed.

  3. Regulatory Focus and Generalized Trust: The Impact of Prevention-focused Self-regulation on Trusting Others

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes eKeller

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The current research suggests that taking self-regulatory mechanisms into account provides insights regarding individuals’ responses to threats in social interactions. In general, based on the notion that a prevention-focused orientation of self-regulation is associated with a need for security and a vigilant tendency to avoid losses and other types of negative events we advocate that a prevention-focused orientation, both as a disposition as well as a situationally induced state, lowers generalized trust, thus hindering cooperation within social interactions that entail threats. Specifically, we found that the more individuals’ habitual self-regulatory orientation is dominated by a prevention focus, the less likely they are to score high on a self-report measure of generalized trust (Study 1, and to express trust in a trust game paradigm as manifested in lower sums of transferred money (Studies 2 and 3. Similar findings were found when prevention focus was situationally manipulated (Study 4. Finally, one possible factor underlying the impact of prevention-focused self-regulation on generalized trust was demonstrated as individuals with a special sensitivity to negative information were significantly affected by a subtle prevention focus manipulation (vs. control condition in that they reacted with reduced trust in the trust game (Study 5. In sum, the current findings document the crucial relevance of self-regulatory orientations as conceptualized in regulatory focus theory regarding generalized trust and responses to threats within a social interaction. The theoretical and applied implications of the findings are discussed.

  4. Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, S; Høst, A

    2001-01-01

    , breastfeeding should be encouraged for 4-6 months. In high-risk infants a documented extensively hydrolysed formula is recommended if exclusive breastfeeding is not possible for the first 4 months of life. There is no evidence for preventive dietary intervention neither during pregnancy nor lactation...... populations. These theories remain to be documented in proper, controlled and prospective studies. Breastfeeding and the late introduction of solid foods (>4 months) is associated with a reduced risk of food allergy, atopic dermatitis, and recurrent wheezing and asthma in early childhood. In all infants....... Preventive dietary restrictions after the age of 4-6 months are not scientifically documented....

  5. The benefits of herbicide-resistant crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jerry M

    2012-10-01

    Since 1996, genetically modified herbicide-resistant crops, primarily glyphosate-resistant soybean, corn, cotton and canola, have helped to revolutionize weed management and have become an important tool in crop production practices. Glyphosate-resistant crops have enabled the implementation of weed management practices that have improved yield and profitability while better protecting the environment. Growers have recognized their benefits and have made glyphosate-resistant crops the most rapidly adopted technology in the history of agriculture. Weed management systems with glyphosate-resistant crops have often relied on glyphosate alone, have been easy to use and have been effective, economical and more environmentally friendly than the systems they have replaced. Glyphosate has worked extremely well in controlling weeds in glyphosate-resistant crops for more than a decade, but some key weeds have evolved resistance, and using glyphosate alone has proved unsustainable. Now, growers need to renew their weed management practices and use glyphosate with other cultural, mechanical and herbicide options in integrated systems. New multiple-herbicide-resistant crops with resistance to glyphosate and other herbicides will expand the utility of existing herbicide technologies and will be an important component of future weed management systems that help to sustain the current benefits of high-efficiency and high-production agriculture. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. studies on transition metal complexes of herbicidal compounds. ii

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    derivative of 2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-s-triazine, atrazine (ATZ) --- a well known herbicide has ... development while the other is the metal ion associated degradation or deactivation of the herbicides .... Colour M.p./decomp.

  7. Removal of triazine herbicides from freshwater systems using photosynthetic microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Barreiro, O.; Rioboo, C.; Herrero, C.; Cid, A.

    2006-01-01

    The uptake of the triazine herbicides, atrazine and terbutryn, was determined for two freshwater photosynthetic microorganisms, the green microalga Chlorella vulgaris and the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus. An extremely rapid uptake of both pesticides was recorded, although uptake rate was lower for the cyanobacterium, mainly for atrazine. Other parameters related to the herbicide bioconcentration capacity of these microorganisms were also studied. Growth rate, biomass, and cell viability in cultures containing herbicide were clearly affected by herbicide uptake. Herbicide toxicity and microalgae sensitivity were used to determine the effectiveness of the bioconcentration process and the stability of herbicide removal. C. vulgaris showed higher bioconcentration capability for these two triazine herbicides than S. elongatus, especially with regard to terbutryn. This study supports the usefulness of such microorganisms, as a bioremediation technique in freshwater systems polluted with triazine herbicides

  8. Removal of triazine herbicides from freshwater systems using photosynthetic microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Barreiro, O. [Laboratorio de Microbiologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de A Coruna, Campus da Zapateira s/n. 15071 A Coruna (Spain); Rioboo, C. [Laboratorio de Microbiologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de A Coruna, Campus da Zapateira s/n. 15071 A Coruna (Spain); Herrero, C. [Laboratorio de Microbiologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de A Coruna, Campus da Zapateira s/n. 15071 A Coruna (Spain); Cid, A. [Laboratorio de Microbiologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de A Coruna, Campus da Zapateira s/n. 15071 A Coruna (Spain)]. E-mail: cid@udc.es

    2006-11-15

    The uptake of the triazine herbicides, atrazine and terbutryn, was determined for two freshwater photosynthetic microorganisms, the green microalga Chlorella vulgaris and the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus. An extremely rapid uptake of both pesticides was recorded, although uptake rate was lower for the cyanobacterium, mainly for atrazine. Other parameters related to the herbicide bioconcentration capacity of these microorganisms were also studied. Growth rate, biomass, and cell viability in cultures containing herbicide were clearly affected by herbicide uptake. Herbicide toxicity and microalgae sensitivity were used to determine the effectiveness of the bioconcentration process and the stability of herbicide removal. C. vulgaris showed higher bioconcentration capability for these two triazine herbicides than S. elongatus, especially with regard to terbutryn. This study supports the usefulness of such microorganisms, as a bioremediation technique in freshwater systems polluted with triazine herbicides.

  9. 77 FR 63803 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Pollution Prevention and Right-to-Know...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-17

    ...; Information Collection; Pollution Prevention and Right-to-Know Information (FAR 52.223-5) AGENCY: Department... previously approved information collection requirement concerning pollution prevention and right-to-know..., Pollution Prevention and Right-to-Know Information'' on your attached document. Fax: 202-501-4067. Mail...

  10. Herbicide-resistant crops: utilities and limitations for herbicide-resistant weed management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jerry M; Owen, Micheal D K

    2011-06-08

    Since 1996, genetically modified herbicide-resistant (HR) crops, particularly glyphosate-resistant (GR) crops, have transformed the tactics that corn, soybean, and cotton growers use to manage weeds. The use of GR crops continues to grow, but weeds are adapting to the common practice of using only glyphosate to control weeds. Growers using only a single mode of action to manage weeds need to change to a more diverse array of herbicidal, mechanical, and cultural practices to maintain the effectiveness of glyphosate. Unfortunately, the introduction of GR crops and the high initial efficacy of glyphosate often lead to a decline in the use of other herbicide options and less investment by industry to discover new herbicide active ingredients. With some exceptions, most growers can still manage their weed problems with currently available selective and HR crop-enabled herbicides. However, current crop management systems are in jeopardy given the pace at which weed populations are evolving glyphosate resistance. New HR crop technologies will expand the utility of currently available herbicides and enable new interim solutions for growers to manage HR weeds, but will not replace the long-term need to diversify weed management tactics and discover herbicides with new modes of action. This paper reviews the strengths and weaknesses of anticipated weed management options and the best management practices that growers need to implement in HR crops to maximize the long-term benefits of current technologies and reduce weed shifts to difficult-to-control and HR weeds.

  11. PR Toxin – Biosynthesis, Genetic Regulation, Toxicological Potential, Prevention and Control Measures: Overview and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish K. Dubey

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Out of the various mycotoxigenic food and feed contaminant, the fungal species belonging to Penicillium genera, particularly Penicillium roqueforti is of great economic importance, and well known for its crucial role in the manufacturing of Roquefort and Gorgonzola cheese. The mycotoxicosis effect of this mold is due to secretion of several metabolites, of which PR toxin is of considerable importance, with regard to food quality and safety challenges issues. The food products and silages enriched with PR toxin could lead into damage to vital internal organs, gastrointestinal perturbations, carcinogenicity, immunotoxicity, necrosis, and enzyme inhibition. Moreover, it also has the significant mutagenic potential to disrupt/alter the crucial processes like DNA replication, transcription, and translation at the molecular level. The high genetic diversities in between the various strains of P. roqueforti persuaded their nominations with Protected Geographical Indication (PGI, accordingly to the cheese type, they have been employed. Recently, the biosynthetic mechanism and toxicogenetic studies unraveled the role of ari1 and prx gene clusters that cross-talk with the synthesis of other metabolites or involve other cross-regulatory pathways to negatively regulate/inhibit the other biosynthetic route targeted for production of a strain-specific metabolites. Interestingly, the chemical conversion that imparts toxic properties to PR toxin is the substitution/oxidation of functional hydroxyl group (-OH to aldehyde group (-CHO. The rapid conversion of PR toxin to the other derivatives such as PR imine, PR amide, and PR acid, based on conditions available reflects their unstability and degradative aspects. Since the PR toxin-induced toxicity could not be eliminated safely, the assessment of dose-response and other pharmacological aspects for its safe consumption is indispensable. The present review describes the natural occurrences, diversity, biosynthesis

  12. PR Toxin - Biosynthesis, Genetic Regulation, Toxicological Potential, Prevention and Control Measures: Overview and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Manish K; Aamir, Mohd; Kaushik, Manish S; Khare, Saumya; Meena, Mukesh; Singh, Surendra; Upadhyay, Ram S

    2018-01-01

    Out of the various mycotoxigenic food and feed contaminant, the fungal species belonging to Penicillium genera, particularly Penicillium roqueforti is of great economic importance, and well known for its crucial role in the manufacturing of Roquefort and Gorgonzola cheese. The mycotoxicosis effect of this mold is due to secretion of several metabolites, of which PR toxin is of considerable importance, with regard to food quality and safety challenges issues. The food products and silages enriched with PR toxin could lead into damage to vital internal organs, gastrointestinal perturbations, carcinogenicity, immunotoxicity, necrosis, and enzyme inhibition. Moreover, it also has the significant mutagenic potential to disrupt/alter the crucial processes like DNA replication, transcription, and translation at the molecular level. The high genetic diversities in between the various strains of P. roqueforti persuaded their nominations with Protected Geographical Indication (PGI), accordingly to the cheese type, they have been employed. Recently, the biosynthetic mechanism and toxicogenetic studies unraveled the role of ari1 and prx gene clusters that cross-talk with the synthesis of other metabolites or involve other cross-regulatory pathways to negatively regulate/inhibit the other biosynthetic route targeted for production of a strain-specific metabolites. Interestingly, the chemical conversion that imparts toxic properties to PR toxin is the substitution/oxidation of functional hydroxyl group (-OH) to aldehyde group (-CHO). The rapid conversion of PR toxin to the other derivatives such as PR imine, PR amide, and PR acid, based on conditions available reflects their unstability and degradative aspects. Since the PR toxin-induced toxicity could not be eliminated safely, the assessment of dose-response and other pharmacological aspects for its safe consumption is indispensable. The present review describes the natural occurrences, diversity, biosynthesis, genetics

  13. PR Toxin – Biosynthesis, Genetic Regulation, Toxicological Potential, Prevention and Control Measures: Overview and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Manish K.; Aamir, Mohd; Kaushik, Manish S.; Khare, Saumya; Meena, Mukesh; Singh, Surendra; Upadhyay, Ram S.

    2018-01-01

    Out of the various mycotoxigenic food and feed contaminant, the fungal species belonging to Penicillium genera, particularly Penicillium roqueforti is of great economic importance, and well known for its crucial role in the manufacturing of Roquefort and Gorgonzola cheese. The mycotoxicosis effect of this mold is due to secretion of several metabolites, of which PR toxin is of considerable importance, with regard to food quality and safety challenges issues. The food products and silages enriched with PR toxin could lead into damage to vital internal organs, gastrointestinal perturbations, carcinogenicity, immunotoxicity, necrosis, and enzyme inhibition. Moreover, it also has the significant mutagenic potential to disrupt/alter the crucial processes like DNA replication, transcription, and translation at the molecular level. The high genetic diversities in between the various strains of P. roqueforti persuaded their nominations with Protected Geographical Indication (PGI), accordingly to the cheese type, they have been employed. Recently, the biosynthetic mechanism and toxicogenetic studies unraveled the role of ari1 and prx gene clusters that cross-talk with the synthesis of other metabolites or involve other cross-regulatory pathways to negatively regulate/inhibit the other biosynthetic route targeted for production of a strain-specific metabolites. Interestingly, the chemical conversion that imparts toxic properties to PR toxin is the substitution/oxidation of functional hydroxyl group (-OH) to aldehyde group (-CHO). The rapid conversion of PR toxin to the other derivatives such as PR imine, PR amide, and PR acid, based on conditions available reflects their unstability and degradative aspects. Since the PR toxin-induced toxicity could not be eliminated safely, the assessment of dose-response and other pharmacological aspects for its safe consumption is indispensable. The present review describes the natural occurrences, diversity, biosynthesis, genetics

  14. iMAR: An Interactive Web-Based Application for Mapping Herbicide Resistant Weeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Panozzo

    Full Text Available Herbicides are the major weed control tool in most cropping systems worldwide. However, the high reliance on herbicides has led to environmental issues as well as to the evolution of herbicide-resistant biotypes. Resistance is a major concern in modern agriculture and early detection of resistant biotypes is therefore crucial for its management and prevention. In this context, a timely update of resistance biotypes distribution is fundamental to devise and implement efficient resistance management strategies. Here we present an innovative web-based application called iMAR (interactive MApping of Resistance for the mapping of herbicide resistant biotypes. It is based on open source software tools and translates into maps the data reported in the GIRE (Italian herbicide resistance working group database of herbicide resistance at national level. iMAR allows an automatic, easy and cost-effective updating of the maps a nd provides two different systems, "static" and "dynamic". In the first one, the user choices are guided by a hierarchical tree menu, whereas the latter is more flexible and includes a multiple choice criteria (type of resistance, weed species, region, cropping systems that permits customized maps to be created. The generated information can be useful to various stakeholders who are involved in weed resistance management: farmers, advisors, national and local decision makers as well as the agrochemical industry. iMAR is freely available, and the system has the potential to handle large datasets and to be used for other purposes with geographical implications, such as the mapping of invasive plants or pests.

  15. Discovery of new herbicide modes of action with natural phytotoxins

    Science.gov (United States)

    About 20 modes of action (MOAs) are utilized by commercial herbicides, and almost 30 years have passed since the last new MOA was introduced. Rapidly increasing evolution of resistance to herbicides with these MOAs has greatly increased the need for herbicides with new MOAs. Combinatorial chemistry ...

  16. Surface plasmon resonance application for herbicide detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chegel, Vladimir I.; Shirshov, Yuri M.; Piletskaya, Elena V.; Piletsky, Sergey A.

    1998-01-01

    The optoelectronic biosensor, based on Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) for detection of photosynthesis-inhibiting herbicides in aqueous solutions is presented. The pesticide capability to replace plastoquinone from its complex with D1 protein is used for the detection. This replacement reaction results in the changes of the optical characteristics of protein layer, immobilized on the gold surface. Monitoring of these changes with SPR-technique permit to determine 0.1 - 5.0 mkg/ml herbicide in solution within one hour.

  17. Herbicide Orange Site Characterization Study, Eglin AFB

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    F THIS PAGE Availabilit o this r is sp f o.n" the reverse of fo cove* . - .’.r. 717 CSAT CO ES ’SU JEC TE MS Coninu onrevrseif ece~ar an idntiy b...of Hardstand 7 and Surface Water Drainages ......... 4 3 Hardstand 7 Herbicide Oran&e Storage Locations .............. 5 4 Concentrations (in ppb) of...insoluble in water . The formula contained an approximate 50/50 mixture of the herbicides 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,-D) and 2,4,5

  18. Obesity prevention in child care: A review of U.S. state regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slining Meghan

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To describe and contrast individual state nutrition and physical activity regulations related to childhood obesity for child care centers and family child care homes in the United States. Methods We conducted a review of regulations for child care facilities for all 50 states and the District of Columbia. We examined state regulations and recorded key nutrition and physical activity items that may contribute to childhood obesity. Items included in this review were: 1 Water is freely available; 2 Sugar-sweetened beverages are limited; 3 Foods of low nutritional value are limited; 4 Children are not forced to eat; 5 Food is not used as a reward; 6 Support is provided for breastfeeding and provision of breast milk; 7 Screen time is limited; and 8 Physical activity is required daily. Results Considerable variation exists among state nutrition and physical activity regulations related to obesity. Tennessee had six of the eight regulations for child care centers, and Delaware, Georgia, Indiana, and Nevada had five of the eight regulations. Conversely, the District of Columbia, Idaho, Nebraska and Washington had none of the eight regulations. For family child care homes, Georgia and Nevada had five of the eight regulations; Arizona, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oregon, Tennessee, Texas, Vermont, and West Virginia had four of the eight regulations. California, the District of Columbia, Idaho, Iowa, Kansas, and Nebraska did not have any of the regulations related to obesity for family child care homes. Conclusion Many states lack specific nutrition and physical activity regulations related to childhood obesity for child care facilities. If widely implemented, enhancing state regulations could help address the obesity epidemic in young children in the United States.

  19. Methods for Rapid Screening in Woody Plant Herbicide Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Stanley

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Methods for woody plant herbicide screening were assayed with the goal of reducing resources and time required to conduct preliminary screenings for new products. Rapid screening methods tested included greenhouse seedling screening, germinal screening, and seed screening. Triclopyr and eight experimental herbicides from Dow AgroSciences (DAS 313, 402, 534, 548, 602, 729, 779, and 896 were tested on black locust, loblolly pine, red maple, sweetgum, and water oak. Screening results detected differences in herbicide and species in all experiments in much less time (days to weeks than traditional field screenings and consumed significantly less resources (<500 mg acid equivalent per herbicide per screening. Using regression analysis, various rapid screening methods were linked into a system capable of rapidly and inexpensively assessing herbicide efficacy and spectrum of activity. Implementation of such a system could streamline early-stage herbicide development leading to field trials, potentially freeing resources for use in development of beneficial new herbicide products.

  20. A Rapid and Simple Bioassay Method for Herbicide Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-Qing Li

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, a unicellular green alga, has been used in bioassay detection of a variety of toxic compounds such as pesticides and toxic metals, but mainly using liquid culture systems. In this study, an algal lawn--agar system for semi-quantitative bioassay of herbicidal activities has been developed. Sixteen different herbicides belonging to 11 different categories were applied to paper disks and placed on green alga lawns in Petri dishes. Presence of herbicide activities was indicated by clearing zones around the paper disks on the lawn 2-3 days after application. The different groups of herbicides induced clearing zones of variable size that depended on the amount, mode of action, and chemical properties of the herbicides applied to the paper disks. This simple, paper-disk-algal system may be used to detect the presence of herbicides in water samples and act as a quick and inexpensive semi-quantitative screening for assessing herbicide contamination.

  1. Effect of herbicides on microbiological properties of soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošević Nada A.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms decompose herbicides and they may serve as bioindicators of soil changes following herbicide application. Certain microbial species may be used as bioherbicides. This study has shown that Azotobacter is most sensitive to herbicide application; it is, therefore, a reliable indicator of the biological value of soil. The numbers of this group of nitrogen-fixing bacteria decrease considerably in the period of 7-14 days after herbicide application. Simultaneously, the numbers of Actinomycetes and less so of fungi increase, indicating that these microorganisms use herbicides as sources of biogenous elements. Rate of herbicidal decomposition depends on the properties of the preparation applied herbicide dose as well as on the physical and chemical soil properties, soil moisture and temperature, ground cover, agrotechnical measures applied and the resident microbial population.

  2. Glycerine associated molecules with herbicide for controlling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ciganinha”, belongs to the family Bignoniaceae. The only way to control this plant species in crop fields is by the application of herbicides on the stump or directly on the stem. The present study aimed to analyze the effect of glycerine in controlling A.

  3. Distinct roles of ATM and ATR in the regulation of ARP8 phosphorylation to prevent chromosome translocations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jiying; Shi, Lin; Kinomura, Aiko; Fukuto, Atsuhiko; Horikoshi, Yasunori; Oma, Yukako; Harata, Masahiko; Ikura, Masae; Ikura, Tsuyoshi; Kanaar, Roland; Tashiro, Satoshi

    2018-05-08

    Chromosomal translocations are hallmarks of various types of cancers and leukemias. However, the molecular mechanisms of chromosome translocations remain largely unknown. The ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein, a DNA damage signaling regulator, facilitates DNA repair to prevent chromosome abnormalities. Previously, we showed that ATM deficiency led to the 11q23 chromosome translocation, the most frequent chromosome abnormalities in secondary leukemia. Here, we show that ARP8, a subunit of the INO80 chromatin remodeling complex, is phosphorylated after etoposide treatment. The etoposide-induced phosphorylation of ARP8 is regulated by ATM and ATR, and attenuates its interaction with INO80. The ATM-regulated phosphorylation of ARP8 reduces the excessive loading of INO80 and RAD51 onto the breakpoint cluster region. These findings suggest that the phosphorylation of ARP8, regulated by ATM, plays an important role in maintaining the fidelity of DNA repair to prevent the etoposide-induced 11q23 abnormalities. © 2018, Sun et al.

  4. Dicotyledon Weed Quantification Algorithm for Selective Herbicide Application in Maize Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laursen, Morten Stigaard; Jørgensen, Rasmus Nyholm; Midtiby, Henrik Skov; Jensen, Kjeld; Christiansen, Martin Peter; Giselsson, Thomas Mosgaard; Mortensen, Anders Krogh; Jensen, Peter Kryger

    2016-11-04

    The stricter legislation within the European Union for the regulation of herbicides that are prone to leaching causes a greater economic burden on the agricultural industry through taxation. Owing to the increased economic burden, research in reducing herbicide usage has been prompted. High-resolution images from digital cameras support the studying of plant characteristics. These images can also be utilized to analyze shape and texture characteristics for weed identification. Instead of detecting weed patches, weed density can be estimated at a sub-patch level, through which even the identification of a single plant is possible. The aim of this study is to adapt the monocot and dicot coverage ratio vision (MoDiCoVi) algorithm to estimate dicotyledon leaf cover, perform grid spraying in real time, and present initial results in terms of potential herbicide savings in maize. The authors designed and executed an automated, large-scale field trial supported by the Armadillo autonomous tool carrier robot. The field trial consisted of 299 maize plots. Half of the plots (parcels) were planned with additional seeded weeds; the other half were planned with naturally occurring weeds. The in-situ evaluation showed that, compared to conventional broadcast spraying, the proposed method can reduce herbicide usage by 65% without measurable loss in biological effect.

  5. Preventing Cartilage Degeneration in Warfighters by Elucidating Novel Mechanisms Regulating Osteocyte-Mediated Perilacunar Bone Remodeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    hypothesis using mouse models and human PTOA tissue. We aim to determine: 1) the extent to which mechanical loading regulates PLR in a TGFβ- dependent manner ...the major goals of the project? Major Goals Aim 1: Determine the extent to which mechanical loading regulates PLR in a TGFβ- dependent manner . Aim...dependent manner . Overview: We conducted all of the analyses proposed in Aim 1. As described below, these studies convincingly demonstrate that PLR

  6. 76 FR 5780 - Determination of Regulated Status of Alfalfa Genetically Engineered for Tolerance to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    ...] Determination of Regulated Status of Alfalfa Genetically Engineered for Tolerance to the Herbicide Glyphosate... decision and determination on the petition regarding the regulated status of alfalfa genetically engineered... regulated status of alfalfa genetically engineered for tolerance to the herbicide glyphosate based on an...

  7. [Effects of an Integrated Internet Addiction Prevention Program on Elementary Students' Self-regulation and Internet Addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mun, So Youn; Lee, Byoung Sook

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an integrated internet addiction prevention program and test its effects on the self-regulation and internet addiction of elementary students who are at risk for internet addiction. A quasi-experimental study with a nonequivalent control group pretest-posttest design was used. Participants were assigned to the experimental group (n=28) or control group (n=28). Contents of the program developed in this study included provision of information about internet addiction, interventions for empowerment and methods of behavioral modification. A pre-test and two post-tests were done to identify the effects of the program and their continuity. Effects were testified using Repeated measures ANOVA, simple effect analysis, and Time Contrast. The self-regulation of the experimental group after the program was significantly higher than the control group. The score for internet addiction self-diagnosis and the internet use time in the experimental group were significantly lower than the control group. The effects of the integrated internet addiction prevention program for preventing internet addiction in elementary students at risk for internet addiction were validated.

  8. N-Acetylcysteine Prevents Hypertension via Regulation of the ADMA-DDAH Pathway in Young Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nai-Chia Fan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA reduces nitric oxide (NO, thus causing hypertension. ADMA is metabolized by dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH, which can be inhibited by oxidative stress. N-Acetylcysteine (NAC, an antioxidant, can facilitate glutathione (GSH synthesis. We aimed to determine whether NAC can prevent hypertension by regulating the ADMA-DDAH pathway in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR. Rats aged 4 weeks were assigned into 3 groups (n=8/group: control Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY, SHR, and SHR receiving 2% NAC in drinking water. All rats were sacrificed at 12 weeks of age. SHR had higher blood pressure than WKY, whereas NAC-treated animals did not. SHR had elevated plasma ADMA levels, which was prevented by NAC therapy. SHR had lower renal DDAH activity than WKY, whereas NAC-treated animals did not. Renal superoxide production was higher in SHR than in WKY, whereas NAC therapy prevented it. NAC therapy was also associated with higher GSH-to-oxidized GSH ratio in SHR kidneys. Moreover, NAC reduced oxidative stress damage in SHR. The observed antihypertensive effects of NAC in young SHR might be due to restoration of DDAH activity to reduce ADMA, leading to attenuation of oxidative stress. Our findings highlight the impact of NAC on the development of hypertension by regulating ADMA-DDAH pathway.

  9. Intersections between cardiac physiology, emotion regulation and interpersonal warmth in preschoolers: Implications for drug abuse prevention from translational neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Caron A C; Skowron, Elizabeth A; Giuliano, Ryan J; Fisher, Philip A

    2016-06-01

    Early childhood is characterized by dramatic gains in emotion regulation skills that support social adjustment and mental health. Understanding the physiological substrates of healthy emotion regulation may offer new directions for altering trajectories toward initiation and escalation of substance abuse. Here, we describe the intersections between parasympathetic and sympathetic tone, emotion regulation and prosocial behavior in a high-risk sample of preschoolers. Fifty-two 3-6 year old children completed an assessment of attention regulation in response to affective stimuli. Cardiac respiratory sinus arrhythmia, an index of parasympathetic tone, and pre-ejection period, a marker of sympathetic activation, were recorded at rest and while children engaged in social interactions with their mothers and an unfamiliar research assistant. Mothers reported on children's emotional reactivity and prosocial behavior. Controlling for age and psychosocial risk, higher parasympathetic tone predicted better attention regulation in response to angry emotion and higher levels of prosocial behavior, whereas a reciprocal pattern of higher parasympathetic tone and lower sympathetic arousal predicted better attention in response to positive emotion and lower emotional reactivity. Children exposed to fewer risk factors and higher levels of maternal warmth were more able to sustain a high level of parasympathetic tone during interaction episodes. Findings suggest that autonomic measures represent biomarkers for socio-emotional competence in young children. They also point to the importance of early experiences in the establishment of physiological regulation and the promise of family-based intervention to promote healthy emotion regulation and prevent substance dependence in high-risk populations. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Juvenile hormone prevents 20-hydroxyecdysone-induced metamorphosis by regulating the phosphorylation of a newly identified broad protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Mei-Juan; Liu, Wen; Pei, Xu-Yang; Li, Xiang-Ru; He, Hong-Juan; Wang, Jin-Xing; Zhao, Xiao-Fan

    2014-09-19

    The steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) initiates insect molting and metamorphosis. By contrast, juvenile hormone (JH) prevents metamorphosis. However, the mechanism by which JH inhibits metamorphosis remains unclear. In this study, we propose that JH induces the phosphorylation of Broad isoform Z7 (BrZ7), a newly identified protein, to inhibit 20E-mediated metamorphosis in the lepidopteran insect Helicoverpa armigera. The knockdown of BrZ7 in larvae inhibited metamorphosis by repressing the expression of the 20E response gene. BrZ7 was weakly expressed and phosphorylated during larval growth but highly expressed and non-phosphorylated during metamorphosis. JH regulated the rapid phosphorylation of BrZ7 via a G-protein-coupled receptor-, phospholipase C-, and protein kinase C-triggered pathway. The phosphorylated BrZ7 bound to the 5'-regulatory region of calponin to regulate its expression in the JH pathway. Exogenous JH induced BrZ7 phosphorylation to prevent metamorphosis by suppressing 20E-related gene transcription. JH promoted non-phosphorylated calponin interacting with ultraspiracle protein to activate the JH pathway and antagonize the 20E pathway. This study reveals one of the possible mechanisms by which JH counteracts 20E-regulated metamorphosis by inducing the phosphorylation of BrZ7. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. Juvenile Hormone Prevents 20-Hydroxyecdysone-induced Metamorphosis by Regulating the Phosphorylation of a Newly Identified Broad Protein*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Mei-Juan; Liu, Wen; Pei, Xu-Yang; Li, Xiang-Ru; He, Hong-Juan; Wang, Jin-Xing; Zhao, Xiao-Fan

    2014-01-01

    The steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) initiates insect molting and metamorphosis. By contrast, juvenile hormone (JH) prevents metamorphosis. However, the mechanism by which JH inhibits metamorphosis remains unclear. In this study, we propose that JH induces the phosphorylation of Broad isoform Z7 (BrZ7), a newly identified protein, to inhibit 20E-mediated metamorphosis in the lepidopteran insect Helicoverpa armigera. The knockdown of BrZ7 in larvae inhibited metamorphosis by repressing the expression of the 20E response gene. BrZ7 was weakly expressed and phosphorylated during larval growth but highly expressed and non-phosphorylated during metamorphosis. JH regulated the rapid phosphorylation of BrZ7 via a G-protein-coupled receptor-, phospholipase C-, and protein kinase C-triggered pathway. The phosphorylated BrZ7 bound to the 5′-regulatory region of calponin to regulate its expression in the JH pathway. Exogenous JH induced BrZ7 phosphorylation to prevent metamorphosis by suppressing 20E-related gene transcription. JH promoted non-phosphorylated calponin interacting with ultraspiracle protein to activate the JH pathway and antagonize the 20E pathway. This study reveals one of the possible mechanisms by which JH counteracts 20E-regulated metamorphosis by inducing the phosphorylation of BrZ7. PMID:25096576

  12. Efeito da prevenção de produção de sementes pelas plantas daninhas e da aplicação de herbicida em jato dirigido na densidade de infestação na cultura do milho em anos sucessivos Effect of weed seed production prevention and 10-year herbicide direct spray on weed density in corn during sucessive years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Skóra Neto

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento com dez anos de duração foi realizado em Ponta Grossa-PR para avaliar o efeito da prevenção de produção de sementes pelas plantas daninhas e da aplicação de herbicida em jato dirigido na densidade de infestação em plantios direto e convencional. As plantas daninhas predominantes na área foram capim-marmelada (Brachiaria plantaginea, capim-colchão (Digitaria ciliaris, amendoim-bravo (Euphorbia heterophylla, poaia-branca (Richardia brasiliensis e guanxuma (Sida rhombifolia. O controle da frutificação das plantas daninhas durante dez anos reduziu a densidade das espécies presentes em mais de 99%. A redução foi variável entre as espécies, mas em todas elas foi mais intensa nos primeiros anos. A densidade populacional em anos subseqüentes, quando se permitia a reinfestação da área após o controle inicial das plantas daninhas (testemunha, variou conforme as condições climáticas e culturais. A aplicação de herbicida em jato-dirigido foi uma prática eficiente no controle da frutificação das plantas daninhas suscetíveis aos herbicidas, mas selecionou o capim-colchão quando o controle desta espécie foi insatisfatório. A equação que descreve o comportamento dos tratamentos sem ressemeadura e com jato dirigido foi do tipo exponencial negativa. Os resultados obtidos por meio da densidade de plantas emergidas são confirmados pela avaliação do banco de sementes em cada tratamento.A ten-year corn field experiment was conducted at Ponta Grossa (Parana, Brazil to evaluate the effect of weed seed production prevention and herbicide direct spray on weed density in successive years, under two different tillage treatments (conventional and no-till. The main weeds in the area were Alexandergrass (Brachiaria plantaginea, crabgrass (Digitaria ciliaris, wild poinsettia (Euphorbia heterophylla, pusley (Richardia brasiliensis and arrowleaf sida (Sida rhombifolia. The prevention of weed seed production during ten years

  13. Paroxetine prevented the down-regulation of astrocytic L-Glu transporters in neuroinflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koki Fujimori

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The extracellular L-glutamate (L-Glu concentration is elevated in neuroinflammation, thereby causing excitotoxicity. One of the mechanisms is down-regulation of astrocyte L-Glu transporters. Some antidepressants have anti-inflammatory effects. We therefore investigated effects of various antidepressants on the down-regulation of astrocyte L-Glu transporters in the in vitro neuroinflammation model. Among these antidepressants, only paroxetine was effective. We previously demonstrated that the down-regulation of astrocyte L-Glu transporters was caused by L-Glu released from activated microglia. We here clarified that only paroxetine inhibited L-Glu release from microglia. This is the novel action of paroxetine, which may bring advantages on the therapy of neuroinflammation.

  14. Maize, switchgrass, and ponderosa pine biochar added to soil increased herbicide sorption and decreased herbicide efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, Sharon A; Krack, Kaitlynn K; Bruggeman, Stephanie A; Papiernik, Sharon; Schumacher, Thomas E

    2016-08-02

    Biochar, a by-product of pyrolysis made from a wide array of plant biomass when producing biofuels, is a proposed soil amendment to improve soil health. This study measured herbicide sorption and efficacy when soils were treated with low (1% w/w) or high (10% w/w) amounts of biochar manufactured from different feedstocks [maize (Zea mays) stover, switchgrass (Panicum vigatum), and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa)], and treated with different post-processing techniques. Twenty-four hour batch equilibration measured sorption of (14)C-labelled atrazine or 2,4-D to two soil types with and without biochar amendments. Herbicide efficacy was measured with and without biochar using speed of seed germination tests of sensitive species. Biochar amended soils sorbed more herbicide than untreated soils, with major differences due to biochar application rate but minor differences due to biochar type or post-process handling technique. Biochar presence increased the speed of seed germination compared with herbicide alone addition. These data indicate that biochar addition to soil can increase herbicide sorption and reduce efficacy. Evaluation for site-specific biochar applications may be warranted to obtain maximal benefits without compromising other agronomic practices.

  15. Bio stimulation for the Enhanced Degradation of Herbicides in Soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanissery, R.G; Sims, G.K

    2011-01-01

    Cleanup of herbicide-contaminated soils has been a dire environmental concern since the advent of industrial era. Although microorganisms are excellent degraders of herbicide compounds in the soil, some reparation may need to be brought about, in order to stimulate them to degrade the herbicide at a faster rate in a confined time frame. Bio stimulation through the appropriate utilization of organic amendments and nutrients can accelerate the degradation of herbicides in the soil. However, effective use of bio stimulants requires thorough comprehension of the global redox cycle during the microbial degradation of the herbicide molecules in the soil. In this paper, we present the prospects of using bio stimulation as a powerful remediation strategy for the rapid cleanup of herbicide-polluted soils.

  16. Hazard and risk of herbicides for marine microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjollema, Sascha B; Martínezgarcía, Gema; van der Geest, Harm G; Kraak, Michiel H S; Booij, Petra; Vethaak, A Dick; Admiraal, Wim

    2014-04-01

    Due to their specific effect on photosynthesis, herbicides pose a potential threat to coastal and estuarine microalgae. However, comprehensive understanding of the hazard and risk of these contaminants is currently lacking. Therefore the aim of the present study was to investigate the toxic effects of four ubiquitous herbicides (atrazine, diuron, Irgarol(®)1051 and isoproturon) and herbicide mixtures on marine microalgae. Using a Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM) fluorometry based bioassay we demonstrated a clear species and herbicide specific toxicity and showed that the current environmental legislation does not protect algae sufficiently against diuron and isoproturon. Although a low actual risk of herbicides in the field was demonstrated, monitoring data revealed that concentrations occasionally reach potential effect levels. Hence it cannot be excluded that herbicides contribute to observed changes in phytoplankton species composition in coastal waters, but this is likely to occur only occasionally. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Xiao-Qing-Long-Tang shows preventive effect of asthma in an allergic asthma mouse model through neurotrophin regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background This study investigates the effect of Xiao-Qing-Long-Tang (XQLT) on neurotrophin in an established mouse model of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p)-induced acute allergic asthma and in a LA4 cell line model of lung adenoma. The effects of XQLT on the regulation of nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR) and immunoglobulin E were measured. Methods LA4 cells were stimulated with 100 μg/ml Der p 24 h and the supernatant was collected for ELISA analysis. Der p-stimulated LA4 cells with either XQLT pre-treatment or XQLT co-treatment were used to evaluate the XQLT effect on neurotrophin. Balb/c mice were sensitized on days 0 and 7 with a base-tail injection of 50 μg Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p) that was emulsified in 50 μl incomplete Freund’s adjuvant (IFA). On day 14, mice received an intra-tracheal challenge of 50 μl Der p (2 mg/ml). XQLT (1g/Kg) was administered orally to mice either on days 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 as a preventive strategy or on day 15 as a therapeutic strategy. Results XQLT inhibited expression of those NGF, BDNF and thymus-and activation-regulated cytokine (TARC) in LA4 cells that were subjected to a Der p allergen. Both preventive and therapeutic treatments with XQLT in mice reduced AHR. Preventive treatment with XQLT markedly decreased NGF in broncho-alveolar lavage fluids (BALF) and BDNF in serum, whereas therapeutic treatment reduced only serum BDNF level. The reduced NGF levels corresponded to a decrease in AHR by XQLT treatment. Reduced BALF NGF and TARC and serum BDNF levels may have been responsible for decreased eosinophil infiltration into lung tissue. Immunohistochemistry showed that p75NTR and TrkA levels were reduced in the lungs of mice under both XQLT treatment protocols, and this reduction may have been correlated with the prevention of the asthmatic reaction by XQLT. Conclusion XQLT alleviated allergic inflammation including AHR, Ig

  18. Government regulation of gambling advertising: Replacing vice prevention with consumer protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, M; Robbins, H

    1991-12-01

    From 1895 to 1975, federal law forbade gambling advertising by use of the mail, interstate commerce, and the broadcast media. Congress exempted state lotteries in 1975 and charitable gambling (including casino games) in 1988. However, the Supreme Court requires a significant government interest, directly applied and narrowly tailored, in order to justify a commercial speech regulation. The exemptions for private charity casino games has arguably destroyed any constitutionally defensible government interest in restricting for-profit casinos. Casinos in new gambling jurisdictions (such as Iowa or Illinois) will probably push the hardest for an exemption for all legal gambling, as they have the most to gain from the freedom to advertise. Federal regulation of gambling advertising will fall to the Federal Trade Commission under prohibitions against "unfair or deceptive" trade practices. But as State regulations are not well developed even in states that permit casino gambling, there is a pressing need for new research to review state laws regulating gambling advertising and to propose a model statute.

  19. Sildenafil prevents the up-regulation of transient receptor potential canonical channels in the development of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiso, Hironori; Ohba, Takayoshi; Iino, Kenji; Sato, Kazuhiro; Terata, Yutaka; Murakami, Manabu; Ono, Kyoichi; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Ito, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC1, 3 and 6) are up-regulated by ET-1. •Sildenafil inhibited hypertrophic responses (BNP, Ca entry, NFAT activation). •Sildenafil suppressed TRPC1, 3 and 6 expression. -- Abstract: Background: Transient receptor potential canonical (TRPCs) channels are up-regulated in the development of cardiac hypertrophy. Sildenafil inhibits TRPC6 activation and expression, leading to the prevention of cardiac hypertrophy. However, the effects of sildenafil on the expression of other TRPCs remain unknown. We hypothesized that in addition to its effects of TRPC6, sildenafil blocks the up-regulation of other TRPC channels to suppress cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Methods and results: In cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes, a 48 h treatment with 10 nM endothelin (ET)-1 induced hypertrophic responses characterized by nuclear factor of activated T cells activation and enhancement of brain natriuretic peptide expression and cell surface area. Co-treatment with sildenafil (1 μM, 48 h) inhibited these ET-1-induced hypertrophic responses. Although ET-1 enhanced the gene expression of TRPCs, sildenafil inhibited the enhanced gene expression of TRPC1, C3 and C6. Moreover, co-treatment with sildenafil abolished the augmentation of SOCE in the hypertrophied cardiomyocytes. Conclusions: These results suggest that sildenafil inhibits cardiomyocyte hypertrophy by suppressing the up-regulation of TRPC expression

  20. Electrochemical degradation and mineralization of glyphosate herbicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Nam; Drogui, Patrick; Doan, Tuan Linh; Le, Thanh Son; Nguyen, Hoai Chau

    2017-12-01

    The presence of herbicide is a concern for both human and ecological health. Glyphosate is occasionally detected as water contaminants in agriculture areas where the herbicide is used extensively. The removal of glyphosate in synthetic solution using advanced oxidation process is a possible approach for remediation of contaminated waters. The ability of electrochemical oxidation for the degradation and mineralization of glyphosate herbicide was investigated using Ti/PbO 2 anode. The current intensity, treatment time, initial concentration and pH of solution are the influent parameters on the degradation efficiency. An experimental design methodology was applied to determine the optimal condition (in terms of cost/effectiveness) based on response surface methodology. Glyphosate concentration (C 0  = 16.9 mg L -1 ) decreased up to 0.6 mg L -1 when the optimal conditions were imposed (current intensity of 4.77 A and treatment time of 173 min). The removal efficiencies of glyphosate and total organic carbon were 95 ± 16% and 90.31%, respectively. This work demonstrates that electrochemical oxidation is a promising process for degradation and mineralization of glyphosate.

  1. Phytotoxicity of Four Photosystem II Herbicides to Tropical Seagrasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Florita; Collier, Catherine J.; Mercurio, Philip; Negri, Andrew P.

    2013-01-01

    Coastal waters of the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) are contaminated with agricultural pesticides, including the photosystem II (PSII) herbicides which are the most frequently detected at the highest concentrations. Designed to control weeds, these herbicides are equally potent towards non-target marine species, and the close proximity of seagrass meadows to flood plumes has raised concerns that seagrasses may be the species most threatened by herbicides from runoff. While previous work has identified effects of PSII herbicides on the photophysiology, growth and mortality in seagrass, there is little comparative quantitative toxicity data for seagrass. Here we applied standard ecotoxicology protocols to quantify the concentrations of four priority PSII herbicides that inhibit photochemistry by 10, 20 and 50% (IC10, IC20 and IC50) over 72 h in two common seagrass species from the GBR lagoon. The photosystems of seagrasses Zostera muelleri and Halodule uninervis were shown to be generally more sensitive to the PSII herbicides Diuron, Atrazine, Hexazinone and Tebuthiuron than corals and tropical microalgae. The herbicides caused rapid inhibition of effective quantum yield (∆F/F m ′), indicating reduced photosynthesis and maximum effective yields (Fv/Fm) corresponding to chronic damage to PSII. The PSII herbicide concentrations which affected photosynthesis have been exceeded in the GBR lagoon and all of the herbicides inhibited photosynthesis at concentrations lower than current marine park guidelines. There is a strong likelihood that the impacts of light limitation from flood plumes and reduced photosynthesis from PSII herbicides exported in the same waters would combine to affect seagrass productivity. Given that PSII herbicides have been demonstrated to affect seagrass at environmental concentrations, we suggest that revision of environmental guidelines and further efforts to reduce PSII herbicide concentrations in floodwaters may both help protect seagrass meadows

  2. Phytotoxicity of four photosystem II herbicides to tropical seagrasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Florita; Collier, Catherine J; Mercurio, Philip; Negri, Andrew P

    2013-01-01

    Coastal waters of the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) are contaminated with agricultural pesticides, including the photosystem II (PSII) herbicides which are the most frequently detected at the highest concentrations. Designed to control weeds, these herbicides are equally potent towards non-target marine species, and the close proximity of seagrass meadows to flood plumes has raised concerns that seagrasses may be the species most threatened by herbicides from runoff. While previous work has identified effects of PSII herbicides on the photophysiology, growth and mortality in seagrass, there is little comparative quantitative toxicity data for seagrass. Here we applied standard ecotoxicology protocols to quantify the concentrations of four priority PSII herbicides that inhibit photochemistry by 10, 20 and 50% (IC10, IC20 and IC50) over 72 h in two common seagrass species from the GBR lagoon. The photosystems of seagrasses Zosteramuelleri and Haloduleuninervis were shown to be generally more sensitive to the PSII herbicides Diuron, Atrazine, Hexazinone and Tebuthiuron than corals and tropical microalgae. The herbicides caused rapid inhibition of effective quantum yield (∆F/F m '), indicating reduced photosynthesis and maximum effective yields (Fv/Fm ) corresponding to chronic damage to PSII. The PSII herbicide concentrations which affected photosynthesis have been exceeded in the GBR lagoon and all of the herbicides inhibited photosynthesis at concentrations lower than current marine park guidelines. There is a strong likelihood that the impacts of light limitation from flood plumes and reduced photosynthesis from PSII herbicides exported in the same waters would combine to affect seagrass productivity. Given that PSII herbicides have been demonstrated to affect seagrass at environmental concentrations, we suggest that revision of environmental guidelines and further efforts to reduce PSII herbicide concentrations in floodwaters may both help protect seagrass meadows of

  3. Phytotoxicity of Four Photosystem II Herbicides to Tropical Seagrasses

    OpenAIRE

    Flores, Florita; Collier, Catherine J.; Mercurio, Philip; Negri, Andrew P.

    2013-01-01

    Coastal waters of the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) are contaminated with agricultural pesticides, including the photosystem II (PSII) herbicides which are the most frequently detected at the highest concentrations. Designed to control weeds, these herbicides are equally potent towards non-target marine species, and the close proximity of seagrass meadows to flood plumes has raised concerns that seagrasses may be the species most threatened by herbicides from runoff. While previous work has identi...

  4. Phytotoxicity of four photosystem II herbicides to tropical seagrasses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florita Flores

    Full Text Available Coastal waters of the Great Barrier Reef (GBR are contaminated with agricultural pesticides, including the photosystem II (PSII herbicides which are the most frequently detected at the highest concentrations. Designed to control weeds, these herbicides are equally potent towards non-target marine species, and the close proximity of seagrass meadows to flood plumes has raised concerns that seagrasses may be the species most threatened by herbicides from runoff. While previous work has identified effects of PSII herbicides on the photophysiology, growth and mortality in seagrass, there is little comparative quantitative toxicity data for seagrass. Here we applied standard ecotoxicology protocols to quantify the concentrations of four priority PSII herbicides that inhibit photochemistry by 10, 20 and 50% (IC10, IC20 and IC50 over 72 h in two common seagrass species from the GBR lagoon. The photosystems of seagrasses Zosteramuelleri and Haloduleuninervis were shown to be generally more sensitive to the PSII herbicides Diuron, Atrazine, Hexazinone and Tebuthiuron than corals and tropical microalgae. The herbicides caused rapid inhibition of effective quantum yield (∆F/F m ', indicating reduced photosynthesis and maximum effective yields (Fv/Fm corresponding to chronic damage to PSII. The PSII herbicide concentrations which affected photosynthesis have been exceeded in the GBR lagoon and all of the herbicides inhibited photosynthesis at concentrations lower than current marine park guidelines. There is a strong likelihood that the impacts of light limitation from flood plumes and reduced photosynthesis from PSII herbicides exported in the same waters would combine to affect seagrass productivity. Given that PSII herbicides have been demonstrated to affect seagrass at environmental concentrations, we suggest that revision of environmental guidelines and further efforts to reduce PSII herbicide concentrations in floodwaters may both help protect

  5. Occurrence of dichloroacetamide herbicide safeners and co-applied herbicides in midwestern U.S. streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Emily; Hladik, Michelle; Kolpin, Dana W.

    2018-01-01

    Dichloroacetamide safeners (e.g., AD-67, benoxacor, dichlormid, and furilazole) are co-applied with chloroacetanilide herbicides to protect crops from herbicide toxicity. While such safeners have been used since the early 1970s, there are minimal data about safener usage, occurrence in streams, or potential ecological effects. This study focused on one of these research gaps, occurrence in streams. Seven Midwestern U.S. streams (five in Iowa and two in Illinois), with extensive row-crop agriculture, were sampled at varying frequencies from spring 2016 through summer 2017. All four safeners were detected at least once; furilazole was the most frequently detected (31%), followed by benoxacor (29%), dichlormid (15%), and AD-67 (2%). The maximum concentrations ranged from 42 to 190 ng/L. Stream detections and concentrations of safeners appear to be driven by a combination of timing of application (spring following herbicide application) and precipitation events. Detected concentrations were below known toxicity levels for aquatic organisms.

  6. Uses of thaxtomin and thaxtomin compositions as herbicides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koivunen, Marja; Marrone, Pamela

    2016-12-27

    There is a need for a selective, low-risk herbicide that can be used to control weeds in cereal cultures and turf. The present invention discloses that a bacterial secondary metabolite, thaxtomin and optionally another herbicide is an effective herbicide on broadleaved, sedge and grass weeds. Thaxtomin A and structurally similar compounds can be used as natural herbicides to control the germination and growth of weeds in cereal, turf grass, Timothy grass and pasture grass cultures with no phytotoxicity to these crops. As a natural, non-toxic compound, thaxtomin can be used as a safe alternative for weed control in both conventional and organic farming and gardening systems.

  7. Herbicide injury induces DNA methylome alterations in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunjune Kim

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of herbicide-resistant weeds is a major threat facing modern agriculture. Over 470 weedy-plant populations have developed resistance to herbicides. Traditional evolutionary mechanisms are not always sufficient to explain the rapidity with which certain weed populations adapt in response to herbicide exposure. Stress-induced epigenetic changes, such as alterations in DNA methylation, are potential additional adaptive mechanisms for herbicide resistance. We performed methylC sequencing of Arabidopsis thaliana leaves that developed after either mock treatment or two different sub-lethal doses of the herbicide glyphosate, the most-used herbicide in the history of agriculture. The herbicide injury resulted in 9,205 differentially methylated regions (DMRs across the genome. In total, 5,914 of these DMRs were induced in a dose-dependent manner, wherein the methylation levels were positively correlated to the severity of the herbicide injury, suggesting that plants can modulate the magnitude of methylation changes based on the severity of the stress. Of the 3,680 genes associated with glyphosate-induced DMRs, only 7% were also implicated in methylation changes following biotic or salinity stress. These results demonstrate that plants respond to herbicide stress through changes in methylation patterns that are, in general, dose-sensitive and, at least partially, stress-specific.

  8. Prevention of suicide with regulations aimed at restricting access to highly hazardous pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnell, David; Knipe, Duleeka; Chang, Shu Sen

    2017-01-01

    Background: Pesticide self-poisoning accounts for 14–20% of suicides worldwide. Regulation aimed at restricting access to pesticides or banning highly hazardous pesticides is one approach to reducing these deaths. We systematically reviewed the evidence of the effectiveness of pesticide regulation...... in reducing the incidence of pesticide suicides and overall suicides. Methods: We did a systematic review of the international evidence. We searched MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Embase for studies published between Jan 1, 1960, and Dec 31, 2016, which investigated the effect of national or regional bans, and sales...... or import restrictions, on the availability of one or more pesticides and the incidence of suicide in different countries. We excluded other interventions aimed at limiting community access to pesticides. We extracted data from studies presenting pesticide suicide data and overall suicide data from before...

  9. Glufosinate (phosphinothricin), a natural amino acid with unexpected herbicidal properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoerlein, G

    1994-01-01

    Glufosinate ammonium (phosphinothricin ammonium) (GLA) is the active ingredient of Basta and several other herbicides used worldwide. It is produced as part of the tripeptide L-phosphinothricyl-L-alanyl-L-alanin, which was first isolated from Streptomyces viridichromogenes or Streptomyces hygroscopicus. Its structure is confirmed by degradation and synthesis. Several processes for the preparation of D,L- and L-phosphinothricin are described. Glufosinate is a structural analog of glutamate and inhibits the glutamine synthetase. The result is a rapid build-up of a high ammonia level and a concomitant depletion of glutamine and several other amino acids in the plant. These effects are accompanied by a rapid decline of photosynthetic CO2-fixation and are followed by chlorosis and desiccation. The results of numerous toxicological studies show that glufosinate ammonium and its commercial formulations are safe for users and consumers under the conditions of recommended use. The fast and complete degradation in soil and surface water prevents movement of residues into groundwater. The toxicological threshold levels for all the nontarget organisms tested are well above the potential exposure levels and therefore do not reflect any hazard for nontarget organisms in the ecosystem. Basta is a nonselective foliar applied herbicide for the control of undesirable mono- and dicotyledonous plants in orchards, vineyards, and plantations for minimum tillage, and as a harvest aid. A synthetic phosphinothricin acetyltransferase (PAT) gene has been introduced via Agrobacterium tumefaciens into dicot crops, such as like tobacco, tomato, spring and winter rapeseed, alfalfa, and several horticultural crops. The PAT gene was also successfully introduced into maize protoplasts that could be regenerated into fertile plants. All transgenic crop plants tolerated a two- to threefold field dosage of Basta.

  10. Regulations, policies and practices concerning work stress prevention and improving well-being at work in Sweden, Great-Britain, Germany, France and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gier, E. de; Kompier, M.; Draaisma, D.; Smulders, P.

    1994-01-01

    At the request of the Dutch Ministry of Social Affairs and Employment, the TNO Institute of Preventive Health Care (NIPG) carried out a comparative survey of regulations, policies and practices in the Netherlands, Sweden, the United Kingdom, Germany and France with regard to the prevention of work

  11. The effect of triazine - and urea - type herbicides on photosynthetic apparatus in cucumber leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Jerzykiewicz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available About a half of the herbicides used at present in agnculture inhibit the light reactions in photosynthesis. Triazines and phenylureas shut down the photosynthetic process in susceptible plants by binding to specific sites within the plants photosystem II (PS II complex. Both of them bind at the QB site on the Dl protein of PS II, and prevent the transport of electrons between the primary electron acceptor Q and the plastoquinone (PQ. Herbicides can be highly toxic to human and animal health (triazines are possible human carcinogens. Their indiscriminate use has serious environmental implications, for example pollution of soil and water. We compare two heibicides to investigate the one of lowest environmental toxicity but of high toxicity to weeds.

  12. Overexpression of Iron Superoxide Dismutase in Transformed Poplar Modifies the Regulation of Photosynthesis at Low CO2 Partial Pressures or Following Exposure to the Prooxidant Herbicide Methyl Viologen1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arisi, Ana-Carolina M.; Cornic, Gabriel; Jouanin, Lise; Foyer, Christine H.

    1998-01-01

    Chloroplast-targeted overexpression of an Fe superoxide dismutase (SOD) from Arabidopsis thaliana resulted in substantially increased foliar SOD activities. Ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and monodehydroascorbate reductase activities were similar in the leaves from all of the lines, but dehydroascorbate reductase activity was increased in the leaves of the FeSOD transformants relative to untransformed controls. Foliar H2O2, ascorbate, and glutathione contents were comparable in all lines of plants. Irradiance-dependent changes in net CO2 assimilation and chlorophyll a fluorescence quenching parameters were similar in all lines both in air (21% O2) and at low (1%) O2. CO2-response curves for photosynthesis showed similar net CO2-exchange characteristics in all lines. In contrast, values of photochemical quenching declined in leaves from untransformed controls at intercellular CO2 (Ci) values below 200 μL L−1 but remained constant with decreasing Ci in leaves of FeSOD transformants. When the O2 concentration was decreased from 21 to 1%, the effect of FeSOD overexpression on photochemical quenching at limiting Ci was abolished. At high light (1000 μmol m−2 s−1) a progressive decrease in the ratio of variable (Fv) to maximal (Fm) fluorescence was observed with decreasing temperature. At 6oC the high-light-induced decrease in the Fv/Fm ratio was partially prevented by low O2 but values were comparable in all lines. Methyl viologen caused decreased Fv/Fm ratios, but this was less marked in the FeSOD transformants than in the untransformed controls. These observations suggest that the rate of superoxide dismutation limits flux through the Mehler-peroxidase cycle in certain conditions. PMID:9625709

  13. The Relationship Between Maternal Domestic Violence and Infant and Toddlers' Emotional Regulation: Highlighting the Need for Preventive Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyer, Chelsea; Ogbonnaya, Ijeoma Nwabuzor

    2017-11-01

    In an effort to further understand the impact of domestic violence (DV) on infant and toddlers' development, this research utilized data from the second cohort of National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NSCAW II) to examine the relationship between maternal DV and infant and toddlers' emotional regulation, and determine whether mothers' receipt of DV services mediated this relationship. The sample was limited to children aged 0 to 3 years and included (a) infants less than 1 year old ( n = 603), (b) infants 1 to less than 2 years old ( n = 310), and (c) toddlers 2 to 3 years old ( n = 268). Infant/toddlers' emotional regulation was measured using mothers' response on the How My Infant/Toddler/Child Usually Acts questionnaire. In addition, data were collected to assess whether (a) active DV was present during the time of the Child Protective Services (CPS) investigation and (b) mothers received DV services during the past year. Study research questions were examined using a series of multiple regression analyses. Mediation was tested based on Baron and Kenny's recommended model for establishing mediation. The mediational model was not found to be significant; however, a positive relationship existed between maternal DV and emotional regulation among infants aged less than 1 year old (β = 1.61, p = .039). There were no statistically significant relationships between DV and emotional regulation in the other age groups. These findings highlight the need to provide CPS-involved families victimized by DV with services that focus on preventing poor infant emotional regulation.

  14. Triazine herbicides inhibit relaxin signaling and disrupt nitric oxide homeostasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Si Eun; Lim, Sa Rang; Choi, Hyung-kyoon; Bae, Jeehyeon, E-mail: jeehyeon@cau.ac.kr

    2016-09-15

    Triazines are herbicides that are widely used worldwide, and we previously observed that the maternal exposure of mice to simazine (50 or 500 μg/kg) resulted in smaller ovaries and uteri of their female offspring. Here, we investigated the underlying mechanism that may account for the reproductive dysfunction induced by simazine. We found that following maternal exposure, simazine is transmitted to the offspring, as evidenced by its presence in the offspring ovaries. Analyses of the simazine-exposed offspring revealed that the expression of the relaxin hormone receptor, relaxin-family peptide receptor 1 (RXFP1), prominently decreased in their ovaries and uteri. In addition, downstream target genes of the relaxin pathway including nitric oxide (NO) synthase 2 (Nos2), Nos3, matrix metallopeptidase 9 (Mmp9), and vascular endothelial growth factor (Vegf) were downregulated in their ovaries. Moreover, AKT and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) levels and their phosphorylated active forms decreased in simazine-exposed ovaries. In vitro exposure of the human ovarian granulosa cells (KGN) and uterine endometrium cells (Hec-1A) to very low concentrations (0.001 to 1 nM) of triazines including atrazine, terbuthylazine, and propazine repressed NO production with a concurrent reduction in RXFP1, NOS2, and NOS3. The inhibitory action of triazines on NO release was dependent on RXFP1, phosphoinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT, and ERK. Radioligand-binding assay also confirmed that triazines competitively inhibited the binding of relaxin to its receptor. Therefore, the present study suggests that triazine herbicides act as endocrine disrupters by interfering with relaxin hormone signaling. Thus, further evaluation of their impact on human health is imperative. - Highlights: • Triazines downregulate critical molecules involved in the relaxin signaling pathway. • Triazines act as potent antagonists of binding of relaxin to its receptor. • Triazines disrupt nitric oxide

  15. DNA analysis of herbarium Specimens of the grass weed Alopecurus myosuroides reveals herbicide resistance pre-dated herbicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Délye, Christophe; Deulvot, Chrystel; Chauvel, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase) alleles carrying one point mutation that confers resistance to herbicides have been identified in arable grass weed populations where resistance has evolved under the selective pressure of herbicides. In an effort to determine whether herbicide resistance evolves from newly arisen mutations or from standing genetic variation in weed populations, we used herbarium specimens of the grass weed Alopecurus myosuroides to seek mutant ACCase alleles carrying an isoleucine-to-leucine substitution at codon 1781 that endows herbicide resistance. These specimens had been collected between 1788 and 1975, i.e., prior to the commercial release of herbicides inhibiting ACCase. Among the 734 specimens investigated, 685 yielded DNA suitable for PCR. Genotyping the ACCase locus using the derived Cleaved Amplified Polymorphic Sequence (dCAPS) technique identified one heterozygous mutant specimen that had been collected in 1888. Occurrence of a mutant codon encoding a leucine residue at codon 1781 at the heterozygous state was confirmed in this specimen by sequencing, clearly demonstrating that resistance to herbicides can pre-date herbicides in weeds. We conclude that point mutations endowing resistance to herbicides without having associated deleterious pleiotropic effects can be present in weed populations as part of their standing genetic variation, in frequencies higher than the mutation frequency, thereby facilitating their subsequent selection by herbicide applications.

  16. A Biochemical Approach to Understanding the Fanconi Anemia Pathway-Regulated Nucleases in Genome Maintenance for Preventing Bone Marrow Failure and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    the Fanconi Anemia Pathway- Regulated Nucleases in Genome Maintenance for Preventing Bone Marrow Failure and Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...GRANT NUMBER 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A Biochemical Approach to Understanding the Fanconi Anemia Pathway-Regulated Nucleases in Genome Maintenance for...Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Fanconi anemia is the most prevalent inherited BMF syndromes, caused by mutations in

  17. Adsorption of chloroacetanilide herbicides on soil and its components. III. Influence of clay acidity, humic acid coating and herbicide structure on acetanilide herbicide adsorption on homoionic clays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei-ping; Fang, Zhuo; Liu, Hui-jun; Yang, Wei-chun

    2002-04-01

    Adsorption of chloroacetanilide herbicides on homoionic montmorillonite, soil humic acid, and their mixtures was studied by coupling batch equilibration and FT-IR analysis. Adsorption isotherms of acetochlor, alachlor, metolachlor and propachlor on Ca(2+)-, Mg(2+)-, Al(3+)- and Fe(3+)-saturated clays were well described by the Freundlich equation. Regardless of the type of exchange cations, Kf decreased in the order of metolachlor > acetolachlor > alachlor > propachlor on the same clay. FT-IR spectra showed that the carbonyl group of the herbicide molecule was involved in binding, probably via H-bond with water molecules in the clay interlayer. The type and position of substitutions around the carbonyl group may have affected the electronegativity of oxygen, thus influencing the relative adsorption of these herbicides. For the same herbicide, adsorption on clay increased in the order of Mg2+ < Ca2+ < Al3+ < or = Fe3+ which coincided with the increasing acidity of homoionic clays. Acidity of cations may have affected the protonation of water, and thus the strength of H-bond between the clay water and herbicide. Complexation of clay and humic acid resulted in less adsorption than that expected from independent adsorption by the individual constituents. The effect varied with herbicides, but the greatest decrease in adsorption occurred at a 60:40 clay-to-humic acid ratio for all the herbicides. Causes for the decreased adsorption need to be characterized to better understand adsorption mechanisms and predict adsorption from soil compositions.

  18. Sarcospan Regulates Cardiac Isoproterenol Response and Prevents Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy-Associated Cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvatiyar, Michelle S; Marshall, Jamie L; Nguyen, Reginald T; Jordan, Maria C; Richardson, Vanitra A; Roos, Kenneth P; Crosbie-Watson, Rachelle H

    2015-12-23

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy is a fatal cardiac and skeletal muscle disease resulting from mutations in the dystrophin gene. We have previously demonstrated that a dystrophin-associated protein, sarcospan (SSPN), ameliorated Duchenne muscular dystrophy skeletal muscle degeneration by activating compensatory pathways that regulate muscle cell adhesion (laminin-binding) to the extracellular matrix. Conversely, loss of SSPN destabilized skeletal muscle adhesion, hampered muscle regeneration, and reduced force properties. Given the importance of SSPN to skeletal muscle, we investigated the consequences of SSPN ablation in cardiac muscle and determined whether overexpression of SSPN into mdx mice ameliorates cardiac disease symptoms associated with Duchenne muscular dystrophy cardiomyopathy. SSPN-null mice exhibited cardiac enlargement, exacerbated cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, and increased fibrosis in response to β-adrenergic challenge (isoproterenol; 0.8 mg/day per 2 weeks). Biochemical analysis of SSPN-null cardiac muscle revealed reduced sarcolemma localization of many proteins with a known role in cardiomyopathy pathogenesis: dystrophin, the sarcoglycans (α-, δ-, and γ-subunits), and β1D integrin. Transgenic overexpression of SSPN in Duchenne muscular dystrophy mice (mdx(TG)) improved cardiomyofiber cell adhesion, sarcolemma integrity, cardiac functional parameters, as well as increased expression of compensatory transmembrane proteins that mediate attachment to the extracellular matrix. SSPN regulates sarcolemmal expression of laminin-binding complexes that are critical to cardiac muscle function and protects against transient and chronic injury, including inherited cardiomyopathy. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  19. Controlled Release Formulations of Auxinic Herbicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Witold J.; Siłowiecki, Andrzej.; Romanowska, Iwona; Glazek, Mariola; Bajor, Justyna; Cieciwa, Katarzyna; Rychter, Piotr

    2013-04-01

    Controlled release formulations are applied extensively for the release of active ingredients such as plant protection agents and fertilizers in response to growing concern for ecological problems associated with increased use of plant protection chemicals required for intensive agricultural practices [1]. We synthesized oligomeric mixtures of (R,S)-3-hydroxy butyric acid chemically bonded with 2,4-D, Dicamba and MCPA herbicides (HBA) respectively, and determined their molecular structure and molecular weight dispersion by the size exclusion chromatography, proton magnetic resonance spectrometry and electro-spray ionization mass spectrometry. Further we carried out bioassays of herbicidal effectiveness of the HBA herbicides vs. series of dicotyledonous weeds and crop injury tests [2, 3, 4]. Field bioassays were accomplished according to the EPPO standards [5]. Groups of representative weeds (the development stages in the BCCH scale: 10 - 30) were selected as targets. Statistical variabilities were assessed by the Fisher LSD test for plants treated with the studied herbicides in form of HBA oligomers, the reference herbicides in form of dimethyl ammonium salts (DMA), and untreated plants. No statistically significant differences in the crop injuries caused by the HBA vs. the DMA reference formulation were observed. The effectiveness of the HBA herbicides was lower through the initial period (ca. 2 weeks) relative to the DMA salts, but a significant increase in the effectiveness of the HBA systems followed during the remaining fraction of each assay. After 6 weeks all observed efficiencies approached 100%. The death of weeds treated with the HBA herbicides was delayed when compared with the DMA reference herbicides. The delayed uptake observed for the HBA oligomers relative to the DMA salts was due to controlled release phenomena. In case of the DMA salts the total amount of active ingredients was available at the target site. By contrast, the amount of an active

  20. The regulations for enforcing the law concerning prevention from radiation hazards due to radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    Those who want to use, sell or dispose of radioactive isotopes as occupation should file applications for approval attached with the required documents. Those who want to change the approved items of use, sale or disposal of radioactive isotopes should file applications for approval. The number of documents for the application of approval are one original and four duplicates. The use, refilling, storage, transportation and disposal of radioactive isotopes should be carried out in accordance with the specified standards, respectively. Radiation dose rate, density of particle fluxes, and the state of contamination caused by radioactive isotopes should be measured in the specified places at the specified frequency, and the records of such measurements should be kept. Prevention of radiation injuries including the measures for finding those who suffer from radiation injuries and the measures for those who underwent or might undergo radiation injuries should be carried out in accordance with the respective specifications. (Rikitake, Y.)

  1. Auxinic herbicides, mechanisms of action, and weed resistance: A look into recent plant science advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Jacob Christoffoleti

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Auxin governs dynamic cellular processes involved at several stages of plant growth and development. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms employed by auxin in light of recent scientific advances, with a focus on synthetic auxins as herbicides and synthetic auxin resistance mechanisms. Two auxin receptors were reported. The plasma membrane receptor ABP1 (Auxin Binding Protein 1 alters the structure and arrangement of actin filaments and microtubules, leading to plant epinasty and reducing peroxisomes and mitochondria mobility in the cell environment. The second auxin receptor is the gene transcription pathway regulated by the SCFTir/AFB ubiquitination complex, which destroys transcription repressor proteins that interrupt Auxin Response Factor (ARF activation. As a result mRNA related with Abscisic Acid (ABA and ethylene are transcribed, producing high quantities of theses hormones. Their associated action leads to high production of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS, leading to tissue and plant death. Recently, another ubiquitination pathway which is described as a new auxin signaling route is the F-box protein S-Phase Kinase-Associated Protein 2A (SKP2A. It is active in cell division regulation and there is evidence that auxin herbicides can deregulate the SKP2A pathway, which leads to severe defects in plant development. In this discussion, we propose that SFCSKP2A auxin binding site alteration could be a new auxinic herbicide resistance mechanism, a concept which may contribute to the current progress in plant biology in its quest to clarify the many questions that still surround auxin herbicide mechanisms of action and the mechanisms of weed resistance.

  2. Sarmentine, a natural herbicide from Piper species with multiple herbicide mechanisms of action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmentine, 1-(1-pyrrolidinyl)-(2E,4E)-2,4-decadien-1-one, is a natural amide isolated from the fruits of Piper species. The compound has a number of interesting biological properties, including its broad-spectrum activity on weeds as a contact herbicide. Initial studies highlighted a similarity in ...

  3. Acyl coenzyme A thioesterase 7 regulates neuronal fatty acid metabolism to prevent neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Jessica M; Wong, G William; Wolfgang, Michael J

    2013-05-01

    Numerous neurological diseases are associated with dysregulated lipid metabolism; however, the basic metabolic control of fatty acid metabolism in neurons remains enigmatic. Here we have shown that neurons have abundant expression and activity of the long-chain cytoplasmic acyl coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) thioesterase 7 (ACOT7) to regulate lipid retention and metabolism. Unbiased and targeted metabolomic analysis of fasted mice with a conditional knockout of ACOT7 in the nervous system, Acot7(N-/-), revealed increased fatty acid flux into multiple long-chain acyl-CoA-dependent pathways. The alterations in brain fatty acid metabolism were concomitant with a loss of lean mass, hypermetabolism, hepatic steatosis, dyslipidemia, and behavioral hyperexcitability in Acot7(N-/-) mice. These failures in adaptive energy metabolism are common in neurodegenerative diseases. In agreement, Acot7(N-/-) mice exhibit neurological dysfunction and neurodegeneration. These data show that ACOT7 counterregulates fatty acid metabolism in neurons and protects against neurotoxicity.

  4. EFSA Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO); Scientific Opinion on application (EFSAGMO- NL-2007-39) for the placing on the market of insect resistant and herbicide tolerant genetically modified maize MON89034 x MON88017 for food and feed uses, import and processing under Regulation (EC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ilona Kryspin

    This opinion reports on an evaluation of a risk assessment for placing on the market the genetically modified herbicide tolerant and insect resistant maize MON89034 x MON88017 for food and feed uses, import and processing. Conventional breeding methods were used in the production of maize MON89034...

  5. Predicting herbicidal plant mortality with mobile photosynthesis meters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempenaar, C.; Lotz, L.A.P.; Snel, J.F.H.; Smutny, V.; Zhang, H.J.

    2011-01-01

    Herbicide dose optimisation, i.e. maximising weed control and crop yield with herbicide dose, is an important part of integrated weed management strategies. However, the adoption of optimised dose technology and variable rate application has been limited because of the relatively long period between

  6. Herbicide volatilization trumps runoff losses, a multi-year investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surface runoff and volatilization are two processes critical to herbicide off-site transport. To determine the relevance of these off-site transport mechanisms, runoff and turbulent vapor fluxes were simultaneously monitored on the same site for eight years. Site location, herbicide formulations, ...

  7. In vitro screening of selected herbicides on rhizosphere mycoflora ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vitro screening of five selected herbicides at different concentrations on rhizosphere mycoflora from yellow pepper (capsicum annum L var. Nsukka yellow) seedlings at Nsukka were investigated. The herbicides employed for this study were Paraquat, Glyphosate, Primextra, Atrazine and Linuron. The isolated rhizosphere ...

  8. Effects of acetochlor (herbicide) on the survival and avoidance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-06

    Jul 6, 2011 ... These results suggested that acetochlor residues had negligible effects on P. birmanica and L. terrestris. Michalkova and Pekar (2009) and Yardim and Edwards (1998) also reported negligible effects of herbicide (glyphosate) on Pardosa agrestis. Although, we also observed negligible effects of herbicide.

  9. Estimation of herbicide bioconcentration in sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Luiz Cerdeira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane is an important crop for sugar and biofuel production in Brazil. Growers depend greatly on herbicides to produce it. This experiment used herbicide physical-chemical and sugarcane plant physiological properties to simulate herbicide uptake and estimate the bioconcentration factor (BCF. The (BCF was calculated for the steady state chemical equilibrium between the plant herbicide concentration and soil solution. Plant-water partition coefficient (sugarcane bagasse-water partition coefficient, herbicide dilution rate, metabolism and dissipation in the soil-plant system, as well as total plant biomass factors were used. In addition, we added Tebuthiuron at rate of 5.0kg a.i. ha-1 to physically test the model. In conclusion, the model showed the following ranking of herbicide uptake: sulfentrazone > picloram >tebuthiuron > hexazinone > metribuzin > simazine > ametryn > diuron > clomazone > acetochlor. Furthermore, the highest BCF herbicides showed higher Groundwater Ubiquity Score (GUS index indicating high leaching potential. We did not find tebuthiuron in plants after three months of herbicide application

  10. Plant Community Diversity After Herbicide Control of Spotted Knapweed

    OpenAIRE

    United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service

    1992-01-01

    Herbicides were applied to four west-central Montana sites with light to moderate spotted knapweed (Centaurea maculosa Lam.) infestations. Althought knapweed suppression was high, 2 years after the spraying the communities were not converted to grass monocultures. No large declines in plant diversity were caused by the herbicides, and small depressions were probably transitory. By the third year, diversity had increased.

  11. economics of herbicide weed management in wheat in ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Effective use of herbicides for the control of annual grass and broadleaf weeds in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was not a reality in Ethiopia, until in recent years. This study aimed at evaluating different post-emergence herbicides against annual grasses and broadleaf weeds in wheat for selection and incorporation into an ...

  12. Efficacy and economics of different herbicides in aerobic rice system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aerobic rice system, the most promising irrigation water saving rice production technology, is highly impeded by severe weed pressure. Weed control through the use of same herbicide causes development of herbicide resistant weed biotypes and serious problem in weed management. This study was aimed at finding out ...

  13. Herbicide-resistant crop biotechnology: potential and pitfalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbicide-resistant crops are an important agricultural biotechnology that can enable farmers to effectively control weeds without harming their crops. Glyphosate-resistant (i.e. Roundup Ready) crops have been the most commercially successful varieties of herbicide-resistant crops and have been plan...

  14. Effect of four herbicides on microbial population, soil organic matter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of four herbicides (atrazine, primeextra, paraquat and glyphosate) on soil microbial population, soil organic matter and dehydrogenase activity was assessed over a period of six weeks. Soil samples from cassava farms were treated with herbicides at company recommended rates. Soil dehydrogenase activity was ...

  15. Integrated Effect of Seeding Rate, Herbicide Dosage and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    yield reductions of 26 to 63% across four bread wheat cultivars at 90 weed seedlings m-2 in. Ethiopia. Before herbicides were widely available, farmers employed cultural measures to manage weed population. Wild oat management systems have evolved to the point that producers rely on herbicides to the virtual exclusion ...

  16. ACETANILIDE HERBICIDE DEGRADATION PRODUCTS BY LC/MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acetanilide herbicides are frequently applied in the U.S. on crops (corn, soybeans, popcorn, etc.) to control broadleaf and annual weeds. The acetanilide and acetamide herbicides currently registered for use in the U.S. are alachlor, acetochlor, metolachlor, propachlor, flufen...

  17. Evaluation of generic and branded herbicides : technical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    As with other generic brand products in the marketplace, generic herbicides often have a lower initial product cost than : their brand-name counterparts. While the purchase price of herbicides is important to TxDOT, it is essential to look at : more ...

  18. Selective Herbicides for Cultivation of Eucalyptus urograndis Clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick J. Minogue

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Competition control is essential for successful eucalyptus plantation establishment, yet few selective herbicides have been identified. Five herbicides, flumioxazin, imazamox, imazapic, oxyfluorfen, and sulfometuron methyl, were evaluated for selective weed control in the establishment of genetically modified frost tolerant Eucalyptus urograndis clones. Herbicides were applied at two or three rates, either before or after weed emergence, and compared to a nontreated control and to near-complete weed control obtained with glyphosate directed sprays. Applications prior to weed emergence were most effective for weed control and, with the exception of imazapic, all resulted in enhanced eucalyptus growth relative to the nontreated control. Among postemergent treatments, only imazamox enhanced stem volume. Among selective herbicide treatments, preemergent 2240 g ha−1 oxyfluorfen produced the best growth response, resulting in stem volume index that was 860% greater than the nontreated control, although only 15% of the volume index obtained with near-complete weed control. Imazapic was the most phytotoxic of all herbicides, resulting in 40% mortality when applied preemergent. Survival was 100% for all other herbicide treatments. This research found the previously nontested herbicides imazamox and imazapic to be effective for selective weed control and refined application rate and timing of five herbicides for use in clonal plantations.

  19. Hazard and risk of herbicides for marine microalgae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjollema, Sascha B.; MartínezGarcía, Gema; Geest, Harm G. van der; Kraak, Michiel H.S.; Booij, Petra; Vethaak, A. Dick; Admiraal, Wim

    2014-01-01

    Due to their specific effect on photosynthesis, herbicides pose a potential threat to coastal and estuarine microalgae. However, comprehensive understanding of the hazard and risk of these contaminants is currently lacking. Therefore the aim of the present study was to investigate the toxic effects of four ubiquitous herbicides (atrazine, diuron, Irgarol ® 1051 and isoproturon) and herbicide mixtures on marine microalgae. Using a Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM) fluorometry based bioassay we demonstrated a clear species and herbicide specific toxicity and showed that the current environmental legislation does not protect algae sufficiently against diuron and isoproturon. Although a low actual risk of herbicides in the field was demonstrated, monitoring data revealed that concentrations occasionally reach potential effect levels. Hence it cannot be excluded that herbicides contribute to observed changes in phytoplankton species composition in coastal waters, but this is likely to occur only occasionally. - Highlights: • The hazard of herbicides for microalgae is compound and species specific. • In general a low risk although occasional potential effect levels are reached. • Current legislation does not protect marine microalgae sufficiently. - The hazard of herbicides in the coastal waters is compound and species specific and although the general risk in the field is low, occasionally potential effect levels are reached

  20. AS101 prevents diabetic nephropathy progression and mesangial cell dysfunction: regulation of the AKT downstream pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itay Israel Shemesh

    Full Text Available Diabetic nephropathy (DN is characterized by proliferation of mesangial cells, mesangial expansion, hypertrophy and extracellular matrix accumulation. Previous data have cross-linked PKB (AKT to TGFβ induced matrix modulation. The non-toxic compound AS101 has been previously shown to favorably affect renal pathology in various animal models and inhibits AKT activity in leukemic cells. Here, we studied the pharmacological properties of AS101 against the progression of rat DN and high glucose-induced mesangial dysfunction. In-vivo administration of AS101 to Streptozotocin injected rats didn't decreased blood glucose levels but ameliorated kidney hypotrophy, proteinuria and albuminuria and downregulated cortical kidney phosphorylation of AKT, GSK3β and SMAD3. AS101 treatment of primary rat glomerular mesangial cells treated with high glucose significantly reduced their elevated proliferative ability, as assessed by XTT assay and cell cycle analysis. This reduction was associated with decreased levels of p-AKT, increased levels of PTEN and decreased p-GSK3β and p-FoxO3a expression. Pharmacological inhibition of PI3K, mTORC1 and SMAD3 decreased HG-induced collagen accumulation, while inhibition of GSK3β did not affect its elevated levels. AS101 also prevented HG-induced cell growth correlated to mTOR and (rpS6 de-phosphorylation. Thus, pharmacological inhibition of the AKT downstream pathway by AS101 has clinical potential in alleviating the progression of diabetic nephropathy.

  1. Herbicidal cyanoacrylates with antimicrotubule mechanism of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tresch, Stefan; Plath, Peter; Grossmann, Klaus

    2005-11-01

    The herbicidal mode of action of the new synthetic cyanoacrylates ethyl (2Z)-3-amino-2-cyano-4-ethylhex-2-enoate (CA1) and its isopropyl ester derivative CA2 was investigated. For initial characterization, a series of bioassays was used indicating a mode of action similar to that of mitotic disrupter herbicides such as the dinitroaniline pendimethalin. Cytochemical fluorescence studies including monoclonal antibodies against polymerized and depolymerized tubulin and a cellulose-binding domain of a bacterial cellulase conjugated to a fluorescent dye were applied to elucidate effects on cell division processes including mitosis and microtubule and cell wall formation in maize roots. When seedlings were root treated with 10 microM of CA1 or CA2, cell division activity in meristematic root tip cells decreased within 4 h. The chromosomes proceeded to a condensed state of prometaphase, but were unable to progress further in the mitotic cycle. The compounds caused a complete loss of microtubular structures, including preprophase, spindle, phragmoplast and cortical microtubules. Concomitantly, in the cytoplasm, an increase in labelling of free tubulin was observed. This suggests that the herbicides disrupt polymerization and microtubule stability, whereas tubulin synthesis or degradation appeared not to be affected. In addition, cellulose labelling in cell walls of root tip cells was not influenced. The effects of CA1 and CA2 were comparable with those caused by pendimethalin. In transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing a green fluorescent protein-microtubule-associated protein4 fusion protein, labelled arrays of cortical microtubules in living epidermal cells of hypocotyls collapsed within 160 min after exposure to 10 microM CA1 or pendimethalin. Moreover, a dinitroaniline-resistant biotype of goosegrass (Eleusine indica (L) Gaertn) with a point mutation in alpha-tubulin showed cross-resistance against CA1 and CA2. The results strongly indicate that the cyanoacrylates are

  2. CSL protein regulates transcription of genes required to prevent catastrophic mitosis in fission yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Převorovský, Martin; Oravcová, Martina; Zach, Róbert; Jordáková, Anna; Bähler, Jürg; Půta, František; Folk, Petr

    2016-11-16

    For every eukaryotic cell to grow and divide, intricately coordinated action of numerous proteins is required to ensure proper cell-cycle progression. The fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe has been instrumental in elucidating the fundamental principles of cell-cycle control. Mutations in S. pombe 'cut' (cell untimely torn) genes cause failed coordination between cell and nuclear division, resulting in catastrophic mitosis. Deletion of cbf11, a fission yeast CSL transcription factor gene, triggers a 'cut' phenotype, but the precise role of Cbf11 in promoting mitotic fidelity is not known. We report that Cbf11 directly activates the transcription of the acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase gene cut6, and the biotin uptake/biosynthesis genes vht1 and bio2, with the former 2 implicated in mitotic fidelity. Cbf11 binds to a canonical, metazoan-like CSL response element (GTGGGAA) in the cut6 promoter. Expression of Cbf11 target genes shows apparent oscillations during the cell cycle using temperature-sensitive cdc25-22 and cdc10-M17 block-release experiments, but not with other synchronization methods. The penetrance of catastrophic mitosis in cbf11 and cut6 mutants is nutrient-dependent. We also show that drastic decrease in biotin availability arrests cell proliferation but does not cause mitotic defects. Taken together, our results raise the possibility that CSL proteins play conserved roles in regulating cell-cycle progression, and they could guide experiments into mitotic CSL functions in mammals.

  3. Tristetraprolin regulation of interleukin 23 mRNA stability prevents a spontaneous inflammatory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molle, Céline; Zhang, Tong; Ysebrant de Lendonck, Laure; Gueydan, Cyril; Andrianne, Mathieu; Sherer, Félicie; Van Simaeys, Gaetan; Blackshear, Perry J; Leo, Oberdan; Goriely, Stanislas

    2013-08-26

    Interleukin (IL) 12 and IL23 are two related heterodimeric cytokines produced by antigen-presenting cells. The balance between these two cytokines plays a crucial role in the control of Th1/Th17 responses and autoimmune inflammation. Most studies focused on their transcriptional regulation. Herein, we explored the role of the adenine and uridine-rich element (ARE)-binding protein tristetraprolin (TTP) in influencing mRNA stability of IL12p35, IL12/23p40, and IL23p19 subunits. LPS-stimulated bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) from TTP(-/-) mice produced normal levels of IL12/23p40. Production of IL12p70 was modestly increased in these conditions. In contrast, we observed a strong impact of TTP on IL23 production and IL23p19 mRNA stability through several AREs in the 3' untranslated region. TTP(-/-) mice spontaneously develop an inflammatory syndrome characterized by cachexia, myeloid hyperplasia, dermatitis, and erosive arthritis. We observed IL23p19 expression within skin lesions associated with exacerbated IL17A and IL22 production by infiltrating γδ T cells and draining lymph node CD4 T cells. We demonstrate that the clinical and immunological parameters associated with TTP deficiency were completely dependent on the IL23-IL17A axis. We conclude that tight control of IL23 mRNA stability by TTP is critical to avoid severe inflammation.

  4. A Review of State Licensing Regulations to Determine Alignment with Best Practices to Prevent Human Norovirus Infections in Child-Care Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Cortney M; Jaykus, Lee-Ann; Cates, Sheryl M; Fraser, Angela M

    2016-01-01

    Close, frequent contact between children and care providers in child-care centers presents many opportunities to spread human noroviruses. We compared state licensing regulations for child-care centers with national guidelines written to prevent human noroviruses. We reviewed child-care licensing regulations for all 50 U.S. states and the District of Columbia in effect in June 2015 to determine if these regulations fully, partially, or did not address 14 prevention practices in four topic areas: (1) hand hygiene, (2) exclusion of ill people, (3) environmental sanitation, and (4) diapering. Approximately two-thirds (8.9) of the 14 practices across all state regulations were partially or fully addressed, with few (2.6) fully addressed. Practices related to exclusion of ill people and diapering were fully addressed most often, while practices related to hand hygiene and environmental sanitation were fully addressed least often. Regulations based on guidelines for best practices are one way to prevent the spread of human noroviruses in child-care facilities, if the regulations are enforced. Our findings show that, in mid-2015, many state child-care regulations did not fully address these guidelines, suggesting the need to review these regulations to be sure they are based on best practices.

  5. [Effects of herbicide on grape leaf photosynthesis and nutrient storage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Wei; Wang, Hui; Zhai, Heng

    2011-09-01

    Selecting three adjacent vineyards as test objects, this paper studied the effects of applying herbicide in growth season on the leaf photosynthetic apparatus and branch nutrient storage of grape Kyoho (Vitis vinfrraxVitis labrusca). In the vineyards T1 and T2 where herbicide was applied in 2009, the net photosynthesis rate (Pa) of grape leaves had a significant decrease, as compared with that in vineyard CK where artificial weeding was implemented. The leaves at the fourth node in vineyard T1 and those at the sixth node in vineyard T2 had the largest decrement of Pn (40.5% and 32.1%, respectively). Herbicide had slight effects on the leaf stomatal conductance (Gs). In T1 where herbicide application was kept on with in 2010, the Pn, was still significantly lower than that in CK; while in T2 where artificial weeding was implemented in 2010, the Pn and Gs of top- and middle node leaves were slightly higher than those in T1, but the Pn was still lower than that in CK, showing the aftereffects of herbicide residual. The herbicide application in 2009 decreased the leaf maximum photochemical efficiency of PS II (Fv/Fm) and performance index (P1) while increased the relative variable fluorescence in the J step and K step, indicating the damage of electron transportation of PS II center and oxygen-evolving complex. Herbicide application decreased the pigment content of middle-node leaves in a dose-manner. Applying herbicide enhanced the leaf catalase and peroxidase activities significantly, increased the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity of middle-node leaves, but decreased the SOD activity of top- and bottom node leaves. After treated with herbicide, the ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity of middle- and bottom node leaves increased, but that of top-node leaves decreased. Herbicide treatment aggravated leaf lipid peroxidation, and reduced the soluble sugar, starch, free amino acids, and soluble protein storage in branches.

  6. Dig1 protects against cell death provoked by glyphosate-based herbicides in human liver cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travert Carine

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Worldwide used pesticides containing different adjuvants like Roundup formulations, which are glyphosate-based herbicides, can provoke some in vivo toxicity and in human cells. These pesticides are commonly found in the environment, surface waters and as food residues of Roundup tolerant genetically modified plants. In order to know their effects on cells from liver, a major detoxification organ, we have studied their mechanism of action and possible protection by precise medicinal plant extracts called Dig1. Methods The cytotoxicity pathways of four formulations of glyphosate-based herbicides were studied using human hepatic cell lines HepG2 and Hep3B, known models to study xenobiotic effects. We monitored mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase activity and caspases 3/7 for cell mortality and protection by Dig1, as well as cytochromes P450 1A1, 1A2, 3A4 and 2C9 and glutathione-S-transferase to approach the mechanism of actions. Results All the four Roundup formulations provoke liver cell death, with adjuvants having stronger effects than glyphosate alone. Hep3B are 3-5 times more sensitive over 48 h. Caspases 3/7 are greatly activated in HepG2 by Roundup at non-cytotoxic levels, and some apoptosis induction by Roundup is possible together with necrosis. CYP3A4 is specifically enhanced by Roundup at doses 400 times less than used in agriculture (2%. CYP1A2 is increased to a lesser extent together with glutathione-S-transferase (GST down-regulation. Dig 1, non cytotoxic and not inducing caspases by itself, is able to prevent Roundup-induced cell death in a time-dependant manner with an important efficiency of up to 89%, within 48 h. In addition, we evidenced that it prevents Caspases 3/7 activation and CYP3A4 enhancement, and not GST reduction, but in turn it slightly inhibited CYP2C9 when added before Roundup. Conclusion Roundup is able to provoke intracellular disruption in hepatic cell lines at different levels, but a

  7. QiShenYiQi Pills, a Compound Chinese Medicine, Prevented Cisplatin Induced Acute Kidney Injury via Regulating Mitochondrial Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhou

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Nephrotoxicity is a serious adverse effect of cisplatin chemotherapy that limits its clinical application, to deal with which no effective management is available so far. The present study was to investigate the potential protective effect of QiShenYiQi Pills (QSYQ, a compound Chinese medicine, against cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity in mice. Pretreatment with QSYQ significantly attenuated the cisplatin induced increase in plasma urea and creatinine, along with the histological damage, such as tubular necrosis, protein cast, and desquamation of epithelial cells, improved the renal microcirculation disturbance as indicated by renal blood flow, microvascular flow velocity, and the number of adherent leukocytes. Additionally, QSYQ prevented mitochondrial dysfunction by preventing the cisplatin induced downregulation of mitochondrial complex activity and the expression of NDUFA10, ATP5D, and Sirt3. Meanwhile, the cisplatin-increased renal thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, caspase9, cleaved-caspase9, and cleaved-caspase3 were all diminished by QSYQ pretreatment. In summary, the pretreatment with QSYQ remarkably ameliorated the cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity in mice, possibly via the regulation of mitochondrial function, oxidative stress, and apoptosis.

  8. Selectivity and stability of herbicides and herbicide combinations for the grain yield of maize (Zea Mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Barakova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The research was conducted during 2012 - 2014 on pellic vertisol soil type. Under investigation was cycloxydim tolerant maize hybrid Ultrafox duo (Zea mays L.. Factor A included the years of investigation. Factor B included no treated check and 3 soil-applied herbicides – Adengo 465 SC (isoxaflutol + tiencarbazon – 440 ml/ha, Wing P (pendimethalin + dimethenamid – 4 l/ha and Lumax 538 SC (S-metolachlor + terbuthylazine + mesotrione – 4 l/ha. Factor C included no treated check and 5 foliar-applied herbicides – Stellar 210 SL (topramezon + dicamba – 1 l/ha, Principal plus (nicosulfuron + rimsulfuron + dicamba – 380 g/ha, Ventum WG (foramsulfuron + iodosulfuron – 150 g/ha, Monsun active OD (foramsulfuron + tiencarbazon – 1.5 l/ha and Laudis OD (tembotrione – 2 l/ha. In addition to these variants by conventional technology for maize growing one variant by Duo system technology is also included in the experiment. It includes soil-applied herbicide Merlin flex 480 SC (isoxaflutole – 420 g/ha and tank mixture of antigraminaceous herbicide Focus ultra (cycloxydim - 2 l/ha + antibroadleaved herbicide Kalam (tritosulfuron + dicamba – 300 g/ha. It is found that herbicide combination of soil-applied herbicide Merlin flex with tank mixture Focus ultra + Kalam by Duo system technology leads to obtaining high grain yield. High yields of maize grain are also obtained by herbicide combinations Lumax + Principal plus, Lumax + Laudis and Wing + Principal plus. The most unstable are the non-treated check and single use of soilapplied herbicides Adengo, Wing and Lumax. Technologically the most valuable are herbicide combination Merlin flex + Focus ultra + Kalam by Duo system technology, followed by combinations of foliar-applied herbicides Principal plus and Laudis with soil-applied herbicides Adengo, Wing and Lumax by conventional technology. Single use of herbicides has low estimate due to must to combine soil-applied with foliar

  9. Herbicide and fertilizers promote analogous phylogenetic responses but opposite functional responses in plant communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellissier, Loïc; Wisz, Mary S; Strandberg, Beate; Damgaard, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Throughout the world, herbicides and fertilizers change species composition in agricultural communities, but how do the cumulative effects of these chemicals impact the functional and phylogenetic structure of non-targeted communities when they drift into adjacent semi-natural habitats? Based on long-term experiment we show that fertilizer and herbicides (glyphosate) have contrasting effects on functional structure, but can increase phylogenetic diversity in semi-natural plant communities. We found that an increase in nitrogen promoted an increase in the average specific leaf area and canopy height at the community level, but an increase in glyphosate promoted a decrease in those traits. Phylogenetic diversity of plant communities increased when herbicide and fertilizer were applied together, likely because functional traits facilitating plant success in those conditions were not phylogenetically conserved. Species richness also decreased with increasing levels of nitrogen and glyphosate. Our results suggest that predicting the cumulative effects of agrochemicals is more complex than anticipated due to their distinct selection of traits that may or may not be conserved phylogenetically. Precautionary efforts to mitigate drift of agricultural chemicals into semi-natural habitats are warranted to prevent unforeseeable biodiversity shifts. (paper)

  10. Pre-Ischemic Treadmill Training for Prevention of Ischemic Brain Injury via Regulation of Glutamate and Its Transporter GLT-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingchun Guo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Pre-ischemic treadmill training exerts cerebral protection in the prevention of cerebral ischemia by alleviating neurotoxicity induced by excessive glutamate release following ischemic stroke. However, the underlying mechanism of this process remains unclear. Cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury was observed in a rat model after 2 weeks of pre-ischemic treadmill training. Cerebrospinal fluid was collected using the microdialysis sampling method, and the concentration of glutamate was determined every 40 min from the beginning of ischemia to 4 h after reperfusion with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-fluorescence detection. At 3, 12, 24, and 48 h after ischemia, the expression of the glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1 protein in brain tissues was determined by Western blot respectively. The effect of pre-ischemic treadmill training on glutamate concentration and GLT-1 expression after cerebral ischemia in rats along with changes in neurobehavioral score and cerebral infarct volume after 24 h ischemia yields critical information necessary to understand the protection mechanism exhibited by pre-ischemic treadmill training. The results demonstrated that pre-ischemic treadmill training up-regulates GLT-1 expression, decreases extracellular glutamate concentration, reduces cerebral infarct volume, and improves neurobehavioral score. Pre-ischemic treadmill training is likely to induce neuroprotection after cerebral ischemia by regulating GLT-1 expression, which results in re-uptake of excessive glutamate.

  11. Vitamin D prevents lipid accumulation in murine muscle through regulation of PPARγ and perilipin-2 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiarong; Mihalcioiu, Milton; Li, Lifeng; Zakikhani, Mahvash; Camirand, Anne; Kremer, Richard

    2018-03-01

    Vitamin D plays an important role in regulation of skeletal muscle tone and contraction. Serum vitamin D status is linked to muscle power and force in adolescent girls, and vitamin D deficiency is associated with myopathies in children and poorer physical performance in the elderly. We previously reported that vitamin D deficiency is linked to a significant increase in muscle fatty infiltration in healthy young women, and studies in patients with neuromuscular disorders also associate muscle weakening and lipid content. In order to better understand the link between vitamin D status and skeletal muscle lipid metabolism, we compared the effect of a low (25IU/kg) or normal (1000IU/kg) vitamin D 3 diet on muscle fat in female FVB mice maintained in a room without UVB lighting to minimize endogenous vitamin D production. Animals on low vitamin D diet displayed lower circulating 25(OH)D levels and a dramatic increase (287±52% compared to normal diet, p<0.0001) in lipid deposition in skeletal muscle accompanied by muscle fiber disorganization. Lipid droplet staining increased by 242±23% (p<0.0001) in low vitamin D diet, and lipid droplet coat protein perilipin-2 and nuclear receptor transcription factor PPARγ expression levels were increased compared to mice fed the normal vitamin D diet: average staining for PLIN2: 0.22±0.08 (25IU/kg diet) vs 0.10±0.02 (1000IU/kg). Average staining for PPARγ: 0.24±0.06 (25IU/kg diet) vs 0.07±0.04 (1000IU/kg) p<0.0001. Tissue mass spectrometry imaging revealed major differences in muscle phospholipids profile depending on diet. In vitro, 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 treatment of 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes inhibited appearance of lipid droplets by 79±9.3%, and caused a 80±10% and 25±8% (p=0.001) reduction in PPARγ and perilipin-2 mRNA levels (by qPCR) compared to control cells. In summary, we report here the first in vivo model illustrating the important structural muscle fiber disorganization and fat accumulation inside and outside muscle

  12. Nanoselenium prevents eimeriosis-induced inflammation and regulates mucin gene expression in mice jejunum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alkhudhayri AA

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Abdulsalam A Alkhudhayri,1 Mohamed A Dkhil,1,2 Saleh Al-Quraishy1 1Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Zoology and Entomology, Faculty of Science, Helwan University, Cairo, Egypt Background: Although elemental selenium has been found to be effective against Eimeria, no study has yet investigated the effects of selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs on the Eimeria parasite. The aim of this study, therefore, was to evaluate the ameliorative effect of SeNPs compared with elemental selenium on mice jejunum infected with sporulated oocysts of Eimeria papillata.Methods: The mice were divided into 4 groups, with the first being the non-infected, control group, and the second, third, and fourth groups being orally inoculated with 1,000 sporulated oocysts of E. papillata. The third and fourth groups also received, respectively, an oral dose of 0.1 mg/kg sodium selenite and 0.5 mg/kg SeNPs daily for 5 consecutive days.Results: The infection induced severe histopathological jejunal damage, reflected in the form of destroyed jejunal mucosa, increased jejunal oxidative damage, a reduction in the number of jejunal goblet cells, and increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Treatment of mice with SeNPs significantly decreased the oocyst output in the feces by ~80%. Furthermore, the number of parasitic stages counted in stained jejunal paraffin sections was significantly decreased after the mice were treated with SeNPs. In addition, the number of goblet cells increased from 42.6±7.3 to 95.3±8.5 cells/10 villus-crypt units after treatment. By day 5 post-infection with E. papillata, SeNPs could be seen to have significantly increased the activity of glutathione peroxidase from 263±10 to 402.4±9 mU/mL. Finally, SeNPs were able to regulate the gene expression of mucin 2, interleukin 1β, interleukin 6, interferon-γ, and tumor necrosis factor

  13. Biotransformation and biomonitoring of phenylurea herbicide diuron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Priyanka; Suri, C Raman

    2011-02-01

    A Gram-positive, Micrococcus sp. strain PS-1 isolated from diuron storage site was studied for its capability of biotransformation of phenylurea herbicide diuron to a secondary metabolite, 1-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)urea (DCPU) for bioconjugation and antibody development applications. The metabolite formed associated with profound changes in bacterial cell morphology demonstrated increase in the degradation kinetics of diuron in presence of small quantity of a surfactant. The synthesized metabolite identified by chromatographic and mass spectrometry techniques was conjugated with carrier protein, and used as an immunogen for antibodies production. The generated antibody was highly specific, demonstrating excellent sensitivity against diuron. The antibody was used as receptor molecules in standard fluorescence immunoassay (FIA) format showing detection limit of 0.01 ng/mL in the optimum working concentration range of diuron with good signal precision (∼2%). The study presented first time the degradation pathway of herbicide by specific microorganism to synthesize hapten for bioconjugation and immunoassay development. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Selectivity of herbicides in crambe crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Sasso Ferreira Souza

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The low productivity of crambe can be associated with many factors, among these, the competition with weeds, which reduces the yield, harvest affects and contributes to the increase in seed moisture. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the tolerance of crambe plants cv. FMS Brilhante to herbicides applied in preplant incorporated (PPI, preemergence (PRE, and postemergence (POST. The study was installed in a green-house and the treatments consisted of the herbicide application in: pre-plant incorporated ofdiclosulam, flumetsulam, metribuzin, and trifluralin;preemergence applicationof atrazine, diclosulam, diuron, flumetsulam, metribuzim, S-metolachlor, sulfentrazone, and trifluralin; and postemergence application ofbentazon, carfentrazone-ethyl, clefoxydim, cletodim + fenoxaprop-p-ethyl, ethoxysulfuron, fomesafen, fluazifop-p-butyl, flumioxazin, halosulfuron, imazamox, imazapic, lactofen, nicosulfuron, oxadiazon, quinclorac, and setoxydim. Visual evaluations of phytotoxicity on crambe plants were realized after applications, the seedlings were counted and the height and plant dry matter were determined in the end of the evaluation period. In conditions where the studies were conducted, we can conclude that only the trifluralin application in PRE and the application of clefoxidim+fenoxaprop-p-ethyl, fluazifop-p-butyl, quinclorac, setoxydim and clefoxydim in POST showed selectivity and potential use for FMS Brilhante crambe cultivar.

  15. American Ginseng Stimulates Insulin Production and Prevents Apoptosis through Regulation of Uncoupling Protein-2 in Cultured β Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Zeqi Luo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available American ginseng root displays the ability to achieve glucose homeostasis both experimentally and clinically but the unknown mechanism used by ginseng to achieve its therapeutic effects on diabetes limits its application. Disruption in the insulin secretion of pancreatic β cells is considered the major cause of diabetes. A mitochondrial protein, uncoupling protein-2 (UCP-2 has been found to play a critical role in insulin synthesis and β cell survival. Our preliminary studies found that the extracts of American ginseng inhibit UCP-2 expression which may contribute to the ability of ginseng protecting β cell death and improving insulin synthesis. Therefore, we hypothesized that ginseng extracts suppress UCP-2 in the mitochondria of pancreatic β cells, promoting insulin synthesis and anti-apoptosis (a programmed cell-death mechanism. To test the hypothesis, the serum-deprived quiescent β cells were cultured with or without interleukin-1β (IL-1β, (200 pg ml−1, a cytokine to induce β cell apoptosis and water extracts of American ginseng (25 μg per 5 μl administered to wells of 0.5 ml culture for 24 h. We evaluated effects of ginseng on UCP-2 expression, insulin production, anti-/pro-apoptotic factors Bcl-2/caspase-9 expression and cellular ATP levels. We found that ginseng suppresses UCP-2, down-regulates caspase-9 while increasing ATP and insulin production/secretion and up-regulates Bcl-2, reducing apoptosis. These findings suggest that stimulation of insulin production and prevention of β cell loss by American ginseng extracts can occur via the inhibition of mitochondrial UCP-2, resulting in increase in the ATP level and the anti-apoptotic factor Bcl-2, while down-regulation of pro-apoptotic factor caspase-9 occurs, lowering the occurrence of apoptosis, which support the hypothesis.

  16. Research methods in weed science: herbicide absorption and translocation in plants using radioisotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbicide absorption and translocation in plants is a key component in the study of herbicide physiology, mode of action, selectivity, resistance mechanisms, and in the registration process. Radioactive herbicides have been in use for over half-a-century in the research and study of herbicide absorp...

  17. Adsorption of sugar beet herbicides to Finnish soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autio, Sari; Siimes, Katri; Laitinen, Pirkko; Rämö, Sari; Oinonen, Seija; Eronen, Liisa

    2004-04-01

    Three sugar beet herbicides, ethofumesate, phenmedipham and metamitron, are currently used on conventional sugar beet cultivation, while new varieties of herbicide resistant (HR) sugar beet, tolerant of glyphosate or glufosinate-ammonium, are under field testing in Finland. Little knowledge has so far been available on the adsorption of these herbicides to Finnish soils. The adsorption of these five herbicides was studied using the batch equilibrium method in 21 soil samples collected from different depths. Soil properties like organic carbon content, texture, pH and partly the phosphorus and oxide content of the soils were tested against the adsorption coefficients of the herbicides. In general, the herbicides studied could be arranged according to their adsorption coefficients as follows: glyphosate>phenmedipham>ethofumesate approximately glufosinate-ammonium>metamitron, metamitron meaning the highest risk of leaching. None of the measured soil parameters could alone explain the adsorption mechanism of these five herbicides. The results can be used in model assessments of risk for leaching to ground water resulting from weed control of sugar beet in Finland.

  18. Studies on maize inbred lines susceptibility to herbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanović Lidija

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the analysis of results obtained during long- term studies on the response of maize inbred lines to herbicides. Under the agroecological conditions of Zemun Polje the response (reaction of maize inbred lines to herbicides of different classes was investigated. Biological tests were performed and some agronomic, morphological, physiological and biochemical parameters were determined when the response of maize inbred lines to herbicides was estimated. The use of active ingredients of herbicides from triazine, acetanilide, thiocarbamate to new chemical groups (sulfonylurea etc., have been resulted in changes in weed suppression and susceptibility of inbred lines. Obtained results show that effects of herbicides on susceptible maize genotypes can be different: they can slowdown the growth and development and affect the plant height; they can also affect the stages of the tassel and ear development and at the end they can reduced grain yield of the tested inbreds. Numerous studies confirmed the existence of differences in susceptibility level of maize genotypes in relation to herbicides. According to gained results the recommendations for growers are made on the possibility of the application of new herbicides in the hybrid seed production.

  19. Rationale for a natural products approach to herbicide discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayan, Franck E; Owens, Daniel K; Duke, Stephen O

    2012-04-01

    Weeds continue to evolve resistance to all the known modes of herbicidal action, but no herbicide with a new target site has been commercialized in nearly 20 years. The so-called 'new chemistries' are simply molecules belonging to new chemical classes that have the same mechanisms of action as older herbicides (e.g. the protoporphyrinogen-oxidase-inhibiting pyrimidinedione saflufenacil or the very-long-chain fatty acid elongase targeting sulfonylisoxazoline herbicide pyroxasulfone). Therefore, the number of tools to manage weeds, and in particular those that can control herbicide-resistant weeds, is diminishing rapidly. There is an imminent need for truly innovative classes of herbicides that explore chemical spaces and interact with target sites not previously exploited by older active ingredients. This review proposes a rationale for a natural-products-centered approach to herbicide discovery that capitalizes on the structural diversity and ingenuity afforded by these biologically active compounds. The natural process of extended-throughput screening (high number of compounds tested on many potential target sites over long periods of times) that has shaped the evolution of natural products tends to generate molecules tailored to interact with specific target sites. As this review shows, there is generally little overlap between the mode of action of natural and synthetic phytotoxins, and more emphasis should be placed on applying methods that have proved beneficial to the pharmaceutical industry to solve problems in the agrochemical industry. Published 2012 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Acute and additive toxicity of ten photosystem-II herbicides to seagrass

    OpenAIRE

    Adam D. Wilkinson; Catherine J. Collier; Florita Flores; Andrew P. Negri

    2015-01-01

    Photosystem II herbicides are transported to inshore marine waters, including those of the Great Barrier Reef, and are usually detected in complex mixtures. These herbicides inhibit photosynthesis, which can deplete energy reserves and reduce growth in seagrass, but the toxicity of some of these herbicides to seagrass is unknown and combined effects of multiple herbicides on seagrass has not been tested. Here we assessed the acute phytotoxicity of 10 PSII herbicides to the seagrass Halophila ...

  1. Sarmentine, a natural herbicide from Piper species with multiple herbicide mechanisms of action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franck Emmanuel Dayan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Sarmentine, 1-(1-pyrrolidinyl-(2E,4E-2,4-decadien-1-one, is a natural amide isolated from the fruits of Piper species. The compound has a number of interesting biological properties, including its broad-spectrum activity on weeds as a contact herbicide. Initial studies highlighted a similarity in response between plants treated with sarmentine and herbicidal soaps such as pelargonic acid (nonanoic acid. However, little was known about the mechanism of action leading to the rapid desiccation of foliage treated by sarmentine. In cucumber cotyledon disc-assays, sarmentine induced rapid light-independent loss of membrane integrity at 100 µM or higher concentration, whereas 3 mM pelargonic acid was required for a similar effect. Sarmentine was between 10 and 30 times more active than pelargonic acid on wild mustard, velvetleaf, redroot pigweed and crabgrass. Additionally, the potency of 30 µM sarmentine was greatly stimulated by light, suggesting that this natural product may also interfere with photosynthetic processes. This was confirmed by observing a complete inhibition of photosynthetic electron transport at that concentration. Sarmentine also acted as an inhibitor of photosystem II on isolated thylakoid membranes by competing for the binding site of plastoquinone. This can be attributed in part to structural similarities between herbicides like sarmentine and diuron. While this mechanism of action accounts for the light stimulation of the activity of sarmentine, it does not account for its ability to destabilize membranes in darkness. In this respect, sarmentine has some structural similarity to crotonoyl-CoA, the substrate of enoyl-ACP reductase, a key enzyme in the early steps of fatty acid synthesis. Inhibitors of this enzyme, such as triclosan, cause rapid loss of membrane integrity in the dark. Sarmentine inhibited the activity of enoyl-ACP reductase, with an I50app of 18.3 µM. Therefore, the herbicidal activity of sarmentine appears to

  2. Effects of the herbicide isoproturon on metallothioneins, growth, and antioxidative defenses in the aquatic worm Tubifex tubifex (Oligochaeta, Tubificidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosleh, Yahia Y; Paris-Palacios, Séverine; Couderchet, Michel; Biagianti-Risbourg, Sylvie; Vernet, Guy

    2005-07-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are low molecular weight proteins, mainly implicated in metal ion detoxification. Increase in MT contents is considered to be a specific biomarker of metal exposure. Recently it has been demonstrated that MTs participate in several cellular functions such as regulation of growth, and antioxidative defenses. Therefore, the induction of MTs as biomarkers of exposure to the pesticide isoproturon has been investigated in the aquatic worms Tubifex tubifex. MT levels in exposed worms increased significantly (p isoproturon (maximum increase compared to unexposed controls: +148.56% for 10 mg l(-1) after 4 days of exposure). In response to isoproturon, the activity of glutathione-S-transferase (max. +52%), glutathione-reductase (max. +100%), and catalase (max. +117%) increased, demonstrating the occurrence of an oxidative stress response to the herbicide. Thus, the increase in MT contents caused by isoproturon was interpreted as a defense response towards increased oxidative stress generated by the herbicide. Residues of isoproturon and its metabolites, 1-(4-isopropylphenyl)-3-methylurea, 1-(4-isopropylphenyl) urea, and 4-isopropylanilin were detected in the worm growth medium. Half-life of the herbicide was shorter at a low (0.1 mg l(-1)) initial concentration. The herbicide accumulated in T. tubifex but no metabolite could be detected.

  3. Astragaloside IV Prevents Cardiac Remodeling in the Apolipoprotein E-Deficient Mice by Regulating Cardiac Homeostasis and Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong-Zhi Li

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypercholesterolemia is a risk factor for the development of cardiac hypertrophy. Astragaloside IV (AST-IV possesses cardiovascular protective properties. We hypothesize that AST-IV prevents cardiac remodeling with hypercholesterolemia via modulating tissue homeostasis and alleviating oxidative stress. Methods: The ApoE-/- mice were treated with AST-IV at 1 or 10 mg/kg for 8 weeks. The blood lipids tests, echocardiography, and TUNEL were performed. The mRNA expression profile was detected by real-time PCR. The myocytes size and number, and the expressions of proliferation (ki67, senescence (p16INK4a, oxidant (NADPH oxidase 4, NOX4 and antioxidant (superoxide dismutase, SOD were observed by immunofluorescence staining. Results: Neither 1 mg/kg nor 10 mg/kg AST-IV treatment could decrease blood lipids in ApoE-/- mice. However, the decreased left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF and fractional shortening (FS in ApoE–/– mice were significantly improved after AST-IV treatment. The cardiac collagen volume fraction declined nearly in half after AST-IV treatment. The enlarged myocyte size was suppressed, and myocyte number was recovered, and the alterations of genes expressions linked to cell cycle, proliferation, senescence, p53-apoptosis pathway and oxidant-antioxidants in the hearts of ApoE-/- mice were reversed after AST-IV treatment. The decreased ki67 and increased p16INK4a in the hearts of ApoE-/- mice were recovered after AST-IV treatment. The percentages of apoptotic myocytes and NOX4-positive cells in AST-IV treated mice were decreased, which were consistent with the gene expressions. Conclusion: AST-IV treatment could prevent cardiac remodeling and recover the impaired ventricular function induced by hypercholesterolemia. The beneficial effect of AST-IV might partly be through regulating cardiac homeostasis and anti-oxidative stress.

  4. Resistance to the photosystem II herbicide diuron is dominant to sensitivity in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC7942

    OpenAIRE

    Brusslan, Judy; Haselkorn, Robert

    1989-01-01

    The transformable cyanobacterium, Synechococcus sp. PCC7942, was used to study the genetics of resistance to the herbicide diuron. In wild-type cells, diuron binds to one of the core proteins, called D1, of photosystem II reaction centres. This binding prevents the transfer of electrons from QA, the primary quinone acceptor, to QB, which is necessary to create the charge separation that drives ATP synthesis. A single amino acid substitution in the D1 protein reduces diuron binding and confers...

  5. Herbicide Glyphosate Impact to Earthworm (E. fetida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greta Dajoraitė

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Glyphosate is a broad spectrum weed resistant herbicide. Glyphosate may pose negative impact on land ecosystems because of wide broad usage and hydrofilic characteristic. The aim of this study was to investigate negative effects of glyphosate on soil invertebrate organisms (earthworm Eisenia fetida. The duration of experiment was 8 weeks. The range of the test concentrations of glyphosate were: 0,1, 1, 5, 10, 20 mg/kg. To investigate the glyphosate impact on earthworm Eisenia fetida the following endpoints were measured: survival, reproduction and weight. The exposure to 20 mg/kg glyphosate has led to the 100% mortality of earthworms. Glyphosate has led to decreased E. fetida reproduction, the cocoons were observed only in the lowest concentration (0,1 mg/kg. In general: long-term glyphosate toxicity to earthworms (E. fetida may be significant.

  6. Dinitroaniline herbicide resistance and the microtubule cytoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony; Hussey

    1999-03-01

    Dinitroaniline herbicides have been used for pre-emergence weed control for the past 25 years in cotton, soybean, wheat and oilseed crops. Considering their long persistence and extensive use, resistance to dinitroanilines is fairly rare. However, the most widespread dinitroaniline-resistant weeds, the highly resistant (R) and the intermediate (I) biotypes of the invasive goosegrass Eleusine indica, are now infesting more than 1000 cotton fields in the southern states of the USA. The molecular basis of this resistance has been identified, and found to be a point mutation in a major microtubule cytoskeletal protein, alpha-tubulin. These studies have served both to explain the establishment of resistance and to reveal fundamental properties of tubulin gene expression and microtubule structure.

  7. The herbicide Glyphosate affects nitrification in the Elbe estuary, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Tina; Lassen, Stephan

    2015-04-01

    The Elbe River is one of the biggest European rivers discharging into the North Sea. It also transports high amounts of nutrients and pollutants like pesticides. Important source regions of both nutrients and pollutants are located within the river catchment, which is dominated by agricultural land-use. From these agricultural soils, pesticides can be carried via the river and estuary into the North Sea. Glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine) is the most commonly used herbicide worldwide and mainly used to regulate unwanted plant growth and for the expedition of crop ripening. In Germany, ~ 6000 tons of glyphosate are applied yearly in agriculture and private use. Glyphosate is degradable by microorganisms and has a half-life in water of 35 to 60 days. This herbicide specifically inhibits 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS), an enzyme that catalyzes the biosynthesis of essential aromatic amino acids in plants, fungi, and bacteria. Nitrifying bacteria, which play an important role in the internal nitrogen cycling in the Elbe estuary, also possess this enzyme. The aim of our study was to quantify the concentration of glyphosate in water and sediment samples of the Elbe to get an overview about relevant environmental levels and to assess the impact of glyphosate on inhibition of nitrifying activities. To quantify the effect of glyphosate on nitrification activity, natural samples as well as pure cultures of Nitrosomonas europea (strain Nm50) were incubated with different concentrations of glyphosate over a period of some weeks. The nitrifying activity was determined according to changes of the nitrite and nitrate concentration as well as the cell number. Glyphosate was detectable in water and sediment samples in the Elbe estuary with up to 5 ppb mainly in the Port of Hamburg region. In both incubation experiments an inhibiting effect of glyphosate on nitrification could be shown. The incubated natural water sample was affected by a glyphosate

  8. Selectivity and stability of new herbicides and herbicide combinations for the seed yields of some field crops I. Effect at Coriander (Coriandrum Sativum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    G. Delchev

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. . The research was conducted during 2013 – 2015 on pellic vertisol soil type. Under investigation was Bulgarian coriander cultivar Lozen 1 (Coriandrum sativum L.). The purpose of the investigation was to establish the selectivity and stability of some herbicides, herbicide combinations and herbicide tank mixtures on the coriander. Factor A included the years of investigation. Factor B included no treated check, 6 soil-applied herbicides – Tendar EC, Silba SC, Sharpen 33 EC,...

  9. Post-Transcriptional Regulation Prevents Accumulation of Glutathione Reductase Protein and Activity in the Bundle Sheath Cells of Maize1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastori, Gabriela M.; Mullineaux, Philip M.; Foyer, Christine H.

    2000-01-01

    Glutathione reductase (GR; EC 1.6.4.2) activity was assayed in bundle sheath and mesophyll cells of maize (Zea mays L. var H99) from plants grown at 20°C, 18°C, and 15°C. The purity of each fraction was determined by measuring the associated activity of the compartment-specific marker enzymes, Rubisco and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, respectively. GR activity and the abundance of GR protein and mRNA increased in plants grown at 15°C and 18°C compared with those grown at 20°C. In all cases GR activity was found only in mesophyll fractions of the leaves, with no GR activity being detectable in bundle sheath extracts. Immunogold labeling with GR-specific antibodies showed that the GR protein was exclusively localized in the mesophyll cells of leaves at all growth temperatures, whereas GR transcripts (as determined by in situ hybridization techniques) were observed in both cell types. These results indicate that post-transcriptional regulation prevents GR accumulation in the bundle sheath cells of maize leaves. The resulting limitation on the capacity for regeneration of reduced glutathione in this compartment may contribute to the extreme chilling sensitivity of maize leaves. PMID:10712529

  10. Community perspectives on the use of regulation and law for obesity prevention in children: A citizens' jury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Jackie M; Sisnowski, Jana; Tooher, Rebecca; Farrell, Lucy C; Braunack-Mayer, Annette J

    2017-05-01

    Childhood obesity is a significant challenge for public health internationally. Regulatory and fiscal measures propagated by governments offer a potentially effective response to this issue. Fearing public criticism, governments are often reluctant to use such measures. In this study we asked a descriptively representative and informed group of Australians their views on the use of legislation and fiscal measures by governments to address childhood obesity. A citizens' jury, held in South Australia in April 2015, was asked to consider the question: What laws, if any, should we have in Australia to address childhood obesity? The jury agreed that prevention of obesity was complex requiring multifaceted government intervention. Recommendations fell into the areas of health promotion and education (n=4), regulation of food marketing (n=3), taxation/subsidies (n=2) and a parliamentary enquiry. School-based nutrition education and health promotion and mandatory front-of-pack interpretive labelling of food and drink were ranked 1 and 2 with taxation of high fat, high sugar food and drink third. The recommendations were similar to findings from other citizens' juries held in Australia suggesting that the reticence of decision makers in Australia, and potentially elsewhere, to use legislative and fiscal measures to address childhood obesity is misguided. Supporting relevant informed public discussion could facilitate a politically acceptable legislative approach. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Wig1 prevents cellular senescence by regulating p21 mRNA decay through control of RISC recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bong Cho; Lee, Hyung Chul; Lee, Je-Jung; Choi, Chang-Min; Kim, Dong-Kwan; Lee, Jae Cheol; Ko, Young-Gyu; Lee, Jae-Seon

    2012-11-14

    Premature senescence, a key strategy used to suppress carcinogenesis, can be driven by p53/p21 proteins in response to various stresses. Here, we demonstrate that Wig1 plays a critical role in this process through regulation of p21 mRNA stability. Wig1 controls the association of Argonaute2 (Ago2), a central component of the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), with target p21 mRNA via binding of the stem-loop structure near the microRNA (miRNA) target site. Depletion of Wig1 prohibited miRNA-mediated p21 mRNA decay and resulted in premature senescence. Wig1 plays an essential role in cell proliferation, as demonstrated in tumour xenografts in mice, and Wig1 and p21 mRNA levels are inversely correlated in human normal and cancer tissues. Together, our data indicate a novel role of Wig1 in RISC target accessibility, which is a key step in RNA-mediated gene silencing. In addition, these findings indicate that fine-tuning of p21 levels by Wig1 is essential for the prevention of cellular senescence.

  12. Efectos del herbicida Paraquat sobre el zooplancton Effects of Paraquat herbicide on zooplankton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Gagneten

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of 0.1; 0.2; 0.4 and 0.8 mlPQ/L were analized on a zooplankton community, to determine the most sensitive species and to analize the occurence of physical abnormalities. A total of 40 taxa were determined. Paraquat affected significantly the zooplankton density but not the species richness. A progressive state of deformation of these organisms was also observed. Paraquat showed to be highly toxic for the zooplankton, so this herbicide should be strictly regulated in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems.

  13. Efficacy and economics of different herbicides in aerobic rice system

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-03

    Aug 3, 2011 ... options for effective and economic weed control in rice under aerobic system ... constraint to aerobic rice production and therefore, ... Herbicide has become an attractive alternative to manual ... MATERIALS AND METHODS.

  14. Herbicides effect on the nitrogen fertilizer assimilation by sensitive plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladonin, V.F.; Samojlov, L.N.

    1976-01-01

    It has been established in studying the effect of herbicides on pea plants that the penetration of the preparations into the tissues of leaves and stems results in a slight increase of the rate of formation of dry substance in the leaves of the treated plants within 24 hours after treatment as compared with control, whereas in the last period of the analysis the herbicides strongly inhibit the formation of dry substance in leaves. The applied herbicide doses have resulted in drastic changes of the distribution of the plant-assimilated nitrogen between the protein and non-protein fractions in the leaves and stems of pea. When affected by the studied herbicides, the fertilizer nitrogen supply to the pea plants changes and the rate of the fertilizer nitrogen assimilation by the plants varies noticeably. The regularities of the fertilizer nitrogen inclusion in the protein and non-protein nitrogen compounds of the above-ground pea organs have been studied

  15. Biodegradation of acetanilide herbicides acetochlor and butachlor in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Chang-ming; Wang, Xing-jun; Zheng, He-hui

    2002-10-01

    The biodegradation of two acetanilide herbicides, acetochlor and butachlor in soil after other environmental organic matter addition were measured during 35 days laboratory incubations. The herbicides were applied to soil alone, soil-SDBS (sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate) mixtures and soil-HA (humic acid) mixtures. Herbicide biodegradation kinetics were compared in the different treatment. Biodegradation products of herbicides in soil alone samples were identified by GC/MS at the end of incubation. Addition of SDBS and HA to soil decreased acetochlor biodegradation, but increased butachlor biodegradation. The biodegradation half-life of acetochlor and butachlor in soil alone, soil-SDBS mixtures and soil-HA mixtures were 4.6 d, 6.1 d and 5.4 d and 5.3 d, 4.9 d and 5.3 d respectively. The biodegradation products were hydroxyacetochlor and 2-methyl-6-ethylaniline for acetochlor, and hydroxybutachlor and 2,6-diethylaniline for butachlor.

  16. Biodegradation of glyphosate herbicide in vitro using bacterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-28

    Jun 28, 2010 ... Full Length Research Paper ... Glyphosate is a compound used as herbicide in the control and/or killing of grasses and herbaceous plants. ... Because of its toxicity to non-target organisms, there is need to decontaminate.

  17. Pulsed magnetic fields and their assessment according to the accident prevention regulation BGV B11; Gepulste magnetische Felder und Ihre Bewertung nach der Unfallverhuetungsvorschrift BGV B11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinrich, H. [2h-engineering, Hausen (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    The accident prevention regulation BGV B11 - Electromagnetic Fields - contains a method for the assessment of pulsed fields. This paper gives valuable hints and background information and presents a new tool for the computer-based assessment of these fields. (orig.)

  18. Changes in bacterial community after application of three different herbicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretto, Jéssica Aparecida Silva; Altarugio, Lucas Miguel; Andrade, Pedro Avelino; Fachin, Ana Lúcia; Andreote, Fernando Dini; Stehling, Eliana Guedes

    2017-07-06

    The native soil microbiota is very important to maintain the quality of that environment, but with the intensive use of agrochemicals, changes in microbial biomass and formation of large quantities of toxic waste were observed in soil, groundwater and surface water. Thereby, the goal of this study was to evaluate if the selective pressure exerted by the presence of the herbicides atrazine, diuron and 2,4-D changes the bacterial community structure of an agricultural soil, using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis technique. According to PERMANOVA analysis, a greater effect of the herbicide persistence time in the soil, the effect of the herbicide class and the effect of interaction between these two factors (persistence time and herbicide class) were observed. In conclusion, the results showed that the selective pressure exerted by the presence of these herbicides altered the composition of the local microbiota, being atrazine and diuron that most significantly affected the bacterial community in soil, and the herbicide 2,4-D was the one that less altered the microbial community and that bacterial community was reestablished first. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Herbicidal treatments for control of Papaver somniferum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, M

    1980-01-01

    Fifty-five commercially available herbicides were evaluated for possible use to destroy illicit opium poppy crops (Papaver somniferum). In the first stage, herbicides were sprayed on poppy plants grown in containers. The following compounds killed poppy plants: (a) herbicides with typical foliar activity--amitrole, bromoxynil, 2,4-D, glyphosate, ioxynil and paraquat; and (b) herbicides with root and foliar activity--the triazines ametryn, atrazine, metribuzin, prometryn, simazine and terbutryn; the substituted ureas benzthiazuron, chloroxuron, diuron, fluometuron, linuron, methabenzthiazuron, neburon and phenobenzuron; and the miscellaneous compounds karbutilate, methazole, oxadiazon and pyrazon. Severe but sublethal injury was caused by cycloate, EPTC, molinate, pobulate, cacodylate + MSMA, ethofumesate, perfluidone and phenmedipham. Abnormal development of vegetative or reproductive parts of the plant was induced by benefin, butralin, dinitramine, pendimethalin, trifluralin, diphenamid, napropamide, dalapon and propham. Efficient herbicides with negligible persistence in soil at the doses applied were evaluated on poppy plants in the field at various stages of growth. Small plants were severely injured by 2,4-D, killed rapidly by bromoxynil, ioxynil, paraquat (in mixture + diquat), and more slowly by glyphosate and metribuzin. The resistance to herbicides increased with the age of the poppy plant. Severe damage with partial kill of developed plants was obtained with bromoxynil, ioxynil, glyphosate, and paraquat + diquat; the last treatment produced the fastest effect.

  20. Selectivity of herbicides in Camelina (Camelina sativa (L. Crtz.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scheliga, Maria

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Camelina (Camelina sativa (L. Crtz. is a cruciferous plant. As an oilseed crop camelina is mainly grown for oil production. After the 1960s, however, the cultivation has become less important. Only in recent years, interest in this culture was awakened in the search for new sources of omega 3 fatty acids, natural antioxidants and a potential crop for the production of biofuels. The use of camelina oil for different purposes within the framework of the material use of renewable raw materials is of particular interest due to the high levels of linoleic and linolenic acid. For the establishment of camelina as a crop in agricultural crop rotation systems weed control should not be disregarded despite the rather good competitive ability against weeds. Based on greenhouse experiments a field trial in 2015 with different herbicide strategies was carried out. Besides Butisan Top (metazachlor + quinmerac, Devrinol FL (napropamide and Stomp Aqua (pendimethalin and also Betasana SC (phenmedipham has been tested in various amounts and combinations. Using assessments to weed density and herbicide tolerance different herbicide strategies were compared with each other. Though, it is difficult to find a compromise between satisfactory herbicidal effect and a slight injury to the crop plant. The herbicide selection, the application rate and the combination of different herbicides have an effect on the crop. To confirm the data obtained further tests are necessary.

  1. Herbicides: A new threat to the Great Barrier Reef

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, Stephen E.; Brodie, Jon E.; Bainbridge, Zoe T.; Rohde, Ken W.; Davis, Aaron M.; Masters, Bronwyn L.; Maughan, Mirjam; Devlin, Michelle J.; Mueller, Jochen F.; Schaffelke, Britta

    2009-01-01

    The runoff of pesticides (insecticides, herbicides and fungicides) from agricultural lands is a key concern for the health of the iconic Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Relatively low levels of herbicide residues can reduce the productivity of marine plants and corals. However, the risk of these residues to Great Barrier Reef ecosystems has been poorly quantified due to a lack of large-scale datasets. Here we present results of a study tracing pesticide residues from rivers and creeks in three catchment regions to the adjacent marine environment. Several pesticides (mainly herbicides) were detected in both freshwater and coastal marine waters and were attributed to specific land uses in the catchment. Elevated herbicide concentrations were particularly associated with sugar cane cultivation in the adjacent catchment. We demonstrate that herbicides reach the Great Barrier Reef lagoon and may disturb sensitive marine ecosystems already affected by other pressures such as climate change. - Herbicide residues have been detected in Great Barrier Reef catchment waterways and river water plumes which may affect marine ecosystems.

  2. Antioxidant activity of rice plants sprayed with herbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos André Nohatto

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the physiological defense behavior of plants subjected to herbicide application may help to identify products with higher or lower capacity to cause oxidative stress in crops. This study aimed at evaluating the effect of herbicides in the antioxidant activity of rice plants. The experimental design was completely randomized, with six replications. Treatments consisted of the herbicides bentazon (photosystem II inhibitor; 960 g ha-1, penoxsulam (acetolactate synthase inhibitor; 60 g ha-1, cyhalofop-butyl (acetyl coenzyme-A carboxylase inhibitor; 315 g ha-1 and a control. After the herbicides application, samples of rice shoots were collected at 12, 24, 48 and 96 hours after application (HAA. The components evaluated were hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, lipid peroxidation and activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT. Bentazon (up to 24 HAA and penoxsulam (48 and 96 HAA reduced the CAT activity. Moreover, these herbicides increased the levels of H2O2, lipid peroxidation and SOD activity, indicating a condition of oxidative stress in rice plants. The cyhalofop-butyl herbicide did not alter the antioxidant activity, showing that it causes less stress to the crop.

  3. Rationale for Selection of Pesticides, Herbicides, and Related Compounds from the Hanford SST/DST Waste Considered for Analysis in Support of the Regulatory DQO (Privatization)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiemers, K.D.; Daling, P.; Meier, K.

    1999-01-04

    Regulated pesticides, herbicides, miticides, and fungicides were evaluated for their potential past and current use at the Hanford Site. The starting list of these compounds is based on regulatory analyte input lists discussed in the Regulatory DQO. Twelve pesticide, herbicide, miticide, and fungicide compounds are identified for analysis in the Hanford SST and DST waste in support of the Regulatory DQO. The compounds considered for additional analyses are non-detected, considered stable in the tank waste matrix, and of higher toxicity/carcinogenicity.

  4. Rationale for Selection of Pesticides, Herbicides, and Related Compounds from the Hanford SST/DST Waste Considered for Analysis in Support of the Regulatory DQO (Privatization)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiemers, K.D.; Daling, P.; Meier, K.

    1999-01-01

    Regulated pesticides, herbicides, miticides, and fungicides were evaluated for their potential past and current use at the Hanford Site. The starting list of these compounds is based on regulatory analyte input lists discussed in the Regulatory DQO. Twelve pesticide, herbicide, miticide, and fungicide compounds are identified for analysis in the Hanford SST and DST waste in support of the Regulatory DQO. The compounds considered for additional analyses are non-detected, considered stable in the tank waste matrix, and of higher toxicity/carcinogenicity

  5. Exposure to a glyphosate-based herbicide during pregnancy and lactation induces neurobehavioral alterations in rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos, Cristina E; Bartos, Mariana; Bras, Cristina; Gumilar, Fernanda; Antonelli, Marta C; Minetti, Alejandra

    2016-03-01

    The impact of sub-lethal doses of herbicides on human health and the environment is a matter of controversy. Due to the fact that evidence particularly of the effects of glyphosate on the central nervous system of rat offspring by in utero exposure is scarce, the purpose of the present study was to assess the neurobehavioral effects of chronic exposure to a glyphosate-containing herbicide during pregnancy and lactation. To this end, pregnant Wistar rats were exposed through drinking water to 0.2% or 0.4% of a commercial formulation of glyphosate (corresponding to a concentration of 0.65 or 1.30g/L of glyphosate, respectively) during pregnancy and lactation and neurobehavioral alterations in offspring were analyzed. The postnatal day on which each pup acquired neonatal reflexes (righting, cliff aversion and negative geotaxis) and that on which eyes and auditory canals were fully opened were recorded for the assessment of sensorimotor development. Locomotor activity and anxiety levels were monitored via open field test and plus maze test, respectively, in 45- and 90-day-old offspring. Pups exposed to a glyphosate-based herbicide showed early onset of cliff aversion reflex and early auditory canal opening. A decrease in locomotor activity and in anxiety levels was also observed in the groups exposed to a glyphosate-containing herbicide. Findings from the present study reveal that early exposure to a glyphosate-based herbicide affects the central nervous system in rat offspring probably by altering mechanisms or neurotransmitter systems that regulate locomotor activity and anxiety. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Aquatic Plant Control Research Program: Aquatic Plant Identification and Herbicide Use Guide. Volume 2. Aquatic Plants and Susceptibility to Herbicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-11-01

    Chronic >0.5 Daphnia Repeat exposure Chronic >0.2 reproduction 0 NOTE; Fluridone was not found to cause genetic mutations or cancer in tested lab...persists. REGISTERED HERBICIDES 95 REGISTERED HERBICIDES GLYPHOSATE A. Chemical Name and Formulation: Chemical name: N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine Formulation...RODEO (53.5% ai, isopropylamine salt of glyphosate , liquid) B. Mode of Action: Not definite. However, investigators have postulated that

  7. 78 FR 30304 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Pollution Prevention and Right-to-Know...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-22

    ...; Submission for OMB Review; Pollution Prevention and Right-to-Know Information (FAR 52.223-5) AGENCY... previously approved information collection requirement concerning pollution prevention and right-to-know... by Information Collection 9000- 0147, Pollution Prevention and Right-to-Know Information by any of...

  8. Regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballereau, P.

    1999-01-01

    The different regulations relative to nuclear energy since the first of January 1999 are given here. Two points deserve to be noticed: the decree of the third august 1999 authorizing the national Agency for the radioactive waste management to install and exploit on the commune of Bures (Meuse) an underground laboratory destined to study the deep geological formations where could be stored the radioactive waste. The second point is about the uranium residues and the waste notion. The judgment of the administrative tribunal of Limoges ( 9. july 1998) forbidding the exploitation of a storage installation of depleted uranium considered as final waste and qualifying it as an industrial waste storage facility has been annulled bu the Court of Appeal. It stipulated that, according to the law number 75663 of the 15. july 1965, no criteria below can be applied to depleted uranium: production residue (possibility of an ulterior enrichment), abandonment of a personal property or simple intention to do it ( future use aimed in the authorization request made in the Prefecture). This judgment has devoted the primacy of the waste notion on this one of final waste. (N.C.)

  9. Regularity of mitosis in different varieties of winter bread wheat under the action of herbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Eugenivna KOPYTCHUK

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the most widespread herbicides on winter wheat in Ukraine was studied by anaphase test. Treatment with herbicides reduced the germination of the seeds and disturbed the regularity of mitosis in all varieties of wheat. The range of violations of mitosis was demonstrated by the formation of chromosomal aberrations and dysfunctions of cell cytoskeleton which occurred while processing herbicides. Varietal differences between investigated wheat by sensitivity to herbicides were discovered. The most resistant to herbicides was variety Fantasya Odesskaya, and the most sensitive – Nikoniya, while the most harmful herbicide for wheat was Napalm.

  10. Soil microbial and faunal responses to herbicide tolerant maize and herbicide in two soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Griffiths, Bryan; Caul, Sandra; Thompson, J.

    2008-01-01

    using a tiered approach at laboratory, glasshouse and field scales. Soil for the experiment was taken from field sites where the same maize cultivars were grown to allow comparison between results under glasshouse and field conditions. The maize cultivars T25 (GM HT glufosinate-ammonium tolerant....... The main effects on all measured parameters were those of soil type and plant growth stage, with four categories of subsequent interaction: (1) there were no effects of herbicide on plant growth or soil microarthropods: (2) the maize cultivar (but not the GM HT trait) had effects on the decomposition...

  11. Herbicides interfere with antigrazer defenses in Scenedesmus obliquus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xuexia; Sun, Yunfei; Zhang, Xingxing; Heng, Hailu; Nan, Haihong; Zhang, Lu; Huang, Yuan; Yang, Zhou

    2016-11-01

    The extensive application of herbicides has led to a serious threat of herbicide contamination to aquatic ecosystem. Herbicide exposure affects aquatic communities not only by exerting toxicity on single species but also by changing interspecific interactions. This study investigated the antigrazer defenses of the common green alga Scenedesmus obliquus against different herbicides [glyphosate, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), and atrazine] at various concentrations (0-2.0 mg L(-1)). In the presence of grazer (Daphnia)-derived cues, S. obliquus populations without herbicides formed high proportions of multicelled (e.g., four- and eight-celled) colonies. This result confirms that S. obliquus exhibits a morphological defense against grazing risk. At the low concentration range of 0.002-0.02 mg L(-1), the three herbicides exerted no influence on the growth and photosynthetic efficiency of S. obliquus, and multicelled colonies showed constant proportions. At the high concentration range of 0.20-2.0 mg L(-1), atrazine significantly inhibited the algal growth and photosynthesis whereas glyphosate or 2,4-D did not. Nonetheless, these levels of glyphosate or 2,4-D remarkably decreased the proportion of multicelled colonies, with reduced numbers of cells per particle in Daphnia filtrate-treated population. No eight-celled colony was formed after treatment with atrazine at 0.20-2.0 mg L(-1) despite the addition of Daphnia filtrate. These results suggest that herbicide exposure impairs antigrazer colonial morphs in phytoplankton although it is not sufficient to hamper algal growth. This phenomenon can increase the risk of predation by herbivores, thereby disrupting the inducible phytoplankton community. Furthermore, the predator-prey interactions between herbivores and phytoplankton can be potentially changed more seriously than previously considered. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Using therapeutic jurisprudence and preventive law to examine disputants' best interests in mediating cases about physicians' practices: a guide for medical regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Lorraine E

    2004-01-01

    Therapeutic jurisprudence (TJ) and preventive law (PL) are used as two theoretical perspectives from which to examine the best interests of parties in mediation because of a dispute about a physician's practice. The focus is mediation provided by and/or for the medical regulator. The paper reviews the literature on TJ and PL, and their relationship to mediation, and demonstrates how medical regulators could benefit by working within a framework reflecting both these perspectives providing it does not involve an egregious matter. A TJ and PL framework would be of particular value in identifying cases for mediation and in evaluating resolutions to mediated disputes.

  13. Rapeseed with tolerance to the non selective herbicide glufosinate ammonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasche, E. [Hoechst Schering AgrEvo GmbH, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    Weed control with herbicides is essential to grow rapeseed. Glufosinate Ammonium is used as a non selective herbicide successfully in many countries for over 10 years. It conforms well with ever increasing safety standards for human beings, animals and the environment. The tolerance of rapeseed and other crop plants was achieved by genetic modification. A resistance gene (PAT or BAR) was transfered into previously susceptible rapeseed plants. This new approach allowed the development of Glufosinate Ammonium as an almost ideal selective herbicide. In cooperation with major seed companies and by own breeding programmes new Glufosinate tolerant rapeseed varieties and hybrids are developed. Data on metabolism, toxicity, residues, efficacy etc. were generated to get registration for the selective herbicide use. In addition various studies were done for safety assessments of the PAT gene and the modified rapeseed. In spring 1995 Canadian authorities granted worldwide the first approvals for the selective use of Glufosinate Ammonium (trademark Liberty) and Glufosinate tolerant (trademark and logo Liberty Link) spring rapeseed (Canola). After a successful launch in 1995 about 150.000 ha of Liberty Link Canola were grown and treated with Liberty in 1996. The Liberty Link Canola growers were very well satisfied. In a grower survey 84% stated that they will definitely use the Liberty Link System again. In Europe registrations for Glufosinate Ammonium as a selective herbicide and for the first Glufosinate tolerant rapeseed varieties are expected in the course of 1997. The Liberty Link System will be launched in rapeseed most probably in 1998. (orig.)

  14. Effects of the herbicide imazapyr on juvenile Oregon spotted frogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahnke, Amy E.; Grue, Christian E.; Hayes, Marc P.; Troiano, Alexandra T.

    2013-01-01

    Conflict between native amphibians and aquatic weed management in the Pacific Northwest is rarely recognized because most native stillwater-breeding amphibian species move upland during summer, when herbicide application to control weeds in aquatic habitats typically occurs. However, aquatic weed management may pose a risk for aquatic species present in wetlands through the summer, such as the Oregon spotted frog (OSF, Rana pretiosa), a state endangered species in Washington. Acute toxicity of herbicides used to control aquatic weeds tends to be low, but the direct effects of herbicide tank mixes on OSFs have remained unexamined. We exposed juvenile OSFs to tank mixes of the herbicide imazapyr, a surfactant, and a marker dye in a 96-h static-renewal test. The tank mix was chosen because of its low toxicity to fish and its effectiveness in aquatic weed control. Concentrations were those associated with low-volume (3.5 L/ha) and high-volume (7.0 L/ha) applications of imazapyr and a clean-water control. Following exposure, frogs were reared for two months in clean water to identify potential latent effects on growth. Endpoints evaluated included feeding behavior, growth, and body and liver condition indices. We recorded no mortalities and found no significant differences for any end point between the herbicide-exposed and clean-water control frogs. The results suggest that imazapyr use in wetland restoration poses a low risk of direct toxic effects on juvenile OSFs.

  15. Combined thermal and herbicide stress in functionally diverse coral symbionts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dam, J.W. van; Uthicke, S.; Beltran, V.H.; Mueller, J.F.; Negri, A.P.

    2015-01-01

    Most reef building corals rely on symbiotic microalgae (genus Symbiodinium) to supply a substantial proportion of their energy requirements. Functional diversity of different Symbiodinium genotypes, endorsing the host with physiological advantages, has been widely reported. Yet, the influence of genotypic specificity on the symbiont's susceptibility to contaminants or cumulative stressors is unknown. Cultured Symbiodinium of presumed thermal-tolerant clade D tested especially vulnerable to the widespread herbicide diuron, suggesting important free-living populations may be at risk in areas subjected to terrestrial runoff. Co-exposure experiments where cultured Symbiodinium were exposed to diuron over a thermal stress gradient demonstrated how fast-growing clade C1 better maintained photosynthetic capability than clade D. The mixture toxicity model of Independent Action, considering combined thermal stress and herbicide contamination, revealed response additivity for inhibition of photosynthetic yield in both tested cultures, emphasizing the need to account for cumulative stressor impacts in ecological risk assessment and resource management. - Highlights: • Water quality influences thermal stress thresholds in different Symbiodinium types. • Photosystem of clade D tested more sensitive than C1 to a common herbicide. • Increased thermal tolerance quickly countered in presence of herbicide. • Mixture toxicity approach demonstrated response additivity for combined stressors. • Symbiotic partnership may be compromised in areas subjected to terrestrial runoff. - Thermal-tolerant Symbiodinium type D tested especially vulnerable to a common herbicide, emphasizing the significance of cumulative stressors in ecological risk management

  16. Toxicity effects of an environmental realistic herbicide mixture on the seagrass Zostera noltei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diepens, Noël J; Buffan-Dubau, Evelyne; Budzinski, Hélène; Kallerhoff, Jean; Merlina, Georges; Silvestre, Jérome; Auby, Isabelle; Nathalie Tapie; Elger, Arnaud

    2017-03-01

    Worldwide seagrass declines have been observed due to multiple stressors. One of them is the mixture of pesticides used in intensive agriculture and boat antifouling paints in coastal areas. Effects of mixture toxicity are complex and poorly understood. However, consideration of mixture toxicity is more realistic and ecologically relevant for environmental risk assessment (ERA). The first aim of this study was to determine short-term effects of realistic herbicide mixture exposure on physiological endpoints of Zostera noltei. The second aim was to assess the environmental risks of this mixture, by comparing the results to previously published data. Z. noltei was exposed to a mixture of four herbicides: atrazine, diuron, irgarol and S-metolachlor, simulating the composition of typical cocktail of contaminants in the Arcachon bay (Atlantic coast, France). Three stress biomarkers were measured: enzymatic activity of glutathione reductase, effective quantum yield (EQY) and photosynthetic pigment composition after 6, 24 and 96 h. Short term exposure to realistic herbicide mixtures affected EQY, with almost 100% inhibition for the two highest concentrations, and photosynthetic pigments. Effect on pigment composition was detected after 6 h with a no observed effect concentration (NOEC) of 1 μg/L total mixture concentration. The lowest EQY effect concentration at 10% (EC 10 ) (2 μg/L) and pigment composition NOEC with an assessment factor of 10 were above the maximal field concentrations along the French Atlantic coast, suggesting that there are no potential short term adverse effects of this particular mixture on Z. noltei. However, chronic effects on photosynthesis may lead to reduced energy reserves, which could thus lead to effects at whole plant and population level. Understanding the consequences of chemical mixtures could help to improve ERA and enhance management strategies to prevent further declines of seagrass meadows worldwide. Copyright © 2016

  17. Plant reproduction is altered by simulated herbicide drift to constructed plant communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbicide drift may have unintended impacts on native vegetation, adversely affecting structure and function of plant communities. However, these potential effects have been rarely studied or quantified. To determine potential ecological effects of herbicide drift, we construct...

  18. Bioactivity of Several Herbicides on the Nanogram Level Under Different Soil Moisture Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, S C; Kuk, Y I; Senseman, S A; Ahn, H G; Seong, C N; Lee, D J

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a double-tube centrifuge method was employed to determine the effects of soil moisture on the bioactivity of cafenstrole, pretilachlor, benfuresate, oxyfluorfen and simetryn. In general, the available herbicide concentration in soil solution (ACSS) showed little change as soil moisture increased for herbicides. The total available herbicide in soil solution (TASS) typically increased as soil moisture increased for all herbicides. The relationship between TASS and % growth rate based on dry weight showed strong linear relationships for both cafenstrole and pretilachlor, with r2 values of 0.95 and 0.84, respectively. Increasing TASS values were consistent with increasing herbicide water solubility, with the exception of the ionizable herbicide simetryn. Plant absorption and % growth rate exhibited a strong linear relationship with TASS. According to the results suggested that TASS was a better predictor of herbicidal bioactivity than ACSS for all herbicides under unsaturated soil moisture conditions.

  19. Prevention of suicide with regulations aimed at restricting access to highly hazardous pesticides: a systematic review of the international evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnell, David; Knipe, Duleeka; Chang, Shu-Sen; Pearson, Melissa; Konradsen, Flemming; Lee, Won Jin; Eddleston, Michael

    2017-10-01

    Pesticide self-poisoning accounts for 14-20% of suicides worldwide. Regulation aimed at restricting access to pesticides or banning highly hazardous pesticides is one approach to reducing these deaths. We systematically reviewed the evidence of the effectiveness of pesticide regulation in reducing the incidence of pesticide suicides and overall suicides. We did a systematic review of the international evidence. We searched MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Embase for studies published between Jan 1, 1960, and Dec 31, 2016, which investigated the effect of national or regional bans, and sales or import restrictions, on the availability of one or more pesticides and the incidence of suicide in different countries. We excluded other interventions aimed at limiting community access to pesticides. We extracted data from studies presenting pesticide suicide data and overall suicide data from before and after national sales restrictions. Two reviewers independently assessed papers for inclusion, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias. We undertook a narrative synthesis of the data in each report, and where data were available for the years before and after a ban, we pooled data for the 3 years before and the 3 years after to obtain a crude estimate of the effect of the ban. This study is registered through PROSPERO, number CRD42017053329. We identified 27 studies undertaken in 16 countries-five low-income or middle-income countries (Bangladesh, Colombia, India, Jordan and Sri Lanka), and 11 high-income countries (Denmark, Finland, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, UK, and USA). Assessments largely focused on national bans of specific pesticides (12 studies of bans in six countries-Jordan, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Greece [Crete], South Korea, and Taiwan) or sales restrictions (eight studies of restrictions in five countries- India, Denmark, Ireland, the UK and the USA). Only five studies used optimum analytical methods. National bans on commonly ingested

  20. In vitro sensitivity of antagonistic Trichoderma atroviride to herbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Helena Santoro

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Trichoderma atroviride was tested in vitro for its sensitivity to different herbicides. The dosages tested were recommended dosage (RD, half dosage (½RD, and double dosage (2RD. Germination, colony-forming units (CFU, radial growth, and spore production were evaluated. Carfentrazone-ethyl and sulfentrazone inhibited the germination at RD and 2RD. A reduction in the CFU was observed for glufosinate-ammonium, atrazine, carfentrazone-ethyl, diuron + paraquat dichloride, imazapyr, oxyfluorfen, and sulfentrazone at each of the tested dosages. Radial growth was influenced by ametryn, atrazine, carfentrazone-ethyl, oxyfluorfen, and sulfentrazone herbicides, with an 80% reduction of the colonial area. Spore production was affected by carfentrazone-ethyl, oxyfluorfen, and sulfentrazone with colonial area reductions of over 70%. It was concluded that 2,4 D, clomazone, and imazapyr herbicides showed the least toxicity to T. atroviride and should be used in the crops where the fungus has been applied for phytopathogen control.

  1. Intraregional and inter-regional variability of herbicide sensitivity in common arable weed populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Mol, Friederike; Gerowitt, Bärbel; Kaczmarek, Sylwia

    2015-01-01

    The question on intraregional versus inter-regional variability in herbicide sensitivity for weed populations is of major importance, both in extrapolation of model parameters and in herbicide zonal approval procedures. We hypothesised that inter-regional variability in herbicide sensitivity for ...

  2. Agricultural herbicide transport in a first-order intermittent stream, Nebraska, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, J.R.; Linard, J.I.

    2011-01-01

    The behavior of herbicides in surface waters is a function of many variables, including scale of the watershed, physical and chemical properties of the herbicide, physical and chemical properties of the soil, rainfall intensity, and time of year. In this study, the transport of 6 herbicides and 12 herbicide degradates was examined during the 2004 growing season in an intermediate-scale agricultural watershed (146 ha) that is drained by a first-order intermittent stream, and the mass load for each herbicide in the stream was estimated. The herbicide load during the first week of storm events after application ranged from 17% of annual load for trifluralin to 84% of annual load for acetochlor. The maximum weekly herbicide load in the stream was generally within the first 3 weeks after application for those compounds that were applied within the watershed during 2004, and later for herbicides not applied within the watershed during 2004 but still detected in the stream. The apparent dominant mode of herbicide transport in the stream-determined by analysis amongst herbicide and conservative ion concentrations at different points in the hydrograph and in base flow samples-was either overland runoff or shallow subsurface flow, depending on the elapsed time after application and type of herbicide. The load as a percentage of use (LAPU) for the parent compounds in this study was similar to literature values for those compounds applied by the farmer within the watershed, but smaller for those herbicides that had rainfall as their only source within the watershed.

  3. Transcript markers of herbicide stress in Arabidopsis and their cross-species extrapolation to Brassica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low concentrations and short environmental persistence times of some herbicides make it difficult to develop analytical methods to detect herbicide residues in plants or soils. In contrast, genomics may provide tools to identify herbicide exposure to plants in field settings. Usi...

  4. The role of herbicides for enhancing productivity and conserving land for biodiversity in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert G. Wagner; Michael Newton; Elizabeth C. Cole; James H. Miller; Barry D. Shiver

    2004-01-01

    Herbicide technology has evolved with forest management in North America over the past 60 years and has become an integral part of modern forestry practice. Forest managers have prescribed herbicides to increase reforestation success and long-term timber yields. Wildlife managers and others interested in conserving biodi- versity, however, have often viewed herbicide...

  5. Using a Hydrological Model to Determine Environmentally Safer Windows for Herbicide Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.L. Michael; M.C. Smith; W.G. Knisel; D.G. Neary; W.P. Fowler; D.J. Turton

    1996-01-01

    A modification of the GLEAMS model was used to determine application windows which would optimise efficacy and environmental safety for herbicide application to a forest site. Herbicide/soil partition coefficients were determined using soil samples collected from the study site for two herbicides (imazapyr, Koc=46, triclopyr ester, K

  6. Effect of herbicides on photosynthetic electron transport and on the growth of the alga Scenedesmus quadricauda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Hendrich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The inhibitory effect of herbicides on the Hill reaction (with 2,6-dichloro-phenol-indophenol as acceptor and their influence on development of the alga Scenedesmus quadricauda was studied. The following herbicides were tested: 2,4-D, Gramoxone, Afalon, Kresamone, CIPC and Simazine. The results are discussed in terms of the mechanism of action of the investigated herbicides.

  7. 75 FR 17857 - Removal of Obsolete References to Herbicides Containing Dioxin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-08

    ... Herbicides Containing Dioxin AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The... health effects of exposure to herbicides containing dioxin and radiation to remove the obsolete references to herbicides containing dioxin. This final rule reflects changes made by the Agent Orange Act of...

  8. Decision Support System for Optimized Herbicide Dose in Spring Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderskov, Mette; Kudsk, Per; Mathiassen, Solvejg K

    2014-01-01

    Crop Protection Online (CPO) is a decision support system, which integrates decision algorithms quantifying the requirement for weed control and a herbicide dose model. CPO was designed to be used by advisors and farmers to optimize the choice of herbicide and dose. The recommendations from CPO...... as the Treatment Frequency Index (TFI)) compared to a high level of required weed control. The observations indicated that the current level of weed control required is robust for a range of weed scenarios. Weed plant numbers 3 wk after spraying indicated that the growth of the weed species were inhibited...

  9. Response of soil microbiota to selected herbicide treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roslycky, E B

    1977-04-01

    Recommended concentrations of paraquat alone and its combination with each of linuron, diuron, atrazine, simazine, and simazine plus diuron exerted little effect on total populations of bacteria, actinomycetes, and fungi in Fox sandy loam under laboratory and simulated field conditions in 66 and 77 days, respectively. Respiration of the total microbiota in soil suspension was afeected by the combinations as well as individual herbicides in various concentrations. Yet, the inhibition of the O2 uptake by any of these herbicides, including some extreme concentrations, was not permanent, indicating adaptation, or suppression of specific organisms. Only linuron in concentrations up to 20 microng/ml stimulated respiration of the soil.

  10. Residual herbicide study on selected Hanford Site roadsides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.L.; Kemp, C.J.; Sackschewsky, M.R.

    1993-08-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company routinely treats roadsides with herbicides to control undesirable plant growth. An experiment was conducted to test perennial grass germination in soils adjacent to roadways of the Hanford Site. The primary variable was the distance from the roadside. A simple germination test was executed in a controlled-environment chamber to determine the residual effects of these applications. As expected, the greatest herbicide activity was found directly adjacent to the roadway, approximately 0 to 20 ft (0 to 6.3 m) from the roadway.

  11. Targeting the master regulator mTOR: a new approach to prevent the neurological of consequences of parasitic infections?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Donnelly

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A systematic analysis of 240 causes of death in 2013 revealed that parasitic diseases were responsible for more than one million deaths. The vast majority of these fatalities resulted from protozoan infections presenting with neurological sequelae. In the absence of a vaccine, development of effective therapies is essential to improving global public health. In 2015, an intriguing strategy to prevent cerebral malaria was proposed by Gordon et al. 2015 mBio, 6:e00625. Their study suggested that inhibition of the mammalian target of rapamycin prevented experimental cerebral malaria by blocking the damage to the blood brain barrier and stopping the accumulation of parasitized red blood cells and T cells in the brain. Here, we hypothesize that the same therapeutic strategy could be adopted for other protozoan infections with a brain tropism, to prevent cerebral parasitosis by limiting pathogen replication and preventing immune mediated destruction of brain tissue.

  12. Improvements in the use of aquatic herbicides and establishment of future research directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getsinger, K.D.; Netherland, M.D.; Grue, C.E.; Koschnick, T.J.

    2008-01-01

    Peer-reviewed literature over the past 20 years identifies significant changes and improvements in chemical control strategies used to manage nuisance submersed vegetation. The invasive exotic plants hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata L.f. Royle) and Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum L.) continue to spread and remain the plant species of greatest concern for aquatic resource managers at the national scale. Emerging exotic weeds of regional concern such as egeria (Egeria densa Planch.), curlyleaf pondweed (Potamogeton crispus L.), and hygrophila (Hygrophila polysperma (Roxb.) T. Anders), as well as native plants such as variable watermilfoil (Myriophyllum heterophyllum Michx), and cabomba (Cabomba caroliniana Gray) are invasive outside their home ranges. In addition, there is always the threat of new plant introductions such as African elodea (Lagarosiphon major (Ridley) Moss) or narrow-leaf anacharis (Egeria najas Planchon). The registration of the bleaching herbicide fluridone in the mid 1980s for whole-lake and large-scale management stimulated numerous lines of research involving reduction of use rates, plant selectivity, residue monitoring, and impacts on fisheries. In addition to numerous advances, the specificity of fluridone for a single plant enzyme led to the first documented case of herbicide resistance in aquatic plant management. The resistance of hydrilla to fluridone has stimulated a renewed interest by industry and others in the registration of alternative modes of action for aquatic use. These newer chemistries tend to be enzyme-specific compounds with favorable non-target toxicity profiles. Registration efforts have been facilitated by increased cooperation between key federal government agencies that have aquatic weed control and research responsibilities, and regulators within the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). We reviewed past and current research efforts to identify areas in need of further investigation and to establish

  13. The generation of singlet oxygen (o(2)) by the nitrodiphenyl ether herbicide oxyfluorfen is independent of photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haworth, P; Hess, F D

    1988-03-01

    The mechanism of action of the p-nitrodiphenyl ether herbicides has remained ambiguous because of conflicting reports in the literature. The diphenyl ether herbicide oxyfluorfen causes a light induced consumption of oxygen which resembles the electron acceptor reaction of paraquat. However, this reaction is not linked to the transport of electrons through photosystem I. This conclusion is based on the observation that the rate of oxygen consumption, in the presence of oxyfluorfen, does not demonstrate a first order rate dependence on light intensity. Using the bleaching of N,N-dimethyl p-nitrosoaniline as a specific detector of singlet oxygen, we demonstrate that oxyfluorfen is a potent generator of this toxic radical. The production of singlet oxygen occurs in the presence of inhibitors of photosynthetic electron transport (oxyfluorfen at 10(-4) molar and paraquat) and also under temperature conditions (3 degrees C) which prevent electron transport. This light induced reaction results in oxygen consumption and is the primary cause of lethality for oxyfluorfen. The production of singlet oxygen occurs rapidly and at low herbicide concentrations (10(-9) molar). The reaction occurs without photosynthetic electron transport but does require an intact thylakoid membrane.

  14. Effects of a diphenyl-ether herbicide, oxyfluorfen, on human BFU-E/CFU-E development and haemoglobin synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rio, B; Parent-Massin, D; Lautraite, S; Hoellinger, H

    1997-02-01

    The diphenyl-ether herbicides exert their phytotoxic activity by preventing chlorophyll formation in plants as a result of inhibition of protoporphyrinogen oxidase. This enzyme is the last step of the common pathway for chlorophyll and haem biosynthesis. The aim of this work is to determine whether herbicide inhibitors of plant protoporphyrinogen oxidase could act on the human protoporphyrinogen oxidase involved in haemoglobin synthesis and cause heamatologic diseases. Human erythroblastic progenitors (BFU-E/CFU-E: Burst Forming Unit-Erythroid and Colony Forming Unit-Erythroid) were exposed to oxyfluorfen, a diphenyl-ether herbicide in the presence of erythropoietin, and the haematoxicity evaluated in vitro by scoring the development of BFU-E/CFU-E colonies after 7 and 14 days of culture. The toxic effect on differentiation has been evaluated using four criteria: morphology, total protein, total porphyrin, and haemoglobin content. The study of BFU-E/CFU-E proliferation and differentiation showed a cytotoxic effect of oxyfluorfen only at very high concentrations. In contrast, haemoglobin synthesis can be inhibited by concentration of oxyfluorfen (10(-4) M) that have no adverse effect on cellular proliferation.

  15. The Generation of Singlet Oxygen (1O2) by the Nitrodiphenyl Ether Herbicide Oxyfluorfen Is Independent of Photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haworth, Phil; Hess, F. Dan

    1988-01-01

    The mechanism of action of the p-nitrodiphenyl ether herbicides has remained ambiguous because of conflicting reports in the literature. The diphenyl ether herbicide oxyfluorfen causes a light induced consumption of oxygen which resembles the electron acceptor reaction of paraquat. However, this reaction is not linked to the transport of electrons through photosystem I. This conclusion is based on the observation that the rate of oxygen consumption, in the presence of oxyfluorfen, does not demonstrate a first order rate dependence on light intensity. Using the bleaching of N,N-dimethyl p-nitrosoaniline as a specific detector of singlet oxygen, we demonstrate that oxyfluorfen is a potent generator of this toxic radical. The production of singlet oxygen occurs in the presence of inhibitors of photosynthetic electron transport (oxyfluorfen at 10−4 molar and paraquat) and also under temperature conditions (3°C) which prevent electron transport. This light induced reaction results in oxygen consumption and is the primary cause of lethality for oxyfluorfen. The production of singlet oxygen occurs rapidly and at low herbicide concentrations (10−9 molar). The reaction occurs without photosynthetic electron transport but does require an intact thylakoid membrane. PMID:16665968

  16. Rapid response for invasive waterweeds at the arctic invasion front: Assessment of collateral impacts from herbicide treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Suresh; Carey, Michael P.; Morton, John M.; Guerron-Orejuela, Edgar; Decino, Robert; Willette, Mark; Boersma, James; Jablonski, Jillian; Anderson, Cheryl

    2017-01-01

    The remoteness of subarctic and arctic ecosystems no longer protects against invasive species introductions. Rather, the mix of urban hubs surrounded by undeveloped expanses creates a ratchet process whereby anthropogenic activity is sufficient to introduce and spread invaders, but for which the costs of monitoring and managing remote ecosystems is prohibitive. Elodea spp. is the first aquatic invasive plant to become established in Alaska and has potential for widespread deleterious ecological and economic impacts. A rapid eradication response with herbicides has been identified as a priority invasion control strategy. We conducted a multi-lake monitoring effort to assess collateral impacts from herbicide treatment for Elodea in high latitude systems. Variability in data was driven by seasonal dynamics and natural lake-to-lake differences typical of high latitude waterbodies, indicating lack of evidence for systematic impacts to water quality or plankton communities associated with herbicide treatment of Elodea. Impacts on native macrophytes were benign with the exception of some evidence for earlier onset of leaf senescence for lily pads(Nuphar spp.) in treated lakes. We observed a substantial increase in detected native flora richness after Elodea was eradicated from the most heavily infested lake, indicating potential for retention of native macrophyte communities if infestations are addressed quickly. While avoiding introductions through prevention may be the most desirable outcome, these applications indicated low risks of non-target impacts associated with herbicide treatment as a rapid response option for Elodea in high latitude systems.

  17. The impact of occupational health and safety regulations on prevention through design in construction projects: Perspectives from Spain and the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Aires, María Dolores; Rubio Gámez, María Carmen; Gibb, Alistair

    2015-01-01

    Since the mid-1990 s, Prevention through Design (PtD) has become increasingly prevalent in the built environment. The acceptance of PtD has largely been due to the removal or reduction of risks during the execution phase of construction projects. European States have had the added impetus of national legislation. This paper analyzes the influence of European Union Directive 92/57/EEC on occupational safety and health injury prevention in the project design phase. Qualitative methods comprised individual semi-structured interviews and focus groups with a panel of experts. Sixty individuals from construction and related professions (architects, engineers, constructors, developers, and other construction experts) answered 17 key questions to establish national perceptions of the effectiveness of Directive 92/57/EEC in Spain and the United Kingdom (UK). The implementation of PtD in the project design phase in the UK is clearer since the regulations explicitly state the obligations of project designers as well as those of the coordinator. Interviews with Spanish experts show that, in Spain, the prevention culture is less frequently realized. The most significant differences between the European Directive and national regulations which influence PtD are linked to the Health and Safety Coordinator, and Health and Safety documents.

  18. Effects of herbicides on Behr's metalmark butterfly, a surrogate species for the endangered butterfly, Lange's metalmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stark, John D.; Chen Xuedong; Johnson, Catherine S.

    2012-01-01

    Lange's metalmark butterfly, Apodemia mormo langei Comstock, is in danger of extinction due to loss of habitat caused by invasive exotic plants which are eliminating its food, naked stem buckwheat. Herbicides are being used to remove invasive weeds from the dunes; however, little is known about the potential effects of herbicides on butterflies. To address this concern we evaluated potential toxic effects of three herbicides on Behr's metalmark, a close relative of Lange's metalmark. First instars were exposed to recommended field rates of triclopyr, sethoxydim, and imazapyr. Life history parameters were recorded after exposure. These herbicides reduced the number of adults that emerged from pupation (24–36%). Each herbicide has a different mode of action. Therefore, we speculate that effects are due to inert ingredients or indirect effects on food plant quality. If these herbicides act the same in A. mormo langei, they may contribute to the decline of this species. - Highlights: ► We evaluated the effects of three herbicides on the butterfly, Behr's metalmark. ► These herbicides are used to control invasive weeds in butterfly habitat. ► The herbicides reduced adult butterfly emergence. - Herbicides are used to remove invasive weeds from butterfly habitat. Certain herbicides may be having a negative effect on butterflies.

  19. Vegetative filter strips efficiency controlling soil loss and trapping herbicides in two olive orchards at the short-term

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Luna, Elena; Guzmán, Gema; Gómez, José A.

    2014-05-01

    The optimization of water use in a semi-arid climate is based on an optimal use of rainwater adopting management practices that prevent and/or control runoff. This is a key point for increasing the economic and environmental sustainability of agriculture due to the minimization of diffuse pollution associated to runoff and to sediment and chemical transport. One strategy is the establishment of vegetative filters strips that prevent pesticides (Stehle et al. 2011), herbicides (Vianello et al. 2005), fertilizers (Withers et al. 2009) and runoff-sediment (Campo-Bescós et al. 2013) from entering streams or surface water reservoirs. To evaluate the short-term risks associated with the use of herbicides a trial was designed in two olive groves located in Benacazón (Sevilla) and Cabra (Córdoba) both with an average steepness of 11%. Two different management systems were evaluated, bare soil and bare soil with vegetative filter strips. Pre-emergence herbicides were applied and analysed at the beginning of the trial by chromatography GC-MS and after each rainfall event both in soil and sediment. Runoff and soil losses were measured, as well. The results obtained from this study show that soil management practices such as, the use of vegetative filter strips results in a reduction of soil losses and runoff. This it is translated in the improvement of soil quality and a reduction of water pollution caused by the use of herbicides. This information will improve the understanding of insufficiently known aspects and it will help to increase the knowledge for a better implementation of sustainable management practices at a farm scale and at larger temporal scale. References: Campo-Bescós, M. A., Muñoz-Carpena, R., & Kiker, G. (2013) Influencia del suelo en la eficiencia de la implantación de filtros verdes en un distrito de riego por superficie en medio árido. En Estudios de la Zona no Saturada del Suelo, Vol. XI: 183-187. Stehle, S., Elsaesser, D., Gregoire, C., Imfeld

  20. Herbicide Safeners Decrease Sensitivity to Herbicides Inhibiting Acetolactate-Synthase and Likely Activate Non-Target-Site-Based Resistance Pathways in the Major Grass Weed Lolium sp. (Rye-Grass)

    OpenAIRE

    Duhoux, Arnaud; Pernin, Fanny; Desserre, Diane; D?lye, Christophe

    2017-01-01

    Herbicides are currently pivotal to control weeds and sustain food security. Herbicides must efficiently kill weeds while being as harmless as possible for crops, even crops taxonomically close to weeds. To increase their selectivity toward crops, some herbicides are sprayed in association with safeners that are bioactive compounds exacerbating herbicide-degrading pathways reputedly specifically in crops. However, exacerbated herbicide metabolism is also a key mechanism underlying evolved non...

  1. Analysis of the metabolic resistance of Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. to the herbicides action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.V. Lykholat

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Action and aftereffect of the herbicides with different modes of action on the common ragweed population were studied in the field and greenhouse experiments. Activation of glutathione S-transferase has been detected due to the action of herbicides Harness and Guardian-Tetra both in leaves of juvenile plants and in ragweed seeds, which indicates intensive detoxification of herbicides during weed ontogenesis. Electrophoretic analysis showed that four components in protein spectra of ragweed seeds were inherent in seeds collected from herbicides-treated plants only. Using the method of isoelectric focusing, three specific peroxidase isoforms associated with a certain mechanism of herbicidal action on the parent plants were found in leaves of the next generation plants. The results confirm the intensive adaptive changes in A. artemisiifolia population that could provide the metabolic resistance to different modes of the herbicide action. Keywords: Common ragweed, Metabolic resistance, Herbicide, Mode of action, Isoforms, Isoelectric

  2. Fourier transform of delayed fluorescence as an indicator of herbicide concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ya; Tan, Jinglu

    2014-12-21

    It is well known that delayed fluorescence (DF) from Photosystem II (PSII) of plant leaves can be potentially used to sense herbicide pollution and evaluate the effect of herbicides on plant leaves. The research of using DF as a measure of herbicides in the literature was mainly conducted in time domain and qualitative correlation was often obtained. Fourier transform is often used to analyze signals. Viewing DF signal in frequency domain through Fourier transform may allow separation of signal components and provide a quantitative method for sensing herbicides. However, there is a lack of an attempt to use Fourier transform of DF as an indicator of herbicide. In this work, the relationship between the Fourier transform of DF and herbicide concentration was theoretically modelled and analyzed, which immediately yielded a quantitative method to measure herbicide concentration in frequency domain. Experiments were performed to validate the developed method. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. How to test herbicides at forest tree nurseries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger E. Sandquist; Peyton W. Owston; Stephen E. McDonald

    1981-01-01

    Procedures developed in a cooperative westwide study of weed control in forest tree nurseries are described in a form modified for use by nursery managers. The proven, properly designed test and evaluation methods can be used to generate data needed for evaluation and registration of herbicides.

  4. Treating downy brome with herbicide and seeding with native shrubs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzanne Owen; Carolyn Sieg

    2011-01-01

    Downy brome or cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.) is one of the most invasive and widespread exotic plants in North America. Downy brome can reduce soil nutrient availability, alter native plant community composition, and increase fire frequencies. The effectiveness of Plateau® imazapic herbicide in reducing downy brome cover has been variable, and there is uncertainty...

  5. Are herbicide-resistant crops the answer to controlling Cuscuta?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadler-Hassar, Talia; Shaner, Dale L; Nissen, Scott; Westra, Phill; Rubin, Baruch

    2009-07-01

    Herbicide-resistant crop technology could provide new management strategies for the control of parasitic plants. Three herbicide-resistant oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) genotypes were used to examine the response of attached Cuscuta campestris Yuncker to glyphosate, imazamox and glufosinate. Cuscata campestris was allowed to establish on all oilseed rape genotypes before herbicides were applied. Unattached seedlings of C. campestris, C. subinclusa Durand & Hilg. and C. gronovii Willd. were resistant to imazamox and glyphosate and sensitive to glufosinate, indicating that resistance initially discovered in C. campestris is universal to all Cuscuta species. Glufosinate applied to C. campestris attached to glufosinate-resistant oilseed rape had little impact on the parasite, while imazamox completely inhibited C. campestris growth on the imidazolinone-resistant host. The growth of C. campestris on glyphosate-resistant host was initially inhibited by glyphosate, but the parasite recovered and resumed growth within 3-4 weeks. The ability of C. campestris to recover was related to the quality of interaction between the host and parasite and to the resistance mechanism of the host. The parasite was less likely to recover when it had low compatibility with the host, indicating that parasite-resistant crops coupled with herbicide resistance could be highly effective in controlling Cuscuta. (c) 2009 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Selective isolation and screening of fungi with herbicidal potential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The respective fungal isolates were cultivated in modified Fries media under standard condition. The mycelia and the filtrate were extracted with ethyl acetate and the concentrated extract was evaluated for the herbicidal activity adopting leaf necrosis assay. Among the different isolates, extract prepared from A. alternata and ...

  7. Biological Efficacy of Herbicides for Weed Control in Noncropped Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsvetanka Dimitrova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An increasing problem facing agricultural producers is the invasion of weeds, perennial in particular, so that implementation of industrial technologies is impossible without their highly efficient and rational control. For the purpose of studying efficient herbicides for weed control in noncropped areas (stubbles, a biological study of five total systemic herbicides was conducted in areas under natural weed infestation and pressure from othersurrounding weeds at the Institute of Forage Crops in Pleven in 2005-2007. The trials were carried out in field conditions using the block method with plot size of 20 m². Treatment was conducted at the predominant stage of budding of perennial dicotyledonous weeds and earing of monocotyledonous weeds. Herbicidal efficacy was recorded on the EWRS 9-score scale (0-100% killed weeds = score 9-1. It was found that treatment of noncropped areas (stubbles with the total systemic herbicides Touchdown System 4 (360 g/l glyphosate; Cosmic (360 g/l glyphosate; Roundup Plus (441 g/l glyphosate potassium salt; Leon 36 SL (360 g/l glyphosate and Glyphos Super 45 SL (450 g/l glyphosate was highly efficient, so that it was a successful element of a strategy for controlling weeds of different biological groups, and was especially effective against perennial weeds.

  8. Synthesis of a tritiated herbicide with high activity: methyl thifensulfuron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastide, J.; Ortega, F.

    1993-01-01

    In order to study the binding on acetolactate synthase, a tritiated herbicide sulfonylurea (thifensulfuron methyl) of high specific activity was synthesized. By use of C 3 H 3 I for esterification of an acid group, a rapid incorporation of tritium into this compound may be achieved. (Author)

  9. Efficacy of selected herbicide formulations on sugarcane field weeds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In continuation for the search of appropriate weed control strategy for sugarcane field weeds at the Unilorin Sugar Research Institute (USRI), Ilorin located at 8o 030' N; 4o 32' E , Nigeria. Field trials were laid out in a randomized complete block design during 2012 and 2013 growing seasons to evaluate four herbicide ...

  10. Effect of atrazine (Herbicide) on blood parameters of common carp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EJIRO

    could be used as an important tool for the assessment of pathological conditions of fish. ... agricultural or industrial areas have high probability of ... The use of herbicides to control aquatic weeds has ... Five hundred fish were stocked in a large cement tank (4 m × 6 m × 3 m) ..... Ecological risk assessment of atrazine in North.

  11. Ecological risks of pesticides in freshwater ecosystems; Part 1: herbicides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brock, T.C.M.; Lahr, J.; Brink, van den P.J.

    2000-01-01

    A literature review of freshwater model ecosystem studies with herbicides was performed to assess the NOEC[sub]ecosystem for individual compounds, to compare these threshold levels with water quality standards, and to evaluate the ecological consequences of exceeding these standards. Studies were

  12. Herbicide Trials on European Larch in Northern Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel A. Netzer

    1984-01-01

    Herbicides of 17 different rates and formulations were oversprayed on newly planted 1-0 European larch seedlings in teh spring of 1983 at the recommended rates. Simazine, bifenox, oxyfluorfen, promamide, and oryzalin provided adequate weed control with no damage to the larch. Height growth at the end of the first growing season was one-and-a-half times greater in the...

  13. Chromatographic determination of herbicide residues in various matrices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cserháti, T.; Forgács, E.; Deyl, Zdeněk; Mikšík, Ivan; Eckhardt, Adam

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 6 (2004), s. 350-359 ISSN 0269-3879 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : herbicide residues * extraction methods * HPLC Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 1.069, year: 2004

  14. Vinegar as a broadcast herbicide for spring-transplanted onions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The weed control challenges for onion production are formidable; however, these challenges are even greater for those considering organic crop production. Organic onion producers need additional organic herbicides that can effectively provide post-emergent weed control. Field research was conducted...

  15. Herbicide-resistant weed management: focus on glyphosate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckie, Hugh J

    2011-09-01

    This review focuses on proactive and reactive management of glyphosate-resistant (GR) weeds. Glyphosate resistance in weeds has evolved under recurrent glyphosate usage, with little or no diversity in weed management practices. The main herbicide strategy for proactively or reactively managing GR weeds is to supplement glyphosate with herbicides of alternative modes of action and with soil-residual activity. These herbicides can be applied in sequences or mixtures. Proactive or reactive GR weed management can be aided by crop cultivars with alternative single or stacked herbicide-resistance traits, which will become increasingly available to growers in the future. Many growers with GR weeds continue to use glyphosate because of its economical broad-spectrum weed control. Government farm policies, pesticide regulatory policies and industry actions should encourage growers to adopt a more proactive approach to GR weed management by providing the best information and training on management practices, information on the benefits of proactive management and voluntary incentives, as appropriate. Results from recent surveys in the United States indicate that such a change in grower attitudes may be occurring because of enhanced awareness of the benefits of proactive management and the relative cost of the reactive management of GR weeds. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Hazard and risk of herbicides for marine microalgae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sjollema, S.B.; Martínez-García, G.; van der Geest, H.G.; Kraak, M.H.S.; Booij, P.; Vethaak, A.D.; Admiraal, W.

    2014-01-01

    Due to their specific effect on photosynthesis, herbicides pose a potential threat to coastal and estuarine microalgae. However, comprehensive understanding of the hazard and risk of these contaminants is currently lacking. Therefore the aim of the present study was to investigate the toxic effects

  17. Cytogenetic studies of three triazine herbicides. I. In vitro studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atrazine, simazine, and cyanazine are widely used pre-emergence and post-emergence triazine herbicides that have made their way into the potable water supply of many agricultural communities. Because of this and the prevalence of contradictory cytogenetic studies in the literatur...

  18. Perturbed porphyrin biosynthesis contributes to differential herbicidal symptoms in photodynamically stressed rice (Oryza sativa) treated with 5-aminolevulinic acid and oxyfluorfen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phung, Thu-Ha; Jung, Sunyo

    2014-11-01

    This paper focuses on the molecular mechanism of deregulated porphyrin biosynthesis in rice plants under photodynamic stress imposed by an exogenous supply of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and oxyfluorfen (OF). Plants treated with 5 mM ALA or 50 µM OF exhibited differential herbicidal symptoms as characterized by white and brown necrosis, respectively, with substantial increases in cellular leakage and malondialdehyde production. Protoporphyrin IX accumulated to higher levels after 1 day of ALA and OF treatment, whereas it decreased to the control level after 2 days of ALA treatment. Plants responded to OF by greatly decreasing the levels of Mg-protoporphyrin IX (MgProto IX), MgProto IX methyl ester, and protochlorophyllide to levels lower than control, whereas their levels drastically increased 1 day after ALA treatment and then disappeared 2 days after the treatment. Enzyme activity and transcript levels of HEMA1, GSA and ALAD for ALA synthesis greatly decreased in ALA- and OF-treated plants. Transcript levels of PPO1, CHLH, CHLI, and PORB genes involving Mg-porphyrin synthesis continuously decreased in ALA- and OF-treated plants, with greater decreases in ALA-treated plants. By contrast, up-regulation of FC2 and HO2 genes in Fe-porphyrin branch was noticeable in ALA and OF-treated plants 1 day and 2 days after the treatments, respectively. Decreased transcript levels of nuclear-encoded genes Lhcb1, Lhcb6, and RbcS were accompanied by disappearance of MgProto IX in ALA- and OF-treated plants after 2 days of the treatments. Under photodynamic stress imposed by ALA and OF, tight control of porphyrin biosynthesis prevents accumulation of toxic metabolic intermediates not only by down-regulation of their biosynthesis but also by photodynamic degradation. The up-regulation of FC2 and HO2 also appears to compensate for the photodynamic stress-induced damage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of sugarcane cropping systems on herbicide losses in surface runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachimuthu, Gunasekhar; Halpin, Neil V; Bell, Michael J

    2016-07-01

    Herbicide runoff from cropping fields has been identified as a threat to the Great Barrier Reef ecosystem. A field investigation was carried out to monitor the changes in runoff water quality resulting from four different sugarcane cropping systems that included different herbicides and contrasting tillage and trash management practices. These include (i) Conventional - Tillage (beds and inter-rows) with residual herbicides used; (ii) Improved - only the beds were tilled (zonal) with reduced residual herbicides used; (iii) Aspirational - minimum tillage (one pass of a single tine ripper before planting) with trash mulch, no residual herbicides and a legume intercrop after cane establishment; and (iv) New Farming System (NFS) - minimum tillage as in Aspirational practice with a grain legume rotation and a combination of residual and knockdown herbicides. Results suggest soil and trash management had a larger effect on the herbicide losses in runoff than the physico-chemical properties of herbicides. Improved practices with 30% lower atrazine application rates than used in conventional systems produced reduced runoff volumes by 40% and atrazine loss by 62%. There were a 2-fold variation in atrazine and >10-fold variation in metribuzin loads in runoff water between reduced tillage systems differing in soil disturbance and surface residue cover from the previous rotation crops, despite the same herbicide application rates. The elevated risk of offsite losses from herbicides was illustrated by the high concentrations of diuron (14μgL(-1)) recorded in runoff that occurred >2.5months after herbicide application in a 1(st) ratoon crop. A cropping system employing less persistent non-selective herbicides and an inter-row soybean mulch resulted in no residual herbicide contamination in runoff water, but recorded 12.3% lower yield compared to Conventional practice. These findings reveal a trade-off between achieving good water quality with minimal herbicide contamination and

  20. Assessment of the levels of N- (Phosphonomethyl) glycine glyphosate in selected glyphosate-based herbicides on the Ghanaian market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iddrisu, Adisatu

    2016-07-01

    recommended to regulators of pesticides in Ghana to strengthen their pesticide control system to ensure that importers comply with regulations and Glyphosate herbicides that do not meet their requirements should be taken out of the system. (au)

  1. Cross-resistance to herbicides in annual ryegrass (lolium rigidum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christopher, J.T.; Powles, S.B.; Liljegren, D.R.; Holtum, J.A.M.

    1991-01-01

    Lolium rigidum Gaud. biotype SLR31 is resistant to the herbicide diclofop-methyl and cross-resistant to several sulfonylurea herbicides. Wheat and the cross-resistant ryegrass exhibit similar patterns of resistance to sulfonylurea herbicides, suggesting that the mechanism of resistance may be similar. Cross-resistant ryegrass is also resistant to the wheat-selective imidazolinone herbicide imazamethabenz. The cross-resistant biotype SLR31 metabolized [phenyl-U- 14 C]chlorsulfuron at a faster rate than a biotype which is susceptible to both diclofop-methyl and chlorsulfuron. A third biotype which is resistant to diclofop-methyl but not to chlorsulfuron metabolized chlorsulfuron at the same rate as the susceptible biotype. The increased metabolism of chlorsulfuron observed in the cross-resistant biotype is, therefore, correlated with the patterns of resistance observed in these L. rigidum biotypes. During high performance liquid chromatography analysis the major metabolite of chlorsulfuron in both susceptible and cross-resistant ryegrass coeluted with the major metabolite produced in wheat. The major product is clearly different from the major product in the tolerant dicot species, flax (Linium usitatissimum). The elution pattern of metabolites of chlorsulfuron was the same for both the susceptible and cross-resistant ryegrass but the cross-resistant ryegrass metabolized chlorsulfuron more rapidly. The investigation of the dose response to sulfonylurea herbicides at the whole plant level and the study of the metabolism of chlorsulfuron provide two independent sets of data which both suggest that the resistance to chlorsulfuron in cross-resistant ryegrass biotype SLR31 involves a wheat-like detoxification system

  2. Influence of herbicide structure, clay acidity, and humic acid coating on acetanilide herbicide adsorption on homoionic clays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weiping; Gan, Jianying; Yates, Scott R

    2002-07-03

    Adsorption of chloroacetanilide herbicides on homoionic montmorillonite was studied by coupling batch equilibration and FT-IR analysis. Adsorption decreased in the order metolachlor > acetochlor > alachlor > propachlor on Ca(2+)- or Mg(2+)-saturated clays and in the order metolachlor > alachlor > acetachlor > propachlor on Al(3+)- or Fe(3+)-saturated clays. FT-IR spectra showed that the carbonyl group of the herbicide molecule was involved in bonding. For the same herbicide, adsorption of alachlor, acetachlor, and metolachlor on clay followed the order Ca(2+) approximately Mg(2+) < Al(3+) < or = Fe(3+), which coincided with the increasing acidity of homoionic clays. Adsorption of propachlor, however, showed an opposite dependence, suggesting a different governing interaction. In clay and humic acid mixtures, herbicide adsorption was less than that expected from independent additive adsorption by the individual constituents, and the deviation was dependent on the clay-to-humic acid ratio, with the greatest deviation consistently occurring at a 60:40 clay-to-humic acid ratio.

  3. Loss of Kdm5c Causes Spurious Transcription and Prevents the Fine-Tuning of Activity-Regulated Enhancers in Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilyn Scandaglia

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available During development, chromatin-modifying enzymes regulate both the timely establishment of cell-type-specific gene programs and the coordinated repression of alternative cell fates. To dissect the role of one such enzyme, the intellectual-disability-linked lysine demethylase 5C (Kdm5c, in the developing and adult brain, we conducted parallel behavioral, transcriptomic, and epigenomic studies in Kdm5c-null and forebrain-restricted inducible knockout mice. Together, genomic analyses and functional assays demonstrate that Kdm5c plays a critical role as a repressor responsible for the developmental silencing of germline genes during cellular differentiation and in fine-tuning activity-regulated enhancers during neuronal maturation. Although the importance of these functions declines after birth, Kdm5c retains an important genome surveillance role preventing the incorrect activation of non-neuronal and cryptic promoters in adult neurons.

  4. Occurrence, diversity and community structure of culturable atrazine degraders in industrial and agricultural soils exposed to the herbicide in Shandong Province, P.R. China

    OpenAIRE

    Bazhanov, Dmitry P.; Li, Chengyun; Li, Hongmei; Li, Jishun; Zhang, Xinjian; Chen, Xiangfeng; Yang, Hetong

    2016-01-01

    Background Soil populations of bacteria rapidly degrading atrazine are critical to the environmental fate of the herbicide. An enrichment bias from the routine isolation procedure prevents studying the diversity of atrazine degraders. In the present work, we analyzed the occurrence, diversity and community structure of soil atrazine-degrading bacteria based on their direct isolation. Methods Atrazine-degrading bacteria were isolated by direct plating on a specially developed SM agar. The atra...

  5. A comparison of the herbicide tolerances of rare and common plants in an agricultural landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, J Franklin; Graham, Ian M; Mortensen, David A

    2014-03-01

    Declining plant biodiversity in agroecosystems has often been attributed to escalating use of chemical herbicides, but other changes in farming systems, including the clearing of seminatural habitat fragments, confound the influence of herbicides. The present study introduces a new approach to evaluate the impacts of herbicide pollution on plant communities at landscape or regional scales. If herbicides are in fact a key factor shaping agricultural plant diversity, one would expect to see the signal of past herbicide impacts in the current plant community composition of an intensively farmed region, with common, successful species more tolerant to widely used herbicides than rare or declining species. Data from an extensive field survey of plant diversity in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, USA, were compared with herbicide bioassay experiments in a greenhouse to test the hypothesis that common species possess higher herbicide tolerances than rare species. Five congeneric pairs of rare and common species were treated with 3 commonly used herbicide modes of action in bioassay experiments, and few significant differences were found in the tolerances of rare species relative to common species. These preliminary results suggest that other factors beyond herbicide exposure may be more important in shaping the distribution and abundance of plant species diversity across an agricultural landscape. © 2014 SETAC.

  6. Identification of protective components that prevent the exacerbation of goose fatty liver: Characterization, expression and regulation of adiponectin receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Tuoyu; Yang, Biao; Li, Fuyuan; Xia, Lili; Wang, Qianqian; Zhao, Xing; Gong, Daoqing

    2016-01-01

    Fat accumulation in the liver is a natural process in goose, which prepares goose for long-distance migration. In contrast to mammalian fatty liver that usually progresses into an irreversible status, steatohepatitis, goose fatty liver can return to normal without obvious pathological damage, suggesting a protective system exists in goose liver. This study was to identify the components of this system. We first focused on goose adiponectin receptor 1 and 2 (Adipor1/2) as they have ceramidase activity, and can cleave ceramide, a group of proinflammatory signaling lipid species. Quantitative analysis indicated that tumor necrosis factor alpha (Tnfα), a key proinflammatory cytokine, was down-regulated in goose fatty liver by overfeeding. This inhibition of Tnfα was accompanied with reduced adiponectin and increased Adipor1/2 in the adipose tissues and in the livers of the overfed geese, respectively. To investigate the regulation of goose Adipor2 in the context of fatty liver, we treated goose primary hepatocytes with fatty liver associated factors. Data indicated that Adipor2 was upregulated by glucose and oleate but not palmitate. Its expression was even suppressed by high level of insulin. The regulation of Adipor1 by these factors was quite similar to that of Adipor2 except that glucose did not induce Adipor1. Together, these findings suggest the upregulation of Adipor1/2 may, at least partially, contribute to the inhibition of inflammation in goose fatty liver, and the expression of Adipor1/2 can be regulated by fatty liver-associated factors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Gallic acid prevents isoproterenol-induced cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis through regulation of JNK2 signaling and Smad3 binding activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Yuhee; Jin, Li; Kee, Hae Jin; Piao, Zhe Hao; Cho, Jae Yeong; Kim, Gwi Ran; Choi, Sin Young; Lin, Ming Quan; Jeong, Myung Ho

    2016-01-01

    Gallic acid, a type of phenolic acid, has been shown to have beneficial effects in inflammation, vascular calcification, and metabolic diseases. The present study was aimed at determining the effect and regulatory mechanism of gallic acid in cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis. Cardiac hypertrophy was induced by isoproterenol (ISP) in mice and primary neonatal cardiomyocytes. Gallic acid pretreatment attenuated concentric cardiac hypertrophy. It downregulated the expression of atrial natriuretic peptide, brain natriuretic peptide, and beta-myosin heavy chain in vivo and in vitro. Moreover, it prevented interstitial collagen deposition and expression of fibrosis-associated genes. Upregulation of collagen type I by Smad3 overexpression was observed in cardiac myoblast H9c2 cells but not in cardiac fibroblasts. Gallic acid reduced the DNA binding activity of phosphorylated Smad3 in Smad binding sites of collagen type I promoter in rat cardiac fibroblasts. Furthermore, it decreased the ISP-induced phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) protein in mice. JNK2 overexpression reduced collagen type I and Smad3 expression as well as GATA4 expression in H9c2 cells and cardiac fibroblasts. Gallic acid might be a novel therapeutic agent for the prevention of cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis by regulating the JNK2 and Smad3 signaling pathway. PMID:27703224

  8. Voluntary exercise prevents colonic inflammation in high-fat diet-induced obese mice by up-regulating PPAR-γ activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Wei-Xin; Wang, Ting; Zhou, Feng; Wang, Ying; Xing, Jun-Wei; Zhang, Shen; Gu, Shou-Zhi; Sang, Li-Xuan; Dai, Cong; Wang, Hai-Lan

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is associated with increased colonic inflammation, which elevates the risk of colon cancer. Although exercise exerts anti-inflammatory actions in multiple chronic diseases associated with inflammation, it is unknown whether this strategy prevents colonic inflammation in obesity. We hypothesized that voluntary exercise would suppress colonic inflammation in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity by modulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ. Male C57Bl/6J mice fed either a control diet (6.5% fat, CON) or a high-fat diet (24% fat, HFD) were divided into sedentary, voluntary exercise or voluntary exercise with PPAR-γ antagonist GW9662 (10 mg/kg/day). All interventions took place for 12 weeks. Compared with CON-sedentary group, HFD-sedentary mice gained significantly more body weight and exhibited metabolic disorders. Molecular studies revealed that HFD-sedentary mice had increased expression of inflammatory mediators and activation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB in the colons, which were associated with decreased expression and activity of PPAR-γ. Voluntary exercise markedly attenuated body weight gain, improved metabolic disorders, and normalized the expression of inflammatory mediators and activation of NF-κB in the colons in HFD-mice while having no effects in CON-animals. Moreover, voluntary exercise significantly increased expression and activity of PPAR-γ in the colons in both HFD- and CON-animals. However, all of these beneficial effects induced by voluntary exercise were abolished by GW9662, which inhibited expression and activity of PPAR-γ. The results suggest that decreased PPAR-γ activity in the colon of HFD-induced obesity may facilitate the inflammatory response and colon carcinogenesis. Voluntary exercise prevents colonic inflammation in HFD-induced obesity by up-regulating PPAR-γ activity. - Highlights: • Obesity down-regulates PPAR-γ in the colon. • Down-regulated colonic PPAR-γ may facilitate inflammatory

  9. Voluntary exercise prevents colonic inflammation in high-fat diet-induced obese mice by up-regulating PPAR-γ activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Wei-Xin, E-mail: weixinliu@yahoo.com [Department of Gastroenterology, First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110001, Liaoning (China); Wang, Ting; Zhou, Feng; Wang, Ying; Xing, Jun-Wei; Zhang, Shen [Department of Gastroenterology, First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110001, Liaoning (China); Gu, Shou-Zhi [Department of Anatomy, Seirei Christopher College, Hamamatsu 433-8558 (Japan); Sang, Li-Xuan [Department of Cadre Ward II, First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110001, Liaoning (China); Dai, Cong [Department of Gastroenterology, First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110001, Liaoning (China); Wang, Hai-Lan [Guangdong Province Hospital for Occupational Disease Prevention and Treatment, Guangzhou 510300, Guangdong (China)

    2015-04-10

    Obesity is associated with increased colonic inflammation, which elevates the risk of colon cancer. Although exercise exerts anti-inflammatory actions in multiple chronic diseases associated with inflammation, it is unknown whether this strategy prevents colonic inflammation in obesity. We hypothesized that voluntary exercise would suppress colonic inflammation in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity by modulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ. Male C57Bl/6J mice fed either a control diet (6.5% fat, CON) or a high-fat diet (24% fat, HFD) were divided into sedentary, voluntary exercise or voluntary exercise with PPAR-γ antagonist GW9662 (10 mg/kg/day). All interventions took place for 12 weeks. Compared with CON-sedentary group, HFD-sedentary mice gained significantly more body weight and exhibited metabolic disorders. Molecular studies revealed that HFD-sedentary mice had increased expression of inflammatory mediators and activation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB in the colons, which were associated with decreased expression and activity of PPAR-γ. Voluntary exercise markedly attenuated body weight gain, improved metabolic disorders, and normalized the expression of inflammatory mediators and activation of NF-κB in the colons in HFD-mice while having no effects in CON-animals. Moreover, voluntary exercise significantly increased expression and activity of PPAR-γ in the colons in both HFD- and CON-animals. However, all of these beneficial effects induced by voluntary exercise were abolished by GW9662, which inhibited expression and activity of PPAR-γ. The results suggest that decreased PPAR-γ activity in the colon of HFD-induced obesity may facilitate the inflammatory response and colon carcinogenesis. Voluntary exercise prevents colonic inflammation in HFD-induced obesity by up-regulating PPAR-γ activity. - Highlights: • Obesity down-regulates PPAR-γ in the colon. • Down-regulated colonic PPAR-γ may facilitate inflammatory

  10. The Potential Role of Contraction-Induced Myokines in the Regulation of Metabolic Function for the Prevention and Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian P. Carson

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle represents the largest organ in the body, comprises 36–42% of body weight, and has recently been recognized as having an endocrine function. Proteins expressed and released by muscle that have autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine bioactivities have been termed myokines. It is likely that muscle contraction represents the primary stimulus for the synthesis and secretion of myokines to enable communication with other organs such as the liver, adipose tissue, brain, and auto-regulation of muscle metabolism. To date, several hundred myokines in the muscle secretome have been identified, a sub-population of which are specifically induced by skeletal muscle contraction. However, the bioactivity of many of these myokines and the mechanism through which they act has either not yet been characterized or remains poorly understood. Physical activity and exercise are recognized as a central tenet in both the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D. Recent data suggest humoral factors such as muscle-derived secretory proteins may mediate the beneficial effects of exercise in the treatment of metabolic diseases. This mini-review aims to summarize our current knowledge on the role of contraction-induced myokines in mediating the beneficial effects of physical activity and exercise in the prevention and treatment of T2D, specifically glucose and lipid metabolism. Future directions as to how we can optimize contraction-induced myokine secretion to inform exercise protocols for the prevention and treatment of T2D will also be discussed.

  11. Conjugated linoleic acid prevents age-induced bone loss in mice by regulating both osteoblastogenesis and adipogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Guanlin; Wang, Huan; Dai, Jun; Li, Xiao; Guan, Ming; Gao, Shutao; Ding, Qing; Wang, Huaixi; Fang, Huang

    2017-08-26

    Osteoporosis (OP) can increase the risk of bone fracture and other complications, which is a major clinical problem. Previous researches have revealed that conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) can promote the bone formation. But the mechanisms are not clear. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that CLA acts on bone formation might be via mTOR Complex1 (mTORC 1) pathway by in vitro and vivo assays. We studied the effect of CLA mix on MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts differentiation into osteoblasts, and bone formation under osteoporotic conditions. At the same time, 3T3-L1 pre-adipocyte with the same CLA mix concentration gradient for 8 days with adipogenic differentiation medium. We found that Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) and osteocalcin (OCN) expressions of pre-osteoblasts were up-regulated. Moreover in presence of CLA, peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor γ(PPARγ) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBPα) were down-regulated. Osteoporosis mice bone parameters in the distal femoral meraphysis were significantly increased compared with placebo mice. Furthermore, the phosphor-S6 (P-S6) was suppressed and phosphor-AKT (P-AKT) was up-regulated. Consistently, CLA can stimulate differentiation of osteoblasts and inhibited pre-adipocytes differentiated into adipocytes via AKT/mTORC1 signal pathway. Overall CLA thus be a suitable candidate for the treatment of patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis and obesity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Prevention of noise damages causes by shooting fire of Kalashnikov (AK-47) rifle by regulation of suitable distance

    OpenAIRE

    Gholamhossein Pourtaghi; Hamidreza Mokarami; Firouz Valipour; Mohammad Ghasemi

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were control of rifle shooting noise by regulation of suitable distance and investigation of frequency characteristic of the noise caused by single Kalashnikov rifle (AK-47) in an open shooting field. Due to the condition of the trainees and other people in the shooting fields, the measurements were done in 2 stages of individual and groups of 20 individuals and at 1, 30 and 50 meters distance, respectively. At each stage of the experiment the sound pressure level and p...

  13. Synthesis and application of labelled growth regulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shyutte, G.R.

    1982-01-01

    For the investigation of the metabolism both of phytoeffectors like herbicides and plant growth regulators such compounds are needed in radioactive labelled form. The synthesis of radioactive labelled fluorodifen, nitrofen, ethephon, diphenylic acetic acid, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyisobutyric acid, abscisic acid, hydroxybenzoic acids and different conjugates are described. Some examples of these compounds metabolism in plants are discussed [ru

  14. Calcineurin B in CD4+ T Cells Prevents Autoimmune Colitis by Negatively Regulating the JAK/STAT Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mencarelli, Andrea; Vacca, Maurizio; Khameneh, Hanif Javanmard; Acerbi, Enzo; Tay, Alicia; Zolezzi, Francesca; Poidinger, Michael; Mortellaro, Alessandra

    2018-01-01

    Calcineurin (Cn) is a protein phosphatase that regulates the activation of the nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) family of transcription factors, which are key regulators of T-cell development and function. Here, we generated a conditional Cnb1 mouse model in which Cnb1 was specifically deleted in CD4 + T cells (Cnb1 CD4 mice) to delineate the role of the Cn-NFAT pathway in immune homeostasis of the intestine. The Cnb1 CD4 mice developed severe, spontaneous colitis characterized at the molecular level by an increased T helper-1-cell response but an unaltered regulatory T-cell compartment. Antibiotic treatment ameliorated the intestinal inflammation observed in Cnb1 CD4 mice, suggesting that the microbiota contributes to the onset of colitis. CD4 + T cells isolated from Cnb1 CD4 mice produced high levels of IFNγ due to increased activation of the JAK2/STAT4 pathway induced by IL-12. Our data highlight that Cn signaling in CD4 + T cells is critical for intestinal immune homeostasis in part by inhibiting IL-12 responsiveness of CD4 + T cells.

  15. SRSF1 Prevents DNA Damage and Promotes Tumorigenesis through Regulation of DBF4B Pre-mRNA Splicing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linlin Chen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Dysregulated alternative splicing events have been implicated in many types of cancer, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we observe that the splicing factor SRSF1 regulates DBF4B exon6 splicing by specifically binding and promoting its inclusion. Knockdown of the exon6-containing isoform (DBF4B-FL significantly inhibits the tumorigenic potential of colon cancer cells in vitro and in mice, and SRSF1 inactivation phenocopies DBF4B-FL depletion. DBF4B-FL and SRSF1 are required for cancer cell proliferation and for the maintenance of genomic stability. Overexpression of DBF4B-FL can protect against DNA damage induced by SRSF1 knockdown and rescues growth defects in SRSF1-depleted cells. Increased DBF4B exon6 inclusion parallels SRSF1 upregulation in clinical colorectal cancer samples. Taken together, our findings identify SRSF1 as a key regulator of DBF4B pre-mRNA splicing dysregulation in colon cancer, with possible clinical implications as candidate prognostic factors in cancer patients.

  16. The perilipin homologue, lipid storage droplet 2, regulates sleep homeostasis and prevents learning impairments following sleep loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew S Thimgan

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Extended periods of waking result in physiological impairments in humans, rats, and flies. Sleep homeostasis, the increase in sleep observed following sleep loss, is believed to counter the negative effects of prolonged waking by restoring vital biological processes that are degraded during sleep deprivation. Sleep homeostasis, as with other behaviors, is influenced by both genes and environment. We report here that during periods of starvation, flies remain spontaneously awake but, in contrast to sleep deprivation, do not accrue any of the negative consequences of prolonged waking. Specifically, the homeostatic response and learning impairments that are a characteristic of sleep loss are not observed following prolonged waking induced by starvation. Recently, two genes, brummer (bmm and Lipid storage droplet 2 (Lsd2, have been shown to modulate the response to starvation. bmm mutants have excess fat and are resistant to starvation, whereas Lsd2 mutants are lean and sensitive to starvation. Thus, we hypothesized that bmm and Lsd2 may play a role in sleep regulation. Indeed, bmm mutant flies display a large homeostatic response following sleep deprivation. In contrast, Lsd2 mutant flies, which phenocopy aspects of starvation as measured by low triglyceride stores, do not exhibit a homeostatic response following sleep loss. Importantly, Lsd2 mutant flies are not learning impaired after sleep deprivation. These results provide the first genetic evidence, to our knowledge, that lipid metabolism plays an important role in regulating the homeostatic response and can protect against neuronal impairments induced by prolonged waking.

  17. Transformation of the herbicide [14C]glufosinate in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.E.

    1989-01-01

    The degradation of 2 μg/g [ 14 C]glufosinate (DL-homoalan-4-ylmethylphosphinic acid) was studied in clay, clay loam, and sandy loam soils at 85% field capacity and at 20 degree C. Over a 4-week period the soils were extracted and analyzed for transformation products by radiochemical and gas chromatographic techniques. In all soils there was release of [ 14 C]carbon dioxide and formation of [ 14 C]-3-(hydroxymethylphosphinyl)propionic acid (MPPA) as major degradation products. Within 21 days, about 55% of the applied 14 C herbicide had been transformed to MPPA in the sandy loam and 19% to [ 14 C]carbon dioxide. After 28 days, approximately 45% of the 14 C herbicide had been transformed to MPPA in the clay and clay loam and 10% released as [ 14 C]carbon dioxide. At all samplings, other 14 C transformation products appeared to be insignificant

  18. Herbicide contamination in carrot grown in punjab, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amjad, M.; Ahmad, T.; Jahangir, M.M.

    2013-01-01

    Food safety and security is a burning issue of the time whereas vegetable production is an important aspect of agriculture. Use of herbicides for vegetable production is very common in Pakistan but no proper procedure has been planned to keep optimal level of doses of herbicide under permissible limit. To estimate the pesticide residues, samples from the leading carrot producing sites were collected along with the samples from the market. The samples were processed using standard procedures and qualitative and quantitative analysis was performed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). It was concluded that all the samples were contaminated with S-metolachlor in the range of 0.45 to 0.73 mg kg-1 which was above the permissible limit (0.40 mg kg-1). (author)

  19. Clean/alternative fueled fleet programs - 1990 Amendments to the Clean Air Act, the Colorado Air Pollution Prevention and Control Act, and Denver City and County regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowles, S.L.; Manderino, L.A.

    1993-01-01

    Despite substantial regulations for nearly two decades, attainment of this ambient standards for ozone and carbon monoxide (CO) remain difficult goals to achieve, Even with of ozone precursors and CO. The 1990 Amendments to the Clean Air Act (CAA90) prescribe further reductions of mobile source emissions. One such reduction strategy is using clean fuels, such as methanol, ethanol, or other alcohols (in blends of 85 percent or more alcohol with gasoline or other fuel), reformulated gasoline or diesel, natural gas, liquified petroleum gas, hydrogen, or electricity. There are regulatory measures involving special fuels which will be required in areas heavily polluted with ozone and CO. The state of Colorado recently passed the 1992 Air Pollution Prevention and Control Act which included provisions for the use of alternative fuels which will be implemented in 1994. In addition to adhering to the Colorado state regulations, the city and county of Denver also have regulations pertaining to the use of alternative fuels in fleets of 10 or more vehicles. Denver's program began in 1992. This paper will address the issue of fleet conversion and its impact on industry in Colorado, and Denver in particular

  20. The Comparison of Effectiveness of Cognitive-Behavioral Group Therapy Based on Coping Skills and Methadone Maintenance Treatment in Improvement of Emotional Regulation Strategies and Relapse Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Ghorbany

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study compared the effectiveness of group cognitive-behavioral therapy based on coping skills (CBT and methadone maintenance therapy (MMT in improvement of emotional regulation strategies and prevention of relapse. Method: The method of the present study was semi-experimental research design (pre-test-post-test with witness group. For sampling 45 substance abuse people who had referred to addiction treatment centers were selected and assigned to three groups of cognitive behavior therapy, methadone maintenance treatment and witness group randomly. The participants in all three groups completed the emotional intelligence questionnaire before and after the intervention. Data were analyzed by covariance method. Results: The results showed that cognitive-behavior therapy in comparison to methadone maintenance therapy and witness group led to significant improvement of emotional regulation in substance abusers, but there was no significant difference between the methadone maintenance treatment group and control group. Also, the rate of relapse in individuals who assigned to cognitive-behavior therapy group in comparison to methadone maintenance therapy and the witness group was significantly lower, but there was no significant difference between methadone therapy and witness. Conclusion: Cognitive-behavior therapy was an effective treatment that can change the cognitive and behavioral variables related to substance abuse, such as emotional regulation strategies. Thus, results suggested that drug abuse treatment programs must target these mediator variables.

  1. Potential of the drug-regulation iodide uptake in patients for prevention of radioiodine-refractory papillary thyroid cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriy Kirillovich Fomin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo evaluate the efficacy and feasibility of retinoic acid derivatives and lithium salts for radioiodine-refractory prevention in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer during multistage radioiodine therapy.Materials and methodsThe retrospective analysis was performed using the diagnostic and treatment results of 40 patients with differentiated thyroid cancer that underwent 131I therapy, which on the basis of posttherapy whole-body scan had direct indications for subsequent course of radioiodine therapy. The patients were divided into two groups:the control group (20 patients, which conducted a second course of radioiodine therapy on the standard template and without special training$the main group (20 patients, who were administered Sedalia (900 mg per day for 8 days, p.o. and isotretinoin (1.2 mg/kg body weight for 60 days, p.o. to prevention of the 131I resistance.To evaluate the effectiveness of a repeated course of radioiodine therapy following parameters were used: the thyroglobulin (Tg and antibodies to thyroglobulin (Tg-Ab level in the serum, the posttherapy whole body scan in combination with SPECT-CT.ResultsWe have found, that radioactive iodine treatment was effective in 75% of the main group and 90% of patients in the control group. The remission was observed in 10% and 40% in the main and control group, respectively. The partial regression was considered as Tg and TG-Ab reduction, and was observed more in the study group. The resistance to 131I therapy was found in 20% and 10% in the main and control group, respectively, which was based on the fact of permanent Tg/Tg-Ab serum level and absence of the pathological foci iodine uptake on the whole-body scans. The disease progress was found in one patient in the main group.ConclusionThe use of retinoic acid derivatives and lithium salts, in an effort to prevent the resistance to 131I-theraphy pretend to be unjustified, because it does not lead to significant

  2. Herbicide spring treatments for the control of brome grasses (Bromus spp. in winter cereals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gehring, Klaus

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of different ALS-inhibiting herbicides for the control of brome species (Bromus spp. was tested in three field trials in the year 2010 – 2012 in the region of North-West-Bavaria Franken. As a result of the trials the standard herbicide Attribut (Propoxycarbazone was confirmed for the control of brome. In case of infestation with brome and black grass the herbicide Broadway (Pyroxsulam offers a certain control of both problematic grass weeds. This illustrates the high dependency of sufficient brome control in winter cereals on the effectiveness of specific ALS-Inhibitor herbicides. Because of the high risk of herbicide resistance to ACCaseand ALS-inhibiting herbicides in brome, integrated weed management is essential for the sustainable control of brome in winter cereals, respectively winter wheat.

  3. Glyphosate herbicide affects belowground interactions between earthworms and symbiotic mycorrhizal fungi in a model ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaller, Johann G.; Heigl, Florian; Ruess, Liliane; Grabmaier, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Herbicides containing glyphosate are widely used in agriculture and private gardens, however, surprisingly little is known on potential side effects on non-target soil organisms. In a greenhouse experiment with white clover we investigated, to what extent a globally-used glyphosate herbicide affects interactions between essential soil organisms such as earthworms and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). We found that herbicides significantly decreased root mycorrhization, soil AMF spore biomass, vesicles and propagules. Herbicide application and earthworms increased soil hyphal biomass and tended to reduce soil water infiltration after a simulated heavy rainfall. Herbicide application in interaction with AMF led to slightly heavier but less active earthworms. Leaching of glyphosate after a simulated rainfall was substantial and altered by earthworms and AMF. These sizeable changes provide impetus for more general attention to side-effects of glyphosate-based herbicides on key soil organisms and their associated ecosystem services. PMID:25005713

  4. Weed emergence on long years’ not herbicide treated fields - duration of the after-effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwarz, Jürgen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In a long-term field trial plots were not treated with herbicides for 12 years (from 1996 to 2007. Two different crop rotations with 50% or 66% of cereals in the rotation were tested. At the same time in each crop rotation two different plant protection strategies were established. Since autumn 2007 the former controls not sprayed with any herbicide have been treated with herbicides. The crop rotation was unified. In that long-term field trial plots always treated with herbicides exist also. Weeds were counted by number and species before herbicide treatments. The comparison of these two different plots (treated and untreated shows what after-effect exists on the formerly untreated plots even after eight years. The emergence of weeds is still higher. Also the different crop rotations are still perceptible. For the plant protection strategy with the lower herbicide amounts the differences blur now.

  5. Three-parameter modeling of the soil sorption of acetanilide and triazine herbicide derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Mirlaine R; Matias, Stella V B G; Macedo, Renato L G; Freitas, Matheus P; Venturin, Nelson

    2014-02-01

    Herbicides have widely variable toxicity and many of them are persistent soil contaminants. Acetanilide and triazine family of herbicides have widespread use, but increasing interest for the development of new herbicides has been rising to increase their effectiveness and to diminish environmental hazard. The environmental risk of new herbicides can be accessed by estimating their soil sorption (logKoc), which is usually correlated to the octanol/water partition coefficient (logKow). However, earlier findings have shown that this correlation is not valid for some acetanilide and triazine herbicides. Thus, easily accessible quantitative structure-property relationship models are required to predict logKoc of analogues of the these compounds. Octanol/water partition coefficient, molecular weight and volume were calculated and then regressed against logKoc for two series of acetanilide and triazine herbicides using multiple linear regression, resulting in predictive and validated models.

  6. Herbicide contamination and the potential impact to seagrass meadows in Hervey Bay, Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Kathryn; Bengtson Nash, Susan; Eaglesham, Geoff; Müller, Jochen F; Duke, Norman C; Winderlich, Steve

    2005-01-01

    Low concentrations of herbicides (up to 70 ng l(-1)), chiefly diuron (up to 50 ng l(-1)) were detected in surface waters associated with inter-tidal seagrass meadows of Zostera muelleri in Hervey Bay, south-east Queensland, Australia. Diuron and atrazine (up to 1.1 ng g(-1) dry weight of sediment) were detected in the sediments of these seagrass meadows. Concentration of the herbicides diuron, simazine and atrazine increased in surface waters associated with seagrass meadows during moderate river flow events indicating herbicides were washed from the catchment to the marine environment. Maximum herbicide concentration (sum of eight herbicides) in the Mary River during a moderate river flow event was 4260 ng l(-1). No photosynthetic stress was detected in seagrass in this study during low river flow. However, with moderate river flow events, nearshore seagrasses are at risk of being exposed to concentrations of herbicides that are known to inhibit photosynthesis.

  7. Leaching and residual activity of imidazolinone herbicides in lowland soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Refatti

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Herbicides used in the Clearfield® rice (Oryza sativa L. production system have a potential for leaching. This can result in contamination of underground water resources and cause injury to not tolerant crops that are sown in a succession and/or crop rotation. The objective of this study was to determine the leaching potential and the residual activity of the herbicides used in the Clearfield® rice system. The experiment was conducted over a period of two years and consisted of conducting a field test to be followed by two bioassays with a year of difference between their implementation. Initially an experiment was conducted in lowland area where it was planted the cultivar of rice ‘PUITA INTA CL’. Approximately one and two years thereafter, soil samples from each plot were collected at intervals of 5cm to a depth of 30cm (B factor for the bioassay to evaluate persistence of herbicides. Factor A was composed of mixtures formulated of imazethapyr + imazapic (75 + 25g a.i. L-1, imazapyr + imazapic (525 + 175g a.i. kg-1 in two doses, imazethapyr (100g a.i. L-1 and treatment control without application. Basing on results, it was concluded that the mixtures imazethapyr + imazapic, imazapyr + imazapic and imazethapyr leached into the soil, reaching depths of up to 25cm in lowland soil. Imidazolinone herbicides used today in the irrigated rice Clearfield® system are persistent in soil, and their phytotoxic activity can be observed up to two years after application.

  8. Linking fluorescence induction curve and biomass in herbicide screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Martin G; Teicher, Harald B; Streibig, Jens C

    2003-12-01

    A suite of dose-response bioassays with white mustard (Sinapis alba L) and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L) in the greenhouse and with three herbicides was used to analyse how the fluorescence induction curves (Kautsky curves) were affected by the herbicides. Bentazone, a photosystem II (PSII) inhibitor, completely blocked the normal fluorescence decay after the P-step. In contrast, fluorescence decay was still obvious for flurochloridone, a PDS inhibitor, and glyphosate, an EPSP inhibitor, which indicated that PSII inhibition was incomplete. From the numerous parameters that can be derived from OJIP-steps of the Kautsky curve the relative changes at the J-step [Fvj = (Fm - Fj)/Fm] was selected to be a common response parameter for the herbicides and yielded consistent dose-response relationships. Four hours after treatment, the response Fvj on the doses of bentazone and flurochloridone could be measured. For glyphosate, the changes of the Kautsky curve could similarly be detected 4 h after treatment in sugar beet, but only after 24 hs in S alba. The best prediction of biomass in relation to Fvj was found for bentazone. The experiments were conducted between May and August 2002 and showed that the ambient temperature and solar radiation in the greenhouse could affect dose-response relationships. If the Kautsky curve parameters should be used to predict the outcome of herbicide screening experiments in the greenhouse, where ambient radiation and temperature can only partly be controlled, it is imperative that the chosen fluorescence parameters can be used to predict accurately the resulting biomass used in classical bioassays.

  9. Environmental Statement. Disposition of Orange Herbicide by Incineration

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-11-01

    remote as possible from both residential and industrial population centers and from land currently in agronomic pro- duction., Vegetation should be...sparse, of little agronomic value, and of species resistant to the phenoxyacetic acid herbicides contained in Orange or to the pyrolytic products of...each to induce intoxication . The above results are summarized in Table 11-7. b. Behavior in Humans: Gehring et al., (1973) studied the effects of 2,4,5-T

  10. Hydrolysis of benzonitrile herbicides by soil actinobacteria and metabolite toxicity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Veselá, Alicja Barbara; Franc, M.; Pelantová, Helena; Kubáč, David; Vejvoda, Vojtěch; Šulc, Miroslav; Bhalla, T. C.; Macková, M.; Lovecká, P.; Janů, P.; Demnerová, K.; Martínková, Ludmila

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 6 (2011), s. 761-770 ISSN 0923-9820 R&D Projects: GA MPO FT-TA5/043; GA MŠk OC09046; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06010; GA AV ČR IAA500200708; GA ČR GD305/09/H008 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : nitrilase * benzonitrile herbicides * chloroxynil Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.017, year: 2011

  11. Hydrolysis of benzonitrile herbicides by soil actinobacteria and metabolite toxicity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Veselá, Alicja Barbara; Franc, M.; Pelantová, Helena; Kubáč, David; Vejvoda, Vojtěch; Šulc, Miroslav; Bhalla, T. C.; Macková, M.; Lovecká, P.; Janů, P.; Demnerová, K.; Martínková, Ludmila

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 5 (2010), s. 761-770 ISSN 0923-9820 R&D Projects: GA MPO FT-TA5/043; GA MŠk OC09046; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06010; GA AV ČR IAA500200708; GA ČR GD305/09/H008 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Benzonitrile herbicides * nitrilase * Chloroxynil Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.012, year: 2010

  12. Healthy weight regulation and eating disorder prevention in high school students: a universal and targeted Web-based intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Megan; Taylor Lynch, Katherine; Kass, Andrea E; Burrows, Amanda; Williams, Joanne; Wilfley, Denise E; Taylor, C Barr

    2014-02-27

    Given the rising rates of obesity in children and adolescents, developing evidence-based weight loss or weight maintenance interventions that can be widely disseminated, well implemented, and are highly scalable is a public health necessity. Such interventions should ensure that adolescents establish healthy weight regulation practices while also reducing eating disorder risk. This study describes an online program, StayingFit, which has two tracks for universal and targeted delivery and was designed to enhance healthy living skills, encourage healthy weight regulation, and improve weight/shape concerns among high school adolescents. Ninth grade students in two high schools in the San Francisco Bay area and in St Louis were invited to participate. Students who were overweight (body mass index [BMI] >85th percentile) were offered the weight management track of StayingFit; students who were normal weight were offered the healthy habits track. The 12-session program included a monitored discussion group and interactive self-monitoring logs. Measures completed pre- and post-intervention included self-report height and weight, used to calculate BMI percentile for age and sex and standardized BMI (zBMI), Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) nutrition data, the Weight Concerns Scale, and the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. A total of 336 students provided informed consent and were included in the analyses. The racial breakdown of the sample was as follows: 46.7% (157/336) multiracial/other, 31.0% (104/336) Caucasian, 16.7% (56/336) African American, and 5.7% (19/336) did not specify; 43.5% (146/336) of students identified as Hispanic/Latino. BMI percentile and zBMI significantly decreased among students in the weight management track. BMI percentile and zBMI did not significantly change among students in the healthy habits track, demonstrating that these students maintained their weight. Weight/shape concerns significantly decreased among participants in

  13. The effect of the herbicide diuron on soil microbial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, A G; Airoldi, C

    2001-07-01

    The inhibitory effect of the herbicide diuron [3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea] on microbial activity in red Latosol soil was followed using microcalorimetry. The activity of the micro-organisms in 1.50 g of soil sample was stimulated by addition of 6.0 mg of glucose and 6.0 mg of ammonium sulfate under 35% controlled humidity at 298.15 (+/- 0.02) K. This activity was determined by power-time curves that were recorded for increasing amounts of diuron, varying from zero to 333.33 micrograms g-1 soil. An increase in the amount of diuron in soil caused a decrease of the original thermal effect, to reach a null value above 333.33 micrograms g-1 of herbicide. The power-time curve showed that the lag-phase period and peak time increased with added herbicide. The decrease of the thermal effect evolved by micro-organisms and the increase of the lag-phase period are associated with the death of microbial populations caused by diuron, which strongly affects soil microbial communities.

  14. A glutathione s-transferase confers herbicide tolerance in rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingzhang Hu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Plant glutathione S-transferases (GSTs have been a focus of attention due to their role in herbicide detoxification. OsGSTL2 is a glutathione S-transferase, lambda class gene from rice (Oryza sativa L.. Transgenic rice plants over-expressing OsGSTL2 were generated from rice calli by the use of an Agrobacterium transformation system, and were screened by a combination of hygromycin resistance, PCR and Southern blot analysis. In the vegetative tissues of transgenic rice plants, the over-expression of OsGSTL2 not only increased levels of OsGSTL2 transcripts, but also GST and GPX expression, while reduced superoxide. Transgenic rice plants also showed higher tolerance to glyphosate and chlorsulfuron, which often contaminate agricultural fields. The findings demonstrate the detoxification role of OsGSTL2 in the growth and development of rice plants. It should be possible to apply the present results to crops for developing herbicide tolerance and for limiting herbicide contamination in the food chain.

  15. Fluridone: a combination germination stimulant and herbicide for problem fields?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goggin, Danica E; Powles, Stephen B

    2014-09-01

    Problem weeds in agriculture, such as Lolium rigidum Gaud., owe some of their success to their large and dormant seed banks, which permit germination throughout a crop-growing season. Dormant weed seed banks could be greatly depleted by application of a chemical that stimulates early-season germination and then kills the young seedlings. Fluridone, a phytoene desaturase-inhibiting herbicide that can also break seed dormancy, was assessed for its efficacy in this regard. The germination of fluridone-treated Lolium rigidum seeds was stimulated on soils with low organic matter, and almost 100% seedling mortality was observed, while the treatment was only moderately effective on a high-organic-matter potting mix. Seedlings from wheat, canola, common bean and chickpea seeds sown on fluridone-treated sandy loam were bleached and did not survive, but lupins and field peas grew normally. This proof-of-concept study with fluridone suggests that it may be possible to design safe and effective molecules that act as germination stimulants plus herbicides in a range of crop and soil types: a potentially novel way of utilising herbicides to stimulate seed bank germination and a valuable addition to an integrated weed management system. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Biodegradation of the acetanilide herbicides alachlor, metolachlor, and propachlor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamper, D M; Tuovinen, O H

    1998-01-01

    Alachlor, metolachlor, and propachlor are detoxified in biological systems by the formation of glutathione-acetanilide conjugates. This conjugation is mediated by glutathione-S-transferase, which is present in microorganisms, plants, and mammals. Other organic sulfides and inorganic sulfide also react through a nucleophilic attack on the 2-chloro group of acetanilide herbicides, but the products are only partially characterized. Sorption in soils and sediments is an important factor controlling the migration and bioavailability of these herbicides, while microbial degradation is the most important factor in determining their overall fate in the environment. The biodegradation of alachlor and metolachlor is proposed to be only partial and primarily cometabolic, and the ring cleavage seems to be slow or insignificant. Propachlor biodegradation has been reported to proceed to substantial (> 50%) mineralization of the ring structure. Reductive dechlorination may be one of the initial breakdown mechanisms under anaerobic conditions. Aerobic and anaerobic transformation products vary in their polarity and therefore in soil binding coefficient. A catabolic pathway for chloroacetanilide herbicides has not been presented in the literature because of the lack of mineralization data under defined cultural conditions.

  17. Fate of herbicides in deep subsurface limestone and sandy aquifers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janniche, Gry Sander

    afgørende for at vurdere herbiciders skæbne i underjord og grundvandsmagasiner. PhD-projektet har undersøgt sorption og nedbrydning af fire model-herbicider (atrazin, acetochlor, mecoprop og isoproturon) i kalksten og sandede grundvands¬magasiner. Desuden er den rumlige småskala-variation af herbicidernes...... tydelig selv inden for få cm afstand over dybden, og betydningen af denne variation afhænger af den samlede udbredelse af lag med forhøjet sorption eller nedbrydning; 2) at kalk/kalksten yder ringe beskyttelse mod grundvands¬forurening med mecoprop, atrazin, isoproturon og acetochlor, da sorptionen er lav...... og mineraliseringen meget langsom for isoproturon, acetochlor og mecoprop, og atrazin ikke er nedbrydeligt; 3) at i sandede grundvands¬magasiner er sorptionen af de fire herbicider generelt lav, men kan under reducerede forhold være kraftig for især isoproturon og acetochlor. Mecoprop, isoproturon og...

  18. An Epidemiologic Investigation of Health Effects in Air Force Personnel Following Exposure to Herbicides. Volume I: 1997 Follow-up Examination Results

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Michalek, J

    2000-01-01

    ... attributable to exposure to herbicides exist in veterans of Operation Ranch Hand Operation. Ranch Hand was the unit responsible for the aerial spraying of herbicides, including Herbicide Orange, in Vietnam from 1961 to 1971...

  19. Vasogenic edema in striatum following ingestion of glufosinate-containing herbicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hui-Young; Song, Seo-Young; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Lee, Seo-Young; Kim, Sung-Hun; Ryu, Sook-Won

    2009-10-01

    Glufosinate-ammonium (GLA) is a broad-spectrum herbicide used worldwide. We report a patient who attempted suicide by ingesting a liquid herbicide containing GLA. A diffusion-weighted MRI showed cytotoxic edema in the hippocampus as well as vasogenic edema in the striata. To our knowledge, vasogenic edema caused by GLA-containing herbicide involving the striatum has not been reported in association with cytotoxic edema in the hippocampus. We assume that this herbicide affected the central nervous system via different mechanisms to produce both cytotoxic and vasogenic edema in the same patient.

  20. Sensitivity to Glufosinate-ammonium herbicide in plants of Glycine max cultivar INCASoy-27

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Liusvert Pérez Pérez

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This work had as objective to define the minimum concentration of herbicide Glufosinate-ammonium that inhibits the growth of the soybean plants in greenhouse condition. The soybean plants were tried with different concentrations of herbicide (5; 10; 1 5; 20; 25; 30 mg L-1 and a control without herbicide. The increase of the concentrations increased the necrosis of the plants and the use of 20 mgL-1 Glufosinato de amonio herbicide was sufficient to inhibit the plant growth. These results allow using this method of selection in programs of genetic improvement and selection of transgenic soybean plants

  1. Fate of 2,4-D herbicide in soil-plant ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onal, G.

    1983-01-01

    Herbicide was applied to wheat, barley and oat plants grown under laboratory, greenhouse and field conditions and the fate of the herbicide was investigated using carbon 14 radioisotope. Results of the investigation indicate that (1) under laboratory condition degradation of the herbicide was faster in the soil, rich in organic matter and was not influenced by humidity; (2) the absorption of the herbicide by the plants was low under greenhouse conditions and (3) the uptake of the chemical by the plants grown in the field was higher in the presence of fertilizer (diammonium phosphate)

  2. Effects Of Spring Herbicide Treatments On Winter Wheat Growth And Grain Yield*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamouz P.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Herbicides provide a low-cost solution for protecting crops from significant yield losses. If weed infestations are below damage thresholds, however, then herbicide application is unnecessary and can even lead to yield loss. A small-plot field trial was conducted to examine the effect of herbicides on winter wheat yields. Weeds were removed manually from the trial area before herbicide application. Twenty-four treatments were tested in four replications. Treatment 1 consisted of an untreated weed-free control, whereas the other treatments comprised applications of the following herbicides and their combinations: metsulfuron-methyl + tribenuron-methyl (4.95 + 9.99 g ha−1, pinoxaden (30 g ha−1, fluroxypyr (175 g ha−1, and clopyralid (120 g ha−1. Water (250 l ha−1 or a urea-ammonium nitrate fertilizer solution (UAN, 120.5 l ha−1 was used as the herbicide carrier. Crop injury 30 days after treatment and yield loss were recorded. Results showed minor crop injury by herbicides and their combinations when applied without UAN and moderate injury caused by UAN in combination with herbicides. Yield losses reached 5.3% and 4.3% in those treatments where all of the tested herbicides were applied with and without UAN, respectively. The effect of all treatments on crop yield was, however, statistically insignificant (P = 0.934.

  3. Acute and additive toxicity of ten photosystem-II herbicides to seagrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Adam D; Collier, Catherine J; Flores, Florita; Negri, Andrew P

    2015-11-30

    Photosystem II herbicides are transported to inshore marine waters, including those of the Great Barrier Reef, and are usually detected in complex mixtures. These herbicides inhibit photosynthesis, which can deplete energy reserves and reduce growth in seagrass, but the toxicity of some of these herbicides to seagrass is unknown and combined effects of multiple herbicides on seagrass has not been tested. Here we assessed the acute phytotoxicity of 10 PSII herbicides to the seagrass Halophila ovalis over 24 and/or 48 h. Individual herbicides exhibited a broad range of toxicities with inhibition of photosynthetic activity (∆F/F(m)') by 50% at concentrations ranging from 3.5 μg l(-1) (ametryn) to 132 μg l(-1) (fluometuron). We assessed potential additivity using the Concentration Addition model of joint action for binary mixtures of diuron and atrazine as well as complex mixtures of all 10 herbicides. The effects of both mixture types were largely additive, validating the application of additive effects models for calculating the risk posed by multiple PSII herbicides to seagrasses. This study extends seagrass ecotoxicological data to ametryn, metribuzin, bromacil, prometryn and fluometuron and demonstrates that low concentrations of PSII herbicide mixtures have the potential to impact ecologically relevant endpoints in seagrass, including ∆F/F(m)'.

  4. Acute and additive toxicity of ten photosystem-II herbicides to seagrass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Adam D.; Collier, Catherine J.; Flores, Florita; Negri, Andrew P.

    2015-11-01

    Photosystem II herbicides are transported to inshore marine waters, including those of the Great Barrier Reef, and are usually detected in complex mixtures. These herbicides inhibit photosynthesis, which can deplete energy reserves and reduce growth in seagrass, but the toxicity of some of these herbicides to seagrass is unknown and combined effects of multiple herbicides on seagrass has not been tested. Here we assessed the acute phytotoxicity of 10 PSII herbicides to the seagrass Halophila ovalis over 24 and/or 48 h. Individual herbicides exhibited a broad range of toxicities with inhibition of photosynthetic activity (∆F/Fm‧) by 50% at concentrations ranging from 3.5 μg l-1 (ametryn) to 132 μg l-1 (fluometuron). We assessed potential additivity using the Concentration Addition model of joint action for binary mixtures of diuron and atrazine as well as complex mixtures of all 10 herbicides. The effects of both mixture types were largely additive, validating the application of additive effects models for calculating the risk posed by multiple PSII herbicides to seagrasses. This study extends seagrass ecotoxicological data to ametryn, metribuzin, bromacil, prometryn and fluometuron and demonstrates that low concentrations of PSII herbicide mixtures have the potential to impact ecologically relevant endpoints in seagrass, including ∆F/Fm‧.

  5. Herbicidal activity of pre and post emergent herbicide on control of Eleusine indica in aerobic rice system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selvarajh, G.; Zain, N.M.; Aminudin, A.; Seng, C.T.

    2018-01-01

    Aerobic rice system can be an alternate way to cultivate rice in less water conditions. However, weeds are a major constrain in aerobic rice field which decline its success. Weeds are being controlled by herbicides in aerobic rice but not all herbicides are effective in controlling various types of weeds. In this study, two pre-emergent (pretilachor and pendimethalin) and two post-emergent (cyhalofop-butyl and bispyribac-sodium) herbicides were evaluated for effective control of the bioassay species, Eleusine indica. It was found that pendimethalin at a higher application rate of 1.0 kg ai ha-1 strongly inhibit the emergence and shoot growth of E. indica by >75% with negligible effect on the rice growth with stimulation on the leaf greenness. Conversely, pretilachor, cyhalofop-butyl and bispyribac-sodium gave moderate inhibition (55-60% inhibition) on weed emergence and shoot growth at higher application rates of 0.44, 0.1 and 0.035 kg ai ha-1, respectively. Significant inhibitory effects on rice root growth were noticed at highest application rates of pretilachor, cyhalofop-butyl and bispyribac-sodium (40-50% inhibition) across the growth stage of rice seedlings. Great reduction in shoot height, shoot fresh weight, and greenness of rice plant also was evident at 0 DAS across herbicides rates. However, with increasing growth stages, the rice plant became less susceptible to the applied treatments. The finding suggested that pendimethalin at 1.0 kg ai ha-1 was the most suitable application rate for inhibiting E. indica without injuring the rice seedlings. (author)

  6. Glyphosate, other herbicides, and transformation products in Midwestern streams, 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglin, W.A.; Kolpin, D.W.; Scribner, E.A.; Kuivila, K.M.; Sandstrom, M.W.

    2005-01-01

    The use of glyphosate has increased rapidly, and there is limited understanding of its environmental fate. The objective of this study was to document the occurrence of glyphosate and the transformation product aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) in Midwestern streams and to compare their occurrence with that of more commonly measured herbicides such as acetochlor, atrazine, and metolachlor. Water samples were collected at sites on 51 streams in nine Midwestern states in 2002 during three runoff events: after the application of pre-emergence herbicides, after the application of post-emergence herbicides, and during harvest season. All samples were analyzed for glyphosate and 20 other herbicides using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry or high performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. The frequency of glyphosate and AMPA detection, range of concentrations in runoff samples, and ratios of AMPA to glyphosate concentrations did not vary throughout the growing season as substantially as for other herbicides like atrazine, probably because of different seasonal use patterns. Glyphosate was detected at or above 0.1 μg/1 in 35 percent of pre-emergence, 40 percent of post-emergence, and 31 percent of harvest season samples, with a maximum concentration of 8.7 μg/1. AMPA was detected at or above 0.1 μg/1 in 53 percent of pre-emergence, 83 percent of post-emergence, and 73 percent of harvest season samples, with a maximum concentration of 3.6 μg/1. Glyphosate was not detected at a concentration at or above the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's maximum contamination level (MCL) of 700 μg/1 in any sample. Atrazine was detected at or above 0.1 μg/1 in 94 percent of pre-emergence, 96 percent of post-emergence, and 57 percent of harvest season samples, with a maximum concentration of 55 μg/1. Atrazine was detected at or above its MCL (3 μg/1) in 57 percent of pre-emergence and 33 percent of post-emergence samples

  7. Glyphasate, other herbicides, and transformation products in midwestern streams, 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglin, William A.; Koplin, Dana W.; Scribner, Elizabeth A.; Kuivila, Kathryn; Sandstrom, Mark W.

    2005-01-01

    The use of glyphosate has increased rapidly, and there is limited understanding of its environmental fate. The objective of this study was to document the occurrence of glyphosate and the transformation product aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) in Midwestern streams and to compare their occurrence with that of more commonly measured herbicides such as acetochlor, atrazine, and metolachlor. Water samples were collected at sites on 51 streams in nine Midwestern states in 2002 during three runoff events: after the application of pre-emergence herbicides, after the application of post-emergence herbicides, and during harvest season. All samples were analyzed for glyphosate and 20 other herbicides using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry or high performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. The frequency of glyphosate and AMPA detection, range of concentrations in runoff samples, and ratios of AMPA to glyphosate concentrations did not vary throughout the growing season as substantially as for other herbicides like atrazine, probably because of different seasonal use patterns. Glyphosate was detected at or above 0.1 μg/1 in 35 percent of pre-emergence, 40 percent of post-emergence, and 31 percent of harvest season samples, with a maximum concentration of 8.7 μg/1. AMPA was detected at or above 0.1 μg/1 in 53 percent of pre-emergence, 83 percent of post-emergence, and 73 percent of harvest season samples, with a maximum concentration of 3.6 μg/1. Glyphosate was not detected at a concentration at or above the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's maximum contamination level (MCL) of 700 μg/1 in any sample. Atrazine was detected at or above 0.1 μg/1 in 94 percent of pre-emergence, 96 percent of post-emergence, and 57 percent of harvest season samples, with a maximum concentration of 55 μg/1. Atrazine was detected at or above its MCL (3 μg/1) in 57 percent of pre-emergence and 33 percent of post-emergence samples.

  8. C. pneumoniae CdsL regulates CdsN ATPase activity, and disruption with a peptide mimetic prevents bacterial invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Blair Stone

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular pathogens that likely require type III secretion (T3S to invade cells and replicate intracellulary within a cytoplasmic vacuole called an inclusion body. C. pneumoniae possess a YscL ortholog, CdsL, that has been shown to interact with the T3S ATPase (CdsN. In this report we demonstrate that CdsL down-regulates CdsN enzymatic activity in a dose-dependent manner. Using PepScan epitope mapping we identified two separate binding domains to which CdsL binds viz. CdsN 221-229 and CdsN265-270. We confirmed the binding domains using a pull-down assay and showed that GST-CdsN221-270, which encompasses these peptides, co-purified with His-CdsL. Next, we used orthology modeling based on the crystal structure of a T3S ATPase ortholog from E. coli, EscN, to map the binding domains on the predicted three dimensional structure of CdsN. The CdsL binding domains mapped to the catalytic domain of the ATPase, one in the central channel of the ATPase hexamer and one on the outer face. Since peptide mimetics have been used to disrupt essential protein interactions of the chlamydial T3S system and inhibit T3S-mediated invasion of HeLa cells, we hypothesized that if CdsL – CdsN binding is essential for regulating T3S then a CdsN peptide mimetic could be used to potentially block T3S and Chlamydial invasion. Treatment of EBs with a CdsN peptide mimetic inhibited C. pneumoniae invasion into HeLa cells in a dose-dependent fashion. This report represents the first use of Pepscan technology to identify binding domains for specific T3S proteins viz. CdsL on the ATPase, CdsN, and demonstrates that peptide mimetics can be used as anti-virulence factors to block bacterial invasion.

  9. Determination of Two Sulfonylurea Herbicides Residues in Soil Environment Using HPLC and Phytotoxicity of These Herbicides by Lentil Bioassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdizadeh, Mohammad; Alebrahim, Mohammad Taghi; Roushani, Mahmoud

    2017-07-01

    A HPLC-UV detection system was used for determination of sulfosulfuron and tribenuron methyl residues from soils. The soils were fortified with sulfosulfuron and tribenuron methyl at rates of 26 and 15 g a.i. ha -1 respectively and samples were taken randomly on 0 (2 h), 1, 2, 4, 10, 20, 40, 60, 90 and 120 days after treatment. The final extracts were prepared for analysis by HPLC. The results showed that degradation of both herbicides in the silty loam soil was faster than sandy loam soil. Half-life of sulfosulfuron was ranged from 5.37 to 10.82 days however this value for tribenuron methyl was ranged from 3.23 to 5.72 days on different soils. The residue of both herbicides at 120 days after application in wheat field had no toxicitic effect on lentil. It was concluded that HPLC analysis procedure was an appropriate method for determination of these herbicides from soils.

  10. Propofol prevents electroconvulsive-shock-induced memory impairment through regulation of hippocampal synaptic plasticity in a rat model of depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo J

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Jie Luo, Su Min, Ke Wei, Jun Cao, Bin Wang, Ping Li, Jun Dong, Yuanyuan Liu Department of Anesthesiology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, People’s Republic of China Background: Although a rapid and efficient psychiatric treatment, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT induces memory impairment. Modified ECT requires anesthesia for safety purposes. Although traditionally found to exert amnesic effects in general anesthesia, which is an inherent part of modified ECT, some anesthetics have been found to protect against ECT-induced cognitive impairment. However, the mechanisms remain unclear. We investigated the effects of propofol (2,6-diisopropylphenol on memory in depressed rats undergoing electroconvulsive shock (ECS, the analog of ECT in animals, under anesthesia as well as its mechanisms.Methods: Chronic unpredictable mild stresses were adopted to reproduce depression in a rodent model. Rats underwent ECS (or sham ECS with anesthesia with propofol or normal saline. Behavior was assessed in sucrose preference, open field and Morris water maze tests. Hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP was measured using electrophysiological techniques. PSD-95, CREB, and p-CREB protein expression was assayed with western blotting.Results: Depression induced memory damage, and downregulated LTP, PSD-95, CREB, and p-CREB; these effects were exacerbated in depressed rats by ECS; propofol did not reverse the depression-induced changes, but when administered in modified ECS, propofol improved memory and reversed the downregulation of LTP and the proteins. Conclusion: These findings suggest that propofol prevents ECS-induced memory impairment, and modified ECS under anesthesia with propofol improves memory in depressed rats, possibly by reversing the excessive changes in hippocampal synaptic plasticity. These observations provide a novel insight into potential targets for optimizing the clinical use of ECT for psychiatric

  11. Effects of the herbicide diuron on cordgrass (Spartina foliosa) reflectance and photosynthetic parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, S.L.; Carranza, A.; Kunzelman, J.; Datta, S.; Kuivila, K.M.

    2009-01-01

    Early indicators of salt marsh plant stress are needed to detect stress before it is manifested as changes in biomass and coverage. We explored a variety of leaf-level spectral reflectance and fluorescence variables as indicators of stress in response to the herbicide diuron. Diuron, a Photosystem II inhibitor, is heavily used in areas adjacent to estuaries, but its ecological effects are just beginning to be recognized. In a greenhouse experiment, we exposed Spartina foliosa, the native cordgrass in California salt marshes, to two levels of diuron. After plant exposure to diuron for 28 days, all spectral reflectance indices and virtually all fluorescence parameters indicated reduced pigment and photosynthetic function, verified as reduced CO2 assimilation. Diuron exposure was not evident, however, in plant morphometry, indicating that reflectance and fluorescence were effective indicators of sub-lethal diuron exposure. Several indices (spectral reflectance index ARI and fluorescence parameters EQY, Fo, and maximum rETR) were sensitive to diuron concentration. In field trials, most of the indices as well as biomass, % cover, and canopy height varied predictably and significantly across a pesticide gradient. In the field, ARI and Fo regressed most significantly and strongly with pesticide levels. The responses of ARI and Fo in both the laboratory and the field make these indices promising as sensitive, rapid, non-destructive indicators of responses of S. foliosa to herbicides in the field. These techniques are employed in remote sensing and could potentially provide a link between landscapes of stressed vegetation and the causative stressor(s), which is crucial for effective regulation of pollution. ?? 2008 Coastal and Estuarine Research Federation.

  12. Neem leaf glycoprotein prevents post-surgical sarcoma recurrence in Swiss mice by differentially regulating cytotoxic T and myeloid-derived suppressor cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhurima Sarkar

    Full Text Available Post-surgical tumor recurrence is a common problem in cancer treatment. In the present study, the role of neem leaf glycoprotein (NLGP, a novel immunomodulator, in prevention of post-surgical recurrence of solid sarcoma was examined. Data suggest that NLGP prevents tumor recurrence after surgical removal of sarcoma in Swiss mice and increases their tumor-free survival time. In NLGP-treated tumor-free mice, increased cytotoxic CD8+ T cells and a decreased population of suppressor cells, especially myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs was observed. NLGP-treated CD8+ T cells showed greater cytotoxicity towards tumor-derived MDSCs and supernatants from the same CD8+ T cell culture caused upregulation of FasR and downregulation of cFLIP in MDSCs. To elucidate the role of CD8+ T cells, specifically in association with the downregulation in MDSCs, CD8+ T cells were depleted in vivo before NLGP immunization in surgically tumor removed mice and tumor recurrence was noted. These mice also exhibited increased MDSCs along with decreased levels of Caspase 3, Caspase 8 and increased cFLIP expression. In conclusion, it can be stated that NLGP, by activating CD8+ T cells, down regulates the proportion of MDSCs. Accordingly, suppressive effects of MDSCs on CD8+ T cells are minimized and optimum immune surveillance in tumor hosts is maintained to eliminate the residual tumor mass appearing during recurrence.

  13. The Self-Regulation Model of Illness: Comparison between Zika and Dengue and Its Application to Predict Mosquito Prevention Behaviours in Malaysia, a Dengue-Endemic Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ping Wong

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Perceptions about illnesses may influence self-care and preventive health behaviours. Illness perceptions of the Zika virus (ZIKV infection were investigated under the framework of the Self-Regulation Model of Illness. Illness perception differences between ZIKV and dengue fever were also examined. Lastly, associations between illness perceptions of ZIKV with mosquito prevention practices were studied. Samples were drawn from landline telephone numbers using computer-assisted telephone interviewing in Malaysia. A total of 567 respondents completed the survey between February 2015 and May 2016. The median and interquartile range (IQR for the total six dimensions of illness perceptions score was higher for dengue (23.0 (IQR 17.0–28.0 than ZIKV (20.0 (IRQ 11.0–28.0, p < 0.001. Respondents who planned to have children (OR 1.670, 95% CI 1.035–2.694 vs. no intention to have children and had friends or acquaintances who died of dengue (OR 2.372, 95% CI 1.300–4.327 vs. no friends who died of dengue were more likely to have a higher total score for six illness perceptions for ZIKV compared to dengue. Multivariate analysis indicated that the best predictors for mosquito control practices after the ZIKV outbreak was declared a Public Health Emergency of International Concern, in descending order, were causes, control, timeline, and consequences dimensions of illness perception. Understanding the context in which a person perceives ZIKV may contribute to developing interventions that influence prevention behaviours.

  14. Compound C prevents Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α protein stabilization by regulating the cellular oxygen availability via interaction with Mitochondrial Complex I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagen Thilo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The transcription factor Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α is a master regulator of the cellular response to low oxygen concentration. Compound C, an inhibitor of AMP-activated kinase, has been reported to inhibit hypoxia dependent Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α activation via a mechanism that is independent of AMP-activated kinase but dependent on its interaction with the mitochondrial electron transport chain. The objective of this study is to characterize the interaction of Compound C with the mitochondrial electron transport chain and to determine the mechanism through which the drug influences the stability of the Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α protein. We found that Compound C functions as an inhibitor of complex I of the mitochondrial electron transport chain as demonstrated by its effect on mitochondrial respiration. It also prevents hypoxia-induced Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α stabilization in a dose dependent manner. In addition, Compound C does not have significant effects on reactive oxygen species production from complex I via both forward and reverse electron flux. This study provides evidence that similar to other mitochondrial electron transport chain inhibitors, Compound C regulates Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α stability by controlling the cellular oxygen concentration.

  15. Down-regulation of Rad51 activity during meiosis in yeast prevents competition with Dmc1 for repair of double-strand breaks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Interhomolog recombination plays a critical role in promoting proper meiotic chromosome segregation but a mechanistic understanding of this process is far from complete. In vegetative cells, Rad51 is a highly conserved recombinase that exhibits a preference for repairing double strand breaks (DSBs using sister chromatids, in contrast to the conserved, meiosis-specific recombinase, Dmc1, which preferentially repairs programmed DSBs using homologs. Despite the different preferences for repair templates, both Rad51 and Dmc1 are required for interhomolog recombination during meiosis. This paradox has recently been explained by the finding that Rad51 protein, but not its strand exchange activity, promotes Dmc1 function in budding yeast. Rad51 activity is inhibited in dmc1Δ mutants, where the failure to repair meiotic DSBs triggers the meiotic recombination checkpoint, resulting in prophase arrest. The question remains whether inhibition of Rad51 activity is important during wild-type meiosis, or whether inactivation of Rad51 occurs only as a result of the absence of DMC1 or checkpoint activation. This work shows that strains in which mechanisms that down-regulate Rad51 activity are removed exhibit reduced numbers of interhomolog crossovers and noncrossovers. A hypomorphic mutant, dmc1-T159A, makes less stable presynaptic filaments but is still able to mediate strand exchange and interact with accessory factors. Combining dmc1-T159A with up-regulated Rad51 activity reduces interhomolog recombination and spore viability, while increasing intersister joint molecule formation. These results support the idea that down-regulation of Rad51 activity is important during meiosis to prevent Rad51 from competing with Dmc1 for repair of meiotic DSBs.

  16. Palmistichus elaeisis (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae as an indicator of toxicity of herbicides registered for corn in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claubert W.G de Menezes

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of plants in agricultural systems benefits natural enemies. Herbicides are used in weed management in corn (Zea mays L. to reduce competition and productivity losses, but they can impact natural enemies and contaminate the environment. The objective was to evaluate toxicity of herbicides on pupae parasitoid Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare and LaSalle, 1993 (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae. The treatments were represented by the host pupae Tenebrio molitor L., 1785 (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae and herbicides atrazine, nicosulfuron, paraquat, and tembotrione in commercial doses compared to a control treatment with water. Pupae of T. molitor were immersed in the solution of herbicides and exposed to parasitism by six females of P. elaeisis each. The herbicides atrazine and paraquat were highly toxic and, therefore, not selective to P. elaeisis. Nicosulfuron reduced the sex ratio of P. elaeisis (0.20 ± 0.03, which may affect subsequent generations. Moreover, the herbicide tembotrione was selective to P. elaeisis, showing results comparable to the control. Floristic diversity of weeds can increase food source, habitat, shelter, breeding places and microclimates for insect parasitoids but herbicides formulations can be toxic and these products can affect P. elaeisis or its hosts by direct or indirect contact, showing the importance of selectivity studies for this natural enemy. However, the herbicide tembotrione was selective to P. elaeisis and it can be recommended for programs of sustainable management of weeds in corn crop with this parasitoid.

  17. Histopathological study on the effect of rice herbicides on grass carp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-02-14

    Feb 14, 2011 ... observe the impact of herbicides on the histopathology of the fish, the fingerlings were collected from the field trenches ... is almost non-existent in India; the reasons being that increasing ... intensive rice-cum-fish culture offered the opportunity for ..... Toxicity of herbicides to Malaysian rice field fish. In: Proc.

  18. Dynamics of herbicide transport and partitioning under event flow conditions in the lower Burdekin region, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, Aaron M.; Lewis, Stephen E.; Bainbridge, Zoë T.; Glendenning, Lionel; Turner, Ryan D.R.; Brodie, Jon E.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the temporal variability in herbicide delivery to the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) lagoon (Australia) from one of the GBR catchment’s major sugarcane growing regions. Annual loads of measured herbicides were consistently in the order of 200+ kg. Atrazine, it’s degradate desethylatrazine, and diuron contributed approximately 90% of annual herbicide load, with early ‘first-flush’ events accounting for the majority of herbicide loads leaving the catchment. Assessment of herbicide water–sediment partitioning in flood runoff highlighted the majority of herbicides were transported in predominantly dissolved form, although a considerable fraction of diuron was transported in particulate-bound form (ca. 33%). Diuron was also the herbicide demonstrating the highest concentrations and frequency of detection in sediments collected from catchment waterways and adjacent estuarine–marine environments, an outcome aligning with previous research. Herbicide physico-chemical properties appear to play a crucial role in partitioning between water column and sediment habitat types in GBR receiving ecosystems.

  19. A composite transcriptional signature differentiates responses towards closely related herbicides in Arabidopsis thaliana and brassica napus

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, genome-wide expression profiling based on Affymetrix ATH1 arrays was used to identify discriminating responses of Arabidopsis thaliana to five herbicides, which contain active ingredients targeting two different branches of amino acid biosynthesis. One herbicide co...

  20. Limited fitness costs of herbicide-resistance traits in Amaranthus tuberculatus facilitate resistance evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fitness cost of herbicide resistance (HR) in the absence of herbicide selection plays a key role in HR evolution. Quantifying the fitness cost of resistance, however, is challenging, and there exists a knowledge gap in this area. A synthetic Amaranthus tuberculatus population segregating for fiv...

  1. Effects of the herbicides linuron and S-metolachlor on Perez's frog embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintaneiro, Carla; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Monteiro, Marta S

    2018-03-01

    Presence of pesticides in the environment and their possible effects on aquatic organisms are of great concern worldwide. The extensive use of herbicides in agricultural areas are one of the factors contributing to the known decline of amphibian populations. Thus, as non-target species, amphibians can be exposed in early life stages to herbicides in aquatic systems. In this context, this study aims to evaluate effects of increasing concentrations of two maize herbicides, linuron and S-metolachlor on embryos of the Perez' frog (Pelophylax perezi) during 192 h. Apical endpoints were determined for each herbicide: mortality, hatching rate, malformations and length. Frog embryos presented a LC 50 of 21 mg/l linuron and 37.5 mg/l S-metolachlor. Furthermore, sub-lethal concentrations of both herbicides affected normal embryonic development, delaying hatching, decreasing larvae length and causing several malformations. Length of larvae decreased with increasing concentrations of each herbicide, even at the lower concentrations tested. Malformations observed in larvae exposed to both herbicides were oedemas, spinal curvature and deformation, blistering and microphtalmia. Overall, these results highlight the need to assess adverse effects of xenobiotics to early life stages of amphibians regarding beside mortality the embryonic development, which could result in impairments at later stages. However, to unravel mechanisms involved in toxicity of these herbicides further studies regarding lower levels of biological organisation such as biochemical and genomic level should be performed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Investigation of 10 herbicides in surface waters of a horticultural production catchment in southeastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allinson, Graeme; Bui, AnhDuyen; Zhang, Pei; Rose, Gavin; Wightwick, Adam M; Allinson, Mayumi; Pettigrove, Vincent

    2014-10-01

    Herbicides are regularly applied in horticultural production systems and may migrate off-site, potentially posing an ecological risk to surface waterways. However, few studies have investigated the levels and potential ecotoxicological impact of herbicides in horticultural catchments in southern Australia. This study investigated the presence of 10 herbicides at 18 sites during a 5-month period in horticulturally important areas of the Yarra Valley in southeastern Australia. Seven of the 10 herbicides were detected in the streams, in 39 % of spot water samples, in 25 % of surface sediment samples, and in >70 % of the passive sampler systems deployed. Few samples contained residues of ≥2 herbicides. Simazine was the herbicide most frequently detected in water, sediment, and passive sampler samples and had the highest concentrations in water (0.67 μg/L) and sediment (260 μg/kg dry weight). Generally the concentrations of the herbicides detected were several orders of magnitude lower than reported ecotoxicological effect values, including those for aquatic plants and algae, suggesting that concentrations of individual chemicals in the catchment were unlikely to pose an ecological risk. However, little is known about the combined effects of simultaneous, low-level exposure of multiple herbicides of the same mode of action on Australian aquatic organisms nor their contribution when found in mixtures with other pesticides. Further research is required to adequately assess the risk of pesticides in Victorian aquatic environments.

  3. GLOBAL EXPRESSION PROFILING AS A TOOL TO DEVELOP MOLECULAR MARKERS LINKED TO HERBICIDE STRESS IN ARABIDOPSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbicide drift (unintentional physical movement from target to off-target plants) is a cause of crop loss in US. Low-dose, high-potency herbicides that have short environmental persistence times constrain efforts to develop or identify metabolite or biochemical markers of exposu...

  4. Incorporating seeds in activated carbon pellets limits herbicide effects to seeded bunchgrasses when controlling exotic annuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revegetation of exotic annual grass-invaded rangeland with pre-emergent herbicides is challenging because seeding is delayed until herbicide toxicity has diminished, but at this time, exotic annuals can be re-invading. Incorporating seeds into activated carbon pellets may allow seeding to occur at t...

  5. Using GLEAMS to Select Environmental Windows for Herbicide Application in Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.C. Smith; J.L. Michael; W.G. Koisel; D.G. Nealy

    1994-01-01

    Observed herbicide runoff and groundwater data from a pine-release herbicide application study near Gainesville, Florida were used to validate the GLEAMS model hydrology and pesticide component for forest application. The study revealed that model simulations agreed relatively well with the field data for the one-year study. Following validation, a modified version of...

  6. Identification and discrimination of herbicide residues using a conducting polymer electronic nose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alphus Dan Wilson

    2016-01-01

    The identification of herbicide residues on crop foliage is necessary to make crop-management decisions for weed pest control and to monitor pesticide residue levels on food crops. Electronic-nose (e-nose) methods were tested as a cheaper, alternative means of discriminating between herbicide residue types (compared with conventional chromatography methods), by...

  7. Predictive value of species sensitivity distributions for effects of herbicides in freshwater ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, van den P.J.; Blake, N.; Brock, T.C.M.; Maltby, L.

    2006-01-01

    In this article we present a review of the laboratory and field toxicity of herbicides to aquatic ecosystems. Single-species acute toxicity data and ( micro) mesocosm data were collated for nine herbicides. These data were used to investigate the importance of test species selection in constructing

  8. NOVEL CHROMATOGRAPHIC SEPARATION AND CARBON SOLID PHASE EXTRACTION OF ACETANILIDE HERBICIDE DEGRADATION PRODUCTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Six acetanilide herbicides are currently registered for use in the U.S. Over the past several years, ethanesufonic acid (ESA) and oxanilic acid (OA) degradatoin products of these acetanilide herbicides have been found in U.S. ground waters and surface waters. "Alachlor ESA and ...

  9. METHOD DEVELOPMENT FOR ALACHLOR ESA AND OTHER ACENTANILIDE HERBICIDE DEGRADATION PRODUCTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Acetanilide herbicides are frequently applied in the U.S. on crops (corn, soybeans, popcorn, etc.) to control broadleaf and annual weeds. The acetanilide and acetamide herbicides currently registered for use in the U.S. are alachlor, acetochlor, metolachlor, propa...

  10. A herbicide structure-activity analysis of the antimalarial lead compound MMV007978 against Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corral, Maxime G; Leroux, Julie; Tresch, Stefan; Newton, Trevor; Stubbs, Keith A; Mylne, Joshua S

    2018-07-01

    To fight herbicide-resistant weeds, new herbicides are needed; particularly ones with new modes of action. Building on the revelation that many antimalarial drugs are herbicidal, here we focus on the Medicines for Malaria Venture antimalarial lead compound MMV007978 that has herbicidal activity against the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Twenty-two variations of the lead compound thiophenyl motif revealed that change was tolerated provided ring size and charge were retained. MMV007978 was active against select monocot and dicot weeds, and physiological profiling indicated that its mode of action is related to germination and cell division. Of interest is the fact that the compound has a profile that is currently not found among known herbicides. We demonstrate that the antimalarial compound MMV007978 is also herbicidal and that exploiting lead compounds that are often understudied could lead to the identification of interesting herbicidal scaffolds. Further structural investigation of MMV007978 could provide improved herbicidal chemistries with a potential new mode of action. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Controlling herbicide-susceptible, -tolerant and -resistant weeds with microbial bioherbicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    The management of weeds is a necessary but expensive challenge. Public concerns of health, safety, and sustainability have increased interest in reducing the use of synthetic chemicals for weed control. Alternatives to chemical herbicides, such as bioherbicides, may offer an alternative to herbicide...

  12. Phorate can reverse P450 metabolism-based herbicide resistance in Lolium rigidum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busi, Roberto; Gaines, Todd Adam; Powles, Stephen

    2017-02-01

    Organophosphate insecticides can inhibit specific cytochrome P450 enzymes involved in metabolic herbicide resistance mechanisms, leading to synergistic interactions between the insecticide and the herbicide. In this study we report synergistic versus antagonistic interactions between the organophosphate insecticide phorate and five different herbicides observed in a population of multiple herbicide-resistant Lolium rigidum. Phorate synergised with three different herbicide modes of action, enhancing the activity of the ALS inhibitor chlorsulfuron (60% LD 50 reduction), the VLCFAE inhibitor pyroxasulfone (45% LD 50 reduction) and the mitosis inhibitor trifluralin (70% LD 50 reduction). Conversely, phorate antagonised the two thiocarbamate herbicides prosulfocarb and triallate with a 12-fold LD 50 increase. We report the selective reversal of P450-mediated metabolic multiple resistance to chlorsulfuron and trifluralin in the grass weed L. rigidum by synergistic interaction with the insecticide phorate, and discuss the putative mechanistic basis. This research should encourage diversity in herbicide use patterns for weed control as part of a long-term integrated management effort to reduce the risk of selection of metabolism-based multiple herbicide resistance in L. rigidum. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Oxidative stress caused by the use of preemergent herbicides in rice crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Claudia Langaro

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Among the methods of weed control, stands out chemical control. However, even selective, herbicides can trigger the production of reactive species of oxygen and cause oxidative stress. The aim of the study was to evaluate changes in photosynthetic parameters, oxidative damage, antioxidant enzyme activity and altered metabolism of rice plants after applying pre-emergent herbicides. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse and herbicides used were oxadiazon, pendimethalin and oxyfluorfen, beyond the control without herbicide. There was a reduction of photosynthetic rate and efficiency of carboxylation, compared to the control, when applied herbicides oxyfluorfen and pendimethalin. The major lipid peroxidation and proline accumulation was observed for the herbicide oxyfluorfen. The oxyfluorfen and oxadiazon herbicides also resulted in increased activity of superoxide dismutase, compared to control. When evaluated ascorbate peroxidase activity, there was a higher enzyme activity in plants treated with oxadiazon and pendimethalin. Even selective herbicides registered for weed control in rice crops cause phytotoxicity, reduce height and alter the metabolism of plants, generating reactive oxygen species, which activate enzymatic and non-enzymatic defense systems and result in the degradation of photosynthetic pigments and in reduced protein content.

  14. Laboratory study on leachability of five herbicides in South Australian soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, G G; Williams, B

    2000-03-01

    Norflurazon, oxadiazon, oxyfluorfen, trifluralin and simazine are herbicides widely used in the vineyards of the Barossa Valley, South Australia. The leaching behaviour of norflurazon, oxadiazon, oxyfluorfen and trifluralin was investigated on four key soils in the Barossa Valley. Leaching potential on packed soil columns and actual mobility using intact soil columns were investigated. On the packed soil columns, norflurazon was the most leachable herbicide. More of the herbicides were detected in the leachates from the sandy soils (Mountadam and Nuriootpa) than from the clayey soils (Lyndoch and Tanunda). Organic matter is generally low in soils in the Barossa region. Porosity and saturated conductivity significantly affect herbicide movement and in the sandy Mountadam and Nuriootpa soils, the water flux is greater than for the higher clay content Lyndoch and Tanunda soils. Increasing the time interval between herbicide application and the incidence of "rainfall" reduced the amounts of herbicides found in the leachates. The use of intact soil columns and including simazine for comparison showed that both norflurazon and simazine were present in the leachates. Simazine was the first herbicide to appear in leachates. Sectioning of the intact soil columns after leaching clearly demonstrated that norflurazon and simazine reached the bottom of the soil columns for all soils studied. Greater amounts of norflurazon were retained in the soil columns compared with simazine. The other herbicides were mostly retained in the initial sections of the soil columns.

  15. Integration of Agronomic Practices with Herbicides for Sustainable Weed Management in Aerobic Rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, M. P.; Juraimi, A. S.; Mohamed, M. T. M.; Uddin, M. K.; Samedani, B.; Puteh, A.; Man, Azmi

    2013-01-01

    Till now, herbicide seems to be a cost effective tool from an agronomic view point to control weeds. But long term efficacy and sustainability issues are the driving forces behind the reconsideration of herbicide dependent weed management strategy in rice. This demands reappearance of physical and cultural management options combined with judicious herbicide application in a more comprehensive and integrated way. Keeping those in mind, some agronomic tools along with different manual weeding and herbicides combinations were evaluated for their weed control efficacy in rice under aerobic soil conditions. Combination of competitive variety, higher seeding rate, and seed priming resulted in more competitive cropping system in favor of rice, which was reflected in lower weed pressure, higher weed control efficiency, and better yield. Most of the herbicides exhibited excellent weed control efficiency. Treatments comprising only herbicides required less cost involvement but produced higher net benefit. On the contrary, treatments comprising both herbicide and manual weeding required high cost involvement and thus produced lower net benefit. Therefore, adoption of competitive rice variety, higher seed rate, and seed priming along with spraying different early-postemergence herbicides in rotation at 10 days after seeding (DAS) followed by a manual weeding at 30 DAS may be recommended from sustainability view point. PMID:24223513

  16. Lawn Weed Control with Herbicides. Home and Garden Bulletin No. 123.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural Research Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    Information and diagrams are given for identification and treatment of weed grasses and broadleaf weeds. Herbicides are suggested for use against each weed and instructions are given for proper application. Information is given for buying herbicides, and applying sprays and cleaning sprayers. (BB)

  17. Grassland response to herbicides and seeding of native grasses 6 years posttreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan A. Endress; Catherine G. Parks; Bridgett J. Naylor; Steven R. Radosevich; Mark. Porter

    2012-01-01

    Herbicides are the primary method used to control exotic, invasive plants. This study evaluated restoration efforts applied to grasslands dominated by an invasive plant, sulfur cinquefoil, 6 yr after treatments. Of the five herbicides we evaluated, picloram continued to provide the best control of sulfur cinquefoil over 6 yr. We found the timing of picloram...

  18. Questions concerning the potential impact of glyphosate-based herbicides on amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Norman; Reichenbecher, Wolfram; Teichmann, Hanka; Tappeser, Beatrix; Lötters, Stefan

    2013-08-01

    Use of glyphosate-based herbicides is increasing worldwide. The authors review the available data related to potential impacts of these herbicides on amphibians and conduct a qualitative meta-analysis. Because little is known about environmental concentrations of glyphosate in amphibian habitats and virtually nothing is known about environmental concentrations of the substances added to the herbicide formulations that mainly contribute to adverse effects, glyphosate levels can only be seen as approximations for contamination with glyphosate-based herbicides. The impact on amphibians depends on the herbicide formulation, with different sensitivity of taxa and life stages. Effects on development of larvae apparently are the most sensitive endpoints to study. As with other contaminants, costressors mainly increase adverse effects. If and how glyphosate-based herbicides and other pesticides contribute to amphibian decline is not answerable yet due to missing data on how natural populations are affected. Amphibian risk assessment can only be conducted case-specifically, with consideration of the particular herbicide formulation. The authors recommend better monitoring of both amphibian populations and contamination of habitats with glyphosate-based herbicides, not just glyphosate, and suggest including amphibians in standardized test batteries to study at least dermal administration. Copyright © 2013 SETAC.

  19. Histopathological study on the effect of rice herbicides on grass carp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodan idella) fingerlings were exposed to rice herbicides butachlor 1.5 kg ha-1, oxyfluorfen 0.25 kg ha-1 and thiobencarb 1.5 kg ha-1, 12 days after their application in the respective fields. To observe the impact of herbicides on the histopathology of the fish, the fingerlings were collected from the ...

  20. BELVEDERE® Extra – a new high performance- herbicide in beets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donati, Alexandra

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Common lambsquarters, cleavers, ladysthumb and wild buckwheat, chamomile, mercury, foolsparsleey and volunteer rapes are only some of the most important weeds in fooder and sugar beets. For the control of classical weed societies farmers can fall back on a limited number of active ingredients. Generally, Phenmedipham (PMP, Desmedipham (DMP and Ethofumesate are the basis of a spray sequence. They are complemented with other active ingredients depending on the specific weed situation. The newly formulated BELVEDERE® Extra combines the three mentioned active ingredients in an optimal ratio. Hence, the herbicide covers a very broad weed spectrum with an excellent efficacy on Common lambsquarters, cleavers, ladysthumb and wild buckwheat. BELVEDERE® EXTRA is a liquid, selective, and systemic herbicide. It is formulated as suspoemulsion so that a high efficacy is achieved while preserving a very good selectivity. The product allows for flexible control of leaf activity as an additive (e.g. OLEO FC is appended. Ethofumesate, which is mainly effective via the roots of the plant, belongs to a different HRAC group than Phenmedipham and Desmedipham. The high concentration of 200 g/L Ethofumesate leads to an effective resistance management especially regarding Fathen and other important weeds. Since 23rd of September 2013 BELVEDERE® extra is registered for post emergence splitting application (3 applications against annual dicotyledonous weeds. The maximum application rate per treatment is 1,3 L/ha. In combination with GOLTIX® TITAN® (Metamitron + Quinmerac or Goltix® Gold (Metamitron the weed spectrum is broadened. Basically, a timely application whose application rates are adapted to the location is essential for a good efficacy of beet herbicides.

  1. Downy Brome (Bromus tectorum L. and Broadleaf Weed Control in Winter Wheat with Acetolactate Synthase-Inhibiting Herbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick W. Geier

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted for three seasons in northwest Kansas, USA to evaluate acetolactate synthase (ALS-inhibiting herbicides for downy brome (Bromus tectorum L. and winter annual broadleaf weed control in winter wheat. Herbicides included pyroxsulam at 18.4 g ai ha−1, propoxycarbazone-Na at 44 g ai ha−1, premixed propoxycarbazone-Na & mesosulfuron-methyl at 27 g ai ha−1, and sulfosulfuron at 35 g ai ha−1. The herbicides were applied postemergence in fall and spring seasons. Averaged over time of application, no herbicide controlled downy brome more than 78% in any year. When downy brome densities were high, control was less than 60%. Pyroxsulam controlled downy brome greater than or similar to other herbicides tested. Flixweed (Descurainia sophia L., blue mustard [Chorispora tenella (Pallas DC.], and henbit (Lamium amplexicaule L. control did not differ among herbicide treatments. All herbicides tested controlled flixweed and blue mustard at least 87% and 94%, respectively. However, none of the herbicides controlled henbit more than 73%. Fall herbicide applications improved weed control compared to early spring applications; improvement ranged from 3% to 31% depending on the weed species. Henbit control was greatly decreased by delaying herbicide applications until spring compared to fall applications (49% vs. 80% control. Herbicide injury was observed in only two instances. The injury was ≤13% with no difference between herbicides and the injury did not impact final plant height or grain yield.

  2. Forest worker exposure to airborne herbicide residues in smoke from prescribed fires in the Southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles K. McMahon; Parshall B. Bush

    1992-01-01

    Occupational safety and health concerns have been raised in a number of southern states by workers conducting prescribed burns on forested lands treated with herbicides. Modeling assessments coupled with laboratory experiments have shown that the risk of airborne herbicide residues to workers is insignificant, even if the fire occurs immediately after herbicide...

  3. Weed control changes and genetically modified herbicide tolerant crops in the USA 1996-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, Graham

    2014-01-01

    Crops that have been genetically modified (GM) to be tolerant to herbicides have been widely grown in the USA since 1996. The rapid and widespread adoption of this technology reflects the important economic and environmental benefits that farmers have derived from its use (equal to $21.7 billion additional farm income and a 225 million kg reduction in herbicide active ingredient use 1996-2012). During this time, weed control practices in these crops relative to the 'conventional alternative' have evolved to reflect experience of using the technology, the challenges that have arisen and the increasing focus in recent years on developing sustainable production systems. This paper examines the evidence on the changing nature of herbicides used with these crops and in particular how farmers addressed the challenge of weed resistance. The evidence shows that use of the technology has resulted in a net reduction in both the amount of herbicide used and the associated environmental impact, as measured by the EIQ indicator when compared to what can reasonably be expected if the area planted to GM HT crops reverted to conventional production methods. It also facilitated many farmers being able to derive the economic and environmental benefits associated with switching from a plough-based to a no tillage or conservation tillage production system. In terms of herbicide use, the technology has also contributed to a change the profile of herbicides used. A broad range of, mostly selective herbicides has been replaced by one or 2 broad-spectrum herbicides (mostly glyphosate) used in conjunction with one or 2 other (complementary) herbicides. Since the mid-2000s, the average amount of herbicide applied and the associated environmental load, as measured by the EIQ indicator, have increased on both GM HT and conventional crops. A primary reason for these changes has been increasing incidence of weed species developing populations resistant to herbicides and increased awareness of

  4. Economics of site-specific and variable-dose herbicide application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørum, Jens Erik; Kudsk, Per; Jensen, Peter Kryger

    2017-01-01

    Site-specific application of pesticides has so far focused mainly on herbicides. The purpose of precision farming technologies in relation to herbicide use is to reduce herbicide cost and environmental impact from spraying, but at the same time to achieve acceptable weed control. Another purpose...... is to increase the spraying capacity, to reduce the number of sprayer refills, and finally to minimize time spent on weed monitoring. In this chapter the relevance and profitability of four precision herbicide application technologies, two weed detection technologies and a low dose decision support system (DSS......) is analysed. With a low dose herbicide, cost can be reduced by 20–50%. It requires, however, proper monitoring of weeds, which can be a time-consuming task that again requires that the farmer is able to identify the dominant weed species. The current development of high-speed camera and software systems can...

  5. Study of different herbicide molecules for the control of durum wheat weed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Perniola

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to enhance the chances to rotate the herbicide molecules, the effectiveness of a new molecule, pinoxaden, was tested, comparing it with other herbicides used in wheat weed control. The trial was carried out comparing the following herbicide mixtures: 1 no weed control treatment; 2 Tribenuron Methyl (TM; 3 Clodinafop (C; 4 Tribenuron Methyl + Clodinafop (TM+C; 5 Pinoxaden + clodinafop + propargile (PCP; 6 Pinoxaden + clodinafop + propargile + Triasulfuron (PCP+T; 7 Pinoxaden + clodinafop + propargile + absolute Ioxinil and Mecoprop (PCP+IM. The new PCP+T herbicides mixture didn’t differ statistically from the traditional TMC treatment in terms of effectiveness, but the agronomic result of the new mixture was totally satisfactory, even taking into account that the marketing of this mixture is not aimed to compete with other existing herbicides but to widen the chance to rotate active principles in time and space, in order to control the onset of resistance phenomena.

  6. Study of different herbicide molecules for the control of durum wheat weed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Perniola

    Full Text Available In order to enhance the chances to rotate the herbicide molecules, the effectiveness of a new molecule, pinoxaden, was tested, comparing it with other herbicides used in wheat weed control. The trial was carried out comparing the following herbicide mixtures: 1 no weed control treatment; 2 Tribenuron Methyl (TM; 3 Clodinafop (C; 4 Tribenuron Methyl + Clodinafop (TM+C; 5 Pinoxaden + clodinafop + propargile (PCP; 6 Pinoxaden + clodinafop + propargile + Triasulfuron (PCP+T; 7 Pinoxaden + clodinafop + propargile + absolute Ioxinil and Mecoprop (PCP+IM. The new PCP+T herbicides mixture didn’t differ statistically from the traditional TMC treatment in terms of effectiveness, but the agronomic result of the new mixture was totally satisfactory, even taking into account that the marketing of this mixture is not aimed to compete with other existing herbicides but to widen the chance to rotate active principles in time and space, in order to control the onset of resistance phenomena.

  7. Study of different herbicide molecules for the control of durum wheat weed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Filì

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to enhance the chances to rotate the herbicide molecules, the effectiveness of a new molecule, pinoxaden, was tested, comparing it with other herbicides used in wheat weed control. The trial was carried out comparing the following herbicide mixtures: 1 no weed control treatment; 2 Tribenuron Methyl (TM; 3 Clodinafop (C; 4 Tribenuron Methyl + Clodinafop (TM+C; 5 Pinoxaden + clodinafop + propargile (PCP; 6 Pinoxaden + clodinafop + propargile + Triasulfuron (PCP+T; 7 Pinoxaden + clodinafop + propargile + absolute Ioxinil and Mecoprop (PCP+IM. The new PCP+T herbicides mixture didn’t differ statistically from the traditional TMC treatment in terms of effectiveness, but the agronomic result of the new mixture was totally satisfactory, even taking into account that the marketing of this mixture is not aimed to compete with other existing herbicides but to widen the chance to rotate active principles in time and space, in order to control the onset of resistance phenomena.

  8. Screening of photosynthetic pigments for herbicidal activity with a new computational molecular approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnaraj, R Navanietha; Chandran, Saravanan; Pal, Parimal; Berchmans, Sheela

    2013-12-01

    There is an immense interest among the researchers to identify new herbicides which are effective against the herbs without affecting the environment. In this work, photosynthetic pigments are used as the ligands to predict their herbicidal activity. The enzyme 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate (EPSP) synthase is a good target for the herbicides. Homology modeling of the target enzyme is done using Modeler 9.11 and the model is validated. Docking studies were performed with AutoDock Vina algorithm to predict the binding of the natural pigments such as β-carotene, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, phycoerythrin and phycocyanin to the target. β-carotene, phycoerythrin and phycocyanin have higher binding energies indicating the herbicidal activity of the pigments. This work reports a procedure to screen herbicides with computational molecular approach. These pigments will serve as potential bioherbicides in the future.

  9. Delayed degradation in soil of foliar herbicides glyphosate and sulcotrione previously absorbed by plants: Consequences on herbicide fate and risk assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Doublet, Jeremy; Mamy, Laure; Barriuso Benito, Enrique

    2009-01-01

    Following application, pesticides can be intercepted and absorbed by weeds and/or crops. Plants containing pesticides residues may then reach the soil during the crop cycle or after harvest. However, the fate in soil of pesticides residues in plants is unknown. Two commonly used foliar herbicides, glyphosate and sulcotrione, 14C-labeled, were applied on leaves of oilseed rape and/or maize, translocation was studied, and then soil incubations of aerial parts of plants containing herbicides res...

  10. Effects of melatonin in rats in the initial third stage of pregnancy exposed to sub-lethal doses of herbicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Lécio Leone de; Teixeira, Álvaro Aguiar Coelho; Soares, Anísio Francisco; Cunha, Franklin Magliano da; Silva, Valdemiro Amaro da; Vieira Filho, Leucio Duarte; Wanderley-Teixeira, Valéria

    2017-04-01

    Exposure to the herbicides Paraquat (PQ) and Roundup ® may cause cell lesions due to an increase in oxidative stress levels in different biological systems, even in the reproductive system. Evaluate the possible changes in reproductive parameters and hepatic, as well as its prevention by simultaneous application of melatonin. Thirty-five female rats at the age of 3 months were divided into seven groups: three groups exposed to sub-lethal doses of the herbicides PQ (50mg/kg) and Roundup ® (500mg/kg) (n=5, G2, G3 and G4); three groups exposed to herbicides and simultaneous treatment with 10mg/kg of Melatonin (n=5, G5, G6 and G7) and control group (n=5, G1) from the first to the seventh day of pregnancy. On the seventh day of pregnancy, the rats were anesthetized and euthanized, followed by laparotomy to remove their reproductive tissues and liver. Body and ovary weights were taken and the number of implantation sites, corpora lutea, preimplantation losses, implantation rates were counted and histopathology of the implantation sites, morphometry of the surface and glandular epithelia of endometrium and hepatic oxidative stress were undertaken. The present study shows the decrease in body and ovary weight, decrease in the number of implantation sites, implantation rate, in the total number of corpora lutea and increase of preimplantation percentages were observed when compared to the G1: Fig. 1 and Table 1, (p>0.001 ANOVA/Tukey). The histopathological analysis of the implantation sites showed a disorder of the cytotrophoblast and cell degeneration within the blastocyst cavity in Fig. 4. Morphometry revealed a reduction in surface and glandular epithelia and in the diameter of the endometrial glands (Table 2; p>0.05 ANOVA/Tukey), whereas in liver, serum levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were found to be significantly elevated (Fig. 2; p>0.001; p>0.05 ANOVA/Tukey), and serum level of reduced glutathione (GSH) was significantly lower (Fig. 3; p>0

  11. DSSHerbicide: Herbicide field trials in winter wheat. How to come to a decision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sefzat, David

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Herbicide decision support systems can calculate efficient, economically optimized herbicide mixtures with reduced dosages, if field specific weed data are given. Thus, they can be a sensible tool for integrated weed control. However, advises of decision support systems have to be tested before introducing them into practical farming. In Mecklenburg-Vorpommern two herbicide field trials were installed with four different prototypes of decision support systems. An untreated plot and three expert advices, private advisors, official advisory service and a farmer decision, were included as additional test variables. Herbicide efficacies in autumn, weed dry matter after spring applications, herbicide costs and wheat yield were measured to evaluate the decision support system prototypes. In one field trial with low weed density before treatments efficacies were at least 85%. In two prototypes efficacies were lower than in the expert plots. No significant differences between decision variables were found regarding weed dry matter after spraying in spring. On this site, herbicide costs were higher when expert advises were used compared to decision support system advises. No significant differences were detected in yield. Even yield in “untreated” was not significantly different. The second field trial carried higher weed densities. Here herbicide efficacies were lower in all treatments. Poa annua and Matricaria recutita were significantly affected by the treatments resulting from the decision tools. However, these differences did not result in statistically different weed dry matter or wheat yield. Three of the prototypes advised solutions with very low herbicide costs in autumn, but high costs in spring. As a result, total weed costs in these plots were higher than in the plots advised by experts. It is concluded from the field trials, that different prototypes of decision support systems are giving sensible herbicide advice. In fields with low

  12. Herbicide monitoring in soil, runoff waters and sediments in an olive orchard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon, Maria Jesus; De Luna, Elena; Gomez, Jose Alfonso; Hermosin, M Carmen

    2016-11-01

    Occurrences of surface water contamination by herbicides in areas where olive orchards are established reveal a need to understand soil processes affecting herbicide fate at field scale for this popular Mediterranean crop. A monitoring study with two herbicides (terbuthylazine and oxyfluorfen) in the first 2cm of soil, runoff waters, and sediments, was carried out after under natural rainfall conditions following winter herbicide application. At the end of the 107day field experiment, no residues of the soil applied terbuthylazine were recovered, whereas 42% of the oxyfluorfen applied remained in the top soil. Very low levels of both herbicides were measured in runoff waters; however, concentrations were slightly higher for terbuthylazine (0.53% of applied) than for oxyfluorfen (0.03% of applied), relating to their respective water solubilities. Congruent with soil residue data, 38.15% of the applied oxyfluorfen was found in runoff-sediment, compared to only 0.46% for terbuthylazine. Accordingly, the herbicide soil distribution coefficients measured within runoff field tanks was much greater for oxyfluorfen (Kd=3098) than for terbuthylazine (Kd=1.57). The herbicide oxyfluorfen is co-transported with sediment in runoff, remaining trapped and/or adsorbed to soil particle aggregates, due in part to its low water solubility. In contrast, terbuthylazine soil dissipation may be associated more so with leaching processes, favored by its high water solubility, low sorption, and slow degradation. By comparing these two herbicides, our results reaffirm the importance of herbicide physico-chemical properties in dictating their behavior in soil and also suggest that herbicides with low solubility, as seen in the case oxyfluorfen, remain susceptible to offsite transport associated with sediments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Preventive and therapeutic effects of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) extract against DSS-induced ulcerative colitis by regulation of antioxidant and inflammatory mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervin, Mehnaz; Hasnat, Md Abul; Lim, Ji-Hong; Lee, Yoon-Mi; Kim, Eun Ok; Um, Byung-Hun; Lim, Beong Ou

    2016-02-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an inflammatory disorder caused by hyperactivation of effector immune cells that produce high levels of proinflammatory cytokines. The aims of our study were to determine whether orally administered blueberry extract (BE) could attenuate or prevent the development of experimental colitis in mice and to elucidate the mechanism of action. Female Balb/C mice (n=7) were randomized into groups differing in treatment conditions (prevention and treatment) and dose of BE (50 mg/kg body weight). Acute ulcerative colitis was induced by oral administration of 3% dextran sodium sulfate for 7 days in drinking water. Colonic mucosal injury was assessed by clinical, macroscopic, biochemical and histopathological examinations. BE significantly decreased disease activity index and improved the macroscopic and histological score of colons when compared to the colitis group (P<.05). BE markedly attenuated myeloperoxidase accumulation (colitis group 54.97±2.78 nmol/mg, treatment group 30.78±1.33 nmol/mg) and malondialdehyde in colon and prostaglandin E2 level in serum while increasing the levels of superoxide dismutase and catalase (colitis group 11.94±1.16 U/ml, BE treatment group 16.49±0.39 U/ml) compared with the colitis group (P<.05). mRNA levels of the cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, interferon-γ, interleukin (IL)-1β and inducible nitric oxide synthase cytokines were determined by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that BE attenuates the expression of COX-2 and IL-1β in colonic tissue. Moreover, BE reduced the nuclear translocation of nuclear transcription factor kappa B (NF-κB) by immunofluorescence analysis. Thus, the anti-inflammatory effect of BE at colorectal sites is a result of a number of mechanisms: antioxidation, down-regulation of the expression of inflammatory mediators and inhibition of the nuclear translocation of NF-κB. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Prevention of bone marrow cell apoptosis and regulation of hematopoiesis by type I IFNs during systemic responses to pneumocystis lung infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, David; Wilkison, Michelle; Voyich, Jovanka; Meissner, Nicole

    2011-05-15

    We recently demonstrated that lack of type I IFN signaling (IFNAR knockout) in lymphocyte-deficient mice (IFrag(-/-)) results in bone marrow (BM) failure after Pneumocystis lung infection, whereas lymphocyte-deficient mice with intact IFNAR (RAG(-/-)) had normal hematopoiesis. In the current work, we performed studies to define further the mechanisms involved in the induction of BM failure in this system. BM chimera experiments revealed that IFNAR expression was required on BM-derived but not stroma-derived cells to prevent BM failure. Signals elicited after day 7 postinfection appeared critical in determining BM cell fate. We observed caspase-8- and caspase-9-mediated apoptotic cell death, beginning with neutrophils. Death of myeloid precursors was associated with secondary oxidative stress, and decreasing colony-forming activity in BM cell cultures. Treatment with N-acetylcysteine could slow the progression of, but not prevent, BM failure. Type I IFN signaling has previously been shown to expand the neutrophil life span and regulate the expression of some antiapoptotic factors. Quantitative RT-PCR demonstrated reduced mRNA abundance for the antiapoptotic factors BCL-2, IAP2, MCL-1, and others in BM cells from IFrag(-/-) compared with that in BM cells from RAG(-/-) mice at day 7. mRNA and protein for the proapoptotic cytokine TNF-α was increased, whereas mRNA for the growth factors G-CSF and GM-CSF was reduced. In vivo anti-TNF-α treatment improved precursor cell survival and activity in culture. Thus, we propose that lack of type I IFN signaling results in decreased resistance to inflammation-induced proapoptotic stressors and impaired replenishment by precursors after systemic responses to Pneumocystis lung infection. Our finding may have implications in understanding mechanisms underlying regenerative BM depression/failure during complex immune deficiencies such as AIDS.

  15. Blood, sweat, tears and success of technology transfer long-term controlled-release of herbicides: Root-growth-inhibiting biobarrier technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Voris, P.; Cataldo, D.A.; Burton, F.G.; Skeins, W.E.

    1988-01-01

    Through the unique combination of polymers with a herbicidally active dinitroaniline, a cylinderical pellet (9mm long and 9mm in diameter) was developed that continuously releases a herbicide for a period of up to 100 years. Equilibrium concentration of the herbicide in soil adjacent to the pellet and the bioactive lifetime of the device cam be adjusted by changing the size of the pellet; the type of polymer; the type, quality, and quantity of carrier; and/or the concentration and type of dinitroaniline used. Commercial products that have been developed under a Federal Technology Transfer Program that utilize this technology include: (1) ROOT-SHIELD, a root repelling sewer gasket for concrete, clay, and PVC sewer lines, (2) BIOBARRIER, a spun-bonded polypropylene geotextile fabric developed to prevent root growth from invading septic tanks; penetrating under roadways, and along the edge of sidewalks, airport runways, and tennis courts, and for landscaped areas; and (3) ROOT-GUARD, a plastic drip irrigation emitter designed to protect buried drip irrigation systems from being plugged by roots. 17 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs

  16. Overexpression of cell cycle regulator CDCA3 promotes oral cancer progression by enhancing cell proliferation with prevention of G1 phase arrest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Fumihiko; Uzawa, Katsuhiro; Kasamatsu, Atsushi; Takatori, Hiroaki; Sakamoto, Yosuke; Ogawara, Katsunori; Shiiba, Masashi; Tanzawa, Hideki; Bukawa, Hiroki

    2012-01-01

    Cell division cycle associated 3 (CDCA3), part of the Skp1-cullin-F-box (SCF) ubiquitin ligase, refers to a trigger of mitotic entry and mediates destruction of the mitosis inhibitory kinase. Little is known about the relevance of CDCA3 to human malignancy including oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). We aimed to characterize the expression state and function of CDCA3 in OSCC. We evaluated CDCA3 mRNA and protein expression in both OSCC-derived cell lines and primary OSCCs and performed functional analyses of CDCA3 in OSCC-derived cells using the shRNA system. The CDCA3 expression at both the mRNA and protein levels was frequently up-regulated in all cell lines examined and primary tumors (mRNA, 51/69, 74 %; protein, 79/95, 83 %) compared to normal controls (p < 0.001). In contrast, no significant level of CDCA3 protein expression was seen in oral premalignant lesions (OPLs) (n = 20) compared with the expression in OSCCs. Among the clinical variables analyzed, the CDCA3 expression status was closely related to tumor size (p < 0.05). In addition, suppression of CDCA3 expression with shRNA significantly (p < 0.05) inhibited cellular proliferation compared with the control cells by arresting cell-cycle progression at the G1 phase. Further, there was up-regulation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (p21 Cip1 , p27 Kip1 , p15 INK4B , and p16 INK4A ) in the knockdown cells. The current results showed that overexpression of CDCA3 occurs frequently during oral carcinogenesis and this overexpression might be associated closely with progression of OSCCs by preventing the arrest of cell-cycle progression at the G1 phase via decreased expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors

  17. Preemergence herbicides on weed control in elephant grass pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Magno Brighenti

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. is an important forage crop that has been proposed as a potential feedstock for bioenergy production. However, weed interference is a major factor limiting elephant grass production. Field experiments were conducted in 2014 and 2015 to evaluate preemergence herbicides for selective weed control in an elephant grass pasture. Herbicide treatments included atrazine + S-metolachlor, atrazine + simazine, ametryn, ethoxysulfuron, S-metolachlor, diuron + hexazinone, sulfentrazone, imazethapyr, and atrazine at label use rates. Weedy and weed-free treatments were included. Atrazine + S-metolachlor, atrazine + simazine, ametryn, ethoxysulfuron, S-metolachlor, sulfentrazone, and atrazine did not cause phytotoxicity on elephantgrass 35 days after treatment (DAT. However, diuron + hexazinone and imazethapyr were the most phytotoxic on elephantgrass, resulting in 81 and 70% phytotoxicity in 2014, and 7 and 6% phytotoxicity in 2015 respectively 35 DAT. All treatments provided effective weed control (>81% with the exception of ethoxysulfuron (0 and 11% in 2014 and 2015, respectively, and atrazine (59% in 2014. These results show that atrazine + S-metolachlor, atrazine + simazine, ametryn, ethoxysulfuron, S-metolachlor, sulfentrazone, and atrazine were selectives when applied in preemergence in elephant grass pasture.

  18. Progress in herbicide determination with the thylakoid bioassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapmann, S; Etxebarria, N; Schnabl, H; Grobecker, K H

    1998-01-01

    Chloroplast thylakoids are used as biological units to determine herbicides in different kinds of water samples as well as in aqueous extracts of compost, soil or food samples. The thylakoid bioassay shows clearly inhibition of fluorescence yield in the presence of photosystem II specific herbicides. Due to this method the ecotoxicological effect of samples with unknown pollutants can be tested fast and cost effective. It has been proven that all photosynthetic active compounds are recorded at the same time because only additive interactions occur. Therefore, the contamination level can be expressed as cumulative parameter for photosystem II active substances. Application was improved clearly by the addition of the radical scavenger sodium ascorbate to the isolation media and by a higher concentration of the measuring medium. A new data evaluation method is described yielding in a lower detection limit of 0.4 microg diuron/1. The guidelines for the quality of water for human consumption with an allowable concentration of pesticides in groups is 0,5 microg/1 and can be controlled with the thylakoid bioassay without performing any preconcentration steps.

  19. Herbicidal and Fungicidal Activities of Lactones in Kava (Piper methysticum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, T D; Elzaawely, A A; Fukuta, M; Tawata, S

    2006-02-08

    This is the first report showing that kava lactones are plant and plant fungus growth inhibitors. Aqueous extract of kava roots showed high allelopathic potential and strongly suppressed germination and growth of lettuce, radish, barnyardgrass, and monochoria. Nine kava lactones were detected using GC-MS including desmethoxyyagonin, kavain, 7,8-dihydrokavain, hydroxykavain, yagonin, 5,6,7,8-tetrahydroxyyagonin, methysticin, dihydromethysticin, and 11-hydroxy-12-methoxydihydrokavain. Quantities of desmethoxyyagonin, kavain, 7,8-dihydrokavain, yagonin, methysticin, and dihydromethysticin detected were 4.3, 6.9, 18.6, 5.7, 1.4, and 5.4 mg/g of dry weight, respectively. These six major lactones in kava roots showed great herbicidal and antifungal activities. Growth of lettuce and barnyardgrass were significantly inhibited at 1-10 ppm, and four plant fungi including Colletotrichum gloeosporides, Fusarium solani, Fusarium oxysporum, and Trichoderma viride were significantly inhibited at 10-50 ppm. The biological activities of kava lactones were characterized by different double-bond linkage patterns in positions 5,6 and 7,8. The findings of this study suggest that kava lactones may be useful for the development of bioactive herbicides and fungicides.

  20. Developmental toxicity of diphenyl ether herbicides in nestling American kestrels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, D J; Spann, J W; LeCaptain, L J; Bunck, C M; Rattner, B A

    1991-11-01

    Beginning the day after hatching, American kestrel (Falco sparverius) nestlings were orally dosed for 10 consecutive days with 5 microliters/g of corn oil (controls) or one of the diphenyl ether herbicides (nitrofen, bifenox, or oxyfluorfen) at concentrations of 10, 50, 250, or 500 mg/kg in corn oil. At 500 mg/kg, nitrofen resulted in complete nestling mortality, bifenox in high (66%) mortality, and oxyfluorfen in no mortality. Nitrofen at 250 mg/kg reduced nestling growth as reflected by decreased body weight, crown-rump length, and bone lengths including humerus, radius-ulna, femur, and tibiotarsus. Bifenox at 250 mg/kg had less effect on growth than nitrofen, but crown-rump, humerus, radius-ulna, and femur were significantly shorter than controls. Liver weight as a percent of body weight increased with 50 and 250 mg/kg nitrofen. Other manifestations of impending hepatotoxicity following nitrofen ingestion included increased hepatic GSH peroxidase activity in all nitrofen-treated groups, and increased plasma enzyme activities for ALT, AST, and LDH-L in the 250-mg/kg group. Bifenox ingestion resulted in increased hepatic GSH peroxidase activity in the 50- and 250-mg/kg groups. Nitrofen exposure also resulted in an increase in total plasma thyroxine (T4) concentration. These findings suggest that altricial nestlings are more sensitive to diphenyl ether herbicides than young or adult birds of precocial species.

  1. Application of electrokinetic soil flushing to four herbicides: A comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, E Vieira; Souza, F; Saez, C; Cañizares, P; Lanza, M R V; Martinez-Huitle, C A; Rodrigo, M A

    2016-06-01

    In this work, four bench-scale plants containing soil spiked with four herbicides (2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), oxyfluorfen, chlorsulfuron and atrazine) undergo treatment consisting of an electrokinetic soil flushing (EKSF). Results clearly demonstrate that efficiency of EKSF depends on the chemical characteristic of the pesticide used. The amount of pesticide collected in the anode well is more significant than that collected in the cathode wells, indicating that the electromigration is much more important than drainage by electro-osmotic flux for this application. After 15 d of treatment, the 2,4-D is the pesticide most efficiently removed (95% of removal), while chlorsulfuron is the pesticide more resilient to the treatment. Additionally, volatilization was found to be a process of the major significance in the application of electrokinetic techniques to soil polluted with herbicides and because of that it should always be taken into account in the future design of full-scale processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Weed supression by smother crops and selective herbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Severino Francisco José

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Using a smother crop is thought to suppress weed density and to add other beneficial effects in sustainable agricultural systems. Weed suppression ought to be considered an essential component of integrated weed management. However, very little is known about the effects of green manure plants on weeds. This study evaluated the influence of three green manure species on weed suppression and selectivity of herbicides. A field experiment was designed to determine the effect of the green manure species Crotalaria juncea, Arachis pintoi and pigeon pea on the weeds Brachiaria decumbens, guineagrass and hairy beggarticks, and on the natural weed infestation in the inter rows area of an avocado orchard. The weed species were suppressed differently by each green manure species. Soil samples collected from the field experiment presented a residual effect, of at least 30 d, in suppressing weed seed bank recruitment; this residual effect was caused by the residues of the green manure present in the soil. When the green manure was incorporated into the top 5 cm of soil or left on the surface, in a greenhouse experiment, the emergence of weed seeds was significantly inhibited, depending on the species, and on the amount and depth of green manure incorporation. Greenhouse experiments indicate that pre-emergence herbicides cause lower phytotoxicity than post-emergence Arachis pintoi. Smother crops using green manure species, when well established in an area, provide additional weed control to the cropping system and are effective and valuable tools in integrated weed management.

  3. Weight Gain Prevention for College Freshmen: Comparing Two Social Cognitive Theory-Based Interventions with and without Explicit Self-Regulation Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A. Dennis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The college transition represents a critical period for maintaining a healthy weight, yet intervention participation and retention represent significant challenges. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the preliminary efficacy and acceptability of two interventions to prevent freshman weight gain. One intervention provided opportunities to improve outcome expectations and self-efficacy within a social cognitive theory framework (SCT, while the other targeted the same variables but focused on explicit training in self-regulation skills (SCTSR. Methods. Freshmen (n=45 aged >18 years were randomized to a 14-week intervention, SCT or SCTSR; both included online modules and in-class meetings. Of the 45 students randomized, 5 withdrew before the classes began and 39 completed pre- and posttesting. Primary outcomes included body weight/composition, health behaviors, and program acceptability. Analyses included independent sample t-tests, repeated measures ANOVA, and bivariate correlational analyses. Results. Body weight increased over the 14-week period, but there was no group difference. Percent body fat increased in SCTSR but not SCT (mean difference: SCTSR, +1.63 ± 0.52%; SCT, −0.25 ± 0.45%; P=0.01. Class attendance was 100% (SCTSR and 98% (SCT; SCTSR students (>50% remarked that the online tracking required “too much time.” Conclusions. The intervention was well received, although there were no improvements in weight outcomes.

  4. The Effect of Herbicides on Hydrogen Peroxide Generation in Isolated Vacuoles of Red Beet Root (Beta vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.V. Pradedova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Influence of herbicides on the hydrogen peroxide generation in vacuolar extracts of red beet root (Beta vulgaris L. was investigated. Belonging to different chemical classes of herbicide compounds have been used. Herbicides differ from each other in the mechanism of effects on plants. Clopyralid (aromatic acid herbicide, derivative of picolinic acid and 2.4-D (phenoxyacetic herbicide, characterized by hormone-like effects, contributed to the formation of H2O2 in vacuolar extracts. Fluorodifen (nitrophenyl ether herbicide and diuron (urea herbicide also have increased contents H2O2. These compounds inhibit the electron transport, photosynthesis, and photorespiration in sensitive plants. Herbicidal effect of glyphosate (organophosphorus herbicide is due to the inhibition of amino acid synthesis in plant cells. Glyphosate did not affect the content of H2O2 in vacuolar extracts. Herbicide dependent H2O2-generation did not occur with oxidoreductase inhibitors, potassium cyanide and sodium azide. The results suggest that the formation of ROS in the vacuoles due to activity of oxidoreductases, which could interact with herbicides.

  5. Theobromine, the primary methylxanthine found in Theobroma cacao, prevents malignant glioblastoma proliferation by negatively regulating phosphodiesterase-4, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin kinase, and nuclear factor-kappa B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Naotoshi; Miwa, Shinji; Hitomi, Yoshiaki; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki; Yachie, Akihiro

    2014-01-01

    Theobromine, a caffeine derivative, is the primary methylxanthine produced by Theobroma cacao. We previously showed that methylxanthines, including caffeine and theophylline, have antitumor and antiinflammatory effects, which are in part mediated by their inhibition of phosphodiesterase (PDE). A member of the PDE family, PDE4, is widely expressed in and promotes the growth of glioblastoma, the most common type of brain tumor. The purpose of this study was to determine whether theobromine could exert growth inhibitory effects on U87-MG, a cell line derived from human malignant glioma. We show that theobromine treatment elevates intracellular cAMP levels and increases the activity of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and c-Jun N-terminal kinase, whereas it attenuates p44/42 extracellular signal-regulated kinase activity and the Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin kinase and nuclear factor-kappa B signal pathways. It also inhibits cell proliferation. These results suggest that foods and beverages containing cocoa bean extracts, including theobromine, might be extremely effective in preventing human glioblastoma.

  6. Strategies for Effective Eating Development-SEEDS: Design of an obesity prevention program to promote healthy food preferences and eating self-regulation in children from low-income families

    Science.gov (United States)

    To develop a scientifically based childhood obesity prevention program supporting child eating self-regulation and taste preferences. This article describes the research methods for the Strategies for Effective Eating Development program. A logic model is provided that depicts a visual presentation ...

  7. Glutamate-induced apoptosis in primary cortical neurons is inhibited by equine estrogens via down-regulation of caspase-3 and prevention of mitochondrial cytochrome c release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang YueMei

    2005-02-01

    absence of 17β-estradiol or Δ8, 17β-estradiol (10 nM-10 μM resulted in the prevention of cell death and was associated with a significant dose-dependent decrease in caspase-3 protein levels, with Δ8, 17β-E2 being more potent than 17β-E2. Protein levels of Fas receptor remained unchanged in the presence of glutamate. In contrast, treatment with glutamate induced, in a time-dependent manner, the release of cytochrome c into the cytosol. Cytosolic cytochrome c increased as early as 1.5 h after glutamate treatment and these levels were 5 fold higher after 6 h, compared to levels in the untreated cells. Concomitant with these changes, the levels of cytochrome c in mitochondria decreased significantly. Both 17β-E2 and Δ8, 17β-E2 reduced the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria into the cytosol and this decrease in cytosolic cytochrome c was associated with inhibition of glutamate-induced cell death. Conclusion In the primary cortical cells, glutamate-induced apoptosis is accompanied by up-regulation of caspase-3 and its activity is blocked by caspase protease inhibitors. These effects of glutamate on caspase-3 appear to be independent of changes in Fas receptor, but are associated with the rapid release of mitochondrial cytochrome c, which precedes changes in caspase-3 protein levels leading to apoptotic cell death. This process was differentially inhibited by estrogens with the novel equine estrogen Δ8, 17β-E2 being more potent than 17β-E2. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that equine estrogens can prevent glutamate-induced translocation of cytochrome c from mitochondria to cytosol in rat primary cortical cells.

  8. Efficacy of Maister OD (Foramsulfuron + Idosulfuron a New Herbicide in Controlling Weeds of Corn Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Abdi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the efficacy of a new herbicide Foramsulfuron +Idosulfuron (Maister OD against other herbicides in corn fields, this experiment was fulfielld in 2010 at Mahidasht, Research Center of Agriculture and Natural Resources of Kermanshah, Iran. It was concucted in randomized complete block design with four replications and 11 treatments. In this experiment, three doses of herbicides (38.75, 46.5 and 54.25 g/ha including foramsulfuron + idosulfuron along with Nicusulfuron, ForamSulfuron, Rimsulfuron, Foramsulfuron + Rimsulfuron , Bromicid + hand weeding narrow leaf weeds, Bromicid + Nicusulfuron and U46 + hand weeding of narrow leaf weeds and a complete weeding as the control treatments were investigated. Weeds present in the field were Xanthium stromarium,Chenopedium album, Portulaca oleracea, Sorgum halepense and Setaria virdis. The results of this study showed that doses 38.75 and 46.5 g/ha of herbicide foramsulfuron + idosulfuron after treatments of Bromicid + Nicusulfuron and, Bromicid + narrow leaf weed, hand weeding respectively could control 90 and 86 % of weeds in corn field and increase its yields significantly. Because there are presently few registered herbicide available in Iran, necessity of finding proper herbicides to control weeds in corn field and based on the results oblained from this experiment it seems using 46.5 and 38-75 grams per hectare respectively of foramsulfuron + idosulfuron could be a better option than other herbicides to control weeds in corn fields and increase its seed yield.

  9. Persistence of auxinic herbicides applied on pasture and toxicity for succeeding crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARNON H.C. ANÉSIO

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this work was to determine the persistence of auxinic herbicides applied on tropical pasture and toxicity for succeeding crops. The herbicides were applied in an area of dystrophic red‒yellow latosol with pasture infested of weeds. At 40, 80, and 280 days after application of herbicide, the soil samples were collected at depths of 0 to 20 cm. Soil with residues of 2,4-D, 2,4-D + picloram, triclopyr, and a soil without herbicide application were analyzed with six replicates. Seven crops were cultivated in these soils: cucumber (Cucumis sativus L., velvet bean [Mucuna pruriens (L. DC.], pigeon pea [Cajanus cajan (L. Millsp.], alfalfa (Medicago sativa L., lablab bean [Lablab purpureus (L. Sweet], corn (Zea mays L., and sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench]. The plants of cucumber, pigeon pea, and alfalfa were the most susceptible to the auxinic herbicide residues. However, the lablab bean was the only one among the dicot evaluated that showed tolerance to the 2,4-D + picloram residual when cultivated in soils at 280 days after application of herbicide. Corn and sorghum showed lower chlorophyll content in soils with 2,4-D + picloram residual up to 80 days after application of herbicide.

  10. Phytotoxicity of four herbicides on Ceratophyllum demersum, Vallisneria natans and Elodea nuttallii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Huiyun; Li, Xiaolu; Xu, Xiaohua; Gao, Shixiang

    2009-01-01

    The physiological effects of 4 herbicides (butachlor, quinclorac, bensulfuron-methyl and atrazine) on 3 submerged macrophytes (Ceratophyllum demersum, Vallisneria natans and Elodea nuttallii) were tested in laboratory. The variables of the relative growth rate and the photosynthetic pigment content showed that all of the tested herbicides affected the growth of the plants obviously, even at the lowest concentration (0.0001 mg/L). Except for the C. demersum treated with quinclorac at 0.005 and 0.01 mg/L, the relative growth rates of the plants were inhibited significantly (p < 0.01). Statistical analysis of chlorophyll a (Chl-a) contents was carried out with both the t-test and one-way ANOVA to determine the difference between the treatment and control. The results showed that Chl-a contents of the plants in all treatment groups were affected by herbicides significantly, except for the C. demersum treated with bensulfuron-methyl at 0.0005 mg/L. The decrease in Chl-a content was positively correlated to the dosage of the herbicides in most treatment groups. It was suggested that herbicides in water bodies might potentially affect the growth of aquatic macrophytes. Since the Chl-a content of submerged macrophytes responded to the stress of herbicides sensitively and directly, it could be used as a biomaker in environmental monitoring or in the ecological risk assessment of herbicide contamination.

  11. Mechanism of sulfonylurea herbicide resistance in the broadleaf weed, Kochia scoparia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saari, L.L.; Cotterman, J.C.; Primiani, M.M.

    1990-01-01

    Selection of kochia (Kochia scoparia) biotypes resistant to the sulfonylurea herbicide chlorsulfuron has occurred through the continued use of this herbicide in monoculture cereal-growing areas in the United States. The apparent sulfonylurea resistance observed in kochia was confirmed in greenhouse tests. Fresh and dry weight accumulation in the resistance kochia was 2- to >350-fold higher in the presence of four sulfonylurea herbicides as compared to the susceptible biotype. Acetolactate synthase (ALS) activity isolated from sulfonylurea-resistant kochia was less sensitive to inhibition by three classes of ALS-inhibiting herbicides, sulfonylureas, imidazolinones, and sulfonanilides. The decrease in ALS sensitivity to inhibition (as measured by the ratio of resistant I 50 to susceptible I 50 ) was 5- to 28-fold, 2- to 6-fold, and 20-fold for sulfonylurea herbicides, imidazolinone herbicides, and a sulfonanilide herbicide, respectively. No differences were observed in the ALS-specific activities or the rates of [ 14 C]chlorsulfuron uptake, translocation, and metabolism between susceptible and resistant kochia biotypes. The K m values for pyruvate using ALS from susceptible and resistant kochia were 2.13 and 1.74 mM, respectively. Based on these results, the mechanism of sulfonylurea resistance in this kochia biotype is due solely to a less sulfonylurea-sensitive ALS enzyme

  12. Runoff of the herbicides triclopyr and glufosinate ammonium from oil palm plantation soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayeb, M A; Ismail, B S; Khairiatul-Mardiana, J

    2017-10-11

    This study focused on the residue detection of the herbicides triclopyr and glufosinate ammonium in the runoff losses from the Tasik Chini oil palm plantation area and the Tasik Chini Lake under natural rainfall conditions in the Malaysian tropical environment. Triclopyr and glufosinate ammonium are post-emergence herbicides. Both herbicides were foliar-sprayed on 0.5 ha of oil palm plantation plots, which were individualized by an uneven slope of 10-15%. Samples were collected at 1, 3, 7, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 days after treatment. The concentrations of both herbicides quickly diminished from those in the analyzed sample by the time of collection. The highest residue levels found in the field surface leachate were 0.031 (single dosage, triclopyr), 0.041 (single dosage, glufosinate ammonium), 0.017 (double dosage, triclopyr), and 0.037 μg/kg (double dosage, glufosinate ammonium). The chromatographic peaks were observed at "0" day treatment (2 h after herbicide application). From the applied active ingredients, the triclopyr and glufosinate losses were 0.025 and 0.055%, respectively. The experimental results showed that both herbicides are less potent than other herbicides in polluting water systems because of their short persistence and strong adsorption onto soil clay particles.

  13. Hygienic assessment of risk caused by application of graminis ke and rinkor vg herbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Vasileva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Our research goal was to perform hygienic assessment of risks caused by Graminis KE and Rinkor VG herbicides for people working with them. We applied sanitary-hygienic and toxicological research techniques in our work in full conformity with valid technical regulatory documents and guidelines. We set the following research tasks: to analyze literature and information sources; to perform primary toxicological assessment of preparatory herbicides and study their acute toxicity together with sensitizing effects at intragastric introduction, cutaneous application, and inhalation exposure on laboratory animals; to examine herbicides cumulative effects and calculation their cumulation coefficient; to examine working conditions during a natural experiment when Graminis KE and Rinkor VG herbicides were applied and calculate risks for workers; to work out scientifically grounded recommendations on their safety application in agriculture. The examined herbicides, Graminis KE and Rinkor VG, are classified as substances with the 3rd hazard degree as per their toxicometric parameters (moderately hazardous substances. Calculated risks of complex (inhalant and dermal exposure to Gramins KE and Rinkor VG herbicides for workers (operators who refills them and those who spray plants with them when they are applied in agriculture don't exceed acceptable levels (are less than 1. Our work results allow to enrich a set of plant protectors which are applied in the country and to use such preparations in agriculture which are the least harmful for health and the environment. Application of Graminis KE and Rinkor VG herbicides will help to increase crops productivity.

  14. Early Identification of Herbicide Stress in Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) Using Chlorophyll Fluorescence Imaging Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Wang, Pei; Weber, Jonas Felix; Gerhards, Roland

    2017-12-22

    Herbicides may damage soybean in conventional production systems. Chlorophyll fluorescence imaging technology has been applied to identify herbicide stress in weed species a few days after application. In this study, greenhouse experiments followed by field experiments at five sites were conducted to investigate if the chlorophyll fluorescence imaging is capable of identifying herbicide stress in soybean shortly after application. Measurements were carried out from emergence until the three-to-four-leaf stage of the soybean plants. Results showed that maximal photosystem II (PS II) quantum yield and shoot dry biomass was significantly reduced in soybean by herbicides compared to the untreated control plants. The stress of PS II inhibiting herbicides occurred on the cotyledons of soybean and plants recovered after one week. The stress induced by DOXP synthase-, microtubule assembly-, or cell division-inhibitors was measured from the two-leaf stage until four-leaf stage of soybean. We could demonstrate that the chlorophyll fluorescence imaging technology is capable for detecting herbicide stress in soybean. The system can be applied under both greenhouse and field conditions. This helps farmers to select weed control strategies with less phytotoxicity in soybean and avoid yield losses due to herbicide stress.

  15. Implementation of the Preventive Radiation Protection Act; here: Regulation governing ambient radioactivity monitoring subject to the Preventive Radiation Protection Act. Pt. 1. Measuring programme for specified normal operation monitoring (routine measuring programme). BMU circular letter dated 28.07.94 -RS II 6 - 15 603/3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The regulation addresses the competent Federal and Land authorities responsible for implementation of the Preventive Radiation Protection Act, and the competent highest Land authorities. The regulation defines the scope of obligatory measurement of ambient radioactivity during normal operation of installations and determines the measuring techniques to be applied for this purpose. The programme determines compulsory instructions to be observed in the performance of the routine measuring programme by the competent Federal and Land authorities and thus ensures nationwide application of standard procedures

  16. Removal of glyphosate herbicide from water using biopolymer membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Rafael T A; Taketa, Thiago B; Gomes Neto, Reginaldo J; Oliveira, Jhones L; Campos, Estefânia V R; de Moraes, Mariana A; da Silva, Camila M G; Beppu, Marisa M; Fraceto, Leonardo F

    2015-03-15

    Enormous amounts of pesticides are manufactured and used worldwide, some of which reach soils and aquatic systems. Glyphosate is a non-selective herbicide that is effective against all types of weeds and has been used for many years. It can therefore be found as a contaminant in water, and procedures are required for its removal. This work investigates the use of biopolymeric membranes prepared with chitosan (CS), alginate (AG), and a chitosan/alginate combination (CS/AG) for the adsorption of glyphosate present in water samples. The adsorption of glyphosate by the different membranes was investigated using the pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order kinetic models, as well as the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The membranes were characterized regarding membrane solubility, swelling, mechanical, chemical and morphological properties. The results of kinetics experiments showed that adsorption equilibrium was reached within 4 h and that the CS membrane presented the best adsorption (10.88 mg of glyphosate/g of membrane), followed by the CS/AG bilayer (8.70 mg of glyphosate/g of membrane). The AG membrane did not show any adsorption capacity for this herbicide. The pseudo-second order model provided good fits to the glyphosate adsorption data on CS and CS/AG membranes, with high correlation coefficient values. Glyphosate adsorption by the membranes could be fitted by the Freundlich isotherm model. There was a high affinity between glyphosate and the CS membrane and moderate affinity in the case of the CS/AG membrane. Physico-chemical characterization of the membranes showed low values of solubility in water, indicating that the membranes are stable and not soluble in water. The SEM and AFM analysis showed evidence of the presence of glyphosate on CS membranes and on chitosan face on CS/AG membranes. The results showed that the glyphosate herbicide can be adsorbed by chitosan membranes and the proposed membrane-based methodology was successfully used to

  17. A further evaluation of herbicides for post-emergence use in short rotation coppice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turnbull, D.J.

    2002-07-01

    This report summarises the findings of a project evaluating the safety and efficiency of eleven herbicides for controlling weeds in newly plated willow short rotation coppices, and provides growers with information on post-emergence herbicide options, control of problem weeds, and emergency treatments. Weed germination, crop safety, and the encouraging results obtained using Reflex T and Impuls are discussed. It is suggested that a Technical Register of herbicide applications with contributions by growers and advisers should be considered by the British Biogen trade industry body.

  18. Glufosinate herbicide intoxication causing unconsciousness, convulsion, and 6th cranial nerve palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae-seok; Kwak, Soo-Jung; Gil, Hyo-wook; Kim, So-Young; Hong, Sae-yong

    2013-11-01

    Although glufosinate ammonium herbicides are considered safe when used properly, ingestion of the undiluted form can cause grave outcomes. Recently, we treated a 34-yr-old man who ingested glufosinate ammonium herbicide. In the course of treatment, the patient developed apnea, mental deterioration, and sixth cranial nerve palsy; he has since been discharged with full recovery after intensive care. This case report describes the clinical features of glufosinate intoxication with a focus on sixth cranial nerve palsy. Our observation suggests that neurologic manifestations after ingestion of a "low-grade toxicity herbicide" are variable and more complex than that was previously considered.

  19. Ecological review of black-grass (Alopecurus myosuroides Huds. propagation abilities in relationship with herbicide resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maréchal, PY.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Alopecurus myosuroides Huds. (black-grass has always been a major concern for cereal growers, and the development of herbicide resistance does not improve the situation. This review article summarizes the different traits involved in the dispersal pattern of herbicide resistant black-grass individuals within a susceptible field population. Therefore, the whole life cycle of black-grass is depicted from the seed to the seed. From the early vegetative development to the seed falling, every stage is described, taking into account how herbicide resistance can influence or exert a different impact compared to susceptible plants.

  20. An evaluation of herbicides for post-emergence use in short rotation coppice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turnbull, D.J.

    2000-07-01

    The objective of the project was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a range of herbicides and mixtures of herbicides, with both contact and residual activity, for the post-emergence control of weeds in newly planted willow short rotation coppice (SRC). This report provides growers and advisers of short rotation coppice with important (but still limited) information on how to achieve improved weed control of problem weeds increasingly prevalent in SRC fields. This may provide guidance towards often-essential emergency treatments when the crop establishment is under considerable pressure and the potential safety, or otherwise, of certain weed-specific herbicides. (author)

  1. Characterization of seizures induced by acute exposure to an organophosphate herbicide, glufosinate-ammonium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calas, André-Guilhem; Perche, Olivier; Richard, Olivier; Perche, Astrid; Pâris, Arnaud; Lauga, Fabien; Herzine, Ameziane; Palomo, Jennifer; Ardourel, Marie-Yvonne; Menuet, Arnaud; Mortaud, Stéphane; Pichon, Jacques; Montécot-Dubourg, Céline

    2016-05-04

    Glufosinate-ammonium (GLA), the active component of a widely used herbicide, induces convulsions in rodents and humans. In mouse, intraperitoneal treatment with 75 mg/kg GLA generates repetitive tonic-clonic seizures associated with 100% mortality within 72 h after treatment. In this context, we characterized GLA-induced seizures, their histological consequences and the effectiveness of diazepam treatment. Epileptic discharges on electroencephalographic recordings appeared simultaneously in the hippocampus and the cerebral cortex. Diazepam treatment at 6 h immediately stopped the seizures and prevented animal death. However, intermittent seizures were recorded on electroencephalogram from 6 h after diazepam treatment until 24 h, but had disappeared after 15 days. In our model, neuronal activation (c-Fos immunohistochemistry) was observed 6 h after GLA exposure in the dentate gyrus, CA1, CA3, amygdala, piriform and entorhinal cortices, indicating the activation of the limbic system. In these structures, Fluoro-Jade C and Cresyl violet staining did not show neuronal suffering. However, astroglial activation was clearly observed at 24 h and 15 days after GLA treatment in the amygdala, piriform and entorhinal cortices by PCR quantitative, western blot and immunohistochemistry. Concomitantly, glutamine synthetase mRNA expression (PCR quantitative), protein expression (western blot) and enzymatic activity were upregulated. In conclusion, our study suggests that GLA-induced seizures: (a) involved limbic structures and (b) induced astrocytosis without neuronal degeneration as an evidence of a reactive astrocyte beneficial effect for neuronal protection.

  2. Identification of cofactor and herbicide binding domains in acetolactate synthase by bromopyruvate modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Dyk, D.E.; Schloss, J.V.

    1987-01-01

    Bromopyruvate is an affinity label for acetolactate synthase isozyme II from Salmonella typhimurium (ALSII). The concentration of bromopyruvate giving half-maximal inactivation is 0.1 mM, and the maximal rate of inactivation is 0.56 hr -1 . Inactivation with [ 14 C]bromopyruvate is associated with the incorporation of 4 molecules of reagent per active site lost. Two cysteinyl residues are modified extremely rapidly, with no loss of enzymatic activity, as judged by quenching the reaction with thiol after its initial phase. Inactivation is a consequence of the additional two moles of reagent incorporated per mole of protomer. The additional incorporation is divided between one major and two minor sites of modification. Substantial protection against inactivation is afforded by FAD, with virtually complete protection provided by a mixture of FAD and thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP). The major site of modification, protected by FAD, is cysteinyl residue number67, based upon amino acid sequence analysis of the purified tryptic peptide that encompasses this site. The remaining site of modification, protected by TPP, is associated with cysteinyl residue number44. Both sites of modification are afforded protection by the sulfonylurea herbicide sulfometuron methyl (SM). Although inactivation by bromopyruvate exhibits rate saturation, indicating binding as a prerequisite to inactivation, neither pyruvate nor α-ketobutyrate prevent modification of the enzyme by bromopyruvate. Thus, it would appear that the bromopyruvate binding site is not the site normally occupied by substrate

  3. Herbicide effects on cuticle ultrastructure in Eleusine indica and Portulaca oleracea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malpassi, Rosana N

    2006-04-01

    Eleusine indica and Portulaca oleracea are two common weeds in peanut crops in southern Córdoba. Two chemicals are frequently used to control them, quizalofop for grasses and lactofen for dicots. The objective is to study the effects of quizalofop and lactofen on cuticle ultrastructure in E. indica and P. oleracea, respectively. In the lab, quizalofop was applied on E. indica and lactofen on P. oleracea. Three plant categories were analyzed in each species: 3, 1-2, and no tiller in E. indica, and 8, 6, and 2 nomophylls in P. oleracea. Leaf samples from both species were collected at 7 and 16 days post-application and were treated for scanning electron microscopy. E. indica cuticle treated with lethal dose shows areas where epicuticular waxes disappear, specially in the youngest individuals. These areas are located predominantly on periclinal walls of typical epidermic cells and subsidiary cells. On the other hand, P. oleracea shows cuticle discontinuities that may be caused by lactofen entry. They are smaller and less frequent in plants having 8 or more nomophylls. The remaining waxes act as a herbicide accumulation compartment and, therefore, would partially prevent the active ingredient entry to epidermic cells.

  4. Acceleration of the herbicide isoproturon degradation in wheat by glycosyltransferases and salicylic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yi Chen; Zhang, Shuang; Yang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Isoproturon (IPU) is a herbicide widely used to prevent weeds in cereal production. Due to its extensive use in agriculture, residues of IPU are often detected in soils and crops. Overload of IPU to crops is associated with human health risks. Hence, there is an urgent need to develop an approach to mitigate its accumulation in crops. In this study, the IPU residues and its degradation products in wheat were characterized using ultra performance liquid chromatography-time of fight tandem-mass spectrometer/mass spectrometer (UPLC-TOF-MS/MS). Most detected IPU-derivatives were sugar-conjugated. Degradation and glycosylation of IPU-derivatives could be enhanced by applying salicylic acid (SA). While more sugar-conjugated IPU-derivatives were identified in wheat with SA application, lower levels of IPU were detected, indicating that SA is able to accelerate intracellular IPU catabolism. All structures of IPU-derivatives and sugar-conjugated products were characterized. Comparative data were provided with specific activities and gene expression of certain glucosyltransferases. A pathway with IPU degradation and glucosylation was discussed. Our work indicates that SA-accelerated degradation is practically useful for wheat crops growing in IPU-contaminated soils because such crops with SA application can potentially lower or minimize IPU accumulation in levels below the threshold for adverse effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Fungal phytotoxins with potential herbicidal activity: chemical and biological characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimmino, Alessio; Masi, Marco; Evidente, Marco; Superchi, Stefano; Evidente, Antonio

    2015-12-19

    Covering: 2007 to 2015 Fungal phytotoxins are secondary metabolites playing an important role in the induction of disease symptoms interfering with host plant physiological processes. Although fungal pathogens represent a heavy constraint for agrarian production and for forest and environmental heritage, they can also represent an ecofriendly alternative to manage weeds. Indeed, the phytotoxins produced by weed pathogenic fungi are an efficient tool to design natural, safe bioherbicides. Their use could avoid that of synthetic pesticides causing resistance in the host plants and the long term impact of residues in agricultural products with a risk to human and animal health. The isolation and structural and biological characterization of phytotoxins produced by pathogenic fungi for weeds, including parasitic plants, are described. Structure activity relationships and mode of action studies for some phytotoxins are also reported to elucidate the herbicide potential of these promising fungal metabolites.

  6. [Poisonings with the herbicides glyphosate and glyphosate-trimesium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, O S; Sørensen, F W; Gregersen, M; Jensen, K

    2000-08-28

    Generally the herbicide glyphosate is considered harmless to humans. Glyphosate-trimesium is labelled harmful (Xn), whereas glyphosate-isopropylamine carries no warning sign. As cases of serious poisoning have emerged contacts to the Poison Information Centre have been reviewed. The persons exposed were mainly smaller children and adults 20 to 59 years of age. Oral exposure was recorded in 47 persons, inhalation exposure in 24 and topical contact in 42. About one fourth of the exposed persons were asymptomatic. Most of the symptomatic poisonings demonstrated complaints from the mouth, the gastrointestinal tract and the airways. Eleven patients were admitted to hospital. Two died, one of them having ingested the isopropylamine salt, the other the trimesium salt. Death ensued quickly in the latter patient. A similar fate was observed in a child--not included in the present material--who had also ingested the trimesium compound.

  7. Herbicide tolerance and seed survival of grain amaranth (Amaranthus sp.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kudsk, Per; Taberner, Andreu; de Troiani, Rosa M.

    2012-01-01

    Amaranth is receiving increasing attention as an alternative crop to small grain cereals. From a weed control point of view cultivation of amaranth poses two problems. Firstly, amaranth grows slowly after emergence and hence is very susceptible to competition by weeds and secondly, seed losses...... herbicides examined only clomazone, clopyralid, phenmedipham and triflusulfuron were tolerated by amaranth. Applying clomazone early postemergent instead of pre-emergent provided full crop tolerance even at the highest doses (Pcaused less...... crop damage applied at the 4-6 leaf stage compared to the 2-4 leaf stage while clopyralid was selective at both growth stages. The seed survival studies revealed differences between the countries with higher viability in Spain (up to 18%) than in Argentina and Denmark (up to 6%). Our results showed...

  8. Differential Growth Responses of Marine Phytoplankton to Herbicide Glyphosate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong Wang

    Full Text Available Glyphosate is a globally popular herbicide to kill weeds and its wide applications may lead to accumulation in coastal oceans as a source of phosphorus (P nutrient or growth inhibitor of phytoplankton. We studied the physiological effects of glyphosate on fourteen species representing five major coastal phytoplankton phyla (haptophyta, bacillariophyta, dinoflagellata, raphidophyta, and chlorophyta. Based on growth responses to different concentrations of glyphosate under contrasting dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP conditions, we found that phytoplankton species could be classified into five groups. Group I (Emiliania huxleyi, Skeletonema costatum, Phaeodactylum tricornutum could utilize glyphosate as sole P-source to support growth in axenic culture, but in the presence of DIP, they were inhibited by both 36-μM and 360-μM glyphosate. Group II (Karenia mikimotoi, Prorocentrum minimum, Dunaliella tertiolecta, Symbiodinium sp., Heterosigma akashiwo and Alexandrium catenella could not utilize glyphosate as sole P-source to support growth, and in the presence of DIP growth was not affected by 36-μM but inhibited by 360-μM glyphosate. Glyphosate consistently enhanced growth of Group III (Isochrysis galbana and inhibited Group IV (Thalassiosira weissflogii, Thalassiosira pseudonana and Chattonella marina regardless of DIP condition. Group V (Amphidinium carterae exhibited no measurable response to glyphosate regardless of DIP condition. This grouping is not congruent with the phylogenetic relationships of the phytoplankton species suggesting functional differentiation driven by environmental pressure. We conclude that glyphosate could be used as P-source by some species while is toxic to some other species and yet has no effects on others. The observed differential effects suggest that the continued use of glyphosate and increasing concentration of this herbicide in the coastal waters will likely exert significant impact on coastal marine

  9. Differential Growth Responses of Marine Phytoplankton to Herbicide Glyphosate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cong; Lin, Xin; Li, Ling; Lin, Senjie

    2016-01-01

    Glyphosate is a globally popular herbicide to kill weeds and its wide applications may lead to accumulation in coastal oceans as a source of phosphorus (P) nutrient or growth inhibitor of phytoplankton. We studied the physiological effects of glyphosate on fourteen species representing five major coastal phytoplankton phyla (haptophyta, bacillariophyta, dinoflagellata, raphidophyta, and chlorophyta). Based on growth responses to different concentrations of glyphosate under contrasting dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) conditions, we found that phytoplankton species could be classified into five groups. Group I (Emiliania huxleyi, Skeletonema costatum, Phaeodactylum tricornutum) could utilize glyphosate as sole P-source to support growth in axenic culture, but in the presence of DIP, they were inhibited by both 36-μM and 360-μM glyphosate. Group II (Karenia mikimotoi, Prorocentrum minimum, Dunaliella tertiolecta, Symbiodinium sp., Heterosigma akashiwo and Alexandrium catenella) could not utilize glyphosate as sole P-source to support growth, and in the presence of DIP growth was not affected by 36-μM but inhibited by 360-μM glyphosate. Glyphosate consistently enhanced growth of Group III (Isochrysis galbana) and inhibited Group IV (Thalassiosira weissflogii, Thalassiosira pseudonana and Chattonella marina) regardless of DIP condition. Group V (Amphidinium carterae) exhibited no measurable response to glyphosate regardless of DIP condition. This grouping is not congruent with the phylogenetic relationships of the phytoplankton species suggesting functional differentiation driven by environmental pressure. We conclude that glyphosate could be used as P-source by some species while is toxic to some other species and yet has no effects on others. The observed differential effects suggest that the continued use of glyphosate and increasing concentration of this herbicide in the coastal waters will likely exert significant impact on coastal marine phytoplankton

  10. Antifouling herbicides in the coastal waters of western Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamura, H; Aoyama, I; Ono, Y; Nishida, T

    2003-01-01

    Residue analyses of some antifouling herbicides (Diuron, Irgarol 1051 and the latter's degradation product M1, which is also known as GS26575), were conducted in waters collected along the coast of western Japan. In total, 142 water samples were collected from fishery harbours (99 sites), marinas (27 sites), and small ports (16 sites) around the Seto Inland Sea, the Kii Peninsula, and Lake Biwa, in August 1999. A urea-based herbicide, Diuron, was positively identified for the first time in Japanese aquatic environments. Diuron was detected in 121 samples (86%) up to a highest concentration of 3.05 microg/l, and was found in 86% of samples from fishery harbours, 89% from marinas, and 75% from ports. Four freshwater samples out of 11 collected at Lake Biwa contained Diuron. Neither Irgarol 1051 nor M1 was found in the lake waters, but both were found in many coastal waters. Irgarol 1051 was found in 84 samples (60%) at a highest concentration of 0.262 microg/l. The concentrations detected were of similar magnitude to those in our previous surveys, taken in 1997 and 1998. M1 was found in 40 samples (28%) up to a highest concentration of 0.080 microg/l. The concentrations detected were generally lower than those found in our previous surveys. The detection frequency among fishery harbours, marinas, and ports was 57-70% for Irgarol 1051 and 25-30% for M1. Ninety-five per cent of the coastal waters in which M1 was detected also contained Irgarol 1051, and 93% of the samples in which Irgarol 1051 was detected also contained Diuron. These results clearly suggest that commercial ship-bottom paints containing both Diuron and Irgarol 1051 are used extensively in the survey area.

  11. Metallothionein induction in aquatic oligochaete tubifex tubifex exposed to herbicide isoproturon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosleh, Y Y; Paris-Palacios, S; Arnoult, F; Couderchet, M; Biagianti-Risbourg, S; Vernet, G

    2004-02-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are low-molecular-weight proteins mainly involved in metal ion detoxification. Recently it has been demonstrated that MTs participate in several cellular functions such as regulation of growth and antioxidative defenses. Moreover, pesticides can induce their synthesis. The aim of the current work was to determine the effects of isoproturon, either pure or formulated as Matin (suspension containing an isoproturon concentration of 500 g. L(-1)), on the metallothionein and total protein contents of the aquatic worm Tubifex tubifex. MT levels in exposed worms increased significantly after 7 and 15 days of exposure to a concentration of the herbicide of 50 mg. L(-1). Isoproturon reduced the metal (Cu, Zn, and Cd) content of metallothioneins, and it also increased the total protein content of the worms. These results suggest that MT induction may not be considered a specific biomarker of metal exposure but that it can be used as a nonspecific biomarker of the effect of isoproturon effect in aquatic worms. Copyright 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 19: 88-93, 2004.

  12. Morphological effects on helminth parasites caused by herbicide under experimental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tainá Carneiro de Castro Monte

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Helminth parasites have been studied as potential accumulators for different pollutants. Echinostoma paraensei is a foodborne trematode whose vertebrate host, the rodent Nectomys squamipes, is naturally exposed to environmental pesticides. However, little information exists regarding the pesticide’s effects on helminths. This study investigated the morphological effects on the trematode, E. paraensei, after experimental Roundup® herbicide exposure, in concentrations below those recommended for agricultural use. After two hours of exposure, scanning electron microscopy (SEM showed changes to the tegument, such as furrowing, shrinkage, peeling, spines loss on the peristomic collar, and histopathological evidence of altered cells in the cecum and acinus vitelline glands with vacuoles and structural changes to the muscular layers. Glycidic content was decreased, primarily in the connective tissue. As E. paraensei is an intestinal parasite of the semi-aquatic wild rodent, N. squamipes, it is predisposed to pesticide exposure resulting from agricultural practices. Therefore, we emphasize the need to evaluate its impact on helminth parasites, due to their pivotal role in regulating host populations.

  13. Structural and functional effects of herbicides on non-target organisms in aquatic ecosystems with an emphasis on atrazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairchild, James; Kortekamp, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Herbicide use has increased dramatically around the world over the past 6 decades (Gianessi and Reigner, 2007). Few herbicides were in use in the 1950s. However, by 2001 approximately 1.14 billion kilograms of herbicides were applied globally for the control of undesireable vegetation in agricultural, silvicultural, lawncare, aquacultural, and irrigation/recreational water management activities (Kiely et al., 2004). Twenty-eight percent of the total mass of herbicides is applied in the United States, with the remaining 72 percent being applied elsewhere around the globe (Kiely et al., 2004). Herbicides represent 36% of global pesticide use, followed by insecticides (25%), fungicides (10%) and other chemical classes (Kiely et al., 2004). Agricultural production accounts for approximately 90% of herbicide use in the U.S. (Kiely et al., 2004). Gianessi and Reigner (2007) indicated that herbicides are routinely used on more than 90% of the area designated for large commercial crops including corn, soybeans, cotton, sugar beets, peanuts, and rice. Increased farm mechanization, technological advancements in production of inexpensive sources of inorganic nitrogen fertilizer (e.g., anhydrous ammonia), and conversion of forest, grassland, and wetland habitats to cropland has led to a tremendous increase in global food production over the past half-century. Herbicides have augmented advances in large-scale agricultural systems and have largely replaced mechanical and hand-weeding control mechanisms (Gianessi and Reigner, 2007). The wide-spread use of herbicides in agriculture has resulted in frequent chemical detections in surface and groundwaters (Gilliom, 2007). The majority of herbicides used are highly water soluble and are therefore prone to runoff from terrestrial environments. In additon, spray drift and atmospheric deposition can contribute to herbicide contamination of aquatic environments. Lastly, selected herbicides are deliberately applied to aquatic environments

  14. Transcriptional changes in Crassostrea gigas oyster spat following a parental exposure to the herbicide diuron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rondon, R.; Akcha, F.; Alonso, P.; Menard, D.; Rouxel, J.; Montagnani, C.; Mitta, G.; Cosseau, C.; Grunau, C.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Remodeling of the transcriptome of the offspring of oysters exposed to diuron (838 gene which expression is modulated). • Functions related to cytoskeleton organization, translation, ATP synthesis were activated. • Functions linked to transcription and protein degradation were altered. • Up-regulation of genes involved in energy production, protein synthesis and mitosis. • Catch-up growth phenomenon could allow the spats to compensate for slower growth. - Abstract: The Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas is the main oyster species produced in the world, and a key coastal economic resource in France. High mortalities affect Pacific oysters since 2008 in France and Europe. Their origins have been attributed to a combination of biotic and abiotic factors, underlining the importance of environment quality. The impact of water pollution has been pointed out and one of the pollutants, the genotoxic herbicide diuron, occurs at high concentrations all along the French coasts. Previous work has revealed that a parental exposure to diuron had a strong impact on hatching rates and offspring development even if spats were not exposed to diuron themselves. In this study, we explored for the first time the transcriptional changes occurring in oyster spats (non exposed) originating from genitors exposed to an environmentally relevant concentration of diuron during gametogenesis using the RNAseq methodology. We identified a transcriptomic remodeling revealing an effect of the herbicide. Different molecular pathways involved in energy production, translation and cell proliferation are particularly disturbed. This analysis revealed modulated candidate genes putatively involved in response to oxidative stress and mitochondrial damage in offspring of genitors exposed to diuron. Complementary measures of the activity of enzymes involved in these latter processes corroborate the results obtained at the transcriptomic level. In addition, our results suggested an

  15. Transcriptional changes in Crassostrea gigas oyster spat following a parental exposure to the herbicide diuron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rondon, R. [Ifremer, IHPE UMR 5244, Univ. Perpignan Via Domitia, CNRS, Univ. Montpellier, F-34095 Montpellier (France); Univ. Perpignan Via Domitia, IHPE UMR 5244, CNRS, IFREMER, Univ. Montpellier, F-66860 Perpignan (France); Akcha, F. [Ifremer, Department of Biogeochemistry and Ecotoxicology, Laboratory of Ecotoxicology, Rue de l’ile d’Yeu, BP 21105, 44311 Nantes Cedex 03 (France); Alonso, P. [CNRS, IHPE UMR 5244, Univ. Perpignan Via Domitia, IFREMER, Univ. Montpellier, F-34095 Montpellier (France); Menard, D.; Rouxel, J. [Ifremer, Department of Biogeochemistry and Ecotoxicology, Laboratory of Ecotoxicology, Rue de l’ile d’Yeu, BP 21105, 44311 Nantes Cedex 03 (France); Montagnani, C., E-mail: cmontagn@ifremer.fr [Ifremer, IHPE UMR 5244, Univ. Perpignan Via Domitia, CNRS, Univ. Montpellier, F-34095 Montpellier (France); Mitta, G.; Cosseau, C.; Grunau, C. [Univ. Perpignan Via Domitia, IHPE UMR 5244, CNRS, IFREMER, Univ. Montpellier, F-66860 Perpignan (France)

    2016-06-15

    Highlights: • Remodeling of the transcriptome of the offspring of oysters exposed to diuron (838 gene which expression is modulated). • Functions related to cytoskeleton organization, translation, ATP synthesis were activated. • Functions linked to transcription and protein degradation were altered. • Up-regulation of genes involved in energy production, protein synthesis and mitosis. • Catch-up growth phenomenon could allow the spats to compensate for slower growth. - Abstract: The Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas is the main oyster species produced in the world, and a key coastal economic resource in France. High mortalities affect Pacific oysters since 2008 in France and Europe. Their origins have been attributed to a combination of biotic and abiotic factors, underlining the importance of environment quality. The impact of water pollution has been pointed out and one of the pollutants, the genotoxic herbicide diuron, occurs at high concentrations all along the French coasts. Previous work has revealed that a parental exposure to diuron had a strong impact on hatching rates and offspring development even if spats were not exposed to diuron themselves. In this study, we explored for the first time the transcriptional changes occurring in oyster spats (non exposed) originating from genitors exposed to an environmentally relevant concentration of diuron during gametogenesis using the RNAseq methodology. We identified a transcriptomic remodeling revealing an effect of the herbicide. Different molecular pathways involved in energy production, translation and cell proliferation are particularly disturbed. This analysis revealed modulated candidate genes putatively involved in response to oxidative stress and mitochondrial damage in offspring of genitors exposed to diuron. Complementary measures of the activity of enzymes involved in these latter processes corroborate the results obtained at the transcriptomic level. In addition, our results suggested an

  16. The direct and indirect effects of a glyphosate-based herbicide and nutrients on Chironomidae (Diptera) emerging from small wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Leanne F; Mudge, Joseph F; Houlahan, Jeff E; Thompson, Dean G; Kidd, Karen A

    2014-09-01

    Laboratory and mesocosm experiments have demonstrated that some glyphosate-based herbicides can have negative effects on benthic invertebrate species. Although these herbicides are among the most widely used in agriculture, there have been few multiple-stressor, natural system-based investigations of the impacts of glyphosate-based herbicides in combination with fertilizers on the emergence patterns of chironomids from wetlands. Using a replicated, split-wetland experiment, the authors examined the effects of 2 nominal concentrations (2.88 mg acid equivalents/L and 0.21 mg acid equivalents/L) of the glyphosate herbicide Roundup WeatherMax, alone or in combination with nutrient additions, on the emergence of Chironomidae (Diptera) before and after herbicide-induced damage to macrophytes. There were no direct effects of treatment on the structure of the Chironomidae community or on the overall emergence rates. However, after macrophyte cover declined as a result of herbicide application, there were statistically significant increases in emergence in all but the highest herbicide treatment, which had also received no nutrients. There was a negative relationship between chironomid abundance and macrophyte cover on the treated sides of wetlands. Fertilizer application did not appear to compound the effects of the herbicide treatments. Although direct toxicity of Roundup WeatherMax was not apparent, the authors observed longer-term impacts, suggesting that the indirect effects of this herbicide deserve more consideration when assessing the ecological risk of using herbicides in proximity to wetlands. © 2014 SETAC.

  17. Leaching of the S-metolachlor herbicide associated with paraquat or glyphosate in a no-tillage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Luis Nunes

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The combined use of desiccant and residual herbicides is a common management practice under no-tillage systems. However, the effect of desiccant herbicides and mulch on the leaching of residual herbicide is unknown. This study aimed at assessing the leaching of the S-metolachlor herbicide applied to ryegrass sequentially or in association with paraquat or glyphosate. A randomized blocks design was used, with four repetitions and treatments distributed over split-plots. The desiccant herbicides paraquat (600 g ha-1 or glyphosate (720 g ha-1 were used in the main plot, while S-metolachlor (2,800 g ha-1 was applied sequentially or in association with the desiccant herbicides in the subplots. There was also a control containing only desiccant herbicide, with no application of residual herbicide. The type of desiccant did not affect the leaching of the residual herbicide. In addition, the chosen method to apply the residual herbicide, sequentially or in association with the desiccant, did not impact the S-metolachlor behavior in the soil. The bioavailable concentration in the soil, 25 days after the application, was 90 g a.i. ha-1, at a depth of 18 cm.

  18. Alternatives to herbicides in an apple orchard, effects on yield, earthworms and plant diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, L.; Kuehn, Birka Falk; Bertelsen, M.

    2013-01-01

    tIn a newly established apple orchard eight alternative methods to weed control in the tree row werecompared to a herbicide treatment with respect to effects on tree growth, first-quality fruit yield, earth-worms and flora. All treatments were tested at two irrigation schedules, with similar amount......, whereasmulching with paper wool reduced first-quality fruit yield compared to herbicide treatment. Cover cropas tagetes and weed harrowing had similar yield as herbicide treatment, whereas cover crops as grassand hop medick and weed cutting reduced first-quality yield compared to herbicide treatment. Earth......-worms thrived under rape straw contrary to under black polypropylene and plots with weed harrowing.Treatments had significant effects on species numbers of plants both years, and total vegetation covergenerally increased in the second year. Rape straw supported a high production of apples and a largestock...

  19. CHRONIC EFFECTS OF THE HERBICIDE DIURON ON FRESHWATER CLADOCERANS,AMPHIPODS,MIDGES,MINNOWS,WORMS, AND SNAILS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The chronic effects of the herbicide diuron on survival and reproduction of Daphnia pulex, and survival and growth of the amphipod Hyalella azteca, the midge Chironomus tentans, juvenile and embro/larval fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, annelid worms, Lumbriculus variegatus,...

  20. Arabidopsis transcriptional responses differentiating closely related chemicals (herbicides) and cross-species extrapolation to Brassica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using whole genome Affymetrix ATH1 GeneChips we characterized the transcriptional response of Arabidopsis thaliana Columbia 24 hours after treatment with five different herbicides. Four of them (chloransulam, imazapyr, primisulfuron, sulfometuron) inhibit acetolactate synthase (A...

  1. Crops with target-site herbicide resistance for Orobanche and Striga control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gressel, Jonathan

    2009-05-01

    It is necessary to control root parasitic weeds before or as they attach to the crop. This can only be easily achieved chemically with herbicides that are systemic, or with herbicides that are active in soil. Long-term control can only be attained if the crops do not metabolise the herbicide, i.e. have target-site resistance. Such target-site resistances have allowed foliar applications of herbicides inhibiting enol-pyruvylshikimate phosphate synthase (EPSPS) (glyphosate), acetolactate synthase (ALS) (e.g. chlorsulfuron, imazapyr) and dihydropteroate synthase (asulam) for Orobanche control in experimental conditions with various crops. Large-scale use of imazapyr as a seed dressing of imidazolinone-resistant maize has been commercialised for Striga control. Crops with two target-site resistances will be more resilient to the evolution of resistance in the parasite, if well managed.

  2. ANALYTICAL METHOD DEVELOPMENT FOR ALACHLOR ESA AND OTHER ACETANILIDE HERBICIDE DEGRADATION PRODUCTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 1998, USEPA published a Drinking Water Contaminant Candidate List (CCL) of 50 chemicals and 10 microorganisms. "Alachlor ESA and other acetanilide herbicide degradation products" is listed on the the 1998 CCL. Acetanilide degradation products are generally more water soluble...

  3. Responses of reniform nematode and browntop millet to tillage, cover crop, and herbicides in cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cropping practices that reduce competition from reniform nematode (Rotylenchulus reniformis) and browntop millet (Urochlora ramosum) may help minimize losses in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). The impacts of tillage, rye cover crop, and preemergence and postemergence herbicides on cotton yields, renifo...

  4. CYTOGENETIC STUDIES OF THREE TRIAZINE HERBICIDES II. IN VIVO MICRONUCLEUS STUDIES IN MOUSE BONE MARROW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atrazine, simazine, and cyanazine are widely used preemergence and postemergence triazine herbicides that have made their way into the potable water supply of many agricultural communities. There are several contradictory studies in the literature. Our previous in vitro studies...

  5. Gene transcription in Daphnia magna: effects of acute exposure to a carbamate insecticide and an acetanilide herbicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Joana Luísa; Hill, Christopher J; Sibly, Richard M; Bolshakov, Viacheslav N; Gonçalves, Fernando; Heckmann, Lars-Henrik; Callaghan, Amanda

    2010-05-05

    Daphnia magna is a key invertebrate in the freshwater environment and is used widely as a model in ecotoxicological measurements and risk assessment. Understanding the genomic responses of D. magna to chemical challenges will be of value to regulatory authorities worldwide. Here we exposed D. magna to the insecticide methomyl and the herbicide propanil to compare phenotypic effects with changes in mRNA expression levels. Both pesticides are found in drainage ditches and surface water bodies standing adjacent to crops. Methomyl, a carbamate insecticide widely used in agriculture, inhibits acetylcholinesterase, a key enzyme in nerve transmission. Propanil, an acetanilide herbicide, is used to control grass and broad-leaf weeds. The phenotypic effects of single doses of each chemical were evaluated using a standard immobilisation assay. Immobilisation was linked to global mRNA expression levels using the previously estimated 48h-EC(1)s, followed by hybridization to a cDNA microarray with more than 13,000 redundant cDNA clones representing >5000 unique genes. Following exposure to methomyl and propanil, differential expression was found for 624 and 551 cDNAs, respectively (one-way ANOVA with Bonferroni correction, Pregulation was prevalent for both test chemicals. Both pesticides promoted transcriptional changes in energy metabolism (e.g., mitochondrial proteins, ATP synthesis-related proteins), moulting (e.g., chitin-binding proteins, cuticular proteins) and protein biosynthesis (e.g., ribosomal proteins, transcription factors). Methomyl induced the transcription of genes involved in specific processes such as ion homeostasis and xenobiotic metabolism. Propanil highly promoted haemoglobin synthesis and up-regulated genes specifically related to defence mechanisms (e.g., innate immunity response systems) and neuronal pathways. Pesticide-specific toxic responses were found but there is little evidence for transcriptional

  6. Photostabilization of the herbicide norflurazon microencapsulated with ethylcellulose in the soil-water system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sopena, Fatima, E-mail: fsopenav@irnase.csic.es [Institute of Natural Resources and Agrobiology (CSIC), Reina Mercedes 10, Apdo 1052, 41080 Seville, ES (Spain); Villaverde, Jaime; Maqueda, Celia; Morillo, Esmeralda [Institute of Natural Resources and Agrobiology (CSIC), Reina Mercedes 10, Apdo 1052, 41080 Seville, ES (Spain)

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: {yields} Herbicide photodegradation studies using ethylcellulose-microencapsulated formulations (ECF) in soil and water. {yields} Greater herbicide photo-protection observed from EFC than from its commercial form. {yields} Photo-protective effect due to the gradual herbicide release and the presence of ethylcellulose. {yields} Herbicide photo-stability conditioned by soil colloidal components, especially by goethite and humic acids. {yields} EFC could reduce the field herbicide losses by photolysis. - Abstract: Ethylcellulose-microencapsulated formulations (ECFs) of norflurazon have been shown to reduce leaching, maintaining a threshold concentration in the topsoil than the commercial formulation (CF). Since photodegradation contributes to field dissipation of norflurazon, the objective of the present work was to study if such formulations can also protect from its photodescomposition. For this purpose, aqueous solutions of CF and ECFs, containing the most important soil components (goethite, humic and fulvic acids and montmorillonite) were tested. To get a more realistic approach, studies in soil were also performed. The results were well explained by a simple first order model. DT{sub 50} value was 3 h for CF under irradiation, which was considerably lower than those corresponding to the systems where ECF was used (35 h for ECF; 260 h for ECF-goethite; 53 h for ECF-humic acids; 33 h for ECF-montmorillonite; and 28 h for ECF-fulvic acids). ECF protected against photodegradation in both aqueous solution and soil due to the gradual release of the herbicide, which reduced the herbicide available to be photodegraded. These lab-scale findings proved that ECF could reduce the herbicide dosage, minimizing its photolysis, which would be especially advantageous during the first hours after foliar and soil application.

  7. An identification of potential new herbicides for short rotation coppice (Task 4). Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This report summarises the findings of a project to identify potential new herbicides and their suitability for weed control in commercial short rotation coppice (SRC) crops, and to establish the safety of the crops. The arrangements for the use of 'off-label' pesticides, which are permitted for use on other crops, on SRC are discussed along with the importance of the use of laboratory pot trials and field trials. Several herbicides are proposed for larger scale field trials.

  8. Glufosinate Herbicide Intoxication Causing Unconsciousness, Convulsion, and 6th Cranial Nerve Palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Jae-seok; Kwak, Soo-Jung; Gil, Hyo-wook; Kim, So-Young; Hong, Sae-yong

    2013-01-01

    Although glufosinate ammonium herbicides are considered safe when used properly, ingestion of the undiluted form can cause grave outcomes. Recently, we treated a 34-yr-old man who ingested glufosinate ammonium herbicide. In the course of treatment, the patient developed apnea, mental deterioration, and sixth cranial nerve palsy; he has since been discharged with full recovery after intensive care. This case report describes the clinical features of glufosinate intoxication with a focus on six...

  9. Impact of Grassland Reseeding, Herbicide spraying and Ploughing on Diversity and Abundance of Soil Arthropods.

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Liu; Wei Liu; Wei Liu; Junling Zhang; Stuart L Norris; Phil Murray

    2016-01-01

    In order to determine the interactive effect of reseeding, herbicide spraying and ploughing on soil fauna communities, we conducted a grassland reseeding experiment combined with pre-reseed management to examine how with the whole reseeding process affects soil faunal composition. Sampling occasions and exact treatments were as follows: 1) before chemical herbicide spray; 2) after spray but before ploughing; 3) after ploughing but before reseeding; and 4) after one year of recovery. Our resul...

  10. Identification and ecotoxicity of degradation products of chloroacetamide herbicides from UV-treatment of water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Souissi, Yasmine; Bouchonnet, Stéphane; Bourcier, Sophie

    2013-01-01

    The widespread occurrence of chlorinated herbicides and their degradation products in the aquatic environment raises health and environmental concerns. As a consequence pesticides, and to a lesser degree their degradation products, are monitored by authorities both in surface waters and drinking...... waters. In this study the formation of degradation products from ultraviolet (UV) treatment of the three chloroacetamide herbicides acetochlor, alachlor and metolachlor and their biological effects were investigated. UV treatment is mainly used for disinfection in water and wastewater treatments. First...

  11. Dinitroaniline herbicide resistance in a multiple-resistant Lolium rigidum population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinyi; Yu, Qin; Owen, Mechelle; Han, Heping; Powles, Stephen

    2018-04-01

    The pre-emergence dinitroaniline herbicides (such as trifluralin and pendimethalin) are vital to Australian no-till farming systems. A Lolium rigidum population collected from the Western Australian grain belt with a 12-year trifluralin use history was characterised for resistance to dinitroaniline, acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACCase)- and acetolactate synthase (ALS)-inhibiting herbicides. Target-site resistance mechanisms were investigated. This L. rigidum population exhibited 32-fold resistance to trifluralin, as compared with the susceptible population. It also displayed 12- to 30-fold cross-resistance to other dinitroaniline herbicides (pendimethalin, ethalfluralin and oryzalin). In addition, this population showed multiple resistance to commonly used post-emergence ACCase- and ALS-inhibiting herbicides. Two target-site α-tubulin gene mutations (Val-202-Phe and Thr-239-Ile) previously documented in other dinitroaniline-resistant weed species were identified, and some known target-site mutations in ACCase (Ile-1781-Leu, Asp-2078-Gly and Cys-2088-Arg) and ALS (Pro-197-Gln/Ser) were found in the same population. An agar-based Petri dish screening method was established for the rapid diagnosis of resistance to dinitroaniline herbicides. Evolution of target-site resistance to both pre- and post-emergence herbicides was confirmed in a single L. rigidum population. The α-tubulin mutations Val-202-Phe and Thr-239-Ile, documented here for the first time in L. rigidum, are likely to be responsible for dinitroaniline resistance in this population. Early detection of dinitroaniline herbicide resistance and integrated weed management strategies are needed to maintain the effectiveness of dinitroaniline herbicides. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Comparative sensitivity of Selenastrum capricornutum and Lemna minor to sixteen herbicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairchild, J.F.; Ruessler, D.S.; Haverland, P.S.; Carlson, A.R.

    1997-01-01

    Aquatic plant toxicity tests are frequently conducted in environmental risk assessments to determine the potential impacts of contaminants on primary producers. An examination of published plant toxicity data demonstrates that wide differences in sensitivity can occur across phylogenetic groups of plants. Yet relatively few studies have been conducted with the specific intent to compare the relative sensitivity of various aquatic plant species to contaminants. We compared the relative sensitivity of the algae Selenestrum capricornutum and the floating vascular plant Lemna minor to 16 herbicides (atrazine, metribuzin, simazine, cyanazine, alachlor, metolachlor, chlorsulfuron, metsulfuron, triallate, EPTC, trifluralin, diquat, paraquat, dicamba, bromoxynil, and 2,4-D). The herbicides studied represented nine chemical classes and several modes of action and were chosen to represent major current uses in the United States. Both plant species were generally sensitive to the triazines (atrazine, metribuzin, simazine, and cyanazine), sulfonureas (metsulfuron and chlorsulfuron), pyridines (diquat and paraquat), dinitroaniline (trifluralin), and acetanilide (alachlor and metolachlor) herbicides. Neither plant species was uniformly more sensitive than the other across the broad range of herbicides tested. Lemna was more sensitive to the sulfonureas (metsulfuron and chlorsulfuron) and the pyridines (diquat and parequat) than Selenastrum. However Selenastrum was more sensitive than Lemna to one of two thiocarbamates (triallate) and one of the triazines (cyanazine). Neither species was sensitive to selective broadleaf herbicides including bromoxynil, EPTC, dicamba, or 2,4-D. Results were not always predictable in spite of obvious differences in herbicide modes of action and plant phylogeny. Major departures in sensitivity of Selenastrum occurred between chemicals within individual classes of the triazine, acetanilide, and thiocarbamate herbicides. Results indicate that neither

  13. Perspectives on transgenic, herbicide-resistant crops in the United States almost 20 years after introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Stephen O

    2015-05-01

    Herbicide-resistant crops have had a profound impact on weed management. Most of the impact has been by glyphosate-resistant maize, cotton, soybean and canola. Significant economic savings, yield increases and more efficacious and simplified weed management have resulted in widespread adoption of the technology. Initially, glyphosate-resistant crops enabled significantly reduced tillage and reduced the environmental impact of weed management. Continuous use of glyphosate with glyphosate-resistant crops over broad areas facilitated the evolution of glyphosate-resistant weeds, which have resulted in increases in the use of tillage and other herbicides with glyphosate, reducing some of the initial environmental benefits of glyphosate-resistant crops. Transgenic crops with resistance to auxinic herbicides, as well as to herbicides that inhibit acetolactate synthase, acetyl-CoA carboxylase and hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase, stacked with glyphosate and/or glufosinate resistance, will become available in the next few years. These technologies will provide additional weed management options for farmers, but will not have all of the positive effects (reduced cost, simplified weed management, lowered environmental impact and reduced tillage) that glyphosate-resistant crops had initially. In the more distant future, other herbicide-resistant crops (including non-transgenic ones), herbicides with new modes of action and technologies that are currently in their infancy (e.g. bioherbicides, sprayable herbicidal RNAi and/or robotic weeding) may affect the role of transgenic, herbicide-resistant crops in weed management. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  14. Photostabilization of the herbicide norflurazon microencapsulated with ethylcellulose in the soil-water system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sopena, Fatima; Villaverde, Jaime; Maqueda, Celia; Morillo, Esmeralda

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Herbicide photodegradation studies using ethylcellulose-microencapsulated formulations (ECF) in soil and water. → Greater herbicide photo-protection observed from EFC than from its commercial form. → Photo-protective effect due to the gradual herbicide release and the presence of ethylcellulose. → Herbicide photo-stability conditioned by soil colloidal components, especially by goethite and humic acids. → EFC could reduce the field herbicide losses by photolysis. - Abstract: Ethylcellulose-microencapsulated formulations (ECFs) of norflurazon have been shown to reduce leaching, maintaining a threshold concentration in the topsoil than the commercial formulation (CF). Since photodegradation contributes to field dissipation of norflurazon, the objective of the present work was to study if such formulations can also protect from its photodescomposition. For this purpose, aqueous solutions of CF and ECFs, containing the most important soil components (goethite, humic and fulvic acids and montmorillonite) were tested. To get a more realistic approach, studies in soil were also performed. The results were well explained by a simple first order model. DT 50 value was 3 h for CF under irradiation, which was considerably lower than those corresponding to the systems where ECF was used (35 h for ECF; 260 h for ECF-goethite; 53 h for ECF-humic acids; 33 h for ECF-montmorillonite; and 28 h for ECF-fulvic acids). ECF protected against photodegradation in both aqueous solution and soil due to the gradual release of the herbicide, which reduced the herbicide available to be photodegraded. These lab-scale findings proved that ECF could reduce the herbicide dosage, minimizing its photolysis, which would be especially advantageous during the first hours after foliar and soil application.

  15. The role of herbicides in the erosion of salt marshes in eastern England

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, C.F.; Underwood, G.J.C.; Baker, N.R.; Davey, P.A.; Davidson, I.; Hanlon, A.; Long, S.P.; Oxborough, K.; Paterson, D.M.; Watson, A.

    2003-01-01

    Herbicide run-off stresses saltmarsh diatoms and higher plants and may increase erosion. - Laboratory studies and field trials were conducted to investigate the role of herbicides on saltmarsh vegetation, and their possible significance to saltmarsh erosion. Herbicide concentrations within the ranges present in the aquatic environment were found to reduce the photosynthetic efficiency and growth of both epipelic diatoms and higher saltmarsh plants in the laboratory and in situ. The addition of sublethal concentrations of herbicides resulted in decreased growth rates and photosynthetic efficiency of diatoms and photosynthetic efficiency of higher plants. Sediment stability also decreased due to a reduction in diatom EPS production. There was qualitative evidence that diatoms migrated deeper into the sediment when the surface was exposed to simazine, reducing surface sediment stability by the absence of a cohesive biofilm. Sediment loads on leaves severely reduced photosynthesis in Limonium vulgare. This, coupled with reduced carbon assimilation from the effects of herbicides, could have large negative consequences for plant productivity and over winter survival of saltmarsh plants. The data support the hypothesis that sublethal herbicide concentrations could be playing a role in the increased erosion of salt marshes that has occurred over the past 40 years

  16. Photochemical oxidation processes for the elimination of phenyl-urea herbicides in waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benitez, F. Javier; Real, Francisco J.; Acero, Juan L.; Garcia, Carolina

    2006-01-01

    Four phenyl-urea herbicides (linuron, chlorotoluron, diuron, and isoproturon) were individually photooxidized by monochromatic UV radiation in ultra-pure aqueous solutions. The influence of pH and temperature on the photodegradation process was established, and the first-order rate constants and quantum yields were evaluated. The sequence of photodecomposition rates was: linuron > chlorotoluron > diuron > isoproturon. The simultaneous photooxidation of mixtures of the selected herbicides in several types of waters was then performed by means of UV radiation alone, and by UV radiation combined with hydrogen peroxide. The types of waters used were: ultra-pure water, a commercial mineral water, a groundwater, and a lake water. The influence of the independent variables in these processes - the presence or absence of tert-butyl alcohol, types of herbicide and waters, and concentration of hydrogen peroxide - were established and discussed. A kinetic study was performed using a competitive kinetic model that allowed various rate constants to be evaluated for each herbicide. This kinetic model allows one to predict the elimination of these phenyl-urea herbicides in contaminated waters by the oxidation systems used (UV alone and combined UV/H 2 O 2 ). The herbicide concentrations predicted by this model agree well with the experimental results that were obtained

  17. Herbicide effects on the growth and photosynthetic efficiency of Cassiopea maremetens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowen, David J; Templeman, Michelle A; Kingsford, Michael J

    2017-09-01

    Herbicides from agricultural run-off have been measured in coastal systems of the Great Barrier Reef over many years. Non-target herbicide exposure, especially photosystem II herbicides has the potential to affect seagrasses and other marine species. The symbiotic benthic jellyfish Cassiopea maremetens is present in tropical/sub-tropical estuarine and marine environments. Jellyfish (n = 8 per treatment) were exposed to four separate concentrations of agricultural formulations of diuron or hexazinone to determine their sensitivity and potential for recovery to pulsed herbicide exposure. Jellyfish growth, symbiont photosynthetic activity and zooxanthellae density were analysed for herbicide-induced changes for 7 days followed by a 7 day recovery period. Both the jellyfish and endosymbiont were more sensitive to diuron than hexazinone. The 7-day EC 50 for jellyfish growth was 0.35 μg L -1 for Diuron and 17.5 μg L -1 for Hexazinone respectively. Diuron exposure caused a significant decrease (p diuron and hexazinone caused significant decreases in photosynthetic efficiency (effective quantum yield) in all treatment concentrations (0.1 μg L -1 and above) and this effect continued in the post-exposure period. As this species is frequently found in near-shore environments, they may be particularly vulnerable to herbicide run-off. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Contribution of transformation products towards the total herbicide toxicity to tropical marine organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercurio, Philip; Eaglesham, Geoff; Parks, Stephen; Kenway, Matt; Beltran, Victor; Flores, Florita; Mueller, Jochen F; Negri, Andrew P

    2018-03-19

    The toxicity of herbicide degradation (transformation) products is rarely taken into account, even though these are commonly detected in the marine environment, sometimes at concentrations higher than the parent compounds. Here we assessed the potential contribution of toxicity by transformation products of five photosystem II herbicides to coral symbionts (Symbiodinium sp.), the green algae Dunaliella sp., and prawn (Penaeus monodon) larvae. Concentration-dependent inhibition of photosynthetic efficiency (∆F/F m ') was observed for all herbicides in both microalgal species. The toxicity of solutions of aged diuron solutions containing transformation products to Symbiodinium sp. and Dunaliella sp. was greater than could be explained by the concentrations of diuron measured, indicating transformation products contributed to the inhibition of ∆F/F m '. However, the toxicity of aged atrazine, simazine, hexazinone, and ametryn solutions could be explained by the concentration of parent herbicide, indicating no contribution by transformation products. Prawn larval metamorphosis was not sensitive to the herbicides, but preliminary results indicated some toxicity of the transformation products of atrazine and diuron. Risk assessments should take into account the contribution of herbicide transformation products; however, further studies are clearly needed to test the toxicity of a far wider range of transformation products to a representative diversity of relevant taxa.

  19. Crystal structure of plant acetohydroxyacid synthase, the target for several commercial herbicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Mario Daniel; Wang, Jian-Guo; Lonhienne, Thierry; Guddat, Luke William

    2017-07-01

    Acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS, EC 2.2.1.6) is the first enzyme in the branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis pathway. Five of the most widely used commercial herbicides (i.e. sulfonylureas, imidazolinones, triazolopyrimidines, pyrimidinyl-benzoates and sulfonylamino-cabonyl-triazolinones) target this enzyme. Here we have determined the first crystal structure of a plant AHAS in the absence of any inhibitor (2.9 Å resolution) and it shows that the herbicide-binding site adopts a folded state even in the absence of an inhibitor. This is unexpected because the equivalent regions for herbicide binding in uninhibited Saccharomyces cerevisiae AHAS crystal structures are either disordered, or adopt a different fold when the herbicide is not present. In addition, the structure provides an explanation as to why some herbicides are more potent inhibitors of Arabidopsis thaliana AHAS compared to AHASs from other species (e.g. S. cerevisiae). The elucidation of the native structure of plant AHAS provides a new platform for future rational structure-based herbicide design efforts. The coordinates and structure factors for uninhibited AtAHAS have been deposited in the Protein Data Bank (www.pdb.org) with the PDB ID code 5K6Q. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  20. Stress-physiological reactions of the green alga Scenedesmus opoliensis to water pollution with herbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsolt Gyula KERESZTES

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The freshwater green alga Scenedesmus opoliensis proves to be a suitable bioindicator of water pollution with different herbicides. One of the best molecular markers of stress condition imposed by herbicides is overproduction of malondialdehyde resulting from lipid peroxidation in the damaged membranes. Methylviologen, a largely used pre-emergence herbicide which generates reactive oxygen species in the illuminated chloroplasts, triggers the accumulation of ascorbic acid and enhances the enzymatic activity of catalase, both of these substances being involved in the antioxidative protection of algal cells. Diuron, a herbicide that inhibits photosynthetic electron transport on the acceptor side of photosystem II, causes a decline in oxygen production and in biomass accumulation of algae. Glufosinate induces accumulation of toxic ammonia and leads to enhanced net oxygen production, associated with a low rate of carbon assimilation. Long-term exposure to micromolar concentrations of herbicides results in significant changes in the rate of cell division, in hotosynthetic parameters and in the intensity of antioxidative defense. A proper bioindication of toxic effects of herbicides on algae requires a selected combination of different physiological and biochemical parameters which reflect the degree of stress exerted on living organisms by water pollution with xenobiotic organic compounds.

  1. Toxicity of herbicides used in the sugarcane crop to diazotrophic bacterium Herbaspirillum seropedicae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio de Oliveira Procópio

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to identify herbicides used in the sugarcane crop that affects neither the growth, the development, of nor the process of biological nitrogen fixation (BNF by the diazotrophic bacterium Herbaspirillum seropedicae. Eighteen herbicides (paraquat, ametryne, tebuthiuron, amicarbazone, diuron, metribuzin, [hexazinone + diuron], [hexazinone + clomazone], clomazone, isoxaflutole, sulfentrazone, oxyfluorfen, imazapic, imazapyr, [trifloxysulfuron sodium + ametryne], glyphosate, MSMA e 2,4-D were tested in their respective commercial doses regarding their impact on the growth of the bacteria in liquid medium DIGs. For this, we determined the duration of lag phase, generation time and maximum cell density of H. seropedicae, calculated from optical density data obtained at regular intervals during the incubation of cultures for 33 h at 32oC. We also evaluated the impact of herbicides on nitrogenase activity of H. seropedicae grown in semi-solid N-free JNFb medium. The effects of herbicides on the growth variables and the ARA were compared with the untreated control by Dunnett test. A completely randomized design was used. The herbicides paraquat, imazapyr, ametryne, glyphosate and oxyfluorfen inhibited the growth of H. seropedicae in vitro. Ametryne, oxyfluorfen and glyphosate caused a small reduction in the duration of the lag phase of diazotrophic bacteria H. seropedicae. Oxyfluorfen, ametryne and imazapyr resulted in increased the generation time by H. seropedicae. Glyphosate promoted drastic reduction in biological nitrogen fixation in vitro by H. seropedicae. The other tested herbicides did not affect the growth or the same BNF by H. seropedicae.

  2. Photochemical oxidation processes for the elimination of phenyl-urea herbicides in waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benitez, F. Javier [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Energetica, Universidad de Extremadura, 06071 Badajoz (Spain)]. E-mail: javben@unex.es; Real, Francisco J. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Energetica, Universidad de Extremadura, 06071 Badajoz (Spain); Acero, Juan L. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Energetica, Universidad de Extremadura, 06071 Badajoz (Spain); Garcia, Carolina [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Energetica, Universidad de Extremadura, 06071 Badajoz (Spain)

    2006-11-16

    Four phenyl-urea herbicides (linuron, chlorotoluron, diuron, and isoproturon) were individually photooxidized by monochromatic UV radiation in ultra-pure aqueous solutions. The influence of pH and temperature on the photodegradation process was established, and the first-order rate constants and quantum yields were evaluated. The sequence of photodecomposition rates was: linuron > chlorotoluron > diuron > isoproturon. The simultaneous photooxidation of mixtures of the selected herbicides in several types of waters was then performed by means of UV radiation alone, and by UV radiation combined with hydrogen peroxide. The types of waters used were: ultra-pure water, a commercial mineral water, a groundwater, and a lake water. The influence of the independent variables in these processes - the presence or absence of tert-butyl alcohol, types of herbicide and waters, and concentration of hydrogen peroxide - were established and discussed. A kinetic study was performed using a competitive kinetic model that allowed various rate constants to be evaluated for each herbicide. This kinetic model allows one to predict the elimination of these phenyl-urea herbicides in contaminated waters by the oxidation systems used (UV alone and combined UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}). The herbicide concentrations predicted by this model agree well with the experimental results that were obtained.

  3. Selectivity and stability of new herbicides and herbicide combinations for the seed yields of some field crops II. Effect at milk thistle (Silybum Marianum Gaertn.)

    OpenAIRE

    G. Delchev

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. During 2013 – 2015 on pellic vertisol soil type was conducted a field experiment. Under investigation was Bulgarian milk thistle cultivar Silmar (Silybum marianum Gaertn.). Factor A included the years of investigation. Factor B included no treated check, 6 soil-applied herbicides – Tendar EC, Sharpen 33 EC, Merlin flex 480 SC, Smerch 24 ЕC, Raft 400 SC, Eagle 75 DF and 5 foliar-applied herbicides – Kalin flo, Eclipse 70 DWG, Sultan 500 SC, Granstar super 50 SG, Starane 250 ...

  4. Fate of the herbicides glyphosate, glufosinate-ammonium, phenmedipham, ethofumesate and metamitron in two Finnish arable soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laitinen, Pirkko; Siimes, Katri; Eronen, Liisa; Rämö, Sari; Welling, Leena; Oinonen, Seija; Mattsoff, Leona; Ruohonen-Lehto, Marja

    2006-06-01

    The fate of five herbicides (glyphosate, glufosinate-ammonium, phenmedipham, ethofumesate and metamitron) was studied in two Finnish sugar beet fields for 26 months. Soil types were sandy loam and clay. Two different herbicide-tolerant sugar beet cultivars and three different herbicide application schedules were used. Meteorological data were collected throughout the study and soil properties were thoroughly analysed. An extensive data set of herbicide residue concentrations in soil was collected. Five different soil depths were sampled. The study was carried out using common Finnish agricultural practices and represents typical sugar beet cultivation conditions in Finland. The overall observed order of persistence was ethofumesate > glyphosate > phenmedipham > metamitron > glufosinate-ammonium. Only ethofumesate and glyphosate persisted until the subsequent spring. Seasonal variation in herbicide dissipation was very high and dissipation ceased almost completely during winter. During the 2 year experiment no indication of potential groundwater pollution risk was obtained, but herbicides may cause surface water pollution. Copyright (c) 2006 Society of Chemical Industry

  5. Spatial variability of herbicide mobilisation and transport at catchment scale: insights from a field experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Doppler

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available During rain events, herbicides can be transported from their point of application to surface waters, where they may harm aquatic organisms. Since the spatial pattern of mobilisation and transport is heterogeneous, the contributions of different fields to the herbicide load in the stream may vary considerably within one catchment. Therefore, the prediction of contributing areas could help to target mitigation measures efficiently to those locations where they reduce herbicide pollution the most.

    Such spatial predictions require sufficient insight into the underlying transport processes. To improve the understanding of the process chain of herbicide mobilisation on the field and the subsequent transport through the catchment to the stream, we performed a controlled herbicide application on corn fields in a small agricultural catchment (ca. 1 km2 with intensive crop production in the Swiss Plateau. Water samples were collected at different locations in the catchment (overland flow, tile drains and open channel for two months after application in 2009, with a high temporal resolution during rain events. We also analysed soil samples from the experimental fields and measured discharge, groundwater level, soil moisture and the occurrence of overland flow at several locations. Several rain events with varying intensities and magnitudes occurred during the study period. Overland flow and erosion were frequently observed in the entire catchment. Infiltration excess and saturation excess overland flow were both observed. However, the main herbicide loss event was dominated by infiltration excess.

    Despite the frequent and wide-spread occurrence of overland flow, most of this water did not reach the channel directly, but was retained in small depressions in the catchment. From there, it reached the stream via macropores and tile drains. Manholes of the drainage system and storm drains for road and farmyard runoff acted as

  6. Plant breeding by using radiation mutation - Selection of herbicide-resistant cell lines by using {gamma}-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyo Yeon [Sunchun University, Sunchun (Korea); Seo, Yong Weon [Korea University, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    In order to develop the herbicide resistant cell lines, micro calli derived from rice anther culture and mature seed of wheat cultivars were irradiated with gamma rays. 1) The callus was dedifferentiated by 7 or 21 day pretreatment at 7 deg. C in two rice cultivars, Ilpumbyeo ad Dongjinbyeo. 2) To check the optimum concentration of herbicide, three herbicides were tested with micro calli. 3) The optimum dose of gamma ray to seeds of wheat seemed to be from 100 to 150 Gy. 4) AFLP and RAPD technique were established to develope herbicide resistant molecular marker in rice. 34 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs. (Author)

  7. In-field frequencies and characteristics of oilseed rape with double herbicide resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz-Pfeilstetter, Antje; Zwerger, Peter

    2009-01-01

    When growing different transgenic herbicide-resistant oilseed rape cultivars side by side, seeds with multiple herbicide resistance can arise, possibly causing problems for the management of volunteer plants. Large-scale field experiments were performed in the years 1999/2000 and 2000/2001 in order to investigate the frequencies and the consequences of the transfer of herbicide resistance genes from transgenic oilseed rape to cultivars grown on neighboring agricultural fields. Transgenic oilseed rape with resistance to glufosinate-ammonium (LibertyLink, LL) and with glyphosate resistance (RoundupReady, RR), respectively, was sown in adjacent 0.5 ha plots, surrounded by about 8 ha non-transgenic oilseed rape. The plots and the field were either in direct contact (0.5 m gap width) or they were separated by 10 m of fallow land. Seed samples taken during harvest in the transgenic plots at different distances were investigated for progeny with resistance to the respective other herbicide. It was found that outcrossing frequencies were reduced to different extents by a 10 m isolation distance. In addition to pollen-mediated transgene flow as a result of outcrossing, we found considerable seed-mediated gene flow by adventitious dispersal of transgenic seeds through the harvesting machine. Volunteer plants with double herbicide resistance emerging in the transgenic plots after harvest were selected by suitable applications of the complementary herbicides Basta and Roundup Ultra. In both years, double-resistant volunteers were largely restricted to the inner edges of the plots. Expression analysis under controlled laboratory conditions of double-resistant plants generated by manual crosses revealed stability of transgene expression even at elevated temperatures. Greenhouse tests with double-resistant oilseed rape plants gave no indication that the sensitivity to a range of different herbicides is changed as compared to non-transgenic oilseed rape.

  8. Using Bioassays and Species Sensitivity Distributions to Assess Herbicide Toxicity towards Benthic Diatoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larras, Floriane; Bouchez, Agnès; Rimet, Frédéric; Montuelle, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    Although benthic diatoms are widely used in ecological studies of aquatic systems, there is still a dearth of data concerning species sensitivities towards several contaminants. Within the same community, different species may respond differently depending on their physiological and ecological characteristics. This lack of knowledge makes specific appropriate risk assessment impossible. To find out whether species sensitivity distribution (SSD) could be used to estimate the risk of herbicide toxicity for diatoms, we need to know whether their sensitivity depends on their physiological and ecological characteristics. We carried out single-species bioassays on 11 diatom species exposed to 8 herbicides. Dose-responses relationships were used to extrapolate the Effective Concentration 5 (EC5) and the Effective Concentration 50 (EC50) for each exposure. These data were used to fit a SSD curve for each herbicide, and to determine the Hazardous concentration 5 (HC5) and 50 (HC50). Our results revealed a high level of variability of the sensitivity in the set of species tested. For photosystem-II inhibitor (PSII) herbicides, diatoms species displayed a typical grouping of sensitivity levels consistent with their trophic mode and their ecological guild. N-heterotroph and “motile” guild species were more tolerant of PSII inhibitors, while N-autotroph and “low profile” guild species were more sensitive. Comprehensive SSD curves were obtained for 5 herbicides, but not for sulfonylurea herbicides or for dimetachlor, which had toxicity levels that were below the range of concentration tested. The SSD curves provided the following ranking of toxicity: diuron> terbutryn> isoproturon> atrazine> metolachlor. The HC that affected 5% of the species revealed that, even at the usual environmental concentrations of herbicides, diatom assemblages could be affected, especially by isoproturon, terbutryn, and diuron. PMID:22952981

  9. Structure effect on the interaction of phenylurea herbicides with model biomembrane as an environmental mobility parameter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Librando, Vito; Forte, Stefano; Sarpietro, Maria G

    2004-01-15

    During recent years, intensive use of herbicides has raised increasing concern mainly due to their massive pollution of the environment. As these herbicides are directly or indirectly toxic to a wide range of organisms, their potential for contaminating soil, surface water, and groundwater makes these xenobiotics of special interest from a health and environmental point of view. Knowledge of the mechanisms by which they exert their toxic effects is becoming a need. Because of the herbicides' lipophilicity, a possible site of interaction in the cell is represented by biomembranes. The interaction of four herbicides, difenoxuron, diuron, linuron, and metoxuron, with model membranes constituted of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine multilamellar vesicles was investigated by the differential scanning calorimetry technique. The aim was to study the effects exerted by an increasing amount of the examined compounds on thermotropic behavior of the model phospholipid membranes and to correlate the obtained results with structural features of the herbicides due to their environmental mobility. Among the herbicides studied, linuron is the most effective in perturbing the ordinate structure of vesicles forming phospholipids, whereas metoxuron is the least effective and the others exert an intermediate effect. Linuron exerts its effect both on the transition temperature of the gel to the liquid crystalline phase and on the enthalpy change. Difenoxuron, diuron, and metoxuron cause a change in the transition temperature but have an insignificant effect on the enthalpy change. The calorimetric results, correlated with the structural features of the herbicides, are consistent with their partition coefficient, log K(ow), suggesting that the more hydrophobic compound character causes a greater liposolubility and consequential cellular absorption with more effectiveness on the membrane order.

  10. Herbicide micropollutants in surface, ground and drinking waters within and near the area of Zagreb, Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fingler, Sanja; Mendaš, G; Dvoršćak, M; Stipičević, S; Vasilić, Ž; Drevenkar, V

    2017-04-01

    The frequency and mass concentrations of 13 herbicide micropollutants (triazines, phenylureas, chloroacetanilides and trifluralin) were investigated during 2014 in surface, ground and drinking waters in the area of the city of Zagreb and its suburbs. Herbicide compounds were accumulated from water by solid-phase extraction using either octadecylsilica or styrene-divinylbenzene sorbent cartridges and analysed either by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV-diode array detector or gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection. Atrazine was the most frequently detected herbicide in drinking (84 % of samples) and ground (61 % of samples) waters in mass concentrations of 5 to 68 ng L -1 . It was followed by metolachlor and terbuthylazine, the former being detected in 54 % of drinking (up to 15 ng L -1 ) and 23 % of ground (up to 100 ng L -1 ) waters, and the latter in 45 % of drinking (up to 20 ng L -1 ) and 26 % of ground (up to 25 ng L -1 ) water samples. Acetochlor was the fourth most abundant herbicide in drinking waters, detected in 32 % of samples. Its mass concentrations of 107 to 117 ng L -1 in three tap water samples were the highest of all herbicides measured in the drinking waters. The most frequently (62 % of samples) and highly (up to 887 ng L -1 ) detected herbicide in surface waters was metolachlor, followed by terbuthylazine detected in 49 % of samples in mass concentrations of up to 690 ng L -1 , and atrazine detected in 30 % of samples in mass concentrations of up to 18 ng L -1 . The seasonal variations in herbicide concentrations in surface waters were observed for terbuthylazine, metolachlor, acetochlor, chlortoluron and isoproturon with the highest concentrations measured from April to August.

  11. Effect of Rimsulfuron, Imazapic and Imazamox Herbicides on Broomrape (Orobanche aegyptiaca in Tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kazerooni Monfared

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Experiments, in Petri dish and greenhouse, were carried out to investigate the efficiency of three herbicides (rimsulfuron, imazapic and imazamox in controling broomrape. In Petri dish study, herbicides were applied at 0.05, 0.25, 1.25, 6.25 and 31.25 micro-mole doses to broomrape seeds at germination stage without a host plant and adding GR24 as stimulator. In the greenhouse experiments, the efficiency of these herbicides to control broomrape in two varieties of tomato (Viva and Hyb.Petopride II was investigated. Treatments were four doses of rimsulfuron (25, 50, 75 and 100 g ai/ha, imazapic (5, 10, 15 and 20 g ai/ha and imazamox (0.4, 0.8, 1.2 and 1.6 g ai/ha at one, two and three applications. Results of Petri-dish experiments showed that rimsulfuron and imazapic significantly reduced radicle elongation of seedlings as compared to the control, while, imazamox did not have any effect on broomrape seed. Each dose was applied for one, two and three times with in 15, 29 and 43 days after within transplanting tomato seedlings. Results of pot experiments indicated that the responses of two tomato varieties herbicides were different. Viva was responsive to herbicidal effect and produced higher biomass than Hyb.Petopride II. Rimsulfuron was a suitable herbicide in tomato to control broomrape. Rimsulfuron at doses of 25, 50 and 75 g ai/ha (three times of application were the best doses, specially in viva were the best treatments for broomrape control and producing tomato biomass. Imazapic also, at 5 g ai/ha (two times of application and 10 g ai/ha (single application was an effective treatments in variety of viva. Imazamox treatments did not appear to be suitable herbicides in this study.

  12. Using bioassays and species sensitivity distributions to assess herbicide toxicity towards benthic diatoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floriane Larras

    Full Text Available Although benthic diatoms are widely used in ecological studies of aquatic systems, there is still a dearth of data concerning species sensitivities towards several contaminants. Within the same community, different species may respond differently depending on their physiological and ecological characteristics. This lack of knowledge makes specific appropriate risk assessment impossible. To find out whether species sensitivity distribution (SSD could be used to estimate the risk of herbicide toxicity for diatoms, we need to know whether their sensitivity depends on their physiological and ecological characteristics. We carried out single-species bioassays on 11 diatom species exposed to 8 herbicides. Dose-responses relationships were used to extrapolate the Effective Concentration 5 (EC(5 and the Effective Concentration 50 (EC(50 for each exposure. These data were used to fit a SSD curve for each herbicide, and to determine the Hazardous concentration 5 (HC(5 and 50 (HC(50. Our results revealed a high level of variability of the sensitivity in the set of species tested. For photosystem-II inhibitor (PSII herbicides, diatoms species displayed a typical grouping of sensitivity levels consistent with their trophic mode and their ecological guild. N-heterotroph and "motile" guild species were more tolerant of PSII inhibitors, while N-autotroph and "low profile" guild species were more sensitive. Comprehensive SSD curves were obtained for 5 herbicides, but not for sulfonylurea herbicides or for dimetachlor, which had toxicity levels that were below the range of concentration tested. The SSD curves provided the following ranking of toxicity: diuron> terbutryn> isoproturon> atrazine> metolachlor. The HC that affected 5% of the species revealed that, even at the usual environmental concentrations of herbicides, diatom assemblages could be affected, especially by isoproturon, terbutryn, and diuron.

  13. Soil microbial communities and glyphosate decay in soils with different herbicide application history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guijarro, Keren Hernández; Aparicio, Virginia; De Gerónimo, Eduardo; Castellote, Martín; Figuerola, Eva L; Costa, José Luis; Erijman, Leonardo

    2018-04-11

    This study evaluates the glyphosate dissipation under field conditions in three types of soil, and aims to determine the importance of the following factors in the environmental persistence of herbicide: i) soil bacterial communities, ii) soil physicochemical properties, iii) previous exposure to the herbicide. A soil without previous record of GP application (P0) and two agricultural soils, with 5 and >10years of GP exposure (A5 and A10) were subjected to the application of glyphosate at doses of 3mg·kg -1 . The concentration of GP and AMPA was determined over time and the dynamics of soil bacterial communities was evaluated using 16S ARN ribosomal gene amplicon-sequencing. The GP exposure history affected the rate but not the extent of GP biodegradation. The herbicide was degraded rapidly, but P0 soil showed a dissipation rate significantly lower than soils with agricultural history. In P0 soil, a significant increase in the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes was observed in response to herbicide application. More generally, all soils displayed shifts in bacterial community structure, which nevertheless could not be clearly associated to glyphosate dissipation, suggesting the presence of redundant bacteria populations of potential degraders. Yet the application of the herbicide prompted a partial disruption of the bacterial association network of unexposed soil. On the other hand, higher values of linear (Kd) and nonlinear (Kf) sorption coefficient in P0 point to the relevance of cation exchange capacity (CEC), clay and organic matter to the capacity of soil to adsorb the herbicide, suggesting that bioavailability was a key factor for the persistence of GP and AMPA. These results contribute to understand the relationship between bacterial taxa exposed to the herbicide, and the importance of soil properties as predictors of the possible rate of degradation and persistence of glyphosate in soil. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Serial ammonia measurement in patients poisoned with glufosinate ammonium herbicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, J M; Chun, B J

    2016-05-01

    This study investigated whether ammonia concentrations can predict delayed neurotoxicity development and neurotoxicity latency in glufosinate ammonium (GLA) herbicide-poisoned patients presenting with an alert mental state and stable hemodynamics. This retrospective observational case study included 26 patients divided into 2 groups: neurotoxicity during hospitalization (complicated group) and without neurotoxicity (noncomplicated group). Thirteen patients (50.0%) experienced neurotoxicity at 16 h post-ingestion. Although ammonia concentrations at presentation did not differ significantly between the two groups, the ammonia level in the complicated group increased significantly at the next measurement and remained significantly higher than that in the noncomplicated group until 48 h after ingestion. The peak ammonia concentration before neurotoxicity development was an independent predictor of neurotoxicity (odds ratio: 1.047, 95% confidence interval: 1.010-1.087, p value = 0.014), and the optimal cutoff value of peak ammonia concentration for predicting neurotoxicity was 101.5 μg/dL. The rate of ammonia increase was not associated with the time latency from ingestion to neurotoxicity development. This study showed that serial ammonia measurements in GLA-poisoned patients may identify those who are at high risk of developing neurotoxicity. However, as this study enrolled few patients, further qualified trials are required to confirm our results and to reveal the etiology of hyperammonemia and its causality in neurotoxicity. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Aquatic risk assessment of the new rice herbicide profoxydim

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, Paloma [Laboratory for Ecotoxicology, Department of the Environment, INIA, Crta De La Coruna Km 7, 28040 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: arguello@inia.es; Kubitza, Johanna [BASF-AG, Agricultural Center Limburgerhof, P.O. Box 120, D-67114 Limburgerhof (Germany); Peter Dohmen, G. [BASF-AG, Agricultural Center Limburgerhof, P.O. Box 120, D-67114 Limburgerhof (Germany); Tarazona, Jose V. [Laboratory for Ecotoxicology, Department of the Environment, INIA, Crta De La Coruna Km 7, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2006-07-15

    A tiered protocol for assessing ecological risks has been applied to the rice pesticide profoxydim. The initial assessment (Tier I) was based on toxicity exposure ratio (TER) calculations based on laboratory data using a worst-case rice scenario. The first refinement (Tier II) was based on direct toxicity assessment (DTA) of water samples collected during a field-mesocosm study. Finally, a higher-tier assessment on the in situ assessment of paddy community responses (field-mesocosm-Tier III) was performed. A successive application of three pesticides, the herbicides azimsulfuron, propanil and the insecticide malathion, was used as reference controls. The refined assessments indicated a lower risk than that predicted from TER estimations. DTA-based Tier II showed toxicity effects only for concentrations above the recommended dose of profoxydim. Effects for reference controls were observed in DTA which were not expected from Tier I. The field-mesocosm study confirmed these effects but also showed that they were transient and of low relevance. - Risk refinement assessment of rice pesticides starting with DTA and moving to community studies is a cost-effective approach, only if required.

  16. Hydroxyl radical induced transformation of phenylurea herbicides: A theoretical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mile, Viktória; Harsányi, Ildikó; Kovács, Krisztina; Földes, Tamás; Takács, Erzsébet; Wojnárovits, László

    2017-01-01

    Aromatic ring hydroxylation reactions occurring during radiolysis of aqueous solutions are studied on the example of phenylurea herbicides by Density Functional Theory calculations. The effect of the aqueous media is taken into account by using the Solvation Model Based on Density model. Hydroxyl radical adds to the ring because the activation free energies (0.4–47.2 kJ mol −1 ) are low and also the Gibbs free energies have high negative values ((−27.4) to (−5.9) kJ mol −1 ). According to the calculations in most of cases the ortho- and para-addition is preferred in agreement with the experimental results. In these reactions hydroxycyclohexadienyl type radicals form. In a second type reaction, when loss of chlorine atom takes place, OH/Cl substitution occurs without cyclohexadienyl type intermediate. - Highlights: • Attack of • OH to aniline, phenol, fenuron, monuron, diuron was studied by DFT. • Ortho-para directing is suggested with –NH 2 , –OH and –NHCON(CH 3 ) 2 groups. • • OH addition to the ring gives hydroxycyclohexadienyl radical. • Attack at C-Cl leads to • OH/Cl substitution without cyclohexadienyl intermediate.

  17. Phototransformation of the herbicide sulcotrione on maize cuticular wax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ter Halle, Alexandra; Drncova, Daniela; Richard, Claire

    2006-05-01

    Vegetation plays a key role in environmental cycling and the fate of many organic pollutants. This is especially the case for pesticides because plant leaves are their first reaction environment after application. It is commonly accepted that photochemical reactions of pollutants on plants predominantly take place in the cuticular wax coating of the leaves. Thus, we used films made of either cuticular wax extracted from maize or carnauba gray wax as a model support. Under simulated sunlight irradiation, sulcotrione (a new class of triketone herbicides) sorbed on cuticular wax films was photolyzed and mainly underwent an intramolecular cyclization. The photoproduct is a chromone derivative which was isolated and fully characterized. It is reported for the first time as a sulcotrione degradation product. The photoreactivity of formulated sulcotrione at the surface of cuticular waxes was investigated too. It photodegraded more rapidly than nonformulated sulcotrione. This study also shows that the rate of sulcotrione photolysis was much faster than the rate of penetration into the wax; photolysis should be, thus, a relevant process in real conditions.

  18. Correlations between chromatographic parameters and bioactivity predictors of potential herbicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janicka, Małgorzata

    2014-08-01

    Different liquid chromatography techniques, including reversed-phase liquid chromatography on Purosphere RP-18e, IAM.PC.DD2 and Cosmosil Cholester columns and micellar liqud chromatography with a Purosphere RP-8e column and using buffered sodium dodecyl sulfate-acetonitrile as the mobile phase, were applied to study the lipophilic properties of 15 newly synthesized phenoxyacetic and carbamic acid derivatives, which are potential herbicides. Chromatographic lipophilicity descriptors were used to extrapolate log k parameters (log kw and log km) and log k values. Partitioning lipophilicity descriptors, i.e., log P coefficients in an n-octanol-water system, were computed from the molecular structures of the tested compounds. Bioactivity descriptors, including partition coefficients in a water-plant cuticle system and water-human serum albumin and coefficients for human skin partition and permeation were calculated in silico by ACD/ADME software using the linear solvation energy relationship of Abraham. Principal component analysis was applied to describe similarities between various chromatographic and partitioning lipophilicities. Highly significant, predictive linear relationships were found between chromatographic parameters and bioactivity descriptors. © The Author [2013]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Micellar electrokinetic chromatographic determination of triazine herbicides in water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi; Zhang, Shuaihua; Yin, Xiaofang; Wang, Chun; Wang, Zhi

    2014-09-01

    Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction combined with online sweeping preconcentration in micellar electrokinetic chromatography was developed for the simultaneous determination of five triazine herbicides (atrazine, simazine, propazine, prometon and simetryn) in water samples. Several experimental parameters affecting the extraction efficiencies such as the type and volume of both the extraction and dispersive solvents, the addition of salt to sample solution, the extraction time and the pH of the sample solution were investigated. Under optimum conditions, the linearity of the method was good in the range from 0.33 to 20 ng mL(-1) for simazine, propazine, atrazine and simetryn, and from 0.17 to 20 ng mL(-1) for prometon, respectively. The sensitivity enrichment factors were in the range from 1750 to 2100, depending on the compound. The limit of detection (S/N = 3) ranged from 0.05 to 0.10 ng mL(-1). The developed method was successfully applied to the analysis of the five triazines in river, ground and well waters. © The Author [2013]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Seedling Performance Associated with Live or Herbicide Treated Tall Fescue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan J. Halvorson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tall fescue is an important forage grass which can host systemic fungal endophytes. The association of host grass and endophyte is known to influence herbivore behavior and host plant competition for resources. Establishing legumes into existing tall fescue sods is a desirable means to acquire nitrogen and enhance the nutritive value of forage for livestock production. Competition from existing tall fescue typically must be controlled to ensure interseeding success. We used a soil-on-agar method to determine if soil from intact, living (L, or an herbicide killed (K tall fescue sward influenced germination and seedling growth of three cultivars of tall fescue (E+, MaxQ, and E− or legumes (alfalfa, red clover, and white clover. After 30 days, seedlings were larger and present in greater numbers when grown in L soil rather than K soil. Root growth of legumes (especially white clover and tall fescue (especially MaxQ were not as vigorous in K soil as L soil. While shoot biomass was similar for all cultivars of tall fescue in L soil, MaxQ produced less herbage when grown in K soil. Our data suggest establishing legumes or fescue cultivars may not be improved by first killing the existing fescue sod and seedling performance can exhibit significant interseasonal variation, related only to soil conditions.

  1. Herbicidal potential of ophiobolins produced by Drechslera gigantea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evidente, Antonio; Andolfi, Anna; Cimmino, Alessio; Vurro, Maurizio; Fracchiolla, Mariano; Charudattan, Raghavan

    2006-03-08

    Drechslera gigantea, a potential mycoherbicide of grass weeds, was isolated in Florida from naturally infected large crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis); it produces phytotoxic metabolites in liquid culture. The main metabolite was identified by spectroscopic methods and optical properties as ophiobolin A (1), a well-known phytotoxic sesterterpene produced by several phytopathogenic fungi of important crops and already extensively studied for its interesting biological activities. The other three minor metabolites proved to be related to ophiobolin A and were identified using the same techniques as 6-epi-ophiobolin A and 3-anhydro-6-epi-ophiobolin A (2 and 3) and ophiobolin I (4). Assayed on punctured detached leaves of several grass and dicotyledon weeds, ophiobolin A proved to be on average more phytotoxic as compared to the other related compounds. Some structural features appear to be important for the phytoxicity, such as the hydroxy group at C-3, the stereochemistry at C-6, and the aldehyde group at C-7. Furthermore, grass weeds usually proved to be more sensitive to the phytotoxins than dicotyledons, on which ophiobolin A caused the appearance of large necrosis even at the lowest concentration assayed. This is the first report about the production of ophiobolins from D. gigantea and of the proposed use as potential natural herbicides against grass weeds.

  2. Surface retention and photochemical reactivity of the diphenylether herbicide oxyfluorfen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrano, Laura; Bufo, Sabino A; Cataldi, Tommaso R I; Albanis, Triantafyllos A

    2004-01-01

    The photochemical behavior of oxyfluorfen [2-chloro-1-(3-etoxy-4-nitrophenoxy)-4-(trifluoromethyl) benzene] on two Greek soils was investigated. Soils were sampled from Nea Malgara and Preveza regions, characterized by a different organic matter content. Soils were spiked with the diphenyl-ether herbicide and irradiation experiments were performed either in the laboratory with a solar simulator (xenon lamp) or outside, under natural sunlight irradiation; other soil samples were kept in the dark to control the retention reaction. Kinetic parameters of both retention and photochemical reactions were calculated using zero-, first- and second- (Langmuir-Hinshelwood) order equations, and best fit was checked through statistical analysis. The soil behaviors were qualitatively similar but quantitatively different, with the soil sampled from the Nea Malgara region much more sorbent as compared with Preveza soil. All studied reactions followed second-order kinetics and photochemical reactions were influenced by retaining capability of the soils. The contributions of the photochemical processes to the global dissipation rates were also calculated. Two main metabolites were identified as 2-chloro-1-(3-ethoxy-4-hydroxyphenoxy)-4-(trifluoromethyl)benzene and 2-chloro-1- (3-hydroxy-4-nitrophenoxy)-4-(trifluoromethyl)benzene.

  3. Aquatic risk assessment of the new rice herbicide profoxydim

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, Paloma; Kubitza, Johanna; Peter Dohmen, G.; Tarazona, Jose V.

    2006-01-01

    A tiered protocol for assessing ecological risks has been applied to the rice pesticide profoxydim. The initial assessment (Tier I) was based on toxicity exposure ratio (TER) calculations based on laboratory data using a worst-case rice scenario. The first refinement (Tier II) was based on direct toxicity assessment (DTA) of water samples collected during a field-mesocosm study. Finally, a higher-tier assessment on the in situ assessment of paddy community responses (field-mesocosm-Tier III) was performed. A successive application of three pesticides, the herbicides azimsulfuron, propanil and the insecticide malathion, was used as reference controls. The refined assessments indicated a lower risk than that predicted from TER estimations. DTA-based Tier II showed toxicity effects only for concentrations above the recommended dose of profoxydim. Effects for reference controls were observed in DTA which were not expected from Tier I. The field-mesocosm study confirmed these effects but also showed that they were transient and of low relevance. - Risk refinement assessment of rice pesticides starting with DTA and moving to community studies is a cost-effective approach, only if required

  4. Biomaterials based on photosynthetic membranes as potential sensors for herbicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventrella, Andrea; Catucci, Lucia; Placido, Tiziana; Longobardi, Francesco; Agostiano, Angela

    2011-08-15

    In this study, ultrathin film multilayers of Photosystem II-enriched photosynthetic membranes (BBY) were prepared and immobilized on quartz substrates by means of a Layer by Layer procedure exploiting electrostatic interactions with poly(ethylenimine) as polyelectrolyte. The biomaterials thus obtained were characterized by means of optical techniques and Atomic Force Microscopy, highlighting the fact that the Layer by Layer approach allowed the BBYs to be immobilized with satisfactory results. The activity of these hybrid materials was evaluated by means of optical assays based on the Hill Reaction, indicating that the biosamples, which preserved about 65% of their original activity even ten weeks after preparation, were both stable and active. Furthermore, an investigation of the biochips' sensitivity to the herbicide terbutryn, as a model analyte, gave interesting results: inhibition of photosynthetic activity was observed at terbutryn concentrations higher than 10(-7)M, thus evidencing the potential of such biomaterials in the environmental biosensor field. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Toxic reactivity of wheat (Triticum aestivum) plants to herbicide isoproturon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xiao Le; Jiang, Lei; Song, Ning Hui; Yang, Hong

    2008-06-25

    The herbicide isoproturon is widely used for controlling weed/grass in agricultural practice. However, the side effect of isoproturon as contaminants on crops is unknown. In this study, we investigated isoproturon-induced oxidative stress in wheat ( Triticum aestivum). The plants were grown in soils with isoproturon at 0-20 mg/kg and showed negative biological responses. The growth of wheat seedlings with isoproturon was inhibited. Chlorophyll content significantly decreased at the low concentration of isoproturon (2 mg/kg), suggesting that chlorophyll was rather sensitive to isoproturon exposure. The level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), an indicator of cellular peroxidation, showed an increase, indicating oxidative damage to plants. The isoproturon-induced oxidative stress resulted in a substantial change in activities of the majority of antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX). Activities of the antioxidant enzymes showed a general increase at low isoproturon concentrations and a decrease at high isoproturon concentrations. Activities of CAT in leaves showed progressive suppression under the isoproturon exposure. Analysis of nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) confirmed these results. We also tested the activity of glutathione S-transferase (GST) and observed the activity stimulated by isoproturon at 2-10 mg/kg.

  6. Ecotoxicological assessment of the herbicide Winner Top and its active substances-are the other formulants truly inert?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queirós, Libânia; Vidal, Tânia; Nogueira, António J A; Gonçalves, Fernando J M; Pereira, Joana Luísa

    2018-05-03

    Formulants used in Plant Protection Products (PPPs) to promote their efficiency are normally undisclosed in the PPP documentation, unless they bear a human health or environmental hazardous potential per se. PPP regulation also demands the assessment of putative interactions among formulants within each product recipe and consequent effects, but these results are often unavailable. Such a case is that of the herbicide Winner Top (Selectis®, Portugal), which we selected as a model commercial formulation in the present study specifically aiming at (i) characterising its aquatic toxicity towards sensitive eco-receptors (Raphidocelis subcapitata, Chlorella vulgaris, Lemna minor and Lemna gibba), as well as that of its active substances (a.s.) nicosulfuron and terbuthylazine; (ii) comparing the ecotoxicity among the commercial formulation, the corresponding mixture of its a.s. and this a.s.'s mixture increasingly enriched with the formulants. Single chemical testing revealed that terbuthylazine was the strongest microalgae growth inhibitor and nicosulfuron was the strongest macrophyte growth inhibitor. On the other hand, the commercial formulation was consistently less toxic than the corresponding mixture of the a.s., suggesting that Winner Top formulants (72.9% of the commercial formulation) interact with the a.s., promoting less than additive effects in the selected non-target species. Importantly, this environmentally protective effect of the formulation can be apparent. Because macrophytes share most physiological features with the weeds targeted by the studied herbicide, it is likely that increased application doses are required to reach desired efficacy levels with the consequent detrimental increase of PPP residues load in edge-of-field freshwater ecosystems.

  7. A further evaluation of herbicides for post-emergence use in short rotation coppice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turnbull, D.J.

    2002-07-01

    This report describes a study of the safety and efficacy of a range of herbicides and mixtures of herbicides (with both contact and residual activity) for the post-emergence control of weeds in newly planted willow short rotation coppice (SRC). Severe competition from weeds that have not been controlled adequately by pre-emergence herbicide application is one of the commonest causes of SRC crop failure. In the study, the effects of 11 herbicide treatments currently recommendation for weed control with cereals, legumes or potatoes were compared with an untreated control. There was minimal crop death from any treatment, though most of the treatments caused varying degrees of phytotoxicity. Two commercial products, Reflex T and Impuls, gave the best overall crop safety and weed control results. The report provides growers of SRC and their advisors with some information on how to achieve improved weed control in SRC fields, and recommends that British Biogen (the trade industry body) should consider the compilation of a technical register of herbicide applications based on information supplied by growers and advisers, including field treatment details.

  8. Two roles of thylakoid lipids in modifying the activity of herbicides which inhibit photosystem II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupatt, C.C. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Thylakoid lipids may modify the activity of herbicides which inhibit electron transport at the Q/sub B/ protein of photosystem II in two ways: (1) lipids can act as a hydrophobic barrier to a binding site localized close to the loculus of the membrane, and (2) changes in lipid composition can reduce the ability of inhibitors to block electron transport, possibly due to a change in the conformation of the Q/sub B/ protein. The herbicide binding site was localized close to the locular side of the thylakoid membrane by determining the activity of a number of substituted phenylurea and s-triazine herbicides in inverted and non-inverted thylakoids. Quantitative structure-activity relationship analysis showed that inversion of thylakoids reduced the requirement of molecular lipophilicity deemed necessary for phenylurea activity in non-inverted membranes, whereas s-triazines exhibited no differences in the lipophilicity requirement in thylakoid membranes of either orientation. The binding affinity of 14 C-diuron was reduced in bicarbonate-depleted thylakoids relative to reconstituted or control membranes, as is the case with atrazine binding. These observations support a model of the herbicide binding site containing both common and herbicide family specific binding domains. Thylakoids isolated either from detached lambs quarters (Chenopodium album L.) leaves, treated with SAN 6706, or from soybean (Glycine max L.), with norflurazon or pyrazon applied preemergence, exhibited decreased susceptibility to atrazine. The ability of lipid-modifying treatments to decrease the atrazine susceptibility of field-grown soybeans was also investigated

  9. Effect of herbicide and soil amendment on growth and photosynthetic responses in olive crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redondo-Gómez, Susana; Mateos-Naranjo, Enrique; Cox, Lucía; Cornejo, Juan; Figueroa, Enrique

    2007-01-01

    Diuron [3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)- = 1,1-dimethylurea] and simazine (6-chloro-N(2), N(4)-diethyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine) are soil-applied herbicides used in olive crops. The objective of this study is to investigate the combined effect of these herbicides and the amendment of soil with an organic waste (OW) from the olive oil production industry on the growth and photosynthetic apparatus of adult olive trees and to compare the results with those obtained by Redondo-Gómez et al. for two-year-old trees. For this purpose, growth rate, gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters were measured in 38-year-old olive trees, after one and two months of soil herbicide treatment and/or OW amendment. Soil co-application of OW and herbicide increases the quantum efficiency of Photosystem II (PSII) and the assimilation of CO(2) in olive trees, which led to a higher relative growth rate of the branches and leaves in length. Herbicide treatment reduced the photosynthetic efficiency in olive trees after two months of soil application, while this reduction is evident from week one in younger trees.

  10. Glyceria maxima as new test species for the EU risk assessment for herbicides: a microcosm study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, S; Schott, J; Hoenemann, L; Feibicke, M

    2015-03-01

    In its recent guidance document on tiered risk assessment for plant protection products for aquatic organisms, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) proposed to use Glyceria maxima as monocotyledonous grass species for the testing of special herbicide groups. However, published toxicity data for this species is very limited and there is no test guideline for Glyceria sp. For this reason a microcosm study was conducted in order to gain experience on the degree of sensitivity of G. maxima to the herbicidal substances clodinafop-propargyl (grass herbicide) and fluroxypyr (auxin) in comparison to the already established test organism water milfoil Myriophyllum spicatum and the duckweed species Landoltia punctata. Five concentrations without replicates were tested for each test substance using 10 microcosms and three microcosms served as controls. The experiment was run for 8 weeks. Morphological endpoints were used to determine growth and EC50 values. The results show that M. spicatum was most sensitive to fluroxypyr (37 days EC50 for roots: 62 µg/L) and G. maxima most sensitive to clodinafop-propargyl (22 days EC50 for total shoot length: 48 µg/L) whereas the duckweed species was considerable less sensitive. Hence, G. maxima turns out to be a good candidate for testing grass specific herbicides, supporting its inclusion as an additional macrophyte test for the risk assessment of herbicides as proposed by the EFSA.

  11. Resistência de plantas daninhas aos herbicidas Weed resistance to herbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro J. Christoffoleti

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available A resistência de plantas daninhas aos herbicidas ocorre em função de um processo evolutivo. O desenvolvimento de biótipos de plantas daninhas resistentes é imposto pela agricultura moderna, através da pressão de seleção causada pelo uso intensivo dos herbicidas. O conhecimento dos mecanismos e fatores que favorecem o aparecimento de biótipos de plantas daninhas resistentes é fundamental para que técnicas de manejo sejam utilizadas no sentido de evitar ou retardar o aparecimento de plantas resistentes em uma área. São poucos os relatos ou citações de literatura no Brasil. Sendo assim, este trabalho de revisão procura relatar os principais avanços e descobertas na área de plantas daninhas resistentes aos herbicidas.Weed herbicide resistance has evolved from weed evolution. The modern agriculture is responsible for this evolution because of the intensive use of herbicides. The knowledge of mechanisms and factors that influence the weed herbicide resistance play an important role in the weed manegement techniques used to avoid or delay herbicide resistance appearence. There are not many report or scientific papers about herbi cide resistance in Brasil. Therefore, this literature review aims to provide information about the main advances and discoveries in the field of weed herbicide resistance.

  12. Non-target-site resistance to ALS-inhibiting herbicides in a Sagittaria trifolia L. population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bochui; Fu, Danni; Yu, Yang; Huang, Chengtian; Yan, Kecheng; Li, Pingsheng; Shafi, Jamil; Zhu, He; Wei, Songhong; Ji, Mingshan

    2017-08-01

    Sagittaria trifolia L. is one of the most competitive weeds in rice fields in northeastern China. The continuous use of acetolactate synthase (ALS)-inhibitors has led to the evolution of herbicide resistant S. trifolia. A subpopulation BC1, which was derived from the L1 population, was analyzed using DNA sequencing and ALS enzyme activity assays and levels of resistance to five ALS-inhibiting herbicides was determined. DNA sequencing and ALS enzyme assays revealed no amino acid substitutions and no significant differences in enzyme sensitivity between susceptible and resistant populations. Whole-plant dose-response experiments showed that the BC1 population exhibited different levels of resistance (resistance ratios ranging from 2.14 to 51.53) to five ALS herbicides, and the addition of malathion (P450 inhibitor) to bensulfuron-methyl, penoxsulam and bispyribac-sodium strongly reduced the dry weight accumulation of the BC1 population compared with the effects of the three herbicides alone. The results of the present study demonstrated that the BC1 population has evolved non-target-site resistance to ALS-inhibiting herbicides. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Development and characterization of mutant winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) accessions resistant to the herbicide quizalofop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostlie, Michael; Haley, Scott D; Anderson, Victoria; Shaner, Dale; Manmathan, Harish; Beil, Craig; Westra, Phillip

    2015-02-01

    New herbicide resistance traits in wheat were produced through the use of induced mutagenesis. While herbicide-resistant crops have become common in many agricultural systems, wheat has seen few introductions of herbicide resistance traits. A population of Hatcher winter wheat treated with ethyl methanesulfonate was screened with quizalofop to identify herbicide-resistant plants. Initial testing identified plants that survived multiple quizalofop applications. A series of experiments were designed to characterize this trait. In greenhouse studies the mutants exhibited high levels of quizalofop resistance compared to non-mutant wheat. Sequencing ACC1 revealed a novel missense mutation causing an alanine to valine change at position 2004 (Alopecurus myosuroides reference sequence). Plants carrying single mutations in wheat's three genomes (A, B, D) were identified. Acetyl co-enzyme A carboxylase in resistant plants was 4- to 10-fold more tolerant to quizalofop. Populations of segregating backcross progenies were developed by crossing each of the three individual mutants with wild-type wheat. Experiments conducted with these populations confirmed largely normal segregation, with each mutant allele conferring an additive level of resistance. Further tests showed that the A genome mutation conferred the greatest resistance and the B genome mutation conferred the least resistance to quizalofop. The non-transgenic herbicide resistance trait identified will enhance weed control strategies in wheat.

  14. Potential environmental impacts associated with large-scale herbicide-tolerant GM oilseed rape crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fellous Marc

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The Biomolecular Engineering Commission considers that the knowledge acquired in the last three years has provided significant information in reply to the points raised in its review dated 16 February 2001. The Commission has studied the potential environmental impacts associated with large-scale herbicidetolerantGMoilseed rape crops, making a distinction between direct and indirect impacts. Direct impacts stem from the intrinsic properties of herbicide-tolerant GM oilseed rape crops whereas indirect impacts result from practices associated with the farming of these crops. The Commission considers that, in the absence of the use of the herbicide in question in and outside of farmed land, there is no direct environmental risk (development of invasive crops per se associated with the presence of a herbicide-tolerance gene in oilseed rape (or related species. Nevertheless, since the interest of these tolerant crops lies in the use of the herbicide in question, indirect effects, to varying extents, have been identified and must be taken into account: the use of the herbicide in question, applied to agricultural fields containing the herbicide-tolerant crop could lead to an increase in oilseed rape volunteer populations in crop rotations; the selective pressure exerted by non-specific herbicides (to which the crops have been rendered tolerant may be very high in cases of continuous and uncontrolled use of these herbicides, and may result in the persistence of rare events such as the reproduction of fertile interspecies hybrids; the change to the range of herbicides used should be conveyed by more effective weed control and, like any change in farming practices, induce indirect effects on the agri-ecosystem, particularly in terms of changes to weeds and the associated animal life. Accordingly, the Biomolecular Engineering Commission recommends a global approach in terms of the large-scale farming of herbicide-tolerant crops that: accounts for the

  15. Performance of Different Herbicides in Dry-Seeded Rice in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Sharif; Chauhan, Bhagirath Singh

    2014-01-01

    A field study was conducted in the boro season of 2011-12 and aman season of 2012 at Jessore, Bangladesh, to evaluate the performance of sequential applications of preemergence herbicides (oxadiargyl 80 g ai ha−1, pendimethalin 850 g ai ha−1, acetachlor + bensulfuranmethyl 240 g ai ha−1, and pyrazosulfuron 15 g ai ha−1) followed by a postemergence herbicide (ethoxysulfuron 18 g ai ha−1) in dry-seeded rice. All evaluated herbicides reduced weed density and biomass by a significant amount. Among herbicides, pendimethalin, oxadiargyl, and acetachlor + bensulfuranmethyl performed very well against grasses; pyrazosulfuron, on the other hand, was not effective. The best herbicide for broadleaf weed control was oxadiargyl (65–85% control); pendimethalin and acetachlor + bensulfuraonmethyl were not effective for this purpose. The best combination for weed control was oxadiargyl followed by ethoxysulfuron in the boro season and oxadiargyl followed by a one-time hand weeding in the aman season. Compared with the partial weedy plots (hand weeded once), oxadiargyl followed by ethoxysulfuron (4.13 t ha−1) provided a 62% higher yield in the boro season while oxadiargyl followed by a one-time hand weeding (4.08 t ha−1) provided a 37% higher yield in the aman season. PMID:24688423

  16. Herbicidal Spectrum, Absorption and Transportation, and Physiological Effect on Bidens pilosa of the Natural Alkaloid Berberine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiao; Ma, Jing-Jing; Liu, Bo; Huang, Lun; Sang, Xiao-Qing; Zhou, Li-Juan

    2017-08-02

    Berberine is a natural herbicidal alkaloid from Coptis chinensis Franch. Here we characterized its herbicidal spectrum and absorption and transportation in the plant, along with the possible mechanism. Berberine showed no effect on the germination of the 10 tested plants. The IC 50 values of berberine on the primary root length and fresh weight of the 10 tested plants ranged from 2.91 to 9.79 mg L -1 and 5.76 to 35.07 mg L -1 , respectively. Berberine showed a similar herbicidal effect on Bidens pilosa as the commercial naturally derived herbicide cinmethylin. HPLC and fluorescence analysis revealed that berberine was mainly absorbed by B. pilosa root and transported through vascular bundle acropetally. Enzyme activity studies, GC-MS analysis, and SEM and TEM observations indicated that berberine might first function on the cell membrane indicated by variation of the IUFA percent and then cause POD, PPO, and SOD activity changes and cellular structure deformity, which was eventually expressed as the decrease of cell adaptation ability and abnormal cell function and may even result in cell death. Environmental safety evaluation tests revealed that berberine was low in toxicity to Brachydanio rerio. These indicate that berberine has the potential to be a bioherbicide and/or a lead molecule for new herbicides.

  17. Seasonal variability in irradiance affects herbicide toxicity to the marine flagellate Dunaliella tertiolecta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sascha eSjollema

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR and Ultraviolet Radiation (UVR of the solar spectrum affect microalgae directly and modify the toxicity of phytotoxic compounds present in water. As a consequence seasonal variable PAR and UVR levels are likely to modulate the toxic pressure of contaminants in the field. Therefore the present study aimed to determine the toxicity of two model contaminants, the herbicides diuron and Irgarol®1051, under simulated irradiance conditions mimicking different seasons. Irradiance conditions of spring and autumn were simulated with a set of Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs. Toxicity of both herbicides was measured individually and in a mixture by determining the inhibition of photosystem II efficiency (ΦPSII of the marine flagellate Dunaliella teriolecta using Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM fluorometry. Toxicity of the single herbicides was higher under simulated spring irradiance than under autumn irradiance and this effect was also observed for mixtures of the herbicides. This irradiance dependent toxicity indicates that herbicide toxicity in the field is seasonally variable. Consequently toxicity tests under standard light conditions may overestimate or underestimate the toxic effect of phytotoxic compounds.

  18. Evaluation of six pesticides leaching indexes using field data of herbicide application in Casablanca Valley, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, M; Rojas, S; Gómez, P; Suárez, F; Muñoz, J F; Alister, C

    2007-01-01

    A field study was performed to evaluate the accuracy of six pesticide screening leaching indexes for herbicide movement. Adsorption, dissipation and soil movement were studied in a vineyard in a sandy loam soil during 2005 season. Simazine, diuron, pendimethalin, oxyfluorfen and flumioxazin were applied to bare soil at rates commonly used, and their soil concentrations throughout soil profile were determined at 0, 10, 20, 40 and 90 days after application (DAA). Herbicides were subjected to two pluviometric regimens, natural field condition and modified conditions (plus natural rainfall 180 mm). Leaching indexes utilized were: Briggs's Rf, Hamaker's Rf, LEACH, LPI, GUS and LIX. Simazine reached 120 cm, diuron 90 cm, flumioxazin 30 cm soil depth respectively. Pendimethalin and oxyfluorfen were retained up to 5 cm. None of the herbicides leaching was affected by rainfall regimen. Only flumioxazin field dissipation was clearly affected by pluviometric condition. The best representation of the herbicide soil depth movement and leaching below 15 cm soil depth were: Hamaker's Rf < Briggs's Rf < GUS < LPI, < LEACH < LIX. Field results showed a good correlation between herbicides K(d) and their soil depth movement and mass leached below 15 cm soil depth.

  19. Herbicide effects on freshwater benthic diatoms: Induction of nucleus alterations and silica cell wall abnormalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debenest, T.; Silvestre, J.; Coste, M.; Delmas, F.; Pinelli, E.

    2008-01-01

    Benthic diatoms are well known bio-indicators of river pollution by nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus). Biological indexes, based on diatom sensitivity for non-toxic pollution, have been developed to assess the water quality. Nevertheless, they are not reliable tools to detect pollution by pesticides. Many authors have suggested that toxic agents, like pesticides, induce abnormalities of the diatom cell wall (frustule). High abnormal frustule abundances have been reported in natural diatom communities sampled in streams contaminated by pesticides. However, no direct link was found between the abundances of abnormal frustules in these communities and the pesticide concentrations in stream water. In the present study, a freshwater benthic diatom community, isolated from natural biofilm and cultured under controlled conditions, was treated with a known genotoxic herbicide, maleic hydrazide (MH). Cells were exposed to three concentrations of MH (5 x 10 -6 , 10 -6 , 10 -7 M) for 6 h followed by a 24 h-recovery time. After MH treatments, nucleus alterations were observed: abnormal nucleus location, micronucleus, multinuclear cell or disruption of the nuclear membrane. A dose-dependent increase of nuclear alterations was observed. The difference between the control (9.65 nuclear alterations per 1000 cells observed (9.65 per mille ), S.D. = 4.23) and the highest concentrations (29.40 per mille , S.D. = 8.49 for 10 -6 M and 35.96 per mille , S.D. = 3.71 for 5 x 10 -6 M) was statistically significant (Tukey test, P -6 and 5 x 10 -6 M; Tukey test, P < 0.05). These two parameters tended to increase together (Pearson correlation = 0.702, P < 0.05). The results suggest that the induction of abnormal frustules could be associated with the genotoxic effects of MH. The alterations observed could be related to the effects of MH on the synthesis of the proteins involved in frustule formation or in the regulation of the cytoskeleton of the diatom cells

  20. Environmental and health effects of the herbicide glyphosate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Bruggen, A H C; He, M M; Shin, K; Mai, V; Jeong, K C; Finckh, M R; Morris, J G

    2018-03-01

    The herbicide glyphosate, N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine, has been used extensively in the past 40years, under the assumption that side effects were minimal. However, in recent years, concerns have increased worldwide about the potential wide ranging direct and indirect health effects of the large scale use of glyphosate. In 2015, the World Health Organization reclassified glyphosate as probably carcinogenic to humans. A detailed overview is given of the scientific literature on the movement and residues of glyphosate and its breakdown product aminomethyl phosphonic acid (AMPA) in soil and water, their toxicity to macro- and microorganisms, their effects on microbial compositions and potential indirect effects on plant, animal and human health. Although the acute toxic effects of glyphosate and AMPA on mammals are low, there are animal data raising the possibility of health effects associated with chronic, ultra-low doses related to accumulation of these compounds in the environment. Intensive glyphosate use has led to the selection of glyphosate-resistant weeds and microorganisms. Shifts in microbial compositions due to selective pressure by glyphosate may have contributed to the proliferation of plant and animal pathogens. Research on a link between glyphosate and antibiotic resistance is still scarce but we hypothesize that the selection pressure for glyphosate-resistance in bacteria could lead to shifts in microbiome composition and increases in antibiotic resistance to clinically important antimicrobial agents. We recommend interdisciplinary research on the associations between low level chronic glyphosate exposure, distortions in microbial communities, expansion of antibiotic resistance and the emergence of animal, human and plant diseases. Independent research is needed to revisit the tolerance thresholds for glyphosate residues in water, food and animal feed taking all possible health risks into account. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Glyphosate and dicamba herbicide tank mixture effects on native plant and non-genetically engineered soybean seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weed species are becoming resistant to intensive and extensive use of specific herbicides associated with the production of herbicide resistant crops, e.g., the use of glyphosate for weed management with glyphosate resistant soybeans. To counter this resistance, crops engineered ...

  2. Non-target effects of broadleaf herbicide on a native perennial forb: a demographic framework for assessing and minimizing impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizabeth E. Crone; Marilyn Marler; Dean E. Pearson

    2009-01-01

    Invasive species are one of the leading threats to biodiversity worldwide. Therefore, chemical herbicides are increasingly used to control invasive plants in natural and semi-natural areas. Little is known about the non-target impacts of these chemicals on native species. We conducted an experiment to test the demographic effects of the herbicide picloram on a native...

  3. RESPONSES OF MOLECULAR INDICATORS OF EXPOSURE IN MESOCOSMS: COMMON CARP (CYPRINUS CARPIO) EXPOSED TO THE HERBICIDES ALACHLOR AND ATRAZINE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were treated in aquatic mesocosms with a single pulse of the herbicides atrazine or alachlor to study the bioavailability and biological activity of these herbicides using molecular indicators: Liver vitellogenin gene expression in male fish for estr...

  4. Evaluating grass strips trapping efficiency of sediments and herbicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burguet, Maria; Guzmán, Gema; de Luna, Elena; Taguas, Encarnación V.; Gómez, José Alfonso

    2016-04-01

    Water erosion and associated offsite contamination are major environmental risks in many Mediterranean crops such as olives or vineyards (Beaufoy, 2001; Gómez et al., 2011). The use of cover crops has been prescribed as a mitigation measure for both problems because permanent cover crops have demonstrated to reduce sediment and agrochemical loads (e.g. Gómez, 2009a, b). However, large uncertainty remains about its effectiveness degree to reduce sediment and agrochemical contribution to streams due to the limited number of available studies, and the large variability observed under field conditions (Taguas et al., 2012). Furthermore, the determination of sediment and herbicide sources using suitable sediment tracing/fingerprinting properties has been noted as one tool to evaluate the effectiveness and functioning of vegetated filters at the catchment scale (Koiter et al., 2013). The objectives of the present study were twofold: [1] to explore the combined use of natural and simulated rainfall and magnetic iron oxide in understanding the performance of vegetation strips on runoff and soil and herbicide losses at plot scale and, [2] to evaluate the effectiveness degree of vegetation strips in buffering sediment and herbicide from bare soil areas under different conditions compared to a control situation with no strips. This study encompasses six rainfall simulations under four different soil managements combining the use of a magnetic iron oxide as a sediment tracer to obtain a better understanding of the vegetation strips trapping efficiency. Three runoff plots of 6 m × 14 m were established in a 20% hillslope under a Fluvisol alluvial terrace. Each of the plots contained three bare strips tagged with magnetic iron oxide and three strips with Lolium multiflorum L. The soil management simulated scenarios were: immediately after sowing the vegetation cover (June 2011cover crop), with settled vegetation cover (June 2012cover crop), after 5 cm of deep ploughing

  5. Modified cellulose synthase gene from Arabidopsis thaliana confers herbicide resistance to plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somerville, Chris R [Portola Valley, CA; Scheible, Wolf [Golm, DE

    2007-07-10

    Cellulose synthase ("CS"), a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of cellulose in plants is inhibited by herbicides comprising thiazolidinones such as 5-tert-butyl-carbamoyloxy-3-(3-trifluromethyl)phenyl-4-thiazolidinone (TZ), isoxaben and 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile (DCB). Two mutant genes encoding isoxaben and TZ-resistant cellulose synthase have been isolated from isoxaben and TZ-resistant Arabidopsis thaliana mutants. When compared with the gene coding for isoxaben or TZ-sensitive cellulose synthase, one of the resistant CS genes contains a point mutation, wherein glycine residue 998 is replaced by an aspartic acid. The other resistant mutation is due to a threonine to isoleucine change at amino acid residue 942. The mutant CS gene can be used to impart herbicide resistance to a plant; thereby permitting the utilization of the herbicide as a single application at a concentration which ensures the complete or substantially complete killing of weeds, while leaving the transgenic crop plant essentially undamaged.

  6. Sensitivity of Phaseolus vulgaris cv. `CIAP 7247F' plants to Glufosinate ammonium herbicide in greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idalmis Bermúdez-Caraballoso

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic breeding in Phaseolus by genetic transformation requires an efficient selection system. The present investigation was aimed to determine the minimum lethal concentration of glufosinate-ammonium (Finale ® in beans plants cv. `CIAP 7247F' grown in greenhouse. Different concentrations of the herbicide were applied to the foliage of plants in acclimatization phase (20, 30 y 40 mg l-1 and the control. Results showed that the minimum lethal concentration in plants in acclimatization phase was 30 mg l-1. Results also demonstrated that is possible the use of the herbicide as a selective agent of beans transformants cv. `CIAP 7247F' carrying the bar gene. Keywords: genetic transformation, herbicide, selective agent, tissue culture

  7. Chemically functionalized ZnS quantum dots as new optical nanosensor of herbicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masteri-Farahani, M.; Mahdavi, S.; Khanmohammadi, H.

    2018-03-01

    Surface chemical functionalization of ZnS quantum dots (ZnS-QDs) with cysteamine hydrochloride resulted in the preparation of an optical nanosensor for detection of herbicides. Characterization of the functionalized ZnS-QDs was performed with physicochemical methods such as x-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) analysis, ultraviolet-visible (UV–vis) and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopies. The optical band gap of the functionalized ZnS-QDs was determined by using Tauc plot as 4.1 eV. Addition of various herbicides resulted in the linearly fluorescence quenching of the functionalized ZnS-QDs according to the Stern-Volmer equation. The functionalized ZnS-QDs can be used as simple, rapid, and inexpensive nanosensor for practical detection and measurement of various herbicides.

  8. Biotransformation of benzonitrile herbicides via the nitrile hydratase-amidase pathway in rhodococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veselá, Alicja B; Pelantová, Helena; Sulc, Miroslav; Macková, Martina; Lovecká, Petra; Thimová, Markéta; Pasquarelli, Fabrizia; Pičmanová, Martina; Pátek, Miroslav; Bhalla, Tek Chand; Martínková, Ludmila

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the ability of rhodococci to transform 3,5-dichloro-4-hydroxybenzonitrile (chloroxynil), 3,5-dibromo-4-hydroxybenzonitrile (bromoxynil), 3,5-diiodo-4-hydroxybenzonitrile (ioxynil) and 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile (dichlobenil); to identify the products and determine their acute toxicities. Rhodococcus erythropolis A4 and Rhodococcus rhodochrous PA-34 converted benzonitrile herbicides into amides, but only the former strain was able to hydrolyze 2,6-dichlorobenzamide into 2,6-dichlorobenzoic acid, and produced also more of the carboxylic acids from the other herbicides compared to strain PA-34. Transformation of nitriles into amides decreased acute toxicities for chloroxynil and dichlobenil, but increased them for bromoxynil and ioxynil. The amides inhibited root growth in Lactuca sativa less than the nitriles but more than the acids. The conversion of the nitrile group may be the first step in the mineralization of benzonitrile herbicides but cannot be itself considered to be a detoxification.

  9. Biomass, Leaf Area, and Resource Availability of Kudzu Dominated Plant Communities Following Herbicide Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L.T. Rader

    2001-10-01

    Kudzu is an exotic vine that threatens the forests of the southern U.S. Five herbicides were tested with regard to their efficacy in controlling kudzu, community recover was monitored, and interactions with planted pines were studied. The sites selected were old farm sites dominated by kudzu.These were burned following herbicide treatment. The herbicides included triclopyr, clopyralid, metsulfuron, tebuthiuron, and picloram plus 2,4-D. Pine seedlings were planted the following year. Regression equations were developed for predicting biomass and leaf area. Four distinct plant communities resulted from the treatments. The untreated check continued to be kudzu dominated. Blackberry dominated the clopyradid treatment. Metsulfron, trychlopyr and picloram treated sites resulted in herbaceous dominated communities. The tebuthiuron treatment maintained all vegetation low.

  10. COMPARATIVE STUDY CONCERNING THE INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT HERBICIDE TREATMENT IN ONION CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan OROIAN

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study was performed concerning the action of three herbicides (Pantera 40 CE, Fusilade Super and Agil 100 EC on onion culture. The Amstrong onion hybrid was used on clay - aluviovertic chernosem, with NPK fertilization (N80P80K80 during the preparation of the germinative bed. The unfavorable climatic conditions infl uence the effi cacy of the post-emergent applied herbicides, but signifi cant differences were recorded between variants treated with different products. When Pantera 40 CE was used, phytotoxicity phenomena materialized by temporary discoloration of the plants were not recorded, compared to the results obtained when the other herbicides were used. The use of Pantera 40 CE led to the most important production gain, with 9.8% compared to Fusilade super and 4.8% with Agil 100 EC.

  11. Effect of soil herbicides on the antioxidant system of maize vegetative organs during ontogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.P. Grigoryuk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The impact of soil herbicides Harnes, Frontier and Merlin on the activity of enzymes superoxid dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1, catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6, and benzidine peroxidase (POD, EC 1.11.1.7 in maize (Zea mays L.; cultivar Kadr 267 MV roots and leaves was studied in the field experiment. It was established that the adaptation of maize plants to the herbicides treatment was accompanied by significant activation of antioxidant enzymes both in roots (39%, 57%, and 67% above control level and leaves (50%, 64%, and 77% above control, respectively during different vegetation stages (shoots emergence; 3–5 leaves phase; florescence. The herbicides-induced changes of enzymes activity high correlated with ontogenetic dynamics of control plants activity: r = 0.98 for SOD; r = 0.96 for POD; r = 0.98 for CAT.

  12. Chemoproteomic Profiling of Acetanilide Herbicides Reveals Their Role in Inhibiting Fatty Acid Oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counihan, Jessica L; Duckering, Megan; Dalvie, Esha; Ku, Wan-Min; Bateman, Leslie A; Fisher, Karl J; Nomura, Daniel K

    2017-03-17

    Acetanilide herbicides are among the most widely used pesticides in the United States, but their toxicological potential and mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here, we have used chemoproteomic platforms to map proteome-wide cysteine reactivity of acetochlor (AC), the most widely used acetanilide herbicide, in vivo in mice. We show that AC directly reacts with >20 protein targets in vivo in mouse liver, including the catalytic cysteines of several thiolase enzymes involved in mitochondrial and peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation. We show that the fatty acids that are not oxidized, due to impaired fatty acid oxidation, are instead diverted into other lipid pathways, resulting in heightened free fatty acids, triglycerides, cholesteryl esters, and other lipid species in the liver. Our findings show the utility of chemoproteomic approaches for identifying novel mechanisms of toxicity associated with environmental chemicals like acetanilide herbicides.

  13. Drazepinone, a trisubstituted tetrahydronaphthofuroazepinone with herbicidal activity produced by Drechslera siccans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evidente, Antonio; Andolfi, Anna; Vurro, Maurizio; Fracchiolla, Mariano; Zonno, Maria Chiara; Motta, Andrea

    2005-03-01

    When grown in a minimal-defined medium, a strain of Drechslera siccans, a pathogenic fungus isolated from seeds of Lolium perenne, produced phytotoxic metabolites. This strain is one of the best toxin producers among several grass pathogenic fungal strains collected and tested to find phytotoxins to be used as natural herbicides of monocot weeds. From the culture filtrates of D. siccans, we isolated a new phytotoxic trisubstituted naphthofuroazepinone, named drazepinone, and characterised it as a 3,5,12a-trimethyl-2,5,5a,12a-tetrahydro-1H-naphtho[2',3':4,5]furo[2,3-b]azepin-2-one. Assayed at 2 microg microl(-1) solution the novel metabolite proved to have broad-spectrum herbicidal properties, without antibacterial and antifungal activities, and low zootoxic activity. Its original chemical structure and the interesting biological properties make drazepinone a potential natural herbicide.

  14. Herbicide and fertilizers promote analogous phylogenetic responses but opposite functional responses in plant communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pellissier, Loïc; Wisz, Mary S.; Strandberg, Beate

    2014-01-01

    on long-term experiment we show that fertilizer and herbicides (glyphosate) have contrasting effects on functional structure, but can increase phylogenetic diversity in semi-natural plant communities. We found that an increase in nitrogen promoted an increase in the average specific leaf area and canopy...... height at the community level, but an increase in glyphosate promoted a decrease in those traits. Phylogenetic diversity of plant communities increased when herbicide and fertilizer were applied together, likely because functional traits facilitating plant success in those conditions were......Throughout the world, herbicides and fertilizers change species composition in agricultural communities, but how do the cumulative effects of these chemicals impact the functional and phylogenetic structure of non-targeted communities when they drift into adjacent semi-natural habitats? Based...

  15. Ablation of TRIP-Br2, a novel regulator of fat lipolysis, thermogenesis and oxidative metabolism, prevents diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Chong Wee; Boucher, Jeremie; Cheong, Jit Kong; Vernochet, Cecile; Koh, Ho-Jin; Mallol, Cristina; Townsend, Kristy; Langin, Dominique; Kawamori, Dan; Hu, Jiang; Tseng, Yu-Hua; Hellerstein, Marc K; Farmer, Stephen R; Goodyear, Laurie; Doria, Alessandro; Blüher, Matthias; Hsu, Stephen I-Hong; Kulkarni, Rohit N

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Obesity develops due to altered energy homeostasis favoring fat storage. Here we describe a novel transcription co-regulator for adiposity and energy metabolism, TRIP-Br2 (also called SERTAD2). TRIP-Br2 null mice are resistant to obesity and obesity-related insulin resistance. Adipocytes of the knockout (KO) mice exhibited greater stimulated lipolysis secondary to enhanced expression of hormone sensitive lipase (HSL) and β3-adrenergic (Adrb3) receptors. The KOs also exhibit higher energy expenditure due to increased adipocyte thermogenesis and oxidative metabolism by up-regulating key enzymes in respective processes. Our data show for the first time that a cell cycle transcriptional co-regulator, TRIP-Br2, modulates fat storage through simultaneous regulation of lipolysis, thermogenesis and oxidative metabolism. These data together with the observation that TRIP-BR2 expression is selectively elevated in visceral fat in obese humans suggests that this transcriptional co-regulator is a novel therapeutic target for counteracting the development of obesity, insulin resistance and hyperlipidemia. PMID:23291629

  16. Cumulative effects analysis of the water quality risk of herbicides used for site preparation in the Central North Island, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan Neary; Brenda R. Baillie

    2016-01-01

    Herbicide use varies both spatially and temporally within managed forests. While information exists on the effects of herbicide use on water quality at the site and small catchment scale, little is known about the cumulative effects of herbicide use at the landscape scale. A cumulative effects analysis was conducted in the upper Rangitaiki catchment (118,345...

  17. Effect of buctril super (Bromoxynil herbicide on soil microbial biomass and bacterial population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafar Abbas

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of bromoxynil herbicide on soil microorganisms, with the hypothesis that this herbicide caused suppression in microbial activity and biomass by exerting toxic effect on them. Nine sites of Punjab province (Pakistan those had been exposed to bromoxynil herbicide for about last ten years designated as soil 'A' were surveyed in 2011 and samples were collected and analyzed for Microbial Biomass Carbon (MBC, Biomass Nitrogen (MBN, Biomass Phosphorus (MBP and bacterial population. Simultaneously, soil samples from the same areas those were not exposed to herbicide designated as soil 'B' were taken. At all the sites MBC, MBN and MBP ranged from 131 to 457, 1.22 to 13.1 and 0.59 to 3.70 µg g-1 in the contaminated soils (Soil A, which was 187 to 573, 1.70 to 14.4 and 0.72 to 4.12 µg g-1 in the soils without contamination (soil B. Bacterial population ranged from 0.67 to 1.84x10(8 and 0.87 to 2.37x10(8 cfu g-1 soil in the soils A and B, respectively. Bromoxynil residues ranged from 0.09 to 0.24 mg kg-1 at all the sites in soil A. But no residues were detected in the soil B. Due to lethal effect of bromoxynil residues on the above parameters, considerable decline in these parameters was observed in the contaminated soils. Results depicted that the herbicide had left toxic effects on soil microbial parameters, thus confirmed that continuous use of this herbicide affected the quality of soil and sustainable crop production.

  18. A geographic information system for characterizing exposure to Agent Orange and other herbicides in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stellman, Jeanne Mager; Stellman, Steven D; Weber, Tracy; Tomasallo, Carrie; Stellman, Andrew B; Christian, Richard

    2003-03-01

    Between 1961 and 1971, U.S. military forces dispersed more than 19 million gallons of phenoxy and other herbicidal agents in the Republic of Vietnam, including more than 12 million gallons of dioxin-contaminated Agent Orange, yet only comparatively limited epidemiologic and environmental research has been carried out on the distribution and health effects of this contamination. As part of a response to a National Academy of Sciences' request for development of exposure methodologies for carrying out epidemiologic research, a conceptual framework for estimating exposure opportunity to herbicides and a geographic information system (GIS) have been developed. The GIS is based on a relational database system that integrates extensive data resources on dispersal of herbicides (e.g., HERBS records of Ranch Hand aircraft flight paths, gallonage, and chemical agent), locations of military units and bases, dynamic movement of combat troops in Vietnam, and locations of civilian population centers. The GIS can provide a variety of proximity counts for exposure to 9,141 herbicide application missions. In addition, the GIS can be used to generate a quantitative exposure opportunity index that accounts for quantity of herbicide sprayed, distance, and environmental decay of a toxic factor such as dioxin, and is flexible enough to permit substitution of other mathematical exposure models by the user. The GIS thus provides a basis for estimation of herbicide exposure for use in large-scale epidemiologic studies. To facilitate widespread use of the GIS, a user-friendly software package was developed to permit researchers to assign exposure opportunity indexes to troops, locations, or individuals.

  19. Herbicide on Weed Composition, Diversity and Density in Silage Corn (cv. Sc 704

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zafarian

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effect of plant density, planting pattern and herbicide dosage of nicosulfuron, a field experiment was arranged in a factorial split plot treatments based on RCBD with three replications in Chenaran, Khorasan Razavi, in 2010. The experimental treatments consisted of a factorial plant density (100000, 120000 and 140000 plants ha-1 in the planting pattern (single and double row as main plot and herbicide dosage of nicousulforon in four levels (0, 1, 1/5 and 2, l.ha-1 as sub-plot. Samplings were made at in five stages (37days after the emergence of corn and it was repeated once per 20 days. The results indicated reducing the weed density and dry matter of weeds in the first stage after the herbicide treatment. Moreover, it was observed a significant interaction effect between plant density with planting pattern and between planting pattern with herbicides dosages during growth season on reducing weed density and dry matter. Also results indicated that in between of this experiment's treatments, nicosulfuron herbicide reduced weed density at the beginning of growth season and double row planting pattern suppressed weed density during growing season, and resulted in lowest Jacard similarity index (Sj of weed species. Results also indicated that with increasing of plant density and herbicide dosage especially in composition of double row planting pattern, according to Shannon- Wiener index, sensitive population such as common purslane (Portulaca oleracea L., buckhorn plantain (Plantago lanceolata L., prostrate knotweed (Polygonum aviculareL., black nightshade (Solanum nigrum L. and Johnson grass (Sorghum halepens L. was reduced in during growing season. Simpson dominance index, showed that some low populated weeds such as redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L., common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album L., field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis L. and Canada thistle (Circum arvensis L. persisted their growth up to the end of

  20. Using fluorescent dyes as proxies to study herbicide removal by sorption in buffer zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollinger, Jeanne; Dagès, Cécile; Voltz, Marc

    2017-04-01

    The performance of buffer zones for removing pesticides from runoff water varies greatly according to landscape settings, hydraulic regime, and system design. Evaluating the performance of buffers for a range of pesticides and environmental conditions can be very expensive. Recent studies suggested that the fluorescent dyes uranine and sulforhodamine B could be used as cost-effective surrogates of herbicides to evaluate buffer performance. However, while transformation mechanisms in buffers have been extensively documented, sorption processes of both dyes have rarely been investigated. In this study, we measured the adsorption, desorption, and kinetic sorption coefficients of uranine and sulforhodamine B for a diverse range of buffer zone materials (soils, litters, plants) and compared the adsorption coefficients (Kd) to those of selected herbicides. We also compared the global sorption capacity of 6 ditches, characterized by varying proportions of the aforementioned materials, between both dyes and a set of four herbicides using the sorption-induced pesticide retention indicator (SPRI). We found that both the individual Kd of uranine for the diverse buffer materials and the global sorption capacity of the ditches are equivalent to those of the herbicides diuron, isoproturon, and metolachlor. The Kd of sulforhodamine B on plants and soils are equivalent to those of glyphosate, and the global sorption capacities of the ditches are equivalent for both molecules. Hence, we demonstrate for the first time that uranine can be used as a proxy of moderately hydrophobic herbicides to evaluate the performance of buffer systems, whereas sulforhodamine B can serve as a proxy for more strongly sorbing herbicides.